AUTOMOTIVE SENSORS

What is Automotive Sensor?
‡ The sensor converts a physical or chemical (Usually nonelectrical) input quantity into an electrical output quantity. ‡ The sensors used in automobile are called as automotive sensors.

Application in vehicle.
‡ The sensors form the vehicle¶s interface to its complex drive, braking, chassis, and bodywork functions. ‡ Display units keep the driver informed about the status and the process as a whole. ‡ With the use of sensors we can see the performance of difference parts of vehicle. ‡ Sensors are used to became our drive very comfortable.

Classification Of Automotive Sensors

‡ 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Mainly we classified it into following. Pressure Sensor Position Sensor Speed Sensor Temperature Sensor Mass Air Flow Sensor Oxygen Sensor Knock Sensor

Pressure Sensor
‡ The pressure sensors are used to measure the pressure in different parts of the vehicle. ‡ It is used to measure intake manifold pressure, atm. pressure, vapor pressure in the fuel tank,etc.

Types of Pressure Sensor
‡ 1. 2. 3. 4. Generally four types of Pressure Sensors are used in automobile. Manifold Absolute Pressure Sensor Barometric Pressure sensor Turbo charging Pressure Sensor Vapor Pressure sensor

1. Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) Sensor
‡ This sensor is used to measure the absolute intakemanifold pressure. ‡ The MAP sensor is located either directly on the intake manifold or it is mounted high in the engine compartment and connected to the intake manifold with vacuum hose.

2. Barometric Pressure Sensor
‡ The Barometric Pressure Sensor, sometimes called a High Altitude Compensator (HAC), measures the atmospheric pressure. ‡ This sensor operates the same as the MAP sensor except that it measures atmospheric pressure. ‡ It is located inside the Electronics Control Module (ECM).

3. Turbo Charging Pressure Sensor
‡ The turbo charging pressure sensor operates identically to the MAP sensor and is used to measure intake manifold pressure. ‡ The only difference is that when there is boost pressure, the voltage signal goes higher than on a naturally aspirated engine.

4. Vapor Pressure Sensor
‡ The Vapor Pressure Sensor (VPS) measures the vapor pressure in the evaporative emission control system. ‡ The Vapor Pressure Sensor may be located on the fuel tank. ‡ This sensor uses a silicon chip with a calibrated reference pressure on one side of the chip, the other side of the chip is exposed to vapor pressure. ‡ Changes in vapor pressure cause the chip to flex and vary the voltage signal to the ECM.

Position Sensor
‡ ‡ 1. 2. 3. Position sensors provide information to the ECM about the position of a component. Position Sensors are classified as below: Throttle Position Sensor (TPS) Accelerator Pedal Position (APP) Exhaust Gas Valve (EGR) Position Sensor

1. Throttle Position Sensor (TPS)
‡ The Throttle Position Sensor is normally fitted on the throttle body and detects the degree to which the throttle valve is open, and converts the throttle valve angle into an electrical Signal. ‡ As many vehicle systems are influenced by throttle activity including fuelling requirements, transmission controls strategy and accessories such as air conditioning.

2. Accelerator Pedal Position (APP)
‡ The Accelerator position (APP) sensor is mounted on the throttle body. ‡ The Accelerator pedal sensor is generally used to converts the accelerator pedal movement and positions into electrical signals transmitted by wire to the throttle valve. ‡ The accelerator pedal is equivalent to the degree to which the throttle valve is open, the engine control unit interprets this as indicative of the driver¶s desire to accelerate.

3. Exhaust Gas Valve (EGR) Position Sensor
‡ The Exhaust Gas Valve (EGR) Position Sensor is mounted on the EGR valve. ‡ The EGR Valve Position Sensor converts the movement and position of the EGR valve into an electrical signal. ‡ TPS except that the EGR valve moves the signal arm.

crank shaft position sensor
Crank position sensors are used to detect engine speed/ engine rotation position. ‡ the ECU to change the injector opening, spark timing in various engine conditions. ‡

Speed sensors

‡ speed sensors are used to provide information about the speed of a component, and the change in speed of a component. ‡ Engine speed sensor or vehicle speed sensor are generally used in speed sensors

Vehicle speed sensor
‡ It is used to the measurement is usually taken from the transmission and is sent to the speed gauge. ‡ speed sensors are connected to the wheels and the output is taken to the Electronic Control unit to determine the speed, acceleration and deceleration of the vehicle.

Temperature sensors
‡ Temperature sensors provide a change in a physical parameter such as resistance or output voltage that corresponds to a temperature change. ‡ These sensors are suitable for applications that require small package size, accuracy, and linear outputs.

Classification of temperature sensor
Temperature sensors are classified their function according to give name Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) sensor Intake Air Temperature (IAT) Sensor Exhaust gas Recirculation (EGR) Sensor

‡ ‡ ‡

ENGINE COOLANT TEMPERATURE SENSOR
‡ ‡ The ECT responds to change in Engine Coolant Temperature. The ECT sensor is critical to many functions such as fuel injection, ignition timing, variable valve timing, transmission shifting, etc. Always check to see if the engine is at operating Temperature

‡

Intake Air Temperature (IAT) Sensor
‡ ‡ The IAT detects the temperature of the incoming air stream. The IAT is used for detecting ambient temperature on a cold start and intake air temperature as the engine heats up the incoming air.

Exhaust gas Recirculation (EGR) Sensor
‡ The EGR Temperature Sensor is located in the EGR passage and measures the temperature of the exhaust gases. ‡ Suppose the increase in temperature, the EGR valve is open and that exhaust gases are flowing.

Mass air flow sensor
‡ Mass air flow sensors necessary to determine how much fuel to inject, when to ignite the cylinder, and when to shift the transmission. ‡ The mass airflow sensor is located directly in the intake air stream, between the air cleaner and throttle body where it can measure incoming air.

Vane air flow meter
‡ Vane air flow meter is one type of air flow sensor. ‡ The Vane Air Flow Meter provides an accurate measure of the load placed on the engine. ‡ It is also calculate basic injection duration.

Oxygen sensor
‡ Oxygen sensor are placed within the engine's exhaust system. ‡ Oxygen Sensors are used to detect the amount of excess oxygen in the exhaust gas after combustion to indicate the relative richness or leanness of mixture composition.

Knock sensor
‡ The Knock Sensor, located in the engine block, cylinder head, to detect that frequency. ‡ The Knock Sensor detects engine knock and sends a voltage signal to the ECM. The ECM uses the Knock Sensor signal to control timing.

FEATURE OF AUTOMOTIVE SENSORS
‡ AUTOMOTIVE RADAR SENSOR ‡ AUTOMOTIVE RAIN SENSOR

Automotive rain sensor
‡ Automotive rain sensing windshield wiper controls, or rain-sensors, measure the amount of water hitting the outside surface of the windshield. ‡ They use this information to make the windshield wipers run faster or slower. ‡ This frees the driver from the inconvenience and distraction of frequently adjusting the wiper control.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful