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Analytic Geometry Ellipse Hyperbola

Analytic Geometry Ellipse Hyperbola

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Analytic Geometry

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1

What are Conics?
Conics are curves formed by the intersection of a plane and a pair of circular cones. It is also known as conics sections. Kinds of Conics: 1. Circle 2. Parabola 3. Ellipse 4. Hyperbola
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Conic Sections

Circle

Ellipse

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Parabola

Hyperbola

3

Ellipses Set of all points in a plane such that the sum of the distances from two given points in a plane, called the foci, is constant.
co-vertex

Sum of the distances: foci 12 units
vertex

vertex

co-vertex

The major axis is the line segment joining the vertices (through the foci) The minor axis is the line segment joining the co-vertices (perpendicular to the major axis) 01:14
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Equation of the Ellipse
The equations are derived using the distance formula. Consider the point P(x,y) the two foci and the center at the origin.

F1 (c,0) and F2 (c,0)
x y (1) 2  2 ! 1 , Foci on the x - axis a b 2 2 y x or (2) 2  2 ! 1 , Foci on the y - axis a b
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2

2

See the graph for each equation

5

(1)
B1 (o, b)
V1

y F1

y F2

V2
(a,0)

(2)
V1 (0, b)

( a,0)

B2 (0,b)

(a,0)

y F1

y F2

(a,0) B2

V2 (0,b)

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Remember the following:
1 2

! 2a ! length of the major axis
2 2 2 2 2

B1 B2 ! 2b ! length of the minor axis b !a  c   c !a b
2

Where c is the distance from the centre of the ellipse to Foci

c eccentricity (e) ! , 0 a
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e 1
7

Example: Write an equation of the ellipse whose vertices are (0, ±3) and (0, 3) and whose co-vertices are (±2, 0) and (2, 0). Find the foci of the ellipse. Since the major axis is
(0, 3) (0, c) (±2, 0) (2, 0) (0, ±c) (0, ±3) vertical, the equation is the following:

x + y = 1 2 2 b a Since a = 3 b = 2 The equation is 2 2 x + y = 1 4 9 2 2 2 Use c = a ± b to find c. 2 2 2 c =3 ±2 2 c =9±4=5

2

2

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The foci are

0, and 0, 5

8

Examples
ind the vertices, foci , eccentricity, major and minor axes of the ellipse and sketch the graph.

x2  25 x2  2 5

y2 ! 1 C (0,0) a " b 9 y2 ! 1, a ! 5 therefore 2a ! 10 2 3 b ! 3 therefore 2b ! 6

c a2  b2 5 2  32 e! ! ! ! 0.8 a a 5
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Sketch of the graph

B1 (0,3)

(5,0)V1

y (4,0) F2

C
B2 (0  3)

F1 (4,0) y

V2 (5,0)

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Example: Write the equation in standard form of 2 2 9x + 16y = 144. Find the foci and vertices of the ellipse.
Get the equation in standard form (make it equal to 1):

9x + 16y = 144 144 144 144 2 2 x + y = 1 16 9 That means a = 4 b = 3
(0, 3) (±4,0) (±c,0) (c, 0) (0,-3)
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2

Simplify...

(4, 0)

Use c = a ± b to find c. 2 2 2 c =4 ±3 2 c = 16 ± 9 = 7 c= Vertices: 4, and 4,  7,0 and 7,0 Foci:

2

2

2

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Eccentricity
‡ Ellipses can be very flat, or nearly circular. ‡ We use the eccentricity of an ellipse as a measure of how far from an ellipse is from being circular:

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Illustrations of Eccentricity

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Example
‡ Halley¶s comet has an elliptical orbit with eccentricity e = 0.967 . ‡ The closest that Halley¶s comet comes to the sun is 0.587 AU.
± One astronomical unit (AU) is the average distance from Earth to the sun, roughly 93,000,000 mi.

‡ What is the maximum distance of the comet from the sun, to the nearest 0.1 AU?
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Example (cont¶d)

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Exercise A 4 v 8 foot elliptical tabletop is to be cut out of a 4 v 8 foot rectangular sheet of a teak plywood

4

8 Determine: 1. the distance of the foci from the edge of the table top along the major axis 2. the total length of the string required to draw the ellipse, with both ends being fastened at the foci.
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Hyperbola

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Definition and Equation
‡ We can define hyperbolas as follows:

‡ This leads to a simple equation for a hyperbola; we choose the«
± x-axis as the line through the foci F and F´ ; ± origin to be the center of the hyperbola, that is, the midpoint of line segment F´F .
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Equation (cont¶d)
‡ Thus the foci are located at ( c, 0) . ‡ By definition of hyperbola, either d(P, F´) d(P, F) = 2a or d(P, F) d(P, F´) = 2a .
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Equation (cont¶d)
‡ After algebra this becomes 2 2
2 

b

2

!1

where b denotes c2  a2 . ‡ The resulting hyperbola is shown on the next slide:
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Equation (cont¶d)

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Equation (cont¶d)
‡ Some terminology:
± The x-intercepts (±a, 0) are the vertices; ± The line segment ´ is the transverse axis; ± The line segment W´W is the conjugate axis. ± The lines y = ±(b/a)x are asymptotes for the hyperbola.
‡ To draw the asymptotes, first draw the auxiliary rectangle shown by the dotted line on the preceding slide.

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oci on the y-axis
‡ Similarly, taking the foci on the y-axis leads to

‡ Now the«

y x  2 !1 2 a b

2

2

± vertices are (0, ±a) ; ± asymptotes are y = ±(a/b)x .
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Summary
‡ Here is a summary of the standard equations of a hyperbola with center at the origin:

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24

Remember the following when sketching a hyperbola :
1. The given equation must be expressed in the standard form. Know the center. 2. Plot the vertices. (y-intercepts and x-intercepts) 3. Draw the central box.(Length =2a, witdh =2b)using the vertices. 4. On the central box draw the diagonals and extend these two beyond the box. These are the asymptotes. 5. Sketch the hyperbola starting on the vertices approaching the asymptotes.

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Example

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Example (cont¶d)

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Example (cont¶d)

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Sketch the following
1. ind the vertices, foci, and asymptotes and sketch the graph.

x y  !1 a). 4 16 2 2 x y  2 ! 1 where : a ! 2 , b ! 4 2 2 4 C (0,0) b 4 Asy ptotes : y ! s x ! s x ! s 2 x a 2 c ! a 2  b 2 ! 2 2  4 2 ! 4.47

2

2

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Sketch:

F1 (4.5,0) F2 (4.5,0) V1 (2,0) B1 (0,4)
B1

V2 (2,0) B1 (0,4)

V1

V2

B2

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Example

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Example (cont¶d)
‡ The equations of the asymptotes are

2 a y !s x!s x b 2

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Example

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Example (cont¶d)

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Example (cont¶d)

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PARABOLA

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