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# Introduction of torque

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In physics, when an external force is applied on the body, the body gets tendency to rotate over an axis called torque.Torque is considered as a vector quantity over an axis of rotation. The multiplication of the force magnitude and the perpendicular distance of the line. Torque is mainly for change the state of rotation. The other name of torque is a moment of force.

Torque:

Torque in physics: Consider an external force F is applied on a body. The body can rotate through the point O about an axis and the direction is perpendicular to the paper.

As in figure the distance of the force from the point O is ON=r. Then the torque of physics can be written as, Unit of torque: newton

y y

metre

The torque value is positive when the rotation of a body is anticlockwise.

The torque value is negative when the rotation of a body is clockwise. Two facts about torque in physics: If the value of r=0 through O then the torque is also zero. In this case the rotation of body is not possible. That is if the line of force is zero then torque is zero. For example, the sun has a torque is zero and the gravitational force acts on the earth makes an earth to rotate the sun. If the line of force distance increases then torque is also increases. That is the increase value of r cause the increase of torque. In this case a small force is required for rotating a body.

y

y

**Expression of Torque in Physics:
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Vector representation of torque:

Consider a centre O and the force acts on body P. Assume the position vector from the origin O. As shown in figure ON is the line drawn perpendicular. The angle between and . Then the perpendicular distance d=ON=r sin Torque Therefore the vector form of torque should be expresses as

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