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J MB95112

S19.95

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el Bay P.ubli~,aticms; Inc. #4 rndus.trial~Drive

Pacific, MO 63069-0066 \'

Table of Contents

Introduction - .. ' .. - ' _ .. 6

1. Drop 2 type voicings 8

a ) Construction of "drop 2" inversions on the middle four strings of the guitar.

b ) Construction of the various four-part chords (6th and 7th chords) through chord spelling. c ) Drop 2 inversion notation or "voice-leading."

2. Voice-leading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " . . . . . . 14

Included are various voice-led line patterns

3. Voicing Considerations ,. .. " 17

Rules and considerations governing various voicing possibilities. Included are "Low Interval Limits."

4, Chord Symbol Notation 19

Problems and suggested solutions to chord symbology

c; 'T' .

J. lenSlons _ .

. .. 21

a ) Theory governing- tension selections including tension addition chart.

b ) Voicing formulas for tension additions and substitutions to basic four-part structures. c ) Incomplete structures formed by tension additions and substitutions.

6. Dominant Substitute V7 Chords. ; 27

7. Tension 9 ' .. 29

a) Enharmonic chordal substitutions produced by the addition of tension 9 to a four-part

harmonic structure.

b ) Introduction of non-drop 2 type voicings: 9th(no5) or 9th(nI)3) chords. c ) 9th chords presented in. various lJ - V - I examples.

d ) Tension 9 additions by-string.

e ) 9th chords presented in extended musical examples.

8. Tension 11 " .

• ., • & • ~ • ~ • • ~ • • • .,. • • • • • •

. 45

a ) Enharmonic chordal substitutions produced by the addition of tension 11 to a four-part harmonic structure.

b ) 11 th chords presented in various II - V - I examples, c ) l lth chords presented in extended musical examples.

9. Tension 13 .

. 56

a ) 13th (and 6th) chords presented in various n· V - 1 examples, (enharmonic chordal substitutions included)

b ) 13th ~hords presented in extended musical examples.

10. Two Tensions'

.. ; " 63

Tensions 9 and 13

Theory / II -v - I examples / extended musical examples

Tensions 9 and 11

Theory I 11 - v - r examples / extended musical examples

Tensions 11 and 13

Theory / II - V - I examples / extended rnusicai examples

3

11. Voice-leading Chord Scales _ , 79

c>

12. Three Tensions (9, 11, and 13) , 81

Theory .J II - V - I examples / extended musicalexamples

13. Altered 9th Tensions (~9 and # 9) on Dorn 7th Chords 91

Theory J II - V - I examples / extended musical examples

14. Enharmonic Chordal Substitutions , , , , . 99

An organized approach to the enharmonic _ ealizarions of the various chords presented in the tension addition chapters.

15. Additional Enharmonic Chordal Substitutions _ 113

New enharmonic possibilities 'Of chords already presented.

Included at the endof this chapterisa list of the "incomplete" dominant-Sub V chords that

were produced by f[lei,r "Sub V" relation to the original dominant chords presentedin the tension chapters.

16,. Relative Major - Minor. , " . , , . , - , . , , .. , . . . . . . . . . . . 118

a) Examination of the relative major, minor. or minor 7b5 of selected chords.

b ) Newly discovered chords and functions are listed-and presented in various II ~ V - I examples.

17. Additional Substitutions in II - V - I Ex: ample s _ .. _ , 134

e:

The remaining new chordal discoveries from the "Additional Enharmonic Chordal Substitutions" chapter are presented in various II - V - I examples,

18. New Voicings _ ~ 142

Completes the available voicings within this text's established framework on the middle four strings. 19. Enharmonic Substitutions of 9th Chords with omitted third or fifth

~ '& & • i ~ & 4'";. • .. •

144

.:»

Examinational' the various functions-in these nap-drop 2 type voicings,

20. Tension Additions on Diminished 7th Chords, .. , , , .. _ ,., 146

Symmetrical -and diatonic approach to the addition of tensions on diminished chords and examination of various functions.

21. Constant Structure Harmonic Motion , , , . 149

.~

a ) Multi-function examination ofa .single voicing and chord type, b ) Musical examples including n - V - I situations.

22. Symmetrical Dominant Substitutions , .; ;- , , 156

Dominant functionsof whole-tone and diminished are examined.

)3 AI- dD '<

:__'. tete _ ornmant " _., _ _ 161

Examination of harmonies derived from the "altered'tscale; 1

12 p. -

~7.

24. Approach Voicings , , , .- .. , , .. , . 164 J

In depth examination of chromatic, diatonic, and d01ninanrapproachtechniqu,es

relative to four-note voicings. J

4

'-" 25 . Fourth Voicings '. . . . 170

a ) Modal and diatonic approaches ro quartal harmony.

b ) Examination -of various scales for theirquartal harmonic potential. c ) 32-bar song form demonstrating the various uses. of fourth voicings,

d ) Different functions of fourth voicings derived from the Pentatonic scale

26. Chromatic Guide-lines .' 0 •••••••• ' •••••••• ; ••••••

•••••• ;.. • &

184

Examination of chromatic motion in 'each voice or voices of four-part harmonic structures.

Various parallel and/or contrary chromatic motion combinations: are 'superimposed over different string combinations.

aJ Chromatic guide-lines overa single chord:

(one line) J (two lines) J (three and four lines)

b) Chromatic guide-lines over chord. changes : (one line) I (llYQ lines) I (three and four Lines)

c )Conttary motion: various-contrary chromatic comhinationsare presented- it! II - V - I examples and some extended chord progressions.

-.

27, Triad over B.ass Voicings "' ,. "

..... _. - 1'03

a ) Organization of major' and minor triads over various bass notes.

b ) Enharmonic possibilities or each structure. _

-c )- "Upper-structure titans" - triads' over different.Zth and 6th chords. d _) Triads over tensions

e,) Triads over bass arpeggios f) Symmetrical motion .

g ) Diatonic motion

h ). Contrary motion

i) "Unavailable" half-steps

j) Doublings

k ) Reharmonization

28. Song Examples

.. , .. , .. 23.0

A combination of the voicing techniques anci substitutions presented in this text will 'be used tq reharrnonizevarrous chord progressions found in different songs.

29. Rhythm ..... -e ••••••••••••••••••• , •••••••• ; ••••••••••••••••••••••••• ,.2-41

a) Various rhythms and chord omissions (rests) are suggested tQ be used over the existing examples throughout-this text.

h ) Different rhythms 'and string combinations are-examined,

30. Conclusion : 24.6

Suggestions for continued harmonic study-including different voicing.sizes and string combinations,

- __

5

INTRODUCTION

.Tbis text is fl combination harmony /theory /voicing text wi th emphasis placed on "voice- leading." kJarmonicJ)1_otion and understanding are key elements for "comping" in today's jazz and pop idioms. Through knowledge and listening, students will discover and compose new voieings 'and sounds .

• Many guitarists have a unique physical/visual approach to harmony, due to the nature,ofthis.e0JI\pE~at~d instrument and the lack-of traditional music traininz. The material in this book will be-ccommon. musical knewledze that can be

. ,- - '-" . . ~ ", .. _.,.-.._. '. . ;....

shared by all musicians, It will not be another guitaristic approach to harmony for guitar players only. Itis hoped thai this text will give an approach and begin-a process: that will continue far beyond its- pages.

This text's primary focus will be that ofpresentjngand examining four-note voicings on the middle four strings (2,3,4,5) of the guitar. By eliminating the.top and bottomstrings'( 1 and 6), the voicings produced are-in a relatively "safe" range. for camping, conflicting less with bass lines and melodies, (or solos). The initialapproach to voicing construction will use what is referred to as" drop :2" type, voicings, (lnq will incl udetension additions-and enharmonic chordal substitutions, The top noteofeach drop 2 type voicing Will he notated and consequently always appear on the 2ndstring.,ellminatingthe need for position-markings/Students will become aware of the ropnete.ef each chord voicing, whether it be a chord tone or a tension, and the different linear or voice- leadingpossibilities the. 2nd string produces over various-chord changes. This indirectly helps in.a student's eventual involvement with chord melodies and chordsoleing as well. In later sections, the remaining string-s will receive thesame voice-Ieading'considerations as the top string. Students will learn to recognize-each note's relation to th;~:cbord (.v~nical:) as well as each note's linear motion to the next chord (horizontal).

Students are encouraged to transpose all applicable information.presented on the middle four-strings to the top four strings and, toa lesser extent, the bottom four strings. Consider further that eachfour-notevoicing has four three-

note voicings within it: -

.... _.

Using a C7 chord:

1)

II :&e;i

2)

II. ~:r

3)

II :

4) .

11 ~i-

-!I

Note that the last two voicings contain the same "width": (or fl.VO outside notes) as the originalfaur-note voicing. Most guitar stude-nts- will find three- and four-note voicings to be the most 'appropriate in 'jazz/pop "comping" situations,

The "width" of any voicing is determined by physical or fingering limitations. BS assuming five frets as our physical limitation, the following interval widths are made available between the 2nd and 5th strings:

_/
-"
.:»
(f>7) (7) (8) (b9J (9) (b 10) (IG) (11) (Ul)
I ~ I ~
~ j 0: q: : Ofr -J
"i; .~:: = -4
() " (} ,
_/ 6

The octave (8) and ~9th intervals can be temporarily .removed since voicings containing these inrcrv41s will be initially avoided. They wrllreappear in later chapters where their unique sound is more appropriate. This leaves somewhat of a leap in width from the 7th intervals:to the remaining intervals, producing potential voice-leading nroblems. For this reason. and again with some isolated exceptions, voicing containing the outside width of a 7th interval will generally be avoided. Conveniently, drop 2 type voicings utilize the remaining intervai widths; (9), (bIO), (lQ), (11), <#il}. This-text will also explore some substitute chords that are not drop 2 type voicings, but continue-to-urilize these-widths, allowing them to voice-lead smoothly with the traditional drop 2 type voicings. In an anernpt to be thorough ana include most every conceivable vcicing within this established framewerk, §ome physically difficult and/or "strange sounding" voicings will eccasionally.appear. Mote desirable substitute ~foitjngs ~a~ be used in'these-cases and most certainly should if it is felt certain isolated voicings: 'ruin" an otherwise pleasant soundirig exercise or song.

Alterations and tension additions on the basic four-part chords (7th and 6th thot'dslsometimes:_prbrioce..,llpperstructure triads or hybrid chords. When this occurs, they will be listed as such. Upper-structure triads and hvbri_d C 110rds will be more: specifically deal E with in the later.chapter entitled tri,ad ov~r Bass Voieings.

A-:; tensions are added to the basic four-part chords, the enharmonic chordal substitution possibilities increase l:rammic_a:ily. The: enharmonic subsriunion possibiliriesofeach chord -v/ilI be JiSJe:d as they aj_~~expos_ed by tension additions. Students-will becomeproficient at enharmonically realizing a group of hates ra chordvoicing) in more ways than one. Example:

The majority of voicing .examples presented in this text will contain-very little rhythmic variation and it is highly recommended that some of those-ideas-suggested in the Rhythm chapter toward the end of this book be applied toward musical e xarnp les contained ih each chapter. The Conclusion chapter contains-additional information on different string.oombinations.andvoicing sizes that can also be applied to existing musical examples throughout the book. Coordinatinginforrnation between these two chapters and the rest of this book will ultimately enhance its content .

......
"--'
'-'
__,.
-
v 7
..__"
..._, Chapter 1.

Drop 2 Type Voicings

-

By dropping the second note from the top of a four-way close voicing down .an octave, a larger sounding voicing j

(referred to as, "(frot) Q")i5 produced, These drop 2 voicings in turn produce a chord physically more accessible 00 _J the guitar than s0me~:i5:f t,rje original four-way dose voicmgs.

This bqpkw"ill explore all four inversions of the drop :2 type voicings and their placement on the middle four strings ~_, of the._g:nitar (2,.3, 4" S).

Cmaj7::: C _E G B R 3 -5 7

Drop 2

Drop 2 type voicings_
arranged by mversions: .o, -e-
, S II-f II 2 IIU It
_,-
-e-
3, 5 7 R '--
7 -R 3 5
5 7 R 3
R 3 :) 7 '-
"-" The followingmaj Zth Chord forms, are produced by the above \ro'i'cings on the middle four str,ings of the guitar: (stringsvertical/fretsncrizontal)

R Inv.

strings.) '4

.-----~-"'T""""-...,

3

Drop 2

7

1st Inv:

2

3

2nd lny.

31'd Inv.

'_'

5

R

7

3

5

R

7

3

"'The above forms can be transposed or moved to different keys.

We now have four inversions of a Cmi,lj7 chord on the middle Jour str:ings- of the guitar.

--'

At this point, it should be mentioned that a b 9th interval is generally considered an avoid interval in traditional "Jazz - Pop" harmony. This.book will.initially continue that approach, with the dom7(b9) chord being the only exception. Thus, the b 9th interval contained in the 3rd inversion of the Cmaj? chord (between B' and Cjwillnegate use of that inversion as a maj7 type chord. Similarly, the 3rdinversions ofCmaj7b.5, Cmaj7i5, and C-m:aj7 will be avoided. Voicings containing 19th intervals will be presented later,especially in those chapters exploring triad-ever-bass 'structures where.the 3r'd inversion of Cmaj? will be available as a C triad over a B bass:C/B.

Assignment: Construct all four inversions for 'each four-part chord listed. AU of tnese, chords can be perceived as "altered" maj7th chords.

Cmaj7 (I 357) C"6 (1 b3.·S 6) C7sils4 (14 S i"7)
, iJ.
Cmaj7b5 (l 3 b5 7) C6. (1 35.6)_ C07 (l.b3bSbb7)
Cmaj7#5 o 3 ~5 7) C7 (1 3 5b7) Co "7* CI b3 ~5 7)
roaJ .
C~7 (1 b 3 5 b 7) C7~5 (t3~5~7) C-maj7 n b3 57)
"
c-7bs (lb3b5b7) c7bs (l 3 ~5 ~7)
C-7#5 (lb3~5b7) Follow these three approaches in preparing the' inversions of the four-pan chords:

l) Prepare 0'11 15 listed chords on the root inversion only in the key of D. Next, prepare: chords on the lst inversion only in the key of C. Next, prepare chords on the 2ndin~ersion in the key ofBb. Finally, prepare chords on the 3rdinve_rsion in the key ofG, Include inversions-containing the ~9tl1 interval for purposes of this exercise. -

2,) In the key of F, prepare all four inversions on one chord type, then move to the next chore! type. Continue until all IS types are completed.

3) With an established tempo, prep are lP e'[qI)owing symmetrical chordprcgressiorrusingone chord type for all four chords and inversions, Continue through the .entire list .of iter 5 chord types, following the

.__.. given chordal/inversion pattern. Note that this exercise is "voice-led."

Ist Inv. :~;nd InV. 3td 'Inv, ,R Inv.
Cmaj7 Amaj7 Gbmaj7 Ebmg_j7 \_. Mixing-different chord types while going through the different inversions and chords might make-an interesting additional exercise.

"'-' *C'O(maj7) (1 ~3~~ 7 )an6 its available tensions will be examined more thoroughly ion the Tension

Additions on Diminished Chords chapter.

9

In contemporary music, upper-structure triads and fourth voicings play a major role. The following chordal inversions contain such voicingsand 'shouldbe noted:

1) Fourths: The root inversion ofthe maj7bS and the 2nd i.nversion of the dom'Zsus-t are-the most common fourth voicings .used.

2) Upper-structure triads:

Root lov. Cmaj7#5::= E/C 3rd Inv. C-7#5:;::- A~·fB~ Root Inv, C"maj7:;:: B/C

Additional upper-structure triads will be/revealed in later chapters.

The examples using drop ,2 type voicings throughoutthis text wil] indicate -such voicings by notating only the top note or voice on the2rid string, eliminating. the need-for position markings. This lead note wiU directly indicate the inversion of the drop 2 voicing introduced:

Third of chord notated (to.p voice) = root inversion Fifth of chord notated = first inversion

Seventh/Sixth of chord notated = .second inversion Root of chord notated :::: third inversion

...__.
Example: C7 (3rd) (5th) (7th) (Root) _.,.
b:o. -& .... _1
& II l!- n -11 II II
-

Root Inv. l st Iiw. 2nd Inv. 3rd Inv. The following chord progression examples consist of only 7th and 6th drop 2 type chords, These drop 2 chord progressions are actually subsrttutions for more basic chord progsessionsIisted directly beloweach vcieingin paten theses.

Afier preparing each example, students should record and play back the.roots ofthe basic chord progression in parentheses while again playing the example. This will allow students to "hear" the example in relation to the basic chord progression. Students should also write-or realize the {tensions produced on the basic chord progression by the original 7th an:d 6th chords.

Example: A7sus4 G~7,5 Fmaj7 Bmaj7~5 E7sus4
~0 bn -& i.e ~-
II

(basic chord progression) ~- (C) (A7) (D~7-) (G7) (C)
~ ~ ~. I ~
'f
(tensions) ,0'6(9) A7#5(~9) D~7(9) G7~S(#9) Cmaj7(6/9) .-~

~;_f

10

,~,

~----------==~-----=~--------------~------------=-----~------~~"~

c- o-: , ~ '- \ J,. '...) ,~-,

J,__-:;--- ..............

._, #1) The following example makes use of only four different 7th chords: Jtnaj7~~_~J!!_~7_#5, min7_b5_,_aD:ddofQ_~~uS4,

,-.>-----------1'hese chord types will prove quite useful due to their versatile enharmonic substitutieu possibilities throughout this text.

D7sus4 B~maj7#5

r

\

(D7.~ i;t~~J~ '?-

I' I .~.

-E~,maj7b5 Gbmaj7~5

F bt

, ',- i' _ _._

• L I_

C7sus4 F-7b5
I be T
I
,
(G-7) ,(G7)
, 'j _- t, c>
~
_/ --:"> ,- Abmaj7b5 Bmaj7b5

F btL

1-;

C7sus4 Dbmaj7~5 .G7sus4 Dmaj7b5
I t$' r IE ~r
~
(C-7') ; (F7) - (Bb ) (Bb.7) -;; ~~:
..... ~ ,',:;) - . D7sus4

~

-I

II

(C-7b5)" I (F7) ~;; --

#2) The following two examples are minor chord progressions.

a)

,'I: Droaj7

F-6

-

.s.:;Iit·'Yr~ -- -':]T,

Cmaj7b5 E7D5'':'

(Am)'l{ -_ I (F~7)~,_r,~

_ \ J '~"~:

\o~,:

Fmaj7b5 Bb7

.g ~.f2.

j; ~i

Cmaj:j'

,

~

I I

]

Db maj.7b,5

"<9-

r

(B-7b5)/' (E7)'--~)it:;: - t« ~4

(A7) ,~

Fmaj7 Eb+7 (/~ , A7sus4 B7~5 D-maj7 E+7 CIl1aj7ff·5
\
j
..__,. , f r I r r I ~ r I'" 4
f-
-.__, (G7)(,;(~/} "
CD-7) j (eXfi C~t (F7)ci:_ (B-7~5)'1 (E7)~ (Am)M"':'=-j
,
-..... ' <IE u 11

'-

I -

.~ b) E+7 Cmaj7b5 Fmaj7b5 Akmaj7b5 Ab+7 Cmajn5
4 iF _ .a: "19- r ,hr
i ! I r
I
(Am)? . ? (B-7~5)· (E7) (Am) > _ ~
J'o. _ .,.",,~
_ ;_ ~,.
-r D-6

If

IT

(B~7b5) -'

Bb7b5, 1)07 APmaj7b5"F-maj7 Cmaj765 FmaJ765 AbmClj765 Bb7 Cmaj765 ..J
4 IT ~_ k ~ ,s>- It fS!
~~ ! I I'! II II
L ! : I I
,
- (B-7b5) " (E7)::: "
(E7V- - (E7) -0::' ,._ -- (Am) ~_ (Am)
- -.-
- .-.
.: - -. #3) This next example uses the rnin7(~5) chord in s-vera' :iiff-,t'cl)t functions and ends \\';j{h a constantstructure :::---..example.

E-7 F#7 D-7 E7 B-n5 Eb7 E-7~5 D6+7 '-'
4 ~ i.s· I ~r I I ~z_ p
._.: I IT [If J
I I
I <;»
(C)~ (A7) ...... (D-7) (G7) , .~. (E~7) \\ (A7)i,:~. (D-7)'-\ (G7)·~~ .
:--- _'.
10\ ~
'.l'\ \\ -1
" D-7#5 F#+7 C6 F-maj7 E-7#5 Go? A~7#5 G-7#'5 .F#-7#5
4 iF L ~ ~ b.ac ,so r II~o
r I l- I ! I 1'1 ..__.,.
,
(G-7) \ (C7r=~\~ --(F) .' (Bb7)~; (C)' (A7)'" . (D-7) \\ (G7) =- ~ (C)-(il --'
:,j ~
, .:» #4) The following example uses the dom7#.5 chord in several different functions. Also, note the two different -~

dominant functions' of the maj7#5 chord. -..J

Gmaj7 E~+7 A~+7 Ebmaj7i15 B~7#5 F#-7b5 Bbmaj7~5 F~c7
, I ~r -fi' r "19-- "19-
QO
r or I ' I , I i
I I I
(Em) (C#-7b5) {F#-7~5! (B7_)' (Em) (D?) (e7) (B7l .._
_/
-.._/
-'"
--,..'
---"
-:»
44 ~
......", ..
'-._.j
"'-' D-6' F·6 Cmaj765 Fmaj7#5 B~maj7b-5 E-bmaj7#5 C#-7bQ E~+7
~~ f .a. r If p' p .a:
I- I I !
; I . L
- (B-7b5) (E7) . (Am) (G7) (F#7 ) (B7) (Em) 12

-_--

#5) In the following progression, the min7#5and dom'Zsus-l chords.again receive multiple functions, The dona chords at the end of this example receive tour different dominant functions: in symmetricalminor thirds.

D7sus4 ;$-

r

r

G~maj7b5 Eb-7

G~ maj 7ff5 C- 7\1 5

D-7#5

A-n5

A-7~5

p I

i OL2.

hp i

IE

I:

G7sus·i D7sus4

~ r

D~7~5

Eb7b5

(Ab7) G-7~5

G-7~5

(,Ab7) Dv7

G-+7

a

1:6 ...

a ;

·iE

. ,_..... ~

(A7)

(A~maj7)

'(G7)

C-maj7

D7

F7

Ab7

I [):G-

, 1

I ;

B7 ~

"

D7sus4 -e-'

~ (C-?)

1

!?fr.

1.1

(F7)

(F7)

The following two exercises complete the-examination of various 7th and 6th chords .apcJ their multiple functions. lVlosr of these chords will. reappear under their relative tensioachapters..As an-example:

I . 1.. _~ I

Cmai7b5 = A-6 (9"\ =:: Ab7(~.9/~5\ = 1)7(1319) = F~-n5(l1"l

~. ~:, II . ,.1 ...'

In eachappropriate chapterthey will receive a chord progression example u:tiliz,in_gthpir new fun9tions. A l~.sl of-all the substitutions for anyone 7th or 6th chota can be foundin the Enharmonic Chordal SUbstitutions chapter.

#5 a) Dmaj7 D-7b5 E~7 F#,Y Dmaj7 B7sus4 Cmaj7 E'P-{?
~. ~f tr ~ #r ! i{' I
: e2 I p ~p
i i i
~ (Dmaj7) CF-6) (E-7) ,(F#7) (Bm) (A~1) (D?)
E7sus4 E-7 G-7~5 Go7 B-7 D6 Dmaj7l>5 Abmaj7b5
10: t#r fr ~ ~
(9 .,? I I
r ,I I I I
I I
..._ ~
~) co.) (A7'; CDi (ET)
Gmaj7 E7sus4 Eb+7 n~7b5 F'~--n5 E~maj7#5 E+7 A7 A6
&- f ~ 1m r:; ~ I#F -r9' e-
I .~. !-- lr I'
, I
. r
"-' @) (E-7) (A7) (D) (B7) eE7) (A7) CD) b) F'Zsus-;

(C-7)

(F7)

(Bb)

CG7}

Ebmaj7 G" l' G'7sus.;. Ar I
T?-Q
L b4 t5' [)-G-
I :: i
(C-7) (F't) ,(Bb) (D7)
Ghrtaj7,l,5 Arr'!lj7b5 D7sus4
, ~F ~
DL2.
';
i i I I
!
(C-To5) (F7) (Bb )
- \."¢ Eb-5-

hr

D-?

If

Bkmaj?

C~7?5 bo

Abmaj7b5 F-7bq

:0

I i,

~

I

(A"P7)

(D-7b5j

13·

~

Chapter 2 .. -; - ~:; 0

Voice-Leading

~.,

Voice-leading is a simple concept intended to' make chords move smoothly from one- to another. By allowing the

top note (2nd string) of different chords to move step-wise through those chords, a smooth sauna is achieved' over .J the entire chord progression.

There are three basic choices when voice-ieadingfrom one chord to the next:

1) move up a step

2) move down a _step 3). stay on samenote

If there is a leap of a third or more, try to resolve the leap hy using one ofthe notes that was skipped over in the ...__. following chord: _.

A7

o

D-7- o

+4

An exception to this rule-is when IWO 'DS more voicings.appear on the same chord (qften differenrinversions], In this case, leaping is acceptable and sometimes desirable.since the harmony is stagnant, In contrast" voice-leading is mo= '---desirable when chords change.

The above example could also be viewed as indirect voice .. .ieading, (often melodically referred to as "indu resolution"),si-ncethe "E" note does-resolve step-wise to the "F" note with the "G" note'temporarily delaying thi, resolution. Indirect voice-leading could be-extended by two ormore voices, but does begin to compromise smooth voice-leading over chord changes; Inthe following example, the '''E'' note still resolves step-wiseto the "F"note although delayed by two voices:

Crnaj7 A7 D·'Z G7
~ 1·1 0 e
e II
By altering chord tones' or adding tensions, many different line patterns-can he produced while voice-leadingthrough a.single chord progression. The.following chord progression receives a variety Of voice-leading ideas rangingfrorn moretraditionalconcepts (step-wise, chromatic. and common TOnes) to several line patterns that actually break basic voice-leading concepts while still offering.an acceptable camping idea through vpredictable" patterns.

Prepare the 'following- Jines using anv voicing that will accommodate the lead note, In some cases, drop 2 type voicings are riotappropriate-and amore convenuonai voicing ola.c:ii1g:tl)e root i-n the bass might- be more desirable. Be sure to realize what tension the, lead note produces OEl the original onord. While- all lines are intended for ·preparation on-the 2nd strirrgonly .jhe example "Leaps" can be prepared on both.the 15t and 2nd strings, allowing for less physical j umping. This broken line 'example serves asa good indication of wheadifferent string sets are probably more appropriate. After preparing th~,se lines.istudents.should compose their own lines to the.given Chord progression.

'-"

14

r:

-.----------.~-~-.

I

-_

'-
._
v
.._.,
"-" .Chord Tones
"-'
,_..
_.
Common Tones
'---'
I.._,.
...__
._..
'" Chromatic
.:»
'-
._.
v
Whole Tone
'-" Diminished

...........
Leaps
...__
<--
~
"-' Chromatic
\_
'-'
..._
Patterns
\.._.:
...__ Chromatic

Qmaj7 A7

Abmaj7Db7 !

G7

II I? n r» 1>;9-
I
: I
tJ
1\ a. n I? 0' 0 '0 0 n
I
I
I I
'~
I
'(Ab7)
1'1 0< ;:.;., ~~ ~o bo
,
I L
, I ;
,
'.J I I
(D7b9) (Croaj7) I
1'1 0 "-', .L ' ! "', t
- , ,
" "
,
~ i
1\ .. I? .". b.p. ~ b.a. fI-
,
, I
.J
~ .p.. I , _ "
1\, t? -6 D.a. ~ r
,
; ;
.IlJ. L , L
,,,...
.J I
, I
.1\ I
..
" -
'.
, !
-.J
bp.- tArS) (D b maj'Z) \
I -~ -iT
1'1 1'_ ? r». _,
., - ,
-~ " , J
eJ:
1'1 .a. b.p- 'f?- ~ I":) .jl, ~ - Cniaj9
I
,
, -. ,
, , ;
.J -

15

Chromatic lines and sustained notes (common tones) are considered the strongest approaches to voice-leading. Although.the majority of exampies-giv6ninthrstexr will be vcice-ledthroughour the entire example, a more realistic approach would be to voice-lead by phrases (two bars, four bars, or eight -hars_)o sometimes breaking voice-leading at the-end of eac-h phrase to starr a new phrase or, as suggested in the Rhythm chapter, 'Omitting chords or resting bet-ween phrases. Through-thisprccess.studenrs will begin to hearagroup of voicings (or phrase) as one sound, much like one voicing or chord is heard, In fact. voicings that are "weak" sounding, incomplete.or contain "wrong" notes (voicings that will appear in later chapters) might be found within a strong voice-led phrase and function as an integral part of thatphrase, While many of these-weak voicingscould only be used in a voice-ledpassage and would notstand well on their-own. there arc "strong" arid "beautiful" sounding voicings that can be used with little regard for-voice-leading. A combination of this vertical (single voicing) and horizontal e.p.bras-oJ approach to harmony will enable students to create many different soundsand'uliirnatcly reproduce what they "hear."

The following example voices-leads in two and four bar phrases. A descending chromatic line is established in the first two-bar phrase while -a common leading tone is used in the second two-bar pbrase.anti the example finishes with an ascending chromatic line in the: last four bar's. Note the descending triads (top three voices) in the./lfsttwo

bars: F E E~- D (with 5thstrjng adde,d),:F/G -ElF Eb/F DfEb

Fo(maji)

[,r

G_7~,5

'J I I

, I

Ebo(maj7) bp

,..

, '

I

I ,

(G7)

CC-7j

(F7X

cD -7)

{G7__)

(C-7) (F7)

B~m8.j'7 k""

1'1:

j - Bmaj7"b

~v !

37 9P-

I

Ebmaj7

"!

~G7)

(C-7l

(F7)

I' (Bb)

The omission of selected chords will only enhance. the identity of individual phrases, produced by the remaining: chords. Thy fell owing displays the. above exarnp ly with certainchords removed, hel ping to better'define the remaining phrases. Rhythmic, variety in the form.of eight-note anticipations or delays has been added to enhance the exercise. A bass line stating the original progression (above in parenthesis) should accompany this exercise as well,

.. 1l:,:;; Fo(ma}7J ~- E~OllTL."_:i9~ G7su54
ttz_~ A-Tr''' Q_7~tl
y' ;0 ( 10• < ., . (' p -
7
-\ I I I I,; ~
f._ -

~-
F7~D
~, '" ~
( ?'
! Ebmaj7

ArI3

:1

~!

('

I'

7

§--0

Isz:

F ;

With.the addition of space and rhythmic activity', this ex am p1e probably better represents-what occurs inarreal performance siruaucn. ,,/'t srmilar apNo~\dl w eacii of me notate-d exarnples throughout this text ,!S Qrcingly recommended and the following- three-step-procedure could be' E!,ppliJid:

1) Prepare examples (slowly) as- written, proceeding srrroothly while attempting to perform in a

"lt~!!at()" fashion, .

...... .

2.) Add rhythmic variety (predominantly eight-ilok anticipation-s and deiavs) while performil1g-al\ voicings. A mix of long and short rhythmic attacks, sl~ol1id be attempted

3) Introducespace by omitting selected chord \'()icings while .conrinuing [0 be rliythmicailyactive.

Students should continue the-process established in this chapter and compose a variety of lines over different. chord pi'9gressions._and songs, A? we progress further, tbese-origiilal tines (an be harjnonized.by the: new y,(')icin:gs'lIllroduce_ti,

16

Chapter 3.

Voicing Considerations

__./ There are various considerations involved in determining a voicing's strength or weakness in a given situation.

Obviously, a "good sound" is a primary consideration, and several factors can be isolated that contribute to this. ........ Substitution possibilities and voice-leading are very .irnportant considerations in a voicing's worth and will be discussed further in later chapters.

~ We. have already discussed the avoidance ofb9th intervals and will continue to avoid use ofvoicings containing this ""'-' interval. Whenever a chord contains two notes a half-sten from each other, one of the inversions will form a ~9th interval. There are eight different available half-steps with.thepotential of producing 'an inversion containing ab 9th

.__.

interval:

'-

(R - b9) (9 - b3) (#9 - 3 ) (11 - b5) (# 11 - 5) (5 - ~ 13) 03-b7) (7 - R)

dom7(b-9) min7(9) dom7("'~')) " min7bS(tlj

rnaj7(# 1 J) / dom7(# 11/ dorri7(~ 13)

dQni7(13)

maj? I maj7bS /maj7~51 min. maj7 / etc.

There remain two important considerations while constructing differentvoicings: 1) low interval limits (LIL).

"- 2) physical difficulty in fingerings.

Low interval limits refers to the lowest possible placement of.a chord tone-or tension in a voicing. Below thi s'limit, the.originalchord sound begins to deteriorate and lose its primary function. LIL will apply to chord tones and tensions onthe 5th string. A "bright" tone and/or a light gauge string will accommodatelower placement of tensions and chord tones. whilea "dark" tone and/or heavy gauge string will not accept lower placements quite as well.

The following chart will determine sen-emlly how Iowa tension or chord tone can appear on the 5th string.

R b9 9

~i

3

4 [11] ~5 [#11] 5

#5 [b 13] 6 [13] ~7

7

unlimited E~

F (avoid tension 9 on 5th string)

AVOID~ produces ~.9th interval with major 3rd C

C

D

C

unlimited

C

D

C

E

17

These limits am slightly lower than those determined.by the Berklee College of Music Arranging, Department. Itis the student's responsibility to know what chord tone ortension isin the bass (5th string) on each voicing and how low that voicing can he safely used. In the Approach Voicings chapter later in this text, concepts will be introduced that allow violation of Low Interval Limits on the-weak harmonic rhythm of a given chord or measure.

The physical difficulties involved i!1 fingering different voicings is perhaps the largest and most diverse consideration in chord choice for most guitarists. There are basically four factors in determining the drfficulty of fingering any chord or chords:

1) range

2) finzerinzs before and after a given chord

(_.. -_........ '-:"

3) tempo. .

4) individual abilities

1) Range:

Some voicings that are difficult on the lower, wider frets become easier as they are moved up the fretboard to the higher, thinner "frets.

2) Fingerings: Fi ngerings of chords immediate! y before an a after a given chord wi ll affect the difficu I ty of fingerin g ...._..,

that chord. A difficult fingering can.lead to a similar fingered chord requiring li.ttle finger changeand consequent physical ease.of the passage. Some chords have several different ways of fingering them,

while orhers haveonly ofiepossible fingering. Use the fingering that best prepares the next chord. fingering. Example:

D-7 G7 Cmaj7 '--
~ I! li, if II J
Tempo is perhaps the single most important consideration in chord choice. A ballad might accornmodarethe tirnete prepare.difficultfingeringsof chords.thatcould not be attemptedat a quicker tempo.

4) Individual: Each student' s personal rechnica) abilities will determine what is considered a "difficult fingering."

Students are reminded that difficult-fingered voicings might become easier when applied to the "top four strings (I 2 3, 4) or when a non-essential note is removed to produce a 3-ncite voicing and subsequently easier fingering.

3') Tempo:

AS' we move into the tension addition sections, we see some voicings becoming physically easier as tensions are added.

-_

18

Chapter 40 Chord Symbol Notation

Before examining tension additionsto the basic four-part.stmcnrres..I would.like.to discuss some ofthe.approaches and difficulties involved in chord symbol notation. 1 must start byfirst stating that it is not my intent to re-organize, or establish a new system of-chord symbol notation, To the contrary, I wouldrather have avoided the need for this section altogether, but my attempt to complete a comprehensive volume of voicings and substitutions, and feedback 1 received from many of my colleagues, suggested I should address this topic at some level. 'Please-keep-in mind that the primary focus' of this text is not that of chord symboLnotation but that of discovering various four-note voicings and tbeir enharmonic uses as different chords and substitutions, while examining different voice-leading possibilities between those voicings.

The initial approach to the discovery of new voicings in this text is based on the addition of different tension combinations to thebasicfour-part structures (7th and 6th chords). This is also where I received the most diverse and controversial responses from my colleagues.Opinions ranged from those favoring little or no tension addition IGl the basrc.structure (allowing more freedom of inretpfet ati on) to those who felt that tensions should dictate specific 'scales as.well as describe their verticalplacement in avoicing. The most notable and surprising differences appeared to center around the enharmonic interpretations of tensions #'11 and b 13 and their melodic or harmonic implication's. A majority of responses supported theassumption that tensions bI3 and/or #) lwould includeor imply anatural-Sth in the same dominant type voicing, Although the.natutal Sth could accompany one.or the othertension, both tensions with-a natural 5th would produce consecutive half-steps:

~11 5 bB

L lL2_j L 112 _j

While this is a melodicpossibility, it has limited. if not problematic" harmonic value When posed with a dOrri7(~ 13/ # 11) chord, responses were confusing-at best. My reaction and recommendation is, to avoid this .particuiar tension combination on a dominant chord. If the same notes are desired with no natural Sth, the following symbols would suffice:

dom7#5(# 1 n I dom7~5(~13) / dom7(~5!~5) I dom7(alt5.)/ do'm7#5(~5) /dorrt7~5(#5) / etc.

If the.nanrral Sth is desired in the voicing, dom7(b13/~U) would-suffice.for those who respondedthat ~ 11 and ~13 _, imply natural 5 (do you guys really want this chord ?).. For those who would not assume the natural Sth was implied, '"'-' it would have to be included in the chord symbol: dom7(bT3/#,1l)"adff 5. Yikesl At this point, Lpersonally would prefer that-the desired voicing be notated on a staff. Even in could not read music, I' d probably produce the voicing quickeroff the staff than from the above chord symbol.

"- This segues wellto another issue, and personal recommendation I nave. I thinktnat.tension additibns are appropriate when used as suggestions to desired "colors" or sounds on basicstructures or to describe melodiceffects on different ~ vcicings. On the other hand.Tbelieve that symbols that are made more' complicated or confusingby attempting to ...__ communicate vertical placement-oftensions Of by their dictation of specific scales should be avoided. Atthis point, the voicing would be served betterby notation on a staff

19

I J

I

Although this book will possess many complicated symbols, they are used as descriptions of specific staff notated voicings and are not implying cit endorsing their use-as "standard'tchord symbol notation. To the. contrary, most _ voicinzs introduced in this text 'are to be used as various available "colors" or sounds (including available tensions and ch'Ord tones) over a more basic chord symbol. A collection of many different voicings will be made.available

to one basic chord type, Y ourchoice of specific voicings to use is your "interpretation" of that basic chord.

Example:

GIti(addll)

@k€

Fmaj7(9/6)

i2Z

The above voicings could beusedto "color" or su bsiitu te the basi c -a-V -1 cadence in the key 0 f' 'F" (G-7 , C7, Fmaj 7). Gm(add l f ), C+(#>ll), and Fmaj7(9/E) are chord symbol descriptions of the above voicing.'; in the key of"F."

The attempt will be made to use the "least" offensive chord sy)J'\bols wherr.notaring these complicatedand in many cases incomplete, voicings. Lhave tried to-reach a"coj11prQlnlSc'; in my-chordsymbol selections- that would satisfy

most. knowing that some (hopefully nor most) will certainly find fault. .

At this point, I should summarize scmeof the basic assumptions that-have been presenred-audwillbe used in this text. The following suggestions spe6ifica1!,}' deal with the.~ 11/l, 13 eontroversy introducedearlier:

I. Tehsi6n~ 13'might imply or include a natural 5th when usedin a chord symbol. Ifthe] 5th is notated in the symbol, natural 5 is not a choice. If~ 13 is desired without natural S (or ~ 5), enharmonic #. 5 instead of ~ 13 can he used. A more complicated symbol choice could be ~ 13(n05).

II. Tension '# 11 might impiy or include a naruralS thwhen used in a chord symbol. If thc'# 5th is notated in the symbol, natural 5 is not a.choice, If # 11 is desired without natural 5 (01'.#5;, enharmonic ks instead of #01 1 can be used. A more complicated symbol choice could be # 11XI105j..

These.suggestions make clear the need for caution when using b 13 or # 11 in a chord symbol. They contain inherent ._ controversyharmoaically and melodically. Mypersonal inclination is.to avoid their use as mud. 3S possible, I prefer

rile enharmonic bs and #5 spelling Of" the same notes. ~5 and #5 produce exact harmonic interpretation and retain freedom of interpretation melodically.

c, ,; 13/~11) might imply natural 5 il:.:.tmonk"ilIy andtwho knows what" melodically. C7-(~ 13l~5) to some implies the "altered'Iscalc.

C7C# 11/#5) to some implies the "whole tone' scale.

C7 (# Sib ii), C7 (aJtS), C7~ 5.(# 5}. C+ 7( b 5·1: precise-harmonic description and freedom of melodic or seale interpretation.

*N ote the C7 (:aJt5) s~iil1Bb! coulti be confused with the C7 (aJt) svrnbol which implies anv combination ofbS; #5 I - "0

t" 1'9, ~:I.

For orgamzational purpcses.fhe firstintrodu.GlrOn (i tuese two.notes togetherin the same voicing occurs under the Tension 11 chapter ash C+ 7(#1 i) chord. They appear again under the Tensions ') and 13 chapter as C9b5(b! 3\ c7b".5(b 13/b9), and c7bs.(b 13/~9) chords. In this chapter, 65 and;5 will be noted as the preferred.symbol choices:

C9{#5Jb5), C+7(9/b5j. or C7bS(9/#5i C7(h:glalt~), L+7(b9/bS). or C7b.5(b9/#5) C7(#9/alt5), C+7(#9!~5), or C7b5(#9/~5)

20

- -- --------------------

Chapter 5.

Tensions

'-' As tensions are added to the basic four-part chords (7th and 6th chords), different basic four-part chords often \_I reappear on different roots (i.e., B~9 =D-7~51 F-6), beginning the enharmonic chordal substitution process that will continue throuzhout this book.These substitute chords might souhd dearer or more obvious than the original chord recei v ing tensi~ ns. D- 7 b 5 or 'F-6 is more defined or complete than the original B ~ '9 chord, w hich is missing its root. '- For this reason, it is recommendedthat a bass line containing the original chord roots be recorded and played back

while playing chords containing tensions.

....... In each tension chapter the majority of voicirrgs produced by tension additions will most likely have been introduced enharmonically in earlier chargers, many originating as basic four-part 7t1i or 6th chord voicings, When this occurs,

""-

[he original chords introducing those. voicings for the first time will be listed. For example:

"'Under the Tension 9 chapter, the mi1l7(9J fb3 5 ~ 7 9} voicing's were originally introduced as rnaj? (1 :3

5 7) voicings, A-7(9) = CmajT '

':', Under the Tensions 9 & 13cbaptc!". theciom7s11s4( I 1/9). {4 ~ 7 9 13'} voicings were originally introduced 'as maj7 { 1 3 5 7 r voicmgs, D7s11S4(13/9) = Cmaj7.

:':lJndcr the Tensions 9 &11 chapter, (be maj7(; 11/9) {,S 79 # 1 J J voicings were originally introduced as

rnaj? { I 3 5 7/ voicin:gs. Fm aj7,( # 1 1I9') = Cmaj 7,

A list of all the possible substitutions.for any one voicing can be found in the Enharmonic Chordal Substitutions .and Additional Chordal Substitutions chapters following the tension chapters. In these chapters the' previous examples would combine their substitutions in order of their appearan~~ in this text:

Cmaj? z: A-9 = D7sus4(l3/9) == Fmaj7(.#1 i/9)

A rninimal uuderstanding of harmony and theory is required tomake the appropriate tension seleciions for different chords, Sortie basic. harmonic" assumptions will be presented to allow forachoice of tensions that will sound appropriate-in 11 common 'pop or jazz idiom. While tensions are ll.5ually dictated by.chord function and/or key of the moment. a strong voice-led guide-line often can make use of tensions that might appear inappropriate or nondiatonic to the key of the moment. This isespecially true of dOJniI;tan~ chords, which can accept many different tension combinations (both diatonic arid uon-diaronic), whiie other-chord types are more demanding offewer and more specific tensions. Tensions 00 .dirninished 7 chords will be. examinedseparately in 'the Tension Additions en Diminished Chords chapter later in this book.

~ In the following .exarnpies. the guide-line in example.jt? is riot asdiatonic as the- # 1 ex ample (E-9 and G7 (b 13) are nOL diatonic.to-the key of C), yet example #2 sounds better due.to the strong chromatic guide-line.produced by these rerrsions.

--- ~l
...,-
-'-'
.........
'-- ....'"
-r;L. 1jfi7

E-7

o

D-9

Gl3

Cmaj9

E-9

A+7

G7(b 13) I

D-9

Cmaj9

I._.,

When ([ "strong" or.e ffecti ve guide-I i ne is not prexcnt.tr rnote conservati ve or eli atonic approach to tension additions might be in order.

,~

"

J

-;» ;-
,r
f
~
-;» 21 ~
;.J J
- There are only seven different tensions available in the more common pop or jazz idioms:

b9 11 b13

9

# 1-1 13

Note the enharmonic functions some tensions might po-ssess:

11 = suM
~ll = bs
13 = #5 The fQliowing will-examine each tension's characteristics in these more common idioms. Ofcourse, different styles and concepts could condition or changethese Q3S,LC- assumptions, For example, "modal music" often requires use of tensions that are riot desirable in amore diatonic situation.

J) Natural 9 can appear-on any chord.type-and can be.aocompanred 1:))' any other tension except ~9 01'-#:9.

2.) b9_and #9 can accompany each other and any other ten sion except natural 9. b 9 and #9 can only appear on dam 7 type chords.

}) Natural 11 can ap_pear on any chord type except maj7 type chords. Namral l lcan.accornpany any tension except ~ 9 and # 11. Natural 1 I often functions enharrnonically as a suspended 4th on.dorn? and m,~6 chords. -The use of natural 11 with the majorthird is a more conternporary sound which will be.examined later.

4) # 11 can -appear only on majortype chords trnaj 7 i majri / dorn"). # 11 can accompany-any tension except natural

11. --

5) Natural 13 can appear on any chord typ~ except mln7b5. Natural 13, can accompany any tension except ~,13.

6) b 13 can.appearon any chord.type except minor chords containing a natural Sth. ~ 13 can accompany any tension except natural 13.

Thefollowirrg tension chart attempts, to c;l~rify and classify available tensions and chord tones on the most common chord types (excluding dim7 chords).

-f;

r CHORD TENSION CHART """'I
CHORD FREELY CAREF1JL \\lEAK
lTia}"7 6~ Ci £ \ 1 li _, ! 1 J
, , .. -) i
rhaj6 '~~ 7,b 7;' # II II
min7 9J 11 13 b13
min6 9 7, ~7, 11
. 1_ ... I 11 ~ b 13 9 ,ii>9
nun7(p ))
min maj7 9 6, -11 ~13
. i
dom'Zsus-l ! 9, i3 3, b 13 #9
i b9. 13: I I
i i I r
dom7 9. 13 ! 11 7
9, b 13
9'r
9, 11, J3
9, 11, bU
b9: ~9. 13
I .!
\19. :9, ;;.13 I
b9f <11 I
i
~9: "9:tt u. 13 I
\. ~ 9, 9.; 11, b 1 J .2
.. ,"'" 22

-~

Again, some of the tensions listed under the "weak" or "careful" column might in fact be, strong or characteristic nores in a modal setting, or appear in a common diatonic progression were a melody or strong voice-leading could make use of an otherwise='weak" tension.

In the.fcllowina common chord cadence, theb9 tension isnot normallv available to a min7~S chord, om sounds and voice-leads-quite well ill this particular example. Notethe A-7 b 56'9) chord form;:.&c;')mpleteC-7 ch'ord over an "A" bass note; (C-7/A).

A-7b5(b'9) D7(h9) G-6
\
& .uo, , .e- li
!l~ i!! Ii
6:,1 , . Note that some of the above tension combinations-under the dorn? chord dictate specific.chord scales:

Lydian ~7 whole tone

dominant diminished altered

\:\:·itb [he exception of dorn? type chords, the tension chart accurately describes available tensionsion these chord rype!:i; in. thernajorjty.ofharmonic situations in which they wouldappear. The dom 7 (ype,~tJ0rd n<?cd.'1. ,~orrle narrnDnic clarification in order to chose-the appropriatetensions d~ relation to, its function: keep.ir; mind that tll(;]'Y:!at:ure or' a dam 7 chard c ali accept most an y tens ion cernoin ali on, re gardiess-o f its function. The [0 liowi fig dt s crib es 'the [en sion tendencies of adorn 7 chord ina given function ..

1) V7 of major

n natural tensions (9. 13.1

2) alteredtensions (~9, ~·9, 65, ~5)

' .. ' ", " I

3) tension combinations: ~9/13,9Jp 13, etc.

4) natural to altered (before resolving)

Not-Common I) (9, #.11, 13) sub V sound

2) altered to natural (he·for~ resolving)

Commoo

2J "\77 of minor

ComplOn

l'j 69, ~ 9. b 13 and natural 5 o::~·)"

2) ~e,ns;·oc combinations: b 9/ ~3. 9/:·,1 =< e:c.

Not Common

1·) natural

2) natural to altered

3) al tered to natura:

4) (9,# 11, 13) suo V sound

_') Sub V and/or non-diatonicdorn 7th, as well as rV7 and II7:

Upon establishing some basis for tension possibilitie~'on a given chord, it.is.now important to discuss the. placement

of tensions in a four-note voicing, commonly referred to as "tension substiturion." .

23

Tension substitution on drop 2 iype voicings follows this basicformula: any tension substitutes a chord tone next: to that tension. This allows the .substiturion to-take place On the same string.

9 substitutes the root or third

11 [4) su bstitutes the th-ird qr fifth

13 [6J substitutes the fifth or seventh

Since the guide-tones are needed, weare left with the following tensionsubstitution formulafor drop 2 type voicings: 9 substitures the root {3 5 7 9}

11 [4] substitutes the fifth {1.3 7 1 I } Q [6] substitutes the fifth ,{ I 3 7 13}

An exception 'to this .fonnula which must be addressed is when the fifth is al~tefed (.~~or #,5). An altered fifth is <In .important part of the chord sound that should be- included. In thiscase, J 1 thand 1 3th Type. chords \\i:ouldhave- 10 sl,lbs~i'tute guidetones insteadofthe fifth: 11 for 3/13 for 7. If the original chord-sound andfunctien are not lost, these substitutions are. pos-sible. An example would bea.min Zb 5( 1] ) chord with tension 11 substitutingrhe :lrd. A min"] 5 - chord is the only type of chord that will accommodate a~5th and an l lth. By deduction, the minor 3rd of the chord

is i'heard" even though it is not.played, If the chord sound is lost by removing a guide-tone on one of these altered - fifth voicings, an alternative voicing to the drop 2 type voicing is required:

When a tension is introdueed to.a four-note voicing, one-of thebasic chord tonesIs removed. The least.needcdchord tone is usually chosen. The root and fifth (unless altered) are the least needed. while the- guide-tones (third and ~ seventh or sixth) are.more important to. the sound and function of the chord. Dueto enharmonics, some tensions are "'

already built into the basic four-part chords: .

Cmaj7~5 ::0 Cmaj7(#1l); C7~5 = C7(# 11); C7(#S) ::0 C7(b 13).

These tensions could be considered 3,5 substituting for the fifth of the chord.

l l th chord 13th chord

3 5 7 11 3 5 7 13

The.fifth-andthe guide-tones are accommodated in tbesevoicings and- will be used when appropriate,

In the following tension sections, with some isolated exceptions.the attempt will be made toretain the.guide-tones

in every voicing. When this is OGt possible, the 7th will be retained in fav,c:;r of the 3rd. This-will present some-new - voicings that are not dropJ type.voicings but share the same width as' drop 2. allowing compatible voice leading. More "incomplete" typevoicings with various tension additions will be.examinedin the later Enharmonic Chordal Substitution chapters.

The following tension substitution formulas will be used in their appropriate sections:

*Tension 13.

9 for 1 {3 5 7 9}
9 for 5 { 1 3 7 9}
9 for 3 { 1 ) 7 91
11 for 3 "{l 5 7 Ii}
11 tor 5 \ 1 3 1 ')
l f
n rOJ 1 p ~ 7 . 1 '
t l~ j
13 for 5 { 1 3 7 1" \
~J
1"3 for 1 {' .... ~, 7· 13}
-). (drop 2)

Tension 9

Tension 11

(drop 2.) (drop 2)

(drop 2)

('~ W'ith theexception of a dbm13~5 chord, r I 5'7 13) proves too ambiguous or limited to exarnine.)

24

Tension 11 & 13

9 for 1/ 13 for 5 {3 7 9 13}

'9 for 1 / 13 for 3 {5 7 9 13}

9 for 1 / 11 for 5 {3 7 9 II}

9 forI n 1 for 3 {5 7 9 -11 }

11 for 5 / 13 'for 1 {37 11 13} 11 for31 13 for 1 {5 7 1113}

(drop 2)

i

Tension 9 & 13

Tension 9 & 11

(drop 2) (drop 2)

As more tensions are added to a four-note voicing, one or botb of the zuide-tones will eventually be removed, resulting in whatis commonly referred to as an"inc~mplete" voicing. So~e ofthese voicings cap sound-ambiguous or begin to lose their original chord sound, while others- can define their original chord sound by use of unique tensions or a predictable chord progression. These latter chords often sound better and more; "colorful' than the original "obvious" chord sound.

Here-are some examples of incomplete. voicings being defined by their tensions:

I )b 9 or # 9 ~ust accommodate adorn 7 type-chord

2) 11 th with b 5th must accommodatea min7b 5 ordim? chords

3) l lth with 7th must accommodate min rnaj7 or dim! type chords

Here is.an example of an incomplete, voicing being defined by a predictable chord progression:

'.,._,. (II): eV) 0)
G-7 C7 Fmaj7
- 1 ~ I
(Ab7,#5) ~
~ b:o.. -~ ~
II
The A~ 7#5 is an incomplete C7(alt5) chord:
A~7#5 1 3 #5 b7
I t t t

Ab c E Gb
i r r r
C7(alt5) #5 1 3 b5 '--,

The Ab 7#-5 chord standing alone has no particular €7 sound. Whenplaced in 'the above chord progression in substitute of the.normal C7 (and perhaps accompanied by a C bass note), it no longer sounds like and Ab 7~ 5 chord.

By examining each tension, vie can see which tensions dictate guide-tones-and which do not:

1) b9can appear only on dominant type chords.dicrating their guide-tones when missing from a voicing.

"- __

2) Natural 9 can appear on any type of chord, thus cannot dictate the guide-tones of any particular chord type. -3) ~9 can appear only on dominant type chords. Itean dictate the b 7th but requires the 3rd to accompany it. Without the 3rd,#9 might sound enharrnonicallylike the.third of a minor chord, #9 = ~3.

4) Natural 11 can appear on any chord type except the maj7 type chord. With the exception of an 11 with natural 7 dictating a min. rnaj 7 (11), chord, 1 I usually dictates.a b 7th guide-tone. N atural II cannot dictate a major or minor third, although it often can take the place of the thirdhy en harmonic ally functioning as a suspended 4tb guide-tone.

-25

5) # 11 can appear only on major chord types, dictating the major 3rd when missing, but not the 7th.

6) ~ 13 can appear on any chord type except minor chords conraining the natural 5th. It can dictate the ~ 7th, with the maj7(#5) chord being enharrnonically an exception. It cannot dictate the 3rd.

7} 13 can appear on any chord type except themin'Zb S chord. It cannot dictate guide-tones.

As more tensions and chordal substitutions are presented, the use of incomplete voicings will become more common. Themaj7#5 and min7#5 chords have been omitted from the following tension chapters. due to their unique sound being compromised by tension additions. The min7 # 5 chord \\Jill reappear. in the Additional Enharmomc Chordal S u bstitu HODS chapter with tensi on addi tions. Although tens] oris will not be added to the rna j 7 # 5 and min 7# 5 chords, their four-part structures will reappear as enharmonic substitutions in various tension chapters. As an example, in the Tension 11 chapter, G-7~5 willappear as C-7(l1) (173 5 b7 11).

_ _/

... _

26

Chapter 6.

Do-minant Sub V Chords

v

Every dominant type chord, with the-exception of those containing asuspended fourth, can be substituted by another dominant chord a tritone away. This chord is commonly referred to as a "Sub V" chord (Db 7 is the Sub V' chord of G7, and vice-versa). Any tensions added to a dominant chord will appear as chord tones or different tensions on the Sub V chord.

The following is a simple tension conversion model for Sub V chords that should be memorized:

R 19 9 ~9
1 1 /f' 1
I
t
#11 5 b13 13
CbS) (#5) The above model in relation to C7 and its SUb. V chord:

C7 R b9 9 ~9
_;;? t r t t
(Sub V) C Db D D~
~ l J, J, J,
Fi7 #11 5 b13 13 There are four dominant chords that "mirror" themselves on their Sub V chords:

'-<- C7b5 = F~'7b5
C7(b9) = l(~9)
C9(#5) = F 9(#5)
C13(#9) = F,,13(#9) Remember the tension substitutions [9 for RJ and [13 for 5] for the above examples, leaving three of the chords rootless.

All the dominant chords that will be introduced in the forthcoming tension chapters will also examine their Sub V chords, The only exceptions will be dominant chords that contain both a b 13 and natural S. These notes produce b 9 and natural 9 on the Sub V chord, which is not an acceptabletension combination, producing consecutive half-steps (R - b 2 - 2). These chord types will be omitted from the-tension chapters but will reappear for examination in the Additional Enharmonic Chordal Substitutions chapter.

Remember to be aware of Low IntervalLimits and b9th intervals when placing dominant tensions on the 5th string. Tensions #9 and 13 will not be a~lowed on the 5th string. Both tensions are Sub V substitutes for each other and both produce b9th intervals (tension#9 over the 3rq and.tension 13 over the ~ 7th). Tensions 9 and D 13 [#5] are also Sub V substitutes for each other, but only the 9th (with some exceptions) will be omitted from the 5th string due to [ow interval limits.

27

Before beginning the-tension chapters, a brief discussion of the "altered" dominants should be gi ven. Al tered ( or al t) on a dom7 chord refers to the 9th and 5th being flatted and raised ;(b9,,#9) ll.ud (~5, #5) or enharmonicaily (b9, #9, # II, b 13). Any combination of these tensions will satisfy an "altered sound," but tensions ~9 and b13 [~5J are most

characteristic because they are alsotensions on the Sub V chord: (#9 = 13) and (613= 9). Example: J

C7(#9J#5) (altered)

=

F#7(1319) (natural)

An additional observation of interest shows·the~9 and#5 of a V7 chord to be the "blue" notesb? and:_:; of the related I chord;

(V7) C7(#9J#'5) , #9 #5

Eb Ab

( I) F. .; b7 b3

More information on altered dominants is _presented in the Altered Dominant chapter later in this text.

28

Chapter 7.

Tension 9

By substituting'S for the root on all of the previous four-part drop 2 inversions, weseemany of those.originalfourpart 7th and 6th chords reappearing- on 'differentroots, The following list contains all possible tension 9 'additions to the original four-part chords and the consequent. four-part enharmonic substitute chords produced:

Cmaj7(9) = E-7 1 G6 C7(9) = E-7bs 1 G-6
Cmaj7~5(9) = refer below C7(~9) = C~o7, E07~ G07"Bbo7
C-rnaj7(9) = E~rna:j7#5 C7(~9) = refer below
C-7(9) = Ebmaj7" C7b5(9) = F~+7 (Sub V)
C·7~5(9) = Eb-maj7 C7~5(~9) = F; 7 (Sub V)
C6(9) = A7sus4 C;:7b5(#9) == refer below
C-6(9) = E~maj7~5 C+7(9) :: E7bSIBb7b5
c+7(b9) = B~-7b,5/D~-6·
C+7(#9) = Einaj7b5
C7SllS4(9) G,.71Bb6
C7sus4(b'9) = G-7b5IBb-6 Crnaj7b5(9), C7(#9), and C7b5(#9) do not produce.basic four-part 7th orSth enharmonic substitute chords, but do

_.. produce their own. interesting substitute chords:

Gb 7(13) (Sub V)

Gb7(~9!f3) (Sub V) [1st inv.. Of <27(#9) = D#!E).]

.D6(9) {I 3 69}, which is not a drop 2 voicing. l'hismaj6(9) voicing will be discussed later in thischapter.

t7sus4(~9) has been omitted, since.it has becoweaC-7( 115 chord. As mentioned earlier,Cmaj7#5 and C~ 7#5 will riot be included in the tension chapters, but.will appear later in this book with tension additions .. C °7 will receive tensions in the Tension Additions on Dimin 7 Chords chapter.

C7~5(#9) =

C7(#92 =

Cmaj7~5(9) =

Realize the 'enharmonics involved intheabove ninth chords with an altered. 5th:

Cmaj7b5(9) C7b5(9!b9 1 ~'9) C7#5(9/b9/#9)

=

Cmaj7(9J~ 1 J)

: C7(~ 1119) (# I11b9) (# 111#9) C7(b 13/9) c'b 13/b9) (b 13/n9)

=

If not already Iisted.realize the Sub V chord for each dominant chord:

J C7(9) = Fr#5/b9l
C7(b9) = F 7(~9)
-,.. C7ij5(9:1 F +7(9'
= , .)
.:» c+7(h9) = Fr(9)
._I C+7(#9) - F 7(13/9) Look at the previous enharmonic substitutions from a common four-part chord rout:

Cmaj,7 = A-9
r ·7b- = A-6(.9) J Ab7(#5!~9) ID7(9113)
,,;maJ)
'Crnaj7#5 = A-rnaj7(9)
C-rnaj7 = A-9bs
C-6 = F9 1 D7sus4(b9)! B7(#5/b9)
C6 = Fmaj9 1 D7sllS4(9)
C-7 = A~maj9! F7"sus4(9)
C-7b5 = Ab9 / F7sus4(b·9)! D7C#5/b9)
C7 = Gb 7C~5/~9) .
C7b5 :: Gb 7b5! Ab9+1 D9+
C7~5 - Gb9(b5)
C07 = B7(b$i)! D7"(b9) / F7(~9) / A~ 7(b9)
C7sus4 = Eh6(9) 29 Tensions b9 and #9 can combine to form available dom7 tensions (i.e. C7(alt9) / C7bS(alt9) / C+ 7(alt9)). These chords will be examined later in the Altered 9 Tensions on Dqm7th Chords chapter.

With the exception of the b 9 tension on a dom7 chord, this text will avoid using tension 9 on the 5th string. Some isolated exceptions to this-rule might appear in later chapters.

The following is a convenient model which will be used to display different chord voicingsand inversions:

maj7(9) {3 5 7 9}:

3 5 7 9 ~ - 2nd string
1 '7 9 3 5 ~ 3rd 'string
5 7 9 3 ~ -lth.string
9 3 5 7 ~ '5th string Note 'that the previous .seventh chords. that avoided their 3.rd inversions due: to the b9th interval they- contained (Cmaj Z, Cmaj7b 5, and C-IIlaj7) are now available as 9th chor-ds (Cmaj9, Cmaj9b5, C-maj9)~ since tension 9 has rernov~d the ~ 9th interval that wasproduced between the 7th and root. Although these inversions are now available, [hey do runthe risk of violating "Low Interval Limits" since the 7th is In the bass: To avoid this problem, non-drop -2 type, voicings which contain the same- basi-c' "width" as drop 2 type voicings.can be used 'to substitute these third inversion-drop '2 ninth chords:

By removing the fifth degree-from a root-inversion close position ninth chord, a four-note voicing containing tension 9in the top voice is produced:

Cmaj7(9) no 5 j~~l~.-· ~~!I

C6(9)no_Q ~~~ig' ~~II

These voicings can effectively substitute the third inversion drop 2 ninth chordswhile retaining the desired tension i

9 in the lead: - 1:

9 7(6) 3

1

can substitute

9

5

.3 7(6)

If the 5Ih degree is needed in these substitute ninth chords, the third can be removed:

Cmaj9(no3)'

9 7(6' J

5 1

_/

30

'-" When La is not an issue, voice leading, sound, and fmgering will detenirine which voicing is best. Examine the ....... previous list of 9th chords using the new omitted 5th or omitted 3rd ninth chords discussed:

Cmaj7(9) = 1 379 C7(9) = 1 3 ~7 9
Cmaj7b5(9) = 1 bs 7 9 C7(b9) = r 3 b7 b9 ~
C-maj7(9) = 1 b3 7 9 C7(#9) = 1 3 b7 ~9 ,
C-I(9) 1 b3 ~7 9 C7b5(9) 1 bs ~7' 9 f
= = ~'
C-7bS(9) = 1 ~5 ~7 9 C7b5(~9} - 1 ~5 ~7 b9 *'
C6(9) = 1 369 C7b5(#9) = 1 b5 b7 #9 *
(:-6(9) = 1 b3 6 9 C+7(9) = 1 r b7 9
C+ 7(b9) = 15 b 7 b9 *
C+7(#9) = 1 5b7#9~'
C7sus4(9) = I 4 b7 9
'C7 sus4(b 9) = 1 4 b7 b9 * =These voicings will be omitted from thisehapter, dueto theb9th intervals or the· ambiguous sounds produced, Most willreappear later in more appropriate-chapters .

.._..

_ Note: Four of the above voicings have produced previously introduced drop 2 type voicings:

Cmaj7b5(9) _. t I b 5 7.9}

C-7~5(9) andC7b5(9) (1 b5,b7 91:

; - - ! 1 4- L7 Oi

C9sus4, "" r. 17 <:

Ab 7b5(~9) I Dl_3 D+7! Ab9b5 D-7#5

Since the drop 2 inversions are known) they can be applied tothese ninth chords;'
Cmaj7bS(9); 9 b5 7 1
7 1 9 b5 ",-
b5 7 1 9
1 9 b5 7
C-7b5(9) or C7bS(9); 9 bs b7 1
, - b7 1 9 bs
bs b7 1 9
'..0.. 1 9 bs ~7
C9sus4; 9 4 b7 1
b7 1 9 4
4 17 I 9
0 4 ~7
;> __ "Common notation for the root inversion ofC9sus4 is Bb/C.

_. Two additional ninth (omit 5) chord voicings whose inversions will be examined are maj6(9) and dom7(9):

maj6(9) 9 " 6 d'om7(9) 9
-
6 1 a 3 ~'I
~, -'
",___ 3 6 1 9 3
1 9 3 6
.........- 3 b7

9 3

1 3

9 b7

"The 1st inversion of the maj9 {I 3 7 9} and 3rd inversion ofthedom7b9 {I 3 b9 b7) will be-examined in later

chapters. -

31

Note the C+ 7(9) no 3 voicing {I #5

C+7(9); 1

1

b7 9) is equivalent to the Bb7(9) no 5 voicing {I 3 b7 9}.

~5_ b7 9

-t 1 -t

C

r

G+f it

i

D

i

Since the dom7(9) inversions will be used, they can be realized on the dom7#5(9):

9

3

9 ~5 ~7
'-'
~7 9 #5 --'
~5 b7 9 ~
,I
9 ~5 b7
'-../ At this point v.:c should summarize the substitution possibilities presented for each chord, including Sub V chords. of the non-drop 2 dominant ninth chords with omitted 3rd or 5th:

Bb 9sus4 l j 4 b 7 9}

Gb9bS = Bb9~5/Bb-9b5 {lb5 b7 9} = E(aHS) {t 3 b5 #5) [SubVofBb9b5] Gb7(#5/b9) = E-7b5 = G-6 = A7sllS4(b9)

D+7(9) {1#5 b7 9} = F#7(altS){3 b5 #5 ~7j [SubVofC9] = Ab9(alt5){I b5 #5 9} ~ ~

. [Sub V of D+7(9)]

E-7 == G6 :::: A9sus4

G~7b5= Ab+7(9) = D+7(9)

A-6(9) = Ab7(~5/~9) = D7(9/13)

D6(9) {I 3 6 9}

A-9

A-7b5(9)

C-7~5 =
C+7 ::::
C7(9) =
C7(9) ;:::
{13b79}
Cmaj7(9) =
c7bs =
Cmaj7\,5 :::
Cmaj9bS =
Cmaj7 =
C-maj7 =
CmJj7(~5' =
- II
C6(9) =
C7(~9) =
C7(~9) =
C7 =
C7b5(~9'1 =
" .
C7(#9) ::::
11 3",~ 7 ~91 A-majC) A7sus4

(C~C' .' EO i GO / Bb 0) (C7(b9)lF#7(b9)/ A 7(b9)!Eb 7(b9))

F# 13(~9)

F#7(b5/b9)

Gb 7(1-3) = Ema.i9b5 (1 b 5 7 9)

F ¥ 13 b 5 (3 'b:) ~ -;' ~ 3} [Su b V 0 f C 7 J

'.J

The Sub V chord ofthe.C7(~9) ( 1 3 b 7 b9} chord is F~7(# 1 i) 13 5 b 7#ll.l ThisSub V chord will not be available to the root inversion C7 (b 9) chord because of the b 9th interval between the 5th and # 1 J rh of the F# 7 C# 11) chord. In the next chapter, F~7(~ 11) will reappear on the third inversion of the C7(b9) chord. These ninthIornit 3lid or 5th) chord voicing's, as well as the drop 2 type voicings, will have some very interesting additional substitution possibili ties in later chapters.

32

--------------------------------~=----=-==---~--~=-------------------- -

Each '9th chord and applicable inversions previously examined will be presented in the following II- V-I chord cadence examples, As mentioned earlier, when a single voice is notated on the staff, it will be considered the top note of a drop 2 type voicing. If a non-drop 2 type voicing is.used.all four voices will be notated, Thisapproach will be used throughout this text.

I inaj7(9)I

drop 2 type voicings:

Imaj7(_9) Cmaj7(9)

::::

IIJ-7 ::::

F7 =

V6 G6

=

VI9sus4' A9sus4

=

=

Avoiding tension 9 on the Sth string leaves three applicable drop 2 inversions with the addition of one ninth (omit .5') voicing:

D-7

5 7 9 9
9 3 .::: 7
.,)
7 9 3 3
'3 5 7 1
G7 Cmaj7(9) D-7 G7 Cmaj9 A-7
0 e- n n &
___Q_ jiu Ii
i ~ D7

'Gm.aS9 ~

"--

II

Gaj7b5(9) I

.._. This ~s a uniq~e chord in that the drop- 2 type voicings produce ninth (omit 5) enharmonic substitute voicings and the ninth (omit 3) chord produces a diop 2 type enharmonicsubstitute chord.

<Ima.}?~5(?) (drop2) - II6(9)no5 >

Cmaj_7~5(9) (drop 2):::: D6(9)no 5-

<Imaj?~5(~Yhh) .3 .. = b VI7(b5J#9} (drop 2) / IIIJ. (drop 2) >

Cmaj7~5((~)no 3 - A~7~S(#9) (drop 2) J D13 (drop 2)

Avoiding tension 9 on (he Sth string leaves.three applicable drop 2 inversions with the .addition of oneninth (omit

3) voicing. .

D-7

b5 7 9 9
-<) 3 b5 7
7 9 3 65
3 b5 7 1
G'" Cmaj7D5(~\ D-7 G7 Cmaj9~5 A-7
,.
0 ~ .(l ,... .e-
;)0 II II D7 ~

Gmaj9b5 &

33

'min. maj7(9)1 drop 2 type voicings.

I~maj7(9) =

C-maj7(9) =

~Ulmaj7#5 E~maj7#5

Three applic-able drop 2 inversions with the addition of one ninth (omit 5) chord. IJue to the physically awkward fingering produced by the, 2nd inversion, its register might be limited.

D-7~5

@"

S 7 9 9
9 ~3 5 7
7 9 ~3 b3
~3 5 7 1
G7 C-maj7(:9) D-7b5 G.9 C-maj9 A-7b5
.o, .0.. 0 b e-
li 0 I! G-maj9 -e-

II

j min7(9) j

drop 2 type voicings:

1-7(9) C-7(9)

=

~IIlmaj7 Ebffi_aj7

=

Three applicable drop 2 inversions with the addition of one ninth (OI;nft 5) chord.

D-7(9)

5- b7 9 9'
9 ~3 5 b7
~7 9 ~3 ~3
t,3 5 b7 1
Cmaj9 A-9
0: -11 0 D7b5 ~'o

Gmaj9 -e-

A-9

D7b5 Groaj7~5

-e- . .n.

11

t_;\

-, -

34

"-

Three applicable drop 2 inversions with the addition of three good ninth (omit 5) chord inversions, Due to the

physically awkward fingerings produced by the- 2nd. and 3rd drop 2: inversions, their regrsters might be limited.

'I:

~7

9' 1 b5

I min7b5(9) I

< 1-7b,5(9) (drop 2) C-7b5(9) (drop 2)

< 1-7b,5~9)l1o 3 C-n5(9)no 3

drop 2;

b5 9 b7

D-7~.5(9) G+ 7 C-maj9

p

A-7~5(9)

,hi or "!!

=

~IlI-mpj7 (drop 2) > £~-maj7 (drop 2) .'

II+ 7 (drop 2) / bV19b5 (drop 2) > ,0+7 (drop 2) / Ab9b5 (drop 2) .-

ninth (omit 3);

C-705(9)

, bfr b.n

1Ft:-- or ~~

F7#5 -&

o

Ii

Groaj7h5 A

A-7b5(9) Ao7

Gc maj 9 -&

II

Those min7b 5(9) voicings containing no.third will be examined later in this chapter for their dominant quality as '-- well: dom7b5(9).

I maj6(9) I

< I6(9!(drop ],) C6{9) (drop 2)

<" 16(9)n.o 5

-- C6(9)no 5

:::

=

drop.Z;

Three applicable drop 2 inversions and threeapplicable nimh (no 5) chord inversions:

ninth (no 5): 9

6 9 1

9~ 6

~ DropZ;

5 6 9
9 3 5
6 9 -~
3 5 6
A~o7 C6(9) D-7
be- D 0
.I 6

"

-'

3

G7

D·.,

I

G6(9) -e-

C6(9)

A rt-

o

J! F

Ninth (no 5) Chord:

C6(9) A-9 D7~5 G6(9) F7st!-s4 B7 Rb6(9)
-e- 0 ~0 ,e,. b..u. ,6- ko..
-,.12: 1
II g - li :Ii .. ~ ~1
~-I.! c"
~
35 D-7 Be: 7

[lnin6(9) I

drop 2 type voicings:

1.,6(9) C~6(9)

bUlmaj7b5 E~maj7~5

=

=

VII7(#5J#9) J IV7(9/f3) B7(#51#9) / F7{9J13)

=

Three applicable drop 2 inversions with the addition ofone ninth (no 5) chord voicing. Due to the phy~ic~\llyawkward fingerings produced by the, drop 2 (2nd inversionj.] ts register might be li mired.

5 6 9 9
9 ~3 5 6
6 9 63 ~3
b" 5 6 1
.J D-7~5 G7b5 C~6(9) D-7b5 A~c7 C-6("9) A-7bS D+7 .G-6(9)
1:. .~ ~ f>e- n 0 on e-
o J~ o jf -Jl
-=====g-
H
u I dom7(9) I

DOMINANT 9TH CHORDS

drop2n 5 ~7 9} C9 {3 5. 67 9} = C9 {I 3 h 7 9) =_

Ninth no 5 {I 3 67 9)

,;:i'_"

E-7b5 / G-6 / F#7(b9J#5) F#7(alt5)

Avoiding tension O on the Sth string leaves three applicable drop 2 inversions and three applicable ninth (no 51 chord inversions :

drop 2;

Drop 2; D-9

tr

S b7 9
C) 3 "
-'
b7 9 ,',
:)
::1 5 b7
G9 Cmaj9 E-7
~ 0 0
II ninth (no 5); 9 ~7

b7
9 3
1 ()
j
3 b7
A-7 D9
-e- -e-
I! Gmaj9 -e-

A9

Dmaj7 ~

o

DbiC,9/j!5) Ge.majS

~

Bb,·9

i

.J

Eb7£b9J~5) Ab6

Eb":9· on

I '"

AD7(~9/j;5) Db6(9)

o

Ii

II

~.

36

Ninth (no 5);
D-9 G9 Cmaj9 G7sus4 C9 Fmaj7 F7sus4 BD9 E~6
..,_ ~.ll b..o. ~n
-e- jJ_c_
t ~ :& o. -B-
il ~'lo 3: ;!~ -==n
B iL _ n
........ 0
I
I !
I I
.__.. !
\~I \i" \~!
A~-9 D;,](alt5) Gpma,i9 Cit-9 F~7(alU: " Bmaj7 ,B-7 E7(alt5) Amajf
1 i i
1 on ~ D-e- to ~ ite- g.e-. Dn tp-
·t~ , ,I ----- 'I
~ "
SUBV n 11 ........

! dom7(1,9) I

drop1 i 3 :=; 'r7

ninth [DO 5} chord {I 3 ~;7 b91

C7 (b9) 13 5 b 7 b91 :::: Db. E, G. and/or B bdim 7 (El, 7 d~9). Fp (b9), and/or A 7 (b9, I

Four applicable drop 2. inversions plus one additional ninth (no 5) chord inversion. The drop 2 Sub V chords need "-' not be presented, sincetransposing.these exercises by a tritone (and minor thirds) will produce the same-examples, The Sub V will be avoided 011 the ninth (no S) chore} voicing due to the,~9th intervalproduced by 5 over ~ l l . The ~9Ih interval produced by 69 over the root is available on dominant chords.

Drop 2;

A-7 D7b9 Gmaj9 A-7 D7b9 Gmaj9
¥ :So ... -e- -e- 6-
~e Ii d

D'''' G7b9 Cmaj7 D-9 G7b9 Cmaj9
- /
I
~ e -e- ":ra-
e I ~ !I .-----,'
(f\; , __j.<
==±J
~
D7sus4 G7~9 G6(9;
, 0 1 ::-&
00 Ii

--e--~
~ l~

37

I dom7(#9) I drop2 {3 5 b 7~9 f

ninth (no 5) chord { 1 3 ~ 7 "9}

C7C~.': 9) {3:- 5 .. b 7 #9) =0 F~ 13('b9) C7(#9) {I 3 b7#9 J = F~ n(bS)

A voiding tension #9c)fl the 5th string leaves three applicable drop 2 inversions plus one ninth (no 5) chord inversion. Due to the difficult fingerings produced by the second and third inversions of the drop.z voicings. their registers might be limited.

drop 2;

G-9 C7(#9) Fmajj)

T

o

-e-

·jl.· .

SUB V

I

I

F~13(h9)

C#-9 B6(9)

~o $0

(Eb/E)

I

~9 5

ninth (no 5); ~9 ~7

5

Bb7(~9) G7(#9)

E;'maj7(b5) 0-9 Cmaj7(~·5)

,

_(H:).

Ii

i

!

\~ ..

i

I{I

Db13(f>5)

,Ab-9 Gbmaj9

b.o. ~..a. ~--

II

I

-~,

Db13(Y9) Ab-9Gbmaj9-

bn. bn. ~.

II

E13(b9) A6 B-9

II

II

I d,om'b.5(9) I drop2 {3:b Sb 7 9 j

C9(b 5) {3 b 5 b 7 cy'} =

C9(b 5) { 1 b 5 -k7 9.\ =

ninth- (no 3_1-ch6td {T 1,5 1,7 9} F#+7

D+ 7/ Ab9(bS)

Avoiding tension 9 on the Sthstring-Ieaves-three applicable drop 2 inversions and three applicable ninth (no.3 I chord

in versions:
-:»
drop 2; b5 ~7 9 ninth (no 3j: 9 ~7 1
9 3 I - ~7 9 bJ
,).
b7 9 _.., I _ 1 9
-' ~;)
") b5 ~7 1 b5 ~7
.:l ---------

_.
---
.......
DropZ; G-9 C9(b5) Fmaj'9 G-7 C9b5 Fmaj7 D7sus4 G965 Cmaj9
b.o: I
1 6- #1 0 0..0.. .e- o .e- o
'-" II I II I II
--'
'I I
I
I
..._. t ,~ Ijt
~
C#'-9 F#+7 Bmaj9 C#-9 F~+7 Bmaj7 Ab-7 Db+7 Gbma.j7(bS)
r -
#Q ..0.. ~ -te- I I 0..0..
4 ~e ~e o-e- ~
"- II II II
SUB V
._..
v Ninth (no 3);_
.._.
D-%5 G9.'5 Cmaj7b5 D7sus4 G9-115 C6(9) G7sus4 C9b5 Fi:n<:ij7
~
~ ~ I
~ ~ ..0.. Oft
0 uQ"'J 0 .e-
(Alit) II II Ai
~ . tVi'l)
I I
.._. Iji ~ ~
<:» Ab-7 Dp7(alt5) Gbnuij7 Ab-7 Db(alt5) Gbmaj9 (:#-7 F#(alt5) B6
~ ~ b..o.. ~o k I
'-" l&. ~('i .n. on ~o
SUB V II I'] II

t.J
/.
I dom7~5(~9) I drop2 {3 ~5 ~7 ~9}
C7~5(~9) C1 65. .~7 b9} = :F~7 The ninth (no 3) voicing will be omitted, due. to. the ~9th interval produced, This voicing will reappear in a later chapter as a hybrid chord.

Four applicable inversions: 3 bs b7 69
_J b7 69 3 b5
~5 67 b9 3
b9 3 b5 b7 ~ F7sus4 Bb7

~ bn ~

Ebmaj7

F-9

,

I

~,

D7(b9/65)

A-9 Gmaj9

li .e-

110 "7

Bb7(b9/b5)

F7sus4 Ebmaj7

h.o. ~ 0

! I [ 11

E7(b9/b5)

B-7 Amaj7

~ #,? '#0

I

E7(b9hb5)

B-9' A6(9)

'!~O f:"

( )

a

Bb7 e

I

V

E'''' A' 7 D' . '0

E' '9 D/SUS t'> Dma_1J

»rnaj I I

1?-6- ~ !re-

O II

I

I W

E7 Amaj7

SUB V

o

II

B-7 ~

Ii

39

\dom7b5(#9)\ drop Z {3 ~5 ~7 #9} C7~5(#9) ~ F#13

Only rwo practical drop 1 inversions will be used .. Tnt root' inversion will be omitted because of the. b9th interval

producedby the 3rdovertbe #9th. The third inversion will be omitted because of theawkward fingering produced, j

The ninth (no 3) chord voicing will be ami ned because it has become a min? b 5; chord. Thisnmth (no 3) chord voicing

might reappear in Jater chapters where incomplete voicings are. more appropriate. .

b7 3 #9

i - v)

G-9 C7(~9!~5) Fmaj9

E-7

A7(~9/b5) Dmaj9 'E3-

-4]

Q_

i

a

.0

II

l,

1

I "

'F#7sus4 Fn3: B6(9) B~-9 Eb 13A~6

~ I

:7J--J-~o~~~o~-. ~t~o ==1f1 =' ==~o~.. ~~~===-rJ===:B-'.

SUB V 1?ri - • E

~~~==============~============~=

[dom7#5(9) I drop2 {3 #5 ~7 9) C9#5{3 #5 b7 9} C9#S(no 3') {I #5 b7 9}

ninth (r1O 3) chord {I #5 b 7 9) E7~5 / B~7~5 J F#9:#5

F#9(alt5)/B~9(no 5) {l 3 b7 9} / Ei,alt5)

=

:::

Avoiding tension 900 the 5th string leaves three applicable drop 2 inversions and three applicable ni nth (no 3) chord inversions. The Sub V chord will not be included in the- drop 2 examples because, like its dom7b5 substitute, it "mirrors its original dominant chord: C9#5 ::: F#9#5.

drop 2;

#5 b7 9 ninth (no 3); 9
9 3 II - b7
tt)
b7 9 3 ~5
~- 07 -1
. .:. :;
C+7.(9) Fmaj9 E-7 A9±t5 bmaj9
~ 0 0 b -e-
!i 9

Drop'2; G-9

C-9

B~maj9

II

o

.0

o

II

Ninth (no 3);
C~9 F9~5 B ma;c, .C-~g; .F9·;t5 Bt1ffiqj9 G-9 C9ir5 F6
. ~. j .-~
t4 -e- -e- ~~'- -Ef-
:thQ- Ii 0 %4i Q J! (-i
I"tg. - ;
d
I
\ -
I \V
"1': ~i·
F:-7 B9(alt5) Emaj7 Fi!-9 B9(alti5) $maj7 C~~7 F~9(alt51 Bn-mj7 -"
if -e- 0 -'l!:o ~-o ~e ~e _Q_ . t-e- .~ .
I: II S23
SUB V "
i:
(Eb9) (Eb9) (B~9)
40 I dom7~5(b9)1 drop2 {3 -~5 ~7 ~9}

C7(1,9/#5) == D1,-6 I B1,-7~5JF#9

-

'-' The ninth (no 3) chord voicing will be omitted, due to the awkward.fingeringandthe b9th interval produced, The --' drop 2 Sub V chord produced is a dom9 chord, and although all four inversionsare available to the oom7~S(b9) chord, the inversion producing.tension 9 on the 5th string on the dom9 Sub V chord will be omitted. There are four applicable inversions:

G-9

3 f~ b7 b9
b7 3 #5
#5 1,7 b9 ..,
_1
~9 _., #5 b7
:) C+7(~9) Bb7(b9/#5)E' 6 F7#·5(b9) E7(b9/~5)
Fmaj9 F-7 l7 G .. g Bb6(9} B-9 Amaj9
~ ~ ~ on I -e- ;.~ ~o
0 0 be;
'I @ .. 0 Ii 51
" --
j I i , I
, I
, ! I I
J 1
I I
~ XI
F~9 Bmaj9 Sub. V nor applicable F#-9 B9 EmajS' F .. 7 .Bb9 'e'bnraj7
(9 on 5th string) , 1
~.o '" ~o ~·e #0 o.e- ,O€"- 0 '-I
..,0 " r . Iff II Cft'-9

SUBY ~~~, ~#o~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

l-doIll7~5(~9) \ drop.Z {3 ~ 5 b 7 ~9}

C.7(~9/~5) == Emaj7bS

The ninth (no 3) voicing will be omitted, due to its incomplete nature. It forms a complete min7 ~ 5 chord, which will

be examined later forits dominantqualities. -

Avoiding tension # 9 on the 5th string leaves three.applicable drop 2 voicings:

r' b-7 ~9
J
9 "~ #5
~7 l~ 3
....... 3 b7
L.- E .. 7

A~7(#9) Dmaj7b5

~

G .. 9 C7(419/~5) F6~(9) D-9 G-7(#9/#5) Cmaj7b5
~e- I ~ n
b-e- 0 .e-
Ii I II '1- :1
! d
J
I
'I
!
'~ i
~.
C#-9 _F#7(13/9) B6(9) G# .. 7 Ct!7(13/9) F#rnaj9
~o #0 " _li~O &' to
:!to ----n
II; :1
t ,

i ~.

Sub V not applicable (9 on 5th string)

SUBvj4~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

I dom7s11s4(9) I

drop2 {4 5 b7 9}

ninth (no 5) {I 4 ~7 9}

C9sus4 {4 5 b7 9} = G-7 I Bb 6 C9sus4{.1 4 ~ 7 9 \ :::: D-7.~5

A voiding tension 9 on the Sth string leaves three applicable drop 2 inversions and three applicable ninth (no 5) chord

inversrons:
drop 2: 5 b7 9 ninth \005); 9 1,'7 "1
9 4 ~ ~7 9 4
b7 9 4 4 1 9
4 5 b7 I 4 b7 Drop 2;

G-7

C_9(Slls4)

Fmaj9

F-9

D-9 G9(sus4)

o

a

_0 _

--:_-_. =Jj

--ji-------

(G-7)

(F-7)

. (D-?)

Ninth(no5)~

D7sus4 G9sus4 Cmaj7

(A-7~5) (FIG)

G7sus4 C9sus4 Fmaj7 D7sus4 G9sus4 C6(9)
-e- b.n. ..e-
Ii ::---= 112 0 0
(D-7~5) CA-7#5) II

,.

I dom7sus4(b9)!

drop2 /4 5 b 7 b 9 )

The; ni nth 1 no 5) ChOTd voicing-will b~ omitted due to the b9th interval. It will reappear later as a hybrid chord. There are-four applicable drop 2inversio:riS:

4. 5 b"7
b7 +9 4-
j , 7 b9
iJ
b9 4 "
-' Ie p,)

5 4 ~7

F7sus4 Bb7suS4(~'9) Eohurj7

D-?

G7sus4(b9) Cmaj9

i rre-_

"

(F-7b5)

G-7 C7sus4(b 9}. Fmaj9 Co; Fisus(b9i Bbmaj9
1 -0 0 liO b.o.. -0-
e II
- .. ----
CG~7b5) (C~7~5)
42 -_

TENSION ADDITION BY, STRING

In the following chord progression, voice tension 9, on the 2nd string only, Use drop 2 type voicings first, then repeat using the ninth (n05).chord voicingsonly. This is a good example oftbe ninth (no 5) voicings being-more appropriate since the drop 2 voicings, having tbe 7th in the bass, travelbelow the recommended Low Interval Limits.

07(9)

Fmaj7(9)

E7(~9 )

D-7(9)

Cnlaj7(9)

Now voice tension 9 on the 3rd string only in the above chord progression. Finally, voice tension 9 on the, 4th string only in the below chord progression.

C7(9)

B7(~9)

B~maj7(9)

G-7(9)

G~7(9)

Fmaj7(9)

Tension 9 on the, 5th string will be avoided.

In the following chord progression, tension 9. alternates between the Znd. 3id. and 4th strings. After preparing this progression, the student should compose his or her own line on the same progression using a 9th tension on each chord.

Cmaj9 A7(~9) D-9 G9 E-7~5(9) A7(~5Jb9) D-9 F-6(9) C6:(9)
---- & r 1#[ a -6' i2 0
r z:2 I r I -, i Ij 11
,
.~ The following examples will use various ninth chords over a typical "J8.z_Z" or "'IT-N" blues form. Remember to tty both drop 2 and ninth with omitted 3rd orSfh voicings when tension 9 is in the lead. Inversions of the ninth (no 3) or ninth (no' 5) chord voicings beyond t~~ ~o6t. inversion with 9 in the lead will be completely notated.

7.,.~~\, \fi' v- ,tJ/'~ .... I ",\ .. _~ \,(\}J..r -, '..:;.~ ~~o, t.5>':'r-' 0'--

Frnaj9

E-7~5(9) A+7(~9) D-9 G7(~9) C~9 F+7(#9)
~ lbf be ...s- ~ r ~ .
! I i ! I ~r B~9 Bb-9 Eb9 A-9 D7~5(b9) A~-9 D~7~5(9)
I !b ~.,a. j* tr b~
l IT T ~~ t=1
! -
._..
"--
'"--' '--
G-9 G9sus4 C7b5(#9) C7#5(~9) F6(9) D7#5(#9) G-9 C9#5 F'9
'-" :4 r #P '~~ -- be I
lif ..., t>-6'" 0
"'--' r : ' II II II
'-
.,__.. ,",".
43 This next example makes use of several different ninth chord inversions with the omitted third or the omitted fifth. Note the chromatic voice-leading in bars two, three, and four into bar five. Also note the voice-led scale pattern in the lastthree bars before, the end. The same "II -V" blues form used above has been transposed to the key of "B b:" for this example.

/"y~-

"--!_ __ !3~ maj 9

Eb9

Bb6(9) A-7h5(9) D7(~5/b9) G-6(9) C7(~5/~9) F9sus4
~i jbi ~f ? ~ I~bm
I , -:
, I I
I
Eb7!15(#9} Eb-9 Ab9 D-9 G9~5 Db-9
I i -~
-@ o..a. o.p_ -is'- t
I r ! , I!
, , Bb9#5

,

DO ,

C-9

F?~5(p9) Bb-9 G7~5(b9) e.9 F7sus4(b9) Bb9
F7sus4(b9) , b.n
I ~ ba·
F IV/? bp , G I 'Ff dur2 I~
, ! ! n ,,___,
-' , ==::t1 The following dominant "turnaround" example uses aU four of the inversions of the dom9(no 5) chord.

Bb9

I

=@""

Gb9

Bb_E!

I

on

II h(~

11

Tension 9 on the 5th string for the above F9 chord has been included for demonstrative purposes. It rs.above tneLLL. IC\r tension 9.

G9

. -~

44

Chapter-S •. Tension 11

r

"

1

,~ I I

_. There are three basic substitution approaches toaddingtension 11 to basic four-part'Yth & 6th chords:

1 1 for 5'P 3 7 II} 11 for 3 {I 5 -; II} 11 for R {3 5 7 1 11

.._.,

11 for 3 'or 5 is the traditional drop 2 substitutional approach, while 11 for the root can often prcducea new drop .2

or ninthchord with omitted 3rd or Sth, 1 lfor the root orSth, subsequently retaining the guide tones, is m most cases preferable. If the 5th is needed, the root would be the preferred note to omit with the 3t'd being the Iastchoice.

The addition of tension Llto some-of the basic four-part chords can produc-e bothphysical and harmonic difficulties within certain inversions. This in itself might dictate which Dote the l l th should substitute. As these problemsarise they will be addressed and appropriate recommend ations will follow, Some of these difficult inversions will become

"-"

quite useful. as additional tensions are added .

.._.. By use of enharmonics, the previous four-part 7th & 6(1) chords and 9tb chords produce some of the most useful 11 th chordstructures:

Cmaj7(#1l) [11 for 5J C 'i-
= ma:J' ,~J
C6(#Jl) , II r '-J = C,6b5 / A-6;./ F~-7b5
l. ,OJ: .)
C-7(1l) [11 for 5J = F7..sus:4
[11 for 3]. == C7sqs4 .»
[11 for R] = G-7~5
C-7bS(11) [11 for 3] = G~n~aj7b5
C7(# 11) n 1 for. 5J = C7b5
C+7C#11) I C7(aJt5)/ c7CbS/b13)" G~9(nb 5)
[11 for 'R] =
r II for 3] = Ab9(no.5) Not<: the: unique substituiions atisi,ng from the [11 for 3] C + 7 (# 11) chord. Since this: voicing 'is the. same as Ab'C) { 1 3 b 7 9},. the past Ab9 substitutions can be added to C+ 7(# It j and its Sub V chord Gb9~5 {I 3 b5 9). When this .j s done. a dorninanttvpechord appears Oll each note of a whole tone scale:

c Gb G~ Bb
C+7(#11) b5 .' it b7
1 ;;;:;
D7(alt5) i- J '5 ~~
(> /
E9(alt5) ~ _' 9 3 b)
Ft9(b5) b~ 1 9 3 (Fijmaj9~5)
-'
A9 3 b7 9
Bb9(~5) 9 #5 i-:-:
~ i
'-' *C-60J) f 11 for 5J ::: F7
[ 1 1 for 3} = A-7-#5
r I I for R] - F9(no5)
*C-maj7(11} [ 11 for R] = G+7 *- The in versions containing the 11 th in the bass are weakest.

'_. The tritone produced by the. Dotes Band f (on the C -maj'Zt Ll ) chord) forms an ambiguous or weak sound. sinceit is the guide tonesof G7, C minor's V7 chord. Thetwo inversions placing the tritone in the bottom of the voicing

45

Seven new voicings will be introduced in this chapter:

Cmaj7(#11) [11 for 3] {l 5 7 #1l'}
[11 for R] {357#ll)
C6(#11) [11 fo("3] {156~111
[11 forR] {356,11}
C-7~5(11) [11 forR] (b 3 ~ 5 ~'7 III ~
C7(#11) [11 for 3] { 1 5~7~11)
[11 for RJ {3 5~7ril1}
C-maj7(1l) [11 for 3] {I 5 7 II}
D 1 for 5] {l b3 7 11 ) Note the above voicings that function for two different chords:

CmapC#l1)

[J.I for RJ ~3 5 --, #n
I
E G B F#
~3 b5 1_, 11 ~ C~-7~5(11) [11 for R]
~ f
-
[ 11 for 3J ~l j b7 tIl
C G Bb "#
F
II b3 7 ~G-mai7(11) [11 for 51 C7(#11)

Many of these new voicings create physical and harmonic problems, within certain inversions. Consideration should

be given to the desired sound and the appropriate.contextwhen using these inversions. The tritone can produce a - unique, if not weak, sound when placed in the middle of the following voicings:

7

1~1 ,~

CJnaj7(# 11) n 1 for 3]

··C7(#11)

[11 Ior 3J

b7

~ 11 J

"

1

5

C6(# 11) III for 3]

I)
# 11 I
1
5
b"'
-~
; I
1 J __j
-:» C-maj7(1l) [11 f01" 5J

"=.

46

imaj7(#11) I

11 for 5 {I 3 7 # II} == maj7~5

There are three applicable voicings 3 ~ 5

7 1

~5 7

3

7 3

1 b5

G-7

C7(#5/#9) Fmaj7b5

_ #'0 -e-

A7sus4 A7b5 Dmaj7b5

-e--e- b,.a.

II

G7sus4G7b5 Cmaj7b5

-e- .fl__ .0: _

II

II

11 for3

{157#11}

.:» There are two -applicable voicings: # 11

7

5

1

7 ~ll 1

5

G-9 C7b5 Fmaj7(#1l) B-9 E7(#9) Amaj7(Ul)
, -e- ~..o.. ~ II~O 0 -#0
II
11 for 1

{3 5. 7 #1l_}

'Cmaj7(~ll) = C#-7b5(11)

There are three-applicable voicings: #;11 5 7

f. # 11 .~1l

573

335

B-9 E+7 p..maj7(Ul) E-9 A+7 Dmaj'J(~11} E-9 E~ 7(~ 5/#9) Ihnaj7(~ 11)
, -e- -'0 ~j;rz 11~'e -c 'il ..0.. -e- ;g~
Ii II
47

I maj6(#11) I

11 for 5

{l 3 6 # 11} = maj6(bS)

There are four applicable voicings: 3 6 ~5 1

G~ 7 C7~,#5/~9) F6b5

~5 1 6 3,

I_I i_e-

Ec9 A7(#5/~9) D6D5 ,~

o

6 3 1

I - p)

C6(~5) 0:: A-6/ F#-7b5 1

1,5

3

6

G7(#5'j~ 9;- ,

D7sus4 C6b5

B-9

~

Ii

E+7

-#0

A6b5 -e-

-ito

,.

11 for 3

{I56~11}

There are two applicable voicings:

6

~ 1 I

",

1

"

11 for 1

{356#11}

There are two applicable, voicings:

1 5

,n 11 6

6 #]1 3

5

5

# 11 6

3

B-7 E7(~9) A6(#11) B-9

B~7 A6(~11)

I-

on e-

II

I mi,n7(1l))

11 for 5 {I 1,3 ~7 11} C-7(l1) :::, F7sus4

AU four inversions are applicable: 1,3 II b 7 1

b7 i ~3 11

11 b7 j ~3

1 b3 11 b7

~:o

E--7(llJ A7k5 Dmaj7

C-7(1l)

B9

:e-

li

G-7(11) F7(b9) Bb-maj9

I

p..u

I,'

Q-7nl) ,C7b9 Fq(9)

o

o

11 for 3

! 1 5 67 J HC-7fll: = C7sus4'

5

All four inversions are applicable: 1 J

I ,

r "

-,

J_

til

5

i,

p,

h7 11 1

7J

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11

~-

\

48

-..I

11 for 1 {b3 5 1,7 11 }C-7(l1) = G-7(#5)

All four in version's' are appl icabre: 11 5 I, 7

1,7 1,3 011

5 I, 7 b,3

1,3 11 5

1,3 S 11 ~7

..._. C-7(11) B7 B~6Cg)

;._/ ,,_ # _ 1_ ....

~1§1,§~<J

C-7(ll) B7(#9) B~6(9) ~o ~o

A-7(lU Ab7 Gmaj~

f>e- ~

A-7(11)D7(~5/~9)

. G6t95

-'""- I \ .

"'" o.n. -&

11%

II

(E~/F)

I Il]Jn7~5(11) I 11 for 5- not applicable

11 fo.r.3 {I ~5 ~ 7 11} C 7~5(l 1'1= Gbri1aj7bJ

There are three applicable inversions:

C-7b5(llj

B7 #0

Bb-6(9) ~o

11 b7 1
b7 11 1,5
bs 1 11
1 1,5 b7
C-7b5(1l) F7b9 Bb-maj9 G·nS(l1) Gb7 F-6
~.n. .e. ,
~. 110 ho
II 0 II
_---L.L......._. 11 for 1

{b3 1,5 k711}C-7b5(If) = Bmaj7(_#ll)

- There are three applicable inversions:

11 b7 1,5

~3

D-7~5Cll) Db 7

0'

Bo-6 I,

no,

II

C-6

'<,,=

49

I min6(U) I

C-6(U);

Tension II on a min6 chord produces a very strong IV chord sound ill relation to the Iminri chord;

11 for 5 11 for 3 11 for 1

=

F7

F(add9) (A-7#5) F9

=

=

Those voicings containing the characteristic b 3rd ofthe min6 chord might sound-a little more complete than the 11 for 3 voicing U 5 611}.

11 for 5

{I b3 6. 11 1,

There are four applicable inversions:

F~-7b,5 B7b5 E-6(1l) D-7h5 G'""
"!.
i
-~ ~ a a b-e- 0
,f!
~
u (A7) ~3 11 '6 I
6 1 b3 11
11 6 1 ~3
1 b3 11 '6 C-6(U) D-7b5 G7(#9/#.5) C-6Cil) A-7"b 5 D7{b,9) G-6(11')

,

-eo- 0..0.. -e-
O I:: k 0 t~ 0' 11
r-t
" ~ j
(F7) (F7; '(C7) 11 for:3

(l 5611)

There are four applicable inversions:

F~-7b5

F7 E-6(1l) E-7~5(1l) E,7

~ -& ..e- b.a.

-±c: . (

It $ 6 I
6 1 11 5
5 6· 1 11
J 11 5 6
D-6(1l) B~7b5 E7(#f3) A-6(11) A-7~'5 D7(b9/#5)G-6(1l)
-& .e- I ~~, ~o
:; a 'fd
,§ I! ~ 11 for 1

{~3 5 611 f

There are four applicable inversions:

G-7b5 Gp9 F-6(1l) D,",I";' G+7
-, ~p
:.~ ,
i a 0.0.. 0
!J'ft Ii 0
CJ ,
u
(Bb9) 1 1 5 6 I_."
D .1
e· ~1 1 1 5
-:» i
~-::: 6 !~ I
D _~ ~
~3 1 1 5 6 C-6(11)

'C-7b.5 b.o_

I!

F7(&9) B~-6(1l) F#-7D5 'B7(fi9) E-6UU

.$0

II !to

.:rfa(A9)

(E&9)

50

l,minQr maj7(U) I

The tritone produced by the 11 and 7 of a minor maj7 type chord is also the guide-tones (3 and] 7) of its V7 chord" producing a potentially ambiguous sound. The notes B and F are both 11 and 7 of C-maj7(11) and 3 and ~ 7 of G7. The rootand/or b·3rd of the min maj7 chord are basicchord tones that are not common to its V7 chord and best support the 7'and 11 of the min.maj7 chord. This irnplies'the {J b3 7 I l] voicing and is perhaps thestrongest of the three different voicings .introduced here. Of all the voicings used, those inversions placing the tritone (11 and 7) in the bottom are the weakest.

11 for 5

{I ~3 7 II}

~ There are two-applicable inversions:

C-maj70 1) = F7(# 11 i

b3 ...,
!
7 L·3
11 1
1 11 D~7b5(11) G?(ii9)

~ ~

11:1 _~

C-maj7(11)

o

C7'C#5/:9) F-maj7(11)

,.

~o . [}-S.

, q~M

,..0:.

@-7~5

11 for 3

{15711}

There are three applicable inversions:

It

11 7 5 1

5 1 7 II.

7 11 1 5

D-7b5 Db? C-maj7(11) E-7~5 A7,5 D-maj7(1l) B-7,5 E7(#9) A-maj7(11)
tte b..o_ -e- -e- -e- \1 ~.~
e 8 Ii #!'§ II I'
# i
Ie} -e- 11 for 1

'{b3' 5 7 II}

There are four applicable inversions:

C-maj7(11J = 0+7
11 :) '0 b3
/
7 b" 11 5
:>
S 7 b3 11
I") i 1 ~) 7
:;I ~, D-maj7(1l) C-maj7(U') A-maj7(11) G-mai7(1l)

E-7b5 A?b9 D-7b5 G7(b·9) "B-7b5 E7(~9) A-7b5 D7(b9) I - .

I . " D.n

f) o-e- 0 t}- n '[;0 0 e-

li II

(G+7)

(E+7)

Idom7(~11)1 11 for 5 {l 3 ~7 #11} = dom7bS
There are four applicable.inversions: 3 b5 I,; 1
r I
~7 1 3 ~5
b5 b7 1 3
1 3 1,5. ~7 G-7 C7b5 Fmaj7 G-9 C7b5 Fmaj9

G-9 C7b5 Fmaj7 I

-e- 0..0. -e.

D~7 G7b5 Cmaj.g

{I 5 b7 ~1J}

C7(#11) = G-maj7(11)

I

I

'-w

E7sus4 A 7b5(~9)

SUBV ~t~· ~&~~:e.-~. ~~~~~~~~~

11 for I {35 b7 #lH C7C~11) = Gb769) 03 b7~9}

.Ii 1

There is one applicable voicing: ~ 7.1

Bb-7

~k.

Eb7(#11)

rr

~~ 1 ~7
#11
5 1 ~
1 5
Abm-aj9 F-7b5(9) Bb7(~11) Eb-6
I ! , b.ri.
17..0.. IllIg , tre-
9~,S II
I
j,
D6(9) B7sus4 E76.5(b9) Amaj7CHl)
e- -e- ~o ~~.
-f II Thereare two applicable inversions:

3

This is the same voicing as the 1St inversion of the ninth (no 5) voicing fora dom7(b9):

B7sus4 E7(#11) Aroaj9

4<> Ii n ?l

I

F-7(llY Bb7(b9)

Ii :bf"\ b.n

¥.=J-.,.r:v= I ~.---' .. ---

-- .. ~- ..

II

SUBV'

52

--------

I dom7~5(#11) j dom7(alt5) [

[11 for 5~not applicable]

A unique chord in that ll for 3 and 11 for 1 produce the same inversions found in the dom7(9) {1 '3 ~7 9} chord:

C7(aJtS):

11 for 3 11 for 5

=

11 for 3

There are four applicable inversions:

~ , i ~< , -
" j, , ~..,. p ,
fJ 7 1 ,~ 1 1
~ - ~7 "
\
l>.:" L
"
~ 1 _l " -
" ;) E-9 A 7(alt5) D6(9)

D-9 G7Calt5) Cmaj9

on

I

, tnS'I' " '-,

II 0': B

,

ire-

Bb-7 I

lX'5-

(E~,9)

I \:.,

Ah7'susD~ get, 5) G~ 6,(9)

f7sus4 Bb9b5 E~6

Ep-7( 11) A~ 90,5 D[>6(9;:

SUB V

,

0.0:.

i rrs""_

I [}:€~

---+l

"

(Tension 9 on 5th string)

11 for 1

{3 #5 b7#11}

There are-four applicable inversions:

~ 11 #5 p7 3
Tl
17 3 # 1 J ~5
D,
;5 -b 7 - f, 11
.3 #Il #5 J7. :';'0

,

~

,::bR .e- .e- n fi
·'1 S:, *of": -~
'.1
rr ~r( f L!
I
I J
(y
E~9 Ab6 A~-S D'~.g GbmaF
! I on
0 o--e- On m
il @_ , I

I i

'I' Db:rnaj7(n 1) .r,

Ec,-7(1l) Ab9 C#7sus F;:~ Brnaj? B~-ft

trension 0 On 5th siring)

(11 for :3 i 11 for 1 combinations):

G7sus4 C7:(alt5)

Frnaj?

D-9 G7(alt5)

Cmaj9

e-

_ If

i"1

"

, rl

~ ... Lev

!,:Ji(d

(AI, 9) (G~9)

(E~9) (Db9)

"53

The following examples-will use-various eleventh chords over a typical "Jazz" or "II-V' blues form. Some unique non-drop 2 type voicingshave been introduced in this section. They will be fully notated when used.

Drop 2 type voicings also give the option of substituting tension 11 for the 3rd or 5th of the chord. If the 5th is altered or voiced inthe lead.tension 1'1 will substitute the 3rd. When either option is available, voice-leading andL.I.L. will determine which is best and will be fully notated when only one 'option is desired.

<:»

Art addil~on~ ~oic~ng for the dom7.~ 5 (W~ 1) or ~Qn:'7(alt5) chord w~ich was ,notptesen.,ted ,e,adi.er will be int~ddu_ce~ here. This voicmg.nas the # I rth ( orb 5th _J substituting toe ~ 7to;,( 1 3 P 5 #5). and enharmorrically produces a aom7 #) -.._; chord: C7(alt5) (1 J bS #5j = A~+7. This voicing will appear several times in the following example, .J

-..J
J
Fmaj7(Ul) E-7p5(ii) A7[,5 D-7(1l) GU5CUl) C-7(ll) F7(a1t5)
.:»
4 J2. ~ ,::t p ~ I I
, i :1 liT -It l
; [' :

1 I " --'
I "'0"
(A-7#5) (Eb9) (B9) '--'
B~7 Bb7~5 Bb-7(1l) Eb+7(#1l) A-7(ll) D+7(#11) A~-7Cll) Db7(alt5)
~ i
4 r IT q~$: I 0 i ~ •
IT i
I ,
J I
I "--'"
(Eb7sus4) (B+7) (D7sus4) (,B}.+7), (G9)
G-7(11) G-7 C7(alt5j C9(b5) F6(9) D7(Un G-9 C7b5 Fmaj7(~1l)
! ba. kr ·{f i§ 19--:. b ~
e i!ft P-
': Ib~ I ;,~ I! :! ;1

! I· I ' \
(Aj+7) {(}~+7) 5.4

The following example transposes the "II-V'" blues form to the key of ('D.I' Note the contrary chromatic voiceleading of three- voices from the D7(alt5) chord to the 09 chord and the two voices from the G9bS chord to the G-9chord. Also note the parallel chromatic voice-leading of two.voices from the C7~5 chord to the F~-7( 11) chord. the B~+ 7 chord to the E-7( 11) chord, and the D6(9) chord. to the -B7(alt5) chord. Three. voices move in parallel chromatic motion from the E-9 churd to the A7(altS) chord,

"--
'-' D6(9) Dma] 7 (# 11) C~-7~;5( 11) F#7(ilt5) B-7(1l) E,7(alt5) A-7C1'1) D7(alt5Y
'---' it; ~ <~ ~. I I;; ~t J~
...__ I j~f! ' It
l:--
..__. eJ \ ,. I
(D+7) CF#-7#5) (Cg)
(E~7#5) (B~+7)
G9 G9b5 G..:g C7~5 F#-7(11) B7b5 F-7(1l) Bb+7
~~ r
i "fI" ... ll!~ , I !
,! I r---- - - ?iP, I: .. ::; !b~l'* ~
G

~-- -
I ~
(Db+7) (C-n5)
s-
E-7(1l) E~9 A7(alt5) D6(9) B'7(alt5) E-7(1l) A+7 D9b5
1 ,I
l #r jl~ br If J I' ? !ra-
il It
1+------: -
I
I
CB-7#5) (E~9) (F9) (G9) CB-7~5)
" 55

Chapter 9. Tension 13

13 for 5 or 1 {I 37 13 } or {3 57 13} will be the tension substitution formula used in-this chapter. The only exception ~ will include one of the two new voicings introduced here. The dom7~ S{ 13) will introduce 13 for 3{ ~ ~ 5 ~ 11 J}. These notes dictate a major 3rd even though it has been removed. The other new voicing introduced is the dorn7sus4(13) - {I 4 ~ 7 B J. Note the 3rd inversion forms an upper-structure triad: F13(sus4) = B~lEb.

This chapter willreferto tension 13 asa 6th when used on chords containing a rnaj7th. The 6th can be placed above - or below the maj7th, while the 13th (which accompanies the b 7th) can only be placed above or next fa the ~ 7th.

As mentioned earlier, this chapter will avoid dominant chords containing both a natural 5th and b 13th. These notes - produce a weak Sub V chord containing ~9 and natuta19. This applies to the dom7(~ 13) chord. ~ 13 must substijute

the 5th enharrnonically, producing. a dotn7#5 chord. This chord has already appeared under the Tension 9 chapter

as the Sub V of the dom9.bS chords, C7#5 = G~9~5.Jts related.Il- V-I situation can be observed there, Dominant chords with a natural 5th and tension ~ 13 will be examined in the Additional Enharmonic Chordal Substitutions ~ chapter. bom7b 5(b 13) ha~ already been introduced in the Tension 11 chapter as a dom7#5(# 11) or dom7(alt5) chord.

This chapter also will avoid using the ] 13th on a dom7sus4. This produces a very ambiguous sound:

C7sus4Cb13) {14 \,7 b13}= A~6(9)orF-7(111 C7sns4(b 13) {4 5 b7 b 131 = A~maj7(6/9) or FmOl/9)

I maj7(6) I

6 for 5 {I 3 6 7}

Cmaj7(6) = Fmaj7(#1l) = F#-7~5(11)

There are three applicable inversions:

G-7

I.

~ '"

C9(b5) Fmaj7(6)

!

on -e-

3 7 1
7 3 7
6 1 3
1 6 6
F7sus4 B7 Bbmaj7(6) C-7 F7(alt5) Bbmaj7(6)
b.o. 0.0.. op. I
-e- -e- lJeO..
Ii II ~~~. 0 ~ 56

6forl {5367}

Cmaj7(6) = Fmaj'9(b5) = G6(9){ 1 36 9}

There are four applicable inversions: " - . 6 7
.J -
6 7 3 5
5 6 ..., 3
I
7 3 5 6 '---

A-9 D7(~5J#9) Gmaj7(6) F-9
, 1 e-
• ..0. Dn ~
t: 11
-I Bb 7(b51b9) Ebmaj7(6-)

, I

bra- I'D.

??g- %1

C-9

F7(~51#9)_ B~maj7(6") A-7(1l) D7sllS4(b 9) Gmaj7(6)

~o bg. -t7 0 :;Q

:n== 9l ~ 2J

I maj7bS(6) I 6 for 1

(6 for SQot applicable)

{3 ~5 6 7}

Crnaj7 ~ 5'(6)

3 ~5

6 7

b5 -6

7 3

= B7sus4

There are four applicable inversions:

6 7

3 b-5

7 3

b5 6

D-9 G7(~5/~9) Cmaj765(6) F-9 Bb7lD9)E6maj7~Q(6)

-i', -&

_,

-It$~

(B7sus)

(D'Zsus)

!1e-. . ..0..

C-9 bn..

-li

F7(~5/.69) EDmaj7b5(6)

D7(:;51~9) Gmaj7D5(6)

(F~7sus)

(A/sus)

57

I min maj7(6) l

6 for 1

{b 3 5 6 7}

There are four applicable inversions:

C-maj 7 (6) = B+7
~3 s 6 7
6 7 ~3 5
5 6 7 ~3
7 ~3 5 6 D-7b5(1l) G7(1:f51#'9) C-maj7(6l h_o_

D-7b5 'G7(b9) C-maj7(6)
i: 0 ._ - c- o t1
-:»:
(B+7) ~
_/
A-7b.5 D7b9 G-Iilaj7(6)
I
-e-. tJ- O.n..
--It~ -----n
n IJ
(F#+7) B-7~5(9) E7(~51#9) A~Ih,aj7(6)

6 for 5

{I b3 6 71

There is one applicable voicing:

'7 h3 1 ·6

(G~+7)

C-maj7(6) == F7(# lLJ = B1{~9) n 3 b7~9)

C-7b5(11)

,bn

r'

F7(#9)

#0

Bb-maj7(o')

Imin7~5{!' 13) J min7(ali5) i

~ 13 for b 5 is not lJs1l311y' an appropriatesu bstitution. since theb Sth JS an important characterisiic chord tone. 13 min fact. the;' 13t1;l tension on aminorchord does dictate an accorrrpanyirrg] 5_th cbord tone, The on:ly otherpossible chore! sound would be a very incomplete d,.om7(~j/#9) chord. For this reason, the b J 3th for b 5th substitution. {I b 3 b 7 b ,1:'(#5) 1 = min7#5, wiii be examined asa mildly incomplete min7.~5(b en chord.

C-7{#Sl ""- F-7Ul) { ~ 3 5 b 7 11 i

Thereil,re four applicable inversions:

A-7#5 D7(#5/#9) G-6(91 C-7(f:[5) B7

i O£l.

-e-

'-~8

~ (FIG)

B~-6(9)

I

~o

B~9susj_ {J 4~7 91

1 #5

E-7,~5 A7(h9) D-6(QJ.

-e- b..o_ -e-

A-n.S D7(alt5) G.:6(9)

II

II

58

~13for 1 {b3 b5 ~7 \, 13} or (b3 1,5 ~5 1,7)

C-7b5(b 13) = Gb6(9) {I 3 6 9} = Emaj9b5 = Bmaj7(6)

There are four applicable inversions: ~ 3 b 5 ~5

~5 b7 b3

b5 #5 b7

~7~3 ~5

Bh-6(9)

F7(b9)

60

E-7 (alt.5) A 7(#51 b 9) D-6( 9) ~n b:n

o

11''0

G-7b5(b 13) C7(~5/#9). F-6(9) ~

A- 'Z(alt5) D7(#5/f9) G-6(9)

f)

i on

j1

(Cm/F)

I dom7(13) I 13 for 5

{I '3 b 7 13}

C7(13) = Gb7(~5/#9,) = Bbmaj9(\,5) {I b5 7 9}

There are two applicable inversions: 3 1

b7 13

13 3

1 b7

C-9 F13 BbB D-7 G13 Cmaj9
.,.___. I
, D.£l. .a- b.n. ] 0
II e II
I,
I
I
I J
~~ ..
F#-7 B7(b5/jf9) E6(9) Ab-7 Db7(b5/#9) Gbmaj9
, .e, -e- ..Q_ 60 bo ~
Ii ; d
SUB V 13 for 1

(3 5 \'7 13)

C13 -= G-6(9) (I b3 6 9)

There is one applicable inversion:

13 3 b7 5

G-9

C13

-e-

Finaj9

0"

11

~f

1

!

.~,

F#7(alt9)

-e-

Bmaj7 t€-

';=

SUBV

59

"---

I dom:7b5(13) I

(13 for 5 not applicable)

13 for 1

{3 b5 b7 13}

There is one applicable inversion: 13

3 1,7 b5

G-9 ~ '&

-&,

G13~5 -e-

b~8

Fma:j9

o

-II

d#~9 SUBVF

IV

F~7(#9)

'&

Bmaj7 ite-

II

13 for 3;

{I b5b 7 l.3}

]3 b5

There arc two applicable inversions:

i .r-.

1I1

D-9 G13~5' Cmaj9 F7sus4 F13~5 B~6(9)
I, ~ '&
~ e- 1~n 0 [.Ill
II l!: 2
j
,
I
1
Ab-7 Db 7(~5/:~9) G6maj7 F#7strs4 B7(65/rt9) E~6
,k-- I
, 0 on ..o_ ..0.. ..0.:
SUB v Ii II

II

I dom7sus4(13) I

13 for 5 {I 4 b7 13}

There are two applicable inversions:

4 ~7 -13

13

F13sus4 F+7 Eb6/9) F1'3sus4 F+7 Bbrnaj9
, b.Q. ~ cj
il e e e il

~,
(Bb/Eb) 60

13 for 1

{4 5 b7 13}

C13si.Is4 = G-9 {l ~3 ~ 7 9}

There are two applicable voicings: 1'3 13

4 5

~7~~7 S'h 4

C13sus4 C7('alt5) Fmaj9 C13sus4 C9b:5 Fm-aj7~5
~ I
~ £ ~g AI t):O.. -e-
b~8 II -~
The; following examples w_ill use various thirteenth chords in a "Jazz" Of "II-V" blues form. Note that the dom7#_5(~ 11) or dom7(alt5) chords that were introduced in the past chapter appear again in this chapter as dom7~5(~ 13).

Fmaj7(6) E-7(b 13) A7b5(b13) D-9 G7(b13) C-9 F7(b 13)
, i If ~.= r -G-
r I ~ f I J
I
I I
(E-7#5) (Eb9) - (G+7) (F+7) sua Bb7b5(b 13) Bb-7(11) Eb7(b 13) A-9 D13b5 Ab-9 Db+7
I ij~f " .~ Ibf
'" , D~ t I ~ f
1"0 I I;)
'-... f
J (E9) (Eb+7~ (A, 7(#9))
.__.
G-9 G-7(11) C7(b5/613) C7(b 13) Fmaj7(6) D7(altS) G-9 C7_<b9/b13) Fmaj9
*, b12. fr #~:i ? ~
~& I:~ If I~~ II ~-- II

I !
I (06(9»' (Ab9)
(G~+ 7) (C+7) 61

Irrthe nextexample, note- the multiple functions of the dom? ~5and min? #5 chords. Also note the different functions of the maj6(9) chord on the first three voicings, Finally, notethe common lead tone on the.last four bats. This "IlV" blues is in the key of "c. ".

Cmaj7(6) B-7b5{~ 13) E7(#9) A-maj7(6) D9b5
~ 1 -9- F ii I:~ :~
~. I
I I
(G6(9) (}6(9) (E6(9») (Ab+7) (A~+7)
F9 F13 F-7Cl1} B~13b5 E-9 A7(r5/b13)
~ hr r \ I ~l,m 1#, ~~te
l~i;'¢
-9, , r 'I
I I
(C-7~5) (E7(~9) (Eb9) G-9 C7(15/b13)

I (Gh9')

Eb-9 b:p.

! :

Ab13b5

I

i (Eb+7)

E-7(~13) A7(~5h)13) -G13sus4G7(h5!H3) Cadd9

11~'~ I~~'~ iii!

D-7(11J

4' ~

G7(~51~ 13)

-IF

(E-7~5) CEb9) (D-7(9/ 11») (E b9) CE- 7 ~5)

~,

62

Chapter TeJl$ Two Tensions

This chapter will examine toe three different two-tension combinations producedby tensions 9, 11" and 13: (9 & 1-3), (9 & 11), and (11 & 13). The preferred four-note voicings will include two tensions and the guide-tones, thus omitting" the toot and 5th. When a ~5th or #5th is needed, the least needed guide-tone (usually the 3rd) will be

removed. .

Some of the most effective voicings place the guide-tones on the lower two strings (4th and 5th strings) and the tensions onthe upper twostrings (2nd ane 3rd strings). The fir-stand third-inversions of atop 2 type voicings arrange thei.r intervals in this matter, producing some of-the most useful voioings in this chapter.

Since 9 and· 13 are perhaps the mostcommon tensions found together, this chapterwill begin by examining them first, followed by (9 & -11) and (11 & 13).

Tensions 9 and 13

Those chords containing j~5th and natural 13 tension will be examined enharmcnically under the Three Tensions chapter as ~ i 1 and 13:

{9#11 13} {~9 #11 IS} {#9 #11 13}

Those dominant chordsthat contain both ~5 and tension ~ 13 'will examine two differentvoiciag formulas:

l3 ~ 5 9 b13} and {bS b 7 9b 13 }

*The {b 5 b 7 9 \; 13} formula will also be used as the rnin7b5(b 13/9) voicing formula in this section.

This voicing will serve both sub dominant and dominant functions in their following relative IJ-V-I examples.

Note the ninth (no 5) -enharmonic substitution chords produced by the {'3b 5 9 b 13} .formula:

C7b5('~ 13/9) = E9 {I 3 b7 9 } C7bS(b 1349) = E6(9_) {I 3 6 9 1 C7\;5tb 13/#9) =: Ema:j7(9) \{ 1 37 9 }

Additional enharmonic chord svrnboi noraiion couldalso De- used to describe the-above chords:

. . .. .._ I, - . _

C7b5(b 13.19): C+ 7(#' 11/9) I.' C+ 7(9/b5) 1 C9C# 11/~S) / €9(#5/b.5) 1 C9(altS) I G9(b 13!~5) I etc. C7b5(b] 3/b9): Cf, 7(# 1 lib 9), I C+ 7Cb,9/b_5) I C7b5(:~9/#j2 / C769/altS) / C7(b9/~5~b;5) 1 etc. C7b5(b 13/~9): C+ 7(# 111#9) / C+ 7(~9/b5} I C7b5( ~9/~5) 1 C7(#9/alt5) / C7(~9/~5J~5) / etc.

As discussed in the Chord Symbol Notation chapter, # 11 and ~ 13 will be avoided in chord symbol notation. Consequently, I recommend avoiding the following symbol descriptions of the above chords:

C7b5(b13/9): avoid C7 (~ 13/# 1119) or C9( b 13/# (1) C7~5(b 13A9): avoid C7(b 13/#11l~9) C7~5(b·L3/#9): avoid C7(b 13/~ 111#9)

Due to the incomplete nature and limited voicings, the natura] 5th produces, {5 7 9 1.3} voicings will be avoided' in this section, They will be, examined later in the Additional Enharmonic ChcrdalSubstitutitms chapter.

With the exception of a dom7(1319) chord, .all of the voieings used it} this section have been previously introduced as basic four-part (7t~and"6th chords) or 9th chords. As was the case in the Tension 13 chapter. a 'd0m7sus4(b 13 ~ chord with 9 or ~-9 will be avoided.

63

The following dam 7 chords have, already been introduced enharrnonically iii the Tension 9 chapter. Their relative II-V-l examples can be observed there:

C1(b 13/9): C+ 7(9)

C7(~ 13/~~): C+ 7(~9) C7(b 13/~'9):C+7(~C9)

The following dom7 chords were introduced by their Sub V chords in the Tension 9 chapter:

C7(l3/9)

.' I ' (7(l3/t79)

=:

Gb:+7(#9) Gb 7(~9)

I inaj7(6/9) I {3 7 6 9}

Cmaj7(6/9} :=;: E7sus4

Avoiding tension 9 on the 5th string Ieaves three applicable voicings:

(5 9 7 3

-; 9
3: 6
9 '"
J
6 7 ..I

G7(~5/#9) Gmaj7(6/9J C-7CllJ F7sus4(b9) B{:Jmaj7(6/9) A-7

bJ:i e. "6- &.0. -e-

D7(#5Ib.9) Gmaj7(6/9)

i O..Q

II

II

(E7S-1,1s4)

(D7sus4)

(B7sus4)

I min maj7(6/9) I

{b3 7 6 9}

- C-,maj7_(6/9) = B7#9_ P 3 b7 '#9}

There is one applicable inversion: 9

6 -1,3

7

A-7b5(n)

D7(#5Jft9}

" .

G-maj7(6J9)

l_miri7~ 5(b 13/9) !

c-7'b5f9/b 13):: Bb+ 7

A voiding tension 9 on the 5th slringJea\~es three applicable voicings:

~13 b7 9
9 bi:: l,ji
I, , ....
~7 9 ~5
~5 \ . ~ ~'7
D 1_: :;>, C-7hS(1) 13/9-) B9

Itt

Bb-6(9)

A-7~5{&13/9) D9(~5) G-riiaj9 F#-71>5(b 13/9) B+7(~9) E-6(9)

~ ~- #.. ~.-.. ,1

n ',~O ~ n _.u _

II f'l~~ . fO

I 00

o

€.I (Bb+ 7)

(G::+7)

CE+7)

-

I dom7(~9/13) I

{3 ~7 ~9 13} There are two applicable voicings: 13

~.~

3

#9 13 3 b7

Only one example is needed, since the Sub V mirrors the original chord:

C13(#9) = Gb 13(~9)

13 A. #9

~'9 Eb ,13

~7 Bk 3

3 E b7

Idom7~5(b13/9) '{b5 b7 9 b13}

C#-9

i#O

F#13(#9)

Bmaj7 ft,e-

I

G-9 C13(#9) Fmaj9

(~UB V) 'j~~ .• ~~~~~~~ .. ~~~o~~~~11

[dotn9(# 5/b 5)] .or [dom9(alt5)] C7b5(b-13/9) -=:, Bb+ 7

Those voicings producing.tension 9 on the Sth.string will be avoided. However; the Sub V's of these voicings will be examined since b 13(#5) now appears in thebass.

Four applicable inversions:

~5 b7 b13 9

bI3 9 b7 b5

b7 b5 9 b13

G7~'5(b 13/9)

G-9, Fmaj9

~ ~ 0

'-..,
-- 6
.._
.:»
__. A 7b,5(b 13/9) G9(#5Jb5) E9(l3.1t5)
E7sus4 D6(9} D-9 C(add9) I
-& o. -e- .e. .e- Ie t).ll.
I: , Ii' I 'II Cot) I!
,
,
,,' :~I
CG+7) CF+7i
I i I
I J
I i
I
~ ,( 4 (Bb+7)

I 1

C~-9 F#(9/#5) B6(9)

'.._

~

-~---.~-.==----------------~ "-'

65

{ 3 Is 9 b 13} C7b5(b 1319) = E9 { 1 3 17 91
p }
Four applicable inversions: bS bD 9 3
9 " b5 b13
-~
b13 9 3 b5
3 bs b13 9 C7b5(b 13/9) G-7(1l)- F6(91

t" jr

C7b5(bld/9)

9-7 Fmaj?

A9(#5/;,;5)

E-9 Dm'aj7(916)

Gh9(alt5) bh

" }

~' II:

(E9) cC~9)

"I j'

~ ~ ,- ,

C#-9 F#9(#'5J Bmaj9 C#-9 F~9_(~5J Bmaj9 (Sub V not applicable) G-g 'C\1(#5) Fmaj7(HlJ

I '

.;;. It''' -P":lin ,ie- ~ 0 .o, b.n

T ' ~, :-0_ -'- 0 --~,_§l~--'r---- . --.~-=i-: ------'------:-==fr_-- - _ , -, _,::_c:i===!j

S l! B v~ '", - - -- r---- -----n--------~-,-. --" ;-----------r;

- ' I r _ - __ --====1r=:::::- ---=rr-' _ -===:::::1-' 1

-'~ -'-

o

on

It

j I' '-

Ii

y (Bb9)

I

11

(E9)

i

1

_ _j

Idom7~S(b13/b9) I

[dom7(~9/alt5)]

Those inversions containing tension b 13 on toe 5th string will omit their-Sub V chords, which would subsequently contain tension 9 on the 5th string.

Note the fourth intervals produced by these tensions and the b 5th:

C7~5(b 13/b9): bs b9 ~13

Four applicable inversions:

b9 p5 bI3 1-
:-> I
b 1.3 b7 'h9 ~5
i - 1 .-- 17 1('
D.) Dl_) D, r,::"
k7 ~9 -~5 b13 -.._

~~' (Bh-7#5)

C7l>5([' 13/b9) A nBC;) 13/Hi,>

G-9 - Fmaj9 E'i"sus'L~ ... D6C9:)'

-t.~. T (j II ~ ? ~-

II

,,,

(C-n5)

'4'

CF-7#5) (E~-7#5)

!I

! ~

C~-7(1l) F~(9) Bmaj?

#-0 IIe-

! I

,~ ~' ~I

(Sub V not a-pplicable) A9-7(1l) D!p(9J Gb6(9) F~7.sus4 B(9j

bee- ~

E6 ..0.

~I

II

[1

66

1_

{3 bs b9 ~13} C7~ 5(b 13lb sn = E6(9) {l 3 6 9}
Four applicable inversions: 65 ·b l3 69 "
_-'
69 _- b5 b13
b13 ~9 ..:.' ~5
:3 k' ~13 ~9 C7b5(b13/b9)

G-7(1l) F6(9)

&0_ if

C7~ 5(b 131 b9)

,G-7 Fmaj7

on ~o ~

!: r= n '~I :

A7(l:09ialt5)

E-9 I Dmgj9

ft no

G7(b91 alt5-.!

D--7 -- Cmaj?

£- ..o_ .il

o

11

il

I

(B6(9))

(E6(9)

·1 -

F#9 Bmaj9

C~-9

I dom7b 5(b 13/# 9) I

[ciom7(#9!alt5)]

The voicing formula containing the b 7th will be avoided' due to the ambiguous sound produced .. Withoutthe third, the { 65 b 7 #9 b 13} voicing functionsbetter as a min7b5(b 13) { b 3 65 67 6 B} chord.

{3 65 ~9 b 13} C7b5(~ 13/#9) = Emaj9 { 1 3 7 9]

Two applicable inversions:

~I3 3 lIq

'-5

o

,F-7 [):B-

Hi, 7g~9/alt5) E~maj7(6)

If! o_ g_

il

(Emaj+)

G#~7(11) Fn(3/9) B6(9)

~ - -- -_ ... =----- lk

~~L__::::_- _

@)

B-9

-e-

(Dmaj9)

J.

E7(13/9,1 Amaj7(6)

~_;~+~~l

67

Avoiding tension 9 on the 5th string leaves two applieabieinversions:

13

9 13 4 ~7

jdom7s0s4(9/J3) I

{4 b7 9 13}

C7suS4(9/13) ::: Bj rnaj?

9

'C7sus4(9/13) C7(#5/#9) FmajH

A7sus4(9/13) E~9

.a b.a

D6(9)

o

C13sus4(~.9) C7t#5!#9) Fmaj9

,~

o

A13sus4(b 9) E'b9

bn b.ri J

II

II

(Gmaj7)

.1 dom7 sus4(b9J13) :i j4 b 7 .~ 9 13}

C7Sl:Is4(b9113) ::::- B~-maj7

Avoiding tension 9 on the 5th string leaves £\V,O applicable inversions:

13

67 J

i " r I

(G-maj7)

The followinz examples will use various chords containina tensions 9 and 13 in a II-V blues form, Chords.introuaced i 11 pas 1 chapters wi If be incl uded to enhance v a ice- leading. In this fi rs t exampi e, nom the .sarne, dominant voicings used on bears three and fou-r in measures five.and.six.

Fmaj7(6/9) Fm-aj7

E- n5(~ 13) A13(b9)

~ bu

fit I

D-·9

G7(~,9hL3)

~

,

C-9

·-1Ff

o

F13(#9)

#r

I (B~6(9))

1-

Bb9(13) Bk9(b 13) Bi>-9'

"1fJ- -tT

,-

,

.~

P-

I=§

D13(#~'lJ .a:

!

A~-7(n) Db13(~5)

-,

l).a_

:)~

Bb9

I -(07

C7(9l13) C7(~9i~13) F7(SJ13) D7('~9/b'13)

I w

G9

C13(b9)

Fm aj? (6/9)

G-9

.ji

o

II

II

In this next example, note the descending chromatic voices against a common lead voice in the last two measures.

Cmaj7"(6l9) C9~5

F7(9/13) F765

D-9

fr

:

D-7 'f9-

, ,

B-7b 5(.9JH3) E7(b9!,613) A-9 D7(69) G-7Cll) C7(613/6 9)
11~,i e ~,5 i~~ tHr
I p :
;
1
I (B29))
(A+7)
F-7(1l) Bb13(b9) E-9 A13(#91 Ab13sus4 A6 7(9/13)
I ~ I b.f2.
1 D.a. s= L2. IT
I T, ~ I I I : I'
,: i"
I,
I
(C-7#5) (Eb-7(9111) GI3sus4(b9) G7(69) I ,

tr&-

D7(#9) 'G7(9/13)

G13(#9J

C9

Al3

?

[ 1

19-

i ~

o

'===l:

I'

(F-roaj7)

'"'=" This last 'example utilizes some; of the dominant.typechords that contain ~1i and ~ 13 { ~5 9 ~ 13}, ( ~5 ~9 h13 }, { ~5 #9b 13. }. In this example;» 13 will be enharmonic ally substituted by ~5, producing chord symbols containing {b 5 #'5) or (altS). These versatile and interesting voicings present some unique chromatic and-constant structure voice-leading possibilities. Additional examples-of these dominant.chord types can be found at the, end of the Three Tensions chapter.

09 C7(13/9) B-7b.5(!' 13) E7(~9/alt5) A-6(9) D7(b·9/alt5) G-9 G9(#5/~5)
! I I$~ I'
& p- i o~ ~~m I,~i i
o! I EJ
i,· :~ p;
u ! "
.",... I !
(F6(9}) (Abmaj9) (F~6(9)) (Bb+7) F9

C9(# 5/b5)

F-S

B' .. -,(-, 91 lt~' E 'he'll j' '~ , ,>' ' a, '0) " < - I, ,

?

~~'

(' ?,' --, -- ----!~',

v i'2 ; lJp

I !

(G-7:!5) (Bb-7~5)

~ i

D-9

[ I ,

(E9)

D-7(1l) ?

J

y

i (G~-7#5)

(B-7#5)

G7(19/~5) G7(b9/alt5) C(add9-)A7(b9/aJt5) D9(no3)

jt~ _~ ,_I

! i r~1 -4- 'Frl!

Db? Cmaj7(Ul')

(F.-n5) (E-7~5) (Db6(9}) (C6(9))

69

Tensions 9· and 11

The two types of vo icings used in this section follow the traditional drop 2 substitution formula: 9 for l·{ 379 II} and 11 for 3 or 5 {57 911}. Withthe exception of the dom7(#91~ 11) chord, all of'thesevoicings'have been introduced in previous chapters.

Those dam 7 chords containing a # 5 have already been introduced enharmonic ally under the Tensions ,9 and 13 section:

C+7(9/#11) == C7~5(~ 13/9)

C+7(~91#11) = C7~5(b13/~9) C+7C#9I.#1J) == C7b5(~13/~9)

The following chords that have_9,XOf I and 11 for 5 (3 7 9 l-l ] tension substitutions havebeen previously introduced enharrnonically under. the Tension 9 chapter. Their relative II ~V -I examples and Sub V chordscan'be round inthat chapter.

Cmaj7 (9/# 11) = Cmaj7 b 5<9)

C7(9/# 11) == C7b5(9)-

C7(b9/# lJ) = C7~S-(b9) _C7(~9/#11) = C7~5(~9)

i\ ore the unique character of the maj6 and min6 chords witli the addition of tensions 9 and 1_1. 6, 9, and I I form J

complete triad a whole step above the Toot of the original chord: -.,_J

C6(9/~ 11) forms a D major triad ..

C-6(9/11) forms a D minor triad.

I maj7(9/#11) I {5 7 9 #11}

Cmaj7(9'i# 1,,1) == Gfuaj7

Avoiding tension 9 on the. 5th string leaves two applicable voicings:

7 9
#11 )
9 # 1 i
5 7 Bb13

~flN

Anl.aj7(9/Hl) A-7(Il) .i.i.

~o 11 If

D7b.5(b9) Ginaj9(#l1,'

#0 -e-

11

(Emaj.7)

(Dmaj7)

) maj-6 (9/# 11) I {3 6 9 # 11}

C6(9/# 11) (C6bS(9)) =

Avoiding tension 90n the 5th string leaves tbreeapplicable voicings:

iP' 6 9
~ 1.·,1
". ... # 11
9 -~
6 9 3
3 # 11 6 ()

B-9

- II $to

E9(#5) ~o

A6(9I#ll)

B-9

#e.

E7(~5/D9) A6(9/#11) ~

D-9

Ii

II

(DIE)

70

{5 6 9 #11} C6(9/#1l) = A13sus4 {I 4 b7 13}

There are two applicable inversions: 9 5

# 11 6

6

~ 11 9

5

Bb9sus4 Eb7b5(b9) Ab,6(9/#11) F13sus4 B13 Bb6(9/#j1)
b.e- I bn $:5 60
& ~
II H t 11

v .'
(F-7) (A7) (F13sU$4) (B~/Ep ) (elF )andCG13sus4) I min.maj7(11J9) I

As discussed in the Tension Ll chapter under the miii.maj7(1 l ) chord, 11 and 7 producethe guide-tones (3 andb7) of itsV7 chord, producing a potentially ambiguous sound, Tension 9 further complicates this by being a chord tone (the 5th) of its V7-chord. The weakest possible voicing f5 7 9 II} includes all of the basic chord tones {I 3 5 b 7 } of its V7 chord, This produces an extremely ambiguous sound and therefore will not be included in this section.

{b3 7 9 1l)C-maj7(11/9) =t-13b5

There are two applicable voicings: 11

9 7 b3

D-7~5

~~

7 ~3 9 11

o

C-maj7(1l/9) G7b5

G7(#9) _ C~maj7(11/9)

~ ,n

'tt:: II

I min6(U/9) I {b3 6 9 ill

There are two applicable .inversions: f ~~.,

Si 11

II

C-6(ll-l9j = B7b5C~9) I F13

T'

L~

D-7b5 G7 C-6(11/9) E-9b5 A+7 D-6(1l/9)
, 1- 'h£;:;
@ rre- 0 I~ -€-
De:: " ,
" -{!; :j~ -

(F13) (G 13) and (EmJF _) 71

{5 6 9 ll} C-6(1·1/9) = F6(9) {I 3 6 9}

Avoiding tension 9 on the 5th string leaves three applicable inversions: 5

9 6,

.11

6 11 9 5

9 5 11 6

E-7b5 Eb7 D-6(1l/9)- C-7b5 B7 Bb,,6(1l/9) B-7b5
I on
&. 0 0.0. e- e- '~ "9-
~8' Ii II
I (I
~ (em/F) jmin7(9/11) I {~3 b7 9 U} There are two applicable inversions: b 7

~3 '9 11

E7(J5/~9) A-6(11/9)

C -7(9111) ::: F13sus4::: Ab6(9/~ 11) 11

o

_,.

b7 b3

F7(45/b9) B~maj7(6.) C-9(1l) F7(jf5/D9) BbWc;j7(6/9)

.{.5 1,7 9 ui

o

II

.Ii 0

(Bb/Eb)

C-7(9/l1J ::: G-7

9- b7 5
5 11 9
11 9 67
67 S" 11 Avoiding tension 9 on the 5th string leaves three applicable inversions:

C-9CJl/

~ e

F7(#5/b9) Bb6(9)

,60

Q

! .

ii

Ii

!I

I

jmin7h 5(9/11) I {bSb7 9 U}

B~-9(11)

G.,9(1L) e7'(~5/h9j Fmaj9

!

A7

Ab6(9}

i .

O_Q_

(F-7)

(D-?)

[11 for 5 not applicable] ""-7:.5/0/11" _, ._',i_ "-.,;. I p, \~, ,= Gi-rnaj /';)

There are. two applicable inversions: ~7 11 .9 b'S

F+7

9

I ~ j»)

11 ~7

Bb-6

A-7b5(9/11) D7(~5/~9) ,G-6(9)

I]

II

,(Ebmaj7ji5 )

72

1 dom7{9/#11) !

{S ~7 9#11}

There are three applicable voicings:

~11

I..., p j

5 9

C7(91#,11) = G-rnaj7 9

5

~~ 1

Note that tension 9 is not available on the 5th, string but becomes available.on its Sub V chord as the #5th.

F9(#11} F~9 Bb9(~1l) E~6(9) E r:. A9(#11) D(add9)
- i
! .fi 11,,;ug ,~ b.o. 0 .e, t1
! II I]
i
!
-l- 'l-'
(C-maj7) (F-maj7) (E·maj7)
I I
1 I
'<-' I
1Ji:
F~7sus4 B(#5J~9) E6 E7sus4 El~5/b9) A6(9) Bb-7(11) Eb(#5/b9) Ab6(9}
it ..0.. .n. ..0.. -e- t)e- t<..o. !~ m b.o..
I ),(}
SUB V Ii II ~ 1m:. =-H

tJ (F~7sus4) I dom7(~9/#11) I

{5 b7 b9 ~11}

There are three applicable inversions: :~~ I ~ ~9

F7(,h9J#11.) Bhr.uii9

0-

-2J

C7(~9J# 11) = Eb 7(#9) b7 ~9

'~ll 5

~9~11

5 b'7

F-9 Bb7tb9/~11) E[.6(9/#11,) b-7(1,1} G7(\:. W#1.1) C;Cadd9)

1±o

0- -.

2J

o

/. \..

I'J ox _;.. ~

(Db7(#9j and ElF) (FIG)

~,

(Ab7(#9») I

I

I

~ F#7sus4 B(b9)

Emaj7 .~o

SUBV

Ii

'\ // \/

\ , ''0,'

(Bb7(#9)) i '

i

i

I \f}

B-9

E(b9) #0.

Aunaj7 #0

A1-7Cll)

11%

Dp(l.9)

Gbmaj9

~

73

I dom7(# 91# l1)J

{'5 b7 #9 #11}

Only two voicings are physically available, and one of the-se cannot be used due to the #9th tension being located on the Sth.string, These voicings will reappear in the Three Tensions chapter, where both will be available.

~7 -HI Bb7(#9J#11)= C~m/F ~9 5_

F-9(11:) 6..Q.

4 (Eb/Ab;

B1, 7(# 9J~1l) Eb6(9JUl)
~ ge-
m
(Dbrn/F) (FIG.)
- ,
I ~.
i
'l-'
E13(b9) Amaj7C#11,)
~o .,re i]
-
I B-7(lll

SUey =$=:1

The followingexamples will use various chords containing tensions 9 and 11. Additional chords from past c hap te :.~ are used to enhance. voice-leading. This firs! example is a II - V blue-s in the key of "F.'"

Fmaj7 F6(#1119) E7(#5/#9) A13(#9') D-9 G7(HlIb9) C-9 F9(#11)
~ ? e If ~ -If b#~ r I'~
r I

I -6i-
lG/A) (C~/D) (C-maj7)_
Bb9 Bb9(#11) Bb~7(U) Eb9C~llj A-7(11) D7(#llJb9) Ab-7(lll Db7(alt5)
~ j, t)-.9. ~ ? ,il¥, ba 9£:
~ ;--
~ 1"'1 I I "
i ! ~~- j
, -I
I ! I
J
CF-inilj7i (F-n5) (G#JAJ (Ab7sus4.) (A9)
G-7Cll \ C13(Ul) C9(Ul) F9 D7({19J#11) G-7 C7(~1l!~9) Fmaj7(~11/9)
.p- I ~f bb~
~ d" Of2- I~~i ~G ,be ~o !in
i ~. I ~
t---=- ~ -_.o
! I
! I
(D-7#5) CGb7(#9'») (Ebro/G) (Em/A) This-next e.~ample is an.eight-bar c.h0.f9 progression sta[~in~ in "r\"'.I11;l1orand ending intherelative "<::"m~jor.ln an attempt to use two different maj7#) inversions astnIn]p5(9Jl J)c,nords, tension 9 appears on the Sth smog III the fitst rneasure. Although above L.l.L for tensinn 0, care-should be taken to avoid a. potential I,9rh interval if the minor 3'rd of the chord is voiced Or played by another instrument.

74

________________________ ~.io.. - .

I '--'

A,~6 F~-7b5(91 11)., B-7b5(9/11) E7(~5/#9) A-b(9:) A-maj7(6) G-9 C7(#1l/k9)
# , at ,d_ I#r ir 'r I"~
I
(Cmaj'7#5) (Finaj7#5) (8#+7) (FMG) F6(#1119) Fmaj9

, f f

,F-maj7(1l/9) Bb9,(~ 11) Cmaj7(B/9) A 7(alt5) Dc7(9! 11) G7sus4{~'9) Cmaj7(9/#1l)

It, ,

11

"_.

, ,__' I

! ~_,

I

(G/A)

CF-maj7)

CEb9)

(Gm,aj7)

Tensions 11 and 13

I~

I

I

........

We are Jeft with very few chords in this section, -since 11IOSt have been previously introduced enbarrnonically. Onlyone dorn? voicing will be examined .in.this section: C7 C# 11113) {5 b 7 # 11 ' 13}, The- rernainirrg dorn? chords wen:' introduc-ed earlier.

I .........

i

, '-

j -

,

j--

C7(#11/13) {I b 7# 1.1 13} and] 3 b-7 # 11 13 j arc, examined a's C7bS( 13) chords in the Tension 13 chapter. As discussed in the Chord Symbol Notation chapter, ~ 1 rand b 13 should be.avoided in the same chord symbol. If these notes are desired, dom7(:~111#S): voicings under the Tensions 11 chapter will suffice.

The rradi ti onal drop 2 tension substitution formula [13for 5] and 111 for 3] produces a Very incomplete {I 7 11 13} voicing which will be omitted from this section. Instead, the more complete {37 11 13} and {5 7 11 13) voicings will be examined.

Only onc new voicing is introduced in this section: b 7 ~5

min7-~ 5_( 1 _J Ib 13)

,. '--'

I

I-

I

1'-"

!....____

I

1"-' i'--

11 ~lJ

This voicing is an inversion of the previously \ntrcidncedmaj7(9) (I 3 7 9) vqicing:

3 b7

1 bs

7 11

9 b 13

i'-' 'I

, '-

I

1'-

The min 7 b 5(lllb 13) chord presents uniquevoicingpossi bit ities, since any combinnt ion ofthe basic chord tones can

accO'lnpany tensions 11 and b 13: ' ,

: .__. 1 'I.,..-

!

! '..__

c-7b S(1l/~ 13): .1 b'3 11 bI3 = A,b6 tF-7
1 b5 11 b13 = A~13
1 b7 n b13 = Ab6(9) ( 1 3 6 9)
b3 bs 11 b 13, = B6(# 11) [3 5 ;6 # It )
b3_ b 7 11 bn = Bb7(SLlS4) '.
~5 b7 11 ~l_3 ~ Gbmaj9 {L 3 7 9} '~

l.)..._..

i

,

, '----'

Those voicings not containingthe] 7tp could be examined as dim? chords with tensions 1'1 and b 13. This makes the ~7th a rather characteristicnote in this chord. Thus, the single mo-st char~lcteristic voicing would containboth the b5lh and b 7th {~S b 7 11 b 13}. This voicing, as well as the voicingcontaining the guide-tones: {b 3 b-7 11 b 13 } will be ex-amined in this sec;t.iQo. Students are encouraged to explore the remaining Voicing types.

, ....__.

75

I<...__.. !

I maj7(6/ill)!

{3 7 #11 6} was previously introduced in the Tension 13 chapteras a lrt<~7b5(6) chord. ·ts 7 #11 6} Crrwj7(GI# 11) ::::0 Grnajv {I 3 7 9}

There are two applicableinversions: 6 7

# 1.1 5

7 #11

5 .6.

C-9(U)

B13 Bbmaj7(6/#1l) A-7{1l)

Grnaj7(6/Hl)

J'~f

- 1t ( ,

~ ,

1 min maj7(U/6) 'I

As discussed in the Tension 11 chapter under the min maj7(U) chord, 11 MId 7 producethe guide-tones (3 and7) of its V7 chord, forming a potentiaily.arnbiguous sound. Also mentioned was the support the root and/orb3rd have, on these ambiguous voicings. Of the two voicings displayed here, .rb.3 7 11 6) appears to be the stronger, While {5 7 11 6} is quite ambjgnoi.ls.

{b3 7 11 6} C~Jnaj7(6/11) =- F7b,5 / B7bs

Note: since F7bs .= B7bs, Cmirl.maj7C(/11) =- Gblnin.maj7(61l1).

There are fopr applicable inversions: b3 6 11 7

11 6

7 b3

6 - 7

b 3 11

D-7b5 G7b5 C-maj7(6/1))
~~ 2 0
(F7r5) ....1\

._J

7 11 ~3 6

,t

D-7b5(9) G7(#5/#~) C-maj,7(6/11)

~ b.a bp_

II ~

_.i

.;» I

(F7b5)

H

1

D-7b5

G~maj7( 6/11) A-7b 5

G7(~9) b.a

~'.

(F7b5}

.::»

{S 7 11. 6}

C-rnaj7(6IlJ) =- 09 t 1 '3 b7 9}

There arc four applicable inversions: 1 I

_., 6

5 7

5 7 6 11

6 11 '7

5

7 5 11 .6

76

~..,.........-.".._,.'

A-T~5\11) D7,\~5/t9J G-maj7(6/11) B-7~5(1119) B~7

j

o

tJ..Q.

A-maj7(3111)

-18

.Qi.\

:!

D-7Ca1t51 D~9 C-maj7(61 11 \ D-'/b-5(lll Q-7(.b9' C-maj7(6/11)

11,i--

I dom7(~ 1-1/13) I-

I !

C7(#11Ji3} = G-maj9 {J b_3 7 91

There is oneapplicable voicing:

F-7(1U

B~7 (itll/ 13)

Eor_[r~i9

_=2=--_--------r'::p f! '"_J

B7sus4

E(alt9)'

#, -e-

(SUB ,\T) ~

o

A..."llaF(6)

i;:i

C-7b51l1lb!~) = Gbmai9 {I 379:

There are two applicable inversions: bl:3 11

J 1

~ J:3

E:.> -6

A-7 7.s111/~ 1:3) Ali 7

{~3 b 7 11 b 13}

.~) .. '{}~ ch·ng ~·'·.~·e D~)~e'n~i.~}:} stT_ h in tc.~:'/~~l rh·~~l could resuir by' ql{lC)ng [Cr~~S10n i J. 9J1 ~r~c 5tb srrin g lCZr\'CS inrce ~l'ppllc~~bi-<-' 11"1 \'CL,->!On ~:,

1.J

~ (D7;-;us4}

(G7sus4)

(F7sus4)

!) 7 )J3 r -

p _J

[) L~ 11 b7

GGI,g)

G-7b.5i D 13J 11) C7(t;,Sh:8) F-6(9 I I

tre-

.no. yrrs

1', -e- J..Q.

~~ '-!>-

l ~_. _!;...L_

'I u----

77

. ._..

The following eight-measure example willuse various chords containing tensions 11 and 13. Additional chords from past chapters are .also used to enhance voice-leading.

The C7 (f ll/b13) ohordis yetanotherway to notate this voicingwhich was originally introduced as a C+7 (# 1 L) or C7(alt5) chord and later as a C7b5(b, 13) chord. As mentionedearlier, this notationt's 13/# 11) in the same symbol has various and confusing implications. While still recornmending.itsavojdance.jt is included here for demonstrative purposes.

Also note the additional chordal substitution for a domsmo 5) chord {13 ~ 7 9} at the end of this exercise:

C(fi 119) = D9.

A-6(9)

B-7b5(b13/11) E7,~5

A-maj7( 11/6) A-6(9)

A-maj7(6)

I~

I

'(fmaj9J

i (D7b5)

Frnaj?

F-7(1l) Bb13(~11) 06(9)

A13(j:i9) fr

I

;

Fmaj9

o

,

I .

I (F-maj9)

G-7Cll) b_a_

I'

C7(} 13/#11) I

, '[};9"

'tl ~

~l~ =

,

i

(Gb9)

D-7&.5(;~ 13/11) G 13(#11) 8(#,1119)

! --

De

lSi

G+7

o

D9(b 13)

'I I)

(D9)

This next II - V blues example uses various chords from the past tension chapters .. Also incl uded are a couple of new functions in the second measure: G-maj9 (1 ~3 7 9) = E-7.b5Cll/9l and 0-9[1 ~3 b,7 9} = A7(b9Jb13).

,

tJ_a_

I f_;":

-~:±i~

_L____b.__ -~----£_' _. '

(Bb13)

.-

This example incorporates chromatic voice-leading to a greater degree, than previous examples, Note the voiceleading motif in measures five and six is repeated in measures nineand ten and inverted in measures.seven and eight. Also note the contrary chromatic voices in the last t\1,'O measures.

F6(9i Fmaj9
---l i ~
~ S E-7~5(1l/9) A7(DI3/~9)

D-9

(G-lU'ai8) "'$:

II~·

!9 ~,

(G-91 l.;t

, .....

[) ,fE

,C-7(11J9.) F7{b9/~"5)

!

i

-,....-61'

J

::61

"

Bl;?(13/9j. Bb9(#11) (C+7)

B~-7(11, Eb9(~1l)

A-.9

Ab-7·

DI79(b13;

G-7

C9('r> 13) C13(b9)

Db 7(13/9)

~,...:o. "1;-"'"

.:,- , I

I' "',

I

78

G9b5

C9(b 13) F9

~--~--.,..

Chapter Eleven.

Voice-Leading Chord Scales

Upon completion of sinQ"le tension additions to. the basic four-part chords, it is possible tovoice- lead any note from any chord scale.

2

(9)

3

5

6 (13)

4 (11 )

7

The addition of two tensions- often eases the physical difficulty (fingering) that some of the single tension voicings produce, Examples':

maj7(6)----lo---- maj7(9/6)

6 6

1 9

7 7

dom7(~9)----to-~--dom7(#9/#5)

f.9 " #9 .

5#'S (~13)

3 3

~7 '~7

The following are examples of harmonized chord scales .. The "avoid notes" can 'be. harmonized by standard dominant, chromatic, or diatonic approach techniques. These avoid notes are based on traditional jazz harmonic concepts and might be availablein todays mope contemporary music where an increased dissonance level is more accepted. These notes are in fact the; more desired notes in modal music.

(lonian) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 5

(Ornaj7) .Gmajf

6

7

3 (11 is an avoid note) Gmaj7

.a.

·9

1 cis

Gniaj7(9/6) G-m2.j:

GinajS -&.

o -

« ,

o

II

(Lydian) _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ 5

(Gmaj1) Grp.aj9

6 7 1 9 3 #11
G6 Gmaj7b5 G6~5 Gmaj7(916) Gmaj7b5 Gmaj9b5
Se 0 -s- .D_ ~ .
(.'" !min71

(Dorian or Aeolian') ~ _ _ _ 5 (13 and h13 are avoid notes)

(G-7) .: __ .:_ G-9

Ii

''7 1 ~
D ,
G-7 G-7 G-9
0 0 -e-
~':> b3 11

G-7(1l) G-7(11/9)

b.a. -e-

+21

79

imin7bSi

(Locrian) _ _ _ _ _ __ _ ~9 b13 vt 1

(b9 is an avoid note)

(Locrian with natual 9) _ _ b 5 b 13 b 7 1

(A-7~-5) A-7b5 A-7b5(bI3) A-7~5(11)A-7b5

o

~3 U
9 b3 11
A-7b5(9), A-7h5 A-7b5(1l)
-e. n -...__.
..0..
,
I "With the exception of the voicing containing the 9th7 these voicings work in a pure Locrian situation as well.

idom7i

(Mixolydian) _ _ _ _ _ _ 5 (G 7) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ G9

(Lydianb7) _ _ __ _ _ _ _ 5 (G7) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ G9

1'3 G7(13/9)

13 b7

G9(13j G9h-5

() 0

(Mix. ~9/H3) (with addition of~:9)

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 5 b 13 D 7

(G7) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ G7(i>9) G7(~9/~51 G7(b9)

-I

t'"

o

(altered) _ -e b5 #5 b7

(G7) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ G7b5(~9) G7~5(b-9') 0+7

~5(b 13) G9#5

(whole-tone) _ __ _ _ _ b5(#1l)

(G7) . G9b5

-G:-:

We, =ii_rre~'-;::· =====4:;P.:e=

G9

1 GJ-3

9 09

3 ell is an avoid note) G7

11

#011 G9b5

~

II

1 G7#5

(lJ is an avoid note)

,b9' ~9 3

G7(b9) G7(#9/#5) G7(b9,)

~ -#-s,' ..0..

1 G13

b9 ~9 3

G7(b9) G13(rt9)G7b5,

b.e-#-e- £1

o

1 9 3
818 G9(13) G7b5
0 -&' ..D.. D-

1 b9 #9'

G+7 Gn5(~9) G7t5(;~-9)

n

b7 1

9 G9#'5

-&

11

3
G+7
.:U
!l
3
G7b5
..n_
11
-H
#ll
G7b5(#9)
±!e-
II (dominant-diminished) 5 13 b 7

(G7) G7(#9) G13(~9) G7(b9)

I)

o

G+7 G+7

---e--- -____ 0

o

80

·--ft·

Chapter Twelve.

Three Tensions (9/11/13)

The past tension' substitution formulas become inappropriate when dealing with three tensions on a four-note voicing. The approach used here will involve determining the most appropriate guide-tone or chord tone to accompany the three tensions. All of the three tension combinations presented in this chapter form complete triads:

9 ~11 13 major triad
9 11 13 minor triad
9 11 ~13 diminished triad
~9 fl B minor triac!
#9 . 11 13 diminished triad When these triads occur on the top three voices.they produce upper-structure triads over thebasic or original chord.

\._.. As discussed earlier, ~ 11 and b 1? will be avoided in the same chord symbol. The following three-tension combinations (which do not produce basic triads') are-enharrnonically examined in the; Tensions 9-and 13 chapter:

dom7(~ 13'1~ 11/9) dom7 (b 13/~ ll/b 9) dOm7(~J3/r.l1/#9}

=

dom7~ 5.c~ 13/9) dom7bS(b i3/b9) dom7~S.(b 13/~9}

=

::::

With the exception of the dom7(l3/# 11l~9) i 1 ~9 # 11 131 and the dorn7(r13I# nl~9){b 7 #9 # 11 i3} chords, all voicings have been previously introduced.

C7(l31#.1l/b9) {1 ~9" 11 13}

=

I maj7(91~11J13) I

The ably characteristic voicing would have to 'con tam the 7th {7 9 fl1 13}, The {3 9, # 11 13} and .{ 5 9 ~ 11 IJ} voicings have been previously introduced asJnaj6(9/# 11) chordvoicings undertbe.Tensiens.s and 11 chapter. The remaining {I 9 # 1 i 13} voicing, though incomplete, will be examined. Keep in mind that this voicing, lacking a 7th, could function as an incomplete clom7(Wi:11113) chord-as we-Il.

Note the major triad rorrned by tensions '9,# 11 .and 13; Cm,~7(9/~ 11/13) - tensions form a D major triad

{7 9 #11 13}

Cmaj7(91# 11113),

8-7'1 D6

Avoiding tension 9 on the 5th string leaves three applicable inversions:

9 13 7
13 9 #11
#1 1 7 9
7 f·ll 1~
" . Cmaj7(9/Hl/13)

D-9(1l) G7(~9/;t5) C-7

Ab7Gmaj7(9/till/13)

tEo #0 .e- ~.o. .e- -e- c- ~o .e-
I! rt . I!
\..._.- I'
i I t
~ (B-1! CA-7J (F#-7) 81

{I 9 ~1l 13}

C(9J~ 11113) = D7

Avoiding tension 9 on the 5th string leaves three .applicableinversions:

9 13 I
13 9 #11
# 11 1 9 ._.
] ~U 13
" D-9(11"J G7(~5/b9) C(13/~l1J9) C-7 B7 Bb(13/HV9') A-7(11) Ab7 G(13/#11/9)
I
& .. ~o -& _O..Q_ -6:- ()..Q_ If t>e- be-
D !t Ii II

ttY CD7) (C7') (A7)
.» ?!'These- voicings willreappear in a dominant function under dom7(9J# 11/13).

I min,maj7(91ll/13) I

Thernost characteristicvoicing contains the 7[h!7 9 11 13 L yet it produces one of the more ambiguous-sounds because these notes also Ierrn the V9 chard of the original minor chord. This dual (tonic/dominantffunction can be a very confusmg sound and, should be used-with care.

The {b3 9 11 13) voicing (perhaps the best voicingusing these three.tensions] has been previouslyintroduced as a min6(9/ 1 L) chord under the Tensions 9 and 11 chapter. The {5 9 11 13} voicing was also introduced in that chapter

as a min6(9/1 1) chord. »:

Note the minor Triad formed by tensions 9. 11 ,and 13: C-inaj7(9/11113) - tensions form a D minor triad Also note that those voicings not containing -the 7th could have a ~7th (modal dorian sound).

{7 9 11 13}

C-maj7(9/11/i3) = B-7_bs I G9

A voiding tension 9 00 the 5th string leaves three applicable inversions:

9, 13 '7
I
13 '1 Ii
U 7 9
7 11 13 DA

A-7'?5

D7(b 131v9) G-maj7C13/11/9) D-7b,3

F7(ii9J ~o

Bb -maj 7, 13/ 11l9} ~

C-7b5

82

{I 9 11 13}

C-maj7(9111113) = D-7

*Note that this voicing also could function as a dom7sus4(9/13) chord. Avoiding tension 9Qll the 5th string leaves three applicable inversions:

9 13 I
B 9 11
11 J 5)
1 Ii 13 G-7b5 C7(~ 13/b9Y Fm(13/11/9, D-7b5 G7(~5/#9) Cm(13111/9)
I -e- I
§ 0 ~ Q on €>-
~ It R
J\
(G-7) CB-7) B7 b-e-

Bvm(13/11/~) Dn

C-7~5(b 13)_

(8-7)

Imin7~5(9/111~13) I

The only characteristic voicing woul-d contain the ~ 5th {~5 9 1 i ~ 13 }. The remaining voicings willbe examined, although less complete and producing some very ambiguous, if not weak, sounds" The tritone produced by tension 9 and b 13 is partly responsible for this ambiguous sound.

Note that tensions 9. 11. and b 13 produce a diminished triad: C-7~ 5(9l'l11b 13:t - rensions form a DO triad

The twb inversions containing 9 or 11 on the 5th string will be avoided.

{b5 9 11 b13}

C-7~ 5(9/ 11/~13) = A~ 13(b 5)

Tnere Lire r-.;n.o applicacie mversron; b· i~ 9

1J b5

9 11

b5 bU

i ---4-~Ojt

=rz~;

A-7D.5(~ 13/ 1119) D7<#5/~9)

,m bJ:l.

C-7b5(.9}IIlb13) F7(b9) B,,-o

{b7 9 11 ~13}

C-7b5(91l1lb 13) = Bb7'

There are two applicable inversions: 9 ~ 7

b 13 11

11 9

1,7 bJ3

G-7b5(b 13/ i 119) C7(b9)

F-6(9) .e;

B-765(013/11/9) B67'

r

-e- [)..a.

II

Ii

v (F7).

(A7)

{b3 9 11 b13}

C-765(9/ll/b13);:: Ab6 (;fIl) (I 5 6 #-11)

D-7~b(9/11/bI3J Q7(~5/b9)

C-6(9)

{I 9 11 b13}

C-7~5(911 lib 13) ::= D-7~5 I F-6

There are two applicable inversions: 9 1

b,n: 11

II £)

1 b 13

D-6(9\

A-7~5(~ 13/11/9) D7(~5/b9)

-e-- :!te-

II

G-6 .o,

v 'A L' - l ,-(J)

o

(D-6)

t dom7(9/#.11113) !

There is one characteristic voicin:g,{b7 9 ~ 11 13}. Incomplete {3 9 #ll 13} and {59 #11 13} voicingshave been previously introduced, as rnaj 6(91# J 1) chords hut will be examined here for their dominant functions, Also. the ! 1 9 f 11 13) voicinz introdueedas i ma:i7(9/Jtll/l3 ichord '.vi I.l be-examined for its dominant. function

I, J ' ....... "_J ,I . _ , '

Theinversioncomaining tension 13 on the 5th string will beavoided, The. inversion couraiaing tensicn 9 on ~h~ 5th string-will be avoided when the dorn? chord is functioning.as-a V7 chord. When the dom? chord is funcucninaas a Sub V chord" the:9 on'rhe 5th string will b02:JlO\~e:d. since.it is reallvIunctioning as a #5th on the V7 chord: Ctk 9th of G7 is-the ~5 of Db 7)

9.' Keep in mind thai tensions 9,:#.i 1; and 13 on a dominant chord are most characteristic in a Sub V function. Note the major triad formed by tensions 9,# II. and 13: C7(9/#_1 1/ 13) - tensions form a.D majortriad.

-

'84

- --~--------------

{b7 9 #11 13}

C7(9/~ 11/131 = B~mai7~5

.. \' - I'

..._. There are three applicable inversions:

~1J 9 13
b7 < -., 9
1_1 ..
13 # 11 67
~+ #11
C; ~7 G-7(11) C7(91 nIl 13JT6(9)

I) bn Be _~ __ G

t:t "

~~ ~~~-

D-9 G'7(9/~11113}CCaddg,\

E?n3/~ 11/9)

ci :!-&

1"0 -: :---.~---

-_ .1

.______:!.c_. . _

';'i..,

--~

I:

(Bbmaj7#5)

(Fmaj7.~5)

(Dmaj7h5)

{3 9 ~11 13}

C{9/~ 11113) =

F#-7~5 / C6(9!# 11)

3 #11 13

13 9 3

;11 13 9

9 3 # 11

There are three applicable inversions:

G7sus4 C(13/~11/9) 'Fmaj9

0-1 C13h 11/9) F6(9)

~ ,0· -:fkj

« ) e,

(F~-7'#5)

CB-7j:;5)

I~"

J

C~-9(11) F~7(~5N9) B6(9)

",

(DIE)

C(9/# 11113) = A13(sus4) / C6(9/# 11)

There is one applicable inversion: 13 E-7 A(l31 # 1l! 9)

#~ ~ 0 :i!

B~-7 J

E~ (alt91 #5)

(SUB V) ~~~~~_ ~~~~¢o~~~~~~~~~

(BIE)

{5 9' ~11 13}

n 9 ~11 13}

D6(9)
-a-
II
Abmaj9
a II C(9/# ir.rs: = D7

There are three applicable inversions:

c

"'

~ 11

I'

I

13

o

./

13 9

1 #11

13 #11

G-9 C(13/~11/9) Fmaj7

D-9Cll) G(13/,#11/9) C(add'9)

~ 0 .€f- f
l
(A7)
1 E(13/~11/9) ~

i

I ~

II

Ii

(D7)

1

(F#7) I

~

E7sus4 B] (alt5! #9 )Ebrhaj9

b.o. b.o. - bn

Db(alt5!#9) Gbmaj9

~

C#-9 F#(alt5/#'9) Bmaj7

-&- i-e-

II

SUB V

Ab-9

~~:

II

idom7(b9/#11113) I_

The ~9th dictates a dominant type chor-d allowing itto be the most characteristic note. This means the guide-tones will nor be missed in- voicings not containing them. Again, tension 13, will be avoided on [he 5th string.

Note the minor triad produced by tensions ~9, # 11. and 13: C7C_b9/# 11/13) - tensions form an F# minor triad.

C7(b9/#ilI13) :::: Eb7(#9l#11) {5 ~7 #9 #11}

There are two applicable-invasions: b9 13 ~ 11 b-

D- 9

13 b9 k7

+11' 1 ',"\" -

G7(b9/;i1l/13) C(add9)

~

#!! b,Z-

G-_ 7(11) C7(~9/~11!13)'F6(9)

i

Ao-7(11) Db(~9) GDmaj7

{3 b9 ~11 I3}

C7(~9/~11/13) = F#-7

Note that the Sub V chord forms a complete min7 chord. and when used in its related V7 situation, it has the

ambiguousfunction of an Incomplete V7(~9) or \.1-7 chord. . . ',"

There are three applicable inversions:

~11. b9

13

.13 #'11 b9

F7(13/Ul/~91

C-7 Bbrnaj"

I

0..0..

. D7(13/.HlJ~9) " C7(13!Ul!b9)

A7sus4 . Gmaj7(6l9) G-7(11) Fmaj?

-eo- b..o.. -e- t)-

Ii

~I

(B~7)

1

H7(#9)

Db6(9) ire-

Bmaj7

Emaj7 10

(G#-7)

J

Eb-9(1l) A,\'7(~9)

~ ~ ..

I:

C#-9

SUB V

;1 t.J

2J

{S ~9 #11 13}

C7(~9/# 11113) = A13 / E~ 7b5(#9f

There is one applicable inversion:

Bb{13!#11/b9)

Ebrnaj?

:

(G13)

E(alt9)

II

Amaj9

{I ~9 #11 I3}

There are two applicable in versions: ~ 11 13

1 ~9

13 1

bq ~! I

F7sus4 F(13/~11/~9) B,6(9) !

G-9

C.(l3/~11/b9) Fe

~

~!,

"

, t;- -:6-

i

v

II

F~7sus4 B(~11/~9) Emaj 7 (g. j

C~- 9 F~(~ 111~9) Bmaj 7

87

Idom7-(~9/~11J13) [

The {I #9#-11, 13) voicing will be omitted-due to the rather ambiguous sound produced by the complete dim? chord formed: {I #9 #11 1'3} = {I ~3 ~5H7}.

Those voicings that contain tension 13' or #9 on the 5th string will be omitted.

Note the diminished triad produced by tensions #9, # 11, and .13: G:7(#9J# I1fI}) - tensions form an Ebo triad.

C7(#9/#1l/13) = A7(b9J#11113) {l_ ~9~11 13}

There are two applicable inversions: # 9 13

13 #9

rn b7

J' , 'it 11

P 7 1'\'

(SUB V)

F#(13N9) BE>(9)

{3 #9 #11 13)

D-9, G7(l3/~111#.9) Cmaj9

-e- ±te- .n. .

ii - 7±!!

A~-9(ll)Dh(13/~9) Gbrnaj?

I b.u b.n. on.

II~i~

11

":,.-.

C7(#91#11lI3):::: A6(#II) {I 5,6#II}

There aretwo applicable inversions: # 11

#9 13 3

13 3 ~~' # 11

A-7(1l) D(13#11/;;9) Gmaj7(9/6) G-7 Cl13/~11/#9) Fmaj7(6)

~_'_ !~{ ~~a ,~b.ll -a- &

= = )8 48 II-tit:

(SUB V)

EJ -0(111

,'k ~ ..

Dbmaj9

I .

l>e-

II

F:J't13(#9) Bmaj7(6)

~!! ±3

{5 ~9 .~ 11 13}

11'. ~

There i~ one applicable inversion:

B~-9

,

,-

11

,

jJ

A(13/#11/#9)

Drnajf -e-

:'0

il

J

Eb(13Ialt9)

- ±to'

Abmaj7(6)

tn-

-

88

-__"

'-- .

'-"I

'-_Or

'--r

s., I

'-....,

.._ I

"-"'

I

Tho fottovv',ing. examples will use various chords containing ten'Stans, 9, 11, and 13. Additional ChOTQ,S. from past chapters are also: used (0 enhance voice-leading. Hybrid chords will be listed as they occur.

this first -u - Y" blne:s_ example ion the key or'F" contains some interesting chromatic voice-leading. In measure three, thetop three voices contain contrary - chromatic motion while-the bottom voice sustains, Measure four-into measure fi ve [F7 Cb-9ia lfS) - B k 7 (9/13)] contains a good example of contrary chromatic motion in -all four voices; the tQ:P three voices ascend while the bottom voice descends. In measure-eight to measure nine [Db 7(9/# 11/13)Gni(1JC!d9)J, the top three voices descend chromatical I y while I he. bottom voice sustai ns. TIl measure nine to-measure ten, those same.three voicesagain descend chromarically. Finall y, note the chromatic cbnsnult .structures produced by the last six chords,

,"Note that thcE-7 b 5 (9/11 Ib 13) voicing contains a n,l~l_jtir 7th width.

F6(9) -,' E-T~5 A7 0-9 G7(b9ia1t5) 8-7'(11) 'F7(b9/alt5)

... ::,:.r~i; (9/11/b 13) (b9/b13) (F-7#5) (0--7#5) (A6(9))'

¥i~f~~:-"'~-- ~f~~~~='-:-=~*~'*~--="~~:dt~bg~- ~t~gi~. ~.==-P~~~ ..•. ~~/ ~:

Bb-T ('9/13) .

~

- I

Bb'7(9/#l1l13") Bb -7(11) Eb7(9ji~1]/13) ,A-9 D7(b'9lalt5) Ab -7 Db?

(Abm_aj7#5j (Db IEb) {Dbroaj7#;5) (EbmlAb) (11) (91#11/13)

. ~ g. ~11f . k'~~?5l~: ~tf ~~~~ ~?l

Gm (adds)

Df:.7 _ (9! 1:3)

bt

C7 (9/13) (Emaj9) .. ,. (Fmaj9) ... (F#maj9)

11

89

This next example also contains some interesting chromatic- voice-leading as well as another chord voicing containing a major 7th width (F-9~. In measure four to measure five [Eb 7(b 9/a1t5) - A~ 6(9)), three voices descend chromatically while one middle voice ascends. In measure seven, again, three voices descend chromatically while one middle.voice ascends. In measure seven to measure eight the top three voices contain minortriads which descend chromatically. Finally, note the same structures a whole step.apart on the last two chords.

-.'

Gm A-7),5 D-7b5 G7 C-maj7 F7
{9/11/I3) (9/111),13) (9/111b 13) (),9/alt5) (9) (~9/aJt5)
(F13) (G7) (Enl Ab ) (F-7~5) (GIE~) (Dh7) ,.
I~ ~b~{ ~b ~ ....__ .... ~ I
$F ~ I ~
b* -./
1- 1-&
~. Bb -7( 11) E~ 7(~9/alt5) (Db6.(9» (Aadd9)

I ~ &"~; ~_

Ab6(9) A~maj7
(9J~ 11/13)
~ ~i
16~
(G-7)
F-9 - Bb7(b91# 11/13)
(AbIl)aj7) (GI3)
II~~ 9~
E -
(Crn/Ab ) (Em/F) Eb(91 # 11/13) (FIG)

C7(~9/alt5) (E6(9»

&~,

A~-7(9/11) (G~/Ab )

~66, I g

Db7b5(13) (G7(~9»

~

~,

_ ... ,

Eb maj9(#11) (F13)

---' ,

II

(DbmJGb)

90

_, ,

Chapter Thirteen,

Altered 9th Tensions (~9 and #'9) on Dom7Chords

These dominant chords contain both tensionsbv and #9 in their voicings, Since tension ~9 dictates the dom7 chord, voicings with and without the guide-tones will be examined. Some of theSub V chords will produce very incomplete structures and should be used with care.

With thesexception of the dom? (alt9/13) {3 ~ 9 ~ 9 13 f chord, aU of the voicings inthischapter have been-previously introduced enharrnonically. Those inversions placing tension #9 on the 5th string w-ill be- avoi-ded. Those.chords using tension 13 will avoid this tension on the 5th string as well.

'! dom7(alt9) I

The most characteristic voicing would include the guide-tones {J ~ 7 ~9 # 9}.

{3 ~7 ~9 #9} C7(alt9j ::: Db-6(9) {I b3 6 9]

There is nne applicable inversion:

~~ C-9
J; 0
'"
_1
b'9 IV B~maj7 ~

2Jj

(F~-6(9)) I

~

F#-9 B13 E6(9)

(Sub V) i'~#O~' ~~'#O~~~i'~ ~~II

{I b7 b9#9) C7(alt9) ::: Ob6(#1l) {3 5 6 #1 J}

There are two applic-ab-le: inversions: #,9 .~ 9

. L 1

~ 7 :~9 b9 ~?

F7(alt9,)

B:~ri1aj7\6J

:I

E-9

A7(alt9) Dmaj7(#11)

beo-

I:

C7(alt9) -= E~7

There are three applicable inversions:

-~~.:. ~r

5 b9

~-

91

__...

. ta"'w'v!::tr~"", -

C-9(11) F7(alt9) B~maj7(6) G-7Cll) C7(alt9)

~ _ b.n.~.o_-

, ~I ~~ II j

(A~7). (Eb71

Fmaj7 D-9 G7(alt9) Cmaj9
tJ. -e. ~ ~ ~-'
II l ~,
!
(Bb7) {3 5 ~9 #9}

C7(al't9) = E-b,7(~D) (L 3 b 7 ~91

There is one applicable inversion:

D-7(11)

G7(alt9)

I

bn

Cmaj 7(61 9J

3 1,9

.e,.

\:-E,,-

A~-9

-,j; D613(b-9)

I !J..Q_

{13 1,9 #,9} C7Calt9)

'There is one applicable inversion: #9

1 3 ~9

C-9(11)

Bbmaj7(6)

II

{1 5 \,9 ~91 C7,(artQJ = E~i3 (1 3 b7 13} j A7bS{#9)

Note that this voicing contains astrong modal phrygian sound: {l b3 5 b9}.

There is one. applicable inversion: #9

1

5

F7(a1t9)

- 1-' ,

[}E\'

B~maj7(6)

0-9(115

n n

(AU3) '!-

F#-7 B('i3/Ul/b9) Emaj9

(Sub V) j4~~-e-~- ~~~"'D~~~Z~:~!~,-, ~~~4,

(B/E)

92

l-dom7(alt9l~11) I {~7 ~9 #9 #1l}

C7(aJt9/# 11) = Eb-7 I G~6

There are three applicable inversions:

.~

~ .. ~ h7 ~9
·~9 W
tIl b.9
9 #11 C-7 F7b5(alt9) Bbmaj7 G-7 C7~5(alt91 F6 E-9 A7b5(alt9) D6(9)
~..o_ I b.n L
4 j't, -e- 0..0.. , ! e- .Q. v..o.. ..e-
li '9Ir~ Ii b, 11

I
J.
F#-9- B6 Emaj7 F~-7sus4_ F#6 Bmaj7 ;8b-7 Eb-6 Ab6(9J
I I I
~ f~ #0 ,~-:o ..D... ~ ~ -~ ~..o.. -on
(Sub V) Ii Ii ill ~
C#'~?
(t C7(alt9/#lJ) = A6(#11) '(3 5 6,,#11}

There are two applicable inversions: !I_l_ 1 :9 9

3

"9

11 9

G-7(11) C(~11/alt9) F8· F7suS4 F(b5/alt9) Bb6(9j
I I
§ ~in! ~~ on #~ ,O..Q.
~!\ I! \§- Ij
~" -
:'.j
I "
I (G/F' I
I (Sub V)

B(add9)

.,

BI3

-eo

E6(9) .Q_

F~7sus4 __o_

II

{I b 9 # 9 # 11 },

C7(a1t9/~ ll , = GI- 6("1 J"\ r I

, U \_.;t., .' l 1

56#11)

There is oneapplicable inversion:

(Sub V)

·1

C7sus4 F{alt9ib5) Bbmaj7(6)
on i 1
-& ~!
~ .\y
Ff-7 B6(f!_1) E6(9)
-& e- #:o _o_
€c). :'

I!

- .... _---:...._-----------_ .. _----------------------'

C7(alt9/# 11) = E~7(~9) {l 3 ~7 ~9J

This voicing cannot be used, since the single available inversion has tensiQl;r#9 on the 5th string.

Ildom7(alt9/b13-) I f3 b9 #9 b13}

[dom? # 5( alt9)]

C+ 7(alt9) = Amaj7(#'l1) n 5 7 # II}

There are three applicable inversions:

G-7(1l) C+(alt9)

;,5 #':f

Fniaj9 ;~fr ... ~~

(Sub V)

C~· 0

~-',.-:

.0..

(ClF)

F~7(13/9)B(add9-)

~9 .---~ ~5
r ~9 -9
.,
-'
'O. f; 9
-,
10: ~,
PI _i" Bb6

I

D.ll.

D-9 F+(a:lt9) Bbm-aj7

o

'I "

-:»

'1' '1

J

F~7sy-s4 137(1$19) E6(9)

.0.

y~ -7(11) B7(13/9) E6(9,l

II

II a;o

II

C+ 7(aJt9) = Eb 7sus4

There are three applicable inversions:

E-7(lli A ... 7(alt9) D6(9-)

C-9

.F-7.(1) Bb-i-7(alt9) Ebmq_j7(6"

I 0.0.

II

I

tre-- 0

II

(Sub V)

Il'

(C7sui;;4.j

ADmaj0 b:e .&_- ..

Ij, (Db7sus4)

(Ab7sus4!

. -

Ff-7

-e-

I

+,

B6(9·\ Emaj9

'lie ~e

(Soh V not applicable)

.---- __ -~_.=_- __ _u__================______L!

94

{I b9 #9 ~13} C7(alt9/b 13) = Eb 13sus4
There is one applicable inversion: #9 C-9(l1) F+(alt9) B~(13/#1119)
1 I
b13 '(Bb~Ebl [}e- o
b9 .J ..
'-' (Db 1Gb) (elF)
I....- J
F#-9(1l) B( 131 # 1119) Emaj9
..___ (SubV) t(:AI #0 jo
~
(C#/F# ) (BIB) II

II

The (5 b 9 #9 b 13 } voicing will be omitted, aswas done in earlier chapters, due to the natural5-and b 13 it contains.

I dom7(alt9/13) I {3 ~9 #9 l3}

There is one applicable.inversion: #9

13 3 b9

C-H

o

F13(a1t9)

15

Bbmaj7 -&

II

(SubV)

F#-9

~ #0

~

, ,

'J

I

I

'"

B13(#9)

~o

Emaj7b5 #0

{b 7 ~9t9 13} C7 (alt9/l.J J = -, '('! '1) {l 5 b7 ~llJ
J. tv' ~ 1 ,
There is one applicable inversion: '~9 E-9 A13(alt9) D6(9)
13 Jj.b..o..
~9 , ..u .e-
., I-j
'p7
1-
B,-7(lli Eb( 13/#:9) Ab6(9)
I ~n bn
(Sub V) ~,'- II
j ~ in: 95

.._... ~¥-,.., .. -

{I ~9 #9 13}

C13(alt9) =. E~13(~S) {I ~5~713}

There is one applicable mversio»: ~9

1 13 '\,9

C-9

I

fIt

F13(alt9)

~

B~6(9)
I
0..0.
~g Ii _f
..._.
E6(9)
.:O_
] '--" (Sub V)

J

B(13/#l1J#9)

#0

G13(alt9) = A7tb~) ) E~7(b5)

There are twoapplicable inversions: #9 13 S b9

c. 9 F13(alt9) Bbmaj7(6) 0-7 G13(alt9) Fmaj9

bn ~ b~ ~

, ! i II I

II

(Sub V)

(D%5) (A7b5)

11. .

F#-7 B13(alt9).Em-aj9 0#-9 -F#13(alt9Y Bmaj7(6)

@ & ~o ~;i i: D & /ii

i!

-_.f

The follow,ing dam7 chords have four tensions 3JrU no chordtones, These unique voicings imply specific chord

scales and ha ve several enharmonic spellings. -

I dom7bS(alt9lb 13) / do-m7#S(a-l'f9l# 11,) i dorri7(k91#9/# 1.1/613)

{~5 ~9 #9 613) (#~ 69 ~9 #ll}

L

dorn7(alt9/a!t5)

These.tensions imply the "auered'tscale:

b:, ~2 " k,; ,~,~ 67
~~
,',
(69' (#9 ) (Zt 11 " (bB)
, I " ) II. dOI1,17(alt9!~.11/l3) [69 ~9 '~ll 13] / dom13bS(alt9) {_bs b9,~9 131

These tensions imply the symmetrical "dominant diminished'iscale:

b2 ~2 :3 i4 5 fi b7
(~9) ?#'9) (~11 ) ..-
·tt (13)
-._J
96· I dom7(alt9/a!tS) I

C7(alt9Ialt5) {b9 #9 ~5 #5} = Ab7sus4

There are three applicable inversions:

~9

III

9 5

&, 0 ~7 -&
@) (C#7sus4)
'-' J
.___
_, F~~7 B6(9) Emaj7
._. @ 1;0 ~n ~o
(Sub V) B~7(alt91 alt5,)

-F7 sus4 Eb maj7(9/6)

bh ~L' e-

Ii ~

C7(alt91 alt5)

0-9 F7(,alt9/aIt5) Bbmaj? G7sus4 Fmaj7(6)

(G~7sus4)

I

~

Q~~9 F~6(9)B(add9)

(F#7sus4) (07sus4)

Ii

II

{Sub V not applicable)

.'

A voiding inversions containingtensions #9 or 13 on the Sth string leaves two applicable inversions:

I dorri7(alt9/#l1J13) I

C13(bS/alt9) {b9 #9 '# 11 13} = Eb-7(bS)

~9 13

~q b9

F13{alt9/;5) Bsmaj?

'~? e-

C13D5(alt0) Fmaj9

G'7

- ,

bD..

II

-R

I!

The following examples will use various dominant chords .containing altered 9th tensions. Additional chords f-orn past chapters also will be used -to enhaneevoice-leading.

This first "II - V bl ues' example-in the ke.y of "D" contains some interesting cons tan t structures and chromatic IDOL] on. The first tWO chord structures are rep eared a whole step lower 111 th~ second measure, The E7 (alt) structure in.measure three is repeated a whole step higher in the following measure. The three chords starting in measure five-contain one common lone while the top three VOices descend chromatically. The B-13(aJt9) chord in measure seven. has two common tones while. the remaining voices move in contrary chrornaric.motion to the next chord. M-easure eight' s two chords share one common tone while the top three voices descend chromatically. Measure 'fen's A 7 (alt) chord 'has two voices ascending and two voices descending to the next chord, Finally, note the last three chords use the same structure descending chromatically.

''':',-,',

97

Dmaj7(6) (A6(9))

~'<L

j#F~

E7(alt) (C7sus4)

D6(9) (B<7sus4)

C~-7b5(b13) F?7(h13Jalt9) B-9

(G6(9)) (A7sus4)

G7(13/9) G7(h13Jalt9) (Bb7sus4)

G-9 (F6(.9})

G7(Hllalt9 ) (Eb-7)

,)~ bV}_

I~

A-7(11) D7(b13l~9)

(D7sus4)

I -ofL

:-)

I

fl

F~-7(11) B13(alt9) (D7b5)

F-7

Bb 13(~.9) (G7)

.--J

! .

~-,

E-7

I.

E-7(11/9) (DIE)

D6(9) B7.!;'5{alW)

E- 9· A 7(~9Ial:t5) D9 (Bm/E) (BbmJEh) (Al---nJD)

A7(alt9) A7(glt)

(C7) (F7sus4)

I

j ~-f2.-

Tr~

fi5"

! ,

., ,

2 , _-=-------- ~

!

-----('rC'

This nextexample ,in the key of "C" also contains: some Interesting voice-leading ideas. In the first measure, the'top two voices sustain while the bottom two 'move: in contrary chromatic motion. Note that only one voice 'moves (chromatically) in measures two and three on the C7(alt9) tQ_.A~ma:j9 chords and A~maj9 to G7(alt5/~_9)<;hords" Measure three's G7{alt5/#9) chord sustains the lead tone while. tile remaining voicesproduce contrary chromatic motion to the C6.(9) chord. Measure four's C7(alt) chord contains ~ontr?-ry chromatic motion between the top two voices ascending while. the bottom two 'descend (0 the Fmaj7 chord. Finally; note the contrary motion betweenthe

top voice. and bottom voices on the last two chords. .

Cmaj9 B+7(alt9) B~ 13(b9) A1(alt9)
(0.7) (C7)
i !. re I i ~~.
,
I
I I i
, I
Fmaj? F-6(11) E1(#9) A7(al.t9)
(Bb7) (B11-6(9})
-& b.a. ~ 6-
1;. I ?:T
g .;,~§ ~?i
1:,1
.,; I ! ! Abinaj9.

~G7(~91 alt5) CEb_7)

c7(alt) (Ah7sus4)

§ .'~

if ~

C6(9)

, ,

! !

D7(alt9} G7~5(alt9)

(F7) (Db6)

Gmaj7

~ IT

. - '(

j

"

_j.: "

98

"-

Chapter Fourteen.

Enharmonic Chordal Substitutions

The following-chords (highlighted within boxes) appear in the order they were introduced in this text. Enharmonic substitutions for each one of these chords appear in the order they were introduced as well. Charas include the basic four-part chords and all the chords introduced in the tension chapters. To the left, of each chord is the tension chapter where that chord can be found. Additional enharmonic substitutions of the same voicings that have not been introduced to this point will be examined in the Additional EnharmonicChordal Substitutions chapter.

This chapter will include the Substitute Vth chord for eacl- dom7 chord introduced as well as the most common
relative major and minor situations. Some of the mote incomplete voicings will receive additional notation for the
"'- same root to the right of that chord in parenthesis. A more in-depth and organized approach to relative major and
I...... minor chords can be found in the Relative Major - Minor chapter.
Tension I I major71
Chapter C E G B
Cmaj7 1 3 .5 7
(9) A-9 ~3 5 ~7 9
'-'" (9 & 13) D7sus4(l3/9) ~7 9 4 13
(9 & 11) Fmaj7(#11/9) 5 7 9 #11
I major7~'S, I C E G~ B

Cmaj7~5 1 3 ~5 7
(9) A-6(9) b3 5 6 9
(9) Sub V ~ Ab 7#5(#9) 3 #5 b7 #9
(9 & 13) D7(13/9) b7 9 3 13
(11) F#-7bs(ll) bs b,7 1 11
I major7#SI
C E G~ B

Cmaj7(#5) 3 -#5 7
(9) A-maj7 (9} I~ 5 7 9
IJ _,
(9 & 11) F~-7b5(1l/9\ ~5 b7 9 11
j. )
(9-11-13) SubV ~ D7(l3/~! 1/9) ~7 9 ),11 ' 1'3
tt 1
. Ab 7(#9/#5) 3 ~5 1 #9
, ;
'__. '--
...__ ~-
99
"-
,-"'
'-" I minor71 Eb Bb
C G
C-7 1 b3 5 b7
E!;6 6 1 3 5
(9) Abmaj9 3 5 7 9
(9) F9sus4 5 ~7 9 -+
(9--11) F-7(91l1) 5 ~7 9 11
(9-11-13) D~maj7(9/# 11113) 7 9 # 11 13
(9-11-13) B~-maj7( 13/ 11/9) 9 11 13 J [B b 7 sus4(I 3/9)]
(9-11-13) Sub V~F#7(13/# U/b9) ~lj 13 b9 3
C7#9 (C-7) 1 ~'~ 5 ~7
(domlalt9) Sub V ~ An 5(alt9) ~9 b7 ~9 '-"
)
Eb 13 (Eb6) 13 L 3 5
J
!minor7bSI G~
C Eb Bb
C-7b5 b~ ~5 b7
-,
Eb-6 6 ~3 5 --
(91 SubV~Ab9 -, :) , - 9
-' D I
(9) D7(b91#,5) b7 b9 ~- .II -
.I.)
b7 b9 "
(9) F7sus4(~9) 5 4
(11 ) Gb6(# 11) # 11 6 1 3.
(9 -11-13) Db-maj7(-91l1l13) 7 9 11 13
(9-11-13) Bb-7bS(b 13/11/9) 9 11 b13 1
(dom/alt9) Sub V,"",AI3b5(cilt9) #9 bs 13 b9
, Eb 13(#9) (Eb-6) 13 #9 5
I minor7#SI
C Eb G~ Bb
,.,
C-7(~S) I b3 ~5 b7
(9) B!;9sus4 9 4 ~7 1
(11.1 ReI F-70 U ) b7 I "'0 11
~ Ab(add9) D _,
-, 5 9
-'
(11 ) Eb-6( II) 6 1 Li 5 (E~ J3sus4)
(9 -13) Sub V'"'" D7b5(~ 13A9) b7 ~9 65 h 1,3 C07(b9/alt)j
A~9 " -; J o
-' - .-p_
(9-1 J ) Gb6(#LI/9) ~ 11 6 9 j
(9, -11-13) SubV~ Gb 13(~ 11/9) ~ 11 13 9 ""
-)
C7(~9/#5) J H() ii- I,
.. " ,J) r'
i,1 L'
I minor6 ! refer to minor7bS

l§E~ refer [0 minor? 100

.'

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