The Nature of (Marketing) Research Definitions of Research “Systematic investigation towards increasing the sum of knowledge” (Chambers 20th
Century Dictionary) “an endeavour to discover new or collate old facts etc. by the scientific study of a subject or by a course of critical investigation.” (The Concise Oxford Dictionary) • A research can be undertaken for two different purposes: – To solve a currently existing problem (applied research) – To contribute to the general body of knowledge in a particular area of interest (basic/fundamental research) WHAT IS MARKETING ? Marketing is a social process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging products and value with others PHILIP KOTLER WHAT IS MARKET ? A market consists of all the potential customers sharing a particular need or want who might be willing and able to engage in exchange to satisfy that need or want. WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF A BUSINESS ? • Peter Drucker says : ---The purpose of the business is to create customers. • This statement can be made more explicit by stating : ---The purpose of business is to create long-term profitable customers. BUSINESS IS MARKETING • Marketing can not be considered as a separate function , it is the whole business, seen from the point of view of its final results.................that is profit, through customer satisfaction What is Marketing Research ? • According to American Marketing Association M.R. is “the systematic gathering, recording and analyzing of data about problems related to the marketing of goods and services.” ACCORDING TO TULL AND HAWKINS • “M.R. is systematic and objective search to analysis of situation relevant to the identification and solutions of any problem in the field of marketing. The decision making process becomes much easier by M.R. (i.e. PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION – PROBLEM SELECTION – PROBLEM SOLUTION) What is Business Research? • A systematic Inquiry whose objective is to provide information to solve managerial problems. Why Study Research? • Research provides you with the knowledge and skills needed for the fast-paced decisionmaking environment Why Managers need Better Information • Global and domestic competition is more vigorous • Organizations are increasingly practicing data mining and data warehousing Steps in Decision Making Process • Establish Objectives • Determine Potential • Select Problem/Opportunity • Develop Alternatives • Choose Best Alternatives • Implement Alternative International Marketing Research International Marketing Research can be defined as marketing research conducted to aid in making decisions in more than one country Selected Marketing Research Career Descriptions Vice President of Marketing Research • Part of company’s top management team • Directs company’s entire market research operation • Sets the goals & objectives of the marketing research department Research Director • Also part of senior management • Heads the development and execution of all research projects Assistant Director of Research • Administrative assistant to director
• Supervises research staff members Senior Project Manager • Responsible for design, implementation, & research projects Senior Analyst • Participates in the development of projects • Carries out execution of assigned projects • Coordinates the efforts of analyst, junior analyst, & other personnel in the development of research design and data collection • Prepares final report Analyst • Handles details in execution of project • Designs & pretests questionnaires • Conducts preliminary analysis of data Statistician/Data Processing • Serves as expert on theory and application on statistical techniques • Oversees experimental design, data processing, and analysis Junior Analyst • Secondary data analysis • Edits and codes questionnaires • Conducts preliminary analysis of data Fieldwork Director • Handles selection, training, supervision, and evaluation of interviewers and field workers Marketing Research Suppliers & Services • Internal suppliers • External suppliers – Full-service suppliers • Standardized services • Customized services • Internet services – Limited-service suppliers • Field services • Coding and data entry services • Analytical services • Data analysis services Criteria for Selecting a Research Supplier What is the reputation of the supplier? Do they complete projects on schedule? Are they known for maintaining ethical standards? Are they flexible? Are their research projects of high quality? What kind and how much experience does the supplier have? Has the firm had experience with projects similar to this one? Do the supplier's personnel have both technical and non-technical expertise? Can they communicate well with the client? Competitive bids should be obtained and compared on the basis of quality as well as price. Preparation for a Career in Mktg. Research • Take all the marketing courses you can. • Take courses in statistics and quantitative methods. • Acquire Internet and computer skills. Knowledge of programming languages is an added asset. • Take courses in psychology and consumer behavior. • Acquire effective written and verbal communication skills. • Think creatively. Creativity and common sense command a premium in marketing research.
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Marketing Information & Decision Support System Information System • A continuing and interacting structure of people, equipment, and procedures, designed to gather, sort, analyze, evaluate, and distribute pertinent, timely, and accurate information to decision makers. Marketing Information System A marketing information system can be defined as a system designed to generate, store and disseminate an orderly flow of pertinent information to marketing managers. Types of information in Mkt. IS • Recurrent Information • Monitoring Information • Requested Information Recurrent Information • Recurrent information is information that is provided on a periodic basis. • For Example: Customer awareness of the firm’s advertising Monitoring Information • Monitoring information is the information derived from the regular scanning of cretin sources. • For example: a marketing manager may desire a summary of any articles on the competition or the industry. Requested Information • Requested information is developed in response to a specific request by a marketing manager. Decision Support Systems (DSS) • DSS models are developed and adapted to support each firm’s own decision problems • Used to retrieve data, transform it into usable information, and disseminate it to users • Allow managers to interact directly with database • Provides a modeling function to help interpret retrieved information Marketing Decision Support Systems • Combines marketing data from diverse sources into a single database, enabling product managers, sales planners, market researchers, financial analysts, and production schedulers to share information Marketing Decision Support Systems Managers’ need for decision-relevant information: • Routine comparisons of current performance against past trends on each of the key measures of effectiveness • Periodic exception reports to assess which sales territories or accounts have not matched previous years’ purchases • Special analyses to evaluate the sales impact of particular marketing programs, and to predict what would happen if changes were made Components of MDSS • Models (Formulae) • Data • Computer System • Interface • Managers Expert Systems – One of the most useful applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI) – AI is a group of related technologies used to develop software and machines that emulate human qualities such as learning, reasoning, communicating, seeing, and hearing Three components of an expert system – Knowledge base • An expert system’s database of knowledge about a particular subject – Inference engine • The software that controls the search of the expert system’s knowledge base and produces conclusions – User interface • The display screen the user used to interact with the expert system
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Research Process & Research Design Research Process • The research process involves identifying a management problem or opportunity; translating that problem or opportunity into a research problem; and collecting, analyzing, and reporting the information specified in the research problem. Marketing Research Design Marketing research design is the specification of procedures for collecting and analyzing the data necessary to help identify or react to a problem or opportunity, such that the difference between the cost of obtaining various levels of accuracy and the expected value of the information associated with each level of accuracy is maximized. Steps in the Research Process 1. Define the Research Problem 2. Estimate the value of the information 3. Select the Data Collection Approach 4. Select the measurement technique 5. Select the Sample 6. Select the Methods of Analysis 7. Evaluate the Ethics of the Research 8. Estimate time and financial Requirements 9. Prepare the Research Proposal Define the Research Problem Specify the information required to help react to the management problem Estimate the value of the information • Using either judgment or the expected value approach, estimate the value of information with varying levels of accuracy. Select the Data Collection Approach Determine whether secondary data, a survey or experimentation will produce the required data and choose the form of the selected method(s) to use. Select the measurement technique Determine whether and how to use questionnaires, attitude scales, observation and/or projective technique. Select the Sample • Determine who and how many respondents or objects to measure. Select the Methods of Analysis • Determine the appropriate means of analyzing the data to provide the required information. Evaluate the Ethics of the Research • Review all the aspects of the research to be certain that it is ethically sound. Estimate time and financial Requirements • For each research approach, develop time and financial cost estimates and compare to the estimated value of the information and time constraints imposed by the problem. Prepare the Research Proposal • Summarize the results of the preceding seven steps in the form of a research proposal. Types of errors • Surrogate errors • Measurement errors • Experimental errors • Population specification error • Frame error • Sampling error • Selection error • Non response error Surrogate errors • Surrogate information error is caused by a variation between the information required to solve the problem and the information sought by the researcher. • A consumer uses the price of a brand to represent its quality level, is a common example of a measure that is subject to surrogate information error (because price level does not always reflect quality level. Measurement errors • Measurement error is caused by the difference between the information desired by the researcher and the information produced by the measurement process. Experimental errors
Experimental error occurs when the effect of the experimental situation itself is measured rather than the effect of the independent variable. • A retail chain may increase the price of selected items in four outlets and leave the price of the same item constant in four similar outlets in an attempt to discover best pricing strategy. Population specification error • Population specification error is caused by selecting an inappropriate population from which to collect data. Frame error • Frame error is caused by using an inaccurate or incomplete sampling frame. Sampling error • Sampling error is caused by the generation of a non representative sample by means of a probability sampling method. Selection error • Selection error occurs when a non representative sample is obtained by non probability sampling methods. Non response error • It is caused by; • Failure to contact all members of a sample • Failure of some contacted members of the sample to respond to all or specific part of the measurement instrument. Strategies for handling research errors • Three basic strategies for dealing with potential errors. 1. Minimize individual error 2. Minimize total error through trade-offs 3. Measure or estimate residual error Strategy 1: Minimize individual error • Consider sampling error as an example. The probability and magnitude of sampling error can be reduced by increasing sample size, but increasing sample size also increase costs. • It may be possible to reduce sampling error by moving from a simple random sample to a stratified sample. Minimize total error through trade-offs • Assume that a researcher has initially selected a large sample for a mail survey. The sample is large enough to provide a low level of sampling error, but it has taken such a large proportion of the research budget that there are sufficient funds remaining for only one follow-up mailing. Past experience with surveys of this type indicates that with one follow-up mailing, the total response rate will reach 40%; with four follow-ups, it will climb to 55%. One solution would be to ask for an increase in budget. A second solution is to “trade” sampling error for non response error. •
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Secondary Data Primary vs. Secondary Data • Primary data are originated by a researcher for the specific purpose of addressing the problem at hand. The collection of primary data involves all six steps of the marketing research process. • Secondary data are data which have already been collected for purposes other than the problem at hand. These data can be located quickly and inexpensively. Uses of Secondary Data • Identify the problem • Better define the problem • Develop an approach to the problem • Formulate an appropriate research design (for example, by identifying the key variables) • Answer certain research questions and test some hypotheses • Interpret primary data more insightfully Problems Encountered with Secondary Data • Availability • Relevance • Accuracy • Sufficiency Internal Secondary Data • Accounting Records • Sales force reports • Miscellaneous reports • Internal experts External Source of Secondary Data • Computerized databases • Associations • Government agencies • Syndicated services • Directories • Other published sources • External experts Associations Associations frequently publish or maintain information on industry sales, operating characteristics, growth patterns etc. furthermore they may conduct special studies of a factor relevant to their industry. Syndicated services • Companies that collect and sell common pools of data of known commercial value designed to serve a number of clients. • Syndicated sources can be classified based on the unit of measurement (households/consumers or institutions). • Household/consumer data may be obtained from surveys, diary panels, or electronic scanner services. • Institutional data may be obtained from retailers, wholesalers, or industrial firms. Directories • Any sound marketing strategy requires an understanding of existing and potential competitors and customers. • How would you identify the potential competitors and customers? • A number of services and directories would prove useful. External experts • External experts are individuals outside your organization whose job provides them with expertise on your industry or activity.
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Commercial Surveys, Audits and Panels Commercial Surveys, Audits and Panels occasionally generate primary data, some times secondary data, and most often, data with characteristics of each. Commercial Surveys • Commercial surveys are conducted by research organizations and fall into three categories; 1. Periodic Surveys 2. Panel Surveys 3. Shared Surveys Periodic Surveys • Periodic surveys are conducted at regular intervals ranging from weekly to annually. • Periodic surveys are conducted by mail, personal interview and telephone. Panel Surveys • Panel surveys sometimes called interval panels, are conducted among a group of respondents who have agreed to respond to a number of mail, telephone, or, occasionally personal interviews over time. • Panel surveys generally measure differing attitudes, knowledge or behaviors using the same basic sets of respondents. Shared Surveys • Shared surveys are surveys that are administered by a research firm and are composed of questions submitted by multiple clients. Audits • Audits involve the physical inspection of inventories, sales receipts, shelf facings, prices and other aspects of the marketing mix to determine sales, market share, relative price, distribution or other relevant information. E.g. • Store Audits • Product Audits • Retail Distribution Audits Panels • A panel is a group of individuals or organizations that have agreed to provide information to a researcher over a period of time.
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Survey Research What Do You Think of These Questions?
Overview Research in which the participant is asked to respond to oral and/or written questions. The questions and responses can be either structured or unstructured. Why Interviews? • A major advantage of the interview is its adaptability • A skillful interviewer can follow up ideas, probe responses and investigate motives and feelingssomething a survey can never do • The way in which a response is made (tone of voice, facial expression, hesitation) can provide information that a written response would conceal • Survey responses have to be taken at face value, but a response in an interview can be developed and clarified Unstructured Interview Structured Interview Direct Interviews • Direct interviewing involves asking questions such that the respondent is aware of the underlying purpose of the survey. Most marketing surveys are relatively direct. Indirect Interviews • Indirect interviewing, often referred to as disguised, involves asking questions such that the respondent does not know what the objective of the study is. • A person who is asked to describe the “typical person” who rides a motor cycle to work may not be aware that the resulting description is a measure of his/her own attitudes toward motorcycles. Types of Surveys • Personal Interviews • Telephone Interviews • Mail Interviews • Computer Interviews Criteria for selection of a Survey Method A number of criteria are important for judging which type of survey to use in a particular situation. 1. Complexity 2. Required amount of data 3. Desired accuracy 4. Sample control 5. Time requirements 6. Acceptable level of non-response 7. cost Complexity of the Questionnaire • Although researcher generally attempts to minimize complexity, some subject areas still require relatively complex questionnaire. • For example, the sequence or number of questions asked often depends on the answer to previous questions Amount of Data • Closely related to the issue of complexity is the amount of data to be generated by a given questionnaire. • The amount of data actually involves two separate issues; 1. How much time will it take to complete the entire questionnaire. 2. How much effort is required by the respondent to complete the questionnaire Accuracy of the resultant data • The accuracy of data obtained by survey can be affected by a number of factors, 1. Sensitive Questions 2. Interviewer Effect 3. Other Error Sources
Sample Control • Each of the four interview techniques allow substantially different levels of control over who is interviewed. Time Requirements • Telephone surveys generally require the least total time for completion. • Personal and computer interviews take substantially more time than telephone interviews. • Mall intercept interviews can be done fairly rapidly. • Mail survey tend to take the longest time. Response Rate • The response rate refers to the percentage of the original sample that is interviewed. Cost • The cost of the survey varies with the type of interview. Which Method to Use? • Obviously, no one method of survey data collection is best for all situations. • An analysis of the all above mentioned factors will decide, “which method to use?” Non Response Error in survey • Error caused by a difference between those who respond to a survey and those who do not is termed non response error. • Non response can involve an entire questionnaire or a particular question in the questionnaire. Reducing non response in telephone and personal surveys • Non response error is a potential problem for telephone, personal and computer interviews. • Not at home and refusals are the major factors that reduce the response rate. Reducing non response • Motivation • Reminders • Create interesting questions • Pre-notification • Type of postage • Pre paid monitory incentives • Lottery incentives • Gift incentives • Identity of survey Sponsor • Type of Appeal • Foot in the door • Follow-up contacts Strategies for dealing with non-response As an example, consider this decision rule: if 20% or more of the population appear favorable, we will introduce the new product. A mail survey is launched and provides a 50% return rate by the end of the second week. Of those responding, 44% favor the new product. If the remaining 50% of the potential respondents were unfavorable, the projected percentage of favorable attitudes would still be 22%. Since this is more than the amount needed for a “GO” decision, any attempt to generate additional responses would be a waste of resources. Strategies for dealing with non-response • If the non respondents could alter the decision, the researcher should use one (or more) of the following techniques. – Subjective Estimates – Imputation Estimates – Trend Analysis – Measurement using sub samples Subjective Estimates • When it is no longer possible to increase the response rate, the researcher can estimate subjectively the nature and effects of the non respondents. • That is the researcher based on the experience and nature of the survey, makes a subjective evaluation of the probable effects of the non response error. Imputation Estimates • Imputation estimates involve imputing attributes to the non respondents based on the characteristics of other respondents. • For example, a respondent who fails to report income may be assigned the income of a respondent with similar demographic characteristics. Trend Analysis Trends shown by respondents can be used to estimate the characteristics or responses of the non respondents. Measurement using sub samples • Sub sampling of the non respondents, has been found effective in reducing the non response error.
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Experimentation Definitions and Concepts
• • • •
Independent variables are variables or alternatives that are manipulated and whose effects are measured and compared, e.g., price levels. Test units are individuals, organizations, or other entities whose response to the independent variables or treatments is being examined, e.g., consumers or stores. Dependent variables are the variables which measure the effect of the independent variables on the test units, e.g., sales, profits, and market shares.
Extraneous variables are all variables other than the independent variables that affect the response of the test units, e.g., store size, store location, and competitive effort. Experimental Design An experimental design is a set of procedures specifying – the test units and how these units are to be divided into homogeneous sub samples, – what independent variables or treatments are to be manipulated, – what dependent variables are to be measured, and – how the extraneous variables are to be controlled. Potential Source of Experimental Error
• • • • • • • • • •
Pre-measurement (Testing) : effect of pre-measurement on dependent variable Selection: nonequivalent experimental & control groups, (statistical regression a special case) History: impact of any other events between pre- and post measures on dependent variable Interaction: alteration of the “effect” due to interaction between treatment & pre-test. Maturation: aging of subjects or measurement procedures Instrumentation: changes in instruments between pre and post. Mortality: loss of some subjects Reactive error - Hawthorne effect - artificiality of experimental situation Measurement timing - measure dependent variable at wrong time, miss effect. Surrogate situation: using population, treatment or situation different from “real” one.
Experimental Designs Experimental Designs could be categorized into two broad groups: Basic Designs that considers the impact of only one independent variable at a time. Statistical Designs that allow the evaluation of the effect of more than one. Symbols • MB = Pre-measurement • MA = Post-measurement • X = Treatment • R = Designation that group is selected randomly. Basic Experimental Designs • After-Only Design • Before-After Design • Before-After with Control • Simulated Before-After Design • After-Only with Control • Solomon Four-Group Design Statistical Designs • Randomized Blocks Design • Latin Square Design • Factorial Design Ex Post Facto Studies • The term ex post facto according to Landman (1988: 62) is used to refer to an experiment in which the researcher, rather than creating the treatment, examines the effect of a naturally occurring treatment after it has occurred. In other words it is a study that attempts to discover the pre-existing causal conditions between groups. Experimental Environment Laboratory Experiments • Experiments in which the experimental treatment is introduced in an artificial or laboratory setting Testing effect exists as respondents are aware of being in a test and may not respond naturally • Results may not have external validity • Least costly and allow experimenter greater control over the experiment • Alternative explanations of results are reduced, increasing internal validity Field Experiments • Research study in which one or more independent variables are manipulated by the experimenter under carefully controlled conditions as the situation will permit • Experimental treatment or intervention introduced in a completely natural setting • Response tends to be natural • Tend to have much greater external validity
Tend to be artificial
• Difficult to control • Competing explanations for results exist Test Market
The ultimate way to test a new consumer product is to put it into full-blown test markets. The company chooses a few representative cities, and the sales force tries to sell the trade on carrying the product and giving it good shelf exposure, full advertising and promotional strategy, similar to the one use in the home market.
END OF Experimentation
Measurement in (Marketing) Research Concept of Measurement • Standardized process of assigning numbers or other symbols to certain characteristics of objects of interest, according to pre-specified rules Scaling • Process of creating a continuum on which objects are located according to the amount of the measured characteristic possessed • Type of scales: – Nominal – Ordinal – Interval – Ratio Nominal Scale • Comprised of numbers used to categorize objects or events. • No necessary relationships among categories • No ordering or spacing are implied • Only possible arithmetic operation is a count of each category Are you a resident of North America? Yes No Are you 1) Asian 2) African-American 3) Hispanic 4) European 5) Other Ordinal or Rank Scale • Ranks objects or arranges them in order by some common variable • Does not provide information on how much difference there is between objects • Arithmetic operations are limited to statistics such as median or mode Rank your preferences for the following attributes in making a car purchase decision Price ----------Safety ----------Design ----------Fuel economy -----------Interval Scale • Numbers used to rank objects also represent equal increments of the attribute being measured • Differences can be compared • Entire range of statistical operations can be employed for analysis On a scale of 1 to 7, how would you rate the performance of natural gas as home heating fuel in terms of reliability of supply? (1 being least reliable and 7 being most reliable) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Ratio Scale • Type of interval scale with meaningful zero point • Possible to say how many times greater or smaller one object is than another • Only scale that permits comparisons of absolute magnitude How old are you? _________ Components of measurement Table 9—5 Accuracy of Measurements • Reliability • Validity Reliability • Test-retest reliability: applying the same measure to the same object a second time.
Alternative-form reliability: measuring the same object by two instruments that are designed to be as nearly alike as possible. Internal-comparison reliability: comparing the response among the various items on a multiple item index designed to measure a homogenous concept.
Scorer reliability: comparing the scores assigned the same qualitative material by two or more judges.
Validity • Validity, like reliability, is concerned with error. However it is concerned with consistent or systematic error rather than variable error. • Content validity • Criterion validity • Construct Validity
END OF Measurement
Information Collection: Qualitative and Observational Methods Marketing Research
Qualitative and Observational Methods Qualitative Methods Recommended to capture the basic feel of a problem prior to conducting more analytical study Observational Methods Limited to providing information on current behavior Qualitative Research Methods Exploratory: Conducted primarily to explicitly define the problem and formulate hypotheses Orientation: To learn more about target customer (e.g. Culture, language) Clinical To gain insights into topics that are difficult in a structured research Four major constraints: – Volume of data – Complexity of analysis – Detail of clarification record – Time-consuming nature of the clerical efforts required • Computer technology helps alleviate these problems and increase the use of qualitative research Use of Computers in Qualitative Research • Transmitting • Storing • Coding • Searching and Retrieving • Building Relationships • Matrix Building Individual In-depth Interviews • Nondirective interviews – Respondent given maximum freedom to respond • Semi-structured or focused individual interviews – Covers a specific list of topics or sub-areas Focus Group Discussions • Offers participants more stimulation than an interview; makes new ideas and meaningful comments more likely • Issues to be addressed: – Outlining the intended direction of the group – Explaining how participants were recruited
Re-educating observers on the concepts of random selection, statistical reliability, and projectability of research results Types of Focus Groups Exploratory Focus Groups Used in the exploratory phase of the market research process Used for generating the hypotheses for testing Clinical Focus Groups Based on the premise that an individual's true feelings and motivations are subconscious in nature Experiencing Focus Groups Allows the researcher to experience the emotional framework in which the product is being used Key Factors for Focus Group Success • Planning the Agenda • Recruitment • Moderator • Analysis and Interpretation of the Results Ten Tips for Running a Successful Focus Group 1. You can never do too much planning for a focus group 2. Manage the recruitment process actively to get the right people in the groups 3. Don’t prejudge the participants based on physical appearance 4. The best focus group moderators bring objectivity and expertise to a project 5. Achieving research objectives does not guarantee a successful group project 6. The moderator and client should coordinate their efforts at all stages of the process for the research to achieve its objectives 7. Most client organizations conduct more focus groups than are necessary to achieve the research objective 8. One of the most important services a moderator can provide is a fast report turnaround 9. Client observers should be thoroughly briefed about research objectives before the sessions start 10. The most valuable service a moderator can provide is objective conclusions based on the interpretations of the research, without regard for what the client wants to hear Trends in Focus Groups • Telephone Focus Groups • Video Conference • Two-way focus groups • Online focus groups Projective Techniques Presentation of an ambiguous, unstructured object, activity, or person that a respondent is asked to interpret and explain. Categories of Projective Techniques: • Word Association • Completion Test • Picture Interpretation • Third Person Techniques • Role Playing • Case Studies Limitations of Qualitative Methods • Potential susceptibility of the results to get misused or misinterpreted • Results not necessarily representative of the whole population • Moderator or interviewer's role is extremely critical and can lead to ambiguous or misleading results –
End of Information Collection: Qualitative and Observational Methods
Designing the Questionnaire Questionnaire building is an art! A questionnaire is always custom-built! The Process of Questionnaire Design PLANNING WHAT TO MEASURE Revisit the research objectives Decide on the research issue of your questionnaire Get additional information on the research issue from secondary data sources and exploratory research. Decide on what is to be asked under the research issue FORMATTING THE QUESTIONNAIRE Determine the content of each question. Decide on the format of each question QUESTION WORDING Determine how the question is worded Evaluate each research question on the basis of comprehensibility, knowledge and ability, willingness/inclination of a typical respondent to answer the question SEQUENCING AND LAYOUT DECISIONS Lay out the questions in a proper sequence Group all the questions in each subtopic to get a single questionnaire PRETESTING AND CORRECTING PROBLEMS Read through the whole questionnaire to check whether it makes sense and it measures what it is supposed to measure. Check the questionnaire for error Pretest the questionnaire Correct the problems Open-Response Questions • When there are too many responses to be listed, or they cannot be foreseen • When responses are desired to give the flavor of people's answers • When the behavior to be measured is sensitive or disapproved How do you feel about the public transportation in downtown Hartford?-------------------------------------------------------------------------Advantages – Wide range of responses – Responses obtained without any influence – Free choices Disadvantages – Variability in the clarity and depth of the responses. – Time consuming – Involves subjective judgements during summarization. – Respondents may not use the same frame of reference when the options are not available Advantages – Easier to answer – Require less effort by the interviewer – Tabulation and analysis is easier – Less potential error in the way the question is asked and the way it is recorded – The responses are directly comparable from respondent to respondent Limitations – Disagreement among researchers on the type of responses to be listed
The answer to a closed response question will be received no matter how relevant or irrelevant the question is in that context – May not produce meaningful results Handling Uncertainty and Ignorance Concerns the handling of “don’t know” and neutral responses – May be advisable to provide the interviewer with an additional “no answer” category to identify these people correctly Question Wording • Is the vocabulary simple, direct, and familiar to all respondents? • Do any words have ambiguous meanings? • Are any questions " double-barreled”? • Is the question applicable to all respondents? • Are the questions of appropriate length? • Are any questions "double-barreled”? Are you satisfied with the price and the service of Taco Bell? – Sequence And Layout Decisions • Open with an easy and non-threatening question • Proceed from broad general questions to more specific ones • Do not place sensitive or difficult questions dealing with income status, ability etc at the beginning of the questionnaire • Use good quality of paper Pretest Design • Pretesting the Questionnaire to: – Test flow of the questionnaire for clarity and logic – Time each section so that questionnaire does not appear very long – Capture and maintain respondent interest and attention Considerations in Questionnaire Design for International Research • Open-ended questions avoid the imposition of cultural bias by the researcher since they do not impose any structure or response categories. • If the topic is perceived as sensitive by the respondent, it is better to use an indirect format than a direct one. • Where research is conducted in countries or cultures with high levels of illiteracy, it is often desirable to use nonverbal stimuli such as show cards or attitude scales (LKJ). • The wording of questions has to be changed according to the country in which the questionnaire is being administered since categories, such as income, education, occupation, or the dwelling unit, are not always exactly comparable from one culture or country to another. • The most significant problems in drawing up questions in multi-country research are likely to occur in relation to attitudinal, psychographic, and lifestyle data.
End of Questionnaire.
Sampling Process Sample vs. Census
Type of Study
The Sampling Design Process Define the Population Determine the Sampling Frame Select Sampling Technique(s) Determine the Sample Size Execute the Sampling Process Define the Target Population The target population is the collection of elements or objects that possess the information sought by the researcher and about which inferences are to be made. The target population should be defined in terms of elements, sampling units, extent, and time.
An element is the object about which or from which the information is desired, e.g., the respondent. A sampling unit is an element, or a unit containing the element, that is available for selection at some stage of the sampling process. Extent refers to the geographical boundaries. Time is the time period under consideration. • Determining Target Population • Well thought out research objectives • Consider all alternatives • Know your market • Consider the appropriate sampling unit • Specify clearly what is excluded • Should be reproducible • Consider convenience Determine the Sampling Frame • If a probability sample is to be taken, a sampling frame is required. • A Sampling frame is a means of representing the elements of the population. • For example, telephone book, map or city directory. • A perfect sampling frame is one in which every element of the population is represented once but only once. Convenience Sampling Convenience sampling attempts to obtain a sample of convenient elements. Often, respondents are selected because they happen to be in the right place at the right time.
2. Time available
3. Population size
4. Variance in the chara
– use of students, and members of social organizations – mall intercept interviews without qualifying the respondents – department stores using charge account lists – “people on the street” interviews Judgmental Sampling Judgmental sampling is a form of convenience sampling in which the population elements are selected based on the judgment of the researcher. – test markets – purchase engineers selected in industrial marketing research – expert witnesses used in court Quota Sampling Quota sampling may be viewed as two-stage restricted judgmental sampling. – The first stage consists of developing control categories, or quotas, of population elements. – In the second stage, sample elements are selected based on convenience or judgment. Population composition Control Characteristic Sex Male Female Percentage 48 52 ____ 100 Percentage 48 52 ____ 100 Sample composition Number 480 520 ____ 1000
Snowball Sampling In snowball sampling, an initial group of respondents is selected, usually at random. – After being interviewed, these respondents are asked to identify others who belong to the target population of interest. – Subsequent respondents are selected based on the referrals. Simple Random Sampling • Each element in the population has a known and equal probability of selection. • Each possible sample of a given size (n) has a known and equal probability of being the sample actually selected. • This implies that every element is selected independently of every other element. Systematic Sampling • Involves systematically spreading the sample through the list of population members • Commonly used in telephone surveys • Sampling efficiency depends on ordering of the list in the sampling frame Stratified Sampling • The chosen sample is forced to contain units from each of the segments or strata of the population Types of Stratified Sampling • Proportionate Stratified Sampling • Number of objects/sampling units chosen from each group is proportional to number in population • Can be classified as directly proportional or indirectly proportional stratified sampling • Disproportionate Stratified Sampling • Sample size in each group is not proportional to the respective group sizes • Used when multiple groups are compared and respective group sizes are small Cluster Sampling • Involves dividing population into subgroups • Random sample of subgroups/clusters is selected and all members of subgroups are interviewed • Very cost effective • Useful when subgroups can be identified that are representative of entire population Determination of Sample Size Important qualitative factors in determining the sample size – – – the importance of the decision the nature of the research the number of variables
– the nature of the analysis – sample sizes used in similar studies – incidence rates – completion rates – resource constraints Execute the Sampling Process The final step in the sampling process is the actual selection of the sample elements. This requires a substantial amount of office and field work, particularly if personal interviews are involved Issues in Multi National Sampling • Define the population • Specify the sampling frame • Specify the sampling unit • Selection of the sampling method • Determine the sample size • Specify the sampling plan • Select the sample Determining the Sample Size • Unaided Judgment • All you can afford • Average size of sample for similar studies • Required Size per cell • Use of a traditional statistical model • Use of a Bayesian statistical model
End of Sampling.
The Marketing Research Report: Preparation and Presentation The Marketing Research Report • Marketing research report: a factual message that transmits research results, vital recommendations, conclusions, and other important information to the client, who in turn bases his or her decision making on the content of the report The Importance of the Marketing Research Report • The client bases his or her decision making on the contents of the report. • The marketing research report is the product that represents the efforts of the marketing research team, and it may be the only part of the project that the client will see. • The time and effort expended in the research process are wasted if the report does not communicate effectively Organizing the Written Report • Marketing research reports are tailored to specific audiences and purposes, and you must consider both in all phases of the research process, including planning the report. • Must consider questions such as: – What is your purpose? – Who is the audience? – What are your audience’s interests, values, concerns? Organizing the Written Report Front Matter Title Page Letter of Authorization Abstract/Executive Summary Body Introduction Method Results Limitation Conclusions Recommendations End Matter
The front matter consists of all pages that precede the first page of the report. The title page contains the title of the document, the organization/person(s) for whom the report was prepared, the organization/person(s) who prepared the report, and the date of submission.
The letter of authorization is the marketing research firm’s certification to do the project and it is optional. • Abstract/executive summary: skeleton of your report • Body: bulk of the report, including introduction, explanation of method, discussion of results, statement of limitations, and a list of recommendations and conclusions Introduction • The introduction may contain: – A statement of the background situation leading to the problem – The statement of the problem – A summary description of how the research process was initiated. • It should contain a statement of the general purpose of the report and also the specific objectives for the research. • Research objectives may be listed here or in a separate section. Method describes in detail how the research was conducted, who (or what) the subjects were, and what methods were used to achieve the objectives • Results present the findings of the research. • Limitations may focus on, but not limited to, time, money, personnel, and size of population • Conclusions are the outcomes and decisions you have reached based on your research results. • Recommendations are suggestions for how to proceed based on the conclusions. • The end matter contains information that the reader may need to refer to for further reading but that is not essential to reporting the data. Plagiarism • Plagiarism refers to presenting the work of others as your own and is a serious offense. Following Guidelines and Principles for the Written Report • Headings indicate the topic of each section. • Subheadings should divide that information into segments. • Visuals are tables, figures, charts, diagrams, graphs, and other graphic aids. Using Visuals: Tables and Figures Tables identify exact values; allow reader to compare numerical data. Charts: Pie charts: circle divided into sections; compare a specific part of the whole to whole Bar charts: graphically show concepts such as frequency distribution Ethical visual: one that is totally objective in terms of how information is to be presented in the research report • An ethical visual is one that is totally objective in terms of how information is presented in the research report. – Double- and triple-check all labels, numbers, and visual shapes. – Exercise caution if you use three-dimensional figures. – Make sure all parts of the scales are presented. Presenting Your Research Orally The purpose of an oral presentation is to succinctly present the research information and to provide an opportunity for questions and discussion • To be prepared follow these steps: – Identify and analyze your audience. – Find out the expectations your audience has for your presentation. – Determine the key points your audience needs to hear. – Outline the key points so you can easily refer to them. – Present your points clearly and briefly. – Make sure your visuals graphically and ethically portray your key points. – Practice your presentation. – Check out the room and media equipment prior to the presentation. – Arrive early. – Be positive and confident. – Practice good presentation skills (volume, enunciation, eye contact, good posture, professional dress).