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What is a Newspaper?


newspaper is a written publication containing news, information and advertising, usually printed on low-cost paper called newsprint. General-interest newspapers often feature articles on political events, crime, business, art/entertainment, society and sports. Most traditional papers also feature an editorial page containing columns which express the personal opinions of writers. Supplementary sections may contain advertising, comics, coupons, and other printed media. Newspapers are most often published on a daily or weekly basis, and they usually focus on one particular geographic area where most of their readers live. Despite recent setbacks in circulation and profits newspapers are still the most iconic outlet for news and other types of written journalism.


Journalism: A Brief History
The Early Times If journalism is circulation of news then it was in existence even when there was no printing. We can say that it was in existence when even the writing was not known. The Autrlycus of the olden times was living newspaper, for he circulated the news wherever he went. The kings employed ‘Heralds’, who gathered the people in the square by beating drums and transmitted the commands of the king to them. Some kings like Hamurabbi inscribed the commandments on the stone pillars for the people to read. We can call them newspapers which are still in existence. In those days mass communication was possible only with the help of the town criers, heralds, stone pillars, stone tablets (of the Ten Commandments), manuscripts and parchments. These were the newspapers when printing was not known. The First Newspapers The Chinese were the first to bring out newspaper. They had ‘Court Gazette’ which gave the news about the Chinese Emperor’s court. It was the first official gazette in the world. Chinese people also knew the use of moveable type. The mention of this gazette can be traced back to the fifteenth century. In Europe, the early newspapers were newsletters. They could be read for one ‘gazetta’ (a small coin) which latter on gave them the name gazette. This was in italy. They spread to other European countries afterwards. The English newspapers were four pages long. These newsletters developed into ‘corantos’. By the end of 1655, ‘Oxford Gazette’ appeared’ which was printed by the Royal Authorities. Daily newspapers began to appear by the 18th century. The establishment of democracy helped the newspapers to develop rapidly. ‘Daily Courant’ came out on 11th March, 1702. it could not survive but a man called Buckely revived it. The 18th century saw the development of Defoe, swift and Fielding as journalists. Defoe’s ‘Review’ was popular. Dr. Johnson came up with ‘The Rambler’ and ‘The Idler’. Johnson wrote reports of the 18th centurt. There was politics only for the newspapers of the 18th century. There was a number


of newspapers. The king imposed strict laws regarding the press. Thos ignoring the laws were severely punished. Benjamin Harris was one such journalist who was punished more than once. Later he fled to America and started America’s first newspaper. For the men of letters, the social changes, the political set-ups were as important as their literary talks in the coffee house. They wrote outstanding literary essays in those days. In England the journalistic traditions are deep rooted. There are glorious examples like ‘TheTimes’. This was started by John Walter in 1784. It was the ‘Daily Universal Register’ at that time. The times became very popular in later days when technology was applied. It has man firsts to its credits. The first American newspaper was from Boston. It was edited and published by a postmaster ‘Jhon Campbell’. The first issue of his ‘Boston Newsletter’ came out in 1704. This contained news item from the English newspapers. Later on many other newspapers followed. But the most noteworthy was the ‘Sun’ which began in 1833. the new era was begun by ‘New York Times’ in 1851. from the very beginning New York Times was for the common man. It was keen on accuracy and fairness. New York Times gained popularity very fast and very soon became the people’s favourite. Joseph Pulitzer, who became a legend in the word of newspapers started ‘Post Dispatch’ in 1878. Pulitzer guided his staff and gave new dimension to the reportings. He wanted his men to do something exclusively every day. America has come a long was off since then. Now some of the papers have more than 100 pages to their issues. The other European countries also had newspapers. The british carried the spirit of journalism into their colonies. ‘The Printing Press of Guttenberg’ started a revolution which rocked the whole world and made mass communication.

It was the ‘Bengal Gazette’ or ‘Calcutta Genral Advertiser’. the press was seized and hicky was deported to England. Finally in 1782. it was the beginning of a new era of mass communication. the Governor General of India’ Hicky mentioned Hastings as “Mr. 1980 in Calcutta. It retained news taken from English newspapers. Hastings finally filed cases against him. the paper continued. That was the end of Hicky’s Gazette. . himself used to write a column through which he talked with the readers. letters from readers and gossips meant for the high society of Europeans in Calcutta.4 Journalism in India P ortuguese were the first to bring printing technology to India. They used to circulate the leaflets among them. the Dictator etc. Wronghead’. All the important personalities of Calcutta appeared in Hicky’s paper under nicknames. Hicky. Although it cannot be described as journalism. The First Newspaper in India: James Augustus Hicky launched the first newspaper in India. Hicky was supported by a group of Englishmen. who wanted him to attach regularly ‘Warren Hastings. It came out on 29th January. He has to suffer imprisonment. While Hicky was in prison. The Catholic missionaries used this technology to spread the message for Christianity among the natives. he and his newspaper became very unpopular with administration.

Mirat-ul-Akhbar and Brahminical Magazine in order to answer the attacks on Hindustan by Serampore Baptist in their periodicals. ‘Chiplunkar’. Because of his principled views. the native colour in Indian Journalism. Lokamanya Tilak’s carrer as a journalist was superb. Kesari became the voice of the people. In the beginning most of these newspapers stalwarts were British. . ‘G. Agarkar’ etc. The first Marathi periodical was launched by Balshastri Jambekar. Ram Mohan Roy launched Samvad Kaumudi. Kesari enjoyed. Bombay Herald. He came as an editor of ‘ Calcutta Chronicle’. Tilak was arrested and tried. who was the real champion of the freedom of press. he was deported to London. The first Indian journalist was Gangadhar Bhattacharya of another ‘Bengal Gazette’ of 1816. Ram Mohan Roy later turned to social reforms movement in which he was supported by the British government. Ranade’. But the force behind him was Raja Ram Mohan Roy. ‘Dig Darshan’ and ‘Samachar Darpan’. in 1791 in Bombay. an organ of National Movement. the veteran leader was a force behin ‘Stri Bodh’. Ram Mohan Roy’s Journals were shot lived but his attacks were so vehement that the Government had to impose restrtictons on the press by Vernacular Press Act of 1878. He gave local reporters and newsletters and brought in. titled ‘Darpan’. Some like Lokhitwadi and Agarkar devoted themselves to the cause of social reform. One particular name among them stands apart from the others. His in Marathi and ‘Maratha’ in English were widely read.G.5 Thereafter a number of periodicals followed. His editorials were in the simplest of language and the literally turned the lives of people to nationalistic spirit. Madras Courier in Madras. It was James Buckingham. Its every issue was translated and read by British authorities to find out obletctinable material. Many a times the British raided the oress.G. ‘M. Maharashtra produced a number of journalists like ‘Lokhitwadi’. Dadabhai Naoroji. ‘Lokmanya Tilak’.

Annie Besant was editing ‘New India’. With a zeal. After coming to India. Aurobindo Ghosh edited ‘ Vande Matarm’ and Dr. It was Mahatma Gandhi. he conducted Navjeevan in Gujarati. he was another politician. started by Gosh brothers in Calcutta in 1860. And after Tilak.6 ‘Amrith Bazar Patrika’. He was journalist who touched all the subjects from philosophy. economics. ‘The Times of India’ launched in 1838. Jawaharlal Nehru wrote for the National Herald. politics. The Hindu of Madras was started in 1865. . Lala Lajpat Rai was the force behind ‘Punjabee’. Because of his busy schedule. It never praised the national leaders. but always tried to justify the actions of the British Government. Young India in English and Harijan also in English. The Indian press has played a very important role in the Indian National Movement. that is unmatched in history. who wrote in very simple language which touched the hearts of the readers. After independence Times of India became Indian in its outlook. The issues were confiscated and burnt down but they never gave up. was Bombay times in the beginning. Their fight against injustice of the government was still on. who dominated the Indian political score for a good number of years. They were jailed and sentenced with heavy fines. often evoked the wrath of the Govt. He was a busy person who along with his training of Satyagrahis wrote on a number of subjects. He published ‘Indian Opinion’ when he was in South Africa (1904). Because of its English Management it was pro-British. Gosh brothers continued the publication. His father Motilal Nehru had been running a newspaper titled ‘Independent’. Amrit Bazar Patrika is still going on. He was a journalist. the issues were often late but people eagerly awaited them and then had the power of changing the life style of people. It had a consistent readership so even the national leaders sometimes expressed their sentiments in the ‘Times’. literature and sociology.

A number of journalists invited the warmth of the government. Gandhi did not trust the press. The ‘Hindu’ could not publish its editorial. the fight was kept on. It had 20 members nominated by the Newspaper organizations. fining and jailing journalists. Indira Gandhi. the political. the proprietor of Indian Express was hailed as a hero of his brave struggle for the freedom of the press. Some papers literally came with blank spaces. Mrs. The declaration of emergency in 1975 by the government of Mrs. But in brief we can say than the press of India was brace and fearless and although the British tried their best to suppress the voice of the press by imposing restrictions. Formally. First of all’ some journalists like Frank Morses of Times of India felt that ‘since Nehru was virtually with no opposition in Parliament----the press should take it upon itself to function as an unofficial opposition outside Parliament. A worst kind of pre-censorship was imposed on the press. There was a lot to do. The press tried to awaken the people. freedom of the country was the sole objective. The working Journalists Act of 1956 recognized working journalists as Industrial workers. Now. exercising that role with responsibility and circumspection’ Nehru who himself was appointed to decide the rights of the press. The Press Council was established in 1965.7 It is impossible to name all the newspapers that were statrted and run by the leaders of the Indian Freedom Struggle. Indian Express group of Newspapers fought gallantly and with determination with the government during the period of Ramnath Goneka. In the case of Express Newspapers Vs Union of . So the press had though time right ahead. the task was more difficult. Leaders like Pandit Nehru felt that the responsibilities of the press now increased a lot. It was having statutory authority. After Independence: After Independence the role of the press was different. social and economic realities were put before the people with courage unmatched in the history of the world. was an attempt to suffocate the press.

So it was annexed by Reuters. As it grew. There are around 800 periodicals in Kerala. Balshashtri Jambhekar started the first Marathi journal ‘Darpan’.H. . the Supreme Court held that freedom of the press was an essential part of the right of freedom of speech and expression. It was started in 1929.G. Reuters of Great Britain. Kannada journalism started with ‘Mangaloora Samachara’ in Mangalore in 1843. the earliest Bengali journal was ‘Samachar Darpan’ 1818. Khadilkar dominated the scene for a number of years. Reuters swallowed it. There were 149 dailies in Hindi upto 1964. the Centenarian. was another attempt by S. Newspapers were not ready to publish news supplied by Free Press News Agency because they feared thet it would be invoke the wrath of the British government. B. United International (UPI) of United States. Bengali press is the third largest in the country. In 1982. In Marathi. ‘Andhra Prakasika’. M. Tilak. It has played a big ole in the freedom monement. In Malayalam. there were 820 newspapers in Tamilnadu.8 India. Chiplonkar. ‘Malayala Manorama’ has done a century. Veteran journalists like G. Tass of Russia are the big agencies which supply news. The News Agencies: The Associated Press (AP). ‘Tugluk’ by Cho Ramaswami enjoys a good readership. The Regional Newspapers: The first Hindi daily was ‘Samacha Subha Varshan’(1854). (1885) was the first Tamil periodical. ‘Sanyukta Karnataka’ of Hubli was the voice of the people during the freedom movement. who contacted like minded correspondents and Associated Press of India (API) was born in 1908.G. It was in 1927 but the government tried its best to suppress its voice by imposing censorship. As roy was under financial pressure. in Telugu. There was no domestic news agency in India. Free Press of India News Agency. Ranade. the number was 1537. ‘Amrit Bazar Ptrika’ produced eight editions daily. news cables started coming in 1865 and its office was set up in 1866. They have a world wide network and can receive news from all corners of the world. Roy. Reuter’s.C. Nav Bharat Times is the largest circulated daily in Hindi. It was started as a weekly in 1890. He could not do anything to save API. it was K. Sadanand of Free Press.Deshmukh. Up to 1983.

But it was eventually over and again the Press breathed free air. These domestic news agencies were helpful in bringing in news of national importance. ‘Samachar’ was formed. Again when the government tried to curb the freedom of press. with the support from some influential leaders started it. Many of its employees were form FPI. Gradually. Press Trust of India came into existence around 1946 and was incorporated on 27th August 1947. Hindu and other big newspapers have their own service. during the emergency. Sadanand of Free Press. When FPI was in trouble one of its representative Bindhu Bhushan Sangupta.9 Another news agency the United Press of India emerged in 1933. it grew. . had presented a memorandum in 1945. Times of India. the Indian Press is the most free press in Asian countries. according to one international institute. Ramnath Goneka and S. There was no mention of ‘API’ because they did not want Reuter’s interference. Now Indian Express. that there should be and independent news agency. But slowly PTI took over the operations for API. Today.

He indulged in gossips and hateful attacks on the authorities.’ the Great Moghul. Hastings took action against him and Hicky was sent to jail for defamation. Wronghead. Although it lived for only two years. The first issue of Bengal Gazette called itself a ‘weekly political and commercial paper open to all parties but influenced by none’. Bengal Gazette was a sensation among Calcutta readers. the Governor General as ‘Sir F. Hicky called Warren Hastings. James Augustus Hicky of the Bengal Gazette was not a patriot. He had failed in other businesses so he thought of starting a newspaper. .10 FREEDOM STRUGGLE AND THE PRESS R ight from the beginning the Indian Press has been fighting for the national causes.

Kelkar. . Agarkar.B. The Indian Herald made an appearance and disappeared in no time.11 This first newspaper of India was strictly against the establishment and set an example for many other journals which followed it. In Kerala ‘Malayala Manorama’ went on fighting against the social evils as well as the political oppressions. courage and determination. Shrinivasan was a remarkable editor. ‘Samyukta Karnataka’ was the voice of the people during the National Movement. Andhra Patrika (1908) was started in Bombay.C. He resigned from that paper when Mahatma Gandhi began to dominate Indian Politics. it was a selfless mission of patriotism. Bipn Chandra Pal influenced the public opinion through ‘New India’ and Vande Mataram’. Munshi.R. Bannerjee was a moderate. Kesava Menon of ‘Mathrubhumi’ did the best in conveying the message of Gandhi and creating awareness regarding freedom movement amongst the people. In Kannada a number of newspapers like Vishwakarnataka (1921) did great work during the freedom struggle. Pal was the editor of Pandit Motilal Nehru’s paper ‘The Independent’. but Pal was an extremist in views. Aurobindo. C. It was one man’s battle (He was supported by some influential men in England) against the East India Company. The Telugu journalism had to be carried outside the Nizam’s State. For ‘Kesari’ of Tilak every issue was a trial. besides K. The history of journalism in India is full of instances of bravery. N. ‘Swadwshmitran’ was the Tamil version of ‘The Hindu’. Gujrati journalism saw Mahatma Gandhi as a journalist in ‘Navjeevan’. Marathi journalism has a glorious chapter written by Tilak. Surendranath Bannerjee founded and edited ‘Bengalee’. who through his editorials commented on and educated in te political issues. For Gosh Brothers of Amrit Bazar Patrika. Tilak and Lajpat Rai were with him. Its editor was prosecuted by the Govt. Kolhatkar and others. It helped in creating awarness amongst the Telugu speaking regarding the Freedom struggle and Gandhian philosophy. A. Jail and fine was the lot for the nationalist Press.M.

.12 The pages of history cannot be written without mentioning the Indian Press.

UP. its last British editor was Ivor S. who resigned the editorship in 1950. Jehu. Ltd. and served the British colonists of western India. Originally Britishowned and controlled. Published every Saturday and Wednesday. In January 2007. This company. Coleman & Co. The Times of India is published by the media group Bennett. known as The Times Group. also publishes The Economic Times. . the Bombay Times was renamed The Times of India. the Maharashtra Times (a Marathi-language daily broadsheet). and was conveyed between India and Europe via regular steamships. along with its other group companies. 1838 as The Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce. It was after India's Independence that the ownership of the paper passed on to the then famous industrial family of Dalmiyas and later it was taken over by Sahu Shanti Prasad Jain of the Sahu Jain group from Bijnore. Mumbai Mirror. It adopted its present name in 1861. The Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce were launched as a biweekly edition. the Kannada edition of the paper was launched in Bangalore. In the 19th century this newspaper company employed more than 800 people and had a sizable circulation in India and Europe. the Americas.13 THE NEWSPAPERS IN INDIA The Times of India: The Times of India was founded on November 3. the Navbharat Times (a Hindi-language daily broadsheet). The daily editions of the paper were started from 1850 and by 1861. and the Subcontinent. It contained news from Europe.

the publishers of The Times of India newspaper. The Mumbai Mirror was launched by The Times Group after Hindustan Times and DNA announced plans to enter the Mumbai market.5 lakhs while Mid-day's circulation had dropped to 1. and Radio Mirchi.14 The company has launched a controversial new business initiative. The newspaper was launched at the Gateway of India by Vilasrao Deshmukh. Lucknow Times. the Chief Minister of Maharashtra and Abhishek Bachchan on 2005-05-29. Other regular supplements include: • • • • • Times Wellness Education Times Times Ascent Mumbai Mirror Times Life Mumbai Mirror: Mumbai Mirror is a compact newspaper in the city of Mumbai." offering to take an equity stake in a company in exchange for advertising. Bangalore Times etc. This led to a counter attack by Mid-day claiming that Mumbai Mirror was an "Unqualified flop . Supplements The Times of India comes with several city-specific supplements. Mumbai Mirror was advertised and publicised in its own sister media networks like The Times of India. Its first issue was published on 2005-05-30 by the Times Group. The Times of India published a story in its business section which said that it had a circulation of 1. called "Private Treaties.24 lakhs. such as Delhi Times. Bombay Times. Bombay Times.

Though TOI has successfully captured Mid-day's market by offering the Mirror free with their regular newspaper. The Mid-day complaint says that the Times report has damaged its business interests. It also filed a compaint with Audit Bureau of Circulation. in English. Gujarati and an Urdu newspaper called Inquilab.15 according to industry sources". Its slogan is. The current editor of the Mumbai edition is Lajwanti D'souza. a publishing house listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange and National Stock Exchange as MidDay Multimedia Limited. The Mirror's main rival is the Mid-day newspaper.. It publishes newspapers in three languages: English. Inquilab. was born in the fervour of idealistic nationalism in 1938. MiD DAY was launched in 1979. MiD DAY is owned by Mid Day Multimedia Ltd. It was established in 1979 as in a family owned newspaper in Mumbai. (ABC) of which both Mid-day and Times are members. . The Mumbai newspaper publishes two editions: An early morning and a noon edition. was the first paper of the group in Urdu. of late. Make Work Fun. the Sunday MiD DAY. It also has a special Sunday edition. The Times of India. The Mid-day report also featured a newspaper agent who claimed that the Mumbai Mirror is being sold as 'raddi' (scrap paper) since there are no buyers. Bangalore and Delhi. has itself been alleged to be going the tabloid way by indulging in sensational journalism rather than real news. MiD-DAY: MiD DAY is an afternoon newspaper in India with editions in Mumbai (Bombay).

HINDUSTAN TIMES: Hindustan Times (HT) is a leading newspaper in India. Mid-Day List tells you all about the events. that everyone quotes. Jullundur) were made in charge of the newspaper. Bandra. Hindustan Times is the flagship publication of HT Media Ltd. suburban flavour. It has Metro Mulund. It is also printed from Bhopal and Chandigarh. The print lo cation of Jaipur was discontinued from June 2006.16 Mid. This is the paper that everyone reads. The media group also owns a radio channel Fever and organises an annual Luxury Conference which has featured speakers like designer Diane Von Furstenberg. movies and entertainment news tec. Mumbai. These supplements are out once a week and have a very local. Pt Madan . that everyone is familiar with. shoemaker Christian Louboutin. Gucci CEO Robert Polet and Cartier MD Patrick Normand. and is way ahead of any other afternoon paper in Mumbai. Mid-day caters to the suburbs of Mumbai as well. Borivli. Thane. Lokhandwala and Vashi. The supplements it has are very informative. It is an afternoon paper. Unless it is in Mid-Day it is not news!! I may sound biased but this is true for any true to heart Mumbaikar. Ghatkopar. Chembur. Mid-Day Hot-property is all about real estate and property in and around mumbai. S Mangal Singh Gill (Tesildar) and S. Chanchal Singh (Jandiala. Malad. If it is in Mid. It has a nation wide reach in India (barring Southern India). Lucknow.Day then it is happening. with simultaneous editions from New Delhi. Hindustan Times was founded in 1924 by Master Sunder Singh Lyallpuri. Patna and Kolkata. published since 1924 with roots in the independence movement. This paper has become a habit for Mumbaiites. Mid-Day Classified is an epic for job hunters and any other type of advertisers. Other sister publications of Hindustan Times are Mint (English business daily).Day is the very essence of Mumbai. Hindustan (Hindi Daily). founder-father of the Akali Movement and the Shiromani Akali Dal in Punjab. This paper is read by one and all. HT has also launched a youth daily HT Next in 2004. The mid-day crossword is also a fav of many. Nandan (Monthly children's magazine) and Kadambani (Monthly literary magazine). The Mumbai edition was launched on 14th July 2005.

M. . It is owned by KK Birla group at present stake in HT Media. C. Panikkar was its first Editor with Devdas Gandhi (son of Mahatma Gandhi) also on the editor's panel. It was edited at times by many important people in India. part of the KK Birla by Shobhana Bhartia. Cattamanchi Ramalinga Reddy). GD Birla. R. It contained writings and articles from C. F. Dr Kichlu and Rubi Waston etc. Harinder Nath Chattopadhyaya. The first issue was published from Naya Bazar. The owns 69 per cent currently valued at based English newspaper. she was the first woman chief executive of a national newspaper. It has its roots in the independence movement of the first half of the twentieth century. The DelhiHindustan Times.17 Mohan Malayia and Master Tara Singh were among the members of the Managing Committee. Vaswani. L. Reddy (Dr. 1924. Bernard Haton. T. is group and managed granddaughter of HT Media Ltd. Delhi (now Swami Sharda Nand Marg). K. Maulana Mohammad Ali. When Bhartia joined Hindustan Times in 1986. Andrews. including Devdas Gandhi (the son of Mahatma Gandhi) and Khushwant Singh. The current editor of the newspaper is Vir Sanghvi. The opening ceremony was performed by Mahatma Gandhi on September 15. HT has a good track record at the IFRA and has won several awards this year. Rs 834 crore. Ruchi Ram Sahni. St. The Managing Chairman and Chief Patron was Master Sunder Singh Lyallpuri himself. Nihal Singh.

the first Indian newspaper to offer an online edition. It is read not only as a distant and authoritative voice on national affairs but as an expression of the most liberal . Hyderabad.Bangalore.. Mangalore. The Times wrote: “The Hindu takes the general seriousness to lengths of severity..783 copies. Kochi.17 million copies. The Hindu was published weekly when it was launched and started publishing daily in 1889.18 THE HINDU: The Hindu.. Begun in 1878. in 1995.954 copies).038.. than most newspapers in India. According to Indian Readership Survey 2007. Vijayawada and Visakhapatnam. so giving more news from states. especially Tamil Nadu. The Hindu has a readership of 2. it was founded on the principles of fairness and justice. and the largest circulation for a single-edition English-language newspaper in the country. Coimbatore. has the second largest circulation for a single-edition newspaper in India. Reviews The Times.102. Madurai. The Hindu is the most circulated periodical in India with a circulation of 1. London choose it as one of the world's ten best newspapers in 1965. other than its own. It might fairly be described as a national voice with a southern accent..and least provincial southern attitudes. Round 1. With a circulation of 1.2 million. The Hindu is published from 12 locations . Delhi. Its Delhi Bureau gives it outstanding political and economic dispatches and it carries regular and frequent reports from all state capitals. Tiruchirapalli. The Hindu has its largest base of circulation in South India. Thiruvananthapuram. Headquartered at Chennai (formerly called Madras).. India's national newspaper. The Hindu which is published in Madras is the only newspaper which in spite of being published only in a provincial capital is regularly and attentively read in Delhi. The Hindu can claim to be the most respected paper in India. Discussing each of its choices in separate articles.” . according to the Registrar of Newspapers for India (The Sunday Times of India is second with a circulation of 1. Chennai. The Hindu became.

” Supplements: * On Mondays Metro Plus Business Review Education Plus * On Tuesdays Metro Plus Education Book Review * On Wednesdays Metro Plus Job Opportunities * On Thursdays Metro Plus Science. Engineering. An extract from the citation reads “Throughout nearly a century of its publication The Hindu has exerted wide influence not only in Madras but throughout India. and the world. For its championing of reason over emotion. Technology & Agriculture * On Fridays Friday Features covering cinema. it has wide appeal to the English-speaking segment of the population and wide readership among government officials and business leaders. Conservative in both tone and appearance. [It] has provided its country a model of journalistic excellence. [and] has not confined itself to a narrow chauvinism..19 In 1968... The Hindu has provided its readers broad and balanced news coverage. enterprising reporting and a sober and thoughtful comment. the American Newspaper Publishers' Association awarded The Hindu its World Press Achievement Award.. for its dedication to principle even in the face of criticism and popular disapproval. * On Saturdays . arts.... it has earned the respect of its community. music and entertainment Young World... its country. [It] has fought for a greater measure of humanity for India and its people. Its Correspondents stationed in the major capitals of the world furnish The Hindu world-wide news coverage.. for its confidence in the future.

Later when the free press journal collapsed in 1935 Sadanand lost the ownership of Indian Express after a long controversial Court battle with RNG. travel. Also at that time it had to face stiff competition from a well established The Hindu and . while the old Indian Express name was retained in the northern editions based in Mumbai with a prefix "The". a national news agency. cuisine. After his death the group was split in 1999 among his family members into two with the southern editions taking the name The New Indian Express. stock markets.20 Metro Plus and Property Plus. literature. a newspaper focused on the Indian economy. gardening. where blows were exchanged between some of the parties. It is published in all major Indian cities.Sadanand. * On Sundays Weekly Magazine covering social issues. In 1933 The Indian Express opened its second office in Madurai and launched the Tamil edition Dinamani. every first Sunday. founder of the Free Press Journal. It was started in 1931 by Chennai based Veradharajulu Naidu. The Indian Express is owned by the Indian Express Group. But soon under financial difficulties he sold it to S. The group has other publications such as Screen weekly. which also owns other newspapers in India such as the Financial Express. art. the Marathi-language daily Loksatta. Sadanand introduced several innovations and reduced the price. but was later forced to sell part of the stake in form of convertible debentures to Ramanath Goenka due to financial difficulties. and the paper came under Goenka's control who took the already anti-establishment tone of the paper to greater heights. Open Page Literary Review. Finally a year later RNG Ramanath Goenka to buy the rest of the 26% stake from Sadanand. Indian Express was started by an Auyurvedic doctor and Congress Party member Varadarajulu Naidu in 1932 at Chennai (then Madras) published by his “Tamil Nadu” press. and the Hindi daily Jansatta. health. hobbies etc. and fiscal policies. THE INDIAN EXPRESS: The Indian Express is an Indian newspaper owned by Ramnath Goenka.

In late 1930s the circulation was no more than 2000. its rival. The Hindu.21 the Mail besides other prominent newspapers. Mount Road later to become the landmark Express Estates. This relocation also helped the Express obtain better high speed printing machines. In later years Goen ka started the Mumbai edition with the landmark Express Towers as his office when the Morning Standard was bought by him in 1944. . by getting it printed temporarily at one of its Swadesimithran’s press and later offering its recently vacated premises at 2. another prominent Telugu Daily. and along with it the Gentleman magazine. from Ahmedabad and Baroda. In 1940 the whole premises were gutted by fire. while some claimed the Goenka had deliberately set fire to escape financial embarrassment. Kannada Prabha (Kannada Daily) from Bangalore in 1965 and a Bangalore edition of the Telugu Daily Andhra Prabha. which from 1953 became the Delhi edition of Indian Express. Two years later to become it became the Mumbai edition of The Indian Express. and the 1968 Ahmedabad edition.The Financial Express was launched in 1961 from Mumbai. Later on editions were started in several cities like 1957 the Madurai edition. In 1990 it bought the Sterling group of magazines. the 1965 Bangalore edition. helped considerably in re-launching the paper. Later it gained the name Three Musketeers for the three dailies. In 1939 it also bought out Andhra Prabha. The Delhi edition started was when the Tej group's Indian News Chronicle was acquired in 1951. and Gujarati dailies Lok Satta and Jansatta in 1952.

it is Mumbai's fastest growing newspaper in any language.22 After Ramanath Goenka’s demise in 1991. travel and healthcare. the IT-focused Network Magazine and Express Healthcare Management. initiated by Ananya Goenka. The group also runs the Business Publication Division. Express TravelWorld (formerly called Travel and Tourism). Targeted at a young readership. are focused on films in India. DNA: Daily News and Analysis (DNA) is a daily English newspaper published from Mumbai. 2005. The newspaper saw falling profits between the years 2000-2002 but did not change its policies and the nature of content it carried. The organisation subsequently posted profits of Rs. Express Pharma (formerly Express Pharma Pulse). while the Southern editions were grouped as Express Madurai Ltd. with Chennai as headquarters. 450 million) in 2004. In September 2006. as opposed to the other "popular" awards such as Filmfare and Zee Cine Awards. The awards attempt to position themselves as India's first awards that are given by the film fraternity to the film fraternity by way of a jury. and was countered by . BPD also conducts events on IT and organises exhibitions for other parties. The Screen Awards. This financial turnaround has been used as a case study in India's highly regarded Indian Institutes of Management in Ahmedabad. This division publishes and prints out of its headquarters at Nariman Point in Mumbai a series of B2B magazines such as Express Computer. India. The Business Publications Division (BPD) has also ventured into organising events and exhibitions such as Express World. BPD's Express Travel World organised the exhibition for Travel Agents Association of India (TAAI) 55th annual convention in Hyderabad. 45 crores (Rs. it’s in your DNA’ preceded the birth of DNA. A high-profile advertisement campaign with the tagline ‘Speak up. two of the family members split the group into Indian Express Mumbai with all the North Indian editions. The event is a mix of hospitality. Express Hospitality (formerly Express Hotelier & Caterer). It is also the fastest growing English language newspaper in India. launched on July 30.

There is also an Editorial page. a joint venture between media industry majors – the Dainik Bhaskar Group and Essel Group. There are also two zone-targeted supplements for West Coast and Navi Mumbai. The newspaper competition around the time of the launch of DNA was fierce. and a technology page (Evolutions). The paper is brok en up into sections. DNA’s readership in Mumbai city is 518. The main section includes an interactive Speak Up page. Glory. The other sections include Sports and After Hours.[1][2] The hype led to high expectations and at least for Dance with Shadows. The daily pullouts special sections include JobSmart. hiring of staff from rival newspapers.a women's magazine called Me. such as big stories or high production values. the initial edition of the paper did not contain enough to stand out from other papers. Bricks 'N' Mortar and Life 360. The Sunday edition features two magazines . classifieds. and a children's magazine called YA! Young Adults. According to the National Readership Study (NRS 2006) findings released in August 2006. and other such topics. Nation and World news pages. DNA is owned by Diligent Media Corporation.000 in the February-May 2006 period. The latter section is a 10 page section with news from Bollywood.23 advertisement campaigns by competitors. and other competitive activity. DNA is the first daily newspaper in India to introduce an all-colour page format. with price cuts. and City. .

Meanwhile. Amar Ujala has a staggering circulation of over 1.000.000 copies and was servicing over 14 districts in Western Uttar Pradesh. DNA announced that its paid circulation has crossed 400. It had crossed 300.000 over the April IRS figures. the turn of the century saw Amar Ujala a s one of the top 10 dailies of India.000.000 in October 2006. Amar Ujala: Amar Ujala was launched on the 18th of April 1948 from Agra. the Indian Readership Survey determined DNA’s readership to be 402. as a 4 page newspaper with a circulation of 2576 copies with an objective of promoting social awakening and introducing a feeling of responsibility among the citizens of a recently independent India. the readership figures released by NRS 2006 show DNA had the largest increase (29%) for any general English newspaper in Mumbai. the kind of news published was basically revolving around political and social issues and crime. On February 11. putting its paid circulation at 270. Not only has the newspaper shed the barriers of Western Uttar Pradesh and spread itself across the entire state. but steadily. Growing slowly.000 copies and a readership of over 7. 2007. and indicates that DNA was by far the fastest growing newspaper in that city. but has also ventured into other neighbouring states as well. Additionally Amar Ujala is now also a leading newspaper in .400. E & Y submitted its report in July.000. 20 years later Amar Ujala achieved a circulation of 20. In May 2006. In keeping with these objectives that the publishers had set for themselves. 16.3 million in Uttar Pradesh and Uttaranchal alone. The NRS numbers show that DNA’s readership has increased by 1. DNA authorized Ernst & Young to certify its circulation figures. giving it the second largest circulation among Mumbai newspapers. Today. Starting from that modest beginning.24 In March 2006.

a lot has changed in Amar Ujala. Also in keeping with today's fast paced life. To ensure quality of material and content. The newspaper is known for some ground breaking journalism and even in today's cut throat competition. Using the latest state of the art technology and equipment. Amar Ujala also has in offering for readers four colour magazines. Honesty and Trust. Amar Ujala has a regular membership with AFP and AP. all printing centres are connected by V-sat technology to enhance speed of news dissemination. Amar Ujala publishes a 16 page daily issue with more colour pages in every edition. b) Teen World . In addition to this.25 Chandigarh. Punjab. Amar Ujala is still selling Authenticity. Not ever deviating from the objectives with which the newspaper was originally started. Over the years. Amar Ujala is now being printed from 13 editions. .Total Masti: Fortnightly lifestyle magazine for youth on Saturday.Bole to DIRECT Bollywood se: A completely new look film magazine every Sunday. Haryana. c) Rupayan .Aapki Personal Friend: An all new weekly magazine for women every Friday. Currently. even today Amar Ujala continues to be a completely unbiased newspaper with a thrust on political and current events and developments in all fields across the nation and beyond. namely a) Career Plus .Turning Point: A weekly career magazine for youth every Wednesday. Himachal Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir. Amar Ujala has grown dramatically and has evolved with the changing times. d) Rangayan . The latest photographs are therefore part of every edition.


BUSINESS STANDARD: Business Standard is the country's most respected business daily, being the first choice of serious business readers. It is published in colour from seven centres in India - Mumbai (formerly Bombay), New Delhi, Kolkata (formerly Calcutta), Bangalore, Chennai (formerly Madras), Ahmedabad and Hyderabad. The

newspaper believes in free, fair and independent journalism and strives to inculcate these values in its editorial staff. The journalism practised by Business Standard lays equal stress on quality, credibility and accuracy. The Financial Times of London has taken an equity stake in BSL. Business Standard has the country's best economic journalists and columnists working for it. It is edited by T.N. Ninan, perhaps India’s bestknown business journalist, who had earlier undertaken a complete and highly s uccessful revamp of The Economic Times and was responsible for its phenomenal growth. Among the other senior journalists in the team are A. K.Bhattacharya, former editor of The Pioneer and associate editor of The Economic Times, and Shyamal Majumdar, former resident editor of The Financial Express. Business Standard’s stable of specialist contributors includes some of the sharpest minds in economics and business. Among them: Shankar Acharya, former chief economic advisor, government of India, Subir Gokarn, chief economist, Crisil, Deepak Lal, professor of economics,


UCLA, Bibek Debroy, director, Rajiv Gandhi Institute for Contemporary Studies, Suman Bery, director-general, National Council of Applied Economic Research, Alexander Nicoll, assistant director, International Institute for Strategic Studies, and Arvind Singhal, chairman, KSA Technopak. The newspaper’s columnists include Surjit Bhalla, TCA Srinivasa-Raghavan, Sunil Jain and AV Rajwade. The company sees content creation, content processing and content management as its core competence. It offers complete outsourcing solutions for organisations which want to bring out in-house or private publications but lack the people and/or resources to do it cost-effectively. Business Standard Motoring is one of India's oldest and most passionate magazines dedicated to cars, motorcycles and all kinds of other interesting vehicles. And we are the most fun to read too. The standalone print edition goes out to 35,000 people every month and covers testing, comparison tests, interest stor ies, motorsport, features, classics, travel, Indian news and international news/events. A condensed version of the print edition also goes out to 1,00,000 people every month with the Business Standard, India's finest business newspaper. Business Standard Motoring also appears on the Weekend Business Standard as the last page with more news oriented content, plus our popular interactive section, Which Car? The paper sells 143,000 copies daily, and has a reputation for responsible journalism and for its stimulating editorial page. It has pioneered the ranking of the wealthiest Indians (in the Billionaire Club), and offers along with the paper free monthly magazines on motoring and aviation. The paper recently started its Sunday edition from three publishing centres. The newspaper's website is business-standard.com. BSL also publishes several periodicals, including BS Motoring, Indian Management, the Asian Management Review and Routes: the Gateway Magazine.


DANIK JAGRAN: Dainik Jagran is a Hindi daily newspaper. It is principally published in Northern India. It was Established in 1942, Dainik Jagran was the brainchild of a revolutionary Indian Freed om fighter, Late Shri Puran Chandra Gupta. Late Mr Narendra Mohan took the paper to meteoric rise. The first Edition launched was from Jhansi, Uttar Pradesh in 1942. In 1947, it shifted its headquarters to Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, and thus launched its second edition – the Lucknow Edition. Currently, "Dainik Jagran" has 32 editions and the only daily to print over 200 sub-editions, each one customized in content to the needs of the readers in different geographical areas. Today, Dainik Jagran has 29 Printing Centers in 10 States, with over 200 sub-editions. Presently, it is published from Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Bihar, Jharkhand, Punjab, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Delhi, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh; Footprint states : West Bengal. According to NRS-2005 DAINIK JAGRAN,is the highest read National Daily across all languages (including English) in India with a phenomenal readership of 21.24 Million Readers . The 1st Indian publication to cross the 20 million mark. An ABC certified Net paid Sales of over 2.4 million copies (Source: ABC Jan-Jun 05).

RAJHASTHAN PATRIKA: . L imited. has rocketed on to one of the top print media industry in India with its flagship Hindi newspaper.29 DANIK BHASKAR: Dainik Bhaskar is a Hindi-language daily newspaper of India. The Jaipur edition was launched in December the same year and six other editions were launched in the state in quick succession -taking the daily to the No. the group launched its edition in Haryana and the newspaper is presently the No. the newspaper forayed into the Rajasthan market in 1996. Dainik Bhaskar was launched in Chandigarh in June 2000. Currently it is published from many cities of North India. the new in–flight magazine of GoAir. Today. Dainik Bhaskar Group publishes a magazine called 'aha zindgi' a magazine based on highlighting the positive features of life. It first started in the state of Madhya Pradesh.6 lakhs per day. 1 slot in Rajasthan as well. Sustaining its leadership position in MP. a part of Dainik Bhaskar Corp. Dainik Bhaskar is the largest-read newspaper in Chandigarh. has been launched by the Bhaskar Custom Media Publications. Its current editor is Ramesh Chandra Agrawal . The launch and ascendance of the newspaper in Jaipur has since become a subject of study for leading Indian business schools. D B CORP Ltd. Go-Getter. Subsequently. a market that had till then not opened up to Hindi or regional language dailies. Dainik Bhaskar. which achieved leadership position in Madhya Pradesh in 1992. 1 daily in the state with a circulation of approx 2.

this newspaper giant has endeavored to mirror the socio. a public charitable trust. and apolitical news. Education: Patrika in Education. authentic. Taal Music. Outdoor Advertising: Planet Outdoor. to educate the masses and give voice to issues that concern their lives. Kolkata and Hubli. Mr.Ahmedabad. events and fair. evening daily: News Today. Since its early days. Production houses: Patrika TV. Its current editor is Gulab Kothari.30 Rajasthan Patrika is a Hindi language daily newspaper published from Jaipur. messaging service 56969. publication of books. Channel 24 News Cable TV and providing complete media solutions.Jodhpur. the top of the line Rajasthan daily. an advertising agency: Jaipur Publicity Centre. Instituted in the year 1956. The Mindpool School of Journalism. Today the group is providing media solutions through various means. Daily News. It touches the lives of people in Rajasthan and other places every morning through its morning dailies: Rajasthan Patrika.. It is committed to provide reliable. The Mindpool School of Management.Find It. events management. it went on to become the vanguard of Rajasthani journalism. Rajasthan Patrika was founded by Karpoor Chandra Kulish on 7 March 1956. FM radio: 95 FM Tadka.. Rajasthan Patrika is one of the leading newspapers of Rajasthan.Karpoor Chandra. Formerly a journalist with the Rashtradoot. The largest yellow pages of Rajasthan .Surat. The success story of Patrika from a local quarter-size double-sheet evening daily (1956) to a full-fledged sixteen page newspaper has been an epitome of hard work. the NiE wing. Rajasthan Patrika..Chandra’s vision aspired to cater to the needs of the common man. is the brainchild of Mr. Chennai. Jan Mangal Trust.Kota and other cities of Rajasthan and form major Indian cities such as Banglore. Statistics serve as the yardstick of success and failure in this world of cut-throat competition and Rajasthan Patrika boasts of an enviable track .Udaipur. The Solid Radio. determination.political reality of the times. Rajasthan Patrika is the initiator in the development of 'Journalism in Rajasthan'. a pioneering figure in the world of journalism.

Sikar. with a lion’s share of the readership pie. A part of the Audit Bureau of Circulation. In the coming years. The fifty year old institution of intrepid journalism. the newspaper amassed huge popularity during the period of Emergency that lasted between 1975 and 1979. Fearless reporting coupled with fiery articles penned by the editor. In March 1986 Kota Edition and in August 1987 Bikaner Edition were added to the newspaper. Rajasthan Patrika has also floated its online version.68%. Ajmer. Surat were instituted. has won several accolades over the years. pegged the readership percentage of the Rajasthan Patrika at ushered and with the starting of Udaipur Edition a new milestone was achieved. It scaled newer heights with its circulation reaching one lakh. has contributed to its stature. Dauntless journalism pegged its circulation at a whopping seventy five thousand.31 record. . The newspaper has championed many a public cause. Ahmedabad. The post emergency period saw the shifting of bases to Kesargarh. Bikaner. Sriganganagar. Patrika's grand success continued and increased day by day. All the three editions got the national awards for printing and designing. Kota. In keeping with the times. showed that a staggering 84. The National Readership Survey. In 1995 National Readership Survey. Reputation and readership bolstered the infrastructure of the organization. subsequent editions for Udaipur. conducted in 1995. The year 1981 served as t he launch pad of the edition for Jodhpur region. Bhilwara.

32 Can small and regional daily newspapers survive? M edia grew simultaneously with the freedom movement in India. Particularly. It mobilised popular opinion during the freedom struggle. In the post-independence phase too. there are 2. the vibrant growth in the regional language readership occasioned by the spread of literacy and education has led to a growing demand for medium and small regional newspapers.130 daily newspapers in the country. According to the Registrar of Newspapers of India (RNI). Newspapers were mostly brought out by people associated with the freedom fighters. mobilizing popular opinion during the freedom struggle and spreading the message of great leaders. As a credible pillar of Indian democracy. Many prominent freedom fighters were directly associated with one newspaper or the other. it has championed press freedom. Leaders like Tilak and Gandhi chose the media to spread their message to the masses and mobilize support for the various struggles launched against the foreign rulers. Now corporates want to have a finger in the media pie. unbiased editorials and for building public opinion through dissemination of information. Many freedom fighters were associated with one newspaper or the other. RNI claimed a combined circulation . the media has grown along with the freedom struggle. The advent of information technology has given fresh impetus to the growth of the media. It has played a pivotal role in creating awareness amongst the masses. IN INDIA. media earned a name for its fearless reporting.

feels that the advantage for the regional dailies was the freedom of reporting and editing. an increase of more than 13% compared to the year 2000. most of the corporate houses are vying for a share of the media pie. He has invested a massive Rs 400 crores plus to ensure that all the pages of the newspaper are printed in colour from Jan 1. most of the major newspapers are bent on increasing their market share and business by focusing on the ills that plague society. in the postliberalisation phase.89 crore copies for the year 2005-06. on RNI records. 55 %. It may be recalled that the Andhra Pradesh Chief Minister Y. . Piratla Venkateswarlu. 3. This has led to a major shift in the field of journalism. The media has also become so powerful a weapon that it can influence government policies in such a manner as to suit industrial houses or as to suit its own (media’s) income-generating activities (like advertisements). rather than the people. viz.33 of 8.83 crore copies. editor of Krishna Patrika. Serving the cause of the masses has taken a back seat. as they are bound to serve the business interests of their corporate house-bosses.27 crore copies. Now. as these newspapers were controlled mostly by reputed journalists. 2008. respectively. has become the cornerstone of Indian journalism. corporate houses started cornering the limelight in the newspaper industry.483 registered newspapers. There are 214 large dailies. S Rajasekhara Reddy’s son Y S Jagan Mohan Reddy is brining out a daily newspaper in Telugu (19 editions). However. As on March 31.85 crore copies and 1. 906 medium dailies and 1. Likewise. followed by those owned by joint stock companies. Newspapers owned by individuals had the largest share in circulation. Their circulation accounted for 3. In such circumstances the very survival of small and regional daily newspapers is at stake. This analysis proves that small and medium daily newspapers have been in-creasing their circulation in a big way.413 on March 31.. `Marketability’ and not `mission’. 2006. 2005.047 small dailies. he is also planning to bring out a news channel soon. launched during the freedom struggle. as against 20. at 39 %. Now. there were 62. including magazines. No more do journalists of major newspapers enjoy such freedom of expression.

N. S Rajasekhara Reddy. Venkateswarlu said that about 500 delegates from all over the country are expected to participate. Krishna Patrika is organizing a national level workshop on the “Role of Small and Medium Daily Newspapers in the Indian Democratic Polity” in Hyderabad on October 6 and 7. Y. and its opposition leader. N Chandrababu Naidu. The AP Governor. D Tiwari.34 Keeping in view these developments. . besides many Central and State ministers and eminent journalists will participate in the workshop. The workshop will discuss the various problems being faced by the country’s small and medium daily newspapers and their role in the democratic polity. ethics and other related issues. its Chief Minister.

Tabloid Describe the appearance of the front page: what catches your eye first? Why? Describe in detail what is in the top part of the page:  How much space is taken by the masthead and the information about the stories inside? Estimate (e. answer the questions at the end (‘Reporting back’) which compare the two.g. or typeface. (For example. the items advertised at the top of the page)? Say what you think each item is about.35 Tabloid and Broadsheet newspapers What’s the difference? You will have a copy of the front page of two newspapers for the same day. are they about politics. apart from details of stories inside?  What are the contents about (that is.  Describe how the title of the paper is printed (the style of printing.  How many news stories are there on this page? (Don’t count the ones advertised at the top of the page. half a page. a quarter?) or. a third. It does not matter which paper you start with: just make sure that you put the headings given.  How much does this paper cost?  What other information is there at the top of the page.)  Are there any advertisements? . better. measure and calculate a percentage. sport or famous people in entertainment?). When you have written about both papers. and its size).

. sport or famous people in entertainment?)  How many words are there in the story on this page (not counting the headline)? Is there more about this story inside?  How easy to understand is this story (easy..36 What is the main headline?  How the headline is printed (what kind of TYPE . did you know about the person in this story?). describe it.g.  Did this story interest you? Explain your answer (e. What kind of a story is it? (Is it about politics. difficult in places. very difficult to understand)? Explain why you say this. . did you know about the person in this story?).  Is there a picture to go with this story? Describe it. What other news story is there on the front page? Write out the headline. quite easy. Do you notice anything about the way the headline is written? What is the story about (one sentence)? How many words in this story?  Is there any more about this story inside?  Is there a picture? If so.g.  What does the caption (the words under the picture) add to the picture? Did this story interest you? Explain your answer (e.the printing style)?  What is the main story about? Sum it up in one sentence.

 Describe how the title of the paper is printed (the style of printing.g. you might want to read a few of the stories but not all of them). both on the front page and inside?  What does this tell about the interests of people who would want to read this paper?  Would you be interested in reading this paper? Explain your answer (e. a quarter?) or. and its size). measure and calculate a percentage. better.. Broadsheet Describe the appearance of the front page: what catches your eye first? Why? Describe in detail what is in the top part of the page:  How much space is taken by the masthead and the information about the stories inside? Estimate (e. a third.g.37 Thinking about the front page  What kinds of stories are there in this paper. or typeface.  How much does this paper cost?  What other information is there at the top of the page. apart from details of stories inside? . half a page.

Is there more inside?  How easy to understand is this story (easy.  Is there a picture to go with this story? If so..g. is it about politics.  What are the stories inside (that is. .g. the ones advertised at the top of the page) about? Say what each story is about and also what kind of a story you think it is (e. is it about politics. describe it. very difficult to understand)? Explain why you say this. did you know about any of the people in this story?). difficult in places. estimate the number by counting the number of words in a line and multiply this by the number of lines in the story on the whole page.) Are there any advertisements? What is the main headline?  How the headline is printed (what kind of TYPE)? What is the main story about? Sum it up in one sentence. the items advertised at the top of the page)? Say what you think each item is about. sport or famous people in entertainment?)  How many words are there in the story on this page (not counting the headline)? As this may be a long story. quite easy. sport or famous people in entertainment?).  Did this story interest you? Explain your answer (e. What kind of a story is it? (For example.38  What are the contents about (that is.. What can you learn from the bottom of the page? How many news stories are there on this page? (Don’t count the ones advertised at the top of the page.

g. . both on the front page and inside?  What does this tell about the interests of people who would want to read this paper?  Would you be interested in reading this paper? Explain your answer (e. Thinking about the front page  What kinds of stories are there in this paper. describe it.39 What other news story is there on the front page? Write out the headline. did you know about the person in this story?).  What does the caption (the words under the picture) add to the picture? Did this story interest you? Explain your answer (e. Do you notice anything about the way the headline is written? What is the story about (one sentence)? How many words in this story?  Is there any more about this story inside?  Is there a picture? If so. you might want to read a few of the stories but not all of them)...g.

sport. Can you detect any bias in either of the papers? You will need to explain which story or stories you have read which you think show bias. entertainment and films. TV. You may find it helpful to organise your answer around these questions: 1. as well as at the kind of language each paper uses. horoscopes. at the kinds of stories which each paper prints. for example. 2. number of pages. cookery. the advertisements. 3. Pick out a few words from the story to show this.40 Looking at Newspapers Reporting back From your work with at least two newspapers. pictures. explain the major differences between the kinds of newspapers you have examined. (Example: What is the effect of this kind of headline: “TV star stole my sister’s rabbit”?) Can you tell what kind of readers each paper is aimed at? Give reasons for your answer – look. You will probably find it simplest to concentrate on the front page of each paper. etc. 4. . etc. Is there a difference in cost? How much space is devoted in each kind of newspaper to the different kind of news (politics. and the amount of space given to pictures. 5. the kinds of pictures. What are the main differences in appearance? Think about size of page. finance and features such as motoring. and how it is biased. etc)? How does each paper attempt to gain the attention of its readers? Think (and write) about the headlines. Make clear which papers you have studied. 6.

which paper would you be more likely to buy on a regular basis? Which do you think offers better value for money? Give your reasons. 2. Assuming you could afford it. what kind of information is it and from where might the paper have got it? Which headlines are statements of fact? Which headlines use the most dramatic words? (Write down some examples. They’ve got it covered! (a) How two papers report the same story Choose a story of major importance which has been covered in both a tabloid and a broadsheet newspaper on the same day. 4.41 7. Think about the following questions and make notes about your answers: 1. . 5. 6. Can you find any of these elements in it: • an eyewitness account? • an expert opinion? • a brief summary of events? • a political comment? • historical background? • reaction from public figures? • an official statement? 3.) Can you explain why different papers have tackled this story in different ways? Choose one newspaper’s story. What differences can you see in the ways that different papers handle the story? Do any of the newspapers have information that the others do not have? If so.

Below are two checklists of tabloid and broadsheet language.42 Tabloid & Broadsheet The terms tabloid and broadsheet come from the traditional sizes of the newspapers but now that most newspapers are in 'compact' format. snappy sentences Heightened language (over the top) Brand names Adjectives often carry sexual overtones A focus upon appearance Frequent use of elision e. the language they use and the way the pages are laid out reveals significant differences. The most striking difference between tabloid and broadsheet newspapers is their language. Tabloid • • • • • • • • • • • • • Informal Use of puns Use of alliteration Exaggeration for effect Slang Colloquial language (chatty) Informal names used Short. it is a little harder to tell the difference at a glance! Studying the stories they cover. they way they cover them.g. don’t. won’t. This is another informal technique .

) Puns sometimes used. semi-colons etc.Broadsheet • • • • • • • • More formal Metaphors rather than puns Rhetorical questions More complex sentences (look for sentences separated by lots of commas. with a commentary by the journalist . although more subtle Statistics Descriptions of people tends to relate to personality or position in society Politician’s comments often included.

The trend is set to continue. see their salvation in changing formats: they believe that switching to a more compact one. Many. particularly teens and women. Newspapers have fought back with free subscription trials and other promotions. the circulation of paid newspapers has declined?by 2 to 4 percent annually for more than a decade in most developed markets. may lift circulation by attracting disaffected newspaper readers. and the format has proved popular. The Independent? the first of two quality morning papers in the United Kingdom to convert itself into a tabloid? is a particularly successful example. stimulates demand for advertising. and with better home and newsstand distribution. . particularly as growing broadband penetration encourages the wider use of online media. available in many big European and US cities. In addition. Several important broadsheets across Europe have recently converted themselves into tabloids. such as the tabloid format.Dwindling Readership: Are Tabloids The Answer? A s consumers have increasingly turned to television and the Internet for news. whom advertisers covet. Higher circulation. the revenues and profits of traditional newspapers are under intense pressure. in turn. As a result. with advertising platforms such as new or expanded feature sections.3 Market research also indicates that tabloids enjoy above-average circulation growth among younger and female readers. the price of the newspapers can rise as well. free commuter tabloids. particularly in Europe. having increased its circulation by 18 percent within six months of the format switch. so newspapers can raise their ad rates. have lured away some paying customers. with circulation rising by an average of 6 to 8 percent in the year following the transformation. In some cases. But struggling publishers often seek the quickest method to cut costs and increase circulation without harming ad revenues.

Cost savings may therefore do little to offset the most important negative impact of format change: lower advertising revenues. Publishers must also find ways to keep advertisers and subscribers happy while extracting the maximum economic benefit. but in this respect they may be disappointed.But changing the format of a newspaper carries big risks. Ultimately. churn among one profitable category of readers?subscribers?may rise because of their reluctance to accept the change. No matter . To carry out a format change successfully. Distribution costs are generally negotiated on a percopy basis rather than by size. the process of changing the format benefits newspaper publishers by inducing managers to look more closely than ever at business processes throughout the organization. Although newspapers sometimes save money on newsprint. other printing costs are fixed if capacity is located inhouse. can derail the process. The risks When publishers change formats. they count on reducing costs. Despite the potential for a quick up tick in circulation. as well as resistance by employees. as it often is. At newspapers that rely on subscriptions rather than newsstand sales. subscriptions may fall by 3 to 5 percent as longtime readers switch to other broadsheets or content themselves with other media. A changemanagement effort is necessary to ease the employees' concerns about the impact of the new format. newspaper publishers must manage and mitigate all these risks. And most newspapers see an initial drop-off in advertising revenues when they make the change. These problems.

always influential. but publishers can present them with a convincing case for the change. tabloids with more frivolous content. of . the great majority of newspapers initially see them fall. Editorial staff members. advertising revenues tend to suffer a net reduction of 10 to 15 percent. They may also be concerned about placement? worried. Such increases are unlikely to be received well by advertisers. Much of that success was attributable to a readership increase of 12 percent. Losses are typically recovered after a couple of years. Broadsheets are associated with serious news coverage. meaning potentially higher rates and the end of previously negotiated discounts. for example. however. typically don't see the value of a format change. As the pages shrink. Another reason for the decline in ad revenues involves the public perception of tabloid newspapers. that an ad in the back pages of a 100-page tabloid will have far less impact than an ad in the back of a 50-page broadsheet. And newspapers sometimes use a format change to introduce a new advertising rate card. While the losses vary. One national European newspaper lost almost 50 percent of its advertising revenue per page when it converted itself into a tabloid. lost 13 percent of its advertising revenue after the conversion but recaptured its losses in about two and a half years. A poorly executed transition can therefore be disastrous.how well executed the change. Le Matin. No newspaper makes format changes primarily to please editors. Garnering their support requires a substantial managerial effort. for several reasons. a Swiss newspaper. we estimate that a format change puts as much as 20 percent of a newspaper's ad revenues at risk. so do the ads (a full-page ad is only half its previous size). and advertisers may be unwilling to pay the same price for what they see as less consumer exposure and recognition. Even though it can recoup some of this loss by raising its price per column centimeter as circulation increases and it reaches new reader segments. A third risk of format change arises from a newspaper's workforce. Advertisers accustomed to the kind of reader associated with the broadsheet format may see the change as a reason to take their business to other broadsheets or to alternative media.

the impact on the way they work. This priority might seem obvious. The newspaper made efforts to understand the needs and wants of its readership and. They may be concerned about the perceived deterioration of editorial quality. Some regular readers were lost. Getting it right one leading European quality newspaper had promising results while converting itself from a broadsheet into a tabloid: readership immediately increased by 22 percent among teens and young adults and by 16 percent among women? Higher than the average among other newspapers that changed formats. publishers should prepare key performance indicators . the publisher decided that the desires of the readership would be the driving factor throughout the conversion process. it is essential. for example. The newspaper succeeded where others lagged behind because its leadership implemented a program to manage and mitigate risk. Many staff members will have spent their whole careers with the newspaper. These were segments highly desired by advertisers but hard to reach through most print media. Before introducing the new format. changes to the paper's internal culture. What types of content do readers like and dislike? When and where do they want to read their newspaper? Market research found. that younger men wanted more sports and that younger women wanted more articles about home and health issues. As a starting point. The short-term decline in advertising was limited compared with the experience of other newspapers that changed formats. but there was a net increase overall. Although such research may be time-consuming.course. but they are crucial to the success of the project. The newspaper was able to raise its prices per column centimeter and even enjoyed higher advertising revenue in the medium term. in particular. and possible layoffs? Particularly as the newspaper reconfigures itself and perhaps reduces the amount of content it publishes. to identify underserved but desirable segments. the newspaper redesigned its content to appeal to young urban readers. Progress must be measured if it is to be sustained. particularly newspapers. In response. but not all publishers adopt it.

even as the new format attracts fresh readers and encourages advertisers. Building consensus As with other change-management programs. A failure to reach at least some level of understanding will jeopardize the format-change program. and distribution KPIs that set cost targets (Exhibit 2). the newspaper must adopt best practices in its advertising sales and pricing. management can make midcourse corrections. Our work suggests three areas of focus. Managers must outline to employees the financial and competitive situation of the newspaper as frankly as possible. Using these metrics. explaining and communicating the need for change and the potential for growth once it has taken effect. printing KPIs that measure the waste of paper. .(KPIs) for the entire organization. an important part of managing the risk of a format change is to build consensus within the organization. advertising KPIs that monitor responses from important advertisers. Format change must be carried through in a conscientious way that gets and keeps everyone on board. These might include editorial KPIs for the readership's view of the newspaper's quality (as measured by surveys). Meanwhile.

editors have lost touch with certain elements of the readership. managers must convince the various stakeholders that change is required in view of the challenges facing the newspaper?declining circulation and adverting revenues. Although they are sensitive. relating its outlook to the work it performs and outlining the actions required to make the transition successful. and they play a substantial role in the transition's ultimate success. But at some newspapers. for example. In particular. layout. these workers are both mobile and vocal. the commitment of the editorial team is critical. Reconnecting with such readers is difficult but essential to success. To build support from the editorial team. They may find it hard to accept the need to adjust the newspaper's editorial content. newspapers have used timing and information: Most of them introduce the tabloid style (shorter . Each department should present its perspective on the proposed changes. they are essential to securing the all-important internal buy-in.With the broad outlines made clear. Managers must prepare carefully and keep the tone positive and constructive. and style in order to capture readers. since these conversations can be difficult.

By contrast. newspapers must be able to supply facts that demonstrate the virtues of a new format: they must. It went on to implement efficiency initiatives that increased its earnings before interest and taxes by 10 percent and eventually introduced a new format. They also must show what kinds of readers will be attracted to the new format. but the sharing of information improves the chances for mutual understanding. so the newspaper's staff?particularly the editors?opposed them. and where and when the newspaper was read. The results gave its management concrete arguments that persuaded stakeholders that it had to change. Given a newsroom's ingrained mistrust of the publisher. Management. These initiatives were based only on guesswork. prove that display advertising will get as much recognition in a tabloid as it would in a broadsheet. layout. for example) gradually. management at another European newspaper based the process of format change on broad market research that examined not only the readership's perception of the editorial content but also other marketing considerations. unable to back up its arguments constructively. At one European newspaper. Market context is paramount: publishers in niche markets with limited competition have an outlook and approach different from those of publishers facing a number of competitors that advertisers can pick and choose at will. The process might also include an effort to build pressure by getting the more senior department heads on board. including distribution. the publisher wanted to introduce what it regarded as no-regrets business changes in anticipation of a format conversion. for example. there's no guarantee that this approach will work. . In either case. Well-planned marketing to advertisers Success requires a coordinated approach that communicates the benefits of the format change to readers and advertisers alike. abandoned the proposed efficiency initiatives. Providing factual information about what is actually happening in the marketplace might also help to counter established beliefs within the organization.articles. management had no facts to justify them in discussions with employees.

It should also take into account the elasticity of the demand of different advertisers. they have typically worked out individual deals with any number of advertisers? Deals allowing ever-greater discounts or rebates. often indiscriminately. to develop an action plan for all types of advertisers. publishers can deploy a set of fact-based tools. ideally. a newspaper must communicate the new format's value as compared with that of alternative media options and. at the same time. Grouping advertisers into logical. As the circulation of newspapers has declined and their negotiating position has weakened. At the same time. to increase their spending. Local versus national matters because a local advertiser that buys full-page ads could turn to direct marketing to achieve similar results. two are typically important: the size of their advertisements and whether they are local or national companies. The structure should give advertisers incentives to stay and. The idea is to be able to anticipate the advertisers' responses to a format change. for example. Examples include "ad-track" surveys (test groups note the ads they remember from tabloids and broadsheets) and the "eye-track" . advertisers are likely to be skeptical.A first step is to segment the advertisers. manageable categories makes it easier to analyze how format change will affect them and how they will respond. and to see whether they will accept an increase in the price per column centimeter. newspapers must deal with their existing rate cards. Once newspapers have segmented their advertisers. many will question the new format's impact. they may be willing to pay the same amount or more for large ads but insist on lower prices for smaller ones. At first. Among ways of categorizing advertisers. Segmenting for ad size is important because bigger usually means more revenue. work out the details of the new rate card with the goal of increasing overall revenue. fewer newspapers segment them. To do so. A format change is the optimal time to present each advertiser with a new rate card and to work hard to make the adjustments sustainable by gaining agreement on a clear and favorable rate plan. they must build an effective rate structure tied to these categories. To address such concerns. while segmenting the readership is a familiar idea.

but full-page and half-page ads attract about as much? Or more? Attention. Some readers are more valuable than others? For example. so the publisher had to keep the price per column centimeter constant. by virtue of how long they have subscribed or their attractive demographics. One European newspaper used these approaches as a basis for introducing a new rate card. The newspaper was able to increase prices by up to 100 percent on most large ads. Accordingly. in particular. Advertisers initially reacted negatively to the proposed significant increase in the price per column centimeter. This decision implied a big loss in advertising revenue when the size of a page fell by almost 50 percent. Both approaches indicate that quarterpage and smaller ads in tabloids do indeed get less attention than similar ads in broadsheets. In another European example. Subscribers. offer publishers many benefits. They also enable a newspaper to have a more predictable and efficient distribution system. it is important to introduce a structured approach to avoid losing the most valuable readers during a format change. they didn't acknowledge the new format's advantages. Then they heard the facts. including. however. as well as better data for the advertising sales force. the publisher neglected discussions with advertisers. Reducing reader churn Publishers must do what is necessary to retain readers during the changeover. and it may be possible to sell them other products and services too. It obtained smaller price increases for ads of onequarter page and under. a consistent stream of cash. the length of subscriptions. One way is to get a perspective on their overall customer lifetime value by analyzing dimensions such as acquisition and maintenance costs. the . most obviously. As a result.approach (independent researchers measure how much time individuals spend looking at an ad or a page).

62 lakh. 4. it can determine their particular needs through market research surveys and use the findings as the basis for an outreach plan. When the newspaper has identified its most important subscribers.advertising potential.75 lakh. It has slipped one rank with a readership of 85.28 crore. The four newspapers that showed an increase were Danik Bhaskar.4 per cent growth in AIR.5 per cent since the previous round.1 lakh. Amar Ujala: declined by 2. 6. Rajasthan Patrika. . according to the IRS 2007 Round 2. The Times of India and Ananda Bazar Patrika. The others in the top 10 are: 3. Leading newspapers have used these customer-lifetime-value programs during format changes. and the possibility of selling other products.37 lakh to 86. Six of the top 10 newspapers showed a decline in readership. Its AIR has declined from 88. Its readership stood at 1. It registered a 2. Jagran's close competitor Dainik Bhaskar was at number 2. Dainik Jagran continues to be the top of the heap with an average issue readership of 1.1 per cent to an AIR of 80. IRS 2007.65 crore despite a decline in AIR by 3. the cost to serve. Hindustan: Saw a maximum decline of 5. The reduced churn resulted from effective. consistent communication with readers about the benefits of the new format.51 lakh down from 90.5 per cent in readership among the top dailies. Malayala Manorama: It experienced negative growth. 5.Daily Thanthi: Its readership declined by 5.2 per cent to 79..52 lakh in Round 1. However. One such program helped a European newspaper not only to retain virtually all of its most valuable subscribers but also to cut subscriber churn as a whole compared with the levels prevailing before the format change.

the time spent. have dropped out of the top 10. Mathrubhumi and Lokmat. may launch its own readership survey at a cost of Rs 7-8 crore within the next four months. This may mean that the money being spent by INS members on both IRS and NRS is diverted to the proposed new body which will conduct the readership survey." Paresh Nath. so we may go in for our own survey.ABP and TOI are new entrants to the top 10. Disappointed by the findings of the Indian Readership Survey.46 lakh to 74. demographics and psychographics and other parameters. The grievances were more or less the same -. . told Business Standard. Eenadu: Has registered a decline in readership by 4. unlike the IRS or NRS that also looks at the viewership of television channels. Also. the INS had threatened to walk out of the National Readership Survey conducted by the National Studies Research Council.7.5 per cent the highest among the top 10 dailies. INS has mooted a proposal to set up an independent research body that will only look at the readership of newspapers and magazines. Ananda Bazar Patrika: increased its readership by 4. Now. taking its readership to 68. literacy is growing too. Rajasthan Patrika: Has shown an increase in readership by 6. 9. the circulation of all print publications has gone up compared to last year.34 per cent with its readership at 69.19 lakh. along with population growth. INS. In such a scenario.02 lakh in the current round. vice-president. Last year. and editor and publisher.55 lakh 10. understanding the findings of the IRS are difficult. these surveys show declining readership.84 per cent. "Today. the Indian Newspaper Society. literacy level and circulation of print publications. a nodal body of all print publications. Delhi Press. 8.69 per cent to 68.28 lakh readers’ .in an era of growing population. which were at eighth and 10th positions in the last round. It readership has increased from 69. Times of India: Increased its readership 0.

periodicals.5 per cent to 17. "Even the Audit Bureau of Circulations tells us that the circulation of most print publications has increased. the IRS survey shows a decline in readership for all newspapers. magazines and periodicals. magazines. therefore. a fact that has not gone down well with INS.In its latest report. ABC is a not-for-profit voluntary organisation that audits the circulation of member newspapers." Nath said.1 crore in the last six months of 2006. The IRS survey released on March 21 says the readership of publications across the country declined by 4. The IRS survey is conducted twice a year by Media Research Users Council with funding from media owners and advertisers. which has over 990 dailies. and bi-dailies as its members. we cannot understand how the readership of all print publications can decline. . in comparison with the first six months.


The following is the list of questions included in the survey. Do you read newspapers? o Yes o No o Occasionally Do you prefer news on Television or in a Newspaper? o Television o Newspaper Which paper do you read in the morning? o o o o The Times Of India The Hindustan Times Mid Day Others _______________________________ When do you read newspapers? o o o o o At Home While Traveling At Office At Library Others ______________________________ What do you look for in a newspaper? o o o o Business News Entertainment News Sports News Political News .

etc) What is the reason of your preference? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ . etc) o A broadsheet newspaper (The Times of India. Hindustan Times. Mumbai Mirror.o Others_______________________________ What do you prefer more? o A Tabloid newspaper ( Mid-day. Would you prefer your morning paper to be…? o A Tabloid o A Broadsheet Would you prefer your afternoon paper to be…? o A Tabloid o A Broadsheet Would you prefer content to size of a newspaper? o Content o Size Do you really feel the difference on size counts for a newspaper? o Yes o No Should a tabloid cover serious news? o Yes o No .

9 0 %of read ersh ip 8 0 7 0 6 0 5 0 4 0 3 0 2 0 1 0 0 out of 100.According to these questions. the following interpretation has been made on the topic. 78% read 16% read newspaper of the population read less percentage of the 6% yes n o o cassion ly a 1 . DATA ANALYSIS 1: Question 1 Do you read newspapers? o Yes o No o Occasionally Analysis: Options Yes No Occasionall y % of readership 78% 6% 16% 16% From the above analysis we can see that newspaper. 6% does not read newspaper and occasionally. From this we can say that majority newspaper on a daily basis and there are very 10 0 population does not read newspapers at all.

Hence we can say that people prefer watching news on the television rather than reading it in a newspaper. Television News paper 100 90 80 70 60 % of people 50 40 30 20 10 0 Television New spaper . This preference may be because of the speed at which the news is transferred through the television medium and also the improved Preferences presentation techniques.DATA ANALYSIS 2: Question 2 Do you prefer news on Television or in a Newspaper? o Television o Newspaper Analysis: Preference Television Newspaper % of people 54% 46% P referen ce From the above analysis we can see that the preference of watching the news in television is 54% while reading the news in a newspaper is 46%.

that of Mid-Day and Tim es of Hindustan Tim esM id Day isthers The IndiaThe Hindus tan Times O The 12% and that of other papers are 16%. The preference of people for the other newspapers had Mumbai Mirror. P f r ne r e c e e %fr ae h o edr i sp 10 0 7 5 5 0 2 5 0 Te i e o hT s f m Id ni a Te i dsa h H ut n n Te i s m MD i a d y Oe t r hs 1 2 1 2 1 6 6 0 . DNA and some regional newspapers. Hence from the data it is clearly seen that The Times of India has the maximum readers.DATA ANALYSIS 3: Question 3 Which paper do you read in the morning? o o o o The Times Of India The Hindustan Times Mid Day Others _______________________________ P referen c e Analysis: Newspapers The Times of India The Hindustan Times Mid Day Others % of readership 60% 12% 12% 16% From the above analysis we can see that the preference of The Times of India is 60%.

66% of the people like to read newspaper sitting comfortably in their house. From this analysis we can say that people like to read newspaper in a place which is convenient and more relaxed. 22% like to read while traveled.DATA ANALYSIS 4: Question 4 When do you read newspapers? o o o o o At Home While Traveling At Office At Library Others ______________________________ Analysis: At Home W hile Traveling At Office At Library From the above data analysis we can see that out of 100. 1 0 0 9 0 8 0 7 0 6 0 5 0 4 0 3 0 2 0 1 0 0 A oe tH m W h ie l Tvi g r e a ln P cs l e a A fc tO e f i A i rr tL a by Options At Home While Traveling At Office At Library Others % of people 66% 22% 8% 4% Nil . 8% like to read sitting in their office cabin and 4% like reading in the library.

16% are interested in Sports news. So from this we can say that newspaper is now mainly considered as a source of entertainment rather than a source of news/knowledge/information. 12% are interested in Business news and 8% are interested in reading other news like local news. Bi e Ns un s e s s w Pii a es o cln lt w Ee i mtn s nra e e t t n n w Or te hs S rs es pt n o w 1 0 0 9 0 8 0 7 0 6 0 5 0 4 0 3 0 2 0 1 0 0 DATA ANALYSIS 6: . 18% are interested in Political news.DATA ANALYSIS 5: Question 5 What do you look for in a newspaper? o o o o o Business News Entertainment News Sports News Political News Others_______________________________ B u s in es s N ew s P o litic a l n ew s E n terta in m e nt new sp orts ne w s S O thers Analysis: Options Business news Entertainment news Sports news Political news Others % of people 12% 46% 16% 18% 8% From the above data. we come to know that 46% are interested to read Entertainment news. general news etc.

Question 6 What do you prefer more? o A Tabloid newspaper ( Mid-day. Hindustan Times. etc) o A broadsheet newspaper (The Times of India. This is all because of the use of yellow journalism in the tabloids. Mumbai Mirror. This clearly shows that the tabloids have taken away the market from the broadsheets. etc) Analysis: Types of Newspaper A Tabloid Newspaper A Broadsheet newspaper % of preference 58% 42% T abloid new spaper Broadsheet new spaper From the above data analysis we can see that 58% of newspaper readers prefer to read a tabloid while only 42% of newspaper readers prefer to read broadsheet. 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Tabloid newspaper Broadsheet newspaper DATA ANALYSIS 7: .

Question 7 Would you prefer your morning paper to be…? o A Tabloid o A Broadsheet Analysis: Types of Newspaper A Tabloid A Broadsheet % of Preference 34% 66% A Tabloid A Broadsheet From this data analysis we can see that 66% of the readers prefer to read broadsheet newspaper in the morning while there are only 34% of readers who like to read tabloid newspapers in the morning. A Tabloid A B roads heet 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 66 34 DATA ANALYSIS 8: . This analysis shows that in spite of the increase of yellow journalism and in spite of tabloids taking over the broadsheets. people prefer to read hard news before they start their day.

Question 8 Would you prefer your afternoon paper to be…? o A Tabloid o A Broadsheet Analysis: Types of Newspaper A Tabloid % of Preference 78% A Tabloid A Broadsheet From the above analysis. This shows that most of the people want entertainment and more of local news from their newspaper in the afternoon time. A Broadsheet A Tabloid DATA ANALYSIS 9: Question 9 100 10 20 60 70 80 90 30 40 50 0 . we can see A Broadsheet 22% that 78% of the newspaper readers prefer a tabloid as their afternoon paper where as merely 22% of the readers would like their afternoon paper to be a broadsheet.

Would you prefer content to size of a newspaper? o Content o Size Analysis: Content Size The above analysis shows that 80% readers prefer content to size. Hence it can be said that readers are much more interested in the content of a broadsheet or a tabloid and the size of the paper does not come in to the picture. It is the content of the newspaper that catches the eyes of the readers. Options Content Size % of Preference 80% 20% 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Content Size 20 80 DATA ANALYSIS 10: Question 10 . That means the size of the paper hardly maters to the readers.

Do you really feel the difference on size counts for a newspaper? o Yes o No Analysis: Options Yes No % of readers 38% 62% Yes NO From the above data we can see that 38% of the newspaper readers believe that the difference in the size of a newspaper does count while 62% of the readers feel it dose not make a difference. 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Yes N O DATA ANALYSIS 11: Question 11 .

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Yes NO Conclusion . As per this data.Should a tabloid cover serious news? o Yes o No Analysis: N O 2 0% Options Yes No % of readers 80% 20% Y es 80 % From the above figures we can clearly see that 80% of the newspaper readers want the inclusion of more serious and hard news. it can be said that people are expecting few things from the tabloids and hence the tabloids have a great future ahead.

From the data analysis the following conclusions can be made regarding the topic:  Maximum of the population read newspaper on a daily basis.  Maximum people prefer to read newspaper sitting comfortably at their own residence. the size of the newspaper is not as important as its contents.important news. There are a few who like to read a newspaper while traveling or at office.  The Times of India is the leader as it has the maximum number of readership in India. Hypothesis Vs Conclusion .  People like to read a broadsheet in the morning and a tabloid in the afternoon.  Maximum of the population want the tabloids to carry more of serious news rather than carrying all un.  The numbers of people who like to read tabloids are more than that of people who like reading broadsheets.  For the majority of the population.  The number of people watching the news on television is more than that of people reading news in a newspaper.

According to the data analysis. 54% of the population prefers to watch the news on the television while only 46% of the population prefers to read the news in a newspaper. 58% of the population prefers tabloids where as only 42% of the population prefer reading broadsheets. But form the same data analysis we can also see that 66% of the population want their morning newspaper to be a broadsheet and 78% of the population want their afternoon paper to be a tabloid. .Hypothesis 1: People prefer Broadsheet to Tabloid. This hypothesis was also proved wrong after the data analysis acquired by surveying the people. Hypothesis 3: The size of a newspaper is an important factor. the readership of newspapers in reducing due to the increase in the number of news channels. According to the data analysis. This hypothesis was proved wrong by the data acquired by surveying the people. This shows that now-adays. The viewers of news channels are increasing because of the instantaneous news provided by them. Hypothesis 2: People like to read the news instead of watching it on any news channel. This shows that people like to all serious kind of news in the morning and they want entertainment in the afternoon.

The tabloids have completely changed the culture of journalism in India. The competition amongst the newspapers in increasing and as a result the tabloids are increasing in the market. . So from these conclusions we can say that the battle between tabloids and broadsheet is a very tough one and will go on for ages. 62% of the population thinks that the size of the newspaper does not help in choosing a newspaper or helps in its circulation. Hence from this we can say that the sale of the tabloid is not because of its size but because of its contents and the type of presentation. As per now we can say that the tabloids have a great future ahead as they are taking away the market form the broadsheet. According to the survey conducted.This hypothesis was also proved wrong after the data analysis acquired by surveying the people.

jpg www.bangaloreone.google.com/money/2007/oct/17irs.org Reflections on Journalism (Prof.com www.rediff.wikipedia.com www.timesofindia.gov.html http://www.htm http://www.in/public/images/newspapers.com/Literature/Literary-Criticism/tabloids.mid-day.BIBILOGRAPHY http://literaryindia. Raghupati Bhat) .com www.

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