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at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at http://www.gutenberg.org/license Title: The Iliad of Homer Author: Homer Release Date: September 2006 [Ebook 6130] Language: English

***START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE ILIAD OF HOMER***

The Iliad of Homer

Translated by Alexander Pope, with notes by the Rev. Theodore Alois Buckley, M.A., F.S.A. and Flaxman's Designs. 1899

Contents
INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER BOOK I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK III. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK IV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK V. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK VI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK VII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK VIII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK IX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK X. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XIII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XIV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XVI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XVII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XVIII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XIX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XXI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XXII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XXIII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XXIV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONCLUDING NOTE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix xlv 3 41 85 111 137 181 209 233 261 295 319 355 377 415 441 473 513 545 575 593 615 641 667 707 747

Illustrations
HOMER INVOKING THE MUSE. . . . . . . . . . . . . MARS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MINERVA REPRESSING THE FURY OF ACHILLES. . THE DEPARTURE OF BRISEIS FROM THE TENT OF ACHILLES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THETIS CALLING BRIAREUS TO THE ASSISTANCE OF JUPITER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THETIS ENTREATING JUPITER TO HONOUR ACHILLES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VULCAN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JUPITER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE APOTHEOSIS OF HOMER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . JUPITER SENDING THE EVIL DREAM TO AGAMEMNON. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NEPTUNE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VENUS, DISGUISED, INVITING HELEN TO THE CHAMBER OF PARIS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VENUS PRESENTING HELEN TO PARIS. . . . . . . . VENUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Map, titled "Graeciae Antiquae". . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE COUNCIL OF THE GODS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Map of the Plain of Troy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VENUS, WOUNDED IN THE HAND, CONDUCTED BY IRIS TO MARS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OTUS AND EPHIALTES HOLDING MARS CAPTIVE. . DIOMED CASTING HIS SPEAR AT MARS. . . . . . . . JUNO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HECTOR CHIDING PARIS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE MEETING OF HECTOR AND ANDROMACHE. . 6 13 16 23 27 32 35 38 39 43 66 103 105 108 109 113 135 154 155 175 178 198 201

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BOWS AND BOW CASE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 IRIS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 HECTOR AND AJAX SEPARATED BY THE HERALDS.221 GREEK AMPHORA—WINE VESSELS. . . . . . . . . . 231 JUNO AND MINERVA GOING TO ASSIST THE GREEKS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 THE HOURS TAKING THE HORSES FROM JUNO'S CAR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 THE SHIELD OF ACHILLES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 PLUTO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 THE EMBASSY TO ACHILLES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 GREEK GALLEY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 PROSERPINE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283 ACHILLES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294 DIOMED AND ULYSSES RETURNING WITH THE SPOILS OF RHESUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316 THE DESCENT OF DISCORD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 HERCULES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353 POLYDAMAS ADVISING HECTOR. . . . . . . . . . . 359 GREEK ALTAR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375 NEPTUNE RISING FROM THE SEA. . . . . . . . . . . 380 GREEK EARRINGS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413 SLEEP ESCAPING FROM THE WRATH OF JUPITER. . 427 GREEK SHIELD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433 BACCHUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439 AJAX DEFENDING THE GREEK SHIPS. . . . . . . . . 470 CASTOR AND POLLUX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472 Buckles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480 DIANA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483 SLEEP AND DEATH CONVEYING THE BODY OF SARPEDON TO LYCIA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503 ÆSCULAPIUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512 FIGHT FOR THE BODY OF PATROCLUS. . . . . . . . 525 VULCAN FROM AN ANTIQUE GEM. . . . . . . . . . . 543

ix THETIS ORDERING THE NEREIDS TO DESCEND INTO THE SEA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JUNO COMMANDING THE SUN TO SET. . . . . . . TRIPOD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THETIS AND EURYNOME RECEIVING THE INFANT VULCAN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VULCAN AND CHARIS RECEIVING THETIS. . . . . THETIS BRINGING THE ARMOUR TO ACHILLES. . HERCULES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE GODS DESCENDING TO BATTLE. . . . . . . . CENTAUR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ACHILLES CONTENDING WITH THE RIVERS. . . . THE BATH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANDROMACHE FAINTING ON THE WALL. . . . . . THE FUNERAL PILE OF PATROCLUS. . . . . . . . . CERES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HECTOR'S BODY AT THE CAR OF ACHILLES. . . . THE JUDGMENT OF PARIS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IRIS ADVISES PRIAM TO OBTAIN THE BODY OF HECTOR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FUNERAL OF HECTOR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 552 . 556 . 561 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 562 564 577 592 597 614 628 662 663 677 705 709 710

. 715 . 744

[ix]

INTRODUCTION.
Scepticism is as much the result of knowledge, as knowledge is of scepticism. To be content with what we at present know, is, for the most part, to shut our ears against conviction; since, from the very gradual character of our education, we must continually forget, and emancipate ourselves from, knowledge previously acquired; we must set aside old notions and embrace fresh ones; and, as we learn, we must be daily unlearning something which it has cost us no small labour and anxiety to acquire. And this difficulty attaches itself more closely to an age in which progress has gained a strong ascendency over prejudice, and in which persons and things are, day by day, finding their real level, in lieu of their conventional value. The same principles which have swept away traditional abuses, and which are making rapid havoc among the revenues of sinecurists, and stripping the thin, tawdry veil from attractive superstitions, are working as actively in literature as in society. The credulity of one writer, or the partiality of another, finds as powerful a touchstone and as wholesome a chastisement in the healthy scepticism of a temperate class of antagonists, as the dreams of conservatism, or the impostures of pluralist sinecures in the Church. History and tradition, whether of ancient or comparatively recent times, are subjected to very different handling from that which the indulgence or credulity of former ages could allow. Mere statements are jealously watched, and the motives of the writer form as important an ingredient in the analysis of his history, as the facts he records. Probability is a powerful and troublesome

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[x]

test; and it is by this troublesome standard that a large portion of historical evidence is sifted. Consistency is no less pertinacious and exacting in its demands. In brief, to write a history, we must know more than mere facts. Human nature, viewed under an induction of extended experience, is the best help to the criticism of human history. Historical characters can only be estimated by the standard which human experience, whether actual or traditionary, has furnished. To form correct views of individuals we must regard them as forming parts of a great whole—we must measure them by their relation to the mass of beings by whom they are surrounded, and, in contemplating the incidents in their lives or condition which tradition has handed down to us, we must rather consider the general bearing of the whole narrative, than the respective probability of its details. It is unfortunate for us, that, of some of the greatest men, we know least, and talk most. Homer, Socrates, and Shakespere1
1 "What," says Archdeacon Wilberforce, "is the natural root of loyalty as distinguished from such mere selfish desire of personal security as is apt to take its place in civilized times, but that consciousness of a natural bond among the families of men which gives a fellow-feeling to whole clans and nations, and thus enlists their affections in behalf of those time-honoured representatives of their ancient blood, in whose success they feel a personal interest? Hence the delight when we recognize an act of nobility or justice in our hereditary princes

"'Tuque prior, tu parce genus qui ducis Olympo, Projice tela manu sanguis meus' "So strong is this feeling, that it regains an engrafted influence even when history witnesses that vast convulsions have rent and weakened it and the Celtic feeling towards the Stuarts has been rekindled in our own days towards the grand daughter of George the Third of Hanover. "Somewhat similar may be seen in the disposition to idolize those great lawgivers of man's race, who have given expression, in the immortal language of song, to the deeper inspirations of our nature. The thoughts of Homer or of Shakespere are the universal inheritance of the human race. In this mutual ground every man meets his brother, they have been bet forth by the providence of God to vindicate for all of us what nature could effect, and that, in these representatives of our race, we might recognize our common benefactors.'—Doctrine of the Incarnation, pp. 9, 10.

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have, perhaps, contributed more to the intellectual enlightenment of mankind than any other three writers who could be named, and yet the history of all three has given rise to a boundless ocean of discussion, which has left us little save the option of choosing which theory or theories we will follow. The personality of Shakespere is, perhaps, the only thing in which critics will allow us to believe without controversy; but upon everything else, even down to the authorship of plays, there is more or less of doubt and uncertainty. Of Socrates we know as little as the contradictions of Plato and Xenophon will allow us to know. He was one of the dramatis personae in two dramas as unlike in principles as in style. He appears as the enunciator of opinions as different in their tone as those of the writers who have handed them down. When we have read Plato or Xenophon, we think we know something of Socrates; when we have fairly read and examined both, we feel convinced that we are something worse than ignorant. It has been an easy, and a popular expedient, of late years, to deny the personal or real existence of men and things whose life and condition were too much for our belief. This system—which has often comforted the religious sceptic, and substituted the consolations of Strauss for those of the New Testament—has been of incalculable value to the historical theorists of the last and present centuries. To question the existence of Alexander the Great, would be a more excusable act, than to believe in that of Romulus. To deny a fact related in Herodotus, because it is inconsistent with a theory developed from an Assyrian inscription which no two scholars read in the same way, is more pardonable, than to believe in the good-natured old king whom the elegant pen of Florian has idealized—Numa Pompilius. Scepticism has attained its culminating point with respect to Homer, and the state of our Homeric knowledge may be described as a free permission to believe any theory, provided we throw overboard all written tradition, concerning the author

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or authors of the Iliad and Odyssey. What few authorities exist on the subject, are summarily dismissed, although the arguments appear to run in a circle. "This cannot be true, because it is not true; and, that is not true, because it cannot be true." Such seems to be the style, in which testimony upon testimony, statement upon statement, is consigned to denial and oblivion. It is, however, unfortunate that the professed biographies of Homer are partly forgeries, partly freaks of ingenuity and imagination, in which truth is the requisite most wanting. Before taking a brief review of the Homeric theory in its present conditions, some notice must be taken of the treatise on the Life of Homer which has been attributed to Herodotus. According to this document, the city of Cumae in Æolia, was, at an early period, the seat of frequent immigrations from various parts of Greece. Among the immigrants was Menapolus, the son of Ithagenes. Although poor, he married, and the result of the union was a girl named Critheis. The girl was left an orphan at an early age, under the guardianship of Cleanax, of Argos. It is to the indiscretion of this maiden that we "are indebted for so much happiness." Homer was the first fruit of her juvenile frailty, and received the name of Melesigenes, from having been born near the river Meles, in Boeotia, whither Critheis had been transported in order to save her reputation. "At this time," continues our narrative, "there lived at Smyrna a man named Phemius, a teacher of literature and music, who, not being married, engaged Critheis to manage his household, and spin the flax he received as the price of his scholastic labours. So satisfactory was her performance of this task, and so modest her conduct, that he made proposals of marriage, declaring himself, as a further inducement, willing to adopt her son, who, he asserted, would become a clever man, if he were carefully brought up." They were married; careful cultivation ripened the talents which nature had bestowed, and Melesigenes soon surpassed

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his schoolfellows in every attainment, and, when older, rivalled his preceptor in wisdom. Phemius died, leaving him sole heir to his property, and his mother soon followed. Melesigenes carried on his adopted father's school with great success, exciting the admiration not only of the inhabitants of Smyrna, but also of the strangers whom the trade carried on there, especially in the exportation of corn, attracted to that city. Among these visitors, one Mentes, from Leucadia, the modern Santa Maura, who evinced a knowledge and intelligence rarely found in those times, persuaded Melesigenes to close his school, and accompany him on his travels. He promised not only to pay his expenses, but to furnish him with a further stipend, urging, that, "While he was yet young, it was fitting that he should see with his own eyes the countries and cities which might hereafter be the subjects of his discourses." Melesigenes consented, and set out with his patron, "examining all the curiosities of the countries they visited, and informing himself of everything by interrogating those whom he met." We may also suppose, that he wrote memoirs of all that he deemed worthy of preservation2 Having set sail from Tyrrhenia and Iberia, they reached Ithaca. Here Melesigenes, who had already suffered in his eyes, became much worse, and Mentes, who was about to leave for Leucadia, left him to the medical superintendence of a friend of his, named Mentor, the son of Alcinor. Under his hospitable and intelligent host, Melesigenes rapidly became acquainted with the legends respecting Ulysses, which afterwards formed the subject of the Odyssey. The inhabitants of Ithaca assert, that it was here that Melesigenes became blind, but the Colophomans make their city the seat of
Eikos de min aen kai mnaemoruna panton grapherthai. Vit. Hom. in Schweigh Herodot t. iv. p. 299, sq. Section 6. I may observe that this Life has been paraphrased in English by my learned young friend Kenneth R. H. Mackenzie, and appended to my prose translation of the Odyssey. The present abridgement however, will contain all that is of use to the reader, for the biographical value of the treatise is most insignificant.
2

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that misfortune. He then returned to Smyrna, where he applied himself to the study of poetry.3 But poverty soon drove him to Cumae. Having passed over the Hermaean plain, he arrived at Neon Teichos, the New Wall, a colony of Cumae. Here his misfortunes and poetical talent gained him the friendship of one Tychias, an armourer. "And up to my time," continued the author, "the inhabitants showed the place where he used to sit when giving a recitation of his verses, and they greatly honoured the spot. Here also a poplar grew, which they said had sprung up ever since Melesigenes arrived".4 But poverty still drove him on, and he went by way of Larissa, as being the most convenient road. Here, the Cumans say, he composed an epitaph on Gordius, king of Phrygia, which has however, and with greater probability, been attributed to
—I.e. both of composing and reciting verses for as Blair observes, "The first poets sang their own verses." Sextus Empir. adv. Mus. p. 360 ed. Fabric. Ou hamelei ge toi kai oi poiaetai melopoioi legontai, kai ta Omaerou epae to palai pros lyran aedeto. "The voice," observes Heeren, "was always accompanied by some instrument. The bard was provided with a harp on which he played a prelude, to elevate and inspire his mind, and with which he accompanied the song when begun. His voice probably preserved a medium between singing and recitation; the words, and not the melody were regarded by the listeners, hence it was necessary for him to remain intelligible to all. In countries where nothing similar is found, it is difficult to represent such scenes to the mind; but whoever has had an opportunity of listening to the improvisation of Italy, can easily form an idea of Demodocus and Phemius."—Ancient Greece, p. 94. 4 "Should it not be, since my arrival? asks Mackenzie, observing that "poplars can hardly live so long". But setting aside the fact that we must not expect consistency in a mere romance, the ancients had a superstitious belief in the great age of trees which grew near places consecrated by the presence of gods and great men. See Cicero de Legg II I, sub init., where he speaks of the plane tree under which Socrates used to walk and of the tree at Delos, where Latona gave birth to Apollo. This passage is referred to by Stephanus of Byzantium, s. v. N. T. p. 490, ed. de Pinedo. I omit quoting any of the dull epigrams ascribed
3

"Melesigenes acquired the name of Homer. and left them to debate respecting the answer to be given to his proposal. 7 Os ei tous. and procured him an audience in the council. he retired. p. Epische Cyclus. Encouraged by this favourable reception. p. Coleridge." "From this circumstance. Having to Homer for." Lit of Greece. p. Homer was destined to experience another literary distress. as Mr. 38 in Encycl. Casaub. and allowed him a pittance. 62. 311. Having made the speech. if they would allow him a public maintenance. kept Homer in his own house. One Thestorides. they would be encumbered with a multitude of useless people. They avowed their willingness to support him in the measure he proposed. but one man observed that "if they were to feed Homers. from which they are taken. l. ed. Cf. 6 I trust I am justified in employing this as an equivalent for the Greek leschai. Vit. he frequented the converzationes6 of the old men.INTRODUCTION. xvii Cleobulus of Lindus. the pension was denied. The etymology has been condemned by recent scholars. Cleob. and delighted all by the charms of his poetry. c. Classic Poets. "The authenticity of these fragments depends upon that of the pseudo Herodotean Life of Homer. At Phocoea. he would render their city most gloriously renowned. 5 It is quoted as the work of Cleobulus. and the poet vented his disappointment in a wish that Cumoea might never produce a poet capable of giving it renown and glory. which shows how similar the world has always been in its treatment of literary men. Justice Talfourd rightly observes. Vit. with the purport of which our author has forgotten to acquaint us. by Diogenes Laert. See Welcker. who aimed at the reputation of poetical genius. p. p." says the writer. Hom. 127. pp. xiv. [xiii] . Homerous doxei trephein autois.5 Arrived at Cumae."7 With a love of economy. he declared that. and Mackenzie's note. Metrop. 317. The greater part of the assembly seemed favourable to the poet's demand. enteuthen de kai tounoma Homeros epekrataese to Melaesigenei apo taes symphoraes oi gar Kumaioi tous tuphlous Homerous legousin. omilon pollon te kai achreoin exousin. on condition of the verses of the poet passing in his name. for the Cumans call blind men Homers.

Section 3."8 Homer continued his career of difficulty and distress. The dogs barked on his approach. sqq. 315. struck by the similarity of the verses they heard him recite. At Erythrae. Glaucus (for that was the name of the goat-herd) heard his voice. ran up quickly. a town of Ionia. but he found one ready to Start for Erythrae. and what could be his design in coming. reached the little hamlet of Pithys. like some would-be-literary publishers. 358. Homer is said to have composed the Little Iliad. p. Gr. acquainted him with the fact that Thestorides was pursuing a profitable livelihood by the recital of the very same poems. who. ouden aphrastoteron peletai noou anthropoisin. vi. until some Chian merchants. See Muller's Hist. sq. nothing is more unintelligible than the human heart. and the Phocoeid. 8 . vol.. 284. p. "Having set out from Pithys. Lit. ii. 132. called off his dogs. No vessel happened then to be setting sail thither. l. Ibid. 272. Homer is said to have observed: "O Thestorides. Welcker. This at once determined him to set out for Chios. had drawn down the wrath of Jove the Hospitable. he invoked a favourable wind. At his departure. and left him. c. thnetoisin anoiston poleon per. of the many things hidden from the knowledge of man.. and drove them away from Homer.xviii The Iliad of Homer [xiv] collected sufficient poetry to be profitable. and prayed that he might be able to expose the imposture of Thestorides. which faces that island. Thestorides. Homer fortunately met with a person who had known him in Phocoea. after some difficulty. Homer went on. of Lit. and he prevailed upon the seamen to allow him to accompany them. which we will continue in the words of our author. attracted by the cries of some goats that were pasturing. For or some time he stood wondering how a blind man should have reached such a place alone. neglected the man whose brains he had sucked. Here he met with an adventure. by whose assistance he at length. Having embarked. and Mure. He then Thestorides. by his breach of hospitality. During his stay at Phocoea. and he cried out. pp.

Homer narrating his wanderings. vi. and of what he stood in need. kept barking at the stranger. he left Homer at home. by recounting to him the whole history of his misfortunes. First give the dogs their supper at the doors of the hut: for so it is better. but on the following morning. Bibl. However. A common metaphor. and blamed Glaucus for his stupidity in taking in and feeding maimed and enfeebled persons. viii. A 9 . This is so pretty a picture of early manners and hospitality. In fact. and he took him. and led him to his cot. they banqueted10 afresh on conversation. bade him sup. Having left the goats in charge of a fellow-servant. and acquaint him with his meeting with Homer. Athenaeus vii p 275.INTRODUCTION. Glaucus resolved to go to his master. promising to return quickly. See the fourteenth book. P. ed. and inquired who he was. Petav So diaegaemasi sophois omou kai terpnois aedio taen Thoinaen tois hestiomenois epoiei. my friend. or estiatores. whoever was the author of this fictitious biography. and having lit a fire. xix went up to him. Orat. he bade him bring the stranger to him. 522 A. and in eliciting from them the germs of something like a personal narrative. 374. Whereupon Homer addressed Glaucus thus: O Glaucus. and xvi. Glaucus was pleased with the advice. Gr. Choricius in Fabric. Themist. a place near the farm. He paid little attention to what he said. 851. and marvelled at its author. he told him the whole story respecting Homer and his journey. since. Having finished supper. At length they retired to rest. Having arrived at Bolissus. moved him with compassion. nor thief nor wild beast will approach the fold. and telling of the cities he had visited. that it is almost a pity to find that it is obviously a copy from the Odyssey. T. logois gar estia. instead of eating. whilst they watch. prythee attend to my behest. he showed some tact in identifying Homer with certain events described in his poems. p. Homer.9 "The dogs. Cf. and how he had come to desolate places and untrodden spots. p. p. i. 10 Dia logon estionto. according to their usual habit. and finding his mate. 168. Tim. So Plato calls the parties conversing daitumones.

" 11 . The shape is oval. She is represented. and appears to have been an open temple of Cybele. and the Chian persuaded him to remain. 12 Chandler. where a view of the spot is given of which the author candidly says. vol. formed on the top of a rock. the School of Homer. The area is bounded by a low rim. It is on the coast. "To this day. He married. one of whom died single. and in the centre is the image of the goddess. The whole is hewn out of the mountain. i. referred to in the Voyage Pittoresque dans la Grece. or seat. Conversation soon showed that the stranger was a man of much cleverness and general knowledge. and about five yards over. vol." says Chandler. without reason. sitting. and had two daughters. indistinct. 92.— "Je ne puis repondre d'une exactitude scrupuleuse dans la vue generale que j'en donne. which has already been mentioned:— "In his poetical compositions Homer displays great gratitude It was at Bolissus. that Homer is said to have written the Batrachomyomachia. or Battle of the Frogs and Mice. car etant alle seul pour l'examiner je perdis mon crayon. at some distance from the city.11 Besides the satisfaction of driving the impostor Thestorides from the island. that Homer realised a considerable fortune. 61. and on the back. and some other minor works. In the town of Chios he established a school where he taught the precepts of poetry. p. assuring him that good fortune would be the result. i.12 "the most curious remain is that which has been named." So successful was this school. Je ne crois cependant pas avoir trop a me plaindre d'elle en cette occasion. Travels. and probably of the most remote antiquity. is rude. the head and an arm wanting. and in the house of this Chian citizen. and bade him follow him. Homer enjoyed considerable success as a teacher. P. northward. as usual. the other married a Chian. et je fus oblige de m'en fier a ma memoire. The following passage betrays the same tendency to connect the personages of the poems with the history of the poet. The chair has a lion carved on each side. the Epicichlidia.xx The Iliad of Homer [xv] Glaucus told Homer what had taken place. and to undertake the charge of his children.

Opp. in brief." His celebrity continued to increase. He recited some verses. with whose children he was very popular. the substance of the earliest life of Homer we possess. of whose city he had hitherto made no mention. Poes. visiting the houses of the rich. and died. now Ino. Here being recognized by a Samian. p. in the Odyssey.14 he sent out for Samos. s. is given by the allegorists. ii. p. which gave great satisfaction. He also testifies his gratitude to Phemius. whither his reputation had now extended. 531-5. de Deo Socrat. Alleg. t. p. Heraclid. 15. whose name he has inserted in his poem as the companion of Ulysses. of Gale's Opusc. and by singing the Eiresione at the New Moon festivals. It is said that his death arose from vexation. and many persons advised him to visit Greece. and learned—but by no means consistent—series of investigations has led.: the assumption of Mentor's form by the guardian deity of the wise Ulysses. not to vouch for their reasonableness 13 A more probable reason for this companionship.INTRODUCTION. Xyland. In the spring he sailed for Athens. at not having been able to unravel an enigma proposed by some fishermen's children. 15 The riddle is given in Section 35. xxx. Section 28. it is said. The classical reader may compare Plutarch. and for the character of Mentor itself. he was handsomely received. and invited to join in celebrating the Apaturian festival. Dionys. who had met with him in Chios. viz. . Minerva. who had given him both sustenance and instruction. patient. and arrived at the island of Ios. made some additions to his poems calculated to please the vanity of the Athenians. Hom. I profess to bring forward statements. Pont. Compare Mackenzie's note.13 in return for the care taken of him when afflicted with blindness. Let us now consider some of the opinions to which a persevering. and so broad are the evidences of its historical worthlessness. In doing so. where he fell extremely ill.15 Such is. Having. f. Hom. de Hom. c. 880. he earned a subsistence. Apul. xxi towards Mentor of Ithaca. Mythol. that it is scarcely necessary to point them out in detail. 14 Vit. Halic.

created far out of the reach of observation. p. Bulwer's Caxtons v. because they rose amidst darkness. If the period of tradition in history is the region of twilight. Compare Sir E. which shows as much insight into the depths of human nature as into the minute wire-drawings of scholastic investigation. and. If we were in possession of all the historical testimonies. like the sources of the Nile. 96. Was Homer an individual?17 or were the Iliad and Odyssey the result of an ingenious arrangement of fragments by earlier poets? Well has Landor remarked: "Some tell us there were twenty Homers." 16 From this criticism. flows like the Nile. Of all the animals 16 17 Heeren's Ancient Greece. we should not expect in it perfect light. its fountains will ever remain concealed. through many lands and nations. for the most part. our composure. because they are. We are perpetually labouring to destroy our delights." Such are the words in which one of the most judicious German critics has eloquently described the uncertainty in which the whole of the Homeric question is involved. p. as is the history of many of the first minds who have done honour to humanity. our devotion to superior power. L. some deny that there was ever one. blessing and fertilizing.xxii The Iliad of Homer [xvi] or probability. in order to let them settle at last. . let us pass on to the main question at issue. in all essential points. we never could wholly explain the origin of the Iliad and the Odyssey. for their origin. must have remained the secret of the poet. 4. The history of this poet and his works is lost in doubtful obscurity. The creations of genius always seem like miracles. The majestic stream of his song. It were idle and foolish to shake the contents of a vase. "Homer appeared. With no less truth and feeling he proceeds:— "It seems here of chief importance to expect no more than the nature of things makes possible. i.

xxiii on earth we least know what is good for us. (at least of the Iliad. almost conclusive testimony to its original composition. p." 18 But. to prefer his judgment to his imagination. without seeking to destroy the vividness of first impressions by minute analysis—our editorial office compels us to give some attention to the doubts and difficulties with which the Homeric question is beset. and to entreat our reader.— "'The critic eye—that microscope of wit Sees hairs and pores. nor is it injustice to assert. for a brief period. that the minute and analytical spirit of a grammarian is not the best qualification for the profound feeling. in the lines of Pope. The most exquisite anatomist may be no judge of the symmetry of the human frame: and we would take the opinion of Chantrey or Westmacott on the proportions and general beauty of a form. the beaming soul. Before. vol ii. greatly as we admire the generous enthusiasm which rests contented with the poetry on which its best impulses had been nurtured and fostered. . the comprehensive conception of an harmonious whole. examines bit by bit. No man living venerates Homer more than I do.INTRODUCTION. 387. Brodie or Sir Astley Cooper. entering into particulars respecting the question of this unity of the Homeric poems. My opinion is. rather than that of Mr. It was not till the age of the grammarians that its primitive integrity was called in question. "There is some truth. Letter lxxxiv. the poetic age of Greece. however. and to condescend to dry details. Works. that what is best for us is our admiration of good. How parts relate to parts. or they to whole The body's harmony.) I must express my sympathy with the sentiments expressed in the following remarks:— "We cannot but think the universal admiration of its unity by the better.. 18 [xvii] Pericles and Aspasia. though some malicious exaggeration.

147.. At the end of the seventeenth century.21 and. may your isle explore. shall see. lxxxvii.'"19 Long was the time which elapsed before any one dreamt of questioning the unity of the authorship of the Homeric poems. Mackenzie has given three brief but elaborate papers on the different writers on the subject. and 221. whose very names22 it would be tedious to detail. Bibl. oo dixa taes sphodrotaetos paramenei to megethos 22 See Tatian.. as any of the hypotheses hitherto put forth. No. among a mass of ancient authors. maid. which deserve to be consulted.'" See Thucyd. II t. quoted in Fabric. Wasse. they consist in an attempt to blend those hypotheses into something like consistency. merely expressed an opinion touching the comparative inferiority of the Odyssey to the Iliad. A hapless wanderer.. Gr. iii. in an oft quoted passage. Burmann. rather than in advocating 21 . pp. v. vol. 286.—'A blind old man and poor Sweetest he sings—and dwells on Chios' rocky shore. Section 26. See Notes and Queries. and delights you most Oh! answer all. So far. Who sings the sweetest. Longinus. let us now see what are the discoveries to which more modern investigations lay claim. doubts had begun to awaken on the subject. Longin.xxiv The Iliad of Homer Are things which Kuster. ix. 20 19 "Origias. Classic Poets. farewell! and oh! remember me Hereafter. His own views are moderate. and perhaps as satisfactory. on the whole. The grave and cautious Thucydides quoted without hesitation the Hymn to Apollo. ii. p. In fact. Othen en tae Odysseia pareikasai tis an kataduomeno ton Omaeron haelio. no suspicion of the personal non-existence of Homer ever arose. p. for the translation of which I am indebted to Coleridge.20 the authenticity of which has been already disclaimed by modern critics. When man's whole frame is obvious to a flea. the voice of antiquity seems to be in favour of our early ideas on the subject. 171. de Sublim. and we find Bentley remarking that Quarterly Review. when some stranger from the sea. of all the bards you boast. 99. v. And ask you. the following beautiful passage. Mr.. 104. Viz.

xxv "Homer wrote a sequel of songs and rhapsodies. vol. until the days of Peisistratus. but it is in the "Scienza Nuova" of Battista Vico. and with the following bold hypothesis. for small comings and good cheer. among the early Greeks. the acute and valuable Prolegomena of F. that we first meet with the germ of the theory. first opened philosophical discussion as to the history of the Homeric text. neither the perfect symmetry of so complicated a work could have been originally conceived by any poet."23 Two French writers—Hedelin and Perrault—avowed a similar scepticism on the subject. Wolf. These loose songs were not collected together. The absence of easy and convenient writing. to be sung by himself. at festivals and other days of merriment. amongst others. 24 Hist. nor. if realized by him. and that without writing. Lips. sqq. in the form of an epic poem. turning to account the Venetian Scholia. was thus one of the points in Wolf's case against the primitive integrity of the Iliad and any individual theory. about five hundred years after. of Greece. 23 Letters to Phileleuth. A. in the sixth century before Christ. 191. Wolf maintained that no written copies of either poem could be shown to have existed during the earlier times. to which their composition is referred. that the separate constituent portions of the Iliad and Odyssey had not been cemented together into any compact body and unchangeable order. subsequently defended by Wolf with so much learning and acuteness. A considerable part of that dissertation (though by no means the whole) is employed in vindicating the position. ii.INTRODUCTION. previously announced by Bentley. p. As a step towards that conclusion. [xviii] . Indeed. which we will detail in the words of Grote24 — "Half a century ago. till about Peisistratus' time. it is with the Wolfian theory that we have chiefly to deal. transmitted with assurance to posterity. which had then been recently published. such as must be indispensably supposed for long manuscripts.

—but upon the supposed necessity that there must have been manuscripts to ensure the preservation of the poems—the unassisted memory of reciters . and other leading opponents of Wolf. But much would undoubtedly be gained towards that view of the question. "To me it appears. Simonides of Amorgus. can be more improbable. Kallinus. in reference to the Homeric poems. if it could be shown. we are unable to say. or at what time the practice of doing so became familiar. admits this no less than Wolf himself. and it has been considered incumbent on those who defended the ancient aggregate character of the Iliad and Odyssey. By Nitzsch. Few things. with regard to the rhapsodies at the Panathenaea: but for what length of time previously manuscripts had existed. not upon positive proofs. is in the famous ordinance of Solon. the connection of the one with the other seems to have been accepted as he originally put it. that. but recited and heard. The first positive ground which authorizes us to presume the existence of a manuscript of Homer. "Those who maintain the Homeric poems to have been written from the beginning. in my opinion. Tyrtaeus. are exceedingly trifling. are nowise admissible. that the architectonic functions ascribed by Wolf to Peisistratus and his associates. to maintain that they were written poems from the beginning. even in the seventh century before the Christian aera. nor can we even assure ourselves whether Archilochus. rest their case. We have no remaining inscription earlier than the fortieth Olympiad. opposed as he is to the Wolfian hypothesis. committed their compositions to writing. and the early inscriptions are rude and unskilfully executed. The traces of writing in Greece. we were driven to the necessity of admitting long written poems. Xanthus. nor yet upon the existing habits of society with regard to poetry—for they admit generally that the Iliad and Odyssey were not read.xxvi The Iliad of Homer Odyssey. in order to controvert it. in the ninth century before the Christian aera. and Mr. Payne Knight. and the other early elegiac and lyric poets.

as well from the example of Demodokus. not only to recite it consecutively. identifies with Homer himself. whatever the passage required. uneducated man Blind Jamie who could actually repeat. who had learned to repeat the whole Gierusalemme of Tasso. But all this is nothing to two instances of our own day. But here we only escape a smaller difficulty by running into a greater. to 'rhapsodize. not highly educated. gifted with extraordinary memory. whom Thucydides. parts which when laid together. there is a strong positive reason for believing that the bard was under no necessity of refreshing his memory by consulting a manuscript. alternately the odd and even lines—in short. and when even suitable instruments and materials for the process are not obvious. 25 is far less astonishing than that of long manuscripts. after a few minutes consideration any verse required from any part of the Bible—even the obscurest and most unimportant enumeration of mere 25 [xix] . Our informant went on to state that this singular being was proceeding to learn the Orlando Furioso in the same manner. The author of that hymn. in the Odyssey. but also to repeat those stanzas in utter defiance of the sense. had it at such perfect command.INTRODUCTION. Visiting at Naples a gentleman of the highest intellectual attainments. and who held a distinguished rank among the men of letters in the last century. we might refer to that of any first rate actor. at a very short warning. be he who he may. which we know that it was not. who must be prepared. would amount to an immense number of lines. could never have described a blind man as attaining the utmost perfection in his art. No such person can have forgotten the poor. blindness would have been a disqualification for the profession. that it could produce it under any form. indeed not easy to calculate the height to which the memory may be cultivated. for if such had been the fact. in an age essentially non-reading and non-writing. the memory. as from that of the blind bard of Chios. Moreover. as well as the general tenor of Grecian legend. for the existence of trained bards. which seemed to cling to the words much more than to the sense. if he had It is. To take an ordinary case. xxvii being neither sufficient nor trustworthy. he informed us that the day before he had passed much time in examining a man. But even this instance is less wonderful than one as to which we may appeal to any of our readers that happened some twenty years ago to visit the town of Stirling. either forwards or backwards. in Scotland. in the Hymn to the Delian Apollo. or from the eighth line to the first.' night after night.

that the pronunciation of the Greek language had undergone a considerable change. for instance. If. sqq. in that state of society. We do not mention these facts as touching the more difficult part of the question before us. noble original. though there is ground for assurance that it was before the time of Solon. l. that crux of critics. or indeed any other Greek poems. p."— Ancient Greece. the question a once suggests itself. that quicksand upon which even the acumen of Bentley was shipwrecked." The loss of the digamma. in these days of multifarious reading. "these poems. had written copies been preserved. are we. 143. Heeren steers between the two opinions. fair judges of the perfection to which the invention and the memory combined may attain in a simpler age. but facts they are. p. than the rough. But the songs of a nation are probably the last things which are committed to writing.. more like the effeminate version of Dryden.xxviii The Iliad of Homer [xx] been conscious that the memory of the bard was only maintained by constant reference to the manuscript in his chest." continues Grote. "The Dschungariade of the Calmucks is said to surpass the poems of Homer in length. must be matter of conjecture. "At what period. observing that. What were the purposes which. and yet it exists only in the memory of a people which is not unacquainted with writing. for with them it was not only planted in the memory. quaint. . it could only have come down to us in a softened form. seems to prove beyond a doubt. and among a more single minded people?—Quarterly Review. a manuscript at its first commencement must have been intended to answer? For whom was a written Iliad necessary? Not for the rhapsodes. Now it is certainly difficult to suppose that the Homeric poems could have suffered by this change. for the very reason that they are remembered. c. had not been written. If Chaucer's poetry. we may venture upon naming any more determinate period. and conceived in conjunction with all those flexions and proper names not excepted. 100. in the absence of evidence. first began to be written. and of countless distracting affairs. but also interwoven with the feelings. as much as it stands beneath them in merit. and if we find so much difficulty in calculating the extent to which the mere memory may be cultivated.

C. studious and curious men. and competent to criticize.INTRODUCTION. may well be considered as desirous to study. Such a change was important at a time when poetry was the only known mode of publication (to use a modern phrase not altogether suitable. and who would. realize in their imaginations a sensible portion of the impression communicated by the reciter. 630). Simonides of Amorgus. on perusing the written words. and which the naked manuscript could never reproduce. It argued a new way of looking at the old epical treasures of the people as well as a thirst for new poetical effect. from their own individual point of view. I ground this supposition on the change then operated in the character and tendencies of Grecian poetry and music—the elegiac and the iambic measures having been introduced as rivals to the primitive hexameter. If we could discover at what time such a class first began to be formed. there is in all early societies. and poetical compositions having been transferred from the epical past to the affairs of present and real life. we should be able to make a guess at the time when the old epic poems were first committed to writing. Now the period which may with the greatest probability be fixed upon as having first witnessed the formation even of the narrowest reading class in Greece. 660 to B. and the men who stood forward in it. yet the nearest approaching to the sense). and there was in early Greece. the written words of the . xxix intonations of voice. Archilochus. Kallinus. and with its accompaniments of a solemn and crowded festival. pauses. and other oral artifices which were required for emphatic delivery. a time when no such reading class existed.C. the age of Terpander. The only persons for whom the written Iliad would be suitable would be a select few. is the middle of the seventh century before the Christian aera (B. Incredible as the statement may seem in an age like the present. &c. Not for the general public—they were accustomed to receive it with its rhapsodic delivery. a class of readers capable of analyzing the complicated emotions which they had experienced as hearers in the crowd.

though still comparatively few. and the faint echo. A reading class. so much must have been done to arrange. II p. and the number of manuscripts along with it. which took place about the same period. that the Iliad was cast into its present stately and harmonious form by the directions of the Athenian ruler. so that before the time of Solon. fifty years afterwards."26 But even Peisistratus has not been suffered to remain in possession of the credit.xxx The Iliad of Homer [xxi] Homeric rhapsodies. to connect. Anacreon. would doubtless slowly increase. both readers and manuscripts. might have attained a certain recognized authority. as well as the Iliad and the Odyssey. 198. and Simonides were employed in the noble task of compiling the Iliad and Odyssey. that stronger marks of Athenian manufacture should not remain. would furnish increased facilities for obtaining the requisite papyrus to write upon.C. ground for conjecturing that (for the use of this newly-formed and important. alas! we have inherited little more than the fame. but very narrow class). and formed a tribunal of reference against the carelessness of individual rhapsodes. anomalies which no doubt arise out of our own ignorance of the language of the 26 Vol. 1). sqq. and the opening of Egypt to Grecian commerce. Whatever occasional anomalies may be detected. who flourished at the bright period of Grecian song. and we cannot help feeling the force of the following observations— "There are several incidental circumstances which. manuscripts of the Homeric poems and other old epics. to harmonize. at least over the theory. if Stesichorus. therefore. There seems. in our opinion. throw some suspicion over the whole history of the Peisistratid compilation. that it is almost incredible. If the great poets. just as we are told that Kallinus both noticed and eulogized the Thebais as the production of Homer.—the Thebais and the Cypria. when once formed. . of which.—began to be compiled towards the middle of the seventh century (B.

at first sight. particularly in the joinings and transitions. In later. as Sir Walter Scott has done in his continuation of Sir Tristram. no doubt. the chieftain of Thessaly. Knight may have failed in reducing the Homeric language to its primitive form. the Attic dialect may not have assumed all its more marked and distinguishing characteristics—still it is difficult to suppose that the language. however Mr. however. that in its leading outline. "If. The songs which spoke of their own great ancestor were. should not more clearly betray the incongruity between the more ancient and modern forms of expression. the total absence of Athenian national feeling is perhaps no less worthy of observation. Homeric age. however the irregular use of the digamma may have perplexed our Bentleys. from his valour and the number of his forces. Mr. It is possible. or. may have been the most important ally of the Peloponnesian sovereign. Knight suspects to be interpolations. in order to piece out an imperfect poem in the character of the original. It is not quite in character with such a period to imitate an antique style. and connecting parts. of far inferior sublimity and popularity. indeed. to whom the name of Helen is said to have caused as much disquiet and distress as the fair one herself among the heroes of her age.INTRODUCTION. the preeminent value of the ancient poetry on the Trojan war may thus have forced the national feeling of the Athenians to yield to their taste. a Theseid would have been much more likely to have emanated from an Athenian synod of compilers of xxxi [xxii] . the Iliad may be true to historic fact. that in the great maritime expedition of western Greece against the rival and half-kindred empire of the Laomedontiadae. not even such faint and indistinct traces of Athenian compilation are discoverable in the language of the poems. Even the few passages which relate to their ancestors. the Athenians were more than ordinarily jealous of the fame of their ancestors. however. finally. the Athenians play a most subordinate and insignificant part. But. and it may fairly be suspected in earlier times. amid all the traditions of the glories of early Greece embodied in the Iliad.

Tancred would have been the hero of the Jerusalem. to the questionable dignity of only having produced a leader tolerably skilled in the military tactics of his age. with all its direful consequences. 204. if we admit his hypothesis. 28 27 . He divides the first twenty-two books of the Iliad into sixteen different songs. Pandarus. vol. of the Lycians. 1841. Tlepolemus. were so far superior to the rest of the poetic cycle. p. chief of the Euboeans. we find no contradictions warranting this belief. as Grote observes.. While it is to be confessed. the Homeric ballads." Moreover. v. that throughout the whole poem the callida junctura should never betray the workmanship of an Athenian hand. and treats as ridiculous the belief that their amalgamation into one regular poem belongs to a period earlier than the age of Peisistratus. who have at a later period not inaptly been compared to our self admiring neighbours. Berol. that Wolf's objections to the primitive integrity of the Iliad and Odyssey have never been wholly got over. See Grote. and that the national spirit of a race. as to admit no rivalry. Nor is Lachmann's28 modification of his theory any better. and the so-called sixteen poets concur in getting rid of the following leading men in the first battle after the secession of Achilles: Elphenor. at least. 131 sq. the French. should submit with lofty self denial to the almost total exclusion of their own ancestors—or. which related the wrath of Achilles. but it explains nothing else. If. than an Achilleid or an Olysseid. Quarterly Review. of the Rhodians. are rather augmented than otherwise."27 To return to the Wolfian theory. Could France have given birth to a Tasso.xxxii The Iliad of Homer ancient song. Notes and Queries. we cannot help discovering that they have failed to enlighten us as to any substantial point. as they are sometimes called. "explains the gaps and contradictions in the narrative. and that the difficulties with which the whole subject is beset. 221. Odius. p. This.—it is still surprising. c. p. however. Betrachtungen uber die Ilias. l.

" The friends or literary employes of Peisistratus must have found an Iliad that was already ancient. the close military array." goes far to prove. the despotisms and republican governments. who is represented as dead in the fifth book. "the whole tenor of the poems themselves confirms what is here remarked. can only be regarded as the result of an interpolation. the Amphiktyonic convocations. But he has also shown. supposing that impossible. In short. without recognising the age of Peisistratus as the period of its first compilation. familiar to the latter epoch. "a man may believe the Iliad to have been put together out of pre-existing songs. applying that term to the age of Peisistratus—nothing which brings to our view the alterations brought about by two centuries. the mutual frequentation of religious festivals. the unison of these parts by Peisistratus." he continues. by which Pylaemenes. &c. which savours of modernism. weeps at his son's funeral in the thirteenth. None of these heroes again make their appearance. and of Lachmann's modifications with the character of Peisistratus. xxxiii of the Halizonians. Grote. There is nothing. the coined money." The discrepancy. has done much to clearly show the incongruity of the Wolfian theory. that. either in the Iliad or Odyssey. the improved construction of ships.INTRODUCTION. that "it seems strange that any number of independent poets should have so harmoniously dispensed with the services of all six in the sequel. are essentially distinct. "Moreover. this was either wanting. in the Greek language. Pirous and Acamas. the Oriental and Egyptian veins of religion. among the numerous manuscripts they examined. [xxiii] . or. and not before his time. and we can but agree with Colonel Mure. that the two questions relative to the primitive unity of these poems. the habits of writing and reading. of the Thracians. although not very distinct in stating his own opinions on the subject. and we think with equal success.. or thought unworthy of attention. These alterations Onomakritus. and the silence of the Alexandrine critics respecting the Peisistratic "recension.

both in substance and in language. for they thus afford us an insight into the anti-historical character of the Greeks. even without design. let it be added. we seem warranted in believing that the Iliad and Odyssey were recited substantially as they now stand (always allowing for paitial divergences of text and interpolations) in 776 B. our first trustworthy mark of Grecian time. 31 "Who. enable us to judge. or whose eloquence is reported to have been more perfected by literature than that of Peisistratus." says Cicero.C. &c. who is said first to have disposed the books of Homer in the 30 29 . Vol. although.. ii. in their present form. that I can lay down nothing respecting the extent of his labours. Indeed. so it is also the most important attribute of the Homeric poems. enabling us to trace the subsequent forward march of the nation. iii. p. on the best grounds. are pronounced to be such) betray no trace of the sixth century before Christ. de Orat. undertaken the task of piecing together many self existent epics into one large aggregate. was the work of Peisistratus. for the first time. I must confess. Everything in the two great Homeric poems. even the interpolations (or those passages which. so far from believing that the composition or primary arrangement of these poems. that the labours of Peisistratus were wholly of an editorial character. and to seize instructive contrasts between their former and their later condition. belongs to an age two or three centuries earlier than Peisistratus. as it is the best-authenticated fact. could hardly have failed to notice.. and may well have been heard by Archilochus and Kallinus—in some cases even by Arktinus and Hesiod—as genuine Homeric matter29 As far as the evidences on the case.xxxiv The Iliad of Homer and the other literary friends of Peisistratus. considered in reference to Grecian history. I am rather persuaded that the fine taste and elegant mind of that Athenian31 would lead Prolegg. had they then. 214 sqq."30 On the whole. I am inclined to believe. "was more learned in that age. 34. xxxvi. xxxii. At the same time. pp. and this ancient date. as well internal as external..

probably with an intoned burden. that the more we read. that the story which attributes the preservation of these poems to Lycurgus. were extemporaneous. a retentive memory was deemed a virtue of the first water. or Moeonides. "It was at this period. besides which. occurrences likely to impress themselves. but most probably the former. while its historical probability must be measured by that of many others relating to the Spartan Confucius. some one qualified to 'discourse in excellent music' among them. like the common sailors of some fifty years ago. Many of these. with an intonation. the less satisfied we are upon either subject. help thinking. rather than to patch and re-construct them according to a fanciful hypothesis. upon their memory. It is as follows:— "No doubt the common soldiers of that age had. and was cultivated accordingly in those ancient times. I cannot. as the mystical legends of former times had done. about four hundred years after the war. Suffice it to say. and allusive to events passing around them. I will not repeat the many discussions respecting whether the poems were written or not. however.INTRODUCTION. He saw that these order in which we now have them?" Compare Wolf's Prolegomena. and down to the beginning of the war with Troy. made by an ingenious friend. Tune next followed. that a poet flourished of the name of Melesigenes. to unite them into something like consistency. is little else than a version of the same story as that of Peisistratus. Ballads at first. like those of the negroes in the United States. as it aided the memory considerably. Then followed a species of recitative. xxxv him to preserve an ancient and traditional order of the poems. But what was passing around them? The grand events of a spirit-stirring war. or whether the art of writing was known in the time of their reputed author. were merely recitations. Section 33 [xxiv] . I will conclude this sketch of the Homeric theories. with an attempt.

235 33 K. but this is rather a proof of his modesty and talent."—Grote. but no mere arrangers or compilers would be competent to do so. H. and then Peisistratus. he published these lays. p. in fact. for. R. remodelled from the archaic dialect of Crete. together with the eighth. by the people who took to singing them in the streets. and agoras. and the books from the eleventh to the twenty-second inclusive. Melesigenes knew that the poem was destined to be a lasting one. Solon first. was. Mackenzie. seems to form the primary organization of the poem. ii. under the title of the 'Odyssea. 222 sqq. and so it has proved. and afterwards Aristoteles and others. into a chronicle history. This poem now exists.' The author. the poems were destined to undergo many vicissitudes and corruptions. however. 'a great poet might have re-cast pre-existing separate songs into one comprehensive whole. did not affix his own name to the poem. as a collection. or the Collector. in which tongue the ballads were found by him. but. vol. than of his mere drudging arrangement of other people's ideas. then properly an Achilleis. named the Iliad. and restored the works of Melesigenes Homeros to their original integrity in a great measure. he met with a ballad. He therefore called it the poem of Homeros. and the Achilleis32 grew under his hand. arguing for the unity of authorship. His noble mind seized the hint that there presented itself.xxxvi The Iliad of Homer ballads might be made of great utility to his purpose of writing a poem on the social position of Hellas. great part of it."33 32 "The first book. However. like those relating to the Cid.' "While employed on the wild legend of Odysseus. connecting them by a tale of his own. caused him to publish the poem under the same pseudonyme as his former work: and the disjointed lays of the ancient bards were joined together. however. assemblies. revised the poems. Notes and Queries. p. and. recording the quarrel of Achilles and Agamemnon. Unity of design. which. first. as Grote has finely observed. [xxv] .

and that the intrusive hand of the poetasters may here and there have inflicted a wound more serious than the negligence of the copyist. but may be so per accidens. without which our Greek knowledge would be gloomy and jejune. . In maintaining the authenticity and personality of their one author. while the whole weight of historical evidence is against the hypothesis which would assign these great works to a plurality of authors. such an attempt would be gross inconsistency. To deny that many corruptions and interpolations disfigure them. quocunque nomine vocari eum jus fasque sit. Indeed. also speaks eloquently to the contrary. I feel conscious that. I must still express my conviction as to the unity of the authorship of the Homeric poems.INTRODUCTION. would be an absurd and captious assumption. calculated to substantially improve the poetry of a passage. while I appreciate its importance in a philological view. considering the character of some of my own books. be he Homer or Melesigenes. are often least competent to carry out their own precepts. have given us the history of a thousand minute points. Grammarians are not poets by profession. those who are most exact in laying down rules of verbal criticism and interpretation. Three parts of the emendations made upon poets are mere alterations. if we would either understand or enjoy these poems. I am inclined to set little store on its aesthetic value. had they been suggested to the author by his Maecenas or Africanus. But. The minutiae of verbal criticism I am far from seeking to despise. some of which. I do not at this moment remember two emendations on Homer. from Herodotus down to Loewe. although a mass of remarks. but it is to a higher criticism that we must appeal. he would probably have adopted. and that which springs from the deepest and most immediate impulse of the soul. the most powerful internal evidence. especially in poetry. xxxvii Having thus given some general notion of the strange theories which have developed themselves respecting this most interesting subject. Moreover.

Binding down an heroic or dramatic poet to the block upon which they have previously dissected his words and sentences. they proceed to use the axe and the pruning knife by wholesale. find that they have been put off with a vile counterfeit got up at second hand. and the satires of Horace. that the tragedies attributed to Seneca are by four different authors. in Schroeder's edition. and inconsistent in everything but their wish to make out a case of unlawful affiliation. a scholar of no ordinary skill. be he Seneca or not. without wishing to say 34 See his Epistle to Raphelingius. mere grammarians. not only in their borrowed phraseology—a phraseology with which writers like Boethius and Saxo Grammaticus were more charmed than ourselves—in their freedom from real poetry. seems to revel in the imaginary discovery. passage after passage. Justus Lipsius. . One rejects what another considers the turning-point of his theory. we shall feel better satisfied of the utter uncertainty of criticism than of the apocryphal position of Homer. in an ultra-refined and consistent abandonment of good taste.34 Now. till the author is reduced to a collection of fragments. Nor is this morbid species of sagacity by any means to be looked upon as a literary novelty. and last.xxxviii The Iliad of Homer [xxvi] But it is not on words only that grammarians. If we compare the theories of Knight. were literary deceptions. With equal sagacity. will exercise their elaborate and often tiresome ingenuity. that few writers of the present day would question the capabilities of the same gentleman. Lachmann. but a great many more equally bad. One cuts a supposed knot by expunging what another would explain by omitting something else. I will venture to assert. or till those. to produce not only these. Wolf. they cut out book after book. and others. that these tragedies are so uniform. Delphis. 1728. 4to. Father Hardouin astonished the world with the startling announcement that the Æneid of Virgil.. but not least. Now. who fancied they possessed the works of some great man.

xxxix one word of disrespect against the industry and learning—nay. but as yet nobody has taught us a better. Scaliger. does too much violence to that inward emotion. and there seems no more reason why corrupt and imperfect editions of Homer may not have been abroad in his day. rather than the instruction. while I can join with old Ennius in believing in Homer as the ghost. after all. Nor can I help thinking. of posterity. that the literary history of more recent times will account for many points of difficulty in the transmission of the Iliad and Odyssey to a period so remote from that of their first creation. and even bestows rare gifts from that wealth of imagination which a host of imitators could not exhaust. I must express my fears. like Wolf. is to degrade the powers of human invention. to elevate analytical judgment at the expense of the most ennobling impulses of the soul. hovers round the bed of the poet. Our faith in the author of the Iliad may be a mistaken one. in the very name of Homer. that they demand too great a sacrifice of those feelings to which poetry most powerfully appeals. I have already expressed my belief that the labours of Peisistratus were of a purely editorial character. The ingenuity which has sought to rob us of the name and existence of Homer. like some patron saint. the main fault in all the Homeric theories is. that many of our modern Homeric theories will become matter for the surprise and entertainment. To believe the author of the Iliad a mere compiler. who. There is a catholicity. But. and which are its most fitting judges. which makes our whole soul yearn with love and admiration for the blind bard of Chios. While. I look upon the belief in Homer as one that has nature herself for its mainspring. the refined acuteness—which scholars. so to speak. have bestowed upon this subject. however.INTRODUCTION. and others. than that the poems of Valerius Flaccus and Tibullus should have given so much trouble to Poggio. and to forget the ocean in the contemplation of a polypus.—still I am far from wishing to deny that the .

still less. then we might indeed wonder why God willed our ignorance on any matter. be present. and a free use of the songs of other bards. But we are too well taught the contrary lesson. except the power to create a grand whole. But unless there be some grand pervading principle—some invisible. In fact. to compass the powers by which the greatest blessings of life have been placed at our disposal. rather. or reveal themselves in more substantial forms to the mind of the poet. what bad taste and tedium will not be the infallible result? A blending of popular legends. a poem like the Iliad can never come to the birth. and it . Sensible as I am of the difficulty of disproving a negative. local associations teeming with the thoughts of gods and great men. a well-stocked mythical storehouse from whence he might derive both subject and embellishment. another to patch up the poem itself from such materials. are features perfectly consistent with poetical originality. Traditions the most picturesque. may crowd in one mighty vision.xl The Iliad of Homer [xxvii] author of these great poems found a rich fund of tradition. But it is one thing to use existing romances in the embellishment of a poem. We are not by nature intended to know all things. Were faith no virtue. What consistency of style and execution can be hoped for from such an attempt? or. episodes the most pathetic. and aware as I must be of the weighty grounds there are for opposing my belief. which will require little acuteness to detect. a parterre filled with flowers and weeds strangling each other in their wild redundancy: we shall have a cento of rags and tatters. the most original writer is still drawing upon outward impressions—nay. yet most distinctly stamped archetypus of the great whole. it still seems to me that the Homeric question is one that is reserved for a higher criticism than it has often obtained. to which these shall be but as details and embellishments. but. we shall have nought but a scrap-book. even his own thoughts are a kind of secondary agents which support and feed the impulses of imagination.

as a poet. as an Achilles or a Hector. woo the same loves. and sages have formed the character of other nations. and measure the giants of intellect by an homeopathic dynameter. we shall feel that the poems of Homer are not only the work of one writer. it was reserved to a poet to form that of the Greeks. exercised a similar influence over his countrymen. Heeren. This is a feature in their character which was not wholly erased even in the period of their degeneracy. but of the greatest writer that ever touched the hearts of men by the power of song. we in imagination must fight over the same battles. or rather. burn with the same sense of injury.INTRODUCTION. And if we can but attain this degree of enthusiasm (and less enthusiasm will scarcely suffice for the reading of Homer). In reading an heroic poem we must transform ourselves into heroes of the time being. And it was this supposed unity of authorship which gave these poems their powerful influence over the minds of the men of old. in which they were to behold the world of gods and heroes no [xxviii] . which seems to bid us repulse the scepticism which would allegorize their existence into a pleasing apologue. finely observes:— "It was Homer who formed the character of the Greek nation. who is evidently little disposed in favour of modern theories. to dwell upon the minute spots which mere analysis can discover. if we read in a right spirit and with a heartfelt appreciation. the work of the poet had already been accomplished. too deeply wrapped in admiration of the whole. and they paid homage to his superior genius. we are too much dazzled. No poet has ever. And there is a kind of sacredness attached to the memory of the great and the good. He held up before his nation the mirror. Prophets. Long and habitual reading of Homer appears to familiarize our thoughts even to his incongruities. xli seems as though our faith should be especially tried touching the men and the events which have wrought most influence upon the condition of humanity. When lawgivers and sages appeared in Greece. lawgivers.

198 sq. No. how much that appeals most forcibly and most distinctly to our minds. and to behold them reflected with purity and truth. of glorious productions. The best description of this monument will be found in Vaux's "Antiquities of the British Museum. 101. wherever his immortal spirit may reside. and some other poems usually ascribed to Homer. than seek to make it a mere centre around which to drive a series of theories.xlii The Iliad of Homer less than of feeble mortals. and the more we think—think as becomes the readers of Homer. from another heaven than any of which he dreamed on earth. every breast which cherishes the same sympathies. on the love of children. on which the "Apotheosis of Homer"36 is depictured. and not feel how much of pleasing association."35 Can we contemplate that ancient monument.—the more rooted becomes the conviction that the Father of Poetry gave us this rich inheritance. which had been called into being by means of his songs. 123) is well known. whose wildness is only equalled by their inconsistency with each other. As the hymns. His songs were poured forth from a breast which sympathized with all the feelings of man. on that passion which outweighs all others. His poems are founded on the first feeling of human nature. performing pilgrimages to the fountain which his magic wand caused to flow. whole and entire. this alone would suffice to complete his happiness. If it is granted to his immortal spirit. to look down on his race. I will content Ancient Greece. Whatever were the means of its preservation. and will continue to enter. the love of glory. of elevated. if it is permitted to him to view the vast assemblage of grand. 36 35 . are not included in Pope's translation. and therefore they enter. wife. and country. p." p. to see the nations from the fields of Asia to the forests of Hercynia. is lost by the admittance of any theory but our old tradition? The more we read. let us rather be thankful for the treasury of taste and eloquence thus laid open to our use. The monument itself (Towneley Sculptures.

before the age of the Ptolemies. and even. the objection would still remain. know or care about that department of criticism employed in determining the genuineness of ancient writings. which the history of every other people in Europe. and is obviously disturbed and corrupt to a great degree. from the pen of a writer who has done it full justice37 :— "This poem. it seems sufficient to say that from the beginning to the end it is a plain and palpable parody. . the author of which was uncertain. has almost ascertained to be a law of the human mind. seems to reverse that order in the development of national taste. according to Herod. is a strong inducement to believe that none of them were of the Homeric age. was the material employed by the Asiatic Greeks for that purpose. mentioned above. 5. and whose reputation for humour seems to have invited the appropriation of any piece of ancient wit. not only of the general spirit. "skin. and of many in Asia. p. but of the numerous passages of the Iliad itself. "is a short mock-heroic of ancient date. if no such intention to parody were discernible in it. it is commonly said to have been a juvenile essay of Homer's genius. "writing tablet.INTRODUCTION." instead of diphthera. it is in a state of society much more refined and permanent than that described in the Iliad. Classic Poets. The text varies in different editions. that to suppose a work of mere burlesque to be the primary effort of poetry in a simple age. Knight infers from the usage of the word deltos. xliii myself with a brief account of the Battle of the Frogs and Mice." which. that this poem was another 37 [xxix] Coleridge. so little did the Greeks. others have attributed it to the same Pigrees. 276. that any popularity would attend such a ridicule of war and the gods as is contained in this poem." says Coleridge. As to this little poem being a youthful prolusion of Homer. 58. with as much reason to Homer. for aught we can see. and the fact of there having existed three other poems of the same kind attributed.

what is called literal translation was less cultivated than at present. If something like the general sense could be decorated with the easy gracefulness of a practised poet. during the undertaking. to be sure. and . There are. We must be content to look at it as a most delightful work in itself. certain conventional anecdotes. but it is probable that these examinations were the result rather of the contradictory versions already existing. merely because Buttmann. his words were less jealously sought for. and his earliest acquaintance with the poet was through the version of Ogilby. His whole education had been irregular. which prove that Pope consulted various friends. whose classical attainments were sounder than his own. Loewe. rather than to dive deeply into the minute and delicate features of language.xliv The Iliad of Homer offspring of Attic ingenuity. It would be absurd. And in those days. and those who could read so good a poem as Pope's Iliad had fair reason to be satisfied. It is not too much to say that his whole work bears the impress of a disposition to be satisfied with the general sense. to test Pope's translation by our own advancing knowledge of the original text. therefore. We must not be torn from our kindly associations with the old Iliad. if the charms of metrical cadence and a pleasing fluency could be made consistent with a fair interpretation of the poet's meaning. or our most looked-for prize. than of a desire to make a perfect transcript of the original. and generally that the familiar mention of the cock (v. 191) is a strong argument against so ancient a date for its composition." [xxx] Having thus given a brief account of the poems comprised in Pope's design. I will now proceed to make a few remarks on his translation. and on my own purpose in the present edition. Hence his whole work is to be looked upon rather as an elegant paraphrase than a translation. that once was our most cherished companion.—a work which is as much a part of English literature as Homer himself is of Greek. Pope was not a Grecian.

they are drawn up without pretension. while utterly disclaiming high scholastic views. at least. THEODORE ALOIS BUCKLEY. to bear upon the text. Far be it from us to defend the faults of Pope. and to give a few parallel passages from our English Homer. Christ Church. To write a commentary on Homer is not my present aim. and mainly with the view of helping the general reader. will be found to convey as much as is wanted. Milton. sometimes of a critical character.INTRODUCTION. But we can still dismiss Pope's Iliad to the hands of our readers. Having some little time since translated all the works of Homer for another publisher. xlv Liddell have made us so much more accurate as to amphikupellon being an adjective. and my purpose was to touch briefly on antiquarian or mythological allusions. and not a substantive. In the latter task I cannot pretend to novelty. especially when we think of Chapman's fine. I shall consider my wishes satisfactorily accomplished. bold. I might have brought a large amount of accumulated matter. as far as the necessary limits of these volumes could be expected to admit. But Pope's version was no field for such a display.—far be it from. us to hold up his translation as what a translation of Homer might be. As to the Notes accompanying the present volume. rough old English. with the consciousness that they must have read a very great number of books before they have read its fellow. . to notice occasionally some departures from the original. but I trust that my other annotations. but if I have made Pope's translation a little more entertaining and instructive to a mass of miscellaneous readers.

.

there is not even a single beauty in them to which the invention must not contribute: as in the most regular gardens. than to comprehend the vast and various extent of nature. can never attain to this. learning. is. which masters everything besides. and others may have their pretensions as to particular excellences. It is like a .[xxxi] POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER Homer is universally allowed to have had the greatest invention of any writer whatever. And. The praise of judgment Virgil has justly contested with him. and without it judgment itself can at best but "steal wisely:" for art is only like a prudent steward that lives on managing the riches of nature. and industry. distinguishes all great geniuses: the utmost stretch of human study. it is only because the number of them is infinitely greater. therefore. which the common eye may better take in. Our author's work is a wild paradise. It furnishes art with all her materials. and such a figure. who most excelled in that which is the very foundation of poetry. because they find it easier for themselves to pursue their observations through a uniform and bounded walk of art. It is the invention that. the reason why common critics are inclined to prefer a judicious and methodical genius to a great and fruitful one. but his invention remains yet unrivalled. art can only reduce beauties of nature to more regularity. Whatever praises may be given to works of judgment. perhaps. if we cannot see all the beauties so distinctly as in an ordered garden. in different degrees. more entertained with. where. Nor is it a wonder if he has ever been acknowledged the greatest of poets. and is.

it brightens all the rubbish about it. "They pour along like a fire that sweeps the whole earth before it. What he writes is of the most animated nature imaginable. this "vivida vis animi. that his fancy. you are not coldly informed of what was said or done as from a third person. Exact disposition. every thing moves. each according to his fancy. and make us admire even while we disapprove. however. is not discovered immediately at the beginning of his poem in its fullest splendour: it grows in the progress both upon himself and others. and if others are not arrived to perfection or maturity. like a chariot-wheel. correct elocution. polished numbers. more . just thought. out of which those who followed him have but selected some particular plants. or a battle fought. Nay. Hoid' ar' isan hosei te puri chthon pasa nemoito. remarkable. If a council be called. If some things are too luxuriant it is owing to the richness of the soil. and becomes on fire. till we see nothing but its own splendour. it is only because they are overrun and oppressed by those of a stronger nature. the reader is hurried out of himself by the force of the poet's imagination. which contains the seeds and first productions of every kind. This fire is discerned in Virgil.xlviii The Iliad of Homer [xxxii] copious nursery. but this poetic fire. that no man of a true poetical spirit is master of himself while he reads him. though attended with absurdities. by its own rapidity. Even in works where all those are imperfect or neglected. The course of his verses resembles that of the army he describes. which is everywhere vigorous." It is." in a very few. and turns in one place to a hearer. reflected from Homer. It is to the strength of this amazing invention we are to attribute that unequalled fire and rapture which is so forcible in Homer. this can overpower criticism. but discerned as through a glass. may have been found in a thousand. in another to a spectator. and is put in action. to cultivate and beautify. every thing lives. where this appears.

and in him only. but everywhere equal and constant: in Lucan and Statius it bursts out in sudden. and created a world for himself in the invention of fable. Yet this he has supplied with a vaster variety of incidents and events. I shall begin with considering him in his part. Of this sort is the main story of an epic poem. The probable fable is the recital of such actions as. the settlement of the Trojans in Italy. [xxxiii] . though they did not happen. in the violence of its course. as it is naturally the first. or of such as. and episodes of all kinds. it burns everywhere clearly and everywhere irresistibly. Fable may be divided into the probable. speeches. short. to supply his maxims and reflections. all the inward passions and affections of mankind. and the marvellous. yet might. That of the Iliad is the "anger of Achilles." or the like. and the whole compass of nature. This strong and ruling faculty was like a powerful star. That which Aristotle calls "the soul of poetry. like an accidental fire from heaven: but in Homer." was first breathed into it by Homer. to furnish his characters: and all the outward forms and images of things for his descriptions: but wanting yet an ampler sphere to expatiate in. though they did. and crowded with a greater number of councils. which. It seemed not enough to have taken in the whole circle of arts. battles. and interrupted flashes: In Milton it glows like a furnace kept up to an uncommon ardour by the force of art: in Shakspeare it strikes before we are aware. drew all things within its vortex.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER xlix shining than fierce. and I speak of it both as it means the design of a poem." the most short and single subject that ever was chosen by any poet. became fables by the additional episodes and manner of telling them. I shall here endeavour to show how this vast invention exerts itself in a manner superior to that of any poet through all the main constituent parts of his work: as it is the great and peculiar characteristic which distinguishes him from all other authors. the allegorical. "The return of Ulysses. he opened a new and boundless walk for his imagination. in the common course of nature. and as it is taken for fiction.

If he has funeral games for Patroclus. aided himself by taking in a more extensive subject. To proceed to the allegorical fable—If we reflect upon those innumerable knowledges. supplied the want from other Greek authors. If Ulysses visit the shades. Virgil has not only observed this close imitation of Homer. Virgil has the same for Anchises. The other epic poets have used the same practice. Rinaldo must absent himself just as long on the like account. was copied (says Macrobius) almost word for word from Pisander. as the loves of Dido and Æneas are taken from those of Medea and Jason in Apollonius. and the taking of Troy. they all draw up their forces in the same order. but.l The Iliad of Homer than are to be found even in those poems whose schemes are of the utmost latitude and irregularity. and lose their readers in an unreasonable length of time. destroy the unity of action. If Achilles be absent from the army on the score of a quarrel through half the poem. so is Æneas by Dido. what a new and ample scene of wonder may . where he had not led the way. and Statius (rather than omit them) destroys the unity of his actions for those of Archemorus. The action is hurried on with the most vehement spirit. as well as a greater length of time. and several others in the same manner. Thus the story of Sinon. and its whole duration employs not so much as fifty days. the Æneas of Virgil and Scipio of Silius are sent after him. Virgil. Nor is it only in the main design that they have been unable to add to his invention. but they have followed him in every episode and part of story. and contracting the design of both Homer's poems into one. but generally carried it so far as to superinduce a multiplicity of fables. If he gives his hero a suit of celestial armour. for want of so warm a genius. which is yet but a fourth part as large as his. If he be detained from his return by the allurements of Calypso. those secrets of nature and physical philosophy which Homer is generally supposed to have wrapped up in his allegories. If he has given a regular catalogue of an army. and Rinaldo by Armida. Virgil and Tasso make the same present to theirs.

But whatever cause there might be to blame his machines in a philosophical or religious view. For when the mode of learning changed in the following ages. he seems the first who brought them into a system of machinery for poetry. that mankind have been ever since contented to follow them: none have been able to enlarge the sphere of poetry beyond the limits he has set: every attempt of this nature has proved unsuccessful. The marvellous fable includes whatever is supernatural. his gods continue to this day the gods of poetry.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER li this consideration afford us! How fertile will that imagination appear. the virtues and vices. it then became as reasonable in the more modern poets to lay it aside. with so visible and surprising a variety. If Homer was not the first who introduced the deities (as Herodotus imagines) into the religion of Greece. but for their judgment in having contracted it. in forms and persons. And perhaps it was no unhappy circumstance for Virgil. and whatever commendations have been allowed them on this head. and after all the various changes of times and religions. and science was delivered in a plainer manner. We come now to the characters of his persons. and here we shall find no author has ever drawn so many. that there was not in his time that demand upon him of so great an invention as might be capable of furnishing all those allegorical parts of a poem. and to introduce them into actions agreeable to the nature of the things they shadowed! This is a field in which no succeeding poets could dispute with Homer. are by no means for their invention in having enlarged his circle. or given us such lively and affecting [xxxiv] . constantly laying their accusation against Homer as the chief support of it. and such a one as makes its greatest importance and dignity: for we find those authors who have been offended at the literal notion of the gods. and especially the machines of the gods. which as able to clothe all the properties of elements. the qualifications of the mind. as it was in Homer to make use of it. they are so perfect in the poetic.

that the wisdom of one is artificial and various. in a superior degree. That of Achilles is furious and intractable. characters of courage. yet listening to advice. open. even that of Turnus seems no way peculiar. Every one has something so singularly his own. active and vigilant: the courage of Agamemnon is inspirited by love of empire and ambition. His characters of valour are much alike. hidden and undistinguished. and this quality also takes a different turn in each from the difference of his prudence. besides. The single quality of courage is wonderfully diversified in the several characters of the Iliad. The characters of Virgil are far from striking us in this open manner. of Hector. but. to which he takes care to give a tincture of that principal one. but even in the under parts of it. For example: the main characters of Ulysses and Nestor consist in wisdom. that an air of impetuosity runs through them all. than the poet has by their manners. and they are distinct in this. that of Ajax is heavy and self-confiding. Tydeus. in Sarpedon a gallant and generous one. they lie. that no painter could have distinguished them more by their features. Nor is this judicious and astonishing diversity to be found only in the principal quality which constitutes the main of each character. that of Diomede forward. as it is. They have a parity .lii The Iliad of Homer impressions of them. It would be endless to produce instances of these kinds. But they have. Hippomedon. and regular. Cloanthus. In like manner it may be remarked of Statius's heroes. &c. the same horrid and savage courage appears in his Capaneus. or the rest. and. and we see nothing that differences the courage of Mnestheus from that of Sergestus. Nothing can be more exact than the distinctions he has observed in the different degrees of virtues and vices. where they are marked most evidently affect us not in proportion to those of Homer. the other upon experience. for one in the war depends still upon caution. that of Menelaus mixed with softness and tenderness for his people: we find in Idomeneus a plain direct soldier. and subject to command. of the other natural. in a great degree.

he will be convinced how infinitely superior. It is hardly credible. than when we are engaged in Homer. is. and the speeches often consist of general reflections or thoughts. in his Gnomologia Homerica. As there is more variety of characters in the Iliad.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER liii of character. Duport. the invention of Homer was to that of all others. in this point. so many of his speeches escape being applied and judged by the rule of propriety. in a work of such length. all which are the effects of a colder invention. The speeches are to be considered as they flow from the characters. In Virgil the dramatic part is less in proportion to the narrative. has collected innumerable instances of this sort. we take a view of the sentiments. how small a number of lines are employed in narration. Homer makes us hearers. he has not so many that are sublime and noble. that if Virgil has not so many thoughts that are low and vulgar. of those who utter them. [xxxv] . Longinus has given his opinion. And it is with justice an excellent modern writer allows. being perfect or defective as they agree or disagree with the manners. If. What were alone sufficient to prove the grandeur and excellence of his sentiments in general. that is. if he will pursue it through the epic and tragic writers. which makes them seem brothers of one family. We oftener think of the author himself when we read Virgil. "Everything in it has manner" (as Aristotle expresses it). so there is of speeches. that interests us less in the action described. in the next place. I believe when the reader is led into this tract of reflection. the same presiding faculty is eminent in the sublimity and spirit of his thoughts. than in any other poem. As many of his persons have no apparent characters. that it was in this part Homer principally excelled. and that the Roman author seldom rises into very astonishing sentiments where he is not fired by the Iliad. which might be equally just in any person's mouth upon the same occasion. everything is acted or spoken. and Virgil leaves us readers. that they have so remarkable a parity with those of the Scripture.

and executed with rapidity. Nothing is so surprising as the descriptions of his battles. that he has scarce any comparisons which are not drawn from his master. we see the bright imagination of Homer shining out in the most enlivened forms of it. and confusion. but justly great in proportion to it. he was the only poet who had found out "living words. that every battle rises above the last in greatness.liv The Iliad of Homer If we observe his descriptions. in their various views presented themselves in an instant. that no two heroes are wounded in the same manner. we shall find the invention still predominant. where we see each circumstance of art." there are in him more daring figures and metaphors than in any good author whatever. the first who taught that "language of the gods" to men. unobserved by any painter but Homer. that no one bears a likeness to another. images. and are supplied with so vast a variety of incidents. and the like. which [xxxvi] . His expression is like the colouring of some great masters. and it is evident of Virgil especially. Aristotle had reason to say. a weapon "thirsts" to drink the blood of an enemy. horror. which take up no less than half the Iliad. such different kinds of deaths. We acknowledge him the father of poetical diction. summoned together by the extent and fecundity of his imagination to which all things. and touched with the greatest spirit. It is the sentiment that swells and fills out the diction. indeed. though every one has assisted himself with a great quantity out of him. An arrow is "impatient" to be on the wing. If we descend from hence to the expression. but several unexpected peculiarities and side views. and such a profusion of noble ideas. and had their impressions taken off to perfection at a heat? Nay. To what else can we ascribe that vast comprehension of images of every sort. and individual of nature. which discovers itself to be laid on boldly. It is certain there is not near that number of images and descriptions in any epic poet. It is. the strongest and most glowing imaginable. and similes. yet his expression is never too big for the sense. he not only gives us the full prospects of things.

POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER lv rises with it. With . but searched through its different dialects with this particular view. and refines to a greater clearness. which particular images could not have been insisted upon so long as to express them in a description (though but of a single line) without diverting the reader too much from the principal action or figure. and forms itself about it. to beautify and perfect his numbers he considered these as they had a greater mixture of vowels or consonants. Homer seems to have affected the compound epithets. which grows to a greater magnitude. and from its custom of resolving the diphthongs into two syllables. only as the breath within is more powerful. if we consider his versification. and so of others. What he most affected was the Ionic. from its never using contractions. This was a sort of composition peculiarly proper to poetry. and accordingly employed them as the verse required either a greater smoothness or strength. Lastly. As a metaphor is a short simile. we shall be sensible what a share of praise is due to his invention in that also. and likewise conduced in some measure to thicken the images. so as to make the words open themselves with a more spreading and sonorous fluency. To throw his language more out of prose. for in the same degree that a thought is warmer. the landscape of Mount Neritus in that of Einosiphyllos. like glass in the furnace. an expression will be brighter. We see the motion of Hector's plumes in the epithet Korythaiolos. as that is more strong. but as it assisted and filled the numbers with greater sound and pomp. not only as it heightened the diction. one of these epithets is a short description. this will become more perspicuous. He was not satisfied with his language as he found it settled in any one part of Greece. and the heat more intense. since (as he has managed them) they are a sort of supernumerary pictures of the persons or things to which they were joined. which has a peculiar sweetness. On this last consideration I cannot but attribute these also to the fruitfulness of his invention.

They roll along as a plentiful river.lvi The Iliad of Homer [xxxvii] this he mingled the Attic contractions. will find more sweetness. Out of all these he has derived that harmony which makes us confess he had not only the richest head. even without understanding them (with the same sort of diligence as we daily see practised in the case of Italian operas). and majesty of sound. the only reason is. The beauty of his numbers is allowed by the critics to be copied but faintly by Virgil himself. but the finest ear in the world. instead of being fetters to his sense. and the turn and cadence of its verse. and even to give a further representation of his notions. in his treatise of the Composition of Words. variety. This is so great a truth. and used the utmost diligence in working up a more intractable language to whatsoever graces it was capable of. were always in readiness to run along with the warmth of his rapture. and the feebler Æolic. and. while we . that they awaken and raise us like the sound of a trumpet. that fewer critics have understood one language than the other. at the same time. than in any other language of poetry. in the correspondence of their sounds to what they signified. always in motion. that whoever will but consult the tune of his verses. which often rejects its aspirate. Thus his measures. If the Grecian poet has not been so frequently celebrated on this account as the Roman. and completed this variety by altering some letters with the licence of poetry. and always full. though they are so just as to ascribe it to the nature of the Latin tongue: indeed the Greek has some advantages both from the natural sound of its words. with so much force and inspiriting vigour. Virgil was very sensible of this. never failed to bring the sound of his line to a beautiful agreement with its sense. as to make one imagine Homer had no other care than to transcribe as fast as the Muses dictated. that they flow with so much ease. and. which agree with the genius of no other language. Dionysius of Halicarnassus has pointed out many of our author's beauties in this kind. It suffices at present to observe of his numbers. or takes off its accent. in particular. the broader Doric.

When we behold their battles. and are only said to have less in comparison with one another. Homer was the greater genius. Homer. Virgil bestows with a careful magnificence. and as Homer has done this in invention. Homer hurries and transports us with a commanding impetuosity. or that Virgil wanted invention. with a gentle and constant stream. and his numbers more rapid and various. I have no way derogated from his character. Virgil. Virgil the better artist. Not that we are to think that Homer wanted judgment. Virgil has in judgment. in what has been said of Virgil. because Homer possessed a larger share of it. his manners more lively and strongly marked. and in proportion to his degree in that we are to admire him. because Virgil had it in a more eminent degree. I hope. Thus on whatever side we contemplate Homer. like a river in its banks.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER lvii are borne away by a tide of verse. and forming a judgment from thence of their merit upon the whole. No author or man ever excelled all the world in more than one faculty. and yet the most smooth imaginable. his expression more raised and daring. the most rapid. Homer scatters with a generous profusion. Virgil leads us with an attractive majesty. like the Nile. his speeches more affecting and transported. It is that which forms the character of each part of his work. what principally strikes us is his invention. with regard to any of these heads. in the other the work. pours out his riches with a boundless overflow. and accordingly we find it to have made his fable more extensive and copious than any other. his sentiments more warm and sublime. Nothing is more absurd or endless. his images and descriptions more full and animated. each of these great authors had more of both than perhaps any man besides. We ought to have a certain knowledge of the principal character and distinguishing excellence of each: it is in that we are to consider him. In one we most admire the man. methinks the two poets resemble the heroes [xxxviii] . than the common method of comparing eminent writers by an opposition of particular passages in them.

and firing the heavens: Virgil. amidst a series of glorious and inimitable performances. so may a great invention to redundancy or wildness. and. appears undisturbed in the midst of the action. commit something near extravagance. as with great virtues. If we look upon Homer in this view. Perhaps it may be with great and superior souls. upon which so much criticism has been spent. Thus Homer has his "speaking horses. which. disposes all about him. and regularly ordering his whole creation. The force of this faculty is seen in nothing more. and it is often hard to distinguish exactly where the virtue ends." and Virgil his "myrtles distilling blood. that his similes have been thought too exuberant and full of circumstances. scattering the lightnings. or the fault begins. And when we look upon their machines. and shines more and more as the tumult increases. Virgil. like the same power in his benevolence. But after all. to become miracles in the whole. it is with great parts. calmly daring. laying plans for empires. than in its inability to confine itself to that single circumstance upon which the comparison is grounded: it runs out into embellishments of . and as magnanimity may run up to profusion or extravagance. like the old heroes of that make. As prudence may sometimes sink to suspicion. exerting themselves with unusual strength. boundless and resistless as Achilles. as with gigantic bodies. they naturally border on some imperfection.lviii The Iliad of Homer they celebrate. exceed what is commonly thought the due proportion of parts. we shall perceive the chief objections against him to proceed from so noble a cause as the excess of this faculty. like Æneas. as surpassing all the bounds of probability. It is owing to the same vast invention. shaking Olympus. Homer seems like his own Jupiter in his terrors. counselling with the gods. and conquers with tranquillity. bears all before him. Homer." where the latter has not so much as contrived the easy intervention of a deity to save the probability. Among these we may reckon some of his marvellous fictions. so may a great judgment decline to coldness.

who are shocked at the servile offices and mean employments in which we sometimes see the heroes of Homer engaged. The reader will easily extend this observation to more objections of the same kind. as they are more contrary to ours. If there are others which seem rather to charge him with a defect or narrowness of genius. princes tending their flocks. and their wives and daughters made slaves and concubines? On the other side. joined with the practice of rapine and robbery. and the vicious and imperfect manners of his heroes. when the greatest princes were put to the sword." Who can be so prejudiced in their favour as to magnify the felicity of those ages. those seeming defects will be found upon examination to proceed wholly from the nature of the times he lived in. There is a pleasure in taking a view of that simplicity. to think with Madame Dacier. both by the censurers and defenders of Homer. are so managed as not to overpower the main one.38 "that those times and manners are so much the more excellent. Such are his grosser representations of the gods. The same will account for his manner of heaping a number of comparisons together in one breath. when his fancy suggested to him at once so many various and correspondent images. It must be a strange partiality to antiquity. when a spirit of revenge and cruelty. reigned through the world: when no mercy was shown but for the sake of lucre. we ought to 38 [xxxix] Preface to her Homer. but I must here speak a word of the latter. I would not be so delicate as those modern critics. . but is also set off with occasional ornaments and prospects. and princesses drawing water from the springs.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER lix additional images. in opposition to the luxury of succeeding ages: in beholding monarchs without their guards. however. which. His similes are like pictures. than an excess of it. as it is a point generally carried into extremes. where the principal figure has not only its proportion given agreeable to the original. When we read Homer.

between the brazen and . or the like: as Alexander the son of Philip. profession. and what usually creates their dislike." the "blue-eyed Pallas. If yet this be thought to account better for the propriety than for the repetition. the only true mirror of that ancient world. were obliged to add some other distinction of each person. As for the epithets of great men. such as the "far-darting Phoebus. By this means alone their greatest obstacles will vanish. Edmund Ironside. will double their pleasure in the perusal of him. such as the names of Harold Harefoot. and entertaining themselves with a clear and surprising vision of things nowhere else to be found. we have something parallel to these in modern times. This consideration may further serve to answer for the constant use of the same epithets to his gods and heroes. And. and had contracted a weight and veneration from the rites and solemn devotions in which they were used: they were a sort of attributes with which it was a matter of religion to salute them on all occasions. used such distinctive additions as better agreed with poetry. Boileau is of opinion. Mons. and repeated as such. Diogenes the Cynic. dividing the world into its different ages. Let them think they are growing acquainted with nations and people that are now no more. &c. therefore. and tediously repeated. either naming his parents expressly. for the Greeks having no names derived from their fathers. or his place of birth. and which it was an irreverence to omit. complying with the custom of his country." &c. Hesiod. that they were in the nature of surnames. indeed. and those who consider him in this light. Homer." the "swift-footed Achilles. that they are stepping almost three thousand years back into the remotest antiquity.. I shall add a further conjecture.lx The Iliad of Homer reflect that we are reading the most ancient author in the heathen world. Edward the Black Prince. &c. has placed a fourth age. Edward Longshanks. which some have censured as impertinent. Herodotus of Halicarnassus. will become a satisfaction. Those of the gods depended upon the powers and offices then believed to belong to them.

for the same reasons which might set the Odyssey above the Æneis. are such as hardly deserve a reply. oftener from an ignorance of the graces of the original. as that the hero is a wiser man. and such as might be acceptable to them by celebrating their families. as when they prefer the fable and moral of the Æneis to those of the Iliad. of "heroes distinct from other men. who. that these critics never so much as heard of Homer's having written first. by the whole course of their parallels. are called demi-gods. Lastly. which is much the same. Many have been occasioned by an injudicious endeavour to exalt Virgil. or else they blame him for not doing what he never designed. as because Achilles is not as good and perfect a prince as Æneas. and then triumph in the awkwardness of their own translations: this is the conduct of Perrault in his Parallels. and live by the care of Jupiter in the islands of the blessed. but will yet be taken notice of as they occur in the course of the work. and the action of the one more beneficial to his country than that of the other. actions or qualities. when the very moral of his poem required a contrary character: it is thus that Rapin judges in his comparison of Homer and Virgil. sometimes through a false delicacy and refinement. distinguish between the personal merit of . a consideration which whoever compares these two poets ought to have always in his eye. as if one should think to raise the superstructure by undermining the foundation: one would imagine. there are others. pretending to a fairer proceeding. Some accuse him for the same things which they overlook or praise in the other. they might have this also in common with the gods. Others select those particular passages of Homer which are not so laboured as some that Virgil drew out of them: this is the whole management of Scaliger in his Poetics. a divine race who fought at Thebes and Troy. Others quarrel with what they take for low and mean expressions." Now among the divine honours which were paid them. not to be mentioned without the solemnity of an epithet.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER lxi [xl] the iron one. What other cavils have been raised against Homer.

Homer not only appears the inventor of poetry.39 In all these objections we see nothing that contradicts his title to the honour of the chief invention: and as long as this (which is indeed the characteristic of poetry itself) remains unequalled by his followers. it only left room for contraction or regulation. &c. they found it upon the ignorance of his times. which rises from the most vigorous seed. and the prejudice of those that followed: and in pursuance of this principle. This is the method of Mons. de la Mott. vers. is improved with industry. or any great author whose general character will infallibly raise many casual additions to their reputation. have only said that a few branches which run luxuriant through 39 [xli] Hesiod. but excels all the inventors of other arts. Opp. I. pleasure and profit join to make it valuable: and they who find the justest faults. A work of this kind seems like a mighty tree. he still continues superior to them. A cooler judgment may commit fewer faults. et Dier. that he has swallowed up the honour of those who succeeded him. he must have been the greatest poet of his nation. and that he may be said in his sense to be the master even of those who surpassed him. 155.lxii The Iliad of Homer Homer. What he has done admitted no increase. but when they come to assign the causes of the great reputation of the Iliad. in this. it was but because he attempted everything. and be more approved in the eyes of one sort of critics: but that warmth of fancy will carry the loudest and most universal applauses which holds the heart of a reader under the strongest enchantment. He showed all the stretch of fancy at once. which were in reality the consequences of his merit. who yet confesses upon the whole that in whatever age Homer had lived. Lib. flourishes.) to be the causes of his fame. they make those accidents (such as the contention of the cities. The same might as well be said of Virgil. and that of his work. and if he has failed in some of his flights. . and produces the finest fruit: nature and art conspire to raise it. &c.

POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER lxiii a richness of nature. It is a great secret in writing. the diction and versification only are his proper province. since these must be his own. It is the first grand duty of an interpreter to give his author entire and unmaimed. insolent hope of raising and improving their author. manners. As it also breaks out in every particular image. it is his safest way to be content with preserving this to his utmost in the whole. in any particular place. description. It should then be considered what methods may afford some equivalent in our language for the graces of these in the Greek. there is often a light in antiquity. but those which are necessary to transfusing the spirit of the original. and . It is certain no literal translation can be just to an excellent original in a superior language: but it is a great mistake to imagine (as many have done) that a rash paraphrase can make amends for this general defect. and sentiments. no translator can prejudice it but by wilful omissions or contractions. it remains to treat of the translation. which is no less in danger to lose the spirit of an ancient. dull adherence to the letter. It is not to be doubted. to know when to be plain. I know no liberties one ought to take. and simile. that the fire of the poem is what a translator should principally regard. with the same view to the chief characteristic. might be lopped into form to give it a more regular appearance. and supporting the poetical style of the translation: and I will venture to say. Having now spoken of the beauties and defects of the original. and for the rest. whoever lessens or too much softens those. If there be sometimes a darkness. but the others he is to take as he finds them. such as the fable. as it is most likely to expire in his managing: however. there have not been more men misled in former times by a servile. As far as that is seen in the main parts of the poem. than have been deluded in ours by a chimerical. by deviating into the modern manners of expression. without endeavouring to be more than he finds his author is. takes off from this chief character. which nothing better preserves than a version almost literal.

One may affirm. and it is what Homer will teach us. This pure and noble simplicity is nowhere in such perfection as in the Scripture and our author. his style must of course bear a greater resemblance to the sacred books than that of any other writer. However. while the poet himself is all the time proceeding with an unaffected and equal majesty before them. but where his is plain and humble. if we will but follow modestly in his footsteps. Methinks I see these different followers of Homer. which differ as much from each other as the air of a plain man from that of a sloven: it is one thing to be tricked up. to give in to several of those general phrases and manners of expression. we ought not to be deterred from imitating him by the fear of incurring the censure of a mere English critic. on the one hand. no author is to be envied for such commendations. There is a graceful and dignified simplicity. as well as a bold and sordid one. This consideration (together with what has been observed of the parity of some of his thoughts) may. in a cold and timorous notion of simplicity. that the Divine Spirit made use of no other words but what were intelligible and common to men at that time. and the rest of the world will call dulness. of the two extremes one could sooner pardon frenzy than frigidity. and in that part of the world. induce a translator.lxiv The Iliad of Homer [xlii] when poetical and figurative. some sweating and straining after him by violent leaps and bounds (the certain signs of false mettle). let us raise ours as high as we can. as Homer is the author nearest to those. which have . and another not to be dressed at all. others sunk into flatness. which his friends must agree together to call simplicity. Nothing that belongs to Homer seems to have been more commonly mistaken than the just pitch of his style: some of his translators having swelled into fustian in a proud confidence of the sublime. with all respect to the inspired writings. others slowly and servilely creeping in his train. methinks. and. Where his diction is bold and lofty. Simplicity is the mean between ostentation and rusticity. as he may gain by that character of style.

Perhaps the mixture of some Graecisms and old words after the manner of Milton. those who are not his greatest admirers look upon them as defects. on the other. antique cast. As for the rest. Many of the former cannot be done literally into English without destroying the purity of our language. (into which some of his translators have fallen) cannot be allowable. junto. whenever any can be as fully and [xliii] . a more modern) turn in the paraphrase. and in a manner consigned to mystery and religion. I believe such should be retained as slide easily of themselves into an English compound. as. But certainly the use of modern terms of war and government. as well as those which have received a sanction from the authority of our best poets. I speak of his compound epithets. For a further preservation of this air of simplicity. such as "platoon. and as I may say. There are two peculiarities in Homer's diction. They have something venerable. if done without too much affectation. those only excepted without which it is impossible to treat the subjects in any living language. a particular care should be taken to express with all plainness those moral sentences and proverbial speeches which are so numerous in this poet. and of his repetitions. in that unadorned gravity and shortness with which they are delivered: a grace which would be utterly lost by endeavouring to give them what we call a more ingenious (that is. which most of any other seems to require a venerable. without violence to the ear or to the received rules of composition. campaign. to avoid those which have been appropriated to the Divinity." &c. might not have an ill effect in a version of this particular work.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER lxv attained a veneration even in our language from being used in the Old Testament. seemed pleased with them as beauties." or the like. and are become familiar through their use of them. and those who are. such as "the cloud-compelling Jove. which are a sort of marks or moles by which every common eye distinguishes him at first sight. oracular.

is by no means so to ours: but one may wait for opportunities of placing them. in the solemn forms of prayers." but affords a majestic idea in the periphrasis: "the lofty mountain shakes his waving woods. and which. and of one verse or hemistitch. nor to offend the reader too much on the other. the other allegorical. according to the occasions on which they are introduced. Some that cannot be so turned. would appear little or ridiculous translated literally "leaf-shaking. The repetition is not ungraceful in those speeches. with regard to the rays of the sun. in respect of the darts and bow. where they derive an additional beauty from the occasions on which they are employed. hekaebolos or "far-shooting. and in doing this properly. and where the effects of the sun are described. therefore. where the dignity of the speaker renders it a sort of insolence to alter his words. . of single sentences. as the epithet einosiphyllos to a mountain. as in the messages from gods to men.lxvi The Iliad of Homer significantly expressed in a single word as in a compounded one. or where the ceremonial of religion seems to require it. one literal. For example." is capable of two explications. as to preserve their full image by one or two words. the ensigns of that god. or from higher powers to inferiors in concerns of state. may receive an advantage from a judicious variation. Upon the whole. I would make choice of the latter. in such places where Apollo is represented as a god in person. the course to be taken is obvious. may have justice done them by circumlocution. I hope it is not impossible to have such a regard to these. As for Homer's repetitions. I would use the former interpretation. as neither to lose so known a mark of the author on the one hand. the epithet of Apollo. it will be necessary to avoid that perpetual repetition of the same epithets which we find in Homer. a translator may at once show his fancy and his judgment. though it might be accommodated (as has been already shown) to the ear of those times. we may divide them into three sorts: of whole narrations and speeches." Others that admit of different significations.

but it is a question. of giving a more tolerable copy of him than any entire translation in verse has yet done. whether a professed translator be authorized to omit any: if they be tedious. and fully possessed of his image: however. I am sensible it is what may sometimes happen by chance. Chapman has taken the advantage of an immeasurable length of verse. it may reasonably be believed they designed this. will see I have endeavoured at this beauty. He has frequent interpolations of four or six lines. that one might think he deviated on purpose. and attainable by very few: I only know of Homer eminent for it in the Greek.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER lxvii oaths. Hobbes. or distance. I attempt him in no other hope but that which one may entertain without much vanity. ver. and varying it on every new subject. Upon the whole. and Virgil in the Latin. one may vary the expression. We have only those of Chapman. if he did not in other places of his notes insist so much upon verbal trifles. He appears to have had a strong affectation of extracting new meanings out of his author. In other cases. notwithstanding which. a poem of the mysteries he had revealed in Homer. He is often mistaken in so bold a manner. there is scarce any paraphrase more loose and rambling than his. in his rhyming preface. when a writer is warm. where he has spun twenty verses out of two. and perhaps he endeavoured to strain the obvious sense to this end. at which the repetitions are placed in the original: when they follow too close. It only remains to speak of the versification. I must confess myself utterly incapable of doing justice to Homer. Homer (as has been said) is perpetually applying the sound to the sense. This is indeed one of the most exquisite beauties of poetry. His expression is involved [xliv] . to be guided by the nearness. the author is to answer for it. I believe the best rule is. 312. or the like. in whose verse it so manifestly appears in a superior degree to all others. insomuch as to promise. Few readers have the ear to be judges of it: but those who have. and Ogilby. and I remember one in the thirteenth book of the Odyssey.

However. As for its being esteemed a close translation.lxviii The Iliad of Homer [xlv] in fustian. is a daring fiery spirit that animates his translation. which is something like what one might imagine Homer himself would have writ before he arrived at years of discretion. and an enthusiast in poetry. and is now and then guilty of mistakes. but from the contractions above mentioned. In a word. But that which is to be allowed him. and which very much contributed to cover his defects. He has left us only the first book. but for particulars and circumstances he continually lops them. His poetry. to have been of an arrogant turn. which proceeds not from his following the original line by line. the nature of the man may account for his whole performance. as well as Ogilby's. His own boast. I would no more have attempted Homer after him than Virgil: his version of whom (notwithstanding some human errors) is the most noble and spirited translation I know in any language. It is a great loss to the poetical world that Mr. He sometimes omits whole similes and sentences. &c. shows with what negligence his version was performed. it ought to be excused on account of the haste he was obliged to write in. He seems to have had too much regard to Chapman. is too mean for criticism. in which if he has in some places not truly interpreted the sense. and a small part of the sixth. but through carelessness. and often omits the most beautiful. or preserved the antiquities. and has unhappily followed him in passages where he wanders from the original. from his preface and remarks. a fault for which he was remarkable in his original writings. of having finished half the Iliad in less than fifteen weeks. whose words he sometimes copies. for he appears. Hobbes has given us a correct explanation of the sense in general. had he translated the whole work. into which no writer of his learning could have fallen. Dryden did not live to translate the Iliad. I doubt not many have been led into that error by the shortness of it. But the fate of great geniuses is like that of great ministers: though they are confessedly the first in the . as in the tragedy of Bussy d'Amboise.

is above all things to keep alive that spirit and fire which makes his chief character: in particular places. in the speeches. What I would further recommend to him is. and competent learning. he must hope to please but a few. in my opinion. the Archbishop of Cambray's Telemachus may give him the truest idea of the spirit and turn of our author. a warmth and elevation. a shortness and gravity. to consider him attentively in comparison with Virgil above all the ancients. in the more active or descriptive parts. to follow the strongest and most poetical. or whatever figure they may make in the estimation of the world. is not in the nature of this undertaking. a fulness and perspicuity. with whatever judgment and study a man may proceed. But after all.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER lxix commonwealth of letters. neither to omit nor confound any rites or customs of antiquity: perhaps too he ought to include the whole in a shorter compass than has hitherto been done by any translator who has tolerably preserved either the sense or poetry. What I have done is submitted to the public. to copy him in all the variations of his style. or with whatever happiness he may perform such a work. from whose . those only who have at once a taste of poetry. as most agreeing with that character. than from any commentaries. they must be envied and calumniated only for being at the head of it. since a mere modern wit can like nothing that is not modern. to preserve. and a pedant nothing that is not Greek. and with Milton above all the moderns. and Bossu's admirable Treatise of the Epic Poem the justest notion of his design and conduct. ought to be the endeavour of any one who translates Homer. That which. in the sentences. to study his author rather from his own text. a plainness and solemnity. how learned soever. For to satisfy such a want either. Next these. where the sense can bear any doubt. nor sometimes the very cast of the periods. and the different modulations of his numbers. in the more sedate or narrative. not to neglect even the little figures and turns on the words.

I was obliged to Sir Richard Steele for a very early recommendation of my undertaking to the public. Dr. The humanity and frankness of Sir Samuel Garth are what I never knew wanting on any occasion. Verse will seem prose: but still persist to read. and by persons for whom they can have no kindness. . whatever they shall please to say. so poor. Rowe. is no less extensive than his learning. But what can I say of the honour so many of the great have done me. the many friendly offices. who was pleased to write to me upon that occasion in such terms as I cannot repeat without vanity. The favour of these gentlemen is not entirely undeserved by one who bears them so true an affection. though I fear no judges so little as our best poets. of Mr. Congreve. with infinite pleasure. while the first names of the age appear as my subscribers. that the strongest antipathy in the world is that of fools to men of wit. they may give me some concern as they are unhappy men. so complete a praise: "Read Homer once. Mr. I must also acknowledge. and Dr. Parnell. whose good nature (to give it a great panegyric). but none as they are malignant writers. and the most distinguished patrons and ornaments of learning as my chief encouragers? Among these it is a particular pleasure to me to find. I was guided in this translation by judgments very different from theirs. For all books else appear so mean. Swift promoted my interest with that warmth with which he always serves his friend.lxx The Iliad of Homer [xlvi] opinions I am prepared to learn. who are most sensible of the weight of this task. as well as sincere criticisms. Addison was the first whose advice determined me to undertake this task. though I shall take a further opportunity of doing justice to the last. who had led me the way in translating some parts of Homer. that my highest obligations are to such who have done most honour to the name of poet: that his grace the Duke of Buckingham was not displeased I should undertake the author to whom he has given (in his excellent Essay). and you can read no more. As for the worst. if an old observation be true. I must add the names of Mr.

I cannot deny myself the pride of confessing. and easy friendships. when I reflect on the enjoyment of so many agreeable obligations. The particular zeal of Mr. than in all the useful and entertaining parts of learning. He would have thought himself happy to have met the same favour at Athens that has been shown me by its learned rival. which make the satisfaction of life. This distinction is the more to be acknowledged. the University of Oxford. that I have had the advantage not only of their advice for the conduct in general. of whom it is hard to say whether the advancement of the polite arts is more owing to his generosity or his example: that such a genius as my Lord Bolingbroke. or the vanities of . I have found more patrons than ever Homer wanted.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER And Homer will be all the books you need. And I can hardly envy him those pompous honours he received after death. Stanhope. Harcourt (the son of the late Lord Chancellor) gave me a proof how much I am honoured in a share of his friendship. will pardon my desire of having it known that he was pleased to promote this affair. I must attribute to the same motive that of several others of my friends: to whom all acknowledgments are rendered unnecessary by the privileges of a familiar correspondence. and the patron of their writer: and that the noble author of the tragedy of "Heroic Love" has continued his partiality to me. from my writing pastorals to my attempting the Iliad. I could say a great deal of the pleasure of being distinguished by the Earl of Carnarvon. as it is shown to one whose pen has never gratified the prejudices of particular parties. has not refused to be the critic of these sheets. not more distinguished in the great scenes of business. but their correction of several particulars of this translation. In short. Mr. the present secretary of state. but it is almost absurd to particularize any one generous action in a person whose whole life is a continued series of them. and I am satisfied I can no way better oblige men of their turn than by my silence." lxxi That the Earl of Halifax was one of the first to favour me.

I shall never repent of an undertaking in which I have experienced the candour and friendship of so many persons of merit. Whatever the success may prove. after a manner neither wholly unuseful to others. and in which I hope to pass some of those years of youth that are generally lost in a circle of follies. .lxxii The Iliad of Homer particular men. nor disagreeable to myself.

[001] THE ILIAD. .

.

This inexorable man has a friend. with commission to make compensation for the injury. and is on the verge of entire destruction.BOOK I. but commands him not to engage with the chief of the enemy's army. and priest of Apollo. and animated with a noble resentment. comes to the Grecian camp to ransom her. this friend weeps before him. and because he also fears for his friend's life. Achilles calls a council. During this interval. injured by his general. the neatest summary that has ever been drawn up:—"A hero. The prohibition is forgotten. victory abandons the army. and encourages Chalcas to The following argument of the Iliad. given up to the most lively despair. who inflicts a pestilence on the Greeks. 40 . Chryses. is translated from Bitaube. The hero.40 THE CONTENTION OF ACHILLES AND AGAMEMNON. In the war of Troy. corrected in a few particulars. upon the successful termination of which the honour of their country depends. The priest being refused. Chryseis and Briseis. the Greeks having sacked some of the neighbouring towns. prepares to fight. allotted the first to Agamemnon. perhaps. persists in his animosity. The general. deputes the principal officers of his army to the incensed hero. in the tenth year of the siege. which for nine years has been occupied in a great enterprise. and to tender magnificent presents. Then the hero. the friend listens to nothing but his courage. retires to his tent. the father of Chryseis. ARGUMENT. and the hero's arms become the prize of the conqueror. the army is again defeated. at length opening his eyes to the fault which he had committed. and the last to Achilles. because he reserves to himself the honour of that combat. and insolently dismissed by Agamemnon. his corpse is brought back to the hero. and taken from thence two beautiful captives. he receives from a divinity new armour. and for a season withdraws himself and his troops from the war. He lends his armour to his friend. with which the action of the poem opens. The eloquence of friendship prevails more than the intercession of the ambassadors or the gifts of the general. and for permission to go to the war in his stead. and is. and asks for the hero's arms. entreats for vengeance from his god. according to the proud obstinacy of his character.

and complaining to Thetis. and twelve for Jupiter's stay with the Æthiopians. and exercises a cruel vengeance on the body of his destroyer. however. Such was the sovereign doom. one in the council and quarrel of the princes. Achilles' wrath. and lastly to Olympus. restores to the old man the corpse of his son. Achilles in discontent withdraws himself and his forces from the rest of the Greeks. The time of two-and-twenty days is taken up in this book: nine during the plague. as he had the absolute command of the army. The scene lies in the Grecian camp. 42 —i. The king. at whose return Thetis prefers her petition. p. during the whole time of their striving the will of Jove was being gradually accomplished.4 The Iliad of Homer declare the cause of it. 177. [002] .e. then changes to Chrysa. who attributes it to the refusal of Chryseis. which he buries with due solemnities. to Greece the direful spring Of woes unnumber'd. but finally appeased by the tears and prayers of the father of the slain warrior. incenses Juno: between whom the debate runs high.'—Coleridge. sqq. heavenly goddess. 41 Vultures: Pope is more accurate than the poet he translates. being obliged to send back his captive. he seizes on Briseis in revenge. recovers the victory. till they are reconciled by the address of Vulcan. granting her suit. thirsting for glory and revenge. honours his friend with superb funeral rites. for Homer writes "a prey to dogs and to all kinds of birds. Whose limbs unburied on the naked shore. But all kinds of birds are not carnivorous. Jupiter. Devouring dogs and hungry vultures tore. by giving victory to the Trojans. slays the enemy's chief. enacts prodigies of valour. enters into a furious contest with Achilles. sing! That wrath which hurl'd to Pluto's gloomy reign The souls of mighty chiefs untimely slain.41 Since great Achilles and Atrides strove. she supplicates Jupiter to render them sensible of the wrong done to her son. and such the will of Jove!42 is reconciled with his general and. which Nestor pacifies.

Extends the sceptre and the laurel crown He sued to all. that on the secret top Of Horeb. son of Jove. O Muse! in what ill-fated hour43 Sprung the fierce strife. . Suppliant the venerable father stands. and lowly bending down. didst inspire That shepherd. And give Chryseis to these arms again.44 And heap'd the camp with mountains of the dead." 43 5 Compare Milton's "Paradise Lost" i. or of Sinai. The king of men his reverent priest defied. of Atreus' royal race46 "Ye kings and warriors! may your vows be crown'd. Apollo. —Brother kings: Menelaus and Agamemnon.45 And for the king's offence the people died. from what offended power Latona's son a dire contagion spread. For Chryses sought with costly gifts to gain His captive daughter from the victor's chain. but chief implored for grace The brother-kings. But. heavenly Muse.BOOK I. And Troy's proud walls lie level with the ground. May Jove restore you when your toils are o'er Safe to the pleasures of your native shore.e. 6 "Sing. If mercy fail. And dread avenging Phoebus. oh! relieve a wretched parent's pain. Apollo's awful ensigns grace his hands By these he begs." 44 45 46 —Latona's son: i. yet let my presents move. —King of men: Agamemnon. Declare.

to Argos shall the maid retire. and golden rod. Mine is thy daughter. what the king detains Hence. and release the fair. with thy laurel crown. Till time shall rifle every youthful grace. In daily labours of the loom employ'd. Far from her native soil and weeping sire.6 The Iliad of Homer The Greeks in shouts their joint assent declare. Nor trust too far those ensigns of thy god. Nor ask. and tears. . with kingly pride. And prayers. Not so Atrides." [003] HOMER INVOKING THE MUSE. and thus replied: "Hence on thy life. Repulsed the sacred sire. Or doom'd to deck the bed she once enjoy'd Hence then. he. priest. and fly these hostile plains. and bribes. presumptuous. And age dismiss her from my cold embrace. and shall remain. The priest to reverence. shall plead in vain.

" 48 —Cilla.47 Thou guardian power of Cilla the divine. The trembling priest along the shore return'd.48 Thou source of light! whom Tenedos adores. The god who darts around the world his rays. safe at distance. a town of Troas near Thebe. It should be. God of the silver bow! thy shafts employ. so called from Cillus. remarks that the "worship of Sminthean Apollo. the Phrygian name for a mouse. In fulfilment of the oracle." [004] —Smintheus an epithet taken from sminthos. Silent he wander'd by the sounding main. a number of field-mice came and gnawed away the leathern straps of their baggage. If e'er with wreaths I hung thy sacred fane. however. ." i. they settled on the spot. "History of Greece. 68. was applied to Apollo for having put an end to a plague of mice which had harassed that territory. slain by OEnomaus.BOOK I. and that. and the Greeks destroy. Grote. and raised a temple to Sminthean Apollo. in various parts of the Troad and its neighboring territory." for the custom of decorating temples with garlands was of later date.49 Or fed the flames with fat of oxen slain. dates before the earliest period of Aeolian colonization. Till. Strabo. says. Avenge thy servant. not daring to complain. 49 A mistake. to his god he prays. 7 "O Smintheus! sprung from fair Latona's line. and thongs of their armour. that when the Teucri were migrating from Crete. a sister of Hippodamia. And in the anguish of a father mourn'd. Disconsolate. where they should not be attacked by the original inhabitants of the land. having halted for the night. p. they were told by an oracle to settle in that place. 47 "If e'er I roofed thy graceful fane. And whose bright presence gilds thy Chrysa's shores.

"History of Greek Literature. p. or of the reckless sinner suddenly checked in his career of crime.51 And last. The fleet in view. the vengeful arrows fix'd in man.50 Fierce as he moved. symbols of sudden death in every age. Inspired by Juno. he twang'd his deadly bow. for who could more appropriately impart to mortals what little foreknowledge Fate permitted of her decrees than the agent of her most awful dispensations? The close union of the arts of prophecy and song explains his additional office of god of music. 478." vol. And from Olympus' lofty tops descends. that most pestilences begin with animals. Of any connection between Apollo and the Sun. And hissing fly the feather'd fates below. the ravages of pestilence. 50 . Breathing revenge. i. a sudden night he spread. ii. are ascribed to the arrows of Apollo or Diana. is a different character from the deity of the same name in the later classical pantheon. no less naturally procured him that of god of archery. all deaths from unforeseen or invisible causes. while the arrows with which he and his sister were armed. The oracular functions of the god rose naturally out of the above fundamental attributes.8 The Iliad of Homer Thus Chryses pray'd. the fate of the young child or promising adult. vol. But ere the tenth revolving day was run. the Grecian hearts to wound. it must be borne in mind. there is no trace in either Iliad or Odyssey. 52 —Convened to council. For nine long nights. whatever may have existed in the more esoteric doctrine of the Greek sanctuaries. The public assembly in the heroic times is well characterized by Grote. and that Homer had this fact in mind. of the old man dropping peacefully into the grave. through all the dusky air. Bent was his bow. And gloomy darkness roll'd about his head. On mules and dogs the infection first began. For much the goddess mourn'd her heroes slain. Thetis' godlike son Convened to council all the Grecian train. Throughout both poems. cut off in the germ of infancy or flower of youth. "It is an assembly for talk. p 92.—the favouring power attends. 51 It has frequently been observed.52 —Bent was his bow "The Apollo of Homer."—Mure. thick-flaming. shot a dismal glare. The pyres. sq. his silver shafts resound.

Explore the cause of great Apollo's rage." 53 Old Jacob Duport. for dreams descend from Jove. shall dying Greece restore. atoned. quotes several passages of the ancients. and the future knew: Uprising slow. Achilles thus the king of men address'd: 9 "Why leave we not the fatal Trojan shore. whose "Gnomologia Homerica" is full of curious and useful things. The past. The assembly seated. whose comprehensive view. And Phoebus dart his burning shafts no more. Or learn the wasteful vengeance to remove By mystic dreams. 'Tis time to save the few remains of war.53 If broken vows this heavy curse have laid. of the people as listeners and sympathizers—often for eloquence. and sometimes for quarrel—but here its ostensible purposes end. in maintenance of the belief that dreams had a divine origin and an import in which men were interested.BOOK I. . and hecatombs be paid. the Grecian priest and guide. or some sacred sage. in which reference is made to these words of Homer. And measure back the seas we cross'd before? The plague destroying whom the sword would spare. and sat: when Chalcas thus replied. rising o'er the rest. the present. Chalcas the wise. the venerable sage Thus spoke the prudence and the fears of age: Communication and discussion to a certain extent by the chiefs in person. That sacred seer. Let altars smoke." [005] He said. So Heaven. But let some prophet.

with added sacrifice and prayer. For though we deem the short-lived fury past. But plagues shall spread. the blameless man replies: "Nor vows unpaid.54 Perhaps. by thy power and sword: For I must speak what wisdom would conceal." Encouraged thus. and funeral fires increase. of all the numerous band. But he. grown too wise. To her own Chrysa send the black-eyed maid. The king of kings. Not e'en the chief by whom our hosts are led. and the god may spare. Achilles! would'st thou know Why angry Phoebus bends his fatal bow? First give thy faith. "bright-eyed. our chief. when subjects. Bold is the task." To whom Pelides:—"From thy inmost soul Speak what thou know'st. provoked the raging pest. without a ransom paid. shall touch that sacred head. To whom thy hands the vows of Greece convey. invidious to the great. Long as Achilles breathes this vital air. reveal. Nor will the god's awaken'd fury cease. 'Tis sure the mighty will revenge at last.10 The Iliad of Homer "Beloved of Jove. and speak without control. Till the great king. And whose bless'd oracles thy lips declare. and plight a prince's word Of sure protection. . Instruct a monarch where his error lies. Apollo's vengeance for his injured priest. And truths. The priest may pardon." 54 Rather. Against his priest shall lift an impious hand. No daring Greek. E'en by that god I swear who rules the day." See the German critics quoted by Arnold. nor slighted sacrifice.

The prize.BOOK I. So dearly valued. Black choler fill'd his breast that boil'd with ire. When first her blooming beauties bless'd my arms. Our cares are only for the public weal: Let me be deem'd the hateful cause of all. Fond of the power." "Insatiate king (Achilles thus replies). But since for common good I yield the fair. and crown'd with every grace. Prophet of plagues. for ever boding ill! Still must that tongue some wounding message bring. And suffer. The prophet spoke: when with a gloomy frown The monarch started from his shining throne. my beauteous maid. Yet. My private loss let grateful Greece repair. the beauteous prize. And still thy priestly pride provoke thy king? For this are Phoebus' oracles explored. Is heaven offended. To teach the Greeks to murmur at their lord? For this with falsehood is my honour stain'd. unmatch'd in manners as in face. That he alone has fought and bled in vain. And from his eye-balls flash'd the living fire: "Augur accursed! denouncing mischief still. Because my prize. and so justly mine. The due reward of many a well-fought field? 11 [006] . I will resign. but fonder of the prize! Would'st thou the Greeks their lawful prey should yield. Skill'd in each art. Not half so dear were Clytaemnestra's charms. Nor unrewarded let your prince complain. rather than my people fall. And heavenly charms prefer to proffer'd gold? A maid. and a priest profaned. if the gods demand her. let her sail. I hold.

or even thy own. The spoils of Ilion shall thy loss requite. and thou possess'd of thine? Great as thou art. as with toil we gain. the daughter of Cycnus. At thy demand shall I restore the maid? First let the just equivalent be paid. and let it be A treasure worthy her. by Jove's decree. or with a monarch's claim This hand shall seize some other captive dame. 55 [007] . and worthy me. Such as a king might ask. The mighty Ajax shall his prize resign. And waft the sacrifice to Chrysa's shores. But this when time requires. our conquering powers Shall humble to the dust her lofty towers. Or grant me this.12 The Iliad of Homer The spoils of cities razed and warriors slain.55 Ulysses' spoils. and like a god in fight. The man who suffers. but he shall rage in vain.—It now remains We launch a bark to plough the watery plains. and with labouring oars. loudly may complain. while Ulysses received Laodice. Think not to rob me of a soldier's right. Whene'er. The prize given to Ajax was Tecmessa. But to resume whate'er thy avarice craves (That trick of tyrants) may be borne by slaves. We share with justice. Soon shall the fair the sable ship ascend. With chosen pilots. Or wise Ulysses see perform'd our will. Yet if our chief for plunder only fight. And rage he may." Then thus the king: "Shall I my prize resign With tame content. Or. or Ajax shall fulfil. if our royal pleasure shall ordain. be mine. And some deputed prince the charge attend: This Creta's king.

obedient to thy word. or shall lift the sword? What cause have I to war at thy decree? The distant Trojans never injured me. To Phthia's realms no hostile troops they led: Safe in her vales my warlike coursers fed. and in her martial race. the hoarse-resounding main. And walls of rocks. unworthy of a royal mind! What generous Greek. frowning stern. dreadful in his rage. and the pest assuage. ever join'd With fraud. replied: "O tyrant. Pelides. Far hence removed.BOOK I. secure my native reign. At this. not a public wrong: What else to Troy the assembled nations draws. arm'd with insolence and pride! Inglorious slave to interest. Shall form an ambush. Whose fruitful soil luxuriant harvests grace. The god propitiate." 13 MARS. Let fierce Achilles. Rich in her fruits. To avenge a private. . a voluntary throng. Hither we sail'd. Achilles' self conduct her o'er the main.

what conquests. Haste. Though mine the sweat and danger of the day. And wars and horrors are thy savage joy. vain man! thy valour is from God. son of Jupiter and Eurymedusa. For know. shall Atrides gain?" To this the king: "Fly. 'twas Heaven that strength bestow'd. threat thy earth-born Myrmidons:—but here56 The Myrmidons dwelt on the southern borders of Thessaly. fly with speed away. And Jove himself shall guard a monarch's right. There want not chiefs in such a cause to fight. If thou hast strength. I'm thy slave no more. O tyrant! match'd with thine. and took their origin from Myrmido. I heed thee not. It is fancifully supposed that the name was derived from myrmaex. Thy aid we need not.14 The Iliad of Homer [008] But thine. Rule thy own realms with arbitrary sway. launch thy vessels. As thy own actions if compared to mine. Some trivial present to my ships I bear: Or barren praises pay the wounds of war. proud monarch. and thy brother's cause? Is this the pay our blood and toils deserve. Go. My fleet shall waft me to Thessalia's shore: Left by Achilles on the Trojan plain. ungrateful. but prize at equal rate Thy short-lived friendship. Of all the kings (the god's distinguish'd care) To power superior none such hatred bear: Strife and debate thy restless soul employ. "because they imitated the 56 . What spoils. But know. and thy threats defy. Due to the deeds of many a dreadful day? A prize as small. Thine in each conquest is the wealthy prey. an ant. and thy groundless hate. mighty warrior! fly. Disgraced and injured by the man we serve? And darest thou threat to snatch my prize away.

and thine to fear. Just as in anguish of suspense he stay'd. The same idea is rather cleverly worked out by Apuleius. until Ithacus brought them together. And hence. and pierce their haughty lord. unseen by the rest. and settled them in more secure and comfortable habitations. Now fired by wrath. Hence shalt thou prove my might. having no other retreats but dens and the cavities of trees. But then prepare. That kings are subject to the gods alone. and curse the hour Thou stood'st a rival of imperial power. "De Deo Socratis. prince. While half unsheathed appear'd the glittering blade. after Heraclides Ponticus and others. Know. the change from ants to men is founded merely on the equivocation of their name. and now by reason cool'd: That prompts his hand to draw the deadly sword. as if the appearance of Minerva to Achilles. and that it were best to restrain his anger. in that instead of inhabiting towns or villages. Thy loved Briseis with the radiant eyes. My bark shall waft her to her native land." 57 Eustathius.57 15 [009] diligence of the ants. and labour'd in his breast. with grief and rage oppress'd. to all our hosts it shall be known. Distracting thoughts by turns his bosom ruled. Force through the Greeks.BOOK I. allegorizes this apparition. was intended to point out the sudden recollection that he would gain nothing by intemperate wrath. 'Tis mine to threaten. and like them were indefatigable. Fierce as thou art. This whispers soft his vengeance to control." . continually employed in cultivating the earth. to yield thy captive fair: Even in thy tent I'll seize the blooming prize." Achilles heard. which resembles that of the ant: they bore a further resemblance to these little animals. at first they commonly resided in the open fields. His heart swell'd high. imperious prince! prepare. if the god the beauteous dame demand."—Anthon's "Lempriere. And calm the rising tempest of his soul. and only gratify it by withdrawing his services.

"Descends Minerva. and by the golden hair Achilles seized. A heavenly witness of the wrongs I bear From Atreus' son?—Then let those eyes that view The daring crime. A sable cloud conceal'd her from the rest. to him alone confess'd. in her guardian care." .16 The Iliad of Homer Minerva swift descended from above. behold the vengeance too. Known by the flames that sparkle from her eyes: MINERVA REPRESSING THE FURY OF ACHILLES. Behind she stood. He sees. Sent by the sister and the wife of Jove (For both the princes claim'd her equal care). and sudden to the goddess cries.

" He said. Nor yet the rage his boiling breast forsook. "Forbear (the progeny of Jove replies) To calm thy fury I forsake the skies: Let great Achilles. Thine to look on.BOOK I. my vengeance I suppress: Those who revere the gods the gods will bless. The goddess swift to high Olympus flies. 17 [010] . The king and you are both the care of heaven. the chance of fighting fields to try. Thou dog in forehead." To her Pelides:—"With regardful ear. Then let revenge no longer bear the sway. 'Tis just. but in heart a deer! When wert thou known in ambush'd fights to dare. The force of keen reproaches let him feel. observant of the blue-eyed maid. And joins the sacred senate of the skies. For I pronounce (and trust a heavenly power) Thy injured honour has its fated hour. When the proud monarch shall thy arms implores And bribe thy friendship with a boundless store. To reason yield the empire o'er his mind. O goddess! I thy dictates hear. than despoil a foe. By awful Juno this command is given. and the gods obey. and bid the valiant die: So much 'tis safer through the camp to go. Hard as it is. And rob a subject. Then in the sheath return'd the shining blade. Command thy passions. to the gods resign'd. But sheathe. obedient. Or nobly face the horrid front of war? 'Tis ours. thy revenging steel. Which thus redoubling on Atrides broke: "O monster! mix'd of insolence and fear.

Hector comes to spread The purpled shore with mountains of the dead. in persuasion skill'd. Slow from his seat arose the Pylian sage. Who. Now by this sacred sceptre hear me swear." bk. from his lips distill'd:58 58 Compare Milton. With like disdain The raging king return'd his frowns again. This sceptre. By this I swear:—when bleeding Greece again Shall call Achilles.18 The Iliad of Homer Scourge of thy people.—or this had been thy last. Which never more shall leaves or blossoms bear. When. "For the lips of a strange woman drop as an honey-comb. lost to sense of generous freedom past. she shall call in vain. Words. ii: "Though his tongue Dropp'd manna." . violent and base! Sent in Jove's anger on a slavish race. To calm their passion with the words of age." So Proverbs v. Are tamed to wrongs." He spoke. Then shall thou mourn the affront thy madness gave. Experienced Nestor. form'd by temper'd steel to prove An ensign of the delegates of Jove. sweet as honey. and furious hurl'd against the ground His sceptre starr'd with golden studs around: Then sternly silent sat. "Paradise Lost. Which sever'd from the trunk (as I from thee) On the bare mountains left its parent tree. 3. Forced to deplore when impotent to save: Then rage in bitterness of soul to know This act has made the bravest Greek thy foe. From whom the power of laws and justice springs (Tremendous oath! inviolate to kings). flush'd with slaughter.

Do you. they pierced the mountain boar. Two generations now had pass'd away. and sovereign power preside. Or Polyphemus. Fired with the thirst which virtuous envy breeds. Achilles. even these esteem'd me wise. Such as no more these aged eyes shall view! Lives there a chief to match Pirithous' fame. Young as ye are. And smit with love of honourable deeds. In early youth my hardy days I led. If in my youth. All view'd with awe the venerable man. A godlike race of heroes once I knew. Nor think your Nestor's years and wisdom vain. of the Grecian state. young warriors. what woe is this to Greece! what joy To Troy's proud monarch. And from their hills the shaggy Centaurs tore: Yet these with soft persuasive arts I sway'd. and the friends of Troy! That adverse gods commit to stern debate The best. Two ages o'er his native realm he reign'd. they listen'd and obey'd. and happy by his sway. Let kings be just. When Nestor spoke.BOOK I. seize not on the beauteous slave. Theseus. Dryas the bold. 19 [011] . Strongest of men. Atrides. the bravest. endued with more than mortal might. this youthful heat restrain. hear my age advise. That prize the Greeks by common suffrage gave: Nor thou. Who thus with mild benevolence began:— "What shame. or Ceneus' deathless name. Wise by his rules. to toils of battle bred. And now the example of the third remain'd. Ranged the wild deserts red with monsters' gore. like the gods in fight? With these of old. treat our prince with pride.

20 The Iliad of Homer Thee. and he the lord of all? Him must our hosts. Leave me. Let both unite with well-consenting mind. The pride of Greece. Has foul reproach a privilege from heaven?" [012] Here on the monarch's speech Achilles broke. No laws can limit. So shall authority with strength be join'd. our chiefs. The king of men replies: "Thy years are awful. And furious. yet tamely see resumed. To live thy slave. gods! Achilles should be lost. the first honours of the war adorn. I well deserved thy galling chain. And seize secure. Forbid it. and sceptred sons of Jove. no respect control. Him. Before his pride must his superiors fall. and still to serve in vain. Seize on Briseis. as more advanced in age. thus. and interrupting spoke: "Tyrant. and bulwark of our host. Should I submit to each unjust decree:— Command thy vassals. that unconquer'd soul. and thy words are wise. and of a goddess born. Rule thou thyself. but command not me. awful majesty exalts above The powers of earth. The gods command me to forgive the past: But let this first invasion be the last: . His word the law. whom the Grecians doom'd My prize of war." This said. Like gods in strength. ourself obey? What king can bear a rival in his sway? Grant that the gods his matchless force have given. he ceased. no more Achilles draws His conquering sword in any woman's cause. O king! to calm Achilles' rage. But that imperious.

salt was thrown into the fresh water to be used for the lustration.713. For know. hydati perriranai. in Clem. if sea-water could not be obtained. . thy blood. Ourself in arms shall tear her from his heart. The host to expiate next the king prepares. Talthybius and Eurybates the good. p. phakois. Meantime Atrides launch'd with numerous oars A well-rigg'd ship for Chrysa's sacred shores: High on the deck was fair Chryseis placed. the pious train59 Are cleansed. or if they will not part. With pure lustrations." At this they ceased: the stern debate expired: The chiefs in sullen majesty retired. Shall stream in vengeance on my reeking blade.BOOK I. Along the shore whole hecatombs were laid. Alex. when next thou darest invade. cut the liquid road. The army thus in sacred rites engaged. Then swiftly sailing. Atrides still with deep resentment raged. "Haste to the fierce Achilles' tent (he cries). and with solemn prayers. Achilles with Patroclus took his way Where near his tents his hollow vessels lay. from its being supposed to possess certain fiery particles. Hence." 21 59 Salt water was chiefly used in lustrations. embalon alas. and cast the ablutions in the main. Thence bear Briseis as our royal prize: Submit he must. And bulls and goats to Phoebus' altars paid. And waft their grateful odours to the skies. Wash'd by the briny wave. And sage Ulysses with the conduct graced: Safe in her sides the hecatomb they stow'd. vii. To wait his will two sacred heralds stood. Menander. The sable fumes in curling spires arise.

to your prince declare (That lawless tyrant whose commands you bear). 159. heralds. haste. and they were believed to be under the especial protection of Jove and Mercury. the hero in his tent they find. and useless to his host. by constraint you came. Patroclus. Pensive they walk along the barren sands: Arrived. At awful distance long they silent stand. and thus with accent mild began: "With leave and honour enter our abodes. Conduct my captive to the haughty king. Unskill'd to judge the future by the past. Onom. and proclaim my vow. but your imperious lord I blame. The office was generally given to old men. . Not you. Blind to himself. the fair Briseis bring. and they were at liberty to travel whither they would without fear of molestation. Though prostrate Greece shall bleed at every vein: The raging chief in frantic passion lost. and men below! But first. Witness to gods above.22 The Iliad of Homer [013] The unwilling heralds act their lord's commands. Unmoved as death Achilles shall remain. p. viii. With gloomy aspect on his arm reclined. Ye sacred ministers of men and gods!60 I know your message. But witness. Pollux. Loth to advance. In blood and slaughter shall repent at last." 60 The persons of heralds were held inviolable. Decent confusion! This the godlike man Perceived. and loudest. and speak their hard command.

Fab. and in pensive thought. Her children were all destroyed by fire through her attempts to see whether they were immortal. as she eluded him by assuming various forms. and Peleus. O'er the wild margin of the deep he hung. 54 . it was determined to wed her to a mortal. in soft sorrows. the daughter of Nereus and Doris. Pass'd silent. Thus loud lamented to the stormy main: 61 [014] His mother. however. When. with the exception of that part of the heel by which she held him. Not so his loss the fierce Achilles bore. Patroclus now the unwilling beauty brought. Hygin.BOOK I. slow-moving o'er the strand. She afterwards rendered him invulnerable by plunging him into the waters of the Styx. who was courted by Neptune and Jupiter. But sad. as the heralds held her hand. And of look'd back. and Achilles would have shared the same fate had not his father rescued him. Thetis. That kindred deep from whence his mother sprung:61 There bathed in tears of anger and disdain. succeeded in obtaining her hand. it was known that the son to whom she would give birth must prove greater than his father. 23 THE DEPARTURE OF BRISEIS FROM THE TENT OF ACHILLES. with great difficulty. retiring to the sounding shore. She.

With treasure loaded and triumphant spoils. and resumes my prize. heavenly prize! was led. sacred to Apollo's name62 (Aetion's realm). Obscures my glories. Whose just division crown'd the soldier's toils. Where aged Ocean holds his watery reign." He deeply sighing said: "To tell my woe Is but to mention what too well you know. And thus the sorrows of his soul explores. 62 Thebe was a city of Mysia.24 The Iliad of Homer "O parent goddess! since in early bloom Thy son must fall. And ill he pays the promise of a god. The priest of Phoebus sought by gifts to gain His beauteous daughter from the victor's chain. And like a mist she rose above the tide. Intreating all. and. but chief implored for grace The brother-kings of Atreus' royal race: The generous Greeks their joint consent declare. From Thebe. But bright Chryseis. The goddess-mother heard. and trust a parent's care. to the general's bed. "Why grieves my son? Thy anguish let me share. by too severe a doom. . Beheld him mourning on the naked shores. Reveal the cause. north of Adramyttium. The fleet he reach'd. Sure to so short a race of glory born. Held forth the sceptre and the laurel crown. Great Jove in justice should this span adorn: Honour and fame at least the thunderer owed. If yon proud monarch thus thy son defies. our conquering army came." Far from the deep recesses of the main. By vote selected. The waves divide. lowly bending down.

and monarch of the main. And of my valour's prize defrauds my arms. Incensed he threaten'd. When bold rebellion shook the realms above. plead in vain. call'd by thee. the monarch storm'd. The undaunted guard of cloud-compelling Jove: When the bright partner of his awful reign. Defrauds the votes of all the Grecian train. and his gifts denied: The insulted sire (his god's peculiar care) To Phoebus pray'd. The priest to reverence. And sue for vengeance to the thundering god. defrauds me of the prize allotted me by their votes.BOOK I. Urge all the ties to former service owed. goddess! thou thy suppliant son attend. Then rising in his wrath. To high Olympus' shining court ascend. and release the fair. faith. and Phoebus heard the prayer: A dreadful plague ensues: the avenging darts Incessant fly. Durst threat with chains the omnipotence of Heaven. The traitor-gods. Then. The sire insulted. inspired by heaven. and his threats perform'd: The fair Chryseis to her sire was sent. and thence derives the woes: Myself the first the assembled chiefs incline To avert the vengeance of the power divine. by mad ambition driven. But now he seized Briseis' heavenly charms. the monster Titan came 63 25 [015] That is. The warlike maid. With offer'd gifts to make the god relent. And points the crime. Not so Atrides: he. But. . arose.63 And service. and justice. A prophet then. with wonted pride. That thou stood'st forth of all the ethereal host. and pierce the Grecian hearts. Oft hast thou triumph'd in the glorious boast.

"This power extends also to the world of gods— for the Grecian gods are mere powers of nature—and although immeasurably higher than mortal man. 67. And mourn in blood that e'er he durst disgrace The boldest warrior of the Grecian race. and from which even the gods are not exempt. and adored. While tears celestial trickle from her eyes) Why have I borne thee with a mother's throes. Let Agamemnon lift his haughty head O'er all his wide dominion of the dead.26 [016] The Iliad of Homer (Whom gods Briareus." s. they are on an equal footing with himself. To heap the shores with copious death. And brandish'd round him all his hundred hands: The affrighted gods confess'd their awful lord. Embrace his knees. and bring The Greeks to know the curse of such a king. —To Fates averse. men Ægeon name). and nursed for future woes?65 So short a space the light of heaven to view! So short a space! and fill'd with sorrow too! 64 Quintus Calaber goes still further in his account of the service rendered to Jove by Thetis: "Nay more. Through wondering skies enormous stalk'd along. yet. p." "Unhappy son! (fair Thetis thus replies. goddess. Conjure him far to drive the Grecian train. Of the gloomy destiny reigning throughout the Homeric poems. Schlegel well observes. the fetters of Almighty Jove She loosed"—Dyce's "Calaber. 65 . They dropp'd the fetters. To hurl them headlong to their fleet and main. this to his remembrance call.64 This. To Fates averse."—'Lectures on the Drama' v. at his tribunal fall. compared with infinitude. 58. trembled. Not he that shakes the solid earth so strong: With giant-pride at Jove's high throne he stands.

"that this procession is represented in one of the great sculptured reliefs on the temple of Karnak. Yet (what I can) to move thy suit I'll go To great Olympus crown'd with fleecy snow. And thou. The sacred ship 66 [017] . the danger shun Which now. far from Ilion should thy vessels sail. The sire of gods and all the ethereal train. from camps remote. from far Behold the field. alas! too nearly threats my son. serves to show the Ethiopian origin of Thebes. and the return of the deity from Ethiopia after some days' absence. Meantime. nor disdain to grace The feasts of Æthiopia's blameless race. secure within thy ships.66 It has been observed that the annual procession of the sacred ship so often represented on Egyptian monuments. not mingle in the war. O might a parent's careful wish prevail. 27 THETIS CALLING BRIAREUS TO THE ASSISTANCE OF JUPITER. On the warm limits of the farthest main. "I think.BOOK I. after quoting a passage from Diodorus about the holy ship. Far. and of the worship of Jupiter Ammon." says Heeren. Now mix with mortals.

vol. thus returning from the furrow'd main. here receive the spotless fair. Where at his solemn altar. as may be seen from Taylor's remarks in Calmet's Dictionary. And left him sorrowing on the lonely coast. and move The high tribunal of immortal Jove. reverend priest! to Phoebus' awful dome A suppliant I from great Atrides come: Unransom'd. This must have been one of the most celebrated festivals. since. and his twelve days' absence. Chryseis last descending on the strand. Beneath the deck the destined victims stow'd: The sails they furl'd. Eustathius. "Egyptian Antiquities" vol. as the maid He gave to Chryses. Next on the shore their hecatomb they land. In Chrysa's port now sage Ulysses rode. 98. This is the proper and most natural meaning of the word. they lash the mast aside." The goddess spoke: the rolling waves unclose. and the pinnace tied. Then down the steep she plunged from whence she rose. 1 p. Basil) gives this interpretation. p. i. Then will I mount the brazen dome. And may thy god who scatters darts around. And dropp'd their anchors.28 The Iliad of Homer Twelve days the powers indulge the genial rite. In wild resentment for the fair he lost. Homer alludes to it when he speaks of Jupiter's visit to the Ethiopians."—Long. and likewise an allegorical one. reconciled. It is therefore on its voyage. thus the hero said: "Hail. Atoned by sacrifice.e. even according to the interpretation of antiquity. Returning with the twelfth revolving light.110. (ed. Accept the hecatomb the Greeks prepare. 96. . 1 p. desist to wound. Her. 67 —Atoned."67 of Ammon is on the shore with its whole equipment. Ulysses led to Phoebus' sacred fane. sq. which we will spare the reader. of my edition. and is towed along by another boat.

And solemn voice. Whose sacred eye thy Tenedos surveys. some portion out the spoil. but if made to the heroes. or infernal deities. Stretch'd on the grassy turf. And smile propitious." Dryden's "Virgil. While thus with arms devoutly raised in air. in the caldrons boil. so lately sought in vain. Disposed in rank their hecatomb they bring. the victims slew:68 29 [018] 68 That is.BOOK I. and take The sacred offering of the salted cake. "If the sacrifice was in honour of the celestial gods. their plenteous dinner haste." vol i. unmindful of the past. . At this. So sadly lost. Thy direful darts inflict the raging pest: Once more attend! avert the wasteful woe. thy ear incline. the throat was bent upwards towards heaven. The limbs yet trembling. Some strip the skin.81. "The jolly crew. at ease they dine. Then near the altar of the darting king. And. 293. the sire embraced the maid again. fired to vengeance at thy priest's request. and cheer their souls with wine. The quarry share. Between their horns the salted barley threw. drawing back their necks while they cut their throats. With water purify their hands. Restore their strength with meat." i. the priest directs his prayer: "God of the silver bow. with their heads to heaven. And gilds fair Chrysa with distinguish'd rays! If."— "Elgin Marbles. it was killed with its throat toward the ground. p. Apollo heard his prayer: And now the Greeks their hecatomb prepare. Whose power incircles Cilla the divine. Some on the fire the reeking entrails broil." So Chryses pray'd. and unbend thy bow.

30 The Iliad of Homer The limbs they sever from the inclosing hide. (The crooked keel divides the yellow sand. The paeans lengthen'd till the sun descends: The Greeks. The thighs. dispense the flowing bowls around. Till now the Grecian camp appear'd in view. The parted ocean foams and roars below: Above the bounding billows swift they flew. The priest himself before his altar stands. The milk-white canvas bellying as they blow. restored. in double cauls involved with art.69 With hymns divine the joyous banquet ends. i. the grateful notes prolong. 'Twas night. where stretch'd along the winding bay. and approves the song. With pure libations they conclude the feast. and each receives his share.) Then part. The choicest morsels lay from every part. and roast the rest: Then spread the tables. Far on the beach they haul their bark to land. divide: On these. the chiefs beside their vessel lie. and hoist the mast: indulgent gales. And burns the offering with his holy hands. —Crown'd. transfix. and sees the flames aspire. 69 . Till rosy morn had purpled o'er the sky: Then launch. the repast prepare. The custom of adorning goblets with flowers was of later date. Supplied by Phoebus.e. and entrails dress'd. filled to the brim. The youth with instruments surround the fire: The thighs thus sacrificed. And. fill the swelling sails. Apollo listens. Each takes his seat. pleased. selected to the gods. Pours the black wine. The assistants part. The youths with wine the copious goblets crown'd. When now the rage of hunger was repress'd.

"If e'er. But wasting cares lay heavy on his mind: In his black thoughts revenge and slaughter roll. Fame is at least by heavenly promise due To life so short. And scenes of blood rise dreadful in his soul.BOOK I. like the morning-mist in early day. or my actions aid. nor in council join'd. stedfast in his hate. far apart. Avenge this wrong. There." [019] . Till the proud king and all the Achaian race Shall heap with honours him they now disgrace. 31 But raging still. Some marks of honour on my son bestow. O ever just and wise! Let Greece be humbled. and now the dawning light The gods had summon'd to the Olympian height: Jove. Rose from the flood the daughter of the sea: And to the seats divine her flight address'd. O father of the gods! (she said) My words could please thee. first ascending from the watery bowers. Nor mix'd in combat. amidst his navy sat The stern Achilles. Suppliant the goddess stood: one hand she placed Beneath his beard. and the Trojans rise. and high above the rest. Leads the long order of ethereal powers. and one his knees embraced. and now dishonour'd too. where old Olympus shrouds His hundred heads in heaven. The thunderer sat. And pay in glory what in life you owe. Twelve days were past. and props the clouds. The ships and tents in mingled prospect lay. When.

but Jove in silence held The sacred counsels of his breast conceal'd. and. the goddess closer press'd. and urged the dear request. "O sire of gods and men! thy suppliant hear. for what has Jove to fear? Or oh! declare. Refuse. thus the god replies. Still grasp'd his knees. sighing. Thus Thetis spoke. or grant. of all the powers above. Not so repulsed. Who rolls the thunder o'er the vaulted skies: .32 The Iliad of Homer THETIS ENTREATING JUPITER TO HONOUR ACHILLES. Is wretched Thetis least the care of Jove?" She said.

" "Paradise Lost" ii. confirm'd. "When a friend inquired of Phidias what pattern he had formed his Olympian Jupiter. irrevocable sign. fix'd. secure thy prayer is sped: Witness the sacred honours of our head. But part in peace.71 Swift to the seas profound the goddess flies. And all Olympus to the centre shook. "What hast thou ask'd? ah. xii p. &c. why should Jove engage In foreign contests and domestic rage. and awful bends his sable brows. and by an oath. lest the haughty partner of my sway With jealous eyes thy close access survey. and gives the nod.BOOK I.124."— "Elgin Marbles. and from their thrones of state Arising silent. The gods' complaints. he is said to have answered by repeating the lines of the first Iliad in which the poet represents the majesty of the god in the most sublime terms. The nod that ratifies the will divine. and Juno's fierce alarms. The faithful. or whether Phidias had been carried thither to contemplate the god. and this fulfils thy vows—" He spoke. Those who beheld this statue are said to have been so struck with it as to have asked whether Jupiter had descended from heaven to show himself to Phidias. thereby signifying that the genius of Homer had inspired him with it. aid the Trojan arms? Go. 351. wrapp'd in holy fear." vol. The shining synod of the immortals wait The coming god. . This seals thy suit. 33 70 —He spoke. The stamp of fate and sanction of the god: High heaven with trembling the dread signal took.70 Shakes his ambrosial curls. That shook heav'n's whole circumference. too partial. Jove to his starry mansions in the skies. 71 "So was his will Pronounced among the gods. While I.

" Full on the sire the goddess of the skies Roll'd the large orbs of her majestic eyes. But thou. But 'tis for Greece I fear: for late was seen. for me. Trembling they stand." [021] . All. Which Jove in prudence from his consort hides?" To this the thunderer: "Seek not thou to find The sacred counsels of almighty mind: Involved in darkness likes the great decree. say.34 The Iliad of Homer Before the majesty of heaven appear. In close consult. or who controls thy sway? Thy boundless will. Jove to his Thetis nothing could deny. and men below. What favourite goddess then those cares divides. What fits thy knowledge. To grace her fierce. artful manager of heaven (she cries). From whence this wrath. nor they. And all her passions kindled into flame. And thus return'd:—"Austere Saturnius. inexorable son? Perhaps in Grecian blood to drench the plain. but the god's imperious queen alone: Late had she view'd the silver-footed dame. What fatal favour has the goddess won. while Jove assumes the throne. In vain the partner of imperial state. shall search the thoughts that roll Deep in the close recesses of my soul. "Say. Nor can the depths of fate be pierced by thee. And all thy counsels take the destined course. Nor was the signal vain that shook the sky. Who now partakes the secrets of the skies? Thy Juno knows not the decrees of fate. And glut his vengeance with my people slain. remains in force. The first of gods above. the silver-footed queen. thou the first shalt know.

Goddess. Vain is the search. nor dare our will withstand. But dread the power of this avenging hand: The united strength of all the gods above In vain resists the omnipotence of Jove. submit. that ought to be. Anxious to thee. Let this suffice: the immutable decree No force can shake: what is." 35 VULCAN.BOOK I. . presumptuous and abhorr'd. Then thus the god: "O restless fate of pride. That strives to learn what heaven resolves to hide. and odious to thy lord.

and pleasure his design.73 —A double bowl. 44. the thunderer stands appeased." i. The feast disturb'd. something like the measures by which a halfpenny or pennyworth of nuts is sold. Launch the red lightning. nor durst the queen reply.72 Which held to Juno in a cheerful way. i. "Him th' Almighty power Hurl'd headlong flaming from th ethereal sky.36 The Iliad of Homer [022] The thunderer spoke. be patient and obey." Thus Vulcan spoke: and rising with a bound. Thus interposed the architect divine: "The wretched quarrels of the mortal state Are far unworthy. If you submit. Or lift his hand against the force of Jove? Once in your cause I felt his matchless might. p. The double bowl with sparkling nectar crown'd. unable to defend What god so daring in your aid to move. We. if Jove his arm extend. Dear as you are. roused to rage. 93 sq. Hurl'd headlong down from the ethereal height. Peace at his heart. 73 "Paradise Lost. I can but grieve. and dethrone the gods. a vessel with a cup at both ends. goddess-mother. Lexic. with sorrow Vulcan saw His mother menaced. Nor break the sacred union of the sky: Lest. in eternal peace and constant joy. and the gods in awe. with our sire comply.e. he shake the bless'd abodes. The gracious power is willing to be pleased. See Buttmann. "Goddess (he cried). A reverent horror silenced all the sky. Thou. With hideous ruin and combustion" 72 . gods! of your debate: Let men their days in senseless strife employ.

from noon to dewy eve. Each to his lips applied the nectar'd urn. was kicked down from Olympus in the manner described. its contentions for power and occasional revolutions. the white-arm'd queen received Then. Breathless I fell. and in Ausonian land Men call'd him Mulciber. Toss'd all the day in rapid circles round. the Muses round With voice alternate aid the silver sound. and its multitudinous banquets or festivals. and Vulcan. Thus the blest gods the genial day prolong.74 He said." p. and celestial song. Juno raised a storm. The story is told by Homer himself in Book xv. In feasts ambrosial. the ancient inhabitants of Lemnos which island was ever after sacred to Vulcan. "Nor was his name unheard or unadored In ancient Greece. Jove. had taken and pillaged Troy. The Sinthians were a race of robbers. with a smile. 'Ponticus. ed Gale.75 Apollo tuned the lyre. The Sinthians raised me on the Lemnian coast. and in his turn. 463 sq. having previously cast Jove into a sleep. which drove him to the island of Cos.." 74 The occasion on which Vulcan incurred Jove's displeasure was this—After Hercules. The allegorists have gone mad in finding deep explanations for this amusing fiction. they fabled. 37 [023] of ranks and duties. fastened iron anvils to her feet. and to her hands the goblet heaved. in giddy motion lost. attempting to relieve her. and how he fell From heaven. in revenge. And unextinguish'd laughter shakes the skies. A summer's day and with the setting sun Dropp'd from the zenith like a falling star . See Heraclides. Nor till the sun descended touch'd the ground. thrown by angry Jove Sheer o'er the crystal battlements from morn To noon he fell. Vulcan with awkward grace his office plies. and hung her from the sky. to the rest he fill'd. to prevent him aiding his son.BOOK I. its public meetings in the agora of Olympus. Which.

vol i p. 463. JUPITER. 738 It is ingeniously observed by Grote. th' Aegean isle thus they relate." i. roll'd down the rapid light: Then to their starry domes the gods depart. its distribution 75 .38 The Iliad of Homer Meantime the radiant sun to mortal sight Descending swift. The shining monuments of Vulcan's art: Jove on his couch reclined his awful head. [024] On Lemnos. that "The gods formed a sort of political community of their own which had its hierarchy. And Juno slumber'd on the golden bed." "Paradise Lost.

.BOOK I. 39 THE APOTHEOSIS OF HOMER.

.

in pursuance of the request of Thetis. THE TRIAL OF THE ARMY. This gives occasion to the poet to enumerate all the forces of the Greeks and Trojans. and at length the advice of Nestor followed. that he would propose a return to the soldiers. sends a deceitful vision to Agamemnon. who chastises the insolence of Thersites. The time employed in this book consists not entirely of one day.[025] BOOK II. . persuading him to lead the army to battle. before they proceeded to battle. who is deluded with the hopes of taking Troy without his assistance. towards the end it removes to Troy. The assembly is recalled. they unanimously agree to it. The general. ARGUMENT. They are detained by the management of Ulysses. and upon moving for a return to Greece. several speeches made on the occasion. and the late plague. The scene lies in the Grecian camp. and to divide them into their several nations. AND CATALOGUE OF THE FORCES. which was to make a general muster of the troops. He first communicates his design to the princes in council. Then he assembles the whole host. and that they should put a stop to them if the proposal was embraced. Jupiter. and in a large catalogue. contrives to make trial of their disposition by a stratagem. and upon the sea-shore. but fears the army was discouraged by his absence. as well as by the length of time. and run to prepare the ships. in order to make the Greeks sensible of their want of Achilles.

"Fly hence. 77 . And thus commands the vision of the night. And plunge the Greeks in all the woes of war: Then bids an empty phantom rise to sight. Destruction hangs o'er yon devoted wall. and at his other attacks on the character of the gods. "When." —Dream ought to be spelt with a capital letter. iii. 154. Section 22." p. At Juno's suit the heavenly factions end. evidently personified as the god of dreams.77 To Agamemnon's ample tent repair. by Minerva sent. was so scandalized at this deception of Jupiter's. being.42 The Iliad of Homer Now pleasing sleep had seal'd each mortal eye. a fraudful Dream Rush'd from the skies. 437. p. deluding Dream! and light as air. All.10. Declare. e'en now 'tis given him to destroy The lofty towers of wide-extended Troy. I think. but the ever-wakeful eyes of Jove. And nodding Ilion waits the impending fall.) Coleridge. Rep. Stretch'd in the tents the Grecian leaders lie: The immortals slumber'd on their thrones above." v." Dyce's "Select Translations from Quintus Calaber. 646: [026] "And roseate dews disposed All but the unsleeping eyes of God to rest. Bid him in arms draw forth the embattled train. See Anthon and others. Lead all his Grecians to the dusty plain. that the supreme father of gods and men had a full right to employ a lying spirit to work out his ultimate will. p. Compare "Paradise Lost. Introd. For now no more the gods with fate contend.76 To honour Thetis' son he bends his care." 76 Plato. that he would fain sentence him to an honourable banishment. (See Minucius Felix. well observes. the bane of her and Troy.

78 "Sleep'st thou. companion dear. Renown'd for wisdom. To whom its safety a whole people owes. 43 JUPITER SENDING THE EVIL DREAM TO AGAMEMNON." v. O Atreus' son! canst thou indulge the rest?78 Ill fits a chief who mighty nations guides. 673. And thus the flattering dream deceives the king. Swift as the word the vain illusion fled. Descends. and in war presides. and revered for age: Around his temples spreads his golden wing. and hovers o'er Atrides' head. what sleep can close Thy eye-lids?" —"Paradise Lost. . Clothed in the figure of the Pylian sage. Directs in council. "Canst thou.BOOK II. with all a monarch's cares oppress'd.

Silius neatly translates it. A thousand schemes the monarch's mind employ. O king! 'tis given thee to destroy The lofty towers of wide-extended Troy. In just array draw forth the embattled train." . Lead all thy Grecians to the dusty plain. and numbers of the slain! Eager he rises. The starry falchion glitter'd at his side. and to the future blind. his arm the massy sceptre loads. then vanish'd from his sight.44 The Iliad of Homer [027] To waste long nights in indolent repose. 79 "Turpe duci totam somno consumere noctem. For now no more the gods with fate contend. Destruction hangs o'er yon devoted wall. And nodding Ilion waits the impending fall.79 Monarch. This truly military sentiment has been echoed by the approving voice of many a general and statesman of antiquity. Resolves to air. Nor saw what Jove and secret fate design'd. First on his limbs a slender vest he drew. Thou. See Pliny's Panegyric on Trajan. At Juno's suit the heavenly factions end. awake! 'tis Jove's command I bear. and mixes with the night. E'en now. claim his heavenly care. The embroider'd sandals on his feet were tied. Awake." The phantom said. And trust the vision that descends from Jove. What mighty toils to either host remain. and thy glory. What scenes of grief. Around him next the regal mantle threw. Elate in thought he sacks untaken Troy: Vain as he was. and in fancy hears The voice celestial murmuring in his ears. And last. but waking this advice approve.

" Dryden's Virgil. Late as I slumber'd in the shades of night. Lifts up her light.BOOK II. The same in habit. 803. O Atreus' son? (he said) Ill fits a chief who mighty nations guides. and opens day above. There calls a senate of the peers around: The assembly placed. Whose visionary form like Nestor came. 'And. Unstain'd. To waste long nights in indolent repose. While to the fleet Atrides bends his way. His former youthful mien and shape he wears. . Directs in council. immortal. and the gift of gods. 80 [028] —The same in habit. and in mien the same. 45 Now rosy Morn ascends the court of Jove. To whom its safety a whole people owes. "Friends and confederates! with attentive ear Receive my words. and credit what you hear. The king despatch'd his heralds with commands To range the camp and summon all the bands: The gathering hosts the monarch's word obey. In his black ship the Pylian prince he found. the king of men express'd The counsels labouring in his artful breast. dost thou sleep. "To whom once more the winged god appears. &c. and in war presides. A dream divine appear'd before my sight. iv.80 The heavenly phantom hover'd o'er my head.

heaven! this warning should be lost! Then let us haste. This hear observant. At Juno's suit the heavenly factions end. with caution. And nodding Ilion waits the impending fall. And lead the Grecians to the dusty plain. obey the god's alarms. Be mine. valiant chiefs! since heaven itself alarms. and yours the province to detain. Now. Destruction hangs o'er yon devoted wall. Unite. your faithful ears incline. Forbid it. and pass'd in air away. (Nestor. For now no more the gods with fate contend. Sent by great Jove to him who rules the host. and sat: when Nestor.46 The Iliad of Homer Monarch. and rouse the sons of Greece to arms. and the gods obey!' The vision spoke.) "Princes of Greece. E'en now. O king! 'tis given thee to destroy The lofty towers of wide-extended Troy. Nor doubt the vision of the powers divine. whom Pylos' sandy realms obey'd. To move the troops to measure back the main. try what yet they dare." . awake! 'tis Jove's command I bear. In just array draw forth the embattled train. And join to rouse the sons of Greece to arms. rising said. But first." He spoke. Thou and thy glory claim his heavenly care. Worn with nine years of unsuccessful war.

The suburb of this straw-built citadel. proclaiming loud82 The monarch's will. swarms succeeding swarms. a lengthen'd train Spreads all the beach. The king of kings his awful figure raised: 81 47 [029] "As bees in spring-time. Soon as the throngs in order ranged appear. or on the smoothed plank.' iii. Xviii."—"Paradise Lost" i. New-nibb'd with balm. As from some rocky cleft the shepherd sees Clustering in heaps on heaps the driving bees. a close embodied crowd. And fainter murmurs died upon the ear. Fame flies before the messenger of Jove. when The sun with Taurus rides. expatiate and confer Their state affairs. p. 768. 138). darkens all the coast. and wide o'ershades the plain: Along the region runs a deafening sound. And o'er the vale descends the living cloud. And shining soars. ii. note. Pour'd forth by thousands. is also the forerunner of mischief ('Odyssey. the following host. and claps her wings above. 82 It was the herald's duty to make the people sit down. suspend the listening crowd. 91. and their chief obey: The sceptred rulers lead.BOOK II. Nine sacred heralds now. to which men came elevated by wine. So thick the very crowd Swarm'd and were straiten'd."—Grote.81 So. from the tents and ships. With deeper murmurs and more hoarse alarms. . Dusky they spread. Pour forth their populous youth about the hive In clusters. Beneath their footsteps groans the trembling ground. "A standing agora is a symptom of manifest terror (II. Rolling and blackening. they among fresh dews and flowers Fly to and fro. Thus spoke the sage: the kings without delay Dissolve the council. 246) an evening agora.

from Jove to Hermes came. whose blessing is most efficacious in furthering the process of acquisition. "It is traced through the hands of Hermes. Golden. To Pelops he the immortal gift resign'd.83 On this bright sceptre now the king reclined. partake your leader's care.48 The Iliad of Homer High in his hand the golden sceptre blazed. 212. like that of Judah (Genesis xlix. and brothers of the war! Of partial Jove with justice I complain. when he espoused The Queen of Love). Subjects all Argos. By Vulcan form'd. to be possess'd By Ilus he to great Laomedon Gave it. To rich Thyestes next the prize descends. Our blood. The immortal gift great Pelops left behind. i. Renown'd. Now shameful flight alone can save the host. And now the mark of Agamemnon's reign. Compare Quintus Calaber (Dyce's Selections. 10). and framed by art divine (a gift Which to Almighty Jove lame Vulcan brought Upon his nuptial day. And artful thus pronounced the speech design'd: "Ye sons of Mars. And heavenly oracles believed in vain A safe return was promised to our toils. See Thucydides i. our treasure." ."—Grote. who gave it next To Ericthonius Tros received it then. 9. 83 This sceptre. The golden sceptre. and last to Priam's lot it fell. triumphant. 43). and our glory lost. which not with Atreus ends. And left it. and controls the main. In Atreus' hand. Heroes of Greece. is a type of the supreme and far-spread dominion of the house of the Atrides. Then pledged the chief in a capacious cup. the sire of gods bestow'd The cup on Dardanus. p. and enrich'd with spoils. "Thus the monarch spoke. he being the wealth giving god. of celestial flame. with his wealth. p.

So small their number. and nature we obey. fly. Burst their dark mansions in the clouds. p. then. whole decades when they dine Must want a Trojan slave to pour the wine. Repulsed and baffled by a feeble foe. From east and south when winds begin to roar. And Troy prevails by armies not her own. safety. our tender children call: Love. Our shatter'd barks may yet transport us o'er. your sails and oars employ. And scarce insure the wretched power to fly. 84 . to our native shore. lasting shame in every future age! Once great in arms. 393. Since first the labours of this war begun: Our cordage torn. i. summon us away." His deep design unknown. Nichols makes a total of 135. the hosts approve Atrides' speech. and sweep 49 [030] Grote. 'Tis nature's voice.000 men. Fly. states the number of the Grecian forces at upwards of 100. for ever leave the Trojan wall! Our weeping wives. Now nine long years of mighty Jove are run. Grecians. duty.84 But other forces have our hopes o'erthrown. Oh. And dream no more of heaven-defended Troy. the common scorn we grow. And Greece triumphant held a general feast.000. Haste. decay'd our vessels lie. The mighty numbers move. that if wars were ceased. resistless lord of all! At whose command whole empires rise or fall: He shakes the feeble props of human trust. So roll the billows to the Icarian shore. All rank'd by tens. So Jove decrees. And towns and armies humbles to the dust What shame to Greece a fruitful war to wage.BOOK II. Safe and inglorious.

With long-resounding cries they urge the train To fit the ships. their trampling feet Beat the loose sands.50 The Iliad of Homer The whitening surface of the ruffled deep. thick clouds of dust arise. waving bends His bearded grove of ears. ripe for harvest. unmoved by vain alarms." 85 "As thick as when a field Of Ceres. And as on corn when western gusts descend. shall Priam. And sighing thus bespoke the blue-eyed maid: [031] "Shall then the Grecians fly! O dire disgrace! And leave unpunish'd this perfidious race? Shall Troy. .85 Before the blast the lofty harvests bend: Thus o'er the field the moving host appears. Haste. Nor let one sail be hoisted on the main. haste! the flying host detain. The gathering murmur spreads. in Helen's quarrel slain. But Jove's imperial queen their flight survey'd. they sweat. and launch into the main." iv. sqq. which way the wind Sways them. In peace enjoy the fruits of broken vows? And bravest chiefs. They toil. and thicken to the fleet. With nodding plumes and groves of waving spears. 980. and the adulterous spouse. The doubling clamours echo to the skies. Lie unrevenged on yon detested plain? No: let my Greeks. goddess."—Paradise Lost. Once more refulgent shine in brazen arms. And fate decreed the fall of Troy in vain. E'en then the Greeks had left the hostile plain.

"And is it thus. He tries our courage." 51 . Thus to their country bear their own disgrace. Jove loves our chief. Ulysses heard. The monarch's will not yet reveal'd appears. And to the immortals trust the fall of Troy. or chief in arms approved. Ulysses. and from Olympus' height Swift to the ships precipitates her flight. Not thus the king in secret council spoke. Still unrevenged. she found. Beware! for dreadful is the wrath of kings. Each prince of name. He runs. first in public cares. or with persuasion moved. Recall your armies.BOOK II. he flies through all the Grecian train. "Warriors like you. with strength and wisdom bless'd. The unwary Greeks his fury may provoke. By brave examples should confirm the rest. Nor drew his sable vessels to the flood. And fame eternal leave to Priam's race? Shall beauteous Helen still remain unfreed. He fired with praise. and your chiefs reclaim. Thus graced. Pallas obeys. from his hand Received the imperial sceptre of command." The voice divine confess'd the warlike maid. attention and respect to gain. from Jove his honour springs. Thus fly the Greeks (the martial maid begun). nor uninspired obey'd: Then meeting first Atrides. For prudent counsel like the gods renown'd: Oppress'd with generous grief the hero stood. divine Laertes' son. generous Ithacus! prevent the shame. but resents our fears. Your own resistless eloquence employ. a thousand heroes bleed! Haste.

"86 With words like these the troops Ulysses ruled. The rocks remurmur and the deeps rebound. "Be still. Scorn all his joy. The loudest silenced. To one sole monarch Jove commits the sway. and laughter all his aim:— But chief he gloried with licentious style To lash the great. and think not here allow'd That worst of tyrants. "Ancient Greece. by no respect controll'd. thou slave. and Domitian were particularly fond of it.52 The Iliad of Homer But if a clamorous vile plebeian rose. Back to the assembly roll the thronging train. in an extended form. This sentiment used to be a popular one with some of the greatest tyrants. Him with reproof he check'd or tamed with blows. And heaves huge surges to the trembling shores. the lumber of a land. Loquacious. Murmuring they move. who abused it into a pretext for unlimited usurpation of power. Be silent. p. and him let all obey. the noises cease. and pour upon the plain. Caligula. and monarchs to revile. and. See some important remarks of Heeren. and to thy betters yield. what dastards would our host command! Swept to the war. and the fiercest cool'd. Desert the ships. In scandal busy. The groaning banks are burst with bellowing sound. wretch. Thersites only clamour'd in the throng." ch. And a still silence lulls the camp to peace. and turbulent of tongue: Awed by no shame. an usurping crowd. loud. as when old ocean roars. At length the tumult sinks. His are the laws. Unknown alike in council and in field! Ye gods. 105. vi. in reproaches bold: With witty malice studious to defame. 86 [032] . we find the maxim propounded by Creon in the Antigone of Sophocles. Dion.

and let him waste his store In loves and pleasures on the Phrygian shore. Some captive fair. For Troy to ransom at a price too dear? But safer plunder thy own host supplies. Vex'd when he spoke. Long had he lived the scorn of every Greek. men no more! Hence let us fly. but most the best: Ulysses or Achilles still his theme. But royal scandal his delight supreme. 53 . What moves the great Atrides to complain? 'Tis thine whate'er the warrior's breast inflames. And much he hated all. and one leg was lame: His mountain shoulders half his breast o'erspread. Thin hairs bestrew'd his long misshapen head. shall we march with our unconquer'd powers (The Greeks and I) to Ilion's hostile towers. One eye was blinking. Say.BOOK II. Oh women of Achaia. The golden spoil. Thy tents are crowded and thy chests o'erflow. wouldst thou seize some valiant leader's prize? Or. to bless thy kingly bed? Whate'er our master craves submit we must. And bring the race of royal bastards here. Sharp was his voice. Plagued with his pride. or punish'd for his lust. What grieves the monarch? Is it thirst of gold? Say. if thy heart to generous love be led. His figure such as might his soul proclaim. Spleen to mankind his envious heart possess'd. With all the wealth our wars and blood bestow. which in the shrillest tone. yet still they heard him speak. "Amidst the glories of so bright a reign. and thine the lovely dames. Thus at full ease in heaps of riches roll'd. Thus with injurious taunts attack'd the throne.

And singly mad. and hence they also exhibit bas-reliefs on curved surfaces. upbraids the most? Think not the Greeks to shameful flight to bring. and do not concern ourselves about what is to follow. revolting and contemptible as it is. 87 . and where. asperse the sovereign reign. that the character of Thersites. in succession before us. 75.54 [033] The Iliad of Homer We may be wanted on some busy day. resent that wrong. nor rashly vain. slave! of all our host. From him."—"Dramatic Literature. With indignation sparkling in his eyes. This mighty tyrant were no tyrant long. but follow one another. one object appears as another disappears. It has been remarked that the Iliad is not definitively closed. and lines of combatants. such as vases. the two ends are withdrawn from our sight. Of the gradual and individual development of Homer's heroes. factious monster. born to vex the state." p. and sternly thus replies: "Peace. It may be remarked. while we advance. or the frieze of a rotunda. but that we are left to suppose something both to precede and to follow it. "In bas-relief the figures are usually in profile. in which mere cunning is less prominent. Have we not known thee. by the curvature. either from before or behind. With wrangling talents form'd for foul debate: Curb that impetuous tongue. Reading Homer is very much like such a circuit. the present object alone arresting our attention. and the brave: And durst he. The bas-relief is equally without limit.87 In generous vengeance of the king of kings. the fearless. one by one. as he ought." Fierce from his seat at this Ulysses springs. sacrificial processions. and may be continued ad infinitum. The man who acts the least. When Hector comes: so great Achilles may: From him he forced the prize we jointly gave. where. we lose sight of what precedes. on which account the ancients preferred for it such subjects as admitted of an indefinite extension. dances. serves admirably to develop the disposition of Ulysses in a new light. the fierce. and in the epos all are characterized in the simplest manner in relief. He views the wretch. they are not grouped together. so Homer's heroes advance. Schlegel well observes.

"—Grote. and never refractory to the chief. could those spoils be thine? Gods! let me perish on this hateful shore.BOOK II. while the unpopularity of such a character is attested even more by the excessive pains which Homer takes to heap upon him repulsive personal deformities. of misshapen head. on thy next offence. Except detraction. The multitude who compose it are listening and acquiescent. But grant the host with wealth the general load. not often hesitating. Expel the council where our princes meet. p. and squinting vision. 97. than by the chastisement of Odysseus he is lame. to fight like men be ours. While to his neighbour each express'd his thought: [034] "There cannot be a clearer indication than this description —so graphic in the original poem—of the true character of the Homeric agora. crook-backed. 88 ." 55 He said.88 On the round bunch the bloody tumours rise: The tears spring starting from his haggard eyes. is plainly set forth in the treatment of Thersites. And send thee scourged and howling through the fleet. vol. Trembling he sat. And let these eyes behold my son no more. what hast thou bestow'd? Suppose some hero should his spoils resign. even where his virulent reproaches are substantially well-founded. Be that their care. Art thou that hero. and shrunk in abject fears. The weighty sceptre on his bank descends. i. For our return we trust the heavenly powers. If. bald. The fate which awaits a presumptuous critic. and cowering as the dastard bends. From his vile visage wiped the scalding tears. this hand forbear To strip those arms thou ill deserv'st to wear. Nor let those lips profane the name of king.

But vanquish'd! baffled! oh.56 The Iliad of Homer "Ye gods! what wonders has Ulysses wrought! What fruits his conduct and his courage yield! Great in the council.) bade the crowds attend. What could their wives or helpless children more? What heart but melts to leave the tender train. Not such at Argos was their generous vow: Once all their voice. To hear the wisdom of his heavenly tongue. his celestial friend. we wish our peaceful seat. His silence thus the prudent hero broke: "Unhappy monarch! whom the Grecian race With shame deserting. and assert the throne. To curb the factious tongue of insolence. (In form a herald. And. Generous he rises in the crown's defence. high the imperial sceptre raised: The blue-eyed Pallas. rising. but ah! forgotten now: Ne'er to return. Who. endure the wintry main? Few leagues removed. and the tempests beat: Then well may this long stay provoke their tears. The expecting crowds in still attention hung. was then the common cry. eternal shame! Expect the time to Troy's destruction given. The tedious length of nine revolving years. Behold them weeping for their native shore. glorious in the field. When the ship tosses. Such just examples on offenders shown. pausing ere he spoke. Not for their grief the Grecian host I blame. Sedition silence. heap with vile disgrace. . Till Troy's proud structures should in ashes lie. one short month. Then deeply thoughtful." 'Twas thus the general voice the hero praised.

The tragedians." vol. he stands A lasting prodigy on Aulis' sands. the monster slew. as round the nest she flew. the reverend Chalcas cried. Lucretius and others.. Herself the ninth. Such was the will of Jove.e. adopted a different fable to account for the stoppage at Aulis. And try the faith of Chalcas and of heaven. sqq. and hence we dare Trust in his omen. iii. Stretch'd his black jaws and crush'd the crying young. 57 [035] According to Pausanias. While hovering near.90 'Ye Grecian warriors! lay your fears aside. and from the crumbling ground A mighty dragon shot.89 And all who live to breathe this Phrygian air. The drooping mother wail'd her children gone. "The god" would be more simple and emphatic.BOOK II. Full of his god. 89 . What pass'd at Aulis. Eight callow infants fill'd the mossy nest. For while around we gazed with wondering eyes. Compare Dryden's "Æneid. of dire portent. From Jove himself the dreadful sign was sent. and support the war. Seized by the beating wing. Apollo. Greece can witness bear. Beside a fountain's sacred brink we raised Our verdant altars. i. as he hung. And trembling sought the powers with sacrifice. This wondrous signal Jove himself displays. the serpent. both the sprig and the remains of the tree were exhibited in his time. The altars heaved. with miserable moan. filled with the prophetic spirit. And curl'd around in many a winding fold. Straight to the tree his sanguine spires he roll'd. The topmost branch a mother-bird possess'd. and the victims blazed: 'Twas where the plane-tree spread its shades around. The mother last. 90 —Full of his god. Nor long survived: to marble turn'd. and seem to have found the sacrifice of Iphigena better suited to form the subject of a tragedy.

not like heroes dare." He said: the shores with loud applauses sound. . Nor let your flight avert the Trojan fate. but eternal praise. Till every soldier grasp a Phrygian wife. Jove. ye Grecians! with submission wait. Big with the fate of Ilion. Now vanish'd like their smoke: the faith of men! While useless words consume the unactive hours. when first the martial train. Then Nestor thus—"These vain debates forbear. Ye talk like children. And view with envy our successful wars. great Atrides! and with courage sway. if thou direct the way. On that great day. maintain the glorious strife. thus the Fates succeed.58 The Iliad of Homer [036] Of long. your engagements past? Vow'd with libations and with victims then. Encouraged hence. But wait the tenth. So many years the toils of Greece remain. Where now are all your high resolves at last? Your leagues concluded. To grudge the conquests mighty Jove prepares. long labours. The hollow ships each deafening shout rebound. We march to war. for Ilion's fall decreed:' Thus spoke the prophet. But leave the few that dare resist thy laws. plough'd the main. a prosperous signal sent. The mean deserters of the Grecian cause. No wonder Troy so long resists our powers. Obey. on the right. if any Greek invite His country's troops to base. As many birds as by the snake were slain. And Troy's proud matrons render tear for tear. Rise. inglorious flight. Stand forth that Greek! and hoist his sail to fly. And thunder rolling shook the firmament. Till Helen's woes at full revenged appear. Before that day.

Let all excite the fiery steeds of war. should have paid more attention to these lines. By me provoked. When thus distinct they war. But now. Each strengthen each. the Trojan wall Must shake. let not mine be vain. And die the dastard first. And every Grecian fix his brazen shield. take a short repast. What chief. In tribes and nations to divide thy train: His separate troops let every leader call. ye warriors. who plunges those he hates In fierce contention and in vain debates: Now great Achilles from our aid withdraws. shall soon be known And what the cause of Ilion not o'erthrown. thou thyself despise. Or bravely fights.BOOK II. If fate resists. or if our arms are slow. Among those counsels. And. in love to Greece. to bloody conflict haste. decree But ten such sages as they grant in thee. and heavy will the vengeance fall! But now. and in speaking well! O would the gods. which form a most natural introduction to their enumeration. who dreads to die. 59 Those critics who have maintained that the "Catalogue of Ships" is an interpolation. If gods above prevent. or men below. well refresh'd." To him the king: "How much thy years excel In arts of counsel. or soldier. O monarch! all thy chiefs advise:91 Nor what they offer. and all encourage all. His sharpen'd spear let every Grecian wield. of the numerous band. 91 . or ill obeys command. a captive maid the cause: If e'er as friends we join. Such wisdom soon should Priam's force destroy. And soon should fall the haughty towers of Troy! But Jove forbids.

And foam and thunder on the stony shore. No rest. To Ceres a sow was sacrificed. A heifer." The monarch spoke. Each aching nerve refuse the lance to throw. or a boar pig. Ceres. which had never borne the yoke."—"Elgin Marbles. To avert the dangers of the doubtful day. A black bull. healthy. That dash'd on broken rocks tumultuous roar. and the dogs devour. and Bacchus victims of advanced age might be offered. With the huge shield each brawny arm depress'd. The infernal and evil deities were to be appeased with black victims." vol. Juno. The birds shall mangle. The most acceptable of all sacrifices was the heifer of a year old. Apollo. consecrated to particular deities. Who dares to tremble on this signal day. And each spent courser at the chariot blow. To Jupiter. at a later time. as an enemy to corn. Loud as the surges when the tempest blows. or a sheep. Straight to the tents the troops dispersing bend. 78. Diana was propitiated with a stag. and let the mighty fall. The following observation will be useful to Homeric readers: "Particular animals were. because he fed on vines. p. and pray.60 The Iliad of Homer [037] And all for combat fit the rattling car. With hasty feasts they sacrifice. A steer of five years' age. The fires are kindled. inglorious. shall cover all: Let the war bleed. let each contend. i. An ox of five years old was considered especially acceptable to Jupiter. Till bathed in sweat be every manly breast. no respite. in his ships to stay. a ram. large limb'd. and fed. Who dares. and the smokes ascend. It was to be perfect in every limb. 92 . were offerings for Neptune. this dreadful day. or till death. too mean to fall by martial power. Till darkness. That wretch. and to Venus the dove was consecrated. and without blemish. The goat to Bacchus.92 To Jove's high altars Agamemnon led: There bade the noblest of the Grecian peers. and straight a murmur rose. for Minerva. till the shades descend. This day.

during a tempest. 61 93 —Idomeneus. appears to need no explanation. and Ajax Telamon. Even Plato. Who in the heaven of heavens hast fixed thy throne. and alone! Hear! and before the burning sun descends. Was there any heroic rule of etiquette which prevented one brother-king visiting another without a formal invitation? . Before the night her gloomy veil extends.BOOK II. and take The sacred offering of the salted cake: When thus the king prefers his solemn prayer. In Hector's breast be plunged this shining sword. has found some curious meaning in what.96 The chiefs surround the destined beast.93 and Tydeus' son. And Nestor first. And Menelaus came. He must be distinguished from the other. Having vowed. the son of Oileus.e. 95 That is." p. to us. Ajax.95 Then wise Ulysses in his rank was placed. was king of Crete. and doubled woes on woes. Their prayers perform'd the chiefs the rite pursue. 96 A great deal of nonsense has been written to account for the word unbid. a Locrian. Be Priam's palace sunk in Grecian fires. while yet the fumes arose. 315. on his return from Troy. i. "Sympos. to sacrifice to Neptune the first creature that should present itself to his eye on the Cretan shore. unbid. in this line. as most advanced in years. And slaughter'd heroes groan around their lord!" Thus prayed the chief: his unavailing prayer Great Jove refused. Diomed. "O thou! whose thunder rends the clouded air. the last. Prepared new toils. 94 —Tydeus' son. who was king of Salamis. and toss'd in empty air: The God averse. Next came Idomeneus. Supreme of gods! unbounded. son of Deucalion. Low in the dust be laid yon hostile spires. his son fell a victim to his rash vow.94 Ajax the less.

and entrails dress'd The assistants part. Straight the loud heralds call the gathering bands The chiefs inclose their king. And call the squadrons sheathed in brazen arms. . the hosts divide. Blazed on her arm. Swells their bold hearts. transfix. the monarch issued his commands." He said. In tribes and nations rank'd on either side. The dreadful aegis. The limbs they sever from the inclosing hide. selected to the gods. Then spread the tables. The choicest morsels lie from every part. The thighs. and each receives his share. "Now bid thy heralds sound the loud alarms. No more they sigh. On these. and the victim slew. inglorious. Now seize the occasion. From the cleft wood the crackling flames aspire While the fat victims feed the sacred fire. and seem'd to burn in gold. to return. Form'd the bright fringe. in double cauls involved with art. and roast the rest.62 [038] The Iliad of Homer The barley sprinkled. and for the combat burn. With this each Grecian's manly breast she warms. divide. now the troops survey. and strings their nervous arms. Jove's immortal shield. High in the midst the blue-eyed virgin flies. the repast prepare. And lead to war when heaven directs the way. But breathe revenge. Each takes his seat. The generous Nestor thus the prince address'd. and lighten'd all the field: Round the vast orb a hundred serpents roll'd. The thighs thus sacrificed. From rank to rank she darts her ardent eyes. Soon as the rage of hunger was suppress'd.

was called Xanthus by the gods. especially swans. And thundering footsteps shake the sounding shore. 300 feet broad. bathed there before they appeared before Paris to obtain the golden apple: the name Xanthus. rising. as the winds arise. according to Strabo. and traces the source of the river to the highest mountain in the chain of Ida. in the same hill with the Granicus and the OEdipus. 63 [039] 97 Fresh water fowl. according to Homer. Between the Scamander and Simois. Or milk-white swans in Asius' watery plains. and kindle half the skies: So from the polish'd arms. The waters of the Scamander had the singular property of giving a beautiful colour to the hair or wool of such animals as bathed in them. extending wide. 98 —Scamander.97 Stretch their long necks. See Virgil. o'er the windings of Cayster's springs. nearly dry in the summer. a fenny tract of country in Lydia. was a river of Troas. Juno. on the highest part of Mount Ida. Scamander by men. now Kusdaghy. and brazen shields. The fires expanding. Clarke successfully combats the opinion of those who make the Scamander to have arisen from the springs of Bounabarshy. and others maintain. near its mouth. and course in airy rounds." was given to the Scamander. "Georgics. and clap their rustling wings. As on some mountain." vol. still applicable to the Mendere. Dr. "yellow. Thus numerous and confused. and flows through marshes. formed by the river Cayster. Shoot their long beams. Now light with noise. Minerva.98 With rushing troops the plains are cover'd o'er. receives the Simois in its course. from the peculiar colour of its waters. A gleamy splendour flash'd along the fields. Homer's Troy is supposed to have stood: this river. the Mendere is 40 miles long. Along the river's level meads they stand. everything tends to identify it with Mendere. through the lofty grove.BOOK II. The legions crowd Scamander's flowery side. were found in great numbers about the Asian Marsh. hence the three goddesses. i. or Scamandros. sq. Rennell. and falling into the sea at Sigaeum. and blaze above. and Venus. as Wood. The crackling flames ascend. the yellow colour of whose waters attracts the attention of travellers. Now tower aloft. . That. Not less their number than the embodied cranes. deep in the time of flood. towards its mouth it is very muddy. with noise the field resounds. 383.

virgins. ma di tant' opra a noi si lunge Debil aura di fama appena giunge. and forms the deepening lines." —"Paradise Lost. In gather'd swarms surround the rural bowers.) is remarkable for its breadth and massiveness of development. ii." i. glittering in the sun. (vol. the Grecian squadrons stood In radiant arms." iv. . Say. 27. that round the pastures leads His subject herds." —"Gier. in the "Elgin Marbles. the exalted chief was seen. drawn by milky steams. 26. Or leaves the trees. 19. The wandering nation of a summer's day: That. e di quai parti: Tu 'l sai. at evening hours. for heav'n hides nothing from thy view. Musa. His strength like Neptune. the monarch of the meads. 103.64 The Iliad of Homer Thick as in spring the flowers adorn the land. And dawning conquest played around his head. All-knowing goddesses! immortal nine!100 99 It should be "his chest like Neptune. The king of kings. So throng'd. Not with more ease the skilful shepherd-swain Collects his flocks from thousands on the plain. Lib. so close. and thirst for Trojan blood. p. Towers o'er his armies. Like some proud bull. and outshines them all. "Ma di' tu. From pail to pail with busy murmur run The gilded legions. Great as the gods." No. majestically tall. come i primi danni Mandassero a Cristiani. Each leader now his scatter'd force conjoins In close array." The torso of Neptune.99 Jove o'er his eyes celestial glories spread. 100 "Say first. and like Mars his mien. or thick as insects play. seated round the throne divine.

And hell's abyss. whensoever it may have taken place. THE CATALOGUE OF THE SHIPS. Since earth's wide regions. A throat of brass. fired by thirst of fame. and but boast we know. and incidentally scattered over the thousands which follow: equally inexplicable were the pointed allusions occurring in this episode to events narrated in the previous and subsequent text. What crowded armies.101 65 [040] The hardy warriors whom Boeotia bred. but through the medium of the Iliad. suggest itself to the mind of a poet. a common practice in epic poems descriptive of great warlike adventures. necessarily presumes its author's acquaintance with a previously existing Iliad. i. Prothoenor. Although the example of Homer has since rendered some such formal enumeration of the forces engaged. their numbers. and their chiefs I sing. Yet there is scarcely any portion of the Iliad where both historical and internal evidence are more clearly in favour of a connection from the remotest period. Their names. wretched mortals! lost in doubts below. led: 101 "The Catalogue is. (We. demands a thousand tongues. Daughters of Jove. Or urged by wrongs. p. still so minute a statistical detail can neither be considered as imperatively required. assist! inspired by you The mighty labour dauntless I pursue. heaven's umneasur'd height. several of which could hardly be of traditional notoriety. and adamantine lungs. from what climes they bring. with the remainder of the work. the portion of the poem in favour of which a claim to separate authorship has been most plausibly urged. But guess by rumour. To count them all. perhaps. to Troy's destruction came. It were impossible otherwise to account for the harmony observable in the recurrence of so vast a number of proper names. nor perhaps such as would. hide nothing from your sight. most of them historically unimportant. "Language and Literature of Greece. The composition of the Catalogue.BOOK II."—Mure. 263.) O say what heroes. and not a few altogether fictitious: or of so many geographical and genealogical details as are condensed in these few hundred lines." vol. Leitus. in ordinary cases. . Penelius.

.66 The Iliad of Homer NEPTUNE.

Platea green. Full fifty ships they send. Bryant. according to Thucydides. which the springs o'erflow. will be about a hundred and two thousand men. Graea near the main. Where Myde. rose. upon the foregoing average. we have in the Homeric descriptions the complete picture of an Indian or African war canoe. Or in the meads of Haliartus stray. Or Harma where Apollo's prophet fell. Corone. If the total number of the Greek ships be taken at twelve hundred. Eutresis. and Ocalea low. many of which are considerably larger than the largest scale assigned to those of the Greeks. were probably meant to be the largest in the fleet. The historian considers this a small force as representing all Greece. 102 . carrying fifty each. Those who in Peteon or Ilesion dwell. For flocks Erythrae. and Hyrie's watery fields. went as mere passengers or landsmen. and Nysa the divine.BOOK II. And Anthedon. Copae. and equal in command. Boeotia's utmost bound. And they whom Thebe's well-built walls inclose. thinks it so large as to prove the entire falsehood of the whole story. Glissa for the vine. Scholos. Or Thespia sacred to the god of day: Onchestus. And Schoenos. And Medeon lofty. And Mycalessia's ample piny plain. The average would be eighty-five. Neptune's celebrated groves. and Thisbe. and those of Philoctetes. and that very few.102 67 [041] —Twice Sixty: "Thucydides observes that the Boeotian vessels. With these Arcesilaus and Clonius stand. Equal in arms. famed for silver doves. And Eteon's hills. comparing it with the allied army at Platae. besides the chiefs. and Thucydides supposes the troops to have rowed and navigated themselves. These head the troops that rocky Aulis yields. And Arne rich. the smallest. although in point of fact there are only eleven hundred and eightysix in the Catalogue. the amount of the army. and each conveys Twice sixty warriors through the foaming seas. which carried one hundred and twenty men each. Heleon and Hyle. with purple harvests crown'd. In short.

the heavenly fair. Fierce Ajax led the Locrian squadrons on. on the left. Who plough the spacious Orchomenian plain. Where Pytho. Two valiant brothers rule the undaunted throng. Or in fair Tarphe's sylvan seats reside: In forty vessels cut the yielding tide. Ialmen and Ascalaphus the strong: Sons of Astyoche. Where Anemoria's stately turrets shine. . as their chief. and Scarphe's bands. Calliarus. And fair Lilaea views the rising flood. and rich Cynos send. Close. the bold Boeotians' side. and active in the fight. Epistrophus and Schedius head the war: From those rich regions where Cephisus leads His silver current through the flowery meads. Thronus. With equal oars. Daulis. the hoarse-resounding deep. the chosen troops attend. Oileus' valiant son. Opus. Swift in pursuit.68 The Iliad of Homer To these succeed Aspledon's martial train. Cyparissus stood. From Panopea. Whose virgin charms subdued the god of war: (In Actor's court as she retired to rest. And those who dwell where pleasing Augia stands. Chrysa the divine. ranged in order on the floating tide. The strength of Mars the blushing maid compress'd) Their troops in thirty sable vessels sweep. Him. Skill'd to direct the flying dart aright. The Phocians next in forty barks repair. These. Ajax the less. And where Boagrius floats the lowly lands. Which Bessa.

For martial conduct bore an equal praise. The fair Caristos. Nestor alone. for their curiosity. But with protended spears in fighting fields Pierce the tough corslets and the brazen shields. and strong Eretria. But from the teeming furrow took his birth. well worth a careful perusal. Him Pallas placed amidst her wealthy fane. Twice twenty ships transport the warlike bands. And sends the brave Abantes to the wars: Breathing revenge. 69 Euboea next her martial sons prepares."—Coleridge. Full fifty more from Athens stem the main. her altars blaze. sq. commands. fierce in arms. in arms they take their way From Chalcis' walls. Where Dios from her towers o'erlooks the plain. and the Styrian ground. Where. That owed his nurture to the blue-eyed maid. improved by length of days.BOOK II. and his reasonings and calculations are.) No chief like thee. The extended wings of battle to display. (Athens the fair. The Isteian fields for generous vines renown'd. Led by Menestheus through the liquid plain. The mighty offspring of the foodful earth. Or close the embodied host in firm array. p. Down their broad shoulders falls a length of hair. 211. Adored with sacrifice and oxen slain. where great Erectheus sway'd. Which bold Elphenor. Menestheus! Greece could yield. . as the years revolve. To marshal armies in the dusty field. Their hands dismiss not the long lance in air. And all the tribes resound the goddess' praise. And high Cerinthus views the neighbouring main.

And Epidaure with viny harvests crown'd: And where fair Asinen and Hermoin show Their cliffs above. And crowded nations wait his dread command. And with the great Athenians join their force. Ornia's fruitful plain. Next move to war the generous Argive train. and Maseta's plain.70 The Iliad of Homer With these appear the Salaminian bands. vol. 103 The mention of Corinth is an anachronism. p. with imperial towers.103 Fair Araethyrea. and Adrastus' ancient reign. And Gonoessa's spires salute the sky. And Ægion. In twelve black ships to Troy they steer their course. and greater Diomed. High on the deck the king of men appears. Where Helice and Hyperesia lie. And where Pellene yields her fleecy store. as that city was called Ephyre before its capture by the Dorians. Cleone. Corinth. 3. and ample bay below. And those who dwell along the sandy shore. Great Sthenelus. But chief Tydides bore the sovereign sway: In fourscore barks they plough the watery way. And his refulgent arms in triumph wears. These by the brave Euryalus were led. And fair Ægina circled by the main: Whom strong Tyrinthe's lofty walls surround. A hundred vessels in long order stand. i. From high Troezene. But Velleius. unrivall'd in his reign. Proud of his host. Whom the gigantic Telamon commands. that the poet would naturally speak of various towns and cities by the names by which they were known in his own time. Great Agamemnon rules the numerous band. [043] . The proud Mycene arms her martial powers. well observes.

o'er the bending ocean. Amyclae. from Pylos' sandy coast. he strove To match the seed of cloud-compelling Jove! Too daring bard! whose unsuccessful pride The immortal Muses in their art defied. Revenge and fury flaming in his eyes. Helen's cause. Or Messe's towers for silver doves renown'd. in fancy oft he hears The fair one's grief. His brother follows. and little Pteleon stand. on the margin of the main: These. The avenging Muses of the light of day Deprived his eyes. Where beauteous Arene her structures shows. No more his heavenly voice was heard to sing. And Helos. And those whom OEtylos' low walls contain. famed for Thamyris' disgrace.BOOK II. and to vengeance warms The hardy Spartans. Nestor the sage conducts his chosen host: From Amphigenia's ever-fruitful land. And Thryon's walls Alpheus' streams inclose: And Dorion. Augia's happy ground. In silent pomp he moves along the main. His hand no more awaked the silver string. Superior once of all the tuneful race. vain of mortals' empty praise. Till. In sixty ships with Menelaus draws: Eager and loud from man to man he flies. 71 . exercised in arms: Phares and Brysia's valiant troops. and sees her falling tears. and those Whom Lacedaemon's lofty hills inclose. While vainly fond. In ninety sail. Where Æpy high. Laas. and snatch'd his voice away.

Tegea's bordering towns. Bold Agapenor. (Ancaeus' son) the mighty squadron led. Their ships. where fair Elis and Buprasium join. And fair Mantinea's ever-pleasing site. Parrhasia. .72 The Iliad of Homer [044] Where under high Cyllene. Whom Hyrmin. But new to all the dangers of the main. and Thalpius one. supplied by Agamemnon's care. glorious at their head. Through roaring seas the wondering warriors bear. From Ripe.) Diores sprung from Amarynceus' line. here. One was Amphimachus. The shaded tomb of old Æpytus stood. and Myrsinus confine. Stratie. The Phenean fields. In separate squadrons these their train divide. And bounded there. In sixty sail the Arcadian bands unite. and Orchomenian downs. and where Alisium flows. of force divine. crown'd with wood. And Stymphelus with her surrounding grove. Those. where o'er the valleys rose The Olenian rock. And great Polyxenus. And high Enispe shook by wintry wind. Beneath four chiefs (a numerous army) came: The strength and glory of the Epean name. Where the fat herds in plenteous pasture rove. Each leads ten vessels through the yielding tide. (Eurytus' this. and that Teatus' son. The first to battle on the appointed plain. on her snowy cliffs reclined.

But those who view fair Elis o'er the seas From the blest islands of the Echinades. Or till their fields along the coast opposed. . and Meleager dead! To Thoas' care now trust the martial train. Begot by Phyleus. Beneath his conduct sought the Phrygian shores. Or where fair Ithaca o'erlooks the floods.BOOK II. With those whom Cephalenia's line inclosed. A chief. Where Ægilipa's rugged sides are seen. and chalky Calydon. and the Olenian steep. And Chalcis. 73 Ulysses follow'd through the watery road. beaten by the rolling deep. From Pleuron's walls. His forty vessels follow through the main. the beloved of Jove: To strong Dulichium from his sire he fled. He led the warriors from the Ætolian shore. And rough Pylene. For now the sons of OEneus were no more! The glories of the mighty race were fled! OEneus himself. Andraemon's valiant son. Where high Neritos shakes his waving woods. in wisdom equal to a god. and Zacynthus green. And thence to Troy his hardy warriors led. Crocylia rocky. Thoas came next. In forty vessels under Meges move. These in twelve galleys with vermilion prores.

From Rhodes. Crete's hundred cities pour forth all her sons. And showers of wealth descending from the skies. Lindus. Alcides' uncle. Jalyssus. And rules them peaceful in a foreign land. On happy Rhodes the chief arrived at last: There in three tribes divides his native band. And saw their blooming warriors early slain. slew. Of Gnossus. the sire of men and gods. dreadful as the god of war. and Gortyna's bands. The hero. . With joy they saw the growing empire rise. Or where by Phaestus silver Jardan runs. with everlasting sunshine bright. Or white Lycastus glitters to the skies. constrain'd to quit his native place. For this. His captive mother fierce Alcides bore From Ephyr's walls and Selle's winding shore. and Camirus white. Where. [045] Tlepolemus. Lyctus. Increased and prosper'd in their new abodes By mighty Jove. old Licymnius. Led nine swift vessels through the foamy seas. Idomeneus. And Merion.74 The Iliad of Homer Next. These march'd. And those who dwell where Rhytion's domes arise. And shun the vengeance of the Herculean race. many seas and many sufferings past. and with a numerous train Of willing exiles wander'd o'er the main. when to manly years he grew. eighty barks the Cretan king commands. A fleet he built. beneath thy care. Where mighty towns in ruins spread the plain. the sun of Hercules.

Hellenians bear. and their chief the same. and Crapathus the fair. Casus the strong. Cos. The same their nation. Full fifty ships beneath Achilles' care. stretch'd along the shore. With them the youth of Nisyrus repair. Till great Alcides made the realms obey: These Antiphus and bold Phidippus bring. Now. Thessalians all. though various in their name. the fairest of her daughters Eve. But few his troops. Alope. Since fair Briseis from his arms was torn. in faultless shape and blooming grace. Myrmidons. But now inglorious. No more the foe they face in dire array: Close in his fleet the angry leader lay.BOOK II. Sprung from the god by Thessalus the king. Three ships with Nireus sought the Trojan shore. recount Pelasgic Argos' powers. the goodliest man of men since born. 323. From Alos. and small his strength in arms. . They hear the brazen voice of war no more.' —"Paradise Lost.104 Pelides only match'd his early charms. and Trechin's towers: From Phthia's spacious vales. The noblest spoil from sack'd Lyrnessus borne. Next thirty galleys cleave the liquid plain. Nireus. bless'd With female beauty far beyond the rest. Nireus. and Hella. Muse. 104 75 [046] "Adam." iv. The Achaians. His sons. where Eurypylus possess'd the sway. The loveliest youth of all the Grecian race. Of those Calydnae's sea-girt isles contain. whom Aglae to Charopus bore.

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Then, when the chief the Theban walls o'erthrew, And the bold sons of great Evenus slew. There mourn'd Achilles, plunged in depth of care, But soon to rise in slaughter, blood, and war.

To these the youth of Phylace succeed, Itona, famous for her fleecy breed, And grassy Pteleon deck'd with cheerful greens, The bowers of Ceres, and the sylvan scenes. Sweet Pyrrhasus, with blooming flowerets crown'd, And Antron's watery dens, and cavern'd ground. These own'd, as chief, Protesilas the brave, Who now lay silent in the gloomy grave: The first who boldly touch'd the Trojan shore, And dyed a Phrygian lance with Grecian gore; There lies, far distant from his native plain; Unfinish'd his proud palaces remain, And his sad consort beats her breast in vain. His troops in forty ships Podarces led, Iphiclus' son, and brother to the dead; Nor he unworthy to command the host; Yet still they mourn'd their ancient leader lost.

The men who Glaphyra's fair soil partake, Where hills incircle Boebe's lowly lake, Where Phaere hears the neighbouring waters fall, Or proud Iolcus lifts her airy wall, In ten black ships embark'd for Ilion's shore, With bold Eumelus, whom Alceste bore: All Pelias' race Alceste far outshined, The grace and glory of the beauteous kind,

BOOK II. The troops Methone or Thaumacia yields, Olizon's rocks, or Meliboea's fields, With Philoctetes sail'd whose matchless art From the tough bow directs the feather'd dart. Seven were his ships; each vessel fifty row, Skill'd in his science of the dart and bow. But he lay raging on the Lemnian ground, A poisonous hydra gave the burning wound; There groan'd the chief in agonizing pain, Whom Greece at length shall wish, nor wish in vain. His forces Medon led from Lemnos' shore, Oileus' son, whom beauteous Rhena bore. The Œchalian race, in those high towers contain'd Where once Eurytus in proud triumph reign'd, Or where her humbler turrets Tricca rears, Or where Ithome, rough with rocks, appears, In thirty sail the sparkling waves divide, Which Podalirius and Machaon guide. To these his skill their parent-god imparts, Divine professors of the healing arts. The bold Ormenian and Asterian bands In forty barks Eurypylus commands. Where Titan hides his hoary head in snow, And where Hyperia's silver fountains flow. Thy troops, Argissa, Polypoetes leads, And Eleon, shelter'd by Olympus' shades, Gyrtone's warriors; and where Orthe lies, And Oloosson's chalky cliffs arise. Sprung from Pirithous of immortal race, The fruit of fair Hippodame's embrace, (That day, when hurl'd from Pelion's cloudy head, To distant dens the shaggy Centaurs fled)

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78 With Polypoetes join'd in equal sway Leonteus leads, and forty ships obey.

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In twenty sail the bold Perrhaebians came From Cyphus, Guneus was their leader's name. With these the Enians join'd, and those who freeze Where cold Dodona lifts her holy trees; Or where the pleasing Titaresius glides, And into Peneus rolls his easy tides; Yet o'er the silvery surface pure they flow, The sacred stream unmix'd with streams below, Sacred and awful! from the dark abodes Styx pours them forth, the dreadful oath of gods! Last, under Prothous the Magnesians stood, (Prothous the swift, of old Tenthredon's blood;) Who dwell where Pelion, crown'd with piny boughs, Obscures the glade, and nods his shaggy brows; Or where through flowery Tempe Peneus stray'd: (The region stretch'd beneath his mighty shade:) In forty sable barks they stemm'd the main; Such were the chiefs, and such the Grecian train. Say next, O Muse! of all Achaia breeds, Who bravest fought, or rein'd the noblest steeds? Eumelus' mares were foremost in the chase, As eagles fleet, and of Pheretian race; Bred where Pieria's fruitful fountains flow, And train'd by him who bears the silver bow. Fierce in the fight their nostrils breathed a flame, Their height, their colour, and their age the same; O'er fields of death they whirl the rapid car, And break the ranks, and thunder through the war. Ajax in arms the first renown acquired, While stern Achilles in his wrath retired:

[048]

BOOK II. (His was the strength that mortal might exceeds, And his the unrivall'd race of heavenly steeds:) But Thetis' son now shines in arms no more; His troops, neglected on the sandy shore. In empty air their sportive javelins throw, Or whirl the disk, or bend an idle bow: Unstain'd with blood his cover'd chariots stand; The immortal coursers graze along the strand; But the brave chiefs the inglorious life deplored, And, wandering o'er the camp, required their lord. Now, like a deluge, covering all around, The shining armies sweep along the ground; Swift as a flood of fire, when storms arise, Floats the wild field, and blazes to the skies. Earth groan'd beneath them; as when angry Jove Hurls down the forky lightning from above, On Arime when he the thunder throws, And fires Typhoeus with redoubled blows, Where Typhon, press'd beneath the burning load, Still feels the fury of the avenging god. But various Iris, Jove's commands to bear, Speeds on the wings of winds through liquid air; In Priam's porch the Trojan chiefs she found, The old consulting, and the youths around. Polites' shape, the monarch's son, she chose, Who from Æsetes' tomb observed the foes,105 High on the mound; from whence in prospect lay The fields, the tents, the navy, and the bay. In this dissembled form, she hastes to bring

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105 —Æsetes' tomb. Monuments were often built on the sea-coast, and of a considerable height, so as to serve as watch-towers or land marks. See my notes to my prose translations of the "Odyssey," ii. p. 21, or on Eur. "Alcest." vol. i. p. 240.

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The unwelcome message to the Phrygian king. "Cease to consult, the time for action calls; War, horrid war, approaches to your walls! Assembled armies oft have I beheld; But ne'er till now such numbers charged a field: Thick as autumnal leaves or driving sand, The moving squadrons blacken all the strand. Thou, godlike Hector! all thy force employ, Assemble all the united bands of Troy; In just array let every leader call The foreign troops: this day demands them all!" The voice divine the mighty chief alarms; The council breaks, the warriors rush to arms. The gates unfolding pour forth all their train, Nations on nations fill the dusky plain, Men, steeds, and chariots, shake the trembling ground: The tumult thickens, and the skies resound. Amidst the plain, in sight of Ilion, stands A rising mount, the work of human hands; (This for Myrinne's tomb the immortals know, Though call'd Bateia in the world below;) Beneath their chiefs in martial order here, The auxiliar troops and Trojan hosts appear. The godlike Hector, high above the rest, Shakes his huge spear, and nods his plumy crest: In throngs around his native bands repair, And groves of lances glitter in the air.

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BOOK II. Divine Æneas brings the Dardan race, Anchises' son, by Venus' stolen embrace, Born in the shades of Ida's secret grove; (A mortal mixing with the queen of love;) Archilochus and Acamas divide The warrior's toils, and combat by his side. Who fair Zeleia's wealthy valleys till,106 Fast by the foot of Ida's sacred hill, Or drink, Æsepus, of thy sable flood, Were led by Pandarus, of royal blood; To whom his art Apollo deign'd to show, Graced with the presents of his shafts and bow. From rich Apaesus and Adrestia's towers, High Teree's summits, and Pityea's bowers; From these the congregated troops obey Young Amphius and Adrastus' equal sway; Old Merops' sons; whom, skill'd in fates to come, The sire forewarn'd, and prophesied their doom: Fate urged them on! the sire forewarn'd in vain, They rush'd to war, and perish'd on the plain. From Practius' stream, Percote's pasture lands, And Sestos and Abydos' neighbouring strands, From great Arisba's walls and Selle's coast, Asius Hyrtacides conducts his host: High on his car he shakes the flowing reins, His fiery coursers thunder o'er the plains.

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—Zeleia, another name for Lycia. The inhabitants were greatly devoted to the worship of Apollo. See Muller, "Dorians," vol. i. p. 248.

106

82 The fierce Pelasgi next, in war renown'd, March from Larissa's ever-fertile ground: In equal arms their brother leaders shine, Hippothous bold, and Pyleus the divine.

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Next Acamas and Pyrous lead their hosts, In dread array, from Thracia's wintry coasts; Round the bleak realms where Hellespontus roars, And Boreas beats the hoarse-resounding shores. With great Euphemus the Ciconians move, Sprung from Troezenian Ceus, loved by Jove. Pyraechmes the Paeonian troops attend, Skill'd in the fight their crooked bows to bend; From Axius' ample bed he leads them on, Axius, that laves the distant Amydon, Axius, that swells with all his neighbouring rills, And wide around the floating region fills. The Paphlagonians Pylaemenes rules, Where rich Henetia breeds her savage mules, Where Erythinus' rising cliffs are seen, Thy groves of box, Cytorus! ever green, And where Ægialus and Cromna lie, And lofty Sesamus invades the sky, And where Parthenius, roll'd through banks of flowers, Reflects her bordering palaces and bowers. Here march'd in arms the Halizonian band, Whom Odius and Epistrophus command, From those far regions where the sun refines The ripening silver in Alybean mines.

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BOOK II. There mighty Chromis led the Mysian train, And augur Ennomus, inspired in vain; For stern Achilles lopp'd his sacred head, Roll'd down Scamander with the vulgar dead. Phorcys and brave Ascanius here unite The Ascanian Phrygians, eager for the fight. Of those who round Maeonia's realms reside, Or whom the vales in shades of Tmolus hide, Mestles and Antiphus the charge partake, Born on the banks of Gyges' silent lake. There, from the fields where wild Maeander flows, High Mycale, and Latmos' shady brows, And proud Miletus, came the Carian throngs, With mingled clamours and with barbarous tongues.107 Amphimachus and Naustes guide the train, Naustes the bold, Amphimachus the vain, Who, trick'd with gold, and glittering on his car, Rode like a woman to the field of war. Fool that he was! by fierce Achilles slain, The river swept him to the briny main: There whelm'd with waves the gaudy warrior lies The valiant victor seized the golden prize. The forces last in fair array succeed, Which blameless Glaucus and Sarpedon lead The warlike bands that distant Lycia yields, Where gulfy Xanthus foams along the fields.

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—Barbarous tongues. "Various as were the dialects of the Greeks—and these differences existed not only between the several tribes, but even between neighbouring cities—they yet acknowledged in their language that they formed but one nation were but branches of the same family. Homer has 'men of other tongues:' and yet Homer had no general name for the Greek nation."—Heeren, "Ancient Greece," Section vii. p. 107, sq.

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BOOK III.
ARGUMENT. THE DUEL OF MENELAUS AND PARIS. The armies being ready to engage, a single combat is agreed upon between Menelaus and Paris (by the intervention of Hector) for the determination of the war. Iris is sent to call Helen to behold the fight. She leads her to the walls of Troy, where Priam sat with his counsellers observing the Grecian leaders on the plain below, to whom Helen gives an account of the chief of them. The kings on either part take the solemn oath for the conditions of the combat. The duel ensues; wherein Paris being overcome, he is snatched away in a cloud by Venus, and transported to his apartment. She then calls Helen from the walls, and brings the lovers together. Agamemnon, on the part of the Grecians, demands the restoration of Helen, and the performance of the articles. The three-and-twentieth day still continues throughout this book. The scene is sometimes in the fields before Troy, and sometimes in Troy itself. Thus by their leaders' care each martial band Moves into ranks, and stretches o'er the land. With shouts the Trojans, rushing from afar, Proclaim their motions, and provoke the war So when inclement winters vex the plain With piercing frosts, or thick-descending rain, To warmer seas the cranes embodied fly,108
108

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[052]

With noise, and order, through the midway sky; To pigmy nations wounds and death they bring, And all the war descends upon the wing, But silent, breathing rage, resolved and skill'd109 By mutual aids to fix a doubtful field, Swift march the Greeks: the rapid dust around Darkening arises from the labour'd ground. Thus from his flaggy wings when Notus sheds A night of vapours round the mountain heads, Swift-gliding mists the dusky fields invade, To thieves more grateful than the midnight shade; While scarce the swains their feeding flocks survey, Lost and confused amidst the thicken'd day: So wrapp'd in gathering dust, the Grecian train, A moving cloud, swept on, and hid the plain. Now front to front the hostile armies stand, Eager of fight, and only wait command; When, to the van, before the sons of fame Whom Troy sent forth, the beauteous Paris came: In form a god! the panther's speckled hide Flow'd o'er his armour with an easy pride:
The cranes. "Marking the tracts of air, the clamorous cranes Wheel their due flight in varied ranks descried: And each with outstretch'd neck his rank maintains, In marshall'd order through th' ethereal void." Lorenzo de Medici, in Roscoe's Life, Appendix. See Cary's Dante: "Hell," canto v.
109

Silent, breathing rage. "Thus they, Breathing united force with fixed thought, Moved on in silence." "Paradise Lost," book i. 559.

BOOK III. His bended bow across his shoulders flung, His sword beside him negligently hung; Two pointed spears he shook with gallant grace, And dared the bravest of the Grecian race.

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As thus, with glorious air and proud disdain, He boldly stalk'd, the foremost on the plain, Him Menelaus, loved of Mars, espies, With heart elated, and with joyful eyes: So joys a lion, if the branching deer, Or mountain goat, his bulky prize, appear; Eager he seizes and devours the slain, Press'd by bold youths and baying dogs in vain. Thus fond of vengeance, with a furious bound, In clanging arms he leaps upon the ground From his high chariot: him, approaching near, The beauteous champion views with marks of fear, Smit with a conscious sense, retires behind, And shuns the fate he well deserved to find. As when some shepherd, from the rustling trees110 Shot forth to view, a scaly serpent sees, Trembling and pale, he starts with wild affright And all confused precipitates his flight: So from the king the shining warrior flies, And plunged amid the thickest Trojans lies.
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"As when some peasant in a bushy brake Has with unwary footing press'd a snake; He starts aside, astonish'd, when he spies His rising crest, blue neck, and rolling eyes" Dryden's Virgil, ii. 510.

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[053]

As godlike Hector sees the prince retreat, He thus upbraids him with a generous heat: "Unhappy Paris! but to women brave!111 So fairly form'd, and only to deceive! Oh, hadst thou died when first thou saw'st the light, Or died at least before thy nuptial rite! A better fate than vainly thus to boast, And fly, the scandal of thy Trojan host. Gods! how the scornful Greeks exult to see Their fears of danger undeceived in thee! Thy figure promised with a martial air, But ill thy soul supplies a form so fair. In former days, in all thy gallant pride, When thy tall ships triumphant stemm'd the tide, When Greece beheld thy painted canvas flow, And crowds stood wondering at the passing show, Say, was it thus, with such a baffled mien, You met the approaches of the Spartan queen, Thus from her realm convey'd the beauteous prize, And both her warlike lords outshined in Helen's eyes? This deed, thy foes' delight, thy own disgrace, Thy father's grief, and ruin of thy race; This deed recalls thee to the proffer'd fight; Or hast thou injured whom thou dar'st not right? Soon to thy cost the field would make thee know Thou keep'st the consort of a braver foe. Thy graceful form instilling soft desire, Thy curling tresses, and thy silver lyre, Beauty and youth; in vain to these you trust, When youth and beauty shall be laid in dust: Troy yet may wake, and one avenging blow
Dysparis, i.e. unlucky, ill fated, Paris. This alludes to the evils which resulted from his having been brought up, despite the omens which attended his birth.
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BOOK III. Crush the dire author of his country's woe." His silence here, with blushes, Paris breaks: "'Tis just, my brother, what your anger speaks: But who like thee can boast a soul sedate, So firmly proof to all the shocks of fate? Thy force, like steel, a temper'd hardness shows, Still edged to wound, and still untired with blows, Like steel, uplifted by some strenuous swain, With falling woods to strew the wasted plain. Thy gifts I praise; nor thou despise the charms With which a lover golden Venus arms; Soft moving speech, and pleasing outward show, No wish can gain them, but the gods bestow. Yet, would'st thou have the proffer'd combat stand, The Greeks and Trojans seat on either hand; Then let a midway space our hosts divide, And, on that stage of war, the cause be tried: By Paris there the Spartan king be fought, For beauteous Helen and the wealth she brought; And who his rival can in arms subdue, His be the fair, and his the treasure too. Thus with a lasting league your toils may cease, And Troy possess her fertile fields in peace; Thus may the Greeks review their native shore, Much famed for generous steeds, for beauty more." He said. The challenge Hector heard with joy, Then with his spear restrain'd the youth of Troy, Held by the midst, athwart; and near the foe Advanced with steps majestically slow: While round his dauntless head the Grecians pour Their stones and arrows in a mingled shower.

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Then thus the monarch, great Atrides, cried: "Forbear, ye warriors! lay the darts aside: A parley Hector asks, a message bears; We know him by the various plume he wears." Awed by his high command the Greeks attend, The tumult silence, and the fight suspend. While from the centre Hector rolls his eyes On either host, and thus to both applies: "Hear, all ye Trojan, all ye Grecian bands, What Paris, author of the war, demands. Your shining swords within the sheath restrain, And pitch your lances in the yielding plain. Here in the midst, in either army's sight, He dares the Spartan king to single fight; And wills that Helen and the ravish'd spoil, That caused the contest, shall reward the toil. Let these the brave triumphant victor grace, And different nations part in leagues of peace." He spoke: in still suspense on either side Each army stood: the Spartan chief replied: "Me too, ye warriors, hear, whose fatal right A world engages in the toils of fight. To me the labour of the field resign; Me Paris injured; all the war be mine. Fall he that must, beneath his rival's arms; And live the rest, secure of future harms. Two lambs, devoted by your country's rite, To earth a sable, to the sun a white, Prepare, ye Trojans! while a third we bring Select to Jove, the inviolable king. Let reverend Priam in the truce engage, And add the sanction of considerate age;

BOOK III. His sons are faithless, headlong in debate, And youth itself an empty wavering state; Cool age advances, venerably wise, Turns on all hands its deep-discerning eyes; Sees what befell, and what may yet befall, Concludes from both, and best provides for all. The nations hear with rising hopes possess'd, And peaceful prospects dawn in every breast. Within the lines they drew their steeds around, And from their chariots issued on the ground; Next, all unbuckling the rich mail they wore, Laid their bright arms along the sable shore. On either side the meeting hosts are seen With lances fix'd, and close the space between. Two heralds now, despatch'd to Troy, invite The Phrygian monarch to the peaceful rite. Talthybius hastens to the fleet, to bring The lamb for Jove, the inviolable king. Meantime to beauteous Helen, from the skies The various goddess of the rainbow flies: (Like fair Laodice in form and face, The loveliest nymph of Priam's royal race:) Her in the palace, at her loom she found; The golden web her own sad story crown'd, The Trojan wars she weaved (herself the prize) And the dire triumphs of her fatal eyes. To whom the goddess of the painted bow: "Approach, and view the wondrous scene below!112

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The following scene, in which Homer has contrived to introduce so brilliant a sketch of the Grecian warriors, has been imitated by Euripides, who in his "Phoenissae" represents Antigone surveying the opposing champions from a high tower, while the paedagogus describes their insignia and details their histories.

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Panthus. softly sighing. In single fight to toss the beamy lance. Thy love the motive. Clymene and Æthra. Ceased is the war. Lean'd on the walls and bask'd before the sun: Chiefs.92 The Iliad of Homer Each hardy Greek. Thymoetes at his side. O'er her fair face a snowy veil she threw. and silent all the fields. all that once were dear. or lean upon their shields. Rush to her thought. . like grasshoppers rejoice. And next. [056] There sat the seniors of the Trojan race: (Old Priam's chiefs. long in council tried. and wakes her former fires. And. Now rest their spears. wait Her silent footsteps to the Scaean gate. who no more in bloody fights engage. and most in Priam's grace. and furious for the fight. from the loom withdrew. A bloodless race. Antenor grave. Her handmaids. But wise through time. the fate of combat tries. In summer days. Her country. once the strong. and valiant Trojan knight. the many-coloured maid inspires Her husband's love. that send a feeble voice. the wisest of the reverend throng. So dreadful late. and force a tender tear. and narrative with age. Each met in arms." This said. parents. and sage Ucalegon.) The king the first. Lampus and Clytius. and Hicetaon. Paris alone and Sparta's king advance. and thy charms the prize.

Not thou. but Heaven's disposing will. and cried. and almost divine! Though some of larger stature tread the green. is said to have appended these lines to his picture of Helen. the celebrated artist. But lift thy eyes. The friends and kindred of thy former years. as a motto." Thus ceased the king.BOOK III. and say. so awful. No crime of thine our present sufferings draws. See on the plain thy Grecian spouse appears. And from destruction save the Trojan race. So tall. and grace thy father's side. In secret own'd resistless beauty's power: They cried. the cause The gods these armies and this force employ. 113 . when the Spartan queen approach'd the tower." 93 The good old Priam welcomed her. and thus the fair replied: —No wonder. These. and she looks a queen! Yet hence. None match his grandeur and exalted mien: He seems a monarch. iii. O Heaven. Zeuxis. Valer Max. "No wonder such celestial charms113 For nine long years have set the world in arms. The hostile gods conspire the fate of Troy. what Greek is he (Far as from hence these aged orbs can see) Around whose brow such martial graces shine. 7. convey that fatal face. &c. my child. What winning graces! what majestic mien! She moves a goddess. and his country's pride. "Approach.

to Paris only kind! For this I mourn. When godlike Mygdon led their troops of horse. and thus began: "O bless'd Atrides! born to prosperous fate. the wives and daughters of the Grecian heroes. Ah! had I died. when Otreus fill'd the throne. you survey. for the purpose of renovating their numbers. and my nuptial bed. ere to these walk I fled. In ancient time. friends. False to them all. to join them. When Bellerophon is to be employed in a [057] . raised the Trojan force: Against the manlike Amazons we stood. My brothers. and daughter left behind.94 The Iliad of Homer "Before thy presence. And I. what numbers yet remain! In Phrygia once were gallant armies known. this was at once a general type. Great in the war. on the banks of the Sangarius. A nation of courageous. till grief or dire disease Shall waste the form whose fault it was to please! The king of kings. burning out their right breast with a view of enabling themselves to draw the bow freely. for the purpose of resisting the formidable Amazons. dwelling apart from men. I appear. father. and universally accepted as past realities in the Iliad. We find these warlike females constantly reappearing in the ancient poems. and great in arts of sway: My brother once. or heroines. With conscious shame and reverential fear.114 114 The early epic was largely occupied with the exploits and sufferings of women. he tells us that it was assembled in Phrygia. stimulating to the fancy of the poet. Successful monarch of a mighty state! How vast thy empire! Of your matchless train What numbers lost. hardy. False to my country. indefatigable women. Extoll'd the happy prince. When Priam wishes to illustrate emphatically the most numerous host in which he ever found himself included. permitting only a short temporary intercourse. Atrides. and a theme eminently popular with his hearers. before my days of shame! And oh! that still he bore a brother's name!" With wonder Priam view'd the godlike man.

To Troy he came. Nor yet appear his care and conduct small. Both brave in arms. 115 —Antenor. O king! have seen that wondrous man When. had always been favourable to the restoration of Helen. in martial grace. without a fault. once more he view'd the warrior train. vol. is Ithacus the wise. And. to this Grecian race. and his expression plain. A barren island boasts his glorious birth. the Spartan most engaged our view." Then Helen thus: "Whom your discerning eyes Have singled out.BOOK III. and both approved in arts. his shoulders larger spread. 2. and admired their parts. and thus began:115 "Myself. And Sangar's stream ran purple with their blood." This said. Though great Atrides overtops his head. "What's he. 289. (Great Menelaus urged the same request. i p. But far inferior those. Ulysses seated. yet full. master of the flock. whose arms lie scatter'd on the plain? Broad is his breast. greater reverence drew. and orders all. His fame for wisdom fills the spacious earth. Just was his sense. Erect. His words succinct. by those who prudently wished to procure his death. trusting Jove and hospitable laws. And strength of numbers. like Æneas. . he is despatched against the Amazons." Antenor took the word. 95 deadly and perilous undertaking. When Atreus' son harangued the listening train. surveys them round. Liv 1. From rank to rank he moves.—Grote. to plead the Grecian cause.) My house was honour'd with each royal guest: I knew their persons. The stately ram thus measures o'er the ground.

" Merrick's "Tryphiodorus.116 His modest eyes he fix'd upon the ground. and yet more loud. While from his lips the melting torrent flows. "Gnomol. in thought profound. Pours the full tide of eloquence along. of course. Nor lifts the eye." p. 20. Whose brawny shoulders. Melting they fall. It. while the chiefs in still attention hung. Our ears refute the censure of our eyes. and sink into the heart! Wondering we hear. and on the ground in silence gazed. far exceed the rest? "Ajax the great. See! bold Idomeneus superior towers Amid yon circle of his Cretan powers." 148. Soft as the fleeces of descending snows. what elocution flows! Soft as the fleeces of descending snows. (the beauteous queen replied. Like thunders rolling from a distant cloud. As one unskill'd or dumb. But. when he speaks." The king then ask'd (as yet the camp he view'd) "What chief is that. here merely denotes the ready fluency of Ulysses. And lofty stature. 117 . with giant strength endued. well observes that this comparison may also be sarcastically applied to the frigid style of oratory. Homer. Now stronger notes engage the listening crowd. and fix'd in deep surprise. Unskill'd and uninspired he seems to stand. nor graceful moves the hand: Then.117 The copious accents fall.96 The Iliad of Homer [058] He spoke no more than just the thing he ought. 116 "His lab'ring heart with sudden rapture seized He paus'd. Nor raised his head. Louder the accents rise. But when Ulysses rose. with easy art.) Himself a host: the Grecian strength and pride. 99. and whose swelling chest. Duport. nor stretch'd his sceptred hand. he seem'd to stand.

See Hygin. and men of mighty fame. One house contain'd us. For distant Troy refused to sail the seas. whilst besieging Sparta.118 Wrapt in the cold embraces of the tomb. Perhaps their swords some nobler quarrel draws. thy joyful people wait To seal the truce.BOOK III. but sought in vain: Castor and Pollux. however. and heard of wars no more. 118 . Bring the rich wine and destined victims down. And who his rival shall in arms subdue. and end the dire debate. In measured lists to toss the weighty lance. and could in order name. Virgil and others. O father of the Trojan state! The nations call. Yet two are wanting of the numerous train. Great as a god! I saw him once before. from warlike toils at ease. the same our native shore. Paris. My brothers these. Ashamed to combat in their sister's cause. slain during this war. Whom long my eyes have sought. All valiant chiefs. thy son. make them share immortality by turns. Cf. Poet Astr. Æn. vi. Silent they slept. 97 —Her brothers' doom. nor knew her brothers' doom. first in martial force. Idaeus' arms the golden goblets press'd. 119 Idreus was the arm-bearer and charioteer of king Priam. through the crowded town. as one mother bore. Meantime the heralds. 487.119 Who thus the venerable king address'd: "Arise. Adorn'd with honours in their native shore. One bold on foot. Perhaps the chiefs. 22. They perished in combat with Lynceus and Idas. The rest I know. With Menelaus on the Spartan shore. and Sparta's king advance." So spoke the fair. and one renown'd for horse. 32.

for beauty more. and view from pole to pole! Thou mother Earth! and all ye living floods! Infernal furies. And Troy possess her fertile fields in peace: So shall the Greeks review their native shore. Who high on Ida's holy mountain sway.98 [059] The Iliad of Homer His be the dame. From the sign'd victims crops the curling hair. Hence we find Iras descending to cut off the hair of Dido. then draws the Grecian lord His cutlass sheathed beside his ponderous sword. Slow they proceed: the sage Ulysses then Arose. 121 120 . and on each monarch's hands Pour the full urn. rather Scaean gates. Much famed for generous steeds. the left-hand gates. i.121 The heralds part it. Eternal Jove! and you bright orb that roll From east to west. On either side a sacred herald stands. and spreads his lifted hands: "O first and greatest power! whom all obey. and the princes share. The gentle steeds through Scaea's gates they guide:120 Next from the car descending on the plain. and all who falsely swear! —Scaea's gates. This was customary in all sacrifices." With grief he heard. Antenor at his side. and with him rose the king of men.e. and his the treasure too. He mounts the seat. Who rule the dead. Then loudly thus before the attentive bands He calls the gods. and bade the chiefs prepare To join his milk-white coursers to the car. Amid the Grecian host and Trojan train. before which she could not expire. The wine they mix. and Tartarean gods. Thus with a lasting league our toils may cease. and horrid woes prepare For perjured kings.

From the same urn they drink the mingled wine. let the chiefs engage. And every age record the signal day. "Hear." 99 [060] . And Greece returning plough the watery deep. This if the Phrygians shall refuse to yield." With that the chief the tender victims slew. If. Be his the wealth and beauteous dame decreed: The appointed fine let Ilion justly pay. The rites now finish'd. Heaven only knows. Great Menelaus press the fatal plain. May all their consorts serve promiscuous lust. and be witness. And left the members quivering on the ground. And in the dust their bleeding bodies threw. Shed like this wine. who first the league confound. Hear. mighty Jove! and hear. for heaven disposes all. But spare the weakness of my feeble age: In yonder walls that object let me shun. by Paris slain. reverend Priam rose. Which Jove refused.BOOK III. And add libations to the powers divine. Whose arms shall conquer and what prince shall fall. And thus express'd a heart o'ercharged with woes: "Ye Greeks and Trojans. The vital spirit issued at the wound. While thus their prayers united mount the sky. The dame and treasures let the Trojan keep. and mingled with the wind. ye gods on high! And may their blood. If by my brother's lance the Trojan bleed. disdain the thirsty ground. And all their lust be scatter'd as the dust!" Thus either host their imprecations join'd. Nor view the danger of so dear a son. and Mars decide the field. Arms must revenge.

Antenor at his side. Bold Hector and Ulysses now dispose The lists of combat. Paris. O give that author of the war to fate And shades eternal! let division cease. thine leap'd forth. In gilded arms magnificently bright: The purple cuishes clasp his thighs around. with silver buckles bound: Lycaon's corslet his fair body dress'd. With flowers adorn'd. The beauteous warrior now arrays for fight. Then. o'er his shoulder tied. Sustain'd the sword that glitter'd at his side: His youthful face a polish'd helm o'erspread. Both armies sat the combat to survey. But on his car the slaughter'd victims laid: Then seized the reins his gentle steeds to guide. by sacred lots prepare. by fatal chance Ordain'd the first to whirl the weighty lance. the hoary king no longer stay'd. And words like these are heard through all the bands: "Immortal Jove. And drove to Troy. . Braced in and fitted to his softer breast. and the ground inclose: Next to decide. And round the lists the generous coursers neigh. The people pray with elevated hands. A radiant baldric. On lofty Ida's holy mount adored! Whoe'er involved us in this dire debate. high Heaven's superior lord. And joyful nations join in leagues of peace. Beside each chief his azure armour lay. Who first shall launch his pointed spear in air." With eyes averted Hector hastes to turn The lots of fight and shakes the brazen urn.100 The Iliad of Homer This said.

the chiefs advance. the Greek and Trojan band. With javelins fix'd. His corslet pierces. And guard from wrong fair friendship's holy name. and his garment rends. With equal speed and fired by equal charms. Which. Atrides then his massy lance prepares. on the ground. to the mark it held." Dryden's Virgil. 122 —Nor pierced. blunted. And in his hand a pointed javelin shakes. "This said. bending from the blow. 101 [061] Now round the lists the admiring armies stand. Through Paris' shield the forceful weapon went. aid my righteous cause. Nor pierced the brazen orb. Full on Atrides' ringing shield it flew. he takes. his feeble hand a jav'lin threw. . And faintly tinkled on the brazen shield.BOOK III. And lay the Trojan gasping in the dust: Destroy the aggressor. a shining orb. The wary Trojan. Avenge the breach of hospitable laws! Let this example future times reclaim. 742. Amidst the dreadful vale. flutt'ring. All pale with rage. ii. The Spartan hero sheathes his limbs in arms. seemed to loiter as it flew. and shake the threatening lance." Be said. Just. The waving horse-hair nodded on his head: His figured shield. And glancing downward. and but barely. but first prefers his prayers: "Give me. and poised in air the javelin sent. In act to throw. great Jove! to punish lawless lust. near his flank descends. The Trojan first his shining javelin threw. but with a bound122 Leap'd from the buckler.

dragg'd the chief along. The matchless Helen. And all the dome perfumes with heavenly dews. enraged. as once more he lifts the deadly dart. In borrow'd form. In thirst of vengeance. and towards the Grecian crew (Seized by the crest) the unhappy warrior drew. Then had his ruin crown'd Atrides' joy. The Greeks with smiles the polish'd trophy view. Heaven success denies. And left an empty helmet in his hand. at his rival's heart. amidst the Greeks he threw. The casque. The brittle steel. beset with Trojan beauties. With pleasing sweets his fainting sense renews. Then. and strook Full on his casque: the crested helmet shook." Furious he said. and burst the golden band. came. Meantime the brightest of the female kind. and disappoints his foe: But fierce Atrides waved his sword.102 The Iliad of Homer [062] Eludes the death. But Venus trembled for the prince of Troy: Unseen she came. unfaithful to his hand. o'er the walls reclined. Raised from the field the panting youth she led. The raging warrior to the spacious skies Raised his upbraiding voice and angry eyes: "Then is it vain in Jove himself to trust? And is it thus the gods assist the just? When crimes provoke us. The dart falls harmless. To her. Broke short: the fragments glitter'd on the sand. the laughter-loving dame. and the falchion flies. The queen of love her favour'd champion shrouds (For gods can all things) in a veil of clouds. while the embroider'd thong That tied his helmet. Struggling he followed. (She seem'd an ancient maid. well-skill'd to cull . And gently laid him on the bridal bed.

with odours round him spread. Fair as a god. in yonder lofty walls. and wind the twisted wool. The snowy fleece.BOOK III." . and whispering thus address'd: 103 VENUS. Safe from the fight. INVITING HELEN TO THE CHAMBER OF PARIS. Not like a warrior parted from the foe. and waits thee on the well-known bed. He lies. "Haste. That shed perfumes. happy nymph! for thee thy Paris calls. DISGUISED. But some gay dancer in the public show.) The goddess softly shook her silken vest.

And keen reproach.104 The Iliad of Homer She spoke. And breast. Or carry wars to some soft Asian plain? For whom must Helen break her second vow? What other Paris is thy darling now? Left to Atrides. Which. to new nations must I cross the main. For me.) An odious conquest and a captive wife. to lawless love no longer led." 123 [063] Reveal'd the queen. and too wild my woe.123 Struck with her presence. (victor in the strife. let Venus ease his care. and detest his bed. the queen of love is known. reveal'd the queen of soft desire. "Thus having said. And widely spread ambrosial scents around. She scorn'd the champion. . and mount the skies no more. In length of train descends her sweeping gown. Be fix'd for ever to the Trojan shore. And. flowing from her shoulders. by her graceful walk. or slave. thus she said: "Then is it still thy pleasure to deceive? And woman's frailty always to believe! Say. straight the lively red Forsook her cheek." Dryden's Virgil. and trembling. and if thy Paris bear My absence ill. 556. and Helen's secret soul was moved. i. Fair Venus' neck. I scorn the coward. from every Phrygian dame: Ill suits it now the joys of love to know. reach'd the ground. her eyes that sparkled fire. she turn'd and made appear Her neck refulgent and dishevell'd hair. Renounce the glories of thy heavenly state. Too deep my anguish. Else should I merit everlasting shame. His spouse. A handmaid goddess at his side to wait. but the man she loved. Hence let me sail.

every charm must fly. Then thus incensed. lest I make thee more The world's aversion. than their love before. Fade from thy cheek. Than.BOOK III. the sad victim. and languish in thy eye." . the Paphian queen replies: "Obey the power from whom thy glories rise: Should Venus leave thee. Now the bright prize for which mankind engage. Cease to provoke me. 105 VENUS PRESENTING HELEN TO PARIS. of the public rage.

as he view'd her charms. she turn'd away Her glowing eyes. Led by the goddess of the Smiles and Loves. Provoke Atrides. all dispersing. various tasks attend. Where. Late fled the field. The queen and goddess to the prince ascend. and enter'd at the palace gate. And kind embraces snatch the hasty joy. and yet survives his fame? O hadst thou died beneath the righteous sword Of that brave man whom once I call'd my lord! The boaster Paris oft desired the day With Sparta's king to meet in single fray: Go now. This day the foe prevail'd by Pallas' power: We yet may vanquish in a happier hour: There want not gods to favour us above. and renew the fight: Yet Helen bids thee stay. once more thy rival's rage excite. And veil'd her blushes in a silken shade. Nor add reproaches to the wounds I bear. Then.106 The Iliad of Homer [064] At this. Not thus I loved thee. The maids officious round their mistress wait. divinely fair. and silent. from the train she moves. lest thou unskill'd Shouldst fall an easy conquest on the field. Arrived. the queen of love Had placed the beauteous progeny of Jove. when from Sparta's shore . lost to sense of shame. But let the business of our life be love: These softer moments let delights employ. Unseen. who. the fairest of her sex obey'd. Full in her Paris' sight. and thus began to say: "Is this the chief." The prince replies: "Ah cease.

his army's loud applauses rise. 107 [065] [066] —Cranae's isle. Roars through the desert. My forced. See the "Schol. And the long shout runs echoing through the skies." vol. ii. 338. Cranaus. While these to love's delicious rapture yield. p. Paris he seeks. Dardans." and Alberti's "Hesychius. The stern Atrides rages round the field: So some fell lion whom the woods obey. the king of kings arose.BOOK III. hateful as the grave. Athens. The appointed fine let Ilion justly pay. Him Helen follow'd slow with bashful charms. "Ye Trojans. the enamour'd Phrygian boy Rush'd to the bed.124 Mix'd with thy soul. and all dissolved away!" Thus having spoke. Our brother's arms the just success have found: Be therefore now the Spartan wealth restor'd. impatient for the joy. my willing heavenly prize I bore. And clasp'd the blooming hero in her arms. and demands his prey.e. Let Argive Helen own her lawful lord. 124 . Then speaking thus. When first entranced in Cranae's isle I lay. i. all our generous foes! Hear and attest! from Heaven with conquest crown'd. This name was derived from one of its early kings." He ceased. Even those had yielded to a foe so brave The recreant warrior. But seeks in vain along the troops of Troy. impatient to destroy. And age to age record this signal day.

.108 The Iliad of Homer VENUS.

titled "Graeciae Antiquae". .BOOK III. 109 Map.

.

. And now Olympus' shining gates unfold. The gods. and exhorts the leaders. ARGUMENT. and great numbers are slain on both sides. fresh with bloom divine. and Jupiter sends down Minerva to break the truce. with Jove. The scene is wholly in the field before Troy. The golden goblet crowns with purple wine: While the full bowls flow round. In the meantime some of the Trojan troops attack the Greeks.[067] BOOK IV. who is wounded. some by praises and others by reproof. and almost to the end of the seventh book). he reviews the troops. Agamemnon is distinguished in all the parts of a good general. The battle joins. assume their thrones of gold: Immortal Hebe. Nestor is particularly celebrated for his military discipline. THE BREACH OF THE TRUCE. but cured by Machaon. She persuades Pandarus to aim an arrow at Menelaus. the powers employ Their careful eyes on long-contended Troy. The gods deliberate in council concerning the Trojan war: they agree upon the continuation of it. AND THE FIRST BATTLE. The same day continues through this as through the last book (as it does also through the two following.

Still Priam's walls in peaceful honours grow. Her act has rescued Paris' forfeit life.112 The Iliad of Homer [068] When Jove. Imperial Juno. But Juno. and the martial maid. ye powers! what signal issue waits To crown this deed. The queen of pleasures shares the toils of fight. Then say. Saves in the moment of the last despair. impotent of passion. in close consult engaged: Apart they sit. Thus waked the fury of his partial queen. Though great Atrides gain'd the glorious strife. And queen of war. Each danger wards. and gaze from far. and finish all the fates! Shall Heaven by peace the bleeding kingdoms spare." Thus while he spoke. would the gods for human good provide. Atrides soon might gain his beauteous bride. Though secret anger swell'd Minerva's breast. The tame spectators of his deeds of war. Not thus fair Venus helps her favour'd knight.125 But high in heaven they sit. "Two powers divine the son of Atreus aid. their deep designs employ. disposed to tempt Saturnia's spleen. enraged. broke Her sullen silence. And meditate the future woes of Troy. and with fury spoke: . Or rouse the furies. and awake the war? Yet. and constant in her care. The prudent goddess yet her wrath suppress'd. the queen of heaven. And through his gates the crowding nations flow.

so called from her temple at Alalcomene in Boeotia. Loth as thou art to punish lawless lust. 125 [069] . I flew from shore to shore. the defender. and thus replies: "Oh lasting rancour! oh insatiate hate To Phrygia's monarch." The sire whose thunder shakes the cloudy skies. my labours. But Jove himself the faithless race defends. "Minerva Alalcomeneis. O tyrant of the ethereal reign! My schemes." i. Assembled nations. and my hopes be vain? Have I. "Shall then. for this. At length ripe vengeance o'er their heads impends. Sighs from his inmost soul. The immortal coursers scarce the labour bore. shook Ilion with alarms.e. set two worlds in arms? To spread the war. In the original. Not all the gods are partial and unjust. and the Phrygian state! What high offence has fired the wife of Jove? Can wretched mortals harm the powers above. —The martial maid. 113 THE COUNCIL OF THE GODS.BOOK IV.

vi. Servius on Virg.127 "Anything for a quiet life!" —Argos. 453. Argos. or earth-born men enjoy. 127 126 . and give the vengeance way." At this the goddess rolled her radiant eyes.114 The Iliad of Homer That Troy. whose guilt demands their fate.. and Ilion float with gore: To boundless vengeance the wide realm be given.126 When heaven no longer hears the name of Troy. Remember Troy. fulfil thy stern desire. p. or than Priam's race. Still to our name their hecatombs expire. But should this arm prepare to wreak our hate On thy loved realms. leave the skies. Burst all her gates. Which gods have raised. i. Apul. Bleed all his sons. More dear than all the extended earth contains. and wrap her walls in fire! Let Priam bleed! if yet you thirst for more. For know.. and Troy's whole race thou wouldst confound. Æn. None stands so dear to Jove as sacred Troy. And yon fair structures level with the ground! Haste. Presume not thou the lifted bolt to stay. and Jove his peace enjoy. The worship of Juno at Argos was very celebrated in ancient times. of all the numerous towns that rise Beneath the rolling sun and starry skies. and she was regarded as the patron deity of that city. Met. Till vast destruction glut the queen of heaven! So let it be. No mortals merit more distinguish'd grace Than godlike Priam. And altars blaze with unextinguish'd fire. Then on the Thunderer fix'd them. 28. and replies: "Three towns are Juno's on the Grecian plains. and the Spartan wall. Mycenae.

and so Horace.128 Let both consent. As the red comet. to share the realms above. 64. Of power superior why should I complain? Resent I may. the sister-wife of Jove. The crime's sufficient that they share my love. 70. but must resent in vain. Or trembling sailors on the wintry main. So shall the gods our joint decrees obey. Od. (A fatal sign to armies on the plain." i. And the proud Trojans first infringe the peace. And heaven shall act as we direct the way. and all her arts employ To make the breach the faithless act of Troy. "But I. iii. Fired with the charge. Sprung with thyself from one celestial sire. 3." Dryden's "Virgil. A goddess born. and bade Minerva fly." The sire of men and monarch of the sky The advice approved. "conjuge me Jovis et sorore. and both by terms comply. from Saturnius sent To fright the nations with a dire portent. Dissolve the league.) 128 115 [070] —A wife and sister. And shot like lightning from Olympus' height. Nor thou a wife and sister's right deny. nor I forbid their fall: 'Tis not in me the vengeance to remove.BOOK IV. she headlong urged her flight. Yet some distinction Juno might require. Their sudden friendship by her arts may cease. See ready Pallas waits thy high commands To raise in arms the Greek and Phrygian bands. c. who walk in awful state above The majesty of heav'n." . And styled the consort of the thundering Jove. l. speaks of her as "Jovis germana et conjux. These thou mayst raze. So Apuleius.

Who from Antenor traced his high descent." iv. when vapours fired Impress the air.130 With flaming shields in martial circle stood. Amidst his triumph. led from black Æsepus' flood. Thy country's foe. from Paris wouldst thou gain. Whose squadrons. 130 . the Grecian glory slain? 129 "Thither came Uriel. Amidst the ranks Lycaon's son she found. And shakes the sparkles from its blazing hair:129 Between both armies thus. couldst thou direct thy dart. gleaming through the even On a sunbeam. rising from Mount Cotyius. To him the goddess: "Phrygian! canst thou hear A well-timed counsel with a willing ear? What praise were thine. 555." They said. swift as a shooting star In autumn thwarts the night. or bloodier scenes prepares. and the heavens on fire! "The gods (they cried).116 The Iliad of Homer With sweeping glories glides along in air. A river of Mysia. —Æsepus' flood. her course she bent. With eyes erect the gazing hosts admire The power descending. in the southern part of the chain of Ida. the gods this signal sent. for strength renown'd. (In shape a mortal." —"Paradise Lost. the great arbiter of peace and wars.) pass'd disguised along. and shows the mariner From what point of his compass to beware Impetuous winds. The warlike Pandarus. Jove. in open sight Shot the bright goddess in a trail of light. And fate now labours with some vast event: Jove seals the league. Like bold Laodocus. to the Spartan's heart? What gifts from Troy. while Pallas through the Trojan throng.

by the Greeks unseen. the warrior bends. . 'Twas form'd of horn. One from a hundred feather'd deaths he chose. and joins the doubling ends. Aim at his breast. Fated to wound. Sounds the tough horn. The impatient weapon whizzes on the wing. Close to his breast he strains the nerve below. Fits the sharp arrow to the well-strung bow. and shaped the bended horns. The stately quarry on the cliffs lay dead. Now with full force the yielding horn he bends. dare the mighty deed. and twangs the quivering string. and madly at the motion pleased. Then seize the occasion. Then offers vows with hecatombs to crown Apollo's altars in his native town. And sixteen palms his brow's large honours spread: The workmen join'd. Till the barb'd points approach the circling bow. Drawn to an arch. And swear the firstlings of thy flock to pay. and may that aim succeed! But first. a town of Troas. and couching low. 131 117 [071] —Zelia."131 He heard. and smooth'd with artful toil: A mountain goat resign'd the shining spoil. On Zelia's altars. This. at the foot of Ida. to speed the shaft.BOOK IV. And beaten gold each taper point adorns. and cause of future woes. Who pierced long since beneath his arrows bled. Screen'd by the shields of his surrounding friends: There meditates the mark. His polish'd bow with hasty rashness seized. address thy vow To Lycian Phoebus with the silver bow. to the god of day.

which. before he found The shining barb appear above the wound. hissing from above. nor thy guardian power. With horror seized. Pass'd the broad belt. and the Tyrian dye: So great Atrides! show'd thy sacred blood. She turn'd the shaft. that heaved his manly breast. and conquer. The folds it pierced. and through the corslet drove. With equal lustre various colours vie. and drew the purple gore. the plaited linen tore. Then. The royal brother thus his grief express'd. The watchful mother wafts the envenom'd fly. and (weakened in its force) Diverts the weapon from its destined course: So from her babe. To fight for Greece. when slumber seals his eye. And grasp'd his hand. the king of men descried The shaft infix'd. And razed the skin. and saw the gushing tide: Nor less the Spartan fear'd. A nymph in Caria or Maeonia bred. to be slain! The race of Trojans in thy ruin join. with a sigh. [072] "Oh. Where linen folds the double corslet lined. As down thy snowy thigh distill'd the streaming flood. Atrides! in that dangerous hour The gods forget not. a fatal truce to thee! Wert thou exposed to all the hostile train. The shining whiteness. Stains the pure ivory with a lively red. dear as life! did I for this agree The solemn truce.118 The Iliad of Homer But thee. Pallas assists. while all the Greeks around With answering sighs return'd the plaintive sound. As when some stately trappings are decreed To grace a monarch on his bounding steed. Just where his belt with golden buckles join'd. .

I see the Eternal all his fury shed.' Oh! ere that dire disgrace shall blast my fame. And shake his aegis o'er their guilty head. And faith is scorn'd by all the perjured line. and our glory lost. O'erwhelm me. And unrevenged. Such mighty woes on perjured princes wait." He said: a leader's and a brother's fears Possess his soul. Thy bones shall moulder on a foreign coast. But thou. The feeble dart is guiltless of my fate: 119 . And such the conquest of her king of kings! Lo his proud vessels scatter'd o'er the main. confirm'd with wine and gore. While some proud Trojan thus insulting cries. When Troy's proud glories in the dust shall lay. And only mourn.BOOK IV. his mighty brother slain. from the pole Bare his red arm. that great avenging day. and bid the thunder roll. And one prodigious ruin swallow all. earth! and hide a monarch's shame. Those hands we plighted. I see the god. The day shall come. without my share of praise? Deprived of thee. Shall all be vain: when Heaven's revenge is slow. Still must I mourn the period of thy days. Jove but prepares to strike the fiercer blow. alas! deserv'st a happier fate. Not thus our vows.) 'Such are the trophies Greece from Ilion brings. (And spurns the dust where Menelaus lies. When Priam's powers and Priam's self shall fall. already. Troy seized of Helen. which thus the Spartan cheers: "Let not thy words the warmth of Greece abate. and those oaths we swore. the heartless Greeks no more Shall dream of conquests on the hostile shore.

The Grecian's sorrow. but Apollodorus professed to fix the exact date of his apotheosis. Then thus: "Machaon. but also as their actual progenitor. a triumph to the foe. and the Dardan's joy. the other as sagacious in detecting and appreciating morbid symptoms. Throughout all the historical ages the descendants of Asklepius were numerous and widely diffused. i. may Heaven thy life defend! Now seek some skilful hand. wherein the one was represented as unrivalled in surgical operations. and bid Machaon bring His speedy succour to the Spartan king. It was Podaleirius who first noticed the glaring eyes and disturbed deportment which preceded the suicide of Ajax. Thus. 248. or whether he was first a man and then became afterwards a god. "Galen appears uncertain whether Asklepius (as well as Dionysus) was originally a god. to the king repair. who devoted themselves to the study and practice of medicine. and who principally dwelt near the temples of Asklepius. highly prized and consulted by all the wounded chiefs."—Grote vol.120 The Iliad of Homer Stiff with the rich embroider'd work around." To whom the king: "My brother and my friend. His wounded brother claims thy timely care. where sublime he stands132 In arms incircled with his native bands. The many families or gentes. [073] . Herald. Pierced by some Lycian or Dardanian bow. My varied belt repell'd the flying wound. p. the Iliou Persis. Through the thick files he darts his searching eyes. whither sick and suffering men came to obtain relief—all recognized the god not merely as the object of their common worship. Their medical renown was further prolonged in the subsequent poem of Arktinus. called Asklepiads. whose powerful art May stanch the effusion." 132 —Podaleirius and Machaon are the leeches of the Grecian army." With hasty zeal the swift Talthybius flies. always thus. be swift. A grief to us. And finds Machaon. Pierced with a winged shaft (the deed of Troy). and extract the dart.

" "Orlando Furioso. the youth revives. The Trojans rush tumultuous to the war. and stands Tempering the juice between her ivory hands This o'er her breast she sheds with sovereign art And bathes with gentle touch the wounded part The wound such virtue from the juice derives." book 1. and those reproves. But fond of glory. And all the chiefs in deep concern around. Or press'd the car with polish'd brass inlaid But left Eurymedon the reins to guide. The heavy tidings grieved the godlike man Swift to his succour through the ranks he ran. No longer with his warlike steeds he stay'd. Where to the steely point the reed was join'd. unactive. Then suck'd the blood. and Æsculapius used. The dauntless king yet standing firm he found. Straight the broad belt with gay embroidery graced. (to such who boldly dare 133 121 "The plant she bruises with a stone. The fiery coursers snorted at his side. Once more the fields are fill'd with dire alarms. Nor had you seen the king of men appear Confused. with severe delight. He loosed.133 Which Chiron gave. On foot through all the martial ranks he moves And these encourages. While round the prince the Greeks employ their care.BOOK IV. the corslet from his breast unbraced. and sovereign balm infused. . or surprised with fear. but left the head behind. "Brave men!" he cries. The shaft he drew. His beating bosom claim'd the rising fight. At once the blood is stanch'd. Once more they glitter in refulgent arms.

And her dead warriors strew the mournful plains. . a victim to his fear. Jove is with Greece. to dread. Born to the fate ye well deserve to find! Why stand ye gazing round the dreadful plain. Prepared for flight. the hunted deer Falls as he flies. "Divine Idomeneus! what thanks we owe To worth like thine! what praise shall we bestow? To thee the foremost honours are decreed. but guilty Troy. dastard race?" This said. and let us trust in Jove. And clasp'd the warrior to his armed breast. and still retire. High at their head he saw the chief appear. To save a trembling. First in the fight and every graceful deed. Though all the rest with stated rules we bound. And bold Meriones excite the rear. and raise the warriors' souls.122 The Iliad of Homer [074] Urge their swift steeds to face the coming war). scandal of your kind. Jove a valiant foe shall chase. Still must ye wait the foes. when the generous bowls Restore our blood. At this the king his generous joy express'd. Till yon tall vessels blaze with Trojan fire? Or trust ye. but doom'd to fly in vain? Confused and panting thus. in banquets. Or thus the fearful with reproaches fires: "Shame to your country. "Your ancient valour on the foes approve. Her sons and matrons Greece shall lead in chains. For this." Thus with new ardour he the brave inspires. 'Tis not for us. he stalk'd with ample strides along. heartless. To Crete's brave monarch and his martial throng. Whose crimes sit heavy on her perjured head.

Maintain thy honours. With spears erect. [075] Such. the king his course pursues. Slow from the main the heavy vapours rise. and drives his flock To the close covert of an arching rock. in every toil I share. The cloud condensing as the west-wind blows: He dreads the impending storm. are thy goblets crown'd. And their brown arms obscured the dusky fields. Fix'd to thy side. and sail along the skies. Thy firm associate in the day of war.BOOK IV. ." To whom the Cretan thus his speech address'd: "Secure of me. a moving iron wood: A shady light was shot from glimmering shields. And chains or death avenge the impious deed. the embattled squadrons stood. Be still thyself." 123 Charm'd with this heat. Spread in dim streams. The field shall prove how perjuries succeed. in arms a mighty name. O king! exhort the rest. Unmix'd. and so thick. Till black as night the swelling tempest shows. unmeasured. A cloud of heroes blacken'd all the ground. Thus from the lofty promontory's brow A swain surveys the gathering storm below. To mix in fight is all I ask of Heaven. and enlarge thy fame. And next the troops of either Ajax views: In one firm orb the bands were ranged around. But let the signal be this moment given.

The middle space suspected troops supply.124 The Iliad of Homer "O heroes! worthy such a dauntless train. and Pelagon the great. Whose godlike virtue we but urge in vain. And Troy's proud walls lie smoking on the ground. And with inspiring eloquence commands. be tried: The charge once made. (His heart exults. a firm embodied train. The horse and chariots to the front assign'd. Ah! would the gods but breathe in all the rest Such souls as burn in your exalted breast. He whom the fortune of the field shall cast From forth his chariot. But fight. With strictest order sets his train in arms. No strength nor skill. Our great forefathers held this prudent course. (Exclaim'd the king). Chromius. Nor cause confusion. The chiefs advises. He gives command to "curb the fiery steed. Bias the good. round him wait. no warrior turn the rein. The foot (the strength of war) he ranged behind. and glories in his force). Haemon. Alastor." Then to the next the general bends his course. Content with javelins to provoke the war. Soon should our arms with just success be crown'd. more than loud commands. nor left the power to fly. By laws like these immortal conquests made. but just in time. or fall. and the soldiers warms. mount the next in haste. who raise your eager bands With great examples. Inclosed by both. Nor seek unpractised to direct the car. . Thus ruled their ardour. There reverend Nestor ranks his Pylian bands. nor the ranks exceed: Before the rest let none too rashly ride. thus preserved their force.

could mortal wish renew134 That strength which once in boiling youth I knew. oh ever mightst thou be! And age the lot of any chief but thee. What once thou wert. But heaven its gifts not all at once bestows. Such as I was beneath Praeneste's wall— Then when I made the foremost foes retire. fell prostrate on the plain. And set whole heaps of conquer'd shields on fire. "Would heav'n (said he) my strength and youth recall. when Ereuthalion. and thy arms unbrace. that wither human race. with action those: The field of combat fits the young and bold. These years with wisdom crowns." Dryden's Virgil. be mine. And nerves to second what thy soul inspires! But wasting years." Thus to the experienced prince Atrides cried. When Herilus in single fight I slew.BOOK IV. And earth's proud tyrants low in ashes laid. . Let sage advice." 134 [076] —Well might I wish. The solemn council best becomes the old: To you the glorious conflict I resign. And touch'd with transport great Atrides' heart. and thus replied: "Well might I wish. Exhaust thy spirits. Such as I was. He shook his hoary locks. slain Beneath this arm. 742. the palm of age. viii. Whom with three lives Feronia did endue." 125 So spoke the master of the martial art. "Oh! hadst thou strength to match thy brave desires.

" Struck with his generous wrath. with his subject bands. nor knew so far The peace infringed. The tumult late begun. and but expect command. nor heard the sounds of war. To share the pleasures of the genial feast: And can you. but the last in fight. he said: "Take back the unjust reproach! Behold we stand Sheathed in bright arms. Remote their forces lay. For this your names are call'd before the rest. With whom the firm Athenian phalanx stands.126 The Iliad of Homer He said. is it thus those honours you requite? The first in banquets. Then give thy warrior-chief a warrior's due. Who dares to act whate'er thou dar'st to view. Behold me plunging in the thickest fight. The king. the king replies: . And next Ulysses. chiefs! without a blush survey Whole troops before you labouring in the fray? Say. and commence the war. and the rest expect To mix in combat which yourselves neglect? From you 'twas hoped among the first to dare The shock of armies. they stood intent To watch the motion. With hasty ardour thus the chiefs reproved: "Can Peleus' son forget a warrior's part." Ulysses heard: the hero's warmth o'erspread His cheek with blushes: and severe. And found Menestheus on the dusty shore. skill'd in every art? Why stand you distant. dubious of the event. If glorious deeds afford thy soul delight. who saw their squadrons yet unmoved. With joy the monarch march'd before. And fears Ulysses.

Thebes' hostile walls unguarded and alone. He was one of the suitors of Helen. Still first in front the matchless prince appear'd: What glorious toils. The gods that make. To this day. and a careless eye? Not thus thy sire the fierce encounter fear'd. secure of just amends. Haste to the fight.BOOK IV.)135 To whom with stern reproach the monarch cried: "O son of Tydeus! (he. A peaceful guest. "O great in action. Not we denied. what wonders they recite. he approach'd the foes. His steeds and chariots wedged in firm array. Forgive the transport of a martial mind. nor aught to blame. (The warlike Sthenelus attends his side. and learn'd in human kind. The same portent has already been mentioned.136 Next. whose strength could tame The bounding steed. and armies had been given. and in council wise! With ours. a son of Capaneus. one of the Epigoni. Armies he ask'd. A fearless envoy. sent by Greece from where Asopus flows. when gathering martial powers. modern nations are not wholly free from this superstition. thy care and ardour are the same." He said. With hands unactive. friends. Who view'd him labouring through the ranks of fight? I saw him once. Nor need I to commend. 135 . in arms a mighty name) Canst thou. shall keep the worthy. and is said to have been one of those who entered Troy inside the wooden horse. and pass'd where great Tydides lay. remote. the mingling hosts descry. While dreadful comets glaring from afar. Sage as thou art. 127 —Sthenelus. he sought Mycenae's towers. but Jove forbade from heaven. Forewarn'd the horrors of the Theban war. 136 —Forwarn'd the horrors.

within the winding way." 137 —Sevenfold city. and such his martial fire. for Heaven was on their side. Such Tydeus was. Those fifty slaughter'd in the gloomy vale. And happier saw the sevenfold city fall. and in secret burn'd: Not so fierce Capaneus' undaunted son. Far more than heirs of all our parents' fame. and subdued before their haughty lord. O monarch! this invidious praise. Stern as his sire. Stung with the shame. while our sire you raise? Dare to be just.137 In impious acts the guilty father died. which had seven gates.128 The Iliad of Homer Dauntless he enters. Boeotian Thebes. Atrides! and confess Our value equal. Ourselves to lessen. But heard respectful. Two heroes led the secret squadron on. Our glories darken their diminish'd name. and demands the throne. . And dared to combat all those chiefs around: Dared. The tyrant feasting with his chiefs he found. For Pallas strung his arm and edged his sword. The sons subdued. Mason the fierce. Gods! how the son degenerates from the sire!" No words the godlike Diomed return'd. and hardy Lycophon. To bar his passage fifty warriors lay. the boaster thus begun: [078] "What needs. With fewer troops we storm'd the Theban wall. though our fury less. He spared but one to bear the dreadful tale.

and men drove men along Sedate and silent move the numerous bands. and dreadful from afar." He spoke. no whisper. Then roars the main. No sound. The wave behind rolls on the wave before. and the king revere: His high concern may well excuse this rage. White foam at first on the curl'd ocean fries. Dire was the clang. but the chief's commands. 138 129 —As when the winds. the chief disgrace his own. with awe the rest obey. ascending by degrees. Foam o'er the rocks. the billows mount the skies. 'Tis ours to labour in the glorious fight. on the trembling ground Sprung from his car: his ringing arms resound. Whose cause we follow. Not so the Trojans. Shields urged on shields. To him Tydides thus: "My friend. 736. Till. Those only heard. by the fury of the storm full blown. .BOOK IV. As if some god had snatch'd their voice away. forbear. So to the fight the thick battalions throng. and whose war we wage: His the first praise. were Ilion's towers o'erthrown. vii." Dryden's Virgil. the deeps arise. and ardent. Suppress thy passion. The muddy billow o'er the clouds is thrown. with the growing storm. Of arm'd Tydides rushing to the war.138 First move the whitening surface of the seas. when a black-brow'd gust begins to rise. if we fail. Till. The billows float in order to the shore. from their host ascends A general shout that all the region rends. And. As when the winds. and thunder to the skies. Let him the Greeks to hardy toils excite. "Thus.

and confused the sound. And shrilling shouts and dying groans arise." iv. The lambs reply from all the neighbouring hills: Such clamours rose from various nations round. and dreadful terror reign. While scarce the skies her horrid head can bound. To armour armour.130 The Iliad of Homer [079] As when the fleecy flocks unnumber'd stand In wealthy folds. Small at her birth. but rising every hour. with helmet helmet closed. She stalks on earth. Discord! dire sister of the slaughtering power. and each a god inspires. These Mars incites. The hollow vales incessant bleating fills. where'er her steps she turns." —"Paradise Lost. The groan still deepens. Victors and vanquish'd join'd promiscuous cries. His stature reach'd the sky. 986. Pale flight around. and wait the milker's hand. Each host now joins. . Now shield with shield. lance to lance opposed. and shakes the world around. Host against host with shadowy squadrons drew.139 The nations bleed. And slaughter'd heroes swell the dreadful tide. and those Minerva fires. and the combat burns. Mix'd was the murmur. The sounding darts in iron tempests flew. With streaming blood the slippery fields are dyed. And discord raging bathes the purple plain. 139 "Stood Like Teneriffe or Atlas unremoved.

and pour'd along the plain. the bold leader of the Abantian throng. the warriors bleed again: As o'er their prey rapacious wolves engage. Trojans and Greeks now gather round the slain.140 Seized to despoil. As torrents roll. With rage impetuous. Agenor's javelin reach'd the hero's heart. Admits the lance: he falls. unguarded by his ample shield. His flank. whom his mother bore Amid the flocks on silver Simois' shore: The nymph descending from the hills of Ide. Roar through a thousand channels to the main: The distant shepherd trembling hears the sound. And shades eternal settle o'er his eyes. Razed his high crest. Man dies on man. unbraced. Sent by great Ajax to the shades of hell. The first who struck a valiant Trojan dead: At great Echepolus the lance arrives. To seek her parents on his flowery side. In blooming youth fair Simoisius fell. The nerves. and through his helmet drives. and so their cries rebound. . The bold Antilochus the slaughter led. So sinks a tower. Fair Simoisius. its walls besmear'd with blood. that long assaults had stood Of force and fire. 140 131 [080] The Abantes seem to have been of Thracian origin. So mix both hosts. and all is blood and rage. The soul comes floating in a tide of gore.BOOK IV. increased by numerous rills. support his limbs no more. and dragg'd the corpse along: But while he strove to tug the inserted dart. Warm'd in the brain the brazen weapon lies. The war renews. and spurns the field. Him. down their echoing hills Rush to the vales.

Strode where the foremost of the foes engaged. remark that Homer is most anatomically correct as to the parts of the body in which a wound would be immediately mortal. with stately branches crown'd. Antiphus his javelin threw. slew. it withers on the plain Thus pierced by Ajax. and renders all their cares in vain! So falls a poplar. He falls. tall.141 With piercing shrieks the youth resigns his breath. left a subject to the wind and rain. Arm'd with his spear.132 The Iliad of Homer Brought forth the babe. but cautious look'd around. With all its beauteous honours on its head There. A chief stood nigh. 141 . once for all. Struck at his sight the Trojans backward drew. This saw Ulysses. their common care and joy. I may. Simoisius lies Stretch'd on the shore. Old Priam's son. His eye-balls darken with the shades of death. And thence from Simois named the lovely boy. Democoon was his name. And trembling heard the javelin as it flew. And Leucus. loved by wise Ulysses.) Cut down it lies. (Fell'd by some artist with his shining steel. and thus neglected dies. To shape the circle of the bending wheel. Cold through his temples glides the whizzing spear. At Ajax. who from Abydos came. He drops the corpse of Simoisius slain. and with grief enraged. And scorch'd by suns. Short was his date! by dreadful Ajax slain. and largely spread. smooth. And sinks a breathless carcase on the plain. that in watery ground Raised high the head. In act to throw. he meditates the wound. The pointed lance with erring fury flew. The weapon entered close above his ear.

And through his navel drove the pointed death: His gushing entrails smoked upon the ground. And shouts and thunders in the fields below. And spreads for aid his unavailing hands. the fierce Achilles fights no more.)142 Full on his ankle dropp'd the ponderous stone. nor ribb'd with steel. In vain his valour and illustrious line. . Slow he gave way. Have ye forgot what seem'd your dread before? The great. The foe rush'd furious as he pants for breath. Seized with affright the boldest foes appear." Apollo thus from Ilion's lofty towers. "Trojans. Then great Diores fell. Your foaming steeds urge headlong on the foes! Nor are their bodies rocks. and force with force oppose. And his broad buckler rings against the ground. The Greeks with shouts press on.BOOK IV. be bold. and animates the fight. Before his helpless friends. and your strokes they feel. the rest tumultuous fled. Your weapons enter. and crash'd the solid bone. his clanging arms resound. by doom divine. Supine he tumbles on the crimson sands. Array'd in terrors. and spoil the dead: But Phoebus now from Ilion's towering height Shines forth reveal'd. E'en godlike Hector seems himself to fear. and native bands. (Who from cold Ænus led the Thracian crew. a fountain almost proverbial for its coldness. 142 133 [081] —Ænus. Ponderous he falls. Burst the strong nerves. roused the Trojan powers: While war's fierce goddess fires the Grecian foe. A broken rock the force of Pyrus threw. And the warm life came issuing from the wound.

A grove of lances glitter'd at his breast. The Thracian bands against the victor press'd. And swords around him innocently play. Had some brave chief this martial scene beheld. And heap'd with growing mountains of the dead. [082] . glaring with revengeful eyes. one the pride of Thrace. The war's whole art with wonder had he seen. To spoil his arms the victor strove in vain. And counted heroes where he counted men. Thus fell two heroes. Deep in his breast above the pap it went. The corpse now breathless on the bloody plain. approaching near. with thirst of glory fired. The Ætolian warrior tugg'd his weighty spear: Then sudden waved his flaming falchion round. And quivering in his heaving bosom stood: Till from the dying chief. And one the leader of the Epeian race. In sullen fury slowly quits the prize. By Pallas guarded through the dreadful field. Amid the lungs was fix'd the winged wood. And crowds on crowds triumphantly expired. So fought each host.134 The Iliad of Homer His lance bold Thoas at the conqueror sent. With copious slaughter all the fields are red. And gash'd his belly with a ghastly wound. Death's sable shade at once o'ercast their eyes. In dust the vanquish'd and the victor lies. Stern Thoas. Might darts be bid to turn their points away.

.BOOK IV. 135 Map of the Plain of Troy.

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and they overthrow several of the Greeks. xx. and warms with all her fires. Gier. Lib. and at length carries off Æneas to Troy. and assists Hector to make a stand. assisted by Pallas. et angusto oltre il costume. But Pallas now Tydides' soul inspires. and sends him groaning to heaven. enables him to discern gods from mortals. and prohibits him from contending with any of the former. e vi riduce Di giovinezza il bel purpureo lume. is wounded on the hand by Diomed. Mars rallies the Trojans. the latter incites Diomed to go against that god.143 Fills with her force. where he is healed in the temple of Pergamus. Pandarus is killed." . among the rest Tlepolemus is slain by Sarpedon. Juno and Minerva descend to resist Mars.[083] BOOK V. In the meantime Æneas is restored to the field. THE ACTS OF DIOMED. performs wonders in this day's battle.. excepting Venus. Pandarus wounds him with an arrow. 143 Compare Tasso. and Æneas in great danger but for the assistance of Venus. who. but the goddess cures him. Apollo seconds her in his rescue. he wounds him. The first battle continues through this book. Æneas joins Pandarus to oppose him. 7: "Nuovo favor del cielo in lui niluce E 'l fa grande. The scene is the same as in the former. ARGUMENT. Diomed. as she is removing her son from the fight. Gl' empie d' honor la faccia.

Fierce for renown the brother-chiefs draw near. A wealthy priest. shoots a keener light. High on his helm celestial lightnings play. Where the fight burns. And. bathed in ocean. Seized with unusual fear. But in a smoky cloud the god of fire Preserved the son. [084] . The steeds and chariot. These. His beamy shield emits a living ray. The sons to toils of glorious battle bred. Which o'er the warrior's shoulder took its course. Such glories Pallas on the chief bestow'd. but rich without a fault. But pierced his breast. When fresh he rears his radiant orb to sight. in pity to the sire. Tydides on the plain. Left the rich chariot. And had not Vulcan lent celestial aid. The sons of Dares first the combat sought. Increased the spoils of gallant Diomed. And first bold Phegeus cast his sounding spear. And spent in empty air its erring force. and where the thickest rage. from his arms. These singled from their troops the fight maintain. The unwearied blaze incessant streams supplies. Such. Idaeus fled. Tydides. the fierce effulgence flow'd: Onward she drives him.138 The Iliad of Homer Above the Greeks his deathless fame to raise. He too had sunk to death's eternal shade. furious to engage. to the navy led. flew thy lance in vain. Not so. and stretch'd him on the plain. from their steeds. In Vulcan's fane the father's days were led. And crown her hero with distinguish'd praise. and his brother dead. Like the red star that fires the autumnal skies.

or fled. When by the blood-stain'd hand Minerva press'd The god of battles. His arms resound.BOOK V. the Greeks the Trojan race pursue. Struck with amaze and shame. the sons of Dares view. Thy fate was next. Removed from fight. Whom Borus sent (his son and only joy) From fruitful Tarne to the fields of Troy. And everlasting shades his eyes surround. 139 . the spirit wings its way. and shake the lofty wall! Let the brave chiefs their glorious toils divide. And pierced his shoulder as he mounts his car. and bites the bloody sand. Nor tempt the wrath of heaven's avenging sire. Meantime. Back from the car he tumbles to the ground. And whose the conquest." Her words allay the impetuous warrior's heat. and this speech address'd: "Stern power of war! by whom the mighty fall. on Xanthus' flowery bounds They sat. the Trojan crew. Who bathe in blood. and listen'd to the dying sounds. The god of arms and martial maid retreat. The speedy javelin drove from back to breast. Or slain. O Phaestus! doom'd to feel The great Idomeneus' protended steel. In dust the mighty Halizonian lay. mighty Jove decide: While we from interdicted fields retire. The Cretan javelin reach'd him from afar. And some bold chieftain every leader slew: First Odius falls. His death ennobled by Atrides' hand: As he to flight his wheeling car address'd.

From Meges' force the swift Pedaeus fled. nor his own. How vain those cares! when Meges in the rear Full in his nape infix'd the fatal spear. His brazen armour rings against the ground. Theanor. Through his broad back and heaving bosom went: Down sinks the warrior with a thundering sound. Whose generous spouse. O Phereclus! was thine. From Menelaus' arm the weapon sent. with forceful fury cast. Nor saw his country's peril. The fatal lance arrests him as he flies. [085] . the mystic will of heaven unknown. Diana taught him all her sylvan arts. The spear of Merion mingled with the dead. The fatal cause of all his country's woes. Next artful Phereclus untimely fell. In woods and wilds to wound the savage race. For loved by Pallas. while confused he fled. Pallas did impart To him the shipwright's and the builder's art. Beneath his hand the fleet of Paris rose. The hapless artist. Prone on his knees he falls with fruitless cries. Through his right hip. heavenly fair. Between the bladder and the bone it pass'd.140 The Iliad of Homer Then died Scamandrius. Nursed the young stranger with a mother's care. But he. expert in the chase. and aim unerring darts: But vainly here Diana's arts he tries. Bold Merion sent him to the realms of hell. Antenor's offspring from a foreign bed. To bend the bow. And death in lasting slumber seals his eyes. The graceful fabric and the fair design. Thy father's skill.

Pours on the rear. On him. Sweep o'er the yellow year. and bursts the lofty bounds. Thus from high hills the torrents swift and strong Deluge whole fields. he darts from place to place. And flatted vineyards. and trees. and sweep the trees along. In every quarter fierce Tydides raged. Thence glancing downwards. Sprung from the brave Dolopion's mighty line. now there. amid the Trojan train. or lightens in their face. folds. Down sunk the priest: the purple hand of death Closed his dim eye. Priest of the stream. Thus toil'd the chiefs. O'erwhelm's the bridge. and the peasant's gains. . Swift through his crackling jaws the weapon glides." Dryden's Virgil ii. 408. amidst the flying numbers found. one sad waste appear!144 144 141 [086] "Or deluges. Rapt through the ranks he thunders o'er the plain. lopp'd his holy hand.BOOK V. and honoured as a god. Who near adored Scamander made abode. in different parts engaged. and bear away Flocks. The yellow harvests of the ripen'd year. Then died Hypsenor. Amid the Greek. and fate suppress'd his breath. On his broad shoulders fell the forceful brand. Uproot the forest oaks. Through ruin'd moles the rushing wave resounds. descending on the plains. destroy the pains Of lab'ring oxen. generous and divine. And the cold tongue and grinning teeth divides. Eurypylus inflicts a deadly wound. Now here. Which stain'd with sacred blood the blushing sand. an undistinguish'd prey.

now. Whose arrow wounds the chief thou guard'st in fight. And tugg'd the weapon from the gushing wound. Now. Deep in his shoulder pierced. goddess.142 The Iliad of Homer While Jove descends in sluicy sheets of rain. Swift from his seat he leap'd upon the ground. and made all Troy retire. The helping hand of Sthenelus required. When thus the king his guardian power address'd. Or Phoebus urged me to these fields in vain. boundless in his ire. ye Trojans. Swift to the mark the thirsty arrow flew." . While the proud archer thus exulting cried: "Hither. The purple current wandering o'er his vest: "O progeny of Jove! unconquer'd maid! If e'er my godlike sire deserved thy aid. Whose forky point the hollow breastplate tore. behind his car retired. and mock'd the shooter's art. That vaunts these eyes shall view the light no more." So spoke he. Not long the deathful dart he can sustain. O give my lance to reach the Trojan knight. The wounded chief. boastful: but the winged dart Stopp'd short of life. So raged Tydides. Drove armies back. and drank the gore: The rushing stream his brazen armour dyed. With grief the leader of the Lycian band Saw the wide waste of his destructive hand: His bended bow against the chief he drew. And all the labours of mankind are vain. thy sacred succour yield. hither drive your steeds! Lo! by our hand the bravest Grecian bleeds. If e'er I felt thee in the fighting field. And lay the boaster grovelling on the shore.

"But to nobler sights Michael from Adam's eyes the film removed.BOOK V. Rush to the fight. He foams. "Be bold. Heaps fall on heaps. infused by me. thy protection mine. His beating bosom claim'd the promised fight. Not with less fury stern Tydides flew. Wild with delay. in every combat shine. Thus pray'd Tydides. from mortal mists I purge thy eyes. As on the fleecy flocks when hunger calls. Her shalt thou wound: so Pallas gives command. If Venus mingle in the martial band. He feels each limb with wonted vigour light. his languid spirits cheer'd. . 145 143 [087] —From mortal mists. Yet more. (she cried)." xi. and every foe control. and Minerva heard. he rouses at the smart. With tenfold ardour now invades the plain.145 And set to view the warring deities. Wake each paternal virtue in thy soul: Strength swells thy boiling breast. And all thy godlike father breathes in thee." "Paradise Lost. and more enraged by pain. he bathes with blood the ground. War be thy province. Amidst the field a brindled lion falls. through all the embattled plain. the shepherd dares not stay. But trembling leaves the scattering flocks a prey. If chance some shepherd with a distant dart The savage wound. These see thou shun. the blue-eyed virgin wing'd her flight." With that. Then leaps victorious o'er the lofty mound. he roars. The hero rush'd impetuous to the fight. Nor rashly strive where human force is vain. 411. His nerves confirm'd.

The race forgotten. [088] Two sons of Priam in one chariot ride. died. Hypenor's shoulder his broad falchion cleaves. Their steeds and chariot to the navy borne. Could fate foresee. and by his side. Astynous' breast the deadly lance receives. And the sad father tried his arts in vain. Though now determined by Tydides' spear. Bends their strong necks. and these the only heirs Of all his labours and a life of cares. He leaps amidst them with a furious bound. . His people's pastor. and sprung with noble rage Abas and Polyidus to engage. Those slain he left. The joy and hope of Phaenops' feeble age: Vast was his wealth. Sons of Eurydamus. and combat side by side. And leaves the father unavailing tears: To strangers now descends his heapy store. and tears them to the ground: So from their seats the brother chiefs are torn. Astynous breathless fell. Glittering in arms. No mystic dream could make their fates appear. Cold death o'ertakes them in their blooming years. Young Xanthus next. and mystic dreams unfold. and Thoon felt his rage. As when the lordly lion seeks his food Where grazing heifers range the lonely wood. who. The youths return'd not from the doubtful plain.144 The Iliad of Homer And two brave leaders at an instant slew. wise and old. good Hypenor. and the name no more.

oh avert from our unhappy state! For what so dreadful as celestial hate)? Whoe'er he be. And boasted glory of the Lycian name? O pierce that mortal! if we mortal call That wondrous force by which whole armies fall. If 'tis a god. Thy matchless skill. thy yet unrivall'd fame. Skill'd in the bow. Involved in clouds." To him the Lycian: "Whom your eyes behold. some angry god withstands. entreat to spare. To whom the chief of Venus' race begun: "Where. and so flames his shield. Or god incensed. I wing'd an arrow. With deep concern divine Æneas view'd The foe prevailing. His fate was due to these unerring hands. on foot I sought the war. Through the thick storm of singing spears he flies. who quits the distant skies To punish Troy for slighted sacrifice. protects him in the fray. some guardian of the skies. And turns unseen the frustrate dart away. he wears that chief's disguise: Or if that chief. The stroke had fix'd him to the gates of hell. If man. destroy. If right I judge. So towers his helmet. if god. propitiate Jove with prayer.BOOK V. (Which. Exploring Pandarus with careful eyes. 145 . but some god. At length he found Lycaon's mighty son. which not idly fell. are all thy honours now. Pandarus. and his friends pursued. Nor join'd swift horses to the rapid car. is Diomed the bold: Such coursers whirl him o'er the dusty field. Thy winged arrows and unerring bow. And.

This bow. the whirling car to guide." . not to slaughter. If e'er I see my spouse and sire again. And seized the quiver where it idly hung. Broke by my hand. aloft. These shafts. The good old warrior bade me trust to these. shall feed the blazing flames. O friend! my rashness I deplore. Tydeus' and Atreus' sons their points have found. the spear and shield! If e'er with life I quit the Trojan plain. But vain with youth. When first for Troy I sail'd the sacred seas. I heard his counsels with unheedful mind. but provoke the foe. In evil hour these bended horns I strung. So took my bow and pointed darts in hand And left the chariots in my native land. In vain they bleed: this unavailing bow Serves. And thought the steeds (your large supplies unknown) Might fail of forage in the straiten'd town. Cursed be the fate that sent me to the field Without a warrior's arms. and yet to thrift inclined. And twice ten coursers wait their lord's command. And undissembled gore pursued the wound. And through the ranks of death triumphant ride. In fields.146 The Iliad of Homer Ten polish'd chariots I possess'd at home. unfaithful to my glorious aims. And still they grace Lycaon's princely dome: There veil'd in spacious coverlets they stand. [089] "Too late. once fatal. carry death no more.

nor Phoebus' honour'd gift disgrace. alarm'd. Secure with these. Thine be the guidance. And. The bounding coursers rush amidst the war. To dare the shock. hand to hand. The horses. To whom the leader of the Dardan race: "Be calm." And now both heroes mount the glittering car. Their fierce approach bold Sthenelus espied. Or. Or safe to Troy. Take thou the spear. Else shall our fates be number'd with the dead. and from the chariot's height Observe my father's steeds.BOOK V. And these. to stop. encounter force with force. be thine the task to guide. Haste. Now mount my seat. seize the whip. the victor's prize. if Jove assist the foe. The warrior's fury let this arm sustain. then: with spear and shield Myself will charge this terror of the field. the chariot's care be mine. if. Who thus. through fighting fields we go. unhappy. to chase. Thy voice alone can animate their flight. though here we need The rushing chariot and the bounding steed. if to combat thy bold heart incline. and snatch the guiding rein. But. in triumph led. Shall bear the rein. Practised alike to turn. renown'd in fight. practised to their lord's command. to great Tydides cried: 147 . Against yon hero let us bend our course. or urge the rapid race. The distant dart be praised." "O prince! (Lycaon's valiant son replied) As thine the steeds. we desert the fight. and answer to thy hand.

"A pair of coursers. One chief at least beneath this arm shall die. Thus front the foe. . And seize the coursers of ethereal breed. But while my nerves are strong. born of heav'nly breed. So Pallas tells me. Nor was Tydides born to tremble here. Whose wombs conceived a more than mortal birth. bear them both away. and if no god withstand. 'tis not honest in my soul to fear. And great Æneas. and bend their rage on thee: Lo the brave heir of old Lycaon's line. That both shall fall by one victorious hand. the bulwark of our war. Whom Circe stole from her celestial sire. and thus he spoke: "Me dost thou bid to shun the coming fight? Me wouldst thou move to base. inglorious flight? Know. sprung from race divine! Enough is given to fame. But if she dooms. The race of those. Fix'd on the chief with scorn.148 The Iliad of Homer [090] "O friend! two chiefs of force immense I see. And the long distance of the flying lance. Swift to Æneas' empty seat proceed." At this the hero cast a gloomy look. Dreadful they come. Nor shall yon steeds. Ascend thy car! And save a life. Then heed my words: my horses here detain. and forbids to fly. that fierce to fight convey Those threatening heroes. I hate the cumbrous chariot's slow advance. By substituting mares produced on earth. Fix'd to the chariot by the straiten'd rein. which once the thundering god146 146 —The race of those. my force entire. and emulate my sire. Who from their nostrils breathed ethereal fire.

Ye 'scape not both. Through the wide world should make our glory known. By mortal mares. "He bleeds! the pride of Greece! (the boaster cries. the mighty warrior lies!" "Mistaken vaunter! (Diomed replied.BOOK V.) Our triumph now. With hostile blood shall glut the god of war. from fierce Laomedon: Four of this race his ample stalls contain. and now my spear be tried. Beneath the rising or the setting sun. These. headlong from his car. the foe came furious on. Though late in vain assail'd. and in his cuirass hung. Pierced the tough orb. Hence great Anchises stole a breed unknown. The best that e'er on earth's broad surface run.) Thy dart has erred. thou art met. For ravish'd Ganymede on Tros bestow'd. And stern Lycaon's warlike race begun: "Prince." . were the rich immortal prize our own. The spear may enter where the arrow fail'd. and flung. And two transport Æneas o'er the plain. one." He said. then shook the ponderous lance. On his broad shield the sounding weapon rung." 149 Thus while they spoke.

To guard his slaughter'd friend. Then fierce Tydides stoops. The starting coursers tremble with affright. 386. is by no means confined to Homer. O'er the fall'n trunk his ample shield display'd. driven by Pallas. and. The belief in the existence of men of larger stature in earlier times. His falling bulk his bended arm sustains. Sunk on his knees. and crack'd the solid bone. And stripp'd the skin. The soul indignant seeks the realms of night.150 The Iliad of Homer [091] He spoke. Discharged the ponderous ruin at the foe. vii. Such men as live in these degenerate days:147 He swung it round. pierced a vital part. Full on the bone the pointed marble lights. and staggering with his pains. sqq. but forbear the prize. Which. Where to the hip the inserted thigh unites. Till the bright point look'd out beneath the chin. and his arms resound. He hides the hero with his mighty shade. Full in his face it enter'd. Not two strong men the enormous weight could raise. And threats aloud! the Greeks with longing eyes Behold at distance. Watchful he wheels. and betwixt The nose and eye-ball the proud Lycian fix'd. and from the fields Heaved with vast force. gathering strength to throw. Æneas flies. Through both the tendons broke the rugged stone. Dryden's Virgil. and cleft the tongue within. his helmet knocks the ground: Earth groans beneath him. His spear extending where the carcase lies. a rocky fragment wields. As the grim lion stalks around his prey. Headlong he falls. protects it every way. and rising hurl'd his forceful dart. 147 . Crash'd all his jaws.

Her arms whose whiteness match the falling snows. and feather'd flight Of sounding shafts. No longer now a Trojan lord obey'd. mindful of the love She bore Anchises in the Idaean grove. removed from out the war. His danger views with anguish and despair.) Then mounting on his car. But heavenly Venus. Like Pallas dreadful with her sable shield. And follow'd where Tydides swept the plain. He fix'd with straiten'd traces to the car. resumed the rein. with unassisting hands. Screen'd from the foe behind her shining veil. A sudden cloud comes swimming o'er his eyes. While flames ascend. Or fierce Bellona thundering at the wall. as brave men love the brave. (Whom most he loved. That charge to bold Deipylus he gave. 151 [092] . Safe through the rushing horse. Next. Oppress'd had sunk to death's eternal shade. Nor Sthenelus. and the javelins fail. and mighty ruins fall. commission'd to the field. she bears him from the fight. Lost in a dizzy mist the warrior lies. About her much-loved son her arms she throws. The swords wave harmless. There the brave chief. detains The heavenly coursers with the flowing manes: These in proud triumph to the fleet convey'd. rushing to the Dardan spoil.BOOK V. Remain'd unheedful of his lord's commands: His panting steeds. Meanwhile (his conquest ravished from his eyes) The raging chief in chase of Venus flies: No goddess she. who mighty numbers sway'd. And guards her offspring with a mother's care.

The king insults the goddess as she flies: "Ill with Jove's daughter bloody fights agree. From the clear vein a stream immortal flow'd. terrestrial blood: (For not the bread of man their life sustains. Through her bright veil the daring weapon drove. Then with a voice that shook the vaulted skies. The field of combat is no scene for thee: Go. the ichor.e. and wards the mortal wound. Sanguine. The ambrosial veil which all the Graces wove. diseased." 148 —Such stream. And the transparent skin with crimson stain'd. let thy own soft sex employ thy care. Him Phoebus took: he casts a cloud around The fainting chief." vi." "Paradise Lost. Such stream as issues from a wounded god. And learn to tremble at the name of arms. And dropp'd her offspring from her weak embrace. . Go. New to the field. such as celestial spirits may bleed. lull the coward.148 Pure emanation! uncorrupted flood! Unlike our gross. And at the goddess his broad lance extends. Nor wine's inflaming juice supplies their veins:) With tender shrieks the goddess fill'd the place. Through breaking ranks his furious course he bends. Her snowy hand the razing steel profaned. and still a foe to fame. or blood of the gods.152 The Iliad of Homer He knew soft combats suit the tender dame. or delude the fair. Taught by this stroke renounce the war's alarms. i. "A stream of nect'rous humour issuing flow'd. 339.

An impious mortal gave the daring wound! Behold the deed of haughty Diomed! 'Twas in the son's defence the mother bled. Confused. The queen of love with faded charms she found. who sat remote. The lash resounds. Beside him stood his lance. beheld her bleed. love's bright queen appears. with clouds involved he lay. seized with dread. And. and there the coursers stood. The war with Troy no more the Grecians wage. To Mars. she begg'd with streaming eyes Her brother's car. Tydides thus. O'erwhelmed with anguish. A mortal man. But with the gods (the immortal gods) engage. And show'd the wound by fierce Tydides given. Driven by the goddess of the painted bow. rein'd with gold. Before her mother. his foaming steeds before. oppress'd with silent woe. The goddess. to mount the distant skies. Pale was her cheek.BOOK V. on the left. And in a moment scales the lofty skies: They stopp'd the car. swift the winged Iris flew. distain'd with gore. And ask'd what god had wrought this guilty deed? 153 [093] Then she: "This insult from no god I found. who dares encounter heaven. To aid her. Fed by fair Iris with ambrosial food. the rapid chariot flies. and livid look'd the wound. Stern Mars attentive hears the queen complain. She mounts the seat. Wrapt in a mist above the warring crew." . And to her hand commits the golden rein. and dissolved in tears: She raised her in her arms. from the conflict fled. they bent their way: Far. distracted. Low at his knee.

The mighty Mars in mortal fetters bound.150 And fill'd with anguish her immortal heart. CONDUCTED BY IRIS TO MARS. The imperial partner of the heavenly reign. Amphitryon's son infix'd the deadly dart. Dione then: "Thy wrongs with patience bear. Hercules. WOUNDED IN THE HAND. Otus and Ephialtes held the chain: Perhaps had perish'd had not Hermes' care Restored the groaning god to upper air. Great Juno's self has borne her weight of pain. This was during the wars with the Titans. And men with woes afflict the gods again.149 And lodged in brazen dungeons underground. 150 149 [094] . born to Jove by Alcmena. the wife of Amphitryon. Full thirteen moons imprison'd roar'd in vain.154 The Iliad of Homer VENUS. —Amphitryon's son. And share those griefs inferior powers must share: Unnumber'd woes mankind from us sustain.

E'en hell's grim king Alcides' power confess'd. sprinkling heavenly balm around. and soon his glory ends. To Jove's high palace for a cure he fled. impious man! to stain the bless'd abodes. Whose spear ill-fated makes a goddess bleed. "But thou (though Pallas urged thy frantic deed). and closed the wound.BOOK V. Assuaged the glowing pangs. Short is his date. And drench his arrows in the blood of gods! 155 OTUS AND EPHIALTES HOLDING MARS CAPTIVE. From fields of death when late he shall retire. Rash. [095] . whoe'er with heavenly power contends. Where Paeon. Know thou. Pierced in his own dominions of the dead. The shaft found entrance in his iron breast. No infant on his knees shall call him sire.

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Strong as thou art, some god may yet be found, To stretch thee pale and gasping on the ground; Thy distant wife, Ægiale the fair,151 Starting from sleep with a distracted air, Shall rouse thy slaves, and her lost lord deplore, The brave, the great, the glorious now no more!"

This said, she wiped from Venus' wounded palm The sacred ichor, and infused the balm. Juno and Pallas with a smile survey'd, And thus to Jove began the blue-eyed maid:

"Permit thy daughter, gracious Jove! to tell How this mischance the Cyprian queen befell, As late she tried with passion to inflame The tender bosom of a Grecian dame; Allured the fair, with moving thoughts of joy, To quit her country for some youth of Troy; The clasping zone, with golden buckles bound, Razed her soft hand with this lamented wound."

The sire of gods and men superior smiled, And, calling Venus, thus address'd his child: "Not these, O daughter are thy proper cares, Thee milder arts befit, and softer wars; Sweet smiles are thine, and kind endearing charms; To Mars and Pallas leave the deeds of arms."
—Ægiale daughter of Adrastus. The Cyclic poets (See Anthon's Lempriere, s. v.) assert Venus incited her to infidelity, in revenge for the wound she had received from her husband.
151

BOOK V. Thus they in heaven: while on the plain below The fierce Tydides charged his Dardan foe, Flush'd with celestial blood pursued his way, And fearless dared the threatening god of day; Already in his hopes he saw him kill'd, Though screen'd behind Apollo's mighty shield. Thrice rushing furious, at the chief he strook; His blazing buckler thrice Apollo shook: He tried the fourth: when, breaking from the cloud, A more than mortal voice was heard aloud. "O son of Tydeus, cease! be wise and see How vast the difference of the gods and thee; Distance immense! between the powers that shine Above, eternal, deathless, and divine, And mortal man! a wretch of humble birth, A short-lived reptile in the dust of earth." So spoke the god who darts celestial fires: He dreads his fury, and some steps retires. Then Phoebus bore the chief of Venus' race To Troy's high fane, and to his holy place; Latona there and Phoebe heal'd the wound, With vigour arm'd him, and with glory crown'd. This done, the patron of the silver bow A phantom raised, the same in shape and show With great Æneas; such the form he bore, And such in fight the radiant arms he wore. Around the spectre bloody wars are waged, And Greece and Troy with clashing shields engaged. Meantime on Ilion's tower Apollo stood, And calling Mars, thus urged the raging god:

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"Stern power of arms, by whom the mighty fall; Who bathest in blood, and shakest the embattled wall, Rise in thy wrath! to hell's abhorr'd abodes Despatch yon Greek, and vindicate the gods. First rosy Venus felt his brutal rage; Me next he charged, and dares all heaven engage: The wretch would brave high heaven's immortal sire, His triple thunder, and his bolts of fire." The god of battle issues on the plain, Stirs all the ranks, and fires the Trojan train; In form like Acamas, the Thracian guide, Enraged to Troy's retiring chiefs he cried: "How long, ye sons of Priam! will ye fly, And unrevenged see Priam's people die? Still unresisted shall the foe destroy, And stretch the slaughter to the gates of Troy? Lo, brave Æneas sinks beneath his wound, Not godlike Hector more in arms renown'd: Haste all, and take the generous warrior's part. He said;—new courage swell'd each hero's heart. Sarpedon first his ardent soul express'd, And, turn'd to Hector, these bold words address'd: "Say, chief, is all thy ancient valour lost? Where are thy threats, and where thy glorious boast, That propp'd alone by Priam's race should stand Troy's sacred walls, nor need a foreign hand? Now, now thy country calls her wonted friends, And the proud vaunt in just derision ends. Remote they stand while alien troops engage, Like trembling hounds before the lion's rage. Far distant hence I held my wide command, Where foaming Xanthus laves the Lycian land;

BOOK V. With ample wealth (the wish of mortals) bless'd, A beauteous wife, and infant at her breast; With those I left whatever dear could be: Greece, if she conquers, nothing wins from me; Yet first in fight my Lycian bands I cheer, And long to meet this mighty man ye fear; While Hector idle stands, nor bids the brave Their wives, their infants, and their altars save. Haste, warrior, haste! preserve thy threaten'd state, Or one vast burst of all-involving fate Full o'er your towers shall fall, and sweep away Sons, sires, and wives, an undistinguish'd prey. Rouse all thy Trojans, urge thy aids to fight; These claim thy thoughts by day, thy watch by night; With force incessant the brave Greeks oppose; Such cares thy friends deserve, and such thy foes." Stung to the heart the generous Hector hears, But just reproof with decent silence bears. From his proud car the prince impetuous springs, On earth he leaps, his brazen armour rings. Two shining spears are brandish'd in his hands; Thus arm'd, he animates his drooping bands, Revives their ardour, turns their steps from flight, And wakes anew the dying flames of fight. They turn, they stand; the Greeks their fury dare, Condense their powers, and wait the growing war. As when, on Ceres' sacred floor, the swain Spreads the wide fan to clear the golden grain, And the light chaff, before the breezes borne, Ascends in clouds from off the heapy corn; The grey dust, rising with collected winds, Drives o'er the barn, and whitens all the hinds:

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So white with dust the Grecian host appears. From trampling steeds, and thundering charioteers; The dusky clouds from labour'd earth arise, And roll in smoking volumes to the skies. Mars hovers o'er them with his sable shield, And adds new horrors to the darken'd field: Pleased with his charge, and ardent to fulfil, In Troy's defence, Apollo's heavenly will: Soon as from fight the blue-eyed maid retires, Each Trojan bosom with new warmth he fires. And now the god, from forth his sacred fane, Produced Æneas to the shouting train; Alive, unharm'd, with all his peers around, Erect he stood, and vigorous from his wound: Inquiries none they made; the dreadful day No pause of words admits, no dull delay; Fierce Discord storms, Apollo loud exclaims, Fame calls, Mars thunders, and the field's in flames. Stern Diomed with either Ajax stood, And great Ulysses, bathed in hostile blood. Embodied close, the labouring Grecian train The fiercest shock of charging hosts sustain. Unmoved and silent, the whole war they wait Serenely dreadful, and as fix'd as fate. So when the embattled clouds in dark array, Along the skies their gloomy lines display; When now the North his boisterous rage has spent, And peaceful sleeps the liquid element: The low-hung vapours, motionless and still, Rest on the summits of the shaded hill; Till the mass scatters as the winds arise, Dispersed and broken through the ruffled skies.

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BOOK V. Nor was the general wanting to his train; From troop to troop he toils through all the plain, "Ye Greeks, be men! the charge of battle bear; Your brave associates and yourselves revere! Let glorious acts more glorious acts inspire, And catch from breast to breast the noble fire! On valour's side the odds of combat lie, The brave live glorious, or lamented die; The wretch who trembles in the field of fame, Meets death, and worse than death, eternal shame!" These words he seconds with his flying lance, To meet whose point was strong Deicoon's chance: Æneas' friend, and in his native place Honour'd and loved like Priam's royal race: Long had he fought the foremost in the field, But now the monarch's lance transpierced his shield: His shield too weak the furious dart to stay, Through his broad belt the weapon forced its way: The grisly wound dismiss'd his soul to hell, His arms around him rattled as he fell. Then fierce Æneas, brandishing his blade, In dust Orsilochus and Crethon laid, Whose sire Diocleus, wealthy, brave and great, In well-built Pherae held his lofty seat:152 Sprung from Alpheus' plenteous stream, that yields Increase of harvests to the Pylian fields. He got Orsilochus, Diocleus he, And these descended in the third degree. Too early expert in the martial toil, In sable ships they left their native soil, To avenge Atrides: now, untimely slain,
152

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—Pherae, a town of Pelasgiotis, in Thessaly.

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They fell with glory on the Phrygian plain. So two young mountain lions, nursed with blood In deep recesses of the gloomy wood, Rush fearless to the plains, and uncontroll'd Depopulate the stalls and waste the fold: Till pierced at distance from their native den, O'erpowered they fall beneath the force of men. Prostrate on earth their beauteous bodies lay, Like mountain firs, as tall and straight as they. Great Menelaus views with pitying eyes, Lifts his bright lance, and at the victor flies; Mars urged him on; yet, ruthless in his hate, The god but urged him to provoke his fate. He thus advancing, Nestor's valiant son Shakes for his danger, and neglects his own; Struck with the thought, should Helen's lord be slain, And all his country's glorious labours vain. Already met, the threatening heroes stand; The spears already tremble in their hand: In rush'd Antilochus, his aid to bring, And fall or conquer by the Spartan king. These seen, the Dardan backward turn'd his course, Brave as he was, and shunn'd unequal force. The breathless bodies to the Greeks they drew, Then mix in combat, and their toils renew. First, Pylaemenes, great in battle, bled, Who sheathed in brass the Paphlagonians led. Atrides mark'd him where sublime he stood; Fix'd in his throat the javelin drank his blood. The faithful Mydon, as he turn'd from fight His flying coursers, sunk to endless night; A broken rock by Nestor's son was thrown: His bended arm received the falling stone;

BOOK V. From his numb'd hand the ivory-studded reins, Dropp'd in the dust, are trail'd along the plains: Meanwhile his temples feel a deadly wound; He groans in death, and ponderous sinks to ground: Deep drove his helmet in the sands, and there The head stood fix'd, the quivering legs in air, Till trampled flat beneath the coursers' feet: The youthful victor mounts his empty seat, And bears the prize in triumph to the fleet.

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Great Hector saw, and, raging at the view, Pours on the Greeks: the Trojan troops pursue: He fires his host with animating cries, And brings along the furies of the skies, Mars, stern destroyer! and Bellona dread, Flame in the front, and thunder at their head: This swells the tumult and the rage of fight; That shakes a spear that casts a dreadful light. Where Hector march'd, the god of battles shined, Now storm'd before him, and now raged behind.

Tydides paused amidst his full career; Then first the hero's manly breast knew fear. As when some simple swain his cot forsakes, And wide through fens an unknown journey takes: If chance a swelling brook his passage stay, And foam impervious 'cross the wanderer's way, Confused he stops, a length of country pass'd, Eyes the rough waves, and tired, returns at last. Amazed no less the great Tydides stands: He stay'd, and turning thus address'd his bands:

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"No wonder, Greeks! that all to Hector yield; Secure of favouring gods, he takes the field; His strokes they second, and avert our spears. Behold where Mars in mortal arms appears! Retire then, warriors, but sedate and slow; Retire, but with your faces to the foe. Trust not too much your unavailing might; 'Tis not with Troy, but with the gods ye fight." Now near the Greeks the black battalions drew; And first two leaders valiant Hector slew: His force Anchialus and Mnesthes found, In every art of glorious war renown'd; In the same car the chiefs to combat ride, And fought united, and united died. Struck at the sight, the mighty Ajax glows With thirst of vengeance, and assaults the foes. His massy spear with matchless fury sent, Through Amphius' belt and heaving belly went; Amphius Apaesus' happy soil possess'd, With herds abounding, and with treasure bless'd; But fate resistless from his country led The chief, to perish at his people's head. Shook with his fall his brazen armour rung, And fierce, to seize it, conquering Ajax sprung; Around his head an iron tempest rain'd; A wood of spears his ample shield sustain'd: Beneath one foot the yet warm corpse he press'd, And drew his javelin from the bleeding breast: He could no more; the showering darts denied To spoil his glittering arms, and plumy pride. Now foes on foes came pouring on the fields, With bristling lances, and compacted shields; Till in the steely circle straiten'd round,

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BOOK V. Forced he gives way, and sternly quits the ground. While thus they strive, Tlepolemus the great,153 Urged by the force of unresisted fate, Burns with desire Sarpedon's strength to prove; Alcides' offspring meets the son of Jove. Sheathed in bright arms each adverse chief came on. Jove's great descendant, and his greater son. Prepared for combat, ere the lance he toss'd, The daring Rhodian vents his haughty boast: "What brings this Lycian counsellor so far, To tremble at our arms, not mix in war! Know thy vain self, nor let their flattery move, Who style thee son of cloud-compelling Jove. How far unlike those chiefs of race divine, How vast the difference of their deeds and thine! Jove got such heroes as my sire, whose soul No fear could daunt, nor earth nor hell control. Troy felt his arm, and yon proud ramparts stand Raised on the ruins of his vengeful hand: With six small ships, and but a slender train, lie left the town a wide-deserted plain. But what art thou, who deedless look'st around, While unrevenged thy Lycians bite the ground! Small aid to Troy thy feeble force can be; But wert thou greater, thou must yield to me. Pierced by my spear, to endless darkness go! I make this present to the shades below."

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—Tlepolemus, son of Hercules and Astyochia. Having left his native country, Argos, in consequence of the accidental murder of Liscymnius, he was commanded by an oracle to retire to Rhodes. Here he was chosen king, and accompanied the Trojan expedition. After his death, certain games were instituted at Rhodes in his honour, the victors being rewarded with crowns of poplar.

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The son of Hercules, the Rhodian guide, Thus haughty spoke. The Lycian king replied: "Thy sire, O prince! o'erturn'd the Trojan state, Whose perjured monarch well deserved his fate; Those heavenly steeds the hero sought so far, False he detain'd, the just reward of war. Nor so content, the generous chief defied, With base reproaches and unmanly pride. But you, unworthy the high race you boast, Shall raise my glory when thy own is lost: Now meet thy fate, and by Sarpedon slain, Add one more ghost to Pluto's gloomy reign." He said: both javelins at an instant flew; Both struck, both wounded, but Sarpedon's slew: Full in the boaster's neck the weapon stood, Transfix'd his throat, and drank the vital blood; The soul disdainful seeks the caves of night, And his seal'd eyes for ever lose the light. Yet not in vain, Tlepolemus, was thrown Thy angry lance; which piercing to the bone Sarpedon's thigh, had robb'd the chief of breath; But Jove was present, and forbade the death. Borne from the conflict by his Lycian throng, The wounded hero dragg'd the lance along. (His friends, each busied in his several part, Through haste, or danger, had not drawn the dart.) The Greeks with slain Tlepolemus retired; Whose fall Ulysses view'd, with fury fired; Doubtful if Jove's great son he should pursue, Or pour his vengeance on the Lycian crew. But heaven and fate the first design withstand, Nor this great death must grace Ulysses' hand.

BOOK V. Minerva drives him on the Lycian train; Alastor, Cronius, Halius, strew'd the plain, Alcander, Prytanis, Noemon fell:154 And numbers more his sword had sent to hell, But Hector saw; and, furious at the sight, Rush'd terrible amidst the ranks of fight. With joy Sarpedon view'd the wish'd relief, And, faint, lamenting, thus implored the chief: "O suffer not the foe to bear away My helpless corpse, an unassisted prey; If I, unbless'd, must see my son no more, My much-loved consort, and my native shore, Yet let me die in Ilion's sacred wall; Troy, in whose cause I fell, shall mourn my fall." He said, nor Hector to the chief replies, But shakes his plume, and fierce to combat flies; Swift as a whirlwind, drives the scattering foes; And dyes the ground with purple as he goes. Beneath a beech, Jove's consecrated shade, His mournful friends divine Sarpedon laid: Brave Pelagon, his favourite chief, was nigh, Who wrench'd the javelin from his sinewy thigh. The fainting soul stood ready wing'd for flight, And o'er his eye-balls swam the shades of night; But Boreas rising fresh, with gentle breath, Recall'd his spirit from the gates of death.

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These heroes' names have since passed into a kind of proverb, designating the oi polloi or mob.

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The generous Greeks recede with tardy pace, Though Mars and Hector thunder in their face; None turn their backs to mean ignoble flight, Slow they retreat, and even retreating fight. Who first, who last, by Mars' and Hector's hand, Stretch'd in their blood, lay gasping on the sand? Tenthras the great, Orestes the renown'd For managed steeds, and Trechus press'd the ground;, Next OEnomaus and OEnops' offspring died; Oresbius last fell groaning at their side: Oresbius, in his painted mitre gay, In fat Boeotia held his wealthy sway, Where lakes surround low Hyle's watery plain; A prince and people studious of their gain.

The carnage Juno from the skies survey'd, And touch'd with grief bespoke the blue-eyed maid: "Oh, sight accursed! Shall faithless Troy prevail, And shall our promise to our people fail? How vain the word to Menelaus given By Jove's great daughter and the queen of heaven, Beneath his arms that Priam's towers should fall, If warring gods for ever guard the wall! Mars, red with slaughter, aids our hated foes: Haste, let us arm, and force with force oppose!"

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She spoke; Minerva burns to meet the war: And now heaven's empress calls her blazing car. At her command rush forth the steeds divine; Rich with immortal gold their trappings shine.

BOOK V. Bright Hebe waits; by Hebe, ever young, The whirling wheels are to the chariot hung. On the bright axle turns the bidden wheel Of sounding brass; the polished axle steel. Eight brazen spokes in radiant order flame; The circles gold, of uncorrupted frame, Such as the heavens produce: and round the gold Two brazen rings of work divine were roll'd. The bossy naves of sold silver shone; Braces of gold suspend the moving throne: The car, behind, an arching figure bore; The bending concave form'd an arch before. Silver the beam, the extended yoke was gold, And golden reins the immortal coursers hold. Herself, impatient, to the ready car, The coursers joins, and breathes revenge and war. Pallas disrobes; her radiant veil untied, With flowers adorn'd, with art diversified, (The laboured veil her heavenly fingers wove,) Flows on the pavement of the court of Jove. Now heaven's dread arms her mighty limbs invest, Jove's cuirass blazes on her ample breast; Deck'd in sad triumph for the mournful field, O'er her broad shoulders hangs his horrid shield, Dire, black, tremendous! Round the margin roll'd, A fringe of serpents hissing guards the gold: Here all the terrors of grim War appear, Here rages Force, here tremble Flight and Fear, Here storm'd Contention, and here Fury frown'd, And the dire orb portentous Gorgon crown'd. The massy golden helm she next assumes, That dreadful nods with four o'ershading plumes; So vast, the broad circumference contains

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A hundred armies on a hundred plains. The goddess thus the imperial car ascends; Shook by her arm the mighty javelin bends, Ponderous and huge; that when her fury burns, Proud tyrants humbles, and whole hosts o'erturns. Swift at the scourge the ethereal coursers fly, While the smooth chariot cuts the liquid sky. Heaven's gates spontaneous open to the powers,155 Heaven's golden gates, kept by the winged Hours;156 Commission'd in alternate watch they stand, The sun's bright portals and the skies command, Involve in clouds the eternal gates of day, Or the dark barrier roll with ease away. The sounding hinges ring on either side The gloomy volumes, pierced with light, divide. The chariot mounts, where deep in ambient skies, Confused, Olympus' hundred heads arise; Where far apart the Thunderer fills his throne, O'er all the gods superior and alone. There with her snowy hand the queen restrains The fiery steeds, and thus to Jove complains:
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—Spontaneous open.

"Veil'd with his gorgeous wings, upspringing light Flew through the midst of heaven; th' angelic quires, On each hand parting, to his speed gave way Through all th' empyreal road; till at the gate Of heaven arrived, the gate self-open'd wide, On golden hinges turning." —"Paradise Lost," v. 250.
156

"Till Morn, Waked by the circling Hours, with rosy hand Unbarr'd the gates of light." —"Paradise Lost," vi, 2.

BOOK V. "O sire! can no resentment touch thy soul? Can Mars rebel, and does no thunder roll? What lawless rage on yon forbidden plain, What rash destruction! and what heroes slain! Venus, and Phoebus with the dreadful bow, Smile on the slaughter, and enjoy my woe. Mad, furious power! whose unrelenting mind No god can govern, and no justice bind. Say, mighty father! shall we scourge this pride, And drive from fight the impetuous homicide?" To whom assenting, thus the Thunderer said: "Go! and the great Minerva be thy aid. To tame the monster-god Minerva knows, And oft afflicts his brutal breast with woes." He said; Saturnia, ardent to obey, Lash'd her white steeds along the aerial way Swift down the steep of heaven the chariot rolls, Between the expanded earth and starry poles Far as a shepherd, from some point on high,157 O'er the wide main extends his boundless eye, Through such a space of air, with thundering sound, At every leap the immortal coursers bound Troy now they reach'd and touch'd those banks divine, Where silver Simois and Scamander join There Juno stopp'd, and (her fair steeds unloosed) Of air condensed a vapour circumfused For these, impregnate with celestial dew, On Simois, brink ambrosial herbage grew.

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—Far as a shepherd. "With what majesty and pomp does Homer exalt his deities! He here measures the leap of the horses by the extent of the world. And who is there, that, considering the exceeding greatness of the space would not with reason cry out that 'If the steeds of the deity were to take a second leap, the world would want room for it'?"—Longinus, Section 8.

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aloud. endued with brazen lungs. and is introduced for the purpose of illustration as employed in war. are used in the Homeric action itself." "No trumpets. "Inglorious Argives! to your race a shame.—Coleridge. p. Or foaming boars. the terror of the wood Heaven's empress mingles with the mortal crowd. 158 . Smooth as the sailing doves they glide along. Such was their look as lions bathed in blood. in Stentor's sounding voice. [105] The best and bravest of the Grecian band (A warlike circle) round Tydides stand.. but the trumpet was known.. Now issuing fearless they possess the plain. While fierce in war divine Achilles raged." &c. 213. Stentor the strong. the battle of Honain was restored by the shouts and menaces of Abbas. Stentor was an indispensable officer. or any other instruments of sound. Hence arose the value of a loud voice in a commander. In the early Saracen campaigns frequent mention is made of the service rendered by men of uncommonly strong voices. Now win the shores. and scarce the seas remain.158 Whose throats surpass'd the force of fifty tongues.172 The Iliad of Homer Thence to relieve the fainting Argive throng. And only men in figure and in name! Once from the walls your timorous foes engaged. And shouts. the uncle of Mohammed.

No drop of all thy father warms thy veins. unguarded. that o'er his shoulder lay. incircled by the Theban foe. withholds me from the plains. He eased. and such force in fight." The chief thus answered mild: "Immortal maid! I own thy presence. thou know'st. There braved. or sloth detains. once he dared to go. and confess thy aid. Loth I gave way. Hence. and sent thee forth to war: But thee or fear deters. And Venus only found resistance here. Such nerves I gave him. goddess! heedful of thy high commands. And feast. thus her silence broke: "Degenerate prince! and not of Tydeus' kind. The goddess leaning o'er the bending yoke. Thy hands I arm'd. Not fear. many a hardy knight. and wash'd the clotted gore away. but thy word restrains: From warring gods thou bad'st me turn my spear. Alone. Beneath his ponderous shield his sinews bend. The king beside his panting steeds she found. And scarce refrain'd when I forbade the war. To cool his glowing wound he sat apart. Thou too no less hast been my constant care. Nor sloth hath seized me. (The wound inflicted by the Lycian dart. and vanquish'd. Whose ample belt. Whose little body lodged a mighty mind. Foremost he press'd in glorious toils to share. Her speech new fury to their hearts convey'd.) Large drops of sweat from all his limbs descend. While near Tydides stood the Athenian maid.BOOK V. Beside his coursers. O'erspent with toil reposing on the ground. and warn'd our Argive bands: 173 .

174 The Iliad of Homer For Mars. Full on the god impel thy foaming horse: Pallas commands. Fierce for revenge. nor aught immortal." [106] Then thus Minerva:—"Brave Tydides. these eyes beheld. While Greece and Troy alternate own'd his aid. Drew from his seat the martial charioteer. from these to those he flies. to hide her heavenly visage. spread Black Orcus' helmet o'er her radiant head. She snatch'd the reins." Merrick's "Tryphiodorus. and Diomed attends: The groaning axle bent beneath the load. 159 "Long had the wav'ring god the war delay'd. . the homicide." vi. blind. sq. With slaughter red. and raging round the field. The vigorous power the trembling car ascends. So great a hero. Large promise makes. she lash'd with all her force. Rash. and to the steeds approaching near. fear. furious. and Pallas lends thee force."159 She said. And full on Mars impelled the foaming horse: But first. and so great a god. and breaks the promise made: Now gives the Grecians. hear! Not Mars himself. 761. now the Trojans aid. And every side of wavering combat tries.

leaves his prostrate prize Stretch'd where he fell. Just then gigantic Periphas lay slain. The javelin hiss'd. 175 DIOMED CASTING HIS SPEAR AT MARS. Mars bellows with the pain: Loud as the roar encountering armies yield. As vapours blown by Auster's sultry breath. the goddess urged it on: Where the broad cincture girt his armour round. and shedding seeds of death. Now rushing fierce. The strongest warrior of the Ætolian train. Both armies start. When shouting millions shake the thundering field. It pierced the god: his groin received the wound. From the rent skin the warrior tugs again The smoking steel. above his courser's head.BOOK V. the dreadful god of war! Full at the chief. and at Tydides flies. From Mars's arm the enormous weapon fled: Pallas opposed her hand. in equal arms appear The daring Greek. [107] . The god. Then threw the force of Tydeus' warlike son. and trembling gaze around. who slew him. And earth and heaven re-bellow to the sound. Pregnant with plagues. and caused to glance Far from the car the strong immortal lance.

O father! all these ills we bear. Well may we deem the wondrous birth thy own. And thy fell daughter with the shield and spear. There sullen sat beneath the sire of gods. even I. Choke the parch'd earth. High o'er the dusky whirlwind scales the heaven. and with a groan Thus pour'd his plaints before the immortal throne: "Can Jove. Now frantic Diomed. flagitious facts survey. Show'd the celestial blood. Against the immortals lifts his raging hand: The heavenly Venus first his fury found. for ages lie. me he dared to wound. at her command. Condemn'd to pain. and heaving under loads of slain! Or pierced with Grecian darts. Pernicious. Heap'd round. Wild with his pain. Vanquish'd I fled. In such a cloud the god from combat driven. thy distinguish'd care: So boundless she." . though fated not to die. From mortal madness scarce was saved by flight. and thou so partial grown. he sought the bright abodes. Thy voice we hear. All heaven beside reveres thy sovereign sway. and blacken all the skies. supine. and thy behests obey: 'Tis hers to offend. the god of fight. And brook the furies of this daring day? For mortal men celestial powers engage. Thou gavest that fury to the realms of light. and even offending share Thy breast. regardless of the right. And gods on gods exert eternal rage: From thee. Else hadst thou seen me sink on yonder plain. thy counsels. Me next encountering. wild.176 The Iliad of Homer Beneath the rage of burning Sirius rise.

no law. In vain our threats. and stern bespoke: "To me. Then gave to Paeon's care the bleeding god. And all thy mother in thy soul rebels. hadst thou hence been thrown. . The waste of slaughter. and mix among the gods. and closed the wound. Their task perform'd. Glorious he sat. singed with lightning. the ethereal texture join'd. Juno and Pallas mount the bless'd abodes. most odious in our eyes! Inhuman discord is thy dire delight. Fast by the throne of heaven's superior lord. and so soon. Sudden the fluids fix the parts combined. thy fiery temper quells.BOOK V.160 With gentle hand the balm he pour'd around." [108] Thus he who shakes Olympus with his nod. As when the fig's press'd juice. She gives the example. Thou most unjust. Else. perfidious! this lamenting strain? Of lawless force shall lawless Mars complain? Of all the gods who tread the spangled skies. and the rage of fight. Such. Yet long the inflicted pangs thou shall not mourn. fair Hebe dress'd His mighty limbs in an immortal vest. And heal'd the immortal flesh. infused in cream. 177 Him thus upbraiding. with a wrathful look The lord of thunders view'd. Cleansed from the dust and gore. and heavenly-born. To curds coagulates the liquid stream. in vain our power we use. and her son pursues. in majesty restored. Sprung since thou art from Jove. Where chain'd on burning rocks the Titans groan. No bounds.

178 The Iliad of Homer JUNO. .

160 . 179 —Paeon seems to have been to the gods.BOOK V. what Podaleirius and Machaon were to the Grecian heroes.

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Glaucus and Diomed have an interview between the two armies. The battle relaxing during the absence of Hector. Hector. in order to appoint a solemn procession of the queen and the Trojan matrons to the temple of Minerva. and then changes to Troy. the tide of combat flows. The gods having left the field. prevails upon Paris to return to the battle. the chief augur of Troy. to entreat her to remove Diomed from the fight. hastens again to the field. run purple to the main. taking a tender leave of his wife Andromache. where. between the rivers Simois and Scamander.[109] BOOK VI. AND OF HECTOR AND ANDROMACHE. Now heaven forsakes the fight: the immortals yield To human force and human skill the field: Dark showers of javelins fly from foes to foes. of the friendship and hospitality passed between their ancestors. The scene is first in the field of battle. commands Hector to return to the city. While Troy's famed streams. they make exchange of their arms. . that bound the deathful plain On either side. having performed the orders of Helenus. ARGUMENT. coming to the knowledge. Helenus. now there. THE EPISODES OF GLAUCUS AND DIOMED. Now here. and. the Grecians prevail.

Broke the thick ranks. beautiful.182 The Iliad of Homer [110] Great Ajax first to conquest led the way. Axylus. In secret woods he won the naiad's grace. And seals in endless shades his swimming eyes. a colony of the Mitylenaeans in Troas. By great Euryalus was Dresus slain. and good: In fair Arisbe's walls (his native place)161 He held his seat! a friend to human race. bold. From a fair naiad and Bucolion sprung: (Laomedon's white flocks Bucolion fed. Two twins were near. The Thracian Acamas his falchion found. and turn'd the doubtful day. And two fair infants crown'd his strong embrace:) Here dead they lay in all their youthful charms. hospitable. His thundering arm a deadly stroke impress'd Where the black horse-hair nodded o'er his crest. No friend to guard him in the dreadful day! Breathless the good man fell. old Calesius died. Fix'd in his front the brazen weapon lies. Fast by the road. And next he laid Opheltius on the plain. And hew'd the enormous giant to the ground. . The ruthless victor stripp'd their shining arms. rich. and by his side His faithful servant. To stern Tydides now he falls a prey. and young. That monarch's first-born by a foreign bed. and relieved the poor. Next Teuthras' son distain'd the sands with blood. his ever-open door Obliged the wealthy. 161 —Arisbe.

162 And till'd the banks where silver Satnio flow'd. Astyalus by Polypoetes fell. resistless as the wind. and broke The shatter'd chariot from the crooked yoke. copper. Scared with the din and tumult of the fight. and iron are stored up in the treasure-chamber of Odysseus and other chiefs. The mortal wound of rich Elatus gave. Rush'd on a tamarisk's strong trunk. The fallen chief in suppliant posture press'd The victor's knees. And Phylacus from Leitus flies in vain. and for the life I owe Large gifts of price my father shall bestow. In reference also to the metals. Ulysses' spear Pidytes sent to hell. while large stocks of yet unemployed metal—gold. Unbless'd Adrastus next at mercy lies Beneath the Spartan spear. leader of the brave. Melanthius by Eurypylus was slain.163 183 —Pedasus. Thy hollow ships his captive son detain: Rich heaps of brass shall in thy tent be told. "The halls of Alkinous and Menelaus glitter with gold. and leave their lord behind. and electrum. copper. —Rich heaps of brass. and thus his prayer address'd: "O spare my youth. Prone on his face he sinks beside the wheel: Atrides o'er him shakes his vengeful steel. not in battle slain. By Teucer's shaft brave Aretaon bled. a living prize. it deserves to be remarked. a town near Pylos. Coined money is unknown in the Homeric age—the trade carried on being one of barter. Great Agamemnon. precipitate in flight. And Nestor's son laid stern Ablerus dead. For Troy they fly. Wide o'er the field. His headlong steeds.BOOK VI. 163 162 . When fame shall tell. Who held in Pedasus his proud abode. that.

165 A dreadful lesson of exampled fate."—Thirlwall. Her babes. quarter seems never to have been given. but the use of iron for these objects belongs to a later age. And. By what process the copper was tempered and hardened. &c. nor sex. to be employed for arms. nor age. p. . p. 181 165 "The ruthless steel. shall fall. Agamemnon reproaches Menelaus with unmanly softness. both offensive and defensive. bk. furious. And they who ne'er offended find a foe?" Rowe's Lucan. her infants at the breast. vol. except with a view to the ransom of the prisoner. and to curb the great!" that the Homeric descriptions universally suppose copper. so as to serve the purpose of the warrior. and not iron. Can innocents the rage of parties know. 142. when he is on the point of sparing a fallen enemy. thus: "Oh impotent of mind!164 Shall these. 164 —Oh impotent. shall these Atrides' mercy find? Well hast thou known proud Troy's perfidious land. and persuasive gold. vol.184 The Iliad of Homer And steel well-temper'd. ii. ii. To warn the nations. suspended with the lifted dart: As pity pleaded for his vanquish'd prize. "In battle." [111] He said: compassion touch'd the hero's heart He stood. And cropt the wailing infant at the birth. Stern Agamemnon swift to vengeance flies. we do not know. Shall save a Trojan from our boundless rage: Ilion shall perish whole. It struck the bending father to the earth. and himself puts the suppliant to the sword. And well her natives merit at thy hand! Not one of all the race. Forbade the sire to linger out the day. i."—Grote. impatient of delay. and bury all.

your country's hopes depend. Ere yet their wives' soft arms the cowards gain. your brave efforts unite. The sport and insult of the hostile train. then reward the toil. and roused the warrior's rage. Taught by the gods that moved his sacred breast. "Thus. while a foe remains. And frighted Troy within her walls. with warmth address'd. Forth from the slain he tugg'd the reeking dart.BOOK VI. Had not sage Helenus her state redress'd. To touch the booty. The monarch spoke. The monarch's javelin stretch'd him in the dust. Meanwhile thou. to the town retire. Then pressing with his foot his panting heart. and forbid the flight. Wise to consult. Ourselves. your future spoil! First gain the conquest. No son of Mars descend. The seer reveal'd the counsels of his mind: "Ye generous chiefs! on whom the immortals lay The cares and glories of this doubtful day. and active to defend! Here." And now had Greece eternal fame acquired. for servile gains. will make the dangerous stand. Old Nestor saw. 185 [112] . To rigid justice steel'd his brother's breast Fierce from his knees the hapless chief he thrust. On whom your aids. at our gates. and sore of former fight. These straits demand our last remains of might. the words. Behold yon glittering host. heroes! thus the vigorous combat wage. Turn back the routed. Where Hector stood. Hector. here fix'd. When your commands have hearten'd every band. with great Æneas join'd. Press'd as we are. retired.

" Dryden's Virgil. Most prized for art. And far avert Tydides' wasteful ire. And rich embroider'd vests for presents bear. All Greece recedes. And bids the thunder of the battle rise. atoned by fervent prayer. And turn the tide of conflict on the foe: Fierce in the front he shakes two dazzling spears. The largest mantle her rich wardrobes hold. In hopes to reconcile their heav'nly foe: They weep. Not thus Achilles taught our hosts to dread. they beat their breasts. 670 . That mows whole troops. With rage recruited the bold Trojans glow. and 'midst her triumphs fears. who ruled the fate of wars. and unmatch'd in might. with a bound. Through all his host inspiring force he flies. they thought. Leap'd from his trembling chariot to the ground. In rage unbounded. i." Hector obedient heard: and. Our wives. and makes all Troy retire. Some god. oppress'd with woe. and our city spare. Sprung though he was from more than mortal bed. our infants. in Ilion's topmost tower. Not thus resistless ruled the stream of fight. 166 "Meantime the Trojan dames.166 Unbar the sacred gates.186 The Iliad of Homer And teach our mother what the gods require: Direct the queen to lead the assembled train Of Troy's chief matrons to Minerva's fane. and seek the power. And twelve young heifers to her altars led: If so the power. To Pallas' fane in long procession go. they rend their hair. Before the goddess' honour'd knees be spread. and labour'd o'er with gold. With offer'd vows.

187 Then thus aloud: "Ye dauntless Dardans. One hour demands me in the Trojan wall. And as he march'd the brazen buckler rung. or by fixing attention for a while on some new transaction. i.BOOK VI. Shot down avenging from the vault of stars. I trust. The shield's large orb behind his shoulder cast. A certain interval is allowed them for reaching the appointed scene of action. which interval is dramatised. and Hector asks no more. and had mark'd for war. His neck o'ershading.167 Where daring Glaucus and great Tydeus' son Between both armies met: the chiefs from far Observed each other. To bid our altars flame. the matrons' holy train. to his ankle hung. with ample strides the hero pass'd." This said. for example. the fulfilment of this task is not. Be still yourselves. Near as they drew. And reverend elders. also. Now paused the battle (godlike Hector gone). Where. Tydides thus began: 167 [113] The manner in which this episode is introduced. either by a temporary continuation of the previous narrative. p. one or more heroes are despatched on some commission.298: "The poet's method of introducing his episode. vol. is well illustrated by the following remarks of Mure. immediately described. and victims fall: Nor shall. hear! And you whom distant nations send to war! Be mindful of the strength your fathers bore. as it were. at the close of which the further account of the mission is resumed. as a general rule. seek the gods in vain. to be executed at a certain distance of time or place. illustrates in a curious manner his tact in the dramatic department of his art." .

) can Tydeus' son inquire? Like leaves on trees the race of man is found. Where fame is reap'd amid the embattled field. and successive rise: . While Bacchus headlong sought the briny flood. or from whence I am. Nor fail'd the crime the immortals' wrath to move. and born of luckless sires. With brandish'd steel. he drove. Know with immortals we no more contend. too prodigal of breath. Approach. That daring man who mix'd with gods in fight. Yet far before the troops thou dar'st appear. Another race the following spring supplies. from Nyssa's sacred grove: Their consecrated spears lay scatter'd round. Bacchus. With curling vines and twisted ivy bound. and wander'd in the gloom. and hated by the gods! I brave not heaven: but if the fruits of earth Sustain thy life.188 The Iliad of Homer "What art thou. Cheerless he breathed. thou descend. And Thetis' arms received the trembling god. and Bacchus' votaries. A wretch accursed. Bold as thou art. Who tempt our fury when Minerva fires! But if from heaven. and human be thy birth. And meet a lance the fiercest heroes fear." "What. (Replied the chief. boldest of the race of man? Our eyes till now that aspect ne'er beheld. and enter the dark gates of death. (The immortals bless'd with endless ease above. Unhappy they. Now green in youth. or who my sire. Not long Lycurgus view'd the golden light. now withering on the ground. celestial. They fall successive.) Deprived of sight by their avenging doom. Then sunk unpitied to the dire abodes.

Who o'er the sons of men in beauty shined. The chief arrived at Xanthus' silver flood: There Lycia's monarch paid him honours due. Loved for that valour which preserves mankind. and nine bulls he slew. resolving on his fate. that told his dire intent. See Grote. father of Bellerophon.) Aeolian Sisyphus. But if thou still persist to search my birth. (Argos the fair. So flourish these. "A city stands on Argos' utmost bound. Then call'd Ephyre: Glaucus was his son. And strove to tempt him from the paths of fame: In vain she tempted the relentless youth.BOOK VI. And the brave prince in numerous toils engaged. Endued with wisdom. sqq. with wisdom bless'd. Then hear a tale that fills the spacious earth. when those are pass'd away. Fired at his scorn the queen to Praetus fled. These probably were only devices of a hieroglyphical character. And begg'd revenge for her insulted bed: Incensed he heard. and truth. Great Glaucus. vol ii.168 Now bless'd by every power who guards the good. So generations in their course decay. Then mighty Praetus Argos' sceptre sway'd. Nine days he feasted. 189 [114] —With tablets sealed. With tablets seal'd. 168 . Whose hard commands Bellerophon obey'd. With direful jealousy the monarch raged. sacred fear. Whether writing was known in the Homeric times is utterly uncertain. For him Antaea burn'd with lawless flame. p. In ancient time the happy wall possess'd. But hospitable laws restrain'd his hate: To Lycia the devoted youth he sent. for warlike steeds renown'd. 192.

The deathful secret to the king reveal'd.) and those the warrior slew. and return'd no more. Confess'd the gods. First. for heaven was on his side. "Nor ended here his toils: his Lycian foes. Next the bold Amazons' whole force defied. with repentant grief. The faithful youth his monarch's mandate show'd: The fatal tablets.) Then met in arms the Solymaean crew. With two brave sons and one fair daughter bless'd. His daughter gave. A mingled monster of no mortal kind! Behind. A goat's rough body bore a lion's head. "At length the monarch. There long the chief his happy lot possess'd. Her gaping throat emits infernal fire. a dragon's fiery tail was spread. And trusted heaven's informing prodigies. dire Chimaera's conquest was enjoin'd. a treacherous ambush rose. till that instant seal'd. and god-descended chief. With levell'd spears along the winding shore: There fell they breathless. (for he read the skies. a people of Lycia. With half the honours of his ample reign: The Lycians grant a chosen space of ground. and with harvests crown'd. the stranger to detain. "This pest he slaughter'd. 169 [115] —Solymaean crew.190 The Iliad of Homer But when the tenth bright morning orient glow'd. At his return. . With woods.169 (Fiercest of men. with vineyards. And conquer'd still. Her pitchy nostrils flaky flames expire.

Nor stain the sacred friendship of our race. with kind embrace. Hippolochus survived: from him I came. forsaking humankind. and transport fill'd Tydides' heart. . His eldest born by raging Mars was slain. The honour'd author of my birth and name. "the plain of wandering. Know." See my notes in my prose translation. In combat on the Solymaean plain. chief. Bellerophon the bold: Our ancient seat his honour'd presence graced. hypochondria received the name of "Morbus Bellerophonteus.BOOK VI. To add new honours to my native land. our grandsires have been guests of old. Forsook by heaven. OEneus the strong.) But when at last. in Cilicia. A long. The parting heroes mutual presents left. To stand the first in worth as in command. By his instructions learn to win renown. Where twenty days in genial rites he pass'd. Then friendly. 191 170 From this "melancholy madness" of Bellerophon." i. forlorn. uncomfortable way!170 Woes heap'd on woes consumed his wasted heart: His beauteous daughter fell by Phoebe's dart. Wide o'er the Aleian field he chose to stray. thus the Lycian prince address'd: "Welcome. Before my eyes my mighty sires to place." He spoke. (Fair e'en in heavenly eyes: her fruitful love Crown'd with Sarpedon's birth the embrace of Jove. The "Aleian field. By his decree I sought the Trojan town. p. In earth the generous warrior fix'd his dart.e. my brave hereditary guest! Thus ever let us meet. 112. distracted in his mind. And emulate the glories of our race." was situated between the rivers Pyramus and Pinarus.

the gallant chiefs alight. OEneus a belt of matchless work bestowed. But thou and Diomed be foes no more. 171 . and prove to either host We guard the friendship of the line we boast. ii. For which nine oxen paid.) Mindful of this. Their hands they join. —His own. of gold." [116] Thus having said.) He gave his own. and I in Lycia thine. and enlarged his mind. when Thebe's wall Beheld the sons of Greece untimely fall. 23. which. Brave Glaucus then each narrow thought resign'd. still adorns my board: For Tydeus left me young. See Aulus Gellius.) For Diomed's brass arms. This bad bargain has passed into a common proverb. their mutual faith they plight. of gold divinely wrought. Now change we arms. My guest in Argos thou. safely stored Among my treasures. (This from his pledge I learn'd. In the full harvest of yon ample field. (Jove warm'd his bosom. of mean device. Enough of Greeks shall dye thy spear with gore.171 A hundred beeves the shining purchase bought. (a vulgar price.192 The Iliad of Homer A golden goblet was thy grandsire's gift. in friendship let us join. If heaven our steps to foreign lands incline. Enough of Trojans to this lance shall yield. That rich with Tyrian dye refulgent glow'd.

where Priam's daughters sate. and hung with spoils. brothers.172 Beneath the beech-tree's consecrated shades." Dryden's Virgil. all press'd with pious care For husbands. left hand. enter'd at the Scaean gate. i e. Rais'd on arch'd columns of stupendous frame. engaged in war. sons. Twelve domes for them and their loved spouses shone. In fifty chambers lodged: and rooms of state. And now to Priam's stately courts he came. Com'st thou to supplicate the almighty power With lifted hands.) Long in a strict embrace she held her son. "The fifty nuptial beds.) The ports of plated gold.BOOK VI. to avert the impending woe. ii. So large a promise of a progeny. and of polish'd stone.658 . when Greece surrounds our walls. Great Hector. He bids the train in long procession go. till I bring the cup with Bacchus crown'd. Of equal beauty. Meantime the guardian of the Trojan state. And seek the gods. —In fifty chambers. 172 173 193 —Scaean. from Ilion's lofty tower? Stay. (With her Laodice. Hither great Hector pass'd. and tender thus begun: "O Hector! say.173 Opposed to those. his mother-queen. The rich pavilions of his fifty sons. The Trojan matrons and the Trojan maids Around him flock'd. what great occasion calls My son from fight. whose beauteous face Surpass'd the nymphs of Troy's illustrious race. O'er these a range of marble structure runs. (such hopes had he. And press'd his hand. nor pass'd unseen Of royal Hecuba.

Or offer heaven's great Sire polluted praise. go! a spotless train. with human gore distain'd. And twelve young heifers to her altar led. And pay due vows to all the gods around. Be this. irregular burst of popular indignation to which Hector alludes. pernicious to mankind. and dulls the noble mind. to sprinkle on the ground. You. &c. Then with a plenteous draught refresh thy soul. The recreant warrior hear the voice of fame. Most prized for art. and labour'd o'er with gold. Let chiefs abstain." "Far hence be Bacchus' gifts. By me that holy office were profaned. and spare the sacred juice To sprinkle to the gods.) Inflaming wine. The brave defender of thy country's right. That pest of Troy. (the chief rejoin'd. your religious care: I go to rouse soft Paris to the war. Oh. To the pure skies these horrid hands to raise. And draw new spirits from the generous bowl. Before the goddess' honour'd knees be spread. Who mows whole troops. Ill fits it me. And far avert Tydides' wasteful ire. So may the power. If yet not lost to all the sense of shame. its better use. "It is apparently a sudden. with your matrons.194 The Iliad of Homer In Jove's high name. O mother. when he regrets that the Trojans 174 [117] . that ruin of our race!174 —O would kind earth. would kind earth the hateful wretch embrace. and our city spare. And burn rich odours in Minerva's fane. Spent as thou art with long laborious fight. and makes all Troy retire. atoned by fervent prayer. Unnerves the limbs. our infants. Our wives. The largest mantle your full wardrobes hold.

as the queen revolved with careful eyes The various textures and the various dyes. She chose a veil that shone superior far." This heard. Herself with this the long procession leads. Deep to the dark abyss might he descend. vol. waits As Pallas' priestess. Whom from soft Sidon youthful Paris bore. . This. 171. The train majestically slow proceeds. with a scantling of food by their side. however. It may have been originally connected with the same feeling—the desire of avoiding the pollution of bloodshed—which seems to have suggested the practice of burying prisoners alive. There lay the vestures of no vulgar art. Sidonian maids embroider'd every part. With hands uplifted and imploring eyes. fair Theano.BOOK VI. was also one of the ordinary formal modes of punishment for great public offences. sq. They fill the dome with supplicating cries. Though Homer makes no mention of this horrible usage. And glow'd refulgent as the morning star. and thus she prays: 195 [118] had not spirit enough to cover Paris with a mantle of stones. she gave command: and summon'd came Each noble matron and illustrious dame. i. Troy yet should flourish."—Thirlwall's Greece. Soon as to Ilion's topmost tower they come. and my sorrows end. and unbars the gates. p. Antenor's consort. in ascribing it to the heroic ages. The Phrygian queen to her rich wardrobe went. Where treasured odours breathed a costly scent. the example of the Roman Vestals affords reasons for believing that. With Helen touching on the Tyrian shore. Sophocles followed an authentic tradition. And awful reach the high Palladian dome. Here. The priestess then the shining veil displays. Placed on Minerva's knees.

231. our infants. and let him fall Prone on the dust before the Trojan wall! So twelve young heifers. The steely point with golden ringlets join'd. A spear the hero bore of wondrous strength. —Paris' lofty dome. atoned by penitence and prayer. from every part Assembling architects of matchless art. While these appear before the power with prayers. Beside him Helen with her virgins stands. at each motion shined Thus entering."—Thirlwall's Greece. "With respect to the private dwellings. 175 . and it is. perhaps. Near Priam's court and Hector's palace stands The pompous structure. guiltless of the yoke. Of full ten cubits was the lance's length. vol. His eyes delighting with their splendid show. i. whose useless arms lay round. that he means to commend. p. and affords no conception of the style which prevailed in them or of their effect on the eye. in the glittering rooms he found His brother-chief. So vow'd the matrons. Before him brandish'd. But thou.175 Himself the mansion raised.196 The Iliad of Homer "Oh awful goddess! ever-dreadful maid. It seems indeed probable. Troy's strong defence. Hector to Paris' lofty dome repairs. from the manner in which he dwells on their metallic ornaments that the higher beauty of proportion was but little required or understood. rather than elegance. in speaking of the fair house which Paris had built for himself with the aid of the most skilful masons of Troy. the poet's language barely enables us to form a general notion of their ordinary plan. Brightening the shield. but they vow'd in vain. and polishing the bow. Shall fill thy temple with a grateful smoke. which are oftenest described. and the town commands. Ourselves. unconquer'd Pallas. aid! Break thou Tydides' spear. and our city spare!" So pray'd the priestess in her holy fane. strength and convenience.

his and Ilion's fate. And all the Phrygian glories at an end. Guides their rich labours. Our troops to hearten. now glory spreads her charms." "Brother. Till heaps of dead alone defend her wall. and thy country's foe!) Paris and Greece against us both conspire. thy brother sate. 'Tis man's to fight. in secret." 197 [119] He said.) Thy free remonstrance proves thy worth and truth: Yet charge my absence less. And mourn'd. Ungrateful man! deserves not this thy care. O generous chief! On hate to Troy. For thee great Ilion's guardian heroes fall. 'tis just. than conscious shame and grief: Here. with an ardent look The prince beheld. Him thus inactive. contain thy ardent mind. and our toils to share? Rise. and their vengeful ire. And beauteous Helen calls her chief to arms. "Thy hate to Troy. hid from human eyes. (replied the beauteous youth. is this the time to show? (O wretch ill-fated. Thy close resentment. 'Tis now enough. And wasteful war in all its fury burns. For thee the soldier bleeds. When Helen thus with lowly grace begun: . the matron mourns. Or go. But while I arm. or behold the conquering flames ascend. nor answer'd Priam's warlike son.BOOK VI. Conquest to-day my happier sword may bless. and Paris shall not lag behind. and high-resenting spoke. but heaven's to give success. and instructs their hands.

sustain'd for Paris' sake and mine The gods have link'd our miserable doom. some regard of fame! Now tired with toils." [120] . thy fainting limbs recline. And midst the roarings of the waters died? Heaven fill'd up all my ills. Example sad! and theme of future song. Warm'd with some virtue. and last through ages long. "Oh. The day that show'd me to the golden sun Had seen my death! why did not whirlwinds bear The fatal infant to the fowls of air? Why sunk I not beneath the whelming tide. Our present woe. and I accursed Bore all. Helen at least a braver spouse might claim. and Paris of those ills the worst. generous brother! (if the guilty dame That caused these woes deserve a sister's name!) Would heaven. ere all these dreadful deeds were done. and infamy to come: Wide shall it spread. With toils.198 The Iliad of Homer HECTOR CHIDING PARIS.

BOOK VI. The chief replied: "This time forbids to rest; The Trojan bands, by hostile fury press'd, Demand their Hector, and his arm require; The combat urges, and my soul's on fire. Urge thou thy knight to march where glory calls, And timely join me, ere I leave the walls. Ere yet I mingle in the direful fray, My wife, my infant, claim a moment's stay; This day (perhaps the last that sees me here) Demands a parting word, a tender tear: This day, some god who hates our Trojan land May vanquish Hector by a Grecian hand." He said, and pass'd with sad presaging heart To seek his spouse, his soul's far dearer part; At home he sought her, but he sought in vain; She, with one maid of all her menial train, Had hence retired; and with her second joy, The young Astyanax, the hope of Troy, Pensive she stood on Ilion's towery height, Beheld the war, and sicken'd at the sight; There her sad eyes in vain her lord explore, Or weep the wounds her bleeding country bore. But he who found not whom his soul desired, Whose virtue charm'd him as her beauty fired, Stood in the gates, and ask'd "what way she bent Her parting step? If to the fane she went, Where late the mourning matrons made resort; Or sought her sisters in the Trojan court?" "Not to the court, (replied the attendant train,) Nor mix'd with matrons to Minerva's fane: To Ilion's steepy tower she bent her way, To mark the fortunes of the doubtful day.

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Troy fled, she heard, before the Grecian sword; She heard, and trembled for her absent lord: Distracted with surprise, she seem'd to fly, Fear on her cheek, and sorrow m her eye. The nurse attended with her infant boy, The young Astyanax, the hope of Troy."

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Hector this heard, return'd without delay; Swift through the town he trod his former way, Through streets of palaces, and walks of state; And met the mourner at the Scaean gate. With haste to meet him sprung the joyful fair. His blameless wife, Aetion's wealthy heir: (Cilician Thebe great Aetion sway'd, And Hippoplacus' wide extended shade:) The nurse stood near, in whose embraces press'd, His only hope hung smiling at her breast, Whom each soft charm and early grace adorn, Fair as the new-born star that gilds the morn. To this loved infant Hector gave the name Scamandrius, from Scamander's honour'd stream; Astyanax the Trojans call'd the boy, From his great father, the defence of Troy. Silent the warrior smiled, and pleased resign'd To tender passions all his mighty mind; His beauteous princess cast a mournful look, Hung on his hand, and then dejected spoke; Her bosom laboured with a boding sigh, And the big tear stood trembling in her eye.

BOOK VI.

201

THE MEETING OF HECTOR AND ANDROMACHE.

"Too daring prince! ah, whither dost thou run? Ah, too forgetful of thy wife and son! And think'st thou not how wretched we shall be, A widow I, a helpless orphan he? For sure such courage length of life denies, And thou must fall, thy virtue's sacrifice. Greece in her single heroes strove in vain; Now hosts oppose thee, and thou must be slain. O grant me, gods, ere Hector meets his doom, All I can ask of heaven, an early tomb! So shall my days in one sad tenor run, And end with sorrows as they first begun. No parent now remains my griefs to share, No father's aid, no mother's tender care. The fierce Achilles wrapt our walls in fire, Laid Thebe waste, and slew my warlike sire! His fate compassion in the victor bred;

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Stern as he was, he yet revered the dead, His radiant arms preserved from hostile spoil, And laid him decent on the funeral pile; Then raised a mountain where his bones were burn'd, The mountain-nymphs the rural tomb adorn'd, Jove's sylvan daughters bade their elms bestow A barren shade, and in his honour grow. "By the same arm my seven brave brothers fell; In one sad day beheld the gates of hell; While the fat herds and snowy flocks they fed, Amid their fields the hapless heroes bled! My mother lived to wear the victor's bands, The queen of Hippoplacia's sylvan lands: Redeem'd too late, she scarce beheld again Her pleasing empire and her native plain, When ah! oppress'd by life-consuming woe, She fell a victim to Diana's bow. "Yet while my Hector still survives, I see My father, mother, brethren, all, in thee: Alas! my parents, brothers, kindred, all Once more will perish, if my Hector fall, Thy wife, thy infant, in thy danger share: Oh, prove a husband's and a father's care! That quarter most the skilful Greeks annoy, Where yon wild fig-trees join the wall of Troy; Thou, from this tower defend the important post; There Agamemnon points his dreadful host, That pass Tydides, Ajax, strive to gain, And there the vengeful Spartan fires his train. Thrice our bold foes the fierce attack have given, Or led by hopes, or dictated from heaven. Let others in the field their arms employ, But stay my Hector here, and guard his Troy."

BOOK VI.

203

The chief replied: "That post shall be my care, Not that alone, but all the works of war. How would the sons of Troy, in arms renown'd, And Troy's proud dames, whose garments sweep the ground Attaint the lustre of my former name, Should Hector basely quit the field of fame? My early youth was bred to martial pains, My soul impels me to the embattled plains! Let me be foremost to defend the throne, And guard my father's glories, and my own. "Yet come it will, the day decreed by fates! (How my heart trembles while my tongue relates!) The day when thou, imperial Troy! must bend, And see thy warriors fall, thy glories end. And yet no dire presage so wounds my mind, My mother's death, the ruin of my kind, Not Priam's hoary hairs defiled with gore, Not all my brothers gasping on the shore; As thine, Andromache! Thy griefs I dread: I see thee trembling, weeping, captive led! In Argive looms our battles to design, And woes, of which so large a part was thine! To bear the victor's hard commands, or bring The weight of waters from Hyperia's spring. There while you groan beneath the load of life, They cry, 'Behold the mighty Hector's wife!' Some haughty Greek, who lives thy tears to see, Imbitters all thy woes, by naming me. The thoughts of glory past, and present shame, A thousand griefs shall waken at the name! May I lie cold before that dreadful day, Press'd with a load of monumental clay! Thy Hector, wrapt in everlasting sleep,

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Shall neither hear thee sigh, nor see thee weep." Thus having spoke, the illustrious chief of Troy Stretch'd his fond arms to clasp the lovely boy. The babe clung crying to his nurse's breast, Scared at the dazzling helm, and nodding crest. With secret pleasure each fond parent smiled, And Hector hasted to relieve his child, The glittering terrors from his brows unbound, And placed the beaming helmet on the ground; Then kiss'd the child, and, lifting high in air, Thus to the gods preferr'd a father's prayer: "O thou! whose glory fills the ethereal throne, And all ye deathless powers! protect my son! Grant him, like me, to purchase just renown, To guard the Trojans, to defend the crown, Against his country's foes the war to wage, And rise the Hector of the future age! So when triumphant from successful toils Of heroes slain he bears the reeking spoils, Whole hosts may hail him with deserved acclaim, And say, 'This chief transcends his father's fame:' While pleased amidst the general shouts of Troy, His mother's conscious heart o'erflows with joy." He spoke, and fondly gazing on her charms, Restored the pleasing burden to her arms; Soft on her fragrant breast the babe she laid, Hush'd to repose, and with a smile survey'd. The troubled pleasure soon chastised by fear, She mingled with a smile a tender tear. The soften'd chief with kind compassion view'd, And dried the falling drops, and thus pursued:

BOOK VI. "Andromache! my soul's far better part, Why with untimely sorrows heaves thy heart? No hostile hand can antedate my doom, Till fate condemns me to the silent tomb. Fix'd is the term to all the race of earth; And such the hard condition of our birth: No force can then resist, no flight can save, All sink alike, the fearful and the brave. No more—but hasten to thy tasks at home, There guide the spindle, and direct the loom: Me glory summons to the martial scene, The field of combat is the sphere for men. Where heroes war, the foremost place I claim, The first in danger as the first in fame."

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Thus having said, the glorious chief resumes His towery helmet, black with shading plumes. His princess parts with a prophetic sigh, Unwilling parts, and oft reverts her eye That stream'd at every look; then, moving slow, Sought her own palace, and indulged her woe. There, while her tears deplored the godlike man, Through all her train the soft infection ran; The pious maids their mingled sorrows shed, And mourn the living Hector, as the dead.

But now, no longer deaf to honour's call, Forth issues Paris from the palace wall. In brazen arms that cast a gleamy ray, Swift through the town the warrior bends his way.

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The wanton courser thus with reins unbound176 Breaks from his stall, and beats the trembling ground; Pamper'd and proud, he seeks the wonted tides, And laves, in height of blood his shining sides; His head now freed, he tosses to the skies; His mane dishevell'd o'er his shoulders flies; He snuffs the females in the distant plain, And springs, exulting, to his fields again. With equal triumph, sprightly, bold, and gay, In arms refulgent as the god of day, The son of Priam, glorying in his might, Rush'd forth with Hector to the fields of fight. And now, the warriors passing on the way, The graceful Paris first excused his stay. To whom the noble Hector thus replied: "O chief! in blood, and now in arms, allied! Thy power in war with justice none contest; Known is thy courage, and thy strength confess'd. What pity sloth should seize a soul so brave, Or godlike Paris live a woman's slave! My heart weeps blood at what the Trojans say, And hopes thy deeds shall wipe the stain away. Haste then, in all their glorious labours share, For much they suffer, for thy sake, in war. These ills shall cease, whene'er by Jove's decree We crown the bowl to heaven and liberty: While the proud foe his frustrate triumphs mourns,
176

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—The wanton courser.

"Come destrier, che da le regie stalle Ove a l'usa de l'arme si riserba, Fugge, e libero al fiu per largo calle Va tragl' armenti, o al fiume usato, o a l'herba." Gier, Lib. ix. 75.

BOOK VI. And Greece indignant through her seas returns."

207

BOWS AND BOW CASE.
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IRIS.

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BOOK VII.
ARGUMENT THE SINGLE COMBAT OF HECTOR AND AJAX. The battle renewing with double ardour upon the return of Hector, Minerva is under apprehensions for the Greeks. Apollo, seeing her descend from Olympus, joins her near the Scaean gate. They agree to put off the general engagement for that day, and incite Hector to challenge the Greeks to a single combat. Nine of the princes accepting the challenge, the lot is cast and falls upon Ajax. These heroes, after several attacks, are parted by the night. The Trojans calling a council, Antenor purposes the delivery of Helen to the Greeks, to which Paris will not consent, but offers to restore them her riches. Priam sends a herald to make this offer, and to demand a truce for burning the dead, the last of which only is agreed to by Agamemnon. When the funerals are performed, the Greeks, pursuant to the advice of Nestor, erect a fortification to protect their fleet and camp, flanked with towers, and defended by a ditch and palisades. Neptune testifies his jealousy at this work, but is pacified by a promise from Jupiter. Both armies pass the night in feasting but Jupiter disheartens the Trojans with thunder, and other signs of his wrath. The three and twentieth day ends with the duel of Hector and Ajax, the next day the truce is agreed; another is taken up in the funeral rites of the slain and one more in building the fortification before the ships. So that somewhat about three days is employed in this book. The scene lies wholly in the field.

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So spoke the guardian of the Trojan state, Then rush'd impetuous through the Scaean gate. Him Paris follow'd to the dire alarms; Both breathing slaughter, both resolved in arms. As when to sailors labouring through the main, That long have heaved the weary oar in vain, Jove bids at length the expected gales arise; The gales blow grateful, and the vessel flies. So welcome these to Troy's desiring train, The bands are cheer'd, the war awakes again. Bold Paris first the work of death begun On great Menestheus, Areithous' son, Sprung from the fair Philomeda's embrace, The pleasing Arne was his native place. Then sunk Eioneus to the shades below, Beneath his steely casque he felt the blow177 Full on his neck, from Hector's weighty hand; And roll'd, with limbs relax'd, along the land. By Glaucus' spear the bold Iphmous bleeds, Fix'd in the shoulder as he mounts his steeds; Headlong he tumbles: his slack nerves unbound, Drop the cold useless members on the ground. When now Minerva saw her Argives slain, From vast Olympus to the gleaming plain Fierce she descends: Apollo marked her flight, Nor shot less swift from Ilion's towery height. Radiant they met, beneath the beechen shade; When thus Apollo to the blue-eyed maid:
—Casque. The original word is stephanae, about the meaning of which there is some little doubt. Some take it for a different kind of cap or helmet, others for the rim, others for the cone, of the helmet.
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BOOK VII. "What cause, O daughter of Almighty Jove! Thus wings thy progress from the realms above? Once more impetuous dost thou bend thy way, To give to Greece the long divided day? Too much has Troy already felt thy hate, Now breathe thy rage, and hush the stern debate; This day, the business of the field suspend; War soon shall kindle, and great Ilion bend; Since vengeful goddesses confederate join To raze her walls, though built by hands divine." To whom the progeny of Jove replies: "I left, for this, the council of the skies: But who shall bid conflicting hosts forbear, What art shall calm the furious sons of war?" To her the god: "Great Hector's soul incite To dare the boldest Greek to single fight, Till Greece, provoked, from all her numbers show A warrior worthy to be Hector's foe." At this agreed, the heavenly powers withdrew; Sage Helenus their secret counsels knew; Hector, inspired, he sought: to him address'd, Thus told the dictates of his sacred breast: "O son of Priam! let thy faithful ear Receive my words: thy friend and brother hear! Go forth persuasive, and a while engage The warring nations to suspend their rage; Then dare the boldest of the hostile train To mortal combat on the listed plain. For not this day shall end thy glorious date; The gods have spoke it, and their voice is fate."

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He said: the warrior heard the word with joy; Then with his spear restrain'd the youth of Troy, Held by the midst athwart. On either hand The squadrons part; the expecting Trojans stand; Great Agamemnon bids the Greeks forbear: They breathe, and hush the tumult of the war. The Athenian maid, and glorious god of day,178 With silent joy the settling hosts survey: In form of vultures, on the beech's height They sit conceal'd, and wait the future fight. The thronging troops obscure the dusky fields, Horrid with bristling spears, and gleaming shields. As when a general darkness veils the main, (Soft Zephyr curling the wide wat'ry plain,) The waves scarce heave, the face of ocean sleeps, And a still horror saddens all the deeps; Thus in thick orders settling wide around, At length composed they sit, and shade the ground. Great Hector first amidst both armies broke The solemn silence, and their powers bespoke: "Hear, all ye Trojan, all ye Grecian bands, What my soul prompts, and what some god commands. Great Jove, averse our warfare to compose, O'erwhelms the nations with new toils and woes; War with a fiercer tide once more returns, Till Ilion falls, or till yon navy burns. You then, O princes of the Greeks! appear; 'Tis Hector speaks, and calls the gods to hear: From all your troops select the boldest knight, And him, the boldest, Hector dares to fight. Here if I fall, by chance of battle slain,
178

—Athenian maid: Minerva.

BOOK VII. Be his my spoil, and his these arms remain; But let my body, to my friends return'd, By Trojan hands and Trojan flames be burn'd. And if Apollo, in whose aid I trust, Shall stretch your daring champion in the dust; If mine the glory to despoil the foe; On Phoebus' temple I'll his arms bestow: The breathless carcase to your navy sent, Greece on the shore shall raise a monument; Which when some future mariner surveys, Wash'd by broad Hellespont's resounding seas, Thus shall he say, 'A valiant Greek lies there, By Hector slain, the mighty man of war,' The stone shall tell your vanquish'd hero's name. And distant ages learn the victor's fame."

213

This fierce defiance Greece astonish'd heard, Blush'd to refuse, and to accept it fear'd. Stern Menelaus first the silence broke, And, inly groaning, thus opprobrious spoke:

"Women of Greece! O scandal of your race, Whose coward souls your manly form disgrace, How great the shame, when every age shall know That not a Grecian met this noble foe! Go then! resolve to earth, from whence ye grew, A heartless, spiritless, inglorious crew! Be what ye seem, unanimated clay, Myself will dare the danger of the day; 'Tis man's bold task the generous strife to try, But in the hands of God is victory."

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These words scarce spoke, with generous ardour press'd, His manly limbs in azure arms he dress'd. That day, Atrides! a superior hand Had stretch'd thee breathless on the hostile strand; But all at once, thy fury to compose, The kings of Greece, an awful band, arose; Even he their chief, great Agamemnon, press'd Thy daring hand, and this advice address'd: "Whither, O Menelaus! wouldst thou run, And tempt a fate which prudence bids thee shun? Grieved though thou art, forbear the rash design; Great Hectors arm is mightier far than thine: Even fierce Achilles learn'd its force to fear, And trembling met this dreadful son of war. Sit thou secure, amidst thy social band; Greece in our cause shall arm some powerful hand. The mightiest warrior of the Achaian name, Though bold and burning with desire of fame, Content the doubtful honour might forego, So great the danger, and so brave the foe." He said, and turn'd his brother's vengeful mind; He stoop'd to reason, and his rage resign'd, No longer bent to rush on certain harms; His joyful friends unbrace his azure arms. He from whose lips divine persuasion flows, Grave Nestor, then, in graceful act arose; Thus to the kings he spoke: "What grief, what shame Attend on Greece, and all the Grecian name! How shall, alas! her hoary heroes mourn Their sons degenerate, and their race a scorn! What tears shall down thy silvery beard be roll'd, O Peleus, old in arms, in wisdom old!

known from shore to shore By the huge. iron mace he bore. and pleased inquire Each name. Great Areithous. But broke. nor bent the twanging bow. No lance he shook. And trembling all before one hostile hand. I led my troops to Phea's trembling wall. Lament inglorious Greece. To Ereuthalion he consign'd the prize. How would he lift his aged arms on high. now the victor bore: But when old age had dimm'd Lycurgus' eyes. And give this arm the spring which once it knew When fierce in war. Whose guileful javelin from the thicket flew. Him not by manly force Lycurgus slew. . and beg to die! Oh! would to all the immortal powers above. Minerva. Participate their fame. Deep in a winding way his breast assailed. each action. 179 215 [131] —Celadon. my youth renew. Supine he fell: those arms which Mars before Had given the vanquish'd. knotted. and almighty Jove! Years might again roll back. And dared the trial of the strongest hands. Once with what joy the generous prince would hear Of every chief who fought this glorious war. a river of Elis. Where Celadon rolls down his rapid tide. where Jardan's waters fall. And with the Arcadian spears my prowess tried. Proud Areithous' dreadful arms to wield. Furious with this he crush'd our levell'd bands.179 There Ereuthalion braved us in the field.BOOK VII. the battle of the foe. Nor aught the warrior's thundering mace avail'd. Phoebus. and each hero's sire! Gods! should he see our warriors trembling stand. with this.

appear'd. let the gods decide. his huge tempestuous sway Till I. All these. Oileus follow'd. Sprung from such fathers. Demand the fight. appear'd. who such numbers sway. And. the examples of our host. O were your Nestor now! Not Hector's self should want an equal foe." . met whom all our army fear'd.180 And Merion. and fear'd. alike inspired with noble rage. What chief shall combat. Up-started fierce: but far before the rest The king of men advanced his dauntless breast: Then bold Tydides. warriors. Idomen was there. I fought the chief: my arms Minerva crown'd: Prone fell the giant o'er a length of ground. The flower of Greece.216 The Iliad of Homer Nor could the strongest hands his fury stay: All saw. dreadful as the god of war: With these Eurypylus and Thoas stand. his own immortal praise. And nine. Whom heaven shall choose. great in arms. But. And next his bulk gigantic Ajax rear'd. the youngest of the host. Can you stand trembling. and desert the day?" His warm reproofs the listening kings inflame. To whom the Pylian sage: "Lest thirst of glory your brave souls divide. youngest. What then I was. the noblest of the Grecian name. And wise Ulysses closed the daring band. you that youthful vigour boast. be his the chance to raise His country's fame.

i." 217 —Oileus.e. Then casts before him. each man then took his choice. 180 . each hero signs his own: Then in the general's helm the fates are thrown. thou Almighty! in whose hand is fate. Ajax. lest the foes should hear." Old Nestor shook the casque. born to combats. your vows declare In such a voice as fills the earth and air. in all the toils of battle bred! From warlike Salamis I drew my birth. Be mine the conquest of this chief of Troy. It was customary to put the lots into a helmet. Lives there a chief whom Ajax ought to dread? Ajax. Till godlike Ajax finds the lot his own. fear no force on earth. Leap'd forth the lot. And vows like these ascend from all the bands: "Grant. And. Held out in order to the Grecian peers. Or he. with lifted eyes and hands. This from the right to left the herald bears. beloved by Jove. 181 —In the general's helm. of every Greek desired. and arm with joy. By heaven inspired. Now while my brightest arms my limbs invest. son of Telamon. And deem your prayers the mean effect of fear. Surveys the inscription with rejoicing eyes. To Saturn's son be all your vows address'd: But pray in secret. in contradistinction to Ajax.BOOK VII. the son of Oileus. The lots produced. A worthy champion for the Grecian state: This task let Ajax or Tydides prove. Each to his rival yields the mark unknown. Said I in secret? No. and with transport cries: "Warriors! I claim the lot.181 The people pray. the king of kings. in which they were well shaken up.

that Telamon may bear away The praise and conquest of this doubtful day. Or." —"Paradise Lost. and that both may share. He stood. Implore the god whose thunder rends the skies: "O father of mankind." ii. 182 [133] . Hence "Mavortia Moenia. Thus march'd the chief. or Mavors.218 The Iliad of Homer He said. v. earth trembled as he strode:183 His massy javelin quivering in his hand." —Carey's Dante: Hell. according to his Thracian epithet. Grimly he smiled. And gives whole nations to the waste of wars. That both may claim it. All Troy stood trembling at the mighty man: Even Hector paused. "There Mavors stands Grinning with ghastly feature. Sheathed in bright steel the giant-warrior shone: He moves to combat with majestic pace." Now Ajax braced his dazzling armour on.182 When Jove to punish faithless men prepares. "And death Grinn'd horribly a ghastly smile. tremendous as a god. 845. Felt his great heart suspended in his breast: —God of Thrace." 183 —Grimly he smiled. superior lord! On lofty Ida's holy hill adored: Who in the highest heaven hast fix'd thy throne. Through every Argive heart new transport ran. the bulwark of the Grecian band. if illustrious Hector be thy care. Mars. So stalks in arms the grisly god of Thrace. The troops with elevated eyes. and with new doubt oppress'd. Supreme of gods! unbounded and alone: Grant thou.

Huge was its orb. and singly know What strength thou hast. Whole troops of heroes Greece has yet to boast. New to the field. 'Twas vain to seek retreat. with seven thick folds o'ercast. yet some there are. And. To combat born. and answer every call of war. thus his adverse chief address'd: "Hector! approach my arm. No more—be sudden. of solid brass the last. Stern Telamon behind his ample shield. wouldst thou fright.BOOK VII. and vain to fear.) This Ajax bore before his manly breast. and not unskill'd in war: Let him. and bred amidst alarms: I know to shift my ground. unactive on the sea-beat shore. and trembling at the fight? Thou meet'st a chief deserving of thy arms. Such as I am. Not void of soul. charge. And bear thick battle on my sounding shield But open be our fight. I come to prove thy might. Achilles shuns the fight. Of tough bull-hides. Himself had challenged. And sends thee one." "O son of Telamon. to left. As from a brazen tower. a sample of her host. Indulge his wrath. or woman. as a boy. remount the car. and aid our arms no more. Turn." 219 . and the foe drew near. o'erlook'd the field. (The work of Tychius. threatening. the dexterous lance I wield. and what the Grecian foe. who in Hyle dwell'd And in all arts of armoury excell'd. and bold each blow. To right. I steal no conquest from a noble foe. and begin the fight. thy country's pride! (To Ajax thus the Trojan prince replied) Me.

The huge stone thundering through his buckler broke: His slacken'd knees received the numbing stroke. Till in the seventh it fix'd. And glancing downwards. Yet ceased not Hector thus. and restored to fight. let the ruin fly. The blunted point against the buckler bends. With force tempestuous. Great Hector falls extended on the field. At Ajax. Then Ajax threw. vast: to this his force he bends. watchful as his foe drew near. Through Hector's shield the forceful javelin flew. In his strong hand up-heaved a flinty stone. Full on the brazen boss the stone descends. From their bored shields the chiefs their javelins drew. craggy. and bending low Beneath his buckler. and swinging round on high. and rising. His corslet enters. and dims his shining shield. and the charge renew. high above the field Whirl'd the long lance against the sevenfold shield. Then close impetuous. but stooping down. But Ajax. Applied each nerve. Fierce as the mountain-lions bathed in blood. with matchless strength impell'd! Spouts the black gore. The wary Trojan shrinks. The hollow brass resounded with the shock: Then Ajax seized the fragment of a rock. . Black. near his flank descends. Or foaming boars. His bulk supporting on the shatter'd shield: Nor wanted heavenly aid: Apollo's might Confirm'd his sinews. It reach'd his neck. and his garment rends. Hector his long lance extends.220 The Iliad of Homer [134] He said. Full on the brass descending from above Through six bull-hides the furious weapon drove. disappoints the blow. the terror of the wood. Drove through the Trojan targe the knotty spear.

and war is all your own. . And sage Idaeus on the part of Troy. To either host your matchless worth is known. And now both heroes their broad falchions drew In flaming circles round their heads they flew. be the night obey'd. Each sounds your praise. The sacred ministers of earth and heaven: Divine Talthybius. But then by heralds' voice the word was given. whom the Greeks employ. Con pari honor di pari ambo possenti. Both dear to men. incomincio Pindoro."184 184 "Sete o guerrieri. The goddess parts you. But now the Night extends her awful shade.BOOK VII. Between the swords their peaceful sceptres rear'd. and both beloved of Jove. my sons! your further force to prove. "Forbear. And first Idaeus' awful voice was heard: 221 [135] HECTOR AND AJAX SEPARATED BY THE HERALDS.

Return. Let him. 'Not hate. a sword with stars of silver graced.'" With that. and with worth of mind! Now martial law commands us to forbear. Hereafter we shall meet in glorious war. I content obey. Exchange some gift: that Greece and Troy may say. who first provoked our chiefs to fight. And joy the nations whom thy arm defends. e non sian rotte Le ragioni. The generous Greek bestow'd A radiant belt that rich with purple glow'd. Who wearies heaven with vows for Hector's life.222 The Iliad of Homer To whom great Ajax his high soul express'd: "O sage! to Hector be these words address'd. on this memorable day. He gave the Greek. And let the gods decide of death or life! Since. This seeks the Grecian. superior to thy kind. Dunque cessi la pugna. Then with majestic grace they quit the plain. be the night obey'd. As I shall glad each chief. 51. made these chiefs contend. Let him demand the sanction of the night. Some future day shall lengthen out the strife. and Trojan wife. that the Phrygian train. then. brave Ajax." —Gier. With strength of body. to thy Grecian friends. . And each brave foe was in his soul a friend. the night extends her gloomy shade. But let us. The baldric studded. If first he ask'd it. and the sheath enchased." "O first of Greeks! (his noble foe rejoin'd) Whom heaven adorns. e de la notte. And heaven enjoins it. vi. but glory. Lib. And cease the strife when Hector shows the way. e 'l riposo.

Æn. in each persuasive art approved. See Virg. xliii. and vigorous from his wound. chief! nor let the morrow's light Awake thy squadrons to new toils of fight: Some space at least permit the war to breathe. From the red field their scatter'd bodies bear. and each receives his share. and of the nobler kind. In words like these his prudent thought express'd: "How dear.BOOK VII. Nestor. viii. What Greeks are perish'd! what a people lost! What tides of blood have drench'd Scamander's shore! What crowds of heroes sunk to rise no more! Then hear me. they strip the smoking hide. the repast prepare. 34. The well-arm'd Greeks to Agamemnon lead. The victim falls. O kings! this fatal day has cost. While we to flames our slaughter'd friends bequeath. The sage whose counsels long had sway'd the rest. To Troy's high gates the godlike man they bear Their present triumph. 185 . or person to whom respect was to be shown. 181. A steer for sacrifice the king design'd. The king himself (an honorary sign) Before great Ajax placed the mighty chine." Gen.185 When now the rage of hunger was removed. Of full five years. Each takes his seat. The beast they quarter. they survey him round. The Trojan bands returning Hector wait. unarm'd. Thus Benjamin was honoured with a "double portion. 223 [136] It was an ancient style of compliment to give a larger portion of food to the conqueror. and the joints divide. And hail with joy the Champion of their state. Then spread the tables. as their late despair. Escaped great Ajax. Alive. glorying in his hardy deed. But Ajax.

224 The Iliad of Homer And nigh the fleet a funeral structure rear. or reject. So hope success. High o'er them all a general tomb be raised. A senate void of order. As this advice ye practise. broke. hear! 'Tis heaven the counsel of my breast inspires. So decent urns their snowy bones may keep. The Trojan peers in nightly council sate. where on one promiscuous pile they blazed. and confused their voice. Here. From space to space be ample gates around. Raise an embattled wall. the sworn alliance. Next. to secure our camp and naval powers. or dread the dire effect. And Argive Helen own her ancient lord. The sceptred kings of Greece his words approved. rising. and a trench profound. with lofty towers. and auxiliars. And pious children o'er their ashes weep. So Greece to combat shall in safety go. And I but move what every god requires: Let Sparta's treasures be this hour restored. The ties of faith. Meanwhile. Our impious battles the just gods provoke." ." 'Twas thus the sage his wholesome counsel moved. thus demands their ear: "Ye Trojans. Nor fear the fierce incursions of the foe. For passing chariots. convened at Priam's palace-gate. as of choice: Their hearts were fearful. Dardans. Antenor.

Slow from his seat the reverend Priam rose: His godlike aspect deep attention drew: He paused. once more the fate of war be tried. Trojan. Thy words express the purpose of thy heart. the growing discord to compose. Till the new sun restores the cheerful light. I will resign. Next let a truce be ask'd. Thou. Dardans. and auxiliar bands! Now take refreshment as the hour demands. that Troy may burn Her slaughter'd heroes. My treasures too. and these pacific words ensue: "Ye Trojans. and their bones inurn. Then shall our herald.BOOK VII. more sound advice hast given. Before their ships proclaim my son's intent. But wisdom has its date. but not the dame. 225 The senior spoke and sate. assign'd by heaven. mighty Jove decide!" . if void of fallacy or art. to the Atrides sent. in thy time. But be this bright possession ever mine. for peace. princes of the Trojan name! Their treasures I'll restore." 'Twas then. To whom replied The graceful husband of the Spartan bride: "Cold counsels. may become thy years But sound ungrateful in a warrior's ears: Old man. That done. Guard well the walls. Then hear me. And whose the conquest. relieve the watch of night.

There. to the sons of Mars. nor even the Spartan dame. Let conquest make them ours: fate shakes their wall. That done. At length Tydides rose. declares. Soon as the rosy morn had waked the day. once more the fate of war be tried. and Troy's great monarch. Next. He raised his voice: the host stood listening round. And Troy already totters to her fall.226 The Iliad of Homer The monarch spoke: the warriors snatch'd with haste (Each at his post in arms) a short repast. but none the silence broke. O ye chiefs! we ask a truce to burn Our slaughter'd heroes. take not. And whose the conquest. Pleased may ye hear (so heaven succeed my prayers) What Paris. Their proffer'd wealth. in council found. and Troy requests in vain." . and their bones inurn. mighty Jove decide!" [138] The Greeks gave ear. give ear! The words of Troy. author of the war. To the black ships Idaeus bent his way. The spoils and treasures he to Ilion bore (Oh had he perish'd ere they touch'd our shore!) He proffers injured Greece: with large increase Of added Trojan wealth to buy the peace. "Ye sons of Atreus. hear. This Greece demands. But to restore the beauteous bride again. and rising spoke: "Oh. and ye Greeks. friends! defrauded of your fame.

With dust dishonour'd. The admiring chiefs. and the bodies bore. Be witness. deplored the dead. some fell the sounding grove: Nor less the Greeks. and rear'd his sceptre to the sky. laid along their cars. where all her princes lay To wait the event. 227 . sadly slow. In mingled throngs the Greek and Trojan train Through heaps of carnage search'd the mournful plain. let funeral flames be fed With heroes' corps: I war not with the dead: Go search your slaughtered chiefs on yonder plain. And. and standing in the midst. and deformed with gore. He came. explain'd The peace rejected. The wounds they wash'd. And gratify the manes of the slain. Arose the golden chariot of the day. the herald bent his way. descending on the shore. Some search the plains. their pious tears they shed. Hew'd the green forests. Sage Priam check'd their grief: with silent haste The bodies decent on the piles were placed: With melting hearts the cold remains they burn'd. whose thunder rolls on high!" He said.BOOK VII. but the truce obtain'd. And tipp'd the mountains with a purple ray. To sacred Troy. And now from forth the chambers of the main. With general shouts return'd him loud acclaim. Then thus the king of kings rejects the peace: "Herald! in him thou hear'st the voice of Greece For what remains. Straight to their several cares the Trojans move. and all the Grecian name. Scarce could the friend his slaughter'd friend explore. Nor less the Greeks their pious sorrows shed. And. to sacred Troy return'd. Jove. To shed his sacred light on earth again.

Then. Now. "Another essential basis of mechanical unity in the poem is the construction of the rampart."—Mure. to their fleet repair. The cold remains consume with equal care. began: 186 —Embattled walls. vol. in all those which follow it forms a prominent feature. is a purely poetical one: 'So long as Achilles fought. They raised embattled walls with lofty towers:186 From space to space were ample gates around. in the battles previous to the eighth book. or rather this peculiar crisis of it. Accordingly. sadly. And round the pile a general tomb they rear'd. Amazed beheld the wondrous works of man: Then he. This takes place in the seventh book. About the dying flames the Greeks appear'd.' The disasters consequent on his secession first led to the necessity of other means of protection. p. whose trident shakes the earth. For passing chariots. And slowly. So toil'd the Greeks: meanwhile the gods above. the destiny of Achilles. i. no allusion occurs to a rampart. and a trench profound Of large extent..228 The Iliad of Homer [139] And decent on the pile dispose the dead. 257. in the midst of a hostile country. forms the pervading bond of connexion to the whole poem. then. ere the morn had streak'd with reddening light The doubtful confines of the day and night. Strong piles infix'd stood adverse to the foe. . to secure the camp and naval powers. In shining circle round their father Jove. The reason ascribed for the glaring improbability that the Greeks should have left their camp and fleet unfortified during nine years. Here. in the anomaly as in the propriety of the Iliad. and deep in earth below. the terror of his name sufficed to keep every foe at a distance.

BOOK VII. Wide as the morn her golden beam extends. 304." Thus spoke the hoary monarch of the deep. and no victim slain! Their fame shall fill the world's remotest ends. whose rage can make The solid earth's eternal basis shake! What cause of fear from mortal works could move187 The meanest subject of our realms above? Where'er the sun's refulgent rays are cast. Thy power is honour'd. iv. our oracles implore. and thy fame shall last. Shall. While old Laomedon's divine abodes." 187 —What cause of fear. "Seest thou not this? Or do we fear in vain Thy boasted thunders. That clouds the world. If the proud Grecians thus successful boast Their rising bulwarks on the sea-beat coast? See the long walls extending to the main. No god consulted. razed and lost. . and the name no more. and blackens half the skies: "Strong god of ocean! thou. But yon proud work no future age shall view. &c. Our fanes frequent. and thy thoughtless reign?" Dryden's Virgil. No trace remain where once the glory grew. whelm'd beneath the waves. And. Those radiant structures raised by labouring gods. The sapp'd foundations by thy force shall fall. 229 The almighty Thunderer with a frown replies. in long oblivion sleep. "What mortals henceforth shall our power adore. drop the huge wall: Vast drifts of sand shall change the former shore: The ruin vanish'd.

Back from the tents the savoury vapour flew. All night they feast. And large libations drench'd the thirsty ground: Then late. in exchange. Each pour'd to Jove before the bowl was crown'd. pale horror seized on all. —In exchange. Section 1. iii. xxiii. arrived from Lemnos' strands. and these within their towers. Of fragrant wines the rich Eunaeus sent A thousant measures to the royal tent. some. tit. o'er the Grecian train. Enjoy'd the balmy blessings of the night. (Eunaeus. 188 .188 Some. as exhibiting the most ancient mention of barter. the Roman lawyer. While the deep thunder shook the aerial hall. brass or iron. an ox. But Jove averse the signs of wrath display'd. proportion'd treasures gave. And now the fleet. And shot red lightnings through the gloomy shade: Humbled they stood. These lines are referred to by Theophilus. or slave.230 The Iliad of Homer [140] Thus they in heaven: while. the Greek and Trojan powers: Those on the fields. The rolling sun descending to the main Beheld the finish'd work. And well the plenteous freight supplied the host: Each. bore. shepherd of his people. whom Hypsipyle of yore To Jason. With Bacchus' blessings cheered the generous bands.) The rest they purchased at their proper cost. refresh'd with sleep from toils of fight. Their bulls they slew.

BOOK VII. . 231 GREEK AMPHORA—WINE VESSELS.

.

at the commencement of the eighth book. ii. and those of Hector. Hector continues in the field. who is at length wounded by Hector. repeatedly allude to the supreme edict as the cause of their present inactivity." ch. The acts of Teucer. v.[141] BOOK VIII. See however. ARGUMENT.189 his balances the fates of both. and affrights the Greeks with his thunders and lightnings. and Grote. "Greek Literature. THE SECOND BATTLE. described as boldly setting his commands at defiance. but in vain. Nestor alone continues in the field in great danger: Diomed relieves him. against any further interference of the gods in the battles. are excellently described. or on that of one or two contumacious deities. . Juno endeavours to animate Neptune to the assistance of the Greeks. No interposition takes place but on the part of the specially authorised agents of Jove. In the opening of the twentieth book this interdict is withdrawn. while the other divine warriors. who in the previous and subsequent cantos are so active in support of their favourite heroes. Jupiter assembles a council of the deities. in the military details of the narrative. vol. The night puts an end to the battle. p 257. whose exploits. During the twelve intermediate books it is kept steadily in view. Muller. Section 6. i.) and gives orders to keep the watch 189 "A similar bond of connexion. is the decree issued by Jupiter. and threatens them with the pains of Tartarus if they assist either side: Minerva only obtains of him that she may direct the Greeks by her counsels. but checked and reprimanded for their disobedience. AND THE DISTRESS OF THE GREEKS. 252. Juno and Minerva prepare to aid the Grecians. sent from Jupiter. p. but are restrained by Iris. and carried off. (the Greeks being driven to their fortifications before the ships."—Mure. vol.

" —"Paradise Lost. As from the centre thrice to th' utmost pole. ye powers. to prevent the enemy from re-embarking and escaping by flight. Where high Olympus' cloudy tops arise. Low in the dark Tartarean gulf shall groan. The fix'd decree which not all heaven can move. The sire of gods his awful silence broke. The heavens attentive trembled as he spoke: "Celestial states! immortal gods! give ear. fate! fulfil it! and. Who yields assistance. The time of seven and twenty days is employed from the opening of the poem to the end of this book. With burning chains fix'd to the brazen floors. or but wills to yield. Aurora now. fair daughter of the dawn. The scene here (except of the celestial machines) lies in the field towards the seashore. Gash'd with dishonest wounds. oh far. from steep Olympus thrown." "E quanto e da le stelle al basso inferno. Hear our decree. Or far. and pass the night under arms. Back to the skies with shame he shall be driven. And lock'd by hell's inexorable doors. When Jove convened the senate of the skies. and reverence what ye hear. They kindle fires through all the fields. approve! What god but enters yon forbidden field. Sprinkled with rosy light the dewy lawn. Thou. As deep beneath the infernal centre hurl'd. Tanto e piu in su de la stellata spera" .190 190 [142] "As far removed from God and light of heaven. the scorn of heaven.234 The Iliad of Homer all night in the camp.

235 —Gier. vol. I heave the gods. sq. another world Hung e'er my realm. dread those dire abodes: And know. i. But it is not necessary to construe these epithets so literally. of mortal and immortal birth. 191 "Now lately heav'n. League all your forces. nor to draw any such inference from his description of Atlas. nor durst the powers reply: A reverend horror silenced all the sky. and it is not always carefully distinguished from the aerian regions above The idea of a seat of the gods—perhaps derived from a more ancient tradition." —"Paradise Lost. and gods. the ocean. I fix the chain to great Olympus' height. Lib. and the land. p. Yet it would seem. then. unbounded and above. earth. To drag. And the vast world hangs trembling in my sight! For such I reign. from the manner in which the height of heaven is compared with the depth of Tartarus. compared to Jove. And such are men. 7."—Thirlwall's Greece. by this. and main Strive all. that the region of light was thought to have certain bounds. Join all. and earth. the Thunderer down to earth Ye strive in vain! if I but stretch this hand. Let him who tempts me. Let down our golden everlasting chain191 Whose strong embrace holds heaven." ii. . The summit of the Thessalian Olympus was regarded as the highest point on the earth. ye powers above. the Almighty is the god of gods." The all-mighty spoke. link'd in a golden chain To that side heav'n. and try the omnipotence of Jove. 1004. "Some of the epithets which Homer applies to the heavens seem to imply that he considered it as a solid vault of metal. i. who holds the lofty pillars which keep earth and heaven asunder. in which it was not attached to any geographical site—seems to be indistinctly blended in the poet's mind with that of the real mountain. As from that centre to the ethereal world. 217.BOOK VIII.

) Where o'er her pointed summits proudly raised. The stedfast firmament beneath them shook: Rapt by the ethereal steeds the chariot roll'd. by gods adored We own thy might. Refulgent." [143] The cloud-compelling god her suit approved. Brass were their hoofs. . flash'd intolerable day. High on the cloudy point his seat he placed. His fane breathed odours. The town. High on the throne he shines: his coursers fly Between the extended earth and starry sky. At length his best-beloved. And smiled superior on his best beloved. the sacred sire Of gods and men released the steeds of fire: Blue ambient mists the immortal steeds embraced. at least lament their fate. But when to Ida's topmost height he came. and navigable seas. (Fair nurse of fountains. the power of wisdom. Then call'd his coursers. Thence his broad eye the subject world surveys. and tents. With arms unaiding mourn our Argives slain. and of savage game. From fields forbidden we submiss refrain. ah! permit to pity human state: If not to help. and his chariot took. their curling manes of gold: Of heaven's undrossy gold the gods array. from his radiant car. our father and our lord! But.236 The Iliad of Homer Trembling they stood before their sovereign's look. spoke: "O first and greatest! God. Or all must perish in the wrath of Jove. and his altar blazed: There. Yet grant my counsels still their breasts may move.

The sire of gods his golden scales suspends. Wherein all things created first he weighed. The sounding darts in iron tempests flew. Battles and realms. And slaughter'd heroes swell the dreadful tide. to prevent such horrid fray. wives.192 192 237 [144] —His golden scales. for on this dreadful day The fate of fathers. "Th' Eternal. by turns they both prevail. and the skies resound. "Jove now. sole arbiter of peace and war. Now had the Grecians snatch'd a short repast. The sequel each of parting and of fight: . Long as the morning beams. The pendulous round earth. And now with shouts the shocking armies closed. But when the sun the height of heaven ascends. Host against host with shadowy legends drew. and infants lay. In these he puts two weights. Victors and vanquish'd join promiscuous cries. Each adverse battle gored with equal wounds. The gates unfolding pour forth all their train." Merrick's Tryphiodorus. To lances lances. Commutual death the fate of war confounds. Triumphant shouts and dying groans arise. with balanced air In counterpoise. Held forth the fatal balance from afar: Each host he weighs. v 687. With streaming blood the slippery fields are dyed. O'er heaven's clear azure spread the sacred light. Till Troy descending fix'd the doubtful scale. increasing bright. And buckled on their shining arms with haste. sqq. steeds. now ponders all events. shields to shields opposed.BOOK VIII. and chariots shake the trembling ground. Troy roused as soon. Squadrons on squadrons cloud the dusky plain: Men. The tumult thickens. Hung forth in heav'n his golden scales.

The gods in terrors. and lash the air. Unwilling he remain'd. amidst the storm remain'd. it stung him to the brain. Nor great Idomeneus that sight could bear. the alarm sustain'd Nestor alone. from forth the crowd He rush'd. the Grecian balance lies Low sunk on earth. and freed The encumber'd chariot from the dying steed. Pour'd to the tumult on his whirling car. the Trojan strikes the skies. Then Jove from Ida's top his horrors spreads. Mad with his anguish. Scarce had his falchion cut the reins. flight unworthy great Laertes' son! The latter quick up flew.238 The Iliad of Homer With equal hand: in these explored the fate Of Greece and Troy. oh whither does Ulysses run? Oh. But Diomed beheld. Before his wrath the trembling hosts retire. 496. ." "Paradise Lost. and on Ulysses call'd aloud: "Whither. the muttering thunder rolls. Paw with his hoofs aloft. for Paris' dart Had pierced his courser in a mortal part. where the springing man Curl'd o'er the brow. and poised the mighty weight: Press'd with its load. and unmans their souls. the king of war. he begins to rear." iv. Fix'd in the forehead. Thick lightnings flash. Their strength he withers. thunderbolts of war: Nor he. When dreadful Hector. and kick'd the beam. and the skies on fire. The clouds burst dreadful o'er the Grecian heads. thundering through the war. Nor each stern Ajax. That day had stretch'd beneath his matchless hand The hoary monarch of the Pylian band.

and thy coursers slow. or urge the rapid race: These late obey'd Æneas' guiding rein." Thus said the chief. father! wait the unequal fight. and from the car Observe the steeds of Tros. to stop. a vile. 239 [145] . Nor shall great Hector want an equal foe. and Sthenelus the bold: The reverend charioteer directs the course. and anxious thus bespoke the king: "Great perils. the Pylian sage. Fierce as he is. and ascends the car: The steeds he left. Leave thou thy chariot to our faithful train. To dare the fight. renown'd in war. to chase. Practised alike to turn. Thy veins no more with ancient vigour glow. Then haste. With these against yon Trojans will we go. unknowing how to fear. A single warrior midst a host of foes. Eurymedon." His fruitless words are lost unheard in air. Pierced in the back. Weak is thy servant. dishonest wound? Oh turn and save from Hector's direful rage The glory of the Greeks. Before the coursers with a sudden spring He leap'd. Mix'd with the vulgar shall thy fate be found. Ulysses seeks the ships. skill'd in war. and Nestor. their trusty servants hold.BOOK VIII. And strains his aged arm to lash the horse. Fierce he drove on. Approves his counsel. Hector they face. and shelters there. These younger champions will oppress thy might. ascend my seat. But bold Tydides to the rescue goes. even he may learn to fear The thirsty fury of my flying spear. Tydides whirl'd his spear.

to supply his place and rule the car. The ground before him flamed with sulphur blue.. When Greece shall conquer by his heavenly power." vi. His opening hand in death forsakes the rein. averse." —"Paradise Lost.193 Like timorous flocks the Trojans in their wall Inclosed had bled: but Jove with awful sound Roll'd the big thunder o'er the vast profound: Full in Tydides' face the lightning flew. Had not th' Almighty Father. and urge the chariot hence. the fierce in war. Till.. The quivering steeds fell prostrate at the sight. 669. This day.240 The Iliad of Homer The spear with erring haste mistook its way. 'Tis not in man his fix'd decree to move: The great will glory to submit to Jove. Some other sun may see the happier hour. But plunged in Eniopeus' bosom lay. . and our palm denies." 193 —And now. And now had death and horror cover'd all. &c. warn'd the intrepid Diomed: "O chief! too daring in thy friend's defence Retire advised. Great Hector sorrows for his servant kill'd. And Nestor's trembling hand confess'd his fright: He dropp'd the reins: and. and spurns the plain. where he sits . turning. shook with sacred dread. Thus. Rose Archeptolemus. "And now all heaven Had gone to wrack. the sovereign of the skies Assists great Hector. Yet unrevenged permits to press the field. The steeds fly back: he falls. with ruin overspread. foreseen.

and to stand the fight. O'erwhelm me. 336. B. o'er the gasping throng Drives the swift steeds: the chariot smokes along. The storm of hissing javelins pours behind. mighty hero! graced above the rest In seats of council and the sumptuous feast: Now hope no more those honours from thy train. The epithet Gerenian either refers to the name of a place in which Nestor was educated. the Dardan host. hasty. Pleased. in the form of man! To scale our walls. p. earth. and hide a warrior's shame!" To whom Gerenian Nestor thus replied:194 "Gods! can thy courage fear the Phrygian's pride? Hector may vaunt. Thrice turn'd the chief. Then with a voice that shakes the solid skies. 340. Hector braves the warrior as he flies. Thy once proud hopes." Now fears dissuade him. Nor Troy. who dreads the sword That laid in dust her loved. or merely signifies honoured. Venet. To lead in exile the fair Phrygian dames. revered. "Go. viii. presumptuous prince! are fled. and now hopes invite. lamented lord. "O reverend prince! (Tydides thus replies) Thy years are awful. But ah. and. and thrice imperial Jove 241 [146] —Gerenian Nestor. See Schol. in II. Not even a Phrygian dame. This arm shall reach thy heart." He said. Strabo. To stop his coursers.BOOK VIII. The shouts of Trojans thicken in the wind. and stretch thee dead. 194 . yet bleeding in her heroes lost. and thy words are wise. to wrap our towers in flames. Before that dire disgrace shall blast my fame. but who shall heed the boast? Not those who felt thy arm. Go less than woman. what grief! should haughty Hector boast I fled inglorious to the guarded coast.

For this. Weak bulwarks. Xanthus. Dardan band. destined by this arm to fall. on Greece eternal shame. Encouraged his proud steeds. All Greece. then victory. and your own. Lampus. encompass'd. this important day. All famed in war." Furious he said. (The sign of conquest. Lycian. every Trojan.242 The Iliad of Homer On Ida's summits thunder'd from above. Podargus! prove thy generous race. Æthon. he saw the flashing light. Your great forefathers' glories. now thunder uncontroll'd: Give me to seize rich Nestor's shield of gold. Be fleet. the labour of a god: These if we gain. then bending o'er the yoke. And pass victorious o'er the levell'd mound. Served with pure wheat. High o'er their slighted trench our steeds shall bound. And all your master's well-spent care repay. in plenteous stalls ye stand. while thus he spoke: "Now. and dreadful hand to hand. their proud navy wrapt in smoke and fires. Vulcanian arms. and by a princess' hand. Great Hector heard. urge the chase. Heard ye the voice of Jove? Success and fame Await on Troy. be fearless. high-fed. in one blaze expires. of great Aetion's line. Now swift pursue. For this my spouse.) and thus urged the fight: "Hear. In vain they skulk behind their boasted wall. Till. and toss the blazing brand. Soon as before yon hollow ships we stand. Fight each with flames. From Tydeus' shoulders strip the costly load. So oft has steep'd the strengthening grain in wine. Be mindful of the wreaths your arms have won. ye powers! [147] . And thou.

and with thicken'd shields. the fleet is ours!" That heard.BOOK VIII. This night. Both these towns were conspicuous for their worship of Neptune. thy power obey. In vain the gloomy Thunderer might repine: Sole should he sit. and threat With long-destroying flames the hostile fleet. whose force can make The stedfast earth from her foundations shake. furious queen! is thine? I war not with the highest. that shook the starry pole: And thus to Neptune: "Thou. and fills the fields With close-ranged chariots. to whose matchless might Jove gave the glory of the destined fight. Compacted troops stand wedged in firm array. Squadrons on squadrons drives. Nor swells thy heart in that immortal breast? Yet Ægae. All above Submit and tremble at the hand of Jove. Seest thou the Greeks by fates unjust oppress'd. with scarce a god to friend.195 And gifts unceasing on thine altars lay. 195 ." Now godlike Hector. this glorious night. and all his army fired. Toil'd through the tents. what madness. 243 —Ægae. A dreadful front! they shake the brands. The king of men. Ungrateful prospect to the sullen power!" Neptune with wrath rejects the rash design: "What rage. Helice. And see his Trojans to the shades descend: Such be the scene from his Idaean bower. deep anguish stung Saturnia's soul. Helice. by Juno's self inspired. She shook her throne. Where the deep trench in length extended lay. Would all the deities of Greece combine.

"O Argives! shame of human race! (he cried: The hollow vessels to his voice replied. And gives the people to their monarch's prayers. like me oppress'd? With power immense. Give these at least to 'scape from Hector's hand. Who paid their vows to Panomphaean Jove. His eagle.) Where now are all your glorious boasts of yore. his voice was heard: To Ajax and Achilles reach'd the sound. and heaven's great father heard His vows. from Ulysses' deck. sacred bird of heaven! he sent. What altar smoked not with our victims' gore? With fat of bulls I fed the constant flame. When the fight rages. Now. and while the goblet flows. and my people slain! To thee my vows were breathed from every shore. in bitterness of soul preferr'd: The wrath appeased. bright ensign of command. Whose distant ships the guarded navy bound. with justice arm'd in vain. And save the relics of the Grecian land!" Thus pray'd the king. Your hasty triumphs on the Lemnian shore? Each fearless hero dares a hundred foes. A fawn his talons truss'd. (divine portent!) High o'er the wondering hosts he soar'd above. . While the feast lasts. My glory ravish'd. And ask'd destruction to the Trojan name. he lifted in his hand His purple robe. But who to meet one martial man is found. by happy signs declares. gracious god! far humbler our demand. High on the midmost bark the king appear'd: There.244 The Iliad of Homer [148] Swift as he moved. and the flames surround? O mighty Jove! O sire of the distress'd! Was ever king like me.

Secure behind the Telamonian shield The skilful archer wide survey'd the field. Evaemon's son next issues to the foe. And last young Teucer with his bended bow. Moves as he moves. and turns the shining shield. the passage freed. the troops revive. Pierced the deep ranks. now passed the mound. Thus Ajax guards his brother in the field. Who first by Teucer's mortal arrows bled? Orsilochus. their strongest battle tore. and transport seized on all: Encouraged by the sign. O'er the broad ditch impell'd his foaming horse. Then close beneath the sevenfold orb withdrew: The conscious infant so. Ophelestes slain: Bold Hamopaon breathless sunk to ground. then fell Ormenus dead: The godlike Lycophon next press'd the plain. His ponderous buckler thunders on the ground. the Ajaces next succeed: Meriones. Struck through the back. Daetor. 245 [149] . Forth rush a tide of Greeks. The Greeks beheld. The dart drove on.BOOK VIII. Tydides first. Young Agelaus (Phradmon was his sire) With flying coursers shunn'd his dreadful ire. And godlike Idomen. of all the Grecian force. With every shaft some hostile victim slew. With Chromius. And dyed his javelin red with Trojan gore. The bloody pile great Melanippus crown'd. Retires for safety to the mother's arms. when fear alarms. Then let the prey before his altar fall. The Atridae first. and issued at his breast: Headlong he quits the car: his arms resound. like Mars in arms renown'd. the Phrygian fell oppress'd. And fierce on Troy with doubled fury drive.

" . What strength I have. sad trophies of his art. he own'd the generous flame. Thy country's saviour. Since rallying from our wall we forced the foe. With coursers dreadful in the ranks of war: Or some fair captive. Shall recompense the warrior's toils with love. be now in battle tried. this dog of Troy. Till every shaft in Phrygian blood be dyed. The vigorous offspring of a stolen embrace: Proud of his boy. or distinguished car. Nor urge a soul already fill'd with fire. thy early worth be tried." To this the chief: "With praise the rest inspire. Whatever treasures Greece for me design. And eight bold heroes by their points lie dead: But sure some god denies me to destroy This fury of the field. always thus. Still aim'd at Hector have I bent my bow: Eight forky arrows from this hand have fled. The next rich honorary gift be thine: Some golden tripod. and thy father's boast! Sprung from an alien's bed thy sire to grace. Great Agamemnon views with joyful eye The ranks grow thinner as his arrows fly: "O youth forever dear! (the monarch cried) Thus. A Trojan ghost attending every dart. Thy brave example shall retrieve our host.246 The Iliad of Homer Heaps fell on heaps. And the brave son repays his cares with fame. whom thy eyes approve. Now hear a monarch's vow: If heaven's high powers Give me to raze Troy's long-defended towers.

and twang'd the string. drops upon his breast. brave Archeptolemus! it tore. just wing'd for flight. And rush'd on Teucer with the lifted rock. And drench'd in royal blood the thirsty dart. and drooping kiss the plain. Dreadful he shouts: from earth a stone he took. and sings along the skies: He miss'd the mark. (Fair Castianira. Touch'd where the neck and hollow chest unite. Quits his bright car. and issues on the plain. The feather in his hand. Lib. That other shaft with erring fury flew.196 Decline the head. Hector with grief his charioteer beheld All pale and breathless on the sanguine field: Then bids Cebriones direct the rein. nymph of form divine. ix. He said. 85.) As full-blown poppies. e cader siu 'l tergo il collo mira. The youth already strain'd the forceful yew. Headlong he falls: his sudden fall alarms The steeds. E in atto si gentil languir tremanti Gl' occhi. And dipp'd its feathers in no vulgar gore. that startle at his sounding arms. . (From Hector. depress'd Beneath his helmet.BOOK VIII." Gier. but pierced Gorgythio's heart. The weapon flies At Hector's breast. "Il suo Lesbia quasi bel fior succiso. Another shaft the raging archer drew. &c. overcharged with rain. So sinks the youth: his beauteous head. This offspring added to king Priam's line. 196 247 [150] —As full blown.) Yet fell not dry or guiltless to the ground: Thy breast. Phoebus turn'd the flying wound. The shaft already to his shoulder drew. There. where the juncture knits the channel bone.

He arm'd their hands. and Mecistheus. and fill'd their breasts with fire. and circles as he wheels. and called the gods to aid. And screen'd his brother with the mighty shade. Thus following. and with eager pace. great Hector march'd along. As the bold hound. The Greeks repulsed. dreadful as the god! Their strong distress the wife of Jove survey'd. With beating bosom. Fierce on his rattling chariot Hector came: His eyes like Gorgon shot a sanguine flame That wither'd all their host: like Mars he stood: Dire as the monster.248 The Iliad of Homer The furious chief discharged the craggy stone: The bow-string burst beneath the ponderous blow. Hangs on his haunch. that gives the lion chase. Then pensive thus. and more than mortal strong. Before the ships a desperate stand they made. Troy yet found grace before the Olympian sire. Thus oft the Grecians turn'd. When flying they had pass'd the trench profound. bore The batter'd archer groaning to the shore. First of the foe. but still they flew. He fell: but Ajax his broad shield display'd. or fastens on his heels. And fired the troops. retreat behind their wall. With terror clothed. Till great Alaster. Or in the trench on heaps confusedly fall. Guards as he turns. Hector still the hindmost slew. And his numb'd hand dismiss'd his useless bow. And many a chief lay gasping on the ground. to war's triumphant maid: .

perhaps. Nor Styx been cross'd. and slights our just demands. Condemn'd to suffer the full force of fate. resenting son. with tears he begg'd. inflexible and hard. I shot from heaven.BOOK VIII. withstands. When to grim Pluto's gloomy gates he went. the sire of heaven. and shake the sable shield! Now. Shall wretched Greece no more confess our care. whose arm can wield The avenging bolt. My hopes are frustrate. The stubborn god. for this. in deep dismay. Some future day. 249 "O daughter of that god. Averse to me of all his heaven of gods. and gave his arm the day. in this moment of her last despair. and my Greeks undone. nor hell explored in vain. Oh had my wisdom known this dire event. The triple dog had never felt his chain. and still grows the rage!" So spake the imperial regent of the skies. And drain the dregs of heaven's relentless hate? Gods! shall one raging hand thus level all? What numbers fell! what numbers yet shall fall! What power divine shall Hector's wrath assuage? Still swells the slaughter. he may be moved . To grace her gloomy. fierce. To whom the goddess with the azure eyes: "Long since had Hector stain'd these fields with gore. his favourite son distress'd. Mocks our attempts. By stern Eurystheus with long labours press'd? He begg'd. Stretch'd by some Argive on his native shore: But he above. At Thetis' suit the partial Thunderer nods. Forgets my service and deserved reward: Saved I.

kept by the winged Hours. or roll those clouds away. The radiant robe her sacred fingers wove Floats in rich waves. and terrible no more. meanwhile. Saturnia lends the lash. Haste. Close. the coursers fly. pale. and Pallas shall appear. shall Hector glory then? (That terror of the Greeks. on yonder shore. strong! that when her fury burns Proud tyrants humbles. Smooth glides the chariot through the liquid sky. The sun's bright portals and the skies command. With flowers adorn'd. with art immortal crown'd. Then. Commission'd in alternate watch they stand. Heaven's gates spontaneous open to the powers. Shall feast the fowls. His cuirass blazes on her ample breast. goddess! say. All dreadful in the crimson walks of war! What mighty Trojan then. and glut the dogs with gore?" She ceased. or unfold. Myself will arm. Saturn's other heir:) Pallas. [152] . the massy javelin bends: Huge. that man of men) When Juno's self. Heaven's golden gates. through yon ranks to ride. the clouds divide. and whole hosts o'erturns. Expiring. and thunder at thy side. ponderous. the eternal gates of day Bar heaven with clouds.250 The Iliad of Homer To call his blue-eyed maid his best beloved. The sounding hinges ring. The vigorous power the trembling car ascends: Shook by her arm. Prone down the steep of heaven their course they guide. and Juno rein'd the steeds with care: (Heaven's awful empress. Her father's arms her mighty limbs invest. her various veil unbound. launch thy chariot. and spreads the court of Jove.

And thus enjoin'd the many-colour'd maid." [153] . incensed. headlong. For Juno. Their car in fragments. "Thaumantia! mount the winds. Thus have I spoke. She claims some title to transgress our will. headstrong and imperious still. and stop their car. from Ida's top survey'd. So shall Minerva learn to fear our ire. Condemn'd for ten revolving years to weep The wounds impress'd by burning thunder deep. scatter'd o'er the sky: My lightning these rebellious shall confound. But Jove.BOOK VIII. to the ground. and what I speak is fate: Their coursers crush'd beneath the wheels shall lie. 251 JUNO AND MINERVA GOING TO ASSIST THE GREEKS. Against the highest who shall wage the war? If furious yet they dare the vain debate. Nor dare to combat hers and nature's sire. And hurl them flaming.

They breathe or perish as the fates ordain: But Jove's high counsels full effect shall find. And hurl ye headlong. Restrains their progress from the bright abodes. "What frenzy goddesses! what rage can move Celestial minds to tempt the wrath of Jove? Desist. ever rule mankind. now miserably slain. ever constant. headstrong and imperious still. obedient to his high command: This is his word. For Juno. Your horses crush'd beneath the wheels shall lie. To great Olympus' shining gate she flies. whose arm can wield The avenging bolt. and Juno thus her rage resign'd: "O daughter of that god. So shall Minerva learn to fear his ire. flaming.252 The Iliad of Homer Swift as the wind." . and shake the dreadful shield No more let beings of superior birth Contend with Jove for this low race of earth. There meets the chariot rushing down the skies. mounting on the pinions of the wind. what desperate insolence has driven To lift thy lance against the king of heaven?" Then. and know his word shall stand: His lightning your rebellion shall confound. Yourselves condemn'd ten rolling years to weep The wounds impress'd by burning thunder deep. Nor dare to combat hers and nature's sire. Your car in fragments scatter'd o'er the sky. She flew. Triumphant now. to the ground. the various-colour'd maid From Ida's top her golden wings display'd. And speaks the mandate of the sire of gods. She claims some title to transgress his will: But thee. And.

and fill their seats of gold. 'Twas Neptune's charge his coursers to unbrace. they rest in high celestial stalls. and backward turn'd her steeds of light. The Hours unloosed them. The pensive goddesses. abash'd.BOOK VIII. The chariot propp'd against the crystal walls. And fix the car on its immortal base. Mix with the gods. She spoke. There stood the chariot. Till with a snowy veil he screen'd the blaze. controll'd. And heap'd their mangers with ambrosial food. panting as they stood. Flame through the vast of air. [154] . Adorn'd with manes of gold. There tied. and heavenly bright. And now the Thunderer meditates his flight From Ida's summits to the Olympian height. the wheels instinctive fly. 253 THE HOURS TAKING THE HORSES FROM JUNO'S CAR. and reach the sky. beaming forth its rays. Swifter than thought.

whoe'er almighty power withstand! Unmatch'd our force. O tyrant of the skies! Strength and omnipotence invest thy throne. Yet grant our counsels still their breasts may move. ours to grieve alone. enthroned in gold. Though secret anger swell'd Minerva's breast. But feast their souls on Ilion's woes to come. and exiled from the ethereal race.254 The Iliad of Homer He. But Juno. [155] . For Greece we grieve. whose all-conscious eyes the world behold. And wide beneath him all Olympus shakes. With arms unaiding see our Argives slain. why heave your hearts? Soon was your battle o'er: proud Troy retired Before your face. impotent of rage. From fields forbidden we submiss refrain. and thus his word imparts: "Pallas and Juno! say. High heaven the footstool of his feet he makes. abandon'd by her fate To drink the dregs of thy unmeasured hate. and what I speak shall stand. He saw their soul. Confused and silent. The eternal Thunderer sat. Your hearts shall tremble. if our arms we take. Cut off. 'Tis thine to punish. On this our hill no more shall hold his place. for his frown they fear'd." Juno and Pallas grieving hear the doom. And each immortal nerve with horror shake. and in your wrath expired. For thus I speak. What power soe'er provokes our lifted hand. The prudent goddess yet her wrath repress'd. Trembling afar the offending powers appear'd. But know. unconquer'd is our hand: Who shall the sovereign of the skies control? Not all the gods that crown the starry pole. replies: "What hast thou said.

Where on her utmost verge the seas resound. Fly. to earth's remotest bound. The navy flaming. And drew behind the cloudy veil of night: The conquering Trojans mourn his beams decay'd. and view in vain. awaked by loud alarms. . Even till the day when certain fates ordain That stern Achilles (his Patroclus slain) Shall rise in vengeance.BOOK VIII. For such is fate. shall stand." 255 The goddess thus. within the streams of hell." Now deep in ocean sunk the lamp of light. and thy Greeks in flight. Where cursed Iapetus and Saturn dwell. and lay waste the plain. and thus the god replies. Lest all should perish in the rage of Jove. for what I will. The Greeks rejoicing bless the friendly shade. No sun e'er gilds the gloomy horrors there. if thy wilt. and blackens all the skies: "The morning sun. Fast by the brink. Shall see the almighty Thunderer in arms. Those radiant eyes shall view. And arm in vain. with all thy rebel force. Who swells the clouds. What heaps of Argives then shall load the plain. No cheerful gales refresh the lazy air: There arm once more the bold Titanian band. nor canst thou turn its course With all thy rage. Nor shall great Hector cease the rage of fight.

high blazing to the sky. bending forward. and refresh our powers. Obey the night. Attend his order. and generous aids. and crown our toils with fame. and use her peaceful hours Our steeds to forage. in the silence and the shades of night. refulgent to behold. or safely cleave the main. with attention hear! Ye Dardan bands. Wounds. These to Scamander's bank apart he led. The assembled chiefs. and Hector calls A martial council near the navy walls. Greece on her sable ships attempt her flight. A massy spear he bore of mighty strength. And. Till the bright morn her purple beam displays. descending on the ground. we hoped. Where thinly scatter'd lay the heaps of dead. Some lasting token of the Phrygian foe. that long hence may ask their spouses' care. thus reveal'd his mind: "Ye valiant Trojans. Let numerous fires the absent sun supply.256 The Iliad of Homer The victors keep the field. would wrap in conquering flame Greece with her ships. Straight from the town be sheep and oxen sought. to save the cowards. But darkness now. and their prince surround. The flaming piles with plenteous fuel raise. The point was brass. And strengthening bread and generous wine be brought Wide o'er the field. Of full ten cubits was the lance's length. give ear! This day. And guards them trembling in their wooden walls. Fix'd to the wood with circling rings of gold: The noble Hector on his lance reclined. Not unmolested let the wretches gain Their lofty decks. Some hostile wound let every dart bestow. Lest. [156] . falls.

like the sun renown'd! As the next dawn. with fates averse. Firm be the guard. With this keen javelin shall his breast be gored. oh! might my days endure. Like Pallas worshipp'd. Suffice. and end the woes of Troy. under covert of the midnight shade. Our common safety must be now the care. And beardless youths. And prostrate heroes bleed around their lord. A nobler charge shall rouse the dawning day. while distant lie our powers. So might my life and glory know no bound. And the fired fleet behold the battle rage. From age inglorious. And let the matrons hang with lights the towers. to-night. then shall Hector and Tydides prove Whose fates are heaviest in the scales of Jove. Sheathed in bright arms let every troop engage. I trust." The leader spoke. And warn their children from a Trojan war. Let sacred heralds sound the solemn call. and black death secure. Now through the circuit of our Ilion wall. shall give to Hector's hand From these detested foes to free the land.BOOK VIII. Shall crush the Greeks. Certain as this. Who plough'd. But soon as morning paints the fields of air. The insidious foe the naked town invade. Then. Lest. From all his host around Shouts of applause along the shores resound. the last they shall enjoy. our battlements surround. To-morrow's light (O haste the glorious morn!) Shall see his bloody spoils in triumph borne. these orders to obey. 257 . The gods. the watery way: For Trojan vultures a predestined prey. To bid the sires with hoary honours crown'd.

to whose sweet beams high prospects on the brows Of all steepe hills and pinnacles thrust up themselves for shows. and her guilty race.258 The Iliad of Homer [157] Each from the yoke the smoking steeds untied. 197 —Ungrateful. And stars unnumber'd gild the glowing pole. . As when the moon. And stars shine cleare. because the cause in which they were engaged was unjust. Fat sheep and oxen from the town are led. when aire is free from winde. And fix'd their headstalls to his chariot-side. vi." Chapman. And beaming fires illumined all the ground. And not a cloud o'ercasts the solemn scene. When not a breath disturbs the deep serene. and all-sustaining bread. Around her throne the vivid planets roll. 527. The troops exulting sat in order round. With generous wine. Ungrateful offering to the immortal powers!197 Whose wrath hung heavy o'er the Trojan towers: Nor Priam nor his sons obtain'd their grace. sqq. But vain their toil: the pow'rs who rule the skies Averse beheld the ungrateful sacrifice. O'er the dark trees a yellower verdure shed. And even the lowly valleys joy to glitter in their sight." Merrick's Tryphiodorus. Proud Troy they hated. refulgent lamp of night.198 O'er heaven's pure azure spreads her sacred light. that glad the shepherd's heart. 198 "As when about the silver moon. Full hecatombs lay burning on the shore: The winds to heaven the curling vapours bore. When the unmeasured firmament bursts to disclose her light. The curling vapours load the ambient air. "Struck by the lab'ring priests' uplifted hands The victims fall: to heav'n they make their pray'r. And all the signs in heaven are seene.

the rocks in prospect rise. The long reflections of the distant fires Gleam on the walls. by fits. 259 [158] . So many flames before proud Ilion blaze. Full fifty guards each flaming pile attend. and tremble on the spires. And tip with silver every mountain's head: Then shine the vales. A thousand piles the dusky horrors gild. And ardent warriors wait the rising morn. And lighten glimmering Xanthus with their rays. thick flashes send. and bless the useful light.BOOK VIII. A flood of glory bursts from all the skies: The conscious swains. rejoicing in the sight. Loud neigh the coursers o'er their heaps of corn. Whose umber'd arms. Eye the blue vault. And shoot a shady lustre o'er the field.

260 The Iliad of Homer THE SHIELD OF ACHILLES. .

THE EMBASSY TO ACHILLES. but "a great and general one. each of them. Agamemnon pursues this advice. The ambassadors return unsuccessfully to the camp. but with the approval of Jove. and the next following. and Nestor seconds him. ARGUMENT. very moving and pressing speeches. Sat on each face.[159] BOOK IX. The scene lies on the sea-shore. and Nestor further prevails upon him to send ambassadors to Achilles. after the last day's defeat. but are rejected with roughness by Achilles. and the troops betake themselves to sleep. They make. who notwithstanding retains Phoenix in his tent. Agamemnon. Thus joyful Troy maintain'd the watch of night. proposes to the Greeks to quit the siege. Ulysses and Ajax are made choice of. according to Buttmann. This flight of the Greeks. on the Grecian part. Lexil. praising his wisdom and resolution. 358. and return to their country. pale comrade of inglorious flight. which is the twenty-seventh from the beginning of the poem." 199 . He orders the guard to be strengthened. who are accompanied by old Phoenix. was not a supernatural flight caused by the gods. This book. While fear. the station of the Grecian ships. caused by Hector and the Trojans. take up the space of one night. in order to move him to a reconciliation.199 And heaven-bred horror. and a council summoned to deliberate what measures are to be followed in this emergency. Diomed opposes this. p. and sadden'd every heart.

at whose nod whole empires rise or fall. thus bursting from his breast: "Ye sons of Greece! partake your leader's care. But bid in whispers: these surround their chief. Words.262 The Iliad of Homer [160] As from its cloudy dungeon issuing forth. With more than vulgar grief he stood oppress'd. Who shakes the feeble props of human trust. from Thracia's frozen shore. almighty lord of all! Jove. Spread all your canvas. mix'd with sighs. And heavenly oracles believed in vain. all your oars employ. The king amidst the mournful circle rose: Down his wan cheek a briny torrent flows. In solemn sadness and majestic grief. . and bids the Ægean roar: This way and that the boiling deeps are toss'd: Such various passions urged the troubled host. Haste then. And towers and armies humbles to the dust. our people. Superior sorrows swell'd his royal breast. Haste to the joys our native country yields. Fellows in arms and princes of the war! Of partial Jove too justly we complain. In sable streams soft-trickling waters shed. and our glory lost. Heaps waves on waves. Great Agamemnon grieved above the rest. To bid to council all the Grecian peers. With conquest honour'd and enrich'd with spoils: Now shameful flight alone can save the host. So Jove decrees. Himself his orders to the heralds bears. So silent fountains. from a rock's tall head. Our wealth. A double tempest of the west and north Swells o'er the sea. for ever quit these fatal fields. A safe return was promised to our toils.

prince! thy wrath withhold. The noblest power that might the world control They gave thee not—a brave and virtuous soul. O chief! from whom our honours spring. The laws of council bid my tongue be bold. A noble care the Grecians shall employ. he stands. Silent. all our army heard. and extirpate Troy. inglorious! from the embattled plain. Ships thou hast store. will fight for fame. that would suggest Fears like his own to every Grecian breast? Confiding in our want of worth. Myself. The gods. A pensive scene! till Tydeus' warlike son Roll'd on the king his eyes. Durst brand my courage. Here Greece shall stay. unmov'd in dire dismay they stand. Go thou. and 'twas with God we came. Thou first. and defame my might: Nor from a friend the unkind reproach appear'd. 'tis what our king commands. First let him speak who first has suffer'd shame. If I oppose thee. and a wide command. Is this a general's voice. or. conquer. God bade us fight. Myself shall stay. and thus begun: "When kings advise us to renounce our fame. Nor hope the fall of heaven-defended Troy. The Greeks stood witness. in fields of fight. if all Greece retire. And if we fly. and nearest to the main. and Sthenelus. till Troy or I expire.BOOK IX. They gave dominion o'er the seas and land. and thou alone." ." 263 He said: deep silence held the Grecian band. The gods have made thee but by halves a king: They gave thee sceptres. To combat.

ii. 91. you excel. the Greeks loud acclamations raise. or offend the king: "Cursed is the man. Unworthy property. unworthy light. A thought unfinish'd in that generous mind. And voice to voice resounds Tydides' praise. Whose lust is murder. or private care. Still first to act what you advise so well. p. and whose horrid joy. And yet those years that since thy birth have run Would hardly style thee Nestor's youngest son. after noticing the modest calmness and respect with which Nestor addresses Agamemnon. Between the trench and wall let guards remain: Grote. vol. Wise Nestor then his reverend figure rear'd. Applauding Greece with common voice approves. These wholesome counsels which thy wisdom moves. and void of law and right. Unfit for public rule. a bold but prudent youth: And blame even kings with praise. because with truth. refresh and fortify thy train. observes. "The Homeric Council is a purely consultative body. who delights in war. that monster. To tear his country. but solely for his information and guidance. assembled not with any power of peremptorily arresting mischievous resolves of the king." 200 . Then let me add what yet remains behind. That wretch. Kings thou canst blame. and his kind destroy! This night. Age bids me speak! nor shall the advice I bring Distaste the people.264 The Iliad of Homer [161] He ceased. as in courage. He spoke: the host in still attention heard:200 "O truly great! in whom the gods have join'd Such strength of body with such force of mind: In conduct.

BOOK IX. behold the dreadful light? What eye beholds them. Some line the trench. to council call the old. But stay'd his hand when thirst and hunger ceased. Seven were the leaders of the nightly bands. The double offspring of the warrior-god: Deipyrus. on public counsels bent. and weighty are thy cares. And each bold chief a hundred spears commands. To-morrow. stood. Convened the princes in his ample tent. Merion join. For happy counsels flow from sober feasts. unmoved. Be that the duty of the young and bold. And slowly rising. Swift through the gates the guards direct their way. O king. And such a monarch as can choose the best. thus the council moved. Then Nestor spoke. But thou. in arms renown'd: Next him. And Lycomed of Creon's noble line. The generous Thrasymed. How near our fleet approach the Trojan fires! Who can." Thus spoke the hoary sage: the rest obey. and can close to-night? This dreadful interval determines all. With Thracian wines recruit thy honour'd guests. The fires they light. His son was first to pass the lofty mound. for wisdom long approved. to short repasts they fall. The king of men. Ascalaphus. Aphareus. 265 [162] . Wise. Ialmen. weighty counsels aid a state distress'd. Great is thy sway. or Greece must fall. and others man the wall. Thy high commands must spirit all our wars. See what a blaze from hostile tents aspires. Troy must flame. Each seized a portion of the kingly feast.

In the heroic times. whom Jove still honours most. And ratify the best for public good. all ye Greeks. prince! it fits alike to speak and hear. Bless'd in his love. and himself a host. The wrathful chief and angry gods assuage. which err'd through frantic rage.266 The Iliad of Homer "Monarch of nations! whose superior sway Assembled states. That happy man. You wronged the man. or with gifts to bend. Is more than armies. Nor. by men and gods admired: Now seek some means his fatal wrath to end. Such gifts gradually became regular. Hear then a thought. 201 [163] . Thee. repine. and make the wisdom thine. Pronounce with judgment. and formed the income of the German. And millions own the care of thee and Heaven. with regard give ear. and lords of earth obey. this wondrous hero stands. If gifts immense his mighty soul can bow. (Tacit. I first opposed. though a meaner give advice. or immunity from his exactions. and humbles all our bands. With prayers to move him. To see no wholesome motion be withstood. But bold of soul. when headlong fury fired. But follow it. it is not unfrequent for the king to receive presents to purchase freedom from his wrath.201 Hear. O king! the counsels of my age attend. and I with reason own. with thee must end. Germ. and witness what I vow. "With justice hast thou shown A prince's faults. The laws and sceptres to thy hand are given. When from Pelides' tent you forced the maid. At once my present judgment and my past. With thee my cares begin." To whom the king. durst dissuade. Heaven fights his war. Fain would my heart. not now conceived in haste. and faithful.

unmatch'd in form divine. uninjured she removes. vi. Skill'd in each art. ch. brief as is the mention of Briseis in the Iliad. . that.89). Untouch'd she stay'd. p. when counselling him to accept of presents and assist the Greeks. "We cannot commend Phoenix. without presents. When Lesbos sank beneath the hero's arms: All these. And twice ten vases of refulgent mould: Seven sacred tripods. iii. (Herodot. Plato. And still victorious in the dusty course.) Seven lovely captives of the Lesbian line. and if the powers Give to our arms proud Ilion's hostile towers. Purity. Briseis I resign. are features well contrasted with the rough. 1. Middle Ages. and other kings.BOOK IX. nor has felt the flame. x. and guiltless of my loves. not to desist from his wrath. And solemn swear those charms were never mine. and retiring delicacy. 4). 189) This fact frees Achilles from the apparent charge of sordidness. And join'd with these the long-contested maid. (De Rep. So. 202 It may be observed. With all her charms. to buy his friendship. pt. Twelve steeds unmatch'd in fleetness and in force. whose unsullied frame Yet knows no office. but tender disposition of the hero. 'The feudal aids are the beginning of taxation. shall be paid. but. The same I chose for more than vulgar charms. and small the part she plays—what little is said is pre-eminently calculated to enhance her fitness to be the bride of Achilles. Ten weighty talents of the purest gold.' (Hallam. full twenty nymphs of Trojan race 267 Section 15) Persian. Then shall he store (when Greece the spoil divides) With gold and brass his loaded navy's sides: Besides. the tutor of Achilles. as if he spoke correctly. should we commend Achilles himself.202 These instant shall be his. says. however. Pure from my arms. too." &c. of which they for a long time answered the purpose. in the middle ages. or approve of his being so covetous as to receive presents from Agamemnon. nor again. (Rich were the man whose ample stores exceed The prizes purchased by their winged speed.

who would enrich their lord by presents and tribute. And sacred Pedasus for vines renown'd. and generous is the soil. when he offers to transfer to Achilles seven towns inhabited by wealthy husbandmen. Seven ample cities shall confess his sway."—Thirlwall's Greece. note. no reward for love: Myself will give the dower. Iphianassa. and Pherae him obey. And rich Antheia with her flowery fields:204 The whole extent to Pylos' sandy plain. on Phoenix. Yet hear me further: when our wars are o'er. or Iphigenia. Yet more—three daughters in my court are bred. and labouring oxen toil. Bold are the men. Along the verdant margin of the main There heifers graze. seems likewise to assume rather a property in them. the Dolopes of Phthia. Such as himself will choose. Cardamyle with ample turrets crown'd.268 The Iliad of Homer [164] With copious love shall crown his warm embrace. who yield to none. p. Or yield to Helen's heavenly charms alone. There shall he reign. If safe we land on Argos' fruitful shore. Him Enope. with power and justice crown'd. And each well worthy of a royal bed. . our honours share. Æpea fair. Her let him choose whom most his eyes approve. i Section 6. 162. And with Orestes' self divide my care. the pastures Hira yields. There shall he live my son. than an authority over them.203 And bright Chrysothemis with golden hair. vol. Laodice and Iphigenia fair. I ask no presents. among the daughters of Agamemnon. And the same thing may be intimated when it is said that Peleus bestowed a great people. And rule the tributary realms around. 204 "Agamemnon. 203 —Laodice. is not mentioned by Homer. so vast a store As never father gave a child before.

it fits him to obey. his vengeance to control. which. All this I give." 206 —Purest hands. and more my sway. as Kennedy has explained it. Let chosen delegates this hour be sent (Myself will name them) to Pelides' tent." or. The reverend Nestor then: "Great Agamemnon! glorious king of men! Such are thy offers as a prince may take. "Abstain from expressions unsuitable to the solemnity of the occasion. Now pray to Jove to grant what Greece demands. Since more than his my years. as the worst of gods Great though he be. Let Phoenix lead. And sure all this may move his mighty soul. And mortals hate him. Rather: "use well-omened words. Great Ajax next. 205 . and one founded as much in nature as in tradition. and Ithacus the sage. revered for hoary age. Let Hodius and Eurybates attend. and who hears no prayers. Pray in deep silence. the grisly god. Pluto. might defeat the object of their supplications. Lives dark and dreadful in deep hell's abodes. This is one of the most ancient superstitions respecting prayer. by offending the god."206 [165] —Pray in deep silence. who never spares. Yet more to sanctify the word you send. Who feels no mercy." 269 The monarch thus.BOOK IX. And such as fits a generous king to make.205 and with purest hands.

270 The Iliad of Homer PLUTO. .

Ulysses most. . To deprecate the chief. And now. and all approved. and hear the roar Of murmuring billows on the sounding shore. ruler of the seas profound. Whose liquid arms the mighty globe surround. They pour forth vows. The heralds bring The cleansing water from the living spring.BOOK IX. The youth with wine the sacred goblets crown'd. Wise Nestor turns on each his careful eye. He said. Forbids to offend. And calm the rage of stern Æacides. And large libations drench'd the sands around. The rite perform'd. the godlike man they found. To Neptune. their embassy to bless. arrived. and save the host. 271 THE EMBASSY TO ACHILLES. Pleased with the solemn harp's harmonious sound. the chiefs their thirst allay. Through the still night they march. Then from the royal tent they take their way. Much he advised them all. instructs them to apply. where on the sandy bay The Myrmidonian tents and vessels lay. Amused at ease.

the chiefs beneath his roof he led. Mix purer wine. Or strong necessity. the great Ulysses leads. and these thy friend. Then thus—"Patroclus. crown a larger bowl. Unseen the Grecian embassy proceeds To his high tent. Of polish'd silver was its costly frame. Patroclus only of the royal train.) With this he soothes his angry soul. Welcome. and listen'd long. With like surprise arose Menoetius' son: Pelides grasp'd their hands. or urgent fear." With that. all hail! whatever brought you here. and open every soul. and laid the harp aside. though Greeks! for not as foes ye came.272 The Iliad of Homer [166] (The well wrought harp from conquered Thebae came. Leap'd from his seat. Thy friend most honours these. Achilles starting. And placed in seats with purple carpets spread. In silence waiting till he ceased the song. To me more dear than all that bear the name." . Of all the warriors yonder host can send. as the chiefs he spied. Placed in his tent. and sings The immortal deeds of heroes and of kings. and thus begun: "Princes. attends the lofty strain: Full opposite he sat.

That. With bread the glittering canisters they load. Which flesh of porker. Agamemnon's regal tent affords. The parts transfixes. to Phoenix Ajax gave the sign: Not unperceived. What scenes of slaughter in yon fields appear! The dead we mourn. The first fat offering to the immortals due. Then each. Each portion parts. and instant thus began. He said: Patroclus o'er the blazing fire Heaps in a brazen vase three chines entire: The brazen vase Automedon sustains. Meanwhile Patroclus sweats. opposed to Ulysses full in sight. Amidst the greedy flames Patroclus threw. Himself. His speech addressing to the godlike man. the fire to raise. The tent is brighten'd with the rising blaze: Then. Above the coals the smoking fragments turns And sprinkles sacred salt from lifted urns. Achilles at the genial feast presides. and orders every rite. and for the living fear. sheep. indulging in the social feast. Ulysses crown'd with wine The foaming bowl. His thirst and hunger soberly repress'd. Greece on the brink of fate all doubtful stands. when the languid flames at length subside. That done. Nor eased by banquets or by flowing bowls. 273 [167] . But greater cares sit heavy on our souls. He strows a bed of glowing embers wide. Which round the board Menoetius' son bestow'd. and with skill divides. "Health to Achilles! happy are thy guests! Not those more honour'd whom Atrides feasts: Though generous plenty crown thy loaded boards. and goat contains.BOOK IX.

ah. Their threatening tents already shade our wall: Hear how with shouts their conquest they proclaim. Thy arms may Juno and Minerva bless! Trust that to Heaven: but thou. When Peleus in his aged arms embraced His parting son. and stop the course of Fate. What fury in his breast. that courage rise in vain: Regard in time. and success. with glory. the Greeks. yet to conquer. Rise to redeem. That young and old may in thy praise combine. and this the fatal day? Return. and subdue thy rage: From gentler manners let thy glory grow. the sure source of woe. though late. See. avenging Hector rise! See! heaven and earth the raging chief defies. If in that heart or grief or courage lies. And point at every ship their vengeful flame! For them the father of the gods declares. Lest Fate accomplish all his rage design'd! And must we. to sink in flame The ships. . when. and his thunder theirs. and all the Grecian name. thy cares engage To calm thy passions. these accents were his last: "'My child! with strength. Achilles: oh return. all our warriors slain. To save thy Greeks. what lightning in his eyes! He waits but for the morn. full of Jove.274 The Iliad of Homer And owns no help but from thy saving hands: Troy and her aids for ready vengeance call. Theirs are his omens. And shun contention. rise! The day may come. That heart shall melt. O prince divinely brave! Those wholesome counsels which thy father gave. Heavens! how my country's woes distract my mind. gods! our heads inglorious lay In Trojan dust.

Ten weighty talents of the purest gold. Twelve steeds unmatched in fleetness and in force.) Seven lovely captives of the Lesbian line. Besides. Pure from his arms. And. join'd with these.BOOK IX. Skill'd in each art. With all her charms. Yet hear me further: when our wars are o'er. The virtues of humanity be thine—' This now-despised advice thy father gave. Then shalt thou store (when Greece the spoil divides) With gold and brass thy loaded navy's sides. Gifts worthy thee his royal hand prepares. unmatch'd in form divine. the long-contested maid. nor has felt the flame. while I number o'er The proffer'd presents. 275 [168] . Untouch'd she stay'd. And solemn swear those charms were only thine. whose ample stores exceed The prizes purchased by their winged speed. and if the powers Give to our arms proud Ilion's hostile towers. Briseis he'll resign. who yield to none. to buy thy friendship shall be paid. and guiltless of his loves. And still victorious in the dusty course. (Rich were the man. All these. an exhaustless store. and be truly brave. The same he chose for more than vulgar charms. full twenty nymphs of Trojan race With copious love shall crown thy warm embrace. Or yield to Helen's heavenly charms alone. Such as thyself shall chose. And twice ten vases of refulgent mould. Seven sacred tripods. These instant shall be thine. If not—but hear me. When Lesbos sank beneath thy conquering arms. If thou wilt yield to great Atrides' prayers. whose unsullied frame Yet knows no office. Ah! check thy anger. uninjured she removes.

relentless. and generous is the soil. Proud Hector. Yet more—three daughters in his court are bred. . The whole extent to Pylos' sandy plain. And bright Chrysothemis with golden hair: Her shalt thou wed whom most thy eyes approve. And with Orestes' self divide his care. the pastures Hira yields. The Enope and Pherae thee obey. amongst her guardian gods. Seven ample cities shall confess thy sway.276 The Iliad of Homer [169] If safe we land on Argos' fruitful shore. And rule the tributary realms around. now. Hear thy own glory. so vast a store As never father gave a child before. Along the verdant margin of the main. no reward for love: Himself will give the dower. And be. for vines renown'd: Æpea fair. And each well worthy of a royal bed: Laodice and Iphigenia fair. whose unresisted ire Made nations tremble. Such the repentance of a suppliant king. He asks no presents. and the voice of fame: For now that chief. But if all this. with power and justice crown'd. adored. Yet some redress to suppliant Greece afford. There shalt thou reign. and whole hosts retire. the unequal fight demands. thou disdain. his honour share. Cardamyle with ample turrets crown'd. And sacred Pedasus. Bold are the men. Such are the proffers which this day we bring. If honour and if interest plead in vain. And rich Antheia with her flowery fields. and labouring oxen toil. If no regard thy suffering country claim. There heifers graze. There shalt thou live his son.

Long toils. Which nor Atrides nor his Greeks can bend. Long sleepless nights in heavy arms I stood. Such a one was that of which Achilles now speaks. or who bravely dies. that the war at Troy was not a settled siege. Of all my dangers. A life of labours. "Then thus in short my fix'd resolves attend. Alike regretted in the dust he lies. What in my secret soul is understood. My heart detests him as the gates of hell. by my labours saved. The wretch and hero find their prize the same. From the following verses. and not to the successful plunderer. 207 . my purpose I retain: Nor with new treaties vex my peace in vain. hear A faithful speech. her infants. In search of prey she wings the spacious air. a like reward we claim.BOOK IX. and my deeds make good. Fight or not fight. My tongue shall utter. I sack'd twelve ample cities on the main. And only triumphs to deserve thy hands. and that many of the chieftains busied themselves in piratical expeditions about its neighborhood. From danger guards them. lo! what fruit remains? As the bold bird her helpless young attends. Her wives. and from want defends. And sweat laborious days in dust and blood. and another tell. But now the unfruitful glories charm no more.207 277 It must be recollected. Who dares think one thing. all my glorious pains. long perils in their cause I bore." Then thus the goddess-born: "Ulysses. And with the untasted food supplies her care: For thankless Greece such hardships have I braved. Let Greece then know. that knows nor art nor fear. Who yields ignobly. it is evident that fruits of these maraudings went to the common support of the expedition.

Nor did my fair one less distinction claim. may consult with you. Sure every wise and worthy man will love. too. What calls for vengeance but a woman's cause? Are fair endowments and a beauteous face Beloved by none but those of Atreus' race? The wife whom choice and passion doth approve. nor dared to wait . I trust not kings again. Your king. Deceived for once. Some present. and a trench profound? And will not these (the wonders he has done) Repel the rage of Priam's single son? There was a time ('twas when for Greece I fought) When Hector's prowess no such wonders wrought. Ulysses. then. But what's the quarrel. and the spoils I made. He kept the verge of Troy. Ye have my answer—what remains to do. let him (as he may) enjoy. Wrong'd in my love. What needs he the defence this arm can make? Has he not walls no human force can shake? Has he not fenced his guarded navy round With piles. all proffers I disdain. of Greece to Troy? What to these shores the assembled nations draws. to every prince was paid. with ramparts. Some few my soldiers had. Your mighty monarch these in peace possess'd. Slave as she was.278 The Iliad of Homer [170] And twelve lay smoking on the Trojan plain: Then at Atrides' haughty feet were laid The wealth I gathered. himself the rest. And every prince enjoys the gift he made: I only must refund. of all his train. my soul adored the dame. See what pre-eminence our merits gain! My spoil alone his greedy soul delights: My spouse alone must bless his lustful nights: The woman.

And meditates new cheats on all his slaves. was his. Achilles' fury at the Scaean gate. that all the Greeks may hear. No—let the stupid prince. Then shall you see our parting vessels crown'd. the capital of Achilles' Thessalian domains. and shining brass: My beauteous captives thither I'll convey. And all that rests of my unravish'd prey. all terms. Pthia to her Achilles shall restore The wealth he left for this detested shore: Thither the spoils of this long war shall pass. all commerce I decline. mankind he braves. (For arm'd in impudence. Then tell him: loud. His gifts are hateful: kings of such a kind Stand but as slaves before a noble mind. .BOOK IX. For once deceiv'd.208 If mighty Neptune send propitious gales. The ruddy gold. One only valued gift your tyrant gave. And learn to scorn the wretch they basely fear. And all his rapine could from others wrest: Not all the golden tides of wealth that crown 208 279 [171] —Pthia. And that resumed—the fair Lyrnessian slave. And hear with oars the Hellespont resound. the steel. He tried it once. nor his battle join. Nor share his council. Not though he proffer'd all himself possess'd.) Tell him. run where frenzy drives. The third day hence shall Pthia greet our sails. But now those ancient enmities are o'er. whom Jove deprives Of sense and justice. but twice were mine. and scarce was saved by fate. Though shameless as he is. To-morrow we the favouring gods implore. to face these eyes Is what he dares not: if he dares he dies.

Like golden Venus though she charm'd the heart. I hate alliance with a tyrant's race. But when the channels came to be either neglected. in number more Than dust in fields. vol. Atrides' daughter never shall be led (An ill-match'd consort) to Achilles' bed. 162." as it was. in Boeotia.210 Though bribes were heap'd on bribes. And kings that sue to mix their blood with mine. 'Tis he that offers.280 The Iliad of Homer [172] The many-peopled Orchomenian town. The topography of Orchomenus. was a sufficient reason for its prosperity and decay. And pours her heroes through a hundred gates." &c. and to occasion the change of the site of Orchomenus itself from the plain to the declivity of Mount Hyphanteion. Bless'd in kind love. Should all these offers for my friendship call. p. The world's great empress on the Egyptian plain (That spreads her conquests o'er a thousand states. my years shall glide away. 209 . Some greater Greek let those high nuptials grace. "situated." (Ibid. Two hundred horsemen and two hundred cars From each wide portal issuing to the wars). p. If heaven restore me to my realms with life. pre-eminently rich and fertile. and I scorn them all. a large portion of the lake was in the condition of alluvial land. The reverend Peleus shall elect my wife. Content with just hereditary sway. the water accumulated in such a degree as to occupy the soil of more than one ancient islet. seems to be merely expressive of a great number.. or sands along the shore. See notes to my prose translation.209 Not all proud Thebes' unrivall'd walls contain. or designedly choked up by an enemy. but also other rivers from Parnassus and Helicon" (Grote. —Orchomenian town. And vied with Pallas in the works of art. Thessalian nymphs there are of form divine.) 210 The phrase "hundred gates. "As long as the channels of these waters were diligently watched and kept clear. which receives not only the river Cephisus from the valleys of Phocis. 181). "on the northern bank of the lake Æpais.

Can bribe the poor possession of a day! Lost herds and treasures we by arms regain. Go then to Greece. and long-extended days. and others will: Ye find. Or Troy once held. To save the ships. though late. if I stay. Let all your forces. I quit immortal praise For years on years. To quit these shores. Convinced. And each alternate. Enjoy the dear prerogative of life. and his will be free. But whether he remain or sail with me. Short is my date. Returns no more to wake the silent dead. Not all Apollo's Pythian treasures hold. And steeds unrivall'd on the dusty plain: But from our lips the vital spirit fled. life or fame. report our fix'd design. Life is not to be bought with heaps of gold. all your arts conspire. Bid all your counsels. their native seats enjoy. Here. My fates long since by Thetis were disclosed. before the Trojan town." 281 . Nor hope the fall of heaven-defended Troy. from fire. Achilles is unconquer'd still.BOOK IX. all your armies join. One stratagem has fail'd. Jove's arm display'd asserts her from the skies! Her hearts are strengthen'd. I find my fond mistake. the troops. proposed. and her glories rise. There. the chiefs. deaf for ever to the martial strife. His age be sacred. but deathless my renown: If I return. Go then—digest my message as ye may— But here this night let reverend Phoenix stay: His tedious toils and hoary hairs demand A peaceful death in Pthia's friendly land. in peace and pride of sway. And warn the Greeks the wiser choice to make.

With accent weak these tender words return'd. Then Phoenix rose. in consternation drown'd. .282 The Iliad of Homer GREEK GALLEY. The son of Peleus ceased: the chiefs around In silence wrapt. Attend the stern reply.) And while the fate of suffering Greece he mourn'd. (Down his white beard a stream of sorrow flows.

BOOK IX. . 283 PROSERPINE.

My sire with curses loads my hated head. Never. Thy youth as then in sage debates unskill'd. the land of lovely dames). restore The bloom I boasted. and brawny swine. and watch'd nine nights entire. that breathed my life. black bulls.284 The Iliad of Homer [173] "Divine Achilles! wilt thou then retire. And cries. when from Pthia's coast He sent thee early to the Achaian host. Old as he was. thy Phoenix. Despair and grief distract my labouring mind! Gods! what a crime my impious heart design'd! I thought (but some kind god that thought suppress'd) To plunge the poniard in my father's breast. adored a stranger's charms. And new to perils of the direful field: He bade me teach thee all the ways of war. and in camps to dare. the vengeful fiends below. never let me leave thy side! No time shall part us. confirm'd his vow. And ruthless Proserpine. and no fate divide. My father faithless to my mother's arms.' Infernal Jove. I tried what youth could do (at her desire) To win the damsel. Then meditate my flight: my friends in vain With prayers entreat me. with draughts of fragrant wine. How shall thy friend. our fleets on fire? If wrath so dreadful fill thy ruthless mind. and with force detain. ah. and the port I bore. On fat of rams. 'Ye furies! barren be his bed. and prevent my sire. stay behind? The royal Peleus. They daily feast. To shine in councils. . And leave our hosts in blood. When Greece of old beheld my youthful flames (Delightful Greece. Strong guards they placed. Not though the god.

and anxiously enjoin'd That I should rear thee as my own with all A parent's love. and o'er Dolopia bade me rule. unseen of all: And. favour'd by the night." "And the wine Held to thy lips.— "Many gifts he gave. thee in his arms He brought an infant. let me add. while round my neck thy hands were lock'd." observes my learned friend (notes. as his son caress'd. in translating which. By love to thee his bounties I repaid. by Phoenix wouldst thou stand. My travels thence through spacious Greece extend. The tenth. No food was grateful but from Phoenix' hand. Still in my arms (an ever-pleasing load) Or at my knee. which distinguished the age of Anne. omits the natural (and. Mewling and puking didst thou drench my tunic. From thy sweet lips the half articulate sound Of Father came. II ix. with that squeamish. With gifts enrich'd. 121) "is taken from the passage of Homer. and with possessions bless'd. on my bosom laid The precious charge. And early wisdom to thy soul convey'd: Great as thou art. p. Thy infant breast a like affection show'd.211 285 [174] Compare the following pretty lines of Quintus Calaber (Dyce's Select Translations. I fail'd not in my trust And oft. and oft. artificial taste. as children use. And all the coast that runs along the main. The roofs and porches flamed with constant fire. and many a time in fits Of infant frowardness the purple juice 211 . I forced the gates.BOOK IX. affecting) circumstance. The strong Dolopians thenceforth own'd my reign." "This description. o'erleap'd the wall. p 88). In Phthia's court at last my labours end. Your sire received me. but a hero gave. my lessons made thee brave: A child I took thee. Pope.

For him they mediate to the throne above When man rejects the humble suit they make. to heal her wrongs. And promised comfort to my silver hairs. With humble mien. erect. vows. Prayers are Jove's daughters. Constant they follow. Injustice swift. the compliant cares. and tramples o'er mankind. The gods (I thought) reversed their hard decree. And Phoenix felt a father's joys in thee: Thy growing virtues justified my cares. and sacrifice. A cruel heart ill suits a manly mind: The gods (the only great. and only wise) Are moved by offerings. Now be thy rage. and unconfined. Due honours calm the fierce. where injustice flies. While Prayers. and with dejected eyes. move slow behind. Offending man their high compassion wins. resign'd. And daily prayers atone for daily sins. . Lame are their feet. thy fatal rage. Rejecting thou hast deluged all my vest. And fill'd my bosom. fierce injustice then Descends to punish unrelenting men. Were these not paid thee by the terms we bring. From Jove commission'd. O let not headlong passion bear the sway These reconciling goddesses obey Due honours to the seed of Jove belong. and wrinkled is their face." —Cowper. Sweeps the wide earth. and bend the strong. of celestial race. Who hears these daughters of almighty Jove. The sire revenges for the daughters' sake. The tender labours. Were rage still harbour'd in the haughty king.286 The Iliad of Homer [175] I pass my watchings o'er thy helpless years.

i. these advance. see Grote. 195. And sends by those whom most thy heart commends.. The silver Cynthia bade contention rise. On OEneus fields she sent a monstrous boar. Who conquer'd their revenge in former days. p. Permit not these to sue. vol. 212 . The neighbour nations thence commencing foes. sqq. a new debate arose. the bold Curetes fail'd. p. see my notes to the prose translation. and what their praise. In vengeance of neglected sacrifice. That levell'd harvests. 166. and for the authorities. and whole forests tore: This beast (when many a chief his tusks had slain) Great Meleager stretch'd along the plain. While Meleager's thundering arm prevail'd: Till rage at length inflamed his lofty breast (For rage invades the wisest and the best). For a good sketch of the story of Meleager. Nor Greece nor all her fortunes should engage Thy friend to plead against so just a rage. The best and noblest of the Grecian train. for his spoils. Then. To guard it those. —Where Calydon. A great example drawn from times of old. 287 "Where Calydon on rocky mountains stands212 Once fought the Ætolian and Curetian bands. Hear what our fathers were.BOOK IX. But since what honour asks the general sends. And mutual deaths were dealt with mutual chance. Strong as they were. to conquer. too long to be inserted here. and sue in vain! Let me (my son) an ancient fact unfold.

divinely fair. With piercing cries. and supplicating tears. Althaea. War shakes her walls. Whose luckless hand his royal uncle slew. And call'd Alcyone. She beat the ground. the mourning mother's woe. At length his wife (a form divine) appears. more than man in war: The god of day adored the mother's charms. and elders of the land. Priests of the gods. (She from Marpessa sprung. And in his wife's embrace forgets the fields. And matchless Idas. sues. Meanwhile the victor's shouts ascend the skies. a name to show The father's grief. his friends before him fall: He stands relentless. and thunders at her gates. and their proffers great: (Full fifty acres of the richest ground. . and call'd the powers beneath On her own son to wreak her brother's death. came. Against the god the father bent his arms: The afflicted pair. And the red fiends that walk the nightly round.) To her the chief retired from stern debate. In vain Ætolia her deliverer waits. The walls are scaled. She sent ambassadors. But found no peace from fierce Althaea's hate: Althaea's hate the unhappy warrior drew. aged OEneus. even the vengeful dame. their sorrows to proclaim. to his wrath he yields. Half pasture green. From Cleopatra changed their daughter's name. a chosen band. and half with vineyards crown'd:) His suppliant father. the rolling flames arise. His sisters follow'd.288 The Iliad of Homer [176] "Cursed by Althaea. Besought the chief to save the sinking state: Their prayers were urgent. and rejects them all. Hell heard her curses from the realms profound.

" 289 Thus he: the stern Achilles thus replied: "My second father. now took their turn. or our stay. and my heart. the palaces o'erthrown. and my reverend guide: Thy friend. betimes to curb pernicious ire. my honours. long disdain'd. and lodge it in thy heart: No more molest me on Atrides' part: Is it for him these tears are taught to flow. he vanquish'd. draw thy conquering sword. And be amongst our guardian gods adored. Burns with one love." . and he saved. She paints the horrors of a conquer'd town. The Ætolians. Do this. And share my realms. Rest undetermined till the dawning day. And here I stay (if such his high behest) While life's warm spirit beats within my breast. The heroes slain. Learn hence. believe me. the whole race enslaved: The warrior heard. no such gifts demands. One should our interests and our passions be. Let these return: our voyage. Accept the presents. my Phoenix.BOOK IX. with one resentment glows. For him these sorrows? for my mortal foe? A generous friendship no cold medium knows. and favours my designs. The matrons ravish'd. Jove honours me. and his will confines. Nor stay till yonder fleets ascend in fire. And asks no honours from a mortal's hands. 'tis a generous part. His pleasure guides me. Yet hear one word. And left the chief their broken faith to mourn. My friend must hate the man that injures me.

The price of blood discharged. that the law of honour among the Greeks did not compel them to treasure up in their memory the offensive language which might be addressed to them by a passionate adversary. Even for real and deep injuries they were commonly willing to accept a pecuniary compensation. seven are offer'd. and our heroes wait. Achilles! be of better mind. and his friends disdains. 180. his words we must relate. Stern and unpitying! if a brother bleed." "Gifts can conquer"—It is well observed by Bishop Thirlwall. The Greeks expect them." 213 . that iron heart retains Its stubborn purpose." vol. we remit the deed. impatient.290 The Iliad of Homer He ceased. i. And gifts can conquer every soul but thine. and prize thy valour most. stern Ajax his long silence broke. nor to conceive that it left a stain which could only be washed away by blood.213 The gods that unrelenting breast have steel'd. then order'd for the sage's bed A warmer couch with numerous carpets spread. One woman-slave was ravish'd from thy arms: Lo. and of equal charms. With that. p. the murderer lives: The haughtiest hearts at length their rage resign. And cursed thee with a mind that cannot yield. "Greece. to Ulysses spoke: [177] "Hence let us go—why waste we time in vain? See what effect our low submissions gain! Liked or not liked. On just atonement. A sire the slaughter of his son forgives. And thus. and to thy guests be kind. And know the men of all the Grecian host. Revere thy roof. Proud as he is. Who honour worth. Then hear.

like the vilest slave! Return. then. The blood of Greeks shall dye the sable main. for Patroclus was the couch prepared.BOOK IX. but at the tyrant's name My rage rekindles. The chiefs return. through the gloomy shades. carpets. Not till the flames. Achilles to his friend consign'd her charms When Scyros fell before his conquering arms. amidst yon sinking navy slain. Not till. With fleeces. Achilles slept. There cease his battle. and there feel our hand. the impetuous homicide shall stand. till the sacred morn restored the day. divine Ulysses leads. and approach my own. dishonour'd. "O soul of battles. Then to their vessels. each prince a double goblet crown'd. But in his inner tent. and thy people's guide! (To Ajax thus the first of Greeks replied) Well hast thou spoke. by Hector's fury thrown. and my soul's on flame: 'Tis just resentment. and in his warm embrace Fair Diomede of the Lesbian race. and becomes the brave: Disgraced. In slumber sweet the reverend Phoenix lay. Consume your vessels. [178] . And cast a large libation on the ground. heroes! and our answer bear. Just there. and soft linen spread: There. The glorious combat is no more my care. Meantime Achilles' slaves prepared a bed. Whose nightly joys the beauteous Iphis shared." 291 This said. an ampler space. Last.

but left to Greece and thee. Such was his word: what further he declared. thy proposals scorns. But Phoenix in his tent the chief retains. Then rising all. when morning paints the sky." . Us too he bids our oars and sails employ. For Jove o'ershades her with his arm divine. Beneath his oars the whitening billows fly. Your eyes shall view. with goblets in their hands. with fiercer fury burns. if other he decree. or must our navy fall?" "Great king of nations! (Ithacus replied) Fix'd is his wrath.292 The Iliad of Homer And now the elected chiefs whom Greece had sent. To save our army. and our fleets to free. Nor hope the fall of heaven-protected Troy. and bids her glory shine. Safe to transport him to his native plains When morning dawns. The peers and leaders of the Achaian bands Hail'd their return: Atrides first begun: "Say what success? divine Laertes' son! Achilles' high resolves declare to all: "Returns the chief. Is not his care. His age is sacred. unconquer'd is his pride. Pass'd through the hosts. and reach'd the royal tent. He slights thy friendship. thus implored. And. Inspires her war. and his choice is free. These sacred heralds and great Ajax heard.

Ranged at the ships. Then each to Heaven the due libations pays. a long-extended line: In the dread front let great Atrides stand. Then let him arm when Jove or he think fit: That. "Why should we gifts to proud Achilles send. Till sleep. bestows The grateful blessings of desired repose. Tydides broke The general silence. or to Heaven commit: What for ourselves we can. let due repast refresh our powers. Be the fierce impulse of his rage obey'd. (For strength consists in spirits and in blood. descending o'er the tents. And prayers will burst that swelling heart with pride. Or strive with prayers his haughty soul to bend? His country's woes he glories to deride. This night. to his madness. in consternation lost." 293 [179] Shouts of acclaim the listening heroes raise. let all our squadrons shine In flaming arms.BOOK IX. The first in danger. as in high command. And those are owed to generous wine and food. Our battles let him or desert or aid. Ulysses ceased: the great Achaian host."—Milton . With sorrow seized. and undaunted spoke.) But when the rosy messenger of day Strikes the blue mountains with her golden ray."214 214 "The boon of sleep. Attend the stern reply. is always ours.

294 The Iliad of Homer ACHILLES. .

iv. awaking the leaders. and seize the famous horses of that prince. All night the chiefs before their vessels lay. and the Thracians who were lately arrived." —Dryden's Virgil. whom Hector had sent on a like design to the camp of the Grecians. 767. He takes no rest that night. ARGUMENT. the scene lies in the two camps. and Diomed are employed in raising the rest of the captains. the distress of Agamemnon is described in the most lively manner. Diomed undertakes this hazardous enterprise. and determine to send scouts into the enemies' camp. The same night continues. From him they are informed of the situation of the Trojan and auxiliary forces. with which they return in triumph to the camp. Ulysses. and contriving all possible methods for the public safety.[180] BOOK X. . but passes through the camp. Menelaus. to learn their posture. And lost in sleep the labours of the day: All but the king: with various thoughts oppress'd. and makes choice of Ulysses for his companion. They pass on with success. Upon the refusal of Achilles to return to the army. In their passage they surprise Dolon. with several of his officers. and particularly of Rhesus. THE NIGHT-ADVENTURE OF DIOMED AND ULYSSES. and discover their intentions. They call a council of war. kill Rhesus. Nestor.215 215 "All else of nature's common gift partake: Unhappy Dido was alone awake.

Now looking backwards to the fleet and coast. Sighs following sighs his inward fears confess'd. Meanwhile his brother. As when by lightnings Jove's ethereal power Foretels the rattling hail. A leopard's spotted hide his shoulders spread: A brazen helmet glitter'd on his head: . press'd with equal woes. Or sends soft snows to whiten all the shore. And marks distinct the voices of the foe. To seek sage Nestor now the chief resolves. that in his cause before So much had suffer'd and must suffer more. With him. in wholesome counsels. He rends his hair. And sues to him that ever lives above: Inly he groans. while glory and despair Divide his heart. A thousand cares his labouring breast revolves. and wage a double war. And heaven flames thick with momentary fires: So bursting frequent from Atrides' breast. dejected. Now o'er the fields. Or bids the brazen throat of war to roar. His warlike hand a pointed javelin held. in sacrifice to Jove. Anxious he sorrows for the endangered host. By fits one flash succeeds as one expires. to debate What yet remains to save the afflicted state. He rose. Alike denied the gifts of soft repose. A lion's yellow spoils his back conceal'd. Next on his feet the shining sandals bound. he surveys From thousand Trojan fires the mounting blaze. or weighty shower. and first he cast his mantle round. Hears in the passing wind their music blow.296 The Iliad of Homer [181] His country's cares lay rolling in his breast. Laments for Greece.

through night's dark shade to go. No vulgar counsel our affairs demand. the last revolving sun What honours the beloved of Jove adorn! Sprung from no god. Such wondrous deeds as Hector's hand has done. our humble prayer denies. What eye has witness'd. by one great arm achieved. deep design. Already waked. And curse the battle where their fathers fell. And midst a hostile camp explore the foe. Greece to preserve. For Jove. Thus (with a javelin in his hand) he went To wake Atrides in the royal tent. And we beheld. amidst these silent hours. But asks high wisdom. as Greeks unborn shall tell. what hero shall sustain that task? Such bold exploits uncommon courage ask. and the prince of Crete. averse." 297 To whom the king: "In such distress we stand. To keep the guards on duty be his care. And bows his head to Hector's sacrifice. is now no easy part. In one great day. the Spartan thus begun: "Why puts my brother his bright armour on? Sends he some spy. and art. [182] . Joyful they met. Yet such his acts. To try yon camp. Atrides he descried. Ourself to hoary Nestor will repair. Guideless.BOOK X. and of no goddess born. or what ear believed. His armour buckling at his vessel's side. There call great Ajax. and watch the Trojan powers? But say. "Now speed thy hasty course along the fleet. alone.

shall I stay. Seek'st thou some friend or nightly sentinel? Stand off. but works. he gave us woe. thus range the camp alone. that on designs unknown. Then. The shining helmet. Not titles here. without a guide. (the king of men replied. each parted to his several cares: The king to Nestor's sable ship repairs. The paths so many. The sage protector of the Greeks he found Stretch'd in his bed with all his arms around The various-colour'd scarf. and the camp so wide. approach not.) Else may we miss to meet. must prove our worth. speak. but thy purpose tell. That. Urge by their fathers' fame their future praise. The hoary monarch raised his eyes and said: "What art thou. o'er the watch presides. While others sleep.") To whom the Spartan: "These thy orders borne. with your voice the slothful soldiers raise. leaning on his hand his watchful head. or with despatch return?" "There shall thou stay. Still. Whose son with Merion. To labour is the lot of man below.298 The Iliad of Homer (For Nestor's influence best that quarter guides. The dreadful weapons of the warrior's rage." ." This said. disdain'd the peace of age. old in arms. And when Jove gave us life. the shield he rears. Forget we now our state and lofty birth. Say. and the pointed spears.

and glory of thy kind! Lo. I wander thus alone.) Impart thy counsel.) Pride of the Greeks. Oileus famed for speed. And the wise counsels of the eternal mind! Audacious Hector. (Since cares. No taste of sleep these heavy eyes have known. Whom Jove decrees with daily cares to bend. and favour'd by the gloomy shade. and assist thy friend. deprive thy soul of rest. The unhappy general of the Grecian bands. we chiefly need. and what woes remain! Lo. At every gate the fainting guard excite.BOOK X. (thus the king rejoin'd. And scarce my heart support its load of pain. Now let us jointly to the trench descend. What toils attend thee. Some other be despatch'd of nimbler feet. "O son of Neleus. that only with his life shall end! Scarce can my knees these trembling limbs sustain. Diomed. Confused. faithful Nestor thy command obeys. Else may the sudden foe our works invade." To him thus Nestor: "Trust the powers above. if the gods ordain That great Achilles rise and rage again. To those tall ships. And woes. like mine. and sad. Meges for strength. remotest of the fleet. So near. 299 [183] . here the wretched Agamemnon stands. With fears distracted. The care is next our other chiefs to raise: Ulysses. Tired with the toils of day and watch of night. And all my people's miseries are mine. Nor think proud Hector's hopes confirm'd by Jove: How ill agree the views of vain mankind. If aught of use thy waking thoughts suggest. with no fix'd design.

He seems remiss. and doubly lined. For strong necessity our toils demands." "Then none (said Nestor) shall his rule withstand. our chosen council waits." To whom the king: "With reverence we allow Thy just rebukes. but bears a valiant mind. between the trench and gates. Dear as he is to us. The chiefs you named. Assembling there. The camp he traversed through the sleeping crowd. Claims all our hearts. For great examples justify command. 216 —The king of Crete: Idomeneus. Then rushing from his tent. Yet must I tax his sloth.216 To rouse the Spartan I myself decree. that claims no share With his great brother in his martial care: Him it behoved to every chief to sue. that lighten'd as he pass'd. the venerable warrior rose. .300 The Iliad of Homer Where lie great Ajax and the king of Crete." With that. our ills industrious to prevent. and call'd aloud. The shining greaves his manly legs enclose. Near the night-guards. His purple mantle golden buckles join'd. Warm with the softest wool. he snatch'd in haste His steely lance. Stopp'd at Ulysses' tent. and dear to thee. already at his call. yet learn to spare them now: My generous brother is of gentle kind. Through too much deference to our sovereign sway. Prepare to meet us near the navy-wall. Long ere the rest he rose. Preventing every part perform'd by you. and sought my tent. Content to follow when we lead the way: But now. and urges all our hands.

A bull's black hide composed the hero's bed." 301 [184] . Without his tent. and in these words awakes: "Rise. and issues from his tent. But sleep'st thou now. or to fly or fight. son of Tydeus! to the brave and strong Rest seems inglorious. A splendid carpet roll'd beneath his head. when from yon hill the foe Hangs o'er the fleet. Whatever counsels can inspire our thought. sudden as the voice was sent. Thus leads you wandering in the silent night?" "O prudent chief! (the Pylian sage replied) Wise as thou art. Awakes. what sudden cause of fright. extended on the field. Then. and shades our walls below?" At this. His head reclining on his bossy shield. soft slumber from his eyelids fled. and the night too long. The warrior saw the hoary chief. fix'd upright. Whatever methods. be now thy wisdom tried: Whatever means of safety can be sought.BOOK X. A wood of spears stood by. and follow'd through the field. Let younger Greeks our sleeping warriors wake. "What new distress. old Nestor gently shakes The slumbering chief. bold Diomed they found. return'd. All. Ulysses. his brave companions round: Each sunk in sleep. Ill fits thy age these toils to undertake. Though years and honours bid thee seek repose. and said: "Wondrous old man! whose soul no respite knows. that. starts up. All sheathed in arms. with his foot. Shot from their flashing points a quivering light. Then join'd the chiefs. all depend on this important night!" He heard. and took his painted shield.

He serves me most. Stands on the sharpest edge of death or life: Yet. Then seized his ponderous lance. and strode along. (he answered. And. in this conclusive strife. Succeed to these my cares. Meges the bold. and to the entrenchments lead. When the gaunt lioness. that to his ankles hung. Each voice. [185] . and rouse the rest. and more loud. each in arms prepared: The unwearied watch their listening leaders keep. With toil protected from the prowling train. who serves his country best. Thus watch'd the Grecians.302 The Iliad of Homer "My friend. So faithful dogs their fleecy charge maintain. repel invading sleep. my subjects and my sons might bear. cautious of surprise. the hero o'er his shoulders flung A lion's spoils. Each single Greek. Their loyal thoughts and pious love conspire To ease a sovereign and relieve a sire: But now the last despair surrounds our host." This said. if my years thy kind regard engage. Springs from the mountains toward the guarded fold: Through breaking woods her rustling course they hear. The warrior roused. with Ajax famed for speed. no moment must be lost. These toils. drew their ears and eyes: Each step of passing feet increased the affright. Loud. A wakeful squadron. Employ thy youth as I employ my age. each motion. they gaze around. And now the chiefs approach the nightly guard. No hour must pass. the clamours strike their ear Of hounds and men: they start. couching close.) generous is thy care. Watch every side. with hunger bold. and turn to every sound.

The council opening. Nestor with joy the wakeful band survey'd. or seize some straggling foe? Or favour'd by the night approach so near. or men have tongues to praise! What gifts his grateful country would bestow! What must not Greece to her deliverer owe? 303 . their counsels. and designs to hear? If to besiege our navies they prepare. the assembled kings around In silent state the consistory crown'd. The spot where Hector stopp'd his rage before. who singly dares to go To yonder camp. and godlike Merion." The hero said. and to our peers recite. His life to hazard. And pass unharm'd the dangers of the night. Watch thus. march'd behind (For these the princes to their council join'd). When night descending. Their speech. And hostile Troy was ever full in sight. yet undefiled with gore. And thus accosted through the gloomy shade. and his country save? Lives there a man. And all his progress mark'd by heaps of dead:) There sat the mournful kings: when Neleus' son. and Greece shall live. "'Tis well. The trenches pass'd. Or Troy once more must be the seat of war? This could he learn. Then o'er the trench the following chieftains led. While Phoebus shines. Else must our host become the scorn of Troy. A place there was. What fame were his through all succeeding days.BOOK X. in these words begun: "Is there (said he) a chief so greatly brave. from his vengeful hand Reprieved the relics of the Grecian band: (The plain beside with mangled corps was spread. His son. my sons! your nightly cares employ.

304 The Iliad of Homer A sable ewe each leader should provide. no respect be paid. Through yon black camps to bend my dangerous way. and second my design. And inly trembled for his brother's sake. And his the foremost honours of the feast. To birth. Just be thy choice. Each generous breast with emulation glows." Contending leaders at the word arose. and thou best of friends. . By mutual confidence and mutual aid. To raise my hopes." [186] Fear held them mute: alone. is only thine. The Spartan wish'd the second place to gain. But let some other chosen warrior join. nor wish'd in vain. Great deeds are done. Undaunted Diomed! what chief to join In this great enterprise. And one brave hero fans another's fire. Then thus the king of men the contest ends: "Thou first of warriors. Let worth determine here. So brave a task each Ajax strove to share." The monarch spake. and I obey. and great discoveries made. Some god within commands. and Nestor's valiant heir. Tydides spoke—"The man you seek is here. Bold Merion strove. untaught to fear. or office. The wise new prudence from the wise acquire. without affection made. With each a sable lambkin by her side. And great Ulysses wish'd. At every rite his share should be increased.

with bright arrows stored: A well-proved casque. while great Ulysses stands To lend his counsels and assist our hands? A chief. a kind of woollen stuffing. And ample buckler. pressed in between the straps.BOOK X. This from Amyntor.) his temples crown'd. I no aid require.217 A boar's white teeth grinn'd horrid o'er his head. (Replied the sage.) to praise me. and make the helmet fit close. before these chiefs of fame. Short of its crest. (Thy gift." Thus having spoke. in order spread. And of night's empire but a third remains. Meriones. or censure from a foe. "Then thus (the godlike Diomed rejoin'd) My choice declares the impulse of my mind. A bow and quiver. so dreadful. 217 . The reddening orient shows the coming day." "It fits thee not. to protect the head. A two-edged falchion Thrasymed the brave. Are lost on hearers that our merits know. In arms terrific their huge limbs they dress'd. to Tydides gave: Then in a leathern helm he cased his head. How can I doubt. and no studs adorn. and with no plume o'erspread: (Such as by youths unused to arms are worn:) No spoils enrich it. rich Ormenus' son. 305 [187] —Soft wool within. Next him Ulysses took a shining sword. whose safety is Minerva's care. Soft wool within. without. i e. Wisdom like his might pass through flames of fire. The stars shine fainter on the ethereal plains. in the works of war: Bless'd in his conduct. So famed. But let us haste—Night rolls the hours away. with generous ardour press'd. or to blame: Praise from a friend. with leather braces bound.

To claim the tears of Trojans yet unborn. whose favour Tydeus won. As thou defend'st the sire. defend the son. Great queen of arms. And now Ulysses' thoughtful temples press'd. though surrounding shades obscured their view. When on Æsopus' banks the banded powers Of Greece he left. And gave Amphidamas. He went a legate.306 The Iliad of Homer Autolycus by fraudful rapine won. and address'd the maid: "O daughter of that god whose arm can wield The avenging bolt. He fought with numbers. Safe by thy succour to our ships convey'd. received with peaceful show. the council they forsake. Thus sheathed in arms. but return'd a foe: Then help'd by thee. And dark through paths oblique their progress take. unconquer'd Pallas! hear. and sought the Theban towers. all my toils survey! Safe may we pass beneath the gloomy shade. A long-wing'd heron great Minerva sent: This. and cover'd by thy shield. As from the right she soar'd. and made numbers yield. O celestial maid! . And let some deed this signal night adorn." Then godlike Diomed preferr'd his prayer: "Daughter of Jove. the pledge of social ties. from him the prize Molus received. Peace was his charge. in sign she favour'd their intent. By the shrill clang and whistling wings they knew. Hail'd the glad omen. Just then. and shake the dreadful shield! O thou! for ever present in my way. Ulysses pray'd. So now be present. Who all my motions. The helmet next by Merion was possess'd.

spent with toil. His the fair steeds that all the rest excel. and what resolves they take? If now subdued they meditate their flight. unconscious of the galling yoke." The heroes pray'd. Now. And his the glory to have served so well. Dares greatly venture for a rich reward? Of yonder fleet a bold discovery make. and Pallas from the skies Accords their vow. and the sons of Troy." [188] . through blood. Untamed. and hills of slain. succeeds their enterprise. Through dust. Of all the plunder of the vanquish'd host. With dreadful thoughts they trace the dreary way. and with spreading horns. 307 Nor less bold Hector. On high designs the wakeful hours employ. Whose taper tops refulgent gold adorns. o'er arms. What watch they keep. Who thus the counsels of his breast proposed: "What glorious man. With ample forehead. And. neglect the watch of night? His be the chariot that shall please him most. for high attempts prepared. So still continue to the race thine aid! A youthful steer shall fall beneath the stroke.BOOK X. like two lions panting for the prey. The assembled peers their lofty chief enclosed. Through the black horrors of the ensanguined plain.

) . That bear Pelides through the ranks of war. Fulfil thy wish. The immortal coursers. all their aims betray." The chief then heaved the golden sceptre high. (Five girls beside the reverend herald told. no idle scout I go. And swear to grant me the demanded prize. A wolf's grey hide around his shoulders hung. Encouraged thus. and the glittering car." Thus Hector swore: the gods were call'd in vain. And trod the path his feet must tread no more. Not bless'd by nature with the charms of face. and rich in gold. "Hector! (he said) my courage bids me meet This high achievement. (Still bending forward as he coursed along. Eumedes' only boy. Even to the royal tent pursue my way. Dolon his name. Scarce had he pass'd the steeds and Trojan throng. And in his hand a pointed javelin shined.) Rich was the son in brass. Attesting thus the monarch of the sky: "Be witness thou! immortal lord of all! Whose thunder shakes the dark aerial hall: By none but Dolon shall this prize be borne. And all their counsels. And him alone the immortal steeds adorn. But the rash youth prepares to scour the plain: Across his back the bended bow he flung. and explore the fleet: But first exalt thy sceptre to the skies. and matchless in the race. their whole intention know. But swift of foot. A ferret's downy fur his helmet lined. Then (never to return) he sought the shore.308 The Iliad of Homer A youth there was among the tribes of Troy.

and thus to Diomed. so constant. on the hollow way. Then rush behind him. (As Dolon pass'd. Till scarce at distance of a javelin's throw. the bold Greeks pursue. or hastening to the fleet. 309 [189] . No voice succeeding. and stoop'd their head. the approaching tread Ulysses mark'd." With that they stepp'd aside. listening. "O friend! I hear some step of hostile feet. they intercept his way. When. now seen. Yet let him pass. and with such fears.BOOK X. the Trojan flew. As when two skilful hounds the leveret wind. And from the herd still turn the flying prey: So fast. he perceived the foe. Or chase through woods obscure the trembling hind. Betwixt the camp and him our spears employ. Moving this way. Or nightly pillager that strips the slain. Some spy. and prevent his pace. And intercept his hoped return to Troy. So distant they. heard them as they pass'd.) behind a heap of dead: Along the path the spy unwary flew. and such the space between.) When now new furrows part the approaching ploughs. perhaps. But if too swift of foot he flies before. (To whom the hind like shares of land allows. Now almost on the fleet the dastard falls. and win a little space. As when two teams of mules divide the green. Soft. Now lost. both the chiefs pursue. at just distance. to lurk beside the main. Confine his course along the fleet and shore. and check'd his haste. Hector (he thought) had sent. Now Dolon. So close. And mingles with the guards that watch the walls.

Then thus aloud: "Whoe'er thou art." He said. Large gifts of price my father shall bestow: Vast heaps of brass shall in your ships be told. Through heaps of carnage. nor fear to die. when sleep has closed the sight. And snatch the glory from his lifted lance. Against the trembling wood The wretch stood propp'd. The panting warriors seize him as he stands. to despoil the dead?" . and o'er his shoulder pass'd. By Hector prompted. "O spare my youth. Lest on the foe some forward Greek advance." To whom Ulysses made this wise reply: "Whoe'er thou art. A sudden palsy seized his turning head. and for the breath I owe. Which wilful err'd. a gen'rous thought (Inspired by Pallas) in his bosom wrought. What moves thee. be bold. His loose teeth chatter'd.310 The Iliad of Homer When brave Tydides stopp'd. remain. and high in air the weapon cast. say. Then fix'd in earth. And steel well-temper'd and refulgent gold. This javelin else shall fix thee to the plain. or thy daring mind? Or art some wretch by hopes of plunder led. And with unmanly tears his life demands. To roam the silent fields in dead of night? Cam'st thou the secrets of our camp to find. and his colour fled. and quiver'd as he stood.

Whose wives and infants. Or here to combat. Hector. from their city far. by Hector's words deceived. since this conquest. replies. be faithful. the guard the natives keep. Urged me. Or back to Ilion's walls transfer the war?" Ulysses thus. To learn what counsels. No certain guards the nightly watch partake. and glorious was the prize.) Far other rulers those proud steeds demand. from the danger far. what resolves you take: If now subdued. And. And scorn the guidance of a vulgar hand." 311 . his limbs with horror shook:) "Hither I came. with a scornful smile. what their counsels are. Achilles sprung from an immortal dame. And those swift steeds that sweep the ranks of war. the peers assembling in his tent. Where'er yon fires ascend. Discharge their souls of half the fears of war. and thus Eumedes' son: "What Dolon knows. rashly I believed: No less a bribe than great Achilles' car. as he spoke. neglect the watch of night. the Trojans wake: Anxious for Troy. (Ulysses. and the truth recite! Where lies encamp'd the Trojan chief to-night? Where stand his coursers? in what quarter sleep Their other princes? tell what watch they keep: Say. A council holds at Ilus' monument. his faithful tongue shall own. you fix your hopes on flight." "Bold was thy aim. unwilling. Safe in their cares. this attempt to make. Then thus pale Dolon. the auxiliar forces sleep.BOOK X. with a fearful look: (Still. Even great Achilles scarce their rage can tame. tired with toils. But say. Much did he promise.

encamp along the coast." To this Tydides. The Thracians utmost. though all the truth be shown: Shall we dismiss thee. lie higher on the land The Lycian. In cruel chains. His solid arms. by Thymbras' ancient wall. thou betray'st no more. and white as winter-snow. and apart from all. Or leave me here." . Mysian. (Inquired the chief. And Leleges. And Phrygia's horse. Swift as the wind. The Carians. Celestial panoply.) or scattered o'er the plain?" To whom the spy: "Their powers they thus dispose The Paeons. Caucons. Not distant far. with a gloomy frown: "Think not to live. These Troy but lately to her succour won. to grace a god! Let me. refulgent. to your fleet be borne.312 The Iliad of Homer [191] "Then sleep those aids among the Trojan train. flame with gold. Led on by Rhesus. No mortal shoulders suit the glorious load. till your return reveal The truth or falsehood of the news I tell. and Maeonian band. unhappy. dreadful with their bended bows. Rich silver plates his shining car infold. a captive's fate to mourn. the Pelasgian host. in some future strife To risk more bravely thy now forfeit life? Or that again our camps thou may'st explore? No—once a traitor. great Eioneus' son: I saw his coursers in proud triumph go.

Ranged in three lines they view the prostrate band: The horses yoked beside each warrior stand. the unbended bow and spear. receive this hostile spoil.BOOK X. Arriving where the Thracian squadrons lay. mutter'd as it fell. Thee. The welcome sight Ulysses first descries. Through the brown shade the fulgid weapons shined: Amidst lay Rhesus. and as the wretch prepared With humble blandishment to stroke his beard. Slippery with blood. Their arms in order on the ground reclined. stretch'd in sleep profound. Like lightning swift the wrathful falchion flew. yet speaking. Then heap'd with reeds and gathered boughs the plain. These great Ulysses lifting to the skies. The head. Sternly he spoke. And the white steeds behind his chariot bound. And points to Diomed the tempting prize. O speed our labours. High on a spreading tamarisk he placed. with the arms of gold. And eased in sleep the labours of the day. first of all the heavenly host. with dropping gore defaced. 313 . And let the Thracian steeds reward our toil. To favouring Pallas dedicates the prize: "Great queen of arms. o'er arms and heaps of shields. The wolf's grey hide. One instant snatch'd his trembling soul to hell. and direct our ways!" This said. To guide their footsteps to the place again. the coursers. the spoils. and the car behold! Described by Dolon. The furry helmet from his brow they tear. and cuts the nerves in two. Through the still night they cross the devious fields. we praise. Divides the neck. "The man.

Now twelve despatch'd. On sheep or goats. O'erleaps the fences.314 The Iliad of Homer Now. Back by the foot each slaughter'd warrior drew. A warlike form appear'd before his tent. beholding his enemy in a dream. fat with hostile blood. So the grim lion. Ulysses following. Breathed in his heart. Rhesus buried in a profound sleep. and strung his nervous arms. Bathed all his footsteps. as it were. and Diomede with the sword in his hand hanging over the head of that prince—furnished Homer with the idea of this fiction. he wisely cleared the way: Lest the fierce steeds. dyed the fields with gore. The milk-white coursers studious to convey Safe to the ships. He falls. and. and foaming rends the guardless prey. And a low groan remurmur'd through the shore. Nor stopp'd the fury of his vengeful hand. resistless in his way. the monarch last they found. Or if thy soul aspire to fiercer deeds. and awaked no more. Approach the chariot. not yet to battles bred. Just then a deathful dream Minerva sent. plunging the sword into his bosom. for a man in his condition awakes no farther than to see confusedly what environs him. Where'er he pass'd. and invades the pen. and to think it not 218 [192] . brave Tydides! now thy courage try. which represents Rhesus lying fast asleep.218 "All the circumstances of this action—the night. from his nightly den. as his partner slew. while I seize the steeds. and the steeds untie. a purple stream pursued His thirsty falchion. This image is very natural. and tremble at the heaps of dead. Whose visionary steel his bosom tore: So dream'd the monarch. Should start. Till twelve lay breathless of the Thracian band. Urge thou the slaughter. Tydides' falchion fix'd him to the ground." Pallas (this said) her hero's bosom warms.

and her word obey'd. And leads them. Drag off the car where Rhesus' armour lay. (The scourge forgot. a reality but a dream. he lash'd along. the gotten spoils enjoy."—Pope. and mark'd Minerva's flight. Not unobserved they pass'd: the god of light Had watch'd his Troy. . and depart in peace. Ulysses now the snowy steeds detains. Haste to the ships. And vengeful anger fill'd his sacred breast. my son. with his bow unbent. Or heave with manly force. and thus her chief commands: "Enough. and lift away.BOOK X. The coursers fly before Ulysses' bow. While unresolved the son of Tydeus stands. Saw Tydeus' son with heavenly succour bless'd. on Rhesus' chariot hung. from further slaughter cease. fasten'd by the silver reins. new achievements fire. Pallas appears. Regard thy safety. and white as winter-snow. But him.) Then gave his friend the signal to retire. and one cry'd murder. new dangers. Nor tempt too far the hostile gods of Troy. "There's one did laugh in his sleep. Swift to the Trojan camp descends the power." 315 [193] —Macbeth. In haste he mounted. Swift as the wind. Doubtful he stood. These. They wak'd each other." The voice divine confess'd the martial maid. or with his reeking blade To send more heroes to the infernal shade.

again their nimbler feet The coursers ply. but for his Rhesus most: Now while on Rhesus' name he calls in vain. And wondering view the slaughters of the night. Meanwhile the chiefs. For each he wept. and thunder towards the fleet. and instructive friend. An empty space where late the coursers stood. A faithful kinsman.) He rose. Ulysses stopp'd. and saw the field deform'd with blood. with wild affright. arriving at the shade Where late the spoils of Hector's spy were laid. to him Tydides bore The trophy.316 The Iliad of Homer And wakes Hippocoon in the morning-hour. DIOMED AND ULYSSES RETURNING WITH THE SPOILS OF RHESUS. dropping yet with Dolon's gore: Then mounts again. The gathering tumult spreads o'er all the plain. On heaps the Trojans rush. The yet-warm Thracians panting on the coast. (On Rhesus' side accustom'd to attend. .

even now pursued." 317 [194] Scarce had he spoke. ye gods! my pious hopes succeed) The great Tydides and Ulysses bear. The spoil of foes. Or. they seek the shore. The care of him who bids the thunder roar." . I deem. and Nestor first demands: "Say thou. so radiant and so gay. And her. Some god. Thou living glory of the Grecian name! Say whence these coursers? by what chance bestow'd. Perhaps. Old as I am. the Greeks dismiss their fear: With words of friendship and extended hands They greet the kings. lo! the chiefs appear. or present of a god? Not those fair steeds. when. and favourites of the skies. conferred the glorious prize. And spring to earth.BOOK X. Thickening this way. Bespeaking thus the Grecian peers around: "Methinks the noise of trampling steeds I hear. But sure till now no coursers struck my sight Like these. oh! perhaps those heroes are no more. and gathering on my ear. Old Nestor first perceived the approaching sound. conspicuous through the ranks of fight. Bless'd as ye are. That draw the burning chariot of the day. Yet much I fear (ah. to age I scorn to yield. whose fury bathes the world with gore. Return'd triumphant with this prize of war. Perhaps some horses of the Trojan breed (So may. And daily mingle in the martial field. whose praises all our host proclaim. may that fear be vain!) The chiefs outnumber'd by the Trojan train.

Their joints they supple with dissolving oil." Then o'er the trench the bounding coursers flew. But Dolon's armour. Straight to Tydides' high pavilion borne. High on the painted stern Ulysses laid. And first to Pallas the libations pour: They sit. And the crown'd goblet foams with floods of wine. These other spoils from conquer'd Dolon came.) The gifts of heaven are of a nobler kind. with all his guards around. whose swiftness was his only fame. The matchless steeds his ample stalls adorn: The neighing coursers their new fellows greet. Of Thracian lineage are the steeds ye view. He now lies headless on the sandy shore. And the full racks are heap'd with generous wheat. Now from nocturnal sweat and sanguine stain They cleanse their bodies in the neighb'ring main: Then in the polished bath. to his ships convey'd.318 The Iliad of Homer "Father! not so. Sleeping he died. refresh'd from toil. The joyful Greeks with loud acclaim pursue. A trophy destin'd to the blue-eyed maid. And twelve beside lay gasping on the ground. Whose hostile king the brave Tydides slew. (sage Ithacus rejoin'd. A wretch. rejoicing in her aid divine. . In due repast indulge the genial hour. By Hector sent our forces to explore.

and in the utmost danger. and a long recital of some former wars which he remembered. and carried from the fight in Nestor's chariot. tending to put Patroclus upon persuading Achilles to fight for his countrymen. Juno. till Menelaus and Ajax rescue him. wounded. Agamemnon bears all before him and Hector is commanded by Jupiter (who sends Iris for that purpose) to decline the engagement. In the meantime Machaon. He then makes a great slaughter of the enemy. or at least to permit him to do it. This book opens with the eight and-twentieth day of the poem. with its various actions and adventures is . and the same day. is pierced with an arrow by Paris. but that hero alone opposes multitudes. is obliged to desert his companion. in the other wing of the army. Nestor entertains him in his tent with an account of the accidents of the day. ARGUMENT THE THIRD BATTLE. Achilles (who overlooked the action from his ship) sent Patroclus to inquire which of the Greeks was wounded in that manner. Hector prepares the Trojans to receive them. Hector comes against Ajax. Agamemnon. while Jupiter. Patroclus. till the king shall be wounded and retire from the field. and assists him in that distress. and Minerva give the signals of war. Ulysses and Diomed put a stop to him for a time but the latter. and rallies the Greeks. who is encompassed by the Trojans. clad in Achilles' armour. on his return. AND THE ACTS OF AGAMEMNON. having armed himself. being wounded by Paris.[195] BOOK XI. leads the Grecians to battle. meets Eurypylus also wounded.

And beams of early light the heavens o'erspread. inglorious to return. thirteenth. [196] Even Ajax and Achilles heard the sound. and thunder'd through the seas and land. But breathe revenge. and at the dire alarms Each bosom boils.219 Now rose refulgent from Tithonus' bed. the guarded navy bound. 639 . each warrior starts to arms. Whose ships. iv. 219 "Aurora now had left her saffron bed. No more they sigh.320 The Iliad of Homer extended through the twelfth. The scene lies in the field near the monument of Ilus. Through the red skies her bloody sign extends. And. sixteenth. With new-born day to gladden mortal sight. and for the combat burn. and part of the eighteenth books. remote." Dryden's Virgil. Thence the black fury through the Grecian throng With horror sounds the loud Orthian song: The navy shakes. The torch of discord blazing in her hand. High on Ulysses' bark her horrid stand She took. fourteenth. fifteenth. The saffron morn. seventeenth. o'er the fleet descends. And gild the courts of heaven with sacred light: When baleful Eris. with early blushes spread. wrapt in tempests. sent by Jove's command.

with great example fires! Himself first rose. The king of men his hardy host inspires With loud command. The beaming cuirass next adorn'd his breast. Like colour'd rainbows o'er a showery cloud . and twelve of ductile gold. Three glittering dragons to the gorget rise. And first he cased his manly legs around In shining greaves with silver buckles bound. Twice ten of tin. Whose imitated scales against the skies Reflected various light. nor sent in vain:) Ten rows of azure steel the work infold. 'Twas then.BOOK XI. The same which once king Cinyras possess'd: (The fame of Greece and her assembled host Had reach'd that monarch on the Cyprian coast. 321 THE DESCENT OF DISCORD. This glorious gift he sent. himself before the rest His mighty limbs in radiant armour dress'd. the friendship of the chief to gain. and arching bow'd.

leaning from the clouds. Placed as a sign to man amidst the skies).322 The Iliad of Homer [197] (Jove's wondrous bow. with those who wield The lighter arms. . Close to the limits of the trench and mound. in close array combined. That instant Juno. With nodding horse-hair formidably graced. of three celestial dies. Last o'er his brows his fourfold helm he placed. As with the light the warriors' toils begun. That blaze to heaven. That round the warrior cast a dreadful shade. Now shouts and tumults wake the tardy sun. A radiant baldric. To second these. The fiery coursers to their chariots bound The squires restrain'd: the foot. expect the war. a silver sheath encased The shining blade. Ten zones of brass its ample brim surround. o'er his shoulder tied. and golden hangers graced. His buckler's mighty orb was next display'd. On which a mimic serpent creeps along. The squadrons spread their sable wings behind. and the martial maid. And in his hands two steely javelins wields. High o'er the chief they clash'd their arms in air. rush forward to the field. And twice ten bosses the bright convex crown'd: Tremendous Gorgon frown'd upon its field. Till in three heads the embroider'd monster ends. In happy thunders promised Greece their aid. and lighten all the fields. And circling terrors fill'd the expressive shield: Within its concave hung a silver thong. His azure length in easy waves extends. Sustain'd the sword that glitter'd at his side: Gold was the hilt. And.

As the red star now shows his sanguine fires Through the dark clouds. Flash from his arms. i p. Thick fall the heapy harvests at their feet: So Greece and Troy the field of war divide. in order ranged around. however. restless as he flies. Plies all the troops. It is one. cover'd with his spacious shield. As sweating reapers in some wealthy field. And falling ranks are strow'd on every side. Gier. Bear down the furrows.220 The woes of men unwilling to survey. and orders all the field. might seem arbitrary or far-fetched. of ascertained reality. e sanguigne. or blazing in the van. Cf." 221 . if a mere fruit of the poet's imagination. The brother-warriors of Antenor's line: With youthful Acamas. Bold Polybus. ix. Thus through the ranks appear'd the godlike man. Ranged in two bands. Tasso.221 323 [198] 220 —Red drops of blood. 15: "La terra in vece del notturno gelo Bagnan rugiade tepide. The Trojan lines possess'd the rising ground: There wise Polydamas and Hector stood. till their labours meet. their crooked weapons wield. honour'd as a guardian god. Agenor the divine. whose beauteous face And fair proportion match'd the ethereal race. And all the slaughters that must stain the day. and of no uncommon occurrence in the climate of Greece. Near Ilus' tomb.BOOK XI. Great Hector."—Mure. as lightning from the skies. "This phenomenon. None stoop'd a thought to base inglorious flight. Lib. Plunged in the rear. While streamy sparkles. Æneas. 493. distill'd Red drops of blood o'er all the fatal field. and now in night retires. whose thunder spoke his wrath. Even Jove.

the dying. but none resign the day. The eternal Monarch. When his tired arms refuse the axe to rear. The sea with ships. Not rabid wolves more fierce contest their prey. Commutual death the fate of war confounds. On earth he turn'd his all-considering eyes. each bleeds. The victor's rage. O'er heaven's pure azure spread the glowing light. of all the immortal train.324 The Iliad of Homer But horse to horse. And mark'd the spot where Ilion's towers arise. But now (what time in some sequester'd vale The weary woodman spreads his sparing meal." vi. and exposed to day) "No thought of flight. no unbecoming deed That argued fear. Wrapt in the blaze of boundless glory sate. And each accused the partial will of Jove. Discord with joy the scene of death descries. Swells the red horrors of this direful plain: The gods in peace their golden mansions fill. And claim a respite from the sylvan war. . and the dead. superior. None of retreat." —"Paradise Lost. and man to man they fight. Meanwhile apart. the fields with armies spread. Each adverse battle gored with equal wounds. Each wounds. And drinks large slaughter at her sanguine eyes: Discord alone. Thus while the morning-beams. But not till half the prostrate forests lay Stretch'd in long ruin. 236. on his awful throne. And fix'd. increasing bright. and alone. Ranged in bright order on the Olympian hill: But general murmurs told their griefs above. fulfill'd the just decrees of fate.

BOOK XI. Their snowy limbs and beauteous bodies lie. The product. Two sons of Priam next to battle move. . But helpless tremble for themselves. he was commonly very well treated. These on the mountains once Achilles found. and naked to the sky. Priam appears to be the only one of whom polygamy is directly asserted in the Iliad. Then. p. stript. and left them on the plain: Vain was their youth. Great Agamemnon then the slaughter led. 114. their father's fleecy sheep. that to guide: Far other task. The Trojans see the youths untimely die. than when they wont to keep. and fly. Swift to the spoil the hasty victor falls. and let in the light. But now to perish by Atrides' sword: Pierced in the breast the base-born Isus bleeds: Cleft through the head his brother's fate succeeds. their glittering armour vain: Now soil'd with dust. and stretch'd him on the ground. the Greeks' impulsive might Pierced the black phalanx. with a sudden spring. And captive led. 325 [199] 222 —One of love. one of love:222 In the same car the brother-warriors ride. But in his front he felt the fatal wound. one of marriage. their features to his mind recalls. On Ida's tops. Atrides spoil'd. note. And slew Bienor at his people's head: Whose squire Oileus. nor till then. vol. Grote. This took the charge to combat. Leap'd from the chariot to revenge his king. Then to their sire for ample sums restored. So when a lion ranging o'er the lawns. Which pierced his brain. Although a bastard brother received only a small portion of the inheritance. ii. with pliant osiers bound. And.

and dares not stay. Amidst the tumult of the routed train. Antimachus shall copious gifts bestow: Soon as he hears. the panting mother flies. All drown'd in sweat. He who for bribes his faithless counsels sold. and for the life we owe. and dropp'd the silken rein. Their headstrong horse unable to restrain. Atrides mark'd. The sons of false Antimachus were slain. die. They shook with fear." These words. And thus with lifted hands for mercy call: "O spare our youth. The daring wretch who once in council stood To shed Ulysses' and my brother's blood." [200] . And voted Helen's stay for Paris' gold. For proffer'd peace! and sues his seed for grace? No. The frighted hind beholds. the couching fawns. And steel well-tempered. not in battle slain.326 The Iliad of Homer Finds. Large heaps of brass in ransom shall be told. attended with the flood of tears. The Grecian ships his captive sons detain. as these their safety sought. The youths address'd to unrelenting ears: The vengeful monarch gave this stern reply: "If from Antimachus ye spring. Their bones he cracks. and pay the forfeit of your race. But swift through rustling thickets bursts her way. on some grassy lair. And slew the children for the father's fault. ye die. that. and persuasive gold. And grinds the quivering flesh with bloody jaws. And the big tears roll trickling from her eyes. their reeking vitals draws. Then in the chariot on their knees they fall.

And pierced his breast: supine he breathed his last. But Jove and destiny prolong'd his date. And the thick thunder beats the labouring ground. The king's example all his Greeks pursue. Pisander from the car he cast. but. And many a car. More grateful. now. and intercept the skies. 327 . The trenchant falchion lopp'd his hands away. and dust. This said. and proud heads lie low. In blazing heaps the grove's old honours fall. Whole squadrons vanish. The steeds fly trembling from his waving sword. And o'er the forests roll the flood of fire. and blood. the care of heaven he stood. the king of men proceeds. and crushing out their souls. where the thickest fought. lay foaming on the plain. While his keen falchion drinks the warriors' lives. Then. From the dry fields thick clouds of dust arise.BOOK XI. Still slaughtering on. Wide o'er the field with guideless fury rolls. drew a bloody train along. Safe from the darts. as he lay. Breaking their ranks. And one refulgent ruin levels all: Before Atrides' rage so sinks the foe. Shade the black host. the victor flew. His brother leap'd to earth. As when the winds with raging flames conspire. and death. His sever'd head was toss'd among the throng. rolling. Amidst alarms. And. Horse trod by horse. Now by the foot the flying foot were slain. now lighted of its lord. The distanced army wonders at his deeds. The brass-hoof'd steeds tumultuous plunge and bound. to vultures than their wives! Perhaps great Hector then had found his fate.

As swift. and depart. and meditates their fall. That chief shall mount his chariot. Bid him give way. that hear dismay'd The lion's roaring through the midnight shade. Hurl'd from their cars the bravest chiefs are kill'd. The hero halts. but issue forth commands. disorder'd. and bathes with blood the ground. and the Scaean gates. and speed to reach the town. fly the Trojan train. and death. Hot with his toil. Meanwhile on every side around the plain. draws. The path they take. and rends the last. Still press'd the rout. Surveys the towers. Dispersed. To godlike Hector this our word convey— While Agamemnon wastes the ranks around. Now storms the victor at the Trojan wall. and carnage load the field.328 The Iliad of Homer [201] Now past the tomb where ancient Ilus lay. And down their summits pour'd a hundred rills: The unkindled lightning in his hand he took. or wounded by the spear or dart. with haste thy golden wings display. But Jove descending shook the Idaean hills. Fights in the front. and bathed in hostile blood. And thus the many-coloured maid bespoke: "Iris. So flies a herd of beeves. Not with less fury stem Atrides flew. The savage seizes. and his associates waits. Through the mid field the routed urge their way: Where the wild figs the adjoining summit crown. And trust the war to less important hands: But when. and still the hindmost slew. And rage. Now near the beech-tree. . On heaps they tumble with successless haste. Atrides with loud shouts pursued.

and depart. The chief shall mount his chariot. They stand to arms: the Greeks their onset dare. 329 [202] . yet issue forth commands. or to die. and his high mandate bear. and Iris at his word obey'd." She said. Then Jove shall string his arm. Close to the bulwarks. And learn from him to conquer. Till to the main the burning sun descend. Springs from his chariot on the trembling ground. While Agamemnon wastes the ranks around. And trust the war to less important hands: But when. hear! From Jove I come. and fire thy breast. on his glittering car. Then to her ships shall flying Greece be press'd. Fights in the front. new spirit. and wait the coming war. And sacred night her awful shade extend.BOOK XI. The goddess then: "O son of Priam. to each breast returns. and fire his breast. Then Jove shall string thy arm. and bathes with blood the ground. or wounded by the spear or dart. And sacred night her awful shade extend. Revives their ardour. with a bound. New force. turns their steps from flight. The chief she found amidst the ranks of war. Hector. And wakes anew the dying flames of fight. and vanish'd. Abstain from fight. The fight renew'd with fiercer fury burns: The king leads on: all fix on him their eye. and speeds from band to band. Till to the main the burning sun descend." He spoke. Then to her ships shall flying Greece be press'd. On wings of winds descends the various maid. In clanging arms: he grasps in either hand A pointed lance. Condense their powers.

and repell'd the wound. Who faced him first. The point rebated. though in vain! No more the youth shall join his consort's side. And nursed in Thrace where snowy flocks are fed. Oh worthy better fate! oh early slain! Thy country's friend. and virtuous. At once his weighty sword discharged a wound Full on his neck. Atrides stands. Then near the corslet. And early honour warm his generous breast. Towering in arms. he wrench'd it from his hands. grasp'd with force. and braves the king of kings. And sleep eternal seals his swimming eyes. From his loved bride departs with melting eyes. and by his prowess fell? The great Iphidamas. Scarce did the down his rosy cheeks invest.330 The Iliad of Homer Ye sacred nine! celestial Muses! tell. Stretch'd in the dust the unhappy warrior lies. But call'd by glory to the wars of Troy. Thence took the long laborious march by land. At once a virgin. Encumber'd with the dart. before the ranks he springs. He leaves untasted the first fruits of joy. at the monarch's heart. The Trojan stoop'd. Till. From sage Antenor and Theano sprung. Now fierce for fame. that fell'd him to the ground. the youth directs his dart: But the broad belt. And swift to aid his dearer country flies. With all his strength. and at once a bride! . with plates of silver bound. the javelin pass'd in air. With twelve black ships he reach'd Percope's strand. the bold and young. Atrides first discharged the missive spear. Whom from his youth his grandsire Cisseus bred. When the kind sire consign'd his daughter's charms (Theano's sister) to his youthful arms.

at the sight. and near his elbow strook. Coon. Defends him breathless on the sanguine field. yet void of fear On Coon rushes with his lifted spear: His brother's corpse the pious Trojan draws. With every weapon art or fury yields: By the long lance. No more with presents her embraces meet.BOOK XI. Prone on his brother's bleeding breast he lay. Whole ranks are broken. while yet warm distill'd the purple flood. Surprised the monarch feels. Then. on the plain he lay. The vengeful victor rages round the fields. Antenor's eldest hope. the sword. was nigh: Tears. Or lay the spoils of conquest at her feet. But when the wound grew stiff with clotted blood. unseen. Bestow'd so much. and whole troops o'erthrown. lavish of his store. And the pale features now deform'd with blood. or ponderous stone. And o'er the body spreads his ample shield. with his spear. And calls his country to assert his cause. This. While the proud victor bore his arms away. and vainly promised more! Unwept. his time he took. Atrides. Transfix'd the warrior with his brazen dart. came starting from his eye. While pierced with grief the much-loved youth he view'd. And through his arm stood forth the barbed dart. The thrilling steel transpierced the brawny part. uncover'd. 331 [203] . marking an unguarded part. Aim'd at the king. The monarch's falchion lopp'd his head away: The social shades the same dark journey go. And join each other in the realms below. On whom his passion.

Behold. And pain augmented. Your great forefathers' virtues. Less keen those darts the fierce Ilythiae send: (The powers that cause the teeming matron's throes. and finish what this arm begun: Lo! angry Jove forbids your chief to stay. sure of glory. dare immortal deeds. the chariot smokes along. all ye Lycian race! Famed in close fight. But thus his Trojans and his aids he fired: "Hear. all ye Dardan. The horses fly. And. Proceed. No sooner Hector saw the king retired. And envies half the glories of the day. all-panting with the pain. The wounded monarch at his tent they place. and your own.332 The Iliad of Homer Then grinding tortures his strong bosom rend. and dreadful face to face: Now call to mind your ancient trophies won. Clouds from their nostrils the fierce coursers blow. and gives his squire the rein. Then with a voice which fury made more strong. And from their sides the foam descends in snow. He mounts the car. Sad mothers of unutterable woes!) Stung with the smart." He said: the driver whirls his lengthful thong. thus exhorts the throng: "O friends! O Greeks! assert your honours won. the general flies! deserts his powers! Lo." . Shot through the battle in a moment's space. Jove himself declares the conquest ours! Now on yon ranks impel your foaming steeds.

O eternal shame! Till Hector's arm involve the ships in flame? 333 . Æsymnus. Now the last ruin the whole host appals. Nor prompts alone. O'erturns. raging Hector.BOOK XI. Orus. Opheltius. As from the cloud's deep bosom. Now to the skies the foaming billows rears. Rolls sable clouds in heaps on heaps along. Dispels the gather'd clouds that Notus forms: The gust continued. and tosses all the deeps. Say. His soul rekindled. Now breaks the surge. Drives the wild waves. Dolops. As the bold hunter cheers his hounds to tear The brindled lion. with resistless hands. "And stand we deedless. confounds. all chiefs of name. sunk to endless night. On the black body of the foe he pours. and Autonous died. Writh words like these the fiery chief alarms His fainting host. The rest were vulgar deaths unknown to fame. and scatters all their bands. Beneath his arm what heroes bit the ground? Assaeus. charged with storms. famed in many a fight. and wide the bottom bares: Thus. swell'd with showers. Now Greece had trembled in her wooden walls. or the tusky bear: With voice and hand provokes their doubting heart. Opites next was added to their side. but leads himself the war. And springs the foremost with his lifted dart: So godlike Hector prompts his troops to dare. Then brave Hipponous. A sudden storm the purple ocean sweeps. But wise Ulysses call'd Tydides forth. and every bosom warms. and awaked his worth. violent and strong. Muse! when Jove the Trojan's glory crown'd. Agelaus. As when a western whirlwind.

Great Jove from Ide with slaughter fills his sight. The far-famed hero of Paeonian strain. Towering they rode in one refulgent car: In deep prophetic arts their father skill'd. and the foe too nigh: [205] . But Jove with conquest crowns the Trojan train: And. Wing'd with his fears. Then swift revert. They rush'd to fight. So two wild boars outstrip the following hounds. Hypirochus by great Ulysses dies. And from his car the proud Thymbraeus fell: Molion.334 The Iliad of Homer Haste. and combat side by side. raised his vengeful steel. Jove our foe. Had warn'd his children from the Trojan field. Stern Hector's conquests in the middle plain Stood check'd awhile. pursued his lord. sighing. Then plunged amidst the thickest ranks of fight. I wait his fury here. let us join. And level hangs the doubtful scale of fight. and Greece respired again. Fate urged them on: the father warn'd in vain. By Tydeus' lance Agastrophus was slain. The sons of Merops shone amidst the war. And rich Hippodamus becomes his prize. The stern Tydides strips their shining arms. His steeds too distant. His death ennobled by Ulysses' sword. and perish'd on the plain. Their breasts no more the vital spirit warms. and thus the friend replied: "No martial toil I shun. and wounds return for wounds. they left them in eternal night. the charioteer. Let Hector come. but. no danger fear. on foot he strove to fly. all human force is vain." The warrior thus. There slain." He sigh'd.

O'er his dim sight the misty vapours rise. He fled. and thence obliquely glanced. this day. While Hector rose.BOOK XI. as his experienced eyes Traverse the files. Thou shall not long the death deserved withstand. Or thank that swiftness which outstrips the death. Shouts. Whole hecatombs of Trojan ghosts shall pay. Nor miss'd its aim. and exults aloud: "Once more thank Phoebus for thy forfeit breath."—The warrior said. Remounts his car. And a short darkness shades his swimming eyes. and herds amidst the crowd: The Greek pursues him." 335 . Fly then. that. And oft that partial power has lent his aid. Tydides followed to regain his lance. the crystal regions rend. Great Diomed himself was seized with fear. but flying left his life behind. This Hector sees. inglorious! but thy flight. and Hector rules the field: Here stand his utmost force. swifter than the wind. Swift at the word his ponderous javelin fled. and to the rescue flies. If any god assist Tydides' hand. His arm and knee his sinking bulk sustain. as he pass'd. And moving armies on his march attend. But yet so stunn'd. Safe in his helm (the gift of Phoebus' hands) Without a wound the Trojan hero stands. Through broken orders. And thus bespoke his brother of the war: "Mark how this way yon bending squadrons yield! The storm rolls on. Well by Apollo are thy prayers repaid. staggering on the plain. but where the plumage danced Razed the smooth cone. recover'd from the trance.

bathes the cheeks of sires. The bowstring twang'd. (The spouse of Helen. and death is on the steel: Where this but lights." He dauntless thus: "Thou conqueror of the fair. Thou woman-warrior with the curling hair. with a joyful spring. and nail'd it to the plain. Agastrophus's crest To seize. Such hands may wound. From ancient Ilus' ruin'd monument: Behind the column placed. And wing'd an arrow at the unwary foe. Steeps earth in purple. Its touch makes orphans. Vain archer! trusting to the distant dart. The laughing Trojan. but not incense a man. and drew the corslet from his breast.) Around the fields his feather'd shafts he sent." . "He bleeds! (he cries) some god has sped my dart! Would the same god had fix'd it in his heart! So Troy. Just as he stoop'd. But pierced his foot. As scatter'd lambs the rushing lion fear. Should breathe from slaughter and in combat stand: Whose sons now tremble at his darted spear. Nor boast the scratch thy feeble arrow gave. A coward's weapon never hurts the brave. nor flew the shaft in vain. which thou may'st one day feel.336 The Iliad of Homer [206] Him. the fair cause of war. And leaves such objects as distract the fair. while he triumph'd. Paris eyed from far. he bent his bow. and insults the king. Not so this dart. Fate wings its flight. some noble life expires. relieved from that wide-wasting hand. Leaps from his ambush. Unskill'd in arms to act a manly part! Thou hast but done what boys or women can. gluts the birds of air.

I know a soldier's part. And. To die or conquer. the shady cohorts press'd. and bending draws the dart: Forth flows the blood. what hopes remain? What shame. So fares a boar whom all the troop surrounds Of shouting huntsmen and of clamorous hounds. and more near. the Trojans pouring on. Before him steps. and whole. singly if I stand the ground. He grinds his ivory tusks. His sanguine eye-balls glare with living fire. proves a hero's heart. The brave meets danger. But stands collected in himself. My friends all scatter'd. and to the navy speeds. The Greeks all fled." Such thoughts revolving in his careful breast. and the coward flies. And round him deep the steely circle grows. their own fate enclose. Ulysses hastens with a trembling heart. in the warrior. Tydides mounts. knowing this. [207] . an eager pang succeeds. Near. all the foes around? Yet wherefore doubtful? let this truth suffice. inglorious if I quit the plain? What danger.BOOK XI. These. 337 Now on the field Ulysses stands alone. he foams with ire. And questions thus his own unconquer'd soul: "What further subterfuge.

the generous. Nor longer check my conquests on the foe." He said. Stopp'd short of life. though deep infix'd. Ulysses reach'd him with the fatal spear. And the red slaughter spreads on every side. and the wise.338 The Iliad of Homer By these. Falls prone to earth. the spear. and bared it to the bone. and forceful pierced his spacious shield: Through the strong brass the ringing javelin thrown. Or thou beneath this lance must press the field. The wound not mortal wise Ulysses knew. By Pallas' care. Fate calls thee hence and finish'd is thy race. Then furious thus (but first some steps withdrew): "Unhappy man! whose death our hands shall grace. Pierced through the shoulder. to endless darkness go. on every part is plied. beneath the navel thrust. Plough'd half his side. Socus the brave. the warrior thus began: "O great Ulysses! much-enduring man! Not deeper skill'd in every martial sleight. Charops. But. Than worn to toils. Chersidamas. the son of Hippasus. by those. and active in the fight! This day two brothers shall thy conquest grace. pierced by this. was near. nor with his entrails mix'd. Next Ennomus and Thoon sank to hell. But to his aid his brother Socus flies. and grasps the bloody dust. And end at once the great Hippasian race. first Deiopis fell. Near as he drew. And add one spectre to the realms below!" .

Strong as he is. Trembling gave way. when I meet my doom. to Ajax Telamon he cried. while Socus. Between his shoulders pierced the following dart. Then thus Ulysses. and defends his side: "O friend! Ulysses' shouts invade my ear. wretch! no father shall thy corpse compose. He writhes his body. The well-known voice thrice Menelaus hears: Alarm'd. yet one opposed to all. But hungry birds shall tear those balls away. Forced he recedes. Ah. And gladden'd Troy with sight of hostile blood. Heaven owes Ulysses yet a longer date. He falls. and extracts the dart. With solemn funerals and a lasting tomb." Then raging with intolerable smart. And held its passage through the panting heart: Wide in his breast appear'd the grisly wound. Distressed he seems. Who shares his labours.BOOK XI. He spoke. and no assistance near. Oppress'd by multitudes. Thrice to its pitch his lofty voice he rears. Thy dying eyes no tender mother close. seized with sudden fright. the best may fall. Now troops on troops the fainting chief invade. and loudly calls for aid. There ends thy narrow span assign'd by fate. The dart a tide of spouting gore pursued. And hovering vultures scream around their prey. and turn'd his back to flight. Greece robb'd of him must bid her host despair. And feel a loss not ages can repair. his armour rings against the ground." 339 [208] . Me Greece shall honour. gazing on the slain: "Famed son of Hippasus! there press the plain.

Atrides' arm the sinking hero stays. saved from numbers. From the blind thicket wounds a stately deer. He bounds aloft. with a flying spear. On strong Pandocus next inflicts a wound. Victorious Ajax plies the routed crew. to his car conveys. And. And teare his flesh—when instantly fortune sends in the powers Of some sterne lion. though hungry. unconquer'd by his pains. while fresh the blood distils. The scattered crowds fly frighted o'er the field. his course he bends. whilst his warm blood doth flow. Great Ajax. Ulysses thus. with whose sighte they flie and he devours. And first Doryclus. 223 "Circled with foes as when a packe of bloodie jackals cling About a goodly palmed hart. So they around Ulysses prest. and scuds from hills to hills.223 As when some huntsman. he slew. Down his cleft side. where the cry directs. . The prudent chief in sore distress they found. The lordly savage vindicates his prey." —Chapman. attends. The wolves. Wild mountain-wolves the fainting beast surround: Just as their jaws his prostrate limbs invade. hurt with a hunter's bow Whose escape his nimble feet insure. scour dispersed away. With bands of furious Trojans compass'd round. the jackals charge him round. like the god of war. The lion rushes through the woodland shade. And lays Lysander bleeding on the ground. And his light knees have power to move: but (maistred by his wound) Embost within a shady hill. Till life's warm vapour issuing through the wound. A single warrior half a host sustains: But soon as Ajax leaves his tower-like shield.340 The Iliad of Homer Then. Priam's son.

Men. and chariots. haste with speed away. [209] . and thunder toward the fleet. Pours from the mountains o'er the deluged plains." Old Nestor mounts the seat. The spouse of Helen. And deep Scamander swells with heaps of slain. There Nestor and Idomeneus oppose The warrior's fury. He lends the lash. old Neleus' valiant son! Ascend thy chariot. dealing darts around. or from the chariot's height. steeds. 341 But Hector. To Nestor then Idomeneus begun: "Glory of Greece. swell'd with wintry rains. and ruled the tide of war: Loud groans proclaim his progress through the plain. beside him rode The wounded offspring of the healing god. Is more than armies to the public weal. And pines and oaks. roll in heaps along. A country's ruins! to the seas are borne: Fierce Ajax thus o'erwhelms the yielding throng. His sword deforms the beauteous ranks of fight. A wise physician skill'd our wounds to heal. And great Machaon to the ships convey. There fierce on foot. Had pierced Machaon with a distant wound: In his right shoulder the broad shaft appear'd. from this scene of slaughter far.BOOK XI. Raged on the left. As when a torrent. the steeds with sounding feet Shake the dry field. from their foundations torn. And trembling Greece for her physician fear'd. there the battle glows.

Here Hector. The groaning axle sable drops distils.342 The Iliad of Homer But now Cebriones. with terrors not his own. and let in the light: (By the long lance. And fears that arm whose force he felt so late. by tardy steps withdrew. and hills of shields. O Hector. unnerved in Hector's presence grown. And. The horses' hoofs are bathed in heroes' gore. And mangled carnage clogs the rapid wheels. The ranks he scatter'd and the troops o'erthrown:) Ajax he shuns. plunging through the thickest fight. distinguish'd o'er the field By the broad glittering of the sevenfold shield. dashing. O'er his broad back his moony shield he threw. Trojans on Trojans yonder load the plain. the coursers scour the fields. There horse and foot in mingled deaths unite. Before great Ajax see the mingled throng Of men and chariots driven in heaps along! I know him well. Amazed he stood. from Hector's car. thither urge thy steeds. and there the combat bleeds. Swift through the ranks the rapid chariot bounds. Thither. Thus the grim lion his retreat maintains. Confused. But partial Jove. Survey'd the various fortune of the war: "While here (he cried) the flying Greeks are slain. the driver's lash resounds. espousing Hector's part. through all the dire debate. O'er heaps of carcases. And groans of slaughter mix with shouts of fight. Broke the dark phalanx. or ponderous stone. There danger calls. Stung by the stroke. Shot heaven-bred horror through the Grecian's heart. glaring round." Thus having spoke. And. [210] . purple all the car before. the sword.

and thirsts for blood in vain. Confiding now in bulky strength he stands. The strokes redoubled on his buckler rung. Crops the tall harvest. In some wide field by troops of boys pursued. and missile fires. Repulsed by numbers from the nightly stalls. From his torn liver the red current flow'd. Marks the dry dust. And stirs but slowly when he stirs at last: On Ajax thus a weight of Trojans hung. Long stands the showering darts. While hissing darts descend in iron showers: In his broad buckler many a weapon stood. Beset with watchful dogs. Though round his sides a wooden tempest rain. And threats his followers with retorted eye. Now stiff recedes. Though rage impels him. And many a javelin. with heavy strength endued. But bold Eurypylus his aid imparts. and though hunger calls. And dauntless springs beneath a cloud of darts. As the slow beast. Great Apisaon felt the fatal blow. yet hardly seems to fly. Scarce from the field with all their efforts chased. Then sourly slow the indignant beast retires: So turn'd stern Ajax. by whole hosts repell'd. Fix'd as the bar between two warring powers. and backward bears the yielding bands. guiltless on the plain. Its surface bristled with a quivering wood. Whose eager javelin launch'd against the foe. Thick on his hide the hollow blows resound. The patient animal maintains his ground. Now turns. and lays waste the plain. and shouting swains. And his slack knees desert their dying load. 343 . While his swoln heart at every step rebell'd.BOOK XI.

To guard their wounded friend: while thus they stand With pious care. Thus raged both armies like conflicting fires. His feasted eyes beheld around the plain The Grecian rout." Thus urged the chief: a generous troop appears. From Paris' bow a vengeful arrow fled. and stain'd with gore. bore. and advance their spears. but broken was the wood. The Greeks' preserver. Fix'd in his nervous thigh the weapon stood. This hour he stands the mark of hostile rage. A transient pity touch'd his vengeful breast. The hero rallies. O Grecians! has your hearts dismay'd? Oh. turn to arms. his associates fired: "What god. That hour Achilles. join your forces. from the gloomy grave The warrior rescue. Back to the lines the wounded Greek retired. great Machaon. And fix'd the date of all his woes to come. the slaying. Fix'd was the point. and renews the fight. 'tis Ajax claims your aid. While Nestor's chariot far from fight retires: His coursers steep'd in sweat. [211] . His friend Machaon singled from the rest. from the topmost height Of his proud fleet. Yet thus retreating. Straight to Menoetius' much-loved son he sent: Graceful as Mars. and your country save. In evil hour! Then fate decreed his doom. And this the last brave battle he shall wage: Haste. Patroclus quits his tent. Who spread their bucklers. and the slain. o'erlook'd the fields of fight. great Ajax joins the band: Each takes new courage at the hero's sight.344 The Iliad of Homer The victor rushing to despoil the dead.

Then to consult on farther methods went. Patroclus shall obey. as the prize of Nestor's wisdom gave:) A table first with azure feet she placed. The warriors standing on the breezy shore. The draught prescribed." "O first of friends! (Pelides thus replied) Still at my heart. And took their seats beneath the shady tent.BOOK XI. and wash away the gore. Whose ample orb a brazen charger graced. Here paused a moment. "Why calls my friend? thy loved injunctions lay. a royal slave. The chiefs descending from their car he found: The panting steeds Eurymedon unbound. To dry their sweat. Honey new-press'd." The hero said. And proud Atrides tremble on his throne. And wholesome garlic. His friend obey'd with haste. crown'd the savoury treat. discern his face. and but seen behind. the sacred flour of wheat. and ever at my side! The time is come. Whate'er thy will. 345 [212] . The coursers pass'd me with so swift a pace. Arsinous' daughter. through yon cloud. fair Hecamede prepares. while the gentle gale Convey'd that freshness the cool seas exhale. Nor could I. Through intermingled ships and tents he pass'd. and from him be taught What wounded warrior late his chariot brought: For. His form recall'd Machaon to my mind. Greece. Go now to Nestor. seen at distance. graced with golden hairs: (Whom to his aged arms. when yon despairing host Shall learn the value of the man they lost: Now at my knees the Greeks shall pour their moan.

Unheard approached. Old Nestor. This to report. . The great Achilles with impatience stays. Was borne from combat by thy foaming steeds? With grief I see the great Machaon bleeds. In sculptured gold. what hero. wounded by the foe. rising then. the nymph of form divine Pours a large portion of the Pramnian wine. And pleasing conference beguiles the day." "Can then the sons of Greece (the sage rejoin'd) Excite compassion in Achilles' mind? Seeks he the sorrows of our host to know? This is not half the story of our woe. Thou know'st the fiery temper of my friend. And last with flour the smiling surface strows: This for the wounded prince the dame prepares: The cordial beverage reverend Nestor shares: Salubrious draughts the warriors' thirst allay. yet heaved with ease by him. my hasty course I bend. To great Achilles this respect I owe.346 The Iliad of Homer Next her white hand an antique goblet brings. Temper'd in this. bending o'er the brink. Who asks. and stood before the tent. When the brisk nectar overlook'd the brim. Two feet support it. On each bright handle. A goblet sacred to the Pylian kings From eldest times: emboss'd with studs of gold. by Achilles sent. the hero led To his high seat: the chief refused and said: "'Tis now no season for these kind delays. Meantime Patroclus. With goat's-milk cheese a flavourous taste bestows. two turtles seem to drink: A massy weight. and four handles hold.

347 [213] . Old Neleus gloried in his conquering son. as my first essay of arms. These. Diomed. Our bravest heroes in the navy groan. My sire three hundred chosen sheep obtain'd. ah! what flattering hopes I entertain! Achilles heeds not. we arm'd. full fifty herds of swine. (That large reprisal he might justly claim. And stern Eurypylus. Of twelve bold brothers. And waits the rising of the fatal blaze. Now the slow course of all-impairing time Unstrings my nerves. Calm he looks on. Tell him. as many lowing kine: And thrice the number of unrivall'd steeds. and insulted fame. and ends my manly prime. The state of Pyle was sunk to last despair. When the proud Elians first commenced the war: For Neleus' sons Alcides' rage had slain. For prize defrauded. and every death enjoys. And ours was all the plunder of the plains: Fifty white flocks. Ulysses.BOOK XI. When this bold arm the Epeian powers oppress'd. The bulls of Elis in glad triumph led. and of generous breeds. not great Machaon bleeds alone. but derides our pain: Even till the flames consume our fleet he stays. Agamemnon. her long arrears restored. I won. I alone remain! Oppress'd. And shares were parted to each Pylian lord. Oh! had I still that strength my youth possess'd. All teeming females. But. Thus Elis forced. As many goats. and now this conquest gain'd. already bleed. And stretch'd the great Itymonaeus dead! Then from my fury fled the trembling swains. Chief after chief the raging foe destroys.

And stopp'd my chariot. Myself the foremost. beside the winding flood. and swells with martial pride. the Pylian troops unite. and due victims paid. and detain'd my arms. Alarms the Pylians and commands the fight.348 The Iliad of Homer When Elis' monarch. Soon as the sun.) The rest the people shared. and with many a car. and pitch'd their tents below. Detain'd his chariot. In arms we slept. High on the rock fair Thryoessa stands. but my sire denied. With many a courser. Thence. Pallas. exposed to stern alarms. The sons of Actor at their army's head (Young as they were) the vengeful squadrons led. when Elis rose to war. horse and foot. My sire denied in vain: on foot I fled Amidst our chariots. And sheathed in arms. Three days were past. and victorious horse. descending in the shades of night. . with all-revealing ray. ere the sun advanced his noon-day flame. Each burns for fame. for the goddess led. at the public course. While round the town the fierce Epeians stood. A bull. To great Alphaeus' sacred source we came. There first to Jove our solemn rites were paid. and a bull was slain To the blue monarch of the watery main. "Along fair Arene's delightful plain Soft Minyas rolls his waters to the main: There. An untamed heifer pleased the blue-eyed maid. expect the dawning light. Fear'd for my youth. myself survey'd The just partition. Our utmost frontier on the Pylian lands: Not far the streams of famed Alphaeus flow: The stream they pass'd. Alphaeus.

of mankind. And gives to passion what to Greece he owes. and slaughtering all along. and they fled. and o'er the prostrate throng. The Epeians saw. there Pylos. And every herb that drinks the morning dew:) I seized his car. O'er heapy shields. Till Pallas stopp'd us where Alisium flows. Collecting spoils. when to the eternal shade Her hosts shall sink. As first of gods. Then back to Pyle triumphant take my way. nor his the power to aid! 0 friend! my memory recalls the day. their bravest warrior kill'd. they trembled. but Neptune shrouds The youthful heroes in a veil of clouds. The nations meet. Such then I was. Fierce as the whirlwind now I swept the field: Full fifty captive chariots graced my train. And the same arm that led concludes the day. and works of war appear. Bright scenes of arms. Flamed in the front of Heaven. the van of battle led. Elis here. beneath my javelin bled.BOOK XI. How shall he grieve. Then Actor's sons had died. impell'd by youthful blood. 349 [214] . The foe dispersed. and spouse of Agamede: (She that all simples' healing virtues knew. and gave the day. gathering aids along the Grecian sea. "Achilles with unactive fury glows. King Augias' son. to Nestor. Through wide Buprasian fields we forced the foes. So proved my valour for my country's good. The first who fell. Even there the hindmost of the rear I slay. Where o'er the vales the Olenian rocks arose. When. There to high Jove were public thanks assign'd. Two chiefs from each fell breathless to the plain.

Some favouring god Achilles' heart may move. . Yet cooler thoughts thy elder years attend. and share the genial rites. and desist from war. Achilles. and Ulysses. on the crowded strand." This touch'd his generous heart. Thyself. and rule thy friend. and found you fierce for fame.' Menoetius thus: 'Though great Achilles shine In strength superior. If aught from Heaven withhold his saving arm. if thou appear. her o'er-labour'd train Shall seek their walls. If some dire oracle his breast alarm. Press'd by fresh forces. Your ancient fathers generous precepts gave. and of race divine. Proud Troy may tremble. Social we sit. where.' Thus spoke your father at Thessalia's court: Words now forgot. though now of vast import. Let thy just counsels aid. Achilles sees us. We then explained the cause on which we came. and thy reverend sire Menoetius. to the feast invites. Soon as he came. A bull to Jove he slew in sacrifice. Though deaf to glory. If thou but lead the Myrmidonian line. touch'd at Phthia's port. Peleus said only this:—'My son! be brave. he may yield to love. turn'd the fragments on the fire. and from the tent Along the shore with hasty strides he went. And entered Peleus' hospitable court. Ah! try the utmost that a friend can say: Such gentle force the fiercest minds obey. Clad in Achilles' arms. Urged you to arms. Some beam of comfort yet on Greece may shine.350 The Iliad of Homer [215] I. and Greece respire again. And pour'd libations on the flaming thighs.

and draw this deadly dart. The sable blood in circles mark'd the ground. to glut the dogs with gore. Where the tall fleet of great Ulysses lies. thus his bleeding friend address'd: "Ah. The public mart and courts of justice stand. Large painful drops from all his members run. Her force increasing as her toil renews. and Achilles thee. he met the brave Euaemon's son. thou. Once taught Achilles. There. With healing balms the raging smart allay. hapless leaders of the Grecian host! Thus must ye perish on a barbarous coast? Is this your fate. sighing.BOOK XI. that used her utmost rage to meet. Divine compassion touch'd Patroclus' breast. my friend. Greece is no more! this day her glories end. With lukewarm water wash the gore away. Weak was his pace. But. Far from your friends. Lie pierced with wounds. An arrow's head yet rooted in his wound. and from your native shore? Say. And altars to the guardian gods arise. Those chiefs. And this the period of our wars and fame?" Eurypylus replies: "No more. Such as sage Chiron. Podalirius stands 351 . Lead to my ships. and bleeding in the fleet. As faintly reeling he confess'd the smart. Even to the ships victorious Troy pursues. Of two famed surgeons. but dauntless was his heart. Who. great Eurypylus! shall Greece yet stand? Resists she yet the raging Hector's hand? Or are her heroes doom'd to die with shame. Patroclus! act a friendly part. sad. sire of pharmacy.

.352 The Iliad of Homer [216] This hour surrounded by the Trojan bands. the styptic juice infused." To him the chief: "What then remains to do? The event of things the gods alone can view. The wound to torture. wounded in his tent. The closing flesh that instant ceased to glow. Now wants that succour which so oft he lent. And hides of oxen on the floor display'd: There stretch'd at length the wounded hero lay. Patroclus cut the forky steel away: Then in his hands a bitter root he bruised. and in his arms upheld the chief. The wound he wash'd. And bear with haste the Pylian king's reply: But thy distress this instant claims relief. Charged by Achilles' great command I fly. And great Machaon. The slaves their master's slow approach survey'd. and the blood to flow." He said.

BOOK XI. 353 HERCULES. .

.

ARGUMENT. . casting a stone of vast size. and manage the attack on foot. who victoriously pursue the Grecians even to their ships. Nor long the trench or lofty walls oppose. and continues the attack. The Trojans follow his counsel. forces open one of the gates. which appeared on the left hand of the Trojans. THE BATTLE AT THE GRECIAN WALL. Sarpedon makes the first breach in the wall. And mutual deaths are dealt with mutual rage. Hector also. Polydamas endeavours to withdraw them again. begin the assault. Hector attempts to force them. This Hector opposes. Trojans and Greeks with clashing shields engage. in which. after many actions. With gods averse the ill-fated works arose. but it proving impossible to pass the ditch. The Greeks having retired into their intrenchments. and no victim slain. While thus the hero's pious cares attend The cure and safety of his wounded friend. and having divided their army into five bodies of foot. the trenches sunk in vain. But upon the signal of an eagle with a serpent in his talons. Polydamas advises to quit their chariots. The walls were raised. Their powers neglected.[217] BOOK XII. and enters at the head of his troops.

With his huge trident wounds the trembling shore. and levell'd by the flood. Vast stones and piles from their foundation heaves. While sacred Troy the warring hosts engaged. Then Neptune and Apollo shook the shore. and shields. i. her city burn'd.356 The Iliad of Homer [218] Without the gods. turn'd by Phoebus from their wonted ways. And to the sea the floating bulwarks fall. Caresus roaring down the stony hills. In their old bounds the rivers roll again. Rhesus and Rhodius then unite their rills. The weight of waters saps the yielding wall. &c. And whelms the smoky ruin in the waves. Then Ida's summits pour'd their watery store. And half the skies descend in sluicy showers. rolling to the main224 Helmets. 225 . Granicus. how short a period stands The proudest monument of mortal hands! This stood while Hector and Achilles raged. Now smooth'd with sand. The god of ocean. with mingled force. Shine 'twixt the hills. No fragment tells where once the wonder stood. railing. "In those bloody fields Where Simois rolls the bodies and the shields Of heroes. and godlike heroes slain: These.225 224 —Simois. But when her sons were slain. Æsepus. or wander o'er the plain. And gulfy Simois. Deluged the rampire nine continual days." —Dryden's Virgil. 142. And what survived of Greece to Greece return'd. Incessant cataracts the Thunderer pours. And Xanthus foaming from his fruitful source. marching stern before.

and headlong hung the steep. ii. he bounds against them all. Just at the brink they neigh. And Hector's fury every moment fear. "Where yon disorder'd heap of ruin lies.BOOK XII. And where he turns the rout disperse or die: He foams. and blood distain'd the towers. their bold assault defy. and drove the field along. The strokes yet echoed of contending powers. Mingled the troops. Arm'd foes around a dreadful circle form. Smote by the arm of Jove with dire dismay. And snort and tremble at the gulf beneath. But this the gods in later times perform. and the skies resound. War thunder'd at the gates. Below the wall's foundation drives his mace. So 'midst the dogs and hunters' daring bands. And heaves the building from the solid base. Eager they view'd the prospect dark and deep. Fierce of his might. toss'd the scattering throng. a boar or lion stands. and paw the ground. and the trenches shows.—where clouds of dust arise. like a whirlwind. he glares. Exhorts his armies. Neptune holds his place. And the turf trembles. The panting steeds impatient fury breathe. . and braved the storm. Close by their hollow ships the Grecians lay: Hector's approach in every wind they hear. Stones rent from stones. As yet the bulwark stood. Vast was the leap. And if he falls. The bottom bare. He.— Amid that smother. 825. his courage makes him fall. (a formidable show!) And bristled thick with sharpen'd stakes below. With equal rage encompass'd Hector glows. And hissing javelins rain an iron storm: His powers untamed." 357 Dryden's Virgil.

Restrain'd great Hector. And one great day destroy and bury all! But should they turn. In one promiscuous carnage crush'd and bruised. Nor shall a Trojan live to tell the tale. and Hector lead the way. Proud of the favours mighty Jove has shown. if their arms prevail. All Troy must perish. far from Argos. confederate chiefs from foreign lands! What entrance here can cumbrous chariots find. and here oppress our train. ye warriors! and obey with speed. Back from the trenches let your steeds be led. Hear then. wedged in firm array. Then all alighting.358 The Iliad of Homer [219] The foot alone this strong defence could force. by our own troops confused. And this (if Jove consent) her fatal hour. This saw Polydamas. without a thousand wounds. the Grecian walls behind? No pass through those. Oh may this instant end the Grecian name! Here. let their heroes fall. So Greece shall stoop before our conquering power. Proceed on foot. what methods of retreat remain? Wedged in the trench. and this counsel gave: "O thou." . wisely brave. On certain dangers we too rashly run: If 'tis will our haughty foes to tame. And try the pass impervious to the horse. who. What hopes. The stakes beneath. bold leader of the Trojan bands! And you. No space for combat in yon narrow bounds.

and brave Cebriones. By orders strict the charioteers enjoin'd Compel the coursers to their ranks behind. Each quits his car. 359 POLYDAMAS ADVISING HECTOR. [220] . his clanging armour rung. In arms with these the mighty Asius stood. Before the next the graceful Paris shines. The coursers fed on Selle's winding shore. The best and bravest in the first conspire. and issues on the plain. The forces part in five distinguish'd bands. Polydamas. The chief's example follow'd by his train. The sons of Priam with the third appear. and Helenas the seer. Who drew from Hyrtacus his noble blood. Deiphobus. and Agenor joins.BOOK XII. And all obey their several chiefs' commands. And bold Alcathous. And whom Arisba's yellow coursers bore. Antenor's sons the fourth battalion guide. and threat the fleet with fire: Great Hector glorious in the van of these. This counsel pleased: the godlike Hector sprung Swift from his seat. Pant for the fight.

Such their proud hopes. The moving legions speed their headlong way: Already in their hopes they fire the fleet. Divine Sarpedon the last band obey'd. And great Idomeneus shall boast thy fall! Fierce to the left he drives. Whom Glaucus and Asteropaeus aid.360 The Iliad of Homer And great Æneas. he flies: His following host with clamours rend the skies: To plunge the Grecians headlong in the main. His vaunted coursers urged to meet the war. While every Trojan thus. exulting in his force. Unhappy hero! and advised in vain. No more those coursers with triumphant joy Restore their master to the gates of Troy! Black death attends behind the Grecian wall. Those wheels returning ne'er shall mark the plain. the bravest. where from the plain The flying Grecians strove their ships to gain. Next him. The gates half-open'd to receive the last. Asius alone. born on fountful Ide. Swift through the wall their horse and chariots pass'd. But he more brave than all the hosts he led. and every aid. The advice of wise Polydamas obey'd. Now with compacted shields in close array. And see the Grecians gasping at their feet. confiding in his car. Thither. but all their hopes were vain! . at their army's head.

and protect the ground. like the god of war. The fearless brothers on the Grecians call.BOOK XII. and so the shock they stand Of raging Asius. Acamas. their heads amidst the skies: Whose spreading arms with leafy honours crown'd. As two tall oaks. So two wild boars spring furious from their den. In vain around them beat their hollow shields. And stones and darts in mingled tempests fly. And root the shrubs. Around their heads the whistling javelins sung. Forth from the portals rush'd the intrepid pair. And OEnomaus and Thoon close the rear: In vain their clamours shake the ambient fields. They gnash their tusks. and defend the wall. High on the hills appears their stately form. and stood themselves the war. Their roots in earth. before the wall they rise. On every side the crackling trees they tear. Forbid the tempest. And their deep roots for ever brave the storm. To guard their navies. 361 [221] . So graceful these. while yet the Grecian powers Maintain'd the walls. This Polypoetes. Orestes. To guard the gates. great Perithous' heir. in front appear. With sounding strokes their brazen targets rung. and lay the forest bare. and his furious band. two mighty chiefs attend. Fierce was the fight. Roused with the cries of dogs and voice of men. And Greece tumultuous from her towers descend. Even when they saw Troy's sable troops impend. with fire their eye-balls roll. and mann'd the lofty towers: To save their fleet their last efforts they try. Opposed their breasts. Till some wide wound lets out their mighty soul. Who from the Lapiths' warlike race descend. And that Leonteus.

The frantic Asius thus accuses Heaven: "In powers immortal who shall now believe? Can those too flatter. And all the gates sustain'd an equal tide. and brings The dreary winter on his frozen wings. and sing with fire! [222] . Repel an army. Gods! shall two warriors only guard their gates. with grief and fury driven. So down the rampires rolls the rocky shower: Heavy. the flash of arms appear'd. The spirit of a god my breast inspire. Through the long walls the stony showers were heard. The blaze of flames. To raise each act to life. and this her fatal hour? But like when wasps from hollow crannies drive. and whiten all the fields below: So fast the darts on either army pour. and thick. that to death contend: So fierce these Greeks their last retreats defend. Beneath the low-hung clouds the sheets of snow Descend. Like deeds of arms through all the forts were tried. With shame repulsed. To guard the entrance of their common hive. and defraud the fates?" These empty accents mingled with the wind. To godlike Hector and his matchless might Was owed the glory of the destined fight. resound the batter'd shields. while with unwearied wings They strike the assailants. and can Jove deceive? What man could doubt but Troy's victorious power Should humble Greece. And the deaf echo rattles round the fields. Darkening the rock.362 The Iliad of Homer As when sharp Boreas blows abroad. and infix their stings. A race determined. Nor moved great Jove's unalterable mind.

in deep dismay. These on the farther bank now stood and gazed.BOOK XII. tremendous now no more! Next Ormenus and Pylon yield their breath: Nor less Leonteus strews the field with death. And all her guardian gods. The falchion struck. First through the belt Hippomachus he gored. and round them heap the slain. and fate pursued the stroke: Iamenus. as through the ranks he broke. he drops the fatal prey. By Heaven alarm'd. Fierce with impatience on the works to fall. Their martial fury in their wonder lost. confiding in despair. by prodigies amazed: A signal omen stopp'd the passing host. Pierced through his helmet's brazen visor. whose throat received the wound: Mad with the smart. Bold Hector and Polydamas. In airy circles wings his painful way. and rends the heaven with cries: 363 . the bravest of the Trojan crew. His talons truss'd. Even yet the dauntless Lapithae maintain The dreadful pass. bled. by Polypoetes' steel. Menon. fell. With unassisting arms deplored the day. pursue. Secure of death. He stung the bird. Floats on the winds. and curling round. Orestes. While Greece unconquer'd kept alive the war. Meantime. And round him rose a monument of dead. And wrap in rolling flames the fleet and wall. A bleeding serpent of enormous size. alive. The weapon drank the mingled brains and gore! The warrior sinks. Then sudden waved his unresisted sword: Antiphates. First Damasus. Jove's bird on sounding pinions beat the skies.

And all I move. and more heroes bleed. But tends to raise that power which I obey. Thus. are decreed. For thus a skilful seer would read the skies. and fiercer. More woes shall follow. nor may my words be vain! Seek not this day the Grecian ships to gain. deferring to thy sway. pale with terror. Jove his omen sent. his eyes with fury burn'd:) "Are these the faithful counsels of thy tongue? Thy will is partial. For sure. For words well meant. and fills our hearts with fright. and in fight. Then hear my words. but not possess the prize. I tell the faithful dictates of my breast. Allow'd to seize. To speak his thoughts is every freeman's right. And thus my mind explains its clear event: The victor eagle. So bodes my soul. and sentiments sincere? True to those counsels which I judge the best. Though these proud bulwalks tumble at our feet. my brother. and to Hector spoke: "How oft. thy reproach I bear. And Jove's portent with beating hearts behold. They. to warn us. Dismiss'd his conquest in the middle skies. mark its spires unroll'd. Then first Polydamas the silence broke." To him then Hector with disdain return'd: (Fierce as he spoke. in war.364 The Iliad of Homer Amidst the host the fallen serpent lies. In peace. though we gird with fires the Grecian fleet. in council. whose sinister flight Retards our host. [223] . not thy reason wrong: Or if the purpose of thy heart thou vent. Long weigh'd the signal. Toils unforeseen. and bids me thus advise.

Calls on his host. But thou canst live. the irrevocable nod. These shall I slight. With ardour follow where their leader flies: Redoubling clamours thunder in the skies. And asks no omen but his country's cause. for thou canst be a slave. but stronger in his aid. Or where the suns arise.BOOK XII. as none promotes it less: Though all our chiefs amidst yon ships expire. Close to the works their rigid siege they laid. Trust thy own cowardice to escape their fire. He fills the Greeks with terror and dismay." Furious he spoke. or where descend. Yet should the fears that wary mind suggests Spread their cold poison through our soldiers' breasts. Without a sign his sword the brave man draws. What coward counsels would thy madness move Against the word. Sure heaven resumes the little sense it lent. to left. unheeded take your way. And drifts of dust the clouded navy hide. Troy and her sons may find a general grave. And happy thunders of the favouring god. 365 [224] . And gives great Hector the predestined day. Jove breathes a whirlwind from the hills of Ide. the will reveal'd of Jove? The leading sign. But why should'st thou suspect the war's success? None fears it more. Strong in themselves. My javelin can revenge so base a part. his host obey the call. rushing to the wall. and guide my wavering mind By wandering birds that flit with every wind? Ye vagrants of the sky! your wings extend. And free the soul that quivers in thy heart. To right. and. While I the dictates of high heaven obey.

Shield touching shield. with flame divine. And Troy lie trembling in her walls again. Whence hissing darts. and those they rend. The bold Ajaces fly from tower to tower. Urge those who stand. the Grecian power. Drown Hector's vaunts in loud exhorts of fight. Then pours the silent tempest thick and deep. While these they undermine. So Jove once more may drive their routed train. . excite. The generous impulse every Greek obeys. not safety. Conquest. and bids the skies to sleep. incessant. To gain new glories. Upheaved the piles that prop the solid wall. rain below. And you. praise." Their ardour kindles all the Grecian powers. As when high Jove his sharp artillery forms. Greece on her ramparts stands the fierce alarms. And opes his cloudy magazine of storms. And now the stones descend in heavier showers. and those who faint. and the valiant. In winter's bleak un comfortable reign. Seek not your fleet. and warm the cold. or augment the old. but sally from the wall. a long refulgent row. A snowy inundation hides the plain. And rouse. Threats urge the fearful. "Fellows in arms! whose deeds are known to fame. whose ardour hopes an equal name! Since not alike endued with force or art. fill the thoughts of all. The crowded bulwarks blaze with waving arms. Behold a day when each may act his part! A day to fire the brave. He stills the winds.366 The Iliad of Homer In vain the mounds and massy beams defend. And heaps on heaps the smoky ruins fall.

and the gates to rend: Nor Troy could conquer. and stern disdain: In vain loud mastiffs bay him from afar. And the white ruin rises o'er the plain. And shepherds gall him with an iron war. the nodding woods are seen. Ponderous with brass. conspicuous from afar. Regardless. So stalks the lordly savage o'er the plain. he roars. and leads his Lycian bands. furious. and then the sandy shore. and urged him on to fame. Bent with the weight. Within whose orb the thick bull-hides were roll'd. he rends the panting prey. nor the Greeks would yield. and bound with ductile gold: And while two pointed javelins arm his hands. He foams. Till great Sarpedon tower'd amid the field. And first the mountain-tops are cover'd o'er. Drink the dissolving fleeces as they fall: So from each side increased the stony rain. [225] So press'd with hunger. And one bright waste hides all the works of men: The circling seas. For mighty Jove inspired with martial flame His matchless son. Majestic moves along. And bears aloft his ample shield in air. 367 Thus godlike Hector and his troops contend To force the ramparts. alone absorbing all. Then the green fields. In arms he shines.BOOK XII. he pursues his way. In sullen majesty. from the mountain's brow Descends a lion on the flocks below. .

and so much to him due Of hazard more. the dignity they give to grace. The first in valour. And hills where vines their purple harvest yield. And vindicate the bounteous powers above? 'Tis ours.226 Where Xanthus' streams enrich the Lycian plain. 450. and meditates their fall. Unless great acts superior merit prove. Then casting on his friend an ardent look. Our numerous herds that range the fruitful field. . as he above the rest High honour'd sits." ii. That when with wondering eyes our martial bands Behold our deeds transcending our commands. due alike to him Who reigns.368 The Iliad of Homer Resolved alike. Our foaming bowls with purer nectar crown'd. deserve the sovereign state. Such. and as gods obey'd. Refusing to accept as great a share Of hazard as of honour. Glaucus! our extended reign. as the first in place. "Wherefore do I assume These royalties and not refuse to reign. they may cry. He views the towers. Which claims no less the fearful and the brave. Our feasts enhanced with music's sprightly sound? Why on those shores are we with joy survey'd. For lust of fame I should not vainly dare 226 —Why boast we. Whom those that envy dare not imitate! Could all our care elude the gloomy grave. divine Sarpedon glows With generous rage that drives him on the foes. Fired with the thirst of glory. thus he spoke: "Why boast we. Admired as heroes." —"Paradise Lost. To sure destruction dooms the aspiring wall.

The brazen hinges fly. prodigal of blood. In fighting fields. Brave though we fall. Let Telamon. Heaven trembles. Menestheus from on high the storm beheld Threatening the fort. and repel the foe. And urge the bold Ajaces to our aid. And saw where Teucer with the Ajaces stood. and rouse the warrior's fire. Of fight insatiate. at least. his words the listening chief inspire With equal warmth. and blackening in the field: Around the walls he gazed. And Teucer haste with his unerring bow To share the danger." . and claim the promised fight. best may help to bear The bloody labours of the doubtful war: Hither the Lycian princes bend their course. and death's inexorable doom The life. Rush to the foe.BOOK XII. Or let us glory gain. roar the mountains. and echoes through the fields. the din of helms and shields Rings to the skies. to view from far What aid appear'd to avert the approaching war. The troops pursue their leaders with delight. But since. Disease. our towers defend. which others pay. alas! ignoble age must come. and honour'd if we live. But if too fiercely there the foes contend. or glory give!" 369 [226] He said. thunders all the ground Then thus to Thoos: "Hence with speed (he said). let us bestow. In vain he calls. Their strength. The best and bravest of the hostile force. united. nor urge thy soul to war. the walls resound. And give to fame what we to nature owe.

" Straight to the fort great Ajax turn'd his care. valiant Lycomede! exert your might.370 The Iliad of Homer Swift. through the martial throng. With equal steps bold Teucer press'd the shore. The best and bravest of the hostile force. Your strength. And sends the brave Epicles to the shades. High on the walls appear'd the Lycian powers. [227] . best may help to bear The bloody labours of the doubtful war: Thither the Lycian princes bend their course. "Ye valiant leaders of our warlike bands! Your aid (said Thoos) Peteus' son demands. at the word. And thus bespoke his brothers of the war: "Now. let Telamon those towers defend. And Teucer haste with his unerring bow To share the danger. the foes contend. Tumultuous clamour mounts. Whose fatal bow the strong Pandion bore. and thickens in the skies. oppress'd. At least. Like some black tempest gathering round the towers: The Greeks. Prepared to labour in the unequal fight: The war renews. To you I trust the fortune of the field. Fierce Ajax first the advancing host invades. and repel the foe. the herald speeds along The lofty ramparts. here. prove your force in fight. And finds the heroes bathed in sweat and gore. Opposed in combat on the dusty shore. united. And. brave Oileus. But if too fiercely. expect me to complete the day Then with his sevenfold shield he strode away. Till by this arm the foe shall be repell'd: That done. their utmost force unite. mix'd shouts and groans arise.

then toss'd on high. and labour'd up the sky. Deep in his breast he plunged the pointed steel. and swung it round.BOOK XII. Conceal'd the wound. The bearded shaft the destined passage found. The chief. So falls Epicles. Alcmaon first was doom'd his force to feel. and flies upon the foes. and shoot into the deep. And on his naked arm inflicts a wound. He springs to fight. Then from the yawning wound with fury tore The spear. The ponderous ruin crush'd his batter'd crown. From Teucer's hand a winged arrow flew. then in groans expires. pursued by gushing streams of gore: Down sinks the warrior with a thundering sound. . 371 While to the ramparts daring Glaucus drew. And murmuring to the shades the soul retires. In modern ages not the strongest swain Could heave the unwieldy burden from the plain: He poised. His brazen armour rings against the ground. who fear'd some foe's insulting boast Might stop the progress of his warlike host. leaping from his height Retired reluctant from the unfinish'd fight. a rocky fragment lay. and. It flew with force. His beating breast with generous ardour glows. Divine Sarpedon with regret beheld Disabled Glaucus slowly quit the field. Sarpedon's friend. Across the warrior's way. Rent from the walls. Full on the Lycian's helmet thundering down. As skilful divers from some airy steep Headlong descend.

the walls lie bare. One foot. but your chief in vain Attempts alone the guarded pass to gain: Unite. Thus obstinate to death. And Ajax sends his javelin at the foe. nor yield. But urging vengeance. but neither gain.372 The Iliad of Homer [228] Swift to the battlement the victor flies. Two stubborn swains with blows dispute their bounds. and soon that hostile fleet shall fall: The force of powerful union conquers all. They join. and avert his fate. they fight. is the strength you boast? Your former fame and ancient virtue lost! The breach lies open. and fired with glory's charms. the ponderous stones disjointed yield. . But Jove was present in the dire debate. one inch." This just rebuke inflamed the Lycian crew. and severer fight. And through his buckler drove the trembling wood. Nor could the Greeks repel the Lycian powers. they sweat. and every nerve applies: It shakes. "O where. Fix'd in his belt the feather'd weapon stood. and the assault renew: Unmoved the embodied Greeks their fury dare. Then raised with hope. ye Lycians. they thicken. like a deluge. The rolling ruins smoke along the field. And. His fainting squadrons to new fury warms. Nor the bold Lycians force the Grecian towers. of the contended field. And fix'd support the weight of all the war. A mighty breach appears. They tug. As on the confines of adjoining grounds. To shield his offspring. Tugs with full force. The prince gave back. not meditating flight. they fall. rushes in the war. At once bold Teucer draws the twanging bow.

Their manly breasts are pierced with many a wound. and all the rising host appears. Loud strokes are heard. Nor these can keep. And fires his host with loud repeated cries. For Jove upheld. With fates prevailing. With nice exactness weighs her woolly store. and. and rattling arms resound.BOOK XII. "Advance. they run. A ponderous stone bold Hector heaved to throw. descends:227 So stood the war. just and poor.) Till poised aloft. till Hector's matchless might. Such men as live in these degenerate days: Yet this. as easy as a swain could bear The snowy fleece. nor those can win the wall. "Long time in even scale The battle hung. he toss'd." vi. (While some laborious matron. . And the high ramparts drip with human gore. nor that. ye Trojans! lend your valiant hands. From side to side the trembling balance nods. gathering at his call. Fierce as a whirlwind up the walls he flies. and rough and gross below: Not two strong men the enormous weight could raise." —"Paradise Lost. 245. and lighten'd of its load The unwieldy rock. and shook in air. nor this. and ascend the wall: Around the works a wood of glittering spears Shoots up. Raise scaling engines. The copious slaughter covers all the shore. Pointed above. and toss the blazing brands!" They hear. turn'd the scale of fight. As when two scales are charged with doubtful loads. Haste to the fleet. the labour of a god. 227 373 [229] —Each equal weight. the resting beam suspends Each equal weight.

the solid beams give way. the flying hinges roar." vi. before the folded gates he came. through the gaping space. Gloomy as night. And seems a match for more than mortal force. and fills the place. and stupendous frame. and they fly. He moves a god. The shore is heap'd with death. Drives the sharp rock.374 The Iliad of Homer Thus arm'd. Then pouring after. And from his eye-balls flash'd the living flame. 831 . On lofty beams of solid timber hung: Then thundering through the planks with forceful sway. A tide of Trojans flows. and tumult rends the sky. The folds are shatter'd. resistless in his course. 228 "He on his impious foes right onward drove. Of massy substance. they tremble. the furious chief appears. from the crackling door Leap the resounding bars. The Greeks behold. Now rushing in. With iron bars and brazen hinges strong. Gloomy as night! and shakes two shining spears:228 A dreadful gleam from his bright armour came." —"Paradise Lost.

375 GREEK ALTAR. .BOOK XII.

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encourages the other Greeks who had retired to their vessels. Polydamas advises to call a council of war: Hector approves of his advice. and inspires those heroes to oppose him: then. Several deeds of valour are performed. Meriones. Hector still keeps his ground against the Ajaces. who return together to the battle. The scene is between the Grecian wall and the sea-shore. rejoins Polydamas. The Trojans are repulsed on the left wing. and put a stop to Hector and the Trojans. Asius. upbraids Paris. and Alcathous: Deiphobus and Æneas march against him. Idomeneus signalizes his courage above the rest. The eight-and-twentieth day still continues. and renews the attack. IN WHICH NEPTUNE ASSISTS THE GREEKS: THE ACTS OF IDOMENEUS. meets Ajax again. The Ajaces form their troops in a close phalanx. and kills Pisander. and at length Idomeneus retires. losing his spear in the encounter. (who had entered the gate near the station of the Ajaces. upon seeing the fortification forced by Hector. in the form of one of the generals. concerned for the loss of the Grecians.) assumes the shape of Calchas. but goes first to rally the Trojans. ARGUMENT. THE FOURTH BATTLE CONTINUED. Neptune. . till. Menelaus wounds Helenus.[230] BOOK XIII. being galled by the Locrian slingers and archers. he kills Othryoneus. repairs to seek another at the tent of Idomeneus: this occasions a conversation between those two warriors.

The crowded ships and sable seas between. There. seek their simple food: Jove sees delighted. and avoids the scene Of guilty Troy. de Exp. in this passage. "milking their mares. Alex. to either host is given. Below.e. either "long-lived. and dying men: No aid." as an epithet applicable to numerous tribes. iv. according as we read it. He left them to the fates." or "bowless. from the crystal chambers of the main —Renown'd for justice and for length of days. From milk. nor observed in vain. Arrian. fair Ilion's glittering spires were seen. which he regards as the result of their poverty and uprightness. in bloody fray To toil and struggle through the well-fought day. Renown'd for justice and for length of days. on a mountain's brow. Then turn'd to Thracia from the field of fight Those eyes that shed insufferable light. of arms. And hardy Thracians tame the savage horse. Some authors have regarded the phrase "Hippomolgian." the latter epithet indicating that they did not depend upon archery for subsistence. While his high law suspends the powers of Heaven. He sat. and round him cast his azure eyes Where Ida's misty tops confusedly rise. he deems. also speaks of the independence of these people. innocent of blood. To where the Mysians prove their martial force. p. It may mean." i. In Samothracia. 229 . has occasioned much discussion. Whose waving woods o'erhung the deeps below. Meantime the monarch of the watery main Observed the Thunderer. The epithet abion or abion. And where the far-famed Hippomolgian strays.229 Thrice happy race! that. innoxious. since the oldest of the Samatian nomads made their mares' milk one of their chief articles of diet.378 The Iliad of Homer [231] When now the Thunderer on the sea-beat coast Had fix'd great Hector and his conquering host. 239.

Immortal arms of adamant and gold. and the chariot flies: His whirling wheels the glassy surface sweep. From realm to realm three ample strides he took. Fleet as the winds. Refulgent arms his mighty limbs infold. The sea subsiding spreads a level plain. with grief and fury stung. his brass-hoof'd steeds he reins. Eternal frame! not raised by mortal hands: This having reach'd. Prone down the rocky steep he rush'd along. And felt the footsteps of the immortal god. Infrangible. And. And link'd their fetlocks with a golden band. the golden scourge applies. He mounts the car. The parting waves before his coursers fly. The forest shakes. he sat. and mourn'd his Argives slain. Emerged. and deck'd with golden manes. And rocky Imbrus breaks the rolling wave: There the great ruler of the azure round Stopp'd his swift chariot. at the fourth. And heavy whales in awkward measures play. He sits superior. The enormous monsters rolling o'er the deep Gambol around him on the watery way. the distant Ægae shook. At Jove incensed. Far in the bay his shining palace stands. Fed with ambrosial herbage from his hand. and his steeds unbound. The wondering waters leave his axle dry. Fierce as he pass'd.BOOK XIII. immortal: there they stay: 379 . Deep in the liquid regions lies a cave. the lofty mountains nod. Between where Tenedos the surges lave. earth trembled as he trod. and owns the monarch of the main. Exults.

like a tempest. His shouts incessant every Greek inspire. Embattled roll'd. rising from the seas profound. Or fiery deluge that devours the ground. and such his manly mien. adding fire to fire. as Hector rush'd along: To the loud tumult and the barbarous cry The heavens re-echo. darkening heaven around. The god whose earthquakes rock the solid ground. NEPTUNE RISING FROM THE SEA. The impatient Trojans. . But Neptune. in a gloomy throng. But most the Ajaces. Now wears a mortal form. Such his loud voice. And in their hopes the fleets already flame. and the shores reply: They vow destruction to the Grecian name. like Calchas seen.380 The Iliad of Homer [232] The father of the floods pursues his way: Where.

and skims along the sky: Such. this part o'erthrown. Breathe in your hearts. "'Tis yours. the power of ocean flew. Flight. and swells their daring hearts. The wide horizon shut him from their view. not their own. and so swift. is destructive here. all our hopes to raise: Oh recollect your ancient worth and praise! 'Tis yours to save us." 381 Then with his sceptre. Her quarry seen. Vaunts of his gods. darts herself from high. and thus to Telamon: . as a falcon from the rocky height. Greece yet may live. Forth-springing instant. I dread for you alone: Here Hector rages like the force of fire. [233] The inspiring god Oileus' active son Perceived the first. He touch'd the chiefs. And pour her armies o'er our batter'd wall: There Greece has strength: but this. her threaten'd fleet maintain: And Hector's force. Her strength were vain. Then. On other works though Troy with fury fall. O warriors. that the deep controls. the touch divine imparts. and steel'd their manly souls: Strength. and string your arms to fight. and calls high Jove his sire: If yet some heavenly power your breast excite. if you cease to fear. Prompts their light limbs. be vain. more than shameful. and Jove's own aid. impetuous at the sight.BOOK XIII. Shoots on the wing.

Teucer and Leitus first his words excite. Deipyrus. some god in human form Favouring descends." Full of the god that urged their burning breast. with length of labours tired. and brace my arm. Then stern Peneleus rises to the fight. New rising spirits all my force alarm. His own bright evidence reveals a god. The heroes thus their mutual warmth express'd. Thoas. the venerable seer. my friend. I saw the power appear: I mark'd his parting. And seem to walk on wings. Lift each impatient limb. Last Nestor's son the same bold ardour takes. shakes the dart. And Merion next. unthinking. While thus the god the martial fire awakes: . and my bosom burns. Neptune meanwhile the routed Greeks inspired. breathless. While tears of rage stand burning in their eye. Who. And stretch the dreadful Hector at my feet. in arms renown'd. and wills to stand the storm. Short as he turned. and this their fatal hour. the impulsive fury found. Even now some energy divine I share. Greece sunk they thought. and the steps he trod. This ready arm. and fortifies my heart: Singly. while Troy to conquest calls. And swarms victorious o'er their yielding walls: Trembling before the impending storm they lie. Not Calchas this. Pant in the ships. methinks.382 The Iliad of Homer "Some god. pale. The blood pours back. and tread in air!" "With equal ardour (Telamon returns) My soul is kindled. But breathe new courage as they feel the power. yon towering chief I meet.

for they feel no shame: But you. A prey to every savage of the wood: Shall these. oh dire disgrace To chiefs of vigorous youth. On endless infamy. And one black day clouds all her former fame. Achilles' injured fame: Another's is the crime. and you. a straggling train. so late who trembled at your name. Grant that our chief offend through rage or lust.BOOK XIII. and your country save: Small thought retrieves the spirits of the brave. Not born to glories of the dusty plain. and manly race! I trusted in the gods. all you lose. ensues. Must you be cowards. Think. and subdue! on dastards dead to fame I waste no anger. Invade your camps. to see Brave Greece victorious. if your king's unjust? Prevent this evil. "Oh lasting infamy. say. and life the price? 'Tis not your cause. the pride. unthought. no—the glorious combat you disclaim. this battle. what cause has wrought? The soldiers' baseness. and her navy free: Ah. till this amazing day! Fly we at length from Troy's oft-conquer'd bands? And falls our fleet by such inglorious hands? A rout undisciplined. Let each reflect. Unseen. Heavens! what a prodigy these eyes survey. or the general's fault? Fools! will ye perish for your leader's vice. who prizes fame or breath. A day more black. the flower of all our host. on instant death: 383 [234] . involve your ships in flame? A change so shameful. but yours the shame. My heart weeps blood to see your glory lost! Nor deem this day. a fate more vile. The purchase infamy. Like frighted fawns from hill to hill pursued.

And levell'd at the skies with pointing rays. And listening armies catch the godlike fire. the appointed shore: Hark! the gates burst. (Which from the stubborn stone a torrent rends. firm. As from some mountain's craggy forehead torn. As when an earthquake stirs the nodding grove. impatient to destroy. on targets targets throng. Descending Hector and his battle wait. so disposed their fight. The floating plumes unnumber'd wave above. Or had the god of war inclined his eyes. At every shock the crackling wood resounds. With well-ranged squadrons strongly circled round: So close their order. and Hector first of Troy.384 The Iliad of Homer For. and man drove man along. Thus breathing death. A rock's round fragment flies. the spot. to conquer.) Precipitate the ponderous mass descends: From steep to steep the rolling ruin bounds. and shields in shields. As Pallas' self might view with fix'd delight. Spears lean on spears. lo! the fated time. in terrible array. The hour. Fix'd at his post was each bold Ajax found. Troy charged the first. with fury borne. Armour in armour lock'd. resolved as fate. The close compacted legions urged their way: Fierce they drove on. [235] . the brazen barriers roar! Impetuous Hector thunders at the wall." These words the Grecians' fainting hearts inspire. Helms stuck to helms. Their brandish'd lances at each motion blaze. The god of war had own'd a just surprise. An iron scene gleams dreadful o'er the fields. A chosen phalanx. or to fall.

Forth march'd Deiphobus. this arm shall make your way Through yon square body. held Before his wary steps his ample shield. Bold Merion aim'd a stroke (nor aim'd it wide).230 Resistless when he raged. But with repeated shouts his army fires. On the raised orb to distance bore the spear. beyond the rest. but. touch'd with timely fear. Whirls. On him the war is bent. it smokes. The Trojan warrior. bold verses:— "And as a round piece of a rocke. and thunders down. The glittering javelin pierced the tough bull-hide. Strong as they seem. and urged amain. it headlong leaps till in a plaine it stay. And on. mourn'd his frustrate blow. "Trojans! be firm. embattled like a tower. And then (tho' never so impelled).BOOK XIII. Flies jumping all adourne the woods. The point broke short. nor from his stand retires. leaps. And all their falchions wave around his head: Repulsed he stands.—" . The Greek. when he stopp'd. For he that Juno's heavenly bosom warms. and that black array: Stand. when a shoure poured from a bursten cloud. The first of gods. and my spear shall rout their scattering power. impetuous to the plain: There stops—so Hector. uncheckt. and roused the soul in every breast: Urged with desire of fame. and. it stirs not any way:— So Hector. the darts are shed. marching. But pierced not through: unfaithful to his hand. which with a winter's flood Is from his top torn. 385 Still gathering force. Their whole force he proved. this day inspires our arms. Hath broke the naturall band it had within the roughftey rock. resounding everie shocke. unmoved. and sparkled in the sand. retreating. 230 Compare Chapman's quaint." He said.

his arms the fall resound. Allied the warrior to the house of Troy:) To Troy. rich in generous steeds. and his race divine! Prostrate he falls. The tumult thickens. a guardian of the throne. [236] . beloved and honour'd as his own. he came. So falls the youth. He lived. of Neptune's forceful line. And his broad buckler thunders on the ground. From Hector's hand a shining javelin fled: He saw. Then Teucer rushing to despoil the dead. the forceful dart Sung on. Then to the ships with surly speed he went. In fair Pedaeus' verdant pastures bred. Ere yet to Troy the sons of Greece were led. Subdued by steel. a tall ash tumbles down. Meanwhile with rising rage the battle glows. As from some far-seen mountain's airy crown. when glory call'd his arms. To seek a surer javelin in his tent. Him Teucer pierced between the throat and ear: He groans beneath the Telamonian spear. Vain was his courage. and shunn'd the death. Cteatus' son. By Teucer's arm the warlike Imbrius bleeds. And just had fastened on the dazzling prize. The youth had dwelt. the fruit of Priam's ravish'd joy. And soils its verdant tresses on the ground. To seize his beamy helm the victor flies. The son of Mentor. his clanging arms resound.386 The Iliad of Homer And cursed the treacherous lance that spared a foe. and the clamour grows. And blest in bright Medesicaste's arms: (This nymph. and pierced Amphimachus's heart. remote from war's alarms. And match'd the bravest of her chiefs in fame: With Priam's sons.

(Stichius the brave. Repulsed he yields. the victor Greeks obtain The spoils contested. a slaughter'd fawn. His pensive brow the generous care express'd With which a wounded soldier touch'd his breast. Whom in the chance of war a javelin tore. fired with stern disdain. As two grim lions bear across the lawn. Imbrius remains the fierce Ajaces' prize. In Thoas' voice. Between the leaders of the Athenian line. When Ajax' manly arm a javelin flung. 387 [237] . Inspires the Grecian hearts. And breathes destruction on the Trojan bands. And sprinkling all the shrubs with drops of blood. And his sad comrades from the battle bore. The god of ocean. In their fell jaws high-lifting through the wood. and bear off the slain. confirms their hands. Oileus lops his head: Toss'd like a ball. At Hector's feet the gory visage lay. Secure in mail. So these. Andraemon's valiant son. Full on the shield's round boss the weapon rung.BOOK XIII. sad object! lies. Him to the surgeons of the camp he sent: That office paid. and sheath'd in shining steel. Who ruled where Calydon's white rocks arise. and whirl'd in air away. Menestheus the divine. Snatch'd from devouring hounds. He felt the shock.) Deplored Amphimachus. He finds the lance-famed Idomen of Crete. Swift as a whirlwind rushing to the fleet. he issued from his tent Fierce for the fight: to whom the god begun. And pierced with sorrow for his grandson slain. nor more was doom'd to feel. the chief: great Ajax from the dead Strips his bright arms.

Arms are her trade. Her hardy heroes from the well-fought plains Nor fear withholds. alas! and Jove's all-powerful doom. But feed the vultures on this hateful strand. my friend! Once foremost in the fight.388 The Iliad of Homer And Pleuron's chalky cliffs emblaze the skies: "Where's now the imperious vaunt. if their force unite. behold! in horrid arms I shine. and war is all her own. urge the rest. nor even this succour vain: Not vain the weakest. the daring boast. the bravest have confess'd in fight. That far. still prone to lend Or arms or counsels. nor shameful sloth detains: 'Tis heaven." . And urge thy soul to rival acts with mine. Of Greece victorious. But ours." Thus he: and thus the god whose force can make The solid globe's eternal basis shake: "Ah! never may he see his native land. And what thou canst not singly. now perform thy best. Together let us battle on the plain. far distant from our native home Wills us to fall inglorious! Oh. Two. and proud Ilion lost?" To whom the king: "On Greece no blame be thrown. Nor dares to combat on this signal day! For this. not the worst. Who seeks ignobly in his ships to stay.

The rest lies rooted in a Trojan shield. near his tent. Or terrifies the offending world with wars. kindling all the skies. Meriones attends. Which to pale man the wrath of heaven declares. Whom thus he questions: "Ever best of friends! O say. two javelins glittering in his hand. 389 Him.BOOK XIII. Or bleeds my friend by some unhappy wound? Inglorious here. And clad in arms that lighten'd all the strand. in every art of battle skill'd. Swift to his tent the Cretan king returns: From thence. Like lightning bursting from the arm of Jove. as the monarch flash'd along." [238] ." "O prince! (Meriones replies) whose care Leads forth the embattled sons of Crete to war. he rushes where the combat burns. And glows with prospects of th' approaching day. my soul abhors to stay. This said. From pole to pole the trail of glory flies: Thus his bright armour o'er the dazzled throng Gleam'd dreadful. This speaks my grief: this headless lance I wield. What holds thy courage from so brave a field? On some important message art thou bound. Fierce on the foe the impetuous hero drove. In streamy sparkles.

The fear of each. and unconquer'd might: And were some ambush for the foes design'd. With chattering teeth he stands. whence distant far. I fight conspicuous in the van of war. Nor trust the dart. stands confess'd. Yet hand to hand I fight. What need I more? If any Greek there be Who knows not Merion. He shifts his place: his colour comes and goes: A dropping sweat creeps cold on every part.390 The Iliad of Homer To whom the Cretan: "Enter. disdainful of the distant war. and shields that flame with gold. And high-hung spears. and spoil the slain. and receive The wonted weapons. no firmness. We too can boast of no ignoble spoils: But those my ship contains. determined is his eye. and see on heaps the helmets roll'd. I appeal to thee. and stiffening hair. and these arms I gain. Though I. Spears I have store. still the same. No force. Enter. or valour. the pale coward shows. . And looks a bloodless image of despair! Not so the brave—still dauntless. Even there thy courage would not lag behind: In that sharp service. Idomeneus: "The fields of fight Have proved thy valour. (and Trojan lances all. Terror and death in his wild eye-balls stare. Unchanged his colour. those my tent can give. and unmoved his frame: Composed his thought. And thence these trophies." To this. Against his bosom beats his quivering heart. singled from the rest." "Nor vain (said Merion) are our martial toils. nor aim the uncertain spear.) That shed a lustre round the illumined wall.

) Terror. Those wounds were glorious all. But why. attends his course. and Ephyrian arms. Or combat in the centre of the fight? Or to the left our wonted succour lend? Hazard and fame all parts alike attend. to conquer or to die: If aught disturb the tenour of his breast. And their bright arms shot horror o'er the plain. And every art of dangerous war thy own.BOOK XIII." Swift at the word bold Merion snatch'd a spear And. relentless they dispose. breathing slaughter. By chance of fight whatever wounds you bore. 'Tis but the wish to strike before the rest. The pride of haughty warriors to confound. And lay the strength of tyrants on the ground: From Thrace they fly. "In such assays thy blameless worth is known. So march'd the leaders of the Cretan train. Such as may teach. Arm'd with stern boldness. And to their owners send them nobly back. his best-beloved son. cold to honour's charms. (The wide destroyer of the race of man. Then first spake Merion: "Shall we join the right. when glory calls to arms? Go—from my conquer'd spears the choicest take. like infants. So Mars armipotent invades the plain. And fix'd his soul. follow'd to the war. and all before. 'twas still thy brave delight T'oppose thy bosom where thy foremost fight. murderous rout to those. Stand we to talk. and enormous force." 391 [239] . call'd to the dire alarms Of warring Phlegyans. Invoked by both. To these glad conquest.

hope. that flash'd afar." He said: and Merion to th' appointed place. Him neither rocks can crush. Till Jove himself descends. nor steel can wound. Each godlike Ajax makes that post his care. urged his pace. The rising combat sounds along the shore. In standing fight he mates Achilles' force. of more than human birth.392 The Iliad of Homer "Not in the centre (Idomen replied:) Our ablest chieftains the main battle guide. . or with glory die. Great must he be. meeting. darken'd heaven. And gallant Teucer deals destruction there. and. Or bear close battle on the sounding shield. Soon as the foe the shining chiefs beheld Rush like a fiery torrent o'er the field. rage. Their force embodied in a tide they pour. And hurl the blazing ruin at our head. Met the black hosts. in Sirius' sultry reign. From different quarters sweep the sandy plain. and shields. Then to the left our ready arms apply. On every side the dusty whirlwinds rise. Skill'd or with shafts to gall the distant field. helms. together driven. Whom Ajax fells not on the ensanguined ground. Dire was the gleam of breastplates. Fierce as the god of battles. As warring winds. And live with glory. Excell'd alone in swiftness in the course. his bolts to shed. And the dry fields are lifted to the skies: Thus by despair. All dreadful glared the iron face of war. These can the rage of haughty Hector tame: Safe in their arms. Nor feed like mortals on the fruits of earth. the navy fears no flame. Bristled with upright spears.

And more than men. And crowds of heroes in their anger died. Saturn's great sons in fierce contention vied. by Thetis won To crown with glory Peleus' godlike son. first-born of the skies. and close compell'd they die. Alike divine. And breathed revenge. but the fates refused. 393 [240] . For this. The king consented. Warr'd on the king of heaven with stern disdain. But touch'd with joy the bosoms of the brave. or gods. And polish'd arms emblazed the flaming fields: Tremendous scene! that general horror gave. Indissolubly strong: the fatal tie Is stretch'd on both.BOOK XIII. The king consented. and fired the Grecian train. And promised conquest was the proffer'd dower. Call'd by the voice of war to martial fame. with boasts of power. From high Cabesus' distant walls he came. Swell'd with false hopes. of Jove's superior might afraid. and grown in combats grey. Gods of one source. While Neptune. and heaven their native place. The sire of earth and heaven. Neptune in human form conceal'd his aid. Dreadful in arms. of one ethereal race. Will'd not destruction to the Grecian powers. supremely wise. by his vaunts abused. But spared awhile the destined Trojan towers. First by his hand Othryoneus was slain. with mad ambition vain. The bold Idomeneus controls the day. These powers enfold the Greek and Trojan train In war and discord's adamantine chain. But Jove the greater. Cassandra's love he sought. rising from his azure main.

394 The Iliad of Homer [241] Proud of himself. "And thus (he cries) behold thy promise sped! Such is the help thy arms to Ilion bring. on further methods to advise. follow to the fleet thy new allies. or poplar tall. The wary Cretan. There hear what Greece has on her part to say. fit mast for some great admiral. As when the mountain-oak. His arms resounded as the boaster fell. and of the imagined bride. he plunged to hell. Vain was his breastplate to repel the wound: His dream of glory lost. Meantime. And count Atrides' fairest daughter thine. The field he measured with a larger stride. Him as he stalk'd. This Asius view'd. He hoped the conquest of the Cretan king. Impatient panted on his neck behind:) To vengeance rising with a sudden spring. to his squire consign'd. And glitter'd. The great Idomeneus bestrides the dead. Before his chariot warring on the plain: (His crowded coursers. . the Cretan javelin found." He spoke. Groans to the oft-heaved axe. unable to contain. with ours thy forces join. For such an aid what will not Argos give? To conquer Troy. Come. Or pine. illustrious prince! receive. Then spreads a length of ruin o'er the ground: So sunk proud Asius in that dreadful day. as his foe drew near. Full on his throat discharged the forceful spear: Beneath the chin the point was seen to glide. and dragg'd the gory corse away. And stretch'd before his much-loved coursers lay. with many a wound. extant at the further side. And such the contract of the Phrygian king! Our offers now.

O'er his safe head the javelin idly sung. through hell's black portals stand display'd. Beneath the spacious targe. 395 Stabb'd at the sight. to the ground it bore The chief." . nor turns the steeds away. This mate shall joy thy melancholy shade.) He lay collected in defensive shade. And pierced. stooping. Deiphobus drew nigh. his people's guardian now no more! "Not unattended (the proud Trojan cries) Nor unrevenged. an unresisting prey: Pierced by Antilochus. Deprived of motion. But falls transfix'd. he pants beneath The stately car. Thick with bull-hides and brazen orbits bound. Thus Asius' steeds (their mighty master gone) Remain the prize of Nestor's youthful son. and. (a blazing round. On his raised arm by two strong braces stay'd. the vengeful weapon fly.BOOK XIII. And. and labours out his breath. obliquely. Nor shuns the foe. And made. And on the tinkling verge more faintly rung. fierce in death. The Cretan saw. king Hypsenor's breast: Warm'd in his liver. stiff with stupid fear. lamented Asius lies: For thee. with force. caused to glance From his slope shield the disappointed lance. Stands all aghast his trembling charioteer. He grinds the dust distain'd with streaming gore. Even then the spear the vigorous arm confess'd. lies foaming on the shore.

Before the ponderous stroke his corslet yields. Fast flowing from its source. Anchises' eldest hope. [242] Nor yet from fight Idomeneus withdraws. Fix'd as some column. By Neptune now the hapless hero dies. and vibrates in the wound. And his broad buckler shields his slaughter'd friend: Till sad Mecistheus and Alastor bore His honour'd body to the tented shore. but Nestor's son the most. his pious arms attend. . And fetters every limb: yet bent to meet His fate he stands. at the haughty boast. Grieved as he was. Or find some foe. whom heaven and he shall doom To wail his fate in death's eternal gloom. While the winds sleep. sense. and every work of art: He once of Ilion's youth the loveliest boy. Touch'd every Greek. The riven armour sends a jarring sound. and darling care: Who charm'd her parents' and her husband's heart With beauty. Who covers with a cloud those beauteous eyes. Resolved to perish in his country's cause. nor shuns the lance of Crete. The fairest she of all the fair of Troy.396 The Iliad of Homer Heart-piercing anguish. divinely fair. The long lance shakes. as prone he lay. He sees Alcathous in the front aspire: Great Æsyetes was the hero's sire. Life's purple tide impetuous gush'd away. or deep-rooted oak. His spouse Hippodame. Long used to ward the death in fighting fields. His labouring heart heaves with so strong a bound. his breast received the stroke.

incensed at partial Priam.BOOK XIII. The bold Deiphobus approach'd. uncertain or to meet. stands. From Jove. Approaching now thy boasted might approve. employ thy pious arms. insulting o'er the slain: "Behold. And try the prowess of the seed of Jove. Alone. and revenge it on th' insulting foe. Then Idomen. at length decreed To call some hero to partake the deed. And sees superior posts in meaner hands. Trojan prince. I reign. To him. Forthwith Æneas rises to his thought: For him in Troy's remotest lines he sought. blameless prince. Alcathous dies. If e'er thy bosom felt fair honour's charms. thy brother and thy friend. And thence my ships transport me through the main: Lord of a host. and thy line. Beneath his cares thy early youth was train'd. and said: "Now. Great Minos. to the shades I send. the third from Jupiter: O'er spacious Crete. was Minos' heir." The Trojan heard. my third victim. Come. One table fed you. enamour'd of a mortal dame. A scourge to thee. and the warrior's loved remains defend. Deiphobus! nor vaunt in vain: See! on one Greek three Trojan ghosts attend. This. This deed to fierce Idomeneus we owe." 397 [243] . Haste. and her bold sons. ambitious of so great an aid. Or seek auxiliar force. with venturous arms the king of Crete. thy father. Where he. guardian of his country. o'er all my host I shine. came: Deucalion. and one roof contain'd. His first-born I.

were near. on some rough mountain's head. O'er his bent back the bristly horrors rise. Lo. The great dispute. of glory. He fresh in youth." He spoke. Fires stream in lightning from his sanguine eyes. and all. and Aphareus. and for a space resign'd To tender pity all his manly mind. And met the Trojan with a lowering look. Before his fleecy care. Agenor. . he burns to fight: The Greek awaits him with collected might. Merion. Paris. Æneas too demands Th' assisting forces of his native bands. When the loud rustics rise. obey'd. and I in arms grown old. Else should this hand. His foaming tusks both dogs and men engage.) In order follow all th' embodied train. this hour decide the strife. as with one soul. in field renown'd: To these the warrior sent his voice around. or of life. his javelin shook. Antilochus. and more than mortal bold. great Æneas rushes to the fight: Sprung from a god. As the fell boar. Like Ida's flocks proceeding o'er the plain. Arm'd with wild terrors.398 The Iliad of Homer Æneas heard. The youthful offspring of the god of war. and shout from far. erect and bold. and expects the war. But most his hunters rouse his mighty rage: So stood Idomeneus. (Co-aids and captains of the Trojan line. Deiphobus. Attends the tumult. Then rising in his rage. and to slaughter bred. Their lifted bucklers cast a dreadful shade Around the chief. "Fellows in arms! your timely aid unite. Deipyrus. join.

The Cretan saw. And o'er their heads unheeded javelins sing. the missive wood Stuck deep in earth. a parting javelin cast: 399 [244] . two towering chiefs appear. The victor from his breast the weapon tears. Stalks the proud ram. With joy the swain surveys them.BOOK XIII. His listless limbs unable for the course. Above the rest. Stretch'd on the plain. The Trojan weapon whizz'd along in air. Like gods of war. and by foes repell'd. His tired slow steps he drags from off the field. Till faint with labour. The forceful spear his hollow corslet broke. and stretches o'er the land. And. dispensing fate. fired with hate. the father of the bold. There great Idomeneus. In standing fight he yet maintains his force. furious. stiff with cold age. Deiphobus beheld him as he pass'd. And burn'd to drench the ground with mutual blood. and quiver'd where it stood. Now batter'd breast-plates and hack'd helmets ring. On every side the steely circle grows. And roll'd the smoking entrails on the ground. His spoils he could not. grasps the bloody dust in death. as he leads To the cool fountains. And. for the shower of spears. they stood. But OEnomas received the Cretan's stroke. and shunn'd the brazen spear: Sent from an arm so strong. as his native band Moves on in rank. Heavy with cumbrous arms. Though now unfit an active war to wage. through the well-known meads: So joys Æneas. Round dread Alcathous now the battle rose. It ripp'd his belly with a ghastly wound. Æneas here. he sobs away his breath.

but held its course along. all bloody with his wound. High-throned amidst the great Olympian hall. . And from the rage of battle gently drew: Him his swift coursers. Detain'd from bloody war by Jove and Fate. And pierced Ascalaphus. disabled with the pain. And sprinkling. To Troy they drove him. Meriones drew near. Swift as a vulture leaping on his prey. the sands with gore. Rapt from the lessening thunder of the war.400 The Iliad of Homer The javelin err'd. and rejoin'd his friends. on his splendid car. The hollow helmet rings against the plain. And gnash'd the dust. the brave and young: The son of Mars fell gasping on the ground. Deiphobus to seize his helmet flies. And from his temples rends the glittering prize. His wounded brother good Polites tends. Valiant as Mars. where in dust the breathless hero lay. From his torn arm the Grecian rent away The reeking javelin. Now. And on his loaded arm discharged his spear: He drops the weight. Nor knew the furious father of his fall. groaning from the shore. On golden clouds th' immortal synod sate. For slain Ascalaphus commenced the fray. as he pass'd. Around his waist his pious arms he threw.

His time observed. His winged lance. Th' exulting victor. as Thoon turn'd him round. nods upon his breast. the bending head. and every danger sought. for closed by foes around. Obeys each motion of the master's mind! Restless it flies.BOOK XIII. impatient to be free. drew near. that to the neck extends Along the chine. 401 . And everlasting slumber seals his eyes. leaping where he lay. and to his social train Spreads his imploring arms. (Great Neptune's care preserved from hostile rage This youth. But he impervious and untouch'd remains. with the first he fought. but spreads in vain.) In arms intrepid. Bold Aphareus by great Æneas bled. Transpierced his back with a dishonest wound: The hollow vein. Meanwhile fresh slaughter bathes the sanguine ground. His shield reversed o'er the fallen warrior lies. and heaven and earth resound. his eager javelin rends: Supine he falls. Faced every foe. From his broad shoulders tore the spoils away. The son of Asius. His shield emboss'd the ringing storm sustains. the joy of Nestor's glorious age. depress'd Beneath his helmet. Splinter'd on earth flew half the broken wood. And meditates the distant enemy. On all sides thick the peals of arms resound. As toward the chief he turn'd his daring head. He pierced his throat. Heaps fall on heaps. Antilochus. resistless as the wind. Adamas. And struck his target with the brazen spear Fierce in his front: but Neptune wards the blow. And blunts the javelin of th' eluded foe: In the broad buckler half the weapon stood.

he mingled in the Trojan crew. (The winds collected at each open door.) While the broad fan with force is whirl'd around. and doubled to the ground. His bulk enormous on the field displays. watchful of the unwary foe. While death's strong pangs distend his labouring side. and roll'd amid the throng: There for some luckier Greek it rests a prize. Light leaps the golden grain. great Menelaus burns.402 The Iliad of Homer [246] Disarm'd. And nailed it to the yew: the wounded hand Trail'd the long lance that mark'd with blood the sand: But good Agenor gently from the wound . Deep in the belly's rim an entrance found. Where sharp the pang. in act to throw. And this stood adverse with the bended bow: Full on his breast the Trojan arrow fell. His heaving heart beats thick as ebbing life decays. Thus an ox in fetters tied. Repell'd to distance flies the bounding dart. And smote his temples with an arm so strong. Next brave Deipyrus in dust was laid: King Helenus waved high the Thracian blade. And death's dim shadows swarm before his view. The spear the conqueror from his body drew. to the victor turns: That shook the ponderous lance. But Merion's spear o'ertook him as he flew. For dark in death the godlike owner lies! Raging with grief. The helm fell off. And fraught with vengeance. and mortal is the wound. As on some ample barn's well harden'd floor. Bending he fell. Lay panting. Atrides. Pierced with his lance the hand that grasp'd the bow. But harmless bounded from the plated steel. resulting from the ground: So from the steel that guards Atrides' heart.

BOOK XIII. and. (An olive's cloudy grain the handle made. and brazen was the blade. Nor pierced Pisander through Atrides' shield: Pisander's spear fell shiver'd on the field.) This on the helm discharged a noble blow. Distinct with studs. and the bandage bound. urged by fate's decree. Atrides waved his steel: Deep through his front the weighty falchion fell. and fall by thee. Not so discouraged. The crashing bones before its force gave way. to the future blind. The plume dropp'd nodding to the plain below. Vain dreams of conquest swell his haughty mind. And fierce Atrides spurn'd him as he bled. Great Menelaus! to enchance thy fame: High-towering in the front. First the sharp lance was by Atrides thrown. Shorn from the crest. 403 Behold! Pisander. At once the tent and ligature supplied. The lance far distant by the winds was blown. loud-exulting. and spouting gore. Tore off his arms. A sling's soft wool. snatch'd from a soldier's side. His left arm high opposed the shining shield: His right beneath. said: . the warrior came. the cover'd pole-axe held. The spear solicits. Dauntless he rushes where the Spartan lord Like lightning brandish'd his far beaming sword. Springs through the ranks to fall. The clotted eye-balls tumble on the shore. In dust and blood the groaning hero lay: Forced from their ghastly orbs.

The violated rites. or the fear of Jove. and in lust of fight." This said. .404 The Iliad of Homer [247] "Thus. Even the sweet charms of sacred numbers tire. ah. O thou. from death he flies. Without th' assistance. which his train received: Then sudden mix'd among the warring crew. Never. Our heroes slaughter'd and our ships on flame. the dance. supremely wise! If from thy hand the fates of mortals flow. O race perfidious. And whelm in ruins yon flagitious town. love's endearing joy. But Troy for ever reaps a dire delight In thirst of slaughter. cloy. The feast. Trojans. Still breathing rapine. A princess raped transcends a navy storm'd: In such bold feats your impious might approve. beyond their measure. Thus of his lance disarm'd. great father! lord of earth and skies. Crimes heap'd on crimes. he seized (while yet the carcase heaved) The bloody armour. Following his martial father to the war: Through filial love he left his native shore. From whence this favour to an impious foe? A godless crew. never to behold it more! His unsuccessful spear he chanced to fling Against the target of the Spartan king. Sleep's balmy blessing. Above the thought of man. Harpalion had through Asia travell'd far. and lust? The best of things. who delight in war! Already noble deeds ye have perform'd. abandon'd and unjust. at length be taught to fear. the ravish'd dame. And the bold son of Pylaemenes slew. violence. shall bend your glory down. whate'er mankind desire. thus.

) While life's red torrent gush'd from out the wound. And in short pantings sobb'd his soul away. And loved of all the Paphlagonian race! With his full strength he bent his angry bow. Oft had the father told his early doom. deplored his offspring dead. And.BOOK XIII. Him on his car the Paphlagonian train In slow procession bore from off the plain. father now no more! Attends the mournful pomp along the shore. The pensive father. through the hip transpiercing as he fled. and more for virtue famed. Beneath the bone the glancing point descends. And turns around his apprehensive eyes. A chief there was. drop useless on the ground. (Like some vile worm extended on the ground. And chose the certain glorious path to death. And wing'd the feather'd vengeance at the foe. Who held his seat in Corinth's stately town. And. or slow disease at home: He climb'd his vessel. unrevenged. the brave Euchenor named. a youth of matchless grace. unnerved. driving down. a seer of old renown. prodigal of breath. Polydus' son. Beneath his ear the pointed arrow went. With pity soften'd and with fury swell'd: His honour'd host. The shaft of Merion mingled with the dead. Paris from far the moving sight beheld. The soul came issuing at the narrow vent: His limbs. Him. 405 [248] . By arms abroad. And everlasting darkness shades him round. For riches much. And unavailing tears profusely shed. the swelling bladder rends: Sunk in his sad companions' arms he lay.

Iphiclus' son: and that (Oileus) thine: (Young Ajax' brother. on the margin of the hoary deep. by a stolen embrace. active in the fight. And Dracius prudent. And he that shakes the solid earth gave aid. Where first the gates were forced. The flower of Athens. Stichius. By his fierce step-dame from his father's reign Expell'd and exiled for her brother slain:) These rule the Phthians. . Where late in fight both foot and horse engaged. He dwelt far distant from his native place. The proud Iaonians with their sweeping trains. And all the thunder of the battle raged.) There join'd. With such a tide superior virtue sway'd. and Amphion bold: The Phthians. And brave Podarces. And conquest hovers o'er th' Achaian bands. Whose humble barrier scarce the foe divides. Phidas. Medon. There. and th' Epaean force. Locrians and Phthians. and bulwarks gain'd. (Their naval station where the Ajaces keep. Mix'd with Boeotians. This drew from Phylacus his noble line. But join'd. led. and their arms employ.406 The Iliad of Homer Nor knew great Hector how his legions yield. repel not Hector's fiery course. But in the centre Hector fix'd remain'd. And where low walls confine the beating tides. on the shores of Troy. (Wrapp'd in the cloud and tumult of the field:) Wide on the left the force of Greece commands. Bias and great Menestheus at their head: Meges the strong the Epaean bands controll'd. famed for martial might. the whole Boeotian strength remains.

Whose stones and arrows intercept the sky. And trace large furrows with the shining share. Join'd to one yoke. And streams of sweat down their sour foreheads flow. A train of heroes followed through the field.BOOK XIII. the stubborn earth they tear. Each Ajax laboured through the field of war: So when two lordly bulls. discreetly brave. O'er their huge limbs the foam descends in snow. The mingled tempest on the foes they pour. But skill'd from far the flying shaft to wing. 407 [249] Now had the Greeks eternal fame acquired. nor lift the moony shield. a pressing fight maintain: Far in the rear the Locrian archers lie. Throng'd in bright arms. Tired with the incessant slaughters of the fight. And the gall'd Ilians to their walls retired. Or whirl the sounding pebble from the sling. Thus in the van the Telamonian train. No following troops his brave associate grace: In close engagement an unpractised race. remissive of his might. Troy's scattering orders open to the shower. with like unwearied care. Who bore by turns great Ajax' sevenfold shield. Nor bear the helm. Whene'er he breathed. Now side by side. Force the bright ploughshare through the fallow soil. with equal toil. But sage Polydamas. Address'd great Hector. and this counsel gave: . Dexterous with these they aim a certain wound. Or fell the distant warrior to the ground. The Locrian squadrons nor the javelin wield.

I fear. as thou mov'st. all-considering mind. yet remains On yonder decks. To few. Seek not alone to engross the gifts of Heaven. Attend. the nations round confess. O Hector! what I judge the best. But in cool thought and counsel to excel. the chiefs and kings Convoked to council. and yet o'erlooks the plains!" . See. Achilles. on dangers dangers spread. I fear. If Heaven have lodged this virtue in my breast. To gods and men thy matchless worth is known. weigh the sum of things. disperse. Contented with the conquest of the day. Pay the large debt of last revolving sun. To some sweet music and the charm of song. great Achilles. not yet undone. out-number'd. And every art of glorious war thy own. How many Trojans yield. To some the powers of bloody war belong. scarce the war maintain! And what brave heroes at the ships lie slain! Here cease thy fury: and. And war's whole fury burns around thy head. extensive. Whether (the gods succeeding our desires) To yon tall ships to bear the Trojan fires. Or quit the fleet. Their guardians these. thou seem'st averse to lend Impartial audience to a faithful friend. lest Greece. How widely differs this from warring well! Content with what the bounteous gods have given.408 The Iliad of Homer [250] "Though great in all. Behold! distress'd within yon hostile wall. has Jove assign'd A wise. And towns and empires for their safety bless. and pass unhurt away. or fall! What troops. and wondrous few.

Swift as he leap'd his clanging arms resound. Opprobrious thus. but look'd in vain. I bend my way. Some cold in death. And hasten back to end the doubtful day. he flies. Some low in dust. th' impatient chief reproved: . For many a chief he look'd. Where yonder heroes faint. "To guard this post (he cried) thy art employ. To Panthus' son. some groaning on the ground. Leap'd from his chariot on the trembling ground. nor Helenus the seer. Far on the left. And bids anew the martial thunder rise. the towering chief prepares to go. inspiring force. amid the throng he found (Cheering the troops. And seems a moving mountain topp'd with snow. And here detain the scatter'd youth of Troy. Deiphobus. Through all his host.BOOK XIII. at Hector's high command Haste the bold leaders of the Trojan band: But round the battlements. and dealing deaths around) The graceful Paris. nor Asius' self appear: For these were pierced with many a ghastly wound. with a bound. Nor Asius' son. High on the wall some breathed their souls away. with fury moved. and Hector." 409 This said. (a mournful object) lay. The counsel pleased. Shakes his white plumes that to the breezes flow. whom. and round the plain.

Palmus. and th' intrepid son? The force of Helenus. [251] . Till death for death be paid. The chiefs you seek on yonder shore lie slain. nor unknown to fame: But since yon rampart by thy arms lay low. Of all those heroes. Deiphobus. Around Polydamas. And one devouring vengeance swallow all. so fear'd of late? Black fate hang's o'er thee from th' avenging gods. As smooth of face as fraudulent of mind! Where is Deiphobus. stern Orthaeus stood. and Helenus the seer." When Paris thus: "My brother and my friend. And two bold brothers of Hippotion's line (Who reach'd fair Ilion. Thy warm impatience makes thy tongue offend. In other battles I deserved thy blame. from Ascania far. where thy soul inspires: This heart and hand shall second all thy fires: What with this arm I can. successful. with Polypoetes the divine. with forces not our own To combat: strength is of the gods alone." These words the hero's angry mind assuage: Then fierce they mingle where the thickest rage. Cebrion. Go then. Phalces. Imperial Troy from her foundations nods. distain'd with blood. But 'tis not ours. And great Othryoneus. Each now disabled by a hostile spear.410 The Iliad of Homer "Ill-fated Paris! slave to womankind. where Asius gone? The godlike father. two alone remain. I scatter'd slaughter from my fatal bow. and blow for blow. Whelm'd in thy country's ruin shalt thou fall. prepare to know. Though then not deedless. dispensing fate.

in dreadful order bright. Wide rolling. His nodding helm emits a streamy ray. illumined all the field. the next engaged in war). Thus stalk'd he. Like the broad sun. Like Mars commission'd to confound mankind. dreadful. The towering Ajax. That bears Jove's thunder on its dreadful wings. And. but not an Argive shook. As when from gloomy clouds a whirlwind springs. and tumbling to the shore: Thus rank on rank. His piercing eyes through all the battle stray. Vain are the hopes that haughty mind imparts. 411 . The former day. 'tis thundering Jove we fear: The skill of war to us not idly given. but Heaven. thy empty threats forbear. not by Troy. The brazen arms reflect a beamy light: Full in the blazing van great Hector shined.BOOK XIII. Far o'er the plains. with an ample stride. Wide o'er the blasted fields the tempest sweeps. and thus the chief defied: "Hector! come on. and your god-built wall. The afflicted deeps tumultuous mix and roar. Before him flaming his enormous shield. Lo! Greece is humbled. the thick battalions throng. while beneath his targe he flash'd along. and man drove man along. 'Tis not thy arm. Shot terrors round. Advanced the first. foaming high. Long ere in flames our lofty navy fall. settles on the hoary deeps. Chief urged on chief. gather'd. that wither'd e'en the strong. Then. To force our fleet: the Greeks have hands and hearts. The waves behind impel the waves before. death was in his look: Whole nations fear'd. Your boasted city.

and like a lion stalk'd along: With shouts incessant earth and ocean rung. and Argos be no more a name. extended on the shore. The blue-eyed maid. his progress through the skies: Far-echoing clamours bound from side to side. above. in open view. But such as those of Jove's high lineage born. Even thou shalt wish.) As this decisive day shall end the fame Of Greece.412 The Iliad of Homer [252] Shall sink beneath us. They ceased. and. The wings of falcons for thy flying horse. or he that gilds the morn. And thou. chased along the plain. to aid thy desperate course. behold. Even thou shalt call on Jove. imperious! if thy madness wait The lance of Hector. thou shalt meet thy fate: That giant-corse. this insulting strain? Enormous boaster! doom'd to vaunt in vain. On sounding wings a dexter eagle flew." He said. and call in vain. . Shook the fix'd splendours of the throne of Jove. Shalt run. Shall largely feast the fowls with fat and gore. and thus the chief of Troy replied: "From whence this menace. with shouts. Sent from his following host: the Grecian train With answering thunders fill'd the echoing plain. And hail. So may the gods on Hector life bestow. when. smoking on the ground. To Jove's glad omen all the Grecians rise. While clouds of friendly dust conceal thy shame. And spread a long unmeasured ruin round. A shout that tore heaven's concave. (Not that short life which mortals lead below. The time shall come. forgetful of a warrior's fame." As thus he spoke.

413 GREEK EARRINGS.BOOK XIII. .

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at first sight. till the Trojans. It is as well to observe. and is laid asleep. wounded as they were. that the sameness of these scenes renders many notes unnecessary. forms a design to over-reach him: she sets off her charms with the utmost care. is alarmed with the increasing clamour of war. Agamemnon proposes to make their escape by night. that. they should go forth and encourage the army with their presence. and carried off from the battle: several actions succeed. Nestor. and (the more surely to enchant him) obtains the magic girdle of Venus. are obliged to give way: the lesser Ajax signalizes himself in a particular manner. and hastens to Agamemnon. much distressed. seeing the partiality of Jupiter to the Trojans. She then applies herself to the god of sleep. and succours the Greeks: Hector is struck to the ground with a prodigious stone by Ajax.[253] BOOK XIV.231 JUNO DECEIVES JUPITER BY THE GIRDLE OF VENUS. is ravished with her beauty. sinks in her embraces. and. whom he informs of the extremity of the danger. Neptune takes advantage of his slumber. to which Diomed adds his advice. sitting at the table with Machaon. which advice is pursued. which Ulysses withstands. persuades him to seal the eyes of Jupiter: this done. ARGUMENT. Juno. where the god. on his way he meets that prince with Diomed and Ulysses. with some difficulty. This book forms a most agreeable interruption to The continuous round of battles. she goes to mount Ida. which occupy the latter part of the Iliad. 231 .

(That day the son his father's buckler bore. To join the host. nor flowing bowl. the sight his bosom warms. His wounded eyes the scene of sorrow knew. say. divine Machaon. The field rings dreadful with the clang of arms. and cleanse the clotted gore. Jove sends one gust. to his wounded friend: "What new alarm. and how they meet. While I the adventures of the day explore. Then thus. Fluctuates in doubtful thought the Pylian sage. impatient. seizing Thrasymedes' shield. and blackens in the sky. and issued from the door. Let Hecamede the strengthening bath prepare. (His valiant offspring. The wall in ruins. [254] . While wavering counsels thus his mind engage. The waves just heaving on the purple deeps: While yet the expected tempest hangs on high.416 The Iliad of Homer But not the genial feast. Soon as the prospect open'd to his view. Could charm the cares of Nestor's watchful soul. Weighs down the cloud. What mix'd events attend this mighty day? Hark! how the shouts divide. he fixes on the last: Yet.) Then snatch'd a lance. Dire disarray! the tumult of the fight. The mass of waters will no wind obey. As when old ocean's silent surface sleeps.) hasten'd to the field. as he moves. Debating long. His startled ears the increasing cries attend. Refresh thy wound. and thicken to the fleet! Here with the cordial draught dispel thy care." He said: and. or to the general haste. and the Greeks in flight. And now come full. and bids them roll away.

The gleaming falchions flash. in his march. nor will one chief engage? And have I lived to see with mournful eyes In every Greek a new Achilles rise?" 232 —Who to Tydeus owes. and all or kill or die. Is every heart inflamed with equal rage Against your king. Ulysses the divine. By tardy steps ascending from the fleet: The king of men. and our heroes kill'd? Such was his threat.e. Unfit to fight. but anxious for the day. 417 Him. the fleet unable to contain At length. the wounded princes meet. i. Diomed. Blows echo blows. Our fleets in ashes. Nestor. On many a Grecian bosom writ in blood.) Supported on the spears. from the field of fame? Shall then proud Hector see his boast fulfill'd. Nestor's approach alarm'd each Grecian breast. Whom thus the general of the host address'd: "O grace and glory of the Achaian name. lay highest on the shore. What drives thee.232 (Their ships at distance from the battle stand. the crowded ships they moor: Who landed first.BOOK XIV. . In lines advanced along the shelving strand: Whose bay. And who to Tydeus owes his noble line. beside the margin of the main. the javelins fly. ah! now too soon made good. Rank above rank. they took their way.

late our surest trust And best defence. lies smoking in the dust. And best defence. and hoist each sail for flight. Not Jove himself. wills our ruin here. our late inviolable bound. The wall. lies smoking on the ground: Even to the ships their conquering arms extend. And all his favour. our hands from battle ties. Past are the days when happier Greece was blest. Than perish in the danger we may shun. Now heaven averse. These gaping wounds withhold us from the fight. Who. far from Argos. Bring all to sea. till the coming night: Then. Leave these at anchor. if impetuous Troy forbear the fight. Cease we at length to waste our blood in vain. On speedy measures then employ your thought In such distress! if counsel profit aught: Arms cannot much: though Mars our souls incite. upon the past has power. And launch what ships lie nearest to the main. to run. all his aid confess'd. Not he that thunders from the aerial bower.418 The Iliad of Homer [255] Gerenian Nestor then: "So fate has will'd." . All this from Jove's afflictive hand we bear. And that the rampart. That Troy triumphant our high fleet ascends. And all-confirming time has fate fulfill'd." To him the monarch: "That our army bends. And groans of slaughter'd Greeks to heaven ascend. And lifts the Trojan glory to the skies. Better from evils. well foreseen.

by Jove endued with martial might. But thy ships flying. while his soldiers fight? What more could Troy? What yet their fate denies Thou givest the foe: all Greece becomes their prize. And owe destruction to a prince like thee. Lives there a man so dead to fame.BOOK XIV. No more the troops (our hoisted sails in view. or to fall in fight: Adventurous combats and bold wars to wage. more conducive to our weal. And thou the shame of any host but ours! A host. And wilt thou thus desert the Trojan plain? And have whole streams of blood been spilt in vain? In such base sentence if thou couch thy fear. While anger flash'd from his disdainful eyes: "What shameful words (unkingly as thou art) Fall from that trembling tongue and timorous heart? Oh were thy sway the curse of meaner powers. Employ'd our youth. Speak it in whispers. and yet employs our age." 419 [256] . Aught. Glad I submit. I force not Greece to quit this hateful coast." "Thy just reproofs (Atrides calm replies) Like arrows pierce me. lest a Greek should hear. for thy words are wise. who dares To think such meanness. or old. Unwilling as I am to lose the host. or young. While war hangs doubtful. unfold. And taught to conquer. Thus he. The sage Ulysses thus replies. whoe'er. or the thought declares? And comes it even from him whose sovereign sway The banded legions of all Greece obey? Is this a general's voice that calls to flight. with despair shall see. Themselves abandon'd) shall the fight pursue.

and glorious in his fall. and thus began: "Such counsel if you seek. Inspire the ranks. Attend. but (who far surpass'd The rest in courage) OEneus was the last. the foremost once in fame! Nor lives in Greece a stranger to his name. Who Pleuron's walls and Calydon possess'd. Though not partaker. witness of the war. Melas and Agrius. Let each go forth. and animate the rest. The monarch's daughter there (so Jove ordain'd) He won. And numerous flocks that whiten'd all the field. With three bold sons was generous Prothous bless'd. from the tumult far. and in the son respect the sire. From him. Beheld his vines their liquid harvest yield. who from the mighty Tydeus springs. and rule the distant war." . my sire. Advance the glory which he cannot share. Safe let us stand. and. Beyond the missile javelin's sounding flight. Hear then in me the great OEnides' son. Such Tydeus was. Young though he be. and in exile dwell'd. Then. May speak to councils and assembled kings. though with wounds oppress'd. and what he shall say. Whose honoured dust (his race of glory run) Lies whelm'd in ruins of the Theban wall. and flourish'd where Adrastus reign'd. behold the man Who boldly gives it. disdain not to obey: A youth. his acres till'd. He pass'd to Argos. rich in fortune's gifts. Though sore of battle. what for common good my thoughts inspire. From Calydon expell'd.420 The Iliad of Homer Tydides cut him short. There. But lest new wounds on wounds o'erpower us quite. Brave in his life.

impious man! whose anger is his guide. Each Argive bosom beats to meet the fight. He added not: the listening kings obey. And sent his voice before him as he flew. . Who glories in unutterable pride. The god of ocean (to inflame their rage) Appears a warrior furrowed o'er with age. Blind.BOOK XIV. their winged wheels employ To hide their ignominious heads in Troy. So may he perish. then rush'd amid the warrior crew. Driven heaps on heaps. And grisly war appears a pleasing sight. And thus the venerable hero spoke: 421 "Atrides! lo! with what disdainful eye Achilles sees his country's forces fly. while proud kings. Such was the voice. Slow moving on. as the shout encountering armies yield When twice ten thousand shake the labouring field. Atrides leads the way. and chiefs renown'd. Press'd in his own. and such the thundering sound Of him whose trident rends the solid ground. and o'erwhelm with shame! But Heaven forsakes not thee: o'er yonder sands Soon shall thou view the scattered Trojan bands Fly diverse. with clouds involved around Of rolling dust. the general's hand he took. so may Jove disclaim The wretch relentless." [257] He spoke. Loud.

yet still successful. and trembles at the sight. Where her great brother gave the Grecians aid. Around her next a heavenly mantle flow'd. High-throned in gold. Against his wisdom to oppose her charms. on Ida's shady height She sees her Jove. beheld the fields below. With joy the glorious conflict she survey'd. Thus while she breathed of heaven. Part o'er her shoulders waved like melted gold. with decent pride Her artful hands the radiant tresses tied. behind her shut the valves of gold. the doors unfold: Self-closed. And lull the lord of thunders in her arms. through earth. Sacred to dress and beauty's pleasing cares: With skill divine had Vulcan form'd the bower. A golden zone her swelling bosom bound. resolved to prove The old. perfumed. what methods shall she try. to blind his all-beholding eye? At length she trusts her power. Safe from access of each intruding power.422 The Iliad of Homer Meantime Saturnia from Olympus' brow. Part on her head in shining ringlets roll'd. Touch'd with her secret key. But placed aloft. and round her body pours Soft oils of fragrance. Swift to her bright apartment she repairs. Here first she bathes. and ambrosial showers: The winds. . Jove to deceive. Far-beaming pendants tremble in her ear. cheat of love. the balmy gale convey Through heaven. What arts. That rich with Pallas' labour'd colours glow'd: Large clasps of gold the foldings gather'd round. and all the aerial way: Spirit divine! whose exhalation greets The sense of gods with more than mortal sweets.

which mortals and immortals warms. And. (sacred source of gods!) Ocean and Tethys their old empire keep. Of upper heaven to Jove resign'd the reign. Once more their minds in mutual ties engage. and deem her will obey'd. And burns the sons of heaven with sacred fires! "For lo! I haste to those remote abodes. and dazzling as the light." 423 [258] "Then grant me (said the queen) those conquering charms. In their kind arms my tender years were past. Whelm'd under the huge mass of earth and main. Forth from the dome the imperial goddess moves. will Venus aid Saturnia's joy. Then o'er her head she cast a veil more white Than new-fallen snow. And set aside the cause of Greece and Troy?" "Let heaven's dread empress (Cytheraea said) Speak her request. And calls the mother of the smiles and loves. Thus issuing radiant with majestic pace. Last her fair feet celestial sandals grace. On the last limits of the land and deep. what my youth has owed. which melts mankind in fierce desires. has made the union cease. repay their age!" . shall I obtain. For strife. If I compose those fatal feuds again. Each gem illumined with a triple star. and what love. That love. Which held so long that ancient pair in peace. from Olympus cast.BOOK XIV. I hear. What honour. That power. Where the great parents. What time old Saturn. "How long (to Venus thus apart she cried) Shall human strife celestial minds divide? Ah yet.

parolette. O'er fair Emathia's ever-pleasing shore. the queen of love Obey'd the sister and the wife of Jove. Silence that spoke." she said. The kind deceit. With smiles she took the charm. e sospir tronchi. She speeds to Lemnos o'er the rolling deep.234 233 [259] Compare Tasso:— Teneri sdegni. e dolci stille Di pianto. And seeks the cave of Death's half-brother. Then Venus to the courts of Jove withdrew. This on her hand the Cyprian Goddess laid: "Take this. To win the wisest. Sorrisi. 25 Compare the description of the dwelling of Sleep in Orlando Furioso.233 With various skill and high embroidery graced. e cari vezzi. Whilst from Olympus pleased Saturnia flew. O'er Hemus' hills with snows eternal crown'd. e tranquille Repulse. e placide. And from her fragrant breast the zone embraced. Sleep. the gay desire. e molli baci. and eloquence of eyes. and every charm. Then taking wing from Athos' lofty steep. Nor once her flying foot approach'd the ground. the gentle vow. the still-reviving fire. 234 vi. and smiling press'd The powerful cestus to her snowy breast. xvi. O'er high Pieria thence her course she bore. and with it all thy wish. and the coldest warm: Fond love. . With awe divine. and the more persuasive sighs. e liete paci. In this was every art." Gier. Persuasive speech. bk. Lib.424 The Iliad of Homer She said.

and favour still. On those eternal lids I laid my hand. plough'd the main. Impower'd the wrath of gods and men to tame. While sunk in love's entrancing joys he lies. But how. Somnus. and tumbled gods on gods. The work of Vulcan. deserting Ilion's wasted plain. and a throne. unbidden. His conquering son. at thy bold command. old Ocean. "Sweet pleasing Sleep! (Saturnia thus began) Who spread'st thy empire o'er each god and man. Even Jove revered the venerable dame. And drive the hero to the Coan shore: Great Jove. What time. the tempests roar. When wine and feasts thy golden humours please. shall I dare to steep Jove's awful temples in the dew of sleep? Long since. Alcides." . too venturous. Me chief he sought. shall be thine. O power of slumbers! hear. If e'er obsequious to thy Juno's will. (The friend of earth and heaven. and from the realms on high Had hurl'd indignant to the nether sky. shook the blest abodes With rising wrath. Shed thy soft dews on Jove's immortal eyes. The sire of all. to indulge thy ease. to whom I fled for aid. And his hush'd waves lie silent on the main. awaking. When lo! the deeps arise. owns my reign." 425 "Imperial dame (the balmy power replies). A splendid footstool. Great Saturn's heir. But gentle Night.) her wings display'd.BOOK XIV. that shine With gold unfading. and empress of the skies! O'er other gods I spread my easy chain.

Nor for the deed expect a vulgar prize. Like great Alcides. To hear and witness from the depths of hell. shall be ever mine. thy loved-one shall be ever thine. Think'st thou that Troy has Jove's high favour won. i. The youngest Grace. the charming daughters of the main— Around my person wait. And those who rule the inviolable floods. That she. And stretch the other o'er the sacred main: Call the black Titans. 235 "Twice seven. that with Chronos dwell. Pasithae the divine. Deiopeia. For know. The youngest Grace." Dryden's Virgil. Pasithae the divine. and from the infernal bowers Invokes the sable subtartarean powers. The fairest. Whom mortals name the dread Titanian gods." The queen assents. rolls her large majestic eyes)."235 [260] "Swear then (he said) by those tremendous floods That roar through hell. and obey the mistress of the skies. and second my design. his all-conquering son? Hear. 107. Æn. seq. speaking. shall be thine.426 The Iliad of Homer "Vain are thy fears (the queen of heaven replies. . and bear my train: Succeed my wish. my loved-one. And. and bind the invoking gods: Let the great parent earth one hand sustain.

BOOK XIV. 427 SLEEP ESCAPING FROM THE WRATH OF JUPITER. .

and melted in her arms: Fix'd on her eyes he fed his eager look. whose spiry branches rise To join its summit to the neighbouring skies. involved in darkness glide. in likeness of the bird of night. But call'd Cymindis by the race of earth. on the point of Ide: (Mother of savages. conceal'd from sight. Then press'd her hand. Through all his bosom feels the fierce desire. Great Jove surveys her with desiring eyes: The god. Fierce as when first by stealth he seized her charms. And light on Lectos. (Chalcis his name by those of heavenly birth. Mix'd with her soul. There on a fir. And not her steeds and flaming chariot nigh?" . Sat Sleep. Dark in embowering shade. Through air. whose echoing hills Are heard resounding with a hundred rills:) Fair Ida trembles underneath the god. o'er Lemnos' smoky isle They wing their way. and thus with transport spoke: "Why comes my goddess from the ethereal sky. and her forests nod.) [261] To Ida's top successful Juno flies. unseen. Hush'd are her mountains.428 The Iliad of Homer Then swift as wind. and Imbrus' sea-beat soil. whose lightning sets the heavens on fire.

and he is thus carried back into the remotest period of Cretan antiquity known to the poet. and too ancient to allow his descent to be traced to any other source. "By Homer. he is likewise the adopted son of Asterius. from that Alcides came:) Nor Phoenix' daughter. I visit these. and of the daughter of Phoenix. Whence godlike Rhadamanth and Minos sprung. reign. or a heavenly love: Not when I press'd Ixion's matchless dame. and through the aerial way. Then she—"I haste to those remote abodes Where the great parents of the deathless gods. And be these moments sacred all to joy.236 429 —And Minos. apparently as a native hero. Not thus I burn'd for either Theban dame: (Bacchus from this. has made that union cease Which held so long that ancient pair in peace. whom all succeeding authors name Europa. 236 . Ne'er did my soul so strong a passion prove. Wait under Ide: of thy superior power To ask consent. where hoary Ocean dwells. the sacred cells Deep under seas. I hear. Let softer cares the present hour employ." "For that (said Jove) suffice another day! But eager love denies the least delay. Or for an earthly. The steeds. Illustrious enough for a divine parentage. beautiful and young. Nor seek. But in a genealogy recorded by later writers.BOOK XIV. Whence rose Pirithous like the gods in fame: Not when fair Danae felt the shower of gold Stream into life. to whose indulgent cares I owe the nursing of my tender years: For strife. prepared my chariot to convey O'er earth and seas. The reverend Ocean and gray Tethys. whence Perseus brave and bold. On the last limits of the land and main. I leave the Olympian bower. Minos is described as the son of Jupiter. unknown to thee.

and thus replies: "Is this a scene for love? On Ida's height. with disorder'd charms. Nor comelier Ceres' more majestic grace. smiling with superior love. who is related either to have crossed over from Thessaly. Exposed to mortal and immortal sight! Our joys profaned by each familiar eye. In secret there indulge thy soft desire. to that recess retire. 136. and is thus connected with a colony said to have been led into Creta by Tentamus. seq."—Thirlwall. Shaded with clouds." She ceased. And whose broad eye the extended earth surveys. and circumfused in gold. and fable of the sky: How shall I e'er review the blest abodes. As now my veins receive the pleasing fire. Sacred to love and to the genial hour. . and. The sport of heaven. Not even the sun. Not thus even for thyself I felt desire. that. Thus answer'd mild the cloud-compelling Jove: "Nor god nor mortal shall our joys behold. or to have embarked at Malea after having led his followers by land into Laconia. or Tectamus. son of Dorus. p. All heaven beholds me recent from thy arms? With skill divine has Vulcan form'd thy bower. If such thy will." [262] He spoke. Or mix among the senate of the gods? Shall I not think.430 The Iliad of Homer Not thus I burn'd for fair Latona's face." as descendant of Dorus. the son of Helen. who darts through heaven his rays. the goddess with the charming eyes Glows with celestial red.

His eager arms around the goddess threw. in describing the couch of our first parents:— "Underneath the violet. kindling at the view. the important hour employ. And sudden hyacinths the turf bestrow. Neptune! now. The panting thunderer nods. unperceived. renews his care. Beside him sudden. the power of slumber flew. 237 . Perfume the mount. he stood. On human lids to drop the balmy dew. Steep'd in soft joys and circumfused with air. For Juno's love. and from her bosom pours Unbidden herbs and voluntary flowers: Thick new-born violets a soft carpet spread. To check a while the haughty hopes of Troy: While Jove yet rests.BOOK XIV. and hyacinth with rich inlay. and sinks to rest. And clustering lotos swell'd the rising bed. while yet my vapours shed The golden vision round his sacred head. Crocus. and breathe ambrosia round: At length. To Neptune's ear soft Sleep his message brings. and Somnus' pleasing ties. 'Broider'd the ground. descending o'er the ground. Gazing he spoke. Have closed those awful and eternal eyes.237 And flamy crocus made the mountain glow There golden clouds conceal the heavenly pair." Thus having said. 431 [263] Milton has emulated this passage." iv. Now to the navy borne on silent wings. and. Glad Earth perceives. 700. Neptune. Celestial dews. with zeal increased. with love and sleep's soft power oppress'd." —"Paradise Lost. And thus with gentle words address'd the god: "Now.

Be still yourselves. their martial arms they change: The busy chiefs their banded legions range. The kings. With helpful hands themselves assist the train. Thus sheath'd in shining brass. and Neptune leads the way: His brandish'd falchion flames before their eyes. One hero's loss too tamely you deplore." The troops assent. Oh yet. Thus arm'd. The ponderous targe be wielded by the strong. Each valiant Grecian seize his broadest shield. Like lightning flashing through the frighted skies. and ye shall need no more. and oppress'd with pain. and threats the fleet with fires.432 The Iliad of Homer And towering in the foremost ranks of war. Pale mortals tremble. Let to the weak the lighter arms belong. ye Greeks! myself will lead the way. While stern Achilles in his wrath retires. . and stand to arms: His strongest spear each valiant Grecian wield. Clad in his might. not Hector shall our presence stay. The weaker warrior takes a lighter shield. Myself. the earth-shaking power appears. though wounded. and confess their fears. Indignant thus—"Oh once of martial fame! O Greeks! if yet ye can deserve the name! This half-recover'd day shall Troy obtain? Shall Hector thunder at your ships again? Lo! still he vaunts. Brace on your firmest helms. The strong and cumbrous arms the valiant wield. in bright array The legions march. if glory any bosom warms.

BOOK XIV. 433 GREEK SHIELD. .

with many a fiery round. (One braced his shield. the missive marble flings. urged by Hector's force. Nor deaden'd there its giddy fury spends. and wondrous man. Less loud the woods. Both armies join: earth thunders. and its shades devour. And cursed the lance that unavailing flew: But 'scaped not Ajax. and dares oppose a god: And lo! the god. Arms his proud host. Rose in huge ranks. As when the bolt. Not half so loud the bellowing deeps resound. Smokes in the dust. red-hissing from above. Direct at Ajax' bosom winged its course. appear: The sea's stern ruler there. Less loud the winds that from the Æolian hall Roar through the woods. Darts on the consecrated plant of Jove. and one sustain'd his sword. and ploughs into the ground. and make whole forests fall. With such a rage the meeting hosts are driven. On the razed shield the fallen ruin rings. Catch the dry mountain. ocean roars.434 The Iliad of Homer [264] Troy's great defender stands alone unawed. Full on his breast and throat with force descends. The first bold javelin. his tempestuous hand A ponderous stone upheaving from the sand. at her great master's call. (Where heaps laid loose beneath the warrior's feet. . when flames in torrents pour. But whirling on. But there no pass the crossing belts afford. The roaring main. And such a clamour shakes the sounding heaven.) Then back the disappointed Trojan drew.) Toss'd round and round. and form'd a watery wall Around the ships: seas hanging o'er the shores. Or served to ballast. and Hector here. or to prop the fleet. When stormy winds disclose the dark profound.

" vi. and shame.BOOK XIV. His foaming coursers. Black from the blow. and despite. Gnashing for anguish. Stiff with amaze the pale beholders stand. in hope. storms of arrows fly. In vain an iron tempest hisses round. seq. And each bold leader of the Lycian band. His mournful followers. who interpos'd Defence. "Forthwith on all sides to his aid was run By angels many and strong. Loud shouts of triumph fill the crowded plain. 238 435 [265] —He lies protected. Troy's great defender slain: All spring to seize him. 335. and leave the war behind. The mountain-oak in flaming ruin lies. swifter than the wind. while others bore him on their shields Back to his chariot. there they him laid. The groaning hero to his chariot bear. with assistant care. The pious warrior of Anchises' line. Beneath his helmet dropp'd his fainting head. sinking to the ground.238 Polydamas. and without a wound. and smokes of sulphur rise. And thicker javelins intercept the sky. Speed to the town. a dead and hollow sound. His load of armour. Agenor the divine. With covering shields (a friendly circle) stand. He lies protected. His slacken'd hand deserts the lance it bore. Greece sees. where it stood retir'd From off the files of war. His following shield the fallen chief o'erspread. Clanks on the field. And own the terrors of the almighty hand! So lies great Hector prostrate on the shore. ." "Paradise Lost.

"Lo thus (the victor cries) we rule the field. whom beauteous Neis bore Amidst her flocks on Satnio's silver shore. With double fury each invades the field. his swimming eyes. Propp'd on that spear to which thou owest thy fall. Placed on the margin of the flowery ground. The driving javelin through his shoulder thrust. and grasps the bloody dust. An arduous battle rose around the dead. half views the fleeting skies. Soon as the Greeks the chief's retreat beheld. he now ejects the gore. the warrior lies Supine. low-sinking on the shore.) Struck through the belly's rim. With watery drops the chief they sprinkle round. Where gentle Xanthus rolls his easy tide. Fired with revenge. Pierced by whose point the son of Enops bled. (Satnius the brave. by turns the Trojans bled. and shades eternal veil his eyes. Now faints anew. Oilean Ajax first his javelin sped. By turns the Greeks. He sinks to earth. And at Prothoenor shook the trembling spear. And seals again.436 The Iliad of Homer When now they touch'd the mead's enamell'd side. Go. Polydamas drew near. And thus their arms the race of Panthus wield: From this unerring hand there flies no dart But bathes its point within a Grecian heart. guide thy darksome steps to Pluto's dreary hall. Raised on his knees." . by fits. By fits he breathes.

Swift to perform heaven's fatal will. and smiled severe. the sorrows. He said. "Here. At the fierce foe he launch'd his piercing steel. and sorrow touch'd each Argive breast: The soul of Ajax burn'd above the rest. Antenor's brother. But fate. and the wounds of war. The foe. but haughty Greece. He pierced his heart—"Such fate attends you all. that yet the body stood Erect. 437 [266] . demands thy breath: Thy lofty birth no succour could impart. nor of vulgar race." He spake. Some lines. then roll'd along the sands in blood. methinks. or perhaps his son. shunn'd the flying death. A victim owed to my brave brother's death. it fled Full on the juncture of the neck and head. and cut the nerves in twain: The dropping head first tumbled on the plain. As by his side the groaning warrior fell. proud Polydamas. The wings of death o'ertook thee on the dart. Archilochus. But furious Acamas avenged his cause. Proud Argives! destined by our arms to fall.BOOK XIV. reclining. As Promachus his slaughtered brother draws. shall share The toils. Behold your Promachus deprived of breath. may make his lineage known. is this chief extended on the plain A worthy vengeance for Prothoenor slain? Mark well his port! his figure and his face Nor speak him vulgar. So just the stroke. Not Troy alone. here turn thy eyes! (The towering Ajax loud-insulting cries:) Say. for well he knew The bleeding youth: Troy sadden'd at the view. And took the joint.

to his father let the tale be told: Let his high roofs resound with frantic woe. At the proud boaster he directs his course. And the pale matron in our triumphs mourn. To earth at once the head and helmet fly. And from the fibres scoop'd the rooted ball. and hurl'd him to the plain. Let doleful tidings greet his mother's ear. Who leaves a brother to revenge his fate. Such as to Promachus' sad spouse we bear. But touch'd the breast of bold Peneleus most. Ilioneus. of all the Trojan train Whom Hermes loved. and they fly: Aghast they gaze around the fleet and wall. thus insulting spoke: "Trojans! your great Ilioneus behold! Haste. yet sticking through the bleeding eye. And dread the ruin that impends on all. Such as the house of Promachus must know. and shuns superior force. The Trojans hear. The boaster flies. The victor seized. and taught the arts of gain:) Full in his eye the weapon chanced to fall." Dreadful he spoke. as aloft he shook The gory visage. He lifts his miserable arms in vain! Swift his broad falchion fierce Peneleus spread. When we victorious shall to Greece return. then toss'd the head on high. And from the spouting shoulders struck his head. and. Drove through the neck. they tremble. . But young Ilioneus received the spear." The Iliad of Homer Heart-piercing anguish struck the Grecian host. The lance. his father's only care: (Phorbas the rich.438 Not unappeased he enters Pluto's gate.

Nestor's son o'erthrew. Ajax the less. mighty numbers run. Ye all-beholding. 439 [267] BACCHUS. Hyperenor fell. . will ye raise to fame? Thou first. all-recording nine! O say. What chief. of all the Grecian race Skill'd in pursuit. Strong Periphaetes and Prothoon bled. By Teucer's arrows mingled with the dead. Fall mighty numbers. And the fierce soul came rushing through the wound. His people's pastor. And whose bless'd trophies. Eternal darkness wrapp'd the warrior round. Morys and Hippotion slew. But stretch'd in heaps before Oileus' son. Phalces and Mermer. Bold Merion. Daughters of Jove! that on Olympus shine. Pierced in the flank by Menelaus' steel. when Neptune made proud Ilion yield. leader of the Mysian train. and swiftest in the chase. what hero first embrued the field? Of all the Grecians what immortal name. great Ajax! on the unsanguined plain Laid Hyrtius.BOOK XIV.

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but are. On Ida's summit sat imperial Jove: Round the wide fields he cast a careful view. marches before him with his aegis. and turns the fortune of the fight. And many a chief lay gasping on the ground: Then stopp'd and panted. Apollo reinspires Hector with vigour. and Neptune at the head of the Greeks: he is highly incensed at the artifice of Juno. sees the Trojans repulsed from the trenches. Now in swift flight they pass the trench profound. with extraordinary address. Hector in a swoon. but is prevented by Minerva. where the chariots lie Fear on their cheek. He breaks down great part of the Grecian wall: the Trojans rush in. Iris commands Neptune to leave the battle. the Greeks pursue. to which. in particular she touches Mars with a violent resentment. . awaken'd from his dream of love. repairing to the assembly of the gods. and horror in their eye.[268] BOOK XV. to incense them against Jupiter. as yet. repelled by the greater Ajax with a prodigious slaughter. awaking. who appeases him by her submissions. ARGUMENT. after much reluctance and passion. THE FIFTH BATTLE AT THE SHIPS. brings him back to the battle. Jupiter. attempts. he consents. There saw the Trojans fly. Juno. AND THE ACTS OF AJAX. Meanwhile. he is ready to take arms. she is then sent to Iris and Apollo. Iris and Apollo obey the orders of Jupiter. and attempt to fire the first line of the fleet.

From the vast concave of the spangled sky. The god beheld him with a pitying look. and his native shore. withstand Our power immense. incensed. And sent to Argos. And all the raging gods opposed in vain? Headlong I hurl'd them from the Olympian hall. and our fury dread. For godlike Hercules these deeds were done. Hear this." The Thunderer spoke: imperial Juno mourn'd. And thus. Lest arts and blandishments successless prove. those scatter'd o'er the plain And. Stunn'd in the whirl. bound and fix'd on high. fierce Boreas toss'd The shipwreck'd hero on the Coan coast. and brave the almighty hand? Hast thou forgot. when. still adverse to the eternal will. to fraudful Juno spoke: "O thou. the monarch of the main. I hung thee trembling in a golden chain.) Ejecting blood. And driven his conquering squadrons from the field. 'midst the war.442 The Iliad of Homer These proud in arms. remember. and well-dissembled love. by thy wiles induced. For ever studious in promoting ill! Thy arts have made the godlike Hector yield. Nor seem'd the vengeance worthy such a son: When. Not far. Nor pull the unwilling vengeance on thy head. And. unhappy in thy wiles. these submissive words return'd: [269] . (His sad associates round with weeping eyes. trembling. Thy soft deceits. Him through a thousand forms of death I bore. and panting yet for breath. Canst thou. His senses wandering to the verge of death. great Hector on the dust he spies. and breathless with the fall.

) Then soon the haughty sea-god shall obey. By the dread honours of thy sacred head. By thy black waves. and ranges round the plain: By his own ardour. He. And calls his senses from the verge of death. but shall send in vain. If truth inspires thy tongue. Shall fall by thousands at the hero's feet. Our high decree let various Iris know. even to Achilles' fleet." 443 "Think'st thou with me? fair empress of the skies! (The immortal father with a smile replies. his own pity sway'd. To help his Greeks. tremendous Styx! that flow Through the drear realms of gliding ghosts below. And taught submission to the sire of heaven. And that unbroken vow. What youths he slaughters under Ilion's walls! Even my loved son. Greece chased by Troy. "By every oath that powers immortal ties. he fought and disobey'd: Else had thy Juno better counsels given. our virgin bed! Not by my arts the ruler of the main Steeps Troy in blood. proclaim our will To yon bright synod on the Olympian hill. not untouch'd with pity. and once more wake the war: His labouring bosom re-inspires with breath. Nor dare to act but when we point the way.BOOK XV. divine Sarpedon. Let her descend. The foodful earth and all-infolding skies. And call the god that bears the silver bow. to the plain Shall send Patroclus. falls! [270] . and from the embattled plain Command the sea-god to his watery reign: While Phoebus hastes great Hector to prepare To rise afresh.

viii. the nectar streams around. and seal'd it with the almighty nod. and made obeisance as she pass'd Through all the brazen dome: with goblets crown'd239 They hail her queen. godlike Hector dies.444 The Iliad of Homer Vanquish'd at last by Hector's lance he lies. There sat the powers in awful synod placed. The promise of a god I gave. Not till that day shall Jove relax his rage. and lofty Ilion burns. Pallas assists. Sends forth his active mind from place to place." The trembling queen (the almighty order given) Swift from the Idaean summit shot to heaven. If thought of man can match the speed of gods. As some wayfaring man. . nor till then. Page 142. and measures space with space: So swift flew Juno to the bless'd abodes. Joins hill to dale. And anxious asks what cares disturb her soul? 239 —The brazen dome. Achilles' glory to the stars to raise. who wanders o'er In thought a length of lands he trod before. See the note on Bk. and fate the word obeys. They bow'd. shall great Achilles rise: And lo! that instant. From that great hour the war's whole fortune turns. Nor one of all the heavenly host engage In aid of Greece. Then. Such was our word. Fair Themis first presents the golden bowl.

Submiss. While on her wrinkled front. and sullen took her place. Thy own loved boasted offspring lies o'erthrown. Smiles on her lips a spleenful joy express'd. and lowering discontent. And damp the eternal banquets of the skies. in pride of sway. But dare not murmur. and eyebrow bent. Sat stedfast care." 445 The goddess said. Thus she proceeds—"Attend. If that loved boasted offspring be thy own.BOOK XV. Bid the crown'd nectar circle round the hall: But Jove shall thunder through the ethereal dome Such stern decrees. dare not vent a sigh. Your vassal godheads grudgingly obey: Fierce in the majesty of power controls. To whom the white-arm'd goddess thus replies: "Enough thou know'st the tyrant of the skies. begin and show the way. and bends the poles. Go thou. great Mars. obey: And thou. Unmoved his mind. To see the gathering grudge in every breast. immortals! all he wills. such threaten'd woes to come. and sees. the feasts of heaven attend thy call. 'tis madness to contest with Jove: Supreme he sits." [271] . Black horror sadden'd each celestial face. As soon shall freeze mankind with dire surprise. Behold Ascalaphus! behold him die. Shakes all the thrones of heaven. ye powers above! But know. Severely bent his purpose to fulfil. and unrestrain'd his will.

Starts from her azure throne to calm the god. From frantic Mars she snatch'd the shield and spear. though the thunder bursting o'er my head Should hurl me blazing on those heaps of dead. Then the huge helmet lifting from his head. Heroes as great have died. with anguish for his slaughter'd son. . And was imperial Juno heard in vain? Back to the skies wouldst thou with shame be driven. gods. Arms that reflect a radiance through the skies. Discharged his wrath on half the host of heaven. Forgive me. immortals! thus shall Mars obey. And in thy guilt involve the host of heaven? Ilion and Greece no more should Jove engage." With that he gives command to Fear and Flight To join his rapid coursers for the fight: Then grim in arms. by bold rebellion driven. Struck for the immortal race with timely fear. furious! art thou toss'd? Striv'st thou with Jove? thou art already lost. and fierce begun: "Thus then. Dares. Cease then thy offspring's death unjust to call. springing through the bright abode.446 The Iliad of Homer Stern Mars. But Pallas. Shall not the Thunderer's dread command restrain. Guilty and guiltless find an equal fate And one vast ruin whelm the Olympian state. with hasty vengeance flies. The god of battles dares avenge the slain. and yet shall fall. and yield my vengeance way: Descending first to yon forbidden plain. And now had Jove. Smote his rebelling breast. Thus to the impetuous homicide she said: "By what wild passion. The skies would yield an ampler scene of rage.

"Go wait the Thunderer's will (Saturnia cried) On yon tall summit of the fountful Ide: There in the father's awful presence stand. And prompt obedience to the queen of air. Well-pleased the Thunderer saw their earnest care. Or breathe from slaughter in the fields of air. Sullen he sat. and execute his dread command. and shakes the steady poles. If he refuse. and of savage game) There sat the eternal. Receive. Then Juno call'd (Jove's orders to obey) The winged Iris. the god that gilds the day. Report to yon mad tyrant of the main. and superior sway." She said. Then (while a smile serenes his awful brow) Commands the goddess of the showery bow: "Iris! descend. by whom his power was given. and what we here ordain. to Ida's hills they came. And various Iris. If heaven's omnipotence descend in arms? Strives he with me. Swift as the wind. With clouds of gold and purple circled round. Why should heaven's law with foolish man comply Exempted from the race ordain'd to die?" This menace fix'd the warrior to his throne. (Fair nurse of fountains. And is there equal to the lord of heaven?" 447 [272] . and the god of day. then let him timely weigh Our elder birthright. wing their airy way. and sat. How shall his rashness stand the dire alarms. Bid him from fight to his own deeps repair. he whose nod controls The trembling world. and curb'd the rising groan.BOOK XV. Veil'd in a mist of fragrance him they found.

And to blue Neptune thus the goddess calls: "Attend the mandate of the sire above! In me behold the messenger of Jove: He bids thee from forbidden wars repair To thine own deeps. and superior sway. Ethereal Jove extends his high domain. the goddess wing'd her flight To sacred Ilion from the Idaean height. [273] . And hush the roarings of the sacred deep. in common lie: What claim has here the tyrant of the sky? Far in the distant clouds let him control. when Boreas fiercely blows. And awe the younger brothers of the pole.) Rule as he will his portion'd realms on high. So from the clouds descending Iris falls. Infernal Pluto sways the shades below. How shall thy rashness stand the dire alarms If heaven's omnipotence descend in arms? Striv'st thou with him by whom all power is given? And art thou equal to the lord of heaven?" "What means the haughty sovereign of the skies? (The king of ocean thus. replies. and this earth. Swift as the rattling hail. or to the fields of air. nor of his train. And ancient Rhea. earth's immortal dame: Assign'd by lot. our triple rule we know. Olympus. or fleecy snows. Three brother deities from Saturn came. incensed. This if refused. am I. My court beneath the hoary waves I keep. and o'er the starry plain.448 The Iliad of Homer The all-mighty spoke. No vassal god. he bids thee timely weigh His elder birthright. Drive through the skies. O'er the wide clouds.

To scourge the wretch insulting them and heaven. To favour Ilion. from his lofty height Beheld. The lord of thunders. There to his children his commands be given." 449 "And must I then (said she). O sire of floods! Bear this fierce answer to the king of gods? Correct it yet. and our birth the same. and change thy rash intent. second race of heaven.BOOK XV. Give him to know. and thus bespoke the source of light: . though angry. A noble mind disdains not to repent. Howe'er the offence by other gods be pass'd. servile. that perfidious place. The wrath of Neptune shall for ever last." Thus speaking. The trembling. And plunged into the bosom of the flood. And quit. and the queen of heaven. unless the Grecian train Lay yon proud structures level with the plain." "Great is the profit (thus the god rejoin'd) When ministers are blest with prudent mind: Warn'd by thy words. If yet. forgetful of his promise given To Hermes. The same our honours. He breaks his faith with half the ethereal race. to powerful Jove I yield. To elder brothers guardian fiends are given. the contended field: Not but his threats with justice I disclaim. Pallas. furious from the field he strode.

what wound. Go thou. Seeks his own seas. Again his loved companions meet his eyes. Well was the crime. Jove thinking of his pains. Again his pulses beat. as the vision bright Stood shining o'er him. That drives a turtle through the liquid skies. and well the vengeance spared. Be godlike Hector thy peculiar care. Else had my wrath. his spirits rise. To whom the god who gives the golden day: "Why sits great Hector from the field so far? What grief. Even power immense had found such battle hard. shooting from the Idaean brow. There Hector seated by the stream he sees.450 The Iliad of Homer [274] "Behold! the god whose liquid arms are hurl'd Around the globe. and trembles at our rage. As Phoebus. Desists at length his rebel-war to wage. Shake my broad aegis on thy active arm." The godhead said. whose earthquakes rock the world. Burn'd to the bottom of his seas profound. half unseal'd his sight: . Glides down the mountain to the plain below. my son! the trembling Greeks alarm. till the Achaian train Fly to their ships and Hellespont again: Then Greece shall breathe from toils. they pass'd away. withholds thee from the war?" The fainting hero. Swell his bold heart. heaven's thrones all shaking round. And all the gods that round old Saturn dwell Had heard the thunders to the deeps of hell. His will divine the son of Jove obey'd. and urge his strength to war: Let Ilion conquer. Not half so swift the sailing falcon flies. His sense returning with the coming breeze.

" To him Apollo: "Be no more dismay'd. and her battle gored." Thus to bold Hector spoke the son of Jove. Full of the god. (not fated yet to die) 451 . and be strong! the Thunderer sends thee aid. And drive the Grecians headlong to the sea. with commanding breath. See. And springs. And breathed immortal ardour from above. Far from the hunter's rage secure they lie Close in the rock. Thus wakens Hector from the sleep of death? Has fame not told. or branching hind. methinks. The mighty Ajax with a deadly blow Had almost sunk me to the shades below? Even yet. while my trusty sword Bathed Greece in slaughter. As when the force of men and dogs combined Invade the mountain goat. Breaks from his stall.BOOK XV. and cool his fiery blood. how. With ample strokes he rushes to the flood. with reins unbound. Behold! thy Phoebus shall his arms employ. exulting. now freed. thus Hector flew. and all his hosts pursue. Inspire thy warriors then with manly force. and pours along the ground. To bathe his sides. the gliding ghosts I spy. His head. "What blest immortal. And to the ships impel thy rapid horse: Even I will make thy fiery coursers way. he tosses to the skies. propitious still to thee and Troy. to his fields again: Urged by the voice divine. And hell's black horrors swim before my eye. As when the pamper'd steed. His mane dishevell'd o'er his shoulders flies: He snuffs the females in the well-known plain. Phoebus.

Pours new destruction on her sons again? He comes not. and provoke the storm. the listening Greeks obey. Lo! still he lives. pursues. let Hector learn to fear. and when such foes appear. Thickening their ranks. [275] Thoas with grief observed his dreadful course. Fierce as he is. by thundering Ajax kill'd: What god restores him to the frighted field. Thoas. Not more in councils famed for solid sense.452 The Iliad of Homer When lo! a lion shoots across the way! They fly: at once the chasers and the prey. And not content that half of Greece lie slain. Stand the first onset. Jove! without thy powerful will. that late in conquering troops pursued. Soon as they see the furious chief appear. and consent to fear. So Greece. . the bravest of the Ætolian force. Thus point your arms. Than winning words and heavenly eloquence." The warrior spoke. "Gods! what portent (he cried) these eyes invades? Lo! Hector rises from the Stygian shades! We saw him. Forget to vanquish. Skill'd to direct the javelin's distant flight. But let the few whom brisker spirits warm. and his worst withstand: The Greeks' main body to the fleet command. And bold to combat in the standing fight. and form a deep array. late. and conquers still! Yet hear my counsel. And mark'd their progress through the ranks in blood.

No swain to guard them. unnumber'd multitudes attend. And spread the carnage through the shady gloom. scatter'd wide. Sat doubtful conquest hovering o'er the field. When two fell lions from the mountain come. Dire was the hiss of darts. And Mars-like Meges: these the chiefs excite. And Troy and Hector thunder in the rear. and meet the coming fight. Behind. Heaps fall on heaps: the slaughter Hector leads. The Greeks expect the shock. and no day to guide. and shaded all the field. Merion gave command. The valiant leader of the Cretan band. and the shores defend. 453 [276] . Full on the front the pressing Trojans bear. These drink the life of generous warriors slain: Those guiltless fall. and thirst for blood in vain. Jove's enormous shield Portentous shone. Phoebus himself the rushing battle led. To flank the navy.BOOK XV. then Stichius bleeds. Each Ajax. As long as Phoebus bore unmoved the shield. Their force is humbled. To scatter hosts and terrify mankind. and mingle in the skies. Shouts in their ears. the clamours rise From different parts. First great Arcesilas. by heroes flung. and lightens in their eyes. And Hector first came towering to the war. Vulcan to Jove the immortal gift consign'd. And arrows leaping from the bow-string sung. Impending Phoebus pours around them fear. and their fear confess'd. So flies a herd of oxen. A veil of clouds involved his radiant head: High held before him. But when aloft he shakes it in the skies. Teucer. Approach the foe. Deep horror seizes every Grecian breast.

Though born of lawless love: from home expell'd. earth. confused. and thou the day. Pierced through the shoulder as he basely flies. Mecystes next Polydamas o'erthrew. And o'er the slaughter stalks gigantic death. On rush'd bold Hector. and under open sky ador'd The God that made both sky. Him Ajax honour'd with a brother's name. others pant for breath. Stretch'd on one heap. brave Clonius. 240 —For. some skulk behind the wall. And one Menestheus' friend and famed compeer. Medon and Iasus. This sprang from Phelus. gloomy as the night. and the Athenians led. Æneas sped. disperse or fall. the moon's resplendent globe. The Greeks dismay'd. Both turn'd. both stood. great Agenor slew. Polites' arm laid Echius on the plain. Maker omnipotent. Which they beheld. So in Milton:— "Thus at their shady lodge arriv'd. A banish'd man. Some seek the trench. Press'd by the vengeance of an angry wife." and the transition from the direct to the oblique construction. air.454 The Iliad of Homer One to the bold Boeotians ever dear. No weeping sister his cold eye shall close. By Paris. And thee. by the gods! who flies. Observe the bold ellipsis of "he cries. Forbids to plunder. Deiochus inglorious dies. animates the fight. And starry pole.240 Who dares but linger. the victors spoil the slain. by this hand he dies. by the gods! who flies. in Phylace he dwell'd. "Paradise Lost. While these fly trembling." Book iv. Points to the fleet: "For. Troy ends at last his labours and his life. ." Milton.—Thou also mad'st the night. But hapless Medon from Oileus came. and heaven.

The sportive wanton. threats. And urge the gods. and cars tumultuous pass. And draws imagined houses in the sands. The horses thunder. and men. 455 [277] The Grecians gaze around with wild despair. A sudden road! a long and ample way. . and the dogs devour. and march'd the god. Who stops to plunder at this signal hour. eyes." Furious he said. planted at the trench's bound. The wondering crowds the downward level trod. Before them flamed the shield. O'er the dread fosse (a late impervious space) Now steeds.BOOK XV. loud clamours shake the shore. with voices. Confused. the towers and walls. Then with his hand he shook the mighty wall. the bulwarks fall: Easy as when ashore an infant stands. Sweeps the slight works and fashion'd domes away: Thus vanish'd at thy touch. And weeps his country with a father's eyes. No friendly hand his funeral pyre compose. The birds shall tear him. The coursers fly. the smoking chariot bounds. and weary all the powers with prayer: Exhort their men. and hands. with praises. pleased with some new play. Experienced Nestor chief obtests the skies. the smarting scourge resounds. commands. Push'd at the bank: down sank the enormous mound: Roll'd in the ditch the heapy ruin lay. The toil of thousands in a moment falls. earth and ocean roar! Apollo. And lo! the turrets nod. The hosts rush on.

With bitter groans his sorrows he express'd. He sprinkles healing balms. But when he saw. One Greek enrich'd thy shrine with offer'd gore. starting from his seat. Its womb they deluge. And adds discourse. Victorious Troy. And labouring armies round the works engaged. We paid the fattest firstlings of the fold. . and those the javelin throw. If e'er thou sign'st our wishes with thy nod: Perform the promise of a gracious god! This day preserve our navies from the flame. the cars below. And peals of thunder shook the firmament. Legions on legions from each side arise: Thick sound the keels. then. Presumptuous Troy mistook the accepting sign. The roaring deeps in watery mountains rise. And save the relics of the Grecian name. when black tempests mix the seas and skies. While thus the thunder of the battle raged. Above the sides of some tall ship ascend. Fierce on the ships above. he beats his manly breast. on his native shore. He wrings his hands. and o'erpowering all. These wield the mace. the storm of arrows flies." Thus prayed the sage: the eternal gave consent. Mount the thick Trojans up the Grecian wall. If e'er. Still in the tent Patroclus sat to tend The good Eurypylus. As. to anguish kind.456 The Iliad of Homer "O Jove! if ever. the medicine of the mind. and its ribs they rend: Thus loudly roaring. in hope our country to behold. ascending up the fleet. And catch'd new fury at the voice divine. his wounded friend.

speaking. "Though yet thy state require redress (he cries) Depart I must: what horrors strike my eyes! Charged with Achilles' high command I go. high-towering o'er the fleet. with Palladian art. and the directing line: The martial leaders. At one proud bark. Brave deeds of arms through all the ranks were tried. But strive. Nor this the ships can fire. and godlike Hector meet. The embodied Greeks the fierce attack sustain. That fix'd as fate.BOOK XV. Preserved their line. though numerous. and shine again in war. By the just rule. Great Hector view'd him with a sad survey. through that firm array. this acted by a god. swifter than the wind Sprung from the tent. to repulse in vain: Nor could the Trojans. The voice is powerful of a faithful friend. and one the vessel trod. shakes a flaming brand. and levels every part. Force to the fleet and tents the impervious way. and left the war behind. Smooths the rough wood. expires: Thundering he falls. And every ship sustained an equal tide. 457 [278] . For one bright prize the matchless chiefs contend. A mournful witness of this scene of woe. With equal hand he guides his whole design. As when a shipwright. The deck approaching. pierced by Telamon's huge lance. I haste to urge him by his country's care To rise in arms. and equal kept the war." He spoke. Ajax the great. The son of Clytius in his daring hand. and drops the extinguish'd fires. with like skill and care. But. and. nor that defend: One kept the shore. Perhaps some favouring god his soul may bend.

with a parent's care To fight our wars he left his native air. It stretch'd in dust unhappy Lycophron: An exile long. to Hector's rage we owe. Revenge. And thus inflames his brother to the fight: [279] "Teucer. From the high poop he tumbles on the sand. he died.458 The Iliad of Homer As stretch'd in dust before the stern he lay. save his arms. Ah. his eager javelin sought the foe: But Ajax shunn'd the meditated blow. our loved companion! now no more! Dear as a parent. secure his obsequies!" This said. And lies a lifeless load along the land. A faithful servant to a foreign lord. maintain this arduous space: Lo! where the son of royal Clytius lies. "Oh! all of Trojan. With anguish Ajax views the piercing sight. This death deplored. behold! extended on the shore Our friend. all of Lycian race! Stand to your arms. sustain'd at Ajax' board. In peace. as he lived. revenge it on the cruel foe. Not vainly yet the forceful lance was thrown. and war. for ever at his side. Where are those darts on which the fates attend? And where the bow which Phoebus taught to bend?" . Near his loved master.

Down dropp'd the bow: the shaft with brazen head Fell innocent. to thy careful hand. In youth's first bloom reluctantly he dies. The astonish'd archer to great Ajax cries. rush'd amidst the foe: Rage edged his sword. Impatient Teucer.BOOK XV. Nor was such glory due to Teucer's hands. But Hector was not doom'd to perish then: The all-wise disposer of the fates of men (Imperial Jove) his present death withstands. And gave. renown'd in fame. hastening to his aid. propitious to the Trojan foe. and on the dust lay dead. The well-stored quiver on his shoulders hung: Then hiss'd his arrow. Till sad Polydamas the steeds restrain'd. and shook his eager reins. At Hector's breast a chosen arrow draws: And had the weapon found the destined way. in his country's cause. Then. Pisenor's son. 459 . at distance far. (To thee. and strengthen'd every blow. Thy fall. "Some god prevents our destined enterprise: Some god. The headlong coursers spurn his empty car. and the bowstring sung. As all on glory ran his ardent mind. Hurl'd from the lofty seat. Astynous. Polydamas! an honour'd name) Drove through the thickest of the embattled plains The startling steeds. Clytus. Once more bold Teucer. Struck by an arm unseen. At its full stretch as the tough string he drew. The pointed death arrests him from behind: Through his fair neck the thrilling arrow flies. Before the chief his ample bow display'd. it burst in two. fired to vengeance. great Trojan! had renown'd that day.

Jove is with us. When happy nations bear the marks divine! How easy then." "Since heaven commands it (Ajax made reply) Dismiss the bow. or even a ship to gain. From the proud archer strike his vaunted bow: Indulgent Jove! how plain thy favours shine. to see the sinking state Of realms accursed. The warrior wields. ye warriors. from my arm unfailing. Strong to impel the flight of many a dart. With nodding horse-hair formidably graced. Dardanus. and thus express'd his joy: "Ye troops of Lycia. The fourfold buckler o'er his shoulder tied. And broke the nerve my hands had twined with art. And quit the quiver for the ponderous shield. and Troy! Be mindful of yourselves. deserted. . Death is the worst. A dart." [280] Then Teucer laid his faithless bow aside. Fierce as they are. struck the bow. and exert your powers. On his brave head a crested helm he placed. reprobate! Such is the fate of Greece. by long successes vain. I saw his hand. Asks toil. Thy brave example shall the rest inflame. whose point with brass refulgent shines. and blood: their utmost might Shall find its match—No more: 'tis ours to fight. a fate which all must try. your ancient fame. This Hector saw. and lay thy arrows by: Thy arms no less suffice the lance to wield.460 The Iliad of Homer Has. In the first ranks indulge thy thirst of fame. To force our fleet. And spread your glory with the navy's flame. and such is ours: Behold. but now. and sweat. and his great brother joins.

and Troy obeys his call! Not to the dance that dreadful voice invites.BOOK XV. And better far in one decisive strife. His own brave friends shall glory in his fate. One day should end our labour or our life. ye warriors of the Argive race. Entails a debt on all the grateful state. though slain in fight he be. how near they fall. How Hector calls. or to live or die? What hopes remain. It calls to death. And late posterity enjoy the deed!" 461 This roused the soul in every Trojan breast: The godlike Ajax next his Greeks address'd: "How long. If once your vessels catch the Trojan fire? Make how the flames approach. Still press'd. Yet leaves his nation safe." . His wife live honour'd. his children free. Yet undetermined. (To generous Argos what a dire disgrace!) How long on these cursed confines will ye lie. And for our country. The gallant man. what methods to retire. Than keep this hard-got inch of barren sands. 'Tis now no time for wisdom or debates. To your own hands are trusted all your fates. and all the rage of fights. 'tis a bliss to die. and press'd by such inglorious hands. all his race succeed.

Which held its passage through the panting heart. And every kindling bosom pants for fame. And famed for prowess in a well-fought field. of old Antenor's race. Phyleus' ample breastplate wore. New ting'd with Tyrian dye: in dust below. Where the high plumes above the helmet dance. (Well-known in fight on Selle's winding shore. rushes on. Full at the Trojan's head he urged his lance. extended on the ground. With thundering sound The warrior falls. He pierced the centre of his sounding shield: But Meges.462 The Iliad of Homer The listening Grecians feel their leader's flame. For king Euphetes gave the golden mail. Polydamas laid Otus on the sand. The victor. Through Dolops' shoulder urged his forceful dart. and battles won. Shorn from the crest. His lance bold Meges at the victor threw. [281] . Dolops. the purple honours glow. and now saves the son. stooping. (That valued life. Chief of the foot. There. By Hector here the Phocian Schedius died. in cities storm'd. O Phoebus! was thy care) But Croesmus' bosom took the flying spear: His corpse fell bleeding on the slippery shore. pierced by Ajax. from the death withdrew. Then mutual slaughters spread on either side. Compact. sunk Laodamas. And stood by Meges' side a sudden aid. Had saved the father. The fierce commander of the Epeian band. His radiant arms triumphant Meges bore. And issued at his breast. and firm with many a jointed scale) Which oft. Meantime their fight the Spartan king survey'd. the son of Lampus. Sprung from the race of old Laomedon.

his country claim'd his care. where Dolops lies. to two at once a prey. And is it thus our royal kinsman dies? O'ermatch'd he falls. He (ere to Troy the Grecians cross'd the main) Fed his large oxen on Percote's plain. one common fall. and learn an honest shame: Let mutual reverence mutual warmth inspire. and excell'd in war. But hand to hand thy country's foes engage: Till Greece at once. as his troops he led. pointing to the dead. The brave live glorious. Respect yourselves. and bury all In one sad sepulchre. eternal shame.BOOK XV. and all her glory end. "Lo. In rush the conquering Greeks to spoil the slain: But Hector's voice excites his kindred train." 463 [282] . And catch from breast to breast the noble fire. gallant. and worse than death. But when oppress'd." Hector (this said) rush'd forward on the foes: With equal ardour Melanippus glows: Then Ajax thus—"O Greeks! respect your fame. Melanippus! lo. On valour's side the odds of combat lie. And thus inflamed him. The hero most. And lo! they bear the bloody arms away! Come on—a distant war no longer wage. from Hicetaon sprung. The wretch that trembles in the field of fame. and young. Beloved no less than Priam's royal race. Heaved from the lowest stone. Fierce Melanippus. in Priam's court. brave. he held his place. For this. Return'd to Ilion. Him Hector singled. Or Ilion from her towery height descend. Meets death. or lamented die.

though impell'd by Jove. Shields touching shields. The fiery Spartan first. And his broad buckler rings against the ground. It sunk. And rends his side. Forth rush'd the youth with martial fury fired. and make some Trojan bleed. so active to pursue? Why stand you distant. they throng. his falling arms resound. Has torn the shepherd's dog. nor attempt a deed? Lift the bold lance. . he glares around. So when a savage. in order blaze above. his lance he threw.464 The Iliad of Homer His generous sense he not in vain imparts. and rooted in the Grecian hearts: They join. Warms the bold son of Nestor in his cause. And flank the navy with a brazen wall. and felt it in his heart: Thundering he falls. with loud applause. Beyond the foremost ranks. So strong to fight. And hears the gathering multitude resound." He said. While conscious of the deed. Antilochus withdrew. "Is there (he said) in arms a youth like you. Observing Hector to the rescue flew. And round the black battalions cast his view. or shepherd's swain. Bold as he was. And stop the Trojans. Advancing Melanippus met the dart With his bold breast. they thicken at his call. Timely he flies the yet-untasted food. and backward to the lines retired. ranging o'er the plain. The victor leaps upon his prostrate prize: Thus on a roe the well-breath'd beagle flies. fresh-bleeding with the dart The distant hunter sent into his heart. While the swift javelin hiss'd along in air. The troops of Troy recede with sudden fear.

The Grecian ardour quench'd in deep despair. beneath his gloomy brow Like fiery meteors his red eye-balls glow: The radiant helmet on his temple burns.BOOK XV. He raises Hector to the work design'd. he turns His manly breast. Bids him with more than mortal fury glow. And cast the blaze of both the hosts on one. These fates revolved in his almighty mind. While stones and darts in mingled tempest flew. Now on the fleet the tides of Trojans drove. Waves when he nods. To view the navy blazing to the skies. and strengthens all their hands. nor till then. Not with more rage a conflagration rolls. So Mars. Shakes his huge javelin. when human crimes for vengeance call. Wraps the vast mountains. like a lightning. all Troy with shouts pursue. and with new fury burns. Then. And gave what fate allow'd. Due to stern Pallas. On Ida's top he waits with longing eyes. And drives him. The Trojans fly. the scale of war shall turn. But enter'd in the Grecian ranks. the honours of a day! 465 [283] . Fierce to fulfil the stern decrees of Jove: The sire of gods. on the foe. He foams with wrath. and whole armies fall. Unhappy glories! for his fate was near. And gains the friendly shelter of the wood: So fears the youth. and conquer'd Ilion burn. and Pelides' spear: Yet Jove deferr'd the death he was to pay. Swells all their hearts. But lifts to glory Troy's prevailing bands. and involves the poles. and lightens as he turns: For Jove his splendour round the chief had thrown. confirming Thetis' prayer.

241 By winds assail'd. Some lordly bull (the rest dispersed and fled) 241 —So some tall rock. So pale the Greeks the eyes of Hector meet. The trembling herdsman far to distance flies. Amidst the plain of some wide-water'd fen. moveless as a tower. . At large expatiate o'er the ranker mead) Leaps on the herds before the herdsman's eyes. his eyes Burn at each foe. Unmoved it hears. his breast. tired. "But like a rock unmov'd. White are the decks with foam. and exerts his might. and the rising waves— Propp'd on himself he stands: his solid sides Wash off the sea-weeds. The chief so thunders. the tempest blow. Still at the closest ranks. On all sides batter'd. trembling. the thickest fight. and so shakes the fleet. And. above." Dryden's Virgil. The Grecian phalanx. (Where numerous oxen. rushing from his den. And sees the watery mountains break below. and the sounding tides. swell'd with tempests. a rock that braves The raging tempest. the sailors freeze with fears. the winds aloud Howl o'er the masts. by billows beat in vain. and bursts upon them all: Bursts as a wave that from the cloud impends. 809. And instant death on every wave appears.466 The Iliad of Homer Now all on fire for fame. he seems to fall Like fire from Jove. and single every prize. He points his ardour. Girt in surrounding flames. on the ship descends. yet resists his power: So some tall rock o'erhangs the hoary main. and sing through every shroud: Pale. vii. [284] As when a lion. as at ease they feed.

Wall'd round with sterns. His circling friends. And by their parents. fled. On the fallen chief the invading Trojan press'd. 467 Chased from the foremost line. his brazen helmet rung. the Grecian train Now man the next. desperate band. Now fear itself confines them to the fight: Man courage breathes in man. a mighty name. He singles out. arrests. a gloomy. who strove to guard too late The unhappy hero. but Nestor most (The sage preserver of the Grecian host) Exhorts. A son as generous as the sire was base. by themselves implores.BOOK XV. Thus from the rage of Jove-like Hector flew All Greece in heaps. Copreus was his sire: The son redeem'd the honours of the race. and slew: Mycenian Periphes. receding toward the main: Wedged in one body at the tents they stand. in arms well known to fame. but one he seized. And plunged the pointed javelin in his breast. Now manly shame forbids the inglorious flight. or shared his fate. or of peace or war: But doom'd to Hector's stronger force to yield! Against the margin of his ample shield He struck his hasty foot: his heels up-sprung. to guard these utmost shores. adjures. and lays him dead. In wisdom great. Supine he fell. O'er all his country's youth conspicuous far In every virtue. . The minister of stern Eurystheus' ire Against Alcides.

Nor fights. practised to obey. and your parents share: Think of each living father's reverend head. and his ample size: A ponderous mace with studs of iron crown'd. and now to that he flies. His port majestic. from you: The gods their fates on this one action lay. Think of each ancestor with glory dead. by me they sue. he swings around. and round him breathed heroic fires. He shifts his seat. Full twenty cubits long. like others. or fight. And all are lost. To some great city through the public way." He spoke. and with mutual shame! Think of your hopes. Safe in his art. and the main: Hector they saw. and vaults from one to one.468 The Iliad of Homer "Oh friends! be men: your generous breasts inflame With mutual honour. High on the decks with vast gigantic stride. A sudden ray shot beaming o'er the plain. [285] . They ask their safety. restoring all the war to view. as side by side they run. your fortunes. The godlike hero stalks from side to side. Minerva seconds what the sage inspires. The mist of darkness Jove around them threw She clear'd. your infants. First of the field great Ajax strikes their eyes. by me they speak. Absent. And now to this. fix'd to certain stands But looks a moving tower above the bands. all the care Your wives. and their fame. So when a horseman from the watery mead (Skill'd in the manage of the bounding steed) Drives four fair coursers. And show'd the shores. and all who fly. if you desert the day. the navy. The scene wide-opening to the blaze of light.

kept alive the war. And the long battle was but then begun. Admiring numbers follow with their eyes. Stoops down impetuous. "Twas thou. The warring nations meet. Who marks the swans' or cranes' embodied flight. while they light for food. [286] . Thou wouldst have thought. whose beaky prores Lay rank'd contiguous on the bending shores. and from despair.BOOK XV. Thick beats the combat on the sounding prores. Then swift invades the ships. darkens with his wings the flood. And breathes fierce spirits in his following band. Secure of death. the battle roars. stooping. as his were all the war. Greece. 469 From ship to ship thus Ajax swiftly flew. And. Hector thunder'd threats aloud. And rush'd enraged before the Trojan crowd. No less the wonder of the warring crew. bold Hector! whose resistless hand First seized a ship on that contested strand. and red with heroes slain: Like strength is felt from hope. As if new vigour from new fights they won. Jove leads him on with his almighty hand. So the strong eagle from his airy height. yet unconquer'd. so furious was their fire. And each contends. No force could tame them. confiding in despair: Troy in proud hopes already view'd the main Bright with the blaze. As furious. and no toil could tire.

528. There is a most elegant tribute to his memory in the Preface to the Heroica of Philostratus. Hector with his ample hand Grasps the high stern. they wound. . 245.470 The Iliad of Homer The same which dead Protesilaus bore. Still raging. The falchions ring.242 The first that touch'd the unhappy Trojan shore: For this in arms the warring nations stood. He was buried on the Chersonese. shields rattle. ciii. axes sound. and man to man. and shorten'd darts. slain by Hector. No room to poise the lance or bend the bow. But hand to hand. swords. or glitter on the ground. near the city of Plagusa. And slaughter'd heroes swell the dreadful tide. axes. With streaming blood the slippery shores are dyed. they grow: Wounded. and seek each other's hearts With falchions. Tzetz. as he leaped from the vessel to the Trojan shore. And bathed their generous breasts with mutual blood. 242 Protesilaus was the first Greek who fell. on Lycophr. Hygin Fab. Swords flash in air. and gives this loud command: AJAX DEFENDING THE GREEK SHIPS.

What aids expect you in this utmost strait? What bulwarks rising between you and fate? No aids. This spot is all you have. Amidst attacks. "Haste. no bulwarks your retreat attend. No friends to help. he stands to wait What chief approaching dares attempt his fate: Even to the last his naval charge defends. and doubted or to live or die.) Stepp'd back. and deaths." 471 [287] . your native lands Far. far from hence: your fates are in your hands. the Greeks with piercing shouts inspires. and thunderbolts of war! Ah! yet be mindful of your old renown.BOOK XV. and here rolls the deep. Yet. 'Tis hostile ground you tread. and darts. Your great forefathers' virtues and your own. Even Ajax paused. and now protends. There stand the Trojans. Once sons of Mars. Now shakes his spear. now lifts. Even yet. (so thick the javelins fly. and seconds all our fires. "O friends! O heroes! names for ever dear." He spoke—the warriors at his fierce command Pour a new deluge on the Grecian band. no city to defend. where the oars are placed. Wakes all our force. and fires. The coward-counsels of a timorous throng Of reverend dotards check'd our glory long: Too long Jove lull'd us with lethargic charms. and the day desired appears! This happy day with acclamations greet. bring the flames! that toil of ten long years Is finished. But now in peals of thunder calls to arms: In this great day he crowns our full desires. to lose or keep. Bright with destruction of yon hostile fleet.

But turns his javelin to the work of death. The luckless warrior at his stern lay dead: Full twelve. with flaming brands. CASTOR AND POLLUX. the boldest. Sent by great Ajax to the shades of hell. in a moment fell. nor further wastes his breath. Against the sable ships.472 The Iliad of Homer Raging he spoke. . So well the chief his naval weapon sped. Whate'er bold Trojan arm'd his daring hands.

he beats them off from the vessels. The armour. THE ACTS AND DEATH OF PATROCLUS Patroclus (in pursuance of the request of Nestor in the eleventh book) entreats Achilles to suffer him to go to the assistance of the Greeks with Achilles' troops and armour. Euphorbus wounds him. Hector himself flies. . So warr'd both armies on the ensanguined shore. He agrees to it. While the black vessels smoked with human gore. Divine Pelides. but at the same time charges him to content himself with rescuing the fleet. which concludes the book. are cast into the uttermost consternation. horses. The streaming tears fall copious from his eyes Not faster.[288] BOOK XVI. and Hector kills him. with compassion moved. taking him for that hero. Patroclus. and officers are described. without further pursuit of the enemy. Meantime Patroclus to Achilles flies. soldiers. Achilles offers a libation for the success of his friend. Several other particulars of the battle are described. trickling to the plains below. The Trojans. in the heat of which. though Jupiter was averse to his fate. pursues the foe to the walls of Troy. at the sight of Patroclus in Achilles' armour. From the tall rock the sable waters flow. where Apollo repulses and disarms him. after which Patroclus leads the Myrmidons to battle. Sarpedon is killed. neglecting the orders of Achilles. ARGUMENT THE SIXTH BATTLE.

That flows so fast in these unmanly tears? No girl. no infant whom the mother keeps From her loved breast. as the persons themselves are less important. with scarcely a wish or object apart. were grounded on the same feeling. if not of equal antiquity. Than thou hast mine! Oh tell me. to his best beloved:243 [289] "Patroclus."—Thirlwall. i. it is kept more in the back-ground. though. But the mutual regard which united Idomeneus and Meriones. and this is a feature no less prominent in the earliest than in later times. while it often adds a peculiar charm to the poetical . indulgent. Not more the mother's soul. p. Diomedes and Sthenelus. The heroic companions whom we find celebrated partly by Homer and partly in traditions which. is manifestly viewed by the poet in the same light. It is true that the relation between them is not always one of perfect equality. is the readiness with which it lent itself to construct intimate and durable friendships. seem to have but one heart and soul. vol. but this is a circumstance which. 176 seq. vol. without such a brother in arms by his side. 176. and reaching at her arms. with fonder passion weeps. Clung to her knees. p. say. was not the less admirable and engaging. The idea of a Greek hero seems not to have been thought complete. but the devotedness and constancy with which these attachments were maintained. that infant warms.474 The Iliad of Homer Thus spoke. what grief thy bosom bears. i. The following elegant remarks of Thirlwall (Greece. to what end Thy melting sorrows thus pursue thy friend? his unequalled prowess. Greece. It was indeed connected with the comparatively low estimation in which female society was held. and only to live as they are always ready to die for one another. seq.) well illustrate the character of the friendship subsisting between these two heroes— "One of the noblest and most amiable sides of the Greek character. 243 —His best beloved.

O great in vain! unprofitably brave! Thy country slighted in her last distress. of Greeks the best! Lo! every chief that might her fate prevent. and Patroclus spoke: "Let Greece at length with pity touch thy breast. detracts little from the dignity of the idea which it presents. and bleeding in his tent: Eurypylus. Another follow'd. once. Pleased in their age to hear their children's praise. And pay the forfeit of their haughty lord? Whate'er the cause. Or may some meaner cause thy pity claim? Perhaps yon relics of the Grecian name. the moral groundwork undoubtedly subsisted in the period to which the traditions are referred. and. Thy good Menoetius breathes the vital air. my martial band? Or come sad tidings from our native land? Our fathers live (our first. And speak those sorrows which a friend would share. And wise Ulysses.BOOK XVI. The argument of the Iliad mainly turns on the affection of Achilles for Patroclus. Thyself a Greek. of Theseus and Pirithous. Their pain soft arts of pharmacy can ease. or for. Lies pierced with wounds. Atreus' son. More for their country's wounds than for their own. Such were the friendships of Hercules and Iolaus. whose love for the greater hero is only tempered by reverence for his higher birth and . "Griev'st thou for me. Tydides. what man. of Orestes and Pylades. And hoary Peleus yet extends his days. Doom'd in their ships to sink by fire and sword. most tender care). and though These may owe the greater part of their fame to the later epic or even dramatic poetry. Thy breast alone no lenitives appease. from thee shall hope redress? 475 description." A sigh that instant from his bosom broke. reveal thy secret care. What friend. at the navy groan. May never rage like thine my soul enslave.

Shall curse that fierce. and with it. The tyrant's pride lies rooted in my breast. my wrongs. her o'erlabour'd train Shall quit the ships. so untamed thy mind. blind to fate! with supplicating breath. Nor ever tender goddess brought thee forth: Some rugged rock's hard entrails gave thee form. Thou begg'st his arms. my constant thought engage. Nor words from Jove nor oracles he hears. that unforgiving mind. But sure thou spring'st not from a soft embrace. "O man unpitying! if of man thy race. Those. Nor ever amorous hero caused thy birth. Nor aught a mother's caution can suggest. stop thy arm. and Greece respire again. And raging seas produced thee in a storm. If I but lead the Myrmidonian line: Clad in thy dreadful arms if I appear.476 The Iliad of Homer No—men unborn. Without thy person Greece shall win the day. And thy mere image chase her foes away. ." Thus. A soul well suiting that tempestuous kind. So rough thy manners. my sole oracles. Unfortunately good! a boding sigh Thy friend return'd. and in his arms thy death. My wrongs. [290] "If some dire oracle thy breast alarm. this reply: "Patroclus! thy Achilles knows no fears. If aught from Jove. Proud Troy shall tremble. Some beam of comfort yet on Greece may shine. or Thetis. and desert the war. inspire my rage: I made him tyrant: gave him power to wrong Even my: I felt it. and ages yet behind. and shall feel it long. Press'd by fresh forces.

477 [291] . Who trusts his fame and honours in thy hand. at my sight amazed. and in Achilles' arms: Lead forth my martial Myrmidons to fight. Due to my conquest of her father's reign. issue to the plain: Now save the ships. The flames my eyes.BOOK XVI. the bold and brave. From me he forced her. like the meanest slave. how the storm impends! It was not thus. his dreadful breath Commands your slaughter. No more your general calls his heroes on: Hector. the day I wish'd appears: How Hector to my ships his battle bears. No camps. Patroclus. my black-eyed maid. No longer flames the lance of Tydeus' son. and mark a friend's command. How the cloud blackens. See the thin relics of their baffled band At the last edge of yon deserted land! Behold all Ilion on their ships descends. dishonour'd. me. Disgraced. I hear. Those are not dreadful. and conquer in my right. Go then. or proclaims your death. Due to the toils of many a well-fought day. Yon ample trench had buried half her host. no Achilles there. Due to the votes of all the Grecian train. But bear we this—the wrongs I grieve are past. he forced away. when. no bulwarks now the Trojans fear. the rising fires restrain. as this helmet blazed: Had not the injurious king our friendship lost. But heed my words. 'Tis time our fury should relent at last: I fix'd its date. Yet now. The maid. Troy saw and trembled. the shouts invade my ears. Go save the fleets. Patroclus! court fair honour's charms In Troy's famed fields. alone. And give the Greeks to visit Greece again.

Dangers on dangers all around him glow. and forbear. But touch not Hector. And not a Greek of all the race survive: Might only we the vast destruction shun. Nor lead to Ilion's walls the Grecian race. Yet scarce an army stirs him from his post. Though Jove in thunder should command the war. How first the navy blazed with Trojan flame? . His hollow helm with falling javelins rung. And only we destroy the accursed town!" Such conference held the chiefs. Be just. desist from further chase. The fleet once saved. Ajax no more the sounding storm sustain'd. Some adverse god thy rashness may destroy. comes and goes. he barely breathes at most. and almighty Jove! That not one Trojan might be left alive. throned above the starry frame. Apollo. O! would to all the immortal powers above. Pallas. in quick short pantings. and leave the rest to fate. Say. while on the strand Great Jove with conquest crown'd the Trojan band. And toil to toil. like Phoebus. consult my glory. Let Greece. Do her own work. His breath. and woe succeeds to woe. Muses. Hector is my due. And painful sweat from all his members flows. So thick the darts an iron tempest rain'd: On his tired arm the weighty buckler hung. Spent and o'erpower'd.478 The Iliad of Homer And from thy deeds expects the Achaian host Shall render back the beauteous maid he lost: Rage uncontroll'd through all the hostile crew. redeem'd from this destructive strait. ever kind to Troy. Some god.

"—The hero said. The brazen head falls sounding on the plain. 479 [292] Divine Achilles view'd the rising flames. I haste to bring the troops. Then swift from all sides pour The hissing brands. the blaze aspires! The glowing ocean reddens with the fires. Pelides' javelin stands. The friend with ardour and with joy obey'd. His pointless spear the warrior shakes in vain. That the broad falchion lopp'd its brazen head. Patroclus! Lo. Arm. Warn'd he retreats. Great Ajax saw. arm. And sheets of rolling smoke involve the skies. then to his breast applies The flaming cuirass of a thousand dyes. O'er the high stern the curling volumes rise. He flash'd around intolerable day. Confessing Jove. and trembling at the sign. Achilles' helmet nodded o'er his head: Adorn'd in all his terrible array. as in a starry zone: Achilles' shield his ample shoulders spread. Not to be poised but by Pelides' hands: . and own'd the hand divine. Full on the lance a stroke so justly sped. Emblazed with studs of gold his falchion shone In the rich belt. and thus aloud exclaims: "Arm. ere our vessels catch the spreading flame. and standing near.BOOK XVI. And smote his thigh. He cased his limbs in brass. Arm. thick streams the fiery shower. Alone untouch'd. ere the Grecians be no more a name. Where furious Ajax plied his ashen spear. and first around His manly legs. with silver buckles bound The clasping greaves. Stern Hector waved his sword.

. and partner of the war) The winged coursers harness'd to the car. and like the wind in speed. (Once great Aetion's. and in grace. in swiftness.480 The Iliad of Homer From Pelion's shady brow the plant entire Old Chiron rent. like in strength. Buckles. Sprung from the wind. swift Podarge. The brave Automedon (an honour'd name. Whose son's great arm alone the weapon wields. A mortal courser match'd the immortal race. now Achilles' pride) Who. and shaped it for his sire. of immortal breed. The death of heroes. bore. By Zephyr pregnant on the breezy shore: Swift Pedasus was added to their side. and the dread of fields. In peace his friend. Xanthus and Balius. The second to his lord in love and fame. Whom the wing'd harpy.

formidable band: Grim as voracious wolves. mann'd with fifty oars: Five chosen leaders the fierce bands obey. loved of Jove. Like furious. Such was Menestheus. and with lolling tongue. rush'd the Myrmidonian crew. . of celestial birth. High in the midst the great Achilles stands. And gorged with slaughter still they thirst for more. and such their deathful view. terrific. All breathing death. When some tall stag. 244 481 "As hungry wolves with raging appetite. First march'd Menestheus. Divine Sperchius! Jove-descended flood! A mortal mother mixing with a god. and warms His hardy Myrmidons to blood and arms. ne'er fear the stormy night— Their whelps at home expect the promised food. ii. And long to temper their dry chaps in blood— So rush'd we forth at once. fresh-slaughtered in the wood. 479. Has drench'd their wide insatiate throats with blood. Scour through the fields. To the black fount they rush. Derived from thee. a hideous throng. Achilles speeds from tent to tent. and the war commands. Himself supreme in valour. that espoused the dame. but miscall'd by fame The son of Borus. A grim. as in sway. He. had launch'd for Ilion's shores Full fifty vessels." —Dryden's Virgil. Fire fills their eye. Directs their order. Such their dread strength. around the chief they stand.BOOK XVI. whose waters wash the earth. their black jaws belch the gore. With paunch distended. that seek the springs244 When scalding thirst their burning bowels wrings.

long hid from fame. whom Polymele the gay. ye chiefs. Strong Echecleus. great Patroclus! thine. in your ships you lay) Oh nursed with gall. Not conscious of those loves. Think what reproach these ears endured so long. Or if a surer. unknowing how to yield. What make we here? Return. Pisander follow'd. The son confess'd his father's heavenly race.482 The Iliad of Homer Eudorus next. Soon as Achilles with superior care Had call'd the chiefs. raging. This stern remembrance to his troops he gave: "Ye far-famed Myrmidons. Whose rage defrauds us of so famed a field: If that dire fury must for ever burn. 'Stern son of Peleus. With gifts of price he sought and won the dame. and order'd all the war. (thus ye used to say. As with swift step she form'd the running maze: To her high chamber from Diana's quire. And heir'd his mother's swiftness in the chase. ye fierce and brave! Think with what threats you dared the Trojan throng. Her secret offspring to her sire she bare. Famed in the graceful dance. produced to-day. sly Cellenius loved: on her would gaze. Her. return!' [294] . and crown'd his fire. urged. succeeded to her arms. The god pursued her. matchless in his art To wing the spear. While restless. No hand so sure of all the Emathian line. Laerces' valiant offspring led the last. Her sire caress'd him with a parent's care. or aim the distant dart. The fourth by Phoenix' grave command was graced. bless'd in all those charms That pleased a god.

Of strength defensive against wind and storms. and wave before the wind. Lo there the Trojans. Two friends. two bodies with one soul inspired. bathe your swords in gore! This day shall give you all your soul demands. and thickens round the king. Shield urged on shield. And round him wide the rising structure grows: So helm to helm. Thick. and weary all your hands!" 483 DIANA. Close and more close the listening cohorts press'd. warriors! grieve no more. and spreads. Thus while he roused the fire in every breast. Float in one sea. with equal fury fired. together join'd. Brothers in arms. As when a circling wall the builder forms. and crest to crest they throng. and man drove man along. of arms a steely ring Still grows. Patroclus here. Far o'er the rest in glittering pomp appear.BOOK XVI. Ranks wedged in ranks. Glut all your hearts. There bold Automedon. undistinguish'd plumes. Compacted stones the thickening work compose. . Such were your words—Now.

low-whispered in the breeze. Patroclus gone. Then cleansed his hands. but to Jove alone. and to the Greeks despair. and thus the god implored: "O thou supreme! high-throned all height above! O great Pelasgic.484 The Iliad of Homer [295] But mindful of the gods. to the dangers of the fighting field The best. and Peleus' son to none Had raised in offerings. Achilles went To the rich coffer in his shady tent. thy dark decrees.) Hear. at Thetis' prayer. his feet upon the place Of sacrifice. Oh! be his guard thy providential care. and string his arm to war: Press'd by his single force let Hector see . Lo. Though still determined. the purple draught he pour'd Forth in the midst. as of old! Thou gav'st. I yield. Nor raised in offerings to the power divine. (The presents of the silver-footed dame) From thence he took a bowl. from rustling oaks. of antique frame. Presid'st on bleak Dodona's vocal hill: (Whose groves the Selli. the dearest of my friends. and wash'd it in the running stream. Dodonaean Jove! Who 'midst surrounding frosts. But Peleus' son. He purged. and carpets stiff with gold. to my ships confined. sacred first to flame. race austere! surround. and fixing for a space His eyes on heaven. Glory to me. Who hear. This tinged with sulphur. and vapours chill. Their feet unwash'd. And catch the fates. Which never man had stained with ruddy wine. And costly furs. There lay on heaps his various garments roll'd. their slumbers on the ground. Confirm his heart. I stay but half behind.

Preserve his arms. Let him with conquest and renown retire. Assert their waxen domes." 485 [296] . the winds dispersed in air. with a general cry. and so keen their arms: Their rising rage Patroclus' breath inspires.BOOK XVI. Back to his tent the stern Achilles flies. To free the fleet was granted to his prayer. And safe return him to these eyes again!" Great Jove consents to half the chief's request. and buzzing progeny. Who thus inflames them with heroic fires: "O warriors. Pour from their mansions by the broad highway. But when the fleets are saved from foes and fire. and commence the war. and. Meanwhile the troops beneath Patroclus' care. Think your Achilles sees you fight: be brave. His safe return. Invade the Trojans. And humble the proud monarch whom you save. But heaven's eternal doom denies the rest. Your godlike master let your acts proclaim. preserve his social train. partners of Achilles' praise! Be mindful of your deeds in ancient days. In swarms the guiltless traveller engage. Whet all their stings. As wasps. Thus from the tents the fervent legion swarms. His fame in arms not owing all to me. And add new glories to his mighty name. and call forth all their rage: All rise in arms. And waits the combat with impatient eyes. provoked by children in their play. So loud their clamours.

Clear'd from the smoke the joyful navy lies. scatter'd o'er the distant plain. The great Paeonian. strike the eyes. and they fly. The smiling scene wide opens to the sight. Where the war raged. And all the unmeasured ether flames with light. And from the half-burn'd ship proud Troy retires. (Who led his bands from Axius' winding flood. The war stood still. and forests. So when thick clouds enwrap the mountain's head. involved in fire and smoke. . The hollow ships return a deeper sound. From shore to shore the doubling shouts resound. At once they see. And loud acclaim the starry region rends. the rocks in prospect rise. Flew to the fleet. Triumphant Greece her rescued decks ascends. Then first thy spear. and all around them gazed. divine Patroclus! flew. that see their country's glory slain.486 The Iliad of Homer Joyful they heard. they tremble. and kindling as he spoke. Patroclus' arm forbids the spreading fires. Bursts through the darkness. and thought the dread Achilles nigh. and where the tumult grew. His troops. Close to the stern of that famed ship which bore Unbless'd Protesilaus to Ilion's shore.) His shoulder-blade receives the fatal wound. The groaning warrior pants upon the ground. Fly diverse. And streams. In heaps on heaps the foe tumultuous flies. O'er heaven's expanse like one black ceiling spread. with a flashing ray. When great Achilles' shining armour blazed: Troy saw. and vales. and lets down the day: The hills shine out. Sudden the Thunderer. bold Pyrechmes stood.

lamented youth! he lies. with vigour thrown. But Troy repulsed. The thigh transfix'd. bold Patroclus flew: As Areilycus had turn'd him round. Slain by two brothers. with endless darkness cover'd o'er: And vents his soul. Sharp in his thigh he felt the piercing wound. But still the foremost. And two bold brothers of the Lycian band: By great Antilochus. and broke the brittle bone: Headlong he fell. Pierced in the flank. by Furies led. Defends the breathless carcase on the ground.BOOK XVI. received the Spartan lance. Amisodarus' seed. Now every Greek some hostile hero slew. Thoas was thy chance. unarm'd. thus two brothers bleed. The bane of men. Between his arm and shoulder aims a blow. And pay the forfeit of their guilty sire. abhorr'd Chimaera bred. Atymnius dies. . Skill'd in the dart in vain. His arm falls spouting on the dust below: He sinks. and in death. Amisodarus. effused with gushing gore. Thy breast. Next. and rent the nerves away. his murderer to engage: But godlike Thrasimed prevents his rage. Tore all the brawn. The brazen-pointed spear. Forced from the navy. the warrior lay. and scatter'd o'er the plains. and transpierced his thigh. his sons expire. bleeding in his brother's wound. who. Kind Maris. Sarpedon's friends. yet the fight maintains. Furious he flies. Phylides' dart (as Amphidus drew nigh) His blow prevented. 487 [297] In equal arms two sons of Nestor stand. In darkness.

or lambs. On the plumed crest of his Boeotian foe The daring Lycon aim'd a noble blow. pour a flood.488 The Iliad of Homer Stopp'd in the tumult Cleobulus lies. the body sunk to dust. seal his eyes. unresisting prey: Thus on the foe the Greeks impetuous came. Troy fled. As when the flocks neglected by the swain. Peneleus sped Full on the juncture of the neck and head: The head. Beneath Oileus' arm. A living prize not long the Trojan stood. divided by a stroke so just. Or kids. The thirsty falchion drank his reeking blood: Plunged in his throat the smoking weapon lies. and drown'd the teeth in gore: His mouth. his nostrils. O'ertaken Neamas by Merion bleeds. Crash'd the thin bones. Amid the ranks. He sobs his soul out in the gush of blood. Black death. Pierced through the shoulder as he mounts his steeds. and fate unpitying. His open'd mouth received the Cretan steel: Beneath the brain the point a passage tore. Now. And rend the trembling. unmindful of her former fame. a living prize. and fierce Peneleus came. their eager swords they drew. lie scatter'd o'er the plain. . Hung by the skin. with mutual thirst of fame. met in arms. his eyes. but his. Back from the car he tumbles to the ground: His swimming eyes eternal shades surround. Next Erymas was doom'd his fate to feel. In vain their javelins at each other flew. The sword broke short. Lycon the brave. A troop of wolves the unguarded charge survey.

The Trojan chief. And shades the sun. and chariots he o'erthrown. Still. In vain they labour up the steepy mound. Thick drifts of dust involve their rapid flight. And bleeding heroes under axles groan. along the dusky plain. Fierce on the rear. Clouds rise on clouds. and turns. 489 But still at Hector godlike Ajax aim'd. Scour o'er the fields. and where the thickest die. The affrighted steeds their dying lords cast down. . his javelin flamed. Wedged in the trench. Where the war bleeds. Yet stops. Where horse and arms. Tumultuous clamour fills the fields and skies. Even Hector fled. Observed the storm of darts the Grecians pour. and heaven is snatch'd from sight. Their charioteers lie foaming on the ground. while the madding steeds break short their yokes. As when the hand of Jove a tempest forms. pointed at his breast. and saves his loved allies. through heads of disarray The fiery coursers forced their lord away: While far behind his Trojans fall confused. Dark o'er the fields the ascending vapour flies. Dire Flight and Terror drove the Trojan train. Loud o'er the rout was heard the victor's cry. and blots the golden skies: So from the ships. O'er his broad shoulders spread the massy shield.BOOK XVI. with shouts Patroclus flies. And rolls the cloud to blacken heaven with storms. and stretch to reach the town. experienced in the field. And on his buckler caught the ringing shower: He sees for Greece the scale of conquest rise. in one vast carnage bruised: Chariots on chariots roll: the clashing spokes Shock.

) From their deep beds he bids the rivers rise. Shrunk up he sat. with wild and haggard eye. Where lay the fleets. All grim in dust and blood Patroclus stands. And turns the slaughter on the conquering bands. The tide of Trojans urge their desperate course. High-bounding o'er the fosse. Whole fields are drown'd. And opens all the flood-gates of the skies: The impetuous torrents from their hills obey. and where the rampires rose. the steeds of Peleus knew: From bank to bank the immortal coursers flew. Loud roars the deluge till it meets the main. who saw the chief appear. the whirling car Smokes through the ranks. Between the space where silver Simois flows. (When guilty mortals break the eternal laws.490 The Iliad of Homer No stop. And forced the routed ranks to stand the day. bribed. And fell the victim of his coward fear. Patroclus mark'd him as he shunn'd the war. . o'ertakes the flying war. Bore down half Troy in his resistless way. Or judges. no check. Than when in autumn Jove his fury pours. Patroclus shakes his lance. with less impetuous force. And trembling man sees all his labours vain! [299] And now the chief (the foremost troops repell'd) Back to the ships his destined progress held. And earth is loaden with incessant showers. nor had force to fly. First Pronous died beneath his fiery dart. betray the righteous cause. and mountains swept away. Which pierced below the shield his valiant heart. And thunders after Hector. Not with less noise. Thestor was next. but fate denies. Nor stood to combat. Hector flies.

BOOK XVI. The javelin sticks. As on a rock that overhangs the main. When now Sarpedon his brave friends beheld Grovelling in dust. Him 'twixt the jaws. and gasping on the field. An angler. inglorious. as the spear was shook. Where'er he moves. Some mighty fish draws panting to the shore: Not with less ease the barbed javelin bore The gaping dastard. and life his heartless breast forsook. And burst the helm. die. Then low in dust Epaltes. Evippus." . And last Tlepolemus and Pyres bleed. He fell. This hand unaided shall the war sustain: The task be mine this hero's strength to try. And with unmanly tremblings shook the car. was by his fury thrown: Full on his crown the ponderous fragment flew. 491 Next on Eryalus he flies. Large as a rock. And death involved him with the shades of hell. and makes an army fly. the growing slaughters spread In heaps on heaps a monument of dead. and cleft the head in two: Prone to the ground the breathless warrior fell. studious of the line and cane. Polymelus. lie. Echius. Amphoterus and Erymas succeed. and from the chariot draws. a stone. Who mows whole troops. With this reproach his flying host he warms: "Oh stain to honour! oh disgrace to arms! Forsake. the contended plain. And dropp'd the flowing reins. Ipheas.

—The destinies ordain. Jove view'd the combat: whose event foreseen. or whether I should now destroy him by the hands of the son of Menoetius!' To which Juno answers—'Dost thou mean to rescue from death a mortal man. and place him entirely out of the reach of any such event. the rest of the gods. long since destined by fate (palai pepromenon)? You may do it—but we.—"In the mythology. in the alternative. They cuff. The desert echoes. leaps from off the car: Patroclus lights.245 My godlike son shall press the Phrygian plain: Already on the verge of death he stands. they raise a screaming cry. we discover one important truth unconsciously involved. Zeus or Jupiter is popularly to be taken as omnipotent. He thus bespoke his sister and his queen: "The hour draws on. Jupiter might still. if he pleased. I should not at once place him alive in the fertile land of his own Lycia. which was almost entirely lost from view amidst the nearly equal scepticism and credulity of subsequent ages.492 The Iliad of Homer [300] He spake: and. my heart is divided within me while I ruminate it in my mind. save him. of the Iliad.' Here it is clear from both speakers. speaking. whether having snatched him up from out of the lamentable battle. the son of Menoetius! Indeed. 'Alas me!' says he 'since it is fated (moira) that Sarpedon. they tear. and sternly waits the war. shall I snatch him from impending fate. dearest to me of men. also. that Jupiter himself would destroy him by the hands 245 . This seems to be the true character of the Homeric deity. and further. His life is owed to fierce Patroclus' hands. No distinct empire is assigned to fate or fortune. and with equal rage. purely Pagan as it is. should be slain by Patroclus. do not sanction it. that although Sarpedon is said to be fated to die. the destinies ordain. and it is very necessary that the student of Greek literature should bear it constantly in mind. What passions in a parent's breast debate! Say. and the rocks reply: The warriors thus opposed in arms. As when two vultures on the mountain's height Stoop with resounding pinions to the fight. engage With equal clamours. is the passage where Jupiter laments to Juno the approaching death of Sarpedon. A strong instance in the Iliad itself to illustrate this position. the will of the father of gods and men is absolute and uncontrollable.

and ratifies the doom. Shall Jove for one extend the narrow span."—Coleridge. overcome. And when the ascending soul has wing'd her flight. by thy command. p. with celestial blood. distant far From all the dangers and the toils of war. And fatten. A marble tomb and pyramid shall raise. seq. to his future praise. Let Sleep and Death convey. His fame ('tis all the dead can have) shall live. the field?" 493 Then thus the goddess with the radiant eyes: "What words are these. And lasting honours to his ashes give. the weeping heavens distill'd A shower of blood o'er all the fatal field: of another. Or to his doom my bravest offspring yield. Whose bounds were fix'd before his race began? How many sons of gods. Give the bold chief a glorious fate in fight. Before proud Ilion must resign their breath! Were thine exempt. The breathless body to his native land. foredoom'd to death. His friends and people." She said: the cloud-compeller. [301] . Assents to fate. 156. debate would rise above. Then touch'd with grief. And murmuring powers condemn their partial Jove. O sovereign of the skies! Short is the date prescribed to mortal man.BOOK XVI. And send him safe to Lycia.

Then as the mountain oak. and freed The encumbered chariot from the dying steed: The rest move on. and falling bites the bloody plain. Now met in arms. Where the strong fibres bind the solid heart. And pass'd the groin of valiant Thrasymed. Aim'd at his breast it pierced a mortal part. Two sounding darts the Lycian leader threw: The first aloof with erring fury flew. Each axle crackled. or poplar tall. The towering chiefs to fiercer fight advance: And first Sarpedon whirl'd his weighty lance. his eyes averting from the plain. Which o'er the warrior's shoulder took its course. to disengage The starting coursers. predestined to be slain. till with a groaning sound . the combatants appear. He falls. his happy native reign. Not so Patroclus' never-erring dart. Each heaved the shield. obedient to the rein: The car rolls slowly o'er the dusty plain. Far from the Lycian shores. and poised the lifted spear. And spent in empty air its dying force. and the chariot shook: When bold Automedon. Laments his son. His sudden fall the entangled harness broke.494 The Iliad of Homer The god. and restrain their rage. The generous Pedasus of Theban breed: Fix'd in the shoulder's joint. From strong Patroclus' hand the javelin fled. he reel'd around. The nerves unbraced no more his bulk sustain. Or pine (fit mast for some great admiral) Nods to the axe. Roll'd in the bloody dust. Divides the traces with his sword. The next transpierced Achilles' mortal steed. and paw'd the slippery ground.

Then to the leader of the Lycian band The dying chief address'd his last command. The insulting victor with disdain bestrode The prostrate prince. And. To lead my troops. and sucks the smoking blood. Tell them. If these spoil'd arms adorn a Grecian foe! Then as a friend. to combat at their head. Deep groans. Incite the living. and hollow roars. I charged them with my latest breath Not unrevenged to bear Sarpedon's death. So lies a bull beneath the lion's paws. conquer in my right: That. and as a warrior fight. And the soul issued in the purple flood." He ceased. Unguided now. thy task be first to dare The glorious dangers of destructive war. what shame. the Fates suppress'd his labouring breath. 495 It sinks. Thus fell the king. and on his bosom trod. all may try Like thee to vanquish. Then drew the weapon from his panting heart. and supply the dead.BOOK XVI. must Glaucus undergo. Defend my body. What grief. [302] . From the wide wound gush'd out a stream of blood. His flying steeds the Myrmidons detain. or like me to die. pale in death. While the grim savage grinds with foamy jaws The trembling limbs. lay groaning on the shore. Before his chariot stretch'd his form divine: He grasp'd the dust distain'd with streaming gore. their mighty master slain. and spreads its honours on the ground. And his eyes darken'd with the shades of death. be bold. rebellow through the wood. taught by great examples. The reeking fibres clinging to the dart. and laid on earth supine. "Glaucus.

Renew'd by art divine. and support the fight. and Hector he accosts. Unhappy Glaucus heard the dying chief: His painful arm. His heavenly hand restrain'd the flux of blood. though distant. suppliant as he stood. Nor Jove vouchsafed his hapless offspring aid. the hero stands. Then loudly calls on Troy's vindictive arms. To head my Lycians. That thrills my arm. Now fires Agenor. Inflaming thus the rage of all their hosts. And sigh. He drew the dolours from the wounded part. canst restore my might. With ample strides he stalks from place to place. and. yet useless with the smart Inflicted late by Teucer's deadly dart.496 The Iliad of Homer All-impotent of aid. O god of health! thy succour lend. Supported on his better hand he stay'd: To Phoebus then ('twas all he could) he pray'd: "All-seeing monarch! whether Lycia's coast. . To guard the relics of my slaughter'd friend: For thou. transfix'd with grief. Or sacred Ilion. First to the fight his native troops he warms. Low in the dust is great Sarpedon laid. But thou." Apollo heard. Powerful alike to ease the wretch's smart. O hear me! god of every healing art! Lo! stiff with clotted blood. and pierced with pain. now Polydamas: Æneas next. and shoots through every vein. thy bright presence boast. And owns the assistance of immortal hands. And breathed a spirit in his rising heart. I stand unable to sustain the spear. at distance from the glorious war.

be men. O save from hostile rage his loved remains! Ah let not Greece his conquer'd trophies boast. Breathe their brave souls out in another's war. extended on the field. and in council wise. And rousing Ajax. And send the living Lycians to the dead. roused the listening bands: "Heroes. Transfix'd with deep regret. See! where in dust the great Sarpedon lies. "What thoughts. they rush on. To all his Lycians lost. And with superior vengeance greatly glows. Who guarded right." 497 [303] . be what you were before. regardless chief! thy breast employ? Oh too forgetful of the friends of Troy! Those generous friends. Tis half the glory to maintain our prize. from their country far. who. Lies pale in death. who led to Troy's beleaguer'd wall A host of heroes. Or weigh the great occasion. through all her legions shook. Nor on his corse revenge her heroes lost!" He spoke: each leader in his grief partook: Troy. But o'er the dead the fierce Patroclus stands. A chief. and kept his people free. In action valiant. and their own. they view o'erthrown At once his country's pillar. To guard his body Troy in numbers flies. and lost to thee! Stretch'd by Patroclus' arm on yonder plains.BOOK XVI. first Hector seeks the foes. Fired. at the loss. and be more. Haste. strip his arms. the slaughter round him spread. and outshined them all. The chief who taught our lofty walls to yield.

498 The Iliad of Homer The heroes kindle at his fierce command. At Sthenelaus flew the weighty stone. Who chased for murder thence a suppliant came To Peleus. His fate ennobling with a crowd of ghosts. from Budium's lofty walls. and stretch'd him o'er the slain. And. Soon as his luckless hand had touch'd the dead. O'er the fierce armies pours pernicious night. A rock's large fragment thunder'd on his head. With horrid shouts they circle round the slain. Till Glaucus. too near That arm. [304] . all the rest inspired. Agacleus' son. Sprung on the Trojan and the Lycian band. to swell the horrors of the fight. So far the Trojans from their lines retired. O generous Greek! when with full vigour thrown. Achilles' arms to aid. and Hector learn'd to fear. Or at the lists. Now sent to Troy. Far as an able hand a lance can throw. The clash of armour rings o'er all the plain. Hurl'd by Hectorean force it cleft in twain His shatter'd helm. turning. And round his son confounds the warring hosts. drew back. or at the fighting foe. He pays due vengeance to his kinsman's shade. and Greece. Now Greece gives way. The martial squadrons close on either hand: Here Troy and Lycia charge with loud alarms. and great Epigeus falls. like an eagle darting at his game. Which sunk him to the dead: when Troy. Thessalia there. and the silver-footed dame. Great Jove. what fury urged thy hand. What grief thy heart. oppose their arms. Fierce to the van of fight Patroclus came.

" . exhaling. Wide o'er the land was stretch'd his large domain. My spear. Glaucus met and slew. "Swift as thou art (the raging hero cries) And skill'd in dancing to dispute the prize. With stately seats. Who stooping forward from the death withdrew. and rooted in the field. and falling made the fields resound. Then Bathyclaeus fell beneath his rage. With conquering shouts the Trojans shake the plain. 499 Then brave Laogonus resign'd his breath. bold with youth. The only hope of Chalcon's trembling age. and eager to pursue The flying Lycians. Sent by the great Aeneas' arm in vain. He fell. and honour'd like his god. The soul. And crowd to spoil the dead: the Greeks oppose. Despatch'd by Merion to the shades of death: On Ida's holy hill he made abode. There yet scarce spent. and riches blest in vain: Him. the destined passage had it found. it quivers on the plain. Had fix'd thy active vigour to the ground. Pierced through the bosom with a sudden wound. The lance hiss'd harmless o'er his covering shield.BOOK XVI. His spear Aeneas at the victor threw. Between the jaw and ear the javelin went. And trembling struck. The priest of Jove. The Achaians sorrow for their heroes slain. An iron circle round the carcase grows. issued at the vent.

sends thee down to Pluto's coast. And if to this my lance thy fate be given. or mountain ground. ill befits the brave. . and new shouts arise: Shields. So fell the warriors. beseems the council. While crackling forests fall on every side: Thus echoed all the fields with loud alarms. And thick and heavy sounds the storm of blows. helmets rattle. his thy parting ghost. is the task of war. Patroclus to the battle flies. Mine is the glory. Not empty boasts the sons of Troy repel." This said. Vain are thy vaunts. As through the shrilling vale. Great Merion follows. as the warriors close. An arm as strong may stretch thee in the dust. Blows following blows are heard re-echoing wide." [305] "O friend (Menoetius' son this answer gave) With words to combat. 'tis mortal force you trust. but to dare In glorious action. Your swords must plunge them to the shades of hell. To speak. and so rung their arms. instant. success is still from heaven: This.500 The Iliad of Homer "O valiant leader of the Dardan host! (Insulted Merion thus retorts the boast) Strong as you are. The labours of the woodman's axe resound.

Lies undistinguish'd from the vulgar dead. and call The force of Hector to Patroclus' fall. . Then Hector's mind he fills with dire dismay.BOOK XVI. This instant see his short-lived trophies won. bids him drive the foe. His heavenly form defaced with dust and gore. Thick as beneath some shepherd's thatch'd abode (The pails high foaming with a milky flood) The buzzing flies. 501 Jove view'd the combat with a stern survey. Now great Sarpedon on the sandy shore. and chased return again. And stuck with darts by warring heroes shed. His long-disputed corse the chiefs enclose. Or yet. He mounts his car. and pants with awe divine. Sunk with Troy's heavy fates. a persevering train. On every side the busy combat grows. To crown Achilles' valiant friend with praise At length he dooms. he sees decline The scales of Jove. And eyes that flash'd intolerable day. with many a soul's untimely flight. Nor unattended see the shades below. Incessant swarm. and calls his hosts away. and meditates the fates: Whether to urge their prompt effect. and. Fix'd on the field his sight. that his last of days Shall set in glory. Augment the fame and horror of the fight. his breast debates The vengeance due. And stretch him breathless on his slaughter'd son.

502 The Iliad of Homer Then. . a dreadful wall Of carnage rises. Those unavailing honours we may give!" [306] Apollo bows. the hardy Lycians fled. as the heroes fall. his sacred corse bequeath To the soft arms of silent Sleep and Death. And with celestial robes adorn the dead. my Phoebus! on the Phrygian plain. There bathed his honourable wounds. With dust dishonour'd. Patroclus' ships the glorious spoils adorn. Those rites discharged. to silver Simois' shore. Spoke from his throne the cloud-compelling Jove: "Descend. two twins of winged race. And from the fight convey Sarpedon slain. (So Jove decreed!) At length the Greeks obtain The prize contested. And left their monarch with the common dead: Around. Then Sleep and Death. nor before. Then bathe his body in the crystal flood. Thence from the war the breathless hero bore. The radiant arms are by Patroclus borne. and his form renews. Veil'd in a cloud. and despoil the slain. And with perfumes of sweet ambrosial dews Restores his freshness. Swift to the field precipitates his flight. and deform'd with blood. in heaps on heaps. His friends a tomb and pyramid shall rear: What honour mortals after death receive. and dress'd His manly members in the immortal vest. O'er all his limbs ambrosial odours shed. in the realms above. and from mount Ida's height. Then thus to Phoebus. They to his friends the immortal charge shall bear.

Of matchless swiftness. but of silent pace. Ah blind to fate! thy headlong fury flew Against what fate and powerful Jove ordain. [307] . and with loosen'd reins. 503 SLEEP AND DEATH CONVEYING THE BODY OF SARPEDON TO LYCIA. He urged thee on. With foaming coursers. The god who gives. The corse amidst his weeping friends they laid. And in a moment reach'd the Lycian land. thy courage vain. and orders all. For he. Fierce on the Trojan and the Lycian crew. at the god's command.BOOK XVI. Where endless honours wait the sacred shade. whose counsels uncontroll'd Dismay the mighty. the god. and confound the bold. Vain was thy friend's command. and urged thee on to fall. Received Sarpedon. resumes. Meanwhile Patroclus pours along the plains.

" —Thrice at the battlements.246 His blazing aegis thrice Apollo shook. and receive assistance from their allies to the very end. bursting from the cloud. Melanippus. The rest. trust their fates to flight. The Trojans are in no respects blockaded. were never upon a large scale. Patroclus thrice mounts it in armour. Troy shall not stoop even to Achilles' hand. personal prowess decided every thing. the night attack and the ambuscade. next young Megas bleeds. p. 246 . He tried the fourth. although much esteemed. thy greater far. Now Troy had stoop'd beneath his matchless power. But flaming Phoebus kept the sacred tower Thrice at the battlements Patroclus strook. And call'd to fill the number of the dead? Adrestus first. Autonous then succeeds. "Patroclus! cease. Who last beneath thy vengeance press'd the plain. not fated yet to fall. The siege of Troy was as little like a modern siege as a captain in the guards is like Achilles. bite the ground. this heaven-defended wall Defies thy lance."—Coleridge. 212. The slaughter. it shall withstand.504 The Iliad of Homer Who first. When heaven itself thy fatal fury led. and enact almost as much as the knights of romance. It was probably a vast mound of earth with a declivity outwards. There is no mention of a ditch or any other line or work round the town. Echeclus follows. A more than mortal voice was heard aloud. Thy friend. and the wall itself was accessible without a ladder. dispersing. "The art military of the Homeric age is upon a level with the state of navigation just described. The chiefs fight in advance. when. brave hero! by that arm was slain. Epistor. Elasus and Mulius crown'd: Then sunk Pylartes to eternal night.

He bids Cebrion drive the rapid car. haughty. Or draw the troops within the walls of Troy. then took his flight. A spear his left. Hecuba! from Dymas sprung. and with awe retires. bold. Or in the field his forces to employ. The Greek obeys him. who reigned by Sangar's flood. Thus while he thought. In Asius' shape. The god the Grecians' sinking souls depress'd. The lash resounds. "What a shameful sight! God! is it Hector that forbears the fight? Were thine my vigour this successful spear Should soon convince thee of so false a fear. ah turn thee to the field of fame. in his breast debates. the coursers rush to war. eyes. while yet he held the rein. a stone employs his right: With all his nerves he drives it at the foe. Perhaps Apollo shall thy arms succeed. 505 [308] . and young. The charioteer." So spoke the inspiring god. And in Patroclus' blood efface thy shame. brows. His front. one undistinguish'd wound: The bursting balls drop sightless to the ground. Patroclus lights. And heaven ordains him by thy lance to bleed. beside him Phoebus stood. checking at the Scaean gates His panting coursers. While Hector. The lawless offspring of king Priam's bed. A valiant warrior. (Thy brother.) Thus he accosts him.BOOK XVI. Pointed above. Turn thee. And plunged amidst the tumult of the fight. and rough and gross below: The falling ruin crush'd Cebrion's head. impatient for the fight. And pour'd swift spirits through each Trojan breast. So spoke the god who darts celestial fires.

Mix the contending hosts in mortal fight. That sweeps the field. depopulates the fold. Stern Hector fastens on the warrior's head. And the whole forest in one crash descends. aloft in air are blown. And from his fatal courage finds his bane. So pent by hills. and the Sylvans groan. To the dark shades the soul unwilling glides. with less tumultuous rage. "Good heaven! what active feats yon artist shows! What skilful divers are our Phrygian foes! Mark with what ease they sink into the sand! Pity that all their practice is by land!" Then rushing sudden on his prostrate prize. And by the foot Patroclus drags the dead: While all around. each the prey invades. In dreadful shock the mingled hosts engage. the rattling thicket bends. and trees. While the proud victor thus his fall derides. Defends the body. then tumbles slain.506 The Iliad of Homer Struck from the car. rage. Thus for some slaughter'd hind. falls headlong on the plain. [309] . To spoil the carcase fierce Patroclus flies: Swift as a lion. At once bold Hector leaping from his car. arms. And echoing roars rebellow through the shades. and fright. terrible and bold. Pierced through the dauntless heart. Not with less noise. with equal rage. confusion. The broad oaks crackle. and provokes the war. This way and that. Leaves. the wild winds roar aloud In the deep bosom of some gloomy wood. now round the carcase ring. Darts shower'd on darts. Stung with fierce hunger. Two lordly rulers of the wood engage.

And breathing slaughter. far to distance flung. They draw the conquer'd corse and radiant arms. pours amid the foes. Sol had driven His fervid orb through half the vault of heaven. and heavy. untouch'd. some clatter on the fields. black remnant of so bright a line: Apollo dreadful stops thy middle way. While on each host with equal tempests fell The showering darts. Then rash Patroclus with new fury glows. And. and numbers sank to hell. 507 . But where the rising whirlwind clouds the plains. Achilles' plume is stain'd with dust and gore. That plume which never stoop'd to earth before. his stunn'd senses reel In giddy darkness. in fighting fields to shine. There ends thy glory! there the Fates untwine The last. Thrice on the press like Mars himself he flew. Approaching dealt a staggering blow behind. His bounding helmet on the champaign rung. And thrice three heroes at each onset slew. shake the sounding shields. Now flights of arrows bounding from the string: Stones follow stones. But when his evening wheels o'erhung the main. Some hard. forgets the guiding reins! Now flaming from the zenith. The weighty shock his neck and shoulders feel. Glad conquest rested on the Grecian train. His eyes flash sparkles.BOOK XVI. Sunk in soft dust the mighty chief remains. Then from amidst the tumult and alarms. Long used. stretch'd in death. Death calls. and heaven allows no longer day! For lo! the god in dusky clouds enshrined. And shade the temples of the mad divine.

Patroclus yields to fear. his ample shield Drops from his arm: his baldric strows the field: The corslet his astonish'd breast forsakes: Loose is each joint. And turn'd him short. and all-assistless stands: Such is the force of more than mortal hands! A Dardan youth there was. Patroclus' fury stood: But swift withdrew the long-protended wood. From Panthus sprung. His spear in shivers falls. He falls. Nor. He struck. His venturous spear first drew the hero's gore. Stupid he stares. So. but he durst no more. Thus. [310] . he wounded. at once. Retires for succour to his social train. well known to fame. Famed for the manage of the foaming horse. scorch'd with heat. each nerve with horror shakes. Stern Hector. by an arm divine. And flies the fate. that moment all Her yet-surviving heroes seem'd to fall. as the bleeding chief he views. though disarm'd. While yet he learn'd his rudiments of war. earth thunders. and mortal spear. and his retreat pursues: The lance arrests him with a mortal wound. Not long—for fate pursues him. along the desert score. With him all Greece was sunk. and matchless in the course: Full twenty knights he tumbled from the car. which heaven decreed. they both dispute the flood. Breaks through the ranks. Fast by the spring. Euphorbus was his name. in vain. Skill'd in the dart. Wounded. and herded in the crowd. The roaming lion meets a bristly boar.508 The Iliad of Homer Jove dooms it now on Hector's helm to nod. and his arms resound. and the god.

this important day. and wildly gazing on the skies. expiring breath." Supine. He sternly views him. so many chiefs o'erthrown. and jaws besmear'd with blood.' He spoke. expires his own. my brave friend (perhaps he said). At length the sovereign savage wins the strife. The fancied scenes of Ilion wrapt in flames. Though much at parting that great chief might say. As dying now at Hector's feet he lies. And much enjoin thee. Patroclus thus. Without the bloody arms of Hector dead. Patroclus! and with thee. the joy Thy pride once promised. 'Return not. With flaming eyes. And the torn boar resigns his thirst and life. And thy soft pleasures served with captive dames.BOOK XVI. With faint. And guard that beauteous race from lords like thee: But thou a prey to vultures shalt be made. Thy own Achilles cannot lend thee aid. So many lives effused. Unthinking man! I fought those towers to free. the chief replies: . and triumphant cries: 509 "Lie there. and thus he sped. Patroclus march'd. of subverting Troy.

not thine. . the stern decree Of death denounced. And upwards cast the corse: the reeking spear He shakes. But thou. Euphorbus next. and it sounds thy death: Insulting man. I see thee fall. then pressing as he lay His breathless bosom. (The beauteous body left a load of clay) Flits to the lone. The immortal coursers were the gift of Jove. and charges the bold charioteer.510 The Iliad of Homer [311] "Vain boaster! cease. Had twenty mortals. Even now on life's last verge I see thee stand. Far from his rage the immortal coursers drove. Black fate o'erhangs thee. and know the powers divine! Jove's and Apollo's is this deed." He faints: the soul unwilling wings her way. A naked. Opposed me fairly. the third mean part thy own. And heaven itself disarm'd me ere my fall. they had sunk in fight: By fate and Phoebus was I first o'erthrown. melancholy ghost! Then Hector pausing. and by Achilles' hand. or why denounced to me? Why not as well Achilles' fate be given To Hector's lance? Who knows the will of heaven?" Pensive he said. wandering. thou shalt be soon as I. thus address'd the dead: "From whence this boding speech. To heaven is owed whate'er your own you call. But swift Automedon with loosen'd reins Rapt in the chariot o'er the distant plains. imperious! hear my latest breath. uncomfortable coast. each thy match in might. as his eyes he fed On the pale carcase. and thy hour draws nigh. tore the lance away. The gods inspire it.

BOOK XVI. 511 .

512 The Iliad of Homer ÆSCULAPIUS. .

The scene lies in the fields before Troy. Menelaus. and first-born of her loves. and bare) . is slain. who attempts it. This. ARGUMENT. On the cold earth divine Patroclus spread. and renews the battle. Springs to the front. THE SEVENTH BATTLE. who thereupon puts on the armour he had won from Patroclus. Great Menelaus. which is borne off by Automedon. Hector advancing. The Greeks give way. Lies pierced with wounds among the vulgar dead. FOR THE BODY OF PATROCLUS. where. bear off the body to the ships. Menelaus sends Antilochus to Achilles. though attacked with the utmost fury. upon the death of Patroclus. but soon returns with Ajax. he and Meriones. Thus round her new-fallen young the heifer moves. and guards him from the foe. with the news of Patroclus' death: then returns to the fight. Fruit of her throes. and drives him off. Menelaus retires. defends his body from the enemy: Euphorbus. Glaucus objects to Hector as a flight.[312] BOOK XVII. The horses of Achilles deplore the loss of Patroclus: Jupiter covers his body with a thick darkness: the noble prayer of Ajax on that occasion. The time is the evening of the eight-and-twentieth day. And anxious (helpless as he lies. till Ajax rallies them: Aeneas sustains the Trojans. touch'd with generous woe.—THE ACTS OF MENELAUS. Aeneas and Hector Attempt the chariot of Achilles. assisted by the Ajaces.

) Man only vaunts his force.514 The Iliad of Homer Turns. nor tempt an equal blow: To me the spoils my prowess won. Warrior! desist. or glad his sire. No more to cheer his spouse. fell. and vaunts in vain. Yet 'twas but late. Presumptuous youth! like his shall be thy doom. But far the vainest of the boastful kind. Hyperenor. avoid the threaten'd fate. and are wise too late. wait thy brother to the Stygian gloom. "This hand. Eyes the dead hero. and in scorn return'd: "Laugh'st thou not. When mortals boast of prowess not their own? Not thus the lion glories in his might. while thou may'st. These eyes beheld him on the dust expire. Opposed to each that near the carcase came. Atrides. Nor thus the boar (those terrors of the plain. and re-turns her. and insults the friend. Vain was his vigour. Against our arm which rashly he defied. Fools stay to feel it. and as vain his pride. The son of Panthus. and his lances flame. with a mother's care. beneath my conquering steel This boaster's brother. Nor panther braves his spotted foe in fight. laid Patroclus low. resign: Depart with life. These sons of Panthus vent their haughty mind. skill'd the dart to send." . Or. His broad shield glimmers. and leave the glory mine" [313] The Trojan thus: the Spartan monarch burn'd With generous anguish. Jove! from thy superior throne. Go.

Lifts the gay head. a widow in her bridal bed. A lovely ruin now defaced and dead: Thus young. Let heaven decide our fortune. and glorious in the prize. As the young olive. Affrighted Troy the towering victor flies: 515 [314] . Wide through the neck appears the grisly wound. Nor flies the javelin from his arm in vain. Euphorbus thus: "That action known. Instarr'd with gems and gold. Unmoved. Which even the Graces might be proud to wear. No longer then defer the glorious strife. Come.BOOK XVII. Prone sinks the warrior. When lo! a whirlwind from high heaven invades The tender plant. With dust dishonour'd. The well-aim'd weapon on the buckler rings. On these thy conquer'd spoils I shall bestow. and bent him to the plain. To soothe a consort's and a parent's woe. in some sylvan scene. Proud of his deed. fame. and withers all its shades. Euphorbus lay. and his arms resound. His weeping father claims thy destined head. It pierced his throat. The shining circlets of his golden hair. bestrow the shore. for my brother's blood repay thy own. On Jove the father great Atrides calls. But blunted by the brass. It lies uprooted from its genial bed. While the fierce Spartan tore his arms away. and deform'd with gore. And plays and dances to the gentle air. in snowy flowerets fair. and life. And spouse." Swift as the word the missile lance he flings. Crown'd by fresh fountains with eternal green. thus beautiful. innoxious falls.

at distance scatter'd round. and behold the brave Euphorbus slain. And sends his voice in thunder to the skies: Fierce as a flood of flame by Vulcan sent. Too long amused with a pursuit so vain. near the Hebrus. 247 —Ciconians. and the vales resound. through cleaving ranks he flies. of ethereal race. Apollo wing'd his flight. these. Or stoop to none but great Achilles' hand.—A people of Thrace. Turn. By Sparta slain! for ever now suppress'd The fire which burn'd in that undaunted breast!" Thus having spoke. When o'er the slaughter'd bull they hear him roar. . Meanwhile Apollo view'd with envious eyes. beneath whose martial care The rough Ciconians learn'd the trade of war. Sheath'd in bright arms. and fired the nations as it went. and. to mortal man's command. as prone he lay) And in the victor's hands the shining prey. And urged great Hector to dispute the prize. (In Mentes' shape. They shout incessant. It flew. as before some mountain lion's ire The village curs and trembling swains retire. (Forth welling from the wound.)247 "Forbear (he cried) with fruitless speed to chase Achilles' coursers. instant. And see his jaws distil with smoking gore: All pale with fear. view'd The breathless hero in his blood imbued. They stoop not. And mix'd with mortals in the toils of fight: His words infix'd unutterable care Deep in great Hector's soul: through all the war He darts his anxious eye. Atrides from the voice the storm divined.516 The Iliad of Homer Flies.

nor the god. should give me fear. but to heaven I yield. and sighing quits the dead. And through the cloud the godlike Ajax knew. [315] . where the god of day Had sunk each heart with terror and dismay. And give Achilles all that yet remains Of his and our Patroclus—" This. So from the fold the unwilling lion parts. A sable scene! The terrors Hector led. There breathing courage. the relics.BOOK XVII. and for my honour slain! Desert the arms. Where labouring on the left the warrior stood. if once I quit the field. and with new fury burn'd. Hector and his troops attend? Sure where such partial favour heaven bestow'd. but threatens as he flies. and cover'd o'er with blood. no more The time allow'd: Troy thicken'd on the shore. Forced by loud clamours. O'er all the black battalions sent his view. still battle on the plains. Greece. of my friend? Or singly. To brave the hero were to brave the god: Forgive me. Slow he recedes. Did but the voice of Ajax reach my ear: Still would we turn. he turn'd His manly breast. All grim in arms. nor heaven. 'Tis not to Hector. Now enter'd in the Spartan ranks. and a storm of darts. Slain in my cause. With heart indignant and retorted eyes. And thus explored his own unconquer'd mind: 517 "Then shall I quit Patroclus on the plain. He flies indeed. Yet.

the lioness surrounds Her tawny young. he lies. and measured back the field. And now before.518 The Iliad of Homer To him the king: "Oh Ajax. With many a step. Fast by his side the generous Spartan glows With great revenge. To stand a trophy of his fame in war. Dark o'er the fiery balls each hanging eyebrow lours. And Hector glories in the dazzling prize. beset by men and hounds. The raging pair Pierced the thick battle. But soon as Ajax rear'd his tower-like shield. And doom'd to Trojan gods the unhappy dead. On Hector frowning. alas. and rousing all her powers. and feeds his inward woes. But Glaucus. Already had stern Hector seized his head. Sprung to his car. and touch'd his heart. leader of the Lycian aids. thus his flight upbraids: . and now behind he stood: Thus in the centre of some gloomy wood. Elate her heart. and provoke the war. and Patroclus' loved remains defend: The body to Achilles to restore Demands our care. we can no more! For naked now. Meanwhile great Ajax (his broad shield display'd) Guards the dead hero with the dreadful shade." He said. oh my friend! Haste. His train to Troy the radiant armour bear. despoiled of arms.

Say. Thou dar'st not meet the terrors of his eye. empty boast! but shall the Lycians stake Their lives for you? those Lycians you forsake? What from thy thankless arms can we expect? Thy friend Sarpedon proves thy base neglect. Is this. and give up Troy to fate. and all the fowls of air. is the name! Since battle is renounced. On my command if any Lycian wait. And drag yon carcase to the walls of Troy. While unreveng'd the great Sarpedon falls? Even where he died for Troy. And Hector trembles and recedes with fear. "Where now in Hector shall we Hector find? A manly form.BOOK XVII. And thus due honours purchased to his shade. thy thoughts employ What other methods may preserve thy Troy: 'Tis time to try if Ilion's state can stand By thee alone. you left him there. Did such a spirit as the gods impart Impel one Trojan hand or Trojan heart. and his country's cause) Even yet our mutual arms we might employ. we might obtain Sarpedon's arms and honour'd corse again! Greece with Achilles' friend should be repaid. Oh! were Patroclus ours." 519 [316] . without the merit. (Such as should burn in every soul that draws The sword for glory. A feast for dogs. O chief! a hero's boasted fame? How vain. shall our slaughter'd bodies guard your walls. Hence let him march. And lo! already thou prepar'st to fly. But words are vain—Let Ajax once appear. without a manly mind. nor ask a foreign hand: Mean.

The strong he withers. if I fear to-day. Hector in proud Achilles' arms shall shine." Then turning to the martial hosts. And hear the thunder of the sounding steeds. and sedate replied: "Say. But ill this insult suits a prudent mind.520 The Iliad of Homer The Trojan chief with fix'd resentment eyed The Lycian leader. I shun great Ajax? I desert my train? 'Tis mine to prove the rash assertion vain. Dardans." . and confounds the bold. If yet a Greek the sight of Hector dread. and now Strikes the fresh garland from the victor's brow! Come. And thou be witness. Or yet their hero dare defend the dead. Lycians. I joy to mingle where the battle bleeds. is it just. But Jove's high will is ever uncontroll'd. in action as in name. that Hector's ear From such a warrior such a speech should hear? I deem'd thee once the wisest of thy kind. Now crowns with fame the mighty man. and allies! Be men. Torn from his friend. my friends. through yon squadrons let us hew the way. And yet be mindful of your ancient fame. my friend. by right of conquest mine. he cries: "Ye Trojans.

One instant saw. conscious. He strode along the field. Yet live! I give thee one illustrious day.BOOK XVII. Him. as apart he sat. Now blazing in the immortal arms he stands. with endearing charms. As at Achilles' self! beneath thy dart Lies slain the great Achilles' dearer part. Olympus trembled. proud in triumph. There his own mail unbraced the field bestrow'd. and armies tremble at thy sight. A blaze of glory ere thou fad'st away. He shook the sacred honours of his head. As first to Peleus by the court of heaven: His father's arms not long Achilles wears. wretched man! unmindful of thy end! A moment's glory. The god whose thunder rends the troubled air Beheld with pity. Forbid by fate to reach his father's years. one instant overtook The distant band. that on the sandy shore The radiant spoils to sacred Ilion bore. "Ah. No more officious. and the godhead said. For ah! no more Andromache shall come With joyful tears to welcome Hector home. Thou from the mighty dead those arms hast torn. His train to Troy convey'd the massy load. By aged Peleus to Achilles given. and what fates attend! In heavenly panoply divinely bright Thou stand'st. look'd through all the scene of fate. The work and present of celestial hands. glittering from afar. 521 . as thus he said: (The sable plumage nodded o'er his head:) Swift through the spacious plain he sent a look. Which once the greatest of mankind had worn. And.

And Ennomus. and moved." [318] . and Hippothous fires. or of distant lands! 'Twas not for state we summon'd you so far. and the pomp of war: Ye came to fight. And glean the relics of exhausted Troy. Through all his veins a sudden vigour flew. or a god. Medon. our wealth. Whatever hand shall win Patroclus slain. Whoe'er shall drag him to the Trojan train. enlarged his members grew. The stubborn arms (by Jove's command disposed) Conform'd spontaneous. Achilles. To boast our numbers.522 The Iliad of Homer From thy tired limbs unbrace Pelides' arms!" Then with his sable brow he gave the nod That seals his word. "Hear. Tor this. To save our present. Now Mesthles. and hear. in augury renown'd. Glaucus. unnumber'd bands Of neighbouring nations. you enjoy. And look'd. to conquer or to die prepare. a valiant foe to chase. and our future race. Asteropaeus kindled at the sound. And Mars himself came rushing on his soul. Chromius. and around him closed: Fill'd with the god. Exhorting loud through all the field he strode. The great Thersilochus like fury found. With Hector part the spoil. The blood in brisker tides began to roll. our products. and share the fame. To die or conquer are the terms of war. he inspires. With Hector's self shall equal honours claim. Now Phorcys. all ye hosts. the sanction of the god. Now then.

And each from Ajax hopes the glorious prey: Vain hope! what numbers shall the field o'erspread. they protend their spears. Come all! let generous rage your arms employ. We too must yield: the same sad fate must fall On thee. They join. The bravest Greeks: this hour demands them all. my friend. alas! is come. on all. they thicken." . Fired by his words. And thus bespoke his brother of the war: "Our fatal day. And save Patroclus from the dogs of Troy. and wide around The field re-echoed the distressful sound. whose glory is from heaven! Whom with due honours both Atrides grace: Ye guides and guardians of our Argive race! All. whom this well-known voice shall reach from far. See what a tempest direful Hector spreads. if any hear the call. All. to whose hand is given The rule of men. And lo! it bursts. perhaps. whom I see not through this cloud of war. Full on the Greeks they drive in firm array. on me. my friend.BOOK XVII. Condemn'd to vultures on the Trojan plain. the troops dismiss their fears. And all our wars and glories at an end! 'Tis not this corse alone we guard in vain." The warrior raised his voice. What victims perish round the mighty dead! 523 Great Ajax mark'd the growing storm from far. it thunders on our heads! Call on our Greeks. "O chiefs! O princes.

Whole Troy embodied rush'd with shouts along. Repulsed. And rudely scatters. burning with a hero's rage. to revenge led on By the swift rage of Ajax Telamon. the firm Achaian band With brazen shields in horrid circle stand. The river trembles to his utmost shore. the chief for whom the hosts contend Had lived not hateful. Full in the mouth is stopp'd the rushing tide. Nor less resolved. In graceful stature next. and ready was his aid: Next him Idomeneus. [319] The first attack the Grecians scarce sustain. The long-succeeding numbers who can name? But all were Greeks. for he lived a friend: Dead he protects him with superior care.524 The Iliad of Homer Oilean Ajax first the voice obey'd. Then fierce they rally. for a distance round. Conceals the warriors' shining helms in night: To him. Thus. And distant rocks re-bellow to the roar. Jove. when a mountain billow foams and raves. So through the thicket bursts the mountain boar. . more slow with age. and next in fame) With headlong force the foremost ranks he tore. Nor dooms his carcase to the birds of air. the Trojans seize the slain. Where some swoln river disembogues his waves. and eager all for fame. Swift was his pace. pouring darkness o'er the mingled fight. And Merion. The boiling ocean works from side to side. Fierce to the charge great Hector led the throng. they yield. (Ajax to Peleus' son the second name.

Shunn'd the descending death. brave Pelasgus' heir. Lamented youth! in life's first bloom he fell. 525 FIGHT FOR THE BODY OF PATROCLUS. And ill requites his parents' tender care. Sent by great Ajax to the shades of hell. which hissing on. dragg'd the carcase through the war.BOOK XVII. The sinewy ankles bored. his native air. Once more at Ajax Hector's javelin flies. and o'er him spread. Now lies a sad companion of the dead: Far from Larissa lies. The son of Lethus. the feet he bound With thongs inserted through the double wound: Inevitable fate o'ertakes the deed. The frighted hunter and the baying hound. Doom'd by great Ajax' vengeful lance to bleed: It cleft the helmet's brazen cheeks in twain. as it cut the skies. The shatter'd crest and horse-hair strow the plain: With nerves relax'd he tumbles to the ground: The brain comes gushing through the ghastly wound: He drops Patroclus' foot. Stretch'd in the dust the great Iphytus' son. [320] . The Grecian marking. Hippothous.

Fled to her ramparts. Struck at the sight. Plunged in his throat. With Jove averse. in her native fortitude elate. And deep transpiercing through the shoulder stood. Greece. and ruled the realms around. by Greece compell'd to yield. In clanging arms the hero fell and all The fields resounded with his weighty fall. for strength renown'd. and with prudence bold. The Telamonian lance his belly rends. and grasps the dust with dying hands. the weapon drank his blood. Revered for prudence. of all the Phocian kind The boldest warrior and the noblest mind: In little Panope.526 The Iliad of Homer Schedius the brave. as slain Hippothous he defends. Phorcys. recede the Trojan train: The shouting Argives strip the heroes slain. And through the wound the rushing entrails broke: In strong convulsions panting on the sands He lies. He seem'd like aged Periphas to sight: (A herald in Anchises' love grown old. And now had Troy. He held his seat. and resign'd the field. had turn'd the scale of fate: But Phoebus urged Æneas to the fight.) . The hollow armour burst before the stroke.

And hemm'd with bristled spears. numbers. but he rush'd in vain: Indissolubly firm. Rank within rank. Jove asserts the Trojan arms. Next thee. and desert the day. From rich Paeonia's vales the warrior came. Thus he—"What methods yet. and assists your wars.BOOK XVII. Asteropeus with grief beheld the slain. Your shameful efforts 'gainst yourselves employ. And rush'd to combat. and pants in Apisaon's breast. Who view'd his fall. In vain beloved by valiant Lycomede. And gain'd at length the glorious odds of fate: But you. 527 [321] . A brazen bulwark. To save your Troy. Have forced the powers to spare a sinking state. around the dead. Swift to revenge it sent his angry lance. The whirling lance. my bosom warms. first. the Grecians stood. grieving at the chance. with vigorous force address'd. Descends. when Jove declares His partial favour. on buckler buckler spread. and thus to Hector cries: "Oh lasting shame! to our own fears a prey. nor is he less. Leocritus beneath him bled." Æneas through the form assumed descries The power conceal'd. who. A god. by virtuous care." He spoke. Then. By valour. And tells me. and foremost to the combat flew: The bold example all his hosts pursue. O chief! remain. Asteropeus! in place and fame. though heaven its fall ordain? There have been heroes. and. We seek our ramparts. and by arts of war. and an iron wood. And force the unwilling god to ruin Troy. when fortune smiles.

There burn'd the war. In one thick darkness all the fight was lost. The sun. The rest in sunshine fought. on heaps the Trojans bled. Nor knew the fortune of Achilles' friend. and sways the wavering fight. No vapour rested on the mountain's head. Such o'er Patroclus' body hung the night. Unclouded there. And. and all the ethereal host Seem'd as extinct: day ravish'd from their eyes. . Fierce as conflicting fires the combat burns. Close in their ranks commands to fight or fall. Greece. Yet suffers least. wound A sanguine torrent steeps the reeking ground: On heaps the Greeks. the aerial azure spread. rise the hills of dead. And now it rises. now it sinks by turns. and there the mighty bled. The golden sun pour'd forth a stronger ray. Dispersed around the plain. in the rear.) toss the distant spear. (Their fellows routed. by fits they fight. The youthful brothers thus for fame contend. thickening round them. the moon. Meanwhile the sons of Nestor. and open light.528 The Iliad of Homer Great Ajax eyes them with incessant care. and collected might. And all the broad expansion flamed with day. And in an orb contracts the crowded war. And all heaven's splendours blotted from the skies. When from the ships he sent the Pylian band. and wounded. And here and there their scatter'd arrows light: But death and darkness o'er the carcase spread. And skirmish wide: so Nestor gave command. And stands the centre and the soul of all: Fix'd on the spot they war. in close order.

Their knees. 529 But round the corse the heroes pant for breath. Could blame this scene. And thick and heavy grows the work of death: O'erlabour'd now. drunk with fat and gore: So tugging round the corse both armies stood. and darkness fills their eyes. and labour o'er The extended surface. conceal'd. The mangled body bathed in sweat and blood. with dust. Nor knew the fatal fortune of the day. Nor he whose anger sets the world in arms. and dealing death to Troy. and gore. And carnage clogs their hands. Drops follow drops. yet unconscious of Patroclus' fall. Such. Jove to honour the great dead ordain'd. Now to the ships to force it. and tugg'd from side to side. now to Troy. such rage. her breast when fury warms. Though well he knew. Achilles in his ships at distance lay. and sweat. in pity to her son. And for his wish'd return prepares in vain. The brawny curriers stretch. with martial joy. their legs. the clouds on clouds arise. He. [322] . Glorious in arms. In thought they view'd him still. The rest. While Greeks and Ilians equal strength employ. In dust extended under Ilion's wall. to make proud Ilion bend Was more than heaven had destined to his friend.BOOK XVII. their feet. Expects him glorious from the conquered plain. such horror reign'd. Perhaps to him: this Thetis had reveal'd. are covered o'er. Strain'd with full force. As when a slaughter'd bull's yet reeking hide. Not Pallas' self.

at distance from the scene of blood. with a sullen pace He walks. And. and the big tears run rolling down his face. "Nothing is heard upon the mountains now. the funeral of his lord to wait. He stands. First perish all. v. Weeps his associates and his master slain. Meantime. And heaps on heaps by mutual wounds they bled. "Fast by the manger stands the inactive steed. 3. The pensive steeds of great Achilles stood: Their godlike master slain before their eyes. "To close the pomp. bk. ibid. parodied. and our glory lost!" Thus they: while with one voice the Trojans said. the clangours rise. But pensive herds that for their master low. ere haughty Troy shall boast We lost Patroclus. "Grant this day. the steed of state. sunk in sorrow. Jove! or heap us on the dead!" Then clash their sounding arms." Dryden's Virgil. "Cursed be the man (even private Greeks would say) Who dares desert this well-disputed day! First may the cleaving earth before our eyes Gape wide. and careless of his golden grain. Stripp'd of his trappings. Unmindful of their pasture and their love. hangs his languid head. Æthon. id.248 248 [323] —They wept." Moschus.530 The Iliad of Homer Still raged the conflict round the hero dead. Straggling and comfortless about they rove. ii . And shake the brazen concave of the skies. Is led. and shared in human miseries. and drink our blood for sacrifice. 18-24." Merrick's Tryphiodorus. They wept.

That breathes or creeps upon the dust of earth. Conglobing on the dust. alas! to share in mortal woe? For ah! what is there of inferior birth. What wretched creature of what wretched kind. and waved in state.BOOK XVII. Nor to the fight nor Hellespont they go. And prone to earth was hung their languid head: Nor Jove disdain'd to cast a pitying look. Restive they stood. that late Circled their arched necks. as stands A marble courser by the sculptor's hands. Exempt from age. Now plies the lash. Ourself will swiftness to your nerves impart. In vain Automedon now shakes the rein. For yet 'tis given to Troy to ravage o'er 531 . and blind? A miserable race! but cease to mourn: For not by you shall Priam's son be borne High on the splendid car: one glorious prize He rashly boasts: the rest our will denies. While thus relenting to the steeds he spoke: "Unhappy coursers of immortal strain. Along their face The big round drops coursed down with silent pace. Only. never to be moved. now in vain. calamitous. Ourself with rising spirits swell your heart. or fix'd. Their manes. and obstinate in woe: Still as a tombstone. and deathless. On some good man or woman unreproved Lays its eternal weight. and soothes and threats in vain. Automedon your rapid flight shall bear Safe to the navy through the storm of war. Than man more weak. Placed on the hero's grave. Did we your race on mortal man bestow. Trail'd on the dust beneath the yoke were spread.

The sun shall see her conquer. and the chief address'd: "What god provokes thee rashly thus to dare. Alcimedon. and vaults into the seat. And call'd Æneas fighting near his side. and bear The kindling chariot through the parted war: So flies a vulture through the clamorous train Of geese. urged them to the course. that scream. The chief of Troy descried. in the thickest war? Alas! thy friend is slain. and scatter round the plain. Or holds their fury in suspended reins: Patroclus. No Greek like him the heavenly steeds restrains. while he lived. unaided. now directs the reins: Him brave Alcimedon beheld distress'd. to thee resign The ruling charge: the task of fight be mine. From danger now with swiftest speed they flew. From their high manes they shake the dust. His friend descends. till his fall With sacred darkness shades the face of all. Now plies the javelin. and Hector wields Achilles' arms triumphant in the fields. [324] . And now to conquest with like speed pursue. and spread her slaughters to the shore. Sole in the seat the charioteer remains." He said. their rage could tame. Approach'd the chariot." "In happy time (the charioteer replies) The bold Alcimedon now greets my eyes. with active heat.532 The Iliad of Homer The field. and breathing in the immortal horse Excessive spirit." He said. Snatches the reins. Alone. But now Patroclus is an empty name! To thee I yield the seat.

The dead. and collects his might. Implores the Eternal." Then through the field he sends his voice aloud. Each hopes the conquest of the lofty steeds: In vain. with dauntless mind: "Oh keep the foaming coursers close behind! Full on my shoulders let their nostrils blow. forego. deserted of its lord! The glorious steeds our ready arms invite." 533 . Can such opponents stand when we assail? Unite thy force. Achilles' car. my force to prove Is only mine: the event belongs to Jove. to my sight. beyond our hope restored. Unmov'd. "Lo. my friend. Then turning to his friend. And calls the Ajaces from the warring crowd. unequal to engage The force of Hector. and Æneas' rage: Yet mighty as they are. Unhelp'd we stand. "Hither turn. Automedon attends the fight." The son of Venus to the counsel yields. Scarce their weak drivers guide them through the fight. and we prevail. determined is the foe. (he said. And save the living from a fiercer foe. Them Chromius follows. Then o'er their backs they spread their solid shields: With brass refulgent the broad surface shined. With great Atrides. with glorious hopes ye burn.) Turn where distress demands immediate aid.BOOK XVII. Aretus succeeds. 'Tis Hector comes: and when he seeks the prize. In vain advance! not fated to return. War knows no mean. he wins it or he dies. And thick bull-hides the spacious concave lined. encircled by his friends. brave youths. For hard the fight.

"Accept." 249 —Some brawny bull. As when a ponderous axe. Poor as it is. Then in the lower belly struck the dart. "Like to a bull. Nor longer Hector with his Trojans stood. xii. And hiss'd innoxious o'er the hero's head. descending full. but unable to proceed Plunges on either side. some offering to thy shade. But each brave Ajax heard. the javelin idly fled. he shunn'd. and interposed. Now at Automedon the Trojan foe Discharged his lance. the air his soul received." —Carey's Dante: Hell. Deep rooted in the ground. emboss'd with curious art. the meditated blow. Patroclus. this mean sacrifice: Thus have I soothed my griefs. at the moment when the fatal blow Hath struck him. the forceful spear In long vibrations spent its fury there. he springs with many a bound. that with impetuous spring Darts. Which pass'd the shield of Aretus the young: It pierced his belt. . Then tumbling rolls enormous on the ground: Thus fell the youth. and cries. Cleaves the broad forehead of some brawny bull:249 Struck 'twixt the horns. and thus have paid.534 The Iliad of Homer [325] He spoke. With clashing falchions now the chiefs had closed. and high the sounding javelin flung. But left their slain companion in his blood: His arms Automedon divests. c. Stooping. And the spear trembled as his entrails heaved.

High on the chariot at one bound he sprung. Or from the rage of man. 535 And now Minerva from the realms of air Descends impetuous. Assuming Phoenix' shape on earth she falls. O father! (Atreus' son replies) O full of days! by long experience wise! What more desires my soul. As when high Jove denouncing future woe. and ward the storm of war! But Hector. we dread. would Minerva send me strength to rear This wearied arm. And Jove's own glories blaze around his head!" [326] . And o'er his seat the bloody trophies hung. The lord of thunders sent the blue-eyed maid. and to the battle flew. So looks the lion o'er a mangled boar. And in his well-known voice to Sparta calls: "And lies Achilles' friend. And from his half-till'd field the labourer flies: In such a form the goddess round her drew A livid cloud. A prey to dogs beneath the Trojan wall? What shame 'o Greece for future times to tell. O'er the dark clouds extends his purple bow. and horrible with gore. For. than here unmoved To guard the body of the man I loved? Ah. and renews the war. like the rage of fire.BOOK XVII. destructive war. beloved by all. All grim with rage. To thee the greatest in whose cause he fell!" "O chief. pleased at length the Grecian arms to aid.) The drooping cattle dread the impending skies. (In sign of tempests from the troubled air.

Desire of blood. There stood a Trojan. (Asius the great. not unknown to fame. and his guest. And fills with keen revenge.536 The Iliad of Homer Pleased to be first of all the powers address'd. and stings. by the rolling main. his comrade. appear'd the god. he turns. And. with fell despite. ponderous as he falls. who held his wealthy reign In fair Abydos. Repulsed in vain. and Podes was his name: With riches honour'd. attacks. untired. (Bold son of air and heat) on angry wings Untamed. while our army flies: By the same arm illustrious Podes bled. and thirsty still of gore. his arms resound. and with courage bless'd. The friend of Hector. the long-disputed prize He bears victorious. and lust of fight. Asius' son. By Hector loved. unrevenged. Rage lifts his lance. A chief once thought no terror of the field? Yet singly. Like Phaenops.) "Oh prince! (he cried) Oh foremost once in fame! What Grecian now shall tremble at thy name? Dost thou at length to Menelaus yield. Fired with like ardour fierce Atrides flew. is dead!" This heard. o'er Hector spreads a cloud of woe. and rage. Through his broad belt the spear a passage found. . Aetion's son. and drives him on the foe. So burns the vengeful hornet (soul all o'er). She breathes new vigour in her hero's breast. now. And sent his soul with every lance he threw. Sudden at Hector's side Apollo stood.

BOOK XVII. Had graced the triumphs of his Trojan foe. and the tongue it rent. For as the brave Boeotian turn'd his head To face the foe. As Hector follow'd. and raging with the pain. 537 [327] . Pierced through the wrist. The son of Priam whirl'd the massive wood. Grasps his once formidable lance in vain. On foot bold Merion fought. Who left fair Lyctus for the fields of fame. Exulting Troy with clamour fills the fields: High on his chariots the Cretan stood. Prone from the seat he tumbles to the plain. But the brave squire the ready coursers brought. and the victors fly. Between his cheek and ear the weapon went. Polydamas drew near. And blaze beneath the lightnings of the god: At one regard of his all-seeing eye The vanquish'd triumph. And with his life his master's safety bought. The teeth it shatter'd. But now the Eternal shook his sable shield. But erring from its aim. Then trembled Greece: the flight Peneleus led. Leitus quits the plain. And razed his shoulder with a shorten'd spear: By Hector wounded. the impetuous spear Struck to the dust the squire and charioteer Of martial Merion: Coeranus his name. and now laid low. A rolling cloud Involved the mount. That shaded Ide and all the subject field Beneath its ample verge. The brittle point before his corslet yields. the thunder roar'd aloud. The affrighted hills from their foundations nod. Idomen address'd The flaming javelin to his manly breast.

To Atreus's seed. And still hear Hector thundering at their gates. Turn'd by the hand of Jove. the light of heaven restore. And conquest shifting to the Trojan side.538 The Iliad of Homer His dying hand forgets the falling rein: This Merion reaches. But let us perish in the face of day!" . He guides each arrow to a Grecian heart: Not so our spears. in triumph borne. the lash applies. Deserted of the god. the godlike Telamon: "Alas! who sees not Jove's almighty hand Transfers the glory to the Trojan band? Whether the weak or strong discharge the dart. bending from the car. is no more. all are lost In general darkness—Lord of earth and air! Oh king! Oh father! hear my humble prayer: Dispel this cloud. But such a chief I spy not through the host: The men. yet let us try What human strength and prudence can supply. his loved Patroclus. He suffers every lance to fall in vain. distant on the shore. the armies. we thy will obey. the steeds. His friend. incessant though they rain. May glad the fleets that hope not our return. Give me to see. Some hero too must be despatch'd to bear The mournful message to Pelides' ear. If yet this honour'd corse. Not Ajax less the will of heaven descried. Then thus begun. And the swift chariot to the navy flies. Who tremble yet. For sure he knows not. And urges to desert the hopeless war: Idomeneus consents. scarce rescued from their fates. and Ajax asks no more: If Greece must perish.

alas! but fate decreed his end.BOOK XVII. Let him to great Achilles' ear convey The fatal news"—Atrides hastes away. and with hunger bold. 539 [328] So turns the lion from the nightly fold. much adjured his train: "O guard these relics to your charge consign'd. And the red terrors of the blazing brands: Till late. Long gall'd by herdsmen. Though high in courage. and at his prayer The god relenting clear'd the clouded air. The darts fly round him from a hundred hands. and quits the untasted prey. And bear the merits of the dead in mind. as in life a friend!" . might yet Patroclus gain. "Now. and the gentlest heart: He was. If yet Antilochus survives the fight. and fretted sore with wounds. and long vex'd by hounds. The foe. How skill'd he was in each obliging art. Forth burst the sun with all-enlightening ray. reluctant. Atrides! cast around thy sight. So moved Atrides from his dangerous place With weary limbs. The mildest manners. he fear'd. but with unwilling pace. at the dawn of day Sour he departs. The blaze of armour flash'd against the day. With tears the hero spoke. now. In death a hero. Stiff with fatigue. And much admonish'd.

and tell The sad Achilles. shall succour Greece no more. Snatches his life amid the clouds of air. this instant fly. near him wheeling. and spreading deaths around: To him the king: "Beloved of Jove! draw near. from his walks above Looks down. Fly to the fleet. [329] . And round on all sides sent his piercing view. The sacred eagle. Cheering his men. and the Achaians mourn.540 The Iliad of Homer So parts the chief. his exerted sight Pass'd this and that way. and sousing on the quivering hare." The youthful warrior heard with silent woe. Then ran the mournful message to impart. Thy eyes have witness'd what a fatal turn! How Ilion triumphs. endued with sharpest eye Of all that wings the mid aerial sky. on the shore Now pale and dead. who despoil'd the slain. he found. and with dejected heart. For sadder tidings never touch'd thy ear. Not with less quickness. With tearful eyes. how his loved-one fell: He too may haste the naked corse to gain: The arms are Hector's. This is not all: Patroclus. from rank to rank he flew. and sees the distant thicket move. To brave Laodocus his arms he flung. he strove to say What sorrow dictates. through the ranks of fight: Till on the left the chief he sought. From his fair eyes the tears began to flow: Big with the mighty grief. drove his steeds along. Who. As the bold bird. Then stoops. but no word found way.

fighting side by side. Swift fled the youth: nor Menelaus stands (Though sore distress'd) to aid the Pylian bands. and with thirst of blood. Not fiercer rush along the gloomy wood. drive the wounded boar. With Merion's aid. and have stood. we have already tried. while with impetuous hate Troy pours along. to their fears they yield. the weighty corse to rear. All pale they tremble and forsake the field. But hope not. High from the ground the warriors heave the dead. But bids bold Thrasymede those troops sustain. Have tried it. "Gone is Antilochus (the hero said). warriors. Voracious hounds. Thus on retreating Greece the Trojans pour. 541 ." "'Tis well (said Ajax). Unarm'd. and this way rolls our fate. A general clamour rises at the sight: Loud shout the Trojans. Himself returns to his Patroclus slain. for Achilles' aid: Though fierce his rage." The hero said. What Troy can dare.BOOK XVII. and round the forest fly. be it then thy care. and my bold brother will sustain The shock of Hector and his charging train: Nor fear we armies. he fights not with the Trojan foe. Wave their thick falchions. But if the savage turns his glaring eye. And save ourselves. that many a length before Their furious hunters. They howl aloof. and their javelins shower: But Ajax turning. and renew the fight. 'Tis in our hands alone our hopes remain. unbounded be his woe. 'Tis our own vigour must the dead regain. Myself. With rage insatiate.

Now crack the blazing temples of the gods. horror. Thus when a river swell'd with sudden rains Spreads his broad waters o'er the level plains. Now sink in gloomy clouds the proud abodes. Inly they groan. and still the battle bleeds. o'er the throng Of men. or mast's unwieldy length. close the rear engage. Behind them rages all the storm of war: Confusion. The enormous timber lumbering down the hill: So these—Behind. and all the way. the bulk of Ajax stands. thick retreat maintains. big drops of sweat distil. their arms and armour lay. Still close they follow. Aeneas storms. steeds. urged the rout along: Less fierce the winds with rising flames conspire To whelm some city under waves of fire. That shriek incessant. tumult. The rumbling torrent through the ruin rolls. like a flight of cranes. and Hector foams with rage: While Greece a heavy. And breaks its force. chariots. hung High on poised pinions. and the mingled cry: Within. From the steep mountain with exerted strength Drag some vast beam. Some interposing hill the stream divides. without the trench. . And breaks the torrent of the rushing bands. So from the Trojan chiefs the Grecians fly. Wedged in one body. And sheets of smoke mount heavy to the poles. and turns the winding tides. along the rugged road. while the falcon. The heroes sweat beneath their honour'd load: As when two mules.542 The Iliad of Homer [330] While thus aloft the hero's corse they bear. threats their callow young. Strow'd in bright heaps. Such horror Jove impress'd! yet still proceeds The work of death. Such the wild terror.

543 VULCAN FROM AN ANTIQUE GEM.BOOK XVII. .

.

hearing his lamentations. and the body of Patroclus is carried off by the Greeks. the regular narrative being interrupted by the message of Antilochus and the lamentations of Achilles. THE GRIEF OF ACHILLES. The grief of Achilles over the body of Patroclus. lastly. comes with all her sea.250 And now it rises. AND NEW ARMOUR MADE HIM BY VULCAN. and orders him to show himself at the head of the intrenchments. Thetis. where Hector and Polydamas disagree in their opinions: but the advice of the former prevails. take up this book: the scene is at Achilles' tent on the sea-shore.[331] BOOK XVIII. Meanwhile. 250 . and the night ensuing. where Hellespont's broad waters flow. ARGUMENT. The description of the wonderful works of Vulcan: and. Iris appears to Achilles by the command of Juno. that noble one of the shield of Achilles. Thetis goes to the palace of Vulcan to obtain new arms for her son. to remain encamped in the field. The sight of him turns the fortunes of the day.nymphs to comfort him. The latter part of the nine-and-twentieth day. now it sinks by turns. The news of the death of Patroclus is brought to Achilles by Antilochus. This is connected with the earlier part of last book. The speeches of the mother and son on this occasion. Thus like the rage of fire the combat burns. from whence it changes to the palace of Vulcan. The Trojans call a council.

son of Peleus! thou must hear. late victors.) when by a Trojan hand The bravest of the Myrmidonian band Should lose the light! Fulfilled is that decree. His purple garments. . for all that fate design'd Rose in sad prospect to his boding mind. shaded by his sails. Those he deforms with dust. or by Patroclus' arms. And roll'd and grovell'd. The virgin captives.546 The Iliad of Homer Stood Nestor's son. which heaven so long ago Ordain'd. Fallen is the warrior. now to quit the plains? Is this the day. Pensive he sat. And wrapp'd his senses in the cloud of grief. and Patroclus he! In vain I charged him soon to quit the plain. On the hard soil his groaning breast he threw. Cast on the ground. His naked corse: his arms are Hector's right. On hoisted yards extended to the gales. "Sad tidings. And warn'd to shun Hectorean force in vain!" [332] Thus while he thinks." A sudden horror shot through all the chief. to sink me with the weight of woe? (So Thetis warn'd. And wretched I.) Rush'd from their tents with cries. and his golden hairs. the messenger of woe: There sat Achilles. (Won by his own. and these he tears. the unwilling messenger! Dead is Patroclus! For his corse they fight. And tells the melancholy tale with tears. with furious hands he spread The scorching ashes o'er his graceful head. as to earth he grew. with disorder'd charms. and gathering round. Thus to his soul he said: "Ah! what constrains The Greeks. Antilochus appears.

Amphinome. Hangs on his arms. The mother-goddess from her crystal throne Heard his loud cries. Doto. Far in the deep abysses of the main. Callianassa show Their sister looks. Nesaea mild. The circling Nereids with their mistress weep. Doris. Pherusa. the glimmering grotto fill'd. Thoa. Thalia. in the play of Æschylus. Glauce (every watery name). Beat their white breasts. And swift Dynamene. Dexamene the slow. and Amphithoe gay: Next Callianira. Bright Galatea quits her pearly bed. Melita. And the blue languish of soft Alia's eye. and Janassa fair. and the watery train. Clymene. So Oceanus hears the lamentations of Prometheus. and fainted on the ground: While Nestor's son sustains a manlier part. 547 [333] —Far in the deep. Their locks Actaea and Limnoria rear. These Orythia. 251 .251 With hoary Nereus. And mourns the warrior with a warrior's heart. Agave gentle. All these. Maera. Panope appear. and comes from the depths of the sea to comfort him. And Amatheia with her amber hair. amidst his frantic woe. and all that deep in ocean held Their sacred seats. and answer'd groan for groan. now cut the tides: Iaera now the verdant wave divides: Nemertes with Apseudes lifts the head. Then Proto. the train extend. And all the sea-green sisters of the deep.BOOK XVIII. And oft prevents the meditated blow. And black Janira. and silver Spio came: Cymothoe and Cymodoce were nigh. attend.

The bravest far that ever bore the name. never must return again. All bathed in tears. Then. and the Greeks distress'd: Why mourns my son? thy anguish let me share. I go at least to bear a tender part. So short a space the light of heaven to view. Along the coast their mingled clamours ran. ascended up the strand. the melancholy train Attend her way. ye sisters of the main! How just a cause has Thetis to complain! How wretched. The immortal mother. two by two. And thus the silver-footed dame began: "Why mourns my son? thy late preferr'd request The god has granted. were I mortal. Approaching now." . While the long pomp the silver wave divides. and left the caverns of the main. So short. by my careful hand He grew. to his sighs replied. standing close beside Her mournful offspring. alas! and fill'd with anguish too! Hear how his sorrows echo through the shore! I cannot ease them. And mourn my loved-one with a mother's heart. they touch'd the Trojan land." She said. and judge. and trust a parent's care. were my fate! How more than wretched in the immortal state! Sprung from my bed a godlike hero came. Like some fair olive. Till Thetis' sorrows thus began to flow: "Hear me.548 The Iliad of Homer Each beat her ivory breast with silent woe. Wide-opening part the tides. Reveal the cause. he flourish'd and adorn'd the land To Troy I sent him: but the fates ordain He never. but I must deplore.

'Tis not in fate the alternate now to give. For soon." A flood of tears. since from this miserable day I cast all hope of my return away. a sister of the main. when all the powers above Thy charms submitted to a mortal love: O hadst thou still. New woes. And let me fall! (Achilles made reply) Far lies Patroclus from his native plain! He fell. alas! that wretched offspring slain. Patroclus—Ah!—say. loved of all my martial train. Hector bears the glorious load. I blush to walk among the race of men. shall create again. see thee dead! When Hector falls. I see thee dying. at this. Patroclus dead. beyond myself is slain! Lost are those arms the gods themselves bestow'd On Peleus."—"Let Hector die.BOOK XVIII. Beyond mankind. and woes to come. Since. Not even the Thunderer's favour brings relief. Patroclus. Pursued the pleasures of the watery reign: And happier Peleus. thou diest. Let his last spirit smoke upon my dart. new sorrows. deeply groaning—"To this cureless grief. a hundred ghosts demand 549 [334] . Achilles hates to live. and falling. the goddess shed: "Ah then. Let me revenge it on proud Hector's heart. led A mortal beauty to his equal bed! Ere the sad fruit of thy unhappy womb Had caused such sorrows past. wish'd my aid in vain. He. unrevenged. goddess. Cursed be that day. can I boast A pleasure now? revenge itself is lost. Ah then. On these conditions will I breathe: till then. less ambitious.

550

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The fate of Hector from Achilles' hand; Since here, for brutal courage far renown'd, I live an idle burden to the ground, (Others in council famed for nobler skill, More useful to preserve, than I to kill,) Let me—But oh! ye gracious powers above! Wrath and revenge from men and gods remove: Far, far too dear to every mortal breast, Sweet to the soul, as honey to the taste: Gathering like vapours of a noxious kind From fiery blood, and darkening all the mind. Me Agamemnon urged to deadly hate; 'Tis past—I quell it; I resign to fate. Yes—I will meet the murderer of my friend; Or (if the gods ordain it) meet my end. The stroke of fate the strongest cannot shun: The great Alcides, Jove's unequall'd son, To Juno's hate, at length resign'd his breath, And sunk the victim of all-conquering death. So shall Achilles fall! stretch'd pale and dead, No more the Grecian hope, or Trojan dread! Let me, this instant, rush into the fields, And reap what glory life's short harvest yields. Shall I not force some widow'd dame to tear With frantic hands her long dishevell'd hair? Shall I not force her breast to heave with sighs, And the soft tears to trickle from her eyes? Yes, I shall give the fair those mournful charms— In vain you hold me—Hence! my arms! my arms!— Soon shall the sanguine torrent spread so wide, That all shall know Achilles swells the tide." "My son (coerulean Thetis made reply, To fate submitting with a secret sigh,)

BOOK XVIII. The host to succour, and thy friends to save, Is worthy thee; the duty of the brave. But canst thou, naked, issue to the plains? Thy radiant arms the Trojan foe detains. Insulting Hector bears the spoils on high, But vainly glories, for his fate is nigh. Yet, yet awhile thy generous ardour stay; Assured, I meet thee at the dawn of day, Charged with refulgent arms (a glorious load), Vulcanian arms, the labour of a god." Then turning to the daughters of the main, The goddess thus dismiss'd her azure train: "Ye sister Nereids! to your deeps descend; Haste, and our father's sacred seat attend; I go to find the architect divine, Where vast Olympus' starry summits shine: So tell our hoary sire"—This charge she gave: The sea-green sisters plunge beneath the wave: Thetis once more ascends the bless'd abodes, And treads the brazen threshold of the gods.

551

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And now the Greeks from furious Hector's force, Urge to broad Hellespont their headlong course; Nor yet their chiefs Patroclus' body bore Safe through the tempest to the tented shore. The horse, the foot, with equal fury join'd, Pour'd on the rear, and thunder'd close behind: And like a flame through fields of ripen'd corn, The rage of Hector o'er the ranks was borne. Thrice the slain hero by the foot he drew; Thrice to the skies the Trojan clamours flew: As oft the Ajaces his assault sustain;

[336]

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THETIS ORDERING THE NEREIDS TO DESCEND INTO THE SEA. But check'd, he turns; repuls'd, attacks again. With fiercer shouts his lingering troops he fires, Nor yields a step, nor from his post retires: So watchful shepherds strive to force, in vain, The hungry lion from a carcase slain. Even yet Patroclus had he borne away, And all the glories of the extended day, Had not high Juno from the realms of air, Secret, despatch'd her trusty messenger. The various goddess of the showery bow, Shot in a whirlwind to the shore below; To great Achilles at his ships she came, And thus began the many-colour'd dame: "Rise, son of Peleus! rise, divinely brave! Assist the combat, and Patroclus save: For him the slaughter to the fleet they spread, And fall by mutual wounds around the dead.

BOOK XVIII. To drag him back to Troy the foe contends: Nor with his death the rage of Hector ends: A prey to dogs he dooms the corse to lie, And marks the place to fix his head on high. Rise, and prevent (if yet you think of fame) Thy friend's disgrace, thy own eternal shame!"

553

"Who sends thee, goddess, from the ethereal skies?" Achilles thus. And Iris thus replies:

"I come, Pelides! from the queen of Jove, The immortal empress of the realms above; Unknown to him who sits remote on high, Unknown to all the synod of the sky." "Thou comest in vain (he cries, with fury warm'd); Arms I have none, and can I fight unarm'd? Unwilling as I am, of force I stay, Till Thetis bring me at the dawn of day Vulcanian arms: what other can I wield, Except the mighty Telamonian shield? That, in my friend's defence, has Ajax spread, While his strong lance around him heaps the dead: The gallant chief defends Menoetius' son, And does what his Achilles should have done."

"Thy want of arms (said Iris) well we know; But though unarm'd, yet clad in terrors, go! Let but Achilles o'er yon trench appear, Proud Troy shall tremble, and consent to fear; Greece from one glance of that tremendous eye Shall take new courage, and disdain to fly."

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[337]

She spoke, and pass'd in air. The hero rose: Her aegis Pallas o'er his shoulder throws; Around his brows a golden cloud she spread; A stream of glory flamed above his head. As when from some beleaguer'd town arise The smokes, high curling to the shaded skies; (Seen from some island, o'er the main afar, When men distress'd hang out the sign of war;) Soon as the sun in ocean hides his rays, Thick on the hills the flaming beacons blaze; With long-projected beams the seas are bright, And heaven's high arch reflects the ruddy light: So from Achilles' head the splendours rise, Reflecting blaze on blaze against the skies. Forth march'd the chief, and distant from the crowd, High on the rampart raised his voice aloud; With her own shout Minerva swells the sound; Troy starts astonish'd, and the shores rebound. As the loud trumpet's brazen mouth from far With shrilling clangour sounds the alarm of war, Struck from the walls, the echoes float on high, And the round bulwarks and thick towers reply; So high his brazen voice the hero rear'd: Hosts dropp'd their arms, and trembled as they heard: And back the chariots roll, and coursers bound, And steeds and men lie mingled on the ground. Aghast they see the living lightnings play, And turn their eyeballs from the flashing ray. Thrice from the trench his dreadful voice he raised, And thrice they fled, confounded and amazed. Twelve in the tumult wedged, untimely rush'd On their own spears, by their own chariots crush'd: While, shielded from the darts, the Greeks obtain The long-contended carcase of the slain.

BOOK XVIII. A lofty bier the breathless warrior bears: Around, his sad companions melt in tears. But chief Achilles, bending down his head, Pours unavailing sorrows o'er the dead, Whom late triumphant, with his steeds and car, He sent refulgent to the field of war; (Unhappy change!) now senseless, pale, he found, Stretch'd forth, and gash'd with many a gaping wound. Meantime, unwearied with his heavenly way, In ocean's waves the unwilling light of day Quench'd his red orb, at Juno's high command, And from their labours eased the Achaian band. The frighted Trojans (panting from the war, Their steeds unharness'd from the weary car) A sudden council call'd: each chief appear'd In haste, and standing; for to sit they fear'd. 'Twas now no season for prolong'd debate; They saw Achilles, and in him their fate. Silent they stood: Polydamas at last, Skill'd to discern the future by the past, The son of Panthus, thus express'd his fears (The friend of Hector, and of equal years; The self-same night to both a being gave, One wise in council, one in action brave):

555

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"In free debate, my friends, your sentence speak; For me, I move, before the morning break, To raise our camp: too dangerous here our post, Far from Troy walls, and on a naked coast. I deem'd not Greece so dreadful, while engaged In mutual feuds her king and hero raged; Then, while we hoped our armies might prevail

556

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JUNO COMMANDING THE SUN TO SET.

We boldly camp'd beside a thousand sail. I dread Pelides now: his rage of mind Not long continues to the shores confined, Nor to the fields, where long in equal fray Contending nations won and lost the day; For Troy, for Troy, shall henceforth be the strife, And the hard contest not for fame, but life. Haste then to Ilion, while the favouring night Detains these terrors, keeps that arm from fight. If but the morrow's sun behold us here, That arm, those terrors, we shall feel, not fear; And hearts that now disdain, shall leap with joy, If heaven permit them then to enter Troy. Let not my fatal prophecy be true, Nor what I tremble but to think, ensue. Whatever be our fate, yet let us try What force of thought and reason can supply; Let us on counsel for our guard depend;

BOOK XVIII. The town her gates and bulwarks shall defend. When morning dawns, our well-appointed powers, Array'd in arms, shall line the lofty towers. Let the fierce hero, then, when fury calls, Vent his mad vengeance on our rocky walls, Or fetch a thousand circles round the plain, Till his spent coursers seek the fleet again: So may his rage be tired, and labour'd down! And dogs shall tear him ere he sack the town." "Return! (said Hector, fired with stern disdain) What! coop whole armies in our walls again? Was't not enough, ye valiant warriors, say, Nine years imprison'd in those towers ye lay? Wide o'er the world was Ilion famed of old For brass exhaustless, and for mines of gold: But while inglorious in her walls we stay'd, Sunk were her treasures, and her stores decay'd; The Phrygians now her scatter'd spoils enjoy, And proud Maeonia wastes the fruits of Troy. Great Jove at length my arms to conquest calls, And shuts the Grecians in their wooden walls, Darest thou dispirit whom the gods incite? Flies any Trojan? I shall stop his flight. To better counsel then attention lend; Take due refreshment, and the watch attend. If there be one whose riches cost him care, Forth let him bring them for the troops to share; 'Tis better generously bestow'd on those, Than left the plunder of our country's foes. Soon as the morn the purple orient warms, Fierce on yon navy will we pour our arms. If great Achilles rise in all his might, His be the danger: I shall stand the fight.

557
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558 Honour, ye gods! or let me gain or give; And live he glorious, whosoe'er shall live! Mars is our common lord, alike to all; And oft the victor triumphs, but to fall."

The Iliad of Homer

The shouting host in loud applauses join'd; So Pallas robb'd the many of their mind; To their own sense condemn'd, and left to choose The worst advice, the better to refuse. While the long night extends her sable reign, Around Patroclus mourn'd the Grecian train. Stern in superior grief Pelides stood; Those slaughtering arms, so used to bathe in blood, Now clasp his clay-cold limbs: then gushing start The tears, and sighs burst from his swelling heart. The lion thus, with dreadful anguish stung, Roars through the desert, and demands his young; When the grim savage, to his rifled den Too late returning, snuffs the track of men, And o'er the vales and o'er the forest bounds; His clamorous grief the bellowing wood resounds. So grieves Achilles; and, impetuous, vents To all his Myrmidons his loud laments. "In what vain promise, gods! did I engage, When to console Menoetius' feeble age, I vowed his much-loved offspring to restore, Charged with rich spoils, to fair Opuntia's shore?252 But mighty Jove cuts short, with just disdain, The long, long views of poor designing man! One fate the warrior and the friend shall strike, And Troy's black sands must drink our blood alike:
252

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Opuntia, a city of Locris.

BOOK XVIII. Me too a wretched mother shall deplore, An aged father never see me more! Yet, my Patroclus! yet a space I stay, Then swift pursue thee on the darksome way. Ere thy dear relics in the grave are laid, Shall Hector's head be offer'd to thy shade; That, with his arms, shall hang before thy shrine; And twelve, the noblest of the Trojan line, Sacred to vengeance, by this hand expire; Their lives effused around thy flaming pyre. Thus let me lie till then! thus, closely press'd, Bathe thy cold face, and sob upon thy breast! While Trojan captives here thy mourners stay, Weep all the night and murmur all the day: Spoils of my arms, and thine; when, wasting wide, Our swords kept time, and conquer'd side by side."

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He spoke, and bade the sad attendants round Cleanse the pale corse, and wash each honour'd wound. A massy caldron of stupendous frame They brought, and placed it o'er the rising flame: Then heap'd the lighted wood; the flame divides Beneath the vase, and climbs around the sides: In its wide womb they pour the rushing stream; The boiling water bubbles to the brim. The body then they bathe with pious toil, Embalm the wounds, anoint the limbs with oil, High on a bed of state extended laid, And decent cover'd with a linen shade; Last o'er the dead the milk-white veil they threw; That done, their sorrows and their sighs renew.

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Meanwhile to Juno, in the realms above, (His wife and sister,) spoke almighty Jove. "At last thy will prevails: great Peleus' son Rises in arms: such grace thy Greeks have won. Say (for I know not), is their race divine, And thou the mother of that martial line?"
[341]

"What words are these? (the imperial dame replies, While anger flash'd from her majestic eyes) Succour like this a mortal arm might lend, And such success mere human wit attend: And shall not I, the second power above, Heaven's queen, and consort of the thundering Jove, Say, shall not I one nation's fate command, Not wreak my vengeance on one guilty land?"

So they. Meanwhile the silver-footed dame Reach'd the Vulcanian dome, eternal frame! High-eminent amid the works divine, Where heaven's far-beaming brazen mansions shine. There the lame architect the goddess found, Obscure in smoke, his forges flaming round, While bathed in sweat from fire to fire he flew; And puffing loud, the roaring billows blew. That day no common task his labour claim'd: Full twenty tripods for his hall he framed, That placed on living wheels of massy gold, (Wondrous to tell,) instinct with spirit roll'd From place to place, around the bless'd abodes Self-moved, obedient to the beck of gods: For their fair handles now, o'erwrought with flowers, In moulds prepared, the glowing ore he pours. Just as responsive to his thought the frame

BOOK XVIII.

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TRIPOD.

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Stood prompt to move, the azure goddess came: Charis, his spouse, a grace divinely fair, (With purple fillets round her braided hair,) Observed her entering; her soft hand she press'd, And, smiling, thus the watery queen address'd:

[342]

"What, goddess! this unusual favour draws? All hail, and welcome! whatsoe'er the cause; Till now a stranger, in a happy hour Approach, and taste the dainties of the bower."

THETIS AND EURYNOME RECEIVING THE INFANT VULCAN.

BOOK XVIII. High on a throne, with stars of silver graced, And various artifice, the queen she placed; A footstool at her feet: then calling, said, "Vulcan, draw near, 'tis Thetis asks your aid." "Thetis (replied the god) our powers may claim, An ever-dear, an ever-honour'd name! When my proud mother hurl'd me from the sky, (My awkward form, it seems, displeased her eye,) She, and Eurynome, my griefs redress'd, And soft received me on their silver breast. Even then these arts employ'd my infant thought: Chains, bracelets, pendants, all their toys, I wrought. Nine years kept secret in the dark abode, Secure I lay, conceal'd from man and god: Deep in a cavern'd rock my days were led; The rushing ocean murmur'd o'er my head. Now, since her presence glads our mansion, say, For such desert what service can I pay? Vouchsafe, O Thetis! at our board to share The genial rites, and hospitable fare; While I the labours of the forge forego, And bid the roaring bellows cease to blow." Then from his anvil the lame artist rose; Wide with distorted legs oblique he goes, And stills the bellows, and (in order laid) Locks in their chests his instruments of trade. Then with a sponge the sooty workman dress'd His brawny arms embrown'd, and hairy breast. With his huge sceptre graced, and red attire, Came halting forth the sovereign of the fire: The monarch's steps two female forms uphold, That moved and breathed in animated gold; To whom was voice, and sense, and science given

563

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Of works divine (such wonders are in heaven!) On these supported, with unequal gait, He reach'd the throne where pensive Thetis sate; There placed beside her on the shining frame, He thus address'd the silver-footed dame:

"Thee, welcome, goddess! what occasion calls (So long a stranger) to these honour'd walls? 'Tis thine, fair Thetis, the command to lay, And Vulcan's joy and duty to obey."

VULCAN AND CHARIS RECEIVING THETIS.

BOOK XVIII. To whom the mournful mother thus replies: (The crystal drops stood trembling in her eyes:) "O Vulcan! say, was ever breast divine So pierced with sorrows, so o'erwhelm'd as mine? Of all the goddesses, did Jove prepare For Thetis only such a weight of care? I, only I, of all the watery race By force subjected to a man's embrace, Who, sinking now with age and sorrow, pays The mighty fine imposed on length of days. Sprung from my bed, a godlike hero came, The bravest sure that ever bore the name; Like some fair plant beneath my careful hand He grew, he flourish'd, and he graced the land: To Troy I sent him! but his native shore Never, ah never, shall receive him more; (Even while he lives, he wastes with secret woe;) Nor I, a goddess, can retard the blow! Robb'd of the prize the Grecian suffrage gave, The king of nations forced his royal slave: For this he grieved; and, till the Greeks oppress'd Required his arm, he sorrow'd unredress'd. Large gifts they promise, and their elders send; In vain—he arms not, but permits his friend His arms, his steeds, his forces to employ: He marches, combats, almost conquers Troy: Then slain by Phoebus (Hector had the name) At once resigns his armour, life, and fame. But thou, in pity, by my prayer be won: Grace with immortal arms this short-lived son, And to the field in martial pomp restore, To shine with glory, till he shines no more!"

565

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They raise a tempest. And twenty forges catch at once the fires. and you there might view The stars that gem the still-revolving heaven. Soon as he bade them blow. the father of the fires To the black labours of his forge retires. who had there described The heaven. And stubborn brass. the ether. Just as the god directs. Or with these hands the cruel stroke repel. or they gently blow. [345] "In the wide circle of the shield were seen Refulgent images of various forms. and the earth and sea. apart In different stations.253 253 Quintus Calaber. the eternal anvils stand.566 The Iliad of Homer To her the artist-god: "Thy griefs resign. 104. Dyce's version (Select Translations. what Vulcan can..) may here be introduced. strong strokes. And thick. Rich various artifice emblazed the field. Secure. the sun. Resounding breathed: at once the blast expires. has attempted to rival Homer in his description of the shield of the same hero. v. now loud. and tin. O could I hide him from the Fates. . A few extracts from Mr. and solid gold. As I shall forge most envied arms. is ever thine. as well. The work of Vulcan. the doubling vaults rebound. the bellows turn'd Their iron mouths. and the world's amaze!" Thus having said. The ponderous hammer loads his better hand. the clouds. now low. In hissing flames huge silver bars are roll'd. Then first he form'd the immense and solid shield. the moon. seq. p. Before. lib. the gaze Of wondering ages. deep fix'd. Its utmost verge a threefold circle bound. The winds. and where the furnace burn'd. His left with tongs turns the vex'd metal round.

In which. around the axle of the sky. And great Orion's more refulgent beam. under them. points his golden eye. revolving. and cithern's silver sound: Through the fair streets the matrons in a row Stand in their porches. There shone the image of the master-mind: There earth. And solemn dance. The realms of Tethys. With torches flaming. A silver chain suspends the massy round. there ocean he design'd. And godlike labours on the surface rose. as if instinct with life. with outstretch'd wings. The image one of peace. with the northern team. And. the vast expanse of air. To which." . Around the shield the waves of ocean flow'd. there heaven. and hymeneal rite. Here sacred pomp and genial feast delight. 567 Two cities radiant on the shield appear. In azure mazes rolling o'er the earth. Five ample plates the broad expanse compose. the moon completely round. The Bear. which unnumber'd streams. The Pleiads. and one of war. Along the street the new-made brides are led. the long-beak'd bird Winnow'd the gale. The starry lights that heaven's high convex crown'd. The unwearied sun. Seem'd to augment. to the nuptial bed: The youthful dancers in a circle bound To the soft flute. and enjoy the show. Hyads.BOOK XVIII. Nor bathes his blazing forehead in the main. Still shines exalted on the ethereal plain.

And Gorgons. Stern stalked Bellona. The subject of debate. smear'd with reeking gore. the partial people stand: The appointed heralds still the noisy bands. i. And Terror. whose long locks were twisting snakes. 254 . Discord to the fatal strife Inciting men. and the tall shape Of ghastly Death. The prize of him who best adjudged the right. a townsman slain: One pleads the fine discharged.254 The reverend elders nodded o'er the case. Their limbs distilling plenteous blood and sweat. 255 —Another part. And form a ring. and Furies breathing flames: Nor absent were the Fates. Through charging ranks. round whom did Battles throng. each the attesting sceptre took. &c. in a circle called the Urtheilsring or gerichtsring"— Grote. "And here Were horrid wars depicted. "Several of the old northern Sagas represent the old men assembled for the purpose of judging as sitting on great stones. each his sentence spoke Two golden talents lay amidst. And rising solemn. grimly pale Were heroes lying with their slaughter'd steeds Upon the ground incarnadin'd with blood. p. p. On the independence of the judicial office in The heroic times. or that. Such were the horrors of dire war.568 The Iliad of Homer There in the forum swarm a numerous train. Alternate. Another part (a prospect differing far)255 —On seats of stone. with sceptres in their hands: On seats of stone. which one denied. within the sacred place. in sight. 100. see Thirlwall's Greece. vol. note. beside her Rout was seen. And bade the public and the laws decide: The witness is produced on either hand: For this. That shot their forky tongues incessant forth. ii." —Dyce's Calaber. 166.

BOOK XVIII. superior by the head! A place for ambush fit they found. Nor fear an ambush. And. and met the eye. hills of slaughter heap the ground. that freshly bled With new-made wounds. A secret ambush on the foe prepare: Their wives. And one would pillage. Meantime the townsmen. and stood. arm'd with silent care. One held a living foe. by Pallas and by Mars made bold: Gold were the gods. one would burn the place. their radiant garments gold. One rear'd a dagger at a captive's breast. beside the silver flood. And the whole war came out. on the turrets stand. They rise. and watchful seem If sheep or oxen seek the winding stream. beside a silver flood. the shepherd swains! The bellowing oxen the besiegers hear. They march. their children. They fight. another dragg'd a dead. 569 [346] . and meet the war. Behind them piping on their reeds they go. August. and horrid war. In arms the glittering squadron rising round Rush sudden. Soon the white flocks proceeded o'er the plains. the carcases they tore: Fate stalk'd amidst them. And gold their armour: these the squadron led. take horse. divine. approach. Glow'd with refulgent arms. and the watchful band Of trembling parents. and two shepherd swains. grim with human gore. now there. Now here. there Contention stood confess'd. The waving silver seem'd to blush with blood. And steers slow-moving. dead. all amidst them. Two spies at distance lurk. nor suspect a foe. Whole flocks and herds lie bleeding on the plains. There Tumult. Cover'd with shields. Two mighty hosts a leaguer'd town embrace. they fall.

With sweeping stroke the mowers strow the lands. as the harvest fell. and. 256 —A field deep furrowed. . Still as at either end they wheel around. Work'd busily. "Here was a corn field. Others were ready still to bind the sheaves: Yoked to a wain that bore the corn away The steers were moving. As if endued with life. And sable look'd. [347] A field deep furrow'd next the god design'd. The hearty draught rewards. Another field rose high with waving grain. reapers in a row. The master meets them with his goblet crown'd. And last the children. And turn their crooked yokes on every side. sturdy bullocks here The plough were drawing. and the furrow'd glebe Was black behind them. Sheaves heap'd on sheaves here thicken up the ground. Each with a sharp-tooth'd sickle in his hand.570 The Iliad of Homer And each bold figure seem'd to live or die. while with goading wand The active youths impell'd them. With bended sickles stand the reaper train: Here stretched in ranks the levell'd swarths are found." —Dyce's Calaber. though form'd of molten gold. the rising earth in ridges roll'd. and collect in bands. renews their toil. The rustic monarch of the field descries. The shining shares full many ploughmen guide. Then back the turning ploughshares cleave the soil: Behind. in whose arms are borne (Too short to gripe them) the brown sheaves of corn. The gatherers follow.256 The third time labour'd by the sweating hind. Here a feast Was graved: to the shrill pipe and ringing lyre A band of blooming virgins led the dance.

A ready banquet on the turf is laid. and drank his sable blood. And nine sour dogs complete the rustic band. the heaps around him rise. Beneath an ample oak's expanded shade. With silent glee. (Fair maids and blooming youths. And speed to meadows on whose sounding shores A rapid torrent through the rushes roars: Four golden herdsmen as their guardians stand. 571 [348] . Two lions rushing from the wood appear'd. Next. the men withstood. the woman's care. And seized a bull. And pales of glittering tin the inclosure grace. The victim ox the sturdy youth prepare. ripe in yellow gold. Tune soft the voice. Rear high their horns. Where march a train with baskets on their heads. the master of the herd: He roar'd: in vain the dogs. in order glow: A darker metal mix'd intrench'd the place. and seem to low in gold. A deeper dye the dangling clusters show.BOOK XVIII. Here herds of oxen march. The reaper's due repast. a vineyard shines. In measured dance behind him move the train. To these a youth awakes the warbling strings. and at distance bay.) that smiling bear The purple product of the autumnal year. and answer to the strain. Dread the grim terrors. They tore his flesh. erect and bold. The dogs (oft cheer'd in vain) desert the prey. To this. one pathway gently winding leads. And curl'd on silver props. Whose tender lay the fate of Linus sings. Bent with the ponderous harvest of its vines.

And. that whiten all the scene. The maids in soft simars of linen dress'd. The youths all graceful in the glossy vest: Of those the locks with flowery wreath inroll'd. and scatter'd cots between. they spring. and pour'd the ocean round: In living silver seem'd the waves to roll. And undistinguish'd blend the flying ring: So whirls a wheel. the single spokes are lost. Now high. The gazing multitudes admire around: Two active tumblers in the centre bound. the eye the art of Vulcan leads Deep through fair forests. rapid as it runs. now low. And fleecy flocks. at once descend. and bound the whole. a comely band Of youths and maidens. Of these the sides adorn'd with swords of gold. bounding hand in hand. . such once was seen In lofty Gnossus for the Cretan queen. their pliant limbs they bend: And general songs the sprightly revel end. too swift for sight. and folds. Now all at once they rise. Thus the broad shield complete the artist crown'd With his last hand. from silver belts depend. And beat the buckler's verge. Form'd by Daedalean art. the moving maze: Now forth at once. And stalls. and a length of meads. Confusedly regular. With well-taught feet: now shape in oblique ways. A figured dance succeeds.572 The Iliad of Homer Next this. That glittering gay. in giddy circle toss'd.

there is this curious peculiarity. waking the echoes of Olympus to celestial harmonies. and the fisherman on the shore with his casting net. He remarks that. that. in the description of scenes of rustic peace. and upon the untenable supposition of the genuineness of this poem. over an arm of the sea. the helm impress'd With various sculpture. the imagery differs in little more than the names and arrangements. are minutely represented. Swift from Olympus' snowy summit flies. "with two or three exceptions. And bears the blazing present through the skies. 182. This done. and the difference of arrangement in the Shield of Hercules is altogether for the worse. the superiority of Homer is decisive—while in those of war and tumult it may be thought. and at sublimity by exaggeration. we are hurried back to Perseus. The natural consecution of the Homeric images needs no exposition: it constitutes in itself one of the beauties of the work. The Hesiodic images are huddled together without connection or congruity: Mars and Pallas are awkwardly introduced among the Centaurs and Lapithae. the cuirass that outshone the fires.) has diligently compared this with the description of the shield of Hercules by Hesiod. whence however. as a falcon cuts the aerial way.BOOK XVIII. As to the Hesiodic images themselves. the Gorgons. and other images of war. whate'er a warrior's use requires He forged. and the golden crest. in which the sporting dolphins. seq. the fugitive fishes.257 573 257 Coleridge (Greek Classic Poets.— but the gap is wide indeed between them and Apollo with the Muses. The greaves of ductile tin. that the Hesiodic poet has more than once the advantage. the leading remark is. perhaps. that they catch at beauty by ornament." . At Thetis' feet the finished labour lay: She. p.

.

The thirteenth day. One of them is miraculously endued with voice. The presents are conveyed to the tent of Achilles. presents. ARGUMENT. and inspired to prophesy his fate: but the hero. and reproaches them with the death of Patroclus. The hero obstinately refuses all repast.) The immortal arms the goddess-mother bears Swift to her son: her son she finds in tears . not astonished by that prodigy. And gild the courts of heaven with sacred light. (With new-born day to gladden mortal sight. and ceremonies on that occasion. by the order of Jupiter. and commands him to assemble the army. She preserves the body of his friend from corruption. rushes with fury to the combat. to declare his resentment at an end. Agamemnon and Achilles are solemnly reconciled: the speeches. Soon as Aurora heaved her Orient head Above the waves. Thetis brings to her son the armour made by Vulcan. He arms for the fight: his appearance described. Minerva descends to strengthen him. THE RECONCILIATION OF ACHILLES AND AGAMEMNON. Achilles is with great difficulty persuaded to refrain from the battle till the troops have refreshed themselves by the advice of Ulysses. that blush'd with early red.[349] BOOK XIX. and gives himself up to lamentations for his friend. He addresses himself to his horses. The scene is on the sea-shore. where Briseis laments over the body of Patroclus.

Clang the strong arms. Achilles. as affairs require. Fresh as in life. Behold what arms by Vulcan are bestow'd. "Goddess! (he cried. that gave the blow. And heaven with strength supply the mighty rage!" [350] . But go. (The azure goddess to her son replied. or fit to grace a god. Back shrink the Myrmidons with dread surprise. And feels with rage divine his bosom glow.576 The Iliad of Homer Stretch'd o'er Patroclus' corse. Arms worthy thee. and ring the shores around. my son. but heaven. Before the Grecian peers renounce thine ire: Then uncontroll'd in boundless war engage. Now to the bloody battle let me bend: But ah! the relics of my slaughter'd friend! In those wide wounds through which his spirit fled. Shall flies. And thus. From his fierce eyeballs living flames expire. that shine With matchless art. confess the hand divine. while all the rest Their sovereign's sorrows in their own express'd." Then drops the radiant burden on the ground. his hand soft touching. And from the broad effulgence turn their eyes.) Whole years untouch'd. pollute the dead?" "That unavailing care be laid aside. And flash incessant like a stream of fire: He turns the radiant gift: and feeds his mind On all the immortal artist had design'd. Thetis said: "Suppress. A ray divine her heavenly presence shed. and worms obscene. the carcase of the slain.) these glorious arms. and know It was not man. this rage of grief. Unmoved the hero kindles at the show. uninjured shall remain.

577 THETIS BRINGING THE ARMOUR TO ACHILLES. Long lost to battle. The king of men. These on the sacred seats of council placed. Lame with their wounds. came the last: He too sore wounded by Agenor's son. and leaning on the spear. Studious to see the terror of the plain. shine in arms again. Tydides and Ulysses first appear. Untouch'd it rests. Achilles (rising in the midst) begun: [351] . and all the naval train That tend the ships. and rich ambrosia shower'd O'er all the corse. Frequent and full. Achilles to the strand obedient went: The shores resounded with the voice he sent.BOOK XIX. at the well-known sound. transported. or guide them o'er the main. the great assembly crown'd. Alarm'd. and sacred from decay. The heroes heard. Then in the nostrils of the slain she pour'd Nectareous drops. Atrides. The flies forbid their prey.

and with joy repose. and all-compelling Fate." He said: his finish'd wrath with loud acclaim The Greeks accept. Wrong the best speaker. . as I. If (ere the day when by mad passion sway'd. the dire debate: Know. and try if in our sight Troy yet shall dare to camp a second night! I deem. And let your rash. And sad posterity repeat the tale. But this. untimely joy suspend. long shall Greece the woes we caused bewail. angry Jove. ye sons of Greece! with silence hear! And grant your monarch an impartial ear: Awhile your loud. a mortal man. injurious clamours end: Unruly murmurs. or ill-timed applause. not rising from his lofty throne. And even as Greece has bled. alas. the king of men begun: "Hear me. Burn with a fury that can never die? Here then my anger ends: let war succeed. Nor Troy's glad fields been fatten'd with our gore. and resign'd to fate. forgotten. when this arm he knows. Rash we contended for the black-eyed maid) Preventing Dian had despatch'd her dart. let Ilion bleed. In state unmoved. Now call the hosts. and the justest cause. Shall 'scape with transport. their mightiest.578 The Iliad of Homer "O monarch! better far had been the fate Of thee. of me. ye Greeks. Long. Why should. of all the Grecian state. no more the subject of debate. And shot the shining mischief to the heart! Then many a hero had not press'd the shore. and shout Pelides' name. Nor charge on me. When thus. Is past.

and female art: For when Alcmena's nine long months were run. lay Sthenelus's wife.' Saturnia ask'd an oath. just issuing to the day. she stalk'd amid the bright abodes. And fix dominion on the favour'd youth. And Jove himself. inflicting as she goes Long-festering wounds. the sire of men and gods. but vengeful Ate driven. unsuspicious of the fraud. She.' 579 [352] . (he said) this day an infant springs. And Jove expected his immortal son. fated to infest The race of mortals. Fated to rule. and vaunted of his matchless boy: 'From us. and born a king of kings. Not on the ground that haughty fury treads. 'A youth (said she) of Jove's immortal kind Is this day born: from Sthenelus he springs. But prints her lofty footsteps on the heads Of mighty men. She push'd her lingering infant into life: Her charms Alcmena's coming labours stay. Deceived by Juno's wiles. from Olympus' height.BOOK XIX. The joyful goddess. What then could I against the will of heaven? Not by myself. urged my wrath that day When from Achilles' arms I forced the prey. felt her venom'd dart. Then bids Saturnius bear his oath in mind. to vouch the truth. The Thunderer. With fell Erinnys. And stop the babe. The world's great ruler. Swift to Achaian Argos bent her flight: Scarce seven moons gone. Jove's dread daughter. Pronounced those solemn words that bind a god. enter'd in my breast. To gods and goddesses the unruly joy He show'd. inextricable woes! Of old. And claims thy promise to be king of kings.

and he raged. What can the errors of my rage atone? My martial troops. and shine again in war." [353] " O king of nations! whose superior sway (Returns Achilles) all our hosts obey! To keep or send the presents. Full oft the god his son's hard toils bemoan'd. by his oath engaged. vol. propitious to our prayer."—Grote.580 The Iliad of Homer Grief seized the Thunderer. was I misled. be thy care. Stung to the soul. Ordain'd with man's contentious race to dwell. 'tis equal: all we ask is war. when his afflicting trials are brought to a close: he is then admitted to the godhead. according to the religious ideas familiar to the old epic poets. my treasures are thy own: This instant from the navy shall be sent Whate'er Ulysses promised at thy tent: But thou! appeased. From his ambrosial head.—a being of irresistible force. and especially beloved by Zeus. and in secret groan'd. the most renowned subjugator of all the semi-divine personages worshipped by the Hellenes. The dread. like Jove himself. The immortal seats should ne'er behold her more.258 Even thus. p. Cursed the dire fury. 258 . While raging Hector heap'd our camps with dead. where perch'd she sate. and receives in marriage Hebe. He snatch'd the fury-goddess of debate. both the distinguishing attributes and the endless toil and endurances of Heracles. 128. And whirl'd her headlong down. His recompense is reserved to the close of his career. the irrevocable oath he swore. for ever driven From bright Olympus and the starry heaven: Thence on the nether world the fury fell. i. he sorrow'd. yet condemned constantly to labour for others and to obey the commands of a worthless and cowardly persecutor. To us. "This legend is one of the most pregnant and characteristic in the Grecian Mythology. Resume thy arms. it explains.

thou art by no toils oppress'd. Can last a hero through a single day? Courage may prompt. spotless. Mere unsupported man must yield at length. Dismiss the people. the maid removes.! thy sovereign might 581 . Pure from his arms. But let the presents to Achilles made. Stretch not henceforth. a sumptuous banquet shall be made. Strength is derived from spirits and from blood. The king of men shall rise in public sight. and deal destruction round. With limbs and soul untamed. While yet we talk. The drooping body will desert the mind: But built anew with strength-conferring fare. When by the gods inspired. then. ebbing out his strength. O prince. and thus replies The great in councils. And learn from thence the business of the day. but. And those augment by generous wine and food: What boastful son of war.BOOK XIX. The son of Peleus thus. as she came. Shrunk with dry famine. Let every Greek. and give command. he tires a war. Ithacus the wise: "Though. At least our armies claim repast and rest: Long and laborious must the combat be. In full assembly of all Greece be laid. or but an instant shun The fight. and guiltless of his loves. what I act survey. and led by thee. And solemn swear (observant of the rite) That. With emulation. And the full price of injured honour paid. and with toils declined. without that stay. With strong repast to hearten every band. our glorious work remains undone. who sees my spear confound The Trojan ranks. godlike. That done.

582 The Iliad of Homer Beyond the bounds of reason and of right. when the day's complete. let generous bowls. And wrath. Revenge is all my soul! no meaner care. Let not my palate know the taste of food. All grim with gaping wounds. Sacred to Jove. glad your weary souls. now. Thy words give joy. and yon bright orb of day. Till from the fleet our presents be convey'd. Each due atonement gladly I prepare. And the fair train of captives close the rear: Talthybius shall the victim boar convey. extinguish'd. [354] . And copious banquets. burns my breast no more. And Jove attesting. These to select. their faces to the sky. Till my insatiate rage be cloy'd with blood: Pale lies my friend. Ulysses. our heroes lie: Those call to war! and might my voice incite." "For this (the stern Æacides replies) Some less important season may suffice. To right with justice whom with power they wrong'd. and wisdom breathes in thee. Now. And heaven regard me as I justly swear! Here then awhile let Greece assembled stay. A train of noble youths the charge shall bear. 'Tis the chief praise that e'er to kings belong'd. the firm compact made. By Hector slain. And his cold feet are pointed to the door. be thy care: In order rank'd let all our gifts appear. Nor great Achilles grudge this short delay. with wounds disfigured o'er. When the stern fury of the war is o'er. this instant. shall commence the fight: Then." To him the monarch: "Just is thy decree.

Great Jove but turns it. Eternal sorrows what avails to shed? Greece honours not with solemn fasts the dead: Enough. Then hear my counsel. And scenes of blood. the dire effects shall find. and agonizing sounds. and mortal wounds. Let their warm heads with scenes of battle glow. the bold." 583 "O first of Greeks. The bloody harvest brings but little gain: The scale of conquest ever wavering lies.) The best and bravest of the warrior kind! Thy praise it is in dreadful camps to shine. to weep for all. Who waits for that. or thought. Our care devolves on others left behind. Interest. And all at once on haughty Troy descend. The bravest soon are satiate of the field. One chief with patience to the grave resign'd. and to reason yield. when death demands the brave. If trembling in the ships he lags behind. and the victor dies! The great. by thousands daily fall. (Ulysses thus rejoin'd. And pour new furies on the feebler foe. Yet a short interval. and none shall dare Expect a second summons to the war. Destruction be my feast. Let rising spirits flow from sprightly juice. Embodied. Let generous food supplies of strength produce. And endless were the grief.BOOK XIX. has room to harbour there." . But old experience and calm wisdom mine. to pay The tribute of a melancholy day. Though vast the heaps that strow the crimson plain. to the battle let us bend.

fell furies of the realms of night. A splendid scene! then Agamemnon rose: The boar Talthybius held: the Grecian lord Drew the broad cutlass sheath'd beside his sword: The stubborn bristles from the victim's brow He crops. Closed the bright band: great Ithacus. and all who falsely swear! The black-eyed maid inviolate removes. all-wise. the youths obey'd: Twice ten bright vases in the midst they laid. And Greece around sat thrill'd with sacred awe. and all-surveying Jove! And mother-earth. and offering meditates his vow. "Witness thou first! thou greatest power above. First of the train. thunderbolts of war. If this be false. And Melanippus. Swift as the word was given. Pure and unconscious of my manly loves. With Lycomedes of Creiontian strain. . form'd the chosen train. like the blooming rose. To bear the presents from the royal tent: The sons of Nestor. Thias and Merion. Phyleus' valiant heir. The solemn words a deep attention draw. And twice the number of high-bounding steeds: Seven captives next a lovely line compose. A row of six fair tripods then succeeds. All-good. His hands uplifted to the attesting skies. And ye. the golden talents bore: The rest in public view the chiefs dispose. and heaven's revolving light.584 The Iliad of Homer [355] And now the delegates Ulysses sent. heaven all its vengeance shed. and horrid woes prepare For perjured kings. before. The eighth Briseis. On heaven's broad marble roof were fixed his eyes. Who rule the dead.

unwilling. Patroclus lay. Those in the tents the squires industrious spread: The foaming coursers to the stalls they led. The bleeding savage tumbles to the ground. her humid eyes Shining with tears she lifts. force the dame." The speedy council at his word adjourn'd: To their black vessels all the Greeks return'd. That doom'd our strife. Achilles waits ye. his weapon deep inflicts the wound.BOOK XIX. and doom'd the Greeks to fall. ye chiefs! indulge the genial rite. To their new seats the female captives move Briseis. Achilles sought his tent. Nor from my arms. and thus she cries: [356] . Slow as she pass'd. and tore her golden hair. Beat her sad breast. And levell'd thunder strike my guilty head!" 585 With that. radiant as the queen of love. bending with the gifts they bore. Not else Atrides could our rage inflame. and expects the fight. Prone on the body fell the heavenly fair. beheld with sad survey Where. 'tis Jove inflicts the woe. Then thus Achilles: "Hear. All beautiful in grief. Go then. The sacred herald rolls the victim slain (A feast for fish) into the foaming main. o'erruling all. 'Twas Jove's high will alone. gash'd with cruel wounds. His train before March'd onward. ye Greeks! and know Whate'er we feel.

Idomeneus. he raves. for ever kind. but their own. and with sighs denied. strive to calm his grief and rage: His rage they calm not. let me pay To grief and anguish one abstemious day. and from the warriors turn'd his face: Yet still the brother-kings of Atreus' race. Achilles' care you promised I should prove. nor his grief control. Nor mourn'd Patroclus' fortunes. this request forbear. And Phoenix. he sorrows from his soul. That rites divine should ratify the band. irremeable way: Thy friendly hand uprear'd me from the plain. And dried my sorrows for a husband slain. Nestor. The first.586 The Iliad of Homer "Ah. inanimated clay! What woes my wretched race of life attend! Sorrows on sorrows. Till yonder sun descend. whose care Is bent to please him. Unmoved he heard them. Ulysses sage. He groans. "If yet Achilles have a friend. ah. The leaders press'd the chief on every side. that ever felt another's woe!" Her sister captives echoed groan for groan. Accept these grateful tears! for thee they flow. the dearest partner of his love. And make me empress in his native land. . For thee. never doom'd to end! The first loved consort of my virgin bed Before these eyes in fatal battle bled: My three brave brothers in one mournful day All trod the dark." He spoke. youth for ever dear. Once tender friend of my distracted mind! I left thee fresh in life. in beauty gay. Now find thee cold.

My only offspring. But now. But till the news of my sad fate invades His hastening soul.BOOK XIX. Of all neglectful. rushing to the war. "Thou too. but might spare his friend. What more. Fate claim'd Achilles. this cruel stroke attend. I hoped Patroclus might survive. (I distant far. and the large domain. and sinks him to the shades." 587 [357] Sighing he said: his grief the heroes join'd. The lofty palace. wage a hateful war.) I could not this. Once stay'd Achilles. Or drags a wretched life of age and care. to rear My tender orphan with a parent's care. From Scyros' isle conduct him o'er the main. Their mingled grief the sire of heaven survey'd. And glad his eyes with his paternal reign. For Peleus breathes no more the vital air. and drops a tender tear. And thus with pity to his blue-eyed maid: . perhaps. thy winning care. should Neoptolemus the brave. alas! to death's cold arms resign'd. What more if hoary Peleus were deceased? Who now. sink into the grave? If yet that offspring lives. in Phthia dreads to hear His son's sad fate. Patroclus! (thus his heart he vents) Once spread the inviting banquet in our tents: Thy sweet society. Each stole a tear for what he left behind. What banquet but revenge can glad my mind? What greater sorrow could afflict my breast.

spears with pointed rays. Shot the descending goddess from above. so shields from shields. Now issued from the ships the warrior-train. and brighten all the fields. And pour'd divine ambrosia in his breast. and laugh the fields around. All comfortless he sits. Thick beats the centre as the coursers bound. swift ascending. Catch the quick beams. (refection of the gods!) Then. Whose dazzling lustre whitens all the skies: So helms succeeding helms. Broad glittering breastplates. With splendour flame the skies. So swift through ether the shrill harpy springs." He spoke. at the word of Jove. And scatter o'er the fields the driving snow. And dost thou thus desert the great in war? Lo. To great Achilles she her flight address'd. . From dusky clouds the fleecy winter flies. and wails his friend: Ere thirst and want his forces have oppress'd. As when the piercing blasts of Boreas blow. where yon sails their canvas wings extend. and sudden. reflecting blaze on blaze. Mix in one stream. The wide air floating to her ample wings. And like a deluge pour'd upon the plain. sought the bright abodes. Haste and infuse ambrosia in his breast.259 With nectar sweet.588 The Iliad of Homer "Is then Achilles now no more thy care.

His glowing eyeballs roll with living fire. the broad refulgent shield Blazed with long rays. vi. Which on the far-seen mountain blazing high. His limbs in arms divine Achilles dress'd. "The blue-eyed maid. and gleam'd athwart the field. Brings nectar temper'd with ambrosial dews. like the moon. hung glittering at his side. and gaze again. He grinds his teeth." Merrick's Tryphiodorus. and hopes the bloody day. starr'd with gems. Loud howls the storm. pale with fears. Wide o'er the watery waste. In ev'ry breast new vigour to infuse. The silver cuishes first his thighs infold. And. . 259 —Ambrosia. 589 Full in the midst. Then o'er his breast was braced the hollow gold. a light appears. Streams from some lonely watch-tower to the sky: With mournful eyes they gaze. Arms which the father of the fire bestow'd. high-towering o'er the rest. So to night-wandering sailors. and furious with delay O'erlooks the embattled host. Grief and revenge his furious heart inspire. That.BOOK XIX. 249. Forged on the eternal anvils of the god. The brazen sword a various baldric tied. and drives them o'er the main.

and the dread of fields. From Pelion's cloudy top an ash entire Old Chiron fell'd. above his squire Achilles mounts. that from his flaming hair Shakes down diseases. and the radiant car. all terrible he stands. behind The sweepy crest hung floating in the wind: Like the red star. And now he shakes his great paternal spear. and his motions tries. High o'er the host. Not brighter Phoebus in the ethereal way Flames from his chariot. All bright in heavenly arms. he seems to swim. And swift ascended at one active bound. And feels a pinion lifting every limb. and sets the field on fire. Buoy'd by some inward force. which not a Greek could rear. Automedon and Alcimus prepare The immortal coursers. and to the chariot join'd. and the loose glories shed. Ponderous and huge. return'd behind. The ivory-studded reins. Waved o'er their backs. Trembled the sparkling plumes. and war. his high head the helmet graced. And thunders to his steeds these dread commands: . The chief beholds himself with wondering eyes. The charioteer then whirl'd the lash around. The death of heroes. and restores the day. (The silver traces sweeping at their side. His arms he poises. A spear which stern Achilles only wields. So stream'd the golden honours from his head. pestilence.) Their fiery mouths resplendent bridles tied.590 The Iliad of Homer Next. and shaped it for his sire.

His fateful voice. Due to a mortal and immortal hand. Not ours the fault. by the Furies tied. or slowness in the course. And bow'd to dust the honours of his mane." Then ceased for ever. 591 "Xanthus and Balius! of Podarges' strain. And learn to make your master more your care: Through falling squadrons bear my slaughtering sword. The intrepid chief replied With unabated rage—"So let it be! Portents and prodigies are lost on me. and droop'd his head: Trembling he stood before the golden wain. The bright far-shooting god who gilds the day (Confess'd we saw him) tore his arms way. strange to tell! (so Juno will'd) he broke Eternal silence. the fatal time must come.) Be swift. I know my fate: to die. but by heavenly force. but God decrees thy doom. to see no more My much-loved parents. and my native shore— Enough—when heaven ordains. be mindful of the load ye bear. as ye left Patroclus. Nor. Not through our crime. and portentous spoke.BOOK XIX. When. "Achilles! yes! this day at least we bear Thy rage in safety through the files of war: But come it will. as the words he said." The generous Xanthus. All were in vain—the Fates thy death demand. Or beat the pinions of the western gale. Seem'd sensible of woe. (Unless ye boast that heavenly race in vain. leave your lord. I sink in night: Now perish Troy!" He said. . Fell thy Patroclus. and rush'd to fight. No—could our swiftness o'er the winds prevail.

.592 The Iliad of Homer HERCULES.

ARGUMENT. The scene is in the field before Troy. but Apollo conveys him away in a cloud. THE BATTLE OF THE GODS. Then Jove to Themis gives command. in long procession come To Jove's eternal adamantine dome. and permits them to assist either party. Thus round Pelides breathing war and blood Greece. when the deities are engaged. . Each fair-hair'd dryad of the shady wood. Achilles pursues the Trojans with a great slaughter. Troy's black battalions wait the shock of fight. Jupiter. not a rural power That haunts the verdant gloom. sheathed in arms. but Æneas is preserved by the assistance of Neptune. and is upon the point of killing Hector. or rosy bower. The same day continues. These shining on. upon Achilles' return to the battle. Achilles falls upon the rest of the Trojans. After a long conversation. And summons all the senate of the skies.[360] BOOK XX. AND THE ACTS OF ACHILLES. Not one was absent. beside her vessels stood. to call The gods to council in the starry hall: Swift o'er Olympus' hundred hills she flies. Apollo encourages Æneas to meet Achilles. While near impending from a neighbouring height. calls a council of the gods. these two heroes encounter. The terrors of the combat described.

and forsook the main. the louring hosts appear. Troy soon must lie o'erthrown.) sat the powers around. though fate forbids the fall. And as your minds direct. On marble thrones. with lucid columns crown'd. and see the hand of fate Work out our will. What can they now. Far on Olympus' top in secret state Ourself will sit. Assumed his throne amid the bright abodes. Thus to convene the whole ethereal state? Is Greece and Troy the subject in debate? Already met. (The work of Vulcan. And question'd thus the sire of men and gods: [361] "What moves the god who heaven and earth commands. hoary sire! who keeps His ancient seat beneath the sacred deeps. Celestial powers! descend.594 The Iliad of Homer Each azure sister of the silver flood. even Jove's own eye Sees with regret unhappy mortals die. All but old Ocean. if in his rage he rise? Assist them. And death stands ardent on the edge of war. gods! or Ilion's sacred wall May fall this day." "'Tis true (the cloud-compelling power replies) This day we call the council of the skies In care of human race. your succour lend To either host." . If uncontroll'd Achilles fights alone: Their troops but lately durst not meet his eyes. Even he whose trident sways the watery reign Heard the loud summons. And grasps the thunder in his awful hands.

Long lost to battle. Hermes. whose streams in golden currents flow. Xanthus. Her bravest heroes pant with inward fear. He said. Dreadful he stood in front of all his host. 595 . The mountain shook. On adverse parts the warring gods engage: Heaven's awful queen. the rapid stream stood still. Latona. and a night of clouds: Now through each Trojan heart he fury pours With voice divine. his terror shrouds In gloomy tempests. Ere yet the gods their various aid employ. Now through the trembling shores Minerva calls. from Ilion's topmost towers: Now shouts to Simois.BOOK XX. In aid of Troy. and the nations rush to arms. And the chaste huntress of the silver bow. and he whose azure round Girds the vast globe. The vessels tremble as the gods alight. of profitable arts the sire. And now she thunders from the Grecian walls. Mars hovering o'er his Troy. from her beauteous hill. Phoebus came. shone in arms again. But when the powers descending swell'd the fight. the laughter-loving dame. the black sovereign of the fire: These to the fleet repair with instant flight. Mars fiery-helm'd. Each Argive bosom swell'd with manly joy. While great Achilles (terror of the plain). Earth echoes. Pale Troy beheld. Then tumult rose: fierce rage and pale affright Varied each face: then Discord sounds alarms. And trembling see another god of war. And Vulcan. and fired their heavenly breasts with rage. the maid in arms renown'd. and seem'd already lost.

The forests wave. And the toss'd navies beat the heaving main. He stretcheth out the north over the empty place. Leap'd from his throne. Slain by Jove's wrath. when the gods contend First silver-shafted Phoebus took the plain Against blue Neptune. lest the race of man. Deep in the dismal regions of the dead.261 Such war the immortals wage. "Hell is naked before him. lest Neptune's arm should lay His dark dominions open to the day. and destruction hath no covering. And from their sources boil her hundred floods. He bindeth up the waters in his thick clouds. And pour in light on Pluto's drear abodes. the mountains nod around. The quiver'd Dian. war's triumphant maid. and the cloud is not rent under them. All pale and trembling.260 The infernal monarch rear'd his horrid head." Merrick's Tryphiodorus. monarch of the main.596 The Iliad of Homer [362] Above. stern Neptune shakes the solid ground. The god of arms his giant bulk display'd. Abhorr'd by men. Beneath. the sire of gods his thunder rolls. 261 260 "Swift from his throne the infernal monarch ran. and led by Hermes' rod. And peals on peals redoubled rend the poles. such horrors rend The world's vast concave. . sister of the day. Should fill (a countless throng!) his dark abode. and hangeth the earth upon nothing. vi. Opposed to Pallas. Against Latona march'd the son of May. Troy's turrets totter on the rocking plain." Job xxvi. 6-8. Through all their summits tremble Ida's woods. 769. and dreadful even to gods. sqq.

in search of Hector turn'd His eyes around. And burst like lightning through the ranks. Achilles glow'd with more than mortal rage: Hector he sought. While thus the gods in various league engage. seem'd the power divine. But swell'd his bosom with undaunted might. Apollo wedged him in the warrior's way. Xanthus his name with those of heavenly birth. for Hector only burn'd.BOOK XX. Like young Lycaon. But called Scamander by the sons of earth. and vow'd To glut the god of battles with his blood. how late with scorn In distant threats he braved the goddess-born. [363] .) Saturnia. majesty of heaven. Æneas was the first who dared to stay. defied. In voice and aspect. 597 THE GODS DESCENDING TO BATTLE. Half-forced and half-persuaded to the fight. And bade the chief reflect. of the royal line. With fiery Vulcan last in battle stands The sacred flood that rolls on golden sands. (Her golden arrows sounding at her side.

Were God my aid. nor void of fear Observed the fury of his flying spear. Pedasus in ashes lay. Though strong in battle as a brazen tower. From Ida's woods he chased us to the field. Our force he scattered." To whom the son of Jove: "That god implore. Nor fear the vaunting of a mortal foe. Lyrnessus. But (Jove assisting) I survived the day: Else had I sunk oppress'd in fatal fight By fierce Achilles and Minerva's might.598 The Iliad of Homer Then thus the hero of Anchises' strain: "To meet Pelides you persuade in vain: Already have I met. the goddess shone before. she said: . From heavenly Venus thou deriv'st thy strain. An aged sea-god father of his line. assembling all the powers. Then lift thy weapon for a noble blow. And be what great Achilles was before. And bathed his brazen lance in hostile gore. And thus. and spirit breathed into his breast. Through the thick troops the embolden'd hero press'd: His venturous act the white-arm'd queen survey'd. and our herds he kill'd. And he but from a sister of the main. What mortal man Achilles can sustain? The immortals guard him through the dreadful plain. Where'er he moved. this arm should check his power. But Jove himself the sacred source of thine." This said. And suffer not his dart to fall in vain.

Lo great Æneas rushing to the war! Against Pelides he directs his course. Give him to know what powers assist this day: For how shall mortal stand the dire alarms. Thence on the gods of Troy we swift descend: Full soon. let some power descend. We. 263 It was anciently believed that it was dangerous. and thus the god whose force can make The solid globe's eternal basis shake: "Against the might of man. Why should celestial powers exert their own? Suffice from yonder mount to view the scene. Judg. that the Fates might be delayed. the great armament of heaven. Restrain his bold career. but never wholly set aside. But if the armipotent. Hereafter let him fall.BOOK XX. if not fatal. xiii. 22. I doubt not. to behold a deity. Obstruct Achilles. To guard his life. Phoebus impels. or god of light. 20." 262 These words seem to imply the old belief. and add to his renown. gods! that claims your care. and Phoebus gives him force. came down. "Behold an action. When heaven's refulgent host appear in arms?"263 599 Thus she. in ruin and confusion hurl'd. so feeble known. or commence the fight. to attend Our favour'd hero. xxxiii. And leave to war the fates of mortal men. See Exod. at least. as Fates design. And these. . shall the conflict end. Yield to our conquering arms the lower world. That spun so short his life's illustrious line:262 But lest some adverse god now cross his way.

Crown the fair hills that silver Simois shade. though Jove on high Gives the loud signal. With clouds encompass'd. Coerulean Neptune. the tyrant of the sea. rose. and drove him to the plain. Such the lion's rage. Though all in arms the peopled city rise. The nodding plumage on his helmet danced: Spread o'er his breast the fencing shield he bore. and led the way. by some brave youth defied. Meanwhile the rushing armies hide the ground.600 The Iliad of Homer Thus having said. with unregarding pride. his javelin flamed before. Intent to form the future scheme of fate. Amid both hosts (a dreadful space) appear. Not so Pelides. so he moved. He rush'd impetuous. In circle close each heavenly party sat. Stalks careless on. (The work of Trojans. The gleaming champaign glows with brazen light. There great Achilles. The trampled centre yields a hollow sound: Steeds cased in mail. wall'd. With towering strides Aeneas first advanced. and chiefs in armour bright. furious to engage. Advanced upon the field there stood a mound Of earth congested. and a veil of air: The adverse powers. In elder times to guard Alcides made. around Apollo laid. with Minerva's aid. and trench'd around. and the heavens reply. But mix not yet in fight. [365] .) What time a vengeful monster of the main Swept the wide shore. bold Æneas. here. Who viewing first his foes with scornful eyes. Till at the length. And. Here Neptune and the gods of Greece repair.

in ruins laid: In Grecian chains her captive race were cast. he foams. 'Tis true. or a fair domain. in reward of thy victorious hand. the great Aeneas fled too fast. Her lofty walls not long our progress stay'd. And prove his merits to the throne of Troy? Grant that beneath thy lance Achilles dies. he rolls his eyes around Lash'd by his tail his heaving sides resound. Sons he has many. He calls up all his rage. Of hills for vines. Jove. till he reach'd Lyrnessus. The partial monarch may refuse the prize. he grinds his teeth. Defrauded of my conquest once before. and we. perhaps. begun The seed of Thetis thus to Venus' son: "Why comes Æneas through the ranks so far? Seeks he to meet Achilles' arm in war. and arable for grain? Even this. and his force defies. So stands Æneas. Nor. But can Achilles be so soon forgot? Once (as I think) you saw this brandish'd spear And then the great Æneas seem'd to fear: With hearty haste from Ida's mount he fled. He murmurs fury with a hollow groan. Resolved on vengeance.BOOK XX. 601 . In hope the realms of Priam to enjoy. Has Troy proposed some spacious tract of land An ample forest. Or. Those. He grins. So fierce Achilles on Æneas flies. or resolved on death. will hardly prove thy lot. those thy pride may quell: And 'tis his fault to love those sons too well. Ere yet the stern encounter join'd. turn'd his head. Pallas. To his bold spear the savage turns alone.

for Ilion. of Asia's wealthy kings. and are wise too late. 'Tis not in words the glorious strife can end. . some unwarlike boy. If yet thou further seek to learn my birth (A tale resounded through the spacious earth) Hear how the glorious origin we prove From ancient Dardanus. Three thousand mares his spacious pastures bred. contend. In humble vales they built their soft abodes. 264 [366] "Ere Ilium and the Trojan tow'rs arose. iii. Such we disdain. Conceal'd his godhead in a flowing mane. thus derived.264 From Dardanus great Erichthonius springs. (The city since of many-languaged men. or Venus' offspring dies. Unworthy the high race from which we came Proclaim'd so loudly by the voice of fame: Each from illustrious fathers draws his line. Each goddess-born. Thetis' this day." To this Anchises' son: "Such words employ To one that fears thee. and unmanly pride. then. the gods this day restore. avoid the threaten'd fate. The natives were content to till The shady foot of Ida's fountful hill." Dryden's Virgil. 150. the best may be defied With mean reproaches.602 The Iliad of Homer What then I lost. Three thousand foals beside their mothers fed. And tears shall trickle from celestial eyes: For when two heroes. the first from Jove: Dardania's walls he raised. Boreas. half divine.) Was not. once. while thou may'st. Go. half human. The richest. enamour'd of the sprightly train. Fools stay to feel it.

Such is our race: 'tis fortune gives us birth. snatch'd to upper air. divinely fair. Compare Virgil's description of Camilla. when they swept the plain. Such Erichthonius was: from him there came The sacred Tros. From him Tithonus. And Priam. thunderbolt of war. To bear the cup of Jove (ethereal guest.BOOK XX. Clytius and Lampus. The grace and glory of the ambrosial feast). bless'd with Hector. Swift as their mother mares. With voice dissembled to his loves he neigh'd. Ilus. ever-honour'd pair. And Hicetaon. The two remaining sons the line divide: First rose Laomedon from Ilus' side. as she skimm'd along. now in cares grown old. Assaracus.265 Scarce on the surface curl'd the briny dew. And coursed the dappled beauties o'er the mead: Hence sprung twelve others of unrivall'd kind. and. and Anchises me. These lightly skimming. 265 603 [367] —Along the level seas. Her flying feet unbathed on billows hung. But Jove alone endues the soul with worth: He. All human courage gives. nor hurt the bearded grain: She swept the seas. . Flew o'er the field. 1100. vii. Three sons renown'd adorn'd his nuptial bed. Nor plied the grass. brave and bold. and father wind. of whom the Trojan name. Whom heaven. enamour'd." Dryden. or takes away. who "Outstripp'd the winds in speed upon the plain. he Begat Anchises. From great Assaracus sprang Capys. source of power and might! with boundless sway. and Ganymed: The matchless Ganymed. And when along the level seas they flew. nor bent the tender grain.

of brass each outward fold. and neither side can fail. and knows no end. nor void of fear Saw. and loudly in the buckler rung. we wound. but to prove our might. Where the shrill brass return'd a sharper sound: Through the thin verge the Pelean weapon glides. His fears were vain. But stopp'd. Receive this answer: 'tis my flying spear. Reproach is infinite. Then rising ere he threw. when in the streets they jar. the immeasurable spear. Of tin each inward. Arm'd or with truth or falsehood. Composed the shield. So voluble a weapon is the tongue. various mould. Perhaps excel us in this wordy war. encompass'd with the crowd. And pierced the Dardan shield's extremest bound. Five plates of various metal. And the slight covering of expanded hides." He spoke. ere it fell. . Far on his outstretch'd arm. The forceful spear of great Achilles flew. Through two strong plates the point its passage held. For every man has equal strength to rail: Women alone. That trembled as it stuck. To all those insults thou hast offer'd here. Wounded. and rested. And vent their anger impotent and loud. Fix'd deep. Like us they stand. Pelides held (To meet the thundering lance) his dreadful shield.604 The Iliad of Homer Long in the field of words we may contend. Cease then—Our business in the field of fight Is not to question. by the third repell'd. With all his force the javelin flung. impenetrable charms Secured the temper of the ethereal arms. right or wrong. and the middle gold: There stuck the lance.

which is by Sophocles and others construed as treacherous collusion. nor thus can Jove resign The future father of the Dardan line:266 The first great ancestor obtain'd his grace. through its parting plates. 605 [368] —The future father. and a sympathy with the Greeks. heaves a mighty stone: A mass enormous! which in modern days No two of earth's degenerate sons could raise. 266 . 427. whose earthquakes rock the ground.BOOK XX. and Priam's faithless kind. Fate wills not this. And at his back perceives the quivering spear: A fate so near him. Saw the distress. and at Æneas flies: Æneas rousing as the foe came on. Achilles. but Phoebus has bestow'd His aid in vain: the man o'erpowers the god.—a suspicion indirectly glanced at. With force collected. though emphatically repelled. Draws his broad blade. though he wars for Troy."—Grote. "Æneas and Antenor stand distinguished from the other Trojans by a dissatisfaction with Priam. At length are odious to the all-seeing mind. And swims before his eyes the many-colour'd light. in the Æneas of Virgil. An instant victim to Achilles' hands. chills his soul with fright. and moved the powers around: "Lo! on the brink of fate Æneas stands. p. And o'er him high the riven targe extends. rushing in with dreadful cries. And can ye see this righteous chief atone With guiltless blood for vices not his own? To all the gods his constant vows were paid. Æneas his contracted body bends. But ocean's god. Sure. the upper air. And still his love descends on all the race: For Priam now. By Phoebus urged. Sees. i. he claims our aid.

" Dryden's Virgil. Not even an instant to protract their fate. and unequal gods: I spread a cloud before the victor's sight. That done. to immolate or spare The Dardan prince. And at his master's feet the weapon threw. And even her crumbling ruins are no more. by all that gods can bind. O Neptune! be thy care. above the heads Of warring heroes. Till her last flame be quench'd with her last gore.267 From great Æneas' shield the spear he drew. And sons succeeding sons the lasting line sustain. And casts thick darkness o'er Achilles' eyes. 1058. v. and bore him through the sky." The great earth-shaker thus: to whom replies The imperial goddess with the radiant eyes: "Good as he is." The king of ocean to the fight descends. and of bounding steeds: 267 [369] Neptune thus recounts his services to Æneas: "When your Æneas fought. with force divine he snatch'd on high The Dardan prince. when I sought with joy The vow'd destruction of ungrateful Troy. but fought with odds Of force unequal. Have sworn destruction to the Trojan kind. Smooth-gliding without step. and secured his flight— Even then secured him. Swift interposed between the warrior flies. Through all the whistling darts his course he bends. Or save one member of the sinking state.606 The Iliad of Homer On great Æneas shall devolve the reign. Sustain'd the vanquish'd. Pallas and I. .

our arms he scarce will try. Not Mars himself. though favour'd by the sky. with all his gods. Content for once. and arms to arms! 'Tis not in me." This said. "What wonders strike my mind! My spear. Let then the furies of that arm be known. vanish'd from my sword! I thought alone with mortals to contend. O prince! with force inferior far. man to man. nor great Minerva's rage. The godhead there (his heavenly form confess'd) With words like these the panting chief address'd: "What power. and every rank alarms) Join battle. Now then let others bleed. amazed. and make whole armies fly: No god can singly such a host engage. Laid here before me! and the Dardan lord. Great as he is. Then from Achilles chased the mist away: Sudden. aloud He vents his fury and inflames the crowd: "O Greeks! (he cries. That fell this instant. But when the day decreed (for come it must) Shall lay this dreadful hero in the dust. to fly. Then thus. Where the slow Caucans close the rear of fight. Defrauding fate of all thy fame to come. Urged thee to meet Achilles' arm in war? Henceforth beware." With that. Till at the battle's utmost verge they light. But powers celestial sure this foe defend. Secure no Grecian force transcends thy own. nor antedate thy doom. The scene of war came rushing on his sight. returning with a stream of light.BOOK XX. he left him wondering as he lay. To mow whole troops. 607 . that parted on the wings of wind.

Whate'er of active force. his hands were fire. Nor dread the vaunts of Peleus' haughty son. Not though his heart were steel. or acting fire. But shrinks and shudders when the thunder flies. More safe to combat in the mingled band. that dreadful hand. to war! Think. Clamours on clamours tempest all the air. Nor tempt too near the terrors of his hand. Nor from yon boaster shall your chief retire. He hears. That fire. They join. they throng. awaits the fight. Whate'er this heart can prompt. obedient to the god of light.608 The Iliad of Homer But whatsoe'er Achilles can inspire. The godlike Hector warm'd the troops of Troy: "Trojans. Through yon wide host this arm shall scatter fear. or hand obey. E'en these with words Insult the brave. they thicken to the war. A wood of lances rises round his head. your Hector should withstand. Hector leads you on. And brave that vengeful heart. All." He said: nor less elate with martial joy. that steel. And. . Greeks! is yours to-day. plunged within the ranks. But Phoebus warns him from high heaven to shun The single fight with Thetis' godlike son. And thin the squadrons with my single spear. who tremble at their swords: The weakest atheist-wretch all heaven defies. Deeds must decide our fate." [370] Thus (breathing rage through all) the hero said. all Achilles.

While thus Achilles glories o'er the slain: "Lie there. the price of rashness paid. laid Breathless in dust. From great Otrynteus he derived his blood. 609 . Deserts his chariot for a swifter flight: The lance arrests him: an ignoble wound The panting Trojan rivets to the ground. of the flood. This sees Hippodamas. He groans away his soul: not louder roars. From Hyde's walls he ruled the lands below. Antenor's offspring. though Gygae boast thy birth. Then fierce Achilles. And plenteous Hermus swells with tides of gold. First falls Iphytion.BOOK XX. The impatient steel with full-descending sway Forced through his brazen helm its furious way. shouting to the skies. Beneath the shades of Tmolus. At Neptune's shrine on Helice's high shores. And left him sleeping in eternal shade."—The insulting hero said. Brave was the chief. crown'd with snow. Are thine no more. Those beauteous fields where Hyllus' waves are roll'd. Demoleon next. at his army's head. and brave the host he led. Otryntides! the Trojan earth Receives thee dead. The rolling wheels of Greece the body tore. the sword his head divides: The parted visage falls on equal sides: With loud-resounding arms he strikes the plain. His mother was a Nais. And dash'd their axles with no vulgar gore. Fierce as he springs. And dash'd and mingled all the brains with gore. On Troy's whole force with boundless fury flies. and seized with fright. Resistless drove the batter'd skull before.

is his friend! No more shall Hector's and Pelides' spear Turn from each other in the walks of war. lo! the man on whom black fates attend. His soul no longer brook'd the distant fight: Full in Achilles' dreadful front he came. Virgil. "And. and that he was treacherously murdered by his host for the sake of the treasure sent with him. relate that Polydore was sent into Thrace. His heart high-bounding in his rising breast. To vaunt his swiftness wheels around the plain. with joy possess'd. Euripides. And ocean listens to the grateful sound. When Hector view'd. being the youngest of Priam's sons. But vaunts not long. the dearest.268 The youngest hope of Priam's stooping age: (Whose feet for swiftness in the race surpass'd:) Of all his sons. To the forbidden field he takes his flight. to the house of Polymestor. A cloud of sorrow overcast his sight. that slew Achilles. and receive thy fate!" He spake no more. and the last. The rushing entrails pour'd upon the ground His hands collect. Then fell on Polydore his vengeful rage. the rocks re-bellow round. In the first folly of a youthful knight. with all his swiftness slain: Struck where the crossing belts unite behind. And on his knees with piercing shrieks he fell. The man. Thus sadly slain the unhappy Polydore. all ghastly in his gore.610 The Iliad of Homer [371] The victim bull."— Then with revengeful eyes he scann'd him o'er: "Come. And shook his javelin like a waving flame. And golden rings the double back-plate join'd Forth through the navel burst the thrilling steel. and darkness wraps him round. 268 —On Polydore. . for protection. The son of Peleus sees. and others.

defying and defied. Thrice struck Pelides with indignant heart. Hector. undaunted. Mean intercourse of obloquy and pride! I know thy force to mine superior far. But long thou shalt not thy just fate withstand. He foams with fury. But heaven alone confers success in war: Mean as I am. The spear a fourth time buried in the cloud. His heart and eyes with flaming fury glow: But present to his aid. If any power assist Achilles' hand. Fly then inglorious! but thy flight this day Whole hecatombs of Trojan ghosts shall pay. And at the feet of its great master lies.BOOK XX. Thrice in impassive air he plunged the dart. Apollo shrouds The favour'd hero in a veil of clouds. And give it entrance in a braver heart. once more thy flight Has saved thee. the gods may guide my dart. and the partial god of light. some unwarlike boy: Such we could give. and exclaims aloud: "Wretch! thou hast 'scaped again. thus: "Such words employ To one that dreads thee." [372] ." 611 Then parts the lance: but Pallas' heavenly breath Far from Achilles wafts the winged death: The bidden dart again to Hector flies. Achilles closes with his hated foe.

612 The Iliad of Homer With that. And stood all impotent. and cried. Nor less unpitied. Warm'd in the brain the smoking weapon lies. In vain he begs thee. Gigantic chief! deep gash'd the enormous blade. Echeclus! next the sword bereaves. and one the sword. And stopp'd Demuchus. E'er bent that fierce. Thy life. Both in one instant from the chariot hurl'd. The purple death comes floating o'er his eyes. expecting fate: . inexorable heart! While yet he trembled at his knees. Through Mulius' head then drove the impetuous spear: The warrior falls. Deep though the front the ponderous falchion cleaves. To spare a form. no moving art. In vain his youth. The ruthless falchion oped his tender side. Sunk in one instant to the nether world: This difference only their sad fates afford That one the spear destroy'd. an unassisting weight. transfix'd from ear to ear. great Philetor's heir. an age so like thy own! Unhappy boy! no prayer. Laoganus and Dardanus expire. in vain his beauty pleads. young Alastor bleeds. he gluts his rage on numbers slain: Then Dryops tumbled to the ensanguined plain. And for the soul an ample passage made. with a suppliant's moan. The panting liver pours a flood of gore That drowns his bosom till he pants no more. Pierced through the neck: he left him panting there. The valiant sons of an unhappy sire. Then brave Deucalion died: the dart was flung Where the knit nerves the pliant elbow strung. He dropp'd his arm.

And. The squire. And thick bestrewn. all horrible in blood: Yet still insatiate. High o'er the scene of death Achilles stood. the corpse extended lies. Around him wide. the spreading torrent roars: So sweeps the hero through the wasted shores. All grim with dust. sunk in dust. bloody drops the smoking chariot dye: The spiky wheels through heaps of carnage tore. Prone from his car the thundering chief descends. The trampling steers beat out the unnumber'd grain: So the fierce coursers. with never-wearied pain. Full on his neck the falling falchion sped. an illustrious name. immense destruction pours And earth is deluged with the sanguine showers As with autumnal harvests cover'd o'er. Dash'd from their hoofs while o'er the dead they fly. From his broad shoulders hew'd his crested head: Forth from the bone the spinal marrow flies. When round and round.) Succeeds to fate: the spear his belly rends. rein'd the steeds around. Rhigmas. And thick the groaning axles dropp'd with gore. lies Ceres' sacred floor. This way and that. Such is the lust of never-dying fame! 613 [373] . Fires the high woods. As when a flame the winding valley fills. as the chariot rolls. Black. and crush out heroes' souls. And runs on crackling shrubs between the hills. Tread down whole ranks. still with rage on flame. And stretch'd the servant o'er his dying lord. scarce turn'd. and blazes to the skies. who saw expiring on the ground His prostrate master. (The son of Pierus. whose race from fruitful Thracia came. the Pelian javelin gored. Then o'er the stubble up the mountain flies. His back.BOOK XX.

614 The Iliad of Homer CENTAUR. .

"Perhaps the boldest excursion of Homer into this region of poetical fancy is the collision into which. and kills Lycaon and Asteropeus. shingly beds are in summer comparatively dry.269 The Trojans fly before Achilles. vol. almost dries up the river. The rescue of Achilles by the fiery arms of Vulcan scarcely admits of the same ready explanation from physical causes. others to the river Scamander: he falls upon the latter with great slaughter: takes twelve captives alive. and afterwards with Vulcan. 269 . first with Achilles. when summoned by Juno to the hero's aid. But a thunder-shower in the mountains. This Combat ended. by the instigation of Juno. 480. might. in the twenty-first of the Iliad. be ascribed to a god symbolic of the influences opposed to all atmospheric moisture."—Mure. by a slight extension of the figurative parallel. may suddenly immerse him in the flood of a mighty river. to sacrifice to the shade of Patroclus. gives the Trojans an opportunity of retiring into their city. drives the rest into Troy: Agenor only makes a stand. Meanwhile Achilles continues the slaughter. The overwhelming fury of the stream finds the natural interpretation in the character of the mountain torrents of Greece and Asia Minor. the other gods engage each other. he has brought the river god Scamander. p. and is conveyed away in a cloud by Apollo. i. Their wide. Scamander attacks him with all his waves: Neptune and Pallas assist the hero: Simois joins Scamander: at length Vulcan. so as to be easily forded by the foot passenger. some towards the town. sq. who (to delude Achilles) takes upon him Agenor's shape. unobserved perhaps by the traveller on the plain. THE BATTLE IN THE RIVER SCAMANDER.[374] BOOK XXI. and while he pursues him in that disguise. Yet the subsiding of the flood at the critical moment when the hero's destruction appeared imminent. ARGUMENT.

and trembling in ignoble flight: (These with a gathered mist Saturnia shrouds. immortal progeny of Jove. and there. Swift through the foamy flood the Trojans fly. like a god. high brandish'd o'er the waves: Now down he plunges. And close in rocks or winding caverns lie: So the huge dolphin tempesting the main. now he whirls it round. Where late their troops triumphant bore the fight. As the scorch'd locusts from their fields retire. The flashing billows beat the whiten'd shores: With cries promiscuous all the banks resound. Xanthus. The scene is on the banks and in the stream of Scamander. [375] . His bloody lance the hero casts aside. in eddies whirling round. The flouncing steeds and shrieking warriors drown'd. Driven from the land before the smoky cloud. While fast behind them runs the blaze of fire. plunged in Xanthus by Achilles' force. Part to the town fly diverse o'er the plain. And rolls behind the rout a heap of clouds:) Part plunge into the stream: old Xanthus roars. (Which spreading tamarisks on the margin hide. And now to Xanthus' gliding stream they drove. Arm'd with his sword. In shoals before him fly the scaly train. And the warm purple circled on the tide. Roars the resounding surge with men and horse.616 The Iliad of Homer The same day continues. Deep groan'd the waters with the dying sound. Repeated wounds the reddening river dyed.) Then. the rapid billows braves. The river here divides the flying train. Now chased. The clustering legions rush into the flood: So. Confusedly heap'd they seek their inmost caves. And here.

(The helm and visor he had cast aside With wild affright. his sounding steel Lopp'd the green arms to spoke a chariot wheel) To Lemnos' isle he sold the royal slave. touching on the shore.BOOK XXI. whom the hero's hand But late made captive in his father's land (As from a sycamore. And knock'd his faltering knees. "Ye mighty gods! what wonders strike my view! Is it in vain our conquering arms subdue? Sure I shall see yon heaps of Trojans kill'd Rise from the shades. 617 [376] . tired with slaughter. The son of Priam.) As trembling. Ten days were past. since in his father's reign He felt the sweets of liberty again. but now their chains). from the Trojan band Twelve chosen youths he drags alive to land. But kind Eetion. These his attendants to the ships convey'd. Then. as once more he plunged amid the flood. that god whom men in vain withstand Gives the same youth to the same conquering hand Now never to return! and doom'd to go A sadder journey to the shades below. the hero said. Or pant and heave beneath the floating waves. panting. The young Lycaon in his passage stood. and dropp'd upon the field His useless lance and unavailing shield. and brave me on the field. His well-known face when great Achilles eyed. Sad victims destined to Patroclus' shade. With their rich belts their captive arms restrains (Late their proud ornaments. from the stream he fled. Where Jason's son the price demanded gave. The next. The ransom'd prince to fair Arisbe bore. Now.

Earth. her victim cruel Fate demands! I sprang from Priam. If earth. and Lelegia's heir. whom so late I bound And sold to Lemnos. Scarce respited from woes I yet appear. friends. the Trojan pale with fears Approach'd. Now sums immense thy mercy shall repay. Achilles raised the spear. and native shore. then. While thus these melting words attempt his heart: "Thy well-known captive. Whom late thy conquering arm to Lemnos bore. above. great Achilles! see. Who shared the gifts of Ceres at thy board. whose strong grasp has held down Hercules. And scarce twelve morning suns have seen me here. prepared to wound. and Laothoe fair. extended on the ground: And while. the spear suspended stood. He kiss'd his feet. Some pity to a suppliant's name afford. That bar such numbers from their native plain. Longing to dip its thirsty point in blood. Lo! he returns. Try. One hand embraced them close. . my flying spear! Try. Again. Lo! Jove again submits me to thy hands. Far from his father. (Old Altes' daughter. A hundred oxen were his price that day.618 The Iliad of Homer As now the captive. Once more Lycaon trembles at thy knee. at length this active prince can seize. if the grave can hold the wanderer. one stopp'd the dart. And his soul shivering at the approach of death." Thus while he spoke. stalks on Trojan ground! Not him the sea's unmeasured deeps detain. and sought his knees with suppliant tears Loth as he was to yield his youthful breath.

was foredoom'd to die. The youth address'd to unrelenting ears: "Talk not of life. or the dart.) Two sons (alas! unhappy sons) she bore. far thy better. Die then. The fainting stripling sank before the stroke: His hand forgot its grasp. 619 [377] . and left the spear. or by design. Achilles his broad sword display'd." These words. my friend! what boots it to deplore? The great. dies: In vain a single Trojan sues for grace. and as the word he spoke. With his. who wrought thy loved Patroclus' death. Ah! think not me too much of Hector's kind! Not the same mother gave thy suppliant breath. Sprung from a hero. attended with a shower of tears. And thou. And ruled the fields where silver Satnio flow'd. dost thou bewail mortality? Seest thou not me.BOOK XXI. But least. the sons of Priam's hateful race. By night. For ah! one spear shall drink each brother's gore. Who held in Pedasus his famed abode. from a goddess born? The day shall come (which nothing can avert) When by the spear. the good Patroclus is no more! He. or ransom (he replies): Patroclus dead."—He said. whom nature's gifts adorn. How from that arm of terror shall I fly? Some demon urges! 'tis my doom to die! If ever yet soft pity touch'd thy mind. the arrow. And I succeed to slaughter'd Polydore. whoever meets me. by force. or day. And buried in his neck the reeking blade. While all his trembling frame confess'd his fear: Sudden. Impending death and certain fate are mine! Die then.

His earthly honours. And shook two spears. floating on the wave: "Lie there. What means divine may yet the power employ To check Achilles. Lycaon! let the fish surround Thy bloated corpse." These boastful words provoked the raging god. till the Grecian vengeance is complete: Thus is atoned Patroclus' honour'd shade. With all his refluent waters circled round:) On him Achilles rush'd. With fury swells the violated flood. he fearless stood. and suck thy gory wound: There no sad mother shall thy funerals weep. To feast unpunish'd on the fat of kings. and to rescue Troy? Meanwhile the hero springs in arms. Whose every wave some watery monster brings. The son of Pelagon. Your living coursers glut his gulfs in vain! Thus he rewards you. and panting on the land. And the short absence of Achilles paid. and immortal name? In vain your immolated bulls are slain. And thus insults him. But swift Scamander roll thee to the deep. whose lofty line Flows from the source of Axius. and such compassion mine. [378] . with this bitter fate. The gushing purple dyed the thirsty sand. and all the Trojan line! Such ruin theirs. advancing from the flood. So perish Troy. The victor to the stream the carcase gave. stream divine! (Fair Peribaea's love the god had crown'd. Thus. What boots ye now Scamander's worshipp'd stream. to dare The great Asteropeus to mortal war.620 The Iliad of Homer Prone fell the youth.

he tumbles to the plain.BOOK XXI. but pierced not. Begot my sire. and quiver'd there. Achilles thus began: "What art thou. Repulsive of his might the weapon stood: The fourth. the spouting blood Spun forth. Deep in the swelling bank was driven the spear. he tries to break the spear in vain. Arm'd with protended spears. (For both his dexterous hands the lance could wield. the Vulcanian shield. Now shines the tenth bright morning since I came In aid of Ilion to the fields of fame: Axius. One razed Achilles' hand. At once Asteropeus discharged each lance. on Pelides' head To avenge his waters choked with heaps of dead. And on his foe with double fury flew. Near as they drew. Bent as he stands. Then from his side the sword Pelides drew. The foe thrice tugg'd. 621 . and try that hero's son!" Threatening he said: the hostile chiefs advance. And wide around the floated region fills. and shook the rooted wood. who swells with all the neighbouring rills. or from whence? Unhappy is the sire Whose son encounters our resistless ire. Even to the middle earth. The flood impell'd him. boldest of the race of man? Who. Like lightning next the Pelean javelin flies: Its erring fury hiss'd along the skies. in earth the fasten'd weapon stood." "O son of Peleus! what avails to trace (Replied the warrior) our illustrious race? From rich Paeonia's valleys I command. my native band. whose spear much glory won: Now lift thy arm.) One struck.

Æacus. And in his deep abysses shakes with fear. The floating tides the bloody carcase lave. As he that thunders to the stream that flows. the rivers. and the springs below. Even Achelous might contend in vain. The eternal ocean." He said: then from the bank his javelin tore. He vents his fury on the flying crew. Astyplus. The race of these superior far to those. His radiant armour tearing from the dead: "So ends thy glory! Such the fate they prove.622 The Iliad of Homer His belly open'd with a ghastly wound. And left the breathless warrior in his gore. And his eye darkens. Thrasius. it lies the food Of curling eels. Till. And all the roaring billows of the main. But Jove he dreads. from whose fountains flow The seas. All scatter'd round the stream (their mightiest slain) The amazed Paeonians scour along the plain. Beneath the hero's feet he panting lies. Scamander might have shown. and fishes of the flood. While the proud victor thus triumphing said. and his spirit flies. am I. The thundering voice of Jove abhors to hear. Who strive presumptuous with the sons of Jove! Sprung from a river. How durst thou vaunt thy watery progeny? Of Peleus. didst thou boast thy line? But great Saturnius is the source of mine. and Jove. nor wars against his son. wave succeeding wave. And beat against it. [379] . and Mnesus slew. The reeking entrails pour upon the ground. roll'd between the banks. What rivers can.

623 "O first of mortals! (for the gods are thine) In valour matchless. The river thus. and drove with fury on the foe. and tremble at our arms again. See! my choked streams no more their course can keep." He said. But from the bottom of his gulfs profound Scamander spoke. till Hyperion's fall In awful darkness hide the face of all?" . Turn then." In human form. Thersilochus. But not till Troy the destined vengeance pay. Or stain this lance. Content. Then to the godhead of the silver bow The yellow flood began: "O son of Jove! Was not the mandate of the sire above Full and express. 'Tis not on me thy rage should heap the dead. and in force divine! If Jove have given thee every Trojan head. that Phoebus should employ His sacred arrows in defence of Troy. thy slaughters could amaze a god. impetuous! from our injured flood. And numbers more his lance had plunged to hell. with Ænius. and thus the chief replies: "O sacred stream! thy word we shall obey. fell. confess'd before his eyes. guardian of her wall.BOOK XXI. Not till within her towers the perjured train Shall pant. the shores return'd the sound. Not till proud Hector. Nor roll their wonted tribute to the deep. And make her conquer. or see Achilles fall. Mydon.

upborne. The falling deluge whelms the hero round: His loaded shield bends to the rushing tide. Sliddering. now there. Loud flash the waters to the rushing fall Of the thick foliage. affords a very just idea of the breadth of the Scamander. that "the circumstance of a falling tree. Now bursting on his head with thundering sound. While all before. Then blacken'd the wild waves: the murmur rose: The god pursues.624 The Iliad of Homer [380] He spoke in vain—The chief without dismay Ploughs through the boiling surge his desperate way. and undermining all. The plant uprooted to his weight gave way. The large trunk display'd Bridged the rough flood across: the hero stay'd On this his weight. And bursts the bank. a huger billow throws. scarce the strong flood divide. and staggering. (A watery bulwark. Wood has observed. that overhung the flood. From all his deep the bellowing river roars." 270 . At every bound his clanging armour rings: Now here. Achilles springs. Then rising in his rage above the shores. On the border stood A spreading elm. And round the banks the ghastly dead are toss'd. his steps to stay. He like the warlike eagle speeds his pace (Swiftest and strongest of the aerial race). He seized a bending bough. the billows ranged on high. His feet. and regain'd the land. Far as a spear can fly. Leap'd from the channel. and raised upon his hand. which is described as reaching from one of its banks to the other. ambitious to destroy The man whose fury is the fate of Troy.270 Heaving the bank. Huge heaps of slain disgorges on the coast. he turns on every side.) screen the bands who fly.

And feed with pregnant streams the plants and flowers: Soon as he clears whate'er their passage stay'd.BOOK XXI. in watery mountains spread. Beats on his back. And marks the future current with his spade. Swift o'er the rolling pebbles. When thus (his eyes on heaven's expansion thrown) Forth bursts the hero with an angry groan: [381] . Wash'd from beneath him slides the slimy soil. Yet dauntless still the adverse flood he braves. his knees relax with toil. Tired by the tides. The first of men. And still indignant bounds above the waves. they prevent his pains. to bless his bowers. So when a peasant to his garden brings Soft rills of water from the bubbling springs. And calls the floods from high. So oft the surge. and murmur at his heels. 625 Still flies Achilles. but before his eyes Still swift Scamander rolls where'er he flies: Not all his speed escapes the rapid floods. or bursts upon his head. Before him scattering. The waves flow after. wheresoe'er he wheels. And gather fast. Louder and louder purl the falling rills. And winds his course before the following tide. Oft as he turn'd the torrent to oppose. And shine in mazy wanderings o'er the plains. down the hills. And bravely try if all the powers were foes. but not a match for gods.

626 The Iliad of Homer "Is there no god Achilles to befriend. attend! Nor breathe from combat. nor thy sword suspend. Of all heaven's oracles believed in vain. thy gods appear! Behold! from Jove descending to thy aid. By Phoebus' darts she prophesied my fall. Propitious Neptune. by a hero's arm! Might Hector's spear this dauntless bosom rend. —Ignominious. the counsel heaven suggests. An unregarded carcase to the sea. was considered utterly disgraceful. and the furious flood shall cease to rave 'Tis not thy fate to glut his angry wave. Ah no! Achilles meets a shameful fate. And my swift soul o'ertake my slaughter'd friend.271 And make my future life the sport of fate. And thus in human form address'd the chief: The power of ocean first: "Forbear thy fear. 271 . No power to avert his miserable end? Prevent. Stay. the torrent sweeps away. Crossing a ford. and the blue-eyed maid. till all Her routed squadrons pant behind their wall: Hector alone shall stand his fatal chance. Drowning." Neptune and Pallas haste to his relief. But thou. In glorious arms before the Trojan wall. whom on a rainy day. But most of Thetis must her son complain. Oh! had I died in fields of battle warm. as compared with a death in the field of battle. And Hector's blood shall smoke upon thy lance. Till Troy receive her flying sons. Oh how unworthy of the brave and great! Like some vile swain. Stretch'd like a hero. O son of Peleus! Lo. O Jove! this ignominious date.

From all thy fountains swell thy watery store. Shall aught avail him. 627 [382] Then thus to Simois! "Haste. And boldly bids the warring gods be foes! But nor that force. nor form divine to sight. Charge the black surge. indignant Xanthus roars. if our rage unite: Whelm'd under our dark gulfs those arms shall lie. High o'er the surging tide. while casques of gold And turn'd-up bucklers glitter'd as they roll'd. With equal rage. Thine is the glory doom'd. While Pallas fills him with immortal force. And Ilion tumble from her towery height. Floating 'midst scatter'd arms. . Call then thy subject streams. With broken rocks. That blaze so dreadful in each Trojan eye. my brother flood. And lifts his billows. Our bravest heroes else shall quit the fight. And check this mortal that controls a god. And deep beneath a sandy mountain hurl'd. Heaved on the bounding billows danced the dead. He wades. and pour it on his head. thus by heaven impell'd. No Greeks shall e'er his perish'd relics grace. Stung with new ardour. and with a load of dead. and mounts. by leaps and bounds. Mark how resistless through the floods he goes. He springs impetuous. Immersed remain this terror of the world. and o'erwhelms his shores. the parted wave resounds. Not a whole river stops the hero's course. Such ponderous ruin shall confound the place." Thus spake the gods: Then swift ascended to the bright abodes.BOOK XXI. and bid them roar. and invades the field: O'er all the expanded plain the waters spread.

He said. he boils. before Achilles stood The crimson surge. and this his watery tomb. Fear touch'd the queen of heaven: she saw dismay'd. and on the chief descends amain. . he raves. These his cold rites. murmuring from his beds. She call'd aloud." ACHILLES CONTENDING WITH THE RIVERS. or inhume. And a foam whitens on the purple waves: At every step. Increased with gore. and summon'd Vulcan's aid. and deluged him with blood. and swelling with the slain. Then.628 The Iliad of Homer No hand his bones shall gather.

turn their bellies to the sky.BOOK XXI. Drink the whole flood. Along the margin winds the running blaze: The trees in flaming rows to ashes turn. The flowering lotos and the tamarisk burn. Broad elm. Swift on the sedgy reeds the ruin preys. And thus. Pour the red torrent on the watery foe. At length the river rear'd his languid head. by our command enjoin'd. the crackling trees devour. mighty in thy rage! display thy power. At once consumes the dead. gasping. Scorch all the banks! and (till our voice reclaim) Exert the unwearied furies of the flame!" The power ignipotent her word obeys: Wide o'er the plain he pours the boundless blaze. And instant blows the water'd gardens dry: So look'd the field. The watery willows hiss before the fire. As when autumnal Boreas sweeps the sky. and cypress rising in a spire. short-panting. And hissing rivers to their bottoms burn. While Vulcan breathed the fiery blast around. to the god he said: . The eels lie twisting in the pangs of death: Now flounce aloft. so whiten'd was the ground. now dive the scaly fry. Or. and dries the soil And the shrunk waters in their channel boil. Rush the swift eastern and the western wind: These from old ocean at my word shall blow. Now glow the waves. Go. the fishes pant for breath. 629 "Rise to the war! the insulting flood requires Thy wasteful arm! assemble all thy fires! While to their aid. Corses and arms to one bright ruin turn.

only me. But ah! withdraw this all-destroying hand. For mightier gods assert the cause of Troy. Above the brims they force their fiery way. I sink. if thou command. the heavy smoke aspires: So boils the imprison'd flood. Hear then my solemn oath. vii." 272 [384] —Beneath a caldron. The bubbling waters yield a hissing sound." Dryden's Virgil. imperial queen of air. And in one ruin sink the Trojan name.272 To melt the fat of some rich sacrifice. As when the flames beneath a cauldron rise. must thy son engage Me. Till Greece shall gird her with destructive flame. and cloud the day. Amid the fierce embrace of circling fires The waters foam. with all his wasteful rage? On other gods his dreadful arm employ. if fate decree— Ah—bend no more thy fiery arms on me!" He ceased. when with crackling flames a caldron fries. . "So. The bubbling waters from the bottom rise. Black vapours climb aloft. forbid to flow. The burning river sends his earnest prayer: "Ah why. wide conflagration blazing round. to yield to fate Unaided Ilion. and her destined state. 644. To Juno then. Saturnia.630 The Iliad of Homer "Oh Vulcan! oh! what power resists thy might? I faint. unequal to the fight— I yield—Let Ilion fall. Submissive I desist. And choked with vapours feels his bottom glow.

the dreadful scene descries. nor in a mortal cause Infest a god: the obedient flame withdraws: Again the branching streams begin to spread. The power of battles lifts his brazen spear. And madly bathed it in celestial gore. Which bears Jove's thunder on its dreadful field: The adamantine aegis of her sire. And first assaults the radiant queen of war: "What moved thy madness. And soft remurmur in their wonted bed.BOOK XXI. That turns the glancing bolt and forked fire. The warring gods in fierce contention join: Rekindling rage each heavenly breast alarms: With horrid clangour shock the ethereal arms: Heaven in loud thunder bids the trumpet sound. His warm entreaty touch'd Saturnia's ear: She bade the ignipotent his rage forbear. Recall the flame. 631 While these by Juno's will the strife resign. as his sport. And wide beneath them groans the rending ground. And views contending gods with careless eyes. ." He spoke. thus to disunite Ethereal minds. and smote the long-resounding shield. Jove. and mix all heaven in fight? What wonder this. when in thy frantic mood Thou drovest a mortal to insult a god? Thy impious hand Tydides' javelin bore.

thus the prostrate god reviles: [385] "Hast thou not yet. And partial aid to Troy's perfidious race. a mass of monstrous size: And seven broad acres covers as he lies. insatiate fury! known How far Minerva's force transcends thy own? Juno. The stunning stroke his stubborn nerves unbound: Loud o'er the fields his ringing arms resound: The scornful dame her conquest views with smiles. vast. propp'd on her fair arm. forsakes the plain. Corrects thy folly thus by Pallas' hand. stooping on the land." The goddess spoke. and turn'd her eyes away. There fix'd from eldest times. And. craggy. Jove's Cyprian daughter. That. diffused celestial day. the limit of the neighbouring land. in open view. This the bright empress of the heavens survey'd. This at the heavenly homicide she cast.632 The Iliad of Homer Then heaved the goddess in her mighty hand A stone. scarcely breathes with pain. thus to war's victorious maid: "Lo! what an aid on Mars's side is seen! The smiles' and loves' unconquerable queen! Mark with what insolence. She moves: let Pallas. And. pursue. Lent to the wounded god her tender hand: Slowly he rises. Thundering he falls. Thus meets thy broken faith with just disgrace. glorying. And. whom thou rebellious darest withstand. if she dares. beaming round." . black. scoffing.

And yon proud bulwarks grew beneath my hands: Thy task it was to feed the bellowing droves Along fair Ida's vales and pendant groves. and of thy own.) And guard the race of proud Laomedon! Hast thou forgot. We shared the lengthen'd labours of a year? Troy walls I raised (for such were Jove's commands). 633 Meantime.BOOK XXI. So dread. to our Olympian sire? Come. fell (her spirits fled). "What sloth has seized us. (Forgetful of my wrongs. unresisting. Then from the lowest stone shall Troy be moved. we with shame retire. But when the circling seasons in their train Brought back the grateful day that crown'd our pain. and the prize denied: Mad as he was. he threaten'd servile bands. and heaven returns the sound: Shall. And slightly on her breast the wanton strook: She. With menace stern the fraudful king defied Our latent godhead. The god of ocean dares the god of light. at the monarch's prayer. and Juno with a smile approved. Suits not my greatness. ignominious. . prove thy arm! for first the war to wage. No deed perform'd. Minerva smiling heard. the pair o'ertook. as Venus is to me. "And like these heroes be the fate of all (Minerva cries) who guard the Trojan wall! To Grecian gods such let the Phrygian be. to mix in more than mortal fight." Thus she. how. when the fields around Ring with conflicting powers. or superior age: Rash as thou art to prop the Trojan throne. so fierce. On earth together lay the lovers spread.

for this. as a punishment for misbehaviour. Smile on the sun. their present. And from its deep foundations heave their Troy?" Apollo thus: "To combat for mankind Ill suits the wisdom of celestial mind. And from the senior power submiss retires: Him thus retreating. For what is man? Calamitous by birth. 156. future sons destroy."—Grote. recurs not unfrequently among the incidents of the Mythical world. They owe their life and nourishment to earth. vol. 273 . Nor mix immortals in a cause so mean. infest the faithless race. now. far-beaming heavenly fires. i. To their own hands commit the frantic scene. and dreadful show Of pointed arrows and the silver bow! Now boast no more in yon celestial bower. that now. afford proud Ilion grace. with beauty crown'd.273 Incensed. wither on the ground. Artemis upbraids. p. Dost thou. Like yearly leaves. by order of Jove. And destined vengeance on the perjured king. And not. And yields to ocean's hoary sire the prize? How vain that martial pomp.634 [386] The Iliad of Homer And doom'd us exiles far in barbarous lands. The quiver'd huntress of the sylvan shades: "And is it thus the youthful Phoebus flies. Like us. Thy force can match the great earth-shaking power. we heavenward fled with swiftest wing. like us." "This tale of the temporary servitude of particular gods." Then turns his face.

BOOK XXI. no more unequal war to wage—" She said. and idly mark the dusty place. matchless goddess! triumph in the skies. Whom Hermes viewing." 635 [387] .) there safe retreats. The scattering arrows. To the cleft cavern speeds the gentle dove. when the falcon wings her way above. thus declines the war: "How shall I face the dame. with a tiger's heart? What though tremendous in the woodland chase Thy certain arrows pierce the savage race? How dares thy rashness on the powers divine Employ those arms. and seized her wrists with eager rage. And scarce restrains the torrent in her eyes: So. Swift from the field the baffled huntress flies. rattling from the case. The wretched matron feels thy piercing dart. (Not fated yet to die. or match thy force with mine? Learn hence. her right untied The bow. and its plumy pride. These in her left hand lock'd. while I yield the prize. Silent he heard the queen of woods upbraid: Not so Saturnia bore the vaunting maid: But furious thus: "What insolence has driven Thy pride to face the majesty of heaven? What though by Jove the female plague design'd. Thy sex's tyrant. who gives delight To him whose thunders blacken heaven with night? Go. About her temples flies the busy bow. To her Latona hastes with tender care. Yet still her heart against the marble beats. now there. And boast my conquest. Now here. Fierce to the feeble race of womankind. Drop round. the quiver. she winds her from the blow.

through death. some with rage on fire. O'er slaughter'd heroes. she sought the sovereign god. and terrors. And the red vapours purple all the sky: So raged Achilles: death and dire dismay. And toils. . though fate forbade her fall. Some proud in triumph. she grasp'd his knees: the ambrosial vest Shook with her sighs. and panted on her breast. some fall. Back to Olympus. And take their thrones around the ethereal sire. And the pale crescent fades upon her brows. stooping low. lay here and there Dishonour'd relics of Diana's war: Then swift pursued her to her blest abode. That. and pass'd: Latona. and bade her show What heavenly hand had caused his daughter's woe? Abash'd. As when avenging flames with fury driven On guilty towns exert the wrath of heaven. Collects the scatter'd shafts and fallen bow. she names his own imperial spouse. The guardian-god now trembled for her wall. glittering on the dust. from the war's alarms. Through blood. and o'er rolling steeds. fill'd the dreadful day. Thus they above: while. The sire superior smiled. Where. And fear'd the Greeks. Weeping. Achilles still proceeds. swiftly gliding down. all confused. some fly. The pale inhabitants.636 The Iliad of Homer He spoke. Return the shining bands of gods in arms. Apollo enters Ilion's sacred town.

and desolation marks his way! But when within the walls our troops take breath. Struck slaughter back. He comes. Enraged Achilles follows with his spear. the sounding hinges rung. on the guards he calls: "You to whose care our city-gates belong. no aid! With feeble pace. Then had the Greeks eternal praise acquired. Hoary with dust. Shot down to save her. the Trojans' scatter'd flight. haughty. and brave. But he. that lengthen toward the town. with unresisted sway. High on a turret hoary Priam stands. And Troy inglorious to her walls retired. Set wide your portals to the flying throng: For lo! he comes. And gladsome see their last escape from fate. (Antenor's offspring. and shut out death.) 637 [388] . and redeem her fame: To young Agenor force divine he gave. they beat the hollow plain: And gasping. all parch'd with thirst." Thus charged the reverend monarch: wide were flung The opening folds. and cover'd the retreat. panting. no check. fainting. And the near hero rising on his sight! No stop. labour on With heavier strides. On heaps the Trojans crowd to gain the gate. Phoebus rush'd forth. And marks the waste of his destructive hands.BOOK XXI. Views. Fast as he could. Wild with revenge. And thus descending. the god who darts ethereal flame. a heartless train. Lock fast the brazen bars. bold. he sighing quits the walls. from his arm. And settled sorrow on his aged face. Thither. insatiable of war. the flying bands to meet.

As soon as night her dusky veil extends. Here. and I fall: Such is his swiftness. Yet sure he too is mortal. fighting for the state. Thick beats his heart. Return in safety to my Trojan friends. shall I fly this terror of the plain! Like others fly. the troubled motions rise. And wrapt in clouds. From my tired body wash the dirt and blood. ere yet I turn the wall. "What. the waters heave and roll. to meet my fate. restrain'd the hand of fate." . that who stands must die. While I decline to yonder path. Howe'er 'tis better. conceal'd. that leads To Ida's forests and surrounding shades? So may I reach.638 The Iliad of Homer In aid of him.) He stops. within the reach of fate? Even now perhaps. One only soul informs that dreadful frame: And Jove's sole favour gives him all his fame. ere a storm. (So. 'tis in vain to fly. and questions thus his mighty soul. No: with the common heap I scorn to fall— What if they pass'd me to the Trojan wall. and in public view. beside the beech he sate. What if?—But wherefore all this vain debate? Stand I to doubt. And such his valour. and be like others slain? Vain hope! to shun him by the self-same road Yon line of slaughter'd Trojans lately trod. he may feel (Like all the sons of earth) the force of steel. The fierce Achilles sees me. When now the generous youth Achilles spies. the cooling flood.

His lifted arm prepares the fatal blow: But. he hears the sounds Of shouting hunters. or beneath him dies. Parents and children our just arms employ. collected. and stood. Disdainful of retreat: high held before. Though struck. His shield (a broad circumference) he bore. 639 He said. jealous of his fame. And all his beating bosom claim'd the fight. So from some deep-grown wood a panther starts.BOOK XXI. Not less resolved. And strong and many are the sons of Troy. in act to throw The lifted javelin. And the barb'd javelin stings his breast in vain: On their whole war. and of clamorous hounds. the hollow cuishes rung Beneath the pointed steel. Great as thou art. and awaits the war. even thou may'st stain with gore These Phrygian fields. A thousand woes. thus bespoke the foe: "How proud Achilles glories in his fame! And hopes this day to sink the Trojan name Beneath her ruins! Know." He said: with matchless force the javelin flung Smote on his knee. in his might. the savage flies. a thousand toils remain. Roused from his thicket by a storm of darts: Untaught to fear or fly. untamed. scarce perceives the pain. And tears his hunter. that hope is vain. but safe from harms He stands impassive in the ethereal arms. Antenor's valiant heir Confronts Achilles. [389] . Apollo shrouds The god-like Trojan in a veil of clouds. Then fiercely rushing on the daring foe. though wounded. and press a foreign shore. Then graceful as he stood.

no thought to ask. 'Twas tumult all. deliver'd from their fate. Now urge the course where swift Scamander glides: The god. Now o'er the fields they stretch with lengthen'd strides. the favoured youth withdrew. voice and shape. to cover their escape. or who by battle fell. now distant scarce a stride before. The furious chief still follows where he flies. Tempts his pursuit. And pour on heaps into the walls of Troy: No stop. Flies from the furious chief in this disguise. Meanwhile the god.640 The Iliad of Homer Safe from pursuit. Pale Troy against Achilles shuts her gate: And nations breathe. and shut from mortal view. and violence of flight. and mix'd affright. Who 'scaped by flight. While all the flying troops their speed employ. And sudden joy confused. or tell. no stay. Dismiss'd with fame. and wheels about the shore. Assumes Agenor's habit. .

advancing o'er the fields Beneath one roof of well-compacted shields. was retired into the inner part of the palace: she mounts up to the walls. but in vain. and tries to persuade his son to re-enter the town. She deludes Hector in the shape of Deiphobus. Hecuba joins her entreaties. and is slain. bending on. his resolution fails him. who. Achilles pursues him thrice round the walls of Troy. Thus to their bulwarks. She swoons at the spectacle. Her excess of grief and lamentation. smit with panic fear. Close to the walls. and he flies. Their cries reach the ears of Andromache. The Trojans being safe within the walls. Achilles drags the dead body at his chariot in the sight of Priam and Hecuba. and on the battlements of Troy. Hector consults within himself what measures to take. the Greeks' embodied powers. and despair. The herded Ilians rush like driven deer: There safe they wipe the briny drops away. THE DEATH OF HECTOR. March. The thirtieth day still continues. at length Minerva descends to the aid of Achilles. Their lamentations. Hector only stays to oppose Achilles.[390] BOOK XXII. The gods debate concerning the fate of Hector. ignorant of this. tears. . but at the advance of Achilles. ARGUMENT. and beholds her dead husband. And drown in bowls the labours of the day. he stands the combat. Priam is struck at his approach. The scene lies under the walls.

The guardian still of long-defended Troy. With mortal speed a godhead to pursue? For not to thee to know the gods is given." . Great Hector singly stay'd: chain'd down by fate There fix'd he stood before the Scaean gate. Still his bold arms determined to employ. Unskill'd to trace the latent marks of heaven." The chief incensed—"Too partial god of day! To check my conquests in the middle way: How few in Ilion else had refuge found! What gasping numbers now had bit the ground! Thou robb'st me of a glory justly mine. that Troy forsook the plain? Vain thy past labour. To cheat a mortal who repines in vain. What boots thee now. alas! for one of heavenly strain. and of fraud divine: Mean fame. Powerful of godhead. While here thy frantic rage attacks a god. [391] Apollo now to tired Achilles turns: (The power confess'd in all his glory burns:) "And what (he cries) has Peleus' son in view. and thy present vain: Safe in their walls are now her troops bestow'd.642 The Iliad of Homer Far stretching in the shade of Trojan towers.

And stretch'd beneath that fury of the plain. Then wept the sage: He strikes his reverend head. terrible and strong. So the proud courser. Hector! my loved." xi. Implacable Achilles! might'st thou be 274 643 —Not half so dreadful. plagues. And thus adjures him with extended hands: "Ah stay not. Satan stood Unterrified. victor of the prize. now white with age.274 Through the thick gloom of some tempestuous night. Him. as he blazing shot across the field. Not half so dreadful rises to the sight. He calls his much-loved son with feeble cries: The son. and like a comet burn'd. Incensed with indignation. my dearest. . That fires the length of Ophiuchus huge In the arctic sky. Terrific glory! for his burning breath Taints the red air with fevers. obtests the skies. He lifts his wither'd arms. Orion's dog (the year when autumn weighs). and death. So flamed his fiery mail. bravest son! Methinks already I behold thee slain. resolved Achilles' force to dare. Full at the Scaean gates expects the war." —Paradise Lost. 708. stay not! guardless and alone. and from his horrid hair Shakes pestilence and war. With high and haughty steps he tower'd along. And o'er the feebler stars exerts his rays. While the sad father on the rampart stands. "On the other side. The careful eyes of Priam first beheld.BOOK XXII. To the near goal with double ardour flies. Then to the city.

Pity.644 The Iliad of Homer [392] To all the gods no dearer than to me! Thee. What anguish I? unutterable woe! Yet less that anguish. Valiant in vain! by thy cursed arm destroy'd: Or. And loved Lycaon. my eyes in vain explore. Yet cursed with sense! a wretch. or. while yet I live. spare us all! Save thy dear life. worse than slaughtered. Yet shun Achilles! enter yet the wall. And number all his days by miseries! My heroes slain. and my city burn'd. And bloody dogs grow fiercer from thy gore. thy dearer glory save. All pale they wander on the Stygian coast. sold in distant isles To shameful bondage. while I speak. While yet thy father feels the woes he bears. my Polydore. if not deprived of thee. whom in his rage (All trembling on the verge of helpless age) Great Jove has placed. to me. thy father. Two. if a soul so brave Neglect that thought. Consign'd his daughter with Lelegia's throne:) But if (which Heaven forbid) already lost. How many valiant sons I late enjoy'd. . My daughters ravish'd. What sorrows then must their sad mother know. And spare thyself. my bridal bed o'erturn'd. by right of birth their own. vultures wild should scatter round the shore. now perhaps no more! Oh! if in yonder hostile camp they live. and unworthy toils. Two from one mother sprung. these silver hairs. Less to all Troy. What heaps of gold. what treasures would I give! (Their grandsire's wealth. less to her. sad spectacle of pain! The bitter dregs of fortune's cup to drain: To fill with scenes of death his closing eyes.

Who dies in youth and vigour. Ah do not thus our helpless years forego. Shall lick their mangled master's spatter'd gore. (but Heaven avert it!) should'st thou bleed. Well have they perish'd. But when the fates. late guardians of my door. That man can feel! man. Struck through with wounds. With him the mournful mother bears a part. (Dire pomp of sovereign wretchedness!) must fall. all honest on the breast. The zone unbraced. Yet all her sorrows turn not Hector's heart. O my son! revere The words of age. Against his rage if singly thou proceed. The last sad relic of my ruin'd state. gods! 'tis well. Spurn the hoar head of unresisting age. [393] . Where famish'd dogs. by our walls secured. These I have yet to see. reserved by angry fate. Rent from his head the silver locks away. In dust the reverend lineaments deform. repel the foe. But. And stain the pavement of my regal hall. and acting what no words could say. Or still'd thy infant clamours at this breast. her bosom she display'd. And pour to dogs the life-blood scarcely warm: This. dies the best. the worse. Yet for my sons I thank ye. attend a parent's prayer! If ever thee in these fond arms I press'd. perhaps yet more! Perhaps even I. this is misery! the last. for in fight they fell. in fulness of their rage. My bleeding infants dash'd against the floor. Should'st thou. she said: 645 "Have mercy on me. fast-falling the salt tears. fated to be cursed!" He said. And thus.BOOK XXII.

What numbers had been saved by Hector's flight? That wise advice rejected with disdain." So they. and with a fiery glance Expects the hero's terrible advance. But most her worthless sons insult my ear. But fix'd remains the purpose of his soul. . He burns. nor mother. I feel my folly in my people slain. and question'd thus his mighty mind:275 "Where lies my way? to enter in the wall? Honour and shame the ungenerous thought recall: Shall proud Polydamas before the gate Proclaim. Methinks my suffering country's voice I hear. his counsels are obey'd too late. grace thee with a tear! Far from our pious rites those dear remains Must feast the vultures on the naked plains. And his red eyeballs glare with living fire. on his shield reclined. he stiffens with collected ire. And blame those virtues which they cannot share. Beneath a turret. while down their cheeks the torrents roll. Which timely follow'd but the former night. When fed with noxious herbs his turgid veins Have gather'd half the poisons of the plains."—"Paradise Lost.646 The Iliad of Homer Nor must thy corse lie honour'd on the bier. roll'd up in his den. Nor spouse. let her see me fall 275 "And thus his own undaunted mind explores." vi. Resolved he stands. He stood. return I must Glorious. the swelling snake Beholds the traveller approach the brake. my country's terror laid in dust: Or if I perish. No—if I e'er return. 113. On my rash courage charge the chance of war. So.

produce. but to whom is given To die. that injured Greece May share our wealth. or journeying o'er a plain. and flies. and grievance of the land) With honourable justice to restore: And add half Ilion's yet remaining store. And on his breast the beamy splendour shone. unusual terrors rise. Just when he holds. he fears. As Hector sees. and parley with the foe. and fall without a blow? We greet not here. or triumph. and lance. that. and leave our walls in peace. But why this thought? Unarm'd if I should go. as man conversing man.BOOK XXII. like a god the Greek drew nigh. And yet suppose these measures I forego. In field at least. His dreadful plumage nodded from on high. or thinks he holds his prey. Which Troy shall. 647 [394] . Approach unarm'd. Struck by some god. determine Heaven!" Thus pondering. lay down. No season now for calm familiar talk. What hope of mercy from this vengeful foe. Thus at the panting dove a falcon flies (The swiftest racer of the liquid skies). and fighting for her wall. or the rising sun. He leaves the gates. Shot trembling rays that glitter'd o'er the land. the treasure ill-detain'd (Cause of the war. And treat on terms of peace to save the town: The wife withheld. The warrior-shield. But woman-like to fall. Like Jove's own lightning. recedes. in his better hand. The Pelian javelin. the helm. Met at an oak. Like youths and maidens in an evening walk: War is our business. sworn. he leaves the wall behind: Achilles follows like the winged wind.

As when some hero's funerals are decreed In grateful honour of the mighty dead.648 The Iliad of Homer [395] Obliquely wheeling through the aerial way. Where Trojan dames (ere yet alarm'd by Greece) Wash'd their fair garments in the days of peace. in the Odyssey. And aims his claws. And with them turns the raised spectator's soul: The example of Nausicaa. No vulgar victim must reward the day: (Such as in races crown the speedy strife:) The prize contended was great Hector's life. Whose polish'd bed receives the falling rills. One urged by fury. one in flight: (The mighty fled. Where high rewards the vigorous youth inflame (Some golden tripod. (A wider compass.) smoke along the road. proves that the duties of the laundry were not thought derogatory. even from the dignity of a princess. Where the high watch-tower overlooks the plain. With open beak and shrilling cries he springs. That the green banks in summer's heat o'erflows. Next by Scamander's double source they bound. Now where the fig-trees spread their umbrage broad. one by fear impell'd: Now circling round the walls their course maintain. With exhalations steaming to the skies. or some lovely dame) The panting coursers swiftly turn the goal. This hot through scorching clefts is seen to rise. pursued by stronger might:) Swift was the course. and cold as winter snows: Each gushing fount a marble cistern fills. Where two famed fountains burst the parted ground. Like crystal clear. and shoots upon his wings: No less fore-right the rapid chase they held. in the heroic times. one chasing. 276 .276 By these they pass'd. no vulgar prize they play.

whose zeal whole hecatombs has slain. a mortal. to his fears resign'd. and the towers of Troy: Now see him flying. by stern Pelides slain. . pre-ordain'd to death! And will no murmurs fill the courts above? No gods indignant blame their partial Jove?" "Go then (return'd the sire) without delay. and blackens heaven with storms. inglorious round yon city driven! My heart partakes the generous Hector's pain. and fierce Achilles. Swift at the mandate pleased Tritonia flies." Then Pallas thus: "Shall he whose vengeance forms The forky bolt. (Good as he is) the lot imposed on man. Hector. And stoops impetuous from the cleaving skies. ye powers! ('tis worthy your debate) Whether to snatch him from impending fate. The gazing gods lean forward from the sky. Or let him bear. From Ida's summits. Shall he prolong one Trojan's forfeit breath? A man. close behind. Exert thy will: I give the Fates their way. The sire of mortals and immortals spoke: 649 "Unworthy sight! the man beloved of heaven. Behold. Thus three times round the Trojan wall they fly. Consult.BOOK XXII. To whom. And fate. while eager on the chase they look. Whose grateful fumes the gods received with joy.

O muse. Thus step by step. Sign'd to the troops to yield his foe the way. in his latest hour. as he coursed below. And hopes the assistance of his pitying friends. And leave untouch'd the honours of the day. but he eyes in vain. Their sinking limbs the fancied course forsake. assisted Hector's force With fate itself so long to hold the course? Phoebus it was.) So oft Achilles turns him to the plain: He eyes the city. Or deep beneath the trembling thicket shakes. nor that can overtake: No less the labouring heroes pant and strain: While that but flies. lest some Greek's advance Should snatch the glory from his lifted lance. and one to lead the chase. As men in slumbers seem with speedy pace. (Whose showering arrows. o'er the vale and lawn. The certain hound his various maze pursues. One to pursue. In vain he tries the covert of the brakes. who.650 The Iliad of Homer [396] As through the forest. There swift Achilles compass'd round the field. and this pursues in vain. What god. From the high turrets might oppress the foe. Nor this can fly. Endued his knees with strength. . where'er the Trojan wheel'd. Oft as to reach the Dardan gates he bends. his nerves with power: And great Achilles. Sure of the vapour in the tainted dews. The well-breath'd beagle drives the flying fawn.

with equal hand. as brothers. and triumphing.BOOK XXII. 651 Then Phoebus left him. and hell receives the weight. and sorrow'd in thy flight: It fits us now a noble stand to make. And weighs. that show The fates of mortal men. O Hector! have I borne the sight Of this distress. Roll'd at the feet of unrelenting Jove. their destinies. nor his god of light. on his lance reclined While like Deiphobus the martial dame (Her face. Falls by thy hand. See. Rest here: myself will lead the Trojan on. And here." Her voice divine the chief with joyful mind Obey'd. Fierce Minerva flies To stern Pelides. And conquest blazes with full beams on Greece. And urge to meet the fate he cannot shun. Great Hector falls. insatiable of war. and her arms the same). Low sinks the scale surcharged with Hector's fate. nor flight. and things below: Here each contending hero's lot he tries. cries: "O loved of Jove! this day our labours cease. and greets him thus with voice belied: "Too long. and rested. Shall more avail him. Jove lifts the golden balances. and mine! nor force. equal fates partake. Drunk with renown. Heavy with death it sinks. her gesture. by hapless Hector's side Approach'd." . where in vain he supplicates above. In show an aid. that Hector famed so far.

Let the steel sparkle. and her chief pursued. or I die. Of all that Hecuba to Priam bore. and the javelin fly. or my fate: I kill thee. Stripp'd of its arms alone (the conqueror's due) [397] . long loved: much loved. But now some god within me bids me try Thine. And for a moment's space suspend the day. Yet on the verge of battle let us stay. regardless of your own. if. press'd me to forbear: My friends embraced my knees. Long tried. but honoured more! Since you. O son of Peleus! Troy has view'd Her walls thrice circled. the glorious conflict let us try. (Eternal witnesses of all below. The silence Hector broke: His dreadful plumage nodded as he spoke: "Enough. Dearer than all that own a brother's name. Come then. Sternly they met. adjured my stay. Or let us stretch Achilles on the field. But stronger love impell'd. Jove by these hands shall shed thy noble life.652 The Iliad of Homer Then he: "O prince! allied in blood and fame. and I obey. then swiftly march'd before: The Dardan hero shuns his foe no more. Or to his arm our bloody trophies yield." Fraudful she said. And much my mother's. of all our numerous race alone Defend my life. victor in the strife. And faithful guardians of the treasured vow!) To them I swear." Again the goddess: "Much my father's prayer. Let Heaven's high powers be call'd to arbitrate The just conditions of this stern debate. No vile dishonour shall thy corse pursue.

while o'er his head the flying spear Sang innocent. and launch'd his javelin at the foe. Till death extinguish rage. and ought to be. no further chance. Rouse then thy forces this important hour. who. . The rest to Greece uninjured I'll restore: Now plight thy mutual oath. Such leagues as men and furious lions join." 653 "Talk not of oaths (the dreadful chief replies. and calls thee to thy death. and braves the dread of Troy. and spent its force in air. elate with joy. and never-ceasing strife. While anger flash'd from his disdainful eyes). But Hector shunn'd the meditated blow: He stoop'd. Collect thy soul. No further subterfuge. Minerva watch'd it falling on the land. and gave to great Achilles' hand. by thee deprived of breath. Pallas gives thee to my lance. 'Tis Pallas. and call forth all thy power. Each Grecian ghost. Nor oath nor pact Achilles plights with thee: Such pacts as lambs and rabid wolves combine. Unseen of Hector. Now hovers round." He spoke. and thought. and life.BOOK XXII. I ask no more. To such I call the gods! one constant state Of lasting rancour and eternal hate: No thought but rage. Now shakes his lance. Detested as thou art. Then drew.

nor other hope remain. resulting with a bound From off the ringing orb. unknown. But he secure lies guarded in the wall. for no Deiphobus was there.654 The Iliad of Homer "The life you boasted to that javelin given. or thy own. our fears to blind. My fate depends on Heaven. All comfortless he stands: then. To thee. but the heavenly shield repell'd The mortal dart. "'Tis so—Heaven wills it. Prince! you have miss'd. presumptuous as thou art. But know. 'twas thy deed. yet I perish great: Yet in a mighty deed I shall expire. Unerring. and kind! Then welcome fate! 'Tis true I perish. deep buried in thy heart. and may this dart End all my country's woes." The weapon flew. Pallas. Hector beheld his javelin fall in vain. A god deceived me. it struck the ground. I shall not fall a fugitive at least. with a sigh. No refuge now. My soul shall bravely issue from my breast. whatever fate I am to try. and admire!" [398] . its course unerring held. Great Jove deserts me. Boasting is but an art. Nor other lance. and my hour is nigh! I deem'd Deiphobus had heard my call. demands a spear— In vain. Or what must prove my fortune. Let future ages hear it. But first. And with false terrors sink another's mind. Death and black fate approach! 'tis I must bleed. no succour from above. and the son of Jove. Propitious once. try thou my arm. He calls Deiphobus. By no dishonest wound shall Hector die.

Who fear'd no vengeance for Patroclus slain: Then. at the word. Eyes the whole man. Stoops from the clouds to truss the quivering hare. Refulgent orb! above his fourfold cone The gilded horse-hair sparkled in the sun. unhappy! from thy dying hour. But the rich mail Patroclus lately wore Securely cased the warrior's body o'er. One space at length he spies. stern Achilles cries: "At last is Hector stretch'd upon the plain. . high balanced in the air. his figure seem'd on flame." v. 166. If better thou belong not to the dawn.BOOK XXII. to let in fate. Prone on the field the bleeding warrior lies. In his right hand he waves the weapon round. Nodding at every step: (Vulcanian frame!) And as he moved." "Paradise Lost. And.277 Far-beaming o'er the silver host of night. When all the starry train emblaze the sphere: So shone the point of great Achilles' spear. While. last in the train of night. So Jove's bold bird. his weighty sword he drew. thus triumphing. prince! you should have fear'd. what now you feel. Where 'twixt the neck and throat the jointed plate Gave entrance: through that penetrable part Furious he drove the well-directed dart: Nor pierced the windpipe yet. Fierce. "Fairest of stars. nor took the power Of speech. Nor less Achilles his fierce soul prepares: Before his breast the flaming shield he bears. on Achilles flew. 277 655 [399] —Hesper shines with keener light. As radiant Hesper shines with keener light. and meditates the wound. all collected.

) Not those who gave me breath should bid me spare. wretch accursed! relentless he replies. For ever honour'd." "No. and the gods devour. Peaceful he sleeps. leave me not for Grecian dogs to tear! The common rites of sepulture bestow. Drain their whole realm to buy one funeral flame: Their Hector on the pile they should not see. to bribe me." Then Hector. And giving thousands. with all our rites adorn'd. and for ever mourn'd: While cast to all the rage of hostile power." . offer thousands more. Thee birds shall mangle. Then low in dust thy strength and glory laid. Nor all the sacred prevalence of prayer. (Flames. shot flashing from his eyes. bring forth all her store. Ah. and his weeping dame. To soothe a father's and a mother's woe: Let their large gifts procure an urn at least. Should Dardan Priam.656 The Iliad of Homer Achilles absent was Achilles still: Yet a short space the great avenger stayed. Should Troy. Could I myself the bloody banquet join! No—to the dogs that carcase I resign. And Hector's ashes in his country rest. Nor rob the vultures of one limb of thee. as he spoke. fainting at the approach of death: "By thy own soul! by those who gave thee breath! By all the sacred prevalence of prayer.

cast it on the ground."278 657 [400] He ceased. 278 . melancholy ghost! Achilles. when fate's decree And angry gods shall wreak this wrong on thee. Then thus the chief his dying accents drew: "Thy rage. And cursed thee with a heart that cannot yield. ignobler. To the dark realm the spirit wings its way. he was slain by an arrow from the quiver of Paris. The greatest efforts were made by the Trojans to possess themselves of the body. a day will come. musing as he roll'd his eyes O'er the dead hero. While some. or with taunts disgrace: Such was his fate. After chasing the Trojans into the town. Then forcing backward from the gaping wound The reeking javelin. implacable! too well I knew: The Furies that relentless breast have steel'd. the great dead deface With wounds ungenerous. which was however rescued and borne off to the Grecian camp by the valour of Ajax and Ulysses. and conveyed it away to a renewed life of immortality in the isle of Leuke in the Euxine. The Fates suppress'd his labouring breath.BOOK XXII. wandering. And his eyes stiffen'd at the hand of death. A n