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at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: The Iliad of Homer Author: Homer Release Date: September 2006 [Ebook 6130] Language: English


The Iliad of Homer

Translated by Alexander Pope, with notes by the Rev. Theodore Alois Buckley, M.A., F.S.A. and Flaxman's Designs. 1899

INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER BOOK I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK III. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK IV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK V. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK VI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK VII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK VIII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK IX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK X. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XIII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XIV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XVI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XVII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XVIII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XIX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XXI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XXII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XXIII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XXIV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONCLUDING NOTE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix xlv 3 41 85 111 137 181 209 233 261 295 319 355 377 415 441 473 513 545 575 593 615 641 667 707 747

HOMER INVOKING THE MUSE. . . . . . . . . . . . . MARS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MINERVA REPRESSING THE FURY OF ACHILLES. . THE DEPARTURE OF BRISEIS FROM THE TENT OF ACHILLES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THETIS CALLING BRIAREUS TO THE ASSISTANCE OF JUPITER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THETIS ENTREATING JUPITER TO HONOUR ACHILLES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VULCAN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JUPITER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE APOTHEOSIS OF HOMER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . JUPITER SENDING THE EVIL DREAM TO AGAMEMNON. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NEPTUNE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VENUS, DISGUISED, INVITING HELEN TO THE CHAMBER OF PARIS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VENUS PRESENTING HELEN TO PARIS. . . . . . . . VENUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Map, titled "Graeciae Antiquae". . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE COUNCIL OF THE GODS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Map of the Plain of Troy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VENUS, WOUNDED IN THE HAND, CONDUCTED BY IRIS TO MARS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OTUS AND EPHIALTES HOLDING MARS CAPTIVE. . DIOMED CASTING HIS SPEAR AT MARS. . . . . . . . JUNO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HECTOR CHIDING PARIS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE MEETING OF HECTOR AND ANDROMACHE. . 6 13 16 23 27 32 35 38 39 43 66 103 105 108 109 113 135 154 155 175 178 198 201


The Iliad of Homer

BOWS AND BOW CASE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 IRIS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 HECTOR AND AJAX SEPARATED BY THE HERALDS.221 GREEK AMPHORA—WINE VESSELS. . . . . . . . . . 231 JUNO AND MINERVA GOING TO ASSIST THE GREEKS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 THE HOURS TAKING THE HORSES FROM JUNO'S CAR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 THE SHIELD OF ACHILLES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 PLUTO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 THE EMBASSY TO ACHILLES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 GREEK GALLEY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 PROSERPINE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283 ACHILLES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294 DIOMED AND ULYSSES RETURNING WITH THE SPOILS OF RHESUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316 THE DESCENT OF DISCORD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 HERCULES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353 POLYDAMAS ADVISING HECTOR. . . . . . . . . . . 359 GREEK ALTAR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375 NEPTUNE RISING FROM THE SEA. . . . . . . . . . . 380 GREEK EARRINGS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413 SLEEP ESCAPING FROM THE WRATH OF JUPITER. . 427 GREEK SHIELD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433 BACCHUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439 AJAX DEFENDING THE GREEK SHIPS. . . . . . . . . 470 CASTOR AND POLLUX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472 Buckles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480 DIANA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483 SLEEP AND DEATH CONVEYING THE BODY OF SARPEDON TO LYCIA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503 ÆSCULAPIUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512 FIGHT FOR THE BODY OF PATROCLUS. . . . . . . . 525 VULCAN FROM AN ANTIQUE GEM. . . . . . . . . . . 543

ix THETIS ORDERING THE NEREIDS TO DESCEND INTO THE SEA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JUNO COMMANDING THE SUN TO SET. . . . . . . TRIPOD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THETIS AND EURYNOME RECEIVING THE INFANT VULCAN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VULCAN AND CHARIS RECEIVING THETIS. . . . . THETIS BRINGING THE ARMOUR TO ACHILLES. . HERCULES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE GODS DESCENDING TO BATTLE. . . . . . . . CENTAUR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ACHILLES CONTENDING WITH THE RIVERS. . . . THE BATH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANDROMACHE FAINTING ON THE WALL. . . . . . THE FUNERAL PILE OF PATROCLUS. . . . . . . . . CERES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HECTOR'S BODY AT THE CAR OF ACHILLES. . . . THE JUDGMENT OF PARIS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IRIS ADVISES PRIAM TO OBTAIN THE BODY OF HECTOR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FUNERAL OF HECTOR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 552 . 556 . 561 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 562 564 577 592 597 614 628 662 663 677 705 709 710

. 715 . 744


Scepticism is as much the result of knowledge, as knowledge is of scepticism. To be content with what we at present know, is, for the most part, to shut our ears against conviction; since, from the very gradual character of our education, we must continually forget, and emancipate ourselves from, knowledge previously acquired; we must set aside old notions and embrace fresh ones; and, as we learn, we must be daily unlearning something which it has cost us no small labour and anxiety to acquire. And this difficulty attaches itself more closely to an age in which progress has gained a strong ascendency over prejudice, and in which persons and things are, day by day, finding their real level, in lieu of their conventional value. The same principles which have swept away traditional abuses, and which are making rapid havoc among the revenues of sinecurists, and stripping the thin, tawdry veil from attractive superstitions, are working as actively in literature as in society. The credulity of one writer, or the partiality of another, finds as powerful a touchstone and as wholesome a chastisement in the healthy scepticism of a temperate class of antagonists, as the dreams of conservatism, or the impostures of pluralist sinecures in the Church. History and tradition, whether of ancient or comparatively recent times, are subjected to very different handling from that which the indulgence or credulity of former ages could allow. Mere statements are jealously watched, and the motives of the writer form as important an ingredient in the analysis of his history, as the facts he records. Probability is a powerful and troublesome


The Iliad of Homer


test; and it is by this troublesome standard that a large portion of historical evidence is sifted. Consistency is no less pertinacious and exacting in its demands. In brief, to write a history, we must know more than mere facts. Human nature, viewed under an induction of extended experience, is the best help to the criticism of human history. Historical characters can only be estimated by the standard which human experience, whether actual or traditionary, has furnished. To form correct views of individuals we must regard them as forming parts of a great whole—we must measure them by their relation to the mass of beings by whom they are surrounded, and, in contemplating the incidents in their lives or condition which tradition has handed down to us, we must rather consider the general bearing of the whole narrative, than the respective probability of its details. It is unfortunate for us, that, of some of the greatest men, we know least, and talk most. Homer, Socrates, and Shakespere1
1 "What," says Archdeacon Wilberforce, "is the natural root of loyalty as distinguished from such mere selfish desire of personal security as is apt to take its place in civilized times, but that consciousness of a natural bond among the families of men which gives a fellow-feeling to whole clans and nations, and thus enlists their affections in behalf of those time-honoured representatives of their ancient blood, in whose success they feel a personal interest? Hence the delight when we recognize an act of nobility or justice in our hereditary princes

"'Tuque prior, tu parce genus qui ducis Olympo, Projice tela manu sanguis meus' "So strong is this feeling, that it regains an engrafted influence even when history witnesses that vast convulsions have rent and weakened it and the Celtic feeling towards the Stuarts has been rekindled in our own days towards the grand daughter of George the Third of Hanover. "Somewhat similar may be seen in the disposition to idolize those great lawgivers of man's race, who have given expression, in the immortal language of song, to the deeper inspirations of our nature. The thoughts of Homer or of Shakespere are the universal inheritance of the human race. In this mutual ground every man meets his brother, they have been bet forth by the providence of God to vindicate for all of us what nature could effect, and that, in these representatives of our race, we might recognize our common benefactors.'—Doctrine of the Incarnation, pp. 9, 10.



have, perhaps, contributed more to the intellectual enlightenment of mankind than any other three writers who could be named, and yet the history of all three has given rise to a boundless ocean of discussion, which has left us little save the option of choosing which theory or theories we will follow. The personality of Shakespere is, perhaps, the only thing in which critics will allow us to believe without controversy; but upon everything else, even down to the authorship of plays, there is more or less of doubt and uncertainty. Of Socrates we know as little as the contradictions of Plato and Xenophon will allow us to know. He was one of the dramatis personae in two dramas as unlike in principles as in style. He appears as the enunciator of opinions as different in their tone as those of the writers who have handed them down. When we have read Plato or Xenophon, we think we know something of Socrates; when we have fairly read and examined both, we feel convinced that we are something worse than ignorant. It has been an easy, and a popular expedient, of late years, to deny the personal or real existence of men and things whose life and condition were too much for our belief. This system—which has often comforted the religious sceptic, and substituted the consolations of Strauss for those of the New Testament—has been of incalculable value to the historical theorists of the last and present centuries. To question the existence of Alexander the Great, would be a more excusable act, than to believe in that of Romulus. To deny a fact related in Herodotus, because it is inconsistent with a theory developed from an Assyrian inscription which no two scholars read in the same way, is more pardonable, than to believe in the good-natured old king whom the elegant pen of Florian has idealized—Numa Pompilius. Scepticism has attained its culminating point with respect to Homer, and the state of our Homeric knowledge may be described as a free permission to believe any theory, provided we throw overboard all written tradition, concerning the author



The Iliad of Homer

or authors of the Iliad and Odyssey. What few authorities exist on the subject, are summarily dismissed, although the arguments appear to run in a circle. "This cannot be true, because it is not true; and, that is not true, because it cannot be true." Such seems to be the style, in which testimony upon testimony, statement upon statement, is consigned to denial and oblivion. It is, however, unfortunate that the professed biographies of Homer are partly forgeries, partly freaks of ingenuity and imagination, in which truth is the requisite most wanting. Before taking a brief review of the Homeric theory in its present conditions, some notice must be taken of the treatise on the Life of Homer which has been attributed to Herodotus. According to this document, the city of Cumae in Æolia, was, at an early period, the seat of frequent immigrations from various parts of Greece. Among the immigrants was Menapolus, the son of Ithagenes. Although poor, he married, and the result of the union was a girl named Critheis. The girl was left an orphan at an early age, under the guardianship of Cleanax, of Argos. It is to the indiscretion of this maiden that we "are indebted for so much happiness." Homer was the first fruit of her juvenile frailty, and received the name of Melesigenes, from having been born near the river Meles, in Boeotia, whither Critheis had been transported in order to save her reputation. "At this time," continues our narrative, "there lived at Smyrna a man named Phemius, a teacher of literature and music, who, not being married, engaged Critheis to manage his household, and spin the flax he received as the price of his scholastic labours. So satisfactory was her performance of this task, and so modest her conduct, that he made proposals of marriage, declaring himself, as a further inducement, willing to adopt her son, who, he asserted, would become a clever man, if he were carefully brought up." They were married; careful cultivation ripened the talents which nature had bestowed, and Melesigenes soon surpassed



his schoolfellows in every attainment, and, when older, rivalled his preceptor in wisdom. Phemius died, leaving him sole heir to his property, and his mother soon followed. Melesigenes carried on his adopted father's school with great success, exciting the admiration not only of the inhabitants of Smyrna, but also of the strangers whom the trade carried on there, especially in the exportation of corn, attracted to that city. Among these visitors, one Mentes, from Leucadia, the modern Santa Maura, who evinced a knowledge and intelligence rarely found in those times, persuaded Melesigenes to close his school, and accompany him on his travels. He promised not only to pay his expenses, but to furnish him with a further stipend, urging, that, "While he was yet young, it was fitting that he should see with his own eyes the countries and cities which might hereafter be the subjects of his discourses." Melesigenes consented, and set out with his patron, "examining all the curiosities of the countries they visited, and informing himself of everything by interrogating those whom he met." We may also suppose, that he wrote memoirs of all that he deemed worthy of preservation2 Having set sail from Tyrrhenia and Iberia, they reached Ithaca. Here Melesigenes, who had already suffered in his eyes, became much worse, and Mentes, who was about to leave for Leucadia, left him to the medical superintendence of a friend of his, named Mentor, the son of Alcinor. Under his hospitable and intelligent host, Melesigenes rapidly became acquainted with the legends respecting Ulysses, which afterwards formed the subject of the Odyssey. The inhabitants of Ithaca assert, that it was here that Melesigenes became blind, but the Colophomans make their city the seat of
Eikos de min aen kai mnaemoruna panton grapherthai. Vit. Hom. in Schweigh Herodot t. iv. p. 299, sq. Section 6. I may observe that this Life has been paraphrased in English by my learned young friend Kenneth R. H. Mackenzie, and appended to my prose translation of the Odyssey. The present abridgement however, will contain all that is of use to the reader, for the biographical value of the treatise is most insignificant.



The Iliad of Homer

that misfortune. He then returned to Smyrna, where he applied himself to the study of poetry.3 But poverty soon drove him to Cumae. Having passed over the Hermaean plain, he arrived at Neon Teichos, the New Wall, a colony of Cumae. Here his misfortunes and poetical talent gained him the friendship of one Tychias, an armourer. "And up to my time," continued the author, "the inhabitants showed the place where he used to sit when giving a recitation of his verses, and they greatly honoured the spot. Here also a poplar grew, which they said had sprung up ever since Melesigenes arrived".4 But poverty still drove him on, and he went by way of Larissa, as being the most convenient road. Here, the Cumans say, he composed an epitaph on Gordius, king of Phrygia, which has however, and with greater probability, been attributed to
—I.e. both of composing and reciting verses for as Blair observes, "The first poets sang their own verses." Sextus Empir. adv. Mus. p. 360 ed. Fabric. Ou hamelei ge toi kai oi poiaetai melopoioi legontai, kai ta Omaerou epae to palai pros lyran aedeto. "The voice," observes Heeren, "was always accompanied by some instrument. The bard was provided with a harp on which he played a prelude, to elevate and inspire his mind, and with which he accompanied the song when begun. His voice probably preserved a medium between singing and recitation; the words, and not the melody were regarded by the listeners, hence it was necessary for him to remain intelligible to all. In countries where nothing similar is found, it is difficult to represent such scenes to the mind; but whoever has had an opportunity of listening to the improvisation of Italy, can easily form an idea of Demodocus and Phemius."—Ancient Greece, p. 94. 4 "Should it not be, since my arrival? asks Mackenzie, observing that "poplars can hardly live so long". But setting aside the fact that we must not expect consistency in a mere romance, the ancients had a superstitious belief in the great age of trees which grew near places consecrated by the presence of gods and great men. See Cicero de Legg II I, sub init., where he speaks of the plane tree under which Socrates used to walk and of the tree at Delos, where Latona gave birth to Apollo. This passage is referred to by Stephanus of Byzantium, s. v. N. T. p. 490, ed. de Pinedo. I omit quoting any of the dull epigrams ascribed

enteuthen de kai tounoma Homeros epekrataese to Melaesigenei apo taes symphoraes oi gar Kumaioi tous tuphlous Homerous legousin. they would be encumbered with a multitude of useless people." says the writer. kept Homer in his own house. Having made the speech. The etymology has been condemned by recent scholars. Cleob. "Melesigenes acquired the name of Homer. 5 It is quoted as the work of Cleobulus. xiv. he would render their city most gloriously renowned. by Diogenes Laert. [xiii] . Epische Cyclus.INTRODUCTION. and allowed him a pittance. and delighted all by the charms of his poetry. and Mackenzie's note. xvii Cleobulus of Lindus. 62. l. See Welcker. but one man observed that "if they were to feed Homers. Metrop. p. 7 Os ei tous. Having to Homer for. and left them to debate respecting the answer to be given to his proposal.5 Arrived at Cumae. and the poet vented his disappointment in a wish that Cumoea might never produce a poet capable of giving it renown and glory. 127. p. "The authenticity of these fragments depends upon that of the pseudo Herodotean Life of Homer. with the purport of which our author has forgotten to acquaint us. omilon pollon te kai achreoin exousin. p. Vit. Coleridge. he frequented the converzationes6 of the old men. The greater part of the assembly seemed favourable to the poet's demand. p. the pension was denied." "From this circumstance. 317. which shows how similar the world has always been in its treatment of literary men. for the Cumans call blind men Homers. Homerous doxei trephein autois. ed. who aimed at the reputation of poetical genius. Vit. 38 in Encycl. They avowed their willingness to support him in the measure he proposed."7 With a love of economy. c. Cf. Homer was destined to experience another literary distress. as Mr. One Thestorides." Lit of Greece. Justice Talfourd rightly observes. he declared that. Classic Poets. Hom. on condition of the verses of the poet passing in his name. 311. At Phocoea. Encouraged by this favourable reception. if they would allow him a public maintenance. pp. Casaub. he retired. from which they are taken. and procured him an audience in the council. 6 I trust I am justified in employing this as an equivalent for the Greek leschai. p.

Homer fortunately met with a person who had known him in Phocoea. 358.xviii The Iliad of Homer [xiv] collected sufficient poetry to be profitable. after some difficulty. and prayed that he might be able to expose the imposture of Thestorides. nothing is more unintelligible than the human heart. neglected the man whose brains he had sucked. pp. which faces that island. and the Phocoeid. of Lit. by whose assistance he at length. Having embarked. and Mure. Glaucus (for that was the name of the goat-herd) heard his voice. of the many things hidden from the knowledge of man. 284. p. vol. c. ii. During his stay at Phocoea.. "Having set out from Pithys. called off his dogs. Homer went on. struck by the similarity of the verses they heard him recite. Thestorides. and drove them away from Homer.. At Erythrae. 8 . and left him. which we will continue in the words of our author. No vessel happened then to be setting sail thither. ran up quickly. Here he met with an adventure. Section 3. See Muller's Hist. thnetoisin anoiston poleon per. by his breach of hospitality. Gr. Ibid. Lit. vi. who. l. but he found one ready to Start for Erythrae. had drawn down the wrath of Jove the Hospitable. p. and he prevailed upon the seamen to allow him to accompany them. Welcker. Homer is said to have observed: "O Thestorides. until some Chian merchants. like some would-be-literary publishers. Homer is said to have composed the Little Iliad. 315. 132. attracted by the cries of some goats that were pasturing. This at once determined him to set out for Chios. ouden aphrastoteron peletai noou anthropoisin. acquainted him with the fact that Thestorides was pursuing a profitable livelihood by the recital of the very same poems. The dogs barked on his approach. and he cried out. For or some time he stood wondering how a blind man should have reached such a place alone. and what could be his design in coming. he invoked a favourable wind."8 Homer continued his career of difficulty and distress. reached the little hamlet of Pithys. At his departure. He then Thestorides. 272. a town of Ionia. sqq. sq.

since. vi. Choricius in Fabric. This is so pretty a picture of early manners and hospitality. he showed some tact in identifying Homer with certain events described in his poems. by recounting to him the whole history of his misfortunes. kept barking at the stranger. A 9 . but on the following morning. logois gar estia. whilst they watch. Homer narrating his wanderings. Cf. Glaucus resolved to go to his master. or estiatores. he told him the whole story respecting Homer and his journey. p. Glaucus was pleased with the advice. that it is almost a pity to find that it is obviously a copy from the Odyssey. they banqueted10 afresh on conversation. Having arrived at Bolissus. i. instead of eating. he bade him bring the stranger to him. promising to return quickly. prythee attend to my behest. and in eliciting from them the germs of something like a personal narrative. viii. Petav So diaegaemasi sophois omou kai terpnois aedio taen Thoinaen tois hestiomenois epoiei. Bibl.9 "The dogs. and how he had come to desolate places and untrodden spots. and of what he stood in need. Themist. He paid little attention to what he said. a place near the farm. he left Homer at home. and finding his mate. 851. Orat. However. and blamed Glaucus for his stupidity in taking in and feeding maimed and enfeebled persons. ed. In fact. So Plato calls the parties conversing daitumones. and he took him. and marvelled at its author. moved him with compassion. and inquired who he was. Having left the goats in charge of a fellow-servant. p. 374. P. Having finished supper. bade him sup. Tim. and acquaint him with his meeting with Homer. 10 Dia logon estionto.INTRODUCTION. At length they retired to rest. T. whoever was the author of this fictitious biography. 168. and led him to his cot. See the fourteenth book. and telling of the cities he had visited. according to their usual habit. xix went up to him. First give the dogs their supper at the doors of the hut: for so it is better. and having lit a fire. p. my friend. Homer. and xvi. A common metaphor. Gr. 522 A. nor thief nor wild beast will approach the fold. Athenaeus vii p 275. Whereupon Homer addressed Glaucus thus: O Glaucus.

" 11 . and the Chian persuaded him to remain.12 "the most curious remain is that which has been named.11 Besides the satisfaction of driving the impostor Thestorides from the island. She is represented. at some distance from the city. that Homer realised a considerable fortune. The area is bounded by a low rim. The shape is oval. i. and in the centre is the image of the goddess. car etant alle seul pour l'examiner je perdis mon crayon. or Battle of the Frogs and Mice.— "Je ne puis repondre d'une exactitude scrupuleuse dans la vue generale que j'en donne. It is on the coast." says Chandler. i. vol. and on the back. the other married a Chian. P. and probably of the most remote antiquity. and in the house of this Chian citizen. Homer enjoyed considerable success as a teacher. et je fus oblige de m'en fier a ma memoire. northward. and to undertake the charge of his children. one of whom died single. and appears to have been an open temple of Cybele. the head and an arm wanting. The chair has a lion carved on each side. In the town of Chios he established a school where he taught the precepts of poetry. The whole is hewn out of the mountain. which has already been mentioned:— "In his poetical compositions Homer displays great gratitude It was at Bolissus. where a view of the spot is given of which the author candidly says. formed on the top of a rock. without reason. as usual. indistinct." So successful was this school.xx The Iliad of Homer [xv] Glaucus told Homer what had taken place. 61. Travels. the School of Homer. assuring him that good fortune would be the result. The following passage betrays the same tendency to connect the personages of the poems with the history of the poet. and some other minor works. and bade him follow him. "To this day. vol. is rude. Conversation soon showed that the stranger was a man of much cleverness and general knowledge. sitting. p. and had two daughters. and about five yards over. referred to in the Voyage Pittoresque dans la Grece. 92. or seat. the Epicichlidia. that Homer is said to have written the Batrachomyomachia. 12 Chandler. Je ne crois cependant pas avoir trop a me plaindre d'elle en cette occasion. He married.

the substance of the earliest life of Homer we possess. Hom. Apul. and invited to join in celebrating the Apaturian festival. de Deo Socrat. Pont. who had met with him in Chios. 15 The riddle is given in Section 35. p. Poes.: the assumption of Mentor's form by the guardian deity of the wise Ulysses. whither his reputation had now extended. s.13 in return for the care taken of him when afflicted with blindness. Section 28. xxx. Halic. viz. t.15 Such is. I profess to bring forward statements. is given by the allegorists." His celebrity continued to increase.INTRODUCTION. 531-5. in the Odyssey. He recited some verses. he was handsomely received. . p. and died. The classical reader may compare Plutarch. it is said. made some additions to his poems calculated to please the vanity of the Athenians. and many persons advised him to visit Greece. not to vouch for their reasonableness 13 A more probable reason for this companionship. Opp. Here being recognized by a Samian. de Hom. whose name he has inserted in his poem as the companion of Ulysses. In doing so. at not having been able to unravel an enigma proposed by some fishermen's children. Mythol. and for the character of Mentor itself. now Ino. that it is scarcely necessary to point them out in detail. Dionys. and by singing the Eiresione at the New Moon festivals. 880. 14 Vit. f. with whose children he was very popular. Minerva. of Gale's Opusc. of whose city he had hitherto made no mention. He also testifies his gratitude to Phemius. in brief. In the spring he sailed for Athens. where he fell extremely ill. visiting the houses of the rich. ii. Xyland. which gave great satisfaction. Let us now consider some of the opinions to which a persevering. patient. Compare Mackenzie's note. Hom. Alleg. It is said that his death arose from vexation. Having. who had given him both sustenance and instruction. Heraclid. xxi towards Mentor of Ithaca. p. and so broad are the evidences of its historical worthlessness. and arrived at the island of Ios. 15. he earned a subsistence.14 he sent out for Samos. and learned—but by no means consistent—series of investigations has led. c.

let us pass on to the main question at issue. p. 96. If the period of tradition in history is the region of twilight. i. "Homer appeared. like the sources of the Nile. our devotion to superior power. because they rose amidst darkness. p. must have remained the secret of the poet. Bulwer's Caxtons v. in order to let them settle at last." Such are the words in which one of the most judicious German critics has eloquently described the uncertainty in which the whole of the Homeric question is involved. because they are. flows like the Nile. for the most part. . With no less truth and feeling he proceeds:— "It seems here of chief importance to expect no more than the nature of things makes possible. as is the history of many of the first minds who have done honour to humanity.xxii The Iliad of Homer [xvi] or probability. for their origin. its fountains will ever remain concealed. We are perpetually labouring to destroy our delights. blessing and fertilizing. It were idle and foolish to shake the contents of a vase. we should not expect in it perfect light. The creations of genius always seem like miracles. created far out of the reach of observation. through many lands and nations. we never could wholly explain the origin of the Iliad and the Odyssey. our composure. 4. The majestic stream of his song." 16 From this criticism. Of all the animals 16 17 Heeren's Ancient Greece. and. The history of this poet and his works is lost in doubtful obscurity. which shows as much insight into the depths of human nature as into the minute wire-drawings of scholastic investigation. If we were in possession of all the historical testimonies. Compare Sir E. in all essential points. Was Homer an individual?17 or were the Iliad and Odyssey the result of an ingenious arrangement of fragments by earlier poets? Well has Landor remarked: "Some tell us there were twenty Homers. L. some deny that there was ever one.

without seeking to destroy the vividness of first impressions by minute analysis—our editorial office compels us to give some attention to the doubts and difficulties with which the Homeric question is beset. p. or they to whole The body's harmony. It was not till the age of the grammarians that its primitive integrity was called in question. How parts relate to parts. "There is some truth. the comprehensive conception of an harmonious whole. My opinion is. the beaming soul. to prefer his judgment to his imagination. though some malicious exaggeration. in the lines of Pope. however. almost conclusive testimony to its original composition. greatly as we admire the generous enthusiasm which rests contented with the poetry on which its best impulses had been nurtured and fostered. 18 [xvii] Pericles and Aspasia. for a brief period..INTRODUCTION. that what is best for us is our admiration of good. Letter lxxxiv. and to condescend to dry details. 387. that the minute and analytical spirit of a grammarian is not the best qualification for the profound feeling. xxiii on earth we least know what is good for us.— "'The critic eye—that microscope of wit Sees hairs and pores. examines bit by bit. No man living venerates Homer more than I do. rather than that of Mr. ." 18 But.) I must express my sympathy with the sentiments expressed in the following remarks:— "We cannot but think the universal admiration of its unity by the better. entering into particulars respecting the question of this unity of the Homeric poems. vol ii. nor is it injustice to assert. (at least of the Iliad. Brodie or Sir Astley Cooper. the poetic age of Greece. Works. Before. The most exquisite anatomist may be no judge of the symmetry of the human frame: and we would take the opinion of Chantrey or Westmacott on the proportions and general beauty of a form. and to entreat our reader.

Viz. they consist in an attempt to blend those hypotheses into something like consistency. A hapless wanderer. 104. iii. when some stranger from the sea. which deserve to be consulted. And ask you. oo dixa taes sphodrotaetos paramenei to megethos 22 See Tatian. The grave and cautious Thucydides quoted without hesitation the Hymn to Apollo. farewell! and oh! remember me Hereafter. no suspicion of the personal non-existence of Homer ever arose. rather than in advocating 21 . doubts had begun to awaken on the subject. lxxxvii. pp. for the translation of which I am indebted to Coleridge. Wasse.21 and. Burmann. shall see. 286. among a mass of ancient authors. So far. p. the voice of antiquity seems to be in favour of our early ideas on the subject. 171. Mr. in an oft quoted passage. In fact. of all the bards you boast. Classic Poets. Mackenzie has given three brief but elaborate papers on the different writers on the subject.'" See Thucyd. v. Othen en tae Odysseia pareikasai tis an kataduomeno ton Omaeron haelio. No. At the end of the seventeenth century. Gr. 20 19 "Origias. as any of the hypotheses hitherto put forth. let us now see what are the discoveries to which more modern investigations lay claim. and 221. Who sings the sweetest.. maid.xxiv The Iliad of Homer Are things which Kuster. When man's whole frame is obvious to a flea. and we find Bentley remarking that Quarterly Review. See Notes and Queries. ix. merely expressed an opinion touching the comparative inferiority of the Odyssey to the Iliad. v. vol. Longin. His own views are moderate. whose very names22 it would be tedious to detail. Longinus. quoted in Fabric. de Sublim. and perhaps as satisfactory. Bibl. 147. II t.—'A blind old man and poor Sweetest he sings—and dwells on Chios' rocky shore. p. may your isle explore...'"19 Long was the time which elapsed before any one dreamt of questioning the unity of the authorship of the Homeric poems.20 the authenticity of which has been already disclaimed by modern critics.. 99. on the whole. the following beautiful passage. ii. Section 26. and delights you most Oh! answer all.

These loose songs were not collected together. neither the perfect symmetry of so complicated a work could have been originally conceived by any poet. xxv "Homer wrote a sequel of songs and rhapsodies. turning to account the Venetian Scholia. until the days of Peisistratus. transmitted with assurance to posterity. but it is in the "Scienza Nuova" of Battista Vico. it is with the Wolfian theory that we have chiefly to deal. that we first meet with the germ of the theory. first opened philosophical discussion as to the history of the Homeric text. which had then been recently published. was thus one of the points in Wolf's case against the primitive integrity of the Iliad and any individual theory. at festivals and other days of merriment. vol. which we will detail in the words of Grote24 — "Half a century ago. if realized by him. to which their composition is referred. Lips. p. in the sixth century before Christ. amongst others. among the early Greeks. till about Peisistratus' time. The absence of easy and convenient writing. 191. of Greece. to be sung by himself. the acute and valuable Prolegomena of F. A considerable part of that dissertation (though by no means the whole) is employed in vindicating the position. and that without writing. Wolf maintained that no written copies of either poem could be shown to have existed during the earlier times. As a step towards that conclusion. for small comings and good cheer. ii. nor. such as must be indispensably supposed for long manuscripts."23 Two French writers—Hedelin and Perrault—avowed a similar scepticism on the subject. Indeed. in the form of an epic poem.INTRODUCTION. 24 Hist. A. Wolf. 23 Letters to Phileleuth. and with the following bold hypothesis. sqq. subsequently defended by Wolf with so much learning and acuteness. about five hundred years after. that the separate constituent portions of the Iliad and Odyssey had not been cemented together into any compact body and unchangeable order. previously announced by Bentley. [xviii] .

in order to controvert it. nor can we even assure ourselves whether Archilochus. nor yet upon the existing habits of society with regard to poetry—for they admit generally that the Iliad and Odyssey were not read. Tyrtaeus. is in the famous ordinance of Solon. and other leading opponents of Wolf. "To me it appears. The traces of writing in Greece. are exceedingly trifling. We have no remaining inscription earlier than the fortieth Olympiad. but recited and heard. if it could be shown. in reference to the Homeric poems. and Mr. are nowise admissible. Kallinus. Few things. we are unable to say. not upon positive proofs. can be more improbable. or at what time the practice of doing so became familiar. opposed as he is to the Wolfian hypothesis.xxvi The Iliad of Homer Odyssey. the connection of the one with the other seems to have been accepted as he originally put it. "Those who maintain the Homeric poems to have been written from the beginning. that. By Nitzsch. Simonides of Amorgus.—but upon the supposed necessity that there must have been manuscripts to ensure the preservation of the poems—the unassisted memory of reciters . Xanthus. admits this no less than Wolf himself. committed their compositions to writing. in the ninth century before the Christian aera. that the architectonic functions ascribed by Wolf to Peisistratus and his associates. to maintain that they were written poems from the beginning. Payne Knight. we were driven to the necessity of admitting long written poems. and the early inscriptions are rude and unskilfully executed. even in the seventh century before the Christian aera. and it has been considered incumbent on those who defended the ancient aggregate character of the Iliad and Odyssey. with regard to the rhapsodies at the Panathenaea: but for what length of time previously manuscripts had existed. rest their case. But much would undoubtedly be gained towards that view of the question. The first positive ground which authorizes us to presume the existence of a manuscript of Homer. and the other early elegiac and lyric poets. in my opinion.

But all this is nothing to two instances of our own day. not only to recite it consecutively. in Scotland. xxvii being neither sufficient nor trustworthy. 25 is far less astonishing than that of long manuscripts. identifies with Homer himself. uneducated man Blind Jamie who could actually repeat. not highly educated. but also to repeat those stanzas in utter defiance of the sense. To take an ordinary case. whatever the passage required. which we know that it was not.INTRODUCTION. or from the eighth line to the first. who had learned to repeat the whole Gierusalemme of Tasso. he informed us that the day before he had passed much time in examining a man. to 'rhapsodize. as from that of the blind bard of Chios. gifted with extraordinary memory. But here we only escape a smaller difficulty by running into a greater. and who held a distinguished rank among the men of letters in the last century. blindness would have been a disqualification for the profession. Moreover. whom Thucydides. after a few minutes consideration any verse required from any part of the Bible—even the obscurest and most unimportant enumeration of mere 25 [xix] . Visiting at Naples a gentleman of the highest intellectual attainments. for the existence of trained bards. The author of that hymn. No such person can have forgotten the poor. be he who he may. we might refer to that of any first rate actor. had it at such perfect command. as well as the general tenor of Grecian legend. in the Hymn to the Delian Apollo. which seemed to cling to the words much more than to the sense. Our informant went on to state that this singular being was proceeding to learn the Orlando Furioso in the same manner. in the Odyssey. at a very short warning. who must be prepared. there is a strong positive reason for believing that the bard was under no necessity of refreshing his memory by consulting a manuscript.' night after night. But even this instance is less wonderful than one as to which we may appeal to any of our readers that happened some twenty years ago to visit the town of Stirling. that it could produce it under any form. parts which when laid together. for if such had been the fact. if he had It is. alternately the odd and even lines—in short. would amount to an immense number of lines. could never have described a blind man as attaining the utmost perfection in his art. as well from the example of Demodokus. in an age essentially non-reading and non-writing. and when even suitable instruments and materials for the process are not obvious. indeed not easy to calculate the height to which the memory may be cultivated. the memory. either forwards or backwards.

But the songs of a nation are probably the last things which are committed to writing. that the pronunciation of the Greek language had undergone a considerable change. 100. in these days of multifarious reading. for instance. l. . p. more like the effeminate version of Dryden. "At what period. we may venture upon naming any more determinate period. first began to be written. If Chaucer's poetry. sqq. in that state of society. seems to prove beyond a doubt. quaint. "The Dschungariade of the Calmucks is said to surpass the poems of Homer in length. Now it is certainly difficult to suppose that the Homeric poems could have suffered by this change. and if we find so much difficulty in calculating the extent to which the mere memory may be cultivated. must be matter of conjecture. that quicksand upon which even the acumen of Bentley was shipwrecked. "these poems. it could only have come down to us in a softened form. for the very reason that they are remembered. than the rough. What were the purposes which.xxviii The Iliad of Homer [xx] been conscious that the memory of the bard was only maintained by constant reference to the manuscript in his chest. had not been written. noble original. and of countless distracting affairs. but also interwoven with the feelings. and among a more single minded people?—Quarterly Review. If." continues Grote. p. and yet it exists only in the memory of a people which is not unacquainted with writing. but facts they are. the question a once suggests itself. and conceived in conjunction with all those flexions and proper names not excepted." The loss of the digamma. as much as it stands beneath them in merit. are we. that crux of critics."— Ancient Greece. fair judges of the perfection to which the invention and the memory combined may attain in a simpler age. Heeren steers between the two opinions. We do not mention these facts as touching the more difficult part of the question before us. observing that. though there is ground for assurance that it was before the time of Solon. or indeed any other Greek poems. for with them it was not only planted in the memory. had written copies been preserved.. a manuscript at its first commencement must have been intended to answer? For whom was a written Iliad necessary? Not for the rhapsodes. in the absence of evidence. 143. c.

660 to B. Not for the general public—they were accustomed to receive it with its rhapsodic delivery. It argued a new way of looking at the old epical treasures of the people as well as a thirst for new poetical effect. pauses. Simonides of Amorgus. Kallinus. and poetical compositions having been transferred from the epical past to the affairs of present and real life. on perusing the written words. a class of readers capable of analyzing the complicated emotions which they had experienced as hearers in the crowd. yet the nearest approaching to the sense).INTRODUCTION.C. and competent to criticize. Such a change was important at a time when poetry was the only known mode of publication (to use a modern phrase not altogether suitable. xxix intonations of voice. from their own individual point of view. and with its accompaniments of a solemn and crowded festival. Archilochus. is the middle of the seventh century before the Christian aera (B. and the men who stood forward in it. there is in all early societies. 630). the age of Terpander. the written words of the . and who would.C. we should be able to make a guess at the time when the old epic poems were first committed to writing. &c. may well be considered as desirous to study. and there was in early Greece. realize in their imaginations a sensible portion of the impression communicated by the reciter. Incredible as the statement may seem in an age like the present. The only persons for whom the written Iliad would be suitable would be a select few. a time when no such reading class existed. and which the naked manuscript could never reproduce. studious and curious men. and other oral artifices which were required for emphatic delivery. If we could discover at what time such a class first began to be formed. Now the period which may with the greatest probability be fixed upon as having first witnessed the formation even of the narrowest reading class in Greece. I ground this supposition on the change then operated in the character and tendencies of Grecian poetry and music—the elegiac and the iambic measures having been introduced as rivals to the primitive hexameter.

both readers and manuscripts. Anacreon. If the great poets. and the number of manuscripts along with it. in our opinion.—began to be compiled towards the middle of the seventh century (B.C. fifty years afterwards. and Simonides were employed in the noble task of compiling the Iliad and Odyssey. and the opening of Egypt to Grecian commerce. so that before the time of Solon. 1). would doubtless slowly increase. which took place about the same period. at least over the theory. sqq. and the faint The Iliad of Homer [xxi] Homeric rhapsodies. There seems. but very narrow class). 198. though still comparatively few. when once formed. as well as the Iliad and the Odyssey. manuscripts of the Homeric poems and other old epics. II p. and formed a tribunal of reference against the carelessness of individual rhapsodes. who flourished at the bright period of Grecian song. to harmonize. to connect.—the Thebais and the Cypria. that it is almost incredible. that stronger marks of Athenian manufacture should not remain. A reading class. ground for conjecturing that (for the use of this newly-formed and important."26 But even Peisistratus has not been suffered to remain in possession of the credit. throw some suspicion over the whole history of the Peisistratid compilation. might have attained a certain recognized authority. anomalies which no doubt arise out of our own ignorance of the language of the 26 Vol. Whatever occasional anomalies may be detected. therefore. alas! we have inherited little more than the fame. if Stesichorus. that the Iliad was cast into its present stately and harmonious form by the directions of the Athenian ruler. . just as we are told that Kallinus both noticed and eulogized the Thebais as the production of Homer. would furnish increased facilities for obtaining the requisite papyrus to write upon. of which. and we cannot help feeling the force of the following observations— "There are several incidental circumstances which. so much must have been done to arrange.

and connecting parts. as Sir Walter Scott has done in his continuation of Sir Tristram. the Athenians play a most subordinate and insignificant part. to whom the name of Helen is said to have caused as much disquiet and distress as the fair one herself among the heroes of her age. amid all the traditions of the glories of early Greece embodied in the Iliad. Knight suspects to be interpolations. that in its leading outline. should not more clearly betray the incongruity between the more ancient and modern forms of expression. particularly in the joinings and transitions. the Athenians were more than ordinarily jealous of the fame of their ancestors. Even the few passages which relate to their ancestors. and it may fairly be suspected in earlier times. however the irregular use of the digamma may have perplexed our Bentleys. indeed. or. however. of far inferior sublimity and popularity. a Theseid would have been much more likely to have emanated from an Athenian synod of compilers of xxxi [xxii] . finally. Mr. that in the great maritime expedition of western Greece against the rival and half-kindred empire of the Laomedontiadae. not even such faint and indistinct traces of Athenian compilation are discoverable in the language of the poems. In later. the Iliad may be true to historic fact. the preeminent value of the ancient poetry on the Trojan war may thus have forced the national feeling of the Athenians to yield to their taste. may have been the most important ally of the Peloponnesian sovereign. Knight may have failed in reducing the Homeric language to its primitive form. however. the total absence of Athenian national feeling is perhaps no less worthy of observation. the Attic dialect may not have assumed all its more marked and distinguishing characteristics—still it is difficult to suppose that the language. from his valour and the number of his forces. no doubt.INTRODUCTION. at first sight. It is possible. in order to piece out an imperfect poem in the character of the original. the chieftain of Thessaly. Homeric age. The songs which spoke of their own great ancestor were. It is not quite in character with such a period to imitate an antique style. "If. But. however Mr.

Odius. 221. "explains the gaps and contradictions in the narrative. 28 27 . of the Lycians. This. See Grote. of the Rhodians. we find no contradictions warranting this belief. If. 1841. Could France have given birth to a Tasso. Tancred would have been the hero of the Jerusalem.. however. Pandarus. p. vol. as Grote observes. who have at a later period not inaptly been compared to our self admiring neighbours. Tlepolemus. but it explains nothing else. Quarterly Review. were so far superior to the rest of the poetic cycle. should submit with lofty self denial to the almost total exclusion of their own ancestors—or. that throughout the whole poem the callida junctura should never betray the workmanship of an Athenian hand. He divides the first twenty-two books of the Iliad into sixteen different songs. p. the French. v. l."27 To return to the Wolfian theory. Nor is Lachmann's28 modification of his theory any better. and that the difficulties with which the whole subject is beset. if we admit his hypothesis. 131 sq." Moreover. Berol. Notes and Queries. p. 204. and treats as ridiculous the belief that their amalgamation into one regular poem belongs to a period earlier than the age of Peisistratus. as they are sometimes called. to the questionable dignity of only having produced a leader tolerably skilled in the military tactics of his age. and that the national spirit of a race. as to admit no rivalry. we cannot help discovering that they have failed to enlighten us as to any substantial point. that Wolf's objections to the primitive integrity of the Iliad and Odyssey have never been wholly got over. the Homeric ballads. which related the wrath of Achilles. and the so-called sixteen poets concur in getting rid of the following leading men in the first battle after the secession of Achilles: Elphenor. at least. chief of the Euboeans. While it is to be confessed.xxxii The Iliad of Homer ancient song. Betrachtungen uber die Ilias. c.—it is still surprising. with all its direful consequences. than an Achilleid or an Olysseid. are rather augmented than otherwise.

There is nothing. the despotisms and republican governments." The friends or literary employes of Peisistratus must have found an Iliad that was already ancient. weeps at his son's funeral in the thirteenth. [xxiii] . of the Thracians. who is represented as dead in the fifth book. and we think with equal success. &c." he continues. without recognising the age of Peisistratus as the period of its first compilation. can only be regarded as the result of an interpolation. are essentially distinct. in the Greek language. the coined money. either in the Iliad or Odyssey. has done much to clearly show the incongruity of the Wolfian theory. Grote.INTRODUCTION. among the numerous manuscripts they examined. although not very distinct in stating his own opinions on the subject. and not before his time. that the two questions relative to the primitive unity of these poems. the mutual frequentation of religious festivals. the close military array. These alterations Onomakritus. which savours of modernism. and of Lachmann's modifications with the character of Peisistratus. and we can but agree with Colonel Mure." The discrepancy. the improved construction of ships. "the whole tenor of the poems themselves confirms what is here remarked. "Moreover. In short.. the Oriental and Egyptian veins of religion. Pirous and Acamas. or. xxxiii of the Halizonians. None of these heroes again make their appearance. and the silence of the Alexandrine critics respecting the Peisistratic "recension. that. the habits of writing and reading. that "it seems strange that any number of independent poets should have so harmoniously dispensed with the services of all six in the sequel. this was either wanting. or thought unworthy of attention. supposing that impossible. the unison of these parts by Peisistratus." goes far to prove. familiar to the latter epoch. the Amphiktyonic convocations. applying that term to the age of Peisistratus—nothing which brings to our view the alterations brought about by two centuries. "a man may believe the Iliad to have been put together out of pre-existing songs. But he has also shown. by which Pylaemenes.

who is said first to have disposed the books of Homer in the 30 29 .. are pronounced to be such) betray no trace of the sixth century before Christ. so it is also the most important attribute of the Homeric poems. Vol.. I am rather persuaded that the fine taste and elegant mind of that Athenian31 would lead Prolegg. although. and this ancient date. Everything in the two great Homeric poems." says Cicero. could hardly have failed to notice. as it is the best-authenticated fact.xxxiv The Iliad of Homer and the other literary friends of Peisistratus. 34. our first trustworthy mark of Grecian time.. considered in reference to Grecian history. as well internal as external. ii. even without design. I must confess. even the interpolations (or those passages which. for the first time. xxxii. or whose eloquence is reported to have been more perfected by literature than that of Peisistratus. in their present form. undertaken the task of piecing together many self existent epics into one large aggregate. both in substance and in language. had they then. At the same time. on the best grounds. pp. was the work of Peisistratus. enabling us to trace the subsequent forward march of the nation. I am inclined to believe. enable us to judge. that the labours of Peisistratus were wholly of an editorial character. belongs to an age two or three centuries earlier than Peisistratus. de Orat. let it be added. &c. we seem warranted in believing that the Iliad and Odyssey were recited substantially as they now stand (always allowing for paitial divergences of text and interpolations) in 776 B. 214 sqq. for they thus afford us an insight into the anti-historical character of the Greeks. "was more learned in that age. so far from believing that the composition or primary arrangement of these poems. and to seize instructive contrasts between their former and their later condition. p. that I can lay down nothing respecting the extent of his labours. xxxvi.C. Indeed. and may well have been heard by Archilochus and Kallinus—in some cases even by Arktinus and Hesiod—as genuine Homeric matter29 As far as the evidences on the case. iii. 31 "Who."30 On the whole.

like the common sailors of some fifty years ago. like those of the negroes in the United States. were merely recitations. rather than to patch and re-construct them according to a fanciful hypothesis. or whether the art of writing was known in the time of their reputed author. Ballads at first.INTRODUCTION. or Moeonides. that the more we read. I will conclude this sketch of the Homeric theories. It is as follows:— "No doubt the common soldiers of that age had. upon their memory. help thinking. about four hundred years after the war. Section 33 [xxiv] . that a poet flourished of the name of Melesigenes. xxxv him to preserve an ancient and traditional order of the poems. and down to the beginning of the war with Troy. as it aided the memory considerably. a retentive memory was deemed a virtue of the first water. some one qualified to 'discourse in excellent music' among them. that the story which attributes the preservation of these poems to Lycurgus. Suffice it to say. and was cultivated accordingly in those ancient times. but most probably the former. Then followed a species of recitative. were extemporaneous. with an attempt. probably with an intoned burden. the less satisfied we are upon either subject. I will not repeat the many discussions respecting whether the poems were written or not. however. to unite them into something like consistency. is little else than a version of the same story as that of Peisistratus. besides which. He saw that these order in which we now have them?" Compare Wolf's Prolegomena. and allusive to events passing around them. with an intonation. made by an ingenious friend. "It was at this period. Many of these. while its historical probability must be measured by that of many others relating to the Spartan Confucius. But what was passing around them? The grand events of a spirit-stirring war. I cannot. occurrences likely to impress themselves. Tune next followed. as the mystical legends of former times had done.

he published these lays. and restored the works of Melesigenes Homeros to their original integrity in a great measure."—Grote. However. Unity of design. for. as a collection. Mackenzie. under the title of the 'Odyssea. H. 235 33 K.xxxvi The Iliad of Homer ballads might be made of great utility to his purpose of writing a poem on the social position of Hellas."33 32 "The first book. Melesigenes knew that the poem was destined to be a lasting one. seems to form the primary organization of the poem. revised the poems. Solon first. p. but. p. His noble mind seized the hint that there presented itself. or the Collector. and afterwards Aristoteles and others. by the people who took to singing them in the streets. Notes and Queries. He therefore called it the poem of Homeros. than of his mere drudging arrangement of other people's ideas. recording the quarrel of Achilles and Agamemnon. remodelled from the archaic dialect of Crete. did not affix his own name to the poem. and. and then Peisistratus. named the Iliad. This poem now exists. as Grote has finely observed. great part of it. assemblies. was. and agoras. like those relating to the Cid. in fact. R. 'a great poet might have re-cast pre-existing separate songs into one comprehensive whole. arguing for the unity of authorship. vol. but this is rather a proof of his modesty and talent. he met with a ballad. together with the eighth. the poems were destined to undergo many vicissitudes and corruptions. 222 sqq. and the books from the eleventh to the twenty-second inclusive. however. which.' "While employed on the wild legend of Odysseus. but no mere arrangers or compilers would be competent to do so. [xxv] .' The author. in which tongue the ballads were found by him. and so it has proved. then properly an Achilleis. into a chronicle history. however. and the Achilleis32 grew under his hand. first. caused him to publish the poem under the same pseudonyme as his former work: and the disjointed lays of the ancient bards were joined together. ii. connecting them by a tale of his own.

In maintaining the authenticity and personality of their one author. although a mass of remarks.INTRODUCTION. had they been suggested to the author by his Maecenas or Africanus. I feel conscious that. are often least competent to carry out their own precepts. be he Homer or Melesigenes. while I appreciate its importance in a philological view. xxxvii Having thus given some general notion of the strange theories which have developed themselves respecting this most interesting subject. some of which. while the whole weight of historical evidence is against the hypothesis which would assign these great works to a plurality of authors. would be an absurd and captious assumption. and that which springs from the deepest and most immediate impulse of the soul. he would probably have adopted. without which our Greek knowledge would be gloomy and jejune. but it is to a higher criticism that we must appeal. I do not at this moment remember two emendations on Homer. To deny that many corruptions and interpolations disfigure them. Grammarians are not poets by profession. quocunque nomine vocari eum jus fasque sit. considering the character of some of my own books. calculated to substantially improve the poetry of a passage. Indeed. especially in poetry. But. the most powerful internal evidence. but may be so per accidens. have given us the history of a thousand minute points. if we would either understand or enjoy these poems. I am inclined to set little store on its aesthetic value. . Moreover. and that the intrusive hand of the poetasters may here and there have inflicted a wound more serious than the negligence of the copyist. also speaks eloquently to the contrary. those who are most exact in laying down rules of verbal criticism and interpretation. I must still express my conviction as to the unity of the authorship of the Homeric poems. Three parts of the emendations made upon poets are mere alterations. such an attempt would be gross inconsistency. The minutiae of verbal criticism I am far from seeking to despise. from Herodotus down to Loewe.

that few writers of the present day would question the capabilities of the same gentleman. Nor is this morbid species of sagacity by any means to be looked upon as a literary novelty. Binding down an heroic or dramatic poet to the block upon which they have previously dissected his words and sentences. who fancied they possessed the works of some great man. 4to. a scholar of no ordinary skill. to produce not only these. 1728. be he Seneca or not. Justus Lipsius. or till those. Wolf. will exercise their elaborate and often tiresome ingenuity. they proceed to use the axe and the pruning knife by wholesale. With equal sagacity. and last. seems to revel in the imaginary discovery. passage after passage. Now. and inconsistent in everything but their wish to make out a case of unlawful affiliation. One rejects what another considers the turning-point of his theory. till the author is reduced to a collection of fragments. Father Hardouin astonished the world with the startling announcement that the Æneid of Virgil.34 Now. we shall feel better satisfied of the utter uncertainty of criticism than of the apocryphal position of Homer. but a great many more equally bad. not only in their borrowed phraseology—a phraseology with which writers like Boethius and Saxo Grammaticus were more charmed than ourselves—in their freedom from real poetry. I will venture to assert. in an ultra-refined and consistent abandonment of good taste. mere grammarians. find that they have been put off with a vile counterfeit got up at second hand. in Schroeder's edition. If we compare the theories of Knight. Delphis. without wishing to say 34 See his Epistle to Raphelingius. Lachmann. that the tragedies attributed to Seneca are by four different authors. One cuts a supposed knot by expunging what another would explain by omitting something else. but not least. .. and others. they cut out book after book. were literary deceptions. that these tragedies are so uniform.xxxviii The Iliad of Homer [xxvi] But it is not on words only that grammarians. and the satires of Horace.

Our faith in the author of the Iliad may be a mistaken one. that the literary history of more recent times will account for many points of difficulty in the transmission of the Iliad and Odyssey to a period so remote from that of their first creation. after all. does too much violence to that inward emotion. so to speak. the main fault in all the Homeric theories is. I look upon the belief in Homer as one that has nature herself for its mainspring. Scaliger. xxxix one word of disrespect against the industry and learning—nay. I must express my fears. while I can join with old Ennius in believing in Homer as the ghost. like some patron saint. that many of our modern Homeric theories will become matter for the surprise and entertainment. than that the poems of Valerius Flaccus and Tibullus should have given so much trouble to Poggio. and there seems no more reason why corrupt and imperfect editions of Homer may not have been abroad in his day. who. hovers round the bed of the poet. to elevate analytical judgment at the expense of the most ennobling impulses of the soul. have bestowed upon this subject. But. the refined acuteness—which scholars. To believe the author of the Iliad a mere compiler. Nor can I help thinking. and to forget the ocean in the contemplation of a polypus.INTRODUCTION. of posterity. like Wolf. and even bestows rare gifts from that wealth of imagination which a host of imitators could not exhaust.—still I am far from wishing to deny that the . that they demand too great a sacrifice of those feelings to which poetry most powerfully appeals. There is a catholicity. however. in the very name of Homer. While. and which are its most fitting judges. and others. rather than the instruction. which makes our whole soul yearn with love and admiration for the blind bard of Chios. but as yet nobody has taught us a better. I have already expressed my belief that the labours of Peisistratus were of a purely editorial character. is to degrade the powers of human invention. The ingenuity which has sought to rob us of the name and existence of Homer.

we shall have nought but a scrap-book. which will require little acuteness to detect. it still seems to me that the Homeric question is one that is reserved for a higher criticism than it has often obtained. But we are too well taught the contrary lesson. or reveal themselves in more substantial forms to the mind of the poet. But it is one thing to use existing romances in the embellishment of a poem. and a free use of the songs of other bards. may crowd in one mighty vision.xl The Iliad of Homer [xxvii] author of these great poems found a rich fund of tradition. Traditions the most picturesque. are features perfectly consistent with poetical originality. to which these shall be but as details and embellishments. what bad taste and tedium will not be the infallible result? A blending of popular legends. be present. Sensible as I am of the difficulty of disproving a negative. another to patch up the poem itself from such materials. the most original writer is still drawing upon outward impressions—nay. and it . rather. to compass the powers by which the greatest blessings of life have been placed at our disposal. a poem like the Iliad can never come to the birth. but. Were faith no virtue. except the power to create a grand whole. even his own thoughts are a kind of secondary agents which support and feed the impulses of imagination. a parterre filled with flowers and weeds strangling each other in their wild redundancy: we shall have a cento of rags and tatters. and aware as I must be of the weighty grounds there are for opposing my belief. We are not by nature intended to know all things. then we might indeed wonder why God willed our ignorance on any matter. local associations teeming with the thoughts of gods and great men. In fact. What consistency of style and execution can be hoped for from such an attempt? or. still less. episodes the most pathetic. a well-stocked mythical storehouse from whence he might derive both subject and embellishment. yet most distinctly stamped archetypus of the great whole. But unless there be some grand pervading principle—some invisible.

And there is a kind of sacredness attached to the memory of the great and the good. finely observes:— "It was Homer who formed the character of the Greek nation. And it was this supposed unity of authorship which gave these poems their powerful influence over the minds of the men of old. to dwell upon the minute spots which mere analysis can discover. Prophets. as a poet. which seems to bid us repulse the scepticism which would allegorize their existence into a pleasing apologue. and measure the giants of intellect by an homeopathic dynameter. or rather. we are too much dazzled.INTRODUCTION. woo the same loves. exercised a similar influence over his countrymen. in which they were to behold the world of gods and heroes no [xxviii] . xli seems as though our faith should be especially tried touching the men and the events which have wrought most influence upon the condition of humanity. When lawgivers and sages appeared in Greece. burn with the same sense of injury. and sages have formed the character of other nations. And if we can but attain this degree of enthusiasm (and less enthusiasm will scarcely suffice for the reading of Homer). we shall feel that the poems of Homer are not only the work of one writer. This is a feature in their character which was not wholly erased even in the period of their degeneracy. and they paid homage to his superior genius. Heeren. Long and habitual reading of Homer appears to familiarize our thoughts even to his incongruities. but of the greatest writer that ever touched the hearts of men by the power of song. it was reserved to a poet to form that of the Greeks. if we read in a right spirit and with a heartfelt appreciation. He held up before his nation the mirror. lawgivers. as an Achilles or a Hector. we in imagination must fight over the same battles. the work of the poet had already been accomplished. who is evidently little disposed in favour of modern theories. In reading an heroic poem we must transform ourselves into heroes of the time being. No poet has ever. too deeply wrapped in admiration of the whole.

His songs were poured forth from a breast which sympathized with all the feelings of man. 36 35 . and not feel how much of pleasing association. performing pilgrimages to the fountain which his magic wand caused to flow. If it is granted to his immortal spirit. and to behold them reflected with purity and truth. As the hymns. every breast which cherishes the same sympathies. p. and therefore they enter. let us rather be thankful for the treasury of taste and eloquence thus laid open to our use. of elevated. wife. 198 sq. on which the "Apotheosis of Homer"36 is depictured. wherever his immortal spirit may reside. if it is permitted to him to view the vast assemblage of grand. how much that appeals most forcibly and most distinctly to our minds. 101. whole and entire. this alone would suffice to complete his happiness. is lost by the admittance of any theory but our old tradition? The more we read. 123) is well known. on that passion which outweighs all others.xlii The Iliad of Homer less than of feeble mortals.—the more rooted becomes the conviction that the Father of Poetry gave us this rich inheritance. and will continue to enter."35 Can we contemplate that ancient monument. whose wildness is only equalled by their inconsistency with each other. and country. No. and the more we think—think as becomes the readers of Homer. from another heaven than any of which he dreamed on earth. I will content Ancient Greece. Whatever were the means of its preservation. are not included in Pope's translation. the love of glory. which had been called into being by means of his songs. of glorious productions. to look down on his race. His poems are founded on the first feeling of human nature. on the love of children." p. The best description of this monument will be found in Vaux's "Antiquities of the British Museum. The monument itself (Towneley Sculptures. than seek to make it a mere centre around which to drive a series of theories. and some other poems usually ascribed to Homer. to see the nations from the fields of Asia to the forests of Hercynia.

58. seems to reverse that order in the development of national taste. Classic Poets. is a strong inducement to believe that none of them were of the Homeric age. has almost ascertained to be a law of the human mind. and is obviously disturbed and corrupt to a great degree. that to suppose a work of mere burlesque to be the primary effort of poetry in a simple age. others have attributed it to the same Pigrees." says Coleridge. with as much reason to Homer. "skin. 276. so little did the Greeks. . Knight infers from the usage of the word deltos. "is a short mock-heroic of ancient date. 5. but of the numerous passages of the Iliad itself." which. was the material employed by the Asiatic Greeks for that purpose. know or care about that department of criticism employed in determining the genuineness of ancient writings. and whose reputation for humour seems to have invited the appropriation of any piece of ancient wit. if no such intention to parody were discernible in it. that any popularity would attend such a ridicule of war and the gods as is contained in this poem. from the pen of a writer who has done it full justice37 :— "This poem. it is in a state of society much more refined and permanent than that described in the Iliad. and the fact of there having existed three other poems of the same kind attributed. "writing tablet. p. As to this little poem being a youthful prolusion of Homer. the objection would still remain. according to Herod. and of many in Asia. for aught we can see.INTRODUCTION. not only of the general spirit. it is commonly said to have been a juvenile essay of Homer's genius. and even. The text varies in different editions." instead of diphthera. mentioned above. which the history of every other people in Europe. xliii myself with a brief account of the Battle of the Frogs and Mice. the author of which was uncertain. before the age of the Ptolemies. that this poem was another 37 [xxix] Coleridge. it seems sufficient to say that from the beginning to the end it is a plain and palpable parody.

There are. rather than to dive deeply into the minute and delicate features of language. therefore. that once was our most cherished companion. I will now proceed to make a few remarks on his translation. and generally that the familiar mention of the cock (v. Loewe. 191) is a strong argument against so ancient a date for its composition.xliv The Iliad of Homer offspring of Attic ingenuity. if the charms of metrical cadence and a pleasing fluency could be made consistent with a fair interpretation of the poet's meaning. Pope was not a Grecian. to test Pope's translation by our own advancing knowledge of the original text. We must be content to look at it as a most delightful work in itself. but it is probable that these examinations were the result rather of the contradictory versions already existing. It is not too much to say that his whole work bears the impress of a disposition to be satisfied with the general sense. We must not be torn from our kindly associations with the old Iliad. than of a desire to make a perfect transcript of the original. and his earliest acquaintance with the poet was through the version of Ogilby. and those who could read so good a poem as Pope's Iliad had fair reason to be satisfied. Hence his whole work is to be looked upon rather as an elegant paraphrase than a translation. what is called literal translation was less cultivated than at present.—a work which is as much a part of English literature as Homer himself is of Greek. which prove that Pope consulted various friends. merely because Buttmann. whose classical attainments were sounder than his own. during the undertaking. his words were less jealously sought for. If something like the general sense could be decorated with the easy gracefulness of a practised poet. His whole education had been irregular. to be sure. or our most looked-for prize. It would be absurd. and on my own purpose in the present edition. and . certain conventional anecdotes. And in those days." [xxx] Having thus given a brief account of the poems comprised in Pope's design.

In the latter task I cannot pretend to novelty. But Pope's version was no field for such a display. at least. while utterly disclaiming high scholastic views. to notice occasionally some departures from the original. rough old English. they are drawn up without pretension. I might have brought a large amount of accumulated matter. . with the consciousness that they must have read a very great number of books before they have read its fellow.—far be it from. as far as the necessary limits of these volumes could be expected to admit. sometimes of a critical character.INTRODUCTION. and not a substantive. and mainly with the view of helping the general reader. Milton. xlv Liddell have made us so much more accurate as to amphikupellon being an adjective. To write a commentary on Homer is not my present aim. especially when we think of Chapman's fine. Christ Church. But we can still dismiss Pope's Iliad to the hands of our readers. I shall consider my wishes satisfactorily accomplished. bold. Far be it from us to defend the faults of Pope. will be found to convey as much as is wanted. Having some little time since translated all the works of Homer for another publisher. and to give a few parallel passages from our English Homer. THEODORE ALOIS BUCKLEY. us to hold up his translation as what a translation of Homer might be. As to the Notes accompanying the present volume. but I trust that my other annotations. to bear upon the text. but if I have made Pope's translation a little more entertaining and instructive to a mass of miscellaneous readers. and my purpose was to touch briefly on antiquarian or mythological allusions.


distinguishes all great geniuses: the utmost stretch of human study. but his invention remains yet unrivalled. which the common eye may better take in. if we cannot see all the beauties so distinctly as in an ordered garden. It furnishes art with all her materials.[xxxi] POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER Homer is universally allowed to have had the greatest invention of any writer whatever. and industry. and is. and such a figure. It is the invention that. art can only reduce beauties of nature to more regularity. The praise of judgment Virgil has justly contested with him. is. perhaps. Nor is it a wonder if he has ever been acknowledged the greatest of poets. because they find it easier for themselves to pursue their observations through a uniform and bounded walk of art. therefore. Our author's work is a wild paradise. learning. can never attain to this. and without it judgment itself can at best but "steal wisely:" for art is only like a prudent steward that lives on managing the riches of nature. who most excelled in that which is the very foundation of poetry. which masters everything besides. And. more entertained with. and others may have their pretensions as to particular excellences. It is like a . Whatever praises may be given to works of judgment. than to comprehend the vast and various extent of nature. it is only because the number of them is infinitely greater. in different degrees. the reason why common critics are inclined to prefer a judicious and methodical genius to a great and fruitful one. where. there is not even a single beauty in them to which the invention must not contribute: as in the most regular gardens.

The course of his verses resembles that of the army he describes. Nay. "They pour along like a fire that sweeps the whole earth before it. out of which those who followed him have but selected some particular plants. this can overpower criticism. which is everywhere vigorous. It is to the strength of this amazing invention we are to attribute that unequalled fire and rapture which is so forcible in Homer. is not discovered immediately at the beginning of his poem in its fullest splendour: it grows in the progress both upon himself and others. where this appears. like a chariot-wheel. and make us admire even while we disapprove. Hoid' ar' isan hosei te puri chthon pasa nemoito. This fire is discerned in Virgil. to cultivate and beautify. Even in works where all those are imperfect or neglected. it brightens all the rubbish about it. and becomes on fire." in a very few. the reader is hurried out of himself by the force of the poet's imagination. however. more . reflected from Homer. in another to a spectator. may have been found in a thousand. polished numbers. till we see nothing but its own splendour." It is. by its own rapidity. every thing moves. and if others are not arrived to perfection or maturity. remarkable. but discerned as through a glass. every thing lives. that no man of a true poetical spirit is master of himself while he reads him. If some things are too luxuriant it is owing to the richness of the soil. it is only because they are overrun and oppressed by those of a stronger nature. though attended with absurdities. this "vivida vis animi. each according to his fancy. which contains the seeds and first productions of every kind. Exact disposition. you are not coldly informed of what was said or done as from a third person. but this poetic fire. What he writes is of the most animated nature imaginable. and is put in action. If a council be called. and turns in one place to a hearer. that his fancy. correct elocution. or a battle fought. just thought.xlviii The Iliad of Homer [xxxii] copious nursery.

and the marvellous. The probable fable is the recital of such actions as. as it is naturally the first. That of the Iliad is the "anger of Achilles. in the common course of nature. drew all things within its vortex. I shall here endeavour to show how this vast invention exerts itself in a manner superior to that of any poet through all the main constituent parts of his work: as it is the great and peculiar characteristic which distinguishes him from all other authors. to furnish his characters: and all the outward forms and images of things for his descriptions: but wanting yet an ampler sphere to expatiate in. It seemed not enough to have taken in the whole circle of arts. and interrupted flashes: In Milton it glows like a furnace kept up to an uncommon ardour by the force of art: in Shakspeare it strikes before we are aware. Yet this he has supplied with a vaster variety of incidents and events. like an accidental fire from heaven: but in Homer.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER xlix shining than fierce. Of this sort is the main story of an epic poem. yet might. the allegorical. to supply his maxims and reflections. which. and I speak of it both as it means the design of a poem. and the whole compass of nature. the settlement of the Trojans in Italy. and in him only. all the inward passions and affections of mankind. short. Fable may be divided into the probable. or of such as. became fables by the additional episodes and manner of telling them." was first breathed into it by Homer. and episodes of all kinds. This strong and ruling faculty was like a powerful star. and as it is taken for fiction. and created a world for himself in the invention of fable. though they did not happen. [xxxiii] . but everywhere equal and constant: in Lucan and Statius it bursts out in sudden. "The return of Ulysses. it burns everywhere clearly and everywhere irresistibly. speeches. and crowded with a greater number of councils. in the violence of its course." the most short and single subject that ever was chosen by any poet. though they did. That which Aristotle calls "the soul of poetry. I shall begin with considering him in his part." or the like. battles. he opened a new and boundless walk for his imagination.

and the taking of Troy. If Achilles be absent from the army on the score of a quarrel through half the poem. To proceed to the allegorical fable—If we reflect upon those innumerable knowledges. and its whole duration employs not so much as fifty days. and lose their readers in an unreasonable length of time. Virgil.l The Iliad of Homer than are to be found even in those poems whose schemes are of the utmost latitude and irregularity. the Æneas of Virgil and Scipio of Silius are sent after him. but they have followed him in every episode and part of story. destroy the unity of action. where he had not led the way. If he be detained from his return by the allurements of Calypso. The action is hurried on with the most vehement spirit. The other epic poets have used the same practice. supplied the want from other Greek authors. they all draw up their forces in the same order. but. as the loves of Dido and Æneas are taken from those of Medea and Jason in Apollonius. and several others in the same manner. and Statius (rather than omit them) destroys the unity of his actions for those of Archemorus. If he has funeral games for Patroclus. was copied (says Macrobius) almost word for word from Pisander. If he gives his hero a suit of celestial armour. those secrets of nature and physical philosophy which Homer is generally supposed to have wrapped up in his allegories. and Rinaldo by Armida. Thus the story of Sinon. If Ulysses visit the shades. Virgil and Tasso make the same present to theirs. Virgil has the same for Anchises. which is yet but a fourth part as large as his. as well as a greater length of time. Rinaldo must absent himself just as long on the like account. If he has given a regular catalogue of an army. and contracting the design of both Homer's poems into one. what a new and ample scene of wonder may . so is Æneas by Dido. aided himself by taking in a more extensive subject. for want of so warm a genius. but generally carried it so far as to superinduce a multiplicity of fables. Nor is it only in the main design that they have been unable to add to his invention. Virgil has not only observed this close imitation of Homer.

it then became as reasonable in the more modern poets to lay it aside. in forms and persons. the qualifications of the mind. and especially the machines of the gods. they are so perfect in the poetic. the virtues and vices. as it was in Homer to make use of it. But whatever cause there might be to blame his machines in a philosophical or religious view. And perhaps it was no unhappy circumstance for Virgil. and after all the various changes of times and religions. he seems the first who brought them into a system of machinery for poetry. and to introduce them into actions agreeable to the nature of the things they shadowed! This is a field in which no succeeding poets could dispute with Homer. For when the mode of learning changed in the following ages. are by no means for their invention in having enlarged his circle.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER li this consideration afford us! How fertile will that imagination appear. that there was not in his time that demand upon him of so great an invention as might be capable of furnishing all those allegorical parts of a poem. and science was delivered in a plainer manner. and such a one as makes its greatest importance and dignity: for we find those authors who have been offended at the literal notion of the gods. which as able to clothe all the properties of elements. with so visible and surprising a variety. and here we shall find no author has ever drawn so many. that mankind have been ever since contented to follow them: none have been able to enlarge the sphere of poetry beyond the limits he has set: every attempt of this nature has proved unsuccessful. and whatever commendations have been allowed them on this head. constantly laying their accusation against Homer as the chief support of it. his gods continue to this day the gods of poetry. The marvellous fable includes whatever is supernatural. We come now to the characters of his persons. or given us such lively and affecting [xxxiv] . If Homer was not the first who introduced the deities (as Herodotus imagines) into the religion of Greece. but for their judgment in having contracted it.

characters of courage. but. &c. Nothing can be more exact than the distinctions he has observed in the different degrees of virtues and vices. as it is. besides. or the rest. His characters of valour are much alike. that an air of impetuosity runs through them all. and they are distinct in this. even that of Turnus seems no way peculiar. Hippomedon.lii The Iliad of Homer impressions of them. For example: the main characters of Ulysses and Nestor consist in wisdom. of Hector. It would be endless to produce instances of these kinds. and regular. and. open. active and vigilant: the courage of Agamemnon is inspirited by love of empire and ambition. The characters of Virgil are far from striking us in this open manner. than the poet has by their manners. where they are marked most evidently affect us not in proportion to those of Homer. that of Diomede forward. in Sarpedon a gallant and generous one. the same horrid and savage courage appears in his Capaneus. but even in the under parts of it. That of Achilles is furious and intractable. of the other natural. that the wisdom of one is artificial and various. hidden and undistinguished. to which he takes care to give a tincture of that principal one. in a great degree. In like manner it may be remarked of Statius's heroes. and this quality also takes a different turn in each from the difference of his prudence. the other upon experience. that of Ajax is heavy and self-confiding. and subject to command. for one in the war depends still upon caution. Cloanthus. They have a parity . Tydeus. that no painter could have distinguished them more by their features. they lie. But they have. that of Menelaus mixed with softness and tenderness for his people: we find in Idomeneus a plain direct soldier. yet listening to advice. in a superior degree. and we see nothing that differences the courage of Mnestheus from that of Sergestus. Every one has something so singularly his own. Nor is this judicious and astonishing diversity to be found only in the principal quality which constitutes the main of each character. The single quality of courage is wonderfully diversified in the several characters of the Iliad.

POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER liii of character. The speeches are to be considered as they flow from the characters. of those who utter them. in his Gnomologia Homerica. how small a number of lines are employed in narration. As many of his persons have no apparent characters. everything is acted or spoken. that is. [xxxv] . Longinus has given his opinion. And it is with justice an excellent modern writer allows. he will be convinced how infinitely superior. so many of his speeches escape being applied and judged by the rule of propriety. If. in the next place. which makes them seem brothers of one family. that if Virgil has not so many thoughts that are low and vulgar. than when we are engaged in Homer. It is hardly credible. than in any other poem. in this point. has collected innumerable instances of this sort. Duport. we take a view of the sentiments. the same presiding faculty is eminent in the sublimity and spirit of his thoughts. and Virgil leaves us readers. that interests us less in the action described. What were alone sufficient to prove the grandeur and excellence of his sentiments in general. that they have so remarkable a parity with those of the Scripture. and that the Roman author seldom rises into very astonishing sentiments where he is not fired by the Iliad. all which are the effects of a colder invention. that it was in this part Homer principally excelled. so there is of speeches. being perfect or defective as they agree or disagree with the manners. We oftener think of the author himself when we read Virgil. is. he has not so many that are sublime and noble. in a work of such length. Homer makes us hearers. which might be equally just in any person's mouth upon the same occasion. "Everything in it has manner" (as Aristotle expresses it). the invention of Homer was to that of all others. In Virgil the dramatic part is less in proportion to the narrative. I believe when the reader is led into this tract of reflection. As there is more variety of characters in the Iliad. and the speeches often consist of general reflections or thoughts. if he will pursue it through the epic and tragic writers.

and touched with the greatest spirit. we shall find the invention still predominant. we see the bright imagination of Homer shining out in the most enlivened forms of it. and individual of nature. and are supplied with so vast a variety of incidents. such different kinds of deaths. If we descend from hence to the expression. and such a profusion of noble ideas. horror. that every battle rises above the last in greatness. that no two heroes are wounded in the same manner.liv The Iliad of Homer If we observe his descriptions. and it is evident of Virgil especially. It is the sentiment that swells and fills out the diction. Nothing is so surprising as the descriptions of his battles. that he has scarce any comparisons which are not drawn from his master. and had their impressions taken off to perfection at a heat? Nay. and executed with rapidity. which [xxxvi] . Aristotle had reason to say. where we see each circumstance of art. that no one bears a likeness to another. he not only gives us the full prospects of things. images. he was the only poet who had found out "living words. indeed. yet his expression is never too big for the sense. and the like. unobserved by any painter but Homer. but several unexpected peculiarities and side views. in their various views presented themselves in an instant. His expression is like the colouring of some great masters. and confusion. It is." there are in him more daring figures and metaphors than in any good author whatever. It is certain there is not near that number of images and descriptions in any epic poet. summoned together by the extent and fecundity of his imagination to which all things. We acknowledge him the father of poetical diction. the first who taught that "language of the gods" to men. though every one has assisted himself with a great quantity out of him. and similes. which take up no less than half the Iliad. which discovers itself to be laid on boldly. the strongest and most glowing imaginable. a weapon "thirsts" to drink the blood of an enemy. An arrow is "impatient" to be on the wing. but justly great in proportion to it. To what else can we ascribe that vast comprehension of images of every sort.

and forms itself about it. Lastly. Homer seems to have affected the compound epithets. To throw his language more out of prose. we shall be sensible what a share of praise is due to his invention in that also. He was not satisfied with his language as he found it settled in any one part of Greece. and so of others. one of these epithets is a short description. which grows to a greater magnitude. and likewise conduced in some measure to thicken the images. On this last consideration I cannot but attribute these also to the fruitfulness of his invention. and from its custom of resolving the diphthongs into two syllables. an expression will be brighter. and accordingly employed them as the verse required either a greater smoothness or strength. What he most affected was the Ionic. to beautify and perfect his numbers he considered these as they had a greater mixture of vowels or consonants. like glass in the furnace. which particular images could not have been insisted upon so long as to express them in a description (though but of a single line) without diverting the reader too much from the principal action or figure. as that is more strong. As a metaphor is a short simile.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER lv rises with it. With . if we consider his versification. this will become more perspicuous. but as it assisted and filled the numbers with greater sound and pomp. since (as he has managed them) they are a sort of supernumerary pictures of the persons or things to which they were joined. This was a sort of composition peculiarly proper to poetry. not only as it heightened the diction. which has a peculiar sweetness. and refines to a greater clearness. from its never using contractions. so as to make the words open themselves with a more spreading and sonorous fluency. and the heat more intense. only as the breath within is more powerful. for in the same degree that a thought is warmer. but searched through its different dialects with this particular view. We see the motion of Hector's plumes in the epithet Korythaiolos. the landscape of Mount Neritus in that of Einosiphyllos.

while we . the only reason is. never failed to bring the sound of his line to a beautiful agreement with its sense. and. and used the utmost diligence in working up a more intractable language to whatsoever graces it was capable of. which often rejects its aspirate. that they awaken and raise us like the sound of a trumpet. though they are so just as to ascribe it to the nature of the Latin tongue: indeed the Greek has some advantages both from the natural sound of its words. or takes off its accent. with so much force and inspiriting vigour. and always full. but the finest ear in the world. that they flow with so much ease. This is so great a truth. The beauty of his numbers is allowed by the critics to be copied but faintly by Virgil himself. They roll along as a plentiful river. were always in readiness to run along with the warmth of his rapture. and the feebler Æolic. Thus his measures. and majesty of sound.lvi The Iliad of Homer [xxxvii] this he mingled the Attic contractions. which agree with the genius of no other language. in the correspondence of their sounds to what they signified. variety. Virgil was very sensible of this. than in any other language of poetry. If the Grecian poet has not been so frequently celebrated on this account as the Roman. It suffices at present to observe of his numbers. always in motion. at the same time. instead of being fetters to his sense. that fewer critics have understood one language than the other. will find more sweetness. in his treatise of the Composition of Words. and even to give a further representation of his notions. and completed this variety by altering some letters with the licence of poetry. and the turn and cadence of its verse. Dionysius of Halicarnassus has pointed out many of our author's beauties in this kind. Out of all these he has derived that harmony which makes us confess he had not only the richest head. and. as to make one imagine Homer had no other care than to transcribe as fast as the Muses dictated. in particular. that whoever will but consult the tune of his verses. even without understanding them (with the same sort of diligence as we daily see practised in the case of Italian operas). the broader Doric.

because Virgil had it in a more eminent degree. Nothing is more absurd or endless. what principally strikes us is his invention. than the common method of comparing eminent writers by an opposition of particular passages in them. in the other the work. No author or man ever excelled all the world in more than one faculty. like the Nile. his expression more raised and daring. Homer hurries and transports us with a commanding impetuosity. each of these great authors had more of both than perhaps any man besides. and yet the most smooth imaginable. Homer scatters with a generous profusion. his images and descriptions more full and animated. and as Homer has done this in invention. methinks the two poets resemble the heroes [xxxviii] . with a gentle and constant stream. like a river in its banks. with regard to any of these heads. the most rapid. Homer was the greater genius. Homer. and in proportion to his degree in that we are to admire him. We ought to have a certain knowledge of the principal character and distinguishing excellence of each: it is in that we are to consider him. Virgil has in judgment.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER lvii are borne away by a tide of verse. I have no way derogated from his character. his sentiments more warm and sublime. and accordingly we find it to have made his fable more extensive and copious than any other. Virgil the better artist. When we behold their battles. Virgil. Virgil bestows with a careful magnificence. Virgil leads us with an attractive majesty. his speeches more affecting and transported. his manners more lively and strongly marked. Not that we are to think that Homer wanted judgment. and forming a judgment from thence of their merit upon the whole. pours out his riches with a boundless overflow. Thus on whatever side we contemplate Homer. because Homer possessed a larger share of it. in what has been said of Virgil. It is that which forms the character of each part of his work. In one we most admire the man. or that Virgil wanted invention. I hope. and his numbers more rapid and various. and are only said to have less in comparison with one another.

like the same power in his benevolence. boundless and resistless as Achilles. we shall perceive the chief objections against him to proceed from so noble a cause as the excess of this faculty. It is owing to the same vast invention. and as magnanimity may run up to profusion or extravagance. they naturally border on some imperfection. But after all. which. or the fault begins. so may a great judgment decline to coldness. like Æneas. bears all before him. shaking Olympus. and it is often hard to distinguish exactly where the virtue ends. to become miracles in the whole. Homer seems like his own Jupiter in his terrors. Virgil. and conquers with tranquillity. scattering the lightnings. and regularly ordering his whole creation. Among these we may reckon some of his marvellous fictions. Homer. Thus Homer has his "speaking horses." where the latter has not so much as contrived the easy intervention of a deity to save the probability.lviii The Iliad of Homer they celebrate. commit something near extravagance. The force of this faculty is seen in nothing more. upon which so much criticism has been spent. and shines more and more as the tumult increases. counselling with the gods. as surpassing all the bounds of probability. so may a great invention to redundancy or wildness. laying plans for empires. that his similes have been thought too exuberant and full of circumstances. As prudence may sometimes sink to suspicion. like the old heroes of that make. calmly daring. exceed what is commonly thought the due proportion of parts. and. and firing the heavens: Virgil. amidst a series of glorious and inimitable performances." and Virgil his "myrtles distilling blood. And when we look upon their machines. than in its inability to confine itself to that single circumstance upon which the comparison is grounded: it runs out into embellishments of . it is with great parts. as with great virtues. as with gigantic bodies. appears undisturbed in the midst of the action. disposes all about him. Perhaps it may be with great and superior souls. exerting themselves with unusual strength. If we look upon Homer in this view.

The same will account for his manner of heaping a number of comparisons together in one breath.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER lix additional images. His similes are like pictures. and the vicious and imperfect manners of his heroes. however. and princesses drawing water from the springs. as they are more contrary to ours. The reader will easily extend this observation to more objections of the same kind. Such are his grosser representations of the gods. princes tending their flocks." Who can be so prejudiced in their favour as to magnify the felicity of those ages. who are shocked at the servile offices and mean employments in which we sometimes see the heroes of Homer engaged. both by the censurers and defenders of Homer. There is a pleasure in taking a view of that simplicity. to think with Madame Dacier. but I must here speak a word of the latter. but is also set off with occasional ornaments and prospects. I would not be so delicate as those modern critics. are so managed as not to overpower the main one.38 "that those times and manners are so much the more excellent. If there are others which seem rather to charge him with a defect or narrowness of genius. and their wives and daughters made slaves and concubines? On the other side. in opposition to the luxury of succeeding ages: in beholding monarchs without their guards. When we read Homer. where the principal figure has not only its proportion given agreeable to the original. when his fancy suggested to him at once so many various and correspondent images. joined with the practice of rapine and robbery. when a spirit of revenge and cruelty. reigned through the world: when no mercy was shown but for the sake of lucre. as it is a point generally carried into extremes. which. . than an excess of it. It must be a strange partiality to antiquity. we ought to 38 [xxxix] Preface to her Homer. when the greatest princes were put to the sword. those seeming defects will be found upon examination to proceed wholly from the nature of the times he lived in.

that they are stepping almost three thousand years back into the remotest antiquity.. And. were obliged to add some other distinction of each person. This consideration may further serve to answer for the constant use of the same epithets to his gods and heroes. that they were in the nature of surnames. indeed. and tediously repeated. I shall add a further conjecture. Herodotus of Halicarnassus. will become a satisfaction. and repeated as such." the "blue-eyed Pallas. or the like: as Alexander the son of Philip. and entertaining themselves with a clear and surprising vision of things nowhere else to be found. Mons. either naming his parents expressly. and which it was an irreverence to omit. therefore. &c. the only true mirror of that ancient world. such as the "far-darting Phoebus. Edward the Black Prince. we have something parallel to these in modern times. Edward Longshanks. dividing the world into its different ages. has placed a fourth age. If yet this be thought to account better for the propriety than for the repetition. used such distinctive additions as better agreed with poetry. Those of the gods depended upon the powers and offices then believed to belong to them. By this means alone their greatest obstacles will vanish. Let them think they are growing acquainted with nations and people that are now no more. and those who consider him in this light. Hesiod. or his place of birth. and what usually creates their dislike. Boileau is of opinion. As for the epithets of great men. for the Greeks having no names derived from their fathers. between the brazen and ." the "swift-footed Achilles. complying with the custom of his country. &c. will double their pleasure in the perusal of him. such as the names of Harold Harefoot. profession. Homer. which some have censured as impertinent. and had contracted a weight and veneration from the rites and solemn devotions in which they were used: they were a sort of attributes with which it was a matter of religion to salute them on all occasions." &c. Edmund Ironside.lx The Iliad of Homer reflect that we are reading the most ancient author in the heathen world. Diogenes the Cynic.

not to be mentioned without the solemnity of an epithet. as that the hero is a wiser man. are such as hardly deserve a reply. as because Achilles is not as good and perfect a prince as Æneas. oftener from an ignorance of the graces of the original. but will yet be taken notice of as they occur in the course of the work. which is much the same. there are others. when the very moral of his poem required a contrary character: it is thus that Rapin judges in his comparison of Homer and Virgil. are called demi-gods. pretending to a fairer proceeding. a divine race who fought at Thebes and Troy. Many have been occasioned by an injudicious endeavour to exalt Virgil. Others quarrel with what they take for low and mean expressions." Now among the divine honours which were paid them. and the action of the one more beneficial to his country than that of the other. or else they blame him for not doing what he never designed. of "heroes distinct from other men. and live by the care of Jupiter in the islands of the blessed. as when they prefer the fable and moral of the Æneis to those of the Iliad. Lastly. Some accuse him for the same things which they overlook or praise in the other. distinguish between the personal merit of . by the whole course of their parallels. a consideration which whoever compares these two poets ought to have always in his eye. who. and then triumph in the awkwardness of their own translations: this is the conduct of Perrault in his Parallels. they might have this also in common with the gods. What other cavils have been raised against Homer. for the same reasons which might set the Odyssey above the Æneis. that these critics never so much as heard of Homer's having written first. as if one should think to raise the superstructure by undermining the foundation: one would imagine. sometimes through a false delicacy and refinement. actions or qualities. Others select those particular passages of Homer which are not so laboured as some that Virgil drew out of them: this is the whole management of Scaliger in his Poetics.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER lxi [xl] the iron one. and such as might be acceptable to them by celebrating their families.

39 In all these objections we see nothing that contradicts his title to the honour of the chief invention: and as long as this (which is indeed the characteristic of poetry itself) remains unequalled by his followers. Opp. that he has swallowed up the honour of those who succeeded him. but excels all the inventors of other arts. have only said that a few branches which run luxuriant through 39 [xli] Hesiod. in this. I. they found it upon the ignorance of his times. This is the method of Mons. it only left room for contraction or regulation. and be more approved in the eyes of one sort of critics: but that warmth of fancy will carry the loudest and most universal applauses which holds the heart of a reader under the strongest enchantment. and that he may be said in his sense to be the master even of those who surpassed him. What he has done admitted no increase. which were in reality the consequences of his merit. and produces the finest fruit: nature and art conspire to raise it. it was but because he attempted everything. or any great author whose general character will infallibly raise many casual additions to their reputation. &c. A work of this kind seems like a mighty tree. he still continues superior to them. The same might as well be said of Virgil. He showed all the stretch of fancy at once. &c. de la Mott. . which rises from the most vigorous seed. they make those accidents (such as the contention of the cities. but when they come to assign the causes of the great reputation of the Iliad.lxii The Iliad of Homer Homer. pleasure and profit join to make it valuable: and they who find the justest faults. he must have been the greatest poet of his nation. et Dier. flourishes. and the prejudice of those that followed: and in pursuance of this principle. vers. Homer not only appears the inventor of poetry. who yet confesses upon the whole that in whatever age Homer had lived. and if he has failed in some of his flights. A cooler judgment may commit fewer faults.) to be the causes of his fame. is improved with industry. 155. Lib. and that of his work.

the diction and versification only are his proper province. with the same view to the chief characteristic. It should then be considered what methods may afford some equivalent in our language for the graces of these in the Greek. It is certain no literal translation can be just to an excellent original in a superior language: but it is a great mistake to imagine (as many have done) that a rash paraphrase can make amends for this general defect. I know no liberties one ought to take. It is a great secret in writing. which nothing better preserves than a version almost literal. It is the first grand duty of an interpreter to give his author entire and unmaimed. since these must be his own. it remains to treat of the translation. dull adherence to the letter. there is often a light in antiquity. and sentiments. but the others he is to take as he finds them. manners. and simile.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER lxiii a richness of nature. but those which are necessary to transfusing the spirit of the original. whoever lessens or too much softens those. and . than have been deluded in ours by a chimerical. insolent hope of raising and improving their author. that the fire of the poem is what a translator should principally regard. by deviating into the modern manners of expression. and supporting the poetical style of the translation: and I will venture to say. as it is most likely to expire in his managing: however. without endeavouring to be more than he finds his author is. there have not been more men misled in former times by a servile. and for the rest. It is not to be doubted. description. to know when to be plain. As it also breaks out in every particular image. Having now spoken of the beauties and defects of the original. might be lopped into form to give it a more regular appearance. takes off from this chief character. in any particular place. no translator can prejudice it but by wilful omissions or contractions. such as the fable. which is no less in danger to lose the spirit of an ancient. As far as that is seen in the main parts of the poem. it is his safest way to be content with preserving this to his utmost in the whole. If there be sometimes a darkness.

and. while the poet himself is all the time proceeding with an unaffected and equal majesty before them. on the one hand. which have . some sweating and straining after him by violent leaps and bounds (the certain signs of false mettle). with all respect to the inspired writings.lxiv The Iliad of Homer [xlii] when poetical and figurative. others sunk into flatness. induce a translator. and in that part of the world. Where his diction is bold and lofty. as he may gain by that character of style. methinks. as well as a bold and sordid one. Methinks I see these different followers of Homer. which his friends must agree together to call simplicity. of the two extremes one could sooner pardon frenzy than frigidity. in a cold and timorous notion of simplicity. that the Divine Spirit made use of no other words but what were intelligible and common to men at that time. However. Simplicity is the mean between ostentation and rusticity. There is a graceful and dignified simplicity. others slowly and servilely creeping in his train. and another not to be dressed at all. but where his is plain and humble. no author is to be envied for such commendations. his style must of course bear a greater resemblance to the sacred books than that of any other writer. as Homer is the author nearest to those. which differ as much from each other as the air of a plain man from that of a sloven: it is one thing to be tricked up. and it is what Homer will teach us. let us raise ours as high as we can. and the rest of the world will call dulness. This consideration (together with what has been observed of the parity of some of his thoughts) may. Nothing that belongs to Homer seems to have been more commonly mistaken than the just pitch of his style: some of his translators having swelled into fustian in a proud confidence of the sublime. One may affirm. if we will but follow modestly in his footsteps. This pure and noble simplicity is nowhere in such perfection as in the Scripture and our author. to give in to several of those general phrases and manners of expression. we ought not to be deterred from imitating him by the fear of incurring the censure of a mere English critic.

as. if done without too much affectation. such as "platoon. a particular care should be taken to express with all plainness those moral sentences and proverbial speeches which are so numerous in this poet. to avoid those which have been appropriated to the Divinity. I speak of his compound epithets. and in a manner consigned to mystery and religion. such as "the cloud-compelling Jove. whenever any can be as fully and [xliii] . oracular. and as I may say. and are become familiar through their use of them. junto. and those who are.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER lxv attained a veneration even in our language from being used in the Old Testament. which most of any other seems to require a venerable. Many of the former cannot be done literally into English without destroying the purity of our language. I believe such should be retained as slide easily of themselves into an English compound. those who are not his greatest admirers look upon them as defects. But certainly the use of modern terms of war and government. For a further preservation of this air of simplicity. As for the rest. might not have an ill effect in a version of this particular work. which are a sort of marks or moles by which every common eye distinguishes him at first sight. There are two peculiarities in Homer's diction. in that unadorned gravity and shortness with which they are delivered: a grace which would be utterly lost by endeavouring to give them what we call a more ingenious (that is. and of his repetitions. on the other. antique cast. seemed pleased with them as beauties. They have something venerable." &c. a more modern) turn in the paraphrase. those only excepted without which it is impossible to treat the subjects in any living language. campaign." or the like. (into which some of his translators have fallen) cannot be allowable. Perhaps the mixture of some Graecisms and old words after the manner of Milton. without violence to the ear or to the received rules of composition. as well as those which have received a sanction from the authority of our best poets.

as neither to lose so known a mark of the author on the one hand. or where the ceremonial of religion seems to require it. As for Homer's repetitions. though it might be accommodated (as has been already shown) to the ear of those times. a translator may at once show his fancy and his judgment. Some that cannot be so turned. the course to be taken is obvious." is capable of two explications. where the dignity of the speaker renders it a sort of insolence to alter his words. I hope it is not impossible to have such a regard to these. as the epithet einosiphyllos to a mountain. therefore. and where the effects of the sun are described. in the solemn forms of prayers. of single sentences. would appear little or ridiculous translated literally "leaf-shaking. the ensigns of that god." but affords a majestic idea in the periphrasis: "the lofty mountain shakes his waving woods. and which. one literal. it will be necessary to avoid that perpetual repetition of the same epithets which we find in Homer. Upon the whole. with regard to the rays of the sun. nor to offend the reader too much on the other. For example. may receive an advantage from a judicious variation. may have justice done them by circumlocution." Others that admit of different significations.lxvi The Iliad of Homer significantly expressed in a single word as in a compounded one. we may divide them into three sorts: of whole narrations and speeches. I would make choice of the latter. The repetition is not ungraceful in those speeches. and in doing this properly. and of one verse or hemistitch. . or from higher powers to inferiors in concerns of state. where they derive an additional beauty from the occasions on which they are employed. as to preserve their full image by one or two words. the other allegorical. I would use the former interpretation. according to the occasions on which they are introduced. the epithet of Apollo. in respect of the darts and bow. in such places where Apollo is represented as a god in person. hekaebolos or "far-shooting. as in the messages from gods to men. is by no means so to ours: but one may wait for opportunities of placing them.

I am sensible it is what may sometimes happen by chance.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER lxvii oaths. notwithstanding which. In other cases. that one might think he deviated on purpose. It only remains to speak of the versification. or distance. will see I have endeavoured at this beauty. a poem of the mysteries he had revealed in Homer. whether a professed translator be authorized to omit any: if they be tedious. of giving a more tolerable copy of him than any entire translation in verse has yet done. Hobbes. He appears to have had a strong affectation of extracting new meanings out of his author. at which the repetitions are placed in the original: when they follow too close. in whose verse it so manifestly appears in a superior degree to all others. Few readers have the ear to be judges of it: but those who have. and varying it on every new subject. one may vary the expression. and Ogilby. We have only those of Chapman. there is scarce any paraphrase more loose and rambling than his. and I remember one in the thirteenth book of the Odyssey. insomuch as to promise. but it is a question. This is indeed one of the most exquisite beauties of poetry. if he did not in other places of his notes insist so much upon verbal trifles. I must confess myself utterly incapable of doing justice to Homer. the author is to answer for it. and perhaps he endeavoured to strain the obvious sense to this end. in his rhyming preface. 312. He is often mistaken in so bold a manner. He has frequent interpolations of four or six lines. and fully possessed of his image: however. where he has spun twenty verses out of two. it may reasonably be believed they designed this. or the like. I attempt him in no other hope but that which one may entertain without much vanity. His expression is involved [xliv] . when a writer is warm. I believe the best rule is. and Virgil in the Latin. to be guided by the nearness. Homer (as has been said) is perpetually applying the sound to the sense. and attainable by very few: I only know of Homer eminent for it in the Greek. Chapman has taken the advantage of an immeasurable length of verse. Upon the whole. ver.

His poetry. into which no writer of his learning could have fallen. Dryden did not live to translate the Iliad. He sometimes omits whole similes and sentences. had he translated the whole work. As for its being esteemed a close translation. the nature of the man may account for his whole performance. I doubt not many have been led into that error by the shortness of it. shows with what negligence his version was performed. of having finished half the Iliad in less than fifteen weeks. It is a great loss to the poetical world that Mr. He has left us only the first book. is too mean for criticism. for he appears. a fault for which he was remarkable in his original writings. but from the contractions above mentioned. and which very much contributed to cover his defects. His own boast. Hobbes has given us a correct explanation of the sense in general. but through carelessness. as in the tragedy of Bussy d'Amboise. or preserved the antiquities. and a small part of the sixth. from his preface and remarks. in which if he has in some places not truly interpreted the sense. and an enthusiast in poetry. He seems to have had too much regard to Chapman. I would no more have attempted Homer after him than Virgil: his version of whom (notwithstanding some human errors) is the most noble and spirited translation I know in any language. and often omits the most beautiful. whose words he sometimes copies. which proceeds not from his following the original line by line. as well as Ogilby's. it ought to be excused on account of the haste he was obliged to write in. which is something like what one might imagine Homer himself would have writ before he arrived at years of discretion. But the fate of great geniuses is like that of great ministers: though they are confessedly the first in the . but for particulars and circumstances he continually lops them. In a word. and is now and then guilty of mistakes. But that which is to be allowed him.lxviii The Iliad of Homer [xlv] in fustian. &c. is a daring fiery spirit that animates his translation. to have been of an arrogant turn. However. and has unhappily followed him in passages where he wanders from the original.

or with whatever happiness he may perform such a work. and competent learning. how learned soever. neither to omit nor confound any rites or customs of antiquity: perhaps too he ought to include the whole in a shorter compass than has hitherto been done by any translator who has tolerably preserved either the sense or poetry. in the more active or descriptive parts. and the different modulations of his numbers. to preserve. than from any commentaries. in the speeches.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER lxix commonwealth of letters. and Bossu's admirable Treatise of the Epic Poem the justest notion of his design and conduct. to consider him attentively in comparison with Virgil above all the ancients. a plainness and solemnity. since a mere modern wit can like nothing that is not modern. is above all things to keep alive that spirit and fire which makes his chief character: in particular places. in the more sedate or narrative. in the sentences. What I have done is submitted to the public. he must hope to please but a few. ought to be the endeavour of any one who translates Homer. But after all. is not in the nature of this undertaking. in my opinion. from whose . Next these. and with Milton above all the moderns. they must be envied and calumniated only for being at the head of it. nor sometimes the very cast of the periods. to follow the strongest and most poetical. the Archbishop of Cambray's Telemachus may give him the truest idea of the spirit and turn of our author. or whatever figure they may make in the estimation of the world. those only who have at once a taste of poetry. where the sense can bear any doubt. a shortness and gravity. For to satisfy such a want either. not to neglect even the little figures and turns on the words. and a pedant nothing that is not Greek. as most agreeing with that character. with whatever judgment and study a man may proceed. to copy him in all the variations of his style. That which. to study his author rather from his own text. a warmth and elevation. What I would further recommend to him is. a fulness and perspicuity.

whose good nature (to give it a great panegyric). as well as sincere criticisms. Parnell. if an old observation be true. so complete a praise: "Read Homer once. Rowe. but none as they are malignant writers. Congreve. . I must add the names of Mr. Addison was the first whose advice determined me to undertake this task. As for the worst. while the first names of the age appear as my subscribers. The humanity and frankness of Sir Samuel Garth are what I never knew wanting on any occasion. the many friendly offices.lxx The Iliad of Homer [xlvi] opinions I am prepared to learn. that my highest obligations are to such who have done most honour to the name of poet: that his grace the Duke of Buckingham was not displeased I should undertake the author to whom he has given (in his excellent Essay). so poor. and by persons for whom they can have no kindness. though I fear no judges so little as our best poets. whatever they shall please to say. But what can I say of the honour so many of the great have done me. that the strongest antipathy in the world is that of fools to men of wit. Dr. and Dr. For all books else appear so mean. who had led me the way in translating some parts of Homer. Swift promoted my interest with that warmth with which he always serves his friend. I was guided in this translation by judgments very different from theirs. The favour of these gentlemen is not entirely undeserved by one who bears them so true an affection. with infinite pleasure. of Mr. and you can read no more. though I shall take a further opportunity of doing justice to the last. I must also acknowledge. who are most sensible of the weight of this task. is no less extensive than his learning. I was obliged to Sir Richard Steele for a very early recommendation of my undertaking to the public. they may give me some concern as they are unhappy men. Mr. and the most distinguished patrons and ornaments of learning as my chief encouragers? Among these it is a particular pleasure to me to find. Verse will seem prose: but still persist to read. who was pleased to write to me upon that occasion in such terms as I cannot repeat without vanity.

than in all the useful and entertaining parts of learning. but it is almost absurd to particularize any one generous action in a person whose whole life is a continued series of them. which make the satisfaction of life. This distinction is the more to be acknowledged. as it is shown to one whose pen has never gratified the prejudices of particular parties. and I am satisfied I can no way better oblige men of their turn than by my silence. Stanhope. has not refused to be the critic of these sheets. but their correction of several particulars of this translation. In short. And I can hardly envy him those pompous honours he received after death.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER And Homer will be all the books you need. not more distinguished in the great scenes of business. I must attribute to the same motive that of several others of my friends: to whom all acknowledgments are rendered unnecessary by the privileges of a familiar correspondence. or the vanities of . Mr. I have found more patrons than ever Homer wanted." lxxi That the Earl of Halifax was one of the first to favour me. and the patron of their writer: and that the noble author of the tragedy of "Heroic Love" has continued his partiality to me. that I have had the advantage not only of their advice for the conduct in general. The particular zeal of Mr. the present secretary of state. when I reflect on the enjoyment of so many agreeable obligations. the University of Oxford. I could say a great deal of the pleasure of being distinguished by the Earl of Carnarvon. Harcourt (the son of the late Lord Chancellor) gave me a proof how much I am honoured in a share of his friendship. will pardon my desire of having it known that he was pleased to promote this affair. He would have thought himself happy to have met the same favour at Athens that has been shown me by its learned rival. and easy friendships. of whom it is hard to say whether the advancement of the polite arts is more owing to his generosity or his example: that such a genius as my Lord Bolingbroke. from my writing pastorals to my attempting the Iliad. I cannot deny myself the pride of confessing.

after a manner neither wholly unuseful to others. . I shall never repent of an undertaking in which I have experienced the candour and friendship of so many persons of merit. nor disagreeable to myself.lxxii The Iliad of Homer particular men. Whatever the success may prove. and in which I hope to pass some of those years of youth that are generally lost in a circle of follies.

.[001] THE ILIAD.


but commands him not to engage with the chief of the enemy's army. at length opening his eyes to the fault which he had committed. 40 . in the tenth year of the siege. and asks for the hero's arms. The eloquence of friendship prevails more than the intercession of the ambassadors or the gifts of the general. and is on the verge of entire destruction. injured by his general. is translated from Bitaube. the Greeks having sacked some of the neighbouring towns. In the war of Troy. and encourages Chalcas to The following argument of the Iliad. The prohibition is forgotten. corrected in a few particulars. Chryseis and Briseis. The hero. the father of Chryseis. deputes the principal officers of his army to the incensed hero. and for a season withdraws himself and his troops from the war. who inflicts a pestilence on the Greeks. ARGUMENT. with which the action of the poem opens. and taken from thence two beautiful captives. this friend weeps before him. and animated with a noble resentment. and for permission to go to the war in his stead. The priest being refused. upon the successful termination of which the honour of their country depends. and to tender magnificent presents. and is. entreats for vengeance from his god. During this interval. which for nine years has been occupied in a great enterprise. because he reserves to himself the honour of that combat. Chryses. and the last to Achilles. and insolently dismissed by Agamemnon. persists in his animosity. retires to his tent. The general. prepares to fight. according to the proud obstinacy of his character. This inexorable man has a friend. given up to the most lively despair. the neatest summary that has ever been drawn up:—"A hero. Then the hero. comes to the Grecian camp to ransom her. with commission to make compensation for the injury. he receives from a divinity new armour. and priest of Apollo. victory abandons the army.40 THE CONTENTION OF ACHILLES AND AGAMEMNON. He lends his armour to his friend. the friend listens to nothing but his courage.BOOK I. and because he also fears for his friend's life. perhaps. Achilles calls a council. his corpse is brought back to the hero. and the hero's arms become the prize of the conqueror. allotted the first to Agamemnon. the army is again defeated.

thirsting for glory and revenge. The scene lies in the Grecian camp. one in the council and quarrel of the princes. and twelve for Jupiter's stay with the Æthiopians. Achilles' wrath. to Greece the direful spring Of woes unnumber'd. he seizes on Briseis in revenge. honours his friend with superb funeral rites. enters into a furious contest with Achilles. and lastly to Olympus. by giving victory to the Trojans. 177. and complaining to Thetis.41 Since great Achilles and Atrides strove.'—Coleridge. [002] . which Nestor pacifies. The time of two-and-twenty days is taken up in this book: nine during the plague. and exercises a cruel vengeance on the body of his destroyer. But all kinds of birds are not carnivorous. restores to the old man the corpse of his son. Achilles in discontent withdraws himself and his forces from the rest of the Greeks. being obliged to send back his captive. during the whole time of their striving the will of Jove was being gradually accomplished. sing! That wrath which hurl'd to Pluto's gloomy reign The souls of mighty chiefs untimely slain. sqq. she supplicates Jupiter to render them sensible of the wrong done to her son. however. and such the will of Jove!42 is reconciled with his general and. 41 Vultures: Pope is more accurate than the poet he translates. incenses Juno: between whom the debate runs high. at whose return Thetis prefers her petition. heavenly goddess. but finally appeased by the tears and prayers of the father of the slain warrior. granting her suit.4 The Iliad of Homer declare the cause of it. Such was the sovereign doom. then changes to Chrysa. who attributes it to the refusal of Chryseis. as he had the absolute command of the army. Jupiter. The king. enacts prodigies of valour. slays the enemy's chief. till they are reconciled by the address of Vulcan. which he buries with due solemnities. recovers the victory. Whose limbs unburied on the naked shore. p. for Homer writes "a prey to dogs and to all kinds of birds. Devouring dogs and hungry vultures tore.e. 42 —i.

But. or of Sinai. of Atreus' royal race46 "Ye kings and warriors! may your vows be crown'd. Extends the sceptre and the laurel crown He sued to all. Declare. The king of men his reverent priest defied. Suppliant the venerable father stands. heavenly Muse.e. son of Jove. 6 "Sing. For Chryses sought with costly gifts to gain His captive daughter from the victor's chain. If mercy fail. that on the secret top Of Horeb.BOOK I. May Jove restore you when your toils are o'er Safe to the pleasures of your native shore. and lowly bending down. didst inspire That shepherd. And give Chryseis to these arms again.44 And heap'd the camp with mountains of the dead. Apollo. —Brother kings: Menelaus and Agamemnon. And dread avenging Phoebus." 43 5 Compare Milton's "Paradise Lost" i. from what offended power Latona's son a dire contagion spread. O Muse! in what ill-fated hour43 Sprung the fierce strife. yet let my presents move." 44 45 46 —Latona's son: i. but chief implored for grace The brother-kings. —King of men: Agamemnon. Apollo's awful ensigns grace his hands By these he begs. oh! relieve a wretched parent's pain.45 And for the king's offence the people died. . And Troy's proud walls lie level with the ground.

and release the fair. priest. shall plead in vain. with thy laurel crown. The priest to reverence. Repulsed the sacred sire. Nor ask. to Argos shall the maid retire. In daily labours of the loom employ'd. and golden rod. and thus replied: "Hence on thy life. Not so Atrides. Nor trust too far those ensigns of thy god. what the king detains Hence. with kingly pride. he. and shall remain. And age dismiss her from my cold embrace. and bribes. ." [003] HOMER INVOKING THE MUSE. Till time shall rifle every youthful grace. And prayers. and fly these hostile plains. and tears. presumptuous. Mine is thy daughter.6 The Iliad of Homer The Greeks in shouts their joint assent declare. Or doom'd to deck the bed she once enjoy'd Hence then. Far from her native soil and weeping sire.

dates before the earliest period of Aeolian colonization.49 Or fed the flames with fat of oxen slain. 68. they were told by an oracle to settle in that place. The trembling priest along the shore return'd. If e'er with wreaths I hung thy sacred fane. a number of field-mice came and gnawed away the leathern straps of their baggage. Avenge thy servant. however. The god who darts around the world his rays. a sister of Hippodamia. "History of Greece. they settled on the spot. p. God of the silver bow! thy shafts employ. Till. where they should not be attacked by the original inhabitants of the land. and that. Grote. in various parts of the Troad and its neighboring territory. having halted for the night. not daring to complain. . Disconsolate. so called from Cillus.47 Thou guardian power of Cilla the divine. And whose bright presence gilds thy Chrysa's shores. Strabo. to his god he prays. 47 "If e'er I roofed thy graceful fane. and thongs of their armour.48 Thou source of light! whom Tenedos adores.BOOK I. was applied to Apollo for having put an end to a plague of mice which had harassed that territory." [004] —Smintheus an epithet taken from sminthos." 48 —Cilla. It should be. and the Greeks destroy. a town of Troas near Thebe. In fulfilment of the oracle. remarks that the "worship of Sminthean Apollo. and raised a temple to Sminthean Apollo. safe at distance." i. that when the Teucri were migrating from Crete. 49 A mistake. the Phrygian name for a mouse. says. And in the anguish of a father mourn'd. 7 "O Smintheus! sprung from fair Latona's line. slain by OEnomaus." for the custom of decorating temples with garlands was of later date. Silent he wander'd by the sounding main.

Thetis' godlike son Convened to council all the Grecian train. And gloomy darkness roll'd about his head. it must be borne in mind. the Grecian hearts to wound. 51 It has frequently been observed. through all the dusky air. cut off in the germ of infancy or flower of youth. the fate of the young child or promising adult. The oracular functions of the god rose naturally out of the above fundamental attributes. Throughout both poems." vol. no less naturally procured him that of god of archery. 50 . his silver shafts resound. whatever may have existed in the more esoteric doctrine of the Greek sanctuaries. And hissing fly the feather'd fates below. shot a dismal glare. all deaths from unforeseen or invisible causes. is a different character from the deity of the same name in the later classical pantheon. there is no trace in either Iliad or Odyssey. are ascribed to the arrows of Apollo or Diana. The fleet in view. Bent was his bow. of the old man dropping peacefully into the grave. ii.—the favouring power attends. And from Olympus' lofty tops descends."—Mure. a sudden night he spread. and that Homer had this fact in mind. Breathing revenge. "It is an assembly for talk. or of the reckless sinner suddenly checked in his career of crime. 478. i. 52 —Convened to council. he twang'd his deadly bow. p. sq.50 Fierce as he moved. while the arrows with which he and his sister were armed. Inspired by Juno. p 92. The pyres. for who could more appropriately impart to mortals what little foreknowledge Fate permitted of her decrees than the agent of her most awful dispensations? The close union of the arts of prophecy and song explains his additional office of god of music. For nine long nights. symbols of sudden death in every age.52 —Bent was his bow "The Apollo of Homer. that most pestilences begin with animals. For much the goddess mourn'd her heroes slain. the ravages of pestilence. The public assembly in the heroic times is well characterized by Grote. "History of Greek Literature. thick-flaming. But ere the tenth revolving day was run. On mules and dogs the infection first began. Of any connection between Apollo and the Sun.8 The Iliad of Homer Thus Chryses pray'd. the vengeful arrows fix'd in man.51 And last. vol.

of the people as listeners and sympathizers—often for eloquence. and sat: when Chalcas thus replied. That sacred seer. And Phoebus dart his burning shafts no more. Let altars smoke. and hecatombs be paid. the venerable sage Thus spoke the prudence and the fears of age: Communication and discussion to a certain extent by the chiefs in person. and the future knew: Uprising slow. The assembly seated. shall dying Greece restore. rising o'er the rest. in which reference is made to these words of Homer. So Heaven. in maintenance of the belief that dreams had a divine origin and an import in which men were interested. But let some prophet. Explore the cause of great Apollo's rage. for dreams descend from Jove. whose comprehensive view." [005] He said. 'Tis time to save the few remains of war.53 If broken vows this heavy curse have laid. . the Grecian priest and guide." 53 Old Jacob Duport. the present. The past. Or learn the wasteful vengeance to remove By mystic dreams. Achilles thus the king of men address'd: 9 "Why leave we not the fatal Trojan shore.BOOK I. and sometimes for quarrel—but here its ostensible purposes end. quotes several passages of the ancients. Chalcas the wise. or some sacred sage. atoned. whose "Gnomologia Homerica" is full of curious and useful things. And measure back the seas we cross'd before? The plague destroying whom the sword would spare.

No daring Greek. and funeral fires increase. "bright-eyed. 'Tis sure the mighty will revenge at last. Achilles! would'st thou know Why angry Phoebus bends his fatal bow? First give thy faith.54 Perhaps.10 The Iliad of Homer "Beloved of Jove. Apollo's vengeance for his injured priest. and the god may spare. The priest may pardon." See the German critics quoted by Arnold. the blameless man replies: "Nor vows unpaid. To her own Chrysa send the black-eyed maid. For though we deem the short-lived fury past. Till the great king. with added sacrifice and prayer. and plight a prince's word Of sure protection. And whose bless'd oracles thy lips declare. shall touch that sacred head. by thy power and sword: For I must speak what wisdom would conceal. Bold is the task." Encouraged thus. The king of kings." 54 Rather. provoked the raging pest. reveal. But he." To whom Pelides:—"From thy inmost soul Speak what thou know'st. To whom thy hands the vows of Greece convey. without a ransom paid. of all the numerous band. . invidious to the great. nor slighted sacrifice. Long as Achilles breathes this vital air. when subjects. E'en by that god I swear who rules the day. Nor will the god's awaken'd fury cease. our chief. Against his priest shall lift an impious hand. But plagues shall spread. and speak without control. Not e'en the chief by whom our hosts are led. grown too wise. And truths. Instruct a monarch where his error lies.

for ever boding ill! Still must that tongue some wounding message bring. Fond of the power. I will resign. Nor unrewarded let your prince complain. I hold. the beauteous prize. When first her blooming beauties bless'd my arms. The prize. And from his eye-balls flash'd the living fire: "Augur accursed! denouncing mischief still. Skill'd in each art. And heavenly charms prefer to proffer'd gold? A maid. Prophet of plagues." "Insatiate king (Achilles thus replies). let her sail. and crown'd with every grace. But since for common good I yield the fair. Yet. My private loss let grateful Greece repair. and a priest profaned. To teach the Greeks to murmur at their lord? For this with falsehood is my honour stain'd. Is heaven offended. Not half so dear were Clytaemnestra's charms. So dearly valued. And still thy priestly pride provoke thy king? For this are Phoebus' oracles explored. That he alone has fought and bled in vain. if the gods demand her. Our cares are only for the public weal: Let me be deem'd the hateful cause of all. The prophet spoke: when with a gloomy frown The monarch started from his shining throne. unmatch'd in manners as in face. The due reward of many a well-fought field? 11 [006] .BOOK I. And suffer. and so justly mine. my beauteous maid. Because my prize. rather than my people fall. Black choler fill'd his breast that boil'd with ire. but fonder of the prize! Would'st thou the Greeks their lawful prey should yield.

Or." Then thus the king: "Shall I my prize resign With tame content. or with a monarch's claim This hand shall seize some other captive dame. The prize given to Ajax was Tecmessa. and like a god in fight.55 Ulysses' spoils. the daughter of Cycnus. With chosen pilots. And rage he may. Yet if our chief for plunder only fight. Or wise Ulysses see perform'd our will. 55 [007] . The mighty Ajax shall his prize resign. our conquering powers Shall humble to the dust her lofty towers. but he shall rage in vain. The spoils of Ilion shall thy loss requite. Soon shall the fair the sable ship ascend. The man who suffers. by Jove's decree. as with toil we gain. But to resume whate'er thy avarice craves (That trick of tyrants) may be borne by slaves. and let it be A treasure worthy her. But this when time requires. Whene'er. Such as a king might ask. loudly may complain. if our royal pleasure shall ordain. or even thy own.—It now remains We launch a bark to plough the watery plains. be mine. and with labouring oars. Think not to rob me of a soldier's right. and thou possess'd of thine? Great as thou art. At thy demand shall I restore the maid? First let the just equivalent be paid. or Ajax shall fulfil. while Ulysses received Laodice. And some deputed prince the charge attend: This Creta's king.12 The Iliad of Homer The spoils of cities razed and warriors slain. We share with justice. Or grant me this. and worthy me. And waft the sacrifice to Chrysa's shores.

At this. not a public wrong: What else to Troy the assembled nations draws. Hither we sail'd. frowning stern. unworthy of a royal mind! What generous Greek. and in her martial race." 13 MARS. Let fierce Achilles. a voluntary throng. arm'd with insolence and pride! Inglorious slave to interest. Whose fruitful soil luxuriant harvests grace. Rich in her fruits. Far hence removed. replied: "O tyrant. To Phthia's realms no hostile troops they led: Safe in her vales my warlike coursers fed. The god propitiate. Shall form an ambush. Pelides. Achilles' self conduct her o'er the main. obedient to thy word. the hoarse-resounding main. dreadful in his rage. ever join'd With fraud. secure my native reign. or shall lift the sword? What cause have I to war at thy decree? The distant Trojans never injured me. and the pest assuage.BOOK I. And walls of rocks. . To avenge a private.

Thy aid we need not. It is fancifully supposed that the name was derived from myrmaex. For know.14 The Iliad of Homer [008] But thine. an ant. but prize at equal rate Thy short-lived friendship. vain man! thy valour is from God. mighty warrior! fly. ungrateful. Some trivial present to my ships I bear: Or barren praises pay the wounds of war. My fleet shall waft me to Thessalia's shore: Left by Achilles on the Trojan plain. what conquests. proud monarch. 'twas Heaven that strength bestow'd. There want not chiefs in such a cause to fight. threat thy earth-born Myrmidons:—but here56 The Myrmidons dwelt on the southern borders of Thessaly. Thine in each conquest is the wealthy prey. If thou hast strength. I heed thee not. O tyrant! match'd with thine. Rule thy own realms with arbitrary sway. and thy groundless hate. Haste. But know. "because they imitated the 56 . Disgraced and injured by the man we serve? And darest thou threat to snatch my prize away. and thy brother's cause? Is this the pay our blood and toils deserve. fly with speed away. and took their origin from Myrmido. As thy own actions if compared to mine. launch thy vessels. What spoils. Though mine the sweat and danger of the day. and thy threats defy. I'm thy slave no more. And Jove himself shall guard a monarch's right. Of all the kings (the god's distinguish'd care) To power superior none such hatred bear: Strife and debate thy restless soul employ. Go. And wars and horrors are thy savage joy. shall Atrides gain?" To this the king: "Fly. Due to the deeds of many a dreadful day? A prize as small. son of Jupiter and Eurymedusa.

His heart swell'd high. While half unsheathed appear'd the glittering blade. and thine to fear. This whispers soft his vengeance to control. was intended to point out the sudden recollection that he would gain nothing by intemperate wrath. and settled them in more secure and comfortable habitations. Know. which resembles that of the ant: they bore a further resemblance to these little animals. Just as in anguish of suspense he stay'd. unseen by the rest. and now by reason cool'd: That prompts his hand to draw the deadly sword. "De Deo Socratis. allegorizes this apparition. as if the appearance of Minerva to Achilles. if the god the beauteous dame demand. until Ithacus brought them together. And hence. and only gratify it by withdrawing his services. and curse the hour Thou stood'st a rival of imperial power. the change from ants to men is founded merely on the equivocation of their name." 57 Eustathius. Now fired by wrath. My bark shall waft her to her native land. Thy loved Briseis with the radiant eyes. The same idea is rather cleverly worked out by Apuleius. And calm the rising tempest of his soul. to all our hosts it shall be known. Fierce as thou art. But then prepare." Achilles heard. and pierce their haughty lord. Distracting thoughts by turns his bosom ruled. 'Tis mine to threaten. in that instead of inhabiting towns or villages. having no other retreats but dens and the cavities of trees. to yield thy captive fair: Even in thy tent I'll seize the blooming prize. and that it were best to restrain his anger. That kings are subject to the gods alone. continually employed in cultivating the earth."—Anthon's "Lempriere. Hence shalt thou prove my might. and labour'd in his breast. with grief and rage oppress'd." .BOOK I. and like them were indefatigable. Force through the Greeks. imperious prince! prepare. after Heraclides Ponticus and others. prince.57 15 [009] diligence of the ants. at first they commonly resided in the open fields.

16 The Iliad of Homer Minerva swift descended from above. A heavenly witness of the wrongs I bear From Atreus' son?—Then let those eyes that view The daring crime. to him alone confess'd. in her guardian care. Behind she stood. Known by the flames that sparkle from her eyes: MINERVA REPRESSING THE FURY OF ACHILLES. Sent by the sister and the wife of Jove (For both the princes claim'd her equal care). and by the golden hair Achilles seized." . and sudden to the goddess cries. "Descends Minerva. behold the vengeance too. A sable cloud conceal'd her from the rest. He sees.

The force of keen reproaches let him feel. 'Tis just." To her Pelides:—"With regardful ear. the chance of fighting fields to try. O goddess! I thy dictates hear. "Forbear (the progeny of Jove replies) To calm thy fury I forsake the skies: Let great Achilles. and the gods obey. observant of the blue-eyed maid. And joins the sacred senate of the skies. thy revenging steel. obedient. Thou dog in forehead. The goddess swift to high Olympus flies. Thine to look on. But sheathe. and bid the valiant die: So much 'tis safer through the camp to go." He said. For I pronounce (and trust a heavenly power) Thy injured honour has its fated hour. but in heart a deer! When wert thou known in ambush'd fights to dare.BOOK I. By awful Juno this command is given. my vengeance I suppress: Those who revere the gods the gods will bless. than despoil a foe. 17 [010] . Then in the sheath return'd the shining blade. Which thus redoubling on Atrides broke: "O monster! mix'd of insolence and fear. Hard as it is. And rob a subject. To reason yield the empire o'er his mind. The king and you are both the care of heaven. When the proud monarch shall thy arms implores And bribe thy friendship with a boundless store. to the gods resign'd. Command thy passions. Or nobly face the horrid front of war? 'Tis ours. Then let revenge no longer bear the sway. Nor yet the rage his boiling breast forsook.

Are tamed to wrongs. 3." . sweet as honey. Hector comes to spread The purpled shore with mountains of the dead. To calm their passion with the words of age. Forced to deplore when impotent to save: Then rage in bitterness of soul to know This act has made the bravest Greek thy foe.—or this had been thy last. form'd by temper'd steel to prove An ensign of the delegates of Jove. from his lips distill'd:58 58 Compare Milton. Who. flush'd with slaughter. in persuasion skill'd. Then shall thou mourn the affront thy madness gave. violent and base! Sent in Jove's anger on a slavish race. ii: "Though his tongue Dropp'd manna. Experienced Nestor. lost to sense of generous freedom past. Now by this sacred sceptre hear me swear. and furious hurl'd against the ground His sceptre starr'd with golden studs around: Then sternly silent sat. she shall call in vain. "Paradise Lost. From whom the power of laws and justice springs (Tremendous oath! inviolate to kings). Which sever'd from the trunk (as I from thee) On the bare mountains left its parent tree. By this I swear:—when bleeding Greece again Shall call Achilles. "For the lips of a strange woman drop as an honey-comb. With like disdain The raging king return'd his frowns again. Slow from his seat arose the Pylian sage. When. This sceptre. Words." bk." So Proverbs v.18 The Iliad of Homer Scourge of thy people. Which never more shall leaves or blossoms bear." He spoke.

Fired with the thirst which virtuous envy breeds. Theseus. they listen'd and obey'd. to toils of battle bred. Or Polyphemus. of the Grecian state. Who thus with mild benevolence began:— "What shame. Dryas the bold. they pierced the mountain boar. and the friends of Troy! That adverse gods commit to stern debate The best. And smit with love of honourable deeds. seize not on the beauteous slave. In early youth my hardy days I led. When Nestor spoke. A godlike race of heroes once I knew. Atrides. this youthful heat restrain. All view'd with awe the venerable man. even these esteem'd me wise. Nor think your Nestor's years and wisdom vain. Let kings be just. or Ceneus' deathless name. treat our prince with pride. and happy by his sway. That prize the Greeks by common suffrage gave: Nor thou. And now the example of the third remain'd. Achilles. what woe is this to Greece! what joy To Troy's proud monarch. Do you. like the gods in fight? With these of old. the bravest. Wise by his rules. Such as no more these aged eyes shall view! Lives there a chief to match Pirithous' fame. and sovereign power preside.BOOK I. Strongest of men. Two ages o'er his native realm he reign'd. 19 [011] . Ranged the wild deserts red with monsters' gore. Young as ye are. Two generations now had pass'd away. If in my youth. young warriors. hear my age advise. endued with more than mortal might. And from their hills the shaggy Centaurs tore: Yet these with soft persuasive arts I sway'd.

I well deserved thy galling chain. the first honours of the war adorn. and sceptred sons of Jove. but command not me. as more advanced in age. Seize on Briseis. gods! Achilles should be lost. O king! to calm Achilles' rage. Forbid it. Let both unite with well-consenting mind. and he the lord of all? Him must our hosts. he ceased. Leave me. that unconquer'd soul. and interrupting spoke: "Tyrant. Has foul reproach a privilege from heaven?" [012] Here on the monarch's speech Achilles broke. The pride of Greece. awful majesty exalts above The powers of earth. To live thy slave. The king of men replies: "Thy years are awful. whom the Grecians doom'd My prize of war." This said. The gods command me to forgive the past: But let this first invasion be the last: . No laws can limit. and thy words are wise. Him. no more Achilles draws His conquering sword in any woman's cause.20 The Iliad of Homer Thee. Like gods in strength. Before his pride must his superiors fall. But that imperious. And seize secure. no respect control. and bulwark of our host. Should I submit to each unjust decree:— Command thy vassals. and of a goddess born. and still to serve in vain. His word the law. And furious. yet tamely see resumed. So shall authority with strength be join'd. ourself obey? What king can bear a rival in his sway? Grant that the gods his matchless force have given. Rule thou thyself. our chiefs. thus.

in Clem. Wash'd by the briny wave. Talthybius and Eurybates the good. embalon alas. "Haste to the fierce Achilles' tent (he cries). The army thus in sacred rites engaged. Ourself in arms shall tear her from his heart. when next thou darest invade. Thence bear Briseis as our royal prize: Submit he must. Then swiftly sailing. thy blood. salt was thrown into the fresh water to be used for the lustration. With pure lustrations. . Alex. To wait his will two sacred heralds stood. phakois. And bulls and goats to Phoebus' altars paid.713. vii. Meantime Atrides launch'd with numerous oars A well-rigg'd ship for Chrysa's sacred shores: High on the deck was fair Chryseis placed. The sable fumes in curling spires arise. from its being supposed to possess certain fiery particles.BOOK I." 21 59 Salt water was chiefly used in lustrations. and cast the ablutions in the main. cut the liquid road. or if they will not part. Achilles with Patroclus took his way Where near his tents his hollow vessels lay. hydati perriranai. if sea-water could not be obtained. Menander. and with solemn prayers." At this they ceased: the stern debate expired: The chiefs in sullen majesty retired. Atrides still with deep resentment raged. p. And sage Ulysses with the conduct graced: Safe in her sides the hecatomb they stow'd. And waft their grateful odours to the skies. the pious train59 Are cleansed. For know. Shall stream in vengeance on my reeking blade. The host to expiate next the king prepares. Hence. Along the shore whole hecatombs were laid.

and men below! But first. At awful distance long they silent stand." 60 The persons of heralds were held inviolable. the hero in his tent they find. and thus with accent mild began: "With leave and honour enter our abodes. Loth to advance. With gloomy aspect on his arm reclined. and loudest. Unskill'd to judge the future by the past. Unmoved as death Achilles shall remain. Pollux. heralds. and useless to his host. and proclaim my vow. Ye sacred ministers of men and gods!60 I know your message. by constraint you came. 159. Not you. Pensive they walk along the barren sands: Arrived. Blind to himself.22 The Iliad of Homer [013] The unwilling heralds act their lord's commands. p. and speak their hard command. . Conduct my captive to the haughty king. But witness. viii. and they were believed to be under the especial protection of Jove and Mercury. to your prince declare (That lawless tyrant whose commands you bear). The office was generally given to old men. Onom. Decent confusion! This the godlike man Perceived. Patroclus. In blood and slaughter shall repent at last. the fair Briseis bring. Witness to gods above. haste. but your imperious lord I blame. and they were at liberty to travel whither they would without fear of molestation. Though prostrate Greece shall bleed at every vein: The raging chief in frantic passion lost.

and Peleus.BOOK I. Patroclus now the unwilling beauty brought. O'er the wild margin of the deep he hung. however. Pass'd silent. 54 . slow-moving o'er the strand. retiring to the sounding shore. and Achilles would have shared the same fate had not his father rescued him. Her children were all destroyed by fire through her attempts to see whether they were immortal. Fab. with great difficulty. 23 THE DEPARTURE OF BRISEIS FROM THE TENT OF ACHILLES. it was known that the son to whom she would give birth must prove greater than his father. and in pensive thought. Not so his loss the fierce Achilles bore. as she eluded him by assuming various forms. it was determined to wed her to a mortal. But sad. the daughter of Nereus and Doris. That kindred deep from whence his mother sprung:61 There bathed in tears of anger and disdain. Thus loud lamented to the stormy main: 61 [014] His mother. succeeded in obtaining her hand. in soft sorrows. When. who was courted by Neptune and Jupiter. Hygin. She afterwards rendered him invulnerable by plunging him into the waters of the Styx. She. as the heralds held her hand. And of look'd back. Thetis. with the exception of that part of the heel by which she held him.

our conquering army came." Far from the deep recesses of the main. . And thus the sorrows of his soul explores. The goddess-mother heard. The waves divide. From Thebe. And like a mist she rose above the tide. Beheld him mourning on the naked shores. If yon proud monarch thus thy son defies. Great Jove in justice should this span adorn: Honour and fame at least the thunderer owed. and resumes my prize. Sure to so short a race of glory born. north of Adramyttium. Held forth the sceptre and the laurel crown. By vote selected. Obscures my glories. And ill he pays the promise of a god. Where aged Ocean holds his watery reign. lowly bending down. heavenly prize! was led. sacred to Apollo's name62 (Aetion's realm). and trust a parent's care." He deeply sighing said: "To tell my woe Is but to mention what too well you know. With treasure loaded and triumphant spoils. to the general's bed. "Why grieves my son? Thy anguish let me share. Whose just division crown'd the soldier's toils. Intreating all. by too severe a doom.24 The Iliad of Homer "O parent goddess! since in early bloom Thy son must fall. But bright Chryseis. The fleet he reach'd. and. 62 Thebe was a city of Mysia. The priest of Phoebus sought by gifts to gain His beauteous daughter from the victor's chain. Reveal the cause. but chief implored for grace The brother-kings of Atreus' royal race: The generous Greeks their joint consent declare.

But now he seized Briseis' heavenly charms. Then rising in his wrath. Incensed he threaten'd. and thence derives the woes: Myself the first the assembled chiefs incline To avert the vengeance of the power divine. Oft hast thou triumph'd in the glorious boast. A prophet then. Defrauds the votes of all the Grecian train. And sue for vengeance to the thundering god. plead in vain. and his gifts denied: The insulted sire (his god's peculiar care) To Phoebus pray'd. The sire insulted. That thou stood'st forth of all the ethereal host. the monster Titan came 63 25 [015] That is. the monarch storm'd. and pierce the Grecian hearts. Then. To high Olympus' shining court ascend. With offer'd gifts to make the god relent. Urge all the ties to former service owed. . The priest to reverence. inspired by heaven. Durst threat with chains the omnipotence of Heaven. call'd by thee. and justice. And of my valour's prize defrauds my arms. And points the crime. and release the fair. faith. The warlike maid. Not so Atrides: he. and his threats perform'd: The fair Chryseis to her sire was sent. and monarch of the main. The undaunted guard of cloud-compelling Jove: When the bright partner of his awful reign. goddess! thou thy suppliant son attend. defrauds me of the prize allotted me by their votes. arose. by mad ambition driven. But.63 And service. The traitor-gods. When bold rebellion shook the realms above. and Phoebus heard the prayer: A dreadful plague ensues: the avenging darts Incessant fly. with wonted pride.BOOK I.

To hurl them headlong to their fleet and main. Schlegel well observes. —To Fates averse. this to his remembrance call. 67. Let Agamemnon lift his haughty head O'er all his wide dominion of the dead. at his tribunal fall. Not he that shakes the solid earth so strong: With giant-pride at Jove's high throne he stands. and nursed for future woes?65 So short a space the light of heaven to view! So short a space! and fill'd with sorrow too! 64 Quintus Calaber goes still further in his account of the service rendered to Jove by Thetis: "Nay more."—'Lectures on the Drama' v. and adored. To Fates averse. p. compared with infinitude. and from which even the gods are not exempt. 65 . And brandish'd round him all his hundred hands: The affrighted gods confess'd their awful lord. and bring The Greeks to know the curse of such a king. Embrace his knees. goddess. "This power extends also to the world of gods— for the Grecian gods are mere powers of nature—and although immeasurably higher than mortal man. Through wondering skies enormous stalk'd along." "Unhappy son! (fair Thetis thus replies. Of the gloomy destiny reigning throughout the Homeric poems.64 This. And mourn in blood that e'er he durst disgrace The boldest warrior of the Grecian race. men Ægeon name). the fetters of Almighty Jove She loosed"—Dyce's "Calaber." s. trembled. To heap the shores with copious death. They dropp'd the fetters.26 [016] The Iliad of Homer (Whom gods Briareus. yet. they are on an equal footing with himself. While tears celestial trickle from her eyes) Why have I borne thee with a mother's throes. Conjure him far to drive the Grecian train. 58.

after quoting a passage from Diodorus about the holy ship. far from Ilion should thy vessels sail. Meantime. "that this procession is represented in one of the great sculptured reliefs on the temple of Karnak. The sacred ship 66 [017] . not mingle in the war." says Heeren. serves to show the Ethiopian origin of Thebes. On the warm limits of the farthest main. Yet (what I can) to move thy suit I'll go To great Olympus crown'd with fleecy snow. O might a parent's careful wish prevail. The sire of gods and all the ethereal train. Far. nor disdain to grace The feasts of Æthiopia's blameless race. and of the worship of Jupiter Ammon.66 It has been observed that the annual procession of the sacred ship so often represented on Egyptian monuments. from far Behold the field. from camps remote. "I think. secure within thy ships. And thou. alas! too nearly threats my son. Now mix with mortals.BOOK I. the danger shun Which now. 27 THETIS CALLING BRIAREUS TO THE ASSISTANCE OF JUPITER. and the return of the deity from Ethiopia after some days' absence.

67 —Atoned. reconciled." The goddess spoke: the rolling waves unclose."67 of Ammon is on the shore with its whole equipment. It is therefore on its voyage. and move The high tribunal of immortal Jove. (ed. sq. 1 p."—Long. desist to wound.110. Where at his solemn altar.28 The Iliad of Homer Twelve days the powers indulge the genial rite. Homer alludes to it when he speaks of Jupiter's visit to the Ethiopians. reverend priest! to Phoebus' awful dome A suppliant I from great Atrides come: Unransom'd. Eustathius. Next on the shore their hecatomb they land. Then down the steep she plunged from whence she rose. 1 p. which we will spare the reader. p. thus the hero said: "Hail. And dropp'd their anchors. And may thy god who scatters darts around. and his twelve days' absence. vol. Basil) gives this interpretation. And left him sorrowing on the lonely coast. and is towed along by another boat. here receive the spotless fair. Chryseis last descending on the strand. Atoned by sacrifice. Returning with the twelfth revolving light. as the maid He gave to Chryses. i. . This is the proper and most natural meaning of the word. 96. and likewise an allegorical one. Then will I mount the brazen dome. as may be seen from Taylor's remarks in Calmet's Dictionary. "Egyptian Antiquities" vol. of my edition. 98. This must have been one of the most celebrated festivals. even according to the interpretation of antiquity. Her. and the pinnace tied.e. thus returning from the furrow'd main. Ulysses led to Phoebus' sacred fane. In Chrysa's port now sage Ulysses rode. Beneath the deck the destined victims stow'd: The sails they furl'd. since. Accept the hecatomb the Greeks prepare. In wild resentment for the fair he lost. they lash the mast aside.

and take The sacred offering of the salted cake. the victims slew:68 29 [018] 68 That is. drawing back their necks while they cut their throats. Stretch'd on the grassy turf. Disposed in rank their hecatomb they bring." So Chryses pray'd. unmindful of the past." Dryden's "Virgil. And. some portion out the spoil. And smile propitious. it was killed with its throat toward the ground. at ease they dine." vol i. p. so lately sought in vain. Then near the altar of the darting king.BOOK I. 293. . fired to vengeance at thy priest's request. While thus with arms devoutly raised in air. Some strip the skin. the priest directs his prayer: "God of the silver bow. So sadly lost. Thy direful darts inflict the raging pest: Once more attend! avert the wasteful woe. And gilds fair Chrysa with distinguish'd rays! If. the throat was bent upwards towards heaven. The limbs yet trembling. their plenteous dinner haste. Whose sacred eye thy Tenedos surveys. "If the sacrifice was in honour of the celestial gods. Restore their strength with meat. the sire embraced the maid again. but if made to the heroes.81. "The jolly crew. Apollo heard his prayer: And now the Greeks their hecatomb prepare. and cheer their souls with wine. Between their horns the salted barley threw. and unbend thy bow. The quarry share. thy ear incline. with their heads to heaven. or infernal deities. And solemn voice." i. in the caldrons boil. At this."— "Elgin Marbles. Whose power incircles Cilla the divine. Some on the fire the reeking entrails broil. With water purify their hands.

30 The Iliad of Homer The limbs they sever from the inclosing hide. filled to the brim. The milk-white canvas bellying as they blow. in double cauls involved with art.) Then part. and hoist the mast: indulgent gales. —Crown'd. The thighs. Far on the beach they haul their bark to land. i. dispense the flowing bowls around. Each takes his seat. (The crooked keel divides the yellow sand. the grateful notes prolong. where stretch'd along the winding bay. Till rosy morn had purpled o'er the sky: Then launch. 69 . and each receives his share. With pure libations they conclude the feast. The youths with wine the copious goblets crown'd. The assistants part. divide: On these. selected to the gods. transfix. and entrails dress'd. Till now the Grecian camp appear'd in view. and approves the song. When now the rage of hunger was repress'd. and roast the rest: Then spread the tables. fill the swelling sails. restored. Supplied by Phoebus.69 With hymns divine the joyous banquet ends. The choicest morsels lay from every part. The paeans lengthen'd till the sun descends: The Greeks. the repast prepare.e. The youth with instruments surround the fire: The thighs thus sacrificed. Apollo listens. And burns the offering with his holy hands. The custom of adorning goblets with flowers was of later date. The priest himself before his altar stands. pleased. and sees the flames aspire. The parted ocean foams and roars below: Above the bounding billows swift they flew. 'Twas night. the chiefs beside their vessel lie. Pours the black wine. And.

31 But raging still. and props the clouds. amidst his navy sat The stern Achilles. where old Olympus shrouds His hundred heads in heaven. like the morning-mist in early day. and now the dawning light The gods had summon'd to the Olympian height: Jove. and now dishonour'd too. O ever just and wise! Let Greece be humbled. And scenes of blood rise dreadful in his soul. far apart.BOOK I. The ships and tents in mingled prospect lay. O father of the gods! (she said) My words could please thee. But wasting cares lay heavy on his mind: In his black thoughts revenge and slaughter roll. Fame is at least by heavenly promise due To life so short. and the Trojans rise. Nor mix'd in combat. nor in council join'd. Some marks of honour on my son bestow. And pay in glory what in life you owe. stedfast in his hate. and one his knees embraced. When. Leads the long order of ethereal powers. Rose from the flood the daughter of the sea: And to the seats divine her flight address'd. Suppliant the goddess stood: one hand she placed Beneath his beard. "If e'er. Till the proud king and all the Achaian race Shall heap with honours him they now disgrace. and high above the rest. or my actions aid. first ascending from the watery bowers. Avenge this wrong. There. Twelve days were past." [019] . The thunderer sat.

of all the powers above. sighing. Is wretched Thetis least the care of Jove?" She said. thus the god replies. and urged the dear request. but Jove in silence held The sacred counsels of his breast conceal'd. or grant. Refuse. Thus Thetis spoke. Who rolls the thunder o'er the vaulted skies: . for what has Jove to fear? Or oh! declare. Still grasp'd his knees. the goddess closer press'd. Not so repulsed. and. "O sire of gods and men! thy suppliant hear.32 The Iliad of Homer THETIS ENTREATING JUPITER TO HONOUR ACHILLES.

124. Those who beheld this statue are said to have been so struck with it as to have asked whether Jupiter had descended from heaven to show himself to Phidias. too partial. xii p. The gods' complaints. confirm'd. and Juno's fierce alarms.71 Swift to the seas profound the goddess flies. fix'd. That shook heav'n's whole circumference. 71 "So was his will Pronounced among the gods. The nod that ratifies the will divine. 351. 33 70 —He spoke. But part in peace. thereby signifying that the genius of Homer had inspired him with it." "Paradise Lost" ii. why should Jove engage In foreign contests and domestic rage. and gives the nod. wrapp'd in holy fear. he is said to have answered by repeating the lines of the first Iliad in which the poet represents the majesty of the god in the most sublime terms. "When a friend inquired of Phidias what pattern he had formed his Olympian Jupiter. This seals thy suit. The stamp of fate and sanction of the god: High heaven with trembling the dread signal took. or whether Phidias had been carried thither to contemplate the god. While I. and by an oath. . and from their thrones of state Arising silent. "What hast thou ask'd? ah.BOOK I. The faithful. And all Olympus to the centre shook. irrevocable sign. and this fulfils thy vows—" He spoke.70 Shakes his ambrosial curls. &c. Jove to his starry mansions in the skies." vol. and awful bends his sable brows. aid the Trojan arms? Go."— "Elgin Marbles. lest the haughty partner of my sway With jealous eyes thy close access survey. The shining synod of the immortals wait The coming god. secure thy prayer is sped: Witness the sacred honours of our head.

nor they. What favourite goddess then those cares divides. And glut his vengeance with my people slain. What fits thy knowledge. Jove to his Thetis nothing could deny. for me. To grace her fierce. "Say. Nor can the depths of fate be pierced by thee. or who controls thy sway? Thy boundless will." [021] . In close consult. shall search the thoughts that roll Deep in the close recesses of my soul. remains in force. while Jove assumes the throne. And all her passions kindled into flame. But thou. artful manager of heaven (she cries). From whence this wrath. The first of gods above. But 'tis for Greece I fear: for late was seen." Full on the sire the goddess of the skies Roll'd the large orbs of her majestic eyes. In vain the partner of imperial state. the silver-footed queen. say. Nor was the signal vain that shook the sky. thou the first shalt know. Trembling they stand. And thus return'd:—"Austere Saturnius. And all thy counsels take the destined course. Which Jove in prudence from his consort hides?" To this the thunderer: "Seek not thou to find The sacred counsels of almighty mind: Involved in darkness likes the great decree.34 The Iliad of Homer Before the majesty of heaven appear. and men below. but the god's imperious queen alone: Late had she view'd the silver-footed dame. All. Who now partakes the secrets of the skies? Thy Juno knows not the decrees of fate. inexorable son? Perhaps in Grecian blood to drench the plain. What fatal favour has the goddess won.

" 35 VULCAN. But dread the power of this avenging hand: The united strength of all the gods above In vain resists the omnipotence of Jove. submit. presumptuous and abhorr'd. Goddess. Let this suffice: the immutable decree No force can shake: what is. . That strives to learn what heaven resolves to hide. that ought to be.BOOK I. nor dare our will withstand. and odious to thy lord. Then thus the god: "O restless fate of pride. Vain is the search. Anxious to thee.

72 Which held to Juno in a cheerful way. be patient and obey. goddess-mother. unable to defend What god so daring in your aid to move. The feast disturb'd. 93 sq.73 —A double bowl. "Goddess (he cried). "Him th' Almighty power Hurl'd headlong flaming from th ethereal sky. with sorrow Vulcan saw His mother menaced. and the gods in awe.36 The Iliad of Homer [022] The thunderer spoke. The double bowl with sparkling nectar crown'd. Lexic. Thou. something like the measures by which a halfpenny or pennyworth of nuts is sold. a vessel with a cup at both ends. See Buttmann. and dethrone the gods. I can but grieve. roused to rage. Launch the red lightning. Nor break the sacred union of the sky: Lest. A reverent horror silenced all the sky. and pleasure his design. Peace at his heart. Dear as you are. With hideous ruin and combustion" 72 . nor durst the queen reply. Hurl'd headlong down from the ethereal height.e. i. If you submit. if Jove his arm extend. Thus interposed the architect divine: "The wretched quarrels of the mortal state Are far unworthy. 73 "Paradise Lost. Or lift his hand against the force of Jove? Once in your cause I felt his matchless might. with our sire comply. the thunderer stands appeased. 44. The gracious power is willing to be pleased." i. We. he shake the bless'd abodes. in eternal peace and constant joy. p. gods! of your debate: Let men their days in senseless strife employ." Thus Vulcan spoke: and rising with a bound.

. See Heraclides. and celestial song. fastened iron anvils to her feet. its contentions for power and occasional revolutions. they fabled. Jove. Vulcan with awkward grace his office plies. Breathless I fell. Each to his lips applied the nectar'd urn. having previously cast Jove into a sleep. and in his turn. and hung her from the sky. In feasts ambrosial. and to her hands the goblet heaved. which drove him to the island of Cos. And unextinguish'd laughter shakes the skies. with a smile. and Vulcan. The Sinthians were a race of robbers. 463 sq. Juno raised a storm. to the rest he fill'd. its public meetings in the agora of Olympus." p. in revenge. Nor till the sun descended touch'd the ground. 'Ponticus. The Sinthians raised me on the Lemnian coast. Thus the blest gods the genial day prolong. The story is told by Homer himself in Book xv. from noon to dewy eve. ed Gale. and its multitudinous banquets or festivals.BOOK I.75 Apollo tuned the lyre. the white-arm'd queen received Then.74 He said. had taken and pillaged Troy. and how he fell From heaven. was kicked down from Olympus in the manner described. in giddy motion lost." 74 The occasion on which Vulcan incurred Jove's displeasure was this—After Hercules. to prevent him aiding his son. and in Ausonian land Men call'd him Mulciber. 37 [023] of ranks and duties. attempting to relieve her. Toss'd all the day in rapid circles round. Which. A summer's day and with the setting sun Dropp'd from the zenith like a falling star . the ancient inhabitants of Lemnos which island was ever after sacred to Vulcan. "Nor was his name unheard or unadored In ancient Greece. thrown by angry Jove Sheer o'er the crystal battlements from morn To noon he fell. the Muses round With voice alternate aid the silver sound. The allegorists have gone mad in finding deep explanations for this amusing fiction.

And Juno slumber'd on the golden bed." "Paradise Lost. vol i p. roll'd down the rapid light: Then to their starry domes the gods depart.38 The Iliad of Homer Meantime the radiant sun to mortal sight Descending swift. [024] On Lemnos. that "The gods formed a sort of political community of their own which had its hierarchy. The shining monuments of Vulcan's art: Jove on his couch reclined his awful head. its distribution 75 . th' Aegean isle thus they relate. JUPITER. 463. 738 It is ingeniously observed by Grote." i.



as well as by the length of time. and to divide them into their several nations. The assembly is recalled. They are detained by the management of Ulysses. but fears the army was discouraged by his absence. and run to prepare the ships. AND CATALOGUE OF THE FORCES. they unanimously agree to it. persuading him to lead the army to battle. and the late plague. Jupiter. The scene lies in the Grecian camp. which was to make a general muster of the troops. and that they should put a stop to them if the proposal was embraced. He first communicates his design to the princes in council. who chastises the insolence of Thersites. sends a deceitful vision to Agamemnon. ARGUMENT. contrives to make trial of their disposition by a stratagem. THE TRIAL OF THE ARMY. Then he assembles the whole host. that he would propose a return to the soldiers.[025] BOOK II. in pursuance of the request of Thetis. several speeches made on the occasion. in order to make the Greeks sensible of their want of Achilles. and upon the sea-shore. This gives occasion to the poet to enumerate all the forces of the Greeks and Trojans. and at length the advice of Nestor followed. before they proceeded to battle. and upon moving for a return to Greece. who is deluded with the hopes of taking Troy without his assistance. and in a large catalogue. The time employed in this book consists not entirely of one day. The general. towards the end it removes to Troy. .

evidently personified as the god of dreams. "Fly hence. being. See Anthon and others.42 The Iliad of Homer Now pleasing sleep had seal'd each mortal eye. Section 22. Destruction hangs o'er yon devoted wall. I think. Introd." Dyce's "Select Translations from Quintus Calaber.) Coleridge. e'en now 'tis given him to destroy The lofty towers of wide-extended Troy. p. Rep.76 To honour Thetis' son he bends his care. (See Minucius Felix. well observes." p. Compare "Paradise Lost. And thus commands the vision of the night. was so scandalized at this deception of Jupiter's. p. iii. that he would fain sentence him to an honourable banishment.10. "When. by Minerva sent. At Juno's suit the heavenly factions end. 154. but the ever-wakeful eyes of Jove. Bid him in arms draw forth the embattled train. 437.77 To Agamemnon's ample tent repair. 77 ." 76 Plato. And nodding Ilion waits the impending fall. the bane of her and Troy. 646: [026] "And roseate dews disposed All but the unsleeping eyes of God to rest. Stretch'd in the tents the Grecian leaders lie: The immortals slumber'd on their thrones above. Lead all his Grecians to the dusty plain. All. a fraudful Dream Rush'd from the skies. For now no more the gods with fate contend. that the supreme father of gods and men had a full right to employ a lying spirit to work out his ultimate will." —Dream ought to be spelt with a capital letter. And plunge the Greeks in all the woes of war: Then bids an empty phantom rise to sight. Declare. deluding Dream! and light as air. and at his other attacks on the character of the gods." v.

Clothed in the figure of the Pylian sage. and revered for age: Around his temples spreads his golden wing." v. Descends. To whom its safety a whole people owes. and in war presides. 43 JUPITER SENDING THE EVIL DREAM TO AGAMEMNON. what sleep can close Thy eye-lids?" —"Paradise Lost. "Canst thou. Renown'd for wisdom.BOOK II. companion dear. and hovers o'er Atrides' head. Swift as the word the vain illusion fled. with all a monarch's cares oppress'd. . And thus the flattering dream deceives the king. Directs in council. O Atreus' son! canst thou indulge the rest?78 Ill fits a chief who mighty nations guides. 78 "Sleep'st thou. 673.

and in fancy hears The voice celestial murmuring in his ears. The starry falchion glitter'd at his side. See Pliny's Panegyric on Trajan. Destruction hangs o'er yon devoted wall. And trust the vision that descends from Jove." . and numbers of the slain! Eager he rises. In just array draw forth the embattled train. but waking this advice approve. and mixes with the night.79 Monarch." The phantom said. What scenes of grief. The embroider'd sandals on his feet were tied. and thy glory. O king! 'tis given thee to destroy The lofty towers of wide-extended Troy. Around him next the regal mantle threw. his arm the massy sceptre loads. A thousand schemes the monarch's mind employ. First on his limbs a slender vest he drew. 79 "Turpe duci totam somno consumere noctem.44 The Iliad of Homer [027] To waste long nights in indolent repose. And last. Resolves to air. Elate in thought he sacks untaken Troy: Vain as he was. Nor saw what Jove and secret fate design'd. awake! 'tis Jove's command I bear. Awake. At Juno's suit the heavenly factions end. then vanish'd from his sight. Silius neatly translates it. claim his heavenly care. What mighty toils to either host remain. Lead all thy Grecians to the dusty plain. E'en now. and to the future blind. Thou. And nodding Ilion waits the impending fall. This truly military sentiment has been echoed by the approving voice of many a general and statesman of antiquity. For now no more the gods with fate contend.

'And. dost thou sleep. His former youthful mien and shape he wears. To waste long nights in indolent repose. Unstain'd. 45 Now rosy Morn ascends the court of Jove. Late as I slumber'd in the shades of night. the king of men express'd The counsels labouring in his artful breast. "To whom once more the winged god appears. 80 [028] —The same in habit. and in war presides. and in mien the same. iv. The same in habit. and the gift of gods. immortal. The king despatch'd his heralds with commands To range the camp and summon all the bands: The gathering hosts the monarch's word obey. &c." Dryden's Virgil. There calls a senate of the peers around: The assembly placed. and opens day above.BOOK II. . Whose visionary form like Nestor came.80 The heavenly phantom hover'd o'er my head. Directs in council. In his black ship the Pylian prince he found. Lifts up her light. O Atreus' son? (he said) Ill fits a chief who mighty nations guides. A dream divine appear'd before my sight. "Friends and confederates! with attentive ear Receive my words. To whom its safety a whole people owes. While to the fleet Atrides bends his way. 803. and credit what you hear.

and sat: when Nestor. your faithful ears incline. valiant chiefs! since heaven itself alarms.46 The Iliad of Homer Monarch. Now. rising said. In just array draw forth the embattled train.) "Princes of Greece. And lead the Grecians to the dusty plain. obey the god's alarms. To move the troops to measure back the main. whom Pylos' sandy realms obey'd. Worn with nine years of unsuccessful war. Destruction hangs o'er yon devoted wall. And nodding Ilion waits the impending fall. Be mine. Thou and thy glory claim his heavenly care. O king! 'tis given thee to destroy The lofty towers of wide-extended Troy. Unite. awake! 'tis Jove's command I bear. This hear observant. And join to rouse the sons of Greece to arms. E'en now. and the gods obey!' The vision spoke. (Nestor. and pass'd in air away. and yours the province to detain. Nor doubt the vision of the powers divine. For now no more the gods with fate contend. and rouse the sons of Greece to arms. At Juno's suit the heavenly factions end. Sent by great Jove to him who rules the host. try what yet they dare. Forbid it. with caution. heaven! this warning should be lost! Then let us haste. But first." ." He spoke.

The king of kings his awful figure raised: 81 47 [029] "As bees in spring-time. swarms succeeding swarms. Nine sacred heralds now. they among fresh dews and flowers Fly to and fro. Pour forth their populous youth about the hive In clusters. Rolling and blackening. And shining soars. With deeper murmurs and more hoarse alarms. Dusky they spread."—Grote. suspend the listening crowd. a lengthen'd train Spreads all the beach. note. and wide o'ershades the plain: Along the region runs a deafening sound. darkens all the coast. to which men came elevated by wine. Thus spoke the sage: the kings without delay Dissolve the council. ii. New-nibb'd with balm. 82 It was the herald's duty to make the people sit down. expatiate and confer Their state affairs. and claps her wings above. p. Beneath their footsteps groans the trembling ground. . proclaiming loud82 The monarch's will. Pour'd forth by thousands. and their chief obey: The sceptred rulers lead."—"Paradise Lost" i. 768. is also the forerunner of mischief ('Odyssey. As from some rocky cleft the shepherd sees Clustering in heaps on heaps the driving bees. the following host.81 So. from the tents and ships. And fainter murmurs died upon the ear. Fame flies before the messenger of Jove. 246) an evening agora.' iii. 91. And o'er the vale descends the living cloud. The suburb of this straw-built citadel. 138).BOOK II. "A standing agora is a symptom of manifest terror (II. So thick the very crowd Swarm'd and were straiten'd. Xviii. or on the smoothed plank. Soon as the throngs in order ranged appear. a close embodied crowd. when The sun with Taurus rides.

and last to Priam's lot it fell. To Pelops he the immortal gift resign'd. 9. And left it. is a type of the supreme and far-spread dominion of the house of the Atrides. whose blessing is most efficacious in furthering the process of acquisition. By Vulcan form'd. when he espoused The Queen of Love). And now the mark of Agamemnon's reign. To rich Thyestes next the prize descends. The golden sceptre. Now shameful flight alone can save the host. and brothers of the war! Of partial Jove with justice I complain. of celestial flame. our treasure." . 83 This sceptre. triumphant. to be possess'd By Ilus he to great Laomedon Gave it. Golden. Renown'd."—Grote. and framed by art divine (a gift Which to Almighty Jove lame Vulcan brought Upon his nuptial day. The immortal gift great Pelops left behind. Heroes of Greece. partake your leader's care. And heavenly oracles believed in vain A safe return was promised to our toils.48 The Iliad of Homer High in his hand the golden sceptre blazed. 43). i. like that of Judah (Genesis xlix. Compare Quintus Calaber (Dyce's Selections. And artful thus pronounced the speech design'd: "Ye sons of Mars. Subjects all Argos. with his wealth. Our blood. and our glory lost. which not with Atreus ends. See Thucydides i. who gave it next To Ericthonius Tros received it then. from Jove to Hermes came. the sire of gods bestow'd The cup on Dardanus. In Atreus' hand. 212. he being the wealth giving god. "Thus the monarch spoke. p. "It is traced through the hands of Hermes. and enrich'd with spoils. and controls the main. 10). Then pledged the chief in a capacious cup.83 On this bright sceptre now the king reclined. p.

safety. So roll the billows to the Icarian shore.000 men. And Greece triumphant held a general feast. Haste. Fly.000. 'Tis nature's voice. Safe and inglorious. And scarce insure the wretched power to fly. 393. i. All rank'd by tens. And dream no more of heaven-defended Troy. the hosts approve Atrides' speech. Grecians. Oh. duty. then. for ever leave the Trojan wall! Our weeping wives. So Jove decrees. Now nine long years of mighty Jove are run. summon us away. our tender children call: Love. to our native shore. and nature we obey. Nichols makes a total of 135. lasting shame in every future age! Once great in arms. decay'd our vessels lie. From east and south when winds begin to roar. So small their number. Our shatter'd barks may yet transport us o'er.84 But other forces have our hopes o'erthrown. The mighty numbers move. Since first the labours of this war begun: Our cordage torn. and sweep 49 [030] Grote. Burst their dark mansions in the clouds. whole decades when they dine Must want a Trojan slave to pour the wine.BOOK II. that if wars were ceased." His deep design unknown. fly. resistless lord of all! At whose command whole empires rise or fall: He shakes the feeble props of human trust. Repulsed and baffled by a feeble foe. states the number of the Grecian forces at upwards of 100. And Troy prevails by armies not her own. your sails and oars employ. 84 . And towns and armies humbles to the dust What shame to Greece a fruitful war to wage. the common scorn we grow. p.

their trampling feet Beat the loose sands." iv. and thicken to the fleet. With nodding plumes and groves of waving spears. in Helen's quarrel slain. Once more refulgent shine in brazen arms. And fate decreed the fall of Troy in vain. shall Priam. With long-resounding cries they urge the train To fit the ships. E'en then the Greeks had left the hostile plain. They toil. 980. Nor let one sail be hoisted on the main. unmoved by vain alarms. . Lie unrevenged on yon detested plain? No: let my Greeks. goddess. ripe for harvest. sqq."—Paradise Lost. The doubling clamours echo to the skies. And as on corn when western gusts descend. haste! the flying host detain." 85 "As thick as when a field Of Ceres. In peace enjoy the fruits of broken vows? And bravest chiefs. The gathering murmur spreads. and launch into the main. Haste. waving bends His bearded grove of ears. and the adulterous spouse.50 The Iliad of Homer The whitening surface of the ruffled deep.85 Before the blast the lofty harvests bend: Thus o'er the field the moving host appears. they sweat. which way the wind Sways them. And sighing thus bespoke the blue-eyed maid: [031] "Shall then the Grecians fly! O dire disgrace! And leave unpunish'd this perfidious race? Shall Troy. thick clouds of dust arise. But Jove's imperial queen their flight survey'd.

he flies through all the Grecian train. He runs." 51 . from his hand Received the imperial sceptre of command." The voice divine confess'd the warlike maid. but resents our fears. Your own resistless eloquence employ. Jove loves our chief. and from Olympus' height Swift to the ships precipitates her flight. For prudent counsel like the gods renown'd: Oppress'd with generous grief the hero stood. Ulysses heard. she found.BOOK II. The monarch's will not yet reveal'd appears. He tries our courage. Recall your armies. with strength and wisdom bless'd. Ulysses. or chief in arms approved. or with persuasion moved. Thus to their country bear their own disgrace. And fame eternal leave to Priam's race? Shall beauteous Helen still remain unfreed. Thus fly the Greeks (the martial maid begun). The unwary Greeks his fury may provoke. divine Laertes' son. Each prince of name. "And is it thus. nor uninspired obey'd: Then meeting first Atrides. Still unrevenged. By brave examples should confirm the rest. attention and respect to gain. first in public cares. He fired with praise. Nor drew his sable vessels to the flood. Thus graced. And to the immortals trust the fall of Troy. Beware! for dreadful is the wrath of kings. "Warriors like you. a thousand heroes bleed! Haste. generous Ithacus! prevent the shame. Pallas obeys. from Jove his honour springs. Not thus the king in secret council spoke. and your chiefs reclaim.

And a still silence lulls the camp to peace. in an extended form." ch. At length the tumult sinks. Be silent. and. we find the maxim propounded by Creon in the Antigone of Sophocles. Unknown alike in council and in field! Ye gods."86 With words like these the troops Ulysses ruled. This sentiment used to be a popular one with some of the greatest tyrants. who abused it into a pretext for unlimited usurpation of power. Loquacious. an usurping crowd. And heaves huge surges to the trembling shores. 105. and laughter all his aim:— But chief he gloried with licentious style To lash the great. In scandal busy. and Domitian were particularly fond of it. as when old ocean roars.52 The Iliad of Homer But if a clamorous vile plebeian rose. wretch. and think not here allow'd That worst of tyrants. Dion. See some important remarks of Heeren. "Be still. "Ancient Greece. The loudest silenced. the noises cease. The rocks remurmur and the deeps rebound. and monarchs to revile. and the fiercest cool'd. and him let all obey. 86 [032] . vi. The groaning banks are burst with bellowing sound. what dastards would our host command! Swept to the war. Thersites only clamour'd in the throng. and pour upon the plain. Back to the assembly roll the thronging train. Caligula. Desert the ships. p. thou slave. Murmuring they move. and to thy betters yield. Him with reproof he check'd or tamed with blows. in reproaches bold: With witty malice studious to defame. loud. Scorn all his joy. and turbulent of tongue: Awed by no shame. His are the laws. To one sole monarch Jove commits the sway. by no respect controll'd. the lumber of a land.

to bless thy kingly bed? Whate'er our master craves submit we must. Long had he lived the scorn of every Greek. Thus with injurious taunts attack'd the throne. But royal scandal his delight supreme. Thus at full ease in heaps of riches roll'd. What moves the great Atrides to complain? 'Tis thine whate'er the warrior's breast inflames. "Amidst the glories of so bright a reign. Thy tents are crowded and thy chests o'erflow. if thy heart to generous love be led. 53 . One eye was blinking. With all the wealth our wars and blood bestow. Thin hairs bestrew'd his long misshapen head. shall we march with our unconquer'd powers (The Greeks and I) to Ilion's hostile towers. Oh women of Achaia. Spleen to mankind his envious heart possess'd. yet still they heard him speak. And bring the race of royal bastards here. men no more! Hence let us fly. The golden spoil. and let him waste his store In loves and pleasures on the Phrygian shore. Vex'd when he spoke. but most the best: Ulysses or Achilles still his theme. and one leg was lame: His mountain shoulders half his breast o'erspread. What grieves the monarch? Is it thirst of gold? Say.BOOK II. wouldst thou seize some valiant leader's prize? Or. or punish'd for his lust. Plagued with his pride. His figure such as might his soul proclaim. Say. Some captive fair. For Troy to ransom at a price too dear? But safer plunder thy own host supplies. and thine the lovely dames. which in the shrillest tone. Sharp was his voice. And much he hated all.

and do not concern ourselves about what is to follow. Of the gradual and individual development of Homer's heroes. and may be continued ad infinitum. The bas-relief is equally without limit. With wrangling talents form'd for foul debate: Curb that impetuous tongue. on which account the ancients preferred for it such subjects as admitted of an indefinite extension. while we advance. so Homer's heroes advance. When Hector comes: so great Achilles may: From him he forced the prize we jointly gave. And singly mad. where. but that we are left to suppose something both to precede and to follow it. either from before or behind. we lose sight of what precedes." p. slave! of all our host. serves admirably to develop the disposition of Ulysses in a new light. From him. they are not grouped together. that the character of Thersites. Have we not known thee. "In bas-relief the figures are usually in profile. With indignation sparkling in his eyes. in succession before us.54 [033] The Iliad of Homer We may be wanted on some busy day. 75. the present object alone arresting our attention. Reading Homer is very much like such a circuit. It has been remarked that the Iliad is not definitively closed. as he ought. one object appears as another disappears. born to vex the state. revolting and contemptible as it is. sacrificial processions. in which mere cunning is less prominent. the fierce. resent that wrong. the fearless. and in the epos all are characterized in the simplest manner in relief. one by one. Schlegel well observes. such as vases."—"Dramatic Literature. and where. dances. nor rashly vain. and hence they also exhibit bas-reliefs on curved surfaces. This mighty tyrant were no tyrant long. or the frieze of a rotunda. He views the wretch. by the curvature." Fierce from his seat at this Ulysses springs. and lines of combatants. upbraids the most? Think not the Greeks to shameful flight to bring. factious monster. The man who acts the least. and sternly thus replies: "Peace. 87 . It may be remarked. and the brave: And durst he. the two ends are withdrawn from our sight.87 In generous vengeance of the king of kings. but follow one another. asperse the sovereign reign.

Nor let those lips profane the name of king. The weighty sceptre on his bank descends. And let these eyes behold my son no more. Art thou that hero. i. For our return we trust the heavenly powers. If. 88 . even where his virulent reproaches are substantially well-founded. 97. could those spoils be thine? Gods! let me perish on this hateful shore. Except detraction. than by the chastisement of Odysseus he is lame. p. Be that their care. is plainly set forth in the treatment of Thersites. what hast thou bestow'd? Suppose some hero should his spoils resign. not often hesitating. and cowering as the dastard bends. From his vile visage wiped the scalding tears.BOOK II. on thy next offence.88 On the round bunch the bloody tumours rise: The tears spring starting from his haggard eyes. and never refractory to the chief. of misshapen head. Trembling he sat. bald. But grant the host with wealth the general load. The multitude who compose it are listening and acquiescent. and squinting vision."—Grote. Expel the council where our princes meet. While to his neighbour each express'd his thought: [034] "There cannot be a clearer indication than this description —so graphic in the original poem—of the true character of the Homeric agora. and shrunk in abject fears." 55 He said. vol. this hand forbear To strip those arms thou ill deserv'st to wear. And send thee scourged and howling through the fleet. while the unpopularity of such a character is attested even more by the excessive pains which Homer takes to heap upon him repulsive personal deformities. The fate which awaits a presumptuous critic. crook-backed. to fight like men be ours.

The tedious length of nine revolving years. eternal shame! Expect the time to Troy's destruction given. we wish our peaceful seat. his celestial friend. but ah! forgotten now: Ne'er to return. rising. To hear the wisdom of his heavenly tongue. endure the wintry main? Few leagues removed. Not for their grief the Grecian host I blame." 'Twas thus the general voice the hero praised. To curb the factious tongue of insolence. What could their wives or helpless children more? What heart but melts to leave the tender train. high the imperial sceptre raised: The blue-eyed Pallas. Not such at Argos was their generous vow: Once all their voice. The expecting crowds in still attention hung. (In form a herald. . When the ship tosses. But vanquish'd! baffled! oh. glorious in the field. Till Troy's proud structures should in ashes lie. one short month. Generous he rises in the crown's defence. His silence thus the prudent hero broke: "Unhappy monarch! whom the Grecian race With shame deserting. heap with vile disgrace. and assert the throne. was then the common cry. Then deeply thoughtful. Such just examples on offenders shown. And. Sedition silence. pausing ere he spoke.) bade the crowds attend. Behold them weeping for their native shore. Who.56 The Iliad of Homer "Ye gods! what wonders has Ulysses wrought! What fruits his conduct and his courage yield! Great in the council. and the tempests beat: Then well may this long stay provoke their tears.

Lucretius and others. For while around we gazed with wondering eyes. And trembling sought the powers with sacrifice. And try the faith of Chalcas and of heaven. the monster slew. the serpent. This wondrous signal Jove himself displays. The drooping mother wail'd her children gone. of dire portent. The tragedians. and the victims blazed: 'Twas where the plane-tree spread its shades around.BOOK II. "The god" would be more simple and emphatic. The topmost branch a mother-bird possess'd.e. with miserable moan. and hence we dare Trust in his omen.89 And all who live to breathe this Phrygian air. 90 —Full of his god. Greece can witness bear. iii. The mother last. adopted a different fable to account for the stoppage at Aulis. as round the nest she flew.. Herself the ninth. and support the war. From Jove himself the dreadful sign was sent. 57 [035] According to Pausanias. the reverend Chalcas cried. Full of his god. Beside a fountain's sacred brink we raised Our verdant altars. filled with the prophetic spirit. sqq. 89 .90 'Ye Grecian warriors! lay your fears aside. Such was the will of Jove. What pass'd at Aulis. he stands A lasting prodigy on Aulis' sands. both the sprig and the remains of the tree were exhibited in his time. and seem to have found the sacrifice of Iphigena better suited to form the subject of a tragedy. While hovering near. Apollo. And curl'd around in many a winding fold. Seized by the beating wing." vol. Eight callow infants fill'd the mossy nest. Stretch'd his black jaws and crush'd the crying young. Straight to the tree his sanguine spires he roll'd. Nor long survived: to marble turn'd. i. Compare Dryden's "Æneid. as he hung. The altars heaved. and from the crumbling ground A mighty dragon shot.

. ye Grecians! with submission wait. when first the martial train. on the right. Till Helen's woes at full revenged appear. great Atrides! and with courage sway. Till every soldier grasp a Phrygian wife. thus the Fates succeed. your engagements past? Vow'd with libations and with victims then. On that great day. Before that day. long labours. So many years the toils of Greece remain. Then Nestor thus—"These vain debates forbear. if thou direct the way. Big with the fate of Ilion. Encouraged hence. Ye talk like children. But leave the few that dare resist thy laws. but eternal praise. Rise. Jove." He said: the shores with loud applauses sound. Obey. maintain the glorious strife. But wait the tenth. if any Greek invite His country's troops to base. not like heroes dare. Now vanish'd like their smoke: the faith of men! While useless words consume the unactive hours. The mean deserters of the Grecian cause. We march to war. for Ilion's fall decreed:' Thus spoke the prophet. No wonder Troy so long resists our powers. Where now are all your high resolves at last? Your leagues concluded. inglorious flight. The hollow ships each deafening shout rebound. plough'd the main. To grudge the conquests mighty Jove prepares. Stand forth that Greek! and hoist his sail to fly. And view with envy our successful wars. As many birds as by the snake were slain. And thunder rolling shook the firmament. Nor let your flight avert the Trojan fate. And Troy's proud matrons render tear for tear.58 The Iliad of Homer [036] Of long. a prosperous signal sent.

When thus distinct they war. in love to Greece. and in speaking well! O would the gods. or soldier.BOOK II. If fate resists. And. of the numerous band. Such wisdom soon should Priam's force destroy. And die the dastard first. What chief. shall soon be known And what the cause of Ilion not o'erthrown. or ill obeys command. to bloody conflict haste. ye warriors. If gods above prevent. and all encourage all. decree But ten such sages as they grant in thee. or men below. 59 Those critics who have maintained that the "Catalogue of Ships" is an interpolation. who dreads to die. a captive maid the cause: If e'er as friends we join. Or bravely fights. By me provoked. thou thyself despise. His sharpen'd spear let every Grecian wield. and heavy will the vengeance fall! But now. Among those counsels." To him the king: "How much thy years excel In arts of counsel. or if our arms are slow. Each strengthen each. But now. And soon should fall the haughty towers of Troy! But Jove forbids. well refresh'd. should have paid more attention to these lines. the Trojan wall Must shake. O monarch! all thy chiefs advise:91 Nor what they offer. 91 . who plunges those he hates In fierce contention and in vain debates: Now great Achilles from our aid withdraws. And every Grecian fix his brazen shield. In tribes and nations to divide thy train: His separate troops let every leader call. let not mine be vain. take a short repast. which form a most natural introduction to their enumeration. Let all excite the fiery steeds of war.

A heifer. and pray." vol. at a later time. healthy. Apollo. a ram. consecrated to particular deities. The most acceptable of all sacrifices was the heifer of a year old. and straight a murmur rose. or a sheep. To Ceres a sow was sacrificed. And each spent courser at the chariot blow. It was to be perfect in every limb. An ox of five years old was considered especially acceptable to Jupiter. 92 . Who dares. and fed. That dash'd on broken rocks tumultuous roar. And foam and thunder on the stony shore. let each contend. No rest. Who dares to tremble on this signal day." The monarch spoke. Loud as the surges when the tempest blows. because he fed on vines. which had never borne the yoke. The birds shall mangle. Straight to the tents the troops dispersing bend. To Jupiter.92 To Jove's high altars Agamemnon led: There bade the noblest of the Grecian peers. The following observation will be useful to Homeric readers: "Particular animals were. inglorious. shall cover all: Let the war bleed. Juno. This day. no respite. and Bacchus victims of advanced age might be offered. i. and let the mighty fall.60 The Iliad of Homer [037] And all for combat fit the rattling car. were offerings for Neptune. till the shades descend. or a boar pig. The goat to Bacchus. and without blemish. A steer of five years' age. With hasty feasts they sacrifice. With the huge shield each brawny arm depress'd. and to Venus the dove was consecrated. too mean to fall by martial power. Each aching nerve refuse the lance to throw. The infernal and evil deities were to be appeased with black victims. as an enemy to corn. and the smokes ascend. To avert the dangers of the doubtful day. and the dogs devour. 78. for Minerva. this dreadful day."—"Elgin Marbles. A black bull. That wretch. large limb'd. The fires are kindled. in his ships to stay. Ceres. or till death. Till darkness. Till bathed in sweat be every manly breast. Diana was propitiated with a stag. p.

He must be distinguished from the other. and alone! Hear! and before the burning sun descends. 61 93 —Idomeneus. Be Priam's palace sunk in Grecian fires.e. during a tempest. while yet the fumes arose. appears to need no explanation.94 Ajax the less. In Hector's breast be plunged this shining sword. Was there any heroic rule of etiquette which prevented one brother-king visiting another without a formal invitation? .93 and Tydeus' son. who was king of Salamis. Their prayers perform'd the chiefs the rite pursue. 94 —Tydeus' son. and doubled woes on woes. Low in the dust be laid yon hostile spires.95 Then wise Ulysses in his rank was placed. in this line. Who in the heaven of heavens hast fixed thy throne. Prepared new toils." p. Diomed. the last. unbid. 315. and take The sacred offering of the salted cake: When thus the king prefers his solemn prayer. "O thou! whose thunder rends the clouded air. Before the night her gloomy veil extends. And Nestor first. Having vowed. to sacrifice to Neptune the first creature that should present itself to his eye on the Cretan shore. the son of Oileus. Supreme of gods! unbounded. and Ajax Telamon. and toss'd in empty air: The God averse.BOOK II. was king of Crete. 95 That is. Ajax.96 The chiefs surround the destined beast. "Sympos. Even Plato. to us. Next came Idomeneus. son of Deucalion. And slaughter'd heroes groan around their lord!" Thus prayed the chief: his unavailing prayer Great Jove refused. And Menelaus came. has found some curious meaning in what. on his return from Troy. as most advanced in years. 96 A great deal of nonsense has been written to account for the word unbid. his son fell a victim to his rash vow. a Locrian. i.

transfix. inglorious. The generous Nestor thus the prince address'd. From rank to rank she darts her ardent eyes. and seem'd to burn in gold. the hosts divide. the repast prepare. Blazed on her arm. From the cleft wood the crackling flames aspire While the fat victims feed the sacred fire.62 [038] The Iliad of Homer The barley sprinkled. The choicest morsels lie from every part. and lighten'd all the field: Round the vast orb a hundred serpents roll'd. With this each Grecian's manly breast she warms. to return. and for the combat burn. Form'd the bright fringe. now the troops survey. The thighs thus sacrificed. On these. and each receives his share. High in the midst the blue-eyed virgin flies. selected to the gods. "Now bid thy heralds sound the loud alarms. The limbs they sever from the inclosing hide. But breathe revenge. Then spread the tables. And call the squadrons sheathed in brazen arms. In tribes and nations rank'd on either side. The thighs. and entrails dress'd The assistants part. and roast the rest." He said. The dreadful aegis. And lead to war when heaven directs the way. and strings their nervous arms. . the monarch issued his commands. Jove's immortal shield. No more they sigh. and the victim slew. divide. Swells their bold hearts. Soon as the rage of hunger was suppress'd. Straight the loud heralds call the gathering bands The chiefs inclose their king. Now seize the occasion. Each takes his seat. in double cauls involved with art.

was a river of Troas. everything tends to identify it with Mendere. That. as Wood. Along the river's level meads they stand." vol. and flows through marshes. towards its mouth it is very muddy. the Mendere is 40 miles long. hence the three goddesses. Now light with noise. nearly dry in the summer. and clap their rustling wings. See Virgil. extending wide. i. o'er the windings of Cayster's springs. Not less their number than the embodied cranes. receives the Simois in its course. "yellow. Clarke successfully combats the opinion of those who make the Scamander to have arisen from the springs of Bounabarshy. was called Xanthus by the gods. near its mouth. the yellow colour of whose waters attracts the attention of travellers. deep in the time of flood. Homer's Troy is supposed to have stood: this river. and traces the source of the river to the highest mountain in the chain of Ida. with noise the field resounds. and blaze above. from the peculiar colour of its waters. according to Homer. formed by the river Cayster. . Now tower aloft.97 Stretch their long necks. Dr. according to Strabo. Or milk-white swans in Asius' watery plains. and Venus. Scamander by men. as the winds arise. were found in great numbers about the Asian Marsh. Juno. Between the Scamander and Simois. bathed there before they appeared before Paris to obtain the golden apple: the name Xanthus. especially swans. in the same hill with the Granicus and the OEdipus. rising. Shoot their long beams. on the highest part of Mount Ida. Rennell. 383.98 With rushing troops the plains are cover'd o'er. "Georgics." was given to the Scamander. 63 [039] 97 Fresh water fowl. The fires expanding. The crackling flames ascend. a fenny tract of country in Lydia. As on some mountain. sq. and falling into the sea at Sigaeum. still applicable to the Mendere. And thundering footsteps shake the sounding shore. The legions crowd Scamander's flowery side. 300 feet broad. A gleamy splendour flash'd along the fields. and course in airy rounds.BOOK II. Minerva. now Kusdaghy. 98 —Scamander. through the lofty grove. and brazen shields. and others maintain. and kindle half the skies: So from the polish'd arms. or Scamandros. The waters of the Scamander had the singular property of giving a beautiful colour to the hair or wool of such animals as bathed in them. Thus numerous and confused.

Or leaves the trees. and thirst for Trojan blood. the monarch of the meads. and like Mars his mien. in the "Elgin Marbles. (vol. the Grecian squadrons stood In radiant arms.64 The Iliad of Homer Thick as in spring the flowers adorn the land. come i primi danni Mandassero a Cristiani. Like some proud bull. "Ma di' tu. the exalted chief was seen. majestically tall. Towers o'er his armies. at evening hours." —"Gier. 27." —"Paradise Lost. ma di tant' opra a noi si lunge Debil aura di fama appena giunge. Great as the gods. ii. seated round the throne divine.) is remarkable for its breadth and massiveness of development. glittering in the sun." The torso of Neptune. Lib. virgins. Not with more ease the skilful shepherd-swain Collects his flocks from thousands on the plain. 103. for heav'n hides nothing from thy view. The wandering nation of a summer's day: That. . so close. p. His strength like Neptune. All-knowing goddesses! immortal nine!100 99 It should be "his chest like Neptune." No. or thick as insects play. and forms the deepening lines. In gather'd swarms surround the rural bowers. 100 "Say first. Say." i. So throng'd. and outshines them all. e di quai parti: Tu 'l sai. The king of kings. 19." iv. 26. And dawning conquest played around his head. that round the pastures leads His subject herds. Musa. drawn by milky steams. Each leader now his scatter'd force conjoins In close array. From pail to pail with busy murmur run The gilded legions.99 Jove o'er his eyes celestial glories spread.

suggest itself to the mind of a poet. demands a thousand tongues.) O say what heroes. and but boast we know. led: 101 "The Catalogue is. THE CATALOGUE OF THE SHIPS. But guess by rumour. several of which could hardly be of traditional notoriety. and not a few altogether fictitious: or of so many geographical and genealogical details as are condensed in these few hundred lines. And hell's abyss. necessarily presumes its author's acquaintance with a previously existing Iliad.BOOK II. What crowded armies. A throat of brass. The composition of the Catalogue. Or urged by wrongs. It were impossible otherwise to account for the harmony observable in the recurrence of so vast a number of proper names. To count them all. in ordinary cases. their numbers. with the remainder of the work. still so minute a statistical detail can neither be considered as imperatively required. i. perhaps. and their chiefs I sing.101 65 [040] The hardy warriors whom Boeotia bred. assist! inspired by you The mighty labour dauntless I pursue. 263. heaven's umneasur'd height. and incidentally scattered over the thousands which follow: equally inexplicable were the pointed allusions occurring in this episode to events narrated in the previous and subsequent text. hide nothing from your sight. the portion of the poem in favour of which a claim to separate authorship has been most plausibly urged. most of them historically unimportant. p. Yet there is scarcely any portion of the Iliad where both historical and internal evidence are more clearly in favour of a connection from the remotest period. a common practice in epic poems descriptive of great warlike adventures. from what climes they bring. Since earth's wide regions. (We. but through the medium of the Iliad. Prothoenor. to Troy's destruction came. Leitus. whensoever it may have taken place. . nor perhaps such as would. Although the example of Homer has since rendered some such formal enumeration of the forces engaged."—Mure." vol. Daughters of Jove. Their names. wretched mortals! lost in doubts below. fired by thirst of fame. "Language and Literature of Greece. Penelius. and adamantine lungs.

.66 The Iliad of Homer NEPTUNE.

and that very few. the smallest. Graea near the main. And Schoenos. rose. and equal in command. which carried one hundred and twenty men each. In short. Or Harma where Apollo's prophet fell. and Thucydides supposes the troops to have rowed and navigated themselves. Those who in Peteon or Ilesion dwell. and each conveys Twice sixty warriors through the foaming seas. thinks it so large as to prove the entire falsehood of the whole story. carrying fifty each. Corone. Bryant. And they whom Thebe's well-built walls inclose. although in point of fact there are only eleven hundred and eightysix in the Catalogue. Platea green. we have in the Homeric descriptions the complete picture of an Indian or African war canoe. the amount of the army. Eutresis. Or Thespia sacred to the god of day: Onchestus. went as mere passengers or landsmen. Scholos. will be about a hundred and two thousand men. and Hyrie's watery fields. and Ocalea low. which the springs o'erflow. Glissa for the vine. and those of Philoctetes. and Nysa the divine. and Thisbe. These head the troops that rocky Aulis yields. Heleon and Hyle. with purple harvests crown'd. 102 . And Arne rich. upon the foregoing average. With these Arcesilaus and Clonius stand. The historian considers this a small force as representing all Greece. were probably meant to be the largest in the fleet. comparing it with the allied army at Platae. Copae. besides the chiefs. Equal in arms.102 67 [041] —Twice Sixty: "Thucydides observes that the Boeotian vessels. Full fifty ships they send. Boeotia's utmost bound.BOOK II. And Medeon lofty. And Mycalessia's ample piny plain. Where Myde. The average would be eighty-five. Neptune's celebrated groves. And Anthedon. If the total number of the Greek ships be taken at twelve hundred. For flocks Erythrae. And Eteon's hills. Or in the meads of Haliartus stray. according to Thucydides. many of which are considerably larger than the largest scale assigned to those of the Greeks. famed for silver doves.

. Fierce Ajax led the Locrian squadrons on. And fair Lilaea views the rising flood. Whose virgin charms subdued the god of war: (In Actor's court as she retired to rest. Chrysa the divine. the bold Boeotians' side. Where Anemoria's stately turrets shine. These. and Scarphe's bands. Swift in pursuit. ranged in order on the floating tide. Thronus. Oileus' valiant son.68 The Iliad of Homer To these succeed Aspledon's martial train. With equal oars. the hoarse-resounding deep. Two valiant brothers rule the undaunted throng. the heavenly fair. Ialmen and Ascalaphus the strong: Sons of Astyoche. Which Bessa. and rich Cynos send. Calliarus. Who plough the spacious Orchomenian plain. The strength of Mars the blushing maid compress'd) Their troops in thirty sable vessels sweep. The Phocians next in forty barks repair. Or in fair Tarphe's sylvan seats reside: In forty vessels cut the yielding tide. Ajax the less. Where Pytho. And where Boagrius floats the lowly lands. Epistrophus and Schedius head the war: From those rich regions where Cephisus leads His silver current through the flowery meads. the chosen troops attend. and active in the fight. Skill'd to direct the flying dart aright. Him. Cyparissus stood. Daulis. And those who dwell where pleasing Augia stands. Opus. From Panopea. Close. as their chief. on the left.

Adored with sacrifice and oxen slain. p. That owed his nurture to the blue-eyed maid. her altars blaze. And all the tribes resound the goddess' praise. The mighty offspring of the foodful earth. But with protended spears in fighting fields Pierce the tough corslets and the brazen shields.) No chief like thee. And sends the brave Abantes to the wars: Breathing revenge. commands. Him Pallas placed amidst her wealthy fane."—Coleridge. The Isteian fields for generous vines renown'd. The fair Caristos. and the Styrian ground. for their curiosity. in arms they take their way From Chalcis' walls. sq. And high Cerinthus views the neighbouring main. Twice twenty ships transport the warlike bands. Where. improved by length of days. Where Dios from her towers o'erlooks the plain. and strong Eretria. 211. Their hands dismiss not the long lance in air. 69 Euboea next her martial sons prepares. Led by Menestheus through the liquid plain. fierce in arms. Or close the embodied host in firm array.BOOK II. Which bold Elphenor. Full fifty more from Athens stem the main. well worth a careful perusal. where great Erectheus sway'd. To marshal armies in the dusty field. and his reasonings and calculations are. Menestheus! Greece could yield. Nestor alone. . For martial conduct bore an equal praise. The extended wings of battle to display. Down their broad shoulders falls a length of hair. But from the teeming furrow took his birth. (Athens the fair. as the years revolve.

And fair Ægina circled by the main: Whom strong Tyrinthe's lofty walls surround. But chief Tydides bore the sovereign sway: In fourscore barks they plough the watery way. A hundred vessels in long order stand. unrivall'd in his reign. And Epidaure with viny harvests crown'd: And where fair Asinen and Hermoin show Their cliffs above. The proud Mycene arms her martial powers. and Maseta's plain. Great Sthenelus. [043] . And where Pellene yields her fleecy store. and Adrastus' ancient reign. These by the brave Euryalus were led. that the poet would naturally speak of various towns and cities by the names by which they were known in his own time. And his refulgent arms in triumph wears. Cleone. Great Agamemnon rules the numerous band. Whom the gigantic Telamon commands. and ample bay below.103 Fair Araethyrea. well observes. And crowded nations wait his dread command.70 The Iliad of Homer With these appear the Salaminian bands. Ornia's fruitful plain. 3. From high Troezene. vol. And with the great Athenians join their force. But Velleius. Where Helice and Hyperesia lie. High on the deck the king of men appears. Next move to war the generous Argive train. with imperial towers. And those who dwell along the sandy shore. And Gonoessa's spires salute the sky. Proud of his host. p. And Ægion. In twelve black ships to Troy they steer their course. 103 The mention of Corinth is an anachronism. i. Corinth. and greater Diomed. as that city was called Ephyre before its capture by the Dorians.

In sixty ships with Menelaus draws: Eager and loud from man to man he flies. While vainly fond. and sees her falling tears. The avenging Muses of the light of day Deprived his eyes. Till. exercised in arms: Phares and Brysia's valiant troops. from Pylos' sandy coast. Augia's happy ground. In ninety sail. and to vengeance warms The hardy Spartans. Nestor the sage conducts his chosen host: From Amphigenia's ever-fruitful land. Where Æpy high. Where beauteous Arene her structures shows. His hand no more awaked the silver string. His brother follows. famed for Thamyris' disgrace. Revenge and fury flaming in his eyes. o'er the bending ocean. No more his heavenly voice was heard to sing. he strove To match the seed of cloud-compelling Jove! Too daring bard! whose unsuccessful pride The immortal Muses in their art defied. In silent pomp he moves along the main. Amyclae. and snatch'd his voice away. Superior once of all the tuneful race. Helen's cause. Laas. Or Messe's towers for silver doves renown'd. And Helos.BOOK II. on the margin of the main: These. And Thryon's walls Alpheus' streams inclose: And Dorion. and little Pteleon stand. vain of mortals' empty praise. in fancy oft he hears The fair one's grief. And those whom OEtylos' low walls contain. 71 . and those Whom Lacedaemon's lofty hills inclose.

The shaded tomb of old Æpytus stood. and that Teatus' son. of force divine. From Ripe. Parrhasia. (Eurytus' this.72 The Iliad of Homer [044] Where under high Cyllene. One was Amphimachus. here. Where the fat herds in plenteous pasture rove. Their ships. Those. Tegea's bordering towns. But new to all the dangers of the main. Each leads ten vessels through the yielding tide. crown'd with wood. and where Alisium flows. And high Enispe shook by wintry wind. where fair Elis and Buprasium join. Beneath four chiefs (a numerous army) came: The strength and glory of the Epean name. Through roaring seas the wondering warriors bear. In sixty sail the Arcadian bands unite. supplied by Agamemnon's care. and Myrsinus confine. The first to battle on the appointed plain. (Ancaeus' son) the mighty squadron led. Bold Agapenor. glorious at their head. . In separate squadrons these their train divide. And great Polyxenus. Whom Hyrmin. and Orchomenian downs. The Phenean fields. where o'er the valleys rose The Olenian rock.) Diores sprung from Amarynceus' line. and Thalpius one. And bounded there. And Stymphelus with her surrounding grove. And fair Mantinea's ever-pleasing site. on her snowy cliffs reclined. Stratie.

And Chalcis. Andraemon's valiant son. These in twelve galleys with vermilion prores. And thence to Troy his hardy warriors led. With those whom Cephalenia's line inclosed. Begot by Phyleus. the beloved of Jove: To strong Dulichium from his sire he fled. and chalky Calydon. Thoas came next. His forty vessels follow through the main. and Meleager dead! To Thoas' care now trust the martial train. Where high Neritos shakes his waving woods. For now the sons of OEneus were no more! The glories of the mighty race were fled! OEneus himself. beaten by the rolling deep.BOOK II. He led the warriors from the Ætolian shore. and the Olenian steep. Where Ægilipa's rugged sides are seen. Beneath his conduct sought the Phrygian shores. and Zacynthus green. A chief. And rough Pylene. in wisdom equal to a god. Or where fair Ithaca o'erlooks the floods. 73 Ulysses follow'd through the watery road. Crocylia rocky. In forty vessels under Meges move. But those who view fair Elis o'er the seas From the blest islands of the Echinades. Or till their fields along the coast opposed. . From Pleuron's walls.

From Rhodes. and with a numerous train Of willing exiles wander'd o'er the main. dreadful as the god of war. the sire of men and gods. Alcides' uncle. when to manly years he grew. Of Gnossus. Crete's hundred cities pour forth all her sons. And saw their blooming warriors early slain. with everlasting sunshine bright. And rules them peaceful in a foreign land. Lyctus. On happy Rhodes the chief arrived at last: There in three tribes divides his native band. These march'd. Increased and prosper'd in their new abodes By mighty Jove. Led nine swift vessels through the foamy seas. Or where by Phaestus silver Jardan runs. A fleet he built.74 The Iliad of Homer Next. And showers of wealth descending from the skies. Where mighty towns in ruins spread the plain. beneath thy care. For this. The hero. and Camirus white. eighty barks the Cretan king commands. and Gortyna's bands. old Licymnius. slew. With joy they saw the growing empire rise. Or white Lycastus glitters to the skies. . And shun the vengeance of the Herculean race. [045] Tlepolemus. And those who dwell where Rhytion's domes arise. constrain'd to quit his native place. Jalyssus. the sun of Hercules. Lindus. Where. And Merion. many seas and many sufferings past. His captive mother fierce Alcides bore From Ephyr's walls and Selle's winding shore. Idomeneus.

Nireus. 104 75 [046] "Adam. Till great Alcides made the realms obey: These Antiphus and bold Phidippus bring.BOOK II. and Trechin's towers: From Phthia's spacious vales. But now inglorious. where Eurypylus possess'd the sway. stretch'd along the shore. Muse. the goodliest man of men since born. in faultless shape and blooming grace. The noblest spoil from sack'd Lyrnessus borne. Since fair Briseis from his arms was torn. and their chief the same. No more the foe they face in dire array: Close in his fleet the angry leader lay. From Alos. bless'd With female beauty far beyond the rest. Nireus. recount Pelasgic Argos' powers. Three ships with Nireus sought the Trojan shore." iv. Full fifty ships beneath Achilles' care. though various in their name. and Crapathus the fair. .104 Pelides only match'd his early charms. But few his troops. With them the youth of Nisyrus repair. The Achaians. Alope. 323. Myrmidons. Now. His sons. the fairest of her daughters Eve. Hellenians bear. The same their nation. Of those Calydnae's sea-girt isles contain. and Hella. Sprung from the god by Thessalus the king. They hear the brazen voice of war no more. whom Aglae to Charopus bore. The loveliest youth of all the Grecian race. and small his strength in arms. Cos. Casus the strong. Thessalians all. Next thirty galleys cleave the liquid plain.' —"Paradise Lost.


The Iliad of Homer

Then, when the chief the Theban walls o'erthrew, And the bold sons of great Evenus slew. There mourn'd Achilles, plunged in depth of care, But soon to rise in slaughter, blood, and war.

To these the youth of Phylace succeed, Itona, famous for her fleecy breed, And grassy Pteleon deck'd with cheerful greens, The bowers of Ceres, and the sylvan scenes. Sweet Pyrrhasus, with blooming flowerets crown'd, And Antron's watery dens, and cavern'd ground. These own'd, as chief, Protesilas the brave, Who now lay silent in the gloomy grave: The first who boldly touch'd the Trojan shore, And dyed a Phrygian lance with Grecian gore; There lies, far distant from his native plain; Unfinish'd his proud palaces remain, And his sad consort beats her breast in vain. His troops in forty ships Podarces led, Iphiclus' son, and brother to the dead; Nor he unworthy to command the host; Yet still they mourn'd their ancient leader lost.

The men who Glaphyra's fair soil partake, Where hills incircle Boebe's lowly lake, Where Phaere hears the neighbouring waters fall, Or proud Iolcus lifts her airy wall, In ten black ships embark'd for Ilion's shore, With bold Eumelus, whom Alceste bore: All Pelias' race Alceste far outshined, The grace and glory of the beauteous kind,

BOOK II. The troops Methone or Thaumacia yields, Olizon's rocks, or Meliboea's fields, With Philoctetes sail'd whose matchless art From the tough bow directs the feather'd dart. Seven were his ships; each vessel fifty row, Skill'd in his science of the dart and bow. But he lay raging on the Lemnian ground, A poisonous hydra gave the burning wound; There groan'd the chief in agonizing pain, Whom Greece at length shall wish, nor wish in vain. His forces Medon led from Lemnos' shore, Oileus' son, whom beauteous Rhena bore. The Œchalian race, in those high towers contain'd Where once Eurytus in proud triumph reign'd, Or where her humbler turrets Tricca rears, Or where Ithome, rough with rocks, appears, In thirty sail the sparkling waves divide, Which Podalirius and Machaon guide. To these his skill their parent-god imparts, Divine professors of the healing arts. The bold Ormenian and Asterian bands In forty barks Eurypylus commands. Where Titan hides his hoary head in snow, And where Hyperia's silver fountains flow. Thy troops, Argissa, Polypoetes leads, And Eleon, shelter'd by Olympus' shades, Gyrtone's warriors; and where Orthe lies, And Oloosson's chalky cliffs arise. Sprung from Pirithous of immortal race, The fruit of fair Hippodame's embrace, (That day, when hurl'd from Pelion's cloudy head, To distant dens the shaggy Centaurs fled)



78 With Polypoetes join'd in equal sway Leonteus leads, and forty ships obey.

The Iliad of Homer

In twenty sail the bold Perrhaebians came From Cyphus, Guneus was their leader's name. With these the Enians join'd, and those who freeze Where cold Dodona lifts her holy trees; Or where the pleasing Titaresius glides, And into Peneus rolls his easy tides; Yet o'er the silvery surface pure they flow, The sacred stream unmix'd with streams below, Sacred and awful! from the dark abodes Styx pours them forth, the dreadful oath of gods! Last, under Prothous the Magnesians stood, (Prothous the swift, of old Tenthredon's blood;) Who dwell where Pelion, crown'd with piny boughs, Obscures the glade, and nods his shaggy brows; Or where through flowery Tempe Peneus stray'd: (The region stretch'd beneath his mighty shade:) In forty sable barks they stemm'd the main; Such were the chiefs, and such the Grecian train. Say next, O Muse! of all Achaia breeds, Who bravest fought, or rein'd the noblest steeds? Eumelus' mares were foremost in the chase, As eagles fleet, and of Pheretian race; Bred where Pieria's fruitful fountains flow, And train'd by him who bears the silver bow. Fierce in the fight their nostrils breathed a flame, Their height, their colour, and their age the same; O'er fields of death they whirl the rapid car, And break the ranks, and thunder through the war. Ajax in arms the first renown acquired, While stern Achilles in his wrath retired:


BOOK II. (His was the strength that mortal might exceeds, And his the unrivall'd race of heavenly steeds:) But Thetis' son now shines in arms no more; His troops, neglected on the sandy shore. In empty air their sportive javelins throw, Or whirl the disk, or bend an idle bow: Unstain'd with blood his cover'd chariots stand; The immortal coursers graze along the strand; But the brave chiefs the inglorious life deplored, And, wandering o'er the camp, required their lord. Now, like a deluge, covering all around, The shining armies sweep along the ground; Swift as a flood of fire, when storms arise, Floats the wild field, and blazes to the skies. Earth groan'd beneath them; as when angry Jove Hurls down the forky lightning from above, On Arime when he the thunder throws, And fires Typhoeus with redoubled blows, Where Typhon, press'd beneath the burning load, Still feels the fury of the avenging god. But various Iris, Jove's commands to bear, Speeds on the wings of winds through liquid air; In Priam's porch the Trojan chiefs she found, The old consulting, and the youths around. Polites' shape, the monarch's son, she chose, Who from Æsetes' tomb observed the foes,105 High on the mound; from whence in prospect lay The fields, the tents, the navy, and the bay. In this dissembled form, she hastes to bring


105 —Æsetes' tomb. Monuments were often built on the sea-coast, and of a considerable height, so as to serve as watch-towers or land marks. See my notes to my prose translations of the "Odyssey," ii. p. 21, or on Eur. "Alcest." vol. i. p. 240.


The Iliad of Homer

The unwelcome message to the Phrygian king. "Cease to consult, the time for action calls; War, horrid war, approaches to your walls! Assembled armies oft have I beheld; But ne'er till now such numbers charged a field: Thick as autumnal leaves or driving sand, The moving squadrons blacken all the strand. Thou, godlike Hector! all thy force employ, Assemble all the united bands of Troy; In just array let every leader call The foreign troops: this day demands them all!" The voice divine the mighty chief alarms; The council breaks, the warriors rush to arms. The gates unfolding pour forth all their train, Nations on nations fill the dusky plain, Men, steeds, and chariots, shake the trembling ground: The tumult thickens, and the skies resound. Amidst the plain, in sight of Ilion, stands A rising mount, the work of human hands; (This for Myrinne's tomb the immortals know, Though call'd Bateia in the world below;) Beneath their chiefs in martial order here, The auxiliar troops and Trojan hosts appear. The godlike Hector, high above the rest, Shakes his huge spear, and nods his plumy crest: In throngs around his native bands repair, And groves of lances glitter in the air.


BOOK II. Divine Æneas brings the Dardan race, Anchises' son, by Venus' stolen embrace, Born in the shades of Ida's secret grove; (A mortal mixing with the queen of love;) Archilochus and Acamas divide The warrior's toils, and combat by his side. Who fair Zeleia's wealthy valleys till,106 Fast by the foot of Ida's sacred hill, Or drink, Æsepus, of thy sable flood, Were led by Pandarus, of royal blood; To whom his art Apollo deign'd to show, Graced with the presents of his shafts and bow. From rich Apaesus and Adrestia's towers, High Teree's summits, and Pityea's bowers; From these the congregated troops obey Young Amphius and Adrastus' equal sway; Old Merops' sons; whom, skill'd in fates to come, The sire forewarn'd, and prophesied their doom: Fate urged them on! the sire forewarn'd in vain, They rush'd to war, and perish'd on the plain. From Practius' stream, Percote's pasture lands, And Sestos and Abydos' neighbouring strands, From great Arisba's walls and Selle's coast, Asius Hyrtacides conducts his host: High on his car he shakes the flowing reins, His fiery coursers thunder o'er the plains.


—Zeleia, another name for Lycia. The inhabitants were greatly devoted to the worship of Apollo. See Muller, "Dorians," vol. i. p. 248.


82 The fierce Pelasgi next, in war renown'd, March from Larissa's ever-fertile ground: In equal arms their brother leaders shine, Hippothous bold, and Pyleus the divine.

The Iliad of Homer

Next Acamas and Pyrous lead their hosts, In dread array, from Thracia's wintry coasts; Round the bleak realms where Hellespontus roars, And Boreas beats the hoarse-resounding shores. With great Euphemus the Ciconians move, Sprung from Troezenian Ceus, loved by Jove. Pyraechmes the Paeonian troops attend, Skill'd in the fight their crooked bows to bend; From Axius' ample bed he leads them on, Axius, that laves the distant Amydon, Axius, that swells with all his neighbouring rills, And wide around the floating region fills. The Paphlagonians Pylaemenes rules, Where rich Henetia breeds her savage mules, Where Erythinus' rising cliffs are seen, Thy groves of box, Cytorus! ever green, And where Ægialus and Cromna lie, And lofty Sesamus invades the sky, And where Parthenius, roll'd through banks of flowers, Reflects her bordering palaces and bowers. Here march'd in arms the Halizonian band, Whom Odius and Epistrophus command, From those far regions where the sun refines The ripening silver in Alybean mines.


BOOK II. There mighty Chromis led the Mysian train, And augur Ennomus, inspired in vain; For stern Achilles lopp'd his sacred head, Roll'd down Scamander with the vulgar dead. Phorcys and brave Ascanius here unite The Ascanian Phrygians, eager for the fight. Of those who round Maeonia's realms reside, Or whom the vales in shades of Tmolus hide, Mestles and Antiphus the charge partake, Born on the banks of Gyges' silent lake. There, from the fields where wild Maeander flows, High Mycale, and Latmos' shady brows, And proud Miletus, came the Carian throngs, With mingled clamours and with barbarous tongues.107 Amphimachus and Naustes guide the train, Naustes the bold, Amphimachus the vain, Who, trick'd with gold, and glittering on his car, Rode like a woman to the field of war. Fool that he was! by fierce Achilles slain, The river swept him to the briny main: There whelm'd with waves the gaudy warrior lies The valiant victor seized the golden prize. The forces last in fair array succeed, Which blameless Glaucus and Sarpedon lead The warlike bands that distant Lycia yields, Where gulfy Xanthus foams along the fields.


—Barbarous tongues. "Various as were the dialects of the Greeks—and these differences existed not only between the several tribes, but even between neighbouring cities—they yet acknowledged in their language that they formed but one nation were but branches of the same family. Homer has 'men of other tongues:' and yet Homer had no general name for the Greek nation."—Heeren, "Ancient Greece," Section vii. p. 107, sq.



ARGUMENT. THE DUEL OF MENELAUS AND PARIS. The armies being ready to engage, a single combat is agreed upon between Menelaus and Paris (by the intervention of Hector) for the determination of the war. Iris is sent to call Helen to behold the fight. She leads her to the walls of Troy, where Priam sat with his counsellers observing the Grecian leaders on the plain below, to whom Helen gives an account of the chief of them. The kings on either part take the solemn oath for the conditions of the combat. The duel ensues; wherein Paris being overcome, he is snatched away in a cloud by Venus, and transported to his apartment. She then calls Helen from the walls, and brings the lovers together. Agamemnon, on the part of the Grecians, demands the restoration of Helen, and the performance of the articles. The three-and-twentieth day still continues throughout this book. The scene is sometimes in the fields before Troy, and sometimes in Troy itself. Thus by their leaders' care each martial band Moves into ranks, and stretches o'er the land. With shouts the Trojans, rushing from afar, Proclaim their motions, and provoke the war So when inclement winters vex the plain With piercing frosts, or thick-descending rain, To warmer seas the cranes embodied fly,108


The Iliad of Homer


With noise, and order, through the midway sky; To pigmy nations wounds and death they bring, And all the war descends upon the wing, But silent, breathing rage, resolved and skill'd109 By mutual aids to fix a doubtful field, Swift march the Greeks: the rapid dust around Darkening arises from the labour'd ground. Thus from his flaggy wings when Notus sheds A night of vapours round the mountain heads, Swift-gliding mists the dusky fields invade, To thieves more grateful than the midnight shade; While scarce the swains their feeding flocks survey, Lost and confused amidst the thicken'd day: So wrapp'd in gathering dust, the Grecian train, A moving cloud, swept on, and hid the plain. Now front to front the hostile armies stand, Eager of fight, and only wait command; When, to the van, before the sons of fame Whom Troy sent forth, the beauteous Paris came: In form a god! the panther's speckled hide Flow'd o'er his armour with an easy pride:
The cranes. "Marking the tracts of air, the clamorous cranes Wheel their due flight in varied ranks descried: And each with outstretch'd neck his rank maintains, In marshall'd order through th' ethereal void." Lorenzo de Medici, in Roscoe's Life, Appendix. See Cary's Dante: "Hell," canto v.

Silent, breathing rage. "Thus they, Breathing united force with fixed thought, Moved on in silence." "Paradise Lost," book i. 559.

BOOK III. His bended bow across his shoulders flung, His sword beside him negligently hung; Two pointed spears he shook with gallant grace, And dared the bravest of the Grecian race.


As thus, with glorious air and proud disdain, He boldly stalk'd, the foremost on the plain, Him Menelaus, loved of Mars, espies, With heart elated, and with joyful eyes: So joys a lion, if the branching deer, Or mountain goat, his bulky prize, appear; Eager he seizes and devours the slain, Press'd by bold youths and baying dogs in vain. Thus fond of vengeance, with a furious bound, In clanging arms he leaps upon the ground From his high chariot: him, approaching near, The beauteous champion views with marks of fear, Smit with a conscious sense, retires behind, And shuns the fate he well deserved to find. As when some shepherd, from the rustling trees110 Shot forth to view, a scaly serpent sees, Trembling and pale, he starts with wild affright And all confused precipitates his flight: So from the king the shining warrior flies, And plunged amid the thickest Trojans lies.

"As when some peasant in a bushy brake Has with unwary footing press'd a snake; He starts aside, astonish'd, when he spies His rising crest, blue neck, and rolling eyes" Dryden's Virgil, ii. 510.


The Iliad of Homer


As godlike Hector sees the prince retreat, He thus upbraids him with a generous heat: "Unhappy Paris! but to women brave!111 So fairly form'd, and only to deceive! Oh, hadst thou died when first thou saw'st the light, Or died at least before thy nuptial rite! A better fate than vainly thus to boast, And fly, the scandal of thy Trojan host. Gods! how the scornful Greeks exult to see Their fears of danger undeceived in thee! Thy figure promised with a martial air, But ill thy soul supplies a form so fair. In former days, in all thy gallant pride, When thy tall ships triumphant stemm'd the tide, When Greece beheld thy painted canvas flow, And crowds stood wondering at the passing show, Say, was it thus, with such a baffled mien, You met the approaches of the Spartan queen, Thus from her realm convey'd the beauteous prize, And both her warlike lords outshined in Helen's eyes? This deed, thy foes' delight, thy own disgrace, Thy father's grief, and ruin of thy race; This deed recalls thee to the proffer'd fight; Or hast thou injured whom thou dar'st not right? Soon to thy cost the field would make thee know Thou keep'st the consort of a braver foe. Thy graceful form instilling soft desire, Thy curling tresses, and thy silver lyre, Beauty and youth; in vain to these you trust, When youth and beauty shall be laid in dust: Troy yet may wake, and one avenging blow
Dysparis, i.e. unlucky, ill fated, Paris. This alludes to the evils which resulted from his having been brought up, despite the omens which attended his birth.

BOOK III. Crush the dire author of his country's woe." His silence here, with blushes, Paris breaks: "'Tis just, my brother, what your anger speaks: But who like thee can boast a soul sedate, So firmly proof to all the shocks of fate? Thy force, like steel, a temper'd hardness shows, Still edged to wound, and still untired with blows, Like steel, uplifted by some strenuous swain, With falling woods to strew the wasted plain. Thy gifts I praise; nor thou despise the charms With which a lover golden Venus arms; Soft moving speech, and pleasing outward show, No wish can gain them, but the gods bestow. Yet, would'st thou have the proffer'd combat stand, The Greeks and Trojans seat on either hand; Then let a midway space our hosts divide, And, on that stage of war, the cause be tried: By Paris there the Spartan king be fought, For beauteous Helen and the wealth she brought; And who his rival can in arms subdue, His be the fair, and his the treasure too. Thus with a lasting league your toils may cease, And Troy possess her fertile fields in peace; Thus may the Greeks review their native shore, Much famed for generous steeds, for beauty more." He said. The challenge Hector heard with joy, Then with his spear restrain'd the youth of Troy, Held by the midst, athwart; and near the foe Advanced with steps majestically slow: While round his dauntless head the Grecians pour Their stones and arrows in a mingled shower.




The Iliad of Homer

Then thus the monarch, great Atrides, cried: "Forbear, ye warriors! lay the darts aside: A parley Hector asks, a message bears; We know him by the various plume he wears." Awed by his high command the Greeks attend, The tumult silence, and the fight suspend. While from the centre Hector rolls his eyes On either host, and thus to both applies: "Hear, all ye Trojan, all ye Grecian bands, What Paris, author of the war, demands. Your shining swords within the sheath restrain, And pitch your lances in the yielding plain. Here in the midst, in either army's sight, He dares the Spartan king to single fight; And wills that Helen and the ravish'd spoil, That caused the contest, shall reward the toil. Let these the brave triumphant victor grace, And different nations part in leagues of peace." He spoke: in still suspense on either side Each army stood: the Spartan chief replied: "Me too, ye warriors, hear, whose fatal right A world engages in the toils of fight. To me the labour of the field resign; Me Paris injured; all the war be mine. Fall he that must, beneath his rival's arms; And live the rest, secure of future harms. Two lambs, devoted by your country's rite, To earth a sable, to the sun a white, Prepare, ye Trojans! while a third we bring Select to Jove, the inviolable king. Let reverend Priam in the truce engage, And add the sanction of considerate age;

BOOK III. His sons are faithless, headlong in debate, And youth itself an empty wavering state; Cool age advances, venerably wise, Turns on all hands its deep-discerning eyes; Sees what befell, and what may yet befall, Concludes from both, and best provides for all. The nations hear with rising hopes possess'd, And peaceful prospects dawn in every breast. Within the lines they drew their steeds around, And from their chariots issued on the ground; Next, all unbuckling the rich mail they wore, Laid their bright arms along the sable shore. On either side the meeting hosts are seen With lances fix'd, and close the space between. Two heralds now, despatch'd to Troy, invite The Phrygian monarch to the peaceful rite. Talthybius hastens to the fleet, to bring The lamb for Jove, the inviolable king. Meantime to beauteous Helen, from the skies The various goddess of the rainbow flies: (Like fair Laodice in form and face, The loveliest nymph of Priam's royal race:) Her in the palace, at her loom she found; The golden web her own sad story crown'd, The Trojan wars she weaved (herself the prize) And the dire triumphs of her fatal eyes. To whom the goddess of the painted bow: "Approach, and view the wondrous scene below!112



The following scene, in which Homer has contrived to introduce so brilliant a sketch of the Grecian warriors, has been imitated by Euripides, who in his "Phoenissae" represents Antigone surveying the opposing champions from a high tower, while the paedagogus describes their insignia and details their histories.


Now rest their spears. In summer days. softly sighing. Each met in arms. long in council tried.) The king the first. Her country. and silent all the fields. all that once were dear. wait Her silent footsteps to the Scaean gate. and valiant Trojan knight. the many-coloured maid inspires Her husband's love.92 The Iliad of Homer Each hardy Greek. Thymoetes at his side. from the loom withdrew. So dreadful late. Antenor grave. And next. who no more in bloody fights engage. Her handmaids. and furious for the fight. the wisest of the reverend throng. And. Thy love the motive. [056] There sat the seniors of the Trojan race: (Old Priam's chiefs. like grasshoppers rejoice. that send a feeble voice. and wakes her former fires. A bloodless race. Lean'd on the walls and bask'd before the sun: Chiefs. Clymene and Æthra. and thy charms the prize. . and narrative with age. Panthus. O'er her fair face a snowy veil she threw. But wise through time. and Hicetaon. Paris alone and Sparta's king advance. the fate of combat tries. and force a tender tear. or lean upon their shields. once the strong." This said. and sage Ucalegon. In single fight to toss the beamy lance. Rush to her thought. and most in Priam's grace. Ceased is the war. parents. Lampus and Clytius.

as a motto. what Greek is he (Far as from hence these aged orbs can see) Around whose brow such martial graces shine. and cried. See on the plain thy Grecian spouse appears. These." Thus ceased the king. is said to have appended these lines to his picture of Helen. Valer Max. The friends and kindred of thy former years. the cause The gods these armies and this force employ. The hostile gods conspire the fate of Troy. iii. and grace thy father's side. And from destruction save the Trojan race. convey that fatal face. and she looks a queen! Yet hence. Not thou. O Heaven. and his country's pride.BOOK III. my child. when the Spartan queen approach'd the tower. So tall. the celebrated artist. No crime of thine our present sufferings draws." 93 The good old Priam welcomed her. but Heaven's disposing will. 7. "No wonder such celestial charms113 For nine long years have set the world in arms. and thus the fair replied: —No wonder. But lift thy eyes. &c. What winning graces! what majestic mien! She moves a goddess. and almost divine! Though some of larger stature tread the green. In secret own'd resistless beauty's power: They cried. "Approach. and say. 113 . so awful. None match his grandeur and exalted mien: He seems a monarch. Zeuxis.

94 The Iliad of Homer "Before thy presence. he tells us that it was assembled in Phrygia. When godlike Mygdon led their troops of horse. With conscious shame and reverential fear. the wives and daughters of the Grecian heroes. Atrides. Extoll'd the happy prince. permitting only a short temporary intercourse. for the purpose of resisting the formidable Amazons. and thus began: "O bless'd Atrides! born to prosperous fate. raised the Trojan force: Against the manlike Amazons we stood. In ancient time. False to my country.114 114 The early epic was largely occupied with the exploits and sufferings of women. I appear. and a theme eminently popular with his hearers. indefatigable women. When Priam wishes to illustrate emphatically the most numerous host in which he ever found himself included. stimulating to the fancy of the poet. to Paris only kind! For this I mourn. on the banks of the Sangarius. burning out their right breast with a view of enabling themselves to draw the bow freely. and universally accepted as past realities in the Iliad. My brothers. this was at once a general type. False to them all. to join them. and my nuptial bed. When Bellerophon is to be employed in a [057] . for the purpose of renovating their numbers. or heroines. Successful monarch of a mighty state! How vast thy empire! Of your matchless train What numbers lost. when Otreus fill'd the throne. And I. and great in arts of sway: My brother once. Great in the war. what numbers yet remain! In Phrygia once were gallant armies known. Ah! had I died. before my days of shame! And oh! that still he bore a brother's name!" With wonder Priam view'd the godlike man. till grief or dire disease Shall waste the form whose fault it was to please! The king of kings. ere to these walk I fled. hardy. and daughter left behind. you survey. dwelling apart from men. father. A nation of courageous. friends. We find these warlike females constantly reappearing in the ancient poems.

and orders all. His words succinct. by those who prudently wished to procure his death. his shoulders larger spread. His fame for wisdom fills the spacious earth. But far inferior those.BOOK III. surveys them round. 95 deadly and perilous undertaking. And strength of numbers. whose arms lie scatter'd on the plain? Broad is his breast. The stately ram thus measures o'er the ground.) My house was honour'd with each royal guest: I knew their persons. and his expression plain." This said. he is despatched against the Amazons. is Ithacus the wise. to this Grecian race. Both brave in arms. yet full. And Sangar's stream ran purple with their blood. like Æneas. greater reverence drew. 289. "What's he. To Troy he came. master of the flock. 2. ." Then Helen thus: "Whom your discerning eyes Have singled out. and both approved in arts. i p. trusting Jove and hospitable laws. in martial grace. to plead the Grecian cause. Nor yet appear his care and conduct small. And. once more he view'd the warrior train. had always been favourable to the restoration of Helen. When Atreus' son harangued the listening train. and admired their parts. and thus began:115 "Myself. Erect. 115 —Antenor. A barren island boasts his glorious birth. Though great Atrides overtops his head. without a fault. Ulysses seated. vol.—Grote. Just was his sense. the Spartan most engaged our view. Liv 1. (Great Menelaus urged the same request. O king! have seen that wondrous man When." Antenor took the word. From rank to rank he moves.

well observes that this comparison may also be sarcastically applied to the frigid style of oratory. here merely denotes the ready fluency of Ulysses. But.) Himself a host: the Grecian strength and pride. and yet more loud. nor stretch'd his sceptred hand. It.116 His modest eyes he fix'd upon the ground. what elocution flows! Soft as the fleeces of descending snows. Homer. nor graceful moves the hand: Then.117 The copious accents fall.96 The Iliad of Homer [058] He spoke no more than just the thing he ought. in thought profound. he seem'd to stand. and fix'd in deep surprise." 148. of course. Our ears refute the censure of our eyes. with giant strength endued. with easy art. Duport. And lofty stature. and whose swelling chest. Nor raised his head. Melting they fall. 99." p. Pours the full tide of eloquence along. Soft as the fleeces of descending snows." The king then ask'd (as yet the camp he view'd) "What chief is that. Whose brawny shoulders. 20. while the chiefs in still attention hung. As one unskill'd or dumb. Unskill'd and uninspired he seems to stand. Like thunders rolling from a distant cloud. (the beauteous queen replied. Nor lifts the eye. Louder the accents rise. While from his lips the melting torrent flows. and on the ground in silence gazed. far exceed the rest? "Ajax the great. 117 . Now stronger notes engage the listening crowd. and sink into the heart! Wondering we hear. "Gnomol. See! bold Idomeneus superior towers Amid yon circle of his Cretan powers." Merrick's "Tryphiodorus. 116 "His lab'ring heart with sudden rapture seized He paus'd. when he speaks. But when Ulysses rose.

Great as a god! I saw him once before.BOOK III. nor knew her brothers' doom. In measured lists to toss the weighty lance. and one renown'd for horse. Silent they slept. first in martial force. 32. but sought in vain: Castor and Pollux. and end the dire debate. 119 Idreus was the arm-bearer and charioteer of king Priam. For distant Troy refused to sail the seas. the same our native shore. My brothers these. Idaeus' arms the golden goblets press'd. Perhaps the chiefs. Perhaps their swords some nobler quarrel draws. 22. 97 —Her brothers' doom. 487. One house contain'd us. Poet Astr. make them share immortality by turns. and men of mighty fame. from warlike toils at ease. Cf. See Hygin." So spoke the fair. One bold on foot. Adorn'd with honours in their native shore. And who his rival shall in arms subdue. Whom long my eyes have sought. thy son. Bring the rich wine and destined victims down. and could in order name. however. vi. and heard of wars no more. as one mother bore. Meantime the heralds. The rest I know. 118 . They perished in combat with Lynceus and Idas.118 Wrapt in the cold embraces of the tomb. With Menelaus on the Spartan shore. O father of the Trojan state! The nations call. thy joyful people wait To seal the truce. slain during this war. through the crowded town. whilst besieging Sparta.119 Who thus the venerable king address'd: "Arise. Ashamed to combat in their sister's cause. Virgil and others. Yet two are wanting of the numerous train. Æn. All valiant chiefs. and Sparta's king advance. Paris.

and horrid woes prepare For perjured kings. i. He mounts the seat. 121 120 . Amid the Grecian host and Trojan train. and his the treasure too." With grief he heard. and on each monarch's hands Pour the full urn. and bade the chiefs prepare To join his milk-white coursers to the car. for beauty more. And Troy possess her fertile fields in peace: So shall the Greeks review their native shore. and view from pole to pole! Thou mother Earth! and all ye living floods! Infernal furies.98 [059] The Iliad of Homer His be the dame. and Tartarean gods. The gentle steeds through Scaea's gates they guide:120 Next from the car descending on the plain. Who high on Ida's holy mountain sway. From the sign'd victims crops the curling hair. Much famed for generous steeds. The wine they mix. rather Scaean gates. Thus with a lasting league our toils may cease.121 The heralds part it.e. Slow they proceed: the sage Ulysses then Arose. and with him rose the king of men. and spreads his lifted hands: "O first and greatest power! whom all obey. then draws the Grecian lord His cutlass sheathed beside his ponderous sword. and all who falsely swear! —Scaea's gates. Antenor at his side. Eternal Jove! and you bright orb that roll From east to west. Then loudly thus before the attentive bands He calls the gods. Hence we find Iras descending to cut off the hair of Dido. and the princes share. before which she could not expire. This was customary in all sacrifices. On either side a sacred herald stands. the left-hand gates. Who rule the dead.

If. While thus their prayers united mount the sky. by Paris slain. Arms must revenge. mighty Jove! and hear. let the chiefs engage. Heaven only knows.BOOK III. Whose arms shall conquer and what prince shall fall. Great Menelaus press the fatal plain. And all their lust be scatter'd as the dust!" Thus either host their imprecations join'd. ye gods on high! And may their blood. And in the dust their bleeding bodies threw. Hear. The dame and treasures let the Trojan keep. and be witness. And every age record the signal day. But spare the weakness of my feeble age: In yonder walls that object let me shun. May all their consorts serve promiscuous lust. "Hear. And Greece returning plough the watery deep. And add libations to the powers divine. Be his the wealth and beauteous dame decreed: The appointed fine let Ilion justly pay. Nor view the danger of so dear a son." With that the chief the tender victims slew. Shed like this wine. for heaven disposes all. If by my brother's lance the Trojan bleed. From the same urn they drink the mingled wine." 99 [060] . and Mars decide the field. This if the Phrygians shall refuse to yield. And thus express'd a heart o'ercharged with woes: "Ye Greeks and Trojans. The rites now finish'd. disdain the thirsty ground. and mingled with the wind. Which Jove refused. who first the league confound. And left the members quivering on the ground. The vital spirit issued at the wound. reverend Priam rose.

And words like these are heard through all the bands: "Immortal Jove. thine leap'd forth. high Heaven's superior lord. With flowers adorn'd. Braced in and fitted to his softer breast. with silver buckles bound: Lycaon's corslet his fair body dress'd. and the ground inclose: Next to decide. Beside each chief his azure armour lay.100 The Iliad of Homer This said. . o'er his shoulder tied. Antenor at his side. by fatal chance Ordain'd the first to whirl the weighty lance. And drove to Troy. But on his car the slaughter'd victims laid: Then seized the reins his gentle steeds to guide." With eyes averted Hector hastes to turn The lots of fight and shakes the brazen urn. O give that author of the war to fate And shades eternal! let division cease. Who first shall launch his pointed spear in air. The beauteous warrior now arrays for fight. Sustain'd the sword that glitter'd at his side: His youthful face a polish'd helm o'erspread. The people pray with elevated hands. Bold Hector and Ulysses now dispose The lists of combat. On lofty Ida's holy mount adored! Whoe'er involved us in this dire debate. by sacred lots prepare. In gilded arms magnificently bright: The purple cuishes clasp his thighs around. And joyful nations join in leagues of peace. the hoary king no longer stay'd. Paris. Both armies sat the combat to survey. Then. A radiant baldric. And round the lists the generous coursers neigh.

And guard from wrong fair friendship's holy name. The Spartan hero sheathes his limbs in arms. Avenge the breach of hospitable laws! Let this example future times reclaim. blunted. a shining orb. on the ground. great Jove! to punish lawless lust. The waving horse-hair nodded on his head: His figured shield. to the mark it held. The Trojan first his shining javelin threw. flutt'ring. the chiefs advance. seemed to loiter as it flew. Nor pierced the brazen orb. 742. Full on Atrides' ringing shield it flew. but first prefers his prayers: "Give me. and his garment rends. With equal speed and fired by equal charms." Dryden's Virgil. ii. aid my righteous cause. The wary Trojan. and poised in air the javelin sent. . and but barely. And glancing downward. Just. And lay the Trojan gasping in the dust: Destroy the aggressor. "This said. Atrides then his massy lance prepares. And in his hand a pointed javelin shakes." Be said. His corslet pierces. Through Paris' shield the forceful weapon went. and shake the threatening lance. All pale with rage. And faintly tinkled on the brazen shield. 101 [061] Now round the lists the admiring armies stand. Which. his feeble hand a jav'lin threw. near his flank descends. he takes. With javelins fix'd. but with a bound122 Leap'd from the buckler.BOOK III. bending from the blow. 122 —Nor pierced. the Greek and Trojan band. Amidst the dreadful vale. In act to throw.

And all the dome perfumes with heavenly dews. and burst the golden band. The brittle steel. In borrow'd form. The raging warrior to the spacious skies Raised his upbraiding voice and angry eyes: "Then is it vain in Jove himself to trust? And is it thus the gods assist the just? When crimes provoke us. The dart falls harmless. Heaven success denies. unfaithful to his hand. (She seem'd an ancient maid. the laughter-loving dame.102 The Iliad of Homer [062] Eludes the death." Furious he said. and the falchion flies. while the embroider'd thong That tied his helmet. The casque. And gently laid him on the bridal bed. enraged. beset with Trojan beauties. With pleasing sweets his fainting sense renews. But Venus trembled for the prince of Troy: Unseen she came. Struggling he followed. and towards the Grecian crew (Seized by the crest) the unhappy warrior drew. came. o'er the walls reclined. as once more he lifts the deadly dart. Then. The matchless Helen. Broke short: the fragments glitter'd on the sand. dragg'd the chief along. To her. and strook Full on his casque: the crested helmet shook. Then had his ruin crown'd Atrides' joy. And left an empty helmet in his hand. amidst the Greeks he threw. well-skill'd to cull . In thirst of vengeance. The Greeks with smiles the polish'd trophy view. and disappoints his foe: But fierce Atrides waved his sword. Meantime the brightest of the female kind. at his rival's heart. The queen of love her favour'd champion shrouds (For gods can all things) in a veil of clouds. Raised from the field the panting youth she led.

in yonder lofty walls." . But some gay dancer in the public show.) The goddess softly shook her silken vest. Fair as a god. and whispering thus address'd: 103 VENUS. DISGUISED. The snowy fleece.BOOK III. INVITING HELEN TO THE CHAMBER OF PARIS. That shed perfumes. He lies. Not like a warrior parted from the foe. and wind the twisted wool. Safe from the fight. "Haste. and waits thee on the well-known bed. with odours round him spread. happy nymph! for thee thy Paris calls.

to lawless love no longer led. reach'd the ground. and detest his bed. Hence let me sail. 556. I scorn the coward. And. flowing from her shoulders. . In length of train descends her sweeping gown. to new nations must I cross the main. thus she said: "Then is it still thy pleasure to deceive? And woman's frailty always to believe! Say. Which. by her graceful walk. from every Phrygian dame: Ill suits it now the joys of love to know. let Venus ease his care. For me. and too wild my woe. the queen of love is known. and Helen's secret soul was moved.) An odious conquest and a captive wife. She scorn'd the champion." 123 [063] Reveal'd the queen. "Thus having said. His spouse. i. And widely spread ambrosial scents around. (victor in the strife. she turn'd and made appear Her neck refulgent and dishevell'd hair. Be fix'd for ever to the Trojan shore. Else should I merit everlasting shame." Dryden's Virgil. reveal'd the queen of soft desire.104 The Iliad of Homer She spoke. A handmaid goddess at his side to wait. straight the lively red Forsook her cheek. her eyes that sparkled fire. And keen reproach. And breast. Too deep my anguish. or slave.123 Struck with her presence. and trembling. Or carry wars to some soft Asian plain? For whom must Helen break her second vow? What other Paris is thy darling now? Left to Atrides. and if thy Paris bear My absence ill. Renounce the glories of thy heavenly state. Fair Venus' neck. and mount the skies no more. but the man she loved.

" . of the public rage. 105 VENUS PRESENTING HELEN TO PARIS. Then thus incensed.BOOK III. the Paphian queen replies: "Obey the power from whom thy glories rise: Should Venus leave thee. Fade from thy cheek. than their love before. Than. lest I make thee more The world's aversion. Cease to provoke me. every charm must fly. the sad victim. and languish in thy eye. Now the bright prize for which mankind engage.

Full in her Paris' sight. Arrived. various tasks attend." The prince replies: "Ah cease. when from Sparta's shore . all dispersing. Led by the goddess of the Smiles and Loves. once more thy rival's rage excite. from the train she moves. divinely fair. And veil'd her blushes in a silken shade. This day the foe prevail'd by Pallas' power: We yet may vanquish in a happier hour: There want not gods to favour us above. Late fled the field. lost to sense of shame. the fairest of her sex obey'd. who. and renew the fight: Yet Helen bids thee stay. and thus began to say: "Is this the chief. and silent. she turn'd away Her glowing eyes. And kind embraces snatch the hasty joy. Where. The queen and goddess to the prince ascend. Not thus I loved thee. Nor add reproaches to the wounds I bear. the queen of love Had placed the beauteous progeny of Jove. Provoke Atrides. and enter'd at the palace gate. as he view'd her charms.106 The Iliad of Homer [064] At this. Unseen. lest thou unskill'd Shouldst fall an easy conquest on the field. and yet survives his fame? O hadst thou died beneath the righteous sword Of that brave man whom once I call'd my lord! The boaster Paris oft desired the day With Sparta's king to meet in single fray: Go now. The maids officious round their mistress wait. But let the business of our life be love: These softer moments let delights employ. Then.

e. Him Helen follow'd slow with bashful charms. his army's loud applauses rise. Then speaking thus. the enamour'd Phrygian boy Rush'd to the bed. p. 338. the king of kings arose. 124 . impatient for the joy. impatient to destroy. Dardans. The stern Atrides rages round the field: So some fell lion whom the woods obey. Our brother's arms the just success have found: Be therefore now the Spartan wealth restor'd. And age to age record this signal day. hateful as the grave. Even those had yielded to a foe so brave The recreant warrior. My forced. This name was derived from one of its early kings. See the "Schol. While these to love's delicious rapture yield. And the long shout runs echoing through the skies. But seeks in vain along the troops of Troy. When first entranced in Cranae's isle I lay. And clasp'd the blooming hero in her arms. "Ye Trojans. Cranaus. ii." and Alberti's "Hesychius. all our generous foes! Hear and attest! from Heaven with conquest crown'd. Athens. The appointed fine let Ilion justly pay. 107 [065] [066] —Cranae's isle. Let Argive Helen own her lawful lord. and all dissolved away!" Thus having spoke." He ceased. my willing heavenly prize I bore." vol. i. Roars through the desert. and demands his prey. Paris he seeks.124 Mix'd with thy soul.BOOK III.

.108 The Iliad of Homer VENUS.

. 109 Map. titled "Graeciae Antiquae".BOOK III.


She persuades Pandarus to aim an arrow at Menelaus. The battle joins. with Jove. fresh with bloom divine. . and Jupiter sends down Minerva to break the truce. Agamemnon is distinguished in all the parts of a good general. The scene is wholly in the field before Troy. and great numbers are slain on both sides. And now Olympus' shining gates unfold. Nestor is particularly celebrated for his military discipline. and exhorts the leaders. THE BREACH OF THE TRUCE. The gods deliberate in council concerning the Trojan war: they agree upon the continuation of it. who is wounded. AND THE FIRST BATTLE. In the meantime some of the Trojan troops attack the Greeks. some by praises and others by reproof.[067] BOOK IV. ARGUMENT. The gods. but cured by Machaon. The golden goblet crowns with purple wine: While the full bowls flow round. The same day continues through this as through the last book (as it does also through the two following. assume their thrones of gold: Immortal Hebe. the powers employ Their careful eyes on long-contended Troy. he reviews the troops. and almost to the end of the seventh book).

and awake the war? Yet." Thus while he spoke. The queen of pleasures shares the toils of fight. Atrides soon might gain his beauteous bride. Still Priam's walls in peaceful honours grow. broke Her sullen silence. in close consult engaged: Apart they sit. "Two powers divine the son of Atreus aid. Then say. and with fury spoke: . Though great Atrides gain'd the glorious strife. Imperial Juno. Though secret anger swell'd Minerva's breast. and constant in her care. ye powers! what signal issue waits To crown this deed. Thus waked the fury of his partial queen. Her act has rescued Paris' forfeit life.125 But high in heaven they sit. and finish all the fates! Shall Heaven by peace the bleeding kingdoms spare. and the martial maid. their deep designs employ.112 The Iliad of Homer [068] When Jove. enraged. The tame spectators of his deeds of war. The prudent goddess yet her wrath suppress'd. would the gods for human good provide. And through his gates the crowding nations flow. But Juno. impotent of passion. and gaze from far. Or rouse the furies. disposed to tempt Saturnia's spleen. And queen of war. And meditate the future woes of Troy. Each danger wards. Not thus fair Venus helps her favour'd knight. the queen of heaven. Saves in the moment of the last despair.

e. "Shall then. 113 THE COUNCIL OF THE GODS. the defender. and the Phrygian state! What high offence has fired the wife of Jove? Can wretched mortals harm the powers above. O tyrant of the ethereal reign! My schemes. The immortal coursers scarce the labour bore. In the original. shook Ilion with alarms. and thus replies: "Oh lasting rancour! oh insatiate hate To Phrygia's monarch." The sire whose thunder shakes the cloudy skies. my labours. But Jove himself the faithless race defends. for this. 125 [069] . At length ripe vengeance o'er their heads impends. Sighs from his inmost soul." i. "Minerva Alalcomeneis. —The martial maid.BOOK IV. Assembled nations. Not all the gods are partial and unjust. and my hopes be vain? Have I. so called from her temple at Alalcomene in Boeotia. Loth as thou art to punish lawless lust. I flew from shore to shore. set two worlds in arms? To spread the war.

and wrap her walls in fire! Let Priam bleed! if yet you thirst for more. and Jove his peace enjoy. Burst all her gates. Bleed all his sons. and give the vengeance way. None stands so dear to Jove as sacred Troy. Which gods have raised. 453. Met. and replies: "Three towns are Juno's on the Grecian plains. and Troy's whole race thou wouldst confound. 127 126 . 28." At this the goddess rolled her radiant eyes. and she was regarded as the patron deity of that city. Remember Troy.. Æn. and the Spartan wall. More dear than all the extended earth contains.114 The Iliad of Homer That Troy. Argos. leave the skies. For know. Till vast destruction glut the queen of heaven! So let it be. or than Priam's race. fulfil thy stern desire. p. And yon fair structures level with the ground! Haste. vi. No mortals merit more distinguish'd grace Than godlike Priam. and Ilion float with gore: To boundless vengeance the wide realm be given. whose guilt demands their fate. Servius on Virg.126 When heaven no longer hears the name of Troy.. But should this arm prepare to wreak our hate On thy loved realms. Mycenae. The worship of Juno at Argos was very celebrated in ancient times. Apul. of all the numerous towns that rise Beneath the rolling sun and starry skies. Still to our name their hecatombs expire. Then on the Thunderer fix'd them. or earth-born men enjoy. Presume not thou the lifted bolt to stay. And altars blaze with unextinguish'd fire. i.127 "Anything for a quiet life!" —Argos.

Fired with the charge. A goddess born. Od. she headlong urged her flight. So Apuleius. and bade Minerva fly. So shall the gods our joint decrees obey. (A fatal sign to armies on the plain. Or trembling sailors on the wintry main. As the red comet. and all her arts employ To make the breach the faithless act of Troy. Of power superior why should I complain? Resent I may. to share the realms above.BOOK IV. 3." The sire of men and monarch of the sky The advice approved.128 Let both consent. and both by terms comply. l." i. "conjuge me Jovis et sorore. "But I. who walk in awful state above The majesty of heav'n.) 128 115 [070] —A wife and sister. The crime's sufficient that they share my love. c. These thou mayst raze. Yet some distinction Juno might require. See ready Pallas waits thy high commands To raise in arms the Greek and Phrygian bands. And heaven shall act as we direct the way. Nor thou a wife and sister's right deny. nor I forbid their fall: 'Tis not in me the vengeance to remove. speaks of her as "Jovis germana et conjux. Their sudden friendship by her arts may cease. 70. and so Horace. And the proud Trojans first infringe the peace. 64. from Saturnius sent To fright the nations with a dire portent. Sprung with thyself from one celestial sire. the sister-wife of Jove. iii." Dryden's "Virgil." . And styled the consort of the thundering Jove. And shot like lightning from Olympus' height. Dissolve the league. but must resent in vain.

couldst thou direct thy dart. The warlike Pandarus. Amidst the ranks Lycaon's son she found." iv. Who from Antenor traced his high descent. the gods this signal sent.116 The Iliad of Homer With sweeping glories glides along in air. And shakes the sparkles from its blazing hair:129 Between both armies thus.) pass'd disguised along. (In shape a mortal. A river of Mysia. for strength renown'd. —Æsepus' flood. To him the goddess: "Phrygian! canst thou hear A well-timed counsel with a willing ear? What praise were thine. in open sight Shot the bright goddess in a trail of light. and shows the mariner From what point of his compass to beware Impetuous winds." —"Paradise Lost. and the heavens on fire! "The gods (they cried). led from black Æsepus' flood. to the Spartan's heart? What gifts from Troy. from Paris wouldst thou gain." They said. rising from Mount Cotyius. or bloodier scenes prepares. the Grecian glory slain? 129 "Thither came Uriel. 555. Whose squadrons. when vapours fired Impress the air. gleaming through the even On a sunbeam. swift as a shooting star In autumn thwarts the night. Thy country's foe. Amidst his triumph.130 With flaming shields in martial circle stood. With eyes erect the gazing hosts admire The power descending. Like bold Laodocus. in the southern part of the chain of Ida. Jove. while Pallas through the Trojan throng. her course she bent. 130 . And fate now labours with some vast event: Jove seals the league. the great arbiter of peace and wars.

Fits the sharp arrow to the well-strung bow. and twangs the quivering string. His polish'd bow with hasty rashness seized. And sixteen palms his brow's large honours spread: The workmen join'd. Aim at his breast. 'Twas form'd of horn. a town of Troas. address thy vow To Lycian Phoebus with the silver bow. Sounds the tough horn. On Zelia's altars. at the foot of Ida. Fated to wound. and madly at the motion pleased. Now with full force the yielding horn he bends. and shaped the bended horns. The stately quarry on the cliffs lay dead. dare the mighty deed. The impatient weapon whizzes on the wing. to speed the shaft. and couching low. and may that aim succeed! But first. and cause of future woes. Then seize the occasion. and smooth'd with artful toil: A mountain goat resign'd the shining spoil. Then offers vows with hecatombs to crown Apollo's altars in his native town. Who pierced long since beneath his arrows bled."131 He heard. 131 117 [071] —Zelia. the warrior bends. Close to his breast he strains the nerve below. Till the barb'd points approach the circling bow. And swear the firstlings of thy flock to pay. This.BOOK IV. Drawn to an arch. One from a hundred feather'd deaths he chose. by the Greeks unseen. Screen'd by the shields of his surrounding friends: There meditates the mark. And beaten gold each taper point adorns. . and joins the doubling ends. to the god of day.

and saw the gushing tide: Nor less the Spartan fear'd. The royal brother thus his grief express'd. nor thy guardian power. and drew the purple gore. The shining whiteness. that heaved his manly breast. Atrides! in that dangerous hour The gods forget not. which. [072] "Oh. Where linen folds the double corslet lined. Then. before he found The shining barb appear above the wound. dear as life! did I for this agree The solemn truce. Pass'd the broad belt.118 The Iliad of Homer But thee. She turn'd the shaft. and (weakened in its force) Diverts the weapon from its destined course: So from her babe. The folds it pierced. The watchful mother wafts the envenom'd fly. Pallas assists. With horror seized. hissing from above. As when some stately trappings are decreed To grace a monarch on his bounding steed. and the Tyrian dye: So great Atrides! show'd thy sacred blood. when slumber seals his eye. Just where his belt with golden buckles join'd. And razed the skin. To fight for Greece. the plaited linen tore. . Stains the pure ivory with a lively red. A nymph in Caria or Maeonia bred. to be slain! The race of Trojans in thy ruin join. And grasp'd his hand. and conquer. the king of men descried The shaft infix'd. while all the Greeks around With answering sighs return'd the plaintive sound. a fatal truce to thee! Wert thou exposed to all the hostile train. and through the corslet drove. As down thy snowy thigh distill'd the streaming flood. with a sigh. With equal lustre various colours vie.

already. (And spurns the dust where Menelaus lies. Jove but prepares to strike the fiercer blow. from the pole Bare his red arm. without my share of praise? Deprived of thee. which thus the Spartan cheers: "Let not thy words the warmth of Greece abate.BOOK IV. Still must I mourn the period of thy days. And only mourn. I see the god. But thou." He said: a leader's and a brother's fears Possess his soul. While some proud Trojan thus insulting cries. alas! deserv'st a happier fate. Thy bones shall moulder on a foreign coast. And shake his aegis o'er their guilty head.' Oh! ere that dire disgrace shall blast my fame. and those oaths we swore. Those hands we plighted. And unrevenged. When Priam's powers and Priam's self shall fall. And one prodigious ruin swallow all. O'erwhelm me. and our glory lost. And such the conquest of her king of kings! Lo his proud vessels scatter'd o'er the main. The feeble dart is guiltless of my fate: 119 . that great avenging day. When Troy's proud glories in the dust shall lay. Shall all be vain: when Heaven's revenge is slow. Not thus our vows. Such mighty woes on perjured princes wait. confirm'd with wine and gore. And faith is scorn'd by all the perjured line. the heartless Greeks no more Shall dream of conquests on the hostile shore. I see the Eternal all his fury shed.) 'Such are the trophies Greece from Ilion brings. earth! and hide a monarch's shame. his mighty brother slain. and bid the thunder roll. Troy seized of Helen. The day shall come.

always thus. p. The many families or gentes. where sublime he stands132 In arms incircled with his native bands. Thus. the Iliou Persis."—Grote vol." To whom the king: "My brother and my friend. My varied belt repell'd the flying wound. 248. His wounded brother claims thy timely care." With hasty zeal the swift Talthybius flies. whose powerful art May stanch the effusion. Then thus: "Machaon. to the king repair. A grief to us. but Apollodorus professed to fix the exact date of his apotheosis. i. called Asklepiads. but also as their actual progenitor. or whether he was first a man and then became afterwards a god. Through the thick files he darts his searching eyes. And finds Machaon. Pierced by some Lycian or Dardanian bow." 132 —Podaleirius and Machaon are the leeches of the Grecian army. and the Dardan's joy. wherein the one was represented as unrivalled in surgical operations. may Heaven thy life defend! Now seek some skilful hand. the other as sagacious in detecting and appreciating morbid symptoms. "Galen appears uncertain whether Asklepius (as well as Dionysus) was originally a god. whither sick and suffering men came to obtain relief—all recognized the god not merely as the object of their common worship. Their medical renown was further prolonged in the subsequent poem of Arktinus. a triumph to the foe. highly prized and consulted by all the wounded chiefs. It was Podaleirius who first noticed the glaring eyes and disturbed deportment which preceded the suicide of Ajax. and extract the dart. The Grecian's sorrow. and bid Machaon bring His speedy succour to the Spartan king. Herald. and who principally dwelt near the temples of Asklepius.120 The Iliad of Homer Stiff with the rich embroider'd work around. be swift. Pierced with a winged shaft (the deed of Troy). Throughout all the historical ages the descendants of Asklepius were numerous and widely diffused. who devoted themselves to the study and practice of medicine. [073] .

unactive." book 1. the corslet from his breast unbraced. and Æsculapius used. Then suck'd the blood. Once more they glitter in refulgent arms. Once more the fields are fill'd with dire alarms. The shaft he drew. Or press'd the car with polish'd brass inlaid But left Eurymedon the reins to guide. but left the head behind. "Brave men!" he cries. Where to the steely point the reed was join'd.133 Which Chiron gave. No longer with his warlike steeds he stay'd. and stands Tempering the juice between her ivory hands This o'er her breast she sheds with sovereign art And bathes with gentle touch the wounded part The wound such virtue from the juice derives. The fiery coursers snorted at his side. or surprised with fear. Straight the broad belt with gay embroidery graced. On foot through all the martial ranks he moves And these encourages. And all the chiefs in deep concern around. While round the prince the Greeks employ their care.BOOK IV. The dauntless king yet standing firm he found." "Orlando Furioso. He loosed. His beating bosom claim'd the rising fight. the youth revives. (to such who boldly dare 133 121 "The plant she bruises with a stone. The heavy tidings grieved the godlike man Swift to his succour through the ranks he ran. . and sovereign balm infused. and those reproves. with severe delight. But fond of glory. The Trojans rush tumultuous to the war. At once the blood is stanch'd. Nor had you seen the king of men appear Confused.

to dread. in banquets. First in the fight and every graceful deed. and still retire. when the generous bowls Restore our blood. "Your ancient valour on the foes approve. High at their head he saw the chief appear. ." Thus with new ardour he the brave inspires. Her sons and matrons Greece shall lead in chains. To save a trembling. but guilty Troy. heartless. and let us trust in Jove. To Crete's brave monarch and his martial throng. Born to the fate ye well deserve to find! Why stand ye gazing round the dreadful plain. Whose crimes sit heavy on her perjured head. Jove a valiant foe shall chase. he stalk'd with ample strides along. 'Tis not for us. Jove is with Greece. "Divine Idomeneus! what thanks we owe To worth like thine! what praise shall we bestow? To thee the foremost honours are decreed. dastard race?" This said. the hunted deer Falls as he flies. Or thus the fearful with reproaches fires: "Shame to your country. And her dead warriors strew the mournful plains. At this the king his generous joy express'd. For this. and raise the warriors' souls. Till yon tall vessels blaze with Trojan fire? Or trust ye. And bold Meriones excite the rear.122 The Iliad of Homer [074] Urge their swift steeds to face the coming war). Though all the rest with stated rules we bound. Prepared for flight. Still must ye wait the foes. but doom'd to fly in vain? Confused and panting thus. a victim to his fear. And clasp'd the warrior to his armed breast. scandal of your kind.

in arms a mighty name. Unmix'd. The cloud condensing as the west-wind blows: He dreads the impending storm. Slow from the main the heavy vapours rise. And next the troops of either Ajax views: In one firm orb the bands were ranged around. and sail along the skies. a moving iron wood: A shady light was shot from glimmering shields. A cloud of heroes blacken'd all the ground. [075] Such. the embattled squadrons stood. With spears erect. Till black as night the swelling tempest shows." 123 Charm'd with this heat. Maintain thy honours. and drives his flock To the close covert of an arching rock. And their brown arms obscured the dusky fields. Fix'd to thy side. and enlarge thy fame. Spread in dim streams. are thy goblets crown'd. in every toil I share. To mix in fight is all I ask of Heaven. But let the signal be this moment given. Thy firm associate in the day of war. Thus from the lofty promontory's brow A swain surveys the gathering storm below. And chains or death avenge the impious deed.BOOK IV. the king his course pursues. . unmeasured. O king! exhort the rest. Be still thyself." To whom the Cretan thus his speech address'd: "Secure of me. and so thick. The field shall prove how perjuries succeed.

124 The Iliad of Homer "O heroes! worthy such a dauntless train. And Troy's proud walls lie smoking on the ground. Ah! would the gods but breathe in all the rest Such souls as burn in your exalted breast. Inclosed by both. a firm embodied train. who raise your eager bands With great examples. The foot (the strength of war) he ranged behind. By laws like these immortal conquests made. no warrior turn the rein. and glories in his force). be tried: The charge once made. Whose godlike virtue we but urge in vain. Content with javelins to provoke the war. Thus ruled their ardour. The middle space suspected troops supply. Nor seek unpractised to direct the car. and Pelagon the great. round him wait. And with inspiring eloquence commands. No strength nor skill. but just in time. The chiefs advises. With strictest order sets his train in arms. (His heart exults. Chromius. and the soldiers warms. Haemon. (Exclaim'd the king)." Then to the next the general bends his course. Our great forefathers held this prudent course. thus preserved their force. But fight. . more than loud commands. Nor cause confusion. or fall. Soon should our arms with just success be crown'd. Alastor. The horse and chariots to the front assign'd. nor the ranks exceed: Before the rest let none too rashly ride. He gives command to "curb the fiery steed. mount the next in haste. Bias the good. nor left the power to fly. He whom the fortune of the field shall cast From forth his chariot. There reverend Nestor ranks his Pylian bands.

could mortal wish renew134 That strength which once in boiling youth I knew. when Ereuthalion. and thy arms unbrace. Exhaust thy spirits. fell prostrate on the plain. be mine. But heaven its gifts not all at once bestows." Thus to the experienced prince Atrides cried. When Herilus in single fight I slew. viii. that wither human race. Such as I was beneath Praeneste's wall— Then when I made the foremost foes retire. What once thou wert. with action those: The field of combat fits the young and bold. The solemn council best becomes the old: To you the glorious conflict I resign. . And set whole heaps of conquer'd shields on fire. and thus replied: "Well might I wish. Let sage advice. "Would heav'n (said he) my strength and youth recall. These years with wisdom crowns. He shook his hoary locks. Whom with three lives Feronia did endue. And earth's proud tyrants low in ashes laid.BOOK IV. 742. the palm of age. slain Beneath this arm." Dryden's Virgil. And touch'd with transport great Atrides' heart. oh ever mightst thou be! And age the lot of any chief but thee. And nerves to second what thy soul inspires! But wasting years." 134 [076] —Well might I wish. "Oh! hadst thou strength to match thy brave desires." 125 So spoke the master of the martial art. Such as I was.

is it thus those honours you requite? The first in banquets. The tumult late begun. nor heard the sounds of war. and commence the war. dubious of the event. And next Ulysses. For this your names are call'd before the rest. Then give thy warrior-chief a warrior's due." Ulysses heard: the hero's warmth o'erspread His cheek with blushes: and severe. he said: "Take back the unjust reproach! Behold we stand Sheathed in bright arms. they stood intent To watch the motion. Behold me plunging in the thickest fight. With hasty ardour thus the chiefs reproved: "Can Peleus' son forget a warrior's part. With whom the firm Athenian phalanx stands." Struck with his generous wrath. And fears Ulysses. skill'd in every art? Why stand you distant. and but expect command. nor knew so far The peace infringed. To share the pleasures of the genial feast: And can you. but the last in fight. and the rest expect To mix in combat which yourselves neglect? From you 'twas hoped among the first to dare The shock of armies. If glorious deeds afford thy soul delight. With joy the monarch march'd before. the king replies: . who saw their squadrons yet unmoved. Who dares to act whate'er thou dar'st to view. And found Menestheus on the dusty shore. The king. with his subject bands. Remote their forces lay.126 The Iliad of Homer He said. chiefs! without a blush survey Whole troops before you labouring in the fray? Say.

With hands unactive.)135 To whom with stern reproach the monarch cried: "O son of Tydeus! (he.136 Next. 135 . thy care and ardour are the same. he sought Mycenae's towers. The same portent has already been mentioned. Forgive the transport of a martial mind. 127 —Sthenelus. one of the Epigoni. he approach'd the foes. and is said to have been one of those who entered Troy inside the wooden horse.BOOK IV. in arms a mighty name) Canst thou. Armies he ask'd. "O great in action. and armies had been given. Haste to the fight. nor aught to blame. when gathering martial powers. The gods that make. 136 —Forwarn'd the horrors. Nor need I to commend. Not we denied. what wonders they recite. whose strength could tame The bounding steed. and pass'd where great Tydides lay. a son of Capaneus. Still first in front the matchless prince appear'd: What glorious toils. shall keep the worthy. and a careless eye? Not thus thy sire the fierce encounter fear'd. Sage as thou art. A fearless envoy. (The warlike Sthenelus attends his side. A peaceful guest." He said. friends. and learn'd in human kind. remote. Thebes' hostile walls unguarded and alone. He was one of the suitors of Helen. His steeds and chariots wedged in firm array. Forewarn'd the horrors of the Theban war. modern nations are not wholly free from this superstition. sent by Greece from where Asopus flows. Who view'd him labouring through the ranks of fight? I saw him once. While dreadful comets glaring from afar. but Jove forbade from heaven. secure of just amends. To this day. the mingling hosts descry. and in council wise! With ours.

The tyrant feasting with his chiefs he found. And dared to combat all those chiefs around: Dared. The sons subdued." 137 —Sevenfold city. Such Tydeus was. which had seven gates. Boeotian Thebes. To bar his passage fifty warriors lay. and subdued before their haughty lord.137 In impious acts the guilty father died. Atrides! and confess Our value equal. But heard respectful. Stern as his sire. and demands the throne. Our glories darken their diminish'd name. O monarch! this invidious praise.128 The Iliad of Homer Dauntless he enters. Stung with the shame. Far more than heirs of all our parents' fame. For Pallas strung his arm and edged his sword. the boaster thus begun: [078] "What needs. . And happier saw the sevenfold city fall. and in secret burn'd: Not so fierce Capaneus' undaunted son. With fewer troops we storm'd the Theban wall. He spared but one to bear the dreadful tale. and such his martial fire. Two heroes led the secret squadron on. and hardy Lycophon. Gods! how the son degenerates from the sire!" No words the godlike Diomed return'd. Those fifty slaughter'd in the gloomy vale. Ourselves to lessen. for Heaven was on their side. though our fury less. Mason the fierce. while our sire you raise? Dare to be just. within the winding way.

and men drove men along Sedate and silent move the numerous bands. and ardent. Shields urged on shields. were Ilion's towers o'erthrown. No sound. Let him the Greeks to hardy toils excite. ascending by degrees. . with the growing storm. The muddy billow o'er the clouds is thrown. if we fail. Of arm'd Tydides rushing to the war. forbear. Foam o'er the rocks. when a black-brow'd gust begins to rise. the deeps arise. and dreadful from afar. Not so the Trojans. The billows float in order to the shore. the billows mount the skies. Till. from their host ascends A general shout that all the region rends. and whose war we wage: His the first praise. on the trembling ground Sprung from his car: his ringing arms resound. the chief disgrace his own. Whose cause we follow. Suppress thy passion. Till. And. As if some god had snatch'd their voice away. Dire was the clang.138 First move the whitening surface of the seas. Then roars the main. 736. As when the winds.BOOK IV. but the chief's commands." Dryden's Virgil." He spoke. White foam at first on the curl'd ocean fries. and the king revere: His high concern may well excuse this rage. Those only heard. by the fury of the storm full blown. 138 129 —As when the winds. So to the fight the thick battalions throng. with awe the rest obey. and thunder to the skies. To him Tydides thus: "My friend. vii. "Thus. no whisper. The wave behind rolls on the wave before. 'Tis ours to labour in the glorious fight.

These Mars incites. and confused the sound. Mix'd was the murmur." iv." —"Paradise Lost. Victors and vanquish'd join'd promiscuous cries. Discord! dire sister of the slaughtering power. With streaming blood the slippery fields are dyed. and each a god inspires. She stalks on earth. And shrilling shouts and dying groans arise. To armour armour. where'er her steps she turns.130 The Iliad of Homer [079] As when the fleecy flocks unnumber'd stand In wealthy folds. . lance to lance opposed. and the combat burns. The groan still deepens. Small at her birth. Each host now joins. The sounding darts in iron tempests flew. and wait the milker's hand. The hollow vales incessant bleating fills. and shakes the world around. While scarce the skies her horrid head can bound. 986. Host against host with shadowy squadrons drew. and dreadful terror reign.139 The nations bleed. Now shield with shield. And slaughter'd heroes swell the dreadful tide. and those Minerva fires. His stature reach'd the sky. The lambs reply from all the neighbouring hills: Such clamours rose from various nations round. And discord raging bathes the purple plain. 139 "Stood Like Teneriffe or Atlas unremoved. Pale flight around. but rising every hour. with helmet helmet closed.

Man dies on man. and all is blood and rage. Roar through a thousand channels to the main: The distant shepherd trembling hears the sound. 140 131 [080] The Abantes seem to have been of Thracian origin. Warm'd in the brain the brazen weapon lies. With rage impetuous.140 Seized to despoil. Sent by great Ajax to the shades of hell. . Razed his high crest. The nerves. Him. and pour'd along the plain.BOOK IV. support his limbs no more. So mix both hosts. Agenor's javelin reach'd the hero's heart. increased by numerous rills. and dragg'd the corpse along: But while he strove to tug the inserted dart. The first who struck a valiant Trojan dead: At great Echepolus the lance arrives. unguarded by his ample shield. and through his helmet drives. The bold Antilochus the slaughter led. So sinks a tower. that long assaults had stood Of force and fire. To seek her parents on his flowery side. the bold leader of the Abantian throng. His flank. As torrents roll. The soul comes floating in a tide of gore. and so their cries rebound. whom his mother bore Amid the flocks on silver Simois' shore: The nymph descending from the hills of Ide. Trojans and Greeks now gather round the slain. Admits the lance: he falls. the warriors bleed again: As o'er their prey rapacious wolves engage. In blooming youth fair Simoisius fell. And shades eternal settle o'er his eyes. its walls besmear'd with blood. and spurns the field. Fair Simoisius. unbraced. The war renews. down their echoing hills Rush to the vales.

and largely spread. and with grief enraged. 141 . Short was his date! by dreadful Ajax slain. and renders all their cares in vain! So falls a poplar. he meditates the wound. Democoon was his name. Cold through his temples glides the whizzing spear. The pointed lance with erring fury flew. (Fell'd by some artist with his shining steel. loved by wise Ulysses.132 The Iliad of Homer Brought forth the babe. left a subject to the wind and rain. He drops the corpse of Simoisius slain. And Leucus. Struck at his sight the Trojans backward drew. And scorch'd by suns. tall. once for all. slew. A chief stood nigh. remark that Homer is most anatomically correct as to the parts of the body in which a wound would be immediately mortal. with stately branches crown'd. who from Abydos came. In act to throw. and thus neglected dies. their common care and joy. Antiphus his javelin threw.141 With piercing shrieks the youth resigns his breath. His eye-balls darken with the shades of death. Arm'd with his spear.) Cut down it lies. With all its beauteous honours on its head There. Simoisius lies Stretch'd on the shore. I may. And trembling heard the javelin as it flew. To shape the circle of the bending wheel. The weapon entered close above his ear. that in watery ground Raised high the head. Old Priam's son. At Ajax. This saw Ulysses. it withers on the plain Thus pierced by Ajax. And sinks a breathless carcase on the plain. Strode where the foremost of the foes engaged. but cautious look'd around. smooth. He falls. And thence from Simois named the lovely boy.

and spoil the dead: But Phoebus now from Ilion's towering height Shines forth reveal'd. Have ye forgot what seem'd your dread before? The great." Apollo thus from Ilion's lofty towers. A broken rock the force of Pyrus threw. and force with force oppose. Then great Diores fell. be bold. . E'en godlike Hector seems himself to fear. Array'd in terrors. the rest tumultuous fled. And the warm life came issuing from the wound. "Trojans. In vain his valour and illustrious line. And shouts and thunders in the fields below. Slow he gave way. Your foaming steeds urge headlong on the foes! Nor are their bodies rocks. And through his navel drove the pointed death: His gushing entrails smoked upon the ground. And his broad buckler rings against the ground.BOOK IV. and your strokes they feel. the fierce Achilles fights no more. Before his helpless friends. The Greeks with shouts press on. roused the Trojan powers: While war's fierce goddess fires the Grecian foe. a fountain almost proverbial for its coldness. Burst the strong nerves. Seized with affright the boldest foes appear. (Who from cold Ænus led the Thracian crew. The foe rush'd furious as he pants for breath. by doom divine. Your weapons enter. his clanging arms resound. And spreads for aid his unavailing hands. and native bands. and crash'd the solid bone. Supine he tumbles on the crimson sands. nor ribb'd with steel. Ponderous he falls.)142 Full on his ankle dropp'd the ponderous stone. 142 133 [081] —Ænus. and animates the fight.

With copious slaughter all the fields are red. glaring with revengeful eyes. By Pallas guarded through the dreadful field. The Ætolian warrior tugg'd his weighty spear: Then sudden waved his flaming falchion round. And one the leader of the Epeian race. approaching near. And quivering in his heaving bosom stood: Till from the dying chief. The war's whole art with wonder had he seen. And crowds on crowds triumphantly expired. with thirst of glory fired. In sullen fury slowly quits the prize. Might darts be bid to turn their points away. A grove of lances glitter'd at his breast. And gash'd his belly with a ghastly wound. To spoil his arms the victor strove in vain.134 The Iliad of Homer His lance bold Thoas at the conqueror sent. one the pride of Thrace. And counted heroes where he counted men. In dust the vanquish'd and the victor lies. The Thracian bands against the victor press'd. Stern Thoas. Amid the lungs was fix'd the winged wood. The corpse now breathless on the bloody plain. Thus fell two heroes. So fought each host. Had some brave chief this martial scene beheld. And heap'd with growing mountains of the dead. Deep in his breast above the pap it went. [082] . And swords around him innocently play. Death's sable shade at once o'ercast their eyes.

. 135 Map of the Plain of Troy.BOOK IV.


. assisted by Pallas.[083] BOOK V. Lib. enables him to discern gods from mortals. who. Juno and Minerva descend to resist Mars. the latter incites Diomed to go against that god. and at length carries off Æneas to Troy. Gl' empie d' honor la faccia.143 Fills with her force. In the meantime Æneas is restored to the field. Pandarus wounds him with an arrow. xx. But Pallas now Tydides' soul inspires. and sends him groaning to heaven. as she is removing her son from the fight. where he is healed in the temple of Pergamus. among the rest Tlepolemus is slain by Sarpedon. The scene is the same as in the former. but the goddess cures him. 143 Compare Tasso. THE ACTS OF DIOMED. and assists Hector to make a stand. and they overthrow several of the Greeks. The first battle continues through this book." . is wounded on the hand by Diomed. Diomed. Mars rallies the Trojans. Gier. and Æneas in great danger but for the assistance of Venus. and prohibits him from contending with any of the former. ARGUMENT. performs wonders in this day's battle. Pandarus is killed. he wounds him. and warms with all her fires. et angusto oltre il costume. e vi riduce Di giovinezza il bel purpureo lume. 7: "Nuovo favor del cielo in lui niluce E 'l fa grande. Æneas joins Pandarus to oppose him. Apollo seconds her in his rescue. excepting Venus.

shoots a keener light. [084] . And spent in empty air its erring force. And. bathed in ocean. But pierced his breast. These singled from their troops the fight maintain. The steeds and chariot. Seized with unusual fear. in pity to the sire. flew thy lance in vain. His beamy shield emits a living ray. Increased the spoils of gallant Diomed. from his arms. to the navy led. A wealthy priest. These. High on his helm celestial lightnings play. When fresh he rears his radiant orb to sight. Fierce for renown the brother-chiefs draw near. Tydides. The unwearied blaze incessant streams supplies. But in a smoky cloud the god of fire Preserved the son. And had not Vulcan lent celestial aid. And crown her hero with distinguish'd praise. but rich without a fault. He too had sunk to death's eternal shade. from their steeds. and stretch'd him on the plain. Not so. Such. Left the rich chariot. and where the thickest rage. Tydides on the plain. Such glories Pallas on the chief bestow'd. Like the red star that fires the autumnal skies. And first bold Phegeus cast his sounding spear. Idaeus fled. and his brother dead. Where the fight burns. In Vulcan's fane the father's days were led.138 The Iliad of Homer Above the Greeks his deathless fame to raise. The sons of Dares first the combat sought. Which o'er the warrior's shoulder took its course. the fierce effulgence flow'd: Onward she drives him. The sons to toils of glorious battle bred. furious to engage.

the Trojan crew. The Cretan javelin reach'd him from afar. In dust the mighty Halizonian lay. Or slain. or fled. Nor tempt the wrath of heaven's avenging sire. And pierced his shoulder as he mounts his car. The god of arms and martial maid retreat. 139 . Whom Borus sent (his son and only joy) From fruitful Tarne to the fields of Troy. When by the blood-stain'd hand Minerva press'd The god of battles. The speedy javelin drove from back to breast. Removed from fight. mighty Jove decide: While we from interdicted fields retire. His death ennobled by Atrides' hand: As he to flight his wheeling car address'd. Back from the car he tumbles to the ground. And everlasting shades his eyes surround. the spirit wings its way.BOOK V. And whose the conquest. the Greeks the Trojan race pursue. and bites the bloody sand." Her words allay the impetuous warrior's heat. Thy fate was next. and listen'd to the dying sounds. the sons of Dares view. Who bathe in blood. and this speech address'd: "Stern power of war! by whom the mighty fall. And some bold chieftain every leader slew: First Odius falls. Struck with amaze and shame. His arms resound. on Xanthus' flowery bounds They sat. and shake the lofty wall! Let the brave chiefs their glorious toils divide. O Phaestus! doom'd to feel The great Idomeneus' protended steel. Meantime.

and aim unerring darts: But vainly here Diana's arts he tries. The fatal cause of all his country's woes. In woods and wilds to wound the savage race. Next artful Phereclus untimely fell. expert in the chase. From Meges' force the swift Pedaeus fled. The hapless artist. Nursed the young stranger with a mother's care. while confused he fled. How vain those cares! when Meges in the rear Full in his nape infix'd the fatal spear. From Menelaus' arm the weapon sent. nor his own. [085] . The spear of Merion mingled with the dead. Theanor. But he. His brazen armour rings against the ground. Through his right hip. For loved by Pallas. And death in lasting slumber seals his eyes. The graceful fabric and the fair design. Beneath his hand the fleet of Paris rose. O Phereclus! was thine. Bold Merion sent him to the realms of hell. Antenor's offspring from a foreign bed.140 The Iliad of Homer Then died Scamandrius. Between the bladder and the bone it pass'd. Thy father's skill. To bend the bow. Through his broad back and heaving bosom went: Down sinks the warrior with a thundering sound. The fatal lance arrests him as he flies. Diana taught him all her sylvan arts. with forceful fury cast. the mystic will of heaven unknown. Prone on his knees he falls with fruitless cries. heavenly fair. Whose generous spouse. Nor saw his country's peril. Pallas did impart To him the shipwright's and the builder's art.

Thus toil'd the chiefs. and trees. . Priest of the stream. and bursts the lofty bounds. an undistinguish'd prey. and bear away Flocks. Which stain'd with sacred blood the blushing sand. now there. amid the Trojan train. And flatted vineyards. and honoured as a god. Thus from high hills the torrents swift and strong Deluge whole fields. descending on the plains. Sweep o'er the yellow year. one sad waste appear!144 144 141 [086] "Or deluges. Down sunk the priest: the purple hand of death Closed his dim eye. On him.BOOK V. Then died Hypsenor. and fate suppress'd his breath. lopp'd his holy hand. Pours on the rear. 408. and the peasant's gains. amidst the flying numbers found." Dryden's Virgil ii. Now here. in different parts engaged. In every quarter fierce Tydides raged. The yellow harvests of the ripen'd year. On his broad shoulders fell the forceful brand. Swift through his crackling jaws the weapon glides. folds. Thence glancing downwards. Eurypylus inflicts a deadly wound. and sweep the trees along. Who near adored Scamander made abode. Sprung from the brave Dolopion's mighty line. And the cold tongue and grinning teeth divides. O'erwhelm's the bridge. Uproot the forest oaks. he darts from place to place. destroy the pains Of lab'ring oxen. generous and divine. or lightens in their face. Rapt through the ranks he thunders o'er the plain. Amid the Greek. Through ruin'd moles the rushing wave resounds.

" . The purple current wandering o'er his vest: "O progeny of Jove! unconquer'd maid! If e'er my godlike sire deserved thy aid. ye Trojans. That vaunts these eyes shall view the light no more. boundless in his ire. Or Phoebus urged me to these fields in vain. and made all Troy retire. Drove armies back. and drank the gore: The rushing stream his brazen armour dyed. Whose forky point the hollow breastplate tore." So spoke he.142 The Iliad of Homer While Jove descends in sluicy sheets of rain. O give my lance to reach the Trojan knight. hither drive your steeds! Lo! by our hand the bravest Grecian bleeds. Swift from his seat he leap'd upon the ground. So raged Tydides. And tugg'd the weapon from the gushing wound. behind his car retired. While the proud archer thus exulting cried: "Hither. When thus the king his guardian power address'd. Not long the deathful dart he can sustain. The wounded chief. now. thy sacred succour yield. The helping hand of Sthenelus required. and mock'd the shooter's art. Swift to the mark the thirsty arrow flew. And all the labours of mankind are vain. And lay the boaster grovelling on the shore. With grief the leader of the Lycian band Saw the wide waste of his destructive hand: His bended bow against the chief he drew. Now. If e'er I felt thee in the fighting field. boastful: but the winged dart Stopp'd short of life. goddess. Deep in his shoulder pierced. Whose arrow wounds the chief thou guard'st in fight.

Her shalt thou wound: so Pallas gives command. Nor rashly strive where human force is vain. Wake each paternal virtue in thy soul: Strength swells thy boiling breast. (she cried). If chance some shepherd with a distant dart The savage wound. Then leaps victorious o'er the lofty mound. If Venus mingle in the martial band. the blue-eyed virgin wing'd her flight. Wild with delay. Heaps fall on heaps. infused by me.BOOK V. Amidst the field a brindled lion falls. His beating bosom claim'd the promised fight. Yet more. thy protection mine. Thus pray'd Tydides. 411. "Be bold. The hero rush'd impetuous to the fight. his languid spirits cheer'd.145 And set to view the warring deities. "But to nobler sights Michael from Adam's eyes the film removed." xi. through all the embattled plain. He foams. His nerves confirm'd. he bathes with blood the ground." With that. These see thou shun. the shepherd dares not stay. As on the fleecy flocks when hunger calls. But trembling leaves the scattering flocks a prey. from mortal mists I purge thy eyes. and more enraged by pain. he roars. Not with less fury stern Tydides flew. he rouses at the smart. . He feels each limb with wonted vigour light." "Paradise Lost. And all thy godlike father breathes in thee. Rush to the fight. in every combat shine. With tenfold ardour now invades the plain. War be thy province. 145 143 [087] —From mortal mists. and every foe control. and Minerva heard.

Those slain he left. Astynous breathless fell. Young Xanthus next. He leaps amidst them with a furious bound. Sons of Eurydamus. Cold death o'ertakes them in their blooming years. [088] Two sons of Priam in one chariot ride. The joy and hope of Phaenops' feeble age: Vast was his wealth.144 The Iliad of Homer And two brave leaders at an instant slew. and by his side. His people's pastor. Their steeds and chariot to the navy borne. Bends their strong necks. The youths return'd not from the doubtful plain. Astynous' breast the deadly lance receives. And the sad father tried his arts in vain. . and combat side by side. Glittering in arms. The race forgotten. and these the only heirs Of all his labours and a life of cares. and sprung with noble rage Abas and Polyidus to engage. Could fate foresee. Though now determined by Tydides' spear. died. As when the lordly lion seeks his food Where grazing heifers range the lonely wood. and Thoon felt his rage. and the name no more. good Hypenor. And leaves the father unavailing tears: To strangers now descends his heapy store. who. and mystic dreams unfold. Hypenor's shoulder his broad falchion cleaves. and tears them to the ground: So from their seats the brother chiefs are torn. wise and old. No mystic dream could make their fates appear.

145 . If right I judge. At length he found Lycaon's mighty son. who quits the distant skies To punish Troy for slighted sacrifice.BOOK V." To him the Lycian: "Whom your eyes behold. Nor join'd swift horses to the rapid car. Through the thick storm of singing spears he flies. To whom the chief of Venus' race begun: "Where. Involved in clouds. on foot I sought the war. And boasted glory of the Lycian name? O pierce that mortal! if we mortal call That wondrous force by which whole armies fall. Thy winged arrows and unerring bow. So towers his helmet. Thy matchless skill. entreat to spare. And. are all thy honours now. With deep concern divine Æneas view'd The foe prevailing. and so flames his shield. (Which. Skill'd in the bow. oh avert from our unhappy state! For what so dreadful as celestial hate)? Whoe'er he be. If 'tis a god. The stroke had fix'd him to the gates of hell. and his friends pursued. which not idly fell. destroy. I wing'd an arrow. Or god incensed. protects him in the fray. is Diomed the bold: Such coursers whirl him o'er the dusty field. thy yet unrivall'd fame. His fate was due to these unerring hands. And turns unseen the frustrate dart away. if god. propitiate Jove with prayer. some angry god withstands. some guardian of the skies. Exploring Pandarus with careful eyes. but some god. Pandarus. he wears that chief's disguise: Or if that chief. If man.

the spear and shield! If e'er with life I quit the Trojan plain. When first for Troy I sail'd the sacred seas. Broke by my hand. [089] "Too late. aloft. The good old warrior bade me trust to these. In evil hour these bended horns I strung. and yet to thrift inclined. carry death no more. In fields. but provoke the foe." . So took my bow and pointed darts in hand And left the chariots in my native land. This bow. But vain with youth. Cursed be the fate that sent me to the field Without a warrior's arms. I heard his counsels with unheedful mind. These shafts. And through the ranks of death triumphant ride. not to slaughter. If e'er I see my spouse and sire again. And thought the steeds (your large supplies unknown) Might fail of forage in the straiten'd town. unfaithful to my glorious aims. the whirling car to guide.146 The Iliad of Homer Ten polish'd chariots I possess'd at home. shall feed the blazing flames. And twice ten coursers wait their lord's command. And undissembled gore pursued the wound. Tydeus' and Atreus' sons their points have found. And still they grace Lycaon's princely dome: There veil'd in spacious coverlets they stand. In vain they bleed: this unavailing bow Serves. O friend! my rashness I deplore. And seized the quiver where it idly hung. once fatal.

Secure with these. and snatch the guiding rein." And now both heroes mount the glittering car. And. The bounding coursers rush amidst the war. the victor's prize. if to combat thy bold heart incline. if. The horses. or urge the rapid race.BOOK V. though here we need The rushing chariot and the bounding steed. to chase. unhappy. seize the whip. Against yon hero let us bend our course. Take thou the spear. be thine the task to guide. The warrior's fury let this arm sustain. if Jove assist the foe. and from the chariot's height Observe my father's steeds. to stop. we desert the fight. alarm'd. through fighting fields we go. Who thus. the chariot's care be mine. And these. To whom the leader of the Dardan race: "Be calm. Shall bear the rein. Else shall our fates be number'd with the dead. But. To dare the shock. in triumph led. Or. practised to their lord's command. Or safe to Troy. renown'd in fight." "O prince! (Lycaon's valiant son replied) As thine the steeds. encounter force with force. to great Tydides cried: 147 . hand to hand. Haste. then: with spear and shield Myself will charge this terror of the field. Their fierce approach bold Sthenelus espied. The distant dart be praised. and answer to thy hand. Practised alike to turn. Now mount my seat. Thy voice alone can animate their flight. nor Phoebus' honour'd gift disgrace. Thine be the guidance.

One chief at least beneath this arm shall die. Ascend thy car! And save a life. Whose wombs conceived a more than mortal birth. Swift to Æneas' empty seat proceed. and forbids to fly. And the long distance of the flying lance. Whom Circe stole from her celestial sire. the bulwark of our war. Who from their nostrils breathed ethereal fire. By substituting mares produced on earth. inglorious flight? Know. Fix'd on the chief with scorn. So Pallas tells me. . I hate the cumbrous chariot's slow advance. 'tis not honest in my soul to fear. Dreadful they come. And great Æneas. which once the thundering god146 146 —The race of those. that fierce to fight convey Those threatening heroes." At this the hero cast a gloomy look. my force entire. And seize the coursers of ethereal breed. born of heav'nly breed. Thus front the foe. That both shall fall by one victorious hand. The race of those. bear them both away. and thus he spoke: "Me dost thou bid to shun the coming fight? Me wouldst thou move to base. But if she dooms. Fix'd to the chariot by the straiten'd rein.148 The Iliad of Homer [090] "O friend! two chiefs of force immense I see. and emulate my sire. and bend their rage on thee: Lo the brave heir of old Lycaon's line. "A pair of coursers. sprung from race divine! Enough is given to fame. Then heed my words: my horses here detain. and if no god withstand. Nor shall yon steeds. But while my nerves are strong. Nor was Tydides born to tremble here.

one. Through the wide world should make our glory known. headlong from his car. from fierce Laomedon: Four of this race his ample stalls contain. Though late in vain assail'd. These. were the rich immortal prize our own. "He bleeds! the pride of Greece! (the boaster cries. and in his cuirass hung. the foe came furious on." 149 Thus while they spoke. With hostile blood shall glut the god of war. the mighty warrior lies!" "Mistaken vaunter! (Diomed replied. For ravish'd Ganymede on Tros bestow'd.BOOK V. And stern Lycaon's warlike race begun: "Prince. The spear may enter where the arrow fail'd. then shook the ponderous lance. Beneath the rising or the setting sun. Hence great Anchises stole a breed unknown. and flung. And two transport Æneas o'er the plain. and now my spear be tried. Pierced the tough orb. thou art met." ." He said. By mortal mares. Ye 'scape not both.) Our triumph now.) Thy dart has erred. On his broad shield the sounding weapon rung. The best that e'er on earth's broad surface run.

Not two strong men the enormous weight could raise. sqq. The starting coursers tremble with affright. As the grim lion stalks around his prey. Æneas flies. Where to the hip the inserted thigh unites. Full in his face it enter'd. is by no means confined to Homer. driven by Pallas. Till the bright point look'd out beneath the chin. Full on the bone the pointed marble lights. and. but forbear the prize. His spear extending where the carcase lies. a rocky fragment wields. and his arms resound. Then fierce Tydides stoops. and cleft the tongue within. The belief in the existence of men of larger stature in earlier times. and staggering with his pains. Headlong he falls. protects it every way. vii.150 The Iliad of Homer [091] He spoke. The soul indignant seeks the realms of night. Which. pierced a vital part. and rising hurl'd his forceful dart. To guard his slaughter'd friend. And threats aloud! the Greeks with longing eyes Behold at distance. and betwixt The nose and eye-ball the proud Lycian fix'd. 386. and from the fields Heaved with vast force. His falling bulk his bended arm sustains. Discharged the ponderous ruin at the foe. Dryden's Virgil. Crash'd all his jaws. Through both the tendons broke the rugged stone. And stripp'd the skin. O'er the fall'n trunk his ample shield display'd. He hides the hero with his mighty shade. Such men as live in these degenerate days:147 He swung it round. 147 . Watchful he wheels. Sunk on his knees. and crack'd the solid bone. his helmet knocks the ground: Earth groans beneath him. gathering strength to throw.

And follow'd where Tydides swept the plain.BOOK V. Meanwhile (his conquest ravished from his eyes) The raging chief in chase of Venus flies: No goddess she. He fix'd with straiten'd traces to the car. His danger views with anguish and despair. Safe through the rushing horse. While flames ascend. and mighty ruins fall. detains The heavenly coursers with the flowing manes: These in proud triumph to the fleet convey'd. But heavenly Venus. and feather'd flight Of sounding shafts. That charge to bold Deipylus he gave. The swords wave harmless. Nor Sthenelus. And guards her offspring with a mother's care. (Whom most he loved.) Then mounting on his car. who mighty numbers sway'd. No longer now a Trojan lord obey'd. rushing to the Dardan spoil. commission'd to the field. Like Pallas dreadful with her sable shield. mindful of the love She bore Anchises in the Idaean grove. Next. as brave men love the brave. and the javelins fail. Her arms whose whiteness match the falling snows. 151 [092] . resumed the rein. There the brave chief. removed from out the war. Oppress'd had sunk to death's eternal shade. she bears him from the fight. Screen'd from the foe behind her shining veil. Remain'd unheedful of his lord's commands: His panting steeds. Or fierce Bellona thundering at the wall. A sudden cloud comes swimming o'er his eyes. About her much-loved son her arms she throws. Lost in a dizzy mist the warrior lies. with unassisting hands.

The field of combat is no scene for thee: Go.152 The Iliad of Homer He knew soft combats suit the tender dame. And learn to tremble at the name of arms. . or delude the fair. such as celestial spirits may bleed. and wards the mortal wound. Such stream as issues from a wounded god. Taught by this stroke renounce the war's alarms. 339.e. And at the goddess his broad lance extends. Nor wine's inflaming juice supplies their veins:) With tender shrieks the goddess fill'd the place. Then with a voice that shook the vaulted skies. Sanguine." "Paradise Lost. terrestrial blood: (For not the bread of man their life sustains. i. Her snowy hand the razing steel profaned. lull the coward. or blood of the gods. The king insults the goddess as she flies: "Ill with Jove's daughter bloody fights agree. "A stream of nect'rous humour issuing flow'd. New to the field. Go." vi. The ambrosial veil which all the Graces wove. Him Phoebus took: he casts a cloud around The fainting chief. And the transparent skin with crimson stain'd. and still a foe to fame. Through breaking ranks his furious course he bends. And dropp'd her offspring from her weak embrace. Through her bright veil the daring weapon drove." 148 —Such stream. From the clear vein a stream immortal flow'd. the ichor. diseased.148 Pure emanation! uncorrupted flood! Unlike our gross. let thy own soft sex employ thy care.

on the left. Confused. O'erwhelmed with anguish. And ask'd what god had wrought this guilty deed? 153 [093] Then she: "This insult from no god I found. and there the coursers stood. the rapid chariot flies. A mortal man. seized with dread. Before her mother. But with the gods (the immortal gods) engage. And to her hand commits the golden rein. Stern Mars attentive hears the queen complain. who sat remote. beheld her bleed. and dissolved in tears: She raised her in her arms. Pale was her cheek. Driven by the goddess of the painted bow. The goddess. distracted. swift the winged Iris flew. The queen of love with faded charms she found." . rein'd with gold. Low at his knee. To aid her. An impious mortal gave the daring wound! Behold the deed of haughty Diomed! 'Twas in the son's defence the mother bled. And. She mounts the seat. Fed by fair Iris with ambrosial food. Beside him stood his lance. To Mars. from the conflict fled. to mount the distant skies.BOOK V. she begg'd with streaming eyes Her brother's car. his foaming steeds before. Wrapt in a mist above the warring crew. and livid look'd the wound. And show'd the wound by fierce Tydides given. distain'd with gore. they bent their way: Far. The war with Troy no more the Grecians wage. Tydides thus. oppress'd with silent woe. The lash resounds. with clouds involved he lay. And in a moment scales the lofty skies: They stopp'd the car. love's bright queen appears. who dares encounter heaven.

And men with woes afflict the gods again. 150 149 [094] .154 The Iliad of Homer VENUS. Amphitryon's son infix'd the deadly dart. Hercules. The imperial partner of the heavenly reign. The mighty Mars in mortal fetters bound.149 And lodged in brazen dungeons underground.150 And fill'd with anguish her immortal heart. Full thirteen moons imprison'd roar'd in vain. the wife of Amphitryon. Otus and Ephialtes held the chain: Perhaps had perish'd had not Hermes' care Restored the groaning god to upper air. This was during the wars with the Titans. —Amphitryon's son. Great Juno's self has borne her weight of pain. Dione then: "Thy wrongs with patience bear. born to Jove by Alcmena. WOUNDED IN THE HAND. And share those griefs inferior powers must share: Unnumber'd woes mankind from us sustain. CONDUCTED BY IRIS TO MARS.

[095] . Whose spear ill-fated makes a goddess bleed. No infant on his knees shall call him sire. The shaft found entrance in his iron breast. From fields of death when late he shall retire. Where Paeon.BOOK V. sprinkling heavenly balm around. E'en hell's grim king Alcides' power confess'd. To Jove's high palace for a cure he fled. impious man! to stain the bless'd abodes. And drench his arrows in the blood of gods! 155 OTUS AND EPHIALTES HOLDING MARS CAPTIVE. Know thou. "But thou (though Pallas urged thy frantic deed). and closed the wound. Assuaged the glowing pangs. whoe'er with heavenly power contends. Short is his date. Rash. and soon his glory ends. Pierced in his own dominions of the dead.


The Iliad of Homer

Strong as thou art, some god may yet be found, To stretch thee pale and gasping on the ground; Thy distant wife, Ægiale the fair,151 Starting from sleep with a distracted air, Shall rouse thy slaves, and her lost lord deplore, The brave, the great, the glorious now no more!"

This said, she wiped from Venus' wounded palm The sacred ichor, and infused the balm. Juno and Pallas with a smile survey'd, And thus to Jove began the blue-eyed maid:

"Permit thy daughter, gracious Jove! to tell How this mischance the Cyprian queen befell, As late she tried with passion to inflame The tender bosom of a Grecian dame; Allured the fair, with moving thoughts of joy, To quit her country for some youth of Troy; The clasping zone, with golden buckles bound, Razed her soft hand with this lamented wound."

The sire of gods and men superior smiled, And, calling Venus, thus address'd his child: "Not these, O daughter are thy proper cares, Thee milder arts befit, and softer wars; Sweet smiles are thine, and kind endearing charms; To Mars and Pallas leave the deeds of arms."
—Ægiale daughter of Adrastus. The Cyclic poets (See Anthon's Lempriere, s. v.) assert Venus incited her to infidelity, in revenge for the wound she had received from her husband.

BOOK V. Thus they in heaven: while on the plain below The fierce Tydides charged his Dardan foe, Flush'd with celestial blood pursued his way, And fearless dared the threatening god of day; Already in his hopes he saw him kill'd, Though screen'd behind Apollo's mighty shield. Thrice rushing furious, at the chief he strook; His blazing buckler thrice Apollo shook: He tried the fourth: when, breaking from the cloud, A more than mortal voice was heard aloud. "O son of Tydeus, cease! be wise and see How vast the difference of the gods and thee; Distance immense! between the powers that shine Above, eternal, deathless, and divine, And mortal man! a wretch of humble birth, A short-lived reptile in the dust of earth." So spoke the god who darts celestial fires: He dreads his fury, and some steps retires. Then Phoebus bore the chief of Venus' race To Troy's high fane, and to his holy place; Latona there and Phoebe heal'd the wound, With vigour arm'd him, and with glory crown'd. This done, the patron of the silver bow A phantom raised, the same in shape and show With great Æneas; such the form he bore, And such in fight the radiant arms he wore. Around the spectre bloody wars are waged, And Greece and Troy with clashing shields engaged. Meantime on Ilion's tower Apollo stood, And calling Mars, thus urged the raging god:




The Iliad of Homer

"Stern power of arms, by whom the mighty fall; Who bathest in blood, and shakest the embattled wall, Rise in thy wrath! to hell's abhorr'd abodes Despatch yon Greek, and vindicate the gods. First rosy Venus felt his brutal rage; Me next he charged, and dares all heaven engage: The wretch would brave high heaven's immortal sire, His triple thunder, and his bolts of fire." The god of battle issues on the plain, Stirs all the ranks, and fires the Trojan train; In form like Acamas, the Thracian guide, Enraged to Troy's retiring chiefs he cried: "How long, ye sons of Priam! will ye fly, And unrevenged see Priam's people die? Still unresisted shall the foe destroy, And stretch the slaughter to the gates of Troy? Lo, brave Æneas sinks beneath his wound, Not godlike Hector more in arms renown'd: Haste all, and take the generous warrior's part. He said;—new courage swell'd each hero's heart. Sarpedon first his ardent soul express'd, And, turn'd to Hector, these bold words address'd: "Say, chief, is all thy ancient valour lost? Where are thy threats, and where thy glorious boast, That propp'd alone by Priam's race should stand Troy's sacred walls, nor need a foreign hand? Now, now thy country calls her wonted friends, And the proud vaunt in just derision ends. Remote they stand while alien troops engage, Like trembling hounds before the lion's rage. Far distant hence I held my wide command, Where foaming Xanthus laves the Lycian land;

BOOK V. With ample wealth (the wish of mortals) bless'd, A beauteous wife, and infant at her breast; With those I left whatever dear could be: Greece, if she conquers, nothing wins from me; Yet first in fight my Lycian bands I cheer, And long to meet this mighty man ye fear; While Hector idle stands, nor bids the brave Their wives, their infants, and their altars save. Haste, warrior, haste! preserve thy threaten'd state, Or one vast burst of all-involving fate Full o'er your towers shall fall, and sweep away Sons, sires, and wives, an undistinguish'd prey. Rouse all thy Trojans, urge thy aids to fight; These claim thy thoughts by day, thy watch by night; With force incessant the brave Greeks oppose; Such cares thy friends deserve, and such thy foes." Stung to the heart the generous Hector hears, But just reproof with decent silence bears. From his proud car the prince impetuous springs, On earth he leaps, his brazen armour rings. Two shining spears are brandish'd in his hands; Thus arm'd, he animates his drooping bands, Revives their ardour, turns their steps from flight, And wakes anew the dying flames of fight. They turn, they stand; the Greeks their fury dare, Condense their powers, and wait the growing war. As when, on Ceres' sacred floor, the swain Spreads the wide fan to clear the golden grain, And the light chaff, before the breezes borne, Ascends in clouds from off the heapy corn; The grey dust, rising with collected winds, Drives o'er the barn, and whitens all the hinds:




The Iliad of Homer

So white with dust the Grecian host appears. From trampling steeds, and thundering charioteers; The dusky clouds from labour'd earth arise, And roll in smoking volumes to the skies. Mars hovers o'er them with his sable shield, And adds new horrors to the darken'd field: Pleased with his charge, and ardent to fulfil, In Troy's defence, Apollo's heavenly will: Soon as from fight the blue-eyed maid retires, Each Trojan bosom with new warmth he fires. And now the god, from forth his sacred fane, Produced Æneas to the shouting train; Alive, unharm'd, with all his peers around, Erect he stood, and vigorous from his wound: Inquiries none they made; the dreadful day No pause of words admits, no dull delay; Fierce Discord storms, Apollo loud exclaims, Fame calls, Mars thunders, and the field's in flames. Stern Diomed with either Ajax stood, And great Ulysses, bathed in hostile blood. Embodied close, the labouring Grecian train The fiercest shock of charging hosts sustain. Unmoved and silent, the whole war they wait Serenely dreadful, and as fix'd as fate. So when the embattled clouds in dark array, Along the skies their gloomy lines display; When now the North his boisterous rage has spent, And peaceful sleeps the liquid element: The low-hung vapours, motionless and still, Rest on the summits of the shaded hill; Till the mass scatters as the winds arise, Dispersed and broken through the ruffled skies.


BOOK V. Nor was the general wanting to his train; From troop to troop he toils through all the plain, "Ye Greeks, be men! the charge of battle bear; Your brave associates and yourselves revere! Let glorious acts more glorious acts inspire, And catch from breast to breast the noble fire! On valour's side the odds of combat lie, The brave live glorious, or lamented die; The wretch who trembles in the field of fame, Meets death, and worse than death, eternal shame!" These words he seconds with his flying lance, To meet whose point was strong Deicoon's chance: Æneas' friend, and in his native place Honour'd and loved like Priam's royal race: Long had he fought the foremost in the field, But now the monarch's lance transpierced his shield: His shield too weak the furious dart to stay, Through his broad belt the weapon forced its way: The grisly wound dismiss'd his soul to hell, His arms around him rattled as he fell. Then fierce Æneas, brandishing his blade, In dust Orsilochus and Crethon laid, Whose sire Diocleus, wealthy, brave and great, In well-built Pherae held his lofty seat:152 Sprung from Alpheus' plenteous stream, that yields Increase of harvests to the Pylian fields. He got Orsilochus, Diocleus he, And these descended in the third degree. Too early expert in the martial toil, In sable ships they left their native soil, To avenge Atrides: now, untimely slain,


—Pherae, a town of Pelasgiotis, in Thessaly.


The Iliad of Homer


They fell with glory on the Phrygian plain. So two young mountain lions, nursed with blood In deep recesses of the gloomy wood, Rush fearless to the plains, and uncontroll'd Depopulate the stalls and waste the fold: Till pierced at distance from their native den, O'erpowered they fall beneath the force of men. Prostrate on earth their beauteous bodies lay, Like mountain firs, as tall and straight as they. Great Menelaus views with pitying eyes, Lifts his bright lance, and at the victor flies; Mars urged him on; yet, ruthless in his hate, The god but urged him to provoke his fate. He thus advancing, Nestor's valiant son Shakes for his danger, and neglects his own; Struck with the thought, should Helen's lord be slain, And all his country's glorious labours vain. Already met, the threatening heroes stand; The spears already tremble in their hand: In rush'd Antilochus, his aid to bring, And fall or conquer by the Spartan king. These seen, the Dardan backward turn'd his course, Brave as he was, and shunn'd unequal force. The breathless bodies to the Greeks they drew, Then mix in combat, and their toils renew. First, Pylaemenes, great in battle, bled, Who sheathed in brass the Paphlagonians led. Atrides mark'd him where sublime he stood; Fix'd in his throat the javelin drank his blood. The faithful Mydon, as he turn'd from fight His flying coursers, sunk to endless night; A broken rock by Nestor's son was thrown: His bended arm received the falling stone;

BOOK V. From his numb'd hand the ivory-studded reins, Dropp'd in the dust, are trail'd along the plains: Meanwhile his temples feel a deadly wound; He groans in death, and ponderous sinks to ground: Deep drove his helmet in the sands, and there The head stood fix'd, the quivering legs in air, Till trampled flat beneath the coursers' feet: The youthful victor mounts his empty seat, And bears the prize in triumph to the fleet.


Great Hector saw, and, raging at the view, Pours on the Greeks: the Trojan troops pursue: He fires his host with animating cries, And brings along the furies of the skies, Mars, stern destroyer! and Bellona dread, Flame in the front, and thunder at their head: This swells the tumult and the rage of fight; That shakes a spear that casts a dreadful light. Where Hector march'd, the god of battles shined, Now storm'd before him, and now raged behind.

Tydides paused amidst his full career; Then first the hero's manly breast knew fear. As when some simple swain his cot forsakes, And wide through fens an unknown journey takes: If chance a swelling brook his passage stay, And foam impervious 'cross the wanderer's way, Confused he stops, a length of country pass'd, Eyes the rough waves, and tired, returns at last. Amazed no less the great Tydides stands: He stay'd, and turning thus address'd his bands:


The Iliad of Homer

"No wonder, Greeks! that all to Hector yield; Secure of favouring gods, he takes the field; His strokes they second, and avert our spears. Behold where Mars in mortal arms appears! Retire then, warriors, but sedate and slow; Retire, but with your faces to the foe. Trust not too much your unavailing might; 'Tis not with Troy, but with the gods ye fight." Now near the Greeks the black battalions drew; And first two leaders valiant Hector slew: His force Anchialus and Mnesthes found, In every art of glorious war renown'd; In the same car the chiefs to combat ride, And fought united, and united died. Struck at the sight, the mighty Ajax glows With thirst of vengeance, and assaults the foes. His massy spear with matchless fury sent, Through Amphius' belt and heaving belly went; Amphius Apaesus' happy soil possess'd, With herds abounding, and with treasure bless'd; But fate resistless from his country led The chief, to perish at his people's head. Shook with his fall his brazen armour rung, And fierce, to seize it, conquering Ajax sprung; Around his head an iron tempest rain'd; A wood of spears his ample shield sustain'd: Beneath one foot the yet warm corpse he press'd, And drew his javelin from the bleeding breast: He could no more; the showering darts denied To spoil his glittering arms, and plumy pride. Now foes on foes came pouring on the fields, With bristling lances, and compacted shields; Till in the steely circle straiten'd round,


BOOK V. Forced he gives way, and sternly quits the ground. While thus they strive, Tlepolemus the great,153 Urged by the force of unresisted fate, Burns with desire Sarpedon's strength to prove; Alcides' offspring meets the son of Jove. Sheathed in bright arms each adverse chief came on. Jove's great descendant, and his greater son. Prepared for combat, ere the lance he toss'd, The daring Rhodian vents his haughty boast: "What brings this Lycian counsellor so far, To tremble at our arms, not mix in war! Know thy vain self, nor let their flattery move, Who style thee son of cloud-compelling Jove. How far unlike those chiefs of race divine, How vast the difference of their deeds and thine! Jove got such heroes as my sire, whose soul No fear could daunt, nor earth nor hell control. Troy felt his arm, and yon proud ramparts stand Raised on the ruins of his vengeful hand: With six small ships, and but a slender train, lie left the town a wide-deserted plain. But what art thou, who deedless look'st around, While unrevenged thy Lycians bite the ground! Small aid to Troy thy feeble force can be; But wert thou greater, thou must yield to me. Pierced by my spear, to endless darkness go! I make this present to the shades below."



—Tlepolemus, son of Hercules and Astyochia. Having left his native country, Argos, in consequence of the accidental murder of Liscymnius, he was commanded by an oracle to retire to Rhodes. Here he was chosen king, and accompanied the Trojan expedition. After his death, certain games were instituted at Rhodes in his honour, the victors being rewarded with crowns of poplar.



The Iliad of Homer

The son of Hercules, the Rhodian guide, Thus haughty spoke. The Lycian king replied: "Thy sire, O prince! o'erturn'd the Trojan state, Whose perjured monarch well deserved his fate; Those heavenly steeds the hero sought so far, False he detain'd, the just reward of war. Nor so content, the generous chief defied, With base reproaches and unmanly pride. But you, unworthy the high race you boast, Shall raise my glory when thy own is lost: Now meet thy fate, and by Sarpedon slain, Add one more ghost to Pluto's gloomy reign." He said: both javelins at an instant flew; Both struck, both wounded, but Sarpedon's slew: Full in the boaster's neck the weapon stood, Transfix'd his throat, and drank the vital blood; The soul disdainful seeks the caves of night, And his seal'd eyes for ever lose the light. Yet not in vain, Tlepolemus, was thrown Thy angry lance; which piercing to the bone Sarpedon's thigh, had robb'd the chief of breath; But Jove was present, and forbade the death. Borne from the conflict by his Lycian throng, The wounded hero dragg'd the lance along. (His friends, each busied in his several part, Through haste, or danger, had not drawn the dart.) The Greeks with slain Tlepolemus retired; Whose fall Ulysses view'd, with fury fired; Doubtful if Jove's great son he should pursue, Or pour his vengeance on the Lycian crew. But heaven and fate the first design withstand, Nor this great death must grace Ulysses' hand.

BOOK V. Minerva drives him on the Lycian train; Alastor, Cronius, Halius, strew'd the plain, Alcander, Prytanis, Noemon fell:154 And numbers more his sword had sent to hell, But Hector saw; and, furious at the sight, Rush'd terrible amidst the ranks of fight. With joy Sarpedon view'd the wish'd relief, And, faint, lamenting, thus implored the chief: "O suffer not the foe to bear away My helpless corpse, an unassisted prey; If I, unbless'd, must see my son no more, My much-loved consort, and my native shore, Yet let me die in Ilion's sacred wall; Troy, in whose cause I fell, shall mourn my fall." He said, nor Hector to the chief replies, But shakes his plume, and fierce to combat flies; Swift as a whirlwind, drives the scattering foes; And dyes the ground with purple as he goes. Beneath a beech, Jove's consecrated shade, His mournful friends divine Sarpedon laid: Brave Pelagon, his favourite chief, was nigh, Who wrench'd the javelin from his sinewy thigh. The fainting soul stood ready wing'd for flight, And o'er his eye-balls swam the shades of night; But Boreas rising fresh, with gentle breath, Recall'd his spirit from the gates of death.



These heroes' names have since passed into a kind of proverb, designating the oi polloi or mob.



The Iliad of Homer

The generous Greeks recede with tardy pace, Though Mars and Hector thunder in their face; None turn their backs to mean ignoble flight, Slow they retreat, and even retreating fight. Who first, who last, by Mars' and Hector's hand, Stretch'd in their blood, lay gasping on the sand? Tenthras the great, Orestes the renown'd For managed steeds, and Trechus press'd the ground;, Next OEnomaus and OEnops' offspring died; Oresbius last fell groaning at their side: Oresbius, in his painted mitre gay, In fat Boeotia held his wealthy sway, Where lakes surround low Hyle's watery plain; A prince and people studious of their gain.

The carnage Juno from the skies survey'd, And touch'd with grief bespoke the blue-eyed maid: "Oh, sight accursed! Shall faithless Troy prevail, And shall our promise to our people fail? How vain the word to Menelaus given By Jove's great daughter and the queen of heaven, Beneath his arms that Priam's towers should fall, If warring gods for ever guard the wall! Mars, red with slaughter, aids our hated foes: Haste, let us arm, and force with force oppose!"


She spoke; Minerva burns to meet the war: And now heaven's empress calls her blazing car. At her command rush forth the steeds divine; Rich with immortal gold their trappings shine.

BOOK V. Bright Hebe waits; by Hebe, ever young, The whirling wheels are to the chariot hung. On the bright axle turns the bidden wheel Of sounding brass; the polished axle steel. Eight brazen spokes in radiant order flame; The circles gold, of uncorrupted frame, Such as the heavens produce: and round the gold Two brazen rings of work divine were roll'd. The bossy naves of sold silver shone; Braces of gold suspend the moving throne: The car, behind, an arching figure bore; The bending concave form'd an arch before. Silver the beam, the extended yoke was gold, And golden reins the immortal coursers hold. Herself, impatient, to the ready car, The coursers joins, and breathes revenge and war. Pallas disrobes; her radiant veil untied, With flowers adorn'd, with art diversified, (The laboured veil her heavenly fingers wove,) Flows on the pavement of the court of Jove. Now heaven's dread arms her mighty limbs invest, Jove's cuirass blazes on her ample breast; Deck'd in sad triumph for the mournful field, O'er her broad shoulders hangs his horrid shield, Dire, black, tremendous! Round the margin roll'd, A fringe of serpents hissing guards the gold: Here all the terrors of grim War appear, Here rages Force, here tremble Flight and Fear, Here storm'd Contention, and here Fury frown'd, And the dire orb portentous Gorgon crown'd. The massy golden helm she next assumes, That dreadful nods with four o'ershading plumes; So vast, the broad circumference contains



The Iliad of Homer

A hundred armies on a hundred plains. The goddess thus the imperial car ascends; Shook by her arm the mighty javelin bends, Ponderous and huge; that when her fury burns, Proud tyrants humbles, and whole hosts o'erturns. Swift at the scourge the ethereal coursers fly, While the smooth chariot cuts the liquid sky. Heaven's gates spontaneous open to the powers,155 Heaven's golden gates, kept by the winged Hours;156 Commission'd in alternate watch they stand, The sun's bright portals and the skies command, Involve in clouds the eternal gates of day, Or the dark barrier roll with ease away. The sounding hinges ring on either side The gloomy volumes, pierced with light, divide. The chariot mounts, where deep in ambient skies, Confused, Olympus' hundred heads arise; Where far apart the Thunderer fills his throne, O'er all the gods superior and alone. There with her snowy hand the queen restrains The fiery steeds, and thus to Jove complains:


—Spontaneous open.

"Veil'd with his gorgeous wings, upspringing light Flew through the midst of heaven; th' angelic quires, On each hand parting, to his speed gave way Through all th' empyreal road; till at the gate Of heaven arrived, the gate self-open'd wide, On golden hinges turning." —"Paradise Lost," v. 250.

"Till Morn, Waked by the circling Hours, with rosy hand Unbarr'd the gates of light." —"Paradise Lost," vi, 2.

BOOK V. "O sire! can no resentment touch thy soul? Can Mars rebel, and does no thunder roll? What lawless rage on yon forbidden plain, What rash destruction! and what heroes slain! Venus, and Phoebus with the dreadful bow, Smile on the slaughter, and enjoy my woe. Mad, furious power! whose unrelenting mind No god can govern, and no justice bind. Say, mighty father! shall we scourge this pride, And drive from fight the impetuous homicide?" To whom assenting, thus the Thunderer said: "Go! and the great Minerva be thy aid. To tame the monster-god Minerva knows, And oft afflicts his brutal breast with woes." He said; Saturnia, ardent to obey, Lash'd her white steeds along the aerial way Swift down the steep of heaven the chariot rolls, Between the expanded earth and starry poles Far as a shepherd, from some point on high,157 O'er the wide main extends his boundless eye, Through such a space of air, with thundering sound, At every leap the immortal coursers bound Troy now they reach'd and touch'd those banks divine, Where silver Simois and Scamander join There Juno stopp'd, and (her fair steeds unloosed) Of air condensed a vapour circumfused For these, impregnate with celestial dew, On Simois, brink ambrosial herbage grew.


—Far as a shepherd. "With what majesty and pomp does Homer exalt his deities! He here measures the leap of the horses by the extent of the world. And who is there, that, considering the exceeding greatness of the space would not with reason cry out that 'If the steeds of the deity were to take a second leap, the world would want room for it'?"—Longinus, Section 8.


In the early Saracen campaigns frequent mention is made of the service rendered by men of uncommonly strong voices." "No trumpets. and is introduced for the purpose of illustration as employed in war. aloud. 213. endued with brazen lungs. Or foaming boars. [105] The best and bravest of the Grecian band (A warlike circle) round Tydides stand.. the battle of Honain was restored by the shouts and menaces of Abbas." &c. the uncle of Mohammed. and scarce the seas remain. "Inglorious Argives! to your race a shame. the terror of the wood Heaven's empress mingles with the mortal crowd. Such was their look as lions bathed in blood. p. Stentor the strong. Smooth as the sailing doves they glide along. Hence arose the value of a loud voice in a commander.172 The Iliad of Homer Thence to relieve the fainting Argive throng.. or any other instruments of sound. And only men in figure and in name! Once from the walls your timorous foes engaged. While fierce in war divine Achilles raged. Now issuing fearless they possess the plain. in Stentor's sounding voice. Stentor was an indispensable officer. are used in the Homeric action itself. 158 .158 Whose throats surpass'd the force of fifty tongues. but the trumpet was known. And shouts. Now win the shores.—Coleridge.

Foremost he press'd in glorious toils to share. incircled by the Theban foe. Alone. Such nerves I gave him. Nor sloth hath seized me. There braved. While near Tydides stood the Athenian maid. and sent thee forth to war: But thee or fear deters. Loth I gave way. withholds me from the plains. Her speech new fury to their hearts convey'd. and warn'd our Argive bands: 173 . No drop of all thy father warms thy veins. or sloth detains." The chief thus answered mild: "Immortal maid! I own thy presence. Whose ample belt. The goddess leaning o'er the bending yoke. To cool his glowing wound he sat apart.) Large drops of sweat from all his limbs descend. O'erspent with toil reposing on the ground. thus her silence broke: "Degenerate prince! and not of Tydeus' kind. Beside his coursers. Thou too no less hast been my constant care.BOOK V. and confess thy aid. And Venus only found resistance here. The king beside his panting steeds she found. Thy hands I arm'd. many a hardy knight. Not fear. He eased. Beneath his ponderous shield his sinews bend. thou know'st. and vanquish'd. goddess! heedful of thy high commands. and wash'd the clotted gore away. And scarce refrain'd when I forbade the war. and such force in fight. And feast. Whose little body lodged a mighty mind. but thy word restrains: From warring gods thou bad'st me turn my spear. Hence. (The wound inflicted by the Lycian dart. once he dared to go. unguarded. that o'er his shoulder lay.

to hide her heavenly visage. from these to those he flies. So great a hero. And every side of wavering combat tries. these eyes beheld. and raging round the field. spread Black Orcus' helmet o'er her radiant head. With slaughter red. The vigorous power the trembling car ascends. the homicide. Large promise makes. Full on the god impel thy foaming horse: Pallas commands. Fierce for revenge. she lash'd with all her force. sq. Drew from his seat the martial charioteer. While Greece and Troy alternate own'd his aid. and to the steeds approaching near. and Pallas lends thee force.174 The Iliad of Homer For Mars. Rash. now the Trojans aid. nor aught immortal. furious." [106] Then thus Minerva:—"Brave Tydides. hear! Not Mars himself. fear. . and Diomed attends: The groaning axle bent beneath the load. 159 "Long had the wav'ring god the war delay'd." Merrick's "Tryphiodorus. She snatch'd the reins. and breaks the promise made: Now gives the Grecians. And full on Mars impelled the foaming horse: But first. 761." vi. blind."159 She said. and so great a god.

And earth and heaven re-bellow to the sound. Mars bellows with the pain: Loud as the roar encountering armies yield. From the rent skin the warrior tugs again The smoking steel. in equal arms appear The daring Greek. As vapours blown by Auster's sultry breath. and caused to glance Far from the car the strong immortal lance. Now rushing fierce. who slew him. The javelin hiss'd. and shedding seeds of death. Just then gigantic Periphas lay slain. Both armies start. When shouting millions shake the thundering field. the dreadful god of war! Full at the chief. above his courser's head. The god. 175 DIOMED CASTING HIS SPEAR AT MARS. Then threw the force of Tydeus' warlike son. It pierced the god: his groin received the wound. Pregnant with plagues. and trembling gaze around. The strongest warrior of the Ætolian train. leaves his prostrate prize Stretch'd where he fell. From Mars's arm the enormous weapon fled: Pallas opposed her hand.BOOK V. [107] . the goddess urged it on: Where the broad cincture girt his armour round. and at Tydides flies.

Else hadst thou seen me sink on yonder plain. Pernicious. Heap'd round. And gods on gods exert eternal rage: From thee. at her command. Choke the parch'd earth.176 The Iliad of Homer Beneath the rage of burning Sirius rise. me he dared to wound. Show'd the celestial blood. though fated not to die. even I. flagitious facts survey. he sought the bright abodes. and blacken all the skies. Vanquish'd I fled. And brook the furies of this daring day? For mortal men celestial powers engage. There sullen sat beneath the sire of gods. thy distinguish'd care: So boundless she. and with a groan Thus pour'd his plaints before the immortal throne: "Can Jove. supine. Condemn'd to pain. thy counsels. Wild with his pain. the god of fight. and heaving under loads of slain! Or pierced with Grecian darts. regardless of the right. wild. O father! all these ills we bear. Now frantic Diomed. Against the immortals lifts his raging hand: The heavenly Venus first his fury found. and thy behests obey: 'Tis hers to offend. for ages lie. Me next encountering. Thou gavest that fury to the realms of light. and thou so partial grown. And thy fell daughter with the shield and spear. and even offending share Thy breast. Well may we deem the wondrous birth thy own. Thy voice we hear." . All heaven beside reveres thy sovereign sway. In such a cloud the god from combat driven. High o'er the dusky whirlwind scales the heaven. From mortal madness scarce was saved by flight.

with a wrathful look The lord of thunders view'd. Sprung since thou art from Jove. and heavenly-born. and mix among the gods. Juno and Pallas mount the bless'd abodes. No bounds. infused in cream. And all thy mother in thy soul rebels. in majesty restored. Such. Then gave to Paeon's care the bleeding god. fair Hebe dress'd His mighty limbs in an immortal vest. 177 Him thus upbraiding. Cleansed from the dust and gore. Else. and closed the wound. perfidious! this lamenting strain? Of lawless force shall lawless Mars complain? Of all the gods who tread the spangled skies. the ethereal texture join'd. In vain our threats. The waste of slaughter. Thou most unjust.160 With gentle hand the balm he pour'd around. thy fiery temper quells. most odious in our eyes! Inhuman discord is thy dire delight. in vain our power we use. Glorious he sat. hadst thou hence been thrown. and stern bespoke: "To me. Their task perform'd. and her son pursues. .BOOK V. Sudden the fluids fix the parts combined. She gives the example. singed with lightning. As when the fig's press'd juice. Yet long the inflicted pangs thou shall not mourn. To curds coagulates the liquid stream. Where chain'd on burning rocks the Titans groan. and so soon." [108] Thus he who shakes Olympus with his nod. and the rage of fight. no law. And heal'd the immortal flesh. Fast by the throne of heaven's superior lord.

178 The Iliad of Homer JUNO. .

179 —Paeon seems to have been to the gods.BOOK V. what Podaleirius and Machaon were to the Grecian heroes. 160 .


The battle relaxing during the absence of Hector. they make exchange of their arms. of the friendship and hospitality passed between their ancestors.[109] BOOK VI. Now here. commands Hector to return to the city. THE EPISODES OF GLAUCUS AND DIOMED. now there. hastens again to the field. . that bound the deathful plain On either side. Glaucus and Diomed have an interview between the two armies. where. the tide of combat flows. ARGUMENT. taking a tender leave of his wife Andromache. The gods having left the field. between the rivers Simois and Scamander. the Grecians prevail. in order to appoint a solemn procession of the queen and the Trojan matrons to the temple of Minerva. the chief augur of Troy. Hector. Helenus. and then changes to Troy. run purple to the main. Now heaven forsakes the fight: the immortals yield To human force and human skill the field: Dark showers of javelins fly from foes to foes. While Troy's famed streams. AND OF HECTOR AND ANDROMACHE. coming to the knowledge. prevails upon Paris to return to the battle. The scene is first in the field of battle. to entreat her to remove Diomed from the fight. and. having performed the orders of Helenus.

The Thracian Acamas his falchion found. beautiful. And next he laid Opheltius on the plain. To stern Tydides now he falls a prey. rich. Fast by the road. And two fair infants crown'd his strong embrace:) Here dead they lay in all their youthful charms. Two twins were near. The ruthless victor stripp'd their shining arms. and turn'd the doubtful day. By great Euryalus was Dresus slain. old Calesius died. From a fair naiad and Bucolion sprung: (Laomedon's white flocks Bucolion fed. and by his side His faithful servant. a colony of the Mitylenaeans in Troas. his ever-open door Obliged the wealthy. bold. hospitable. His thundering arm a deadly stroke impress'd Where the black horse-hair nodded o'er his crest. Axylus. and relieved the poor. That monarch's first-born by a foreign bed. and good: In fair Arisbe's walls (his native place)161 He held his seat! a friend to human race.182 The Iliad of Homer [110] Great Ajax first to conquest led the way. No friend to guard him in the dreadful day! Breathless the good man fell. and young. . In secret woods he won the naiad's grace. Broke the thick ranks. 161 —Arisbe. And hew'd the enormous giant to the ground. Next Teuthras' son distain'd the sands with blood. And seals in endless shades his swimming eyes. Fix'd in his front the brazen weapon lies.

Scared with the din and tumult of the fight. resistless as the wind. a living prize. copper. Unbless'd Adrastus next at mercy lies Beneath the Spartan spear. —Rich heaps of brass. and electrum. and for the life I owe Large gifts of price my father shall bestow. "The halls of Alkinous and Menelaus glitter with gold. Prone on his face he sinks beside the wheel: Atrides o'er him shakes his vengeful steel. His headlong steeds. Melanthius by Eurypylus was slain. 163 162 . while large stocks of yet unemployed metal—gold. copper. precipitate in flight. Great Agamemnon. and thus his prayer address'd: "O spare my youth. a town near Pylos. Wide o'er the field. By Teucer's shaft brave Aretaon bled. Ulysses' spear Pidytes sent to hell. leader of the brave. In reference also to the metals. The fallen chief in suppliant posture press'd The victor's knees. and iron are stored up in the treasure-chamber of Odysseus and other chiefs. Who held in Pedasus his proud abode. When fame shall tell.BOOK VI. that. it deserves to be remarked.162 And till'd the banks where silver Satnio flow'd. Astyalus by Polypoetes fell. The mortal wound of rich Elatus gave. and leave their lord behind. not in battle slain. and broke The shatter'd chariot from the crooked yoke. Thy hollow ships his captive son detain: Rich heaps of brass shall in thy tent be told. Rush'd on a tamarisk's strong trunk. For Troy they fly. Coined money is unknown in the Homeric age—the trade carried on being one of barter.163 183 —Pedasus. And Phylacus from Leitus flies in vain. And Nestor's son laid stern Ablerus dead.

i. we do not know. And. 181 165 "The ruthless steel. vol. And cropt the wailing infant at the birth. To warn the nations. so as to serve the purpose of the warrior. Can innocents the rage of parties know. "In battle. And they who ne'er offended find a foe?" Rowe's Lucan. and persuasive gold. and himself puts the suppliant to the sword. quarter seems never to have been given. Stern Agamemnon swift to vengeance flies. Her babes. 142. 164 —Oh impotent. Shall save a Trojan from our boundless rage: Ilion shall perish whole." [111] He said: compassion touch'd the hero's heart He stood."—Grote.184 The Iliad of Homer And steel well-temper'd. shall fall. And well her natives merit at thy hand! Not one of all the race. p. impatient of delay. to be employed for arms. vol. . p. and not iron. Agamemnon reproaches Menelaus with unmanly softness.165 A dreadful lesson of exampled fate. shall these Atrides' mercy find? Well hast thou known proud Troy's perfidious land. thus: "Oh impotent of mind!164 Shall these. It struck the bending father to the earth. furious. nor age. suspended with the lifted dart: As pity pleaded for his vanquish'd prize. ii. except with a view to the ransom of the prisoner. when he is on the point of sparing a fallen enemy."—Thirlwall. ii. her infants at the breast. nor sex. By what process the copper was tempered and hardened. and bury all. and to curb the great!" that the Homeric descriptions universally suppose copper. both offensive and defensive. Forbade the sire to linger out the day. but the use of iron for these objects belongs to a later age. bk. &c.

Hector." And now had Greece eternal fame acquired. When your commands have hearten'd every band. your country's hopes depend. and roused the warrior's rage. for servile gains. with great Æneas join'd. and sore of former fight. Then pressing with his foot his panting heart. Where Hector stood. Behold yon glittering host. with warmth address'd. To touch the booty. and forbid the flight. at our gates. heroes! thus the vigorous combat wage. And frighted Troy within her walls. Meanwhile thou. retired. The seer reveal'd the counsels of his mind: "Ye generous chiefs! on whom the immortals lay The cares and glories of this doubtful day. your future spoil! First gain the conquest. while a foe remains. Forth from the slain he tugg'd the reeking dart. Old Nestor saw.BOOK VI. The sport and insult of the hostile train. Ere yet their wives' soft arms the cowards gain. These straits demand our last remains of might. Had not sage Helenus her state redress'd. Turn back the routed. the words. No son of Mars descend. 185 [112] . The monarch's javelin stretch'd him in the dust. The monarch spoke. your brave efforts unite. will make the dangerous stand. here fix'd. then reward the toil. Taught by the gods that moved his sacred breast. Wise to consult. Press'd as we are. Ourselves. "Thus. To rigid justice steel'd his brother's breast Fierce from his knees the hapless chief he thrust. and active to defend! Here. to the town retire. On whom your aids.

To Pallas' fane in long procession go. The largest mantle her rich wardrobes hold. In rage unbounded. All Greece recedes. Through all his host inspiring force he flies. 670 ." Hector obedient heard: and. and 'midst her triumphs fears. and seek the power. and makes all Troy retire." Dryden's Virgil. Most prized for art. who ruled the fate of wars. And twelve young heifers to her altars led: If so the power. And turn the tide of conflict on the foe: Fierce in the front he shakes two dazzling spears. In hopes to reconcile their heav'nly foe: They weep. atoned by fervent prayer.166 Unbar the sacred gates. And far avert Tydides' wasteful ire. And bids the thunder of the battle rise. and labour'd o'er with gold. with a bound. they beat their breasts. That mows whole troops. Our wives. they thought. Leap'd from his trembling chariot to the ground. 166 "Meantime the Trojan dames.186 The Iliad of Homer And teach our mother what the gods require: Direct the queen to lead the assembled train Of Troy's chief matrons to Minerva's fane. i. and our city spare. And rich embroider'd vests for presents bear. oppress'd with woe. they rend their hair. Before the goddess' honour'd knees be spread. and unmatch'd in might. Not thus resistless ruled the stream of fight. in Ilion's topmost tower. With offer'd vows. Sprung though he was from more than mortal bed. Not thus Achilles taught our hosts to dread. With rage recruited the bold Trojans glow. our infants. Some god.

i. Tydides thus began: 167 [113] The manner in which this episode is introduced. Now paused the battle (godlike Hector gone). and had mark'd for war. at the close of which the further account of the mission is resumed. as a general rule.298: "The poet's method of introducing his episode. I trust. for example. immediately described. is well illustrated by the following remarks of Mure. the matrons' holy train. Be still yourselves. seek the gods in vain. His neck o'ershading. and Hector asks no more. Shot down avenging from the vault of stars. A certain interval is allowed them for reaching the appointed scene of action. to his ankle hung." . with ample strides the hero pass'd. also. vol. 187 Then thus aloud: "Ye dauntless Dardans. one or more heroes are despatched on some commission. Near as they drew. as it were. and victims fall: Nor shall. And as he march'd the brazen buckler rung. which interval is dramatised. the fulfilment of this task is not. either by a temporary continuation of the previous narrative.BOOK VI. Where. or by fixing attention for a while on some new transaction. One hour demands me in the Trojan wall. to be executed at a certain distance of time or place. hear! And you whom distant nations send to war! Be mindful of the strength your fathers bore. The shield's large orb behind his shoulder cast. To bid our altars flame. And reverend elders. illustrates in a curious manner his tact in the dramatic department of his art.167 Where daring Glaucus and great Tydeus' son Between both armies met: the chiefs from far Observed each other. p." This said.

" "What. Bold as thou art. or who my sire. With brandish'd steel. Now green in youth. Approach. now withering on the ground. and enter the dark gates of death. And Thetis' arms received the trembling god. (The immortals bless'd with endless ease above.) Deprived of sight by their avenging doom. or from whence I am. With curling vines and twisted ivy bound. That daring man who mix'd with gods in fight. thou descend. and born of luckless sires. And meet a lance the fiercest heroes fear. from Nyssa's sacred grove: Their consecrated spears lay scatter'd round. (Replied the chief. and human be thy birth. Another race the following spring supplies. and wander'd in the gloom. boldest of the race of man? Our eyes till now that aspect ne'er beheld. Bacchus.188 The Iliad of Homer "What art thou. and successive rise: . and Bacchus' votaries. While Bacchus headlong sought the briny flood. Then sunk unpitied to the dire abodes. celestial. Not long Lycurgus view'd the golden light. and hated by the gods! I brave not heaven: but if the fruits of earth Sustain thy life. Who tempt our fury when Minerva fires! But if from heaven. Cheerless he breathed. Unhappy they. Yet far before the troops thou dar'st appear. A wretch accursed. too prodigal of breath. Where fame is reap'd amid the embattled field. Know with immortals we no more contend. They fall successive. he drove.) can Tydeus' son inquire? Like leaves on trees the race of man is found. Nor fail'd the crime the immortals' wrath to move.

(Argos the fair. And the brave prince in numerous toils engaged. Whose hard commands Bellerophon obey'd. sacred fear. sqq. In ancient time the happy wall possess'd. With tablets seal'd.) Aeolian Sisyphus. Then call'd Ephyre: Glaucus was his son. for warlike steeds renown'd. vol ii. Then mighty Praetus Argos' sceptre sway'd. 189 [114] —With tablets sealed. 192. With direful jealousy the monarch raged. Then hear a tale that fills the spacious earth. resolving on his fate. Fired at his scorn the queen to Praetus fled. So flourish these. So generations in their course decay.168 Now bless'd by every power who guards the good. Endued with wisdom. And begg'd revenge for her insulted bed: Incensed he heard. See Grote. Whether writing was known in the Homeric times is utterly uncertain. Nine days he feasted. that told his dire intent. and nine bulls he slew. and truth. Who o'er the sons of men in beauty shined. when those are pass'd away. But if thou still persist to search my birth. "A city stands on Argos' utmost bound. with wisdom bless'd. 168 . father of Bellerophon. For him Antaea burn'd with lawless flame. These probably were only devices of a hieroglyphical character.BOOK VI. Loved for that valour which preserves mankind. But hospitable laws restrain'd his hate: To Lycia the devoted youth he sent. Great Glaucus. The chief arrived at Xanthus' silver flood: There Lycia's monarch paid him honours due. And strove to tempt him from the paths of fame: In vain she tempted the relentless youth. p.

There long the chief his happy lot possess'd. With levell'd spears along the winding shore: There fell they breathless. a treacherous ambush rose. His daughter gave. First. At his return. a people of Lycia. . and god-descended chief. And conquer'd still.) and those the warrior slew. A goat's rough body bore a lion's head. And trusted heaven's informing prodigies. Next the bold Amazons' whole force defied. dire Chimaera's conquest was enjoin'd. with vineyards. (for he read the skies.) Then met in arms the Solymaean crew.190 The Iliad of Homer But when the tenth bright morning orient glow'd. and with harvests crown'd. The faithful youth his monarch's mandate show'd: The fatal tablets. "At length the monarch. Confess'd the gods. With woods. Her gaping throat emits infernal fire. a dragon's fiery tail was spread. With two brave sons and one fair daughter bless'd. The deathful secret to the king reveal'd. A mingled monster of no mortal kind! Behind. and return'd no more. "Nor ended here his toils: his Lycian foes. With half the honours of his ample reign: The Lycians grant a chosen space of ground. for heaven was on his side. with repentant grief.169 (Fiercest of men. 169 [115] —Solymaean crew. Her pitchy nostrils flaky flames expire. till that instant seal'd. "This pest he slaughter'd. the stranger to detain.

Before my eyes my mighty sires to place. And emulate the glories of our race. His eldest born by raging Mars was slain." i.e. with kind embrace. Hippolochus survived: from him I came. The honour'd author of my birth and name. . The parting heroes mutual presents left. p." He spoke." See my notes in my prose translation. To add new honours to my native land. and transport fill'd Tydides' heart. In combat on the Solymaean plain. Wide o'er the Aleian field he chose to stray. Where twenty days in genial rites he pass'd. in Cilicia. uncomfortable way!170 Woes heap'd on woes consumed his wasted heart: His beauteous daughter fell by Phoebe's dart. A long. hypochondria received the name of "Morbus Bellerophonteus. In earth the generous warrior fix'd his dart. To stand the first in worth as in command. chief.) But when at last. 191 170 From this "melancholy madness" of Bellerophon. Forsook by heaven. forlorn. Know. (Fair e'en in heavenly eyes: her fruitful love Crown'd with Sarpedon's birth the embrace of Jove. distracted in his mind. Bellerophon the bold: Our ancient seat his honour'd presence graced. By his instructions learn to win renown. forsaking humankind. "the plain of wandering. The "Aleian field. my brave hereditary guest! Thus ever let us meet.BOOK VI. OEneus the strong. thus the Lycian prince address'd: "Welcome. 112. Then friendly. our grandsires have been guests of old. Nor stain the sacred friendship of our race." was situated between the rivers Pyramus and Pinarus. By his decree I sought the Trojan town.

23.) For Diomed's brass arms. In the full harvest of yon ample field. still adorns my board: For Tydeus left me young. of gold. of gold divinely wrought. (Jove warm'd his bosom. —His own. My guest in Argos thou." [116] Thus having said.192 The Iliad of Homer A golden goblet was thy grandsire's gift. Brave Glaucus then each narrow thought resign'd. Now change we arms. For which nine oxen paid. 171 .) He gave his own. their mutual faith they plight. and enlarged his mind. That rich with Tyrian dye refulgent glow'd. when Thebe's wall Beheld the sons of Greece untimely fall. which. OEneus a belt of matchless work bestowed. Their hands they join. the gallant chiefs alight. This bad bargain has passed into a common proverb. in friendship let us join.171 A hundred beeves the shining purchase bought. and prove to either host We guard the friendship of the line we boast. safely stored Among my treasures. (This from his pledge I learn'd. See Aulus Gellius. of mean device.) Mindful of this. Enough of Greeks shall dye thy spear with gore. and I in Lycia thine. ii. If heaven our steps to foreign lands incline. But thou and Diomed be foes no more. (a vulgar price. Enough of Trojans to this lance shall yield.

The rich pavilions of his fifty sons. enter'd at the Scaean gate. (With her Laodice. Rais'd on arch'd columns of stupendous frame.BOOK VI. Com'st thou to supplicate the almighty power With lifted hands. Great Hector.) Long in a strict embrace she held her son. till I bring the cup with Bacchus crown'd.658 . left hand. from Ilion's lofty tower? Stay. nor pass'd unseen Of royal Hecuba. The Trojan matrons and the Trojan maids Around him flock'd. to avert the impending woe. Hither great Hector pass'd. And seek the gods." Dryden's Virgil. He bids the train in long procession go. O'er these a range of marble structure runs.) The ports of plated gold. —In fifty chambers.172 Beneath the beech-tree's consecrated shades. Twelve domes for them and their loved spouses shone.173 Opposed to those. when Greece surrounds our walls. And press'd his hand. and tender thus begun: "O Hector! say. In fifty chambers lodged: and rooms of state. So large a promise of a progeny. ii. Meantime the guardian of the Trojan state. whose beauteous face Surpass'd the nymphs of Troy's illustrious race. where Priam's daughters sate. And now to Priam's stately courts he came. Of equal beauty. sons. i e. 172 173 193 —Scaean. what great occasion calls My son from fight. "The fifty nuptial beds. his mother-queen. and of polish'd stone. brothers. and hung with spoils. (such hopes had he. engaged in war. all press'd with pious care For husbands.

Oh. to sprinkle on the ground.) Inflaming wine. Be this. and makes all Troy retire. and labour'd o'er with gold. And burn rich odours in Minerva's fane. Then with a plenteous draught refresh thy soul. our infants. your religious care: I go to rouse soft Paris to the war. If yet not lost to all the sense of shame. atoned by fervent prayer. that ruin of our race!174 —O would kind earth. when he regrets that the Trojans 174 [117] . Let chiefs abstain. "It is apparently a sudden. And pay due vows to all the gods around. pernicious to mankind. (the chief rejoin'd. with human gore distain'd. The recreant warrior hear the voice of fame. The brave defender of thy country's right. To the pure skies these horrid hands to raise. and dulls the noble mind. So may the power. You. Or offer heaven's great Sire polluted praise. Our wives. That pest of Troy. By me that holy office were profaned. &c. Before the goddess' honour'd knees be spread. And far avert Tydides' wasteful ire. irregular burst of popular indignation to which Hector alludes. Who mows whole troops. and our city spare. and spare the sacred juice To sprinkle to the gods. Spent as thou art with long laborious fight. Unnerves the limbs. And twelve young heifers to her altar led. Most prized for art. with your matrons." "Far hence be Bacchus' gifts. its better use. O mother. The largest mantle your full wardrobes hold. go! a spotless train. And draw new spirits from the generous bowl. would kind earth the hateful wretch embrace.194 The Iliad of Homer In Jove's high name. Ill fits it me.

the example of the Roman Vestals affords reasons for believing that. sq. p. fair Theano. It may have been originally connected with the same feeling—the desire of avoiding the pollution of bloodshed—which seems to have suggested the practice of burying prisoners alive. she gave command: and summon'd came Each noble matron and illustrious dame. Deep to the dark abyss might he descend. and unbars the gates. They fill the dome with supplicating cries. with a scantling of food by their side. however. i.BOOK VI. waits As Pallas' priestess. And awful reach the high Palladian dome. Troy yet should flourish. The Phrygian queen to her rich wardrobe went. was also one of the ordinary formal modes of punishment for great public offences. This. Though Homer makes no mention of this horrible usage. . vol. She chose a veil that shone superior far. Whom from soft Sidon youthful Paris bore. There lay the vestures of no vulgar art. and thus she prays: 195 [118] had not spirit enough to cover Paris with a mantle of stones."—Thirlwall's Greece. The priestess then the shining veil displays. And glow'd refulgent as the morning star. as the queen revolved with careful eyes The various textures and the various dyes. Antenor's consort. Soon as to Ilion's topmost tower they come. With hands uplifted and imploring eyes. Sophocles followed an authentic tradition. Sidonian maids embroider'd every part. and my sorrows end. With Helen touching on the Tyrian shore. The train majestically slow proceeds. Here. Placed on Minerva's knees. in ascribing it to the heroic ages. Herself with this the long procession leads." This heard. Where treasured odours breathed a costly scent. 171.

guiltless of the yoke. that he means to commend. whose useless arms lay round. While these appear before the power with prayers. rather than elegance. A spear the hero bore of wondrous strength.175 Himself the mansion raised. It seems indeed probable. strength and convenience. and let him fall Prone on the dust before the Trojan wall! So twelve young heifers. perhaps. but they vow'd in vain. —Paris' lofty dome. p. vol. Near Priam's court and Hector's palace stands The pompous structure. So vow'd the matrons. But thou. at each motion shined Thus entering. His eyes delighting with their splendid show. "With respect to the private dwellings."—Thirlwall's Greece. the poet's language barely enables us to form a general notion of their ordinary plan.196 The Iliad of Homer "Oh awful goddess! ever-dreadful maid. Before him brandish'd. Beside him Helen with her virgins stands. aid! Break thou Tydides' spear. in the glittering rooms he found His brother-chief. 175 . Shall fill thy temple with a grateful smoke. Brightening the shield. and it is. our infants. atoned by penitence and prayer. unconquer'd Pallas. 231. Troy's strong defence. and polishing the bow. and the town commands. which are oftenest described. in speaking of the fair house which Paris had built for himself with the aid of the most skilful masons of Troy. Of full ten cubits was the lance's length. and our city spare!" So pray'd the priestess in her holy fane. i. The steely point with golden ringlets join'd. Hector to Paris' lofty dome repairs. from every part Assembling architects of matchless art. Ourselves. and affords no conception of the style which prevailed in them or of their effect on the eye. from the manner in which he dwells on their metallic ornaments that the higher beauty of proportion was but little required or understood.

thy brother sate. with an ardent look The prince beheld. And beauteous Helen calls her chief to arms. in secret. now glory spreads her charms. 'tis just. nor answer'd Priam's warlike son. is this the time to show? (O wretch ill-fated. "Thy hate to Troy. Him thus inactive. the matron mourns. 'Tis man's to fight. For thee the soldier bleeds. Ungrateful man! deserves not this thy care. and their vengeful ire. and our toils to share? Rise. O generous chief! On hate to Troy. Our troops to hearten. Guides their rich labours." 197 [119] He said. or behold the conquering flames ascend. Till heaps of dead alone defend her wall. Thy close resentment. and high-resenting spoke. For thee great Ilion's guardian heroes fall.BOOK VI. And mourn'd. but heaven's to give success. his and Ilion's fate. and instructs their hands. 'Tis now enough. When Helen thus with lowly grace begun: . Conquest to-day my happier sword may bless. than conscious shame and grief: Here. (replied the beauteous youth. and thy country's foe!) Paris and Greece against us both conspire. and Paris shall not lag behind.) Thy free remonstrance proves thy worth and truth: Yet charge my absence less. And all the Phrygian glories at an end. And wasteful war in all its fury burns. Or go. But while I arm. hid from human eyes. contain thy ardent mind." "Brother.

Helen at least a braver spouse might claim. and last through ages long. "Oh. Our present woe. thy fainting limbs recline. some regard of fame! Now tired with toils. And midst the roarings of the waters died? Heaven fill'd up all my ills." [120] . sustain'd for Paris' sake and mine The gods have link'd our miserable doom. The day that show'd me to the golden sun Had seen my death! why did not whirlwinds bear The fatal infant to the fowls of air? Why sunk I not beneath the whelming tide.198 The Iliad of Homer HECTOR CHIDING PARIS. ere all these dreadful deeds were done. and Paris of those ills the worst. and infamy to come: Wide shall it spread. With toils. Example sad! and theme of future song. and I accursed Bore all. Warm'd with some virtue. generous brother! (if the guilty dame That caused these woes deserve a sister's name!) Would heaven.

BOOK VI. The chief replied: "This time forbids to rest; The Trojan bands, by hostile fury press'd, Demand their Hector, and his arm require; The combat urges, and my soul's on fire. Urge thou thy knight to march where glory calls, And timely join me, ere I leave the walls. Ere yet I mingle in the direful fray, My wife, my infant, claim a moment's stay; This day (perhaps the last that sees me here) Demands a parting word, a tender tear: This day, some god who hates our Trojan land May vanquish Hector by a Grecian hand." He said, and pass'd with sad presaging heart To seek his spouse, his soul's far dearer part; At home he sought her, but he sought in vain; She, with one maid of all her menial train, Had hence retired; and with her second joy, The young Astyanax, the hope of Troy, Pensive she stood on Ilion's towery height, Beheld the war, and sicken'd at the sight; There her sad eyes in vain her lord explore, Or weep the wounds her bleeding country bore. But he who found not whom his soul desired, Whose virtue charm'd him as her beauty fired, Stood in the gates, and ask'd "what way she bent Her parting step? If to the fane she went, Where late the mourning matrons made resort; Or sought her sisters in the Trojan court?" "Not to the court, (replied the attendant train,) Nor mix'd with matrons to Minerva's fane: To Ilion's steepy tower she bent her way, To mark the fortunes of the doubtful day.



The Iliad of Homer

Troy fled, she heard, before the Grecian sword; She heard, and trembled for her absent lord: Distracted with surprise, she seem'd to fly, Fear on her cheek, and sorrow m her eye. The nurse attended with her infant boy, The young Astyanax, the hope of Troy."


Hector this heard, return'd without delay; Swift through the town he trod his former way, Through streets of palaces, and walks of state; And met the mourner at the Scaean gate. With haste to meet him sprung the joyful fair. His blameless wife, Aetion's wealthy heir: (Cilician Thebe great Aetion sway'd, And Hippoplacus' wide extended shade:) The nurse stood near, in whose embraces press'd, His only hope hung smiling at her breast, Whom each soft charm and early grace adorn, Fair as the new-born star that gilds the morn. To this loved infant Hector gave the name Scamandrius, from Scamander's honour'd stream; Astyanax the Trojans call'd the boy, From his great father, the defence of Troy. Silent the warrior smiled, and pleased resign'd To tender passions all his mighty mind; His beauteous princess cast a mournful look, Hung on his hand, and then dejected spoke; Her bosom laboured with a boding sigh, And the big tear stood trembling in her eye.




"Too daring prince! ah, whither dost thou run? Ah, too forgetful of thy wife and son! And think'st thou not how wretched we shall be, A widow I, a helpless orphan he? For sure such courage length of life denies, And thou must fall, thy virtue's sacrifice. Greece in her single heroes strove in vain; Now hosts oppose thee, and thou must be slain. O grant me, gods, ere Hector meets his doom, All I can ask of heaven, an early tomb! So shall my days in one sad tenor run, And end with sorrows as they first begun. No parent now remains my griefs to share, No father's aid, no mother's tender care. The fierce Achilles wrapt our walls in fire, Laid Thebe waste, and slew my warlike sire! His fate compassion in the victor bred;



The Iliad of Homer

Stern as he was, he yet revered the dead, His radiant arms preserved from hostile spoil, And laid him decent on the funeral pile; Then raised a mountain where his bones were burn'd, The mountain-nymphs the rural tomb adorn'd, Jove's sylvan daughters bade their elms bestow A barren shade, and in his honour grow. "By the same arm my seven brave brothers fell; In one sad day beheld the gates of hell; While the fat herds and snowy flocks they fed, Amid their fields the hapless heroes bled! My mother lived to wear the victor's bands, The queen of Hippoplacia's sylvan lands: Redeem'd too late, she scarce beheld again Her pleasing empire and her native plain, When ah! oppress'd by life-consuming woe, She fell a victim to Diana's bow. "Yet while my Hector still survives, I see My father, mother, brethren, all, in thee: Alas! my parents, brothers, kindred, all Once more will perish, if my Hector fall, Thy wife, thy infant, in thy danger share: Oh, prove a husband's and a father's care! That quarter most the skilful Greeks annoy, Where yon wild fig-trees join the wall of Troy; Thou, from this tower defend the important post; There Agamemnon points his dreadful host, That pass Tydides, Ajax, strive to gain, And there the vengeful Spartan fires his train. Thrice our bold foes the fierce attack have given, Or led by hopes, or dictated from heaven. Let others in the field their arms employ, But stay my Hector here, and guard his Troy."



The chief replied: "That post shall be my care, Not that alone, but all the works of war. How would the sons of Troy, in arms renown'd, And Troy's proud dames, whose garments sweep the ground Attaint the lustre of my former name, Should Hector basely quit the field of fame? My early youth was bred to martial pains, My soul impels me to the embattled plains! Let me be foremost to defend the throne, And guard my father's glories, and my own. "Yet come it will, the day decreed by fates! (How my heart trembles while my tongue relates!) The day when thou, imperial Troy! must bend, And see thy warriors fall, thy glories end. And yet no dire presage so wounds my mind, My mother's death, the ruin of my kind, Not Priam's hoary hairs defiled with gore, Not all my brothers gasping on the shore; As thine, Andromache! Thy griefs I dread: I see thee trembling, weeping, captive led! In Argive looms our battles to design, And woes, of which so large a part was thine! To bear the victor's hard commands, or bring The weight of waters from Hyperia's spring. There while you groan beneath the load of life, They cry, 'Behold the mighty Hector's wife!' Some haughty Greek, who lives thy tears to see, Imbitters all thy woes, by naming me. The thoughts of glory past, and present shame, A thousand griefs shall waken at the name! May I lie cold before that dreadful day, Press'd with a load of monumental clay! Thy Hector, wrapt in everlasting sleep,



The Iliad of Homer

Shall neither hear thee sigh, nor see thee weep." Thus having spoke, the illustrious chief of Troy Stretch'd his fond arms to clasp the lovely boy. The babe clung crying to his nurse's breast, Scared at the dazzling helm, and nodding crest. With secret pleasure each fond parent smiled, And Hector hasted to relieve his child, The glittering terrors from his brows unbound, And placed the beaming helmet on the ground; Then kiss'd the child, and, lifting high in air, Thus to the gods preferr'd a father's prayer: "O thou! whose glory fills the ethereal throne, And all ye deathless powers! protect my son! Grant him, like me, to purchase just renown, To guard the Trojans, to defend the crown, Against his country's foes the war to wage, And rise the Hector of the future age! So when triumphant from successful toils Of heroes slain he bears the reeking spoils, Whole hosts may hail him with deserved acclaim, And say, 'This chief transcends his father's fame:' While pleased amidst the general shouts of Troy, His mother's conscious heart o'erflows with joy." He spoke, and fondly gazing on her charms, Restored the pleasing burden to her arms; Soft on her fragrant breast the babe she laid, Hush'd to repose, and with a smile survey'd. The troubled pleasure soon chastised by fear, She mingled with a smile a tender tear. The soften'd chief with kind compassion view'd, And dried the falling drops, and thus pursued:

BOOK VI. "Andromache! my soul's far better part, Why with untimely sorrows heaves thy heart? No hostile hand can antedate my doom, Till fate condemns me to the silent tomb. Fix'd is the term to all the race of earth; And such the hard condition of our birth: No force can then resist, no flight can save, All sink alike, the fearful and the brave. No more—but hasten to thy tasks at home, There guide the spindle, and direct the loom: Me glory summons to the martial scene, The field of combat is the sphere for men. Where heroes war, the foremost place I claim, The first in danger as the first in fame."



Thus having said, the glorious chief resumes His towery helmet, black with shading plumes. His princess parts with a prophetic sigh, Unwilling parts, and oft reverts her eye That stream'd at every look; then, moving slow, Sought her own palace, and indulged her woe. There, while her tears deplored the godlike man, Through all her train the soft infection ran; The pious maids their mingled sorrows shed, And mourn the living Hector, as the dead.

But now, no longer deaf to honour's call, Forth issues Paris from the palace wall. In brazen arms that cast a gleamy ray, Swift through the town the warrior bends his way.


The Iliad of Homer

The wanton courser thus with reins unbound176 Breaks from his stall, and beats the trembling ground; Pamper'd and proud, he seeks the wonted tides, And laves, in height of blood his shining sides; His head now freed, he tosses to the skies; His mane dishevell'd o'er his shoulders flies; He snuffs the females in the distant plain, And springs, exulting, to his fields again. With equal triumph, sprightly, bold, and gay, In arms refulgent as the god of day, The son of Priam, glorying in his might, Rush'd forth with Hector to the fields of fight. And now, the warriors passing on the way, The graceful Paris first excused his stay. To whom the noble Hector thus replied: "O chief! in blood, and now in arms, allied! Thy power in war with justice none contest; Known is thy courage, and thy strength confess'd. What pity sloth should seize a soul so brave, Or godlike Paris live a woman's slave! My heart weeps blood at what the Trojans say, And hopes thy deeds shall wipe the stain away. Haste then, in all their glorious labours share, For much they suffer, for thy sake, in war. These ills shall cease, whene'er by Jove's decree We crown the bowl to heaven and liberty: While the proud foe his frustrate triumphs mourns,


—The wanton courser.

"Come destrier, che da le regie stalle Ove a l'usa de l'arme si riserba, Fugge, e libero al fiu per largo calle Va tragl' armenti, o al fiume usato, o a l'herba." Gier, Lib. ix. 75.

BOOK VI. And Greece indignant through her seas returns."




The Iliad of Homer



ARGUMENT THE SINGLE COMBAT OF HECTOR AND AJAX. The battle renewing with double ardour upon the return of Hector, Minerva is under apprehensions for the Greeks. Apollo, seeing her descend from Olympus, joins her near the Scaean gate. They agree to put off the general engagement for that day, and incite Hector to challenge the Greeks to a single combat. Nine of the princes accepting the challenge, the lot is cast and falls upon Ajax. These heroes, after several attacks, are parted by the night. The Trojans calling a council, Antenor purposes the delivery of Helen to the Greeks, to which Paris will not consent, but offers to restore them her riches. Priam sends a herald to make this offer, and to demand a truce for burning the dead, the last of which only is agreed to by Agamemnon. When the funerals are performed, the Greeks, pursuant to the advice of Nestor, erect a fortification to protect their fleet and camp, flanked with towers, and defended by a ditch and palisades. Neptune testifies his jealousy at this work, but is pacified by a promise from Jupiter. Both armies pass the night in feasting but Jupiter disheartens the Trojans with thunder, and other signs of his wrath. The three and twentieth day ends with the duel of Hector and Ajax, the next day the truce is agreed; another is taken up in the funeral rites of the slain and one more in building the fortification before the ships. So that somewhat about three days is employed in this book. The scene lies wholly in the field.


The Iliad of Homer

So spoke the guardian of the Trojan state, Then rush'd impetuous through the Scaean gate. Him Paris follow'd to the dire alarms; Both breathing slaughter, both resolved in arms. As when to sailors labouring through the main, That long have heaved the weary oar in vain, Jove bids at length the expected gales arise; The gales blow grateful, and the vessel flies. So welcome these to Troy's desiring train, The bands are cheer'd, the war awakes again. Bold Paris first the work of death begun On great Menestheus, Areithous' son, Sprung from the fair Philomeda's embrace, The pleasing Arne was his native place. Then sunk Eioneus to the shades below, Beneath his steely casque he felt the blow177 Full on his neck, from Hector's weighty hand; And roll'd, with limbs relax'd, along the land. By Glaucus' spear the bold Iphmous bleeds, Fix'd in the shoulder as he mounts his steeds; Headlong he tumbles: his slack nerves unbound, Drop the cold useless members on the ground. When now Minerva saw her Argives slain, From vast Olympus to the gleaming plain Fierce she descends: Apollo marked her flight, Nor shot less swift from Ilion's towery height. Radiant they met, beneath the beechen shade; When thus Apollo to the blue-eyed maid:
—Casque. The original word is stephanae, about the meaning of which there is some little doubt. Some take it for a different kind of cap or helmet, others for the rim, others for the cone, of the helmet.


BOOK VII. "What cause, O daughter of Almighty Jove! Thus wings thy progress from the realms above? Once more impetuous dost thou bend thy way, To give to Greece the long divided day? Too much has Troy already felt thy hate, Now breathe thy rage, and hush the stern debate; This day, the business of the field suspend; War soon shall kindle, and great Ilion bend; Since vengeful goddesses confederate join To raze her walls, though built by hands divine." To whom the progeny of Jove replies: "I left, for this, the council of the skies: But who shall bid conflicting hosts forbear, What art shall calm the furious sons of war?" To her the god: "Great Hector's soul incite To dare the boldest Greek to single fight, Till Greece, provoked, from all her numbers show A warrior worthy to be Hector's foe." At this agreed, the heavenly powers withdrew; Sage Helenus their secret counsels knew; Hector, inspired, he sought: to him address'd, Thus told the dictates of his sacred breast: "O son of Priam! let thy faithful ear Receive my words: thy friend and brother hear! Go forth persuasive, and a while engage The warring nations to suspend their rage; Then dare the boldest of the hostile train To mortal combat on the listed plain. For not this day shall end thy glorious date; The gods have spoke it, and their voice is fate."



The Iliad of Homer


He said: the warrior heard the word with joy; Then with his spear restrain'd the youth of Troy, Held by the midst athwart. On either hand The squadrons part; the expecting Trojans stand; Great Agamemnon bids the Greeks forbear: They breathe, and hush the tumult of the war. The Athenian maid, and glorious god of day,178 With silent joy the settling hosts survey: In form of vultures, on the beech's height They sit conceal'd, and wait the future fight. The thronging troops obscure the dusky fields, Horrid with bristling spears, and gleaming shields. As when a general darkness veils the main, (Soft Zephyr curling the wide wat'ry plain,) The waves scarce heave, the face of ocean sleeps, And a still horror saddens all the deeps; Thus in thick orders settling wide around, At length composed they sit, and shade the ground. Great Hector first amidst both armies broke The solemn silence, and their powers bespoke: "Hear, all ye Trojan, all ye Grecian bands, What my soul prompts, and what some god commands. Great Jove, averse our warfare to compose, O'erwhelms the nations with new toils and woes; War with a fiercer tide once more returns, Till Ilion falls, or till yon navy burns. You then, O princes of the Greeks! appear; 'Tis Hector speaks, and calls the gods to hear: From all your troops select the boldest knight, And him, the boldest, Hector dares to fight. Here if I fall, by chance of battle slain,

—Athenian maid: Minerva.

BOOK VII. Be his my spoil, and his these arms remain; But let my body, to my friends return'd, By Trojan hands and Trojan flames be burn'd. And if Apollo, in whose aid I trust, Shall stretch your daring champion in the dust; If mine the glory to despoil the foe; On Phoebus' temple I'll his arms bestow: The breathless carcase to your navy sent, Greece on the shore shall raise a monument; Which when some future mariner surveys, Wash'd by broad Hellespont's resounding seas, Thus shall he say, 'A valiant Greek lies there, By Hector slain, the mighty man of war,' The stone shall tell your vanquish'd hero's name. And distant ages learn the victor's fame."


This fierce defiance Greece astonish'd heard, Blush'd to refuse, and to accept it fear'd. Stern Menelaus first the silence broke, And, inly groaning, thus opprobrious spoke:

"Women of Greece! O scandal of your race, Whose coward souls your manly form disgrace, How great the shame, when every age shall know That not a Grecian met this noble foe! Go then! resolve to earth, from whence ye grew, A heartless, spiritless, inglorious crew! Be what ye seem, unanimated clay, Myself will dare the danger of the day; 'Tis man's bold task the generous strife to try, But in the hands of God is victory."



The Iliad of Homer

These words scarce spoke, with generous ardour press'd, His manly limbs in azure arms he dress'd. That day, Atrides! a superior hand Had stretch'd thee breathless on the hostile strand; But all at once, thy fury to compose, The kings of Greece, an awful band, arose; Even he their chief, great Agamemnon, press'd Thy daring hand, and this advice address'd: "Whither, O Menelaus! wouldst thou run, And tempt a fate which prudence bids thee shun? Grieved though thou art, forbear the rash design; Great Hectors arm is mightier far than thine: Even fierce Achilles learn'd its force to fear, And trembling met this dreadful son of war. Sit thou secure, amidst thy social band; Greece in our cause shall arm some powerful hand. The mightiest warrior of the Achaian name, Though bold and burning with desire of fame, Content the doubtful honour might forego, So great the danger, and so brave the foe." He said, and turn'd his brother's vengeful mind; He stoop'd to reason, and his rage resign'd, No longer bent to rush on certain harms; His joyful friends unbrace his azure arms. He from whose lips divine persuasion flows, Grave Nestor, then, in graceful act arose; Thus to the kings he spoke: "What grief, what shame Attend on Greece, and all the Grecian name! How shall, alas! her hoary heroes mourn Their sons degenerate, and their race a scorn! What tears shall down thy silvery beard be roll'd, O Peleus, old in arms, in wisdom old!

known from shore to shore By the huge. with this. And give this arm the spring which once it knew When fierce in war. No lance he shook. . To Ereuthalion he consign'd the prize. I led my troops to Phea's trembling wall. and pleased inquire Each name. my youth renew. Nor aught the warrior's thundering mace avail'd. How would he lift his aged arms on high. and almighty Jove! Years might again roll back. iron mace he bore. Participate their fame. Him not by manly force Lycurgus slew. a river of Elis. knotted. Deep in a winding way his breast assailed. nor bent the twanging bow. Great Areithous. Where Celadon rolls down his rapid tide. And with the Arcadian spears my prowess tried. 179 215 [131] —Celadon. Supine he fell: those arms which Mars before Had given the vanquish'd. And dared the trial of the strongest hands. and each hero's sire! Gods! should he see our warriors trembling stand. Whose guileful javelin from the thicket flew. Once with what joy the generous prince would hear Of every chief who fought this glorious war.BOOK VII. the battle of the foe. now the victor bore: But when old age had dimm'd Lycurgus' eyes. where Jardan's waters fall. Furious with this he crush'd our levell'd bands. each action. Lament inglorious Greece. Minerva. Phoebus. And trembling all before one hostile hand. Proud Areithous' dreadful arms to wield.179 There Ereuthalion braved us in the field. and beg to die! Oh! would to all the immortal powers above. But broke.

appear'd. Demand the fight. Oileus follow'd. be his the chance to raise His country's fame. warriors. the youngest of the host. Whom heaven shall choose. met whom all our army fear'd. and desert the day?" His warm reproofs the listening kings inflame. his own immortal praise. dreadful as the god of war: With these Eurypylus and Thoas stand. appear'd. And. Idomen was there. The flower of Greece. alike inspired with noble rage." . who such numbers sway. Up-started fierce: but far before the rest The king of men advanced his dauntless breast: Then bold Tydides. the noblest of the Grecian name. Can you stand trembling. I fought the chief: my arms Minerva crown'd: Prone fell the giant o'er a length of ground. you that youthful vigour boast. youngest. But. What then I was. O were your Nestor now! Not Hector's self should want an equal foe. great in arms. All these. his huge tempestuous sway Till I.216 The Iliad of Homer Nor could the strongest hands his fury stay: All saw. And next his bulk gigantic Ajax rear'd. What chief shall combat. Sprung from such fathers. the examples of our host. And nine. To whom the Pylian sage: "Lest thirst of glory your brave souls divide. and fear'd. let the gods decide. And wise Ulysses closed the daring band.180 And Merion.

It was customary to put the lots into a helmet. in all the toils of battle bred! From warlike Salamis I drew my birth. born to combats. each hero signs his own: Then in the general's helm the fates are thrown. of every Greek desired. Surveys the inscription with rejoicing eyes. Be mine the conquest of this chief of Troy. To Saturn's son be all your vows address'd: But pray in secret. By heaven inspired. The lots produced. lest the foes should hear. thou Almighty! in whose hand is fate. Then casts before him. And." 217 —Oileus. Leap'd forth the lot. Held out in order to the Grecian peers. i. This from the right to left the herald bears. in contradistinction to Ajax." Old Nestor shook the casque. beloved by Jove. each man then took his choice. and arm with joy.e. A worthy champion for the Grecian state: This task let Ajax or Tydides prove. 180 . son of Telamon. Lives there a chief whom Ajax ought to dread? Ajax.181 The people pray. the king of kings. the son of Oileus. fear no force on earth. 181 —In the general's helm. in which they were well shaken up. And deem your prayers the mean effect of fear. Ajax. And vows like these ascend from all the bands: "Grant.BOOK VII. Till godlike Ajax finds the lot his own. Said I in secret? No. with lifted eyes and hands. Now while my brightest arms my limbs invest. your vows declare In such a voice as fills the earth and air. Or he. Each to his rival yields the mark unknown. and with transport cries: "Warriors! I claim the lot.

that Telamon may bear away The praise and conquest of this doubtful day. Supreme of gods! unbounded and alone: Grant thou.182 When Jove to punish faithless men prepares. Or. Thus march'd the chief.218 The Iliad of Homer He said. So stalks in arms the grisly god of Thrace. superior lord! On lofty Ida's holy hill adored: Who in the highest heaven hast fix'd thy throne." —"Paradise Lost. Hence "Mavortia Moenia. Mars. the bulwark of the Grecian band." 183 —Grimly he smiled. Grimly he smiled. and that both may share. v. "And death Grinn'd horribly a ghastly smile. tremendous as a god. according to his Thracian epithet. earth trembled as he strode:183 His massy javelin quivering in his hand. 845. or Mavors. Felt his great heart suspended in his breast: —God of Thrace." Now Ajax braced his dazzling armour on. "There Mavors stands Grinning with ghastly feature. Implore the god whose thunder rends the skies: "O father of mankind. All Troy stood trembling at the mighty man: Even Hector paused." ii. 182 [133] . Through every Argive heart new transport ran. The troops with elevated eyes. That both may claim it. Sheathed in bright steel the giant-warrior shone: He moves to combat with majestic pace." —Carey's Dante: Hell. He stood. and with new doubt oppress'd. And gives whole nations to the waste of wars. if illustrious Hector be thy care.

and aid our arms no more. o'erlook'd the field. Achilles shuns the fight. To right. thy country's pride! (To Ajax thus the Trojan prince replied) Me. and bred amidst alarms: I know to shift my ground. And sends thee one. a sample of her host. New to the field. To combat born. and not unskill'd in war: Let him. Such as I am. yet some there are. I come to prove thy might. Huge was its orb. and answer every call of war." 219 . And bear thick battle on my sounding shield But open be our fight. as a boy. charge. and what the Grecian foe.) This Ajax bore before his manly breast. and singly know What strength thou hast. the dexterous lance I wield. unactive on the sea-beat shore. threatening. I steal no conquest from a noble foe. Whole troops of heroes Greece has yet to boast. No more—be sudden. and begin the fight. and vain to fear. wouldst thou fright." "O son of Telamon. Himself had challenged. As from a brazen tower. of solid brass the last. thus his adverse chief address'd: "Hector! approach my arm. (The work of Tychius. Stern Telamon behind his ample shield. to left. and the foe drew near. Indulge his wrath. Not void of soul.BOOK VII. And. 'Twas vain to seek retreat. and trembling at the fight? Thou meet'st a chief deserving of thy arms. who in Hyle dwell'd And in all arts of armoury excell'd. remount the car. or woman. Of tough bull-hides. with seven thick folds o'ercast. Turn. and bold each blow.

Hector his long lance extends. Through Hector's shield the forceful javelin flew. with matchless strength impell'd! Spouts the black gore. His bulk supporting on the shatter'd shield: Nor wanted heavenly aid: Apollo's might Confirm'd his sinews. Till in the seventh it fix'd. Yet ceased not Hector thus. and rising. In his strong hand up-heaved a flinty stone. . and dims his shining shield. Or foaming boars. Applied each nerve. His corslet enters. craggy. Fierce as the mountain-lions bathed in blood.220 The Iliad of Homer [134] He said. high above the field Whirl'd the long lance against the sevenfold shield. The hollow brass resounded with the shock: Then Ajax seized the fragment of a rock. From their bored shields the chiefs their javelins drew. The huge stone thundering through his buckler broke: His slacken'd knees received the numbing stroke. Full on the brazen boss the stone descends. With force tempestuous. Black. and bending low Beneath his buckler. And glancing downwards. Full on the brass descending from above Through six bull-hides the furious weapon drove. and swinging round on high. Then close impetuous. Then Ajax threw. The wary Trojan shrinks. near his flank descends. disappoints the blow. At Ajax. The blunted point against the buckler bends. But Ajax. vast: to this his force he bends. and restored to fight. but stooping down. It reach'd his neck. the terror of the wood. watchful as his foe drew near. Great Hector falls extended on the field. and the charge renew. let the ruin fly. Drove through the Trojan targe the knotty spear. and his garment rends.

And first Idaeus' awful voice was heard: 221 [135] HECTOR AND AJAX SEPARATED BY THE HERALDS. be the night obey'd. And sage Idaeus on the part of Troy. The sacred ministers of earth and heaven: Divine Talthybius."184 184 "Sete o guerrieri.BOOK VII. But then by heralds' voice the word was given. But now the Night extends her awful shade. my sons! your further force to prove. Each sounds your praise. Between the swords their peaceful sceptres rear'd. and both beloved of Jove. The goddess parts you. Both dear to men. Con pari honor di pari ambo possenti. "Forbear. and war is all your own. To either host your matchless worth is known. incomincio Pindoro. whom the Greeks employ. And now both heroes their broad falchions drew In flaming circles round their heads they flew. .

Then with majestic grace they quit the plain. I content obey.'" With that. 'Not hate. but glory. The baldric studded. made these chiefs contend. Who wearies heaven with vows for Hector's life. e non sian rotte Le ragioni. be the night obey'd. 51. Dunque cessi la pugna. And each brave foe was in his soul a friend. Let him demand the sanction of the night. If first he ask'd it. Some future day shall lengthen out the strife. Lib. But let us. and with worth of mind! Now martial law commands us to forbear. The generous Greek bestow'd A radiant belt that rich with purple glow'd. to thy Grecian friends. and the sheath enchased. Return. And let the gods decide of death or life! Since. and Trojan wife. on this memorable day. And cease the strife when Hector shows the way. e 'l riposo." "O first of Greeks! (his noble foe rejoin'd) Whom heaven adorns. that the Phrygian train. Exchange some gift: that Greece and Troy may say. With strength of body. And joy the nations whom thy arm defends." —Gier. a sword with stars of silver graced. superior to thy kind. He gave the Greek.222 The Iliad of Homer To whom great Ajax his high soul express'd: "O sage! to Hector be these words address'd. And heaven enjoins it. This seeks the Grecian. Hereafter we shall meet in glorious war. who first provoked our chiefs to fight. . then. e de la notte. the night extends her gloomy shade. vi. brave Ajax. As I shall glad each chief. Let him.

And hail with joy the Champion of their state. See Virg. Æn. and each receives his share. 181." Gen. viii.185 When now the rage of hunger was removed. 185 . In words like these his prudent thought express'd: "How dear. Thus Benjamin was honoured with a "double portion. The beast they quarter. and of the nobler kind. Each takes his seat. The king himself (an honorary sign) Before great Ajax placed the mighty chine. A steer for sacrifice the king design'd. unarm'd. glorying in his hardy deed. What Greeks are perish'd! what a people lost! What tides of blood have drench'd Scamander's shore! What crowds of heroes sunk to rise no more! Then hear me. in each persuasive art approved. To Troy's high gates the godlike man they bear Their present triumph. the repast prepare. Escaped great Ajax. The sage whose counsels long had sway'd the rest.BOOK VII. From the red field their scatter'd bodies bear. and the joints divide. as their late despair. Nestor. The victim falls. The well-arm'd Greeks to Agamemnon lead. While we to flames our slaughter'd friends bequeath. and vigorous from his wound. O kings! this fatal day has cost. 223 [136] It was an ancient style of compliment to give a larger portion of food to the conqueror. they survey him round. chief! nor let the morrow's light Awake thy squadrons to new toils of fight: Some space at least permit the war to breathe. 34. The Trojan bands returning Hector wait. or person to whom respect was to be shown. xliii. they strip the smoking hide. But Ajax. Alive. Then spread the tables. Of full five years.

to secure our camp and naval powers. And pious children o'er their ashes weep. and a trench profound. Dardans. A senate void of order. The ties of faith. Raise an embattled wall. with lofty towers. Antenor. Here. as of choice: Their hearts were fearful. and confused their voice." 'Twas thus the sage his wholesome counsel moved. Nor fear the fierce incursions of the foe. So decent urns their snowy bones may keep. or reject. And I but move what every god requires: Let Sparta's treasures be this hour restored. And Argive Helen own her ancient lord.224 The Iliad of Homer And nigh the fleet a funeral structure rear. Next. For passing chariots. where on one promiscuous pile they blazed. So Greece to combat shall in safety go. High o'er them all a general tomb be raised." . or dread the dire effect. rising. From space to space be ample gates around. As this advice ye practise. thus demands their ear: "Ye Trojans. hear! 'Tis heaven the counsel of my breast inspires. convened at Priam's palace-gate. and auxiliars. The sceptred kings of Greece his words approved. broke. So hope success. The Trojan peers in nightly council sate. Our impious battles the just gods provoke. the sworn alliance. Meanwhile.

Dardans." 'Twas then. assign'd by heaven. Trojan. if void of fallacy or art. Then hear me. princes of the Trojan name! Their treasures I'll restore. And whose the conquest. But wisdom has its date.BOOK VII. Till the new sun restores the cheerful light. Thy words express the purpose of thy heart. more sound advice hast given. but not the dame. I will resign. But be this bright possession ever mine. relieve the watch of night. My treasures too. That done. Thou. and auxiliar bands! Now take refreshment as the hour demands. and these pacific words ensue: "Ye Trojans. in thy time. Slow from his seat the reverend Priam rose: His godlike aspect deep attention drew: He paused. Before their ships proclaim my son's intent. mighty Jove decide!" . once more the fate of war be tried. may become thy years But sound ungrateful in a warrior's ears: Old man. To whom replied The graceful husband of the Spartan bride: "Cold counsels. that Troy may burn Her slaughter'd heroes. Guard well the walls. to the Atrides sent. the growing discord to compose. Next let a truce be ask'd. Then shall our herald. for peace. 225 The senior spoke and sate. and their bones inurn.

To the black ships Idaeus bent his way. The spoils and treasures he to Ilion bore (Oh had he perish'd ere they touch'd our shore!) He proffers injured Greece: with large increase Of added Trojan wealth to buy the peace. declares. and rising spoke: "Oh. once more the fate of war be tried. Soon as the rosy morn had waked the day. Their proffer'd wealth. and Troy requests in vain. to the sons of Mars. in council found. Pleased may ye hear (so heaven succeed my prayers) What Paris. but none the silence broke. Next. But to restore the beauteous bride again. And whose the conquest. And Troy already totters to her fall. There. and their bones inurn.226 The Iliad of Homer The monarch spoke: the warriors snatch'd with haste (Each at his post in arms) a short repast. Let conquest make them ours: fate shakes their wall. friends! defrauded of your fame. and Troy's great monarch. At length Tydides rose. He raised his voice: the host stood listening round. This Greece demands. O ye chiefs! we ask a truce to burn Our slaughter'd heroes. mighty Jove decide!" [138] The Greeks gave ear. give ear! The words of Troy. "Ye sons of Atreus. hear. and ye Greeks." . take not. That done. author of the war. nor even the Spartan dame.

whose thunder rolls on high!" He said. their pious tears they shed. Jove. Arose the golden chariot of the day. but the truce obtain'd. Straight to their several cares the Trojans move. And. To sacred Troy. and deformed with gore. To shed his sacred light on earth again. and the bodies bore. and standing in the midst. sadly slow. descending on the shore.BOOK VII. Scarce could the friend his slaughter'd friend explore. Be witness. Nor less the Greeks their pious sorrows shed. Some search the plains. deplored the dead. let funeral flames be fed With heroes' corps: I war not with the dead: Go search your slaughtered chiefs on yonder plain. and all the Grecian name. where all her princes lay To wait the event. and rear'd his sceptre to the sky. The wounds they wash'd. 227 . And tipp'd the mountains with a purple ray. He came. the herald bent his way. some fell the sounding grove: Nor less the Greeks. With general shouts return'd him loud acclaim. With dust dishonour'd. explain'd The peace rejected. Then thus the king of kings rejects the peace: "Herald! in him thou hear'st the voice of Greece For what remains. In mingled throngs the Greek and Trojan train Through heaps of carnage search'd the mournful plain. And now from forth the chambers of the main. Sage Priam check'd their grief: with silent haste The bodies decent on the piles were placed: With melting hearts the cold remains they burn'd. And. The admiring chiefs. And gratify the manes of the slain. to sacred Troy return'd. laid along their cars. Hew'd the green forests.

ere the morn had streak'd with reddening light The doubtful confines of the day and night. forms the pervading bond of connexion to the whole poem. the terror of his name sufficed to keep every foe at a distance..228 The Iliad of Homer [139] And decent on the pile dispose the dead. the destiny of Achilles. no allusion occurs to a rampart. then. Strong piles infix'd stood adverse to the foe. in all those which follow it forms a prominent feature. p. or rather this peculiar crisis of it.' The disasters consequent on his secession first led to the necessity of other means of protection. In shining circle round their father Jove. So toil'd the Greeks: meanwhile the gods above. About the dying flames the Greeks appear'd. Now. to their fleet repair."—Mure. Amazed beheld the wondrous works of man: Then he. And slowly. This takes place in the seventh book. to secure the camp and naval powers. For passing chariots. whose trident shakes the earth. and deep in earth below. Then. Here. Accordingly. The reason ascribed for the glaring improbability that the Greeks should have left their camp and fleet unfortified during nine years. vol. sadly. in the anomaly as in the propriety of the Iliad. i. in the battles previous to the eighth book. 257. The cold remains consume with equal care. in the midst of a hostile country. began: 186 —Embattled walls. And round the pile a general tomb they rear'd. "Another essential basis of mechanical unity in the poem is the construction of the rampart. is a purely poetical one: 'So long as Achilles fought. They raised embattled walls with lofty towers:186 From space to space were ample gates around. . and a trench profound Of large extent.

and thy fame shall last. But yon proud work no future age shall view. That clouds the world. &c." Thus spoke the hoary monarch of the deep. . No god consulted. 229 The almighty Thunderer with a frown replies. and blackens half the skies: "Strong god of ocean! thou. whelm'd beneath the waves. Wide as the morn her golden beam extends. razed and lost. Shall. drop the huge wall: Vast drifts of sand shall change the former shore: The ruin vanish'd." 187 —What cause of fear. our oracles implore. 304. Our fanes frequent. and thy thoughtless reign?" Dryden's Virgil. No trace remain where once the glory grew. whose rage can make The solid earth's eternal basis shake! What cause of fear from mortal works could move187 The meanest subject of our realms above? Where'er the sun's refulgent rays are cast.BOOK VII. Those radiant structures raised by labouring gods. While old Laomedon's divine abodes. and no victim slain! Their fame shall fill the world's remotest ends. in long oblivion sleep. iv. And. "Seest thou not this? Or do we fear in vain Thy boasted thunders. If the proud Grecians thus successful boast Their rising bulwarks on the sea-beat coast? See the long walls extending to the main. The sapp'd foundations by thy force shall fall. and the name no more. Thy power is honour'd. "What mortals henceforth shall our power adore.

Their bulls they slew. Back from the tents the savoury vapour flew. (Eunaeus. While the deep thunder shook the aerial hall.188 Some. Enjoy'd the balmy blessings of the night. an ox. These lines are referred to by Theophilus. some. the Roman lawyer. arrived from Lemnos' strands. as exhibiting the most ancient mention of barter. proportion'd treasures gave.) The rest they purchased at their proper cost. the Greek and Trojan powers: Those on the fields. bore. xxiii. and these within their towers. But Jove averse the signs of wrath display'd. pale horror seized on all. o'er the Grecian train. All night they feast. refresh'd with sleep from toils of fight. iii. whom Hypsipyle of yore To Jason. shepherd of his people. or slave. 188 . And large libations drench'd the thirsty ground: Then late. Section 1. The rolling sun descending to the main Beheld the finish'd work. Each pour'd to Jove before the bowl was crown'd. tit. And now the fleet. in exchange. With Bacchus' blessings cheered the generous bands. brass or iron.230 The Iliad of Homer [140] Thus they in heaven: while. And well the plenteous freight supplied the host: Each. —In exchange. And shot red lightnings through the gloomy shade: Humbled they stood. Of fragrant wines the rich Eunaeus sent A thousant measures to the royal tent.



Jupiter assembles a council of the deities. vol. against any further interference of the gods in the battles. but in vain. and affrights the Greeks with his thunders and lightnings. are excellently described. Juno and Minerva prepare to aid the Grecians. and carried off. Hector continues in the field. Juno endeavours to animate Neptune to the assistance of the Greeks. but are restrained by Iris. THE SECOND BATTLE. while the other divine warriors. AND THE DISTRESS OF THE GREEKS. The night puts an end to the battle. ARGUMENT. vol. but checked and reprimanded for their disobedience. at the commencement of the eighth book. (the Greeks being driven to their fortifications before the ships. who is at length wounded by Hector. repeatedly allude to the supreme edict as the cause of their present inactivity." ch. and those of Hector. Section 6. "Greek Literature.) and gives orders to keep the watch 189 "A similar bond of connexion. p 257. ii. In the opening of the twentieth book this interdict is withdrawn. described as boldly setting his commands at defiance. and threatens them with the pains of Tartarus if they assist either side: Minerva only obtains of him that she may direct the Greeks by her counsels. During the twelve intermediate books it is kept steadily in view. who in the previous and subsequent cantos are so active in support of their favourite heroes. 252. Nestor alone continues in the field in great danger: Diomed relieves him. or on that of one or two contumacious deities. and Grote. No interposition takes place but on the part of the specially authorised agents of Jove. i. v. sent from Jupiter.[141] BOOK VIII."—Mure. . in the military details of the narrative. p. Muller. See however. The acts of Teucer. whose exploits. is the decree issued by Jupiter.189 his balances the fates of both.

As deep beneath the infernal centre hurl'd. and reverence what ye hear. Sprinkled with rosy light the dewy lawn." —"Paradise Lost. and pass the night under arms. Hear our decree. or but wills to yield. With burning chains fix'd to the brazen floors. The scene here (except of the celestial machines) lies in the field towards the seashore. They kindle fires through all the fields. Low in the dark Tartarean gulf shall groan." "E quanto e da le stelle al basso inferno. The sire of gods his awful silence broke.234 The Iliad of Homer all night in the camp. approve! What god but enters yon forbidden field. Or far. The heavens attentive trembled as he spoke: "Celestial states! immortal gods! give ear. ye powers. Who yields assistance. Back to the skies with shame he shall be driven. Where high Olympus' cloudy tops arise. Gash'd with dishonest wounds. The time of seven and twenty days is employed from the opening of the poem to the end of this book. from steep Olympus thrown. oh far. to prevent the enemy from re-embarking and escaping by flight. The fix'd decree which not all heaven can move. As from the centre thrice to th' utmost pole. Aurora now. fate! fulfil it! and. Thou. Tanto e piu in su de la stellata spera" . When Jove convened the senate of the skies. fair daughter of the dawn. the scorn of heaven. And lock'd by hell's inexorable doors.190 190 [142] "As far removed from God and light of heaven.

And the vast world hangs trembling in my sight! For such I reign. link'd in a golden chain To that side heav'n. Let down our golden everlasting chain191 Whose strong embrace holds heaven. To drag. 7. ye powers above. p.BOOK VIII. compared to Jove. the Thunderer down to earth Ye strive in vain! if I but stretch this hand. the Almighty is the god of gods. earth. and main Strive all."—Thirlwall's Greece. sq. The summit of the Thessalian Olympus was regarded as the highest point on the earth." The all-mighty spoke. As from that centre to the ethereal world. i. from the manner in which the height of heaven is compared with the depth of Tartarus. that the region of light was thought to have certain bounds. 217." ii. i. who holds the lofty pillars which keep earth and heaven asunder. Let him who tempts me. of mortal and immortal birth. "Some of the epithets which Homer applies to the heavens seem to imply that he considered it as a solid vault of metal. and gods. dread those dire abodes: And know. another world Hung e'er my realm. 235 —Gier. nor durst the powers reply: A reverend horror silenced all the sky. in which it was not attached to any geographical site—seems to be indistinctly blended in the poet's mind with that of the real mountain. Lib. And such are men. 191 "Now lately heav'n. Join all. Yet it would seem. vol. League all your forces. But it is not necessary to construe these epithets so literally. nor to draw any such inference from his description of Atlas. 1004. I fix the chain to great Olympus' height. . the ocean. by this. I heave the gods. and the land. then. and try the omnipotence of Jove. unbounded and above. and earth. and it is not always carefully distinguished from the aerian regions above The idea of a seat of the gods—perhaps derived from a more ancient tradition." —"Paradise Lost.

The stedfast firmament beneath them shook: Rapt by the ethereal steeds the chariot roll'd.) Where o'er her pointed summits proudly raised. Yet grant my counsels still their breasts may move. From fields forbidden we submiss refrain. But when to Ida's topmost height he came." [143] The cloud-compelling god her suit approved. and tents. Or all must perish in the wrath of Jove. Then call'd his coursers. our father and our lord! But. spoke: "O first and greatest! God. High on the cloudy point his seat he placed. The town. flash'd intolerable day. . With arms unaiding mourn our Argives slain. His fane breathed odours. the power of wisdom. High on the throne he shines: his coursers fly Between the extended earth and starry sky. their curling manes of gold: Of heaven's undrossy gold the gods array. Brass were their hoofs. Thence his broad eye the subject world surveys. from his radiant car. and his altar blazed: There.236 The Iliad of Homer Trembling they stood before their sovereign's look. ah! permit to pity human state: If not to help. and of savage game. Refulgent. the sacred sire Of gods and men released the steeds of fire: Blue ambient mists the immortal steeds embraced. At length his best-beloved. at least lament their fate. And smiled superior on his best beloved. by gods adored We own thy might. and his chariot took. (Fair nurse of fountains. and navigable seas.

and infants lay. Wherein all things created first he weighed. The gates unfolding pour forth all their train. The sounding darts in iron tempests flew. "Jove now. steeds. shields to shields opposed. with balanced air In counterpoise. Held forth the fatal balance from afar: Each host he weighs. and chariots shake the trembling ground. wives. now ponders all events. But when the sun the height of heaven ascends. and the skies resound. Triumphant shouts and dying groans arise. The pendulous round earth. In these he puts two weights. v 687. Squadrons on squadrons cloud the dusky plain: Men.192 192 237 [144] —His golden scales. for on this dreadful day The fate of fathers. Long as the morning beams." Merrick's Tryphiodorus. increasing bright. Each adverse battle gored with equal wounds. And slaughter'd heroes swell the dreadful tide. Troy roused as soon. Now had the Grecians snatch'd a short repast. The sequel each of parting and of fight: . sole arbiter of peace and war. O'er heaven's clear azure spread the sacred light. Victors and vanquish'd join promiscuous cries. And now with shouts the shocking armies closed. Commutual death the fate of war confounds. Till Troy descending fix'd the doubtful scale. The tumult thickens. to prevent such horrid fray. And buckled on their shining arms with haste. "Th' Eternal. sqq. With streaming blood the slippery fields are dyed. Battles and realms. Hung forth in heav'n his golden scales.BOOK VIII. The sire of gods his golden scales suspends. Host against host with shadowy legends drew. To lances lances. by turns they both prevail.

from forth the crowd He rush'd. Unwilling he remain'd. and freed The encumber'd chariot from the dying steed. the alarm sustain'd Nestor alone. oh whither does Ulysses run? Oh. . Nor each stern Ajax. the king of war. for Paris' dart Had pierced his courser in a mortal part. where the springing man Curl'd o'er the brow. and kick'd the beam. he begins to rear. thundering through the war. the Grecian balance lies Low sunk on earth. the Trojan strikes the skies. the muttering thunder rolls. and unmans their souls. and lash the air. When dreadful Hector. Before his wrath the trembling hosts retire. Mad with his anguish. Thick lightnings flash. Pour'd to the tumult on his whirling car. amidst the storm remain'd.238 The Iliad of Homer With equal hand: in these explored the fate Of Greece and Troy. flight unworthy great Laertes' son! The latter quick up flew. Scarce had his falchion cut the reins. But Diomed beheld. it stung him to the brain. Fix'd in the forehead." iv. The gods in terrors. Paw with his hoofs aloft. Nor great Idomeneus that sight could bear. Their strength he withers. That day had stretch'd beneath his matchless hand The hoary monarch of the Pylian band. and the skies on fire. The clouds burst dreadful o'er the Grecian heads." "Paradise Lost. Then Jove from Ida's top his horrors spreads. and poised the mighty weight: Press'd with its load. and on Ulysses call'd aloud: "Whither. thunderbolts of war: Nor he. 496.

Thy veins no more with ancient vigour glow. the Pylian sage. To dare the fight. or urge the rapid race: These late obey'd Æneas' guiding rein. and Sthenelus the bold: The reverend charioteer directs the course. Then haste. and anxious thus bespoke the king: "Great perils. and thy coursers slow. With these against yon Trojans will we go. Approves his counsel. and ascends the car: The steeds he left. Leave thou thy chariot to our faithful train. Fierce he drove on.BOOK VIII. to stop. a vile. Nor shall great Hector want an equal foe. Pierced in the back. Ulysses seeks the ships. and Nestor. Before the coursers with a sudden spring He leap'd. even he may learn to fear The thirsty fury of my flying spear. But bold Tydides to the rescue goes. Fierce as he is. Eurymedon." Thus said the chief. father! wait the unequal fight. Tydides whirl'd his spear. Weak is thy servant. their trusty servants hold. Mix'd with the vulgar shall thy fate be found. 239 [145] . And strains his aged arm to lash the horse." His fruitless words are lost unheard in air. skill'd in war. These younger champions will oppress thy might. and from the car Observe the steeds of Tros. Hector they face. ascend my seat. renown'd in war. to chase. unknowing how to fear. Practised alike to turn. and shelters there. dishonest wound? Oh turn and save from Hector's direful rage The glory of the Greeks. A single warrior midst a host of foes.

. the fierce in war. 669. The steeds fly back: he falls. "And now all heaven Had gone to wrack." —"Paradise Lost. and urge the chariot hence.193 Like timorous flocks the Trojans in their wall Inclosed had bled: but Jove with awful sound Roll'd the big thunder o'er the vast profound: Full in Tydides' face the lightning flew. and our palm denies. His opening hand in death forsakes the rein." vi. turning. &c. But plunged in Eniopeus' bosom lay. and spurns the plain. And now had death and horror cover'd all. Rose Archeptolemus. foreseen. Till. And Nestor's trembling hand confess'd his fright: He dropp'd the reins: and. 'Tis not in man his fix'd decree to move: The great will glory to submit to Jove. Thus. the sovereign of the skies Assists great Hector. to supply his place and rule the car. Yet unrevenged permits to press the field. Great Hector sorrows for his servant kill'd. Had not th' Almighty Father. This day. averse.240 The Iliad of Homer The spear with erring haste mistook its way." 193 —And now. Some other sun may see the happier hour. shook with sacred dread. . warn'd the intrepid Diomed: "O chief! too daring in thy friend's defence Retire advised. The quivering steeds fell prostrate at the sight. When Greece shall conquer by his heavenly power. where he sits . The ground before him flamed with sulphur blue. with ruin overspread..

what grief! should haughty Hector boast I fled inglorious to the guarded coast. earth. who dreads the sword That laid in dust her loved. The storm of hissing javelins pours behind. in II. To lead in exile the fair Phrygian dames. Then with a voice that shakes the solid skies. and to stand the fight. in the form of man! To scale our walls. or merely signifies honoured. 340." Now fears dissuade him. See Schol. Strabo. revered. Not even a Phrygian dame. This arm shall reach thy heart. to wrap our towers in flames. viii. and. presumptuous prince! are fled. "Go. and hide a warrior's shame!" To whom Gerenian Nestor thus replied:194 "Gods! can thy courage fear the Phrygian's pride? Hector may vaunt. the Dardan host. and stretch thee dead." He said. hasty. O'erwhelm me. but who shall heed the boast? Not those who felt thy arm. Thy once proud hopes. The epithet Gerenian either refers to the name of a place in which Nestor was educated. The shouts of Trojans thicken in the wind. and now hopes invite. o'er the gasping throng Drives the swift steeds: the chariot smokes along. To stop his coursers. mighty hero! graced above the rest In seats of council and the sumptuous feast: Now hope no more those honours from thy train. Thrice turn'd the chief. B. But ah. Go less than woman. lamented lord. Hector braves the warrior as he flies. Pleased. Venet. Nor Troy. p. 336.BOOK VIII. and thrice imperial Jove 241 [146] —Gerenian Nestor. "O reverend prince! (Tydides thus replies) Thy years are awful. and thy words are wise. yet bleeding in her heroes lost. Before that dire disgrace shall blast my fame. 194 .

Xanthus. From Tydeus' shoulders strip the costly load. Served with pure wheat. Your great forefathers' glories. Encouraged his proud steeds. in plenteous stalls ye stand. in one blaze expires. be fearless. encompass'd." Furious he said. he saw the flashing light. For this my spouse.242 The Iliad of Homer On Ida's summits thunder'd from above. All Greece. and by a princess' hand.) and thus urged the fight: "Hear. Dardan band. high-fed. Heard ye the voice of Jove? Success and fame Await on Troy. Lampus. urge the chase. Be mindful of the wreaths your arms have won. and your own. Vulcanian arms. destined by this arm to fall. Soon as before yon hollow ships we stand. ye powers! [147] . High o'er their slighted trench our steeds shall bound. Fight each with flames. then bending o'er the yoke. of great Aetion's line. In vain they skulk behind their boasted wall. now thunder uncontroll'd: Give me to seize rich Nestor's shield of gold. So oft has steep'd the strengthening grain in wine. and toss the blazing brand. Be fleet. and dreadful hand to hand. And thou. Now swift pursue. then victory. Podargus! prove thy generous race. the labour of a god: These if we gain. And all your master's well-spent care repay. For this. Weak bulwarks. (The sign of conquest. this important day. Till. Æthon. their proud navy wrapt in smoke and fires. All famed in war. Lycian. every Trojan. while thus he spoke: "Now. And pass victorious o'er the levell'd mound. on Greece eternal shame. Great Hector heard.

Squadrons on squadrons drives. and fills the fields With close-ranged chariots. And see his Trojans to the shades descend: Such be the scene from his Idaean bower. Seest thou the Greeks by fates unjust oppress'd. to whose matchless might Jove gave the glory of the destined fight. This night. Helice. Toil'd through the tents. Nor swells thy heart in that immortal breast? Yet Ægae. Would all the deities of Greece combine. whose force can make The stedfast earth from her foundations shake. what madness. deep anguish stung Saturnia's soul. this glorious night. the fleet is ours!" That heard. and all his army fired. She shook her throne. and with thicken'd shields. 195 . Compacted troops stand wedged in firm array. All above Submit and tremble at the hand of Jove. furious queen! is thine? I war not with the highest. Helice. with scarce a god to friend. A dreadful front! they shake the brands. In vain the gloomy Thunderer might repine: Sole should he sit. Both these towns were conspicuous for their worship of Neptune. thy power obey. Ungrateful prospect to the sullen power!" Neptune with wrath rejects the rash design: "What rage. by Juno's self inspired.195 And gifts unceasing on thine altars lay. that shook the starry pole: And thus to Neptune: "Thou.BOOK VIII. 243 —Ægae. and threat With long-destroying flames the hostile fleet. The king of men." Now godlike Hector. Where the deep trench in length extended lay.

High on the midmost bark the king appear'd: There. like me oppress'd? With power immense. . And ask'd destruction to the Trojan name. And gives the people to their monarch's prayers. his voice was heard: To Ajax and Achilles reach'd the sound. Now. Who paid their vows to Panomphaean Jove. by happy signs declares. A fawn his talons truss'd. Give these at least to 'scape from Hector's hand. (divine portent!) High o'er the wondering hosts he soar'd above. sacred bird of heaven! he sent. But who to meet one martial man is found. My glory ravish'd. with justice arm'd in vain.244 The Iliad of Homer [148] Swift as he moved. and my people slain! To thee my vows were breathed from every shore. and while the goblet flows. What altar smoked not with our victims' gore? With fat of bulls I fed the constant flame. When the fight rages.) Where now are all your glorious boasts of yore. His eagle. While the feast lasts. "O Argives! shame of human race! (he cried: The hollow vessels to his voice replied. and heaven's great father heard His vows. gracious god! far humbler our demand. Your hasty triumphs on the Lemnian shore? Each fearless hero dares a hundred foes. bright ensign of command. and the flames surround? O mighty Jove! O sire of the distress'd! Was ever king like me. Whose distant ships the guarded navy bound. he lifted in his hand His purple robe. in bitterness of soul preferr'd: The wrath appeased. from Ulysses' deck. And save the relics of the Grecian land!" Thus pray'd the king.

Struck through the back. Young Agelaus (Phradmon was his sire) With flying coursers shunn'd his dreadful ire. and transport seized on all: Encouraged by the sign. then fell Ormenus dead: The godlike Lycophon next press'd the plain. O'er the broad ditch impell'd his foaming horse. Then close beneath the sevenfold orb withdrew: The conscious infant so. And last young Teucer with his bended bow. now passed the mound. Then let the prey before his altar fall. Moves as he moves. And godlike Idomen.BOOK VIII. The bloody pile great Melanippus crown'd. With Chromius. With every shaft some hostile victim slew. Secure behind the Telamonian shield The skilful archer wide survey'd the field. the Ajaces next succeed: Meriones. 245 [149] . His ponderous buckler thunders on the ground. and issued at his breast: Headlong he quits the car: his arms resound. like Mars in arms renown'd. when fear alarms. Pierced the deep ranks. their strongest battle tore. the troops revive. The Atridae first. Tydides first. the Phrygian fell oppress'd. Who first by Teucer's mortal arrows bled? Orsilochus. and turns the shining shield. Retires for safety to the mother's arms. And fierce on Troy with doubled fury drive. The Greeks beheld. the passage freed. Evaemon's son next issues to the foe. Thus Ajax guards his brother in the field. And dyed his javelin red with Trojan gore. Ophelestes slain: Bold Hamopaon breathless sunk to ground. Daetor. of all the Grecian force. Forth rush a tide of Greeks. The dart drove on.

246 The Iliad of Homer Heaps fell on heaps. Nor urge a soul already fill'd with fire." . Whatever treasures Greece for me design. always thus. The vigorous offspring of a stolen embrace: Proud of his boy. Great Agamemnon views with joyful eye The ranks grow thinner as his arrows fly: "O youth forever dear! (the monarch cried) Thus. and thy father's boast! Sprung from an alien's bed thy sire to grace. The next rich honorary gift be thine: Some golden tripod. Thy country's saviour. Till every shaft in Phrygian blood be dyed. Still aim'd at Hector have I bent my bow: Eight forky arrows from this hand have fled. Now hear a monarch's vow: If heaven's high powers Give me to raze Troy's long-defended towers." To this the chief: "With praise the rest inspire. whom thy eyes approve. sad trophies of his art. With coursers dreadful in the ranks of war: Or some fair captive. And eight bold heroes by their points lie dead: But sure some god denies me to destroy This fury of the field. Since rallying from our wall we forced the foe. Shall recompense the warrior's toils with love. he own'd the generous flame. this dog of Troy. thy early worth be tried. And the brave son repays his cares with fame. be now in battle tried. or distinguished car. A Trojan ghost attending every dart. What strength I have. Thy brave example shall retrieve our host.

(Fair Castianira. and issues on the plain. drops upon his breast. 196 247 [150] —As full blown. Quits his bright car. and twang'd the string. E in atto si gentil languir tremanti Gl' occhi. overcharged with rain.) Yet fell not dry or guiltless to the ground: Thy breast. There. and drooping kiss the plain. but pierced Gorgythio's heart. He said. The feather in his hand. depress'd Beneath his helmet. e cader siu 'l tergo il collo mira. &c. Phoebus turn'd the flying wound. brave Archeptolemus! it tore. So sinks the youth: his beauteous head. "Il suo Lesbia quasi bel fior succiso. The youth already strain'd the forceful yew.BOOK VIII. This offspring added to king Priam's line. And drench'd in royal blood the thirsty dart. . 85. nymph of form divine. And rush'd on Teucer with the lifted rock. Headlong he falls: his sudden fall alarms The steeds." Gier. Touch'd where the neck and hollow chest unite. Another shaft the raging archer drew. The weapon flies At Hector's breast. Hector with grief his charioteer beheld All pale and breathless on the sanguine field: Then bids Cebriones direct the rein. just wing'd for flight.) As full-blown poppies.196 Decline the head. ix. Dreadful he shouts: from earth a stone he took. The shaft already to his shoulder drew. and sings along the skies: He miss'd the mark. where the juncture knits the channel bone. (From Hector. That other shaft with erring fury flew. that startle at his sounding arms. Lib. And dipp'd its feathers in no vulgar gore.

As the bold hound. Till great Alaster. Then pensive thus. And many a chief lay gasping on the ground. or fastens on his heels. With beating bosom. Or in the trench on heaps confusedly fall. He fell: but Ajax his broad shield display'd. dreadful as the god! Their strong distress the wife of Jove survey'd. and circles as he wheels.248 The Iliad of Homer The furious chief discharged the craggy stone: The bow-string burst beneath the ponderous blow. Troy yet found grace before the Olympian sire. And screen'd his brother with the mighty shade. and more than mortal strong. and with eager pace. Thus following. Hangs on his haunch. but still they flew. to war's triumphant maid: . Guards as he turns. He arm'd their hands. bore The batter'd archer groaning to the shore. and Mecistheus. and fill'd their breasts with fire. Before the ships a desperate stand they made. that gives the lion chase. And his numb'd hand dismiss'd his useless bow. and called the gods to aid. The Greeks repulsed. great Hector march'd along. Hector still the hindmost slew. Thus oft the Grecians turn'd. And fired the troops. Fierce on his rattling chariot Hector came: His eyes like Gorgon shot a sanguine flame That wither'd all their host: like Mars he stood: Dire as the monster. With terror clothed. retreat behind their wall. When flying they had pass'd the trench profound. First of the foe.

nor hell explored in vain. inflexible and hard. At Thetis' suit the partial Thunderer nods. Mocks our attempts. in this moment of her last despair. Shall wretched Greece no more confess our care. Forgets my service and deserved reward: Saved I. The stubborn god. My hopes are frustrate. and slights our just demands. Stretch'd by some Argive on his native shore: But he above. Oh had my wisdom known this dire event. Averse to me of all his heaven of gods. Some future day. And drain the dregs of heaven's relentless hate? Gods! shall one raging hand thus level all? What numbers fell! what numbers yet shall fall! What power divine shall Hector's wrath assuage? Still swells the slaughter. The triple dog had never felt his chain. withstands. Condemn'd to suffer the full force of fate. with tears he begg'd. resenting son. and shake the sable shield! Now.BOOK VIII. To whom the goddess with the azure eyes: "Long since had Hector stain'd these fields with gore. in deep dismay. fierce. the sire of heaven. To grace her gloomy. his favourite son distress'd. he may be moved . for this. perhaps. whose arm can wield The avenging bolt. By stern Eurystheus with long labours press'd? He begg'd. and still grows the rage!" So spake the imperial regent of the skies. Nor Styx been cross'd. When to grim Pluto's gloomy gates he went. 249 "O daughter of that god. and my Greeks undone. I shot from heaven. and gave his arm the day.

Prone down the steep of heaven their course they guide. The sounding hinges ring. Then. ponderous. through yon ranks to ride. meanwhile. pale. the clouds divide. Expiring. kept by the winged Hours. or roll those clouds away. the massy javelin bends: Huge. and glut the dogs with gore?" She ceased. and terrible no more. Heaven's golden gates. and Juno rein'd the steeds with care: (Heaven's awful empress. Saturnia lends the lash. [152] . with art immortal crown'd. or unfold. All dreadful in the crimson walks of war! What mighty Trojan then. Haste. Myself will arm. Saturn's other heir:) Pallas. Close. Heaven's gates spontaneous open to the powers. shall Hector glory then? (That terror of the Greeks. His cuirass blazes on her ample breast. launch thy chariot. the eternal gates of day Bar heaven with clouds. and thunder at thy side. Her father's arms her mighty limbs invest. Shall feast the fowls. Commission'd in alternate watch they stand. strong! that when her fury burns Proud tyrants humbles. and Pallas shall appear. on yonder shore. and spreads the court of Jove.250 The Iliad of Homer To call his blue-eyed maid his best beloved. The vigorous power the trembling car ascends: Shook by her arm. The sun's bright portals and the skies command. Smooth glides the chariot through the liquid sky. The radiant robe her sacred fingers wove Floats in rich waves. her various veil unbound. With flowers adorn'd. that man of men) When Juno's self. and whole hosts o'erturns. the coursers fly. goddess! say.

and what I speak is fate: Their coursers crush'd beneath the wheels shall lie. And thus enjoin'd the many-colour'd maid. Their car in fragments. incensed. Condemn'd for ten revolving years to weep The wounds impress'd by burning thunder deep. She claims some title to transgress our will. and stop their car. Thus have I spoke. scatter'd o'er the sky: My lightning these rebellious shall confound. Against the highest who shall wage the war? If furious yet they dare the vain debate. Nor dare to combat hers and nature's sire. And hurl them flaming. For Juno. 251 JUNO AND MINERVA GOING TO ASSIST THE GREEKS." [153] . headstrong and imperious still. But Jove. headlong. from Ida's top survey'd. "Thaumantia! mount the winds. So shall Minerva learn to fear our ire. to the ground.BOOK VIII.

what desperate insolence has driven To lift thy lance against the king of heaven?" Then. And hurl ye headlong. And speaks the mandate of the sire of gods. and shake the dreadful shield No more let beings of superior birth Contend with Jove for this low race of earth. Triumphant now. flaming. the various-colour'd maid From Ida's top her golden wings display'd. mounting on the pinions of the wind. To great Olympus' shining gate she flies." . There meets the chariot rushing down the skies. headstrong and imperious still. to the ground. and know his word shall stand: His lightning your rebellion shall confound. She flew. She claims some title to transgress his will: But thee. Restrains their progress from the bright abodes. ever rule mankind. and Juno thus her rage resign'd: "O daughter of that god. So shall Minerva learn to fear his ire. They breathe or perish as the fates ordain: But Jove's high counsels full effect shall find. Nor dare to combat hers and nature's sire.252 The Iliad of Homer Swift as the wind. And. Your horses crush'd beneath the wheels shall lie. "What frenzy goddesses! what rage can move Celestial minds to tempt the wrath of Jove? Desist. whose arm can wield The avenging bolt. ever constant. Yourselves condemn'd ten rolling years to weep The wounds impress'd by burning thunder deep. now miserably slain. obedient to his high command: This is his word. Your car in fragments scatter'd o'er the sky. For Juno.

and reach the sky. beaming forth its rays. Swifter than thought. She spoke. [154] .BOOK VIII. 253 THE HOURS TAKING THE HORSES FROM JUNO'S CAR. And fix the car on its immortal base. The pensive goddesses. and fill their seats of gold. panting as they stood. abash'd. And heap'd their mangers with ambrosial food. The chariot propp'd against the crystal walls. Adorn'd with manes of gold. the wheels instinctive fly. they rest in high celestial stalls. Till with a snowy veil he screen'd the blaze. and heavenly bright. And now the Thunderer meditates his flight From Ida's summits to the Olympian height. and backward turn'd her steeds of light. Mix with the gods. There stood the chariot. controll'd. There tied. 'Twas Neptune's charge his coursers to unbrace. The Hours unloosed them. Flame through the vast of air.

But feast their souls on Ilion's woes to come. With arms unaiding see our Argives slain. and what I speak shall stand. whoe'er almighty power withstand! Unmatch'd our force. unconquer'd is our hand: Who shall the sovereign of the skies control? Not all the gods that crown the starry pole. and exiled from the ethereal race. But know. Your hearts shall tremble. Cut off. What power soe'er provokes our lifted hand. Trembling afar the offending powers appear'd. From fields forbidden we submiss refrain. And each immortal nerve with horror shake. if our arms we take. enthroned in gold. On this our hill no more shall hold his place. O tyrant of the skies! Strength and omnipotence invest thy throne. for his frown they fear'd. Yet grant our counsels still their breasts may move. Though secret anger swell'd Minerva's breast. For thus I speak. ours to grieve alone. and in your wrath expired. replies: "What hast thou said. The eternal Thunderer sat. But Juno. and thus his word imparts: "Pallas and Juno! say. He saw their soul. High heaven the footstool of his feet he makes. The prudent goddess yet her wrath repress'd. [155] . 'Tis thine to punish. impotent of rage. why heave your hearts? Soon was your battle o'er: proud Troy retired Before your face." Juno and Pallas grieving hear the doom. whose all-conscious eyes the world behold. abandon'd by her fate To drink the dregs of thy unmeasured hate. For Greece we grieve. Confused and silent.254 The Iliad of Homer He. And wide beneath him all Olympus shakes.

BOOK VIII. awaked by loud alarms. The Greeks rejoicing bless the friendly shade. And drew behind the cloudy veil of night: The conquering Trojans mourn his beams decay'd. and blackens all the skies: "The morning sun. No sun e'er gilds the gloomy horrors there. Those radiant eyes shall view. shall stand. Even till the day when certain fates ordain That stern Achilles (his Patroclus slain) Shall rise in vengeance. Who swells the clouds. if thy wilt. The navy flaming. with all thy rebel force. Fast by the brink. and lay waste the plain." 255 The goddess thus. and thy Greeks in flight. For such is fate. Where on her utmost verge the seas resound. Shall see the almighty Thunderer in arms. for what I will. . and thus the god replies. No cheerful gales refresh the lazy air: There arm once more the bold Titanian band. What heaps of Argives then shall load the plain. and view in vain. nor canst thou turn its course With all thy rage. to earth's remotest bound. Nor shall great Hector cease the rage of fight. within the streams of hell. And arm in vain." Now deep in ocean sunk the lamp of light. Lest all should perish in the rage of Jove. Fly. Where cursed Iapetus and Saturn dwell.

Some hostile wound let every dart bestow. or safely cleave the main. bending forward. Of full ten cubits was the lance's length. And. A massy spear he bore of mighty strength. and use her peaceful hours Our steeds to forage. Some lasting token of the Phrygian foe. in the silence and the shades of night. Straight from the town be sheep and oxen sought. Fix'd to the wood with circling rings of gold: The noble Hector on his lance reclined. give ear! This day. [156] . thus reveal'd his mind: "Ye valiant Trojans. Obey the night. refulgent to behold. And guards them trembling in their wooden walls. Where thinly scatter'd lay the heaps of dead. and refresh our powers. with attention hear! Ye Dardan bands. And strengthening bread and generous wine be brought Wide o'er the field. that long hence may ask their spouses' care.256 The Iliad of Homer The victors keep the field. and generous aids. and crown our toils with fame. falls. Lest. Wounds. The point was brass. would wrap in conquering flame Greece with her ships. These to Scamander's bank apart he led. and Hector calls A martial council near the navy walls. high blazing to the sky. Greece on her sable ships attempt her flight. But darkness now. and their prince surround. Attend his order. The assembled chiefs. to save the cowards. Not unmolested let the wretches gain Their lofty decks. Let numerous fires the absent sun supply. Till the bright morn her purple beam displays. we hoped. The flaming piles with plenteous fuel raise. descending on the ground.

like the sun renown'd! As the next dawn. I trust. 257 . while distant lie our powers. And warn their children from a Trojan war. Lest. A nobler charge shall rouse the dawning day. From age inglorious.BOOK VIII. The gods. and black death secure. To-morrow's light (O haste the glorious morn!) Shall see his bloody spoils in triumph borne. oh! might my days endure. the watery way: For Trojan vultures a predestined prey. To bid the sires with hoary honours crown'd." The leader spoke. and end the woes of Troy. Like Pallas worshipp'd. With this keen javelin shall his breast be gored. And prostrate heroes bleed around their lord. The insidious foe the naked town invade. Let sacred heralds sound the solemn call. then shall Hector and Tydides prove Whose fates are heaviest in the scales of Jove. So might my life and glory know no bound. these orders to obey. Who plough'd. shall give to Hector's hand From these detested foes to free the land. Now through the circuit of our Ilion wall. Firm be the guard. with fates averse. our battlements surround. But soon as morning paints the fields of air. Suffice. the last they shall enjoy. From all his host around Shouts of applause along the shores resound. under covert of the midnight shade. Certain as this. And beardless youths. to-night. Our common safety must be now the care. Shall crush the Greeks. Sheathed in bright arms let every troop engage. Then. And the fired fleet behold the battle rage. And let the matrons hang with lights the towers.

258 The Iliad of Homer [157] Each from the yoke the smoking steeds untied. to whose sweet beams high prospects on the brows Of all steepe hills and pinnacles thrust up themselves for shows. The curling vapours load the ambient air. and her guilty race. And all the signs in heaven are seene. When not a breath disturbs the deep serene. that glad the shepherd's heart. And fix'd their headstalls to his chariot-side. when aire is free from winde.198 O'er heaven's pure azure spreads her sacred light. But vain their toil: the pow'rs who rule the skies Averse beheld the ungrateful sacrifice." Merrick's Tryphiodorus. As when the moon. And stars unnumber'd gild the glowing pole. And beaming fires illumined all the ground. When the unmeasured firmament bursts to disclose her light. Around her throne the vivid planets roll. refulgent lamp of night. vi. 198 "As when about the silver moon. And stars shine cleare. O'er the dark trees a yellower verdure shed. . 197 —Ungrateful. 527. And not a cloud o'ercasts the solemn scene. With generous wine. Ungrateful offering to the immortal powers!197 Whose wrath hung heavy o'er the Trojan towers: Nor Priam nor his sons obtain'd their grace. "Struck by the lab'ring priests' uplifted hands The victims fall: to heav'n they make their pray'r. Fat sheep and oxen from the town are led. because the cause in which they were engaged was unjust." Chapman. sqq. Proud Troy they hated. And even the lowly valleys joy to glitter in their sight. The troops exulting sat in order round. Full hecatombs lay burning on the shore: The winds to heaven the curling vapours bore. and all-sustaining bread.

And tip with silver every mountain's head: Then shine the vales. thick flashes send. A flood of glory bursts from all the skies: The conscious swains. And shoot a shady lustre o'er the field. And lighten glimmering Xanthus with their rays. the rocks in prospect rise. And ardent warriors wait the rising morn. So many flames before proud Ilion blaze. Full fifty guards each flaming pile attend. The long reflections of the distant fires Gleam on the walls. and tremble on the spires. Whose umber'd arms. Eye the blue vault. 259 [158] . A thousand piles the dusky horrors gild. Loud neigh the coursers o'er their heaps of corn. and bless the useful light.BOOK VIII. rejoicing in the sight. by fits.

260 The Iliad of Homer THE SHIELD OF ACHILLES. .

Lexil. which is the twenty-seventh from the beginning of the poem. The ambassadors return unsuccessfully to the camp. caused by Hector and the Trojans. in order to move him to a reconciliation. ARGUMENT. the station of the Grecian ships. and Nestor further prevails upon him to send ambassadors to Achilles. who are accompanied by old Phoenix. and sadden'd every heart. They make. very moving and pressing speeches. Diomed opposes this. take up the space of one night. The scene lies on the sea-shore. p. and return to their country. after the last day's defeat. Agamemnon pursues this advice. but with the approval of Jove. and the next following. proposes to the Greeks to quit the siege. according to Buttmann. THE EMBASSY TO ACHILLES. While fear. Ulysses and Ajax are made choice of.[159] BOOK IX. and a council summoned to deliberate what measures are to be followed in this emergency. This flight of the Greeks.199 And heaven-bred horror. He orders the guard to be strengthened. Thus joyful Troy maintain'd the watch of night." 199 . on the Grecian part. Agamemnon. was not a supernatural flight caused by the gods. and the troops betake themselves to sleep. but "a great and general one. but are rejected with roughness by Achilles. Sat on each face. each of them. 358. and Nestor seconds him. This book. who notwithstanding retains Phoenix in his tent. praising his wisdom and resolution. pale comrade of inglorious flight.

In sable streams soft-trickling waters shed. at whose nod whole empires rise or fall. for ever quit these fatal fields. Haste then. Our wealth. Haste to the joys our native country yields. Heaps waves on waves. Words. In solemn sadness and majestic grief. With more than vulgar grief he stood oppress'd. And towers and armies humbles to the dust. Superior sorrows swell'd his royal breast. With conquest honour'd and enrich'd with spoils: Now shameful flight alone can save the host. So Jove decrees. almighty lord of all! Jove. Great Agamemnon grieved above the rest. and our glory lost. from Thracia's frozen shore. all your oars employ. So silent fountains. And heavenly oracles believed in vain. A safe return was promised to our toils. Who shakes the feeble props of human trust. . The king amidst the mournful circle rose: Down his wan cheek a briny torrent flows. But bid in whispers: these surround their chief. thus bursting from his breast: "Ye sons of Greece! partake your leader's care. Himself his orders to the heralds bears. from a rock's tall head. A double tempest of the west and north Swells o'er the sea. mix'd with sighs. To bid to council all the Grecian peers. Fellows in arms and princes of the war! Of partial Jove too justly we complain. our people. Spread all your canvas.262 The Iliad of Homer [160] As from its cloudy dungeon issuing forth. and bids the Ægean roar: This way and that the boiling deeps are toss'd: Such various passions urged the troubled host.

The gods. A noble care the Grecians shall employ. The gods have made thee but by halves a king: They gave thee sceptres. and thus begun: "When kings advise us to renounce our fame. Is this a general's voice. Myself. First let him speak who first has suffer'd shame.BOOK IX. 'tis what our king commands. The Greeks stood witness. Nor hope the fall of heaven-defended Troy. and a wide command. he stands. The noblest power that might the world control They gave thee not—a brave and virtuous soul. God bade us fight. If I oppose thee. And if we fly. or. To combat. Durst brand my courage. and Sthenelus. will fight for fame. in fields of fight. and extirpate Troy. till Troy or I expire. unmov'd in dire dismay they stand. and 'twas with God we came. Thou first. if all Greece retire. and defame my might: Nor from a friend the unkind reproach appear'd. inglorious! from the embattled plain." . conquer. A pensive scene! till Tydeus' warlike son Roll'd on the king his eyes. and nearest to the main. Silent." 263 He said: deep silence held the Grecian band. and thou alone. The laws of council bid my tongue be bold. Ships thou hast store. They gave dominion o'er the seas and land. Here Greece shall stay. O chief! from whom our honours spring. prince! thy wrath withhold. all our army heard. Go thou. Myself shall stay. that would suggest Fears like his own to every Grecian breast? Confiding in our want of worth.

264 The Iliad of Homer [161] He ceased. refresh and fortify thy train. but solely for his information and guidance. Unworthy property. and his kind destroy! This night. These wholesome counsels which thy wisdom moves. a bold but prudent youth: And blame even kings with praise." 200 . the Greeks loud acclamations raise. To tear his country. Wise Nestor then his reverend figure rear'd. as in courage. Age bids me speak! nor shall the advice I bring Distaste the people. Kings thou canst blame. and void of law and right. unworthy light. A thought unfinish'd in that generous mind. ii. Still first to act what you advise so well. Unfit for public rule. assembled not with any power of peremptorily arresting mischievous resolves of the king. "The Homeric Council is a purely consultative body. p. and whose horrid joy. And yet those years that since thy birth have run Would hardly style thee Nestor's youngest son. Between the trench and wall let guards remain: Grote. Whose lust is murder. 91. He spoke: the host in still attention heard:200 "O truly great! in whom the gods have join'd Such strength of body with such force of mind: In conduct. because with truth. vol. That wretch. after noticing the modest calmness and respect with which Nestor addresses Agamemnon. or private care. And voice to voice resounds Tydides' praise. or offend the king: "Cursed is the man. Then let me add what yet remains behind. who delights in war. you excel. Applauding Greece with common voice approves. that monster. observes.

Convened the princes in his ample tent. The generous Thrasymed. And each bold chief a hundred spears commands. Ialmen. Ascalaphus. Great is thy sway. How near our fleet approach the Trojan fires! Who can. And such a monarch as can choose the best. and can close to-night? This dreadful interval determines all. unmoved. The fires they light. to short repasts they fall. O king. Be that the duty of the young and bold. To-morrow. for wisdom long approved. But thou." Thus spoke the hoary sage: the rest obey. to council call the old. and others man the wall. behold the dreadful light? What eye beholds them. His son was first to pass the lofty mound. or Greece must fall. For happy counsels flow from sober feasts. Some line the trench. Thy high commands must spirit all our wars. stood. 265 [162] . And slowly rising. Merion join. Each seized a portion of the kingly feast. Troy must flame. Then Nestor spoke. See what a blaze from hostile tents aspires. Aphareus. With Thracian wines recruit thy honour'd guests. thus the council moved.BOOK IX. But stay'd his hand when thirst and hunger ceased. The king of men. and weighty are thy cares. The double offspring of the warrior-god: Deipyrus. in arms renown'd: Next him. Swift through the gates the guards direct their way. Seven were the leaders of the nightly bands. weighty counsels aid a state distress'd. And Lycomed of Creon's noble line. on public counsels bent. Wise.

Pronounce with judgment. Nor. To see no wholesome motion be withstood. with regard give ear. With thee my cares begin. Germ. If gifts immense his mighty soul can bow. repine. though a meaner give advice. by men and gods admired: Now seek some means his fatal wrath to end. Is more than armies. durst dissuade. But follow it. The laws and sceptres to thy hand are given. and witness what I vow. and himself a host. And ratify the best for public good. and lords of earth obey. and I with reason own. with thee must end.201 Hear. or immunity from his exactions. this wondrous hero stands. Thee. Fain would my heart. when headlong fury fired. whom Jove still honours most. I first opposed. and faithful. O king! the counsels of my age attend. and formed the income of the German. Such gifts gradually became regular. (Tacit.266 The Iliad of Homer "Monarch of nations! whose superior sway Assembled states. When from Pelides' tent you forced the maid. 201 [163] . and humbles all our bands. or with gifts to bend. which err'd through frantic rage. With prayers to move him. The wrathful chief and angry gods assuage." To whom the king. That happy man. At once my present judgment and my past. Hear then a thought. "With justice hast thou shown A prince's faults. You wronged the man. and make the wisdom thine. Heaven fights his war. And millions own the care of thee and Heaven. In the heroic times. not now conceived in haste. all ye Greeks. it is not unfrequent for the king to receive presents to purchase freedom from his wrath. But bold of soul. prince! it fits alike to speak and hear. Bless'd in his love.

not to desist from his wrath. and small the part she plays—what little is said is pre-eminently calculated to enhance her fitness to be the bride of Achilles. in the middle ages. 202 It may be observed. pt. that. too. shall be paid.' (Hallam.) Seven lovely captives of the Lesbian line. are features well contrasted with the rough. . unmatch'd in form divine.202 These instant shall be his. Middle Ages. 'The feudal aids are the beginning of taxation. When Lesbos sank beneath the hero's arms: All these. says. (Rich were the man whose ample stores exceed The prizes purchased by their winged speed. to buy his friendship. ch. Skill'd in each art. uninjured she removes. without presents.BOOK IX. x. as if he spoke correctly. Purity. The same I chose for more than vulgar charms. the tutor of Achilles. and retiring delicacy. Twelve steeds unmatch'd in fleetness and in force. nor again. Plato. Ten weighty talents of the purest gold.89). 1." &c. but. whose unsullied frame Yet knows no office. And join'd with these the long-contested maid. and guiltless of my loves. (Herodot. brief as is the mention of Briseis in the Iliad. when counselling him to accept of presents and assist the Greeks. but tender disposition of the hero. Briseis I resign. And solemn swear those charms were never mine. or approve of his being so covetous as to receive presents from Agamemnon. So. Pure from my arms. 189) This fact frees Achilles from the apparent charge of sordidness. Then shall he store (when Greece the spoil divides) With gold and brass his loaded navy's sides: Besides. and other kings. With all her charms. p. however. and if the powers Give to our arms proud Ilion's hostile towers. (De Rep. nor has felt the flame. And twice ten vases of refulgent mould: Seven sacred tripods. should we commend Achilles himself. Untouch'd she stay'd. And still victorious in the dusty course. "We cannot commend Phoenix. of which they for a long time answered the purpose. full twenty nymphs of Trojan race 267 Section 15) Persian. vi. iii. 4).

p. Seven ample cities shall confess his sway. or Iphigenia. And sacred Pedasus for vines renown'd. Yet more—three daughters in my court are bred. who yield to none. 162. among the daughters of Agamemnon. Æpea fair. and labouring oxen toil. And with Orestes' self divide my care.203 And bright Chrysothemis with golden hair. note. vol. . no reward for love: Myself will give the dower. If safe we land on Argos' fruitful shore. Her let him choose whom most his eyes approve. than an authority over them. our honours share. when he offers to transfer to Achilles seven towns inhabited by wealthy husbandmen."—Thirlwall's Greece. And the same thing may be intimated when it is said that Peleus bestowed a great people. with power and justice crown'd. who would enrich their lord by presents and tribute. And rich Antheia with her flowery fields:204 The whole extent to Pylos' sandy plain. and generous is the soil. There shall he live my son. Yet hear me further: when our wars are o'er. There shall he reign. Bold are the men. is not mentioned by Homer. Along the verdant margin of the main There heifers graze. seems likewise to assume rather a property in them. Him Enope. Cardamyle with ample turrets crown'd. the pastures Hira yields. 204 "Agamemnon. Laodice and Iphigenia fair. so vast a store As never father gave a child before. Or yield to Helen's heavenly charms alone. 203 —Laodice. and Pherae him obey. Such as himself will choose. I ask no presents. Iphianassa.268 The Iliad of Homer [164] With copious love shall crown his warm embrace. on Phoenix. And rule the tributary realms around. i Section 6. the Dolopes of Phthia. And each well worthy of a royal bed.

This is one of the most ancient superstitions respecting prayer." or. Let Phoenix lead. might defeat the object of their supplications. And such as fits a generous king to make. as Kennedy has explained it." 206 —Purest hands. "Abstain from expressions unsuitable to the solemnity of the occasion. The reverend Nestor then: "Great Agamemnon! glorious king of men! Such are thy offers as a prince may take. Who feels no mercy. Yet more to sanctify the word you send. Let chosen delegates this hour be sent (Myself will name them) to Pelides' tent.205 and with purest hands. by offending the god. And mortals hate him. All this I give."206 [165] —Pray in deep silence. 205 . And sure all this may move his mighty soul. his vengeance to control. Lives dark and dreadful in deep hell's abodes. Now pray to Jove to grant what Greece demands. Rather: "use well-omened words." 269 The monarch thus. which. Let Hodius and Eurybates attend. Great Ajax next. as the worst of gods Great though he be. and more my sway. Since more than his my years. Pray in deep silence.BOOK IX. and Ithacus the sage. who never spares. it fits him to obey. the grisly god. and who hears no prayers. Pluto. revered for hoary age. and one founded as much in nature as in tradition.

270 The Iliad of Homer PLUTO. .

And now. arrived. ruler of the seas profound. 271 THE EMBASSY TO ACHILLES. Whose liquid arms the mighty globe surround. The heralds bring The cleansing water from the living spring. To Neptune. where on the sandy bay The Myrmidonian tents and vessels lay. Through the still night they march. Pleased with the solemn harp's harmonious sound. and save the host. He said. To deprecate the chief. And large libations drench'd the sands around. the godlike man they found. And calm the rage of stern Æacides. They pour forth vows. The youth with wine the sacred goblets crown'd. Then from the royal tent they take their way. The rite perform'd. their embassy to bless. instructs them to apply. and hear the roar Of murmuring billows on the sounding shore. Wise Nestor turns on each his careful eye. the chiefs their thirst allay. Forbids to offend. and all approved. Much he advised them all. Amused at ease. Ulysses most. .BOOK IX.

Of polish'd silver was its costly frame. Then thus—"Patroclus. and thus begun: "Princes. Patroclus only of the royal train. the chiefs beneath his roof he led. and open every soul. the great Ulysses leads. and these thy friend." .) With this he soothes his angry soul. Thy friend most honours these. Welcome. In silence waiting till he ceased the song. Mix purer wine. and sings The immortal deeds of heroes and of kings. or urgent fear.272 The Iliad of Homer [166] (The well wrought harp from conquered Thebae came. and listen'd long. Or strong necessity. and laid the harp aside. Leap'd from his seat. Of all the warriors yonder host can send. And placed in seats with purple carpets spread. Placed in his tent. though Greeks! for not as foes ye came. Unseen the Grecian embassy proceeds To his high tent. crown a larger bowl. attends the lofty strain: Full opposite he sat. Achilles starting. With like surprise arose Menoetius' son: Pelides grasp'd their hands. all hail! whatever brought you here. as the chiefs he spied." With that. To me more dear than all that bear the name.

Above the coals the smoking fragments turns And sprinkles sacred salt from lifted urns. Nor eased by banquets or by flowing bowls. 273 [167] . That. He said: Patroclus o'er the blazing fire Heaps in a brazen vase three chines entire: The brazen vase Automedon sustains. The parts transfixes. That done. His thirst and hunger soberly repress'd. the fire to raise. and with skill divides. and instant thus began. Which round the board Menoetius' son bestow'd. Agamemnon's regal tent affords. His speech addressing to the godlike man. But greater cares sit heavy on our souls. The tent is brighten'd with the rising blaze: Then. Then each.BOOK IX. Which flesh of porker. Achilles at the genial feast presides. and for the living fear. He strows a bed of glowing embers wide. What scenes of slaughter in yon fields appear! The dead we mourn. and goat contains. opposed to Ulysses full in sight. to Phoenix Ajax gave the sign: Not unperceived. Each portion parts. Meanwhile Patroclus sweats. Ulysses crown'd with wine The foaming bowl. With bread the glittering canisters they load. "Health to Achilles! happy are thy guests! Not those more honour'd whom Atrides feasts: Though generous plenty crown thy loaded boards. The first fat offering to the immortals due. and orders every rite. Greece on the brink of fate all doubtful stands. sheep. Himself. when the languid flames at length subside. indulging in the social feast. Amidst the greedy flames Patroclus threw.

when. ah. thy cares engage To calm thy passions. To save thy Greeks. That heart shall melt. the Greeks. If in that heart or grief or courage lies. and this the fatal day? Return. What fury in his breast. and success. That young and old may in thy praise combine. gods! our heads inglorious lay In Trojan dust. Their threatening tents already shade our wall: Hear how with shouts their conquest they proclaim. And point at every ship their vengeful flame! For them the father of the gods declares. and all the Grecian name. Thy arms may Juno and Minerva bless! Trust that to Heaven: but thou. and stop the course of Fate. and subdue thy rage: From gentler manners let thy glory grow. though late. Theirs are his omens. O prince divinely brave! Those wholesome counsels which thy father gave. Lest Fate accomplish all his rage design'd! And must we. all our warriors slain. to sink in flame The ships. Rise to redeem. And shun contention. these accents were his last: "'My child! with strength. full of Jove. and his thunder theirs. Heavens! how my country's woes distract my mind. See. avenging Hector rise! See! heaven and earth the raging chief defies. Achilles: oh return. with glory.274 The Iliad of Homer And owns no help but from thy saving hands: Troy and her aids for ready vengeance call. . When Peleus in his aged arms embraced His parting son. rise! The day may come. what lightning in his eyes! He waits but for the morn. that courage rise in vain: Regard in time. the sure source of woe. yet to conquer.

(Rich were the man. 275 [168] . Gifts worthy thee his royal hand prepares. to buy thy friendship shall be paid.) Seven lovely captives of the Lesbian line. Pure from his arms. If thou wilt yield to great Atrides' prayers. uninjured she removes. full twenty nymphs of Trojan race With copious love shall crown thy warm embrace. the long-contested maid. And still victorious in the dusty course. These instant shall be thine. an exhaustless store. And. Twelve steeds unmatched in fleetness and in force. and if the powers Give to our arms proud Ilion's hostile towers. And twice ten vases of refulgent mould. Then shalt thou store (when Greece the spoil divides) With gold and brass thy loaded navy's sides. Ten weighty talents of the purest gold. With all her charms. The same he chose for more than vulgar charms. The virtues of humanity be thine—' This now-despised advice thy father gave. nor has felt the flame. Besides. And solemn swear those charms were only thine. who yield to none. join'd with these. unmatch'd in form divine. while I number o'er The proffer'd presents. Skill'd in each art.BOOK IX. All these. If not—but hear me. Yet hear me further: when our wars are o'er. whose unsullied frame Yet knows no office. Such as thyself shall chose. Or yield to Helen's heavenly charms alone. Seven sacred tripods. whose ample stores exceed The prizes purchased by their winged speed. Briseis he'll resign. When Lesbos sank beneath thy conquering arms. and be truly brave. Untouch'd she stay'd. and guiltless of his loves. Ah! check thy anger.

There shalt thou reign. amongst her guardian gods. and generous is the soil. with power and justice crown'd.276 The Iliad of Homer [169] If safe we land on Argos' fruitful shore. And rich Antheia with her flowery fields. There shalt thou live his son. thou disdain. the pastures Hira yields. But if all this. The whole extent to Pylos' sandy plain. Yet more—three daughters in his court are bred. and labouring oxen toil. The Enope and Pherae thee obey. If no regard thy suffering country claim. and whole hosts retire. so vast a store As never father gave a child before. There heifers graze. the unequal fight demands. And be. Proud Hector. Along the verdant margin of the main. Hear thy own glory. adored. Such the repentance of a suppliant king. relentless. his honour share. no reward for love: Himself will give the dower. . Cardamyle with ample turrets crown'd. whose unresisted ire Made nations tremble. And sacred Pedasus. Yet some redress to suppliant Greece afford. and the voice of fame: For now that chief. now. And each well worthy of a royal bed: Laodice and Iphigenia fair. If honour and if interest plead in vain. He asks no presents. And rule the tributary realms around. Such are the proffers which this day we bring. Bold are the men. And with Orestes' self divide his care. Seven ample cities shall confess thy sway. for vines renown'd: Æpea fair. And bright Chrysothemis with golden hair: Her shalt thou wed whom most thy eyes approve.

BOOK IX. Long sleepless nights in heavy arms I stood. And only triumphs to deserve thy hands. Who dares think one thing. long perils in their cause I bore. it is evident that fruits of these maraudings went to the common support of the expedition. What in my secret soul is understood. My tongue shall utter. The wretch and hero find their prize the same. hear A faithful speech. or who bravely dies. From the following verses. my purpose I retain: Nor with new treaties vex my peace in vain. Such a one was that of which Achilles now speaks. But now the unfruitful glories charm no more. "Then thus in short my fix'd resolves attend. and from want defends. and another tell. From danger guards them. My heart detests him as the gates of hell. all my glorious pains.207 277 It must be recollected. a like reward we claim. that knows nor art nor fear. Let Greece then know. Fight or not fight. lo! what fruit remains? As the bold bird her helpless young attends. and my deeds make good. by my labours saved. and not to the successful plunderer. Her wives. A life of labours. And sweat laborious days in dust and blood. and that many of the chieftains busied themselves in piratical expeditions about its neighborhood. her infants. that the war at Troy was not a settled siege. And with the untasted food supplies her care: For thankless Greece such hardships have I braved. In search of prey she wings the spacious air. Who yields ignobly. Of all my dangers." Then thus the goddess-born: "Ulysses. Alike regretted in the dust he lies. Long toils. Which nor Atrides nor his Greeks can bend. 207 . I sack'd twelve ample cities on the main.

I trust not kings again. Deceived for once. may consult with you. Some few my soldiers had. and the spoils I made.278 The Iliad of Homer [170] And twelve lay smoking on the Trojan plain: Then at Atrides' haughty feet were laid The wealth I gathered. himself the rest. all proffers I disdain. Some present. Nor did my fair one less distinction claim. Ulysses. then. nor dared to wait . Your king. Wrong'd in my love. too. What needs he the defence this arm can make? Has he not walls no human force can shake? Has he not fenced his guarded navy round With piles. my soul adored the dame. But what's the quarrel. of all his train. Ye have my answer—what remains to do. Your mighty monarch these in peace possess'd. See what pre-eminence our merits gain! My spoil alone his greedy soul delights: My spouse alone must bless his lustful nights: The woman. What calls for vengeance but a woman's cause? Are fair endowments and a beauteous face Beloved by none but those of Atreus' race? The wife whom choice and passion doth approve. to every prince was paid. and a trench profound? And will not these (the wonders he has done) Repel the rage of Priam's single son? There was a time ('twas when for Greece I fought) When Hector's prowess no such wonders wrought. And every prince enjoys the gift he made: I only must refund. Sure every wise and worthy man will love. with ramparts. of Greece to Troy? What to these shores the assembled nations draws. let him (as he may) enjoy. He kept the verge of Troy. Slave as she was.

BOOK IX. (For arm'd in impudence.) Tell him.208 If mighty Neptune send propitious gales. Pthia to her Achilles shall restore The wealth he left for this detested shore: Thither the spoils of this long war shall pass. But now those ancient enmities are o'er. all commerce I decline. the steel. His gifts are hateful: kings of such a kind Stand but as slaves before a noble mind. One only valued gift your tyrant gave. all terms. that all the Greeks may hear. nor his battle join. And that resumed—the fair Lyrnessian slave. Though shameless as he is. run where frenzy drives. . No—let the stupid prince. Then shall you see our parting vessels crown'd. And hear with oars the Hellespont resound. Not though he proffer'd all himself possess'd. to face these eyes Is what he dares not: if he dares he dies. was his. Achilles' fury at the Scaean gate. and shining brass: My beauteous captives thither I'll convey. And all that rests of my unravish'd prey. mankind he braves. And meditates new cheats on all his slaves. but twice were mine. The third day hence shall Pthia greet our sails. He tried it once. To-morrow we the favouring gods implore. Nor share his council. The ruddy gold. For once deceiv'd. And all his rapine could from others wrest: Not all the golden tides of wealth that crown 208 279 [171] —Pthia. Then tell him: loud. the capital of Achilles' Thessalian domains. And learn to scorn the wretch they basely fear. whom Jove deprives Of sense and justice. and scarce was saved by fate.

The world's great empress on the Egyptian plain (That spreads her conquests o'er a thousand states. Two hundred horsemen and two hundred cars From each wide portal issuing to the wars). Should all these offers for my friendship call. but also other rivers from Parnassus and Helicon" (Grote. —Orchomenian town. Content with just hereditary sway. The reverend Peleus shall elect my wife. or designedly choked up by an enemy." &c. a large portion of the lake was in the condition of alluvial land. pre-eminently rich and fertile. "As long as the channels of these waters were diligently watched and kept clear." (Ibid. The topography of Orchomenus. in Boeotia. 181). in number more Than dust in fields.. the water accumulated in such a degree as to occupy the soil of more than one ancient islet.210 Though bribes were heap'd on bribes. 162. p. p. Like golden Venus though she charm'd the heart. See notes to my prose translation.209 Not all proud Thebes' unrivall'd walls contain.280 The Iliad of Homer [172] The many-peopled Orchomenian town. my years shall glide away. 209 . vol. And pours her heroes through a hundred gates. If heaven restore me to my realms with life. "on the northern bank of the lake Æpais. and to occasion the change of the site of Orchomenus itself from the plain to the declivity of Mount Hyphanteion. Some greater Greek let those high nuptials grace. And vied with Pallas in the works of art. Bless'd in kind love. or sands along the shore." as it was. seems to be merely expressive of a great number. I hate alliance with a tyrant's race.) 210 The phrase "hundred gates. 'Tis he that offers. But when the channels came to be either neglected. which receives not only the river Cephisus from the valleys of Phocis. and I scorn them all. Thessalian nymphs there are of form divine. And kings that sue to mix their blood with mine. "situated. Atrides' daughter never shall be led (An ill-match'd consort) to Achilles' bed. was a sufficient reason for its prosperity and decay.

deaf for ever to the martial strife. Let all your forces. the chiefs. and his will be free. in peace and pride of sway. Here. Bid all your counsels. To save the ships. Jove's arm display'd asserts her from the skies! Her hearts are strengthen'd. and others will: Ye find. There. all your armies join. the troops. proposed. and long-extended days. Short is my date. Life is not to be bought with heaps of gold. Go then to Greece. their native seats enjoy. Convinced. Go then—digest my message as ye may— But here this night let reverend Phoenix stay: His tedious toils and hoary hairs demand A peaceful death in Pthia's friendly land. I quit immortal praise For years on years. before the Trojan town. And each alternate. And steeds unrivall'd on the dusty plain: But from our lips the vital spirit fled. His age be sacred. Returns no more to wake the silent dead. Not all Apollo's Pythian treasures hold. if I stay.BOOK IX. I find my fond mistake. and her glories rise. though late." 281 . To quit these shores. Achilles is unconquer'd still. But whether he remain or sail with me. Can bribe the poor possession of a day! Lost herds and treasures we by arms regain. Or Troy once held. life or fame. My fates long since by Thetis were disclosed. Enjoy the dear prerogative of life. report our fix'd design. One stratagem has fail'd. And warn the Greeks the wiser choice to make. all your arts conspire. Nor hope the fall of heaven-defended Troy. from fire. but deathless my renown: If I return.

(Down his white beard a stream of sorrow flows. With accent weak these tender words return'd. Then Phoenix rose.) And while the fate of suffering Greece he mourn'd. in consternation drown'd. Attend the stern reply.282 The Iliad of Homer GREEK GALLEY. . The son of Peleus ceased: the chiefs around In silence wrapt.


restore The bloom I boasted. the vengeful fiends below. On fat of rams.' Infernal Jove. the land of lovely dames). and in camps to dare. When Greece of old beheld my youthful flames (Delightful Greece. 'Ye furies! barren be his bed. Never. and with force detain. I tried what youth could do (at her desire) To win the damsel. And new to perils of the direful field: He bade me teach thee all the ways of war. never let me leave thy side! No time shall part us. our fleets on fire? If wrath so dreadful fill thy ruthless mind. when from Pthia's coast He sent thee early to the Achaian host. with draughts of fragrant wine. Strong guards they placed. black bulls.284 The Iliad of Homer [173] "Divine Achilles! wilt thou then retire. adored a stranger's charms. Despair and grief distract my labouring mind! Gods! what a crime my impious heart design'd! I thought (but some kind god that thought suppress'd) To plunge the poniard in my father's breast. Old as he was. . They daily feast. ah. My father faithless to my mother's arms. And cries. My sire with curses loads my hated head. And ruthless Proserpine. and prevent my sire. How shall thy friend. and the port I bore. and brawny swine. that breathed my life. Thy youth as then in sage debates unskill'd. and no fate divide. Then meditate my flight: my friends in vain With prayers entreat me. To shine in councils. and watch'd nine nights entire. confirm'd his vow. thy Phoenix. Not though the god. stay behind? The royal Peleus. And leave our hosts in blood.

No food was grateful but from Phoenix' hand. unseen of all: And. omits the natural (and. while round my neck thy hands were lock'd. let me add.— "Many gifts he gave. And all the coast that runs along the main. Pope. by Phoenix wouldst thou stand. and with possessions bless'd. And early wisdom to thy soul convey'd: Great as thou art. I fail'd not in my trust And oft. and o'er Dolopia bade me rule. but a hero gave. My travels thence through spacious Greece extend. 121) "is taken from the passage of Homer. p 88). thee in his arms He brought an infant.BOOK IX. From thy sweet lips the half articulate sound Of Father came. The tenth. favour'd by the night. as children use. and oft. In Phthia's court at last my labours end. Mewling and puking didst thou drench my tunic. which distinguished the age of Anne. The strong Dolopians thenceforth own'd my reign.211 285 [174] Compare the following pretty lines of Quintus Calaber (Dyce's Select Translations. By love to thee his bounties I repaid. on my bosom laid The precious charge. II ix. Your sire received me. The roofs and porches flamed with constant fire. in translating which. With gifts enrich'd. affecting) circumstance. my lessons made thee brave: A child I took thee. with that squeamish. Still in my arms (an ever-pleasing load) Or at my knee. o'erleap'd the wall. I forced the gates. and anxiously enjoin'd That I should rear thee as my own with all A parent's love. artificial taste." observes my learned friend (notes." "This description. Thy infant breast a like affection show'd." "And the wine Held to thy lips. as his son caress'd. and many a time in fits Of infant frowardness the purple juice 211 . p.

where injustice flies. and with dejected eyes. While Prayers. And Phoenix felt a father's joys in thee: Thy growing virtues justified my cares. of celestial race. For him they mediate to the throne above When man rejects the humble suit they make. Were rage still harbour'd in the haughty king. the compliant cares. Lame are their feet. and unconfined. From Jove commission'd.286 The Iliad of Homer [175] I pass my watchings o'er thy helpless years. Were these not paid thee by the terms we bring. Sweeps the wide earth. Who hears these daughters of almighty Jove. Rejecting thou hast deluged all my vest. to heal her wrongs. thy fatal rage. Offending man their high compassion wins. Constant they follow. The tender labours. The gods (I thought) reversed their hard decree. move slow behind." —Cowper. Prayers are Jove's daughters. . O let not headlong passion bear the sway These reconciling goddesses obey Due honours to the seed of Jove belong. Due honours calm the fierce. and bend the strong. and sacrifice. resign'd. and only wise) Are moved by offerings. erect. vows. fierce injustice then Descends to punish unrelenting men. and wrinkled is their face. And fill'd my bosom. and tramples o'er mankind. With humble mien. Now be thy rage. And promised comfort to my silver hairs. And daily prayers atone for daily sins. The sire revenges for the daughters' sake. A cruel heart ill suits a manly mind: The gods (the only great. Injustice swift.

the bold Curetes fail'd. That levell'd harvests. A great example drawn from times of old. see Grote. And mutual deaths were dealt with mutual chance. Nor Greece nor all her fortunes should engage Thy friend to plead against so just a rage. 212 . sqq. 287 "Where Calydon on rocky mountains stands212 Once fought the Ætolian and Curetian bands. The best and noblest of the Grecian train. 166. On OEneus fields she sent a monstrous boar. see my notes to the prose translation. a new debate arose. In vengeance of neglected sacrifice. Permit not these to sue. —Where Calydon.BOOK IX. And sends by those whom most thy heart commends. p. 195. vol. and for the authorities. Hear what our fathers were. The silver Cynthia bade contention rise.. for his spoils. i. To guard it those. too long to be inserted here. The neighbour nations thence commencing foes. While Meleager's thundering arm prevail'd: Till rage at length inflamed his lofty breast (For rage invades the wisest and the best). and what their praise. and whole forests tore: This beast (when many a chief his tusks had slain) Great Meleager stretch'd along the plain. But since what honour asks the general sends. Then. these advance. to conquer. Strong as they were. For a good sketch of the story of Meleager. p. Who conquer'd their revenge in former days. and sue in vain! Let me (my son) an ancient fact unfold.

a chosen band. and rejects them all. Besought the chief to save the sinking state: Their prayers were urgent. sues. Meanwhile the victor's shouts ascend the skies. divinely fair. In vain Ætolia her deliverer waits. She beat the ground. aged OEneus. more than man in war: The god of day adored the mother's charms. War shakes her walls. Whose luckless hand his royal uncle slew. and supplicating tears. The walls are scaled. (She from Marpessa sprung. and elders of the land.288 The Iliad of Homer [176] "Cursed by Althaea. Hell heard her curses from the realms profound. the mourning mother's woe. the rolling flames arise. With piercing cries. And call'd Alcyone. and their proffers great: (Full fifty acres of the richest ground. to his wrath he yields. came. his friends before him fall: He stands relentless. At length his wife (a form divine) appears. Half pasture green. She sent ambassadors. And in his wife's embrace forgets the fields. and thunders at her gates. Against the god the father bent his arms: The afflicted pair.) To her the chief retired from stern debate. From Cleopatra changed their daughter's name. Priests of the gods. . His sisters follow'd. Althaea. their sorrows to proclaim. even the vengeful dame. and half with vineyards crown'd:) His suppliant father. And matchless Idas. and call'd the powers beneath On her own son to wreak her brother's death. a name to show The father's grief. And the red fiends that walk the nightly round. But found no peace from fierce Althaea's hate: Althaea's hate the unhappy warrior drew.

no such gifts demands. Nor stay till yonder fleets ascend in fire. and his will confines. Yet hear one word. And left the chief their broken faith to mourn. The heroes slain.BOOK IX. And be amongst our guardian gods adored. One should our interests and our passions be. draw thy conquering sword. he vanquish'd. For him these sorrows? for my mortal foe? A generous friendship no cold medium knows. She paints the horrors of a conquer'd town." 289 Thus he: the stern Achilles thus replied: "My second father. betimes to curb pernicious ire. and my reverend guide: Thy friend. with one resentment glows. or our stay. Learn hence. Burns with one love. and favours my designs. And asks no honours from a mortal's hands. and my heart. long disdain'd. my honours. And share my realms. Let these return: our voyage. The Ætolians. Accept the presents. and lodge it in thy heart: No more molest me on Atrides' part: Is it for him these tears are taught to flow. 'tis a generous part. the whole race enslaved: The warrior heard. Do this. believe me. the palaces o'erthrown." . Jove honours me. now took their turn. And here I stay (if such his high behest) While life's warm spirit beats within my breast. My friend must hate the man that injures me. The matrons ravish'd. and he saved. Rest undetermined till the dawning day. my Phoenix. His pleasure guides me.

that the law of honour among the Greeks did not compel them to treasure up in their memory the offensive language which might be addressed to them by a passionate adversary. 180. seven are offer'd. stern Ajax his long silence broke. and to thy guests be kind. then order'd for the sage's bed A warmer couch with numerous carpets spread. Who honour worth. Then hear. that iron heart retains Its stubborn purpose. And gifts can conquer every soul but thine." "Gifts can conquer"—It is well observed by Bishop Thirlwall. to Ulysses spoke: [177] "Hence let us go—why waste we time in vain? See what effect our low submissions gain! Liked or not liked. and of equal charms. and our heroes wait." vol. nor to conceive that it left a stain which could only be washed away by blood. One woman-slave was ravish'd from thy arms: Lo. impatient. the murderer lives: The haughtiest hearts at length their rage resign. p.213 The gods that unrelenting breast have steel'd. and his friends disdains. A sire the slaughter of his son forgives. i. Even for real and deep injuries they were commonly willing to accept a pecuniary compensation. And thus. The price of blood discharged. On just atonement. The Greeks expect them.290 The Iliad of Homer He ceased. And cursed thee with a mind that cannot yield. and prize thy valour most. With that. his words we must relate. Revere thy roof. Proud as he is." 213 . And know the men of all the Grecian host. Stern and unpitying! if a brother bleed. Achilles! be of better mind. we remit the deed. "Greece.

Not till. The glorious combat is no more my care. [178] . "O soul of battles. Meantime Achilles' slaves prepared a bed. through the gloomy shades. Not till the flames. by Hector's fury thrown. Whose nightly joys the beauteous Iphis shared. The chiefs return. amidst yon sinking navy slain. and in his warm embrace Fair Diomede of the Lesbian race. and there feel our hand. Consume your vessels. till the sacred morn restored the day. Then to their vessels. the impetuous homicide shall stand. Achilles to his friend consign'd her charms When Scyros fell before his conquering arms. but at the tyrant's name My rage rekindles. And cast a large libation on the ground. an ampler space. carpets. each prince a double goblet crown'd. Last. and soft linen spread: There. for Patroclus was the couch prepared. There cease his battle. and thy people's guide! (To Ajax thus the first of Greeks replied) Well hast thou spoke. dishonour'd. and approach my own. heroes! and our answer bear. With fleeces. divine Ulysses leads. Just there. The blood of Greeks shall dye the sable main. Achilles slept. and becomes the brave: Disgraced. then. In slumber sweet the reverend Phoenix lay. But in his inner tent. like the vilest slave! Return." 291 This said.BOOK IX. and my soul's on flame: 'Tis just resentment.

The peers and leaders of the Achaian bands Hail'd their return: Atrides first begun: "Say what success? divine Laertes' son! Achilles' high resolves declare to all: "Returns the chief. but left to Greece and thee. To save our army. unconquer'd is his pride. Your eyes shall view. Beneath his oars the whitening billows fly. with fiercer fury burns. Safe to transport him to his native plains When morning dawns. and reach'd the royal tent. Such was his word: what further he declared. or must our navy fall?" "Great king of nations! (Ithacus replied) Fix'd is his wrath. when morning paints the sky. thy proposals scorns. with goblets in their hands." . His age is sacred. Pass'd through the hosts. and his choice is free. Us too he bids our oars and sails employ.292 The Iliad of Homer And now the elected chiefs whom Greece had sent. But Phoenix in his tent the chief retains. Then rising all. and bids her glory shine. thus implored. He slights thy friendship. if other he decree. These sacred heralds and great Ajax heard. Inspires her war. and our fleets to free. And. Nor hope the fall of heaven-protected Troy. For Jove o'ershades her with his arm divine. Is not his care.

Ranged at the ships."214 214 "The boon of sleep. Tydides broke The general silence. to his madness. and undaunted spoke. Ulysses ceased: the great Achaian host. "Why should we gifts to proud Achilles send. Till sleep. (For strength consists in spirits and in blood. Be the fierce impulse of his rage obey'd. Or strive with prayers his haughty soul to bend? His country's woes he glories to deride. And those are owed to generous wine and food. bestows The grateful blessings of desired repose.BOOK IX. let due repast refresh our powers. is always ours. With sorrow seized. or to Heaven commit: What for ourselves we can. This night. Then each to Heaven the due libations pays. let all our squadrons shine In flaming arms. Our battles let him or desert or aid. Then let him arm when Jove or he think fit: That. a long-extended line: In the dread front let great Atrides stand. as in high command."—Milton . The first in danger. in consternation lost. Attend the stern reply.) But when the rosy messenger of day Strikes the blue mountains with her golden ray." 293 [179] Shouts of acclaim the listening heroes raise. And prayers will burst that swelling heart with pride. descending o'er the tents.

.294 The Iliad of Homer ACHILLES.

but passes through the camp. They call a council of war. to learn their posture. kill Rhesus. 767. and Diomed are employed in raising the rest of the captains. Ulysses." —Dryden's Virgil. and discover their intentions. They pass on with success. and the Thracians who were lately arrived.[180] BOOK X. and makes choice of Ulysses for his companion. and seize the famous horses of that prince. and contriving all possible methods for the public safety. THE NIGHT-ADVENTURE OF DIOMED AND ULYSSES. with which they return in triumph to the camp. ARGUMENT. Diomed undertakes this hazardous enterprise. awaking the leaders. and particularly of Rhesus. the distress of Agamemnon is described in the most lively manner. In their passage they surprise Dolon. the scene lies in the two camps. and determine to send scouts into the enemies' camp. Upon the refusal of Achilles to return to the army. iv. And lost in sleep the labours of the day: All but the king: with various thoughts oppress'd. . whom Hector had sent on a like design to the camp of the Grecians. The same night continues.215 215 "All else of nature's common gift partake: Unhappy Dido was alone awake. Nestor. with several of his officers. Menelaus. He takes no rest that night. All night the chiefs before their vessels lay. From him they are informed of the situation of the Trojan and auxiliary forces.

in sacrifice to Jove. Hears in the passing wind their music blow. Or sends soft snows to whiten all the shore. Or bids the brazen throat of war to roar. Now looking backwards to the fleet and coast. And marks distinct the voices of the foe. He rose. he surveys From thousand Trojan fires the mounting blaze. dejected. To seek sage Nestor now the chief resolves. that in his cause before So much had suffer'd and must suffer more. and wage a double war. A thousand cares his labouring breast revolves. A lion's yellow spoils his back conceal'd. Laments for Greece. press'd with equal woes. while glory and despair Divide his heart.296 The Iliad of Homer [181] His country's cares lay rolling in his breast. His warlike hand a pointed javelin held. in wholesome counsels. As when by lightnings Jove's ethereal power Foretels the rattling hail. Meanwhile his brother. to debate What yet remains to save the afflicted state. With him. A leopard's spotted hide his shoulders spread: A brazen helmet glitter'd on his head: . and first he cast his mantle round. By fits one flash succeeds as one expires. Now o'er the fields. Sighs following sighs his inward fears confess'd. He rends his hair. Alike denied the gifts of soft repose. And heaven flames thick with momentary fires: So bursting frequent from Atrides' breast. Next on his feet the shining sandals bound. or weighty shower. Anxious he sorrows for the endangered host. And sues to him that ever lives above: Inly he groans.

BOOK X. Yet such his acts. averse. Atrides he descried. is now no easy part. His armour buckling at his vessel's side. For Jove. and of no goddess born. But asks high wisdom. through night's dark shade to go. Already waked. [182] . Ourself to hoary Nestor will repair. the Spartan thus begun: "Why puts my brother his bright armour on? Sends he some spy. To try yon camp. "Now speed thy hasty course along the fleet. And we beheld. alone. In one great day. and art. And bows his head to Hector's sacrifice. There call great Ajax. or what ear believed. What eye has witness'd. our humble prayer denies. deep design. Greece to preserve. Thus (with a javelin in his hand) he went To wake Atrides in the royal tent. as Greeks unborn shall tell. Joyful they met. the last revolving sun What honours the beloved of Jove adorn! Sprung from no god. and the prince of Crete. amidst these silent hours. And midst a hostile camp explore the foe. by one great arm achieved. Such wondrous deeds as Hector's hand has done. To keep the guards on duty be his care." 297 To whom the king: "In such distress we stand. and watch the Trojan powers? But say. Guideless. And curse the battle where their fathers fell. what hero shall sustain that task? Such bold exploits uncommon courage ask. No vulgar counsel our affairs demand.

The dreadful weapons of the warrior's rage. the shield he rears. The shining helmet. old in arms. And when Jove gave us life. with your voice the slothful soldiers raise.298 The Iliad of Homer (For Nestor's influence best that quarter guides. or with despatch return?" "There shall thou stay. Not titles here.") To whom the Spartan: "These thy orders borne. without a guide. each parted to his several cares: The king to Nestor's sable ship repairs. Urge by their fathers' fame their future praise. and the camp so wide. Whose son with Merion. leaning on his hand his watchful head. While others sleep. The hoary monarch raised his eyes and said: "What art thou. disdain'd the peace of age. Then. o'er the watch presides. approach not. Forget we now our state and lofty birth. shall I stay. he gave us woe. that on designs unknown. Still. but thy purpose tell. The paths so many. That." This said. (the king of men replied." . and the pointed spears. speak. Say. To labour is the lot of man below.) Else may we miss to meet. The sage protector of the Greeks he found Stretch'd in his bed with all his arms around The various-colour'd scarf. but works. must prove our worth. Seek'st thou some friend or nightly sentinel? Stand off. thus range the camp alone.

(Since cares.) Impart thy counsel. Meges for strength. With fears distracted. Oileus famed for speed. and sad. 299 [183] . Diomed. if the gods ordain That great Achilles rise and rage again. To those tall ships." To him thus Nestor: "Trust the powers above. And all my people's miseries are mine. What toils attend thee. with no fix'd design. and what woes remain! Lo. Else may the sudden foe our works invade.) Pride of the Greeks. Nor think proud Hector's hopes confirm'd by Jove: How ill agree the views of vain mankind. Whom Jove decrees with daily cares to bend. If aught of use thy waking thoughts suggest. Now let us jointly to the trench descend. faithful Nestor thy command obeys. "O son of Neleus. like mine. So near. remotest of the fleet. and glory of thy kind! Lo. I wander thus alone. No taste of sleep these heavy eyes have known. And the wise counsels of the eternal mind! Audacious Hector. we chiefly need. deprive thy soul of rest. here the wretched Agamemnon stands.BOOK X. (thus the king rejoin'd. that only with his life shall end! Scarce can my knees these trembling limbs sustain. Tired with the toils of day and watch of night. The care is next our other chiefs to raise: Ulysses. And scarce my heart support its load of pain. At every gate the fainting guard excite. Confused. The unhappy general of the Grecian bands. and assist thy friend. Some other be despatch'd of nimbler feet. and favour'd by the gloomy shade. And woes.

and urges all our hands." With that. Content to follow when we lead the way: But now. that claims no share With his great brother in his martial care: Him it behoved to every chief to sue. Then rushing from his tent. our ills industrious to prevent. between the trench and gates. The chiefs you named. The camp he traversed through the sleeping crowd. Dear as he is to us. our chosen council waits." To whom the king: "With reverence we allow Thy just rebukes. Claims all our hearts. and doubly lined. and sought my tent. Prepare to meet us near the navy-wall. Near the night-guards. Long ere the rest he rose. The shining greaves his manly legs enclose. the venerable warrior rose. he snatch'd in haste His steely lance. Warm with the softest wool. yet learn to spare them now: My generous brother is of gentle kind. For great examples justify command. His purple mantle golden buckles join'd. 216 —The king of Crete: Idomeneus." "Then none (said Nestor) shall his rule withstand. and call'd aloud.216 To rouse the Spartan I myself decree. but bears a valiant mind. and dear to thee. Stopp'd at Ulysses' tent. . Yet must I tax his sloth. He seems remiss. Through too much deference to our sovereign sway. For strong necessity our toils demands. Assembling there. already at his call. Preventing every part perform'd by you.300 The Iliad of Homer Where lie great Ajax and the king of Crete. that lighten'd as he pass'd.

A bull's black hide composed the hero's bed. The warrior saw the hoary chief. and follow'd through the field. Shot from their flashing points a quivering light. All sheathed in arms. and shades our walls below?" At this. Then. old Nestor gently shakes The slumbering chief. be now thy wisdom tried: Whatever means of safety can be sought. all depend on this important night!" He heard. and issues from his tent. starts up. and in these words awakes: "Rise. Awakes. A splendid carpet roll'd beneath his head. All. sudden as the voice was sent. son of Tydeus! to the brave and strong Rest seems inglorious. Let younger Greeks our sleeping warriors wake. with his foot. Ulysses. Whatever counsels can inspire our thought. His head reclining on his bossy shield. and said: "Wondrous old man! whose soul no respite knows. and took his painted shield. that. "What new distress. what sudden cause of fright. bold Diomed they found.BOOK X. Though years and honours bid thee seek repose. soft slumber from his eyelids fled. Without his tent. Then join'd the chiefs. and the night too long. return'd. Ill fits thy age these toils to undertake." 301 [184] . fix'd upright. extended on the field. Whatever methods. when from yon hill the foe Hangs o'er the fleet. his brave companions round: Each sunk in sleep. A wood of spears stood by. or to fly or fight. But sleep'st thou now. Thus leads you wandering in the silent night?" "O prudent chief! (the Pylian sage replied) Wise as thou art.

and strode along. and rouse the rest.302 The Iliad of Homer "My friend. drew their ears and eyes: Each step of passing feet increased the affright. with hunger bold. Employ thy youth as I employ my age. [185] . and to the entrenchments lead. And." This said. He serves me most. Springs from the mountains toward the guarded fold: Through breaking woods her rustling course they hear. When the gaunt lioness. So faithful dogs their fleecy charge maintain. Thus watch'd the Grecians. each motion. (he answered. Each single Greek. if my years thy kind regard engage. the clamours strike their ear Of hounds and men: they start. that to his ankles hung. with Ajax famed for speed. And now the chiefs approach the nightly guard. Watch every side. in this conclusive strife. couching close.) generous is thy care. they gaze around. Stands on the sharpest edge of death or life: Yet. Then seized his ponderous lance. and turn to every sound. no moment must be lost. Meges the bold. Loud. who serves his country best. each in arms prepared: The unwearied watch their listening leaders keep. The warrior roused. A wakeful squadron. Succeed to these my cares. the hero o'er his shoulders flung A lion's spoils. Each voice. With toil protected from the prowling train. These toils. No hour must pass. Their loyal thoughts and pious love conspire To ease a sovereign and relieve a sire: But now the last despair surrounds our host. repel invading sleep. my subjects and my sons might bear. and more loud. cautious of surprise.

Else must our host become the scorn of Troy. And pass unharm'd the dangers of the night. or seize some straggling foe? Or favour'd by the night approach so near. and godlike Merion. or men have tongues to praise! What gifts his grateful country would bestow! What must not Greece to her deliverer owe? 303 . The council opening. in these words begun: "Is there (said he) a chief so greatly brave. Then o'er the trench the following chieftains led. their counsels. While Phoebus shines. yet undefiled with gore. Watch thus. The spot where Hector stopp'd his rage before. A place there was." The hero said. His son. my sons! your nightly cares employ. What fame were his through all succeeding days. Nestor with joy the wakeful band survey'd. "'Tis well. who singly dares to go To yonder camp. the assembled kings around In silent state the consistory crown'd. and Greece shall live. and designs to hear? If to besiege our navies they prepare. Or Troy once more must be the seat of war? This could he learn. And thus accosted through the gloomy shade. And all his progress mark'd by heaps of dead:) There sat the mournful kings: when Neleus' son.BOOK X. and to our peers recite. The trenches pass'd. When night descending. from his vengeful hand Reprieved the relics of the Grecian band: (The plain beside with mangled corps was spread. march'd behind (For these the princes to their council join'd). and his country save? Lives there a man. Their speech. His life to hazard. And hostile Troy was ever full in sight.

And his the foremost honours of the feast. is only thine. and second my design. At every rite his share should be increased. Great deeds are done. and great discoveries made. To birth. or office. Let worth determine here." The monarch spake. And inly trembled for his brother's sake. By mutual confidence and mutual aid. no respect be paid. Tydides spoke—"The man you seek is here. So brave a task each Ajax strove to share. Bold Merion strove.304 The Iliad of Homer A sable ewe each leader should provide. . and I obey. untaught to fear. The Spartan wish'd the second place to gain. To raise my hopes. Then thus the king of men the contest ends: "Thou first of warriors. and Nestor's valiant heir. Just be thy choice. And great Ulysses wish'd." [186] Fear held them mute: alone. And one brave hero fans another's fire. Each generous breast with emulation glows. The wise new prudence from the wise acquire." Contending leaders at the word arose. without affection made. Some god within commands. Through yon black camps to bend my dangerous way. But let some other chosen warrior join. Undaunted Diomed! what chief to join In this great enterprise. nor wish'd in vain. With each a sable lambkin by her side. and thou best of friends.

rich Ormenus' son. A bow and quiver. and with no plume o'erspread: (Such as by youths unused to arms are worn:) No spoils enrich it. a kind of woollen stuffing. and no studs adorn. with leather braces bound. with generous ardour press'd. to Tydides gave: Then in a leathern helm he cased his head. But let us haste—Night rolls the hours away.) to praise me.217 A boar's white teeth grinn'd horrid o'er his head. A two-edged falchion Thrasymed the brave. so dreadful. 217 . and make the helmet fit close. while great Ulysses stands To lend his counsels and assist our hands? A chief. Short of its crest. 305 [187] —Soft wool within. How can I doubt." "It fits thee not. So famed. to protect the head. And ample buckler. This from Amyntor. without. in the works of war: Bless'd in his conduct. before these chiefs of fame. And of night's empire but a third remains. In arms terrific their huge limbs they dress'd. i e. The stars shine fainter on the ethereal plains. or censure from a foe. "Then thus (the godlike Diomed rejoin'd) My choice declares the impulse of my mind.BOOK X. Meriones." Thus having spoke. with bright arrows stored: A well-proved casque.) his temples crown'd. Are lost on hearers that our merits know. Next him Ulysses took a shining sword. I no aid require. The reddening orient shows the coming day. or to blame: Praise from a friend. in order spread. pressed in between the straps. (Thy gift. Wisdom like his might pass through flames of fire. whose safety is Minerva's care. (Replied the sage. Soft wool within.

all my toils survey! Safe may we pass beneath the gloomy shade. and sought the Theban towers. though surrounding shades obscured their view. And gave Amphidamas. Who all my motions. O celestial maid! . and address'd the maid: "O daughter of that god whose arm can wield The avenging bolt. By the shrill clang and whistling wings they knew. Great queen of arms. And now Ulysses' thoughtful temples press'd. the council they forsake. the pledge of social ties.306 The Iliad of Homer Autolycus by fraudful rapine won. Thus sheathed in arms. and shake the dreadful shield! O thou! for ever present in my way. but return'd a foe: Then help'd by thee. Just then. And let some deed this signal night adorn. So now be present. Ulysses pray'd. The helmet next by Merion was possess'd. and cover'd by thy shield. He fought with numbers. received with peaceful show. in sign she favour'd their intent. unconquer'd Pallas! hear. from him the prize Molus received. Hail'd the glad omen. To claim the tears of Trojans yet unborn. As from the right she soar'd. When on Æsopus' banks the banded powers Of Greece he left." Then godlike Diomed preferr'd his prayer: "Daughter of Jove. He went a legate. As thou defend'st the sire. Safe by thy succour to our ships convey'd. and made numbers yield. A long-wing'd heron great Minerva sent: This. whose favour Tydeus won. defend the son. And dark through paths oblique their progress take. Peace was his charge.

Of all the plunder of the vanquish'd host. o'er arms. like two lions panting for the prey. 307 Nor less bold Hector. Dares greatly venture for a rich reward? Of yonder fleet a bold discovery make. And his the glory to have served so well. Whose taper tops refulgent gold adorns. succeeds their enterprise. Untamed. unconscious of the galling yoke. and the sons of Troy. What watch they keep. through blood. And. With dreadful thoughts they trace the dreary way. for high attempts prepared. neglect the watch of night? His be the chariot that shall please him most. Through the black horrors of the ensanguined plain. Now.BOOK X. With ample forehead. and Pallas from the skies Accords their vow. and hills of slain. and what resolves they take? If now subdued they meditate their flight. The assembled peers their lofty chief enclosed. Who thus the counsels of his breast proposed: "What glorious man. and with spreading horns. So still continue to the race thine aid! A youthful steer shall fall beneath the stroke." The heroes pray'd. On high designs the wakeful hours employ. spent with toil. Through dust. His the fair steeds that all the rest excel." [188] .

A ferret's downy fur his helmet lined.) . (Still bending forward as he coursed along. (Five girls beside the reverend herald told. And in his hand a pointed javelin shined. Fulfil thy wish." Thus Hector swore: the gods were call'd in vain. no idle scout I go. and explore the fleet: But first exalt thy sceptre to the skies. Scarce had he pass'd the steeds and Trojan throng. and matchless in the race. And trod the path his feet must tread no more.) Rich was the son in brass. all their aims betray. and the glittering car.308 The Iliad of Homer A youth there was among the tribes of Troy. Not bless'd by nature with the charms of face. Dolon his name. Eumedes' only boy. And swear to grant me the demanded prize. "Hector! (he said) my courage bids me meet This high achievement. and rich in gold." The chief then heaved the golden sceptre high. Attesting thus the monarch of the sky: "Be witness thou! immortal lord of all! Whose thunder shakes the dark aerial hall: By none but Dolon shall this prize be borne. Then (never to return) he sought the shore. Encouraged thus. But swift of foot. And him alone the immortal steeds adorn. That bear Pelides through the ranks of war. The immortal coursers. A wolf's grey hide around his shoulders hung. And all their counsels. But the rash youth prepares to scour the plain: Across his back the bended bow he flung. Even to the royal tent pursue my way. their whole intention know.

heard them as they pass'd. to lurk beside the main. so constant. Soft. they intercept his way.) behind a heap of dead: Along the path the spy unwary flew. the approaching tread Ulysses mark'd. So close. he perceived the foe. Now almost on the fleet the dastard falls. "O friend! I hear some step of hostile feet. But if too swift of foot he flies before. And from the herd still turn the flying prey: So fast. Confine his course along the fleet and shore. and stoop'd their head. on the hollow way. at just distance. And mingles with the guards that watch the walls. listening. Some spy. (As Dolon pass'd. Yet let him pass. So distant they. and with such fears. or hastening to the fleet.) When now new furrows part the approaching ploughs. and thus to Diomed. Now Dolon. and prevent his pace. the Trojan flew. Till scarce at distance of a javelin's throw. now seen. Betwixt the camp and him our spears employ. and win a little space.BOOK X. Or nightly pillager that strips the slain. perhaps. Then rush behind him. Hector (he thought) had sent. As when two teams of mules divide the green. And intercept his hoped return to Troy." With that they stepp'd aside. Now lost. and check'd his haste. (To whom the hind like shares of land allows. both the chiefs pursue. When. Moving this way. As when two skilful hounds the leveret wind. Or chase through woods obscure the trembling hind. 309 [189] . No voice succeeding. and such the space between. the bold Greeks pursue.

By Hector prompted. and for the breath I owe. Through heaps of carnage. Which wilful err'd. And snatch the glory from his lifted lance. and o'er his shoulder pass'd. And with unmanly tears his life demands. be bold. remain. and quiver'd as he stood. His loose teeth chatter'd. Then fix'd in earth." He said. and high in air the weapon cast. and his colour fled. To roam the silent fields in dead of night? Cam'st thou the secrets of our camp to find. or thy daring mind? Or art some wretch by hopes of plunder led. The panting warriors seize him as he stands. a gen'rous thought (Inspired by Pallas) in his bosom wrought. Against the trembling wood The wretch stood propp'd. What moves thee. "O spare my youth. A sudden palsy seized his turning head. This javelin else shall fix thee to the plain. Lest on the foe some forward Greek advance." To whom Ulysses made this wise reply: "Whoe'er thou art. Then thus aloud: "Whoe'er thou art. nor fear to die. And steel well-temper'd and refulgent gold. when sleep has closed the sight. Large gifts of price my father shall bestow: Vast heaps of brass shall in your ships be told.310 The Iliad of Homer When brave Tydides stopp'd. to despoil the dead?" . say.

you fix your hopes on flight. by Hector's words deceived. from their city far. and the truth recite! Where lies encamp'd the Trojan chief to-night? Where stand his coursers? in what quarter sleep Their other princes? tell what watch they keep: Say. Discharge their souls of half the fears of war." "Bold was thy aim. Or here to combat. the Trojans wake: Anxious for Troy. since this conquest. his faithful tongue shall own. this attempt to make. unwilling. And those swift steeds that sweep the ranks of war. No certain guards the nightly watch partake. the auxiliar forces sleep. the guard the natives keep. his limbs with horror shook:) "Hither I came.) Far other rulers those proud steeds demand. And. Achilles sprung from an immortal dame. (Ulysses. Where'er yon fires ascend. what their counsels are. To learn what counsels. Much did he promise." 311 .BOOK X. rashly I believed: No less a bribe than great Achilles' car. and glorious was the prize. Hector. replies. with a fearful look: (Still. as he spoke. the peers assembling in his tent. and thus Eumedes' son: "What Dolon knows. Even great Achilles scarce their rage can tame. A council holds at Ilus' monument. Safe in their cares. But say. tired with toils. from the danger far. Whose wives and infants. Or back to Ilion's walls transfer the war?" Ulysses thus. Then thus pale Dolon. be faithful. neglect the watch of night. with a scornful smile. what resolves you take: If now subdued. And scorn the guidance of a vulgar hand. Urged me.

flame with gold. encamp along the coast. till your return reveal The truth or falsehood of the news I tell. to your fleet be borne." To this Tydides. and white as winter-snow. with a gloomy frown: "Think not to live. dreadful with their bended bows. The Carians.312 The Iliad of Homer [191] "Then sleep those aids among the Trojan train. great Eioneus' son: I saw his coursers in proud triumph go. a captive's fate to mourn. Not distant far. Rich silver plates his shining car infold. (Inquired the chief. Celestial panoply. Caucons. and apart from all. and Maeonian band. though all the truth be shown: Shall we dismiss thee. refulgent. These Troy but lately to her succour won. In cruel chains. unhappy. And Leleges. No mortal shoulders suit the glorious load. lie higher on the land The Lycian. The Thracians utmost. by Thymbras' ancient wall. Or leave me here. His solid arms. to grace a god! Let me. the Pelasgian host." . thou betray'st no more.) or scattered o'er the plain?" To whom the spy: "Their powers they thus dispose The Paeons. Led on by Rhesus. And Phrygia's horse. in some future strife To risk more bravely thy now forfeit life? Or that again our camps thou may'st explore? No—once a traitor. Swift as the wind. Mysian.

And eased in sleep the labours of the day. yet speaking. the unbended bow and spear. and direct our ways!" This said. And points to Diomed the tempting prize. Through the brown shade the fulgid weapons shined: Amidst lay Rhesus. with dropping gore defaced. stretch'd in sleep profound. o'er arms and heaps of shields. These great Ulysses lifting to the skies. Then heap'd with reeds and gathered boughs the plain. the spoils. Sternly he spoke. mutter'd as it fell. and cuts the nerves in two. Like lightning swift the wrathful falchion flew. first of all the heavenly host. Slippery with blood. and as the wretch prepared With humble blandishment to stroke his beard. Thee. High on a spreading tamarisk he placed. Through the still night they cross the devious fields. The welcome sight Ulysses first descries. To favouring Pallas dedicates the prize: "Great queen of arms. Divides the neck. The head. To guide their footsteps to the place again. "The man. The wolf's grey hide.BOOK X. O speed our labours. One instant snatch'd his trembling soul to hell. Ranged in three lines they view the prostrate band: The horses yoked beside each warrior stand. and the car behold! Described by Dolon. And the white steeds behind his chariot bound. with the arms of gold. receive this hostile spoil. 313 . the coursers. we praise. And let the Thracian steeds reward our toil. Arriving where the Thracian squadrons lay. The furry helmet from his brow they tear. Their arms in order on the ground reclined.

and. The milk-white coursers studious to convey Safe to the ships. as it were.218 "All the circumstances of this action—the night. This image is very natural. Whose visionary steel his bosom tore: So dream'd the monarch. Rhesus buried in a profound sleep. Nor stopp'd the fury of his vengeful hand. On sheep or goats. resistless in his way. And a low groan remurmur'd through the shore. and tremble at the heaps of dead. and to think it not 218 [192] . Now twelve despatch'd.314 The Iliad of Homer Now. brave Tydides! now thy courage try. for a man in his condition awakes no farther than to see confusedly what environs him. So the grim lion. He falls. Approach the chariot. and Diomede with the sword in his hand hanging over the head of that prince—furnished Homer with the idea of this fiction. A warlike form appear'd before his tent. while I seize the steeds. beholding his enemy in a dream. and strung his nervous arms. and invades the pen. Tydides' falchion fix'd him to the ground. Just then a deathful dream Minerva sent. a purple stream pursued His thirsty falchion. which represents Rhesus lying fast asleep. Should start. the monarch last they found." Pallas (this said) her hero's bosom warms. he wisely cleared the way: Lest the fierce steeds. Ulysses following. Urge thou the slaughter. and awaked no more. O'erleaps the fences. Bathed all his footsteps. fat with hostile blood. plunging the sword into his bosom. Breathed in his heart. dyed the fields with gore. as his partner slew. Or if thy soul aspire to fiercer deeds. and the steeds untie. Till twelve lay breathless of the Thracian band. Where'er he pass'd. and foaming rends the guardless prey. Back by the foot each slaughter'd warrior drew. not yet to battles bred. from his nightly den.

Drag off the car where Rhesus' armour lay."—Pope. from further slaughter cease. Regard thy safety. and lift away. Haste to the ships. And leads them. and thus her chief commands: "Enough. Or heave with manly force. The coursers fly before Ulysses' bow. Swift as the wind. But him.BOOK X. Ulysses now the snowy steeds detains. and one cry'd murder. and mark'd Minerva's flight. and white as winter-snow. . Saw Tydeus' son with heavenly succour bless'd. and her word obey'd. and depart in peace." 315 [193] —Macbeth. Pallas appears. Doubtful he stood. a reality but a dream. (The scourge forgot. Nor tempt too far the hostile gods of Troy. he lash'd along. "There's one did laugh in his sleep. Not unobserved they pass'd: the god of light Had watch'd his Troy. fasten'd by the silver reins. with his bow unbent. While unresolved the son of Tydeus stands. on Rhesus' chariot hung. the gotten spoils enjoy. In haste he mounted. my son. And vengeful anger fill'd his sacred breast. These." The voice divine confess'd the martial maid. new achievements fire.) Then gave his friend the signal to retire. new dangers. Swift to the Trojan camp descends the power. They wak'd each other. or with his reeking blade To send more heroes to the infernal shade.

) He rose. and instructive friend.316 The Iliad of Homer And wakes Hippocoon in the morning-hour. On heaps the Trojans rush. but for his Rhesus most: Now while on Rhesus' name he calls in vain. dropping yet with Dolon's gore: Then mounts again. A faithful kinsman. Meanwhile the chiefs. with wild affright. For each he wept. . (On Rhesus' side accustom'd to attend. And wondering view the slaughters of the night. An empty space where late the coursers stood. again their nimbler feet The coursers ply. and saw the field deform'd with blood. and thunder towards the fleet. The gathering tumult spreads o'er all the plain. Ulysses stopp'd. to him Tydides bore The trophy. arriving at the shade Where late the spoils of Hector's spy were laid. DIOMED AND ULYSSES RETURNING WITH THE SPOILS OF RHESUS. The yet-warm Thracians panting on the coast.

The care of him who bids the thunder roar. Bless'd as ye are. conspicuous through the ranks of fight. ye gods! my pious hopes succeed) The great Tydides and Ulysses bear. the Greeks dismiss their fear: With words of friendship and extended hands They greet the kings. to age I scorn to yield. oh! perhaps those heroes are no more. That draw the burning chariot of the day. Old Nestor first perceived the approaching sound. so radiant and so gay. lo! the chiefs appear." . and Nestor first demands: "Say thou. Return'd triumphant with this prize of war. Yet much I fear (ah. I deem. And spring to earth. Thickening this way. Old as I am. even now pursued. Thou living glory of the Grecian name! Say whence these coursers? by what chance bestow'd. and favourites of the skies. whose fury bathes the world with gore. Some god. whose praises all our host proclaim. Bespeaking thus the Grecian peers around: "Methinks the noise of trampling steeds I hear. they seek the shore. conferred the glorious prize. But sure till now no coursers struck my sight Like these. or present of a god? Not those fair steeds. Perhaps some horses of the Trojan breed (So may." 317 [194] Scarce had he spoke. And daily mingle in the martial field. The spoil of foes. and gathering on my ear. And her. when.BOOK X. Perhaps. Or. may that fear be vain!) The chiefs outnumber'd by the Trojan train.

But Dolon's armour. He now lies headless on the sandy shore.) The gifts of heaven are of a nobler kind. to his ships convey'd. Straight to Tydides' high pavilion borne. Of Thracian lineage are the steeds ye view. A trophy destin'd to the blue-eyed maid. rejoicing in her aid divine. Now from nocturnal sweat and sanguine stain They cleanse their bodies in the neighb'ring main: Then in the polished bath. Sleeping he died. whose swiftness was his only fame. refresh'd from toil." Then o'er the trench the bounding coursers flew. A wretch. The matchless steeds his ample stalls adorn: The neighing coursers their new fellows greet. (sage Ithacus rejoin'd. . And the crown'd goblet foams with floods of wine. Their joints they supple with dissolving oil. Whose hostile king the brave Tydides slew. These other spoils from conquer'd Dolon came. The joyful Greeks with loud acclaim pursue.318 The Iliad of Homer "Father! not so. And first to Pallas the libations pour: They sit. And twelve beside lay gasping on the ground. And the full racks are heap'd with generous wheat. In due repast indulge the genial hour. High on the painted stern Ulysses laid. with all his guards around. By Hector sent our forces to explore.

being wounded by Paris. Ulysses and Diomed put a stop to him for a time but the latter. having armed himself. Patroclus. In the meantime Machaon. Achilles (who overlooked the action from his ship) sent Patroclus to inquire which of the Greeks was wounded in that manner. till Menelaus and Ajax rescue him. but that hero alone opposes multitudes. and rallies the Greeks. Juno. and the same day. wounded. Hector comes against Ajax. on his return. Hector prepares the Trojans to receive them. tending to put Patroclus upon persuading Achilles to fight for his countrymen. This book opens with the eight and-twentieth day of the poem. Agamemnon bears all before him and Hector is commanded by Jupiter (who sends Iris for that purpose) to decline the engagement. is obliged to desert his companion. and assists him in that distress. and carried from the fight in Nestor's chariot. AND THE ACTS OF AGAMEMNON. with its various actions and adventures is . and a long recital of some former wars which he remembered. and in the utmost danger. or at least to permit him to do it. is pierced with an arrow by Paris. Nestor entertains him in his tent with an account of the accidents of the day. who is encompassed by the Trojans.[195] BOOK XI. while Jupiter. ARGUMENT THE THIRD BATTLE. He then makes a great slaughter of the enemy. in the other wing of the army. till the king shall be wounded and retire from the field. meets Eurypylus also wounded. and Minerva give the signals of war. leads the Grecians to battle. Agamemnon. clad in Achilles' armour.

sent by Jove's command. thirteenth. and at the dire alarms Each bosom boils. No more they sigh. High on Ulysses' bark her horrid stand She took. And gild the courts of heaven with sacred light: When baleful Eris." Dryden's Virgil. inglorious to return. But breathe revenge. 639 . the guarded navy bound.219 Now rose refulgent from Tithonus' bed. The torch of discord blazing in her hand. And beams of early light the heavens o'erspread. The saffron morn. The scene lies in the field near the monument of Ilus. [196] Even Ajax and Achilles heard the sound. each warrior starts to arms. sixteenth. fourteenth. iv.320 The Iliad of Homer extended through the twelfth. with early blushes spread. seventeenth. remote. and for the combat burn. fifteenth. And. Whose ships. and part of the eighteenth books. 219 "Aurora now had left her saffron bed. wrapt in tempests. Through the red skies her bloody sign extends. and thunder'd through the seas and land. Thence the black fury through the Grecian throng With horror sounds the loud Orthian song: The navy shakes. With new-born day to gladden mortal sight. o'er the fleet descends.

BOOK XI. Twice ten of tin. The king of men his hardy host inspires With loud command. Whose imitated scales against the skies Reflected various light. nor sent in vain:) Ten rows of azure steel the work infold. with great example fires! Himself first rose. This glorious gift he sent. and twelve of ductile gold. 'Twas then. Like colour'd rainbows o'er a showery cloud . And first he cased his manly legs around In shining greaves with silver buckles bound. 321 THE DESCENT OF DISCORD. The beaming cuirass next adorn'd his breast. Three glittering dragons to the gorget rise. the friendship of the chief to gain. and arching bow'd. himself before the rest His mighty limbs in radiant armour dress'd. The same which once king Cinyras possess'd: (The fame of Greece and her assembled host Had reach'd that monarch on the Cyprian coast.

And circling terrors fill'd the expressive shield: Within its concave hung a silver thong. High o'er the chief they clash'd their arms in air. The fiery coursers to their chariots bound The squires restrain'd: the foot. On which a mimic serpent creeps along. rush forward to the field. and the martial maid. and golden hangers graced. .322 The Iliad of Homer [197] (Jove's wondrous bow. His buckler's mighty orb was next display'd. and lighten all the fields. His azure length in easy waves extends. a silver sheath encased The shining blade. Close to the limits of the trench and mound. A radiant baldric. The squadrons spread their sable wings behind. To second these. That blaze to heaven. Ten zones of brass its ample brim surround. leaning from the clouds. And twice ten bosses the bright convex crown'd: Tremendous Gorgon frown'd upon its field. And. in close array combined. Now shouts and tumults wake the tardy sun. With nodding horse-hair formidably graced. Sustain'd the sword that glitter'd at his side: Gold was the hilt. expect the war. Till in three heads the embroider'd monster ends. Last o'er his brows his fourfold helm he placed. In happy thunders promised Greece their aid. That round the warrior cast a dreadful shade. of three celestial dies. o'er his shoulder tied. That instant Juno. And in his hands two steely javelins wields. with those who wield The lighter arms. As with the light the warriors' toils begun. Placed as a sign to man amidst the skies).

of ascertained reality. Gier. Bear down the furrows. And all the slaughters that must stain the day. whose thunder spoke his wrath.221 323 [198] 220 —Red drops of blood. might seem arbitrary or far-fetched. Flash from his arms. e sanguigne. as lightning from the skies. whose beauteous face And fair proportion match'd the ethereal race. Agenor the divine. 493. None stoop'd a thought to base inglorious flight. their crooked weapons wield. And falling ranks are strow'd on every side."—Mure. i p.BOOK XI. Plunged in the rear. distill'd Red drops of blood o'er all the fatal field. ix. however. Cf. and now in night retires. Plies all the troops. or blazing in the van. Even Jove. It is one. As sweating reapers in some wealthy field. and of no uncommon occurrence in the climate of Greece. Thus through the ranks appear'd the godlike man. The brother-warriors of Antenor's line: With youthful Acamas. Ranged in two bands. in order ranged around. if a mere fruit of the poet's imagination. restless as he flies. till their labours meet. 15: "La terra in vece del notturno gelo Bagnan rugiade tepide. "This phenomenon. While streamy sparkles. Tasso. Near Ilus' tomb. Bold Polybus. and orders all the field. As the red star now shows his sanguine fires Through the dark clouds. The Trojan lines possess'd the rising ground: There wise Polydamas and Hector stood." 221 . Æneas.220 The woes of men unwilling to survey. Great Hector. Thick fall the heapy harvests at their feet: So Greece and Troy the field of war divide. Lib. cover'd with his spacious shield. honour'd as a guardian god.

on his awful throne. the fields with armies spread. each bleeds." —"Paradise Lost. Discord with joy the scene of death descries. Thus while the morning-beams. Each adverse battle gored with equal wounds. And claim a respite from the sylvan war. O'er heaven's pure azure spread the glowing light. And drinks large slaughter at her sanguine eyes: Discord alone. and the dead. But not till half the prostrate forests lay Stretch'd in long ruin. Wrapt in the blaze of boundless glory sate. Commutual death the fate of war confounds. but none resign the day. and man to man they fight. Swells the red horrors of this direful plain: The gods in peace their golden mansions fill." vi. The sea with ships. increasing bright. Ranged in bright order on the Olympian hill: But general murmurs told their griefs above. and exposed to day) "No thought of flight. On earth he turn'd his all-considering eyes. the dying. no unbecoming deed That argued fear. and alone. The victor's rage. And each accused the partial will of Jove. . Each wounds. The eternal Monarch. And fix'd. Not rabid wolves more fierce contest their prey. Meanwhile apart. But now (what time in some sequester'd vale The weary woodman spreads his sparing meal. And mark'd the spot where Ilion's towers arise. of all the immortal train. When his tired arms refuse the axe to rear.324 The Iliad of Homer But horse to horse. 236. fulfill'd the just decrees of fate. None of retreat. superior.

and let in the light. The Trojans see the youths untimely die. than when they wont to keep. Then. Swift to the spoil the hasty victor falls. Two sons of Priam next to battle move. Priam appears to be the only one of whom polygamy is directly asserted in the Iliad. nor till then. he was commonly very well treated. and stretch'd him on the ground. the Greeks' impulsive might Pierced the black phalanx. their glittering armour vain: Now soil'd with dust. And slew Bienor at his people's head: Whose squire Oileus. Grote. Which pierced his brain. Atrides spoil'd. And. stript. with pliant osiers bound. ii. These on the mountains once Achilles found. The product. Great Agamemnon then the slaughter led. that to guide: Far other task. But helpless tremble for themselves. 114. their father's fleecy sheep. Their snowy limbs and beauteous bodies lie. On Ida's tops. one of marriage.BOOK XI. And captive led. with a sudden spring. and left them on the plain: Vain was their youth. But in his front he felt the fatal wound. p. note. vol. and fly. So when a lion ranging o'er the lawns. Leap'd from the chariot to revenge his king. one of love:222 In the same car the brother-warriors ride. Although a bastard brother received only a small portion of the inheritance. their features to his mind recalls. . Then to their sire for ample sums restored. But now to perish by Atrides' sword: Pierced in the breast the base-born Isus bleeds: Cleft through the head his brother's fate succeeds. This took the charge to combat. 325 [199] 222 —One of love. and naked to the sky.

Large heaps of brass in ransom shall be told. that. Then in the chariot on their knees they fall." [200] . Atrides mark'd. The youths address'd to unrelenting ears: The vengeful monarch gave this stern reply: "If from Antimachus ye spring. the panting mother flies. Antimachus shall copious gifts bestow: Soon as he hears. But swift through rustling thickets bursts her way. and for the life we owe. the couching fawns. All drown'd in sweat. Their headstrong horse unable to restrain. And slew the children for the father's fault. The daring wretch who once in council stood To shed Ulysses' and my brother's blood. The frighted hind beholds. The Grecian ships his captive sons detain. and dares not stay. Amidst the tumult of the routed train. and dropp'd the silken rein. And the big tears roll trickling from her eyes. Their bones he cracks. and persuasive gold. He who for bribes his faithless counsels sold. on some grassy lair. ye die. And thus with lifted hands for mercy call: "O spare our youth. The sons of false Antimachus were slain. And steel well-tempered. die. as these their safety sought.326 The Iliad of Homer Finds. They shook with fear. their reeking vitals draws. and pay the forfeit of your race. And voted Helen's stay for Paris' gold. not in battle slain. attended with the flood of tears." These words. And grinds the quivering flesh with bloody jaws. For proffer'd peace! and sues his seed for grace? No.

now lighted of its lord. and intercept the skies. The trenchant falchion lopp'd his hands away. In blazing heaps the grove's old honours fall. Wide o'er the field with guideless fury rolls. And one refulgent ruin levels all: Before Atrides' rage so sinks the foe. This said. The brass-hoof'd steeds tumultuous plunge and bound. Pisander from the car he cast. And the thick thunder beats the labouring ground. And pierced his breast: supine he breathed his last. More grateful. and blood. now.BOOK XI. and death. Still slaughtering on. And o'er the forests roll the flood of fire. And. lay foaming on the plain. the king of men proceeds. His brother leap'd to earth. The distanced army wonders at his deeds. Horse trod by horse. Safe from the darts. but. and crushing out their souls. The steeds fly trembling from his waving sword. Breaking their ranks. the care of heaven he stood. drew a bloody train along. But Jove and destiny prolong'd his date. While his keen falchion drinks the warriors' lives. The king's example all his Greeks pursue. as he lay. and dust. Shade the black host. to vultures than their wives! Perhaps great Hector then had found his fate. rolling. As when the winds with raging flames conspire. and proud heads lie low. Amidst alarms. Then. 327 . His sever'd head was toss'd among the throng. where the thickest fought. From the dry fields thick clouds of dust arise. the victor flew. Whole squadrons vanish. And many a car. Now by the foot the flying foot were slain.

Now near the beech-tree. The path they take. And trust the war to less important hands: But when. and bathed in hostile blood. Still press'd the rout. with haste thy golden wings display. draws. Now storms the victor at the Trojan wall. And thus the many-coloured maid bespoke: "Iris. And down their summits pour'd a hundred rills: The unkindled lightning in his hand he took. The savage seizes. To godlike Hector this our word convey— While Agamemnon wastes the ranks around. and carnage load the field. Bid him give way. and depart. Through the mid field the routed urge their way: Where the wild figs the adjoining summit crown. . that hear dismay'd The lion's roaring through the midnight shade. And rage. Surveys the towers. Hot with his toil. and bathes with blood the ground. That chief shall mount his chariot. The hero halts. and meditates their fall. As swift. but issue forth commands. disorder'd. Not with less fury stem Atrides flew. On heaps they tumble with successless haste. and rends the last. and the Scaean gates.328 The Iliad of Homer [201] Now past the tomb where ancient Ilus lay. Hurl'd from their cars the bravest chiefs are kill'd. Atrides with loud shouts pursued. and death. fly the Trojan train. or wounded by the spear or dart. But Jove descending shook the Idaean hills. Fights in the front. and speed to reach the town. Meanwhile on every side around the plain. Dispersed. and still the hindmost slew. and his associates waits. So flies a herd of beeves.

In clanging arms: he grasps in either hand A pointed lance. Then to her ships shall flying Greece be press'd. and bathes with blood the ground. and speeds from band to band. Springs from his chariot on the trembling ground. turns their steps from flight. Fights in the front. Then Jove shall string thy arm. and depart. The fight renew'd with fiercer fury burns: The king leads on: all fix on him their eye." She said. Hector. Till to the main the burning sun descend. Close to the bulwarks. While Agamemnon wastes the ranks around. Then Jove shall string his arm.BOOK XI. new spirit. yet issue forth commands. on his glittering car. hear! From Jove I come. 329 [202] . The chief shall mount his chariot. or wounded by the spear or dart. And trust the war to less important hands: But when. And sacred night her awful shade extend. and fire thy breast. to each breast returns. and wait the coming war. Till to the main the burning sun descend. and Iris at his word obey'd. On wings of winds descends the various maid. Condense their powers. And wakes anew the dying flames of fight. with a bound. Then to her ships shall flying Greece be press'd. The goddess then: "O son of Priam. Abstain from fight. They stand to arms: the Greeks their onset dare. and fire his breast. and his high mandate bear. New force. Revives their ardour. The chief she found amidst the ranks of war. and vanish'd. or to die." He spoke. And sacred night her awful shade extend. And learn from him to conquer.

With all his strength. with plates of silver bound. that fell'd him to the ground. grasp'd with force. and virtuous. And swift to aid his dearer country flies. The Trojan stoop'd. the javelin pass'd in air. And sleep eternal seals his swimming eyes. Towering in arms. Now fierce for fame. He leaves untasted the first fruits of joy. though in vain! No more the youth shall join his consort's side. before the ranks he springs. With twelve black ships he reach'd Percope's strand. and by his prowess fell? The great Iphidamas. And early honour warm his generous breast. and braves the king of kings. Till. Then near the corslet. and at once a bride! .330 The Iliad of Homer Ye sacred nine! celestial Muses! tell. Oh worthy better fate! oh early slain! Thy country's friend. the youth directs his dart: But the broad belt. The point rebated. Thence took the long laborious march by land. At once a virgin. at the monarch's heart. And nursed in Thrace where snowy flocks are fed. From his loved bride departs with melting eyes. Stretch'd in the dust the unhappy warrior lies. Atrides first discharged the missive spear. Atrides stands. Whom from his youth his grandsire Cisseus bred. Scarce did the down his rosy cheeks invest. When the kind sire consign'd his daughter's charms (Theano's sister) to his youthful arms. At once his weighty sword discharged a wound Full on his neck. Who faced him first. From sage Antenor and Theano sprung. and repell'd the wound. the bold and young. But call'd by glory to the wars of Troy. Encumber'd with the dart. he wrench'd it from his hands.

With every weapon art or fury yields: By the long lance. And through his arm stood forth the barbed dart. And the pale features now deform'd with blood. And o'er the body spreads his ample shield. And calls his country to assert his cause. Whole ranks are broken. On whom his passion. While pierced with grief the much-loved youth he view'd. Prone on his brother's bleeding breast he lay. Then. But when the wound grew stiff with clotted blood. or ponderous stone. Surprised the monarch feels. was nigh: Tears. The monarch's falchion lopp'd his head away: The social shades the same dark journey go.BOOK XI. Aim'd at the king. yet void of fear On Coon rushes with his lifted spear: His brother's corpse the pious Trojan draws. lavish of his store. unseen. came starting from his eye. 331 [203] . on the plain he lay. the sword. with his spear. No more with presents her embraces meet. at the sight. The vengeful victor rages round the fields. Coon. his time he took. Defends him breathless on the sanguine field. Bestow'd so much. Antenor's eldest hope. This. Atrides. The thrilling steel transpierced the brawny part. marking an unguarded part. and near his elbow strook. Transfix'd the warrior with his brazen dart. while yet warm distill'd the purple flood. Or lay the spoils of conquest at her feet. uncover'd. and vainly promised more! Unwept. And join each other in the realms below. and whole troops o'erthrown. While the proud victor bore his arms away.

all-panting with the pain. And. Clouds from their nostrils the fierce coursers blow. and dreadful face to face: Now call to mind your ancient trophies won. He mounts the car. Shot through the battle in a moment's space. sure of glory." He said: the driver whirls his lengthful thong. and your own." . And pain augmented. The horses fly. thus exhorts the throng: "O friends! O Greeks! assert your honours won. all ye Dardan. all ye Lycian race! Famed in close fight. Jove himself declares the conquest ours! Now on yon ranks impel your foaming steeds. Less keen those darts the fierce Ilythiae send: (The powers that cause the teeming matron's throes. and finish what this arm begun: Lo! angry Jove forbids your chief to stay.332 The Iliad of Homer Then grinding tortures his strong bosom rend. And envies half the glories of the day. and gives his squire the rein. But thus his Trojans and his aids he fired: "Hear. No sooner Hector saw the king retired. the chariot smokes along. Then with a voice which fury made more strong. the general flies! deserts his powers! Lo. The wounded monarch at his tent they place. Behold. Your great forefathers' virtues. Proceed. dare immortal deeds. And from their sides the foam descends in snow. Sad mothers of unutterable woes!) Stung with the smart.

The rest were vulgar deaths unknown to fame. with resistless hands. but leads himself the war. But wise Ulysses call'd Tydides forth. And springs the foremost with his lifted dart: So godlike Hector prompts his troops to dare. raging Hector. and tosses all the deeps. and scatters all their bands. Now breaks the surge. O eternal shame! Till Hector's arm involve the ships in flame? 333 . violent and strong. A sudden storm the purple ocean sweeps. Agelaus. sunk to endless night. Drives the wild waves.BOOK XI. charged with storms. and wide the bottom bares: Thus. On the black body of the foe he pours. Now Greece had trembled in her wooden walls. Now the last ruin the whole host appals. As when a western whirlwind. Then brave Hipponous. Muse! when Jove the Trojan's glory crown'd. confounds. Nor prompts alone. Dolops. famed in many a fight. Opheltius. and awaked his worth. Writh words like these the fiery chief alarms His fainting host. Opites next was added to their side. Æsymnus. As the bold hunter cheers his hounds to tear The brindled lion. Say. As from the cloud's deep bosom. Orus. Rolls sable clouds in heaps on heaps along. Now to the skies the foaming billows rears. Beneath his arm what heroes bit the ground? Assaeus. His soul rekindled. and every bosom warms. and Autonous died. all chiefs of name. O'erturns. Dispels the gather'd clouds that Notus forms: The gust continued. or the tusky bear: With voice and hand provokes their doubting heart. "And stand we deedless. swell'd with showers.

The sons of Merops shone amidst the war. sighing. Then plunged amidst the thickest ranks of fight. Their breasts no more the vital spirit warms. all human force is vain. but. Wing'd with his fears. pursued his lord. on foot he strove to fly. His death ennobled by Ulysses' sword." He sigh'd. And rich Hippodamus becomes his prize. Great Jove from Ide with slaughter fills his sight. and thus the friend replied: "No martial toil I shun. let us join. Towering they rode in one refulgent car: In deep prophetic arts their father skill'd.334 The Iliad of Homer Haste. and combat side by side. Jove our foe. And level hangs the doubtful scale of fight. Had warn'd his children from the Trojan field. and Greece respired again. and wounds return for wounds. no danger fear. But Jove with conquest crowns the Trojan train: And. They rush'd to fight. raised his vengeful steel. they left them in eternal night. His steeds too distant. and the foe too nigh: [205] . The far-famed hero of Paeonian strain. So two wild boars outstrip the following hounds. Stern Hector's conquests in the middle plain Stood check'd awhile." The warrior thus. And from his car the proud Thymbraeus fell: Molion. I wait his fury here. Hypirochus by great Ulysses dies. the charioteer. Fate urged them on: the father warn'd in vain. There slain. By Tydeus' lance Agastrophus was slain. Then swift revert. The stern Tydides strips their shining arms. and perish'd on the plain. Let Hector come.

Swift at the word his ponderous javelin fled. Through broken orders. Remounts his car. Nor miss'd its aim. O'er his dim sight the misty vapours rise. His arm and knee his sinking bulk sustain. Shouts. as he pass'd. Well by Apollo are thy prayers repaid.BOOK XI. Great Diomed himself was seized with fear. Safe in his helm (the gift of Phoebus' hands) Without a wound the Trojan hero stands. swifter than the wind. While Hector rose. And a short darkness shades his swimming eyes. as his experienced eyes Traverse the files. He fled." 335 . but flying left his life behind. Fly then. and herds amidst the crowd: The Greek pursues him. and exults aloud: "Once more thank Phoebus for thy forfeit breath. Or thank that swiftness which outstrips the death. the crystal regions rend. This Hector sees. Whole hecatombs of Trojan ghosts shall pay. and to the rescue flies. inglorious! but thy flight. recover'd from the trance. And thus bespoke his brother of the war: "Mark how this way yon bending squadrons yield! The storm rolls on. But yet so stunn'd. this day. If any god assist Tydides' hand. Thou shall not long the death deserved withstand. but where the plumage danced Razed the smooth cone. And moving armies on his march attend."—The warrior said. And oft that partial power has lent his aid. that. Tydides followed to regain his lance. staggering on the plain. and Hector rules the field: Here stand his utmost force. and thence obliquely glanced.

and nail'd it to the plain. relieved from that wide-wasting hand. From ancient Ilus' ruin'd monument: Behind the column placed. and drew the corslet from his breast. nor flew the shaft in vain. (The spouse of Helen." . which thou may'st one day feel." He dauntless thus: "Thou conqueror of the fair. And leaves such objects as distract the fair. and insults the king. But pierced his foot. and death is on the steel: Where this but lights. Should breathe from slaughter and in combat stand: Whose sons now tremble at his darted spear. Such hands may wound. he bent his bow. bathes the cheeks of sires. while he triumph'd.) Around the fields his feather'd shafts he sent. some noble life expires. A coward's weapon never hurts the brave. Fate wings its flight. As scatter'd lambs the rushing lion fear. Vain archer! trusting to the distant dart. Unskill'd in arms to act a manly part! Thou hast but done what boys or women can. The laughing Trojan. with a joyful spring. Paris eyed from far. Not so this dart. Just as he stoop'd. Nor boast the scratch thy feeble arrow gave. the fair cause of war. Leaps from his ambush. Steeps earth in purple. gluts the birds of air. Thou woman-warrior with the curling hair. but not incense a man. "He bleeds! (he cries) some god has sped my dart! Would the same god had fix'd it in his heart! So Troy. Its touch makes orphans.336 The Iliad of Homer [206] Him. And wing'd an arrow at the unwary foe. Agastrophus's crest To seize. The bowstring twang'd.

the Trojans pouring on. knowing this. proves a hero's heart. The Greeks all fled. and bending draws the dart: Forth flows the blood. Tydides mounts. and to the navy speeds. in the warrior. what hopes remain? What shame. and the coward flies. And questions thus his own unconquer'd soul: "What further subterfuge. And round him deep the steely circle grows. 337 Now on the field Ulysses stands alone. [207] . Before him steps." Such thoughts revolving in his careful breast. he foams with ire. all the foes around? Yet wherefore doubtful? let this truth suffice. To die or conquer.BOOK XI. Near. the shady cohorts press'd. their own fate enclose. I know a soldier's part. singly if I stand the ground. These. My friends all scatter'd. inglorious if I quit the plain? What danger. But stands collected in himself. His sanguine eye-balls glare with living fire. and whole. The brave meets danger. and more near. an eager pang succeeds. Ulysses hastens with a trembling heart. So fares a boar whom all the troop surrounds Of shouting huntsmen and of clamorous hounds. He grinds his ivory tusks. And.

Falls prone to earth. to endless darkness go. and grasps the bloody dust. the spear. Charops. pierced by this. Fate calls thee hence and finish'd is thy race. Plough'd half his side. But to his aid his brother Socus flies." He said. And end at once the great Hippasian race.338 The Iliad of Homer By these. Socus the brave. though deep infix'd. By Pallas' care. and bared it to the bone. Or thou beneath this lance must press the field. the warrior thus began: "O great Ulysses! much-enduring man! Not deeper skill'd in every martial sleight. the generous. the son of Hippasus. nor with his entrails mix'd. on every part is plied. was near. Nor longer check my conquests on the foe. and active in the fight! This day two brothers shall thy conquest grace. And the red slaughter spreads on every side. Ulysses reach'd him with the fatal spear. first Deiopis fell. beneath the navel thrust. Pierced through the shoulder. Chersidamas. And add one spectre to the realms below!" . and the wise. Than worn to toils. Next Ennomus and Thoon sank to hell. Near as he drew. But. and forceful pierced his spacious shield: Through the strong brass the ringing javelin thrown. Then furious thus (but first some steps withdrew): "Unhappy man! whose death our hands shall grace. Stopp'd short of life. The wound not mortal wise Ulysses knew. by those.

Who shares his labours. And feel a loss not ages can repair. his armour rings against the ground. Oppress'd by multitudes. and loudly calls for aid. while Socus. and turn'd his back to flight. seized with sudden fright. And hovering vultures scream around their prey. There ends thy narrow span assign'd by fate. Strong as he is. Then thus Ulysses. With solemn funerals and a lasting tomb.BOOK XI. yet one opposed to all. He falls." Then raging with intolerable smart. He spoke. Thy dying eyes no tender mother close. Me Greece shall honour. wretch! no father shall thy corpse compose. Trembling gave way. Thrice to its pitch his lofty voice he rears. Ah. Between his shoulders pierced the following dart. gazing on the slain: "Famed son of Hippasus! there press the plain. The dart a tide of spouting gore pursued. and extracts the dart. when I meet my doom. Greece robb'd of him must bid her host despair. The well-known voice thrice Menelaus hears: Alarm'd. And gladden'd Troy with sight of hostile blood. And held its passage through the panting heart: Wide in his breast appear'd the grisly wound. and no assistance near. Now troops on troops the fainting chief invade. and defends his side: "O friend! Ulysses' shouts invade my ear. But hungry birds shall tear those balls away. Distressed he seems. to Ajax Telamon he cried. Heaven owes Ulysses yet a longer date." 339 [208] . He writhes his body. Forced he recedes. the best may fall.

And lays Lysander bleeding on the ground. though hungry. A single warrior half a host sustains: But soon as Ajax leaves his tower-like shield. Ulysses thus. The scattered crowds fly frighted o'er the field. And. And his light knees have power to move: but (maistred by his wound) Embost within a shady hill. Priam's son. . while fresh the blood distils. Till life's warm vapour issuing through the wound. he slew. Down his cleft side. He bounds aloft. unconquer'd by his pains. whilst his warm blood doth flow. The wolves. So they around Ulysses prest." —Chapman. saved from numbers. From the blind thicket wounds a stately deer. Wild mountain-wolves the fainting beast surround: Just as their jaws his prostrate limbs invade. his course he bends. with whose sighte they flie and he devours. hurt with a hunter's bow Whose escape his nimble feet insure. to his car conveys. like the god of war. The lion rushes through the woodland shade. attends. And teare his flesh—when instantly fortune sends in the powers Of some sterne lion. Great Ajax. Atrides' arm the sinking hero stays. where the cry directs. The prudent chief in sore distress they found.223 As when some huntsman. and scuds from hills to hills. the jackals charge him round. And first Doryclus. On strong Pandocus next inflicts a wound. With bands of furious Trojans compass'd round. scour dispersed away. Victorious Ajax plies the routed crew.340 The Iliad of Homer Then. with a flying spear. The lordly savage vindicates his prey. 223 "Circled with foes as when a packe of bloodie jackals cling About a goodly palmed hart.

And trembling Greece for her physician fear'd. A wise physician skill'd our wounds to heal. As when a torrent. the steeds with sounding feet Shake the dry field. The spouse of Helen. [209] . And deep Scamander swells with heaps of slain. swell'd with wintry rains. He lends the lash. His sword deforms the beauteous ranks of fight. And great Machaon to the ships convey. dealing darts around. beside him rode The wounded offspring of the healing god. roll in heaps along. from this scene of slaughter far. steeds. from their foundations torn. And pines and oaks. and ruled the tide of war: Loud groans proclaim his progress through the plain. haste with speed away. and chariots. A country's ruins! to the seas are borne: Fierce Ajax thus o'erwhelms the yielding throng. Had pierced Machaon with a distant wound: In his right shoulder the broad shaft appear'd. 341 But Hector. There Nestor and Idomeneus oppose The warrior's fury. To Nestor then Idomeneus begun: "Glory of Greece. Is more than armies to the public weal." Old Nestor mounts the seat. Raged on the left. old Neleus' valiant son! Ascend thy chariot. Men. There fierce on foot. and thunder toward the fleet.BOOK XI. or from the chariot's height. there the battle glows. Pours from the mountains o'er the deluged plains.

purple all the car before. Thither. the coursers scour the fields. Before great Ajax see the mingled throng Of men and chariots driven in heaps along! I know him well. There horse and foot in mingled deaths unite. dashing. from Hector's car. Stung by the stroke. through all the dire debate. Broke the dark phalanx. espousing Hector's part. or ponderous stone. and hills of shields. There danger calls. and there the combat bleeds. And. And fears that arm whose force he felt so late. the driver's lash resounds. glaring round. But partial Jove. The horses' hoofs are bathed in heroes' gore.342 The Iliad of Homer But now Cebriones. Confused. O Hector. Here Hector. Amazed he stood. O'er his broad back his moony shield he threw." Thus having spoke. Thus the grim lion his retreat maintains. Survey'd the various fortune of the war: "While here (he cried) the flying Greeks are slain. and let in the light: (By the long lance. Trojans on Trojans yonder load the plain. [210] . And. thither urge thy steeds. by tardy steps withdrew. unnerved in Hector's presence grown. The ranks he scatter'd and the troops o'erthrown:) Ajax he shuns. The groaning axle sable drops distils. Swift through the ranks the rapid chariot bounds. And groans of slaughter mix with shouts of fight. distinguish'd o'er the field By the broad glittering of the sevenfold shield. Shot heaven-bred horror through the Grecian's heart. plunging through the thickest fight. with terrors not his own. the sword. O'er heaps of carcases. And mangled carnage clogs the rapid wheels.

BOOK XI. Though round his sides a wooden tempest rain. Beset with watchful dogs. And dauntless springs beneath a cloud of darts. with heavy strength endued. Now turns. Crops the tall harvest. Confiding now in bulky strength he stands. and thirsts for blood in vain. and missile fires. Whose eager javelin launch'd against the foe. guiltless on the plain. In some wide field by troops of boys pursued. While hissing darts descend in iron showers: In his broad buckler many a weapon stood. From his torn liver the red current flow'd. Its surface bristled with a quivering wood. While his swoln heart at every step rebell'd. Now stiff recedes. Great Apisaon felt the fatal blow. As the slow beast. Long stands the showering darts. by whole hosts repell'd. and though hunger calls. The strokes redoubled on his buckler rung. and lays waste the plain. The patient animal maintains his ground. Fix'd as the bar between two warring powers. Repulsed by numbers from the nightly stalls. But bold Eurypylus his aid imparts. and backward bears the yielding bands. And his slack knees desert their dying load. yet hardly seems to fly. And threats his followers with retorted eye. Thick on his hide the hollow blows resound. 343 . Though rage impels him. Then sourly slow the indignant beast retires: So turn'd stern Ajax. And many a javelin. And stirs but slowly when he stirs at last: On Ajax thus a weight of Trojans hung. and shouting swains. Scarce from the field with all their efforts chased. Marks the dry dust.

the slaying. In evil hour! Then fate decreed his doom. Fix'd in his nervous thigh the weapon stood. and stain'd with gore. The Greeks' preserver. great Machaon. Fix'd was the point.344 The Iliad of Homer The victor rushing to despoil the dead. and renews the fight. and advance their spears. Who spread their bucklers. This hour he stands the mark of hostile rage. join your forces. and the slain. [211] . Straight to Menoetius' much-loved son he sent: Graceful as Mars. To guard their wounded friend: while thus they stand With pious care." Thus urged the chief: a generous troop appears. from the topmost height Of his proud fleet. That hour Achilles. Thus raged both armies like conflicting fires. The hero rallies. While Nestor's chariot far from fight retires: His coursers steep'd in sweat. turn to arms. great Ajax joins the band: Each takes new courage at the hero's sight. o'erlook'd the fields of fight. A transient pity touch'd his vengeful breast. his associates fired: "What god. Patroclus quits his tent. but broken was the wood. From Paris' bow a vengeful arrow fled. His friend Machaon singled from the rest. O Grecians! has your hearts dismay'd? Oh. 'tis Ajax claims your aid. Back to the lines the wounded Greek retired. And this the last brave battle he shall wage: Haste. Yet thus retreating. And fix'd the date of all his woes to come. from the gloomy grave The warrior rescue. His feasted eyes beheld around the plain The Grecian rout. bore. and your country save.

Here paused a moment. seen at distance. discern his face." The hero said. the sacred flour of wheat. graced with golden hairs: (Whom to his aged arms. The warriors standing on the breezy shore. and but seen behind. "Why calls my friend? thy loved injunctions lay. and ever at my side! The time is come. The draught prescribed. Arsinous' daughter. 345 [212] . crown'd the savoury treat. while the gentle gale Convey'd that freshness the cool seas exhale.BOOK XI. And took their seats beneath the shady tent. The coursers pass'd me with so swift a pace. Honey new-press'd. And wholesome garlic. His form recall'd Machaon to my mind. when yon despairing host Shall learn the value of the man they lost: Now at my knees the Greeks shall pour their moan. a royal slave. through yon cloud. The chiefs descending from their car he found: The panting steeds Eurymedon unbound. Go now to Nestor. Nor could I. Whate'er thy will. And proud Atrides tremble on his throne. Whose ample orb a brazen charger graced. as the prize of Nestor's wisdom gave:) A table first with azure feet she placed. and wash away the gore. fair Hecamede prepares. Through intermingled ships and tents he pass'd. Patroclus shall obey. His friend obey'd with haste." "O first of friends! (Pelides thus replied) Still at my heart. and from him be taught What wounded warrior late his chariot brought: For. Then to consult on farther methods went. Greece. To dry their sweat.

" "Can then the sons of Greece (the sage rejoin'd) Excite compassion in Achilles' mind? Seeks he the sorrows of our host to know? This is not half the story of our woe. And last with flour the smiling surface strows: This for the wounded prince the dame prepares: The cordial beverage reverend Nestor shares: Salubrious draughts the warriors' thirst allay. the nymph of form divine Pours a large portion of the Pramnian wine. Temper'd in this. This to report. Unheard approached. In sculptured gold. With goat's-milk cheese a flavourous taste bestows. On each bright handle. And pleasing conference beguiles the day. Was borne from combat by thy foaming steeds? With grief I see the great Machaon bleeds. Meantime Patroclus. . Old Nestor. bending o'er the brink. two turtles seem to drink: A massy weight. Who asks. what hero. and four handles hold. and stood before the tent. my hasty course I bend. wounded by the foe. To great Achilles this respect I owe. by Achilles sent. A goblet sacred to the Pylian kings From eldest times: emboss'd with studs of gold. Thou know'st the fiery temper of my friend.346 The Iliad of Homer Next her white hand an antique goblet brings. rising then. When the brisk nectar overlook'd the brim. yet heaved with ease by him. the hero led To his high seat: the chief refused and said: "'Tis now no season for these kind delays. Two feet support it. The great Achilles with impatience stays.

When the proud Elians first commenced the war: For Neleus' sons Alcides' rage had slain. 347 [213] . Ulysses. Oh! had I still that strength my youth possess'd. And ours was all the plunder of the plains: Fifty white flocks. All teeming females. full fifty herds of swine. As many goats. Calm he looks on. But. And stern Eurypylus. These. and now this conquest gain'd. Old Neleus gloried in his conquering son. I alone remain! Oppress'd. For prize defrauded. When this bold arm the Epeian powers oppress'd. Diomed. Chief after chief the raging foe destroys.BOOK XI. and every death enjoys. and of generous breeds. as my first essay of arms. Our bravest heroes in the navy groan. but derides our pain: Even till the flames consume our fleet he stays. Thus Elis forced. I won. And waits the rising of the fatal blaze. not great Machaon bleeds alone. ah! what flattering hopes I entertain! Achilles heeds not. Agamemnon. already bleed. and ends my manly prime. as many lowing kine: And thrice the number of unrivall'd steeds. Now the slow course of all-impairing time Unstrings my nerves. The bulls of Elis in glad triumph led. And stretch'd the great Itymonaeus dead! Then from my fury fled the trembling swains. My sire three hundred chosen sheep obtain'd. Tell him. her long arrears restored. (That large reprisal he might justly claim. we arm'd. and insulted fame. Of twelve bold brothers. The state of Pyle was sunk to last despair. And shares were parted to each Pylian lord.

the Pylian troops unite. but my sire denied. "Along fair Arene's delightful plain Soft Minyas rolls his waters to the main: There. Our utmost frontier on the Pylian lands: Not far the streams of famed Alphaeus flow: The stream they pass'd. And sheathed in arms.) The rest the people shared. with all-revealing ray. Thence. ere the sun advanced his noon-day flame. In arms we slept. Soon as the sun. While round the town the fierce Epeians stood. and a bull was slain To the blue monarch of the watery main. exposed to stern alarms. and detain'd my arms. for the goddess led. Fear'd for my youth. My sire denied in vain: on foot I fled Amidst our chariots. A bull. and with many a car. descending in the shades of night. when Elis rose to war. and pitch'd their tents below. and swells with martial pride. The sons of Actor at their army's head (Young as they were) the vengeful squadrons led.348 The Iliad of Homer When Elis' monarch. Pallas. myself survey'd The just partition. Each burns for fame. Alphaeus. expect the dawning light. Alarms the Pylians and commands the fight. An untamed heifer pleased the blue-eyed maid. . beside the winding flood. and due victims paid. To great Alphaeus' sacred source we came. Three days were past. There first to Jove our solemn rites were paid. horse and foot. And stopp'd my chariot. With many a courser. Detain'd his chariot. and victorious horse. at the public course. Myself the foremost. High on the rock fair Thryoessa stands.

beneath my javelin bled. they trembled. 349 [214] . Then Actor's sons had died. And every herb that drinks the morning dew:) I seized his car. So proved my valour for my country's good. to Nestor. and they fled. but Neptune shrouds The youthful heroes in a veil of clouds. and spouse of Agamede: (She that all simples' healing virtues knew. O'er heapy shields. There to high Jove were public thanks assign'd. The nations meet. Flamed in the front of Heaven.BOOK XI. gathering aids along the Grecian sea. of mankind. and slaughtering all along. Bright scenes of arms. How shall he grieve. Elis here. Two chiefs from each fell breathless to the plain. And the same arm that led concludes the day. and works of war appear. And gives to passion what to Greece he owes. Even there the hindmost of the rear I slay. Then back to Pyle triumphant take my way. and o'er the prostrate throng. nor his the power to aid! 0 friend! my memory recalls the day. As first of gods. Till Pallas stopp'd us where Alisium flows. The first who fell. "Achilles with unactive fury glows. Fierce as the whirlwind now I swept the field: Full fifty captive chariots graced my train. Through wide Buprasian fields we forced the foes. Where o'er the vales the Olenian rocks arose. King Augias' son. Such then I was. the van of battle led. their bravest warrior kill'd. there Pylos. Collecting spoils. When. when to the eternal shade Her hosts shall sink. The foe dispersed. impell'd by youthful blood. and gave the day. The Epeians saw.

Some beam of comfort yet on Greece may shine. where. and thy reverend sire Menoetius. If thou but lead the Myrmidonian line. Clad in Achilles' arms. And entered Peleus' hospitable court. though now of vast import. and Ulysses. . Ah! try the utmost that a friend can say: Such gentle force the fiercest minds obey. and desist from war. if thou appear. and of race divine. Achilles. turn'd the fragments on the fire. Peleus said only this:—'My son! be brave.' Menoetius thus: 'Though great Achilles shine In strength superior. to the feast invites. Let thy just counsels aid. Though deaf to glory. A bull to Jove he slew in sacrifice. and share the genial rites. We then explained the cause on which we came. and found you fierce for fame. Soon as he came. he may yield to love. touch'd at Phthia's port. Achilles sees us." This touch'd his generous heart. Proud Troy may tremble. Some favouring god Achilles' heart may move. Thyself. Press'd by fresh forces. Yet cooler thoughts thy elder years attend. Social we sit. Urged you to arms. If some dire oracle his breast alarm. and Greece respire again. her o'er-labour'd train Shall seek their walls. And pour'd libations on the flaming thighs.350 The Iliad of Homer [215] I. and rule thy friend. on the crowded strand.' Thus spoke your father at Thessalia's court: Words now forgot. and from the tent Along the shore with hasty strides he went. Your ancient fathers generous precepts gave. If aught from Heaven withhold his saving arm.

Those chiefs. Large painful drops from all his members run. Far from your friends. and draw this deadly dart. The sable blood in circles mark'd the ground. As faintly reeling he confess'd the smart. that used her utmost rage to meet. Divine compassion touch'd Patroclus' breast. thus his bleeding friend address'd: "Ah. sire of pharmacy. And altars to the guardian gods arise. to glut the dogs with gore. With lukewarm water wash the gore away. thou. my friend. Greece is no more! this day her glories end. An arrow's head yet rooted in his wound. he met the brave Euaemon's son. Of two famed surgeons. Who. Patroclus! act a friendly part. great Eurypylus! shall Greece yet stand? Resists she yet the raging Hector's hand? Or are her heroes doom'd to die with shame. With healing balms the raging smart allay. sad. Where the tall fleet of great Ulysses lies. but dauntless was his heart.BOOK XI. and Achilles thee. hapless leaders of the Grecian host! Thus must ye perish on a barbarous coast? Is this your fate. Such as sage Chiron. sighing. Podalirius stands 351 . and from your native shore? Say. Her force increasing as her toil renews. Lead to my ships. The public mart and courts of justice stand. There. Lie pierced with wounds. Weak was his pace. But. Even to the ships victorious Troy pursues. and bleeding in the fleet. Once taught Achilles. And this the period of our wars and fame?" Eurypylus replies: "No more.

. The wound he wash'd. And great Machaon. and the blood to flow." To him the chief: "What then remains to do? The event of things the gods alone can view. And hides of oxen on the floor display'd: There stretch'd at length the wounded hero lay. And bear with haste the Pylian king's reply: But thy distress this instant claims relief. Now wants that succour which so oft he lent." He said. wounded in his tent. the styptic juice infused. and in his arms upheld the chief. Patroclus cut the forky steel away: Then in his hands a bitter root he bruised. The wound to torture. Charged by Achilles' great command I fly. The closing flesh that instant ceased to glow.352 The Iliad of Homer [216] This hour surrounded by the Trojan bands. The slaves their master's slow approach survey'd.



But upon the signal of an eagle with a serpent in his talons. Polydamas advises to quit their chariots. Trojans and Greeks with clashing shields engage. ARGUMENT. Sarpedon makes the first breach in the wall. who victoriously pursue the Grecians even to their ships. The Greeks having retired into their intrenchments. after many actions. forces open one of the gates. . Polydamas endeavours to withdraw them again. Nor long the trench or lofty walls oppose. begin the assault. The walls were raised. the trenches sunk in vain. in which. With gods averse the ill-fated works arose. and no victim slain.[217] BOOK XII. Hector attempts to force them. THE BATTLE AT THE GRECIAN WALL. This Hector opposes. which appeared on the left hand of the Trojans. and continues the attack. While thus the hero's pious cares attend The cure and safety of his wounded friend. casting a stone of vast size. but it proving impossible to pass the ditch. Their powers neglected. The Trojans follow his counsel. and manage the attack on foot. and having divided their army into five bodies of foot. And mutual deaths are dealt with mutual rage. Hector also. and enters at the head of his troops.

&c. how short a period stands The proudest monument of mortal hands! This stood while Hector and Achilles raged. Vast stones and piles from their foundation heaves. And whelms the smoky ruin in the waves. i. And gulfy Simois. Rhesus and Rhodius then unite their rills. Æsepus. Now smooth'd with sand. Then Ida's summits pour'd their watery store. The weight of waters saps the yielding wall. And half the skies descend in sluicy showers. Then Neptune and Apollo shook the shore. 225 . The god of ocean.356 The Iliad of Homer [218] Without the gods. Caresus roaring down the stony hills. Deluged the rampire nine continual days." —Dryden's Virgil. "In those bloody fields Where Simois rolls the bodies and the shields Of heroes. Incessant cataracts the Thunderer pours. Granicus.225 224 —Simois. and levell'd by the flood. While sacred Troy the warring hosts engaged. No fragment tells where once the wonder stood. With his huge trident wounds the trembling shore. 142. and godlike heroes slain: These. But when her sons were slain. railing. In their old bounds the rivers roll again. with mingled force. or wander o'er the plain. And what survived of Greece to Greece return'd. rolling to the main224 Helmets. marching stern before. and shields. And Xanthus foaming from his fruitful source. turn'd by Phoebus from their wonted ways. Shine 'twixt the hills. her city burn'd. And to the sea the floating bulwarks fall.

their bold assault defy.—where clouds of dust arise. "Where yon disorder'd heap of ruin lies. And if he falls. And the turf trembles. toss'd the scattering throng. 825. (a formidable show!) And bristled thick with sharpen'd stakes below.— Amid that smother. With equal rage encompass'd Hector glows. Neptune holds his place. And where he turns the rout disperse or die: He foams. and the trenches shows. Fierce of his might. Arm'd foes around a dreadful circle form. But this the gods in later times perform. his courage makes him fall. So 'midst the dogs and hunters' daring bands. a boar or lion stands. Just at the brink they neigh. and headlong hung the steep." 357 Dryden's Virgil. ii. and the skies resound. He. And Hector's fury every moment fear. like a whirlwind. The strokes yet echoed of contending powers. and drove the field along. As yet the bulwark stood. Close by their hollow ships the Grecians lay: Hector's approach in every wind they hear. and blood distain'd the towers. Mingled the troops. And heaves the building from the solid base. The panting steeds impatient fury breathe. he bounds against them all. The bottom bare. and paw the ground.BOOK XII. And hissing javelins rain an iron storm: His powers untamed. and braved the storm. . Stones rent from stones. Smote by the arm of Jove with dire dismay. War thunder'd at the gates. And snort and tremble at the gulf beneath. Vast was the leap. Eager they view'd the prospect dark and deep. he glares. Below the wall's foundation drives his mace. Exhorts his armies.

Restrain'd great Hector. And this (if Jove consent) her fatal hour. On certain dangers we too rashly run: If 'tis will our haughty foes to tame. by our own troops confused. Then all alighting. The stakes beneath. What hopes. In one promiscuous carnage crush'd and bruised.358 The Iliad of Homer [219] The foot alone this strong defence could force. No space for combat in yon narrow bounds. and this counsel gave: "O thou. Back from the trenches let your steeds be led. All Troy must perish. what methods of retreat remain? Wedged in the trench. who. And one great day destroy and bury all! But should they turn. if their arms prevail. And try the pass impervious to the horse. far from Argos. confederate chiefs from foreign lands! What entrance here can cumbrous chariots find. wedged in firm array." . and Hector lead the way. ye warriors! and obey with speed. Proceed on foot. and here oppress our train. Proud of the favours mighty Jove has shown. So Greece shall stoop before our conquering power. without a thousand wounds. Hear then. let their heroes fall. Oh may this instant end the Grecian name! Here. This saw Polydamas. wisely brave. the Grecian walls behind? No pass through those. Nor shall a Trojan live to tell the tale. bold leader of the Trojan bands! And you.

The chief's example follow'd by his train. By orders strict the charioteers enjoin'd Compel the coursers to their ranks behind. Polydamas. Who drew from Hyrtacus his noble blood. and brave Cebriones. Pant for the fight. Deiphobus. and Helenas the seer. and issues on the plain. The sons of Priam with the third appear. his clanging armour rung. And all obey their several chiefs' commands. and Agenor joins. The forces part in five distinguish'd bands. And bold Alcathous. and threat the fleet with fire: Great Hector glorious in the van of these. The best and bravest in the first conspire. 359 POLYDAMAS ADVISING HECTOR.BOOK XII. [220] . This counsel pleased: the godlike Hector sprung Swift from his seat. Before the next the graceful Paris shines. And whom Arisba's yellow coursers bore. Each quits his car. Antenor's sons the fourth battalion guide. In arms with these the mighty Asius stood. The coursers fed on Selle's winding shore.

born on fountful Ide. Unhappy hero! and advised in vain.360 The Iliad of Homer And great Æneas. confiding in his car. Those wheels returning ne'er shall mark the plain. the bravest. No more those coursers with triumphant joy Restore their master to the gates of Troy! Black death attends behind the Grecian wall. The advice of wise Polydamas obey'd. exulting in his force. While every Trojan thus. And see the Grecians gasping at their feet. Now with compacted shields in close array. he flies: His following host with clamours rend the skies: To plunge the Grecians headlong in the main. Thither. The gates half-open'd to receive the last. Whom Glaucus and Asteropaeus aid. His vaunted coursers urged to meet the war. Divine Sarpedon the last band obey'd. and every aid. Such their proud hopes. where from the plain The flying Grecians strove their ships to gain. The moving legions speed their headlong way: Already in their hopes they fire the fleet. Swift through the wall their horse and chariots pass'd. But he more brave than all the hosts he led. at their army's head. but all their hopes were vain! . And great Idomeneus shall boast thy fall! Fierce to the left he drives. Asius alone. Next him.

and so the shock they stand Of raging Asius. Who from the Lapiths' warlike race descend. Even when they saw Troy's sable troops impend. So two wild boars spring furious from their den. two mighty chiefs attend. And their deep roots for ever brave the storm. To guard their navies. and mann'd the lofty towers: To save their fleet their last efforts they try. 361 [221] . Acamas. in front appear. On every side the crackling trees they tear. With sounding strokes their brazen targets rung. They gnash their tusks. Opposed their breasts. Orestes. And Greece tumultuous from her towers descend. Their roots in earth. Fierce was the fight. and his furious band. like the god of war. and lay the forest bare. The fearless brothers on the Grecians call. before the wall they rise.BOOK XII. Roused with the cries of dogs and voice of men. As two tall oaks. while yet the Grecian powers Maintain'd the walls. with fire their eye-balls roll. Forth from the portals rush'd the intrepid pair. This Polypoetes. and stood themselves the war. High on the hills appears their stately form. In vain around them beat their hollow shields. And that Leonteus. And OEnomaus and Thoon close the rear: In vain their clamours shake the ambient fields. their heads amidst the skies: Whose spreading arms with leafy honours crown'd. Forbid the tempest. and protect the ground. great Perithous' heir. and defend the wall. So graceful these. To guard the gates. And root the shrubs. Around their heads the whistling javelins sung. Till some wide wound lets out their mighty soul. And stones and darts in mingled tempests fly.

the flash of arms appear'd. and infix their stings. Like deeds of arms through all the forts were tried. Through the long walls the stony showers were heard. And all the gates sustain'd an equal tide.362 The Iliad of Homer As when sharp Boreas blows abroad. To godlike Hector and his matchless might Was owed the glory of the destined fight. and whiten all the fields below: So fast the darts on either army pour. and thick. and can Jove deceive? What man could doubt but Troy's victorious power Should humble Greece. With shame repulsed. and brings The dreary winter on his frozen wings. And the deaf echo rattles round the fields. To guard the entrance of their common hive. Beneath the low-hung clouds the sheets of snow Descend. that to death contend: So fierce these Greeks their last retreats defend. To raise each act to life. The blaze of flames. and defraud the fates?" These empty accents mingled with the wind. Darkening the rock. while with unwearied wings They strike the assailants. A race determined. resound the batter'd shields. Repel an army. and this her fatal hour? But like when wasps from hollow crannies drive. The frantic Asius thus accuses Heaven: "In powers immortal who shall now believe? Can those too flatter. Gods! shall two warriors only guard their gates. So down the rampires rolls the rocky shower: Heavy. with grief and fury driven. Nor moved great Jove's unalterable mind. and sing with fire! [222] . The spirit of a god my breast inspire.

Menon. Bold Hector and Polydamas. and rends the heaven with cries: 363 . He stung the bird. and fate pursued the stroke: Iamenus. Their martial fury in their wonder lost. whose throat received the wound: Mad with the smart. the bravest of the Trojan crew. Pierced through his helmet's brazen visor. he drops the fatal prey. in deep dismay. by prodigies amazed: A signal omen stopp'd the passing host. fell. Fierce with impatience on the works to fall. confiding in despair. His talons truss'd. These on the farther bank now stood and gazed. Orestes. and round them heap the slain. Meantime. Secure of death.BOOK XII. With unassisting arms deplored the day. First through the belt Hippomachus he gored. Even yet the dauntless Lapithae maintain The dreadful pass. And round him rose a monument of dead. as through the ranks he broke. by Polypoetes' steel. and curling round. tremendous now no more! Next Ormenus and Pylon yield their breath: Nor less Leonteus strews the field with death. While Greece unconquer'd kept alive the war. Jove's bird on sounding pinions beat the skies. The weapon drank the mingled brains and gore! The warrior sinks. alive. Floats on the winds. And wrap in rolling flames the fleet and wall. A bleeding serpent of enormous size. pursue. By Heaven alarm'd. First Damasus. Then sudden waved his unresisted sword: Antiphates. And all her guardian gods. The falchion struck. In airy circles wings his painful way. bled.

" To him then Hector with disdain return'd: (Fierce as he spoke. To speak his thoughts is every freeman's right. Long weigh'd the signal. But tends to raise that power which I obey. I tell the faithful dictates of my breast. and fiercer. but not possess the prize. [223] . whose sinister flight Retards our host. thy reproach I bear. Thus. Toils unforeseen. and sentiments sincere? True to those counsels which I judge the best. For thus a skilful seer would read the skies. Then first Polydamas the silence broke. nor may my words be vain! Seek not this day the Grecian ships to gain. Then hear my words. in war. my brother. And thus my mind explains its clear event: The victor eagle. And Jove's portent with beating hearts behold. and to Hector spoke: "How oft.364 The Iliad of Homer Amidst the host the fallen serpent lies. to warn us. Dismiss'd his conquest in the middle skies. Jove his omen sent. and fills our hearts with fright. In peace. and more heroes bleed. More woes shall follow. Allow'd to seize. deferring to thy sway. and bids me thus advise. And all I move. though we gird with fires the Grecian fleet. are decreed. For sure. mark its spires unroll'd. So bodes my soul. not thy reason wrong: Or if the purpose of thy heart thou vent. pale with terror. and in fight. his eyes with fury burn'd:) "Are these the faithful counsels of thy tongue? Thy will is partial. in council. Though these proud bulwalks tumble at our feet. For words well meant. They.

Without a sign his sword the brave man draws. And free the soul that quivers in thy heart. and. But thou canst live. With ardour follow where their leader flies: Redoubling clamours thunder in the skies. Trust thy own cowardice to escape their fire. To right.BOOK XII. as none promotes it less: Though all our chiefs amidst yon ships expire. the will reveal'd of Jove? The leading sign. Troy and her sons may find a general grave. unheeded take your way. And asks no omen but his country's cause. his host obey the call. Sure heaven resumes the little sense it lent. And gives great Hector the predestined day. And happy thunders of the favouring god. Jove breathes a whirlwind from the hills of Ide. and guide my wavering mind By wandering birds that flit with every wind? Ye vagrants of the sky! your wings extend. And drifts of dust the clouded navy hide. but stronger in his aid. He fills the Greeks with terror and dismay. Calls on his host. Yet should the fears that wary mind suggests Spread their cold poison through our soldiers' breasts." Furious he spoke. the irrevocable nod. Strong in themselves. to left. What coward counsels would thy madness move Against the word. Close to the works their rigid siege they laid. or where descend. These shall I slight. Or where the suns arise. But why should'st thou suspect the war's success? None fears it more. for thou canst be a slave. While I the dictates of high heaven obey. rushing to the wall. 365 [224] . My javelin can revenge so base a part.

and warm the cold. The crowded bulwarks blaze with waving arms. incessant. praise. And opes his cloudy magazine of storms. Behold a day when each may act his part! A day to fire the brave. And heaps on heaps the smoky ruins fall. fill the thoughts of all. excite. and those they rend. whose ardour hopes an equal name! Since not alike endued with force or art. Conquest. Threats urge the fearful. Whence hissing darts. Urge those who stand. and the valiant. Greece on her ramparts stands the fierce alarms. not safety. rain below. As when high Jove his sharp artillery forms. A snowy inundation hides the plain. While these they undermine. but sally from the wall. The generous impulse every Greek obeys. Drown Hector's vaunts in loud exhorts of fight. and those who faint. So Jove once more may drive their routed train. And rouse. with flame divine. And you. In winter's bleak un comfortable reign. The bold Ajaces fly from tower to tower. the Grecian power. To gain new glories. a long refulgent row. and bids the skies to sleep. "Fellows in arms! whose deeds are known to fame. And Troy lie trembling in her walls again. Seek not your fleet. Upheaved the piles that prop the solid wall. or augment the old. And now the stones descend in heavier showers." Their ardour kindles all the Grecian powers.366 The Iliad of Homer In vain the mounds and massy beams defend. Shield touching shield. He stills the winds. . Then pours the silent tempest thick and deep.

he roars. Drink the dissolving fleeces as they fall: So from each side increased the stony rain. furious. and leads his Lycian bands. and the gates to rend: Nor Troy could conquer. Ponderous with brass. Bent with the weight. and bound with ductile gold: And while two pointed javelins arm his hands. Regardless. he pursues his way. he rends the panting prey. Within whose orb the thick bull-hides were roll'd. And bears aloft his ample shield in air. Then the green fields.BOOK XII. the nodding woods are seen. 367 Thus godlike Hector and his troops contend To force the ramparts. [225] So press'd with hunger. And the white ruin rises o'er the plain. And one bright waste hides all the works of men: The circling seas. He foams. alone absorbing all. So stalks the lordly savage o'er the plain. from the mountain's brow Descends a lion on the flocks below. and stern disdain: In vain loud mastiffs bay him from afar. . For mighty Jove inspired with martial flame His matchless son. and urged him on to fame. In sullen majesty. conspicuous from afar. And shepherds gall him with an iron war. and then the sandy shore. In arms he shines. Majestic moves along. Till great Sarpedon tower'd amid the field. nor the Greeks would yield. And first the mountain-tops are cover'd o'er.

450. He views the towers. Unless great acts superior merit prove. and meditates their fall. Our feasts enhanced with music's sprightly sound? Why on those shores are we with joy survey'd. And hills where vines their purple harvest yield. "Wherefore do I assume These royalties and not refuse to reign. and so much to him due Of hazard more. they may cry. thus he spoke: "Why boast we. deserve the sovereign state. as he above the rest High honour'd sits. Which claims no less the fearful and the brave. divine Sarpedon glows With generous rage that drives him on the foes. And vindicate the bounteous powers above? 'Tis ours. Then casting on his friend an ardent look.226 Where Xanthus' streams enrich the Lycian plain.368 The Iliad of Homer Resolved alike. the dignity they give to grace. Our numerous herds that range the fruitful field. as the first in place. Whom those that envy dare not imitate! Could all our care elude the gloomy grave. The first in valour. . For lust of fame I should not vainly dare 226 —Why boast we. Glaucus! our extended reign. Our foaming bowls with purer nectar crown'd." ii. To sure destruction dooms the aspiring wall. due alike to him Who reigns. That when with wondering eyes our martial bands Behold our deeds transcending our commands." —"Paradise Lost. Refusing to accept as great a share Of hazard as of honour. and as gods obey'd. Fired with the thirst of glory. Such. Admired as heroes.

and echoes through the fields. and repel the foe. roar the mountains. our towers defend. and rouse the warrior's fire. the din of helms and shields Rings to the skies. The brazen hinges fly. and claim the promised fight. which others pay. the walls resound. But if too fiercely there the foes contend. or glory give!" 369 [226] He said. and honour'd if we live. And give to fame what we to nature owe. Let Telamon. Brave though we fall. Heaven trembles. Rush to the foe. Or let us glory gain. And Teucer haste with his unerring bow To share the danger. nor urge thy soul to war. Menestheus from on high the storm beheld Threatening the fort. united. and death's inexorable doom The life. Of fight insatiate. The troops pursue their leaders with delight. best may help to bear The bloody labours of the doubtful war: Hither the Lycian princes bend their course. to view from far What aid appear'd to avert the approaching war.BOOK XII. And saw where Teucer with the Ajaces stood. In fighting fields. The best and bravest of the hostile force. alas! ignoble age must come. Their strength. thunders all the ground Then thus to Thoos: "Hence with speed (he said). Disease. And urge the bold Ajaces to our aid. and blackening in the field: Around the walls he gazed." . prodigal of blood. let us bestow. at least. his words the listening chief inspire With equal warmth. But since. In vain he calls.

Your strength. oppress'd. Opposed in combat on the dusty shore. at the word. expect me to complete the day Then with his sevenfold shield he strode away. Till by this arm the foe shall be repell'd: That done. and thickens in the skies. To you I trust the fortune of the field. Whose fatal bow the strong Pandion bore. [227] . "Ye valiant leaders of our warlike bands! Your aid (said Thoos) Peteus' son demands. Like some black tempest gathering round the towers: The Greeks. their utmost force unite. best may help to bear The bloody labours of the doubtful war: Thither the Lycian princes bend their course. let Telamon those towers defend. here.370 The Iliad of Homer Swift. And sends the brave Epicles to the shades. valiant Lycomede! exert your might. through the martial throng. mix'd shouts and groans arise. But if too fiercely. the foes contend. The best and bravest of the hostile force. Tumultuous clamour mounts. At least. With equal steps bold Teucer press'd the shore. And finds the heroes bathed in sweat and gore. And. the herald speeds along The lofty ramparts. Fierce Ajax first the advancing host invades. Prepared to labour in the unequal fight: The war renews. High on the walls appear'd the Lycian powers. And Teucer haste with his unerring bow To share the danger. And thus bespoke his brothers of the war: "Now. brave Oileus." Straight to the fort great Ajax turn'd his care. and repel the foe. prove your force in fight. united.

Across the warrior's way. who fear'd some foe's insulting boast Might stop the progress of his warlike host. and labour'd up the sky. The bearded shaft the destined passage found. Conceal'd the wound. and. and shoot into the deep. then in groans expires. And murmuring to the shades the soul retires. Deep in his breast he plunged the pointed steel. And on his naked arm inflicts a wound. Sarpedon's friend. Full on the Lycian's helmet thundering down. From Teucer's hand a winged arrow flew. 371 While to the ramparts daring Glaucus drew. pursued by gushing streams of gore: Down sinks the warrior with a thundering sound. and swung it round. a rocky fragment lay. The ponderous ruin crush'd his batter'd crown. Divine Sarpedon with regret beheld Disabled Glaucus slowly quit the field. So falls Epicles. and flies upon the foes. His brazen armour rings against the ground. Rent from the walls.BOOK XII. His beating breast with generous ardour glows. Then from the yawning wound with fury tore The spear. It flew with force. As skilful divers from some airy steep Headlong descend. then toss'd on high. . The chief. In modern ages not the strongest swain Could heave the unwieldy burden from the plain: He poised. He springs to fight. Alcmaon first was doom'd his force to feel. leaping from his height Retired reluctant from the unfinish'd fight.

They tug. Thus obstinate to death. As on the confines of adjoining grounds. they sweat. is the strength you boast? Your former fame and ancient virtue lost! The breach lies open. and the assault renew: Unmoved the embodied Greeks their fury dare. nor yield. the walls lie bare. and soon that hostile fleet shall fall: The force of powerful union conquers all. like a deluge. They join. One foot. . not meditating flight. they fight. and every nerve applies: It shakes. A mighty breach appears. and severer fight. Fix'd in his belt the feather'd weapon stood. they thicken. the ponderous stones disjointed yield.372 The Iliad of Homer [228] Swift to the battlement the victor flies. but neither gain. But urging vengeance. Two stubborn swains with blows dispute their bounds. At once bold Teucer draws the twanging bow." This just rebuke inflamed the Lycian crew. "O where. To shield his offspring. rushes in the war. Nor the bold Lycians force the Grecian towers. they fall. But Jove was present in the dire debate. And fix'd support the weight of all the war. And Ajax sends his javelin at the foe. Tugs with full force. of the contended field. but your chief in vain Attempts alone the guarded pass to gain: Unite. one inch. ye Lycians. and fired with glory's charms. Then raised with hope. And. The rolling ruins smoke along the field. And through his buckler drove the trembling wood. The prince gave back. Nor could the Greeks repel the Lycian powers. His fainting squadrons to new fury warms. and avert his fate.

and. "Long time in even scale The battle hung. A ponderous stone bold Hector heaved to throw. and rough and gross below: Not two strong men the enormous weight could raise. Raise scaling engines. and ascend the wall: Around the works a wood of glittering spears Shoots up. the resting beam suspends Each equal weight. "Advance. ye Trojans! lend your valiant hands. (While some laborious matron. descends:227 So stood the war. Haste to the fleet. gathering at his call. With fates prevailing. they run. and shook in air. From side to side the trembling balance nods." vi. turn'd the scale of fight. as easy as a swain could bear The snowy fleece. and all the rising host appears. As when two scales are charged with doubtful loads. Loud strokes are heard. nor that. The copious slaughter covers all the shore. 245. Pointed above. 227 373 [229] —Each equal weight. And the high ramparts drip with human gore.BOOK XII. With nice exactness weighs her woolly store. Nor these can keep. and lighten'd of its load The unwieldy rock. just and poor. nor those can win the wall. Such men as live in these degenerate days: Yet this. For Jove upheld. the labour of a god. he toss'd." —"Paradise Lost. Their manly breasts are pierced with many a wound. . And fires his host with loud repeated cries. and rattling arms resound. nor this.) Till poised aloft. and toss the blazing brands!" They hear. till Hector's matchless might. Fierce as a whirlwind up the walls he flies.

831 . Gloomy as night! and shakes two shining spears:228 A dreadful gleam from his bright armour came. The shore is heap'd with death. And from his eye-balls flash'd the living flame. The folds are shatter'd. A tide of Trojans flows. and stupendous frame. The Greeks behold." vi. the flying hinges roar. the furious chief appears. 228 "He on his impious foes right onward drove. they tremble.374 The Iliad of Homer Thus arm'd. Of massy substance. On lofty beams of solid timber hung: Then thundering through the planks with forceful sway. He moves a god. and they fly. With iron bars and brazen hinges strong. Drives the sharp rock. the solid beams give way. and tumult rends the sky." —"Paradise Lost. through the gaping space. and fills the place. Now rushing in. Then pouring after. And seems a match for more than mortal force. Gloomy as night. resistless in his course. from the crackling door Leap the resounding bars. before the folded gates he came.



till. and renews the attack. and put a stop to Hector and the Trojans. The scene is between the Grecian wall and the sea-shore. and inspires those heroes to oppose him: then. . upbraids Paris. being galled by the Locrian slingers and archers. Hector still keeps his ground against the Ajaces. (who had entered the gate near the station of the Ajaces.) assumes the shape of Calchas. Asius. meets Ajax again. Polydamas advises to call a council of war: Hector approves of his advice. The Trojans are repulsed on the left wing. and kills Pisander. Several deeds of valour are performed. encourages the other Greeks who had retired to their vessels.[230] BOOK XIII. ARGUMENT. repairs to seek another at the tent of Idomeneus: this occasions a conversation between those two warriors. Menelaus wounds Helenus. Neptune. Meriones. The eight-and-twentieth day still continues. and Alcathous: Deiphobus and Æneas march against him. in the form of one of the generals. Idomeneus signalizes his courage above the rest. he kills Othryoneus. losing his spear in the encounter. concerned for the loss of the Grecians. upon seeing the fortification forced by Hector. but goes first to rally the Trojans. and at length Idomeneus retires. rejoins Polydamas. IN WHICH NEPTUNE ASSISTS THE GREEKS: THE ACTS OF IDOMENEUS. who return together to the battle. THE FOURTH BATTLE CONTINUED. The Ajaces form their troops in a close phalanx.

He sat.e. in bloody fray To toil and struggle through the well-fought day.378 The Iliad of Homer [231] When now the Thunderer on the sea-beat coast Had fix'd great Hector and his conquering host. he deems. innocent of blood. He left them to the fates. to either host is given. innoxious. The epithet abion or abion. 239. And where the far-famed Hippomolgian strays. p. and dying men: No aid." the latter epithet indicating that they did not depend upon archery for subsistence." i. de Exp. There. also speaks of the independence of these people. fair Ilion's glittering spires were seen. It may mean. The crowded ships and sable seas between. has occasioned much discussion. Alex. Then turn'd to Thracia from the field of fight Those eyes that shed insufferable light. Renown'd for justice and for length of days. In Samothracia.229 Thrice happy race! that. While his high law suspends the powers of Heaven. nor observed in vain. And hardy Thracians tame the savage horse. Arrian. which he regards as the result of their poverty and uprightness. and round him cast his azure eyes Where Ida's misty tops confusedly rise. From milk." as an epithet applicable to numerous tribes. seek their simple food: Jove sees delighted. in this passage. Some authors have regarded the phrase "Hippomolgian. according as we read it. "milking their mares. either "long-lived. To where the Mysians prove their martial force. 229 . of arms. Whose waving woods o'erhung the deeps below." or "bowless. iv. and avoids the scene Of guilty Troy. Below. Meantime the monarch of the watery main Observed the Thunderer. from the crystal chambers of the main —Renown'd for justice and for length of days. on a mountain's brow. since the oldest of the Samatian nomads made their mares' milk one of their chief articles of diet.

Between where Tenedos the surges lave. Fierce as he pass'd. and deck'd with golden manes. Exults. Deep in the liquid regions lies a cave. And felt the footsteps of the immortal god. He mounts the car. at the fourth. Emerged. Infrangible. the golden scourge applies. From realm to realm three ample strides he took. and owns the monarch of the main. his brass-hoof'd steeds he reins. with grief and fury stung. and the chariot flies: His whirling wheels the glassy surface sweep. Fed with ambrosial herbage from his hand. Far in the bay his shining palace stands. he sat. He sits superior. immortal: there they stay: 379 . The wondering waters leave his axle dry. The sea subsiding spreads a level plain. the lofty mountains nod. And link'd their fetlocks with a golden band. And rocky Imbrus breaks the rolling wave: There the great ruler of the azure round Stopp'd his swift chariot. The enormous monsters rolling o'er the deep Gambol around him on the watery way. Refulgent arms his mighty limbs infold. the distant Ægae shook. And. At Jove incensed. Prone down the rocky steep he rush'd along. The forest shakes. Fleet as the winds. and his steeds unbound. And heavy whales in awkward measures play.BOOK XIII. earth trembled as he trod. Eternal frame! not raised by mortal hands: This having reach'd. and mourn'd his Argives slain. Immortal arms of adamant and gold. The parting waves before his coursers fly.

and the shores reply: They vow destruction to the Grecian name. as Hector rush'd along: To the loud tumult and the barbarous cry The heavens re-echo. and such his manly mien. Such his loud voice. NEPTUNE RISING FROM THE SEA. The god whose earthquakes rock the solid ground. Now wears a mortal form. like Calchas seen. in a gloomy throng. . Or fiery deluge that devours the ground. The impatient Trojans. His shouts incessant every Greek inspire. adding fire to fire. darkening heaven around. rising from the seas profound. like a tempest. But most the Ajaces.380 The Iliad of Homer [232] The father of the floods pursues his way: Where. Embattled roll'd. And in their hopes the fleets already flame. But Neptune.

"'Tis yours. and skims along the sky: Such. Her quarry seen. and thus to Telamon: . this part o'erthrown. Shoots on the wing. He touch'd the chiefs. Prompts their light limbs. impetuous at the sight. not their own. O warriors. is destructive here. and Jove's own aid. Vaunts of his gods. that the deep controls. Greece yet may live. be vain. more than shameful. and so swift. and swells their daring hearts. Her strength were vain." 381 Then with his sceptre. Then. and steel'd their manly souls: Strength. all our hopes to raise: Oh recollect your ancient worth and praise! 'Tis yours to save us.BOOK XIII. the touch divine imparts. [233] The inspiring god Oileus' active son Perceived the first. And pour her armies o'er our batter'd wall: There Greece has strength: but this. Breathe in your hearts. Flight. On other works though Troy with fury fall. if you cease to fear. darts herself from high. The wide horizon shut him from their view. as a falcon from the rocky height. her threaten'd fleet maintain: And Hector's force. and string your arms to fight. and calls high Jove his sire: If yet some heavenly power your breast excite. Forth-springing instant. I dread for you alone: Here Hector rages like the force of fire. the power of ocean flew.

the venerable seer. The blood pours back. Pant in the ships. Thoas. The heroes thus their mutual warmth express'd. Teucer and Leitus first his words excite. and fortifies my heart: Singly. And Merion next. and the steps he trod. I saw the power appear: I mark'd his parting. Then stern Peneleus rises to the fight. with length of labours tired. This ready arm. in arms renown'd. methinks. Greece sunk they thought. unthinking. While tears of rage stand burning in their eye. Deipyrus. pale. Who. But breathe new courage as they feel the power. some god in human form Favouring descends. His own bright evidence reveals a god. breathless. shakes the dart. while Troy to conquest calls. and brace my arm. and wills to stand the storm. Lift each impatient limb. Last Nestor's son the same bold ardour takes. yon towering chief I meet. and this their fatal hour. New rising spirits all my force alarm. my friend. and my bosom burns. And stretch the dreadful Hector at my feet.382 The Iliad of Homer "Some god." Full of the god that urged their burning breast. Not Calchas this. And swarms victorious o'er their yielding walls: Trembling before the impending storm they lie. Even now some energy divine I share. and tread in air!" "With equal ardour (Telamon returns) My soul is kindled. Neptune meanwhile the routed Greeks inspired. the impulsive fury found. And seem to walk on wings. While thus the god the martial fire awakes: . Short as he turned.

Think. to see Brave Greece victorious. if your king's unjust? Prevent this evil. Achilles' injured fame: Another's is the crime. My heart weeps blood to see your glory lost! Nor deem this day. for they feel no shame: But you. on instant death: 383 [234] . or the general's fault? Fools! will ye perish for your leader's vice. so late who trembled at your name. On endless infamy. but yours the shame. A day more black. and life the price? 'Tis not your cause. involve your ships in flame? A change so shameful. oh dire disgrace To chiefs of vigorous youth. The purchase infamy.BOOK XIII. Heavens! what a prodigy these eyes survey. a straggling train. the flower of all our host. Unseen. "Oh lasting infamy. all you lose. who prizes fame or breath. what cause has wrought? The soldiers' baseness. unthought. Like frighted fawns from hill to hill pursued. Let each reflect. Must you be cowards. no—the glorious combat you disclaim. and subdue! on dastards dead to fame I waste no anger. A prey to every savage of the wood: Shall these. and your country save: Small thought retrieves the spirits of the brave. a fate more vile. the pride. and you. ensues. Grant that our chief offend through rage or lust. Not born to glories of the dusty plain. And one black day clouds all her former fame. this battle. and her navy free: Ah. say. Invade your camps. till this amazing day! Fly we at length from Troy's oft-conquer'd bands? And falls our fleet by such inglorious hands? A rout undisciplined. and manly race! I trusted in the gods.

With well-ranged squadrons strongly circled round: So close their order. Or had the god of war inclined his eyes." These words the Grecians' fainting hearts inspire. And levell'd at the skies with pointing rays. Thus breathing death. As from some mountain's craggy forehead torn. and Hector first of Troy. As when an earthquake stirs the nodding grove. Troy charged the first. to conquer. The close compacted legions urged their way: Fierce they drove on. The hour. the brazen barriers roar! Impetuous Hector thunders at the wall. Spears lean on spears. the spot. An iron scene gleams dreadful o'er the fields. so disposed their fight. and shields in shields. Fix'd at his post was each bold Ajax found. Helms stuck to helms. impatient to destroy. Descending Hector and his battle wait. (Which from the stubborn stone a torrent rends. Their brandish'd lances at each motion blaze. Armour in armour lock'd. And listening armies catch the godlike fire. The god of war had own'd a just surprise. lo! the fated time. resolved as fate. At every shock the crackling wood resounds. with fury borne. [235] . on targets targets throng.384 The Iliad of Homer For. and man drove man along. or to fall. the appointed shore: Hark! the gates burst. As Pallas' self might view with fix'd delight. The floating plumes unnumber'd wave above. firm. A rock's round fragment flies.) Precipitate the ponderous mass descends: From steep to steep the rolling ruin bounds. in terrible array. A chosen phalanx.

marching. And on. but. On him the war is bent. bold verses:— "And as a round piece of a rocke. unmoved. mourn'd his frustrate blow. 385 Still gathering force.—" . beyond the rest. "Trojans! be firm. uncheckt. And then (tho' never so impelled). The glittering javelin pierced the tough bull-hide. when he stopp'd. Bold Merion aim'd a stroke (nor aim'd it wide). and my spear shall rout their scattering power. held Before his wary steps his ample shield. impetuous to the plain: There stops—so Hector. The Trojan warrior.BOOK XIII. Whirls. nor from his stand retires. Their whole force he proved. and. But with repeated shouts his army fires.230 Resistless when he raged. But pierced not through: unfaithful to his hand. The Greek." He said. Forth march'd Deiphobus. The first of gods. On the raised orb to distance bore the spear. it smokes. The point broke short. which with a winter's flood Is from his top torn. For he that Juno's heavenly bosom warms. this arm shall make your way Through yon square body. retreating. Hath broke the naturall band it had within the roughftey rock. and sparkled in the sand. and thunders down. and urged amain. the darts are shed. embattled like a tower. this day inspires our arms. And all their falchions wave around his head: Repulsed he stands. leaps. and that black array: Stand. resounding everie shocke. it headlong leaps till in a plaine it stay. Flies jumping all adourne the woods. it stirs not any way:— So Hector. touch'd with timely fear. 230 Compare Chapman's quaint. and roused the soul in every breast: Urged with desire of fame. when a shoure poured from a bursten cloud. Strong as they seem.

Allied the warrior to the house of Troy:) To Troy. He lived. and pierced Amphimachus's heart. So falls the youth. the forceful dart Sung on.386 The Iliad of Homer And cursed the treacherous lance that spared a foe. and his race divine! Prostrate he falls. Vain was his courage. By Teucer's arm the warlike Imbrius bleeds. a tall ash tumbles down. And his broad buckler thunders on the ground. And just had fastened on the dazzling prize. his clanging arms resound. his arms the fall resound. And blest in bright Medesicaste's arms: (This nymph. In fair Pedaeus' verdant pastures bred. The tumult thickens. The youth had dwelt. a guardian of the throne. Him Teucer pierced between the throat and ear: He groans beneath the Telamonian spear. remote from war's alarms. The son of Mentor. Then Teucer rushing to despoil the dead. From Hector's hand a shining javelin fled: He saw. To seize his beamy helm the victor flies. And soils its verdant tresses on the ground. Cteatus' son. [236] . beloved and honour'd as his own. To seek a surer javelin in his tent. rich in generous steeds. And match'd the bravest of her chiefs in fame: With Priam's sons. Ere yet to Troy the sons of Greece were led. the fruit of Priam's ravish'd joy. and the clamour grows. Subdued by steel. Meanwhile with rising rage the battle glows. he came. As from some far-seen mountain's airy crown. and shunn'd the death. Then to the ships with surly speed he went. of Neptune's forceful line. when glory call'd his arms.

At Hector's feet the gory visage lay. And his sad comrades from the battle bore. the chief: great Ajax from the dead Strips his bright arms. and bear off the slain. And pierced with sorrow for his grandson slain. Who ruled where Calydon's white rocks arise. He finds the lance-famed Idomen of Crete. 387 [237] . he issued from his tent Fierce for the fight: to whom the god begun. sad object! lies. He felt the shock. Swift as a whirlwind rushing to the fleet. And sprinkling all the shrubs with drops of blood. Imbrius remains the fierce Ajaces' prize. Secure in mail. When Ajax' manly arm a javelin flung. Menestheus the divine. Snatch'd from devouring hounds. Him to the surgeons of the camp he sent: That office paid. His pensive brow the generous care express'd With which a wounded soldier touch'd his breast. The god of ocean. the victor Greeks obtain The spoils contested. and sheath'd in shining steel. and whirl'd in air away. Full on the shield's round boss the weapon rung. In Thoas' voice. nor more was doom'd to feel. In their fell jaws high-lifting through the wood. So these.BOOK XIII. Oileus lops his head: Toss'd like a ball. Andraemon's valiant son. Repulsed he yields. confirms their hands. As two grim lions bear across the lawn. Whom in the chance of war a javelin tore. fired with stern disdain.) Deplored Amphimachus. (Stichius the brave. a slaughter'd fawn. Inspires the Grecian hearts. And breathes destruction on the Trojan bands. Between the leaders of the Athenian line.

388 The Iliad of Homer And Pleuron's chalky cliffs emblaze the skies: "Where's now the imperious vaunt. my friend! Once foremost in the fight. alas! and Jove's all-powerful doom. behold! in horrid arms I shine. urge the rest. and war is all her own. not the worst. if their force unite. That far. Nor dares to combat on this signal day! For this. Two. nor shameful sloth detains: 'Tis heaven." Thus he: and thus the god whose force can make The solid globe's eternal basis shake: "Ah! never may he see his native land. Arms are her trade. the daring boast. Of Greece victorious. Together let us battle on the plain. Her hardy heroes from the well-fought plains Nor fear withholds. the bravest have confess'd in fight. And urge thy soul to rival acts with mine. still prone to lend Or arms or counsels. nor even this succour vain: Not vain the weakest. now perform thy best. But feed the vultures on this hateful strand. But ours. and proud Ilion lost?" To whom the king: "On Greece no blame be thrown. Who seeks ignobly in his ships to stay. And what thou canst not singly." . far distant from our native home Wills us to fall inglorious! Oh.

he rushes where the combat burns. Meriones attends. In streamy sparkles." "O prince! (Meriones replies) whose care Leads forth the embattled sons of Crete to war. What holds thy courage from so brave a field? On some important message art thou bound. 389 Him. Like lightning bursting from the arm of Jove. Or bleeds my friend by some unhappy wound? Inglorious here. Or terrifies the offending world with wars. Whom thus he questions: "Ever best of friends! O say. And clad in arms that lighten'd all the strand. The rest lies rooted in a Trojan shield. Which to pale man the wrath of heaven declares. Fierce on the foe the impetuous hero drove.BOOK XIII. From pole to pole the trail of glory flies: Thus his bright armour o'er the dazzled throng Gleam'd dreadful. kindling all the skies." [238] . as the monarch flash'd along. And glows with prospects of th' approaching day. This speaks my grief: this headless lance I wield. Swift to his tent the Cretan king returns: From thence. in every art of battle skill'd. my soul abhors to stay. This said. two javelins glittering in his hand. near his tent.

and unmoved his frame: Composed his thought. .390 The Iliad of Homer To whom the Cretan: "Enter. And thence these trophies. and shields that flame with gold. With chattering teeth he stands. He shifts his place: his colour comes and goes: A dropping sweat creeps cold on every part. Against his bosom beats his quivering heart. Idomeneus: "The fields of fight Have proved thy valour. stands confess'd. or valour. and stiffening hair. still the same. No force. and receive The wonted weapons. Unchanged his colour." To this. The fear of each. nor aim the uncertain spear. and see on heaps the helmets roll'd. I appeal to thee. Though I. the pale coward shows. those my tent can give. and unconquer'd might: And were some ambush for the foes design'd. Spears I have store. singled from the rest. no firmness. Enter. Yet hand to hand I fight. (and Trojan lances all. And high-hung spears. Terror and death in his wild eye-balls stare. I fight conspicuous in the van of war. Nor trust the dart. determined is his eye. And looks a bloodless image of despair! Not so the brave—still dauntless. disdainful of the distant war. and spoil the slain." "Nor vain (said Merion) are our martial toils. whence distant far. We too can boast of no ignoble spoils: But those my ship contains. and these arms I gain. What need I more? If any Greek there be Who knows not Merion.) That shed a lustre round the illumined wall. Even there thy courage would not lag behind: In that sharp service.

relentless they dispose. So march'd the leaders of the Cretan train. And to their owners send them nobly back. follow'd to the war. And fix'd his soul. So Mars armipotent invades the plain. Or combat in the centre of the fight? Or to the left our wonted succour lend? Hazard and fame all parts alike attend. Invoked by both. like infants. And lay the strength of tyrants on the ground: From Thrace they fly. call'd to the dire alarms Of warring Phlegyans. when glory calls to arms? Go—from my conquer'd spears the choicest take. Such as may teach. (The wide destroyer of the race of man. and all before." 391 [239] . cold to honour's charms.BOOK XIII. 'Tis but the wish to strike before the rest. his best-beloved son. The pride of haughty warriors to confound. breathing slaughter. "In such assays thy blameless worth is known. And their bright arms shot horror o'er the plain. By chance of fight whatever wounds you bore. And every art of dangerous war thy own. Stand we to talk. and Ephyrian arms. 'twas still thy brave delight T'oppose thy bosom where thy foremost fight. and enormous force. To these glad conquest. Arm'd with stern boldness. But why.) Terror. Those wounds were glorious all." Swift at the word bold Merion snatch'd a spear And. Then first spake Merion: "Shall we join the right. to conquer or to die: If aught disturb the tenour of his breast. attends his course. murderous rout to those.

nor steel can wound. Bristled with upright spears. Whom Ajax fells not on the ensanguined ground. Their force embodied in a tide they pour. hope. of more than human birth. that flash'd afar. Dire was the gleam of breastplates. Great must he be. Fierce as the god of battles. and. These can the rage of haughty Hector tame: Safe in their arms. the navy fears no flame. Excell'd alone in swiftness in the course. urged his pace. Each godlike Ajax makes that post his care. On every side the dusty whirlwinds rise. Met the black hosts. The rising combat sounds along the shore. All dreadful glared the iron face of war. and shields. ." He said: and Merion to th' appointed place. And gallant Teucer deals destruction there. rage. Skill'd or with shafts to gall the distant field. Soon as the foe the shining chiefs beheld Rush like a fiery torrent o'er the field. Nor feed like mortals on the fruits of earth. his bolts to shed. And live with glory. together driven. From different quarters sweep the sandy plain. Him neither rocks can crush. helms. or with glory die. And hurl the blazing ruin at our head. meeting.392 The Iliad of Homer "Not in the centre (Idomen replied:) Our ablest chieftains the main battle guide. Or bear close battle on the sounding shield. in Sirius' sultry reign. And the dry fields are lifted to the skies: Thus by despair. Till Jove himself descends. In standing fight he mates Achilles' force. darken'd heaven. As warring winds. Then to the left our ready arms apply.

and fired the Grecian train. Call'd by the voice of war to martial fame. and grown in combats grey. or gods. The bold Idomeneus controls the day. but the fates refused. And more than men. But touch'd with joy the bosoms of the brave. supremely wise. Saturn's great sons in fierce contention vied. And promised conquest was the proffer'd dower. Neptune in human form conceal'd his aid. Gods of one source. The king consented. Dreadful in arms.BOOK XIII. by Thetis won To crown with glory Peleus' godlike son. Warr'd on the king of heaven with stern disdain. Indissolubly strong: the fatal tie Is stretch'd on both. with boasts of power. Swell'd with false hopes. and close compell'd they die. First by his hand Othryoneus was slain. with mad ambition vain. and heaven their native place. rising from his azure main. From high Cabesus' distant walls he came. by his vaunts abused. 393 [240] . Alike divine. of one ethereal race. The sire of earth and heaven. For this. first-born of the skies. Will'd not destruction to the Grecian powers. These powers enfold the Greek and Trojan train In war and discord's adamantine chain. And breathed revenge. But Jove the greater. Cassandra's love he sought. And crowds of heroes in their anger died. But spared awhile the destined Trojan towers. And polish'd arms emblazed the flaming fields: Tremendous scene! that general horror gave. The king consented. of Jove's superior might afraid. While Neptune.

His arms resounded as the boaster fell. Full on his throat discharged the forceful spear: Beneath the chin the point was seen to glide. There hear what Greece has on her part to say. Or pine. and dragg'd the gory corse away. And such the contract of the Phrygian king! Our offers now. Him as he stalk'd. and of the imagined bride. And glitter'd. extant at the further side. This Asius view'd. Groans to the oft-heaved axe. on further methods to advise. or poplar tall. to his squire consign'd. And stretch'd before his much-loved coursers lay. illustrious prince! receive.394 The Iliad of Homer [241] Proud of himself. as his foe drew near. The field he measured with a larger stride. Impatient panted on his neck behind:) To vengeance rising with a sudden spring. The wary Cretan. with ours thy forces join. "And thus (he cries) behold thy promise sped! Such is the help thy arms to Ilion bring. Meantime. Before his chariot warring on the plain: (His crowded coursers. fit mast for some great admiral. As when the mountain-oak. Vain was his breastplate to repel the wound: His dream of glory lost. Then spreads a length of ruin o'er the ground: So sunk proud Asius in that dreadful day." He spoke. Come. . For such an aid what will not Argos give? To conquer Troy. the Cretan javelin found. He hoped the conquest of the Cretan king. he plunged to hell. unable to contain. And count Atrides' fairest daughter thine. The great Idomeneus bestrides the dead. follow to the fleet thy new allies. with many a wound.

and. He grinds the dust distain'd with streaming gore. Thick with bull-hides and brazen orbits bound.BOOK XIII. lamented Asius lies: For thee. he pants beneath The stately car. king Hypsenor's breast: Warm'd in his liver. But falls transfix'd. caused to glance From his slope shield the disappointed lance. the vengeful weapon fly. Deiphobus drew nigh. And made. an unresisting prey: Pierced by Antilochus. with force. lies foaming on the shore. obliquely. 395 Stabb'd at the sight. The Cretan saw.) He lay collected in defensive shade. And. and labours out his breath. stiff with stupid fear. through hell's black portals stand display'd. This mate shall joy thy melancholy shade. Thus Asius' steeds (their mighty master gone) Remain the prize of Nestor's youthful son. Even then the spear the vigorous arm confess'd. Stands all aghast his trembling charioteer. O'er his safe head the javelin idly sung. On his raised arm by two strong braces stay'd. (a blazing round. Deprived of motion. to the ground it bore The chief. his people's guardian now no more! "Not unattended (the proud Trojan cries) Nor unrevenged. nor turns the steeds away. And on the tinkling verge more faintly rung. And pierced." . Beneath the spacious targe. fierce in death. stooping. Nor shuns the foe.

at the haughty boast. Anchises' eldest hope. While the winds sleep. Long used to ward the death in fighting fields. nor shuns the lance of Crete. By Neptune now the hapless hero dies. his pious arms attend. Or find some foe. Before the ponderous stroke his corslet yields. and vibrates in the wound. Resolved to perish in his country's cause. The fairest she of all the fair of Troy. He sees Alcathous in the front aspire: Great Æsyetes was the hero's sire. Fast flowing from its source.396 The Iliad of Homer Heart-piercing anguish. his breast received the stroke. but Nestor's son the most. And fetters every limb: yet bent to meet His fate he stands. And his broad buckler shields his slaughter'd friend: Till sad Mecistheus and Alastor bore His honour'd body to the tented shore. Grieved as he was. Life's purple tide impetuous gush'd away. and every work of art: He once of Ilion's youth the loveliest boy. His labouring heart heaves with so strong a bound. Touch'd every Greek. as prone he lay. The long lance shakes. . divinely fair. or deep-rooted oak. and darling care: Who charm'd her parents' and her husband's heart With beauty. Who covers with a cloud those beauteous eyes. Fix'd as some column. His spouse Hippodame. sense. [242] Nor yet from fight Idomeneus withdraws. The riven armour sends a jarring sound. whom heaven and he shall doom To wail his fate in death's eternal gloom.

A scourge to thee. guardian of his country. Haste. This deed to fierce Idomeneus we owe. Beneath his cares thy early youth was train'd. at length decreed To call some hero to partake the deed. and her bold sons. and said: "Now. From Jove. Approaching now thy boasted might approve. To him. my third victim. the third from Jupiter: O'er spacious Crete. Great Minos. employ thy pious arms. Forthwith Æneas rises to his thought: For him in Troy's remotest lines he sought. uncertain or to meet. And thence my ships transport me through the main: Lord of a host. One table fed you. Then Idomen. blameless prince. insulting o'er the slain: "Behold. I reign. with venturous arms the king of Crete. and one roof contain'd. to the shades I send. Alone. and thy line. incensed at partial Priam." The Trojan heard. thy brother and thy friend. Come. Alcathous dies. Or seek auxiliar force. His first-born I. And try the prowess of the seed of Jove. ambitious of so great an aid. came: Deucalion. and the warrior's loved remains defend.BOOK XIII. And sees superior posts in meaner hands. o'er all my host I shine. was Minos' heir. Deiphobus! nor vaunt in vain: See! on one Greek three Trojan ghosts attend. If e'er thy bosom felt fair honour's charms. stands. enamour'd of a mortal dame. The bold Deiphobus approach'd. thy father. Where he. This. Trojan prince. and revenge it on th' insulting foe." 397 [243] .

O'er his bent back the bristly horrors rise. (Co-aids and captains of the Trojan line. Merion. Fires stream in lightning from his sanguine eyes. this hour decide the strife. erect and bold. on some rough mountain's head. Their lifted bucklers cast a dreadful shade Around the chief." He spoke. Antilochus. and to slaughter bred. Agenor. But most his hunters rouse his mighty rage: So stood Idomeneus. Deiphobus. he burns to fight: The Greek awaits him with collected might. and Aphareus. "Fellows in arms! your timely aid unite. obey'd. were near. or of life. He fresh in youth. of glory. Arm'd with wild terrors. And met the Trojan with a lowering look.398 The Iliad of Homer Æneas heard. Æneas too demands Th' assisting forces of his native bands. his javelin shook. Lo. When the loud rustics rise. . and I in arms grown old. As the fell boar. and all. Else should this hand. Like Ida's flocks proceeding o'er the plain. in field renown'd: To these the warrior sent his voice around.) In order follow all th' embodied train. and shout from far. Paris. Before his fleecy care. The youthful offspring of the god of war. The great dispute. and more than mortal bold. join. Then rising in his rage. and expects the war. and for a space resign'd To tender pity all his manly mind. Deipyrus. Attends the tumult. great Æneas rushes to the fight: Sprung from a god. as with one soul. His foaming tusks both dogs and men engage.

And o'er their heads unheeded javelins sing. grasps the bloody dust in death. With joy the swain surveys them. the missive wood Stuck deep in earth. Like gods of war. His spoils he could not. And burn'd to drench the ground with mutual blood. The victor from his breast the weapon tears. Heavy with cumbrous arms. The Cretan saw. The forceful spear his hollow corslet broke. as he leads To the cool fountains. two towering chiefs appear. Till faint with labour. stiff with cold age. furious. through the well-known meads: So joys Æneas. His listless limbs unable for the course. And. Deiphobus beheld him as he pass'd. Æneas here. It ripp'd his belly with a ghastly wound.BOOK XIII. they stood. as his native band Moves on in rank. and by foes repell'd. Stretch'd on the plain. The Trojan weapon whizz'd along in air. the father of the bold. On every side the steely circle grows. And. Though now unfit an active war to wage. and quiver'd where it stood. Stalks the proud ram. fired with hate. for the shower of spears. Above the rest. Round dread Alcathous now the battle rose. But OEnomas received the Cretan's stroke. and shunn'd the brazen spear: Sent from an arm so strong. Now batter'd breast-plates and hack'd helmets ring. And roll'd the smoking entrails on the ground. There great Idomeneus. dispensing fate. a parting javelin cast: 399 [244] . His tired slow steps he drags from off the field. In standing fight he yet maintains his force. he sobs away his breath. and stretches o'er the land.

Valiant as Mars. And from his temples rends the glittering prize. To Troy they drove him. And from the rage of battle gently drew: Him his swift coursers. but held its course along. Deiphobus to seize his helmet flies. Now. as he pass'd.400 The Iliad of Homer The javelin err'd. High-throned amidst the great Olympian hall. The hollow helmet rings against the plain. His wounded brother good Polites tends. on his splendid car. And pierced Ascalaphus. disabled with the pain. all bloody with his wound. the sands with gore. the brave and young: The son of Mars fell gasping on the ground. On golden clouds th' immortal synod sate. and rejoin'd his friends. Nor knew the furious father of his fall. Detain'd from bloody war by Jove and Fate. groaning from the shore. For slain Ascalaphus commenced the fray. From his torn arm the Grecian rent away The reeking javelin. Around his waist his pious arms he threw. where in dust the breathless hero lay. And on his loaded arm discharged his spear: He drops the weight. Swift as a vulture leaping on his prey. And gnash'd the dust. . Rapt from the lessening thunder of the war. And sprinkling. Meriones drew near.

BOOK XIII. and every danger sought. the bending head. his eager javelin rends: Supine he falls. His time observed. Antilochus. Splinter'd on earth flew half the broken wood. And everlasting slumber seals his eyes. leaping where he lay. Meanwhile fresh slaughter bathes the sanguine ground. His shield reversed o'er the fallen warrior lies. depress'd Beneath his helmet. His shield emboss'd the ringing storm sustains. His winged lance. and heaven and earth resound. Heaps fall on heaps. but spreads in vain. Faced every foe. (Great Neptune's care preserved from hostile rage This youth. that to the neck extends Along the chine. And meditates the distant enemy. The son of Asius. drew near. And struck his target with the brazen spear Fierce in his front: but Neptune wards the blow. with the first he fought. And blunts the javelin of th' eluded foe: In the broad buckler half the weapon stood. From his broad shoulders tore the spoils away. Obeys each motion of the master's mind! Restless it flies. impatient to be free. Th' exulting victor. for closed by foes around. and to his social train Spreads his imploring arms. the joy of Nestor's glorious age. Adamas. Transpierced his back with a dishonest wound: The hollow vein.) In arms intrepid. On all sides thick the peals of arms resound. Bold Aphareus by great Æneas bled. He pierced his throat. 401 . as Thoon turn'd him round. resistless as the wind. nods upon his breast. But he impervious and untouch'd remains. As toward the chief he turn'd his daring head.

As on some ample barn's well harden'd floor. Atrides. (The winds collected at each open door. Where sharp the pang. And death's dim shadows swarm before his view.) While the broad fan with force is whirl'd around. and mortal is the wound. Pierced with his lance the hand that grasp'd the bow. to the victor turns: That shook the ponderous lance. And nailed it to the yew: the wounded hand Trail'd the long lance that mark'd with blood the sand: But good Agenor gently from the wound . Repell'd to distance flies the bounding dart. Light leaps the golden grain. in act to throw. Lay panting. And this stood adverse with the bended bow: Full on his breast the Trojan arrow fell. But Merion's spear o'ertook him as he flew. resulting from the ground: So from the steel that guards Atrides' heart. watchful of the unwary foe. great Menelaus burns. and doubled to the ground. Next brave Deipyrus in dust was laid: King Helenus waved high the Thracian blade. The spear the conqueror from his body drew. But harmless bounded from the plated steel. Bending he fell. For dark in death the godlike owner lies! Raging with grief. and roll'd amid the throng: There for some luckier Greek it rests a prize.402 The Iliad of Homer [246] Disarm'd. And fraught with vengeance. And smote his temples with an arm so strong. Thus an ox in fetters tied. While death's strong pangs distend his labouring side. His heaving heart beats thick as ebbing life decays. His bulk enormous on the field displays. he mingled in the Trojan crew. Deep in the belly's rim an entrance found. The helm fell off.

Dauntless he rushes where the Spartan lord Like lightning brandish'd his far beaming sword.) This on the helm discharged a noble blow. Springs through the ranks to fall. and fall by thee. And fierce Atrides spurn'd him as he bled. loud-exulting. First the sharp lance was by Atrides thrown. Nor pierced Pisander through Atrides' shield: Pisander's spear fell shiver'd on the field. urged by fate's decree. In dust and blood the groaning hero lay: Forced from their ghastly orbs. Tore off his arms.BOOK XIII. to the future blind. The spear solicits. and brazen was the blade. said: . the warrior came. The crashing bones before its force gave way. His left arm high opposed the shining shield: His right beneath. Atrides waved his steel: Deep through his front the weighty falchion fell. Vain dreams of conquest swell his haughty mind. (An olive's cloudy grain the handle made. snatch'd from a soldier's side. The plume dropp'd nodding to the plain below. The clotted eye-balls tumble on the shore. and spouting gore. Distinct with studs. the cover'd pole-axe held. A sling's soft wool. and the bandage bound. Not so discouraged. 403 Behold! Pisander. At once the tent and ligature supplied. The lance far distant by the winds was blown. Great Menelaus! to enchance thy fame: High-towering in the front. Shorn from the crest. and.

The violated rites. Following his martial father to the war: Through filial love he left his native shore. abandon'd and unjust. Never. who delight in war! Already noble deeds ye have perform'd. . O race perfidious. and lust? The best of things. from death he flies. Above the thought of man. Thus of his lance disarm'd. But Troy for ever reaps a dire delight In thirst of slaughter. and in lust of fight. From whence this favour to an impious foe? A godless crew. Harpalion had through Asia travell'd far. Trojans. beyond their measure. never to behold it more! His unsuccessful spear he chanced to fling Against the target of the Spartan king. And whelm in ruins yon flagitious town. great father! lord of earth and skies.404 The Iliad of Homer [247] "Thus. whate'er mankind desire. ah. or the fear of Jove. Our heroes slaughter'd and our ships on flame. Without th' assistance. Even the sweet charms of sacred numbers tire. which his train received: Then sudden mix'd among the warring crew. thus. O thou. A princess raped transcends a navy storm'd: In such bold feats your impious might approve." This said. violence. the dance. supremely wise! If from thy hand the fates of mortals flow. love's endearing joy. shall bend your glory down. Still breathing rapine. Sleep's balmy blessing. he seized (while yet the carcase heaved) The bloody armour. Crimes heap'd on crimes. at length be taught to fear. cloy. And the bold son of Pylaemenes slew. The feast. the ravish'd dame.

through the hip transpiercing as he fled. a seer of old renown. Polydus' son. unrevenged. Paris from far the moving sight beheld. By arms abroad. And. (Like some vile worm extended on the ground. Beneath the bone the glancing point descends. The soul came issuing at the narrow vent: His limbs.BOOK XIII. unnerved. And. And wing'd the feather'd vengeance at the foe. And loved of all the Paphlagonian race! With his full strength he bent his angry bow. 405 [248] . and more for virtue famed. The shaft of Merion mingled with the dead. And in short pantings sobb'd his soul away. And everlasting darkness shades him round.) While life's red torrent gush'd from out the wound. father now no more! Attends the mournful pomp along the shore. a youth of matchless grace. A chief there was. And chose the certain glorious path to death. or slow disease at home: He climb'd his vessel. the brave Euchenor named. Oft had the father told his early doom. the swelling bladder rends: Sunk in his sad companions' arms he lay. With pity soften'd and with fury swell'd: His honour'd host. Beneath his ear the pointed arrow went. Him. prodigal of breath. driving down. For riches much. drop useless on the ground. Him on his car the Paphlagonian train In slow procession bore from off the plain. The pensive father. deplored his offspring dead. Who held his seat in Corinth's stately town. And turns around his apprehensive eyes. And unavailing tears profusely shed.

(Wrapp'd in the cloud and tumult of the field:) Wide on the left the force of Greece commands. repel not Hector's fiery course. by a stolen embrace. He dwelt far distant from his native place. and Amphion bold: The Phthians.) There join'd. And brave Podarces. famed for martial might. .406 The Iliad of Homer Nor knew great Hector how his legions yield. Mix'd with Boeotians. the whole Boeotian strength remains. Whose humble barrier scarce the foe divides. and th' Epaean force. And where low walls confine the beating tides. Medon. With such a tide superior virtue sway'd. But join'd. on the margin of the hoary deep. (Their naval station where the Ajaces keep. And conquest hovers o'er th' Achaian bands. Locrians and Phthians. active in the fight. Where first the gates were forced. on the shores of Troy. By his fierce step-dame from his father's reign Expell'd and exiled for her brother slain:) These rule the Phthians. And he that shakes the solid earth gave aid. and their arms employ. Stichius. There. Iphiclus' son: and that (Oileus) thine: (Young Ajax' brother. And all the thunder of the battle raged. and bulwarks gain'd. This drew from Phylacus his noble line. Where late in fight both foot and horse engaged. Phidas. The proud Iaonians with their sweeping trains. Bias and great Menestheus at their head: Meges the strong the Epaean bands controll'd. The flower of Athens. led. And Dracius prudent. But in the centre Hector fix'd remain'd.

But sage Polydamas. Dexterous with these they aim a certain wound. remissive of his might. And streams of sweat down their sour foreheads flow. with like unwearied care. O'er their huge limbs the foam descends in snow. Who bore by turns great Ajax' sevenfold shield. Address'd great Hector. Or whirl the sounding pebble from the sling. a pressing fight maintain: Far in the rear the Locrian archers lie. Troy's scattering orders open to the shower. The mingled tempest on the foes they pour. and this counsel gave: . Thus in the van the Telamonian train. 407 [249] Now had the Greeks eternal fame acquired. But skill'd from far the flying shaft to wing. Throng'd in bright arms. nor lift the moony shield. Or fell the distant warrior to the ground. The Locrian squadrons nor the javelin wield. And the gall'd Ilians to their walls retired. Join'd to one yoke. Whose stones and arrows intercept the sky. discreetly brave. with equal toil. Tired with the incessant slaughters of the fight. And trace large furrows with the shining share. Now side by side.BOOK XIII. No following troops his brave associate grace: In close engagement an unpractised race. the stubborn earth they tear. Nor bear the helm. A train of heroes followed through the field. Whene'er he breathed. Force the bright ploughshare through the fallow soil. Each Ajax laboured through the field of war: So when two lordly bulls.

If Heaven have lodged this virtue in my breast. on dangers dangers spread. scarce the war maintain! And what brave heroes at the ships lie slain! Here cease thy fury: and. thou seem'st averse to lend Impartial audience to a faithful friend. How many Trojans yield. Achilles. To some the powers of bloody war belong. has Jove assign'd A wise. the chiefs and kings Convoked to council. To few. lest Greece. Whether (the gods succeeding our desires) To yon tall ships to bear the Trojan fires. or fall! What troops. the nations round confess. weigh the sum of things. And towns and empires for their safety bless. And war's whole fury burns around thy head. not yet undone. O Hector! what I judge the best.408 The Iliad of Homer [250] "Though great in all. Attend. and pass unhurt away. And every art of glorious war thy own. Or quit the fleet. Their guardians these. great Achilles. Behold! distress'd within yon hostile wall. To some sweet music and the charm of song. extensive. But in cool thought and counsel to excel. yet remains On yonder decks. Contented with the conquest of the day. Seek not alone to engross the gifts of Heaven. and yet o'erlooks the plains!" . I fear. and wondrous few. See. I fear. as thou mov'st. disperse. all-considering mind. To gods and men thy matchless worth is known. How widely differs this from warring well! Content with what the bounteous gods have given. Pay the large debt of last revolving sun. out-number'd.

High on the wall some breathed their souls away. Where yonder heroes faint. whom. and round the plain. The counsel pleased. Leap'd from his chariot on the trembling ground. he flies. th' impatient chief reproved: . and Hector. with fury moved. at Hector's high command Haste the bold leaders of the Trojan band: But round the battlements. Opprobrious thus. I bend my way. with a bound. Shakes his white plumes that to the breezes flow. To Panthus' son. nor Asius' self appear: For these were pierced with many a ghastly wound. nor Helenus the seer. Some cold in death. but look'd in vain. And seems a moving mountain topp'd with snow. some groaning on the ground." 409 This said. And here detain the scatter'd youth of Troy. And bids anew the martial thunder rise. Far on the left. Through all his host. Deiphobus. Nor Asius' son. And hasten back to end the doubtful day.BOOK XIII. For many a chief he look'd. Swift as he leap'd his clanging arms resound. amid the throng he found (Cheering the troops. Some low in dust. "To guard this post (he cried) thy art employ. the towering chief prepares to go. (a mournful object) lay. inspiring force. and dealing deaths around) The graceful Paris.

Though then not deedless. Go then.410 The Iliad of Homer "Ill-fated Paris! slave to womankind. with forces not our own To combat: strength is of the gods alone. so fear'd of late? Black fate hang's o'er thee from th' avenging gods. Each now disabled by a hostile spear. and Helenus the seer. successful. I scatter'd slaughter from my fatal bow. where thy soul inspires: This heart and hand shall second all thy fires: What with this arm I can. and th' intrepid son? The force of Helenus. Deiphobus. stern Orthaeus stood. prepare to know. [251] ." These words the hero's angry mind assuage: Then fierce they mingle where the thickest rage. And great Othryoneus. Whelm'd in thy country's ruin shalt thou fall. Thy warm impatience makes thy tongue offend. Till death for death be paid. As smooth of face as fraudulent of mind! Where is Deiphobus. Cebrion." When Paris thus: "My brother and my friend. Of all those heroes. In other battles I deserved thy blame. Imperial Troy from her foundations nods. and blow for blow. two alone remain. with Polypoetes the divine. distain'd with blood. nor unknown to fame: But since yon rampart by thy arms lay low. Palmus. from Ascania far. where Asius gone? The godlike father. Around Polydamas. And one devouring vengeance swallow all. The chiefs you seek on yonder shore lie slain. dispensing fate. Phalces. And two bold brothers of Hippotion's line (Who reach'd fair Ilion. But 'tis not ours.

Long ere in flames our lofty navy fall. 'Tis not thy arm. and thus the chief defied: "Hector! come on. Like Mars commission'd to confound mankind. 411 . The former day. Before him flaming his enormous shield. Wide o'er the blasted fields the tempest sweeps. Lo! Greece is humbled. not by Troy. and tumbling to the shore: Thus rank on rank. Then. with an ample stride. Your boasted city. in dreadful order bright. and your god-built wall. The waves behind impel the waves before. His piercing eyes through all the battle stray. His nodding helm emits a streamy ray. Shot terrors round. Vain are the hopes that haughty mind imparts. The afflicted deeps tumultuous mix and roar. the next engaged in war). foaming high. that wither'd e'en the strong. That bears Jove's thunder on its dreadful wings. while beneath his targe he flash'd along. Advanced the first. settles on the hoary deeps. Like the broad sun. Wide rolling. The towering Ajax.BOOK XIII. The brazen arms reflect a beamy light: Full in the blazing van great Hector shined. gather'd. and man drove man along. but not an Argive shook. Far o'er the plains. Chief urged on chief. but Heaven. Thus stalk'd he. And. dreadful. 'tis thundering Jove we fear: The skill of war to us not idly given. As when from gloomy clouds a whirlwind springs. the thick battalions throng. thy empty threats forbear. illumined all the field. To force our fleet: the Greeks have hands and hearts. death was in his look: Whole nations fear'd.

with shouts. Shalt run. A shout that tore heaven's concave. in open view. imperious! if thy madness wait The lance of Hector. Shall largely feast the fowls with fat and gore. Even thou shalt wish." As thus he spoke. thou shalt meet thy fate: That giant-corse. Sent from his following host: the Grecian train With answering thunders fill'd the echoing plain. The blue-eyed maid. (Not that short life which mortals lead below. On sounding wings a dexter eagle flew. Even thou shalt call on Jove. and Argos be no more a name. While clouds of friendly dust conceal thy shame. The wings of falcons for thy flying horse. this insulting strain? Enormous boaster! doom'd to vaunt in vain. his progress through the skies: Far-echoing clamours bound from side to side. But such as those of Jove's high lineage born. And spread a long unmeasured ruin round. And hail. extended on the shore. The time shall come.412 The Iliad of Homer [252] Shall sink beneath us. chased along the plain. To Jove's glad omen all the Grecians rise. They ceased. and thus the chief of Troy replied: "From whence this menace. . when. behold. above. smoking on the ground. and call in vain. So may the gods on Hector life bestow. forgetful of a warrior's fame. to aid thy desperate course. Shook the fix'd splendours of the throne of Jove. and." He said. And thou.) As this decisive day shall end the fame Of Greece. or he that gilds the morn. and like a lion stalk'd along: With shouts incessant earth and ocean rung.



where the god. Neptune takes advantage of his slumber. wounded as they were. to which Diomed adds his advice. seeing the partiality of Jupiter to the Trojans. and is laid asleep. with some difficulty. and carried off from the battle: several actions succeed. She then applies herself to the god of sleep. which advice is pursued. whom he informs of the extremity of the danger. Juno. Nestor. and hastens to Agamemnon. that. till the Trojans. and. much distressed. Agamemnon proposes to make their escape by night. and succours the Greeks: Hector is struck to the ground with a prodigious stone by Ajax. which Ulysses withstands. sinks in her embraces. ARGUMENT. It is as well to observe. is ravished with her beauty. on his way he meets that prince with Diomed and Ulysses. they should go forth and encourage the army with their presence. persuades him to seal the eyes of Jupiter: this done. that the sameness of these scenes renders many notes unnecessary. and (the more surely to enchant him) obtains the magic girdle of Venus. she goes to mount Ida. This book forms a most agreeable interruption to The continuous round of battles. at first sight. sitting at the table with Machaon. forms a design to over-reach him: she sets off her charms with the utmost care. are obliged to give way: the lesser Ajax signalizes himself in a particular manner.[253] BOOK XIV.231 JUNO DECEIVES JUPITER BY THE GIRDLE OF VENUS. which occupy the latter part of the Iliad. 231 . is alarmed with the increasing clamour of war.

and bids them roll away. Then thus. The field rings dreadful with the clang of arms. and thicken to the fleet! Here with the cordial draught dispel thy care. as he moves. Refresh thy wound. The mass of waters will no wind obey. While I the adventures of the day explore. (That day the son his father's buckler bore. and issued from the door. and the Greeks in flight. [254] . impatient. Could charm the cares of Nestor's watchful soul. and blackens in the sky. What mix'd events attend this mighty day? Hark! how the shouts divide. Jove sends one gust. divine Machaon. Dire disarray! the tumult of the fight." He said: and. the sight his bosom warms. The wall in ruins. seizing Thrasymedes' shield. to his wounded friend: "What new alarm. Weighs down the cloud.) hasten'd to the field. and cleanse the clotted gore. say. or to the general haste. Let Hecamede the strengthening bath prepare. nor flowing bowl. and how they meet. The waves just heaving on the purple deeps: While yet the expected tempest hangs on high. While wavering counsels thus his mind engage. Debating long.) Then snatch'd a lance. (His valiant offspring. he fixes on the last: Yet. Fluctuates in doubtful thought the Pylian sage. And now come full. As when old ocean's silent surface sleeps. Soon as the prospect open'd to his view. His wounded eyes the scene of sorrow knew. His startled ears the increasing cries attend. To join the host.416 The Iliad of Homer But not the genial feast.

in his march. On many a Grecian bosom writ in blood. Diomed. nor will one chief engage? And have I lived to see with mournful eyes In every Greek a new Achilles rise?" 232 —Who to Tydeus owes. but anxious for the day. Unfit to fight. And who to Tydeus owes his noble line. the crowded ships they moor: Who landed first. Nestor. The gleaming falchions flash. 417 Him. By tardy steps ascending from the fleet: The king of men. Rank above rank. the javelins fly. ah! now too soon made good. i. beside the margin of the main. Is every heart inflamed with equal rage Against your king. from the field of fame? Shall then proud Hector see his boast fulfill'd. and our heroes kill'd? Such was his threat.232 (Their ships at distance from the battle stand. lay highest on the shore. Nestor's approach alarm'd each Grecian breast.) Supported on the spears. . What drives thee. they took their way. the wounded princes meet. and all or kill or die. the fleet unable to contain At length. In lines advanced along the shelving strand: Whose bay. Blows echo blows.BOOK XIV. Ulysses the divine. Our fleets in ashes.e. Whom thus the general of the host address'd: "O grace and glory of the Achaian name.

Than perish in the danger we may shun. to run. And all-confirming time has fate fulfill'd. all his aid confess'd. late our surest trust And best defence. Cease we at length to waste our blood in vain. wills our ruin here.418 The Iliad of Homer [255] Gerenian Nestor then: "So fate has will'd. our hands from battle ties. Not he that thunders from the aerial bower. Now heaven averse. Bring all to sea. upon the past has power. Leave these at anchor. far from Argos. and hoist each sail for flight. And best defence. Not Jove himself. Past are the days when happier Greece was blest. lies smoking in the dust. well foreseen. And lifts the Trojan glory to the skies. And launch what ships lie nearest to the main. And all his favour. Better from evils. The wall. Who." . And that the rampart. These gaping wounds withhold us from the fight. And groans of slaughter'd Greeks to heaven ascend. our late inviolable bound. All this from Jove's afflictive hand we bear. lies smoking on the ground: Even to the ships their conquering arms extend. On speedy measures then employ your thought In such distress! if counsel profit aught: Arms cannot much: though Mars our souls incite. if impetuous Troy forbear the fight. till the coming night: Then. That Troy triumphant our high fleet ascends." To him the monarch: "That our army bends.

or the thought declares? And comes it even from him whose sovereign sway The banded legions of all Greece obey? Is this a general's voice that calls to flight. The sage Ulysses thus replies. by Jove endued with martial might. and yet employs our age. Themselves abandon'd) shall the fight pursue. or to fall in fight: Adventurous combats and bold wars to wage." 419 [256] . Glad I submit. While anger flash'd from his disdainful eyes: "What shameful words (unkingly as thou art) Fall from that trembling tongue and timorous heart? Oh were thy sway the curse of meaner powers. who dares To think such meanness. Aught. unfold. Employ'd our youth. I force not Greece to quit this hateful coast. But thy ships flying. or young. While war hangs doubtful. Unwilling as I am to lose the host. And wilt thou thus desert the Trojan plain? And have whole streams of blood been spilt in vain? In such base sentence if thou couch thy fear. lest a Greek should hear. or old. for thy words are wise. whoe'er." "Thy just reproofs (Atrides calm replies) Like arrows pierce me.BOOK XIV. while his soldiers fight? What more could Troy? What yet their fate denies Thou givest the foe: all Greece becomes their prize. more conducive to our weal. Speak it in whispers. No more the troops (our hoisted sails in view. And thou the shame of any host but ours! A host. Thus he. And owe destruction to a prince like thee. with despair shall see. Lives there a man so dead to fame. And taught to conquer.

420 The Iliad of Homer Tydides cut him short. and flourish'd where Adrastus reign'd." . Beheld his vines their liquid harvest yield. and animate the rest. Let each go forth. Safe let us stand. Hear then in me the great OEnides' son. With three bold sons was generous Prothous bless'd. who from the mighty Tydeus springs. and rule the distant war. Who Pleuron's walls and Calydon possess'd. The monarch's daughter there (so Jove ordain'd) He won. the foremost once in fame! Nor lives in Greece a stranger to his name. and glorious in his fall. Beyond the missile javelin's sounding flight. Whose honoured dust (his race of glory run) Lies whelm'd in ruins of the Theban wall. but (who far surpass'd The rest in courage) OEneus was the last. He pass'd to Argos. But lest new wounds on wounds o'erpower us quite. and thus began: "Such counsel if you seek. behold the man Who boldly gives it. and. his acres till'd. And numerous flocks that whiten'd all the field. my sire. Though sore of battle. Melas and Agrius. witness of the war. Though not partaker. and in exile dwell'd. Attend. There. May speak to councils and assembled kings. From him. Inspire the ranks. Young though he be. and what he shall say. Then. Brave in his life. disdain not to obey: A youth. though with wounds oppress'd. rich in fortune's gifts. From Calydon expell'd. and in the son respect the sire. Advance the glory which he cannot share. Such Tydeus was. what for common good my thoughts inspire. from the tumult far.

So may he perish. He added not: the listening kings obey. Such was the voice. Slow moving on. Driven heaps on heaps." [257] He spoke. Blind. Loud. And thus the venerable hero spoke: 421 "Atrides! lo! with what disdainful eye Achilles sees his country's forces fly. Each Argive bosom beats to meet the fight. then rush'd amid the warrior crew. and o'erwhelm with shame! But Heaven forsakes not thee: o'er yonder sands Soon shall thou view the scattered Trojan bands Fly diverse. and such the thundering sound Of him whose trident rends the solid ground. their winged wheels employ To hide their ignominious heads in Troy. Atrides leads the way. impious man! whose anger is his guide. . And grisly war appears a pleasing sight. and chiefs renown'd. Who glories in unutterable pride. the general's hand he took. while proud kings. as the shout encountering armies yield When twice ten thousand shake the labouring field.BOOK XIV. with clouds involved around Of rolling dust. so may Jove disclaim The wretch relentless. The god of ocean (to inflame their rage) Appears a warrior furrowed o'er with age. And sent his voice before him as he flew. Press'd in his own.

and ambrosial showers: The winds. But placed aloft. Safe from access of each intruding power. to blind his all-beholding eye? At length she trusts her power. Part o'er her shoulders waved like melted gold.422 The Iliad of Homer Meantime Saturnia from Olympus' brow. through earth. Here first she bathes. High-throned in gold. Sacred to dress and beauty's pleasing cares: With skill divine had Vulcan form'd the bower. Thus while she breathed of heaven. resolved to prove The old. Where her great brother gave the Grecians aid. yet still successful. Jove to deceive. That rich with Pallas' labour'd colours glow'd: Large clasps of gold the foldings gather'd round. with decent pride Her artful hands the radiant tresses tied. Against his wisdom to oppose her charms. What arts. on Ida's shady height She sees her Jove. and round her body pours Soft oils of fragrance. Swift to her bright apartment she repairs. the balmy gale convey Through heaven. perfumed. Part on her head in shining ringlets roll'd. Far-beaming pendants tremble in her ear. A golden zone her swelling bosom bound. beheld the fields below. . behind her shut the valves of gold. Touch'd with her secret key. Around her next a heavenly mantle flow'd. And lull the lord of thunders in her arms. cheat of love. the doors unfold: Self-closed. and trembles at the sight. and all the aerial way: Spirit divine! whose exhalation greets The sense of gods with more than mortal sweets. what methods shall she try. With joy the glorious conflict she survey'd.

" 423 [258] "Then grant me (said the queen) those conquering charms. repay their age!" .BOOK XIV. from Olympus cast. That power. and what love. Each gem illumined with a triple star. Where the great parents. And burns the sons of heaven with sacred fires! "For lo! I haste to those remote abodes. shall I obtain. (sacred source of gods!) Ocean and Tethys their old empire keep. What honour. what my youth has owed. Whelm'd under the huge mass of earth and main. Of upper heaven to Jove resign'd the reign. and dazzling as the light. If I compose those fatal feuds again. which melts mankind in fierce desires. will Venus aid Saturnia's joy. Last her fair feet celestial sandals grace. And set aside the cause of Greece and Troy?" "Let heaven's dread empress (Cytheraea said) Speak her request. which mortals and immortals warms. Once more their minds in mutual ties engage. Forth from the dome the imperial goddess moves. On the last limits of the land and deep. What time old Saturn. Thus issuing radiant with majestic pace. "How long (to Venus thus apart she cried) Shall human strife celestial minds divide? Ah yet. Then o'er her head she cast a veil more white Than new-fallen snow. And calls the mother of the smiles and loves. Which held so long that ancient pair in peace. In their kind arms my tender years were past. has made the union cease. That love. and deem her will obey'd. I hear. And. For strife.

the still-reviving fire. Sleep. e dolci stille Di pianto. e placide. e liete paci. the queen of love Obey'd the sister and the wife of Jove." she said.234 233 [259] Compare Tasso:— Teneri sdegni. Sorrisi. and every charm. 25 Compare the description of the dwelling of Sleep in Orlando Furioso. With smiles she took the charm. bk. Then taking wing from Athos' lofty steep. parolette. Whilst from Olympus pleased Saturnia flew. This on her hand the Cyprian Goddess laid: "Take this. the gentle vow. the gay desire. Silence that spoke. e tranquille Repulse. . xvi.424 The Iliad of Homer She said. e cari vezzi. Nor once her flying foot approach'd the ground. e sospir tronchi. Then Venus to the courts of Jove withdrew. And from her fragrant breast the zone embraced. O'er Hemus' hills with snows eternal crown'd. and the coldest warm: Fond love. Persuasive speech. e molli baci. With awe divine. and the more persuasive sighs. The kind deceit. And seeks the cave of Death's half-brother. In this was every art.233 With various skill and high embroidery graced. and eloquence of eyes. 234 vi." Gier. Lib. To win the wisest. and with it all thy wish. She speeds to Lemnos o'er the rolling deep. O'er fair Emathia's ever-pleasing shore. and smiling press'd The powerful cestus to her snowy breast. O'er high Pieria thence her course she bore.

old Ocean. that shine With gold unfading. owns my reign. Somnus. and a throne. A splendid footstool. His conquering son. Great Saturn's heir. When wine and feasts thy golden humours please. and tumbled gods on gods. O power of slumbers! hear." 425 "Imperial dame (the balmy power replies). Shed thy soft dews on Jove's immortal eyes. And his hush'd waves lie silent on the main. shall be thine. Impower'd the wrath of gods and men to tame. at thy bold command. "Sweet pleasing Sleep! (Saturnia thus began) Who spread'st thy empire o'er each god and man. What time. and from the realms on high Had hurl'd indignant to the nether sky. too venturous. plough'd the main. Alcides. The sire of all. deserting Ilion's wasted plain. Me chief he sought. shook the blest abodes With rising wrath. shall I dare to steep Jove's awful temples in the dew of sleep? Long since. the tempests roar. But how. and empress of the skies! O'er other gods I spread my easy chain. While sunk in love's entrancing joys he lies.) her wings display'd. and favour still. awaking. And drive the hero to the Coan shore: Great Jove.BOOK XIV. to whom I fled for aid. On those eternal lids I laid my hand. unbidden. Even Jove revered the venerable dame. When lo! the deeps arise. But gentle Night. If e'er obsequious to thy Juno's will. The work of Vulcan." . (The friend of earth and heaven. to indulge thy ease.

shall be thine. i. And. that with Chronos dwell. Deiopeia. Pasithae the divine. Like great Alcides. And those who rule the inviolable floods.426 The Iliad of Homer "Vain are thy fears (the queen of heaven replies. his all-conquering son? Hear. 235 "Twice seven."235 [260] "Swear then (he said) by those tremendous floods That roar through hell." The queen assents. Æn. To hear and witness from the depths of hell. and obey the mistress of the skies. Think'st thou that Troy has Jove's high favour won. And stretch the other o'er the sacred main: Call the black Titans. 107. The youngest Grace. and bear my train: Succeed my wish. and second my design. and from the infernal bowers Invokes the sable subtartarean powers. thy loved-one shall be ever thine. . shall be ever mine. speaking. The youngest Grace. the charming daughters of the main— Around my person wait. Nor for the deed expect a vulgar prize. Whom mortals name the dread Titanian gods. That she." Dryden's Virgil. seq. and bind the invoking gods: Let the great parent earth one hand sustain. rolls her large majestic eyes). For know. my loved-one. The fairest. Pasithae the divine.


and Imbrus' sea-beat soil. Mix'd with her soul. o'er Lemnos' smoky isle They wing their way. Then press'd her hand. Fierce as when first by stealth he seized her charms. whose spiry branches rise To join its summit to the neighbouring skies. and her forests nod. But call'd Cymindis by the race of earth. and melted in her arms: Fix'd on her eyes he fed his eager look. (Chalcis his name by those of heavenly birth. There on a fir. and thus with transport spoke: "Why comes my goddess from the ethereal sky. in likeness of the bird of night. Through air. Dark in embowering shade. conceal'd from sight. And not her steeds and flaming chariot nigh?" . Sat Sleep.) [261] To Ida's top successful Juno flies. whose lightning sets the heavens on fire. unseen. Great Jove surveys her with desiring eyes: The god.428 The Iliad of Homer Then swift as wind. whose echoing hills Are heard resounding with a hundred rills:) Fair Ida trembles underneath the god. And light on Lectos. Hush'd are her mountains. involved in darkness glide. on the point of Ide: (Mother of savages. Through all his bosom feels the fierce desire.

Then she—"I haste to those remote abodes Where the great parents of the deathless gods. the sacred cells Deep under seas. apparently as a native hero. and too ancient to allow his descent to be traced to any other source. Wait under Ide: of thy superior power To ask consent. Whence godlike Rhadamanth and Minos sprung. But in a genealogy recorded by later writers. whom all succeeding authors name Europa. Minos is described as the son of Jupiter. And be these moments sacred all to joy. I hear. and of the daughter of Phoenix. beautiful and young. On the last limits of the land and main. and through the aerial way. "By Homer. where hoary Ocean dwells. prepared my chariot to convey O'er earth and seas. Let softer cares the present hour employ. The steeds. Nor seek. has made that union cease Which held so long that ancient pair in peace. from that Alcides came:) Nor Phoenix' daughter." "For that (said Jove) suffice another day! But eager love denies the least delay. Or for an earthly. reign. he is likewise the adopted son of Asterius. to whose indulgent cares I owe the nursing of my tender years: For strife.BOOK XIV. unknown to thee. Ne'er did my soul so strong a passion prove. Illustrious enough for a divine parentage. Whence rose Pirithous like the gods in fame: Not when fair Danae felt the shower of gold Stream into life. The reverend Ocean and gray Tethys. or a heavenly love: Not when I press'd Ixion's matchless dame. and he is thus carried back into the remotest period of Cretan antiquity known to the poet. Not thus I burn'd for either Theban dame: (Bacchus from this. I leave the Olympian bower. I visit these. 236 . whence Perseus brave and bold.236 429 —And Minos.

and fable of the sky: How shall I e'er review the blest abodes. or Tectamus. The sport of heaven."—Thirlwall. and is thus connected with a colony said to have been led into Creta by Tentamus. with disorder'd charms. Exposed to mortal and immortal sight! Our joys profaned by each familiar eye. Thus answer'd mild the cloud-compelling Jove: "Nor god nor mortal shall our joys behold." [262] He spoke. seq.430 The Iliad of Homer Not thus I burn'd for fair Latona's face. to that recess retire." She ceased. son of Dorus. or to have embarked at Malea after having led his followers by land into Laconia. smiling with superior love. If such thy will. and circumfused in gold. Not thus even for thyself I felt desire. And whose broad eye the extended earth surveys. As now my veins receive the pleasing fire. the son of Helen. Not even the sun. . p. Nor comelier Ceres' more majestic grace. Or mix among the senate of the gods? Shall I not think. that. the goddess with the charming eyes Glows with celestial red. All heaven beholds me recent from thy arms? With skill divine has Vulcan form'd thy bower. who is related either to have crossed over from Thessaly. Sacred to love and to the genial hour. 136. Shaded with clouds. and thus replies: "Is this a scene for love? On Ida's height. and." as descendant of Dorus. In secret there indulge thy soft desire. who darts through heaven his rays.

and Somnus' pleasing ties. Beside him sudden. Have closed those awful and eternal eyes. in describing the couch of our first parents:— "Underneath the violet. His eager arms around the goddess threw. 700.237 And flamy crocus made the mountain glow There golden clouds conceal the heavenly pair. unperceived. To Neptune's ear soft Sleep his message brings. with zeal increased. Steep'd in soft joys and circumfused with air. Celestial dews. descending o'er the ground. And clustering lotos swell'd the rising bed." Thus having said. kindling at the view. and. Neptune. Neptune! now. Perfume the mount." iv. Crocus. with love and sleep's soft power oppress'd. Glad Earth perceives. renews his care. And sudden hyacinths the turf bestrow. The panting thunderer nods. 237 . he stood. For Juno's love. and sinks to rest. Gazing he spoke. while yet my vapours shed The golden vision round his sacred head.BOOK XIV. To check a while the haughty hopes of Troy: While Jove yet rests. On human lids to drop the balmy dew. 'Broider'd the ground. and hyacinth with rich inlay. and breathe ambrosia round: At length. 431 [263] Milton has emulated this passage. the important hour employ. And thus with gentle words address'd the god: "Now. Now to the navy borne on silent wings. and from her bosom pours Unbidden herbs and voluntary flowers: Thick new-born violets a soft carpet spread. the power of slumber flew." —"Paradise Lost.

and ye shall need no more. Pale mortals tremble. ye Greeks! myself will lead the way. Brace on your firmest helms. Oh yet. The strong and cumbrous arms the valiant wield. One hero's loss too tamely you deplore. The kings. though wounded. While stern Achilles in his wrath retires. The weaker warrior takes a lighter shield. Each valiant Grecian seize his broadest shield. and confess their fears. Thus arm'd. in bright array The legions march. Be still yourselves. if glory any bosom warms. Let to the weak the lighter arms belong. With helpful hands themselves assist the train. and oppress'd with pain. and Neptune leads the way: His brandish'd falchion flames before their eyes. not Hector shall our presence stay. Like lightning flashing through the frighted skies. ." The troops assent. The ponderous targe be wielded by the strong. Thus sheath'd in shining brass. Clad in his might. Myself. and stand to arms: His strongest spear each valiant Grecian wield. and threats the fleet with fires.432 The Iliad of Homer And towering in the foremost ranks of war. Indignant thus—"Oh once of martial fame! O Greeks! if yet ye can deserve the name! This half-recover'd day shall Troy obtain? Shall Hector thunder at your ships again? Lo! still he vaunts. their martial arms they change: The busy chiefs their banded legions range. the earth-shaking power appears.


434 The Iliad of Homer [264] Troy's great defender stands alone unawed. ocean roars. and make whole forests fall. and Hector here. When stormy winds disclose the dark profound. with many a fiery round. at her great master's call. and its shades devour.) Toss'd round and round. Less loud the winds that from the Æolian hall Roar through the woods. Both armies join: earth thunders. Darts on the consecrated plant of Jove. With such a rage the meeting hosts are driven. appear: The sea's stern ruler there. But whirling on. Direct at Ajax' bosom winged its course. (Where heaps laid loose beneath the warrior's feet. when flames in torrents pour. Or served to ballast. Arms his proud host. urged by Hector's force. or to prop the fleet.) Then back the disappointed Trojan drew. And cursed the lance that unavailing flew: But 'scaped not Ajax. (One braced his shield. The first bold javelin. On the razed shield the fallen ruin rings. red-hissing from above. Full on his breast and throat with force descends. Nor deaden'd there its giddy fury spends. and dares oppose a god: And lo! the god. Smokes in the dust. But there no pass the crossing belts afford. the missive marble flings. Less loud the woods. and one sustain'd his sword. Catch the dry mountain. As when the bolt. . and ploughs into the ground. Rose in huge ranks. and form'd a watery wall Around the ships: seas hanging o'er the shores. his tempestuous hand A ponderous stone upheaving from the sand. Not half so loud the bellowing deeps resound. The roaring main. And such a clamour shakes the sounding heaven. and wondrous man.

where it stood retir'd From off the files of war. 238 435 [265] —He lies protected." vi. Clanks on the field. with assistant care. Troy's great defender slain: All spring to seize him. In vain an iron tempest hisses round. and despite. and smokes of sulphur rise. His following shield the fallen chief o'erspread. Loud shouts of triumph fill the crowded plain. seq. The groaning hero to his chariot bear. a dead and hollow sound. Agenor the divine. The pious warrior of Anchises' line. sinking to the ground. His mournful followers. while others bore him on their shields Back to his chariot. and leave the war behind. . And own the terrors of the almighty hand! So lies great Hector prostrate on the shore. 335. Stiff with amaze the pale beholders stand. who interpos'd Defence. His load of armour. Gnashing for anguish. The mountain-oak in flaming ruin lies. there they him laid." "Paradise Lost.BOOK XIV. Black from the blow. and without a wound.238 Polydamas. Beneath his helmet dropp'd his fainting head. and shame. With covering shields (a friendly circle) stand. "Forthwith on all sides to his aid was run By angels many and strong. And each bold leader of the Lycian band. in hope. Speed to the town. He lies protected. His slacken'd hand deserts the lance it bore. storms of arrows fly. Greece sees. swifter than the wind. His foaming coursers. And thicker javelins intercept the sky.

"Lo thus (the victor cries) we rule the field. Placed on the margin of the flowery ground. by fits. and grasps the bloody dust. An arduous battle rose around the dead. Where gentle Xanthus rolls his easy tide. and shades eternal veil his eyes. Polydamas drew near. By fits he breathes. With double fury each invades the field. Propp'd on that spear to which thou owest thy fall. Raised on his knees. Oilean Ajax first his javelin sped. And at Prothoenor shook the trembling spear. half views the fleeting skies. He sinks to earth. by turns the Trojans bled." . By turns the Greeks.436 The Iliad of Homer When now they touch'd the mead's enamell'd side.) Struck through the belly's rim. Go. he now ejects the gore. Soon as the Greeks the chief's retreat beheld. his swimming eyes. (Satnius the brave. And thus their arms the race of Panthus wield: From this unerring hand there flies no dart But bathes its point within a Grecian heart. And seals again. low-sinking on the shore. With watery drops the chief they sprinkle round. Now faints anew. whom beauteous Neis bore Amidst her flocks on Satnio's silver shore. Fired with revenge. guide thy darksome steps to Pluto's dreary hall. The driving javelin through his shoulder thrust. Pierced by whose point the son of Enops bled. the warrior lies Supine.

Archilochus. but haughty Greece. methinks. shall share The toils. And took the joint. that yet the body stood Erect. then roll'd along the sands in blood. 437 [266] . and smiled severe. As by his side the groaning warrior fell. here turn thy eyes! (The towering Ajax loud-insulting cries:) Say. Behold your Promachus deprived of breath. Antenor's brother. or perhaps his son. Proud Argives! destined by our arms to fall. the sorrows.BOOK XIV. demands thy breath: Thy lofty birth no succour could impart. But fate. The wings of death o'ertook thee on the dart. He pierced his heart—"Such fate attends you all. and sorrow touch'd each Argive breast: The soul of Ajax burn'd above the rest. and the wounds of war. for well he knew The bleeding youth: Troy sadden'd at the view. and cut the nerves in twain: The dropping head first tumbled on the plain. is this chief extended on the plain A worthy vengeance for Prothoenor slain? Mark well his port! his figure and his face Nor speak him vulgar. As Promachus his slaughtered brother draws. But furious Acamas avenged his cause. Not Troy alone. At the fierce foe he launch'd his piercing steel. So just the stroke. "Here. it fled Full on the juncture of the neck and head. nor of vulgar race." He spake. Some lines. A victim owed to my brave brother's death. reclining. may make his lineage known. proud Polydamas. He said. Swift to perform heaven's fatal will. The foe. shunn'd the flying death.

But touch'd the breast of bold Peneleus most. Drove through the neck. The Trojans hear. Who leaves a brother to revenge his fate. they tremble. The lance. Such as the house of Promachus must know." The Iliad of Homer Heart-piercing anguish struck the Grecian host. Let doleful tidings greet his mother's ear. as aloft he shook The gory visage. and. then toss'd the head on high. to his father let the tale be told: Let his high roofs resound with frantic woe. and shuns superior force. thus insulting spoke: "Trojans! your great Ilioneus behold! Haste. And from the fibres scoop'd the rooted ball. his father's only care: (Phorbas the rich.438 Not unappeased he enters Pluto's gate. But young Ilioneus received the spear. And from the spouting shoulders struck his head." Dreadful he spoke. When we victorious shall to Greece return. And dread the ruin that impends on all. and taught the arts of gain:) Full in his eye the weapon chanced to fall. Such as to Promachus' sad spouse we bear. The boaster flies. and hurl'd him to the plain. of all the Trojan train Whom Hermes loved. yet sticking through the bleeding eye. To earth at once the head and helmet fly. And the pale matron in our triumphs mourn. The victor seized. At the proud boaster he directs his course. and they fly: Aghast they gaze around the fleet and wall. He lifts his miserable arms in vain! Swift his broad falchion fierce Peneleus spread. . Ilioneus.

all-recording nine! O say. Nestor's son o'erthrew. Hyperenor fell. Ye all-beholding. mighty numbers run.BOOK XIV. 439 [267] BACCHUS. Morys and Hippotion slew. His people's pastor. leader of the Mysian train. . great Ajax! on the unsanguined plain Laid Hyrtius. when Neptune made proud Ilion yield. what hero first embrued the field? Of all the Grecians what immortal name. Pierced in the flank by Menelaus' steel. But stretch'd in heaps before Oileus' son. Phalces and Mermer. Bold Merion. will ye raise to fame? Thou first. Ajax the less. and swiftest in the chase. And the fierce soul came rushing through the wound. Strong Periphaetes and Prothoon bled. Eternal darkness wrapp'd the warrior round. And whose bless'd trophies. of all the Grecian race Skill'd in pursuit. Fall mighty numbers. Daughters of Jove! that on Olympus shine. What chief. By Teucer's arrows mingled with the dead.


she is then sent to Iris and Apollo. as yet. awaken'd from his dream of love. Jupiter. he consents. marches before him with his aegis. attempts. the Greeks pursue. where the chariots lie Fear on their cheek. in particular she touches Mars with a violent resentment. he is ready to take arms. Iris commands Neptune to leave the battle. but is prevented by Minerva. Hector in a swoon. who appeases him by her submissions. awaking. after much reluctance and passion.[268] BOOK XV. And many a chief lay gasping on the ground: Then stopp'd and panted. and Neptune at the head of the Greeks: he is highly incensed at the artifice of Juno. brings him back to the battle. but are. ARGUMENT. to which. Meanwhile. Iris and Apollo obey the orders of Jupiter. Apollo reinspires Hector with vigour. Now in swift flight they pass the trench profound. Juno. He breaks down great part of the Grecian wall: the Trojans rush in. and horror in their eye. . and attempt to fire the first line of the fleet. repelled by the greater Ajax with a prodigious slaughter. with extraordinary address. to incense them against Jupiter. There saw the Trojans fly. sees the Trojans repulsed from the trenches. AND THE ACTS OF AJAX. repairing to the assembly of the gods. and turns the fortune of the fight. On Ida's summit sat imperial Jove: Round the wide fields he cast a careful view. THE FIFTH BATTLE AT THE SHIPS.

Canst thou. the monarch of the main.442 The Iliad of Homer These proud in arms. still adverse to the eternal will. unhappy in thy wiles. For godlike Hercules these deeds were done. and breathless with the fall." The Thunderer spoke: imperial Juno mourn'd. Thy soft deceits. (His sad associates round with weeping eyes. these submissive words return'd: [269] . For ever studious in promoting ill! Thy arts have made the godlike Hector yield. fierce Boreas toss'd The shipwreck'd hero on the Coan coast. And sent to Argos. And. and brave the almighty hand? Hast thou forgot. And driven his conquering squadrons from the field. to fraudful Juno spoke: "O thou. great Hector on the dust he spies. Lest arts and blandishments successless prove. The god beheld him with a pitying look. trembling. Him through a thousand forms of death I bore. Hear this. His senses wandering to the verge of death. Stunn'd in the whirl. bound and fix'd on high. withstand Our power immense. when. Nor pull the unwilling vengeance on thy head.) Ejecting blood. Nor seem'd the vengeance worthy such a son: When. From the vast concave of the spangled sky. and our fury dread. remember. incensed. And all the raging gods opposed in vain? Headlong I hurl'd them from the Olympian hall. Not far. and panting yet for breath. and well-dissembled love. I hung thee trembling in a golden chain. those scatter'd o'er the plain And. 'midst the war. by thy wiles induced. and his native shore. And thus.

And call the god that bears the silver bow. and from the embattled plain Command the sea-god to his watery reign: While Phoebus hastes great Hector to prepare To rise afresh.) Then soon the haughty sea-god shall obey. If truth inspires thy tongue. even to Achilles' fleet. his own pity sway'd. And calls his senses from the verge of death. and ranges round the plain: By his own ardour. Greece chased by Troy. to the plain Shall send Patroclus. To help his Greeks. Nor dare to act but when we point the way. By the dread honours of thy sacred head." 443 "Think'st thou with me? fair empress of the skies! (The immortal father with a smile replies. Our high decree let various Iris know. And taught submission to the sire of heaven. divine Sarpedon. and once more wake the war: His labouring bosom re-inspires with breath. "By every oath that powers immortal ties. And that unbroken vow. our virgin bed! Not by my arts the ruler of the main Steeps Troy in blood. What youths he slaughters under Ilion's walls! Even my loved son. tremendous Styx! that flow Through the drear realms of gliding ghosts below. proclaim our will To yon bright synod on the Olympian hill. By thy black waves. falls! [270] . Let her descend. he fought and disobey'd: Else had thy Juno better counsels given. He. but shall send in vain. The foodful earth and all-infolding skies. not untouch'd with pity. Shall fall by thousands at the hero's feet.BOOK XV.

Sends forth his active mind from place to place. Joins hill to dale. From that great hour the war's whole fortune turns.444 The Iliad of Homer Vanquish'd at last by Hector's lance he lies. and measures space with space: So swift flew Juno to the bless'd abodes. viii. Page 142. Fair Themis first presents the golden bowl. . They bow'd. Pallas assists. shall great Achilles rise: And lo! that instant." The trembling queen (the almighty order given) Swift from the Idaean summit shot to heaven. Such was our word. who wanders o'er In thought a length of lands he trod before. and made obeisance as she pass'd Through all the brazen dome: with goblets crown'd239 They hail her queen. The promise of a god I gave. and fate the word obeys. There sat the powers in awful synod placed. Then. the nectar streams around. See the note on Bk. And anxious asks what cares disturb her soul? 239 —The brazen dome. Nor one of all the heavenly host engage In aid of Greece. godlike Hector dies. and seal'd it with the almighty nod. and lofty Ilion burns. As some wayfaring man. If thought of man can match the speed of gods. Achilles' glory to the stars to raise. Not till that day shall Jove relax his rage. nor till then.

obey: And thou. Thy own loved boasted offspring lies o'erthrown. Thus she proceeds—"Attend. Unmoved his mind. the feasts of heaven attend thy call. But dare not murmur. 'tis madness to contest with Jove: Supreme he sits. such threaten'd woes to come. and bends the poles. and unrestrain'd his will. ye powers above! But know." 445 The goddess said. and sullen took her place. As soon shall freeze mankind with dire surprise. and eyebrow bent. and lowering discontent.BOOK XV. great Mars. dare not vent a sigh. Submiss. in pride of sway. Bid the crown'd nectar circle round the hall: But Jove shall thunder through the ethereal dome Such stern decrees. To whom the white-arm'd goddess thus replies: "Enough thou know'st the tyrant of the skies. Behold Ascalaphus! behold him die. Your vassal godheads grudgingly obey: Fierce in the majesty of power controls. Severely bent his purpose to fulfil. And damp the eternal banquets of the skies. Smiles on her lips a spleenful joy express'd. and sees. To see the gathering grudge in every breast. Black horror sadden'd each celestial face. Sat stedfast care." [271] . Go thou. While on her wrinkled front. If that loved boasted offspring be thy own. immortals! all he wills. begin and show the way. Shakes all the thrones of heaven.

Dares. And in thy guilt involve the host of heaven? Ilion and Greece no more should Jove engage. by bold rebellion driven.446 The Iliad of Homer Stern Mars. Shall not the Thunderer's dread command restrain. Thus to the impetuous homicide she said: "By what wild passion. springing through the bright abode. But Pallas. Starts from her azure throne to calm the god." With that he gives command to Fear and Flight To join his rapid coursers for the fight: Then grim in arms. Discharged his wrath on half the host of heaven. Arms that reflect a radiance through the skies. Cease then thy offspring's death unjust to call. Guilty and guiltless find an equal fate And one vast ruin whelm the Olympian state. with hasty vengeance flies. and yield my vengeance way: Descending first to yon forbidden plain. and fierce begun: "Thus then. furious! art thou toss'd? Striv'st thou with Jove? thou art already lost. Forgive me. And was imperial Juno heard in vain? Back to the skies wouldst thou with shame be driven. though the thunder bursting o'er my head Should hurl me blazing on those heaps of dead. The skies would yield an ampler scene of rage. with anguish for his slaughter'd son. immortals! thus shall Mars obey. Then the huge helmet lifting from his head. gods. . The god of battles dares avenge the slain. Smote his rebelling breast. Struck for the immortal race with timely fear. From frantic Mars she snatch'd the shield and spear. Heroes as great have died. And now had Jove. and yet shall fall.

And prompt obedience to the queen of air. and of savage game) There sat the eternal. Report to yon mad tyrant of the main. Sullen he sat. to Ida's hills they came. Then Juno call'd (Jove's orders to obey) The winged Iris. Bid him from fight to his own deeps repair. and sat. (Fair nurse of fountains. Why should heaven's law with foolish man comply Exempted from the race ordain'd to die?" This menace fix'd the warrior to his throne. Swift as the wind. and what we here ordain. With clouds of gold and purple circled round. Well-pleased the Thunderer saw their earnest care. wing their airy way. And various Iris. by whom his power was given." She said. Then (while a smile serenes his awful brow) Commands the goddess of the showery bow: "Iris! descend. and execute his dread command. Or breathe from slaughter in the fields of air. and the god of day. Receive. the god that gilds the day. How shall his rashness stand the dire alarms. and superior sway. then let him timely weigh Our elder birthright. And is there equal to the lord of heaven?" 447 [272] . and shakes the steady poles. "Go wait the Thunderer's will (Saturnia cried) On yon tall summit of the fountful Ide: There in the father's awful presence stand. Veil'd in a mist of fragrance him they found. If he refuse. he whose nod controls The trembling world. If heaven's omnipotence descend in arms? Strives he with me. and curb'd the rising groan.BOOK XV.

448 The Iliad of Homer The all-mighty spoke. So from the clouds descending Iris falls. the goddess wing'd her flight To sacred Ilion from the Idaean height. he bids thee timely weigh His elder birthright. And awe the younger brothers of the pole. And hush the roarings of the sacred deep. Drive through the skies. And to blue Neptune thus the goddess calls: "Attend the mandate of the sire above! In me behold the messenger of Jove: He bids thee from forbidden wars repair To thine own deeps. O'er the wide clouds. incensed. No vassal god. or to the fields of air. This if refused. when Boreas fiercely blows. am I. and this earth. our triple rule we know. Three brother deities from Saturn came. [273] . My court beneath the hoary waves I keep. Ethereal Jove extends his high domain. and superior sway. earth's immortal dame: Assign'd by lot. And ancient Rhea. nor of his train. or fleecy snows. Olympus. in common lie: What claim has here the tyrant of the sky? Far in the distant clouds let him control. Swift as the rattling hail. and o'er the starry plain.) Rule as he will his portion'd realms on high. How shall thy rashness stand the dire alarms If heaven's omnipotence descend in arms? Striv'st thou with him by whom all power is given? And art thou equal to the lord of heaven?" "What means the haughty sovereign of the skies? (The king of ocean thus. Infernal Pluto sways the shades below. replies.

Give him to know. To scourge the wretch insulting them and heaven. and thus bespoke the source of light: . from his lofty height Beheld. and the queen of heaven. To elder brothers guardian fiends are given. The wrath of Neptune shall for ever last. O sire of floods! Bear this fierce answer to the king of gods? Correct it yet. The same our honours. He breaks his faith with half the ethereal race. unless the Grecian train Lay yon proud structures level with the plain." 449 "And must I then (said she). The lord of thunders. The trembling. though angry. and our birth the same. And quit. second race of heaven. And plunged into the bosom of the flood. If yet. to powerful Jove I yield. To favour Ilion. Howe'er the offence by other gods be pass'd.BOOK XV. A noble mind disdains not to repent. Pallas." Thus speaking." "Great is the profit (thus the god rejoin'd) When ministers are blest with prudent mind: Warn'd by thy words. that perfidious place. There to his children his commands be given. and change thy rash intent. furious from the field he strode. servile. the contended field: Not but his threats with justice I disclaim. forgetful of his promise given To Hermes.

shooting from the Idaean brow. what wound. Swell his bold heart." The godhead said. Even power immense had found such battle hard. my son! the trembling Greeks alarm. Again his loved companions meet his eyes. withholds thee from the war?" The fainting hero. There Hector seated by the stream he sees. Well was the crime. Shake my broad aegis on thy active arm. and urge his strength to war: Let Ilion conquer. Go thou. till the Achaian train Fly to their ships and Hellespont again: Then Greece shall breathe from toils. heaven's thrones all shaking round. whose earthquakes rock the world. That drives a turtle through the liquid skies. and trembles at our rage. Not half so swift the sailing falcon flies. Else had my wrath. Be godlike Hector thy peculiar care. and well the vengeance spared. Seeks his own seas. Burn'd to the bottom of his seas profound. His sense returning with the coming breeze. Desists at length his rebel-war to wage. his spirits rise. And all the gods that round old Saturn dwell Had heard the thunders to the deeps of hell. His will divine the son of Jove obey'd. Jove thinking of his pains. half unseal'd his sight: . To whom the god who gives the golden day: "Why sits great Hector from the field so far? What grief. as the vision bright Stood shining o'er him. As Phoebus. Glides down the mountain to the plain below. Again his pulses beat.450 The Iliad of Homer [274] "Behold! the god whose liquid arms are hurl'd Around the globe. they pass'd away.

now freed. thus Hector flew. Thus wakens Hector from the sleep of death? Has fame not told. See. As when the pamper'd steed. To bathe his sides." Thus to bold Hector spoke the son of Jove. And springs. With ample strokes he rushes to the flood. And to the ships impel thy rapid horse: Even I will make thy fiery coursers way. Inspire thy warriors then with manly force. Breaks from his stall.BOOK XV. he tosses to the skies." To him Apollo: "Be no more dismay'd. Far from the hunter's rage secure they lie Close in the rock. And hell's black horrors swim before my eye. "What blest immortal. to his fields again: Urged by the voice divine. and her battle gored. and pours along the ground. And drive the Grecians headlong to the sea. and cool his fiery blood. His head. Behold! thy Phoebus shall his arms employ. and all his hosts pursue. His mane dishevell'd o'er his shoulders flies: He snuffs the females in the well-known plain. exulting. As when the force of men and dogs combined Invade the mountain goat. while my trusty sword Bathed Greece in slaughter. with commanding breath. how. methinks. And breathed immortal ardour from above. (not fated yet to die) 451 . the gliding ghosts I spy. propitious still to thee and Troy. or branching hind. The mighty Ajax with a deadly blow Had almost sunk me to the shades below? Even yet. Full of the god. and be strong! the Thunderer sends thee aid. Phoebus. with reins unbound.

Than winning words and heavenly eloquence. . Thus point your arms.452 The Iliad of Homer When lo! a lion shoots across the way! They fly: at once the chasers and the prey. Stand the first onset. And bold to combat in the standing fight. Fierce as he is. and when such foes appear. and consent to fear. And not content that half of Greece lie slain. Not more in councils famed for solid sense. and provoke the storm. and conquers still! Yet hear my counsel. So Greece. and his worst withstand: The Greeks' main body to the fleet command. Pours new destruction on her sons again? He comes not. pursues. and form a deep array." The warrior spoke. Soon as they see the furious chief appear. Thickening their ranks. by thundering Ajax kill'd: What god restores him to the frighted field. "Gods! what portent (he cried) these eyes invades? Lo! Hector rises from the Stygian shades! We saw him. Jove! without thy powerful will. Lo! still he lives. Skill'd to direct the javelin's distant flight. that late in conquering troops pursued. And mark'd their progress through the ranks in blood. Thoas. the listening Greeks obey. [275] Thoas with grief observed his dreadful course. let Hector learn to fear. Forget to vanquish. But let the few whom brisker spirits warm. late. the bravest of the Ætolian force.

And Troy and Hector thunder in the rear. 453 [276] . and shaded all the field. So flies a herd of oxen. Impending Phoebus pours around them fear. Full on the front the pressing Trojans bear. by heroes flung. Shouts in their ears. Jove's enormous shield Portentous shone. Heaps fall on heaps: the slaughter Hector leads. Teucer. First great Arcesilas. And spread the carnage through the shady gloom. And arrows leaping from the bow-string sung. As long as Phoebus bore unmoved the shield. Behind. Dire was the hiss of darts. and the shores defend. A veil of clouds involved his radiant head: High held before him.BOOK XV. Approach the foe. And Hector first came towering to the war. Each Ajax. Sat doubtful conquest hovering o'er the field. and lightens in their eyes. The Greeks expect the shock. and their fear confess'd. Their force is humbled. and thirst for blood in vain. Deep horror seizes every Grecian breast. And Mars-like Meges: these the chiefs excite. Vulcan to Jove the immortal gift consign'd. No swain to guard them. then Stichius bleeds. The valiant leader of the Cretan band. Merion gave command. To scatter hosts and terrify mankind. To flank the navy. Phoebus himself the rushing battle led. and meet the coming fight. scatter'd wide. and mingle in the skies. and no day to guide. These drink the life of generous warriors slain: Those guiltless fall. But when aloft he shakes it in the skies. When two fell lions from the mountain come. unnumber'd multitudes attend. the clamours rise From different parts.

—Thou also mad'st the night. So in Milton:— "Thus at their shady lodge arriv'd. Observe the bold ellipsis of "he cries. Him Ajax honour'd with a brother's name. Deiochus inglorious dies. Mecystes next Polydamas o'erthrew.240 Who dares but linger. others pant for breath. by the gods! who flies. "Paradise Lost. Points to the fleet: "For. Æneas sped. disperse or fall. Both turn'd. brave Clonius. Forbids to plunder. Which they beheld. But hapless Medon from Oileus came. great Agenor slew. animates the fight. earth. and the Athenians led. Pierced through the shoulder as he basely flies. No weeping sister his cold eye shall close. air. And thee. This sprang from Phelus. the victors spoil the slain. in Phylace he dwell'd. both stood." Milton. by this hand he dies. By Paris. gloomy as the night." Book iv. 240 —For. Maker omnipotent. And one Menestheus' friend and famed compeer." and the transition from the direct to the oblique construction. confused. some skulk behind the wall. And o'er the slaughter stalks gigantic death. Stretch'd on one heap. and thou the day. Polites' arm laid Echius on the plain. A banish'd man.454 The Iliad of Homer One to the bold Boeotians ever dear. and under open sky ador'd The God that made both sky. The Greeks dismay'd. Some seek the trench. by the gods! who flies. While these fly trembling. the moon's resplendent globe. . Press'd by the vengeance of an angry wife. And starry pole. Troy ends at last his labours and his life. and heaven. On rush'd bold Hector. Though born of lawless love: from home expell'd. Medon and Iasus.

with voices. Confused. The toil of thousands in a moment falls. Sweeps the slight works and fashion'd domes away: Thus vanish'd at thy touch. commands. And lo! the turrets nod. Before them flamed the shield. eyes. Who stops to plunder at this signal hour. planted at the trench's bound. No friendly hand his funeral pyre compose. with praises. . and cars tumultuous pass. and hands. the bulwarks fall: Easy as when ashore an infant stands. loud clamours shake the shore. And urge the gods. Experienced Nestor chief obtests the skies. Push'd at the bank: down sank the enormous mound: Roll'd in the ditch the heapy ruin lay. O'er the dread fosse (a late impervious space) Now steeds. The sportive wanton. the smoking chariot bounds. and men. the smarting scourge resounds. the towers and walls. The wondering crowds the downward level trod. 455 [277] The Grecians gaze around with wild despair." Furious he said. The horses thunder. The hosts rush on. pleased with some new play. The coursers fly. earth and ocean roar! Apollo.BOOK XV. threats. and the dogs devour. The birds shall tear him. And weeps his country with a father's eyes. Then with his hand he shook the mighty wall. and march'd the god. And draws imagined houses in the sands. and weary all the powers with prayer: Exhort their men. A sudden road! a long and ample way.

He sprinkles healing balms. Fierce on the ships above. Presumptuous Troy mistook the accepting sign. his wounded friend. Legions on legions from each side arise: Thick sound the keels. the cars below. the storm of arrows flies. Mount the thick Trojans up the Grecian wall. Its womb they deluge. and its ribs they rend: Thus loudly roaring. then. he beats his manly breast. ascending up the fleet. One Greek enrich'd thy shrine with offer'd gore. in hope our country to behold. And catch'd new fury at the voice divine.456 The Iliad of Homer "O Jove! if ever. These wield the mace. And peals of thunder shook the firmament. And save the relics of the Grecian name. But when he saw. the medicine of the mind. With bitter groans his sorrows he express'd. And adds discourse. Still in the tent Patroclus sat to tend The good Eurypylus. The roaring deeps in watery mountains rise. Above the sides of some tall ship ascend. If e'er. Victorious Troy. As. on his native shore. when black tempests mix the seas and skies. If e'er thou sign'st our wishes with thy nod: Perform the promise of a gracious god! This day preserve our navies from the flame. He wrings his hands. We paid the fattest firstlings of the fold. And labouring armies round the works engaged. to anguish kind. . While thus the thunder of the battle raged." Thus prayed the sage: the eternal gave consent. and o'erpowering all. starting from his seat. and those the javelin throw.

Perhaps some favouring god his soul may bend. The deck approaching. and shine again in war. and one the vessel trod. But strive. Force to the fleet and tents the impervious way. And every ship sustained an equal tide. speaking. and the directing line: The martial leaders. The embodied Greeks the fierce attack sustain. and left the war behind. At one proud bark. expires: Thundering he falls. Smooths the rough wood. The voice is powerful of a faithful friend. A mournful witness of this scene of woe. high-towering o'er the fleet. With equal hand he guides his whole design. By the just rule. pierced by Telamon's huge lance. and levels every part. through that firm array. swifter than the wind Sprung from the tent. and equal kept the war. with like skill and care. with Palladian art." He spoke. That fix'd as fate. and. "Though yet thy state require redress (he cries) Depart I must: what horrors strike my eyes! Charged with Achilles' high command I go. 457 [278] .BOOK XV. though numerous. nor that defend: One kept the shore. I haste to urge him by his country's care To rise in arms. Brave deeds of arms through all the ranks were tried. For one bright prize the matchless chiefs contend. Great Hector view'd him with a sad survey. The son of Clytius in his daring hand. and drops the extinguish'd fires. and godlike Hector meet. Preserved their line. this acted by a god. to repulse in vain: Nor could the Trojans. As when a shipwright. shakes a flaming brand. But. Nor this the ships can fire. Ajax the great.

458 The Iliad of Homer As stretch'd in dust before the stern he lay. our loved companion! now no more! Dear as a parent. Where are those darts on which the fates attend? And where the bow which Phoebus taught to bend?" . Near his loved master. "Oh! all of Trojan. sustain'd at Ajax' board. revenge it on the cruel foe. With anguish Ajax views the piercing sight. This death deplored. all of Lycian race! Stand to your arms. It stretch'd in dust unhappy Lycophron: An exile long. Ah. In peace. behold! extended on the shore Our friend. And thus inflames his brother to the fight: [279] "Teucer. Revenge. A faithful servant to a foreign lord. he died. And lies a lifeless load along the land. Not vainly yet the forceful lance was thrown. to Hector's rage we owe. secure his obsequies!" This said. save his arms. as he lived. maintain this arduous space: Lo! where the son of royal Clytius lies. From the high poop he tumbles on the sand. with a parent's care To fight our wars he left his native air. his eager javelin sought the foe: But Ajax shunn'd the meditated blow. for ever at his side. and war.

Hurl'd from the lofty seat. at distance far. The well-stored quiver on his shoulders hung: Then hiss'd his arrow. 459 . The pointed death arrests him from behind: Through his fair neck the thrilling arrow flies. The headlong coursers spurn his empty car. great Trojan! had renown'd that day. and shook his eager reins. And gave. "Some god prevents our destined enterprise: Some god. Nor was such glory due to Teucer's hands. Before the chief his ample bow display'd. In youth's first bloom reluctantly he dies. hastening to his aid. (To thee. Impatient Teucer. and strengthen'd every blow. At Hector's breast a chosen arrow draws: And had the weapon found the destined way. renown'd in fame. rush'd amidst the foe: Rage edged his sword. Down dropp'd the bow: the shaft with brazen head Fell innocent. fired to vengeance. Polydamas! an honour'd name) Drove through the thickest of the embattled plains The startling steeds. and the bowstring sung. and on the dust lay dead. Astynous. Then. As all on glory ran his ardent mind. Struck by an arm unseen. in his country's cause.BOOK XV. Once more bold Teucer. The astonish'd archer to great Ajax cries. Till sad Polydamas the steeds restrain'd. propitious to the Trojan foe. Clytus. But Hector was not doom'd to perish then: The all-wise disposer of the fates of men (Imperial Jove) his present death withstands. Thy fall. it burst in two. to thy careful hand. At its full stretch as the tough string he drew. Pisenor's son.

Dardanus. by long successes vain. and his great brother joins. I saw his hand. And quit the quiver for the ponderous shield. reprobate! Such is the fate of Greece. Thy brave example shall the rest inflame. and Troy! Be mindful of yourselves. and thus express'd his joy: "Ye troops of Lycia. In the first ranks indulge thy thirst of fame. The fourfold buckler o'er his shoulder tied. Fierce as they are. This Hector saw. .460 The Iliad of Homer Has. but now. to see the sinking state Of realms accursed. or even a ship to gain. and blood: their utmost might Shall find its match—No more: 'tis ours to fight. struck the bow. And spread your glory with the navy's flame." [280] Then Teucer laid his faithless bow aside. To force our fleet. A dart. The warrior wields. your ancient fame. and exert your powers. whose point with brass refulgent shines. a fate which all must try. and such is ours: Behold. And broke the nerve my hands had twined with art. deserted. from my arm unfailing. and sweat. With nodding horse-hair formidably graced. On his brave head a crested helm he placed." "Since heaven commands it (Ajax made reply) Dismiss the bow. Asks toil. Jove is with us. Death is the worst. and lay thy arrows by: Thy arms no less suffice the lance to wield. ye warriors. Strong to impel the flight of many a dart. From the proud archer strike his vaunted bow: Indulgent Jove! how plain thy favours shine. When happy nations bear the marks divine! How easy then.

what methods to retire. and Troy obeys his call! Not to the dance that dreadful voice invites. and press'd by such inglorious hands. though slain in fight he be. 'Tis now no time for wisdom or debates. or to live or die? What hopes remain.BOOK XV. Still press'd. his children free. One day should end our labour or our life. Than keep this hard-got inch of barren sands. (To generous Argos what a dire disgrace!) How long on these cursed confines will ye lie. Entails a debt on all the grateful state. To your own hands are trusted all your fates. and all the rage of fights. The gallant man. And better far in one decisive strife." . Yet leaves his nation safe. ye warriors of the Argive race. If once your vessels catch the Trojan fire? Make how the flames approach. Yet undetermined. His own brave friends shall glory in his fate. And late posterity enjoy the deed!" 461 This roused the soul in every Trojan breast: The godlike Ajax next his Greeks address'd: "How long. It calls to death. all his race succeed. His wife live honour'd. 'tis a bliss to die. And for our country. How Hector calls. how near they fall.

For king Euphetes gave the golden mail. stooping. His radiant arms triumphant Meges bore. The victor. the purple honours glow. Through Dolops' shoulder urged his forceful dart. There. New ting'd with Tyrian dye: in dust below. Compact.462 The Iliad of Homer The listening Grecians feel their leader's flame. Sprung from the race of old Laomedon. And issued at his breast. the son of Lampus. He pierced the centre of his sounding shield: But Meges. Shorn from the crest. and now saves the son. Phyleus' ample breastplate wore. By Hector here the Phocian Schedius died. Meantime their fight the Spartan king survey'd. from the death withdrew. The fierce commander of the Epeian band. pierced by Ajax. Had saved the father. Where the high plumes above the helmet dance. Full at the Trojan's head he urged his lance. His lance bold Meges at the victor threw. And famed for prowess in a well-fought field. Dolops. of old Antenor's race. and firm with many a jointed scale) Which oft. With thundering sound The warrior falls. Polydamas laid Otus on the sand. (Well-known in fight on Selle's winding shore. in cities storm'd. [281] . Then mutual slaughters spread on either side. rushes on. and battles won. sunk Laodamas. And stood by Meges' side a sudden aid. Chief of the foot. And every kindling bosom pants for fame. Which held its passage through the panting heart. (That valued life. O Phoebus! was thy care) But Croesmus' bosom took the flying spear: His corpse fell bleeding on the slippery shore. extended on the ground.

and worse than death. he held his place. where Dolops lies. eternal shame. to two at once a prey. On valour's side the odds of combat lie. brave. Respect yourselves. from Hicetaon sprung. Or Ilion from her towery height descend. And lo! they bear the bloody arms away! Come on—a distant war no longer wage.BOOK XV. and bury all In one sad sepulchre. But when oppress'd. Heaved from the lowest stone." Hector (this said) rush'd forward on the foes: With equal ardour Melanippus glows: Then Ajax thus—"O Greeks! respect your fame. and young. Him Hector singled. "Lo. For this. and excell'd in war. And is it thus our royal kinsman dies? O'ermatch'd he falls. And thus inflamed him. Return'd to Ilion. Melanippus! lo. or lamented die. gallant. But hand to hand thy country's foes engage: Till Greece at once. In rush the conquering Greeks to spoil the slain: But Hector's voice excites his kindred train. Meets death. The wretch that trembles in the field of fame. The brave live glorious. Beloved no less than Priam's royal race. one common fall. his country claim'd his care. and all her glory end. Fierce Melanippus. pointing to the dead. The hero most. as his troops he led. He (ere to Troy the Grecians cross'd the main) Fed his large oxen on Percote's plain. and learn an honest shame: Let mutual reverence mutual warmth inspire. And catch from breast to breast the noble fire." 463 [282] . in Priam's court.

his falling arms resound. Observing Hector to the rescue flew. While the swift javelin hiss'd along in air. and felt it in his heart: Thundering he falls. And flank the navy with a brazen wall. So strong to fight. and make some Trojan bleed. with loud applause. Beyond the foremost ranks. So when a savage. his lance he threw. in order blaze above. so active to pursue? Why stand you distant. And rends his side. Warms the bold son of Nestor in his cause. And round the black battalions cast his view. and backward to the lines retired. Forth rush'd the youth with martial fury fired. It sunk. And his broad buckler rings against the ground. Has torn the shepherd's dog." He said. they thicken at his call. . he glares around. ranging o'er the plain. and rooted in the Grecian hearts: They join. Bold as he was. The fiery Spartan first. fresh-bleeding with the dart The distant hunter sent into his heart. though impell'd by Jove. Timely he flies the yet-untasted food. nor attempt a deed? Lift the bold lance. And stop the Trojans. The troops of Troy recede with sudden fear. The victor leaps upon his prostrate prize: Thus on a roe the well-breath'd beagle flies. Shields touching shields. Antilochus withdrew.464 The Iliad of Homer His generous sense he not in vain imparts. they throng. "Is there (he said) in arms a youth like you. And hears the gathering multitude resound. or shepherd's swain. While conscious of the deed. Advancing Melanippus met the dart With his bold breast.

Wraps the vast mountains. These fates revolved in his almighty mind. and with new fury burns. Now on the fleet the tides of Trojans drove. Swells all their hearts. and involves the poles. beneath his gloomy brow Like fiery meteors his red eye-balls glow: The radiant helmet on his temple burns. confirming Thetis' prayer. While stones and darts in mingled tempest flew. Not with more rage a conflagration rolls. all Troy with shouts pursue. He foams with wrath. he turns His manly breast. Waves when he nods. And gave what fate allow'd. But enter'd in the Grecian ranks. Fierce to fulfil the stern decrees of Jove: The sire of gods. So Mars. the honours of a day! 465 [283] . and strengthens all their hands. when human crimes for vengeance call. Due to stern Pallas. Shakes his huge javelin. the scale of war shall turn. on the foe. But lifts to glory Troy's prevailing bands. And gains the friendly shelter of the wood: So fears the youth. like a lightning. And cast the blaze of both the hosts on one. and Pelides' spear: Yet Jove deferr'd the death he was to pay.BOOK XV. To view the navy blazing to the skies. He raises Hector to the work design'd. and whole armies fall. and lightens as he turns: For Jove his splendour round the chief had thrown. Unhappy glories! for his fate was near. On Ida's top he waits with longing eyes. The Grecian ardour quench'd in deep despair. And drives him. The Trojans fly. Bids him with more than mortal fury glow. nor till then. and conquer'd Ilion burn. Then.

Still at the closest ranks. At large expatiate o'er the ranker mead) Leaps on the herds before the herdsman's eyes. Amidst the plain of some wide-water'd fen. and the sounding tides. Unmoved it hears. by billows beat in vain. . He points his ardour. vii. he seems to fall Like fire from Jove. swell'd with tempests. yet resists his power: So some tall rock o'erhangs the hoary main." Dryden's Virgil. moveless as a tower. tired. on the ship descends. and the rising waves— Propp'd on himself he stands: his solid sides Wash off the sea-weeds. And instant death on every wave appears. The chief so thunders.241 By winds assail'd. The trembling herdsman far to distance flies. and single every prize. the thickest fight. his breast. rushing from his den. And. Girt in surrounding flames. So pale the Greeks the eyes of Hector meet. his eyes Burn at each foe. Some lordly bull (the rest dispersed and fled) 241 —So some tall rock. "But like a rock unmov'd. trembling. and bursts upon them all: Bursts as a wave that from the cloud impends. the winds aloud Howl o'er the masts. a rock that braves The raging tempest. White are the decks with foam. And sees the watery mountains break below. [284] As when a lion. the tempest blow. (Where numerous oxen. and sing through every shroud: Pale. and so shakes the fleet. The Grecian phalanx.466 The Iliad of Homer Now all on fire for fame. and exerts his might. as at ease they feed. On all sides batter'd. the sailors freeze with fears. above. 809.

a gloomy. Thus from the rage of Jove-like Hector flew All Greece in heaps. who strove to guard too late The unhappy hero. And plunged the pointed javelin in his breast.BOOK XV. fled. arrests. but one he seized. and lays him dead. and slew: Mycenian Periphes. his brazen helmet rung. Supine he fell. by themselves implores. He singles out. or of peace or war: But doom'd to Hector's stronger force to yield! Against the margin of his ample shield He struck his hasty foot: his heels up-sprung. 467 Chased from the foremost line. a mighty name. but Nestor most (The sage preserver of the Grecian host) Exhorts. . O'er all his country's youth conspicuous far In every virtue. The minister of stern Eurystheus' ire Against Alcides. On the fallen chief the invading Trojan press'd. adjures. Wall'd round with sterns. Copreus was his sire: The son redeem'd the honours of the race. Now manly shame forbids the inglorious flight. in arms well known to fame. desperate band. In wisdom great. to guard these utmost shores. A son as generous as the sire was base. the Grecian train Now man the next. His circling friends. And by their parents. receding toward the main: Wedged in one body at the tents they stand. or shared his fate. Now fear itself confines them to the fight: Man courage breathes in man.

To some great city through the public way. First of the field great Ajax strikes their eyes. And show'd the shores. High on the decks with vast gigantic stride. And now to this. Think of each ancestor with glory dead. and all who fly. Nor fights." He spoke. and with mutual shame! Think of your hopes. A sudden ray shot beaming o'er the plain. and round him breathed heroic fires. Minerva seconds what the sage inspires. The godlike hero stalks from side to side. if you desert the day. and now to that he flies. or fight. fix'd to certain stands But looks a moving tower above the bands. and the main: Hector they saw. They ask their safety. And all are lost. His port majestic. like others. Safe in his art. he swings around. restoring all the war to view. and their fame. as side by side they run. and vaults from one to one. practised to obey. The mist of darkness Jove around them threw She clear'd. The scene wide-opening to the blaze of light. your fortunes. So when a horseman from the watery mead (Skill'd in the manage of the bounding steed) Drives four fair coursers.468 The Iliad of Homer "Oh friends! be men: your generous breasts inflame With mutual honour. [285] . by me they speak. the navy. Absent. from you: The gods their fates on this one action lay. by me they sue. and his ample size: A ponderous mace with studs of iron crown'd. your infants. and your parents share: Think of each living father's reverend head. He shifts his seat. Full twenty cubits long. all the care Your wives.

as his were all the war. 469 From ship to ship thus Ajax swiftly flew. Thick beats the combat on the sounding prores. And rush'd enraged before the Trojan crowd. And the long battle was but then begun. As furious. And. darkens with his wings the flood. No force could tame them. And each contends. the battle roars. And breathes fierce spirits in his following band. Who marks the swans' or cranes' embodied flight. As if new vigour from new fights they won. and no toil could tire. [286] . Secure of death. "Twas thou. The warring nations meet. yet unconquer'd. whose beaky prores Lay rank'd contiguous on the bending shores. So the strong eagle from his airy height. Jove leads him on with his almighty hand. stooping. Admiring numbers follow with their eyes. while they light for food. Thou wouldst have thought. kept alive the war. confiding in despair: Troy in proud hopes already view'd the main Bright with the blaze. and from despair. No less the wonder of the warring crew. Hector thunder'd threats aloud. Greece.BOOK XV. bold Hector! whose resistless hand First seized a ship on that contested strand. and red with heroes slain: Like strength is felt from hope. so furious was their fire. Stoops down impetuous. Then swift invades the ships.

slain by Hector.242 The first that touch'd the unhappy Trojan shore: For this in arms the warring nations stood. they wound. and shorten'd darts. The falchions ring. There is a most elegant tribute to his memory in the Preface to the Heroica of Philostratus. Still raging. axes. axes sound. as he leaped from the vessel to the Trojan shore. And slaughter'd heroes swell the dreadful tide. swords. and seek each other's hearts With falchions. near the city of Plagusa. . and gives this loud command: AJAX DEFENDING THE GREEK SHIPS. shields rattle. No room to poise the lance or bend the bow. Hector with his ample hand Grasps the high stern. on Lycophr. 528. He was buried on the Chersonese. Swords flash in air. ciii. But hand to hand. or glitter on the ground. 245. they grow: Wounded. Tzetz. Hygin Fab.470 The Iliad of Homer The same which dead Protesilaus bore. And bathed their generous breasts with mutual blood. With streaming blood the slippery shores are dyed. and man to man. 242 Protesilaus was the first Greek who fell.

the Greeks with piercing shouts inspires. But now in peals of thunder calls to arms: In this great day he crowns our full desires. What aids expect you in this utmost strait? What bulwarks rising between you and fate? No aids. now lifts. Even yet. to lose or keep. and seconds all our fires. Even Ajax paused." 471 [287] . Yet. This spot is all you have. The coward-counsels of a timorous throng Of reverend dotards check'd our glory long: Too long Jove lull'd us with lethargic charms. no city to defend. Amidst attacks. "O friends! O heroes! names for ever dear.) Stepp'd back. and darts. bring the flames! that toil of ten long years Is finished. where the oars are placed. and thunderbolts of war! Ah! yet be mindful of your old renown.BOOK XV. and doubted or to live or die. (so thick the javelins fly. he stands to wait What chief approaching dares attempt his fate: Even to the last his naval charge defends. "Haste. and here rolls the deep. Now shakes his spear. Bright with destruction of yon hostile fleet. 'Tis hostile ground you tread. far from hence: your fates are in your hands. and the day desired appears! This happy day with acclamations greet. and deaths. No friends to help. no bulwarks your retreat attend." He spoke—the warriors at his fierce command Pour a new deluge on the Grecian band. and fires. Your great forefathers' virtues and your own. Once sons of Mars. and now protends. There stand the Trojans. your native lands Far. Wakes all our force.

So well the chief his naval weapon sped. with flaming brands. Against the sable ships. . But turns his javelin to the work of death. in a moment fell. CASTOR AND POLLUX.472 The Iliad of Homer Raging he spoke. Whate'er bold Trojan arm'd his daring hands. nor further wastes his breath. the boldest. The luckless warrior at his stern lay dead: Full twelve. Sent by great Ajax to the shades of hell.

which concludes the book. soldiers. THE ACTS AND DEATH OF PATROCLUS Patroclus (in pursuance of the request of Nestor in the eleventh book) entreats Achilles to suffer him to go to the assistance of the Greeks with Achilles' troops and armour. The armour. without further pursuit of the enemy. He agrees to it. . From the tall rock the sable waters flow. ARGUMENT THE SIXTH BATTLE. Hector himself flies. after which Patroclus leads the Myrmidons to battle. The Trojans. neglecting the orders of Achilles. and Hector kills him. taking him for that hero. at the sight of Patroclus in Achilles' armour. he beats them off from the vessels. where Apollo repulses and disarms him. While the black vessels smoked with human gore. and officers are described. are cast into the uttermost consternation. The streaming tears fall copious from his eyes Not faster. So warr'd both armies on the ensanguined shore. trickling to the plains below. but at the same time charges him to content himself with rescuing the fleet. Meantime Patroclus to Achilles flies. Sarpedon is killed. Divine Pelides. with compassion moved. though Jupiter was averse to his fate. pursues the foe to the walls of Troy. Several other particulars of the battle are described. in the heat of which. Achilles offers a libation for the success of his friend.[288] BOOK XVI. horses. Euphorbus wounds him. Patroclus.

what grief thy bosom bears. it is kept more in the back-ground. that infant warms. with scarcely a wish or object apart."—Thirlwall. no infant whom the mother keeps From her loved breast. is the readiness with which it lent itself to construct intimate and durable friendships. Greece. p. Diomedes and Sthenelus. as the persons themselves are less important. while it often adds a peculiar charm to the poetical . It was indeed connected with the comparatively low estimation in which female society was held. But the mutual regard which united Idomeneus and Meriones. The idea of a Greek hero seems not to have been thought complete. to his best beloved:243 [289] "Patroclus. seq. i. i. 176. though. was not the less admirable and engaging. and this is a feature no less prominent in the earliest than in later times. were grounded on the same feeling. vol. vol. 243 —His best beloved. seem to have but one heart and soul. The heroic companions whom we find celebrated partly by Homer and partly in traditions which. without such a brother in arms by his side.474 The Iliad of Homer Thus spoke. Than thou hast mine! Oh tell me. That flows so fast in these unmanly tears? No girl. but this is a circumstance which. and reaching at her arms. 176 seq. but the devotedness and constancy with which these attachments were maintained. say. Clung to her knees.) well illustrate the character of the friendship subsisting between these two heroes— "One of the noblest and most amiable sides of the Greek character. to what end Thy melting sorrows thus pursue thy friend? his unequalled prowess. with fonder passion weeps. It is true that the relation between them is not always one of perfect equality. indulgent. Not more the mother's soul. p. The following elegant remarks of Thirlwall (Greece. is manifestly viewed by the poet in the same light. if not of equal antiquity. and only to live as they are always ready to die for one another.

Or may some meaner cause thy pity claim? Perhaps yon relics of the Grecian name. Atreus' son. And wise Ulysses. May never rage like thine my soul enslave. reveal thy secret care. Their pain soft arts of pharmacy can ease. most tender care). Thy breast alone no lenitives appease.BOOK XVI. Thy good Menoetius breathes the vital air. once. and though These may owe the greater part of their fame to the later epic or even dramatic poetry. the moral groundwork undoubtedly subsisted in the period to which the traditions are referred. and bleeding in his tent: Eurypylus. The argument of the Iliad mainly turns on the affection of Achilles for Patroclus. "Griev'st thou for me. And hoary Peleus yet extends his days. Doom'd in their ships to sink by fire and sword. or for. Tydides. of Orestes and Pylades. Lies pierced with wounds." A sigh that instant from his bosom broke. Thyself a Greek. from thee shall hope redress? 475 description. And pay the forfeit of their haughty lord? Whate'er the cause. my martial band? Or come sad tidings from our native land? Our fathers live (our first. at the navy groan. Such were the friendships of Hercules and Iolaus. What friend. whose love for the greater hero is only tempered by reverence for his higher birth and . of Greeks the best! Lo! every chief that might her fate prevent. and Patroclus spoke: "Let Greece at length with pity touch thy breast. and. detracts little from the dignity of the idea which it presents. Another follow'd. what man. And speak those sorrows which a friend would share. More for their country's wounds than for their own. of Theseus and Pirithous. Pleased in their age to hear their children's praise. O great in vain! unprofitably brave! Thy country slighted in her last distress.

Shall curse that fierce. But sure thou spring'st not from a soft embrace. that unforgiving mind. And raging seas produced thee in a storm. And thy mere image chase her foes away. Unfortunately good! a boding sigh Thy friend return'd. So rough thy manners. If aught from Jove. Proud Troy shall tremble. My wrongs. Nor ever tender goddess brought thee forth: Some rugged rock's hard entrails gave thee form. and in his arms thy death. her o'erlabour'd train Shall quit the ships. [290] "If some dire oracle thy breast alarm. my wrongs. my sole oracles. Nor words from Jove nor oracles he hears. and desert the war." Thus. Some beam of comfort yet on Greece may shine. If I but lead the Myrmidonian line: Clad in thy dreadful arms if I appear. this reply: "Patroclus! thy Achilles knows no fears. and with it. A soul well suiting that tempestuous kind. Without thy person Greece shall win the day. and Greece respire again. so untamed thy mind. Press'd by fresh forces. Nor aught a mother's caution can suggest. blind to fate! with supplicating breath. my constant thought engage. or Thetis. inspire my rage: I made him tyrant: gave him power to wrong Even my: I felt it. Thou begg'st his arms.476 The Iliad of Homer No—men unborn. "O man unpitying! if of man thy race. Those. . The tyrant's pride lies rooted in my breast. and ages yet behind. Nor ever amorous hero caused thy birth. and shall feel it long. stop thy arm.

Who trusts his fame and honours in thy hand. me. Patroclus. like the meanest slave. Disgraced. the bold and brave. the day I wish'd appears: How Hector to my ships his battle bears. But heed my words. as this helmet blazed: Had not the injurious king our friendship lost. and in Achilles' arms: Lead forth my martial Myrmidons to fight. Yon ample trench had buried half her host. No longer flames the lance of Tydeus' son. 477 [291] . at my sight amazed. his dreadful breath Commands your slaughter. The flames my eyes. Troy saw and trembled. Go save the fleets. Those are not dreadful. No more your general calls his heroes on: Hector. Yet now. no Achilles there. and mark a friend's command. Patroclus! court fair honour's charms In Troy's famed fields.BOOK XVI. 'Tis time our fury should relent at last: I fix'd its date. But bear we this—the wrongs I grieve are past. See the thin relics of their baffled band At the last edge of yon deserted land! Behold all Ilion on their ships descends. No camps. And give the Greeks to visit Greece again. From me he forced her. How the cloud blackens. I hear. The maid. when. how the storm impends! It was not thus. the shouts invade my ears. Due to the toils of many a well-fought day. Go then. no bulwarks now the Trojans fear. alone. he forced away. my black-eyed maid. Due to my conquest of her father's reign. issue to the plain: Now save the ships. dishonour'd. or proclaims your death. Due to the votes of all the Grecian train. the rising fires restrain. and conquer in my right.

Some god. Hector is my due. And painful sweat from all his members flows. How first the navy blazed with Trojan flame? . he barely breathes at most. Yet scarce an army stirs him from his post. Though Jove in thunder should command the war. Apollo. Nor lead to Ilion's walls the Grecian race. Dangers on dangers all around him glow. and woe succeeds to woe. and forbear. Be just. Some adverse god thy rashness may destroy. desist from further chase. Do her own work. O! would to all the immortal powers above. redeem'd from this destructive strait. while on the strand Great Jove with conquest crown'd the Trojan band. And not a Greek of all the race survive: Might only we the vast destruction shun. But touch not Hector. Say. And only we destroy the accursed town!" Such conference held the chiefs. and leave the rest to fate. Ajax no more the sounding storm sustain'd. like Phoebus. ever kind to Troy. and almighty Jove! That not one Trojan might be left alive. And toil to toil. comes and goes. throned above the starry frame. So thick the darts an iron tempest rain'd: On his tired arm the weighty buckler hung. The fleet once saved. Let Greece. consult my glory. in quick short pantings. Muses. His breath. Pallas. Spent and o'erpower'd. His hollow helm with falling javelins rung.478 The Iliad of Homer And from thy deeds expects the Achaian host Shall render back the beauteous maid he lost: Rage uncontroll'd through all the hostile crew.

O'er the high stern the curling volumes rise. Great Ajax saw. And smote his thigh. and first around His manly legs. The brazen head falls sounding on the plain. Stern Hector waved his sword. And sheets of rolling smoke involve the skies. and trembling at the sign. the blaze aspires! The glowing ocean reddens with the fires. Achilles' helmet nodded o'er his head: Adorn'd in all his terrible array. Arm. and thus aloud exclaims: "Arm. Warn'd he retreats. His pointless spear the warrior shakes in vain. He flash'd around intolerable day."—The hero said. ere the Grecians be no more a name. thick streams the fiery shower. Full on the lance a stroke so justly sped. as in a starry zone: Achilles' shield his ample shoulders spread. then to his breast applies The flaming cuirass of a thousand dyes. That the broad falchion lopp'd its brazen head.BOOK XVI. ere our vessels catch the spreading flame. Emblazed with studs of gold his falchion shone In the rich belt. and own'd the hand divine. He cased his limbs in brass. Patroclus! Lo. Alone untouch'd. Arm. Where furious Ajax plied his ashen spear. Not to be poised but by Pelides' hands: . Confessing Jove. I haste to bring the troops. Then swift from all sides pour The hissing brands. The friend with ardour and with joy obey'd. arm. with silver buckles bound The clasping greaves. and standing near. Pelides' javelin stands. 479 [292] Divine Achilles view'd the rising flames.

and the dread of fields. . By Zephyr pregnant on the breezy shore: Swift Pedasus was added to their side. Whose son's great arm alone the weapon wields. The second to his lord in love and fame. The death of heroes. bore. The brave Automedon (an honour'd name. Buckles. In peace his friend. Whom the wing'd harpy. A mortal courser match'd the immortal race. now Achilles' pride) Who. and partner of the war) The winged coursers harness'd to the car. Sprung from the wind. and shaped it for his sire. and like the wind in speed. Xanthus and Balius.480 The Iliad of Homer From Pelion's shady brow the plant entire Old Chiron rent. of immortal breed. in swiftness. and in grace. swift Podarge. like in strength. (Once great Aetion's.

as in sway. Like furious. but miscall'd by fame The son of Borus. Scour through the fields. 479. To the black fount they rush. First march'd Menestheus. Fire fills their eye. And long to temper their dry chaps in blood— So rush'd we forth at once. Derived from thee. 244 481 "As hungry wolves with raging appetite. that seek the springs244 When scalding thirst their burning bowels wrings. Has drench'd their wide insatiate throats with blood. of celestial birth. rush'd the Myrmidonian crew. had launch'd for Ilion's shores Full fifty vessels. Directs their order. formidable band: Grim as voracious wolves. and warms His hardy Myrmidons to blood and arms." —Dryden's Virgil. mann'd with fifty oars: Five chosen leaders the fierce bands obey. Divine Sperchius! Jove-descended flood! A mortal mother mixing with a god. fresh-slaughtered in the wood. A grim. whose waters wash the earth. High in the midst the great Achilles stands. and the war commands. Such was Menestheus. and such their deathful view. Himself supreme in valour.BOOK XVI. ne'er fear the stormy night— Their whelps at home expect the promised food. terrific. Achilles speeds from tent to tent. loved of Jove. All breathing death. around the chief they stand. With paunch distended. that espoused the dame. He. a hideous throng. ii. and with lolling tongue. . their black jaws belch the gore. When some tall stag. Such their dread strength. And gorged with slaughter still they thirst for more.

matchless in his art To wing the spear. Whose rage defrauds us of so famed a field: If that dire fury must for ever burn. sly Cellenius loved: on her would gaze. Her secret offspring to her sire she bare. Pisander follow'd. Think what reproach these ears endured so long. This stern remembrance to his troops he gave: "Ye far-famed Myrmidons. long hid from fame. With gifts of price he sought and won the dame. raging. urged. and order'd all the war. Soon as Achilles with superior care Had call'd the chiefs. The son confess'd his father's heavenly race. No hand so sure of all the Emathian line. Or if a surer. whom Polymele the gay. While restless. Laerces' valiant offspring led the last. bless'd in all those charms That pleased a god. great Patroclus! thine. Her. Her sire caress'd him with a parent's care. What make we here? Return. Famed in the graceful dance. return!' [294] . produced to-day. ye chiefs.482 The Iliad of Homer Eudorus next. ye fierce and brave! Think with what threats you dared the Trojan throng. The god pursued her. in your ships you lay) Oh nursed with gall. succeeded to her arms. The fourth by Phoenix' grave command was graced. 'Stern son of Peleus. Strong Echecleus. Not conscious of those loves. (thus ye used to say. and crown'd his fire. As with swift step she form'd the running maze: To her high chamber from Diana's quire. unknowing how to yield. And heir'd his mother's swiftness in the chase. or aim the distant dart.

with equal fury fired. Thick. and thickens round the king. Patroclus here. Thus while he roused the fire in every breast. Of strength defensive against wind and storms. and man drove man along. Glut all your hearts. two bodies with one soul inspired. And round him wide the rising structure grows: So helm to helm. As when a circling wall the builder forms. There bold Automedon. Far o'er the rest in glittering pomp appear. Close and more close the listening cohorts press'd. Compacted stones the thickening work compose. Shield urged on shield.BOOK XVI. Float in one sea. Ranks wedged in ranks. bathe your swords in gore! This day shall give you all your soul demands. Such were your words—Now. together join'd. Lo there the Trojans. Brothers in arms. of arms a steely ring Still grows. and wave before the wind. and spreads. Two friends. . and weary all your hands!" 483 DIANA. undistinguish'd plumes. and crest to crest they throng. warriors! grieve no more.

But Peleus' son. to the dangers of the fighting field The best.) Hear. sacred first to flame. but to Jove alone. their slumbers on the ground. and vapours chill. and wash'd it in the running stream. of antique frame. Then cleansed his hands. Dodonaean Jove! Who 'midst surrounding frosts. Confirm his heart. He purged. the purple draught he pour'd Forth in the midst. This tinged with sulphur.484 The Iliad of Homer [295] But mindful of the gods. Lo. and string his arm to war: Press'd by his single force let Hector see . I stay but half behind. thy dark decrees. and fixing for a space His eyes on heaven. And catch the fates. Presid'st on bleak Dodona's vocal hill: (Whose groves the Selli. Who hear. as of old! Thou gav'st. And costly furs. low-whispered in the breeze. and carpets stiff with gold. and to the Greeks despair. Their feet unwash'd. his feet upon the place Of sacrifice. Oh! be his guard thy providential care. Patroclus gone. Glory to me. Achilles went To the rich coffer in his shady tent. and thus the god implored: "O thou supreme! high-throned all height above! O great Pelasgic. I yield. (The presents of the silver-footed dame) From thence he took a bowl. from rustling oaks. Though still determined. There lay on heaps his various garments roll'd. Which never man had stained with ruddy wine. race austere! surround. Nor raised in offerings to the power divine. and Peleus' son to none Had raised in offerings. to my ships confined. the dearest of my friends. at Thetis' prayer.

provoked by children in their play. and buzzing progeny. the winds dispersed in air. Preserve his arms. And humble the proud monarch whom you save. Pour from their mansions by the broad highway. His safe return. In swarms the guiltless traveller engage. And safe return him to these eyes again!" Great Jove consents to half the chief's request. His fame in arms not owing all to me. As wasps. and so keen their arms: Their rising rage Patroclus' breath inspires." 485 [296] . preserve his social train. partners of Achilles' praise! Be mindful of your deeds in ancient days. Think your Achilles sees you fight: be brave. But heaven's eternal doom denies the rest. and call forth all their rage: All rise in arms. Who thus inflames them with heroic fires: "O warriors. To free the fleet was granted to his prayer. So loud their clamours. Meanwhile the troops beneath Patroclus' care. and commence the war. Whet all their stings. with a general cry. Thus from the tents the fervent legion swarms. Invade the Trojans. Let him with conquest and renown retire. Back to his tent the stern Achilles flies. Your godlike master let your acts proclaim. and. And waits the combat with impatient eyes.BOOK XVI. And add new glories to his mighty name. Assert their waxen domes. But when the fleets are saved from foes and fire.

At once they see. From shore to shore the doubling shouts resound. In heaps on heaps the foe tumultuous flies. Then first thy spear. and thought the dread Achilles nigh. and where the tumult grew. . involved in fire and smoke. divine Patroclus! flew. O'er heaven's expanse like one black ceiling spread. Fly diverse. When great Achilles' shining armour blazed: Troy saw. and vales. and kindling as he spoke. and all around them gazed. The hollow ships return a deeper sound. that see their country's glory slain. and forests. (Who led his bands from Axius' winding flood. Clear'd from the smoke the joyful navy lies. and lets down the day: The hills shine out. Sudden the Thunderer. and they fly. scatter'd o'er the distant plain. with a flashing ray. bold Pyrechmes stood. Patroclus' arm forbids the spreading fires. Close to the stern of that famed ship which bore Unbless'd Protesilaus to Ilion's shore. The great Paeonian. And from the half-burn'd ship proud Troy retires. the rocks in prospect rise.) His shoulder-blade receives the fatal wound. they tremble. The war stood still. His troops. The groaning warrior pants upon the ground. Where the war raged. And streams. strike the eyes. The smiling scene wide opens to the sight. And all the unmeasured ether flames with light. Bursts through the darkness. And loud acclaim the starry region rends. Flew to the fleet.486 The Iliad of Homer Joyful they heard. Triumphant Greece her rescued decks ascends. So when thick clouds enwrap the mountain's head.

his sons expire. received the Spartan lance. Sharp in his thigh he felt the piercing wound. Amisodarus' seed. with vigour thrown. lamented youth! he lies. Forced from the navy. Pierced in the flank. effused with gushing gore. unarm'd. Slain by two brothers. Thoas was thy chance. Kind Maris. abhorr'd Chimaera bred. thus two brothers bleed. The brazen-pointed spear. His arm falls spouting on the dust below: He sinks. But still the foremost. the warrior lay. . Next.BOOK XVI. Atymnius dies. and in death. Skill'd in the dart in vain. The bane of men. Sarpedon's friends. In darkness. And two bold brothers of the Lycian band: By great Antilochus. and broke the brittle bone: Headlong he fell. Now every Greek some hostile hero slew. by Furies led. yet the fight maintains. his murderer to engage: But godlike Thrasimed prevents his rage. Furious he flies. Tore all the brawn. Amisodarus. Between his arm and shoulder aims a blow. and transpierced his thigh. But Troy repulsed. Defends the breathless carcase on the ground. Phylides' dart (as Amphidus drew nigh) His blow prevented. bleeding in his brother's wound. 487 [297] In equal arms two sons of Nestor stand. with endless darkness cover'd o'er: And vents his soul. The thigh transfix'd. and rent the nerves away. and scatter'd o'er the plains. And pay the forfeit of their guilty sire. who. bold Patroclus flew: As Areilycus had turn'd him round. Thy breast.

Beneath Oileus' arm. Or kids. and fate unpitying. Hung by the skin. . and fierce Peneleus came. Troy fled. his nostrils. His open'd mouth received the Cretan steel: Beneath the brain the point a passage tore. his eyes. Crash'd the thin bones. As when the flocks neglected by the swain. In vain their javelins at each other flew. pour a flood. met in arms. with mutual thirst of fame. On the plumed crest of his Boeotian foe The daring Lycon aim'd a noble blow. A troop of wolves the unguarded charge survey. Black death. Back from the car he tumbles to the ground: His swimming eyes eternal shades surround. Pierced through the shoulder as he mounts his steeds. seal his eyes. the body sunk to dust. their eager swords they drew. A living prize not long the Trojan stood. but his. Now. Amid the ranks. and drown'd the teeth in gore: His mouth. And rend the trembling. Peneleus sped Full on the juncture of the neck and head: The head. The thirsty falchion drank his reeking blood: Plunged in his throat the smoking weapon lies. unmindful of her former fame. divided by a stroke so just. unresisting prey: Thus on the foe the Greeks impetuous came. or lambs. Lycon the brave. The sword broke short. O'ertaken Neamas by Merion bleeds.488 The Iliad of Homer Stopp'd in the tumult Cleobulus lies. Next Erymas was doom'd his fate to feel. lie scatter'd o'er the plain. a living prize. He sobs his soul out in the gush of blood.

And shades the sun. with shouts Patroclus flies. In vain they labour up the steepy mound. The affrighted steeds their dying lords cast down. Dark o'er the fields the ascending vapour flies. The Trojan chief. Fierce on the rear. and stretch to reach the town. along the dusky plain. Their charioteers lie foaming on the ground. And bleeding heroes under axles groan. and saves his loved allies. Scour o'er the fields. Where horse and arms. Dire Flight and Terror drove the Trojan train. in one vast carnage bruised: Chariots on chariots roll: the clashing spokes Shock. and chariots he o'erthrown. 489 But still at Hector godlike Ajax aim'd.BOOK XVI. Clouds rise on clouds. Observed the storm of darts the Grecians pour. and blots the golden skies: So from the ships. Thick drifts of dust involve their rapid flight. Where the war bleeds. And on his buckler caught the ringing shower: He sees for Greece the scale of conquest rise. experienced in the field. . Yet stops. Loud o'er the rout was heard the victor's cry. Even Hector fled. O'er his broad shoulders spread the massy shield. Wedged in the trench. And rolls the cloud to blacken heaven with storms. As when the hand of Jove a tempest forms. and where the thickest die. pointed at his breast. Still. Tumultuous clamour fills the fields and skies. his javelin flamed. while the madding steeds break short their yokes. and turns. and heaven is snatch'd from sight. through heads of disarray The fiery coursers forced their lord away: While far behind his Trojans fall confused.

betray the righteous cause. Patroclus shakes his lance. Thestor was next. and where the rampires rose. Patroclus mark'd him as he shunn'd the war. Whole fields are drown'd. All grim in dust and blood Patroclus stands. and mountains swept away. but fate denies. Nor stood to combat. Loud roars the deluge till it meets the main. the steeds of Peleus knew: From bank to bank the immortal coursers flew. Bore down half Troy in his resistless way. Which pierced below the shield his valiant heart.490 The Iliad of Homer No stop. (When guilty mortals break the eternal laws. Between the space where silver Simois flows. Where lay the fleets. who saw the chief appear. with less impetuous force. bribed. First Pronous died beneath his fiery dart. And earth is loaden with incessant showers. Than when in autumn Jove his fury pours. The tide of Trojans urge their desperate course. Not with less noise. o'ertakes the flying war. nor had force to fly. And fell the victim of his coward fear. Shrunk up he sat. And opens all the flood-gates of the skies: The impetuous torrents from their hills obey.) From their deep beds he bids the rivers rise. And turns the slaughter on the conquering bands. And thunders after Hector. . High-bounding o'er the fosse. And forced the routed ranks to stand the day. Hector flies. no check. Or judges. with wild and haggard eye. the whirling car Smokes through the ranks. And trembling man sees all his labours vain! [299] And now the chief (the foremost troops repell'd) Back to the ships his destined progress held.

Who mows whole troops. Large as a rock. As on a rock that overhangs the main. studious of the line and cane. inglorious. Echius. Polymelus. Then low in dust Epaltes. and makes an army fly. lie. And dropp'd the flowing reins. as the spear was shook. He fell. The javelin sticks. An angler. With this reproach his flying host he warms: "Oh stain to honour! oh disgrace to arms! Forsake. and life his heartless breast forsook. was by his fury thrown: Full on his crown the ponderous fragment flew. and from the chariot draws. 491 Next on Eryalus he flies. This hand unaided shall the war sustain: The task be mine this hero's strength to try. And last Tlepolemus and Pyres bleed. When now Sarpedon his brave friends beheld Grovelling in dust. Him 'twixt the jaws. the growing slaughters spread In heaps on heaps a monument of dead. the contended plain. die. And death involved him with the shades of hell. Ipheas. and gasping on the field.BOOK XVI. And burst the helm. a stone." . And with unmanly tremblings shook the car. Evippus. and cleft the head in two: Prone to the ground the breathless warrior fell. Where'er he moves. Some mighty fish draws panting to the shore: Not with less ease the barbed javelin bore The gaping dastard. Amphoterus and Erymas succeed.

engage With equal clamours. and further. The desert echoes. the son of Menoetius! Indeed.—"In the mythology. and sternly waits the war. the rest of the gods.492 The Iliad of Homer [300] He spake: and. they raise a screaming cry. No distinct empire is assigned to fate or fortune. they tear. I should not at once place him alive in the fertile land of his own Lycia. A strong instance in the Iliad itself to illustrate this position. the destinies ordain. is the passage where Jupiter laments to Juno the approaching death of Sarpedon. my heart is divided within me while I ruminate it in my mind. and the rocks reply: The warriors thus opposed in arms. and with equal rage. purely Pagan as it is. —The destinies ordain. do not sanction it. dearest to me of men. of the Iliad. save him. and place him entirely out of the reach of any such event. if he pleased. Jove view'd the combat: whose event foreseen. shall I snatch him from impending fate. we discover one important truth unconsciously involved. What passions in a parent's breast debate! Say. They cuff. Zeus or Jupiter is popularly to be taken as omnipotent. leaps from off the car: Patroclus lights. As when two vultures on the mountain's height Stoop with resounding pinions to the fight. should be slain by Patroclus. whether having snatched him up from out of the lamentable battle. speaking. which was almost entirely lost from view amidst the nearly equal scepticism and credulity of subsequent ages. that Jupiter himself would destroy him by the hands 245 . and it is very necessary that the student of Greek literature should bear it constantly in mind. He thus bespoke his sister and his queen: "The hour draws on. that although Sarpedon is said to be fated to die.245 My godlike son shall press the Phrygian plain: Already on the verge of death he stands. the will of the father of gods and men is absolute and uncontrollable. 'Alas me!' says he 'since it is fated (moira) that Sarpedon. in the alternative. His life is owed to fierce Patroclus' hands.' Here it is clear from both speakers. Jupiter might still. long since destined by fate (palai pepromenon)? You may do it—but we. also. or whether I should now destroy him by the hands of the son of Menoetius!' To which Juno answers—'Dost thou mean to rescue from death a mortal man. This seems to be the true character of the Homeric deity.

A marble tomb and pyramid shall raise. overcome. with celestial blood. seq. the field?" 493 Then thus the goddess with the radiant eyes: "What words are these. debate would rise above. by thy command. [301] . Assents to fate." She said: the cloud-compeller. Give the bold chief a glorious fate in fight. Then touch'd with grief. to his future praise. And fatten. distant far From all the dangers and the toils of war.BOOK XVI. And lasting honours to his ashes give."—Coleridge. The breathless body to his native land. 156. Whose bounds were fix'd before his race began? How many sons of gods. Or to his doom my bravest offspring yield. the weeping heavens distill'd A shower of blood o'er all the fatal field: of another. Shall Jove for one extend the narrow span. And send him safe to Lycia. Let Sleep and Death convey. O sovereign of the skies! Short is the date prescribed to mortal man. And when the ascending soul has wing'd her flight. Before proud Ilion must resign their breath! Were thine exempt. And murmuring powers condemn their partial Jove. and ratifies the doom. His friends and people. His fame ('tis all the dead can have) shall live. p. foredoom'd to death.

The next transpierced Achilles' mortal steed. Far from the Lycian shores. obedient to the rein: The car rolls slowly o'er the dusty plain. Which o'er the warrior's shoulder took its course. Where the strong fibres bind the solid heart. Aim'd at his breast it pierced a mortal part. Divides the traces with his sword. and the chariot shook: When bold Automedon. the combatants appear. and restrain their rage. predestined to be slain. Roll'd in the bloody dust. and poised the lifted spear. Now met in arms. or poplar tall. he reel'd around. From strong Patroclus' hand the javelin fled. The generous Pedasus of Theban breed: Fix'd in the shoulder's joint.494 The Iliad of Homer The god. And pass'd the groin of valiant Thrasymed. The nerves unbraced no more his bulk sustain. till with a groaning sound . Each axle crackled. and paw'd the slippery ground. and freed The encumbered chariot from the dying steed: The rest move on. And spent in empty air its dying force. to disengage The starting coursers. and falling bites the bloody plain. his eyes averting from the plain. Laments his son. He falls. Not so Patroclus' never-erring dart. Each heaved the shield. his happy native reign. Then as the mountain oak. The towering chiefs to fiercer fight advance: And first Sarpedon whirl'd his weighty lance. His sudden fall the entangled harness broke. Two sounding darts the Lycian leader threw: The first aloof with erring fury flew. Or pine (fit mast for some great admiral) Nods to the axe.

be bold. Thus fell the king. and on his bosom trod. all may try Like thee to vanquish. pale in death. His flying steeds the Myrmidons detain. 495 It sinks. and supply the dead. Incite the living. to combat at their head. what shame. While the grim savage grinds with foamy jaws The trembling limbs. The reeking fibres clinging to the dart. The insulting victor with disdain bestrode The prostrate prince. taught by great examples. and laid on earth supine. Unguided now. and as a warrior fight. I charged them with my latest breath Not unrevenged to bear Sarpedon's death. Deep groans. must Glaucus undergo. Defend my body." He ceased. And. Before his chariot stretch'd his form divine: He grasp'd the dust distain'd with streaming gore. So lies a bull beneath the lion's paws. And the soul issued in the purple flood. thy task be first to dare The glorious dangers of destructive war. Then drew the weapon from his panting heart. their mighty master slain. and sucks the smoking blood. From the wide wound gush'd out a stream of blood.BOOK XVI. rebellow through the wood. If these spoil'd arms adorn a Grecian foe! Then as a friend. [302] . or like me to die. To lead my troops. Tell them. "Glaucus. and hollow roars. lay groaning on the shore. What grief. And his eyes darken'd with the shades of death. Then to the leader of the Lycian band The dying chief address'd his last command. and spreads its honours on the ground. conquer in my right: That. the Fates suppress'd his labouring breath.

496 The Iliad of Homer All-impotent of aid. and. Then loudly calls on Troy's vindictive arms. But thou. First to the fight his native troops he warms. now Polydamas: Æneas next. . thy bright presence boast. Powerful alike to ease the wretch's smart. at distance from the glorious war. Inflaming thus the rage of all their hosts. And owns the assistance of immortal hands. And sigh. though distant." Apollo heard. Unhappy Glaucus heard the dying chief: His painful arm. Nor Jove vouchsafed his hapless offspring aid. I stand unable to sustain the spear. And breathed a spirit in his rising heart. To head my Lycians. Low in the dust is great Sarpedon laid. and Hector he accosts. With ample strides he stalks from place to place. That thrills my arm. the hero stands. O god of health! thy succour lend. To guard the relics of my slaughter'd friend: For thou. His heavenly hand restrain'd the flux of blood. transfix'd with grief. and pierced with pain. Renew'd by art divine. and support the fight. Now fires Agenor. canst restore my might. O hear me! god of every healing art! Lo! stiff with clotted blood. Or sacred Ilion. and shoots through every vein. Supported on his better hand he stay'd: To Phoebus then ('twas all he could) he pray'd: "All-seeing monarch! whether Lycia's coast. yet useless with the smart Inflicted late by Teucer's deadly dart. suppliant as he stood. He drew the dolours from the wounded part.

See! where in dust the great Sarpedon lies. Or weigh the great occasion. O save from hostile rage his loved remains! Ah let not Greece his conquer'd trophies boast. through all her legions shook. extended on the field. be men. And rousing Ajax. And with superior vengeance greatly glows. Breathe their brave souls out in another's war. To all his Lycians lost. and lost to thee! Stretch'd by Patroclus' arm on yonder plains. Transfix'd with deep regret. they view o'erthrown At once his country's pillar. And send the living Lycians to the dead. at the loss. from their country far." 497 [303] . and kept his people free. Lies pale in death. first Hector seeks the foes.BOOK XVI. who led to Troy's beleaguer'd wall A host of heroes. Nor on his corse revenge her heroes lost!" He spoke: each leader in his grief partook: Troy. To guard his body Troy in numbers flies. A chief. In action valiant. and outshined them all. be what you were before. the slaughter round him spread. who. and their own. Fired. they rush on. Who guarded right. and in council wise. But o'er the dead the fierce Patroclus stands. Tis half the glory to maintain our prize. The chief who taught our lofty walls to yield. Haste. strip his arms. roused the listening bands: "Heroes. "What thoughts. regardless chief! thy breast employ? Oh too forgetful of the friends of Troy! Those generous friends. and be more.

Which sunk him to the dead: when Troy. O generous Greek! when with full vigour thrown. So far the Trojans from their lines retired. The clash of armour rings o'er all the plain. Till Glaucus. and great Epigeus falls. Hurl'd by Hectorean force it cleft in twain His shatter'd helm. Or at the lists. from Budium's lofty walls. and the silver-footed dame. At Sthenelaus flew the weighty stone. oppose their arms. His fate ennobling with a crowd of ghosts. And. turning. drew back. Soon as his luckless hand had touch'd the dead. What grief thy heart. like an eagle darting at his game. what fury urged thy hand. or at the fighting foe. too near That arm. The martial squadrons close on either hand: Here Troy and Lycia charge with loud alarms. A rock's large fragment thunder'd on his head. And round his son confounds the warring hosts. to swell the horrors of the fight.498 The Iliad of Homer The heroes kindle at his fierce command. and Greece. O'er the fierce armies pours pernicious night. Great Jove. Now sent to Troy. all the rest inspired. He pays due vengeance to his kinsman's shade. and stretch'd him o'er the slain. Fierce to the van of fight Patroclus came. [304] . Thessalia there. Far as an able hand a lance can throw. Who chased for murder thence a suppliant came To Peleus. With horrid shouts they circle round the slain. Agacleus' son. Now Greece gives way. Achilles' arms to aid. Sprung on the Trojan and the Lycian band. and Hector learn'd to fear.

My spear. An iron circle round the carcase grows." . Pierced through the bosom with a sudden wound. the destined passage had it found. Glaucus met and slew. His spear Aeneas at the victor threw. The Achaians sorrow for their heroes slain. and honour'd like his god. Wide o'er the land was stretch'd his large domain. and riches blest in vain: Him. Despatch'd by Merion to the shades of death: On Ida's holy hill he made abode. He fell. The lance hiss'd harmless o'er his covering shield. and rooted in the field. Sent by the great Aeneas' arm in vain. The only hope of Chalcon's trembling age. And trembling struck. And crowd to spoil the dead: the Greeks oppose. With conquering shouts the Trojans shake the plain. There yet scarce spent. The soul.BOOK XVI. issued at the vent. exhaling. The priest of Jove. bold with youth. and eager to pursue The flying Lycians. With stately seats. it quivers on the plain. Who stooping forward from the death withdrew. Then Bathyclaeus fell beneath his rage. and falling made the fields resound. Between the jaw and ear the javelin went. "Swift as thou art (the raging hero cries) And skill'd in dancing to dispute the prize. 499 Then brave Laogonus resign'd his breath. Had fix'd thy active vigour to the ground.

sends thee down to Pluto's coast. ill befits the brave. The labours of the woodman's axe resound. but to dare In glorious action. success is still from heaven: This. An arm as strong may stretch thee in the dust.500 The Iliad of Homer "O valiant leader of the Dardan host! (Insulted Merion thus retorts the boast) Strong as you are. instant. Mine is the glory. as the warriors close. Patroclus to the battle flies." [305] "O friend (Menoetius' son this answer gave) With words to combat. his thy parting ghost. To speak. As through the shrilling vale. Your swords must plunge them to the shades of hell. Vain are thy vaunts. or mountain ground. While crackling forests fall on every side: Thus echoed all the fields with loud alarms. and new shouts arise: Shields. Blows following blows are heard re-echoing wide. and so rung their arms. And thick and heavy sounds the storm of blows. beseems the council. . Great Merion follows. And if to this my lance thy fate be given. is the task of war. Not empty boasts the sons of Troy repel. 'tis mortal force you trust. helmets rattle. So fell the warriors." This said.

Sunk with Troy's heavy fates. And stuck with darts by warring heroes shed. Fix'd on the field his sight. and meditates the fates: Whether to urge their prompt effect. His heavenly form defaced with dust and gore. Incessant swarm. Lies undistinguish'd from the vulgar dead. and chased return again. And stretch him breathless on his slaughter'd son. Or yet. he sees decline The scales of Jove. and pants with awe divine. his breast debates The vengeance due. His long-disputed corse the chiefs enclose. He mounts his car. Now great Sarpedon on the sandy shore. Nor unattended see the shades below. that his last of days Shall set in glory. This instant see his short-lived trophies won. Augment the fame and horror of the fight. and. a persevering train. with many a soul's untimely flight. On every side the busy combat grows. Thick as beneath some shepherd's thatch'd abode (The pails high foaming with a milky flood) The buzzing flies. 501 Jove view'd the combat with a stern survey. . bids him drive the foe. To crown Achilles' valiant friend with praise At length he dooms.BOOK XVI. And eyes that flash'd intolerable day. Then Hector's mind he fills with dire dismay. and calls his hosts away. and call The force of Hector to Patroclus' fall.

Those rites discharged. as the heroes fall. And with celestial robes adorn the dead. And with perfumes of sweet ambrosial dews Restores his freshness. (So Jove decreed!) At length the Greeks obtain The prize contested. Then bathe his body in the crystal flood. and deform'd with blood. They to his friends the immortal charge shall bear. Patroclus' ships the glorious spoils adorn. Then thus to Phoebus. nor before. and from mount Ida's height. Then Sleep and Death. and despoil the slain. Spoke from his throne the cloud-compelling Jove: "Descend. With dust dishonour'd. His friends a tomb and pyramid shall rear: What honour mortals after death receive. his sacred corse bequeath To the soft arms of silent Sleep and Death. Veil'd in a cloud. O'er all his limbs ambrosial odours shed. my Phoebus! on the Phrygian plain. The radiant arms are by Patroclus borne. Thence from the war the breathless hero bore. two twins of winged race. And left their monarch with the common dead: Around. There bathed his honourable wounds. and dress'd His manly members in the immortal vest.502 The Iliad of Homer Then. in the realms above. a dreadful wall Of carnage rises. . to silver Simois' shore. in heaps on heaps. Swift to the field precipitates his flight. and his form renews. the hardy Lycians fled. And from the fight convey Sarpedon slain. Those unavailing honours we may give!" [306] Apollo bows.

Fierce on the Trojan and the Lycian crew. For he. With foaming coursers.BOOK XVI. and urged thee on to fall. Of matchless swiftness. He urged thee on. The god who gives. The corse amidst his weeping friends they laid. whose counsels uncontroll'd Dismay the mighty. Ah blind to fate! thy headlong fury flew Against what fate and powerful Jove ordain. and confound the bold. 503 SLEEP AND DEATH CONVEYING THE BODY OF SARPEDON TO LYCIA. Where endless honours wait the sacred shade. but of silent pace. and with loosen'd reins. and orders all. thy courage vain. the god. [307] . Meanwhile Patroclus pours along the plains. And in a moment reach'd the Lycian land. Received Sarpedon. at the god's command. resumes. Vain was thy friend's command.

not fated yet to fall. Thy friend. The slaughter. "The art military of the Homeric age is upon a level with the state of navigation just described. next young Megas bleeds. 212. Who last beneath thy vengeance press'd the plain. The siege of Troy was as little like a modern siege as a captain in the guards is like Achilles. dispersing. p. bursting from the cloud. were never upon a large scale. A more than mortal voice was heard aloud. Elasus and Mulius crown'd: Then sunk Pylartes to eternal night.246 His blazing aegis thrice Apollo shook. And call'd to fill the number of the dead? Adrestus first. The chiefs fight in advance. Epistor. this heaven-defended wall Defies thy lance. "Patroclus! cease. Patroclus thrice mounts it in armour." —Thrice at the battlements. But flaming Phoebus kept the sacred tower Thrice at the battlements Patroclus strook. 246 . It was probably a vast mound of earth with a declivity outwards. and receive assistance from their allies to the very end. and enact almost as much as the knights of romance. thy greater far. The Trojans are in no respects blockaded. bite the ground. When heaven itself thy fatal fury led. although much esteemed. Now Troy had stoop'd beneath his matchless power. The rest. Autonous then succeeds. He tried the fourth. it shall withstand. Troy shall not stoop even to Achilles' hand. and the wall itself was accessible without a ladder. brave hero! by that arm was slain. when. the night attack and the ambuscade. Melanippus."—Coleridge. trust their fates to flight. personal prowess decided every thing. Echeclus follows. There is no mention of a ditch or any other line or work round the town.504 The Iliad of Homer Who first.

Turn thee. one undistinguish'd wound: The bursting balls drop sightless to the ground. Hecuba! from Dymas sprung. Or in the field his forces to employ. beside him Phoebus stood. The god the Grecians' sinking souls depress'd. The Greek obeys him. The lawless offspring of king Priam's bed. a stone employs his right: With all his nerves he drives it at the foe. and with awe retires. 505 [308] . Pointed above. eyes. So spoke the god who darts celestial fires. "What a shameful sight! God! is it Hector that forbears the fight? Were thine my vigour this successful spear Should soon convince thee of so false a fear. Patroclus lights. And plunged amidst the tumult of the fight. He bids Cebrion drive the rapid car. In Asius' shape. A valiant warrior. While Hector. His front. checking at the Scaean gates His panting coursers. (Thy brother. And pour'd swift spirits through each Trojan breast. The lash resounds. and rough and gross below: The falling ruin crush'd Cebrion's head. bold. who reigned by Sangar's flood. A spear his left. then took his flight. while yet he held the rein. the coursers rush to war. And in Patroclus' blood efface thy shame. brows. Perhaps Apollo shall thy arms succeed. impatient for the fight.BOOK XVI. The charioteer. in his breast debates. And heaven ordains him by thy lance to bleed. and young. ah turn thee to the field of fame. Or draw the troops within the walls of Troy." So spoke the inspiring god. Thus while he thought.) Thus he accosts him. haughty.

Darts shower'd on darts. arms. rage. Thus for some slaughter'd hind. then tumbles slain. and the Sylvans groan. While the proud victor thus his fall derides. and fright. [309] . falls headlong on the plain. with equal rage. That sweeps the field. Defends the body. Two lordly rulers of the wood engage. This way and that. And by the foot Patroclus drags the dead: While all around. So pent by hills. At once bold Hector leaping from his car. Pierced through the dauntless heart. now round the carcase ring. And the whole forest in one crash descends. In dreadful shock the mingled hosts engage. "Good heaven! what active feats yon artist shows! What skilful divers are our Phrygian foes! Mark with what ease they sink into the sand! Pity that all their practice is by land!" Then rushing sudden on his prostrate prize. To the dark shades the soul unwilling glides. Stung with fierce hunger.506 The Iliad of Homer Struck from the car. And echoing roars rebellow through the shades. and trees. Stern Hector fastens on the warrior's head. And from his fatal courage finds his bane. Mix the contending hosts in mortal fight. terrible and bold. with less tumultuous rage. each the prey invades. and provokes the war. aloft in air are blown. The broad oaks crackle. confusion. depopulates the fold. the wild winds roar aloud In the deep bosom of some gloomy wood. Not with less noise. Leaves. the rattling thicket bends. To spoil the carcase fierce Patroclus flies: Swift as a lion.

forgets the guiding reins! Now flaming from the zenith. Some hard. Then rash Patroclus with new fury glows. and numbers sank to hell. shake the sounding shields. pours amid the foes. But where the rising whirlwind clouds the plains. far to distance flung. stretch'd in death. Thrice on the press like Mars himself he flew. That plume which never stoop'd to earth before. Death calls. His bounding helmet on the champaign rung. While on each host with equal tempests fell The showering darts. his stunn'd senses reel In giddy darkness. But when his evening wheels o'erhung the main. Sol had driven His fervid orb through half the vault of heaven. And thrice three heroes at each onset slew. Sunk in soft dust the mighty chief remains. And breathing slaughter. and heaven allows no longer day! For lo! the god in dusky clouds enshrined. in fighting fields to shine. untouch'd. some clatter on the fields. They draw the conquer'd corse and radiant arms. Now flights of arrows bounding from the string: Stones follow stones. Then from amidst the tumult and alarms. And. The weighty shock his neck and shoulders feel. And shade the temples of the mad divine. His eyes flash sparkles. Approaching dealt a staggering blow behind. and heavy. black remnant of so bright a line: Apollo dreadful stops thy middle way. There ends thy glory! there the Fates untwine The last.BOOK XVI. Achilles' plume is stain'd with dust and gore. Glad conquest rested on the Grecian train. 507 . Long used.

along the desert score. His spear in shivers falls. well known to fame. though disarm'd. The roaming lion meets a bristly boar. at once. scorch'd with heat. in vain. Wounded. [310] . as the bleeding chief he views. that moment all Her yet-surviving heroes seem'd to fall. Fast by the spring. He struck. Breaks through the ranks. and mortal spear. While yet he learn'd his rudiments of war. From Panthus sprung. earth thunders. Nor. and his arms resound. and all-assistless stands: Such is the force of more than mortal hands! A Dardan youth there was. Stupid he stares. Euphorbus was his name. and his retreat pursues: The lance arrests him with a mortal wound. And turn'd him short. but he durst no more. and herded in the crowd.508 The Iliad of Homer Jove dooms it now on Hector's helm to nod. Stern Hector. His venturous spear first drew the hero's gore. Patroclus yields to fear. and matchless in the course: Full twenty knights he tumbled from the car. they both dispute the flood. which heaven decreed. by an arm divine. each nerve with horror shakes. Patroclus' fury stood: But swift withdrew the long-protended wood. He falls. Not long—for fate pursues him. Thus. Famed for the manage of the foaming horse. And flies the fate. Skill'd in the dart. his ample shield Drops from his arm: his baldric strows the field: The corslet his astonish'd breast forsakes: Loose is each joint. and the god. So. he wounded. With him all Greece was sunk. Retires for succour to his social train.

the joy Thy pride once promised. Patroclus march'd. The fancied scenes of Ilion wrapt in flames. He sternly views him. of subverting Troy. Without the bloody arms of Hector dead. Thy own Achilles cannot lend thee aid. And guard that beauteous race from lords like thee: But thou a prey to vultures shalt be made. this important day. And the torn boar resigns his thirst and life." Supine. So many lives effused. expiring breath. my brave friend (perhaps he said). As dying now at Hector's feet he lies. and jaws besmear'd with blood. the chief replies: . expires his own. Though much at parting that great chief might say. and triumphant cries: 509 "Lie there.BOOK XVI. Patroclus thus. and wildly gazing on the skies. At length the sovereign savage wins the strife. And much enjoin thee. and thus he sped.' He spoke. so many chiefs o'erthrown. 'Return not. With faint. With flaming eyes. Unthinking man! I fought those towers to free. Patroclus! and with thee. And thy soft pleasures served with captive dames.

as his eyes he fed On the pale carcase. the third mean part thy own. Euphorbus next. wandering. . and it sounds thy death: Insulting man.510 The Iliad of Homer [311] "Vain boaster! cease. Opposed me fairly. uncomfortable coast. Far from his rage the immortal coursers drove. A naked. or why denounced to me? Why not as well Achilles' fate be given To Hector's lance? Who knows the will of heaven?" Pensive he said. I see thee fall. To heaven is owed whate'er your own you call. and know the powers divine! Jove's and Apollo's is this deed. tore the lance away. thou shalt be soon as I. melancholy ghost! Then Hector pausing. And upwards cast the corse: the reeking spear He shakes. then pressing as he lay His breathless bosom. The gods inspire it. imperious! hear my latest breath. Even now on life's last verge I see thee stand. (The beauteous body left a load of clay) Flits to the lone. not thine. and thy hour draws nigh. Had twenty mortals. But swift Automedon with loosen'd reins Rapt in the chariot o'er the distant plains. But thou. each thy match in might. thus address'd the dead: "From whence this boding speech. The immortal coursers were the gift of Jove. the stern decree Of death denounced. and by Achilles' hand. And heaven itself disarm'd me ere my fall. Black fate o'erhangs thee. and charges the bold charioteer. they had sunk in fight: By fate and Phoebus was I first o'erthrown." He faints: the soul unwilling wings her way.

511 .BOOK XVI.

.512 The Iliad of Homer ÆSCULAPIUS.

This. touch'd with generous woe. he and Meriones. The scene lies in the fields before Troy. and guards him from the foe. though attacked with the utmost fury. and drives him off. and first-born of her loves. Thus round her new-fallen young the heifer moves. FOR THE BODY OF PATROCLUS. who attempts it. Springs to the front. and renews the battle. Menelaus retires. till Ajax rallies them: Aeneas sustains the Trojans. On the cold earth divine Patroclus spread. THE SEVENTH BATTLE. and bare) . And anxious (helpless as he lies. Lies pierced with wounds among the vulgar dead. assisted by the Ajaces.[312] BOOK XVII. The Greeks give way. Fruit of her throes. The time is the evening of the eight-and-twentieth day. ARGUMENT. defends his body from the enemy: Euphorbus. bear off the body to the ships. Menelaus. Hector advancing. The horses of Achilles deplore the loss of Patroclus: Jupiter covers his body with a thick darkness: the noble prayer of Ajax on that occasion. which is borne off by Automedon. but soon returns with Ajax. Menelaus sends Antilochus to Achilles. where. who thereupon puts on the armour he had won from Patroclus. Glaucus objects to Hector as a flight. is slain. with the news of Patroclus' death: then returns to the fight. Aeneas and Hector Attempt the chariot of Achilles. upon the death of Patroclus. Great Menelaus.—THE ACTS OF MENELAUS.

and insults the friend. Against our arm which rashly he defied. and in scorn return'd: "Laugh'st thou not.514 The Iliad of Homer Turns. and re-turns her.) Man only vaunts his force. with a mother's care. These eyes beheld him on the dust expire. Atrides. and as vain his pride. and leave the glory mine" [313] The Trojan thus: the Spartan monarch burn'd With generous anguish. These sons of Panthus vent their haughty mind. skill'd the dart to send." . Or. laid Patroclus low. beneath my conquering steel This boaster's brother. wait thy brother to the Stygian gloom. Hyperenor. and vaunts in vain. Vain was his vigour. When mortals boast of prowess not their own? Not thus the lion glories in his might. and his lances flame. Go. Jove! from thy superior throne. No more to cheer his spouse. Warrior! desist. fell. But far the vainest of the boastful kind. avoid the threaten'd fate. while thou may'st. Opposed to each that near the carcase came. His broad shield glimmers. Nor thus the boar (those terrors of the plain. "This hand. The son of Panthus. resign: Depart with life. or glad his sire. and are wise too late. Nor panther braves his spotted foe in fight. Eyes the dead hero. Presumptuous youth! like his shall be thy doom. Fools stay to feel it. Yet 'twas but late. nor tempt an equal blow: To me the spoils my prowess won.

BOOK XVII. Come. A lovely ruin now defaced and dead: Thus young. a widow in her bridal bed. and life. Let heaven decide our fortune. and glorious in the prize. When lo! a whirlwind from high heaven invades The tender plant. Euphorbus thus: "That action known. As the young olive. and bent him to the plain. Euphorbus lay. The shining circlets of his golden hair. With dust dishonour'd. and deform'd with gore. Instarr'd with gems and gold. But blunted by the brass. It pierced his throat. in snowy flowerets fair. Proud of his deed. Unmoved. Lifts the gay head. Nor flies the javelin from his arm in vain. bestrow the shore. On Jove the father great Atrides calls. in some sylvan scene. and withers all its shades. thus beautiful. Affrighted Troy the towering victor flies: 515 [314] . On these thy conquer'd spoils I shall bestow. and his arms resound. His weeping father claims thy destined head. No longer then defer the glorious strife. And plays and dances to the gentle air. Which even the Graces might be proud to wear. The well-aim'd weapon on the buckler rings. for my brother's blood repay thy own. Wide through the neck appears the grisly wound. Crown'd by fresh fountains with eternal green. innoxious falls. It lies uprooted from its genial bed." Swift as the word the missile lance he flings. And spouse. To soothe a consort's and a parent's woe. While the fierce Spartan tore his arms away. fame. Prone sinks the warrior.

—A people of Thrace. 247 —Ciconians. Sheath'd in bright arms.)247 "Forbear (he cried) with fruitless speed to chase Achilles' coursers. And mix'd with mortals in the toils of fight: His words infix'd unutterable care Deep in great Hector's soul: through all the war He darts his anxious eye.516 The Iliad of Homer Flies. and fired the nations as it went. Apollo wing'd his flight. Or stoop to none but great Achilles' hand. And urged great Hector to dispute the prize. They shout incessant. And sends his voice in thunder to the skies: Fierce as a flood of flame by Vulcan sent. They stoop not. By Sparta slain! for ever now suppress'd The fire which burn'd in that undaunted breast!" Thus having spoke. through cleaving ranks he flies. instant. Too long amused with a pursuit so vain. as before some mountain lion's ire The village curs and trembling swains retire. and the vales resound. Meanwhile Apollo view'd with envious eyes. as prone he lay) And in the victor's hands the shining prey. these. and. of ethereal race. beneath whose martial care The rough Ciconians learn'd the trade of war. When o'er the slaughter'd bull they hear him roar. And see his jaws distil with smoking gore: All pale with fear. view'd The breathless hero in his blood imbued. Turn. to mortal man's command. and behold the brave Euphorbus slain. near the Hebrus. Atrides from the voice the storm divined. (Forth welling from the wound. It flew. at distance scatter'd round. . (In Mentes' shape.

he turn'd His manly breast. and for my honour slain! Desert the arms. still battle on the plains. Greece. Forced by loud clamours. and with new fury burn'd. All grim in arms. the relics. and cover'd o'er with blood. nor heaven. 'Tis not to Hector. Yet. and a storm of darts. if once I quit the field. With heart indignant and retorted eyes. He flies indeed.BOOK XVII. and sighing quits the dead. O'er all the black battalions sent his view. Slow he recedes. There breathing courage. So from the fold the unwilling lion parts. And thus explored his own unconquer'd mind: 517 "Then shall I quit Patroclus on the plain. should give me fear. but to heaven I yield. nor the god. where the god of day Had sunk each heart with terror and dismay. And through the cloud the godlike Ajax knew. Hector and his troops attend? Sure where such partial favour heaven bestow'd. To brave the hero were to brave the god: Forgive me. Did but the voice of Ajax reach my ear: Still would we turn. [315] . of my friend? Or singly. And give Achilles all that yet remains Of his and our Patroclus—" This. Slain in my cause. but threatens as he flies. Where labouring on the left the warrior stood. no more The time allow'd: Troy thicken'd on the shore. A sable scene! The terrors Hector led. Now enter'd in the Spartan ranks.

we can no more! For naked now. thus his flight upbraids: .518 The Iliad of Homer To him the king: "Oh Ajax. and feeds his inward woes. and provoke the war. And doom'd to Trojan gods the unhappy dead. the lioness surrounds Her tawny young. Meanwhile great Ajax (his broad shield display'd) Guards the dead hero with the dreadful shade. To stand a trophy of his fame in war. And now before. and measured back the field. But Glaucus. despoiled of arms. Fast by his side the generous Spartan glows With great revenge. Sprung to his car." He said. and now behind he stood: Thus in the centre of some gloomy wood. beset by men and hounds. On Hector frowning. alas. Already had stern Hector seized his head. But soon as Ajax rear'd his tower-like shield. With many a step. and touch'd his heart. His train to Troy the radiant armour bear. And Hector glories in the dazzling prize. and rousing all her powers. Dark o'er the fiery balls each hanging eyebrow lours. leader of the Lycian aids. Elate her heart. he lies. The raging pair Pierced the thick battle. and Patroclus' loved remains defend: The body to Achilles to restore Demands our care. oh my friend! Haste.

without the merit. But words are vain—Let Ajax once appear. Hence let him march. Did such a spirit as the gods impart Impel one Trojan hand or Trojan heart.BOOK XVII. is the name! Since battle is renounced. And drag yon carcase to the walls of Troy. And lo! already thou prepar'st to fly." 519 [316] . (Such as should burn in every soul that draws The sword for glory. Oh! were Patroclus ours. Is this. Say. empty boast! but shall the Lycians stake Their lives for you? those Lycians you forsake? What from thy thankless arms can we expect? Thy friend Sarpedon proves thy base neglect. we might obtain Sarpedon's arms and honour'd corse again! Greece with Achilles' friend should be repaid. O chief! a hero's boasted fame? How vain. shall our slaughter'd bodies guard your walls. A feast for dogs. and his country's cause) Even yet our mutual arms we might employ. and all the fowls of air. without a manly mind. "Where now in Hector shall we Hector find? A manly form. nor ask a foreign hand: Mean. you left him there. And Hector trembles and recedes with fear. and give up Troy to fate. thy thoughts employ What other methods may preserve thy Troy: 'Tis time to try if Ilion's state can stand By thee alone. Thou dar'st not meet the terrors of his eye. While unreveng'd the great Sarpedon falls? Even where he died for Troy. On my command if any Lycian wait. And thus due honours purchased to his shade.

through yon squadrons let us hew the way. and confounds the bold." . and allies! Be men. And yet be mindful of your ancient fame. Or yet their hero dare defend the dead. And hear the thunder of the sounding steeds. in action as in name. If yet a Greek the sight of Hector dread. Now crowns with fame the mighty man. if I fear to-day. I shun great Ajax? I desert my train? 'Tis mine to prove the rash assertion vain. my friends. he cries: "Ye Trojans. Dardans. Lycians. But ill this insult suits a prudent mind. and sedate replied: "Say. I joy to mingle where the battle bleeds. Hector in proud Achilles' arms shall shine. But Jove's high will is ever uncontroll'd. is it just. my friend. that Hector's ear From such a warrior such a speech should hear? I deem'd thee once the wisest of thy kind. and now Strikes the fresh garland from the victor's brow! Come. The strong he withers.520 The Iliad of Homer The Trojan chief with fix'd resentment eyed The Lycian leader." Then turning to the martial hosts. And thou be witness. by right of conquest mine. Torn from his friend.

look'd through all the scene of fate. He strode along the field. The god whose thunder rends the troubled air Beheld with pity. and what fates attend! In heavenly panoply divinely bright Thou stand'st. 521 . His train to Troy convey'd the massy load. proud in triumph. Yet live! I give thee one illustrious day. conscious. "Ah. One instant saw.BOOK XVII. As at Achilles' self! beneath thy dart Lies slain the great Achilles' dearer part. that on the sandy shore The radiant spoils to sacred Ilion bore. one instant overtook The distant band. Him. There his own mail unbraced the field bestrow'd. as thus he said: (The sable plumage nodded o'er his head:) Swift through the spacious plain he sent a look. wretched man! unmindful of thy end! A moment's glory. as apart he sat. The work and present of celestial hands. Which once the greatest of mankind had worn. and the godhead said. glittering from afar. No more officious. By aged Peleus to Achilles given. Forbid by fate to reach his father's years. Thou from the mighty dead those arms hast torn. and armies tremble at thy sight. Olympus trembled. And. Now blazing in the immortal arms he stands. with endearing charms. A blaze of glory ere thou fad'st away. As first to Peleus by the court of heaven: His father's arms not long Achilles wears. For ah! no more Andromache shall come With joyful tears to welcome Hector home. He shook the sacred honours of his head.

unnumber'd bands Of neighbouring nations. enlarged his members grew. Tor this. or a god. And glean the relics of exhausted Troy. Now then. Whoe'er shall drag him to the Trojan train. Achilles. and our future race. "Hear. And Ennomus. Exhorting loud through all the field he strode. And Mars himself came rushing on his soul." [318] . and the pomp of war: Ye came to fight. The great Thersilochus like fury found. To save our present. With Hector part the spoil. to conquer or to die prepare. The stubborn arms (by Jove's command disposed) Conform'd spontaneous. Glaucus. Now Phorcys. and share the fame. Chromius.522 The Iliad of Homer From thy tired limbs unbrace Pelides' arms!" Then with his sable brow he gave the nod That seals his word. Now Mesthles. Whatever hand shall win Patroclus slain. and hear. a valiant foe to chase. our products. The blood in brisker tides began to roll. To boast our numbers. or of distant lands! 'Twas not for state we summon'd you so far. and Hippothous fires. Through all his veins a sudden vigour flew. you enjoy. Asteropaeus kindled at the sound. With Hector's self shall equal honours claim. Medon. the sanction of the god. in augury renown'd. he inspires. To die or conquer are the terms of war. our wealth. And look'd. all ye hosts. and around him closed: Fill'd with the god. and moved.

"O chiefs! O princes. Full on the Greeks they drive in firm array. perhaps. All.BOOK XVII. and wide around The field re-echoed the distressful sound. whom I see not through this cloud of war. on all. whose glory is from heaven! Whom with due honours both Atrides grace: Ye guides and guardians of our Argive race! All. my friend. And each from Ajax hopes the glorious prey: Vain hope! what numbers shall the field o'erspread. Come all! let generous rage your arms employ. And thus bespoke his brother of the war: "Our fatal day. And save Patroclus from the dogs of Troy. See what a tempest direful Hector spreads. if any hear the call. The bravest Greeks: this hour demands them all. the troops dismiss their fears." . And all our wars and glories at an end! 'Tis not this corse alone we guard in vain. my friend. to whose hand is given The rule of men. they protend their spears. Fired by his words." The warrior raised his voice. it thunders on our heads! Call on our Greeks. on me. Condemn'd to vultures on the Trojan plain. We too must yield: the same sad fate must fall On thee. whom this well-known voice shall reach from far. they thicken. And lo! it bursts. They join. alas! is come. What victims perish round the mighty dead! 523 Great Ajax mark'd the growing storm from far.

And Merion. Repulsed. Nor dooms his carcase to the birds of air. they yield. when a mountain billow foams and raves. The river trembles to his utmost shore. The long-succeeding numbers who can name? But all were Greeks. [319] The first attack the Grecians scarce sustain. Fierce to the charge great Hector led the throng. and next in fame) With headlong force the foremost ranks he tore. The boiling ocean works from side to side. the chief for whom the hosts contend Had lived not hateful. Jove.524 The Iliad of Homer Oilean Ajax first the voice obey'd. burning with a hero's rage. Conceals the warriors' shining helms in night: To him. Whole Troy embodied rush'd with shouts along. So through the thicket bursts the mountain boar. Where some swoln river disembogues his waves. In graceful stature next. the Trojans seize the slain. for a distance round. and ready was his aid: Next him Idomeneus. (Ajax to Peleus' son the second name. Full in the mouth is stopp'd the rushing tide. pouring darkness o'er the mingled fight. Thus. Then fierce they rally. Swift was his pace. the firm Achaian band With brazen shields in horrid circle stand. and eager all for fame. And distant rocks re-bellow to the roar. more slow with age. And rudely scatters. . for he lived a friend: Dead he protects him with superior care. Nor less resolved. to revenge led on By the swift rage of Ajax Telamon.

525 FIGHT FOR THE BODY OF PATROCLUS. [320] . his native air. Sent by great Ajax to the shades of hell. The shatter'd crest and horse-hair strow the plain: With nerves relax'd he tumbles to the ground: The brain comes gushing through the ghastly wound: He drops Patroclus' foot. The Grecian marking. Once more at Ajax Hector's javelin flies. Stretch'd in the dust the great Iphytus' son. Lamented youth! in life's first bloom he fell. brave Pelasgus' heir. as it cut the skies.BOOK XVII. The son of Lethus. The sinewy ankles bored. Hippothous. The frighted hunter and the baying hound. Shunn'd the descending death. dragg'd the carcase through the war. Doom'd by great Ajax' vengeful lance to bleed: It cleft the helmet's brazen cheeks in twain. the feet he bound With thongs inserted through the double wound: Inevitable fate o'ertakes the deed. And ill requites his parents' tender care. which hissing on. and o'er him spread. Now lies a sad companion of the dead: Far from Larissa lies.

) . And deep transpiercing through the shoulder stood. Phorcys. Plunged in his throat. and grasps the dust with dying hands. and with prudence bold. had turn'd the scale of fate: But Phoebus urged Æneas to the fight. With Jove averse. recede the Trojan train: The shouting Argives strip the heroes slain. as slain Hippothous he defends. In clanging arms the hero fell and all The fields resounded with his weighty fall. of all the Phocian kind The boldest warrior and the noblest mind: In little Panope. And through the wound the rushing entrails broke: In strong convulsions panting on the sands He lies. Greece. by Greece compell'd to yield. The Telamonian lance his belly rends.526 The Iliad of Homer Schedius the brave. The hollow armour burst before the stroke. He seem'd like aged Periphas to sight: (A herald in Anchises' love grown old. and ruled the realms around. He held his seat. And now had Troy. for strength renown'd. Struck at the sight. and resign'd the field. Fled to her ramparts. the weapon drank his blood. Revered for prudence. in her native fortitude elate.

Have forced the powers to spare a sinking state. when Jove declares His partial favour. Descends. We seek our ramparts. first. And tells me. Asteropeus with grief beheld the slain. my bosom warms. and. And rush'd to combat.BOOK XVII. And gain'd at length the glorious odds of fate: But you. From rich Paeonia's vales the warrior came. and an iron wood. by virtuous care." Æneas through the form assumed descries The power conceal'd. Then. And hemm'd with bristled spears. who. And force the unwilling god to ruin Troy. and foremost to the combat flew: The bold example all his hosts pursue. when fortune smiles. grieving at the chance. Next thee. Thus he—"What methods yet. Jove asserts the Trojan arms. on buckler buckler spread. A brazen bulwark. A god. around the dead." He spoke. and pants in Apisaon's breast. and desert the day. but he rush'd in vain: Indissolubly firm. To save your Troy. Swift to revenge it sent his angry lance. Your shameful efforts 'gainst yourselves employ. and thus to Hector cries: "Oh lasting shame! to our own fears a prey. Rank within rank. and by arts of war. the Grecians stood. The whirling lance. 527 [321] . with vigorous force address'd. nor is he less. numbers. and assists your wars. though heaven its fall ordain? There have been heroes. In vain beloved by valiant Lycomede. By valour. Asteropeus! in place and fame. Who view'd his fall. Leocritus beneath him bled. O chief! remain.

and wounded. No vapour rested on the mountain's head. Nor knew the fortune of Achilles' friend. When from the ships he sent the Pylian band. And all heaven's splendours blotted from the skies. on heaps the Trojans bled. Dispersed around the plain. In one thick darkness all the fight was lost. rise the hills of dead. Unclouded there.) toss the distant spear. now it sinks by turns. and all the ethereal host Seem'd as extinct: day ravish'd from their eyes. Such o'er Patroclus' body hung the night.528 The Iliad of Homer Great Ajax eyes them with incessant care. by fits they fight. And all the broad expansion flamed with day. And. Close in their ranks commands to fight or fall. And in an orb contracts the crowded war. Fierce as conflicting fires the combat burns. and there the mighty bled. There burn'd the war. Greece. Yet suffers least. The rest in sunshine fought. and collected might. in the rear. wound A sanguine torrent steeps the reeking ground: On heaps the Greeks. (Their fellows routed. And here and there their scatter'd arrows light: But death and darkness o'er the carcase spread. . The youthful brothers thus for fame contend. And now it rises. the moon. and sways the wavering fight. in close order. the aerial azure spread. and open light. The sun. Meanwhile the sons of Nestor. The golden sun pour'd forth a stronger ray. And stands the centre and the soul of all: Fix'd on the spot they war. And skirmish wide: so Nestor gave command. thickening round them.

In thought they view'd him still. Expects him glorious from the conquered plain. and sweat. While Greeks and Ilians equal strength employ. And thick and heavy grows the work of death: O'erlabour'd now. Perhaps to him: this Thetis had reveal'd. the clouds on clouds arise. The brawny curriers stretch. and dealing death to Troy. and tugg'd from side to side. And carnage clogs their hands. Nor he whose anger sets the world in arms. Though well he knew. Their knees. such rage. Such. The rest. 529 But round the corse the heroes pant for breath. now to Troy. Glorious in arms. and gore. yet unconscious of Patroclus' fall. their legs. As when a slaughter'd bull's yet reeking hide. He. with martial joy. Nor knew the fatal fortune of the day. drunk with fat and gore: So tugging round the corse both armies stood. her breast when fury warms. Jove to honour the great dead ordain'd. Now to the ships to force it. to make proud Ilion bend Was more than heaven had destined to his friend. Not Pallas' self. [322] . Drops follow drops. in pity to her son. The mangled body bathed in sweat and blood. Strain'd with full force. their feet. And for his wish'd return prepares in vain. such horror reign'd. In dust extended under Ilion's wall.BOOK XVII. Achilles in his ships at distance lay. with dust. and labour o'er The extended surface. are covered o'er. Could blame this scene. and darkness fills their eyes. conceal'd.

and our glory lost!" Thus they: while with one voice the Trojans said. And heaps on heaps by mutual wounds they bled. And. the funeral of his lord to wait. and shared in human miseries. Stripp'd of his trappings. "Nothing is heard upon the mountains now. and the big tears run rolling down his face. 3." Dryden's Virgil. sunk in sorrow. bk. and careless of his golden grain. parodied. ere haughty Troy shall boast We lost Patroclus. v. and drink our blood for sacrifice. He stands. "Cursed be the man (even private Greeks would say) Who dares desert this well-disputed day! First may the cleaving earth before our eyes Gape wide. the steed of state. They wept. the clangours rise. ibid. Meantime. 18-24." Merrick's Tryphiodorus. ii . at distance from the scene of blood. with a sullen pace He walks. Weeps his associates and his master slain." Moschus. id.248 248 [323] —They wept. Jove! or heap us on the dead!" Then clash their sounding arms.530 The Iliad of Homer Still raged the conflict round the hero dead. "Fast by the manger stands the inactive steed. Unmindful of their pasture and their love. First perish all. Æthon. The pensive steeds of great Achilles stood: Their godlike master slain before their eyes. hangs his languid head. And shake the brazen concave of the skies. But pensive herds that for their master low. Is led. Straggling and comfortless about they rove. "Grant this day. "To close the pomp.

For yet 'tis given to Troy to ravage o'er 531 . Than man more weak. calamitous. alas! to share in mortal woe? For ah! what is there of inferior birth. Exempt from age. and blind? A miserable race! but cease to mourn: For not by you shall Priam's son be borne High on the splendid car: one glorious prize He rashly boasts: the rest our will denies. Conglobing on the dust. In vain Automedon now shakes the rein. Did we your race on mortal man bestow. and deathless. That breathes or creeps upon the dust of earth. Only. and waved in state. Now plies the lash. Restive they stood. While thus relenting to the steeds he spoke: "Unhappy coursers of immortal strain. or fix'd. And prone to earth was hung their languid head: Nor Jove disdain'd to cast a pitying look. Their manes. never to be moved. Automedon your rapid flight shall bear Safe to the navy through the storm of war. that late Circled their arched necks. Placed on the hero's grave.BOOK XVII. Trail'd on the dust beneath the yoke were spread. Nor to the fight nor Hellespont they go. Along their face The big round drops coursed down with silent pace. What wretched creature of what wretched kind. Ourself with rising spirits swell your heart. and soothes and threats in vain. as stands A marble courser by the sculptor's hands. and obstinate in woe: Still as a tombstone. Ourself will swiftness to your nerves impart. On some good man or woman unreproved Lays its eternal weight. now in vain.

" He said. Approach'd the chariot. Snatches the reins. His friend descends. and breathing in the immortal horse Excessive spirit. No Greek like him the heavenly steeds restrains." He said. now directs the reins: Him brave Alcimedon beheld distress'd. and vaults into the seat. Alone. From their high manes they shake the dust. [324] .532 The Iliad of Homer The field. And now to conquest with like speed pursue. and bear The kindling chariot through the parted war: So flies a vulture through the clamorous train Of geese. that scream. their rage could tame. Sole in the seat the charioteer remains. in the thickest war? Alas! thy friend is slain. and scatter round the plain. and the chief address'd: "What god provokes thee rashly thus to dare. to thee resign The ruling charge: the task of fight be mine. and spread her slaughters to the shore. while he lived. Now plies the javelin. and Hector wields Achilles' arms triumphant in the fields. urged them to the course. And call'd Æneas fighting near his side. The chief of Troy descried. Or holds their fury in suspended reins: Patroclus. The sun shall see her conquer. with active heat. Alcimedon. till his fall With sacred darkness shades the face of all. But now Patroclus is an empty name! To thee I yield the seat." "In happy time (the charioteer replies) The bold Alcimedon now greets my eyes. unaided. From danger now with swiftest speed they flew.

For hard the fight. Implores the Eternal. And calls the Ajaces from the warring crowd. with glorious hopes ye burn. my friend." 533 . And save the living from a fiercer foe. forego. Can such opponents stand when we assail? Unite thy force. War knows no mean. Scarce their weak drivers guide them through the fight. my force to prove Is only mine: the event belongs to Jove." Then through the field he sends his voice aloud." The son of Venus to the counsel yields. with dauntless mind: "Oh keep the foaming coursers close behind! Full on my shoulders let their nostrils blow. Then turning to his friend. determined is the foe. unequal to engage The force of Hector. brave youths. and Æneas' rage: Yet mighty as they are. Each hopes the conquest of the lofty steeds: In vain. beyond our hope restored. "Lo. Unmov'd.BOOK XVII. encircled by his friends. Automedon attends the fight. "Hither turn. Achilles' car. With great Atrides. In vain advance! not fated to return. and collects his might. Unhelp'd we stand. Them Chromius follows. And thick bull-hides the spacious concave lined.) Turn where distress demands immediate aid. Aretus succeeds. he wins it or he dies. deserted of its lord! The glorious steeds our ready arms invite. 'Tis Hector comes: and when he seeks the prize. and we prevail. Then o'er their backs they spread their solid shields: With brass refulgent the broad surface shined. (he said. to my sight. The dead.

he shunn'd. descending full. Which pass'd the shield of Aretus the young: It pierced his belt. Poor as it is. Patroclus. . Now at Automedon the Trojan foe Discharged his lance. Nor longer Hector with his Trojans stood. xii. the air his soul received. Then in the lower belly struck the dart. Then tumbling rolls enormous on the ground: Thus fell the youth. But left their slain companion in his blood: His arms Automedon divests. And the spear trembled as his entrails heaved. and cries. c. and thus have paid. With clashing falchions now the chiefs had closed. he springs with many a bound. the forceful spear In long vibrations spent its fury there. "Accept. Deep rooted in the ground. emboss'd with curious art. the meditated blow. but unable to proceed Plunges on either side. But each brave Ajax heard.534 The Iliad of Homer [325] He spoke. Cleaves the broad forehead of some brawny bull:249 Struck 'twixt the horns. and high the sounding javelin flung." 249 —Some brawny bull. some offering to thy shade. And hiss'd innoxious o'er the hero's head. "Like to a bull. at the moment when the fatal blow Hath struck him." —Carey's Dante: Hell. and interposed. this mean sacrifice: Thus have I soothed my griefs. Stooping. that with impetuous spring Darts. As when a ponderous axe. the javelin idly fled.

Or from the rage of man. like the rage of fire. and to the battle flew. (In sign of tempests from the troubled air. All grim with rage. beloved by all. would Minerva send me strength to rear This wearied arm. And in his well-known voice to Sparta calls: "And lies Achilles' friend. And o'er his seat the bloody trophies hung. A prey to dogs beneath the Trojan wall? What shame 'o Greece for future times to tell. High on the chariot at one bound he sprung.) The drooping cattle dread the impending skies. than here unmoved To guard the body of the man I loved? Ah. pleased at length the Grecian arms to aid. O'er the dark clouds extends his purple bow. and horrible with gore. we dread. 535 And now Minerva from the realms of air Descends impetuous. And from his half-till'd field the labourer flies: In such a form the goddess round her drew A livid cloud. To thee the greatest in whose cause he fell!" "O chief. And Jove's own glories blaze around his head!" [326] . As when high Jove denouncing future woe. Assuming Phoenix' shape on earth she falls. O father! (Atreus' son replies) O full of days! by long experience wise! What more desires my soul. and ward the storm of war! But Hector. So looks the lion o'er a mangled boar. The lord of thunders sent the blue-eyed maid. and renews the war.BOOK XVII. destructive war. For.

Aetion's son. and stings. (Asius the great. There stood a Trojan. attacks. and with courage bless'd. A chief once thought no terror of the field? Yet singly. and lust of fight. and Podes was his name: With riches honour'd. Like Phaenops. and rage. and drives him on the foe. And. appear'd the god. his arms resound. with fell despite. And fills with keen revenge. And sent his soul with every lance he threw. Desire of blood. unrevenged. who held his wealthy reign In fair Abydos. his comrade. The friend of Hector. o'er Hector spreads a cloud of woe. Through his broad belt the spear a passage found. and thirsty still of gore. now. while our army flies: By the same arm illustrious Podes bled. by the rolling main. . Sudden at Hector's side Apollo stood. he turns. Fired with like ardour fierce Atrides flew. is dead!" This heard.536 The Iliad of Homer Pleased to be first of all the powers address'd. Rage lifts his lance. ponderous as he falls. She breathes new vigour in her hero's breast. untired. and his guest.) "Oh prince! (he cried) Oh foremost once in fame! What Grecian now shall tremble at thy name? Dost thou at length to Menelaus yield. (Bold son of air and heat) on angry wings Untamed. not unknown to fame. the long-disputed prize He bears victorious. Asius' son. So burns the vengeful hornet (soul all o'er). Repulsed in vain. By Hector loved.

A rolling cloud Involved the mount. That shaded Ide and all the subject field Beneath its ample verge. and the tongue it rent. The son of Priam whirl'd the massive wood. 537 [327] . Between his cheek and ear the weapon went. and raging with the pain. On foot bold Merion fought. The teeth it shatter'd. Pierced through the wrist. And with his life his master's safety bought. the thunder roar'd aloud. Who left fair Lyctus for the fields of fame. But the brave squire the ready coursers brought. But erring from its aim. The brittle point before his corslet yields. Leitus quits the plain. Grasps his once formidable lance in vain. Polydamas drew near. and now laid low. Prone from the seat he tumbles to the plain.BOOK XVII. and the victors fly. Idomen address'd The flaming javelin to his manly breast. Exulting Troy with clamour fills the fields: High on his chariots the Cretan stood. And blaze beneath the lightnings of the god: At one regard of his all-seeing eye The vanquish'd triumph. As Hector follow'd. the impetuous spear Struck to the dust the squire and charioteer Of martial Merion: Coeranus his name. Then trembled Greece: the flight Peneleus led. But now the Eternal shook his sable shield. The affrighted hills from their foundations nod. Had graced the triumphs of his Trojan foe. For as the brave Boeotian turn'd his head To face the foe. And razed his shoulder with a shorten'd spear: By Hector wounded.

and Ajax asks no more: If Greece must perish. And the swift chariot to the navy flies. Some hero too must be despatch'd to bear The mournful message to Pelides' ear. yet let us try What human strength and prudence can supply. is no more.538 The Iliad of Homer His dying hand forgets the falling rein: This Merion reaches. He guides each arrow to a Grecian heart: Not so our spears. He suffers every lance to fall in vain. bending from the car. the lash applies. Who tremble yet. all are lost In general darkness—Lord of earth and air! Oh king! Oh father! hear my humble prayer: Dispel this cloud. the godlike Telamon: "Alas! who sees not Jove's almighty hand Transfers the glory to the Trojan band? Whether the weak or strong discharge the dart. If yet this honour'd corse. And still hear Hector thundering at their gates. For sure he knows not. the armies. his loved Patroclus. But such a chief I spy not through the host: The men. May glad the fleets that hope not our return. the steeds. Not Ajax less the will of heaven descried. Deserted of the god. And conquest shifting to the Trojan side. Turn'd by the hand of Jove. Give me to see. scarce rescued from their fates. distant on the shore. incessant though they rain. And urges to desert the hopeless war: Idomeneus consents. But let us perish in the face of day!" . Then thus begun. in triumph borne. the light of heaven restore. To Atreus's seed. His friend. we thy will obey.

much adjured his train: "O guard these relics to your charge consign'd. "Now. And much admonish'd. might yet Patroclus gain. at the dawn of day Sour he departs. 539 [328] So turns the lion from the nightly fold. and long vex'd by hounds. And bear the merits of the dead in mind. and the gentlest heart: He was. and quits the untasted prey. and at his prayer The god relenting clear'd the clouded air. And the red terrors of the blazing brands: Till late. and fretted sore with wounds. Forth burst the sun with all-enlightening ray. The foe. he fear'd. Stiff with fatigue. If yet Antilochus survives the fight. Long gall'd by herdsmen. With tears the hero spoke. now. alas! but fate decreed his end. Atrides! cast around thy sight. Though high in courage. The blaze of armour flash'd against the day. and with hunger bold. How skill'd he was in each obliging art. reluctant.BOOK XVII. The darts fly round him from a hundred hands. So moved Atrides from his dangerous place With weary limbs. but with unwilling pace. Let him to great Achilles' ear convey The fatal news"—Atrides hastes away. The mildest manners. as in life a friend!" . In death a hero.

shall succour Greece no more. Not with less quickness. Fly to the fleet. With tearful eyes. Cheering his men. This is not all: Patroclus. near him wheeling. drove his steeds along. from his walks above Looks down. how his loved-one fell: He too may haste the naked corse to gain: The arms are Hector's. his exerted sight Pass'd this and that way. Snatches his life amid the clouds of air. As the bold bird.540 The Iliad of Homer So parts the chief. on the shore Now pale and dead. Then ran the mournful message to impart. endued with sharpest eye Of all that wings the mid aerial sky. To brave Laodocus his arms he flung. from rank to rank he flew. who despoil'd the slain. Who. this instant fly. and tell The sad Achilles. he strove to say What sorrow dictates. and sousing on the quivering hare. And round on all sides sent his piercing view. Then stoops. and sees the distant thicket move. [329] . through the ranks of fight: Till on the left the chief he sought. but no word found way. and with dejected heart. Thy eyes have witness'd what a fatal turn! How Ilion triumphs. For sadder tidings never touch'd thy ear. and the Achaians mourn." The youthful warrior heard with silent woe. and spreading deaths around: To him the king: "Beloved of Jove! draw near. From his fair eyes the tears began to flow: Big with the mighty grief. he found. The sacred eagle.

With Merion's aid. Voracious hounds. 'Tis our own vigour must the dead regain. that many a length before Their furious hunters. Have tried it. fighting side by side. for Achilles' aid: Though fierce his rage. and with thirst of blood. Thus on retreating Greece the Trojans pour. Himself returns to his Patroclus slain. But if the savage turns his glaring eye. and my bold brother will sustain The shock of Hector and his charging train: Nor fear we armies. 'Tis in our hands alone our hopes remain. and their javelins shower: But Ajax turning. we have already tried. warriors. the weighty corse to rear. Unarm'd. and round the forest fly. be it then thy care. But bids bold Thrasymede those troops sustain. drive the wounded boar." The hero said. High from the ground the warriors heave the dead. Not fiercer rush along the gloomy wood. 541 .BOOK XVII. Wave their thick falchions. to their fears they yield." "'Tis well (said Ajax). And save ourselves. But hope not. They howl aloof. and have stood. What Troy can dare. With rage insatiate. "Gone is Antilochus (the hero said). and renew the fight. All pale they tremble and forsake the field. unbounded be his woe. A general clamour rises at the sight: Loud shout the Trojans. Swift fled the youth: nor Menelaus stands (Though sore distress'd) to aid the Pylian bands. Myself. he fights not with the Trojan foe. and this way rolls our fate. while with impetuous hate Troy pours along.

urged the rout along: Less fierce the winds with rising flames conspire To whelm some city under waves of fire. without the trench. Now sink in gloomy clouds the proud abodes. From the steep mountain with exerted strength Drag some vast beam. Behind them rages all the storm of war: Confusion. Such the wild terror. Now crack the blazing temples of the gods. and the mingled cry: Within. Thus when a river swell'd with sudden rains Spreads his broad waters o'er the level plains. Aeneas storms. Wedged in one body. chariots. steeds. The enormous timber lumbering down the hill: So these—Behind. o'er the throng Of men. And sheets of smoke mount heavy to the poles. horror. Some interposing hill the stream divides. and still the battle bleeds. and all the way. and Hector foams with rage: While Greece a heavy. big drops of sweat distil. Still close they follow. And breaks its force. That shriek incessant. threats their callow young. while the falcon. along the rugged road. And breaks the torrent of the rushing bands. close the rear engage. So from the Trojan chiefs the Grecians fly. their arms and armour lay.542 The Iliad of Homer [330] While thus aloft the hero's corse they bear. Such horror Jove impress'd! yet still proceeds The work of death. The heroes sweat beneath their honour'd load: As when two mules. . thick retreat maintains. hung High on poised pinions. Inly they groan. The rumbling torrent through the ruin rolls. and turns the winding tides. tumult. like a flight of cranes. the bulk of Ajax stands. Strow'd in bright heaps. or mast's unwieldy length.



take up this book: the scene is at Achilles' tent on the sea-shore. The speeches of the mother and son on this occasion. and orders him to show himself at the head of the intrenchments. where Hellespont's broad waters flow. THE GRIEF OF ACHILLES. where Hector and Polydamas disagree in their opinions: but the advice of the former prevails. lastly. The description of the wonderful works of Vulcan: and. from whence it changes to the palace of Vulcan. AND NEW ARMOUR MADE HIM BY VULCAN. and the body of Patroclus is carried off by the Greeks. that noble one of the shield of Achilles. Thetis goes to the palace of Vulcan to obtain new arms for her son. Meanwhile. ARGUMENT. and the night ensuing. hearing his lamentations.[331] BOOK XVIII. to remain encamped in the field. 250 .250 And now it rises. The sight of him turns the fortunes of the day. The Trojans call a council. now it sinks by turns. This is connected with the earlier part of last book. Thetis. Iris appears to Achilles by the command of Juno. The grief of Achilles over the body of Patroclus. Thus like the rage of fire the combat burns. the regular narrative being interrupted by the message of Antilochus and the lamentations of Achilles.nymphs to comfort him. The latter part of the nine-and-twentieth day. comes with all her sea. The news of the death of Patroclus is brought to Achilles by Antilochus.

with disorder'd charms. with furious hands he spread The scorching ashes o'er his graceful head. His purple garments. On the hard soil his groaning breast he threw.) when by a Trojan hand The bravest of the Myrmidonian band Should lose the light! Fulfilled is that decree. "Sad tidings. His naked corse: his arms are Hector's right. and his golden hairs. as to earth he grew. The virgin captives. and Patroclus he! In vain I charged him soon to quit the plain. And warn'd to shun Hectorean force in vain!" [332] Thus while he thinks.546 The Iliad of Homer Stood Nestor's son. and gathering round. Those he deforms with dust. the unwilling messenger! Dead is Patroclus! For his corse they fight. And roll'd and grovell'd. for all that fate design'd Rose in sad prospect to his boding mind. Antilochus appears. now to quit the plains? Is this the day. On hoisted yards extended to the gales. Thus to his soul he said: "Ah! what constrains The Greeks. late victors. shaded by his sails. Pensive he sat. (Won by his own. And wretched I." A sudden horror shot through all the chief.) Rush'd from their tents with cries. . and these he tears. And tells the melancholy tale with tears. Fallen is the warrior. And wrapp'd his senses in the cloud of grief. which heaven so long ago Ordain'd. Cast on the ground. the messenger of woe: There sat Achilles. son of Peleus! thou must hear. to sink me with the weight of woe? (So Thetis warn'd. or by Patroclus' arms.

Dexamene the slow. Glauce (every watery name). and all that deep in ocean held Their sacred seats. Panope appear. in the play of Æschylus. the train extend. The circling Nereids with their mistress weep. And swift Dynamene. Doto. and answer'd groan for groan. Then Proto. Pherusa. Clymene. Doris. Amphinome. Agave gentle. The mother-goddess from her crystal throne Heard his loud cries. the glimmering grotto fill'd.251 With hoary Nereus. These Orythia. Maera. 251 . Far in the deep abysses of the main. now cut the tides: Iaera now the verdant wave divides: Nemertes with Apseudes lifts the head. Hangs on his arms. So Oceanus hears the lamentations of Prometheus. And Amatheia with her amber hair. Thalia. and Amphithoe gay: Next Callianira. All these. attend. Beat their white breasts. Callianassa show Their sister looks. Their locks Actaea and Limnoria rear. Bright Galatea quits her pearly bed. and Janassa fair. Melita. And mourns the warrior with a warrior's heart. and the watery train. Thoa. 547 [333] —Far in the deep. And all the sea-green sisters of the deep. And oft prevents the meditated blow. and comes from the depths of the sea to comfort him. And the blue languish of soft Alia's eye. and fainted on the ground: While Nestor's son sustains a manlier part.BOOK XVIII. Nesaea mild. and silver Spio came: Cymothoe and Cymodoce were nigh. And black Janira. amidst his frantic woe.

and left the caverns of the main. Approaching now. were my fate! How more than wretched in the immortal state! Sprung from my bed a godlike hero came. never must return again. were I mortal. alas! and fill'd with anguish too! Hear how his sorrows echo through the shore! I cannot ease them. ascended up the strand. to his sighs replied. So short. While the long pomp the silver wave divides. the melancholy train Attend her way. but I must deplore. ye sisters of the main! How just a cause has Thetis to complain! How wretched. Wide-opening part the tides. So short a space the light of heaven to view. standing close beside Her mournful offspring. Along the coast their mingled clamours ran. And mourn my loved-one with a mother's heart. he flourish'd and adorn'd the land To Troy I sent him: but the fates ordain He never. The bravest far that ever bore the name. And thus the silver-footed dame began: "Why mourns my son? thy late preferr'd request The god has granted. and judge. Till Thetis' sorrows thus began to flow: "Hear me. The immortal mother. All bathed in tears. they touch'd the Trojan land. I go at least to bear a tender part. two by two. Reveal the cause. Then. by my careful hand He grew. Like some fair olive. and the Greeks distress'd: Why mourns my son? thy anguish let me share.548 The Iliad of Homer Each beat her ivory breast with silent woe." . and trust a parent's care." She said.

Patroclus. Ah then. alas! that wretched offspring slain. Hector bears the glorious load. the goddess shed: "Ah then. led A mortal beauty to his equal bed! Ere the sad fruit of thy unhappy womb Had caused such sorrows past. when all the powers above Thy charms submitted to a mortal love: O hadst thou still. can I boast A pleasure now? revenge itself is lost. Since. Achilles hates to live. see thee dead! When Hector falls. goddess. For soon."—"Let Hector die. Let his last spirit smoke upon my dart. 'Tis not in fate the alternate now to give." A flood of tears. and falling. thou diest. And let me fall! (Achilles made reply) Far lies Patroclus from his native plain! He fell. unrevenged. beyond myself is slain! Lost are those arms the gods themselves bestow'd On Peleus. On these conditions will I breathe: till then. since from this miserable day I cast all hope of my return away.BOOK XVIII. Patroclus—Ah!—say. Pursued the pleasures of the watery reign: And happier Peleus. Cursed be that day. shall create again. and woes to come. Beyond mankind. new sorrows. Not even the Thunderer's favour brings relief. less ambitious. a hundred ghosts demand 549 [334] . wish'd my aid in vain. deeply groaning—"To this cureless grief. I see thee dying. He. New woes. Patroclus dead. Let me revenge it on proud Hector's heart. a sister of the main. at this. loved of all my martial train. I blush to walk among the race of men.


The Iliad of Homer

The fate of Hector from Achilles' hand; Since here, for brutal courage far renown'd, I live an idle burden to the ground, (Others in council famed for nobler skill, More useful to preserve, than I to kill,) Let me—But oh! ye gracious powers above! Wrath and revenge from men and gods remove: Far, far too dear to every mortal breast, Sweet to the soul, as honey to the taste: Gathering like vapours of a noxious kind From fiery blood, and darkening all the mind. Me Agamemnon urged to deadly hate; 'Tis past—I quell it; I resign to fate. Yes—I will meet the murderer of my friend; Or (if the gods ordain it) meet my end. The stroke of fate the strongest cannot shun: The great Alcides, Jove's unequall'd son, To Juno's hate, at length resign'd his breath, And sunk the victim of all-conquering death. So shall Achilles fall! stretch'd pale and dead, No more the Grecian hope, or Trojan dread! Let me, this instant, rush into the fields, And reap what glory life's short harvest yields. Shall I not force some widow'd dame to tear With frantic hands her long dishevell'd hair? Shall I not force her breast to heave with sighs, And the soft tears to trickle from her eyes? Yes, I shall give the fair those mournful charms— In vain you hold me—Hence! my arms! my arms!— Soon shall the sanguine torrent spread so wide, That all shall know Achilles swells the tide." "My son (coerulean Thetis made reply, To fate submitting with a secret sigh,)

BOOK XVIII. The host to succour, and thy friends to save, Is worthy thee; the duty of the brave. But canst thou, naked, issue to the plains? Thy radiant arms the Trojan foe detains. Insulting Hector bears the spoils on high, But vainly glories, for his fate is nigh. Yet, yet awhile thy generous ardour stay; Assured, I meet thee at the dawn of day, Charged with refulgent arms (a glorious load), Vulcanian arms, the labour of a god." Then turning to the daughters of the main, The goddess thus dismiss'd her azure train: "Ye sister Nereids! to your deeps descend; Haste, and our father's sacred seat attend; I go to find the architect divine, Where vast Olympus' starry summits shine: So tell our hoary sire"—This charge she gave: The sea-green sisters plunge beneath the wave: Thetis once more ascends the bless'd abodes, And treads the brazen threshold of the gods.



And now the Greeks from furious Hector's force, Urge to broad Hellespont their headlong course; Nor yet their chiefs Patroclus' body bore Safe through the tempest to the tented shore. The horse, the foot, with equal fury join'd, Pour'd on the rear, and thunder'd close behind: And like a flame through fields of ripen'd corn, The rage of Hector o'er the ranks was borne. Thrice the slain hero by the foot he drew; Thrice to the skies the Trojan clamours flew: As oft the Ajaces his assault sustain;



The Iliad of Homer

THETIS ORDERING THE NEREIDS TO DESCEND INTO THE SEA. But check'd, he turns; repuls'd, attacks again. With fiercer shouts his lingering troops he fires, Nor yields a step, nor from his post retires: So watchful shepherds strive to force, in vain, The hungry lion from a carcase slain. Even yet Patroclus had he borne away, And all the glories of the extended day, Had not high Juno from the realms of air, Secret, despatch'd her trusty messenger. The various goddess of the showery bow, Shot in a whirlwind to the shore below; To great Achilles at his ships she came, And thus began the many-colour'd dame: "Rise, son of Peleus! rise, divinely brave! Assist the combat, and Patroclus save: For him the slaughter to the fleet they spread, And fall by mutual wounds around the dead.

BOOK XVIII. To drag him back to Troy the foe contends: Nor with his death the rage of Hector ends: A prey to dogs he dooms the corse to lie, And marks the place to fix his head on high. Rise, and prevent (if yet you think of fame) Thy friend's disgrace, thy own eternal shame!"


"Who sends thee, goddess, from the ethereal skies?" Achilles thus. And Iris thus replies:

"I come, Pelides! from the queen of Jove, The immortal empress of the realms above; Unknown to him who sits remote on high, Unknown to all the synod of the sky." "Thou comest in vain (he cries, with fury warm'd); Arms I have none, and can I fight unarm'd? Unwilling as I am, of force I stay, Till Thetis bring me at the dawn of day Vulcanian arms: what other can I wield, Except the mighty Telamonian shield? That, in my friend's defence, has Ajax spread, While his strong lance around him heaps the dead: The gallant chief defends Menoetius' son, And does what his Achilles should have done."

"Thy want of arms (said Iris) well we know; But though unarm'd, yet clad in terrors, go! Let but Achilles o'er yon trench appear, Proud Troy shall tremble, and consent to fear; Greece from one glance of that tremendous eye Shall take new courage, and disdain to fly."


The Iliad of Homer


She spoke, and pass'd in air. The hero rose: Her aegis Pallas o'er his shoulder throws; Around his brows a golden cloud she spread; A stream of glory flamed above his head. As when from some beleaguer'd town arise The smokes, high curling to the shaded skies; (Seen from some island, o'er the main afar, When men distress'd hang out the sign of war;) Soon as the sun in ocean hides his rays, Thick on the hills the flaming beacons blaze; With long-projected beams the seas are bright, And heaven's high arch reflects the ruddy light: So from Achilles' head the splendours rise, Reflecting blaze on blaze against the skies. Forth march'd the chief, and distant from the crowd, High on the rampart raised his voice aloud; With her own shout Minerva swells the sound; Troy starts astonish'd, and the shores rebound. As the loud trumpet's brazen mouth from far With shrilling clangour sounds the alarm of war, Struck from the walls, the echoes float on high, And the round bulwarks and thick towers reply; So high his brazen voice the hero rear'd: Hosts dropp'd their arms, and trembled as they heard: And back the chariots roll, and coursers bound, And steeds and men lie mingled on the ground. Aghast they see the living lightnings play, And turn their eyeballs from the flashing ray. Thrice from the trench his dreadful voice he raised, And thrice they fled, confounded and amazed. Twelve in the tumult wedged, untimely rush'd On their own spears, by their own chariots crush'd: While, shielded from the darts, the Greeks obtain The long-contended carcase of the slain.

BOOK XVIII. A lofty bier the breathless warrior bears: Around, his sad companions melt in tears. But chief Achilles, bending down his head, Pours unavailing sorrows o'er the dead, Whom late triumphant, with his steeds and car, He sent refulgent to the field of war; (Unhappy change!) now senseless, pale, he found, Stretch'd forth, and gash'd with many a gaping wound. Meantime, unwearied with his heavenly way, In ocean's waves the unwilling light of day Quench'd his red orb, at Juno's high command, And from their labours eased the Achaian band. The frighted Trojans (panting from the war, Their steeds unharness'd from the weary car) A sudden council call'd: each chief appear'd In haste, and standing; for to sit they fear'd. 'Twas now no season for prolong'd debate; They saw Achilles, and in him their fate. Silent they stood: Polydamas at last, Skill'd to discern the future by the past, The son of Panthus, thus express'd his fears (The friend of Hector, and of equal years; The self-same night to both a being gave, One wise in council, one in action brave):



"In free debate, my friends, your sentence speak; For me, I move, before the morning break, To raise our camp: too dangerous here our post, Far from Troy walls, and on a naked coast. I deem'd not Greece so dreadful, while engaged In mutual feuds her king and hero raged; Then, while we hoped our armies might prevail


The Iliad of Homer


We boldly camp'd beside a thousand sail. I dread Pelides now: his rage of mind Not long continues to the shores confined, Nor to the fields, where long in equal fray Contending nations won and lost the day; For Troy, for Troy, shall henceforth be the strife, And the hard contest not for fame, but life. Haste then to Ilion, while the favouring night Detains these terrors, keeps that arm from fight. If but the morrow's sun behold us here, That arm, those terrors, we shall feel, not fear; And hearts that now disdain, shall leap with joy, If heaven permit them then to enter Troy. Let not my fatal prophecy be true, Nor what I tremble but to think, ensue. Whatever be our fate, yet let us try What force of thought and reason can supply; Let us on counsel for our guard depend;

BOOK XVIII. The town her gates and bulwarks shall defend. When morning dawns, our well-appointed powers, Array'd in arms, shall line the lofty towers. Let the fierce hero, then, when fury calls, Vent his mad vengeance on our rocky walls, Or fetch a thousand circles round the plain, Till his spent coursers seek the fleet again: So may his rage be tired, and labour'd down! And dogs shall tear him ere he sack the town." "Return! (said Hector, fired with stern disdain) What! coop whole armies in our walls again? Was't not enough, ye valiant warriors, say, Nine years imprison'd in those towers ye lay? Wide o'er the world was Ilion famed of old For brass exhaustless, and for mines of gold: But while inglorious in her walls we stay'd, Sunk were her treasures, and her stores decay'd; The Phrygians now her scatter'd spoils enjoy, And proud Maeonia wastes the fruits of Troy. Great Jove at length my arms to conquest calls, And shuts the Grecians in their wooden walls, Darest thou dispirit whom the gods incite? Flies any Trojan? I shall stop his flight. To better counsel then attention lend; Take due refreshment, and the watch attend. If there be one whose riches cost him care, Forth let him bring them for the troops to share; 'Tis better generously bestow'd on those, Than left the plunder of our country's foes. Soon as the morn the purple orient warms, Fierce on yon navy will we pour our arms. If great Achilles rise in all his might, His be the danger: I shall stand the fight.


558 Honour, ye gods! or let me gain or give; And live he glorious, whosoe'er shall live! Mars is our common lord, alike to all; And oft the victor triumphs, but to fall."

The Iliad of Homer

The shouting host in loud applauses join'd; So Pallas robb'd the many of their mind; To their own sense condemn'd, and left to choose The worst advice, the better to refuse. While the long night extends her sable reign, Around Patroclus mourn'd the Grecian train. Stern in superior grief Pelides stood; Those slaughtering arms, so used to bathe in blood, Now clasp his clay-cold limbs: then gushing start The tears, and sighs burst from his swelling heart. The lion thus, with dreadful anguish stung, Roars through the desert, and demands his young; When the grim savage, to his rifled den Too late returning, snuffs the track of men, And o'er the vales and o'er the forest bounds; His clamorous grief the bellowing wood resounds. So grieves Achilles; and, impetuous, vents To all his Myrmidons his loud laments. "In what vain promise, gods! did I engage, When to console Menoetius' feeble age, I vowed his much-loved offspring to restore, Charged with rich spoils, to fair Opuntia's shore?252 But mighty Jove cuts short, with just disdain, The long, long views of poor designing man! One fate the warrior and the friend shall strike, And Troy's black sands must drink our blood alike:


Opuntia, a city of Locris.

BOOK XVIII. Me too a wretched mother shall deplore, An aged father never see me more! Yet, my Patroclus! yet a space I stay, Then swift pursue thee on the darksome way. Ere thy dear relics in the grave are laid, Shall Hector's head be offer'd to thy shade; That, with his arms, shall hang before thy shrine; And twelve, the noblest of the Trojan line, Sacred to vengeance, by this hand expire; Their lives effused around thy flaming pyre. Thus let me lie till then! thus, closely press'd, Bathe thy cold face, and sob upon thy breast! While Trojan captives here thy mourners stay, Weep all the night and murmur all the day: Spoils of my arms, and thine; when, wasting wide, Our swords kept time, and conquer'd side by side."


He spoke, and bade the sad attendants round Cleanse the pale corse, and wash each honour'd wound. A massy caldron of stupendous frame They brought, and placed it o'er the rising flame: Then heap'd the lighted wood; the flame divides Beneath the vase, and climbs around the sides: In its wide womb they pour the rushing stream; The boiling water bubbles to the brim. The body then they bathe with pious toil, Embalm the wounds, anoint the limbs with oil, High on a bed of state extended laid, And decent cover'd with a linen shade; Last o'er the dead the milk-white veil they threw; That done, their sorrows and their sighs renew.


The Iliad of Homer

Meanwhile to Juno, in the realms above, (His wife and sister,) spoke almighty Jove. "At last thy will prevails: great Peleus' son Rises in arms: such grace thy Greeks have won. Say (for I know not), is their race divine, And thou the mother of that martial line?"

"What words are these? (the imperial dame replies, While anger flash'd from her majestic eyes) Succour like this a mortal arm might lend, And such success mere human wit attend: And shall not I, the second power above, Heaven's queen, and consort of the thundering Jove, Say, shall not I one nation's fate command, Not wreak my vengeance on one guilty land?"

So they. Meanwhile the silver-footed dame Reach'd the Vulcanian dome, eternal frame! High-eminent amid the works divine, Where heaven's far-beaming brazen mansions shine. There the lame architect the goddess found, Obscure in smoke, his forges flaming round, While bathed in sweat from fire to fire he flew; And puffing loud, the roaring billows blew. That day no common task his labour claim'd: Full twenty tripods for his hall he framed, That placed on living wheels of massy gold, (Wondrous to tell,) instinct with spirit roll'd From place to place, around the bless'd abodes Self-moved, obedient to the beck of gods: For their fair handles now, o'erwrought with flowers, In moulds prepared, the glowing ore he pours. Just as responsive to his thought the frame





The Iliad of Homer

Stood prompt to move, the azure goddess came: Charis, his spouse, a grace divinely fair, (With purple fillets round her braided hair,) Observed her entering; her soft hand she press'd, And, smiling, thus the watery queen address'd:


"What, goddess! this unusual favour draws? All hail, and welcome! whatsoe'er the cause; Till now a stranger, in a happy hour Approach, and taste the dainties of the bower."


BOOK XVIII. High on a throne, with stars of silver graced, And various artifice, the queen she placed; A footstool at her feet: then calling, said, "Vulcan, draw near, 'tis Thetis asks your aid." "Thetis (replied the god) our powers may claim, An ever-dear, an ever-honour'd name! When my proud mother hurl'd me from the sky, (My awkward form, it seems, displeased her eye,) She, and Eurynome, my griefs redress'd, And soft received me on their silver breast. Even then these arts employ'd my infant thought: Chains, bracelets, pendants, all their toys, I wrought. Nine years kept secret in the dark abode, Secure I lay, conceal'd from man and god: Deep in a cavern'd rock my days were led; The rushing ocean murmur'd o'er my head. Now, since her presence glads our mansion, say, For such desert what service can I pay? Vouchsafe, O Thetis! at our board to share The genial rites, and hospitable fare; While I the labours of the forge forego, And bid the roaring bellows cease to blow." Then from his anvil the lame artist rose; Wide with distorted legs oblique he goes, And stills the bellows, and (in order laid) Locks in their chests his instruments of trade. Then with a sponge the sooty workman dress'd His brawny arms embrown'd, and hairy breast. With his huge sceptre graced, and red attire, Came halting forth the sovereign of the fire: The monarch's steps two female forms uphold, That moved and breathed in animated gold; To whom was voice, and sense, and science given




The Iliad of Homer

Of works divine (such wonders are in heaven!) On these supported, with unequal gait, He reach'd the throne where pensive Thetis sate; There placed beside her on the shining frame, He thus address'd the silver-footed dame:

"Thee, welcome, goddess! what occasion calls (So long a stranger) to these honour'd walls? 'Tis thine, fair Thetis, the command to lay, And Vulcan's joy and duty to obey."


BOOK XVIII. To whom the mournful mother thus replies: (The crystal drops stood trembling in her eyes:) "O Vulcan! say, was ever breast divine So pierced with sorrows, so o'erwhelm'd as mine? Of all the goddesses, did Jove prepare For Thetis only such a weight of care? I, only I, of all the watery race By force subjected to a man's embrace, Who, sinking now with age and sorrow, pays The mighty fine imposed on length of days. Sprung from my bed, a godlike hero came, The bravest sure that ever bore the name; Like some fair plant beneath my careful hand He grew, he flourish'd, and he graced the land: To Troy I sent him! but his native shore Never, ah never, shall receive him more; (Even while he lives, he wastes with secret woe;) Nor I, a goddess, can retard the blow! Robb'd of the prize the Grecian suffrage gave, The king of nations forced his royal slave: For this he grieved; and, till the Greeks oppress'd Required his arm, he sorrow'd unredress'd. Large gifts they promise, and their elders send; In vain—he arms not, but permits his friend His arms, his steeds, his forces to employ: He marches, combats, almost conquers Troy: Then slain by Phoebus (Hector had the name) At once resigns his armour, life, and fame. But thou, in pity, by my prayer be won: Grace with immortal arms this short-lived son, And to the field in martial pomp restore, To shine with glory, till he shines no more!"



now low. and the world's amaze!" Thus having said. . and tin.566 The Iliad of Homer To her the artist-god: "Thy griefs resign. and you there might view The stars that gem the still-revolving heaven. v. the sun. is ever thine.253 253 Quintus Calaber.. Soon as he bade them blow. strong strokes. Just as the god directs. and the earth and sea. apart In different stations. They raise a tempest.) may here be introduced. Its utmost verge a threefold circle bound. And stubborn brass. The ponderous hammer loads his better hand. p. as well. As I shall forge most envied arms. Rich various artifice emblazed the field. In hissing flames huge silver bars are roll'd. seq. Resounding breathed: at once the blast expires. or they gently blow. 104. deep fix'd. the clouds. the father of the fires To the black labours of his forge retires. Before. the eternal anvils stand. the doubling vaults rebound. Secure. And thick. A few extracts from Mr. the ether. The work of Vulcan. Or with these hands the cruel stroke repel. [345] "In the wide circle of the shield were seen Refulgent images of various forms. The winds. His left with tongs turns the vex'd metal round. lib. what Vulcan can. And twenty forges catch at once the fires. who had there described The heaven. has attempted to rival Homer in his description of the shield of the same hero. Then first he form'd the immense and solid shield. O could I hide him from the Fates. the moon. the bellows turn'd Their iron mouths. now loud. and where the furnace burn'd. and solid gold. Dyce's version (Select Translations. the gaze Of wondering ages.

And solemn dance. The starry lights that heaven's high convex crown'd. 567 Two cities radiant on the shield appear. around the axle of the sky. Along the street the new-made brides are led. And godlike labours on the surface rose. Seem'd to augment. which unnumber'd streams. In which. Still shines exalted on the ethereal plain." . Here sacred pomp and genial feast delight. Nor bathes his blazing forehead in the main. A silver chain suspends the massy round. Five ample plates the broad expanse compose. To which. under them. The Bear. there ocean he design'd. There shone the image of the master-mind: There earth. Around the shield the waves of ocean flow'd. the vast expanse of air.BOOK XVIII. as if instinct with life. In azure mazes rolling o'er the earth. With torches flaming. and one of war. points his golden eye. there heaven. And. The Pleiads. and cithern's silver sound: Through the fair streets the matrons in a row Stand in their porches. with outstretch'd wings. and hymeneal rite. and enjoy the show. And great Orion's more refulgent beam. The realms of Tethys. to the nuptial bed: The youthful dancers in a circle bound To the soft flute. with the northern team. Hyads. The image one of peace. revolving. the moon completely round. The unwearied sun. the long-beak'd bird Winnow'd the gale.

Another part (a prospect differing far)255 —On seats of stone. in sight. The prize of him who best adjudged the right.568 The Iliad of Homer There in the forum swarm a numerous train. and the tall shape Of ghastly Death. and Furies breathing flames: Nor absent were the Fates. a townsman slain: One pleads the fine discharged. within the sacred place. ii. Alternate. p. And Terror. whose long locks were twisting snakes. smear'd with reeking gore. i. &c. And bade the public and the laws decide: The witness is produced on either hand: For this. Such were the horrors of dire war.254 The reverend elders nodded o'er the case. "Several of the old northern Sagas represent the old men assembled for the purpose of judging as sitting on great stones. in a circle called the Urtheilsring or gerichtsring"— Grote. Through charging ranks. On the independence of the judicial office in The heroic times. which one denied. 255 —Another part. round whom did Battles throng. each the attesting sceptre took. And Gorgons. vol. And form a ring. "And here Were horrid wars depicted. with sceptres in their hands: On seats of stone. And rising solemn. Their limbs distilling plenteous blood and sweat. 254 . 166. or that. Stern stalked Bellona. grimly pale Were heroes lying with their slaughter'd steeds Upon the ground incarnadin'd with blood." —Dyce's Calaber. That shot their forky tongues incessant forth. each his sentence spoke Two golden talents lay amidst. beside her Rout was seen. 100. p. The subject of debate. Discord to the fatal strife Inciting men. the partial people stand: The appointed heralds still the noisy bands. note. see Thirlwall's Greece.

A secret ambush on the foe prepare: Their wives. They march. now there. hills of slaughter heap the ground. their children. approach. the carcases they tore: Fate stalk'd amidst them. beside a silver flood. Cover'd with shields. And steers slow-moving. beside the silver flood. grim with human gore. their radiant garments gold. Glow'd with refulgent arms. superior by the head! A place for ambush fit they found. And gold their armour: these the squadron led. There Tumult. and met the eye. Now here.BOOK XVIII. and stood. they fall. Two spies at distance lurk. dead. take horse. And the whole war came out. by Pallas and by Mars made bold: Gold were the gods. all amidst them. Meantime the townsmen. They fight. and watchful seem If sheep or oxen seek the winding stream. and the watchful band Of trembling parents. The waving silver seem'd to blush with blood. One held a living foe. one would burn the place. In arms the glittering squadron rising round Rush sudden. Soon the white flocks proceeded o'er the plains. and two shepherd swains. 569 [346] . on the turrets stand. One rear'd a dagger at a captive's breast. nor suspect a foe. Nor fear an ambush. arm'd with silent care. They rise. divine. there Contention stood confess'd. and horrid war. August. the shepherd swains! The bellowing oxen the besiegers hear. Behind them piping on their reeds they go. And. another dragg'd a dead. that freshly bled With new-made wounds. and meet the war. Two mighty hosts a leaguer'd town embrace. And one would pillage. Whole flocks and herds lie bleeding on the plains.

and the furrow'd glebe Was black behind them. in whose arms are borne (Too short to gripe them) the brown sheaves of corn. and. With bended sickles stand the reaper train: Here stretched in ranks the levell'd swarths are found. Sheaves heap'd on sheaves here thicken up the ground. The shining shares full many ploughmen guide. renews their toil. The hearty draught rewards. The rustic monarch of the field descries. as the harvest fell. Another field rose high with waving grain." —Dyce's Calaber. Still as at either end they wheel around. And last the children. sturdy bullocks here The plough were drawing. [347] A field deep furrow'd next the god design'd. And sable look'd. "Here was a corn field. With sweeping stroke the mowers strow the lands. Work'd busily. the rising earth in ridges roll'd. Each with a sharp-tooth'd sickle in his hand. The master meets them with his goblet crown'd. Here a feast Was graved: to the shrill pipe and ringing lyre A band of blooming virgins led the dance.570 The Iliad of Homer And each bold figure seem'd to live or die. Others were ready still to bind the sheaves: Yoked to a wain that bore the corn away The steers were moving. and collect in bands. while with goading wand The active youths impell'd them. 256 —A field deep furrowed. . As if endued with life.256 The third time labour'd by the sweating hind. Then back the turning ploughshares cleave the soil: Behind. though form'd of molten gold. And turn their crooked yokes on every side. The gatherers follow. reapers in a row.

With silent glee.BOOK XVIII. Beneath an ample oak's expanded shade. They tore his flesh. and answer to the strain. And nine sour dogs complete the rustic band. To this. and seem to low in gold. Dread the grim terrors. one pathway gently winding leads. Rear high their horns. the heaps around him rise. a vineyard shines. ripe in yellow gold. And speed to meadows on whose sounding shores A rapid torrent through the rushes roars: Four golden herdsmen as their guardians stand. Tune soft the voice. And seized a bull. The reaper's due repast. Here herds of oxen march. the woman's care. And pales of glittering tin the inclosure grace. Whose tender lay the fate of Linus sings. Next. Bent with the ponderous harvest of its vines. In measured dance behind him move the train. The dogs (oft cheer'd in vain) desert the prey. and drank his sable blood. erect and bold. The victim ox the sturdy youth prepare. the men withstood. (Fair maids and blooming youths. in order glow: A darker metal mix'd intrench'd the place. To these a youth awakes the warbling strings. the master of the herd: He roar'd: in vain the dogs.) that smiling bear The purple product of the autumnal year. A deeper dye the dangling clusters show. A ready banquet on the turf is laid. 571 [348] . And curl'd on silver props. Where march a train with baskets on their heads. and at distance bay. Two lions rushing from the wood appear'd.

572 The Iliad of Homer Next this. The maids in soft simars of linen dress'd. and scatter'd cots between. And. And beat the buckler's verge. Confusedly regular. now low. in giddy circle toss'd. The gazing multitudes admire around: Two active tumblers in the centre bound. too swift for sight. Of these the sides adorn'd with swords of gold. A figured dance succeeds. And undistinguish'd blend the flying ring: So whirls a wheel. bounding hand in hand. and folds. from silver belts depend. and bound the whole. and pour'd the ocean round: In living silver seem'd the waves to roll. And fleecy flocks. That glittering gay. Form'd by Daedalean art. the moving maze: Now forth at once. Now high. at once descend. the eye the art of Vulcan leads Deep through fair forests. . rapid as it runs. With well-taught feet: now shape in oblique ways. the single spokes are lost. a comely band Of youths and maidens. that whiten all the scene. Thus the broad shield complete the artist crown'd With his last hand. they spring. And stalls. The youths all graceful in the glossy vest: Of those the locks with flowery wreath inroll'd. such once was seen In lofty Gnossus for the Cretan queen. Now all at once they rise. and a length of meads. their pliant limbs they bend: And general songs the sprightly revel end.

the helm impress'd With various sculpture. The Hesiodic images are huddled together without connection or congruity: Mars and Pallas are awkwardly introduced among the Centaurs and Lapithae. whence however. the imagery differs in little more than the names and arrangements. the superiority of Homer is decisive—while in those of war and tumult it may be thought. This done. The natural consecution of the Homeric images needs no exposition: it constitutes in itself one of the beauties of the work. p. And bears the blazing present through the skies.— but the gap is wide indeed between them and Apollo with the Muses. are minutely represented. At Thetis' feet the finished labour lay: She. and upon the untenable supposition of the genuineness of this poem. and the difference of arrangement in the Shield of Hercules is altogether for the worse. and the golden crest. the cuirass that outshone the fires. 182.257 573 257 Coleridge (Greek Classic Poets. and the fisherman on the shore with his casting net. He remarks that." . in the description of scenes of rustic peace.) has diligently compared this with the description of the shield of Hercules by Hesiod. that. whate'er a warrior's use requires He forged. The greaves of ductile tin.BOOK XVIII. waking the echoes of Olympus to celestial harmonies. as a falcon cuts the aerial way. perhaps. Swift from Olympus' snowy summit flies. we are hurried back to Perseus. "with two or three exceptions. the leading remark is. the Gorgons. seq. that the Hesiodic poet has more than once the advantage. that they catch at beauty by ornament. and other images of war. over an arm of the sea. and at sublimity by exaggeration. there is this curious peculiarity. the fugitive fishes. As to the Hesiodic images themselves. in which the sporting dolphins.


Achilles is with great difficulty persuaded to refrain from the battle till the troops have refreshed themselves by the advice of Ulysses. (With new-born day to gladden mortal sight. not astonished by that prodigy. and gives himself up to lamentations for his friend. He arms for the fight: his appearance described. The scene is on the sea-shore. that blush'd with early red. and reproaches them with the death of Patroclus. And gild the courts of heaven with sacred light. THE RECONCILIATION OF ACHILLES AND AGAMEMNON.[349] BOOK XIX. The presents are conveyed to the tent of Achilles. He addresses himself to his horses. Thetis brings to her son the armour made by Vulcan. by the order of Jupiter. rushes with fury to the combat. Agamemnon and Achilles are solemnly reconciled: the speeches. One of them is miraculously endued with voice. The hero obstinately refuses all repast. where Briseis laments over the body of Patroclus. Minerva descends to strengthen him.) The immortal arms the goddess-mother bears Swift to her son: her son she finds in tears . Soon as Aurora heaved her Orient head Above the waves. and commands him to assemble the army. and inspired to prophesy his fate: but the hero. presents. and ceremonies on that occasion. ARGUMENT. The thirteenth day. She preserves the body of his friend from corruption. to declare his resentment at an end.

confess the hand divine. A ray divine her heavenly presence shed. pollute the dead?" "That unavailing care be laid aside. And thus. Arms worthy thee. as affairs require. Achilles. his hand soft touching. and worms obscene. and know It was not man." Then drops the radiant burden on the ground. Clang the strong arms. Unmoved the hero kindles at the show. Back shrink the Myrmidons with dread surprise. while all the rest Their sovereign's sorrows in their own express'd. Thetis said: "Suppress. Now to the bloody battle let me bend: But ah! the relics of my slaughter'd friend! In those wide wounds through which his spirit fled. "Goddess! (he cried.) these glorious arms. uninjured shall remain. Fresh as in life.576 The Iliad of Homer Stretch'd o'er Patroclus' corse. my son. And from the broad effulgence turn their eyes. From his fierce eyeballs living flames expire. And flash incessant like a stream of fire: He turns the radiant gift: and feeds his mind On all the immortal artist had design'd. or fit to grace a god. but heaven. this rage of grief. Before the Grecian peers renounce thine ire: Then uncontroll'd in boundless war engage. Behold what arms by Vulcan are bestow'd. And feels with rage divine his bosom glow. (The azure goddess to her son replied. Shall flies. that gave the blow. And heaven with strength supply the mighty rage!" [350] . the carcase of the slain. and ring the shores around. But go. that shine With matchless art.) Whole years untouch'd.

Achilles to the strand obedient went: The shores resounded with the voice he sent. transported. the great assembly crown'd. Achilles (rising in the midst) begun: [351] . These on the sacred seats of council placed. at the well-known sound. The king of men. Then in the nostrils of the slain she pour'd Nectareous drops. came the last: He too sore wounded by Agenor's son. shine in arms again. and leaning on the spear. Untouch'd it rests. Frequent and full. 577 THETIS BRINGING THE ARMOUR TO ACHILLES. or guide them o'er the main. Long lost to battle. The flies forbid their prey. Tydides and Ulysses first appear. Studious to see the terror of the plain. and rich ambrosia shower'd O'er all the corse. Alarm'd. Atrides. and sacred from decay. and all the naval train That tend the ships. The heroes heard.BOOK XIX. Lame with their wounds.

578 The Iliad of Homer "O monarch! better far had been the fate Of thee. Rash we contended for the black-eyed maid) Preventing Dian had despatch'd her dart. Why should. and resign'd to fate. injurious clamours end: Unruly murmurs. untimely joy suspend. and the justest cause. not rising from his lofty throne. ye sons of Greece! with silence hear! And grant your monarch an impartial ear: Awhile your loud. And let your rash. If (ere the day when by mad passion sway'd. and try if in our sight Troy yet shall dare to camp a second night! I deem. alas. and shout Pelides' name. In state unmoved. long shall Greece the woes we caused bewail. of all the Grecian state. forgotten. And shot the shining mischief to the heart! Then many a hero had not press'd the shore. Nor charge on me. Is past. let Ilion bleed. Wrong the best speaker. a mortal man. as I. When thus. or ill-timed applause. Nor Troy's glad fields been fatten'd with our gore. their mightiest. Now call the hosts. Burn with a fury that can never die? Here then my anger ends: let war succeed. And sad posterity repeat the tale. the king of men begun: "Hear me. no more the subject of debate. But this. angry Jove. the dire debate: Know. and all-compelling Fate. ye Greeks. and with joy repose. And even as Greece has bled. of me. Long. when this arm he knows." He said: his finish'd wrath with loud acclaim The Greeks accept. Shall 'scape with transport. .

Fated to rule. unsuspicious of the fraud. enter'd in my breast. And Jove himself. Then bids Saturnius bear his oath in mind. but vengeful Ate driven. the sire of men and gods. inextricable woes! Of old. The Thunderer.' Saturnia ask'd an oath. She. urged my wrath that day When from Achilles' arms I forced the prey. and female art: For when Alcmena's nine long months were run.BOOK XIX. Not on the ground that haughty fury treads. from Olympus' height. Deceived by Juno's wiles. With fell Erinnys. But prints her lofty footsteps on the heads Of mighty men. And Jove expected his immortal son. and born a king of kings. to vouch the truth. The world's great ruler. And fix dominion on the favour'd youth.' 579 [352] . and vaunted of his matchless boy: 'From us. Swift to Achaian Argos bent her flight: Scarce seven moons gone. What then could I against the will of heaven? Not by myself. fated to infest The race of mortals. And claims thy promise to be king of kings. The joyful goddess. (he said) this day an infant springs. She push'd her lingering infant into life: Her charms Alcmena's coming labours stay. she stalk'd amid the bright abodes. To gods and goddesses the unruly joy He show'd. just issuing to the day. felt her venom'd dart. Pronounced those solemn words that bind a god. 'A youth (said she) of Jove's immortal kind Is this day born: from Sthenelus he springs. Jove's dread daughter. lay Sthenelus's wife. And stop the babe. inflicting as she goes Long-festering wounds.

when his afflicting trials are brought to a close: he is then admitted to the godhead. His recompense is reserved to the close of his career. both the distinguishing attributes and the endless toil and endurances of Heracles. yet condemned constantly to labour for others and to obey the commands of a worthless and cowardly persecutor. 'tis equal: all we ask is war. From his ambrosial head. the most renowned subjugator of all the semi-divine personages worshipped by the Hellenes. p. propitious to our prayer. and he raged. And whirl'd her headlong down. be thy care. What can the errors of my rage atone? My martial troops. for ever driven From bright Olympus and the starry heaven: Thence on the nether world the fury fell. "This legend is one of the most pregnant and characteristic in the Grecian Mythology. he sorrow'd.—a being of irresistible force. was I misled. by his oath engaged. it explains. where perch'd she sate. and shine again in war."—Grote. Resume thy arms. 258 .580 The Iliad of Homer Grief seized the Thunderer. 128. To us. according to the religious ideas familiar to the old epic poets. and especially beloved by Zeus. While raging Hector heap'd our camps with dead. my treasures are thy own: This instant from the navy shall be sent Whate'er Ulysses promised at thy tent: But thou! appeased. Full oft the god his son's hard toils bemoan'd. Stung to the soul. and receives in marriage Hebe. Cursed the dire fury. i." [353] " O king of nations! whose superior sway (Returns Achilles) all our hosts obey! To keep or send the presents. The immortal seats should ne'er behold her more. vol. He snatch'd the fury-goddess of debate. like Jove himself. and in secret groan'd. the irrevocable oath he swore.258 Even thus. The dread. Ordain'd with man's contentious race to dwell.

and led by thee. The drooping body will desert the mind: But built anew with strength-conferring fare. But let the presents to Achilles made. When by the gods inspired. And those augment by generous wine and food: What boastful son of war. the maid removes. what I act survey. And the full price of injured honour paid. And learn from thence the business of the day. who sees my spear confound The Trojan ranks. our glorious work remains undone. Mere unsupported man must yield at length. Shrunk with dry famine. then. Let every Greek. With emulation. spotless. The son of Peleus thus. Strength is derived from spirits and from blood. The king of men shall rise in public sight. godlike. Pure from his arms. but. he tires a war. That done. thou art by no toils oppress'd.BOOK XIX. as she came. ebbing out his strength. Dismiss the people. and deal destruction round. At least our armies claim repast and rest: Long and laborious must the combat be. and guiltless of his loves. and with toils declined. Stretch not henceforth. and thus replies The great in councils. With limbs and soul untamed. Ithacus the wise: "Though. While yet we talk. With strong repast to hearten every band.! thy sovereign might 581 . or but an instant shun The fight. O prince. And solemn swear (observant of the rite) That. Can last a hero through a single day? Courage may prompt. without that stay. a sumptuous banquet shall be made. In full assembly of all Greece be laid. and give command.

glad your weary souls. 'Tis the chief praise that e'er to kings belong'd. All grim with gaping wounds. Sacred to Jove. Each due atonement gladly I prepare. And his cold feet are pointed to the door. These to select. extinguish'd. [354] . Ulysses. When the stern fury of the war is o'er. Till from the fleet our presents be convey'd. Till my insatiate rage be cloy'd with blood: Pale lies my friend.582 The Iliad of Homer Beyond the bounds of reason and of right. A train of noble youths the charge shall bear. And Jove attesting. our heroes lie: Those call to war! and might my voice incite. Revenge is all my soul! no meaner care. Nor great Achilles grudge this short delay. shall commence the fight: Then. And copious banquets. And the fair train of captives close the rear: Talthybius shall the victim boar convey. be thy care: In order rank'd let all our gifts appear. the firm compact made. their faces to the sky. By Hector slain. this instant. when the day's complete. Now. Let not my palate know the taste of food. let generous bowls. And heaven regard me as I justly swear! Here then awhile let Greece assembled stay. And wrath. and wisdom breathes in thee. burns my breast no more. now." To him the monarch: "Just is thy decree. with wounds disfigured o'er." "For this (the stern Æacides replies) Some less important season may suffice. To right with justice whom with power they wrong'd. Thy words give joy. and yon bright orb of day.

Let their warm heads with scenes of battle glow. Then hear my counsel.) The best and bravest of the warrior kind! Thy praise it is in dreadful camps to shine. or thought. Who waits for that. and agonizing sounds. the bold. and to reason yield. to pay The tribute of a melancholy day. Great Jove but turns it. But old experience and calm wisdom mine. Destruction be my feast. and the victor dies! The great.BOOK XIX. If trembling in the ships he lags behind. the dire effects shall find. Let rising spirits flow from sprightly juice." . And endless were the grief. to weep for all. and none shall dare Expect a second summons to the war. Eternal sorrows what avails to shed? Greece honours not with solemn fasts the dead: Enough. (Ulysses thus rejoin'd. Let generous food supplies of strength produce. Though vast the heaps that strow the crimson plain. And pour new furies on the feebler foe. Our care devolves on others left behind." 583 "O first of Greeks. And all at once on haughty Troy descend. and mortal wounds. One chief with patience to the grave resign'd. by thousands daily fall. when death demands the brave. Embodied. has room to harbour there. to the battle let us bend. The bloody harvest brings but little gain: The scale of conquest ever wavering lies. Interest. And scenes of blood. The bravest soon are satiate of the field. Yet a short interval.

To bear the presents from the royal tent: The sons of Nestor. His hands uplifted to the attesting skies. thunderbolts of war. form'd the chosen train. . "Witness thou first! thou greatest power above. A splendid scene! then Agamemnon rose: The boar Talthybius held: the Grecian lord Drew the broad cutlass sheath'd beside his sword: The stubborn bristles from the victim's brow He crops. like the blooming rose. and all-surveying Jove! And mother-earth. The solemn words a deep attention draw. heaven all its vengeance shed. And Melanippus. Pure and unconscious of my manly loves. before. And twice the number of high-bounding steeds: Seven captives next a lovely line compose. With Lycomedes of Creiontian strain. And ye. A row of six fair tripods then succeeds. and heaven's revolving light. and horrid woes prepare For perjured kings. and all who falsely swear! The black-eyed maid inviolate removes. Who rule the dead. First of the train. fell furies of the realms of night.584 The Iliad of Homer [355] And now the delegates Ulysses sent. The eighth Briseis. Swift as the word was given. and offering meditates his vow. If this be false. Thias and Merion. the golden talents bore: The rest in public view the chiefs dispose. Closed the bright band: great Ithacus. Phyleus' valiant heir. And Greece around sat thrill'd with sacred awe. the youths obey'd: Twice ten bright vases in the midst they laid. On heaven's broad marble roof were fixed his eyes. all-wise. All-good.

Patroclus lay. and doom'd the Greeks to fall. his weapon deep inflicts the wound. Prone on the body fell the heavenly fair. ye Greeks! and know Whate'er we feel. That doom'd our strife. ye chiefs! indulge the genial rite. o'erruling all. force the dame. and thus she cries: [356] . unwilling. Then thus Achilles: "Hear. Nor from my arms. Beat her sad breast. radiant as the queen of love. 'Twas Jove's high will alone. Not else Atrides could our rage inflame. To their new seats the female captives move Briseis. And levell'd thunder strike my guilty head!" 585 With that. Achilles sought his tent. The bleeding savage tumbles to the ground. 'tis Jove inflicts the woe. Achilles waits ye. His train before March'd onward. her humid eyes Shining with tears she lifts. All beautiful in grief. The sacred herald rolls the victim slain (A feast for fish) into the foaming main. bending with the gifts they bore.BOOK XIX. Those in the tents the squires industrious spread: The foaming coursers to the stalls they led. and expects the fight. Go then. gash'd with cruel wounds. Slow as she pass'd. beheld with sad survey Where." The speedy council at his word adjourn'd: To their black vessels all the Greeks return'd. and tore her golden hair.

and from the warriors turn'd his face: Yet still the brother-kings of Atreus' race. he sorrows from his soul. Once tender friend of my distracted mind! I left thee fresh in life. Now find thee cold. inanimated clay! What woes my wretched race of life attend! Sorrows on sorrows. Unmoved he heard them. strive to calm his grief and rage: His rage they calm not. the dearest partner of his love. He groans. Idomeneus. in beauty gay. . he raves. this request forbear. and with sighs denied. Accept these grateful tears! for thee they flow. And make me empress in his native land. For thee. for ever kind. Till yonder sun descend. nor his grief control. "If yet Achilles have a friend. And dried my sorrows for a husband slain. irremeable way: Thy friendly hand uprear'd me from the plain. Nestor.586 The Iliad of Homer "Ah. Ulysses sage. but their own. whose care Is bent to please him. let me pay To grief and anguish one abstemious day. Achilles' care you promised I should prove. The first. youth for ever dear. ah." He spoke. The leaders press'd the chief on every side. Nor mourn'd Patroclus' fortunes. That rites divine should ratify the band. never doom'd to end! The first loved consort of my virgin bed Before these eyes in fatal battle bled: My three brave brothers in one mournful day All trod the dark. that ever felt another's woe!" Her sister captives echoed groan for groan. And Phoenix.

perhaps. But now. to rear My tender orphan with a parent's care. Patroclus! (thus his heart he vents) Once spread the inviting banquet in our tents: Thy sweet society. should Neoptolemus the brave. and sinks him to the shades." 587 [357] Sighing he said: his grief the heroes join'd. and the large domain. but might spare his friend. Each stole a tear for what he left behind. My only offspring. (I distant far. What banquet but revenge can glad my mind? What greater sorrow could afflict my breast. Of all neglectful. wage a hateful war. Their mingled grief the sire of heaven survey'd. And thus with pity to his blue-eyed maid: . What more. The lofty palace. Or drags a wretched life of age and care.BOOK XIX. Once stay'd Achilles. thy winning care. For Peleus breathes no more the vital air. What more if hoary Peleus were deceased? Who now. sink into the grave? If yet that offspring lives. From Scyros' isle conduct him o'er the main. And glad his eyes with his paternal reign. rushing to the war. But till the news of my sad fate invades His hastening soul. "Thou too. this cruel stroke attend. I hoped Patroclus might survive. Fate claim'd Achilles. and drops a tender tear.) I could not this. alas! to death's cold arms resign'd. in Phthia dreads to hear His son's sad fate.

where yon sails their canvas wings extend. Whose dazzling lustre whitens all the skies: So helms succeeding helms. Mix in one stream. Haste and infuse ambrosia in his breast. From dusky clouds the fleecy winter flies. Broad glittering breastplates. With splendour flame the skies. and laugh the fields around. And pour'd divine ambrosia in his breast. . spears with pointed rays. at the word of Jove. The wide air floating to her ample wings. and wails his friend: Ere thirst and want his forces have oppress'd. swift ascending. so shields from shields. sought the bright abodes." He spoke.259 With nectar sweet. reflecting blaze on blaze. As when the piercing blasts of Boreas blow. And dost thou thus desert the great in war? Lo. All comfortless he sits. And scatter o'er the fields the driving snow. To great Achilles she her flight address'd. and brighten all the fields. And like a deluge pour'd upon the plain. Now issued from the ships the warrior-train. (refection of the gods!) Then. and sudden. So swift through ether the shrill harpy springs.588 The Iliad of Homer "Is then Achilles now no more thy care. Catch the quick beams. Shot the descending goddess from above. Thick beats the centre as the coursers bound.

So to night-wandering sailors. like the moon. high-towering o'er the rest. And. The silver cuishes first his thighs infold.BOOK XIX. 259 —Ambrosia. Streams from some lonely watch-tower to the sky: With mournful eyes they gaze. That. Then o'er his breast was braced the hollow gold." Merrick's Tryphiodorus. Wide o'er the watery waste. . 589 Full in the midst. Brings nectar temper'd with ambrosial dews. and hopes the bloody day. pale with fears. the broad refulgent shield Blazed with long rays. a light appears. The brazen sword a various baldric tied. starr'd with gems. Arms which the father of the fire bestow'd. He grinds his teeth. Forged on the eternal anvils of the god. Which on the far-seen mountain blazing high. "The blue-eyed maid. His limbs in arms divine Achilles dress'd. His glowing eyeballs roll with living fire. Grief and revenge his furious heart inspire. vi. In ev'ry breast new vigour to infuse. and gleam'd athwart the field. and furious with delay O'erlooks the embattled host. and gaze again. hung glittering at his side. and drives them o'er the main. 249. Loud howls the storm.

above his squire Achilles mounts. all terrible he stands. which not a Greek could rear. Ponderous and huge.) Their fiery mouths resplendent bridles tied. The charioteer then whirl'd the lash around. The ivory-studded reins. And now he shakes his great paternal spear. High o'er the host. From Pelion's cloudy top an ash entire Old Chiron fell'd. and shaped it for his sire. The chief beholds himself with wondering eyes. return'd behind. Buoy'd by some inward force. and war. and the dread of fields. His arms he poises. Automedon and Alcimus prepare The immortal coursers. and the radiant car.590 The Iliad of Homer Next. his high head the helmet graced. (The silver traces sweeping at their side. and sets the field on fire. pestilence. A spear which stern Achilles only wields. Waved o'er their backs. and his motions tries. And swift ascended at one active bound. And thunders to his steeds these dread commands: . and to the chariot join'd. So stream'd the golden honours from his head. And feels a pinion lifting every limb. Trembled the sparkling plumes. behind The sweepy crest hung floating in the wind: Like the red star. he seems to swim. All bright in heavenly arms. and restores the day. Not brighter Phoebus in the ethereal way Flames from his chariot. The death of heroes. that from his flaming hair Shakes down diseases. and the loose glories shed.

but God decrees thy doom. (Unless ye boast that heavenly race in vain. be mindful of the load ye bear. Seem'd sensible of woe. Not ours the fault. to see no more My much-loved parents. or slowness in the course. The intrepid chief replied With unabated rage—"So let it be! Portents and prodigies are lost on me. His fateful voice. No—could our swiftness o'er the winds prevail. 591 "Xanthus and Balius! of Podarges' strain. I know my fate: to die. and rush'd to fight." The generous Xanthus. All were in vain—the Fates thy death demand. And learn to make your master more your care: Through falling squadrons bear my slaughtering sword. by the Furies tied. Fell thy Patroclus. When. "Achilles! yes! this day at least we bear Thy rage in safety through the files of war: But come it will. but by heavenly force. as ye left Patroclus. and portentous spoke. I sink in night: Now perish Troy!" He said. Nor. and my native shore— Enough—when heaven ordains." Then ceased for ever. Due to a mortal and immortal hand. leave your lord. And bow'd to dust the honours of his mane. as the words he said. The bright far-shooting god who gilds the day (Confess'd we saw him) tore his arms way.BOOK XIX. strange to tell! (so Juno will'd) he broke Eternal silence.) Be swift. the fatal time must come. Or beat the pinions of the western gale. . and droop'd his head: Trembling he stood before the golden wain. Not through our crime.

.592 The Iliad of Homer HERCULES.

to call The gods to council in the starry hall: Swift o'er Olympus' hundred hills she flies.[360] BOOK XX. Then Jove to Themis gives command. and is upon the point of killing Hector. Achilles pursues the Trojans with a great slaughter. The terrors of the combat described. upon Achilles' return to the battle. Each fair-hair'd dryad of the shady wood. but Apollo conveys him away in a cloud. While near impending from a neighbouring height. AND THE ACTS OF ACHILLES. Apollo encourages Æneas to meet Achilles. sheathed in arms. calls a council of the gods. Troy's black battalions wait the shock of fight. these two heroes encounter. or rosy bower. THE BATTLE OF THE GODS. The same day continues. beside her vessels stood. in long procession come To Jove's eternal adamantine dome. but Æneas is preserved by the assistance of Neptune. After a long conversation. Not one was absent. Achilles falls upon the rest of the Trojans. These shining on. The scene is in the field before Troy. when the deities are engaged. And summons all the senate of the skies. . not a rural power That haunts the verdant gloom. ARGUMENT. Jupiter. Thus round Pelides breathing war and blood Greece. and permits them to assist either party.

(The work of Vulcan. Even he whose trident sways the watery reign Heard the loud summons. with lucid columns crown'd. All but old Ocean. if in his rage he rise? Assist them. hoary sire! who keeps His ancient seat beneath the sacred deeps. Assumed his throne amid the bright abodes. and see the hand of fate Work out our will. On marble thrones. Troy soon must lie o'erthrown. Thus to convene the whole ethereal state? Is Greece and Troy the subject in debate? Already met. And grasps the thunder in his awful hands. Celestial powers! descend. Far on Olympus' top in secret state Ourself will sit.594 The Iliad of Homer Each azure sister of the silver flood. And death stands ardent on the edge of war.) sat the powers around. What can they now. If uncontroll'd Achilles fights alone: Their troops but lately durst not meet his eyes. the louring hosts appear." . And question'd thus the sire of men and gods: [361] "What moves the god who heaven and earth commands. gods! or Ilion's sacred wall May fall this day. though fate forbids the fall." "'Tis true (the cloud-compelling power replies) This day we call the council of the skies In care of human race. your succour lend To either host. And as your minds direct. and forsook the main. even Jove's own eye Sees with regret unhappy mortals die.

Now through the trembling shores Minerva calls. But when the powers descending swell'd the fight. the maid in arms renown'd. Hermes. And trembling see another god of war. and seem'd already lost. And Vulcan. and the nations rush to arms. And now she thunders from the Grecian walls. He said. Xanthus. 595 . Mars fiery-helm'd. his terror shrouds In gloomy tempests. Dreadful he stood in front of all his host. from Ilion's topmost towers: Now shouts to Simois. the laughter-loving dame. and he whose azure round Girds the vast globe. Mars hovering o'er his Troy. the rapid stream stood still. of profitable arts the sire. Long lost to battle. The vessels tremble as the gods alight. While great Achilles (terror of the plain). Then tumult rose: fierce rage and pale affright Varied each face: then Discord sounds alarms. Phoebus came. In aid of Troy.BOOK XX. The mountain shook. Ere yet the gods their various aid employ. whose streams in golden currents flow. shone in arms again. the black sovereign of the fire: These to the fleet repair with instant flight. Earth echoes. Latona. And the chaste huntress of the silver bow. Her bravest heroes pant with inward fear. and a night of clouds: Now through each Trojan heart he fury pours With voice divine. Pale Troy beheld. from her beauteous hill. Each Argive bosom swell'd with manly joy. and fired their heavenly breasts with rage. On adverse parts the warring gods engage: Heaven's awful queen.

the sire of gods his thunder rolls. when the gods contend First silver-shafted Phoebus took the plain Against blue Neptune. 6-8. Leap'd from his throne.261 Such war the immortals wage. 769. sister of the day. and the cloud is not rent under them. 261 260 "Swift from his throne the infernal monarch ran. Opposed to Pallas. . Should fill (a countless throng!) his dark abode. And peals on peals redoubled rend the poles. "Hell is naked before him. sqq. And the toss'd navies beat the heaving main. Through all their summits tremble Ida's woods. lest Neptune's arm should lay His dark dominions open to the day. war's triumphant maid.260 The infernal monarch rear'd his horrid head. Abhorr'd by men. vi. He bindeth up the waters in his thick clouds. the mountains nod around. stern Neptune shakes the solid ground. and dreadful even to gods. such horrors rend The world's vast concave. Against Latona march'd the son of May." Job xxvi. Beneath. Slain by Jove's wrath." Merrick's Tryphiodorus. The god of arms his giant bulk display'd. He stretcheth out the north over the empty place. The forests wave. and hangeth the earth upon nothing. The quiver'd Dian. monarch of the main. And pour in light on Pluto's drear abodes. Deep in the dismal regions of the dead. and led by Hermes' rod. lest the race of man. And from their sources boil her hundred floods.596 The Iliad of Homer [362] Above. and destruction hath no covering. All pale and trembling. Troy's turrets totter on the rocking plain.

Achilles glow'd with more than mortal rage: Hector he sought. Half-forced and half-persuaded to the fight. With fiery Vulcan last in battle stands The sacred flood that rolls on golden sands. But called Scamander by the sons of earth. While thus the gods in various league engage. Æneas was the first who dared to stay. in search of Hector turn'd His eyes around. Apollo wedged him in the warrior's way. for Hector only burn'd. majesty of heaven. In voice and aspect. defied. Like young Lycaon.BOOK XX. how late with scorn In distant threats he braved the goddess-born. 597 THE GODS DESCENDING TO BATTLE. seem'd the power divine. And burst like lightning through the ranks.) Saturnia. [363] . of the royal line. Xanthus his name with those of heavenly birth. (Her golden arrows sounding at her side. But swell'd his bosom with undaunted might. And bade the chief reflect. and vow'd To glut the god of battles with his blood.

And be what great Achilles was before. nor void of fear Observed the fury of his flying spear. and spirit breathed into his breast. Lyrnessus. And he but from a sister of the main. An aged sea-god father of his line. And thus. and our herds he kill'd. Our force he scattered. Through the thick troops the embolden'd hero press'd: His venturous act the white-arm'd queen survey'd." To whom the son of Jove: "That god implore. the goddess shone before. she said: . From Ida's woods he chased us to the field. Pedasus in ashes lay." This said. And bathed his brazen lance in hostile gore. Were God my aid. Where'er he moved. assembling all the powers. From heavenly Venus thou deriv'st thy strain. Then lift thy weapon for a noble blow. What mortal man Achilles can sustain? The immortals guard him through the dreadful plain. But Jove himself the sacred source of thine. And suffer not his dart to fall in vain. But (Jove assisting) I survived the day: Else had I sunk oppress'd in fatal fight By fierce Achilles and Minerva's might. Nor fear the vaunting of a mortal foe. this arm should check his power. Though strong in battle as a brazen tower.598 The Iliad of Homer Then thus the hero of Anchises' strain: "To meet Pelides you persuade in vain: Already have I met.

. as Fates design. Lo great Æneas rushing to the war! Against Pelides he directs his course. came down. Obstruct Achilles. But if the armipotent. shall the conflict end. or commence the fight. the great armament of heaven. xiii. Yield to our conquering arms the lower world. let some power descend. and add to his renown. I doubt not. And leave to war the fates of mortal men. gods! that claims your care. in ruin and confusion hurl'd. 263 It was anciently believed that it was dangerous. "Behold an action. or god of light.BOOK XX. xxxiii. 20. And these. to behold a deity. Judg. That spun so short his life's illustrious line:262 But lest some adverse god now cross his way. Thence on the gods of Troy we swift descend: Full soon. to attend Our favour'd hero. Why should celestial powers exert their own? Suffice from yonder mount to view the scene. See Exod. Hereafter let him fall. To guard his life. Phoebus impels. and Phoebus gives him force. Restrain his bold career. and thus the god whose force can make The solid globe's eternal basis shake: "Against the might of man. if not fatal. Give him to know what powers assist this day: For how shall mortal stand the dire alarms. but never wholly set aside. so feeble known. at least. When heaven's refulgent host appear in arms?"263 599 Thus she." 262 These words seem to imply the old belief. 22. We. that the Fates might be delayed.

Though all in arms the peopled city rise. and the heavens reply. [365] . Amid both hosts (a dreadful space) appear. Advanced upon the field there stood a mound Of earth congested. by some brave youth defied. With towering strides Aeneas first advanced.600 The Iliad of Homer Thus having said. rose. the tyrant of the sea. and chiefs in armour bright. Not so Pelides. Intent to form the future scheme of fate. Crown the fair hills that silver Simois shade. bold Æneas. Stalks careless on. wall'd. and drove him to the plain. And. The gleaming champaign glows with brazen light. with unregarding pride. furious to engage. Till at the length. his javelin flamed before. and led the way. Who viewing first his foes with scornful eyes. He rush'd impetuous. The trampled centre yields a hollow sound: Steeds cased in mail. The nodding plumage on his helmet danced: Spread o'er his breast the fencing shield he bore. With clouds encompass'd. There great Achilles. and trench'd around. But mix not yet in fight. with Minerva's aid. In elder times to guard Alcides made. here. (The work of Trojans. Meanwhile the rushing armies hide the ground. Coerulean Neptune. and a veil of air: The adverse powers. Here Neptune and the gods of Greece repair. so he moved. though Jove on high Gives the loud signal. In circle close each heavenly party sat. around Apollo laid. Such the lion's rage.) What time a vengeful monster of the main Swept the wide shore.

in reward of thy victorious hand. those thy pride may quell: And 'tis his fault to love those sons too well. Those. Defrauded of my conquest once before. Nor. he rolls his eyes around Lash'd by his tail his heaving sides resound. 'Tis true.BOOK XX. begun The seed of Thetis thus to Venus' son: "Why comes Æneas through the ranks so far? Seeks he to meet Achilles' arm in war. he foams. Of hills for vines. So stands Æneas. But can Achilles be so soon forgot? Once (as I think) you saw this brandish'd spear And then the great Æneas seem'd to fear: With hearty haste from Ida's mount he fled. Ere yet the stern encounter join'd. Her lofty walls not long our progress stay'd. Pallas. and his force defies. Has Troy proposed some spacious tract of land An ample forest. Resolved on vengeance. He calls up all his rage. in ruins laid: In Grecian chains her captive race were cast. perhaps. till he reach'd Lyrnessus. will hardly prove thy lot. He murmurs fury with a hollow groan. Jove. he grinds his teeth. The partial monarch may refuse the prize. 601 . or a fair domain. the great Aeneas fled too fast. To his bold spear the savage turns alone. And prove his merits to the throne of Troy? Grant that beneath thy lance Achilles dies. In hope the realms of Priam to enjoy. and arable for grain? Even this. turn'd his head. He grins. and we. So fierce Achilles on Æneas flies. or resolved on death. Or. Sons he has many.

Three thousand mares his spacious pastures bred. The natives were content to till The shady foot of Ida's fountful hill. Conceal'd his godhead in a flowing mane.264 From Dardanus great Erichthonius springs." To this Anchises' son: "Such words employ To one that fears thee. the gods this day restore. while thou may'st. enamour'd of the sprightly train. 'Tis not in words the glorious strife can end. half human. In humble vales they built their soft abodes. thus derived. Each goddess-born. the best may be defied With mean reproaches. Go. The richest. once. then. If yet thou further seek to learn my birth (A tale resounded through the spacious earth) Hear how the glorious origin we prove From ancient Dardanus. and unmanly pride. contend. 264 [366] "Ere Ilium and the Trojan tow'rs arose. for Ilion.602 The Iliad of Homer What then I lost. or Venus' offspring dies. Such we disdain. avoid the threaten'd fate." Dryden's Virgil. half divine. some unwarlike boy. iii. Three thousand foals beside their mothers fed. . Thetis' this day. And tears shall trickle from celestial eyes: For when two heroes. and are wise too late.) Was not. the first from Jove: Dardania's walls he raised. Unworthy the high race from which we came Proclaim'd so loudly by the voice of fame: Each from illustrious fathers draws his line. of Asia's wealthy kings. 150. Fools stay to feel it. Boreas. (The city since of many-languaged men.

of whom the Trojan name. and father wind. Whom heaven. Clytius and Lampus. And coursed the dappled beauties o'er the mead: Hence sprung twelve others of unrivall'd kind. now in cares grown old. Ilus. ever-honour'd pair. All human courage gives. From him Tithonus. brave and bold. Flew o'er the field. he Begat Anchises. snatch'd to upper air. And Hicetaon. enamour'd. who "Outstripp'd the winds in speed upon the plain. Such Erichthonius was: from him there came The sacred Tros. From great Assaracus sprang Capys. nor bent the tender grain. The grace and glory of the ambrosial feast). and Anchises me. nor hurt the bearded grain: She swept the seas. . To bear the cup of Jove (ethereal guest. vii. And Priam." Dryden. But Jove alone endues the soul with worth: He. thunderbolt of war.BOOK XX. divinely fair. bless'd with Hector. as she skimm'd along. Such is our race: 'tis fortune gives us birth. Assaracus. Nor plied the grass. source of power and might! with boundless sway.265 Scarce on the surface curl'd the briny dew. and Ganymed: The matchless Ganymed. or takes away. Swift as their mother mares. The two remaining sons the line divide: First rose Laomedon from Ilus' side. and. Compare Virgil's description of Camilla. These lightly skimming. 1100. And when along the level seas they flew. 265 603 [367] —Along the level seas. Her flying feet unbathed on billows hung. Three sons renown'd adorn'd his nuptial bed. With voice dissembled to his loves he neigh'd. when they swept the plain.

of brass each outward fold. Five plates of various metal. Reproach is infinite. Through two strong plates the point its passage held. when in the streets they jar. and rested. right or wrong. and knows no end. So voluble a weapon is the tongue. Where the shrill brass return'd a sharper sound: Through the thin verge the Pelean weapon glides. Then rising ere he threw. . but to prove our might. Pelides held (To meet the thundering lance) his dreadful shield. His fears were vain. and loudly in the buckler rung. The forceful spear of great Achilles flew. Arm'd or with truth or falsehood. And pierced the Dardan shield's extremest bound." He spoke. and the middle gold: There stuck the lance. Of tin each inward. That trembled as it stuck. impenetrable charms Secured the temper of the ethereal arms. Receive this answer: 'tis my flying spear. and neither side can fail. But stopp'd. Far on his outstretch'd arm. Like us they stand.604 The Iliad of Homer Long in the field of words we may contend. Composed the shield. nor void of fear Saw. we wound. Fix'd deep. by the third repell'd. Wounded. Cease then—Our business in the field of fight Is not to question. And vent their anger impotent and loud. the immeasurable spear. ere it fell. encompass'd with the crowd. And the slight covering of expanded hides. Perhaps excel us in this wordy war. With all his force the javelin flung. To all those insults thou hast offer'd here. various mould. For every man has equal strength to rail: Women alone.

whose earthquakes rock the ground. he claims our aid. 427. But ocean's god. Æneas his contracted body bends. though emphatically repelled. "Æneas and Antenor stand distinguished from the other Trojans by a dissatisfaction with Priam. the upper air.BOOK XX. Draws his broad blade. and a sympathy with the Greeks. An instant victim to Achilles' hands. Achilles. and Priam's faithless kind. And still his love descends on all the race: For Priam now. And o'er him high the riven targe extends. Sure. chills his soul with fright. Sees."—Grote. 605 [368] —The future father. Fate wills not this. through its parting plates. in the Æneas of Virgil. but Phoebus has bestow'd His aid in vain: the man o'erpowers the god. And at his back perceives the quivering spear: A fate so near him. which is by Sophocles and others construed as treacherous collusion. And swims before his eyes the many-colour'd light. p. and at Æneas flies: Æneas rousing as the foe came on. Saw the distress. 266 . With force collected. At length are odious to the all-seeing mind. though he wars for Troy. rushing in with dreadful cries. nor thus can Jove resign The future father of the Dardan line:266 The first great ancestor obtain'd his grace. heaves a mighty stone: A mass enormous! which in modern days No two of earth's degenerate sons could raise. i.—a suspicion indirectly glanced at. By Phoebus urged. and moved the powers around: "Lo! on the brink of fate Æneas stands. And can ye see this righteous chief atone With guiltless blood for vices not his own? To all the gods his constant vows were paid.

and secured his flight— Even then secured him. And even her crumbling ruins are no more. Or save one member of the sinking state. Smooth-gliding without step. Have sworn destruction to the Trojan kind." Dryden's Virgil. And sons succeeding sons the lasting line sustain. by all that gods can bind. Swift interposed between the warrior flies. Till her last flame be quench'd with her last gore. And at his master's feet the weapon threw. with force divine he snatch'd on high The Dardan prince. v. when I sought with joy The vow'd destruction of ungrateful Troy. and bore him through the sky." The king of ocean to the fight descends. Through all the whistling darts his course he bends. above the heads Of warring heroes." The great earth-shaker thus: to whom replies The imperial goddess with the radiant eyes: "Good as he is. 1058. And casts thick darkness o'er Achilles' eyes. and of bounding steeds: 267 [369] Neptune thus recounts his services to Æneas: "When your Æneas fought. . but fought with odds Of force unequal. and unequal gods: I spread a cloud before the victor's sight. Sustain'd the vanquish'd. That done. Pallas and I.606 The Iliad of Homer On great Æneas shall devolve the reign. O Neptune! be thy care.267 From great Æneas' shield the spear he drew. Not even an instant to protract their fate. to immolate or spare The Dardan prince.

vanish'd from my sword! I thought alone with mortals to contend. To mow whole troops. O prince! with force inferior far. Let then the furies of that arm be known. Now then let others bleed. with all his gods. Content for once. nor antedate thy doom. though favour'd by the sky." This said. Where the slow Caucans close the rear of fight. amazed. he left him wondering as he lay. and make whole armies fly: No god can singly such a host engage. nor great Minerva's rage." With that. that parted on the wings of wind. But powers celestial sure this foe defend. Urged thee to meet Achilles' arm in war? Henceforth beware. our arms he scarce will try.BOOK XX. But when the day decreed (for come it must) Shall lay this dreadful hero in the dust. Defrauding fate of all thy fame to come. aloud He vents his fury and inflames the crowd: "O Greeks! (he cries. That fell this instant. Then from Achilles chased the mist away: Sudden. Till at the battle's utmost verge they light. Secure no Grecian force transcends thy own. man to man. The scene of war came rushing on his sight. Great as he is. Then thus. Not Mars himself. Laid here before me! and the Dardan lord. and arms to arms! 'Tis not in me. The godhead there (his heavenly form confess'd) With words like these the panting chief address'd: "What power. returning with a stream of light. "What wonders strike my mind! My spear. to fly. 607 . and every rank alarms) Join battle.

obedient to the god of light. Not though his heart were steel." He said: nor less elate with martial joy." [370] Thus (breathing rage through all) the hero said. And brave that vengeful heart. your Hector should withstand. or acting fire. And. Greeks! is yours to-day. Through yon wide host this arm shall scatter fear. And thin the squadrons with my single spear. All. or hand obey. But shrinks and shudders when the thunder flies. all Achilles. . He hears. They join. But Phoebus warns him from high heaven to shun The single fight with Thetis' godlike son. Whate'er of active force. they throng. awaits the fight. Nor from yon boaster shall your chief retire. That fire. that steel. Clamours on clamours tempest all the air. his hands were fire. they thicken to the war. More safe to combat in the mingled band. Whate'er this heart can prompt. to war! Think. plunged within the ranks. A wood of lances rises round his head. Hector leads you on. Nor tempt too near the terrors of his hand. The godlike Hector warm'd the troops of Troy: "Trojans. that dreadful hand. Deeds must decide our fate. E'en these with words Insult the brave. who tremble at their swords: The weakest atheist-wretch all heaven defies.608 The Iliad of Homer But whatsoe'er Achilles can inspire. Nor dread the vaunts of Peleus' haughty son.

"—The insulting hero said. shouting to the skies. And left him sleeping in eternal shade. Those beauteous fields where Hyllus' waves are roll'd. First falls Iphytion. From Hyde's walls he ruled the lands below. Resistless drove the batter'd skull before. and seized with fright. And dash'd and mingled all the brains with gore. The rolling wheels of Greece the body tore. Antenor's offspring. the price of rashness paid. Then fierce Achilles. Otryntides! the Trojan earth Receives thee dead. Are thine no more. laid Breathless in dust. From great Otrynteus he derived his blood. Fierce as he springs. His mother was a Nais. Deserts his chariot for a swifter flight: The lance arrests him: an ignoble wound The panting Trojan rivets to the ground. Brave was the chief. Demoleon next. On Troy's whole force with boundless fury flies. of the flood.BOOK XX. Beneath the shades of Tmolus. While thus Achilles glories o'er the slain: "Lie there. crown'd with snow. and brave the host he led. 609 . And dash'd their axles with no vulgar gore. At Neptune's shrine on Helice's high shores. This sees Hippodamas. He groans away his soul: not louder roars. The impatient steel with full-descending sway Forced through his brazen helm its furious way. at his army's head. the sword his head divides: The parted visage falls on equal sides: With loud-resounding arms he strikes the plain. though Gygae boast thy birth. And plenteous Hermus swells with tides of gold.

. and receive thy fate!" He spake no more. relate that Polydore was sent into Thrace. And ocean listens to the grateful sound. To the forbidden field he takes his flight. His soul no longer brook'd the distant fight: Full in Achilles' dreadful front he came. to the house of Polymestor. To vaunt his swiftness wheels around the plain. with all his swiftness slain: Struck where the crossing belts unite behind. The rushing entrails pour'd upon the ground His hands collect. all ghastly in his gore. And on his knees with piercing shrieks he fell. is his friend! No more shall Hector's and Pelides' spear Turn from each other in the walks of war. Thus sadly slain the unhappy Polydore. 268 —On Polydore. Virgil.610 The Iliad of Homer [371] The victim bull. And golden rings the double back-plate join'd Forth through the navel burst the thrilling steel. Then fell on Polydore his vengeful rage. and that he was treacherously murdered by his host for the sake of the treasure sent with him. and darkness wraps him round. and the last. The son of Peleus sees. When Hector view'd. with joy possess'd. And shook his javelin like a waving flame. and others. In the first folly of a youthful knight."— Then with revengeful eyes he scann'd him o'er: "Come. lo! the man on whom black fates attend. But vaunts not long. for protection.268 The youngest hope of Priam's stooping age: (Whose feet for swiftness in the race surpass'd:) Of all his sons. "And. the rocks re-bellow round. the dearest. that slew Achilles. being the youngest of Priam's sons. A cloud of sorrow overcast his sight. Euripides. The man. His heart high-bounding in his rising breast.

the gods may guide my dart. and exclaims aloud: "Wretch! thou hast 'scaped again. and the partial god of light. Thrice struck Pelides with indignant heart. Achilles closes with his hated foe. Thrice in impassive air he plunged the dart. But heaven alone confers success in war: Mean as I am. But long thou shalt not thy just fate withstand. once more thy flight Has saved thee. undaunted. His heart and eyes with flaming fury glow: But present to his aid. Apollo shrouds The favour'd hero in a veil of clouds. thus: "Such words employ To one that dreads thee. Mean intercourse of obloquy and pride! I know thy force to mine superior far. Fly then inglorious! but thy flight this day Whole hecatombs of Trojan ghosts shall pay. some unwarlike boy: Such we could give. The spear a fourth time buried in the cloud. defying and defied." 611 Then parts the lance: but Pallas' heavenly breath Far from Achilles wafts the winged death: The bidden dart again to Hector flies." [372] . And at the feet of its great master lies. And give it entrance in a braver heart.BOOK XX. He foams with fury. Hector. If any power assist Achilles' hand.

612 The Iliad of Homer With that. Thy life. The purple death comes floating o'er his eyes. great Philetor's heir. young Alastor bleeds. and one the sword. Then brave Deucalion died: the dart was flung Where the knit nerves the pliant elbow strung. an unassisting weight. In vain his youth. he gluts his rage on numbers slain: Then Dryops tumbled to the ensanguined plain. Gigantic chief! deep gash'd the enormous blade. Nor less unpitied. Pierced through the neck: he left him panting there. E'er bent that fierce. expecting fate: . no moving art. And stood all impotent. with a suppliant's moan. and cried. The ruthless falchion oped his tender side. Through Mulius' head then drove the impetuous spear: The warrior falls. Sunk in one instant to the nether world: This difference only their sad fates afford That one the spear destroy'd. In vain he begs thee. an age so like thy own! Unhappy boy! no prayer. in vain his beauty pleads. Warm'd in the brain the smoking weapon lies. transfix'd from ear to ear. He dropp'd his arm. The valiant sons of an unhappy sire. To spare a form. Both in one instant from the chariot hurl'd. Echeclus! next the sword bereaves. Laoganus and Dardanus expire. The panting liver pours a flood of gore That drowns his bosom till he pants no more. Deep though the front the ponderous falchion cleaves. And for the soul an ample passage made. And stopp'd Demuchus. inexorable heart! While yet he trembled at his knees.

Full on his neck the falling falchion sped. immense destruction pours And earth is deluged with the sanguine showers As with autumnal harvests cover'd o'er. When round and round. scarce turn'd. with never-wearied pain. All grim with dust. And thick bestrewn. The trampling steers beat out the unnumber'd grain: So the fierce coursers. as the chariot rolls. And stretch'd the servant o'er his dying lord. This way and that. who saw expiring on the ground His prostrate master. Around him wide. and blazes to the skies. (The son of Pierus. Rhigmas. all horrible in blood: Yet still insatiate. Dash'd from their hoofs while o'er the dead they fly.BOOK XX. Fires the high woods. And runs on crackling shrubs between the hills. Black. still with rage on flame. The squire. And. the Pelian javelin gored. an illustrious name. Such is the lust of never-dying fame! 613 [373] . rein'd the steeds around. His back. Tread down whole ranks. High o'er the scene of death Achilles stood. bloody drops the smoking chariot dye: The spiky wheels through heaps of carnage tore. Then o'er the stubble up the mountain flies. From his broad shoulders hew'd his crested head: Forth from the bone the spinal marrow flies. And thick the groaning axles dropp'd with gore. lies Ceres' sacred floor. the corpse extended lies. and crush out heroes' souls. Prone from his car the thundering chief descends. the spreading torrent roars: So sweeps the hero through the wasted shores. As when a flame the winding valley fills. whose race from fruitful Thracia came. sunk in dust.) Succeeds to fate: the spear his belly rends.

614 The Iliad of Homer CENTAUR. .

who (to delude Achilles) takes upon him Agenor's shape. i. and kills Lycaon and Asteropeus. The rescue of Achilles by the fiery arms of Vulcan scarcely admits of the same ready explanation from physical causes. gives the Trojans an opportunity of retiring into their city. Their wide. THE BATTLE IN THE RIVER SCAMANDER. first with Achilles. be ascribed to a god symbolic of the influences opposed to all atmospheric moisture. and while he pursues him in that disguise. the other gods engage each other. 480."—Mure. and afterwards with Vulcan. he has brought the river god Scamander.[374] BOOK XXI. to sacrifice to the shade of Patroclus. "Perhaps the boldest excursion of Homer into this region of poetical fancy is the collision into which. The overwhelming fury of the stream finds the natural interpretation in the character of the mountain torrents of Greece and Asia Minor. by the instigation of Juno. ARGUMENT. and is conveyed away in a cloud by Apollo. others to the river Scamander: he falls upon the latter with great slaughter: takes twelve captives alive. Meanwhile Achilles continues the slaughter. almost dries up the river.269 The Trojans fly before Achilles. sq. Yet the subsiding of the flood at the critical moment when the hero's destruction appeared imminent. some towards the town. so as to be easily forded by the foot passenger. when summoned by Juno to the hero's aid. by a slight extension of the figurative parallel. vol. unobserved perhaps by the traveller on the plain. 269 . in the twenty-first of the Iliad. But a thunder-shower in the mountains. Scamander attacks him with all his waves: Neptune and Pallas assist the hero: Simois joins Scamander: at length Vulcan. shingly beds are in summer comparatively dry. might. This Combat ended. may suddenly immerse him in the flood of a mighty river. drives the rest into Troy: Agenor only makes a stand. p.

Driven from the land before the smoky cloud. As the scorch'd locusts from their fields retire. Roars the resounding surge with men and horse. And now to Xanthus' gliding stream they drove. in eddies whirling round. Now chased. The river here divides the flying train. [375] . Deep groan'd the waters with the dying sound. plunged in Xanthus by Achilles' force. The flouncing steeds and shrieking warriors drown'd. The scene is on the banks and in the stream of Scamander. Repeated wounds the reddening river dyed. high brandish'd o'er the waves: Now down he plunges. (Which spreading tamarisks on the margin hide. Where late their troops triumphant bore the fight.) Then. The flashing billows beat the whiten'd shores: With cries promiscuous all the banks resound. the rapid billows braves. Confusedly heap'd they seek their inmost caves.616 The Iliad of Homer The same day continues. and trembling in ignoble flight: (These with a gathered mist Saturnia shrouds. And the warm purple circled on the tide. Xanthus. The clustering legions rush into the flood: So. Arm'd with his sword. now he whirls it round. immortal progeny of Jove. Swift through the foamy flood the Trojans fly. And rolls behind the rout a heap of clouds:) Part plunge into the stream: old Xanthus roars. like a god. In shoals before him fly the scaly train. and there. Part to the town fly diverse o'er the plain. While fast behind them runs the blaze of fire. And close in rocks or winding caverns lie: So the huge dolphin tempesting the main. And here. His bloody lance the hero casts aside.

Then. And knock'd his faltering knees. The son of Priam. and brave me on the field. Sad victims destined to Patroclus' shade. whom the hero's hand But late made captive in his father's land (As from a sycamore. touching on the shore. (The helm and visor he had cast aside With wild affright.) As trembling. The next. But kind Eetion. tired with slaughter. The young Lycaon in his passage stood. since in his father's reign He felt the sweets of liberty again. from the Trojan band Twelve chosen youths he drags alive to land. Or pant and heave beneath the floating waves. Ten days were past. With their rich belts their captive arms restrains (Late their proud ornaments. "Ye mighty gods! what wonders strike my view! Is it in vain our conquering arms subdue? Sure I shall see yon heaps of Trojans kill'd Rise from the shades. the hero said.BOOK XXI. 617 [376] . that god whom men in vain withstand Gives the same youth to the same conquering hand Now never to return! and doom'd to go A sadder journey to the shades below. as once more he plunged amid the flood. Now. These his attendants to the ships convey'd. but now their chains). His well-known face when great Achilles eyed. from the stream he fled. and dropp'd upon the field His useless lance and unavailing shield. panting. The ransom'd prince to fair Arisbe bore. Where Jason's son the price demanded gave. his sounding steel Lopp'd the green arms to spoke a chariot wheel) To Lemnos' isle he sold the royal slave.

He kiss'd his feet. Achilles raised the spear. whose strong grasp has held down Hercules. the Trojan pale with fears Approach'd. Who shared the gifts of Ceres at thy board. at length this active prince can seize. the spear suspended stood. Once more Lycaon trembles at thy knee. That bar such numbers from their native plain. great Achilles! see. Scarce respited from woes I yet appear. One hand embraced them close. Longing to dip its thirsty point in blood. stalks on Trojan ground! Not him the sea's unmeasured deeps detain. Try. . above. And his soul shivering at the approach of death. Far from his father. Earth. and Laothoe fair. and native shore. extended on the ground: And while.618 The Iliad of Homer As now the captive. and sought his knees with suppliant tears Loth as he was to yield his youthful breath. if the grave can hold the wanderer. Lo! Jove again submits me to thy hands. one stopp'd the dart. While thus these melting words attempt his heart: "Thy well-known captive." Thus while he spoke. friends. And scarce twelve morning suns have seen me here. Now sums immense thy mercy shall repay. If earth. then. A hundred oxen were his price that day. (Old Altes' daughter. prepared to wound. Some pity to a suppliant's name afford. Whom late thy conquering arm to Lemnos bore. and Lelegia's heir. Again. my flying spear! Try. whom so late I bound And sold to Lemnos. Lo! he returns. her victim cruel Fate demands! I sprang from Priam.

or the dart. Achilles his broad sword display'd. And buried in his neck the reeking blade. The youth address'd to unrelenting ears: "Talk not of life. the arrow. dies: In vain a single Trojan sues for grace. Sprung from a hero.BOOK XXI. And thou. Who held in Pedasus his famed abode. whoever meets me. For ah! one spear shall drink each brother's gore.) Two sons (alas! unhappy sons) she bore. the sons of Priam's hateful race. the good Patroclus is no more! He. With his." These words. The fainting stripling sank before the stroke: His hand forgot its grasp. attended with a shower of tears. By night. While all his trembling frame confess'd his fear: Sudden. 619 [377] . But least. How from that arm of terror shall I fly? Some demon urges! 'tis my doom to die! If ever yet soft pity touch'd thy mind. whom nature's gifts adorn. far thy better. or by design. Impending death and certain fate are mine! Die then. dost thou bewail mortality? Seest thou not me. who wrought thy loved Patroclus' death. or ransom (he replies): Patroclus dead."—He said. was foredoom'd to die. And ruled the fields where silver Satnio flow'd. or day. Ah! think not me too much of Hector's kind! Not the same mother gave thy suppliant breath. and as the word he spoke. And I succeed to slaughter'd Polydore. from a goddess born? The day shall come (which nothing can avert) When by the spear. Die then. by force. and left the spear. my friend! what boots it to deplore? The great.

And shook two spears. What means divine may yet the power employ To check Achilles. he fearless stood. And thus insults him. The victor to the stream the carcase gave. The son of Pelagon. With all his refluent waters circled round:) On him Achilles rush'd. whose lofty line Flows from the source of Axius. and to rescue Troy? Meanwhile the hero springs in arms. with this bitter fate. His earthly honours. floating on the wave: "Lie there. What boots ye now Scamander's worshipp'd stream." These boastful words provoked the raging god. till the Grecian vengeance is complete: Thus is atoned Patroclus' honour'd shade. to dare The great Asteropeus to mortal war. Thus. and panting on the land. With fury swells the violated flood. and immortal name? In vain your immolated bulls are slain. advancing from the flood. Lycaon! let the fish surround Thy bloated corpse. The gushing purple dyed the thirsty sand. and suck thy gory wound: There no sad mother shall thy funerals weep. And the short absence of Achilles paid. Whose every wave some watery monster brings. and all the Trojan line! Such ruin theirs. stream divine! (Fair Peribaea's love the god had crown'd. Your living coursers glut his gulfs in vain! Thus he rewards you. To feast unpunish'd on the fat of kings. [378] . and such compassion mine. So perish Troy. But swift Scamander roll thee to the deep.620 The Iliad of Homer Prone fell the youth.

Repulsive of his might the weapon stood: The fourth. Even to the middle earth. Begot my sire.) One struck. Arm'd with protended spears. my native band. 621 . boldest of the race of man? Who. The flood impell'd him. who swells with all the neighbouring rills. the Vulcanian shield. in earth the fasten'd weapon stood." "O son of Peleus! what avails to trace (Replied the warrior) our illustrious race? From rich Paeonia's valleys I command. Like lightning next the Pelean javelin flies: Its erring fury hiss'd along the skies. Now shines the tenth bright morning since I came In aid of Ilion to the fields of fame: Axius. And on his foe with double fury flew. whose spear much glory won: Now lift thy arm. Achilles thus began: "What art thou. One razed Achilles' hand. on Pelides' head To avenge his waters choked with heaps of dead. and try that hero's son!" Threatening he said: the hostile chiefs advance. and quiver'd there. the spouting blood Spun forth. And wide around the floated region fills. The foe thrice tugg'd. Deep in the swelling bank was driven the spear. and shook the rooted wood. Then from his side the sword Pelides drew. Near as they drew. or from whence? Unhappy is the sire Whose son encounters our resistless ire. At once Asteropeus discharged each lance. he tumbles to the plain. (For both his dexterous hands the lance could wield. he tries to break the spear in vain.BOOK XXI. but pierced not. Bent as he stands.

622 The Iliad of Homer His belly open'd with a ghastly wound. the rivers. Scamander might have shown. roll'd between the banks. [379] . Astyplus. The floating tides the bloody carcase lave. and fishes of the flood. And left the breathless warrior in his gore. And in his deep abysses shakes with fear. Æacus. He vents his fury on the flying crew. And beat against it. Beneath the hero's feet he panting lies. wave succeeding wave. didst thou boast thy line? But great Saturnius is the source of mine. Thrasius. The race of these superior far to those. it lies the food Of curling eels. am I. and his spirit flies. and Jove. What rivers can. Even Achelous might contend in vain. The reeking entrails pour upon the ground. And all the roaring billows of the main. The eternal ocean. As he that thunders to the stream that flows. How durst thou vaunt thy watery progeny? Of Peleus. nor wars against his son. Who strive presumptuous with the sons of Jove! Sprung from a river. The thundering voice of Jove abhors to hear. But Jove he dreads. and Mnesus slew." He said: then from the bank his javelin tore. While the proud victor thus triumphing said. His radiant armour tearing from the dead: "So ends thy glory! Such the fate they prove. Till. And his eye darkens. from whose fountains flow The seas. and the springs below. All scatter'd round the stream (their mightiest slain) The amazed Paeonians scour along the plain.

Thersilochus. Nor roll their wonted tribute to the deep." He said. till Hyperion's fall In awful darkness hide the face of all?" . fell. 'Tis not on me thy rage should heap the dead. confess'd before his eyes. But not till Troy the destined vengeance pay. with Ænius. or see Achilles fall. and drove with fury on the foe. Turn then. and tremble at our arms again. guardian of her wall. See! my choked streams no more their course can keep. and thus the chief replies: "O sacred stream! thy word we shall obey. the shores return'd the sound. Content. 623 "O first of mortals! (for the gods are thine) In valour matchless. But from the bottom of his gulfs profound Scamander spoke. and in force divine! If Jove have given thee every Trojan head." In human form. Mydon. impetuous! from our injured flood. Not till within her towers the perjured train Shall pant. Or stain this lance.BOOK XXI. thy slaughters could amaze a god. And make her conquer. Not till proud Hector. that Phoebus should employ His sacred arrows in defence of Troy. And numbers more his lance had plunged to hell. The river thus. Then to the godhead of the silver bow The yellow flood began: "O son of Jove! Was not the mandate of the sire above Full and express.

And round the banks the ghastly dead are toss'd.) screen the bands who fly. He seized a bending bough. that overhung the flood. Then rising in his rage above the shores. From all his deep the bellowing river roars. now there. which is described as reaching from one of its banks to the other. scarce the strong flood divide. While all before. The falling deluge whelms the hero round: His loaded shield bends to the rushing tide.624 The Iliad of Homer [380] He spoke in vain—The chief without dismay Ploughs through the boiling surge his desperate way. Far as a spear can fly. and raised upon his hand.270 Heaving the bank. The plant uprooted to his weight gave way. ambitious to destroy The man whose fury is the fate of Troy." 270 . His feet. the billows ranged on high. On the border stood A spreading elm. and regain'd the land. Huge heaps of slain disgorges on the coast. upborne. The large trunk display'd Bridged the rough flood across: the hero stay'd On this his weight. and undermining all. Wood has observed. Achilles springs. and staggering. he turns on every side. He like the warlike eagle speeds his pace (Swiftest and strongest of the aerial race). affords a very just idea of the breadth of the Scamander. that "the circumstance of a falling tree. (A watery bulwark. And bursts the bank. Then blacken'd the wild waves: the murmur rose: The god pursues. his steps to stay. Leap'd from the channel. Now bursting on his head with thundering sound. At every bound his clanging armour rings: Now here. a huger billow throws. Sliddering. Loud flash the waters to the rushing fall Of the thick foliage.

Before him scattering. Tired by the tides. When thus (his eyes on heaven's expansion thrown) Forth bursts the hero with an angry groan: [381] . Oft as he turn'd the torrent to oppose. Swift o'er the rolling pebbles. And bravely try if all the powers were foes. 625 Still flies Achilles. The first of men. they prevent his pains. Beats on his back. And marks the future current with his spade. and murmur at his heels. And calls the floods from high. And gather fast. The waves flow after. So when a peasant to his garden brings Soft rills of water from the bubbling springs. to bless his bowers. Louder and louder purl the falling rills.BOOK XXI. And shine in mazy wanderings o'er the plains. but before his eyes Still swift Scamander rolls where'er he flies: Not all his speed escapes the rapid floods. And feed with pregnant streams the plants and flowers: Soon as he clears whate'er their passage stay'd. And winds his course before the following tide. in watery mountains spread. his knees relax with toil. Wash'd from beneath him slides the slimy soil. Yet dauntless still the adverse flood he braves. And still indignant bounds above the waves. or bursts upon his head. but not a match for gods. down the hills. wheresoe'er he wheels. So oft the surge.

the counsel heaven suggests. Oh how unworthy of the brave and great! Like some vile swain. thy gods appear! Behold! from Jove descending to thy aid. But most of Thetis must her son complain. 271 . whom on a rainy day. the torrent sweeps away. Crossing a ford. as compared with a death in the field of battle. Till Troy receive her flying sons. In glorious arms before the Trojan wall. Stay. And my swift soul o'ertake my slaughter'd friend. —Ignominious. O Jove! this ignominious date. And Hector's blood shall smoke upon thy lance. till all Her routed squadrons pant behind their wall: Hector alone shall stand his fatal chance. Of all heaven's oracles believed in vain. No power to avert his miserable end? Prevent. But thou. by a hero's arm! Might Hector's spear this dauntless bosom rend. O son of Peleus! Lo. was considered utterly disgraceful. And thus in human form address'd the chief: The power of ocean first: "Forbear thy fear. and the furious flood shall cease to rave 'Tis not thy fate to glut his angry wave. Ah no! Achilles meets a shameful fate. Stretch'd like a hero. Propitious Neptune.626 The Iliad of Homer "Is there no god Achilles to befriend. Oh! had I died in fields of battle warm." Neptune and Pallas haste to his relief. and the blue-eyed maid. By Phoebus' darts she prophesied my fall. attend! Nor breathe from combat. An unregarded carcase to the sea.271 And make my future life the sport of fate. Drowning. nor thy sword suspend.

Call then thy subject streams. He wades. Immersed remain this terror of the world. And lifts his billows. by leaps and bounds. That blaze so dreadful in each Trojan eye." Thus spake the gods: Then swift ascended to the bright abodes. my brother flood. No Greeks shall e'er his perish'd relics grace. and invades the field: O'er all the expanded plain the waters spread. Not a whole river stops the hero's course. Heaved on the bounding billows danced the dead. Our bravest heroes else shall quit the fight. And deep beneath a sandy mountain hurl'd. And Ilion tumble from her towery height. nor form divine to sight. High o'er the surging tide. With equal rage. and o'erwhelms his shores. Charge the black surge. and mounts. Such ponderous ruin shall confound the place. Mark how resistless through the floods he goes. and pour it on his head. indignant Xanthus roars. And check this mortal that controls a god. 627 [382] Then thus to Simois! "Haste. and with a load of dead. thus by heaven impell'd. And boldly bids the warring gods be foes! But nor that force. and bid them roar. From all thy fountains swell thy watery store. Shall aught avail him. Stung with new ardour. Thine is the glory doom'd. if our rage unite: Whelm'd under our dark gulfs those arms shall lie.BOOK XXI. He springs impetuous. With broken rocks. . the parted wave resounds. Floating 'midst scatter'd arms. while casques of gold And turn'd-up bucklers glitter'd as they roll'd. While Pallas fills him with immortal force.

He said. or inhume. She call'd aloud. he raves. Then. and on the chief descends amain. Increased with gore." ACHILLES CONTENDING WITH THE RIVERS. These his cold rites. And a foam whitens on the purple waves: At every step. .628 The Iliad of Homer No hand his bones shall gather. murmuring from his beds. he boils. and summon'd Vulcan's aid. and this his watery tomb. before Achilles stood The crimson surge. Fear touch'd the queen of heaven: she saw dismay'd. and swelling with the slain. and deluged him with blood.

And instant blows the water'd gardens dry: So look'd the field. The flowering lotos and the tamarisk burn. And thus. short-panting. the fishes pant for breath. now dive the scaly fry. Rush the swift eastern and the western wind: These from old ocean at my word shall blow. and cypress rising in a spire. As when autumnal Boreas sweeps the sky. Scorch all the banks! and (till our voice reclaim) Exert the unwearied furies of the flame!" The power ignipotent her word obeys: Wide o'er the plain he pours the boundless blaze. While Vulcan breathed the fiery blast around. The eels lie twisting in the pangs of death: Now flounce aloft. turn their bellies to the sky. gasping. 629 "Rise to the war! the insulting flood requires Thy wasteful arm! assemble all thy fires! While to their aid. Go. And hissing rivers to their bottoms burn. The watery willows hiss before the fire. Swift on the sedgy reeds the ruin preys. the crackling trees devour. and dries the soil And the shrunk waters in their channel boil. Corses and arms to one bright ruin turn. by our command enjoin'd. so whiten'd was the ground. to the god he said: .BOOK XXI. Pour the red torrent on the watery foe. Or. mighty in thy rage! display thy power. Now glow the waves. Broad elm. At length the river rear'd his languid head. Along the margin winds the running blaze: The trees in flaming rows to ashes turn. At once consumes the dead. Drink the whole flood.

Hear then my solemn oath." 272 [384] —Beneath a caldron. And choked with vapours feels his bottom glow. The bubbling waters yield a hissing sound. vii. only me. must thy son engage Me. For mightier gods assert the cause of Troy. "So. Amid the fierce embrace of circling fires The waters foam. And in one ruin sink the Trojan name. But ah! withdraw this all-destroying hand. To Juno then. forbid to flow. when with crackling flames a caldron fries. The burning river sends his earnest prayer: "Ah why. the heavy smoke aspires: So boils the imprison'd flood. to yield to fate Unaided Ilion. I sink. Till Greece shall gird her with destructive flame. if thou command. The bubbling waters from the bottom rise. if fate decree— Ah—bend no more thy fiery arms on me!" He ceased. Above the brims they force their fiery way. 644. with all his wasteful rage? On other gods his dreadful arm employ. wide conflagration blazing round. Submissive I desist." Dryden's Virgil. . Black vapours climb aloft. unequal to the fight— I yield—Let Ilion fall. As when the flames beneath a cauldron rise.630 The Iliad of Homer "Oh Vulcan! oh! what power resists thy might? I faint. and cloud the day.272 To melt the fat of some rich sacrifice. and her destined state. imperial queen of air. Saturnia.

." He spoke. Recall the flame. when in thy frantic mood Thou drovest a mortal to insult a god? Thy impious hand Tydides' javelin bore. thus to disunite Ethereal minds. And madly bathed it in celestial gore. nor in a mortal cause Infest a god: the obedient flame withdraws: Again the branching streams begin to spread. The power of battles lifts his brazen spear. 631 While these by Juno's will the strife resign. And views contending gods with careless eyes.BOOK XXI. And wide beneath them groans the rending ground. and mix all heaven in fight? What wonder this. and smote the long-resounding shield. Which bears Jove's thunder on its dreadful field: The adamantine aegis of her sire. the dreadful scene descries. That turns the glancing bolt and forked fire. The warring gods in fierce contention join: Rekindling rage each heavenly breast alarms: With horrid clangour shock the ethereal arms: Heaven in loud thunder bids the trumpet sound. Jove. as his sport. His warm entreaty touch'd Saturnia's ear: She bade the ignipotent his rage forbear. And first assaults the radiant queen of war: "What moved thy madness. And soft remurmur in their wonted bed.

The stunning stroke his stubborn nerves unbound: Loud o'er the fields his ringing arms resound: The scornful dame her conquest views with smiles. vast. if she dares. propp'd on her fair arm. There fix'd from eldest times. the limit of the neighbouring land. And. in open view. And partial aid to Troy's perfidious race. black. And. and turn'd her eyes away. thus the prostrate god reviles: [385] "Hast thou not yet. forsakes the plain. pursue." . glorying. thus to war's victorious maid: "Lo! what an aid on Mars's side is seen! The smiles' and loves' unconquerable queen! Mark with what insolence. scarcely breathes with pain. insatiate fury! known How far Minerva's force transcends thy own? Juno. Jove's Cyprian daughter. And." The goddess spoke. diffused celestial day. She moves: let Pallas. This the bright empress of the heavens survey'd. This at the heavenly homicide she cast. whom thou rebellious darest withstand. craggy. Thundering he falls. scoffing. Lent to the wounded god her tender hand: Slowly he rises. stooping on the land. a mass of monstrous size: And seven broad acres covers as he lies. Thus meets thy broken faith with just disgrace. beaming round.632 The Iliad of Homer Then heaved the goddess in her mighty hand A stone. That. Corrects thy folly thus by Pallas' hand.

Suits not my greatness. . With menace stern the fraudful king defied Our latent godhead. and heaven returns the sound: Shall. so fierce. how. and the prize denied: Mad as he was. So dread." Thus she. Then from the lowest stone shall Troy be moved. "And like these heroes be the fate of all (Minerva cries) who guard the Trojan wall! To Grecian gods such let the Phrygian be. he threaten'd servile bands. the pair o'ertook. "What sloth has seized us. Minerva smiling heard. and Juno with a smile approved. and of thy own. at the monarch's prayer. ignominious. to mix in more than mortal fight. fell (her spirits fled). or superior age: Rash as thou art to prop the Trojan throne. to our Olympian sire? Come.) And guard the race of proud Laomedon! Hast thou forgot. we with shame retire. We shared the lengthen'd labours of a year? Troy walls I raised (for such were Jove's commands). And slightly on her breast the wanton strook: She. unresisting. (Forgetful of my wrongs. 633 Meantime. And yon proud bulwarks grew beneath my hands: Thy task it was to feed the bellowing droves Along fair Ida's vales and pendant groves.BOOK XXI. as Venus is to me. The god of ocean dares the god of light. On earth together lay the lovers spread. prove thy arm! for first the war to wage. when the fields around Ring with conflicting powers. No deed perform'd. But when the circling seasons in their train Brought back the grateful day that crown'd our pain.

" "This tale of the temporary servitude of particular gods. by order of Jove. future sons destroy. Smile on the sun. And destined vengeance on the perjured king. i. The quiver'd huntress of the sylvan shades: "And is it thus the youthful Phoebus flies. recurs not unfrequently among the incidents of the Mythical world. and dreadful show Of pointed arrows and the silver bow! Now boast no more in yon celestial bower.634 [386] The Iliad of Homer And doom'd us exiles far in barbarous lands. we heavenward fled with swiftest wing. that now. infest the faithless race. 156. And not. with beauty crown'd. Like us. far-beaming heavenly fires.273 Incensed. 273 . wither on the ground. And from its deep foundations heave their Troy?" Apollo thus: "To combat for mankind Ill suits the wisdom of celestial mind. for this. their present. now. For what is man? Calamitous by birth. Like yearly leaves. as a punishment for misbehaviour. They owe their life and nourishment to earth." Then turns his face."—Grote. p. like us. Artemis upbraids. Nor mix immortals in a cause so mean. And from the senior power submiss retires: Him thus retreating. Dost thou. Thy force can match the great earth-shaking power. vol. And yields to ocean's hoary sire the prize? How vain that martial pomp. afford proud Ilion grace. To their own hands commit the frantic scene.

Yet still her heart against the marble beats. To her Latona hastes with tender care. no more unequal war to wage—" She said. Drop round. and seized her wrists with eager rage. when the falcon wings her way above. and its plumy pride. And boast my conquest. rattling from the case. with a tiger's heart? What though tremendous in the woodland chase Thy certain arrows pierce the savage race? How dares thy rashness on the powers divine Employ those arms. And scarce restrains the torrent in her eyes: So. she winds her from the blow. Thy sex's tyrant. The wretched matron feels thy piercing dart. and idly mark the dusty place. thus declines the war: "How shall I face the dame. (Not fated yet to die. her right untied The bow. now there. who gives delight To him whose thunders blacken heaven with night? Go. The scattering arrows. Now here. Whom Hermes viewing. Fierce to the feeble race of womankind." 635 [387] . To the cleft cavern speeds the gentle dove. matchless goddess! triumph in the skies. while I yield the prize. About her temples flies the busy bow. the quiver.) there safe retreats. or match thy force with mine? Learn hence.BOOK XXI. These in her left hand lock'd. Silent he heard the queen of woods upbraid: Not so Saturnia bore the vaunting maid: But furious thus: "What insolence has driven Thy pride to face the majesty of heaven? What though by Jove the female plague design'd. Swift from the field the baffled huntress flies.

636 The Iliad of Homer He spoke. The pale inhabitants. glittering on the dust. . Collects the scatter'd shafts and fallen bow. some fly. And toils. That. from the war's alarms. And the red vapours purple all the sky: So raged Achilles: death and dire dismay. And fear'd the Greeks. Apollo enters Ilion's sacred town. she sought the sovereign god. and panted on her breast. and pass'd: Latona. she names his own imperial spouse. some fall. fill'd the dreadful day. As when avenging flames with fury driven On guilty towns exert the wrath of heaven. through death. and terrors. though fate forbade her fall. and o'er rolling steeds. Thus they above: while. stooping low. Some proud in triumph. Achilles still proceeds. some with rage on fire. and bade her show What heavenly hand had caused his daughter's woe? Abash'd. The guardian-god now trembled for her wall. The sire superior smiled. Back to Olympus. swiftly gliding down. Through blood. Where. O'er slaughter'd heroes. Weeping. lay here and there Dishonour'd relics of Diana's war: Then swift pursued her to her blest abode. all confused. she grasp'd his knees: the ambrosial vest Shook with her sighs. And the pale crescent fades upon her brows. Return the shining bands of gods in arms. And take their thrones around the ethereal sire.

Fast as he could. and cover'd the retreat. And the near hero rising on his sight! No stop. the god who darts ethereal flame.) 637 [388] . Thither. a heartless train. Set wide your portals to the flying throng: For lo! he comes. insatiable of war. with unresisted sway. and shut out death. On heaps the Trojans crowd to gain the gate. labour on With heavier strides. High on a turret hoary Priam stands. But he. Wild with revenge. And gladsome see their last escape from fate. And settled sorrow on his aged face. Hoary with dust. that lengthen toward the town. and desolation marks his way! But when within the walls our troops take breath. Shot down to save her. He comes. on the guards he calls: "You to whose care our city-gates belong. the flying bands to meet. And thus descending. Phoebus rush'd forth. And marks the waste of his destructive hands. Lock fast the brazen bars. bold. no check. the Trojans' scatter'd flight. no aid! With feeble pace. all parch'd with thirst. Enraged Achilles follows with his spear. (Antenor's offspring. fainting. they beat the hollow plain: And gasping. Struck slaughter back." Thus charged the reverend monarch: wide were flung The opening folds. the sounding hinges rung. Views. And Troy inglorious to her walls retired. and brave. and redeem her fame: To young Agenor force divine he gave.BOOK XXI. haughty. panting. from his arm. Then had the Greeks eternal praise acquired. he sighing quits the walls.

the troubled motions rise. No: with the common heap I scorn to fall— What if they pass'd me to the Trojan wall. And such his valour. When now the generous youth Achilles spies. ere yet I turn the wall. fighting for the state. that leads To Ida's forests and surrounding shades? So may I reach. beside the beech he sate. (So. he may feel (Like all the sons of earth) the force of steel. What if?—But wherefore all this vain debate? Stand I to doubt. that who stands must die. and be like others slain? Vain hope! to shun him by the self-same road Yon line of slaughter'd Trojans lately trod.) He stops. the waters heave and roll. From my tired body wash the dirt and blood. Here. the cooling flood. shall I fly this terror of the plain! Like others fly. "What. within the reach of fate? Even now perhaps. restrain'd the hand of fate. and I fall: Such is his swiftness. Yet sure he too is mortal. and questions thus his mighty soul. While I decline to yonder path. The fierce Achilles sees me." . Howe'er 'tis better.638 The Iliad of Homer In aid of him. Return in safety to my Trojan friends. 'tis in vain to fly. and in public view. One only soul informs that dreadful frame: And Jove's sole favour gives him all his fame. to meet my fate. As soon as night her dusky veil extends. And wrapt in clouds. conceal'd. ere a storm. Thick beats his heart.

a thousand toils remain.BOOK XXI. Disdainful of retreat: high held before. but safe from harms He stands impassive in the ethereal arms. And strong and many are the sons of Troy. His shield (a broad circumference) he bore. [389] . Roused from his thicket by a storm of darts: Untaught to fear or fly. or beneath him dies. the hollow cuishes rung Beneath the pointed steel. And the barb'd javelin stings his breast in vain: On their whole war. and press a foreign shore. though wounded. Antenor's valiant heir Confronts Achilles. And all his beating bosom claim'd the fight. Parents and children our just arms employ. Then graceful as he stood. Great as thou art. Not less resolved. that hope is vain. scarce perceives the pain. untamed. A thousand woes. collected. So from some deep-grown wood a panther starts. and of clamorous hounds. and stood. thus bespoke the foe: "How proud Achilles glories in his fame! And hopes this day to sink the Trojan name Beneath her ruins! Know. he hears the sounds Of shouting hunters. in his might. His lifted arm prepares the fatal blow: But. and awaits the war. Then fiercely rushing on the daring foe." He said: with matchless force the javelin flung Smote on his knee. Apollo shrouds The god-like Trojan in a veil of clouds. the savage flies. jealous of his fame. even thou may'st stain with gore These Phrygian fields. And tears his hunter. 639 He said. Though struck. in act to throw The lifted javelin.

or tell.640 The Iliad of Homer Safe from pursuit. Assumes Agenor's habit. the favoured youth withdrew. voice and shape. The furious chief still follows where he flies. Flies from the furious chief in this disguise. no stay. And pour on heaps into the walls of Troy: No stop. to cover their escape. no thought to ask. Now o'er the fields they stretch with lengthen'd strides. deliver'd from their fate. and wheels about the shore. Pale Troy against Achilles shuts her gate: And nations breathe. 'Twas tumult all. Who 'scaped by flight. and violence of flight. Now urge the course where swift Scamander glides: The god. now distant scarce a stride before. And sudden joy confused. and shut from mortal view. Dismiss'd with fame. and mix'd affright. . While all the flying troops their speed employ. Meanwhile the god. or who by battle fell. Tempts his pursuit.

and is slain. and tries to persuade his son to re-enter the town. The herded Ilians rush like driven deer: There safe they wipe the briny drops away. The scene lies under the walls. Her excess of grief and lamentation. Hector consults within himself what measures to take. bending on. ARGUMENT. March. advancing o'er the fields Beneath one roof of well-compacted shields.[390] BOOK XXII. and beholds her dead husband. who. ignorant of this. The gods debate concerning the fate of Hector. Hector only stays to oppose Achilles. The Trojans being safe within the walls. but in vain. And drown in bowls the labours of the day. She deludes Hector in the shape of Deiphobus. THE DEATH OF HECTOR. Achilles pursues him thrice round the walls of Troy. and on the battlements of Troy. . and he flies. Thus to their bulwarks. She swoons at the spectacle. his resolution fails him. Hecuba joins her entreaties. he stands the combat. Their lamentations. tears. at length Minerva descends to the aid of Achilles. Close to the walls. was retired into the inner part of the palace: she mounts up to the walls. but at the advance of Achilles. The thirtieth day still continues. the Greeks' embodied powers. Their cries reach the ears of Andromache. and despair. smit with panic fear. Priam is struck at his approach. Achilles drags the dead body at his chariot in the sight of Priam and Hecuba.

Still his bold arms determined to employ. [391] Apollo now to tired Achilles turns: (The power confess'd in all his glory burns:) "And what (he cries) has Peleus' son in view. To cheat a mortal who repines in vain. and thy present vain: Safe in their walls are now her troops bestow'd. Great Hector singly stay'd: chain'd down by fate There fix'd he stood before the Scaean gate.642 The Iliad of Homer Far stretching in the shade of Trojan towers. Powerful of godhead. alas! for one of heavenly strain. and of fraud divine: Mean fame. that Troy forsook the plain? Vain thy past labour." ." The chief incensed—"Too partial god of day! To check my conquests in the middle way: How few in Ilion else had refuge found! What gasping numbers now had bit the ground! Thou robb'st me of a glory justly mine. With mortal speed a godhead to pursue? For not to thee to know the gods is given. Unskill'd to trace the latent marks of heaven. While here thy frantic rage attacks a god. What boots thee now. The guardian still of long-defended Troy.

Hector! my loved.274 Through the thick gloom of some tempestuous night. And thus adjures him with extended hands: "Ah stay not. obtests the skies. stay not! guardless and alone. terrible and strong. Not half so dreadful rises to the sight. . And o'er the feebler stars exerts his rays. So flamed his fiery mail. bravest son! Methinks already I behold thee slain. Terrific glory! for his burning breath Taints the red air with fevers. And stretch'd beneath that fury of the plain. and death. 708. plagues." —Paradise Lost. "On the other side. victor of the prize. Full at the Scaean gates expects the war. Orion's dog (the year when autumn weighs). To the near goal with double ardour flies. Satan stood Unterrified. Implacable Achilles! might'st thou be 274 643 —Not half so dreadful. as he blazing shot across the field. Incensed with indignation. While the sad father on the rampart stands. Then wept the sage: He strikes his reverend head. Then to the city." xi. He lifts his wither'd arms. Him. and from his horrid hair Shakes pestilence and war. With high and haughty steps he tower'd along. now white with age. That fires the length of Ophiuchus huge In the arctic sky. So the proud courser. resolved Achilles' force to dare.BOOK XXII. He calls his much-loved son with feeble cries: The son. my dearest. and like a comet burn'd. The careful eyes of Priam first beheld.

Yet cursed with sense! a wretch. by right of birth their own. All pale they wander on the Stygian coast. and unworthy toils. my Polydore. my bridal bed o'erturn'd. less to her. if not deprived of thee. What anguish I? unutterable woe! Yet less that anguish. sad spectacle of pain! The bitter dregs of fortune's cup to drain: To fill with scenes of death his closing eyes. Pity. My daughters ravish'd. what treasures would I give! (Their grandsire's wealth. and my city burn'd. While yet thy father feels the woes he bears. What heaps of gold. worse than slaughtered. Two from one mother sprung. . How many valiant sons I late enjoy'd. my eyes in vain explore. thy dearer glory save. spare us all! Save thy dear life. vultures wild should scatter round the shore. while I speak.644 The Iliad of Homer [392] To all the gods no dearer than to me! Thee. Consign'd his daughter with Lelegia's throne:) But if (which Heaven forbid) already lost. Valiant in vain! by thy cursed arm destroy'd: Or. Yet shun Achilles! enter yet the wall. to me. or. sold in distant isles To shameful bondage. What sorrows then must their sad mother know. And number all his days by miseries! My heroes slain. Two. And bloody dogs grow fiercer from thy gore. while yet I live. if a soul so brave Neglect that thought. And loved Lycaon. thy father. Less to all Troy. now perhaps no more! Oh! if in yonder hostile camp they live. these silver hairs. And spare thyself. whom in his rage (All trembling on the verge of helpless age) Great Jove has placed.

These I have yet to see. With him the mournful mother bears a part. In dust the reverend lineaments deform. this is misery! the last. for in fight they fell. attend a parent's prayer! If ever thee in these fond arms I press'd. by our walls secured. [393] . she said: 645 "Have mercy on me. And pour to dogs the life-blood scarcely warm: This.BOOK XXII. But. The zone unbraced. The last sad relic of my ruin'd state. Rent from his head the silver locks away. all honest on the breast. Spurn the hoar head of unresisting age. the worse. and acting what no words could say. Who dies in youth and vigour. And thus. Well have they perish'd. dies the best. fast-falling the salt tears. Ah do not thus our helpless years forego. repel the foe. Struck through with wounds. But when the fates. Yet for my sons I thank ye. Or still'd thy infant clamours at this breast. (but Heaven avert it!) should'st thou bleed. Shall lick their mangled master's spatter'd gore. her bosom she display'd. (Dire pomp of sovereign wretchedness!) must fall. Where famish'd dogs. My bleeding infants dash'd against the floor. Yet all her sorrows turn not Hector's heart. And stain the pavement of my regal hall. reserved by angry fate. late guardians of my door. Should'st thou. That man can feel! man. Against his rage if singly thou proceed. in fulness of their rage. O my son! revere The words of age. perhaps yet more! Perhaps even I. fated to be cursed!" He said. gods! 'tis well.

But most her worthless sons insult my ear. the swelling snake Beholds the traveller approach the brake. Which timely follow'd but the former night. I feel my folly in my people slain. . When fed with noxious herbs his turgid veins Have gather'd half the poisons of the plains. grace thee with a tear! Far from our pious rites those dear remains Must feast the vultures on the naked plains. What numbers had been saved by Hector's flight? That wise advice rejected with disdain. return I must Glorious. Resolved he stands. and with a fiery glance Expects the hero's terrible advance. Beneath a turret. Nor spouse.646 The Iliad of Homer Nor must thy corse lie honour'd on the bier. 113. On my rash courage charge the chance of war. while down their cheeks the torrents roll. He burns." vi. my country's terror laid in dust: Or if I perish. No—if I e'er return. his counsels are obey'd too late. and question'd thus his mighty mind:275 "Where lies my way? to enter in the wall? Honour and shame the ungenerous thought recall: Shall proud Polydamas before the gate Proclaim. on his shield reclined. nor mother. let her see me fall 275 "And thus his own undaunted mind explores. So."—"Paradise Lost. he stiffens with collected ire. And blame those virtues which they cannot share." So they. And his red eyeballs glare with living fire. He stood. roll'd up in his den. Methinks my suffering country's voice I hear. But fix'd remains the purpose of his soul.

and lance. 647 [394] . or thinks he holds his prey. Shot trembling rays that glitter'd o'er the land. What hope of mercy from this vengeful foe. Like Jove's own lightning. And treat on terms of peace to save the town: The wife withheld. No season now for calm familiar talk. The Pelian javelin. in his better hand. that injured Greece May share our wealth. Struck by some god. like a god the Greek drew nigh. but to whom is given To die. the treasure ill-detain'd (Cause of the war. The warrior-shield. And yet suppose these measures I forego. As Hector sees. and grievance of the land) With honourable justice to restore: And add half Ilion's yet remaining store. the helm. Just when he holds. and fighting for her wall. and parley with the foe. He leaves the gates. Like youths and maidens in an evening walk: War is our business. and flies. sworn. as man conversing man. determine Heaven!" Thus pondering. he fears. or the rising sun. Thus at the panting dove a falcon flies (The swiftest racer of the liquid skies). he leaves the wall behind: Achilles follows like the winged wind. Approach unarm'd. and leave our walls in peace. recedes. But woman-like to fall. that. unusual terrors rise. and fall without a blow? We greet not here. In field at least. Which Troy shall. Met at an oak. His dreadful plumage nodded from on high. And on his breast the beamy splendour shone. lay down.BOOK XXII. But why this thought? Unarm'd if I should go. produce. or triumph. or journeying o'er a plain.

Whose polish'd bed receives the falling rills. Where the high watch-tower overlooks the plain. or some lovely dame) The panting coursers swiftly turn the goal. (A wider compass. even from the dignity of a princess. 276 . and cold as winter snows: Each gushing fount a marble cistern fills. One urged by fury. one in flight: (The mighty fled. Next by Scamander's double source they bound. no vulgar prize they play. in the heroic times. And aims his claws. in the Odyssey. Where Trojan dames (ere yet alarm'd by Greece) Wash'd their fair garments in the days of peace. With open beak and shrilling cries he springs. This hot through scorching clefts is seen to rise.276 By these they pass'd. proves that the duties of the laundry were not thought derogatory. No vulgar victim must reward the day: (Such as in races crown the speedy strife:) The prize contended was great Hector's life.) smoke along the road. Where two famed fountains burst the parted ground. and shoots upon his wings: No less fore-right the rapid chase they held.648 The Iliad of Homer [395] Obliquely wheeling through the aerial way. Where high rewards the vigorous youth inflame (Some golden tripod. Now where the fig-trees spread their umbrage broad. one by fear impell'd: Now circling round the walls their course maintain. And with them turns the raised spectator's soul: The example of Nausicaa. one chasing. As when some hero's funerals are decreed In grateful honour of the mighty dead. That the green banks in summer's heat o'erflows. With exhalations steaming to the skies. Like crystal clear. pursued by stronger might:) Swift was the course.

" Then Pallas thus: "Shall he whose vengeance forms The forky bolt. Behold. while eager on the chase they look. to his fears resign'd. The sire of mortals and immortals spoke: 649 "Unworthy sight! the man beloved of heaven. ye powers! ('tis worthy your debate) Whether to snatch him from impending fate. a mortal. Consult.BOOK XXII. To whom. close behind. whose zeal whole hecatombs has slain. and the towers of Troy: Now see him flying. and fierce Achilles. inglorious round yon city driven! My heart partakes the generous Hector's pain. And stoops impetuous from the cleaving skies. Exert thy will: I give the Fates their way. Whose grateful fumes the gods received with joy. From Ida's summits. Hector. Or let him bear. And fate. Shall he prolong one Trojan's forfeit breath? A man. The gazing gods lean forward from the sky. pre-ordain'd to death! And will no murmurs fill the courts above? No gods indignant blame their partial Jove?" "Go then (return'd the sire) without delay. (Good as he is) the lot imposed on man. by stern Pelides slain. . Thus three times round the Trojan wall they fly. and blackens heaven with storms. Swift at the mandate pleased Tritonia flies.

In vain he tries the covert of the brakes. What god. in his latest hour.) So oft Achilles turns him to the plain: He eyes the city. Or deep beneath the trembling thicket shakes. Their sinking limbs the fancied course forsake. lest some Greek's advance Should snatch the glory from his lifted lance. One to pursue. Thus step by step. As men in slumbers seem with speedy pace. but he eyes in vain. From the high turrets might oppress the foe. Sign'd to the troops to yield his foe the way. And leave untouch'd the honours of the day. his nerves with power: And great Achilles. assisted Hector's force With fate itself so long to hold the course? Phoebus it was. There swift Achilles compass'd round the field.650 The Iliad of Homer [396] As through the forest. The certain hound his various maze pursues. O muse. . and one to lead the chase. as he coursed below. And hopes the assistance of his pitying friends. Nor this can fly. and this pursues in vain. The well-breath'd beagle drives the flying fawn. Sure of the vapour in the tainted dews. Endued his knees with strength. who. Oft as to reach the Dardan gates he bends. (Whose showering arrows. nor that can overtake: No less the labouring heroes pant and strain: While that but flies. where'er the Trojan wheel'd. o'er the vale and lawn.

on his lance reclined While like Deiphobus the martial dame (Her face. Heavy with death it sinks. her gesture. And conquest blazes with full beams on Greece. and rested. And here. and sorrow'd in thy flight: It fits us now a noble stand to make. equal fates partake. as brothers. In show an aid. See. And urge to meet the fate he cannot shun. and things below: Here each contending hero's lot he tries. by hapless Hector's side Approach'd. and mine! nor force. with equal hand. where in vain he supplicates above. Great Hector falls. and triumphing. and her arms the same). 651 Then Phoebus left him. Falls by thy hand. insatiable of war." . and greets him thus with voice belied: "Too long. their destinies. nor flight. Fierce Minerva flies To stern Pelides. Jove lifts the golden balances. O Hector! have I borne the sight Of this distress. and hell receives the weight. that Hector famed so far. that show The fates of mortal men. Shall more avail him." Her voice divine the chief with joyful mind Obey'd. And weighs. Drunk with renown. Low sinks the scale surcharged with Hector's fate. Rest here: myself will lead the Trojan on. cries: "O loved of Jove! this day our labours cease. nor his god of light.BOOK XXII. Roll'd at the feet of unrelenting Jove.

and the javelin fly. O son of Peleus! Troy has view'd Her walls thrice circled. Or let us stretch Achilles on the field. the glorious conflict let us try. Sternly they met." Fraudful she said. but honoured more! Since you. Jove by these hands shall shed thy noble life. press'd me to forbear: My friends embraced my knees. Let Heaven's high powers be call'd to arbitrate The just conditions of this stern debate. Dearer than all that own a brother's name. Come then. Of all that Hecuba to Priam bore. The silence Hector broke: His dreadful plumage nodded as he spoke: "Enough. And for a moment's space suspend the day. Let the steel sparkle. No vile dishonour shall thy corse pursue. if. And much my mother's. Yet on the verge of battle let us stay. adjured my stay. victor in the strife. or I die. regardless of your own. and her chief pursued. And faithful guardians of the treasured vow!) To them I swear. or my fate: I kill thee. But now some god within me bids me try Thine. Long tried. (Eternal witnesses of all below. But stronger love impell'd.652 The Iliad of Homer Then he: "O prince! allied in blood and fame. and I obey. Stripp'd of its arms alone (the conqueror's due) [397] . then swiftly march'd before: The Dardan hero shuns his foe no more. of all our numerous race alone Defend my life. long loved: much loved. Or to his arm our bloody trophies yield." Again the goddess: "Much my father's prayer.

no further chance. elate with joy. Till death extinguish rage. and never-ceasing strife. and launch'd his javelin at the foe. by thee deprived of breath. and braves the dread of Troy. and thought. . and life. Collect thy soul. and gave to great Achilles' hand. Minerva watch'd it falling on the land. No further subterfuge. Nor oath nor pact Achilles plights with thee: Such pacts as lambs and rabid wolves combine. while o'er his head the flying spear Sang innocent. While anger flash'd from his disdainful eyes). Now hovers round. Such leagues as men and furious lions join. Rouse then thy forces this important hour.BOOK XXII. and ought to be." 653 "Talk not of oaths (the dreadful chief replies. Pallas gives thee to my lance. To such I call the gods! one constant state Of lasting rancour and eternal hate: No thought but rage. and calls thee to thy death. But Hector shunn'd the meditated blow: He stoop'd. Now shakes his lance. Detested as thou art." He spoke. Unseen of Hector. I ask no more. who. 'Tis Pallas. and call forth all thy power. Then drew. and spent its force in air. Each Grecian ghost. The rest to Greece uninjured I'll restore: Now plight thy mutual oath.

Unerring. No refuge now. unknown. Death and black fate approach! 'tis I must bleed. A god deceived me. our fears to blind. To thee. yet I perish great: Yet in a mighty deed I shall expire. But first. and my hour is nigh! I deem'd Deiphobus had heard my call. resulting with a bound From off the ringing orb. presumptuous as thou art. or thy own. Great Jove deserts me. My fate depends on Heaven. with a sigh. for no Deiphobus was there. Pallas. whatever fate I am to try. Hector beheld his javelin fall in vain. Boasting is but an art. And with false terrors sink another's mind. but the heavenly shield repell'd The mortal dart. "'Tis so—Heaven wills it. its course unerring held. My soul shall bravely issue from my breast. He calls Deiphobus. Propitious once. no succour from above. All comfortless he stands: then. it struck the ground." The weapon flew. deep buried in thy heart. Let future ages hear it. But he secure lies guarded in the wall. and admire!" [398] . I shall not fall a fugitive at least. demands a spear— In vain. But know. Prince! you have miss'd.654 The Iliad of Homer "The life you boasted to that javelin given. and may this dart End all my country's woes. nor other hope remain. By no dishonest wound shall Hector die. Nor other lance. 'twas thy deed. and the son of Jove. try thou my arm. Or what must prove my fortune. and kind! Then welcome fate! 'Tis true I perish.

to let in fate. Nor less Achilles his fierce soul prepares: Before his breast the flaming shield he bears. So Jove's bold bird. One space at length he spies. 277 655 [399] —Hesper shines with keener light. at the word. prince! you should have fear'd. As radiant Hesper shines with keener light. last in the train of night." v. But the rich mail Patroclus lately wore Securely cased the warrior's body o'er. When all the starry train emblaze the sphere: So shone the point of great Achilles' spear. stern Achilles cries: "At last is Hector stretch'd upon the plain. Fierce. high balanced in the air. nor took the power Of speech.BOOK XXII." "Paradise Lost. Refulgent orb! above his fourfold cone The gilded horse-hair sparkled in the sun.277 Far-beaming o'er the silver host of night. While. what now you feel. all collected. Stoops from the clouds to truss the quivering hare. his figure seem'd on flame. and meditates the wound. Nodding at every step: (Vulcanian frame!) And as he moved. "Fairest of stars. If better thou belong not to the dawn. . 166. unhappy! from thy dying hour. Where 'twixt the neck and throat the jointed plate Gave entrance: through that penetrable part Furious he drove the well-directed dart: Nor pierced the windpipe yet. his weighty sword he drew. thus triumphing. Who fear'd no vengeance for Patroclus slain: Then. And. Prone on the field the bleeding warrior lies. In his right hand he waves the weapon round. Eyes the whole man. on Achilles flew.

Should Troy. to bribe me." "No. fainting at the approach of death: "By thy own soul! by those who gave thee breath! By all the sacred prevalence of prayer. and the gods devour. Could I myself the bloody banquet join! No—to the dogs that carcase I resign. Should Dardan Priam.) Not those who gave me breath should bid me spare. To soothe a father's and a mother's woe: Let their large gifts procure an urn at least. For ever honour'd. with all our rites adorn'd. Peaceful he sleeps. shot flashing from his eyes.656 The Iliad of Homer Achilles absent was Achilles still: Yet a short space the great avenger stayed. Ah. (Flames. and his weeping dame." . wretch accursed! relentless he replies. Nor all the sacred prevalence of prayer." Then Hector. bring forth all her store. Thee birds shall mangle. and for ever mourn'd: While cast to all the rage of hostile power. And Hector's ashes in his country rest. Then low in dust thy strength and glory laid. leave me not for Grecian dogs to tear! The common rites of sepulture bestow. Nor rob the vultures of one limb of thee. And giving thousands. Drain their whole realm to buy one funeral flame: Their Hector on the pile they should not see. offer thousands more. as he spoke.

just as the Greeks were about to burn it with funeral honours. he was slain by an arrow from the quiver of Paris. The Fates suppress'd his labouring breath. The thronging Greeks behold with wondering eyes His manly beauty and superior size. when fate's decree And angry gods shall wreak this wrong on thee. wandering. Then thus the chief his dying accents drew: "Thy rage. replies: "Die thou the first! When Jove and heaven ordain.BOOK XXII. Phoebus and Paris shall avenge my fate. To the dark realm the spirit wings its way."278 657 [400] He ceased. which was however rescued and borne off to the Grecian camp by the valour of Ajax and Ulysses. and stripp'd the slain. (The manly body left a load of clay. ignobler.) And plaintive glides along the dreary coast. 278 . Yet think. directed under the unerring auspices of Apollo. And his eyes stiffen'