t,iuI7, tHE ''S4-7···t: i

ANA TO. ICAL i

Exercifes of I

Dr. if/ILLIAM HACJ{rEt. i

, '

Profeflor of Phyfick ; AND. " Phyftci~n to theKingsMajeflYi .

Concerning the motion of the Heart aBdBlood.

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WITH thePreface of Zachariah Wood Phyfician ofrJ\gterdanJ •

To which is added

r». James 'De :BacK his difcourfe of the'

Heart,~hyfician in ordinal y 'to the

Town offJ{oterdam:s;f., ,' •. "2~ .. ll4(.T: ?

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t. (j~ 1) 0 N, Printed by Pl'ancis Le"fj~

for Richard LoltndeJ at the White Lion in SCCI •

P~NII Churchyard, near the Weft end,

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. Cfht Preface of Z A C H ARIE VVOOD, Phyficfan tit Roterdam, upon the Anatomical exerci/e 0/ V of/or '\JV I L.LIAM BAR VEY •

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...._.,.~,H.I, T is a memorable ftory which is rela~

I ted by one l1'UeJlti"e a Eoian Writer.

That Boni('lcim a certain Bifhop of Ments, hearing Virgiliul a Bifhop

_ of S4/csburg in a Sermon which he

made before the people ofthofe times, make men ..

tion ofthofe men whofe footfteps tread oppofite to ours, was fo much incenfed , that he did not ilick . to aecufe Virgd of Blafphemie, as that having {poke of the :Antipodes, he did feem plainly to aim

• at another Chrift i and having related the bufinefle to Utilio King of the lloi;' , he procured 'the Letters of Pope :tachAt"il to Utili" and fo Virgil j~ was both condemned by the Kings and the Pope; Verdia.,There is fuch another nory related of De ..

Ii IIIDcritl4l,This De7llDcritul being a diligent fearcher of the works of Nature, whilft he was cOAtinually ( b~f\ed in cutting up of creatures, he ~as thought

f. . ~,) mad

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, The Prcf:1Ct~ ,

mad by the A&deritans, who pitying the ManS condition, called Hipfoc1"ates that he might give him Phyfick, and reftore him to his 1011 wits; being defired, he came in all haft, and there he found Democr;ttn cutting up of creatures, with which fight being marveloufly taken, he avouch'd, That all the Abder;tAl1s were mad, and not a wife man lfuc !>nly Democritus' amongfi:, them, Now many men are like the AGdw;tanJ, there are now many Bonif.zces and Utilios who do traduce the ne,:" in.ventions of thofe,who,as K, were by the great infpiration of God , have: bellowed all their Hudies upon the fearch and knowledg of things, as unprofitable, and the force ora cullom once fetled is able co effect [0 much, that no man in any barbarous place

. did ever feem to ufurp more unlicented power.' Doctor William HllrvC) , Kings Phyfician t and profeffor of Anatomy in the College ofPhyficians

in Lond'JlJ, hasfet out anew and unheard-of opinion concerning the motion of the heart, and circulation of the blood, which is briefly thus, Firfl: the ear ofthe heart contrads it felr: in that contradion it thrufls out the blood contain'd io'[ into the ventricle of the heart, which being fill'd , the heart is dilated, and flreightways it contracts the . ventricles and makes a pulfarion , by which puJfa- I tion it thrufls forth the blood thrown into it into the arteries out of the left ventricle, and out of the right into the Jungs through the vena Ilrl#rioj" , from whence immediately it is fnarched into the lefe ventricle through the «rter.« ve"0fa, and.~y it driven OUt into the A(JrtA, and 10 afterwards rnto

. . , the

, 7 h~ PI"fIlC'; ,

the whole bo dy through the arteries; 'die- blood fo . driven out into the hallit of the body, paffes J!om the arteries again i~to the veyns, and returns mte the VillA cava· and from it into the right car of the heart ,and th'en into the right vmtri~e, and fo .afterwards it pafies through the fame Circle as be .. , fore and fo continually, from whence he calls that :notion of the blood Circulation. Truly a bold

rnanindeed, .

o diflurber of the quiet ofPhyficlans.! ~

o feditious Citizen of the Phyficall Commo~-

,W.ealth!· d

Who firft of all 'dud! oppofe an opinion confirm' for [0 many ages by tlle confent of all, and. delivered up in the monuments of fo many 1) hyficlans, » and as it were given from ha~d. to hand to pollenty J as if DO man had been wife In all ages paH. Indeed they do very decently who worfhip antiquity as becomes them; but it is a. thing unwo~thf in wife men who do afcribe wifedom to antIquity, with no little wrong to pofterity, as if it_ Were not common to all times, and to all men j tor as L .... allnt'HI in the 2 B"(J~. of his Divine Confiirutions 8 chllp_ Becaufe they had the precedency be. fore tis in time they had Dot the precedency before us in witdom " :w.hich ,. if it be given to all alike, it cannot he foreflall'd by thofe [hat go before , but is untouchable as the light and clearneffe of the-Sun e . for as the Sun is the light of the eys , fo wilCdon: is the light of mans heart. And truely , if thofe by whofe benefit and fiudy we have the invention and .conflitution of Phyfick , had been of

* 4 the

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'I I

r

Th, Prl/ltci'.

the lame mind with thefe reprovers,&:had thought nothin& worthy pubJifhin,g but what had ~een ap-

• proved m the, account and Judgment of their Ancefiors,futh refin'd and elaborate arts had never [orne eo light j but the antients knowing certainly that· they had found out many things,· fome things likewife they had not perfecftly enquir'd into, and that fome were to them perfedly unknown, and believing that the way of {carching out the truth was not llopp'd, but guarded for them by the example and diligence of antiquity, they did wirh ready minds endeavour that t~ey might either go

,on in [be fame path with them, or pafi'e beyond them in a further fearch, They did as it were ad .. , vance [he banner towards the fearch of hidden caufes, and went before us in example I that we might follow them; for this is the liberty of wifdom, that being 0 blig~d to none, it's under it~s own command and jurifditlion;in her Common-wealth it's permitted to abrogate, derogate, and Iearch without prejudice to any, which liberty if we take away we fhall always conrinue in the cradle of arts, nor will there be any thing from whence we hope for their increafe , or for any thing better than has been publifhed , for which caufe we do require , chat juflice arid courtefie in judgment may be given of Us which we afford eo others; if thefarne thing be always to be thought and Ipoken, i[ will not be lawfull to find out any new thing,

. nor mull: we take hold ofwhatthe very thiQg a"d reafon it (elf dictates to us; tis ridiculous therefore to tread in the fleps of the Antients ~ and

, 7'1" P'-'!"ct:

and, alwayes to 'follow them. . Nor does a.; I",approve of any Anatomical Comment • unlefte it contain fome new thing. It is a dull wit which is fatisfied with that whicli otbers have invented, feeing.U humane things are fubjeded to the {harpneffe of the mind. The treafures ofNature are immenfe , and her wifdom inexplicable. fa that thole things which dayly tome abroad do prepare a way co learch out rhofe tbings which follow; for truth is drown'd in a deeper well than that it fhould be drawn out from thence in a few ages. It is true that A,."tlll raid, That· we were not taught all things at one time by Jllpittr. bue that a great many things do remain hid, of which fome he will grant to us afterwards. GJen fays, that the cunning ofN ature in the fabrick of mans body is fo great, that though great men have diligently and coollantly fearched after it, yet have tbey Dot found it all out.

1;J"g "I'.t, ""d Jiverl trll'Vlil in tlm«: change HavI betto". d it, "or ,,0 thoft ",hom 'We range

. .A""mlft the A~iie"t~ ~nq\\1 ,.,hllt 'We d~ "-.ngW,

r o""1 mm flm~thiltgJ to oIJ/"vation ow,. .

Therefore Iince to be wife, that is to fay, to Iearch after the truth, is born with all men, they take away all wifdom from themfelves who without any judgment approve of their forefathers inventions ~ and are by [hem lead like Carrel.and do brag rafhIV, that they fee thofe things in them which they do not fee. The Comedy which ufes to be attecl by the Playen looks much likethi •• By a certain

. cheating

'TIM Prefoc~; ."

cbdting Tavlor , there was a piec~ of ex(tllebt, cloath drfcrib~d to an idle ~ firnple Braggadochio- .

. bu~ 0 f Inch a colour, that It could not be feen by, bale begotten people or batlards , therefore this Braggadochio dcfirous to buy, requires a ~gbt of' the cloach, the Chear pr.efently as a huge piece having many els in it, brings it out inbotf his hands, as [he Merchants nfe to do here, turns down the folds, wonders atthe fairnefle of it, prayfes it and commends it to his buyer; this vain Braggado! chin was prcfently touched with a fufpition that his Mother had pJayd the Wh01:e, yet fhame hinder'd him to confeffe J therefore be (ayes tbat he fees and wonders at [he cloarh which he did not fee: and indeed was not at all, and buyes it, and commands him to make him a Suit of it; then the Tay-

.lor began to be very merry. and joviall , divides the cloath , imitates wonderfully the noyfe of cutting it, and rmkes him up a garment of this fine unfeen and invifible cloath , receives his money, and gives it him. Believe me this fable in incredulous men without judgment is ir. true hiftory, and no fable; they believe, and why fhould not they give credit to Phyfitians approv'd by the judgments of fo many ages? vee they do not fee, nor .can they fee, that which is not; yet JeO: they

fhould teem blockheads, they praiie, admire. and 'buy , not only with expence of money , whore d~L mage is tolerable, but even with the loire of time .and life, the damage of which can be redeem'd by .no money. Truly, that I may fpeak the truth, 'we mufi give leffe credit co amhonty, and we mull:

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. Tb« PrtfAtI~

reflrain our arrent, and befides authority look After reafon too by the example & authority even of antient Philofophers . and Phyficians , and firft of 311 by the example: of that divinePIAto,whom CiCero Co much e{l(~ms, that he doe. not flick fometimes [0 call him the Homer of Philofophers , fometimes a God: in whofe book, 0 fortunate Sir (fays

. So&rutes to Poills a young man who in his difcourfe concerning a-bleffedlife produc'd teflimony ) JOu endeavour to convince me as Orators do , and as they do in try alls where they think that they foyl nne another when they bring many and famous 'Witnctfes for their' Caufe ~ and the Defendant brings none, or fome one, fince this proof is of no confequence towards the truth; for many tII.nes a man is unjufily opprefs'd, becaufe of the multitude of wituefles and of rhofe too who feem to be ot fome worth &: account; and Io likewife in his Cbsr»

:~ midu l~or is it to be confidered who fpeaks, but wheth;r truth be fpoken or no; thefe and the like are every where in~/ato. B~t let ~s ~ear~en t? Ar1p"tie in this pmnt, treading direCtly In his Mafters footfleps , who, as he did no~ Ipare any of the antient Philofophers , no more did he Sor,attr and his Maner Plato; for being to difpute againft the Ideas he fayes , Though it be a hard queflion, becaufe lh'atthofewho brought in the Ideas are. our friends, yet it is neceffary for the retaining of the trur h to take off their opinions, efpecially they being Philofophers ; for albeit they be both gallant men, yet it is a gallanter thing to honou~ th.e trut h beyond them. Shall not we fay that It IS

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I I

Tb~ Preface:

here dearly fet down in what efleem the authority of the mort grave Philo{ophers is to be had? when Socrates cries out, That HippocrAteJ and others witneffes evidences sand Ariftotle cries out, That SaCrAtt'Sa nd P latOI evidences, are not ,ft) much to be weighed and efleemed as thofe of truth and reaton j efpecially finee Cicer«, a man ofdivina quickneffe of wie , and fingular judgment, who roe.the many prajfes both of Pl.to and Ariflotl6 ~ay feem to .h~ve fworn allegiance to them both J did not unwtll1ngly turn to the' haven of the Scoicks, leaving the ,Academyof Plato, and the Lyceum of 4rlflotle. I do likewife believe that he w?uld have palfed over to the Cynofarges of the C.renC411J, or [he Gardens of the Epi(urean!, and the Schools of other Philofophers, with the fame fi;eedom , if he had found or judged any thing in them worthy of his knowledge; as likewife caUiRg back all learners from their credulous fuperftitions. by name he admonifhes them that the evidences of Authority are not fo much to be fought [01' as the evidences of reafon; becaufe the Amhority ofthofe who teach is many times prejudicial! [0 thofe who learn" for they leave off to try any thing by their own Judgment, they account that firm which they fee to b~ fo judg'd by him whom they approve of. For which caufe let us compare true principles of Phy~ck, though new , with the opinions of the Antleots, for here we {hall find many things difagreting; let us try the Anatomicall exercife of

j' HArvtl, Je~ u~ fee what that will help us; no~ let us longer Imitate the StpilU j For as thofe who

. . when

1 I

The Pr'f"te~

when they find that the FHhermen are in perfute ot them, throwing out ink, which th~y have infiea d of blood, darkning the water " hide them{elves, and do as it were fiop and block up the FHhermens way; nor let us need [0 be fo prec.·d and conllrain'd by truth, light, firm and con. i'tant reafon , forthat troubled water. will Iettle at fome time, time will blot out the inventions of opinion, and confirm the judgments of truth. We have a very remarkable tryall of this in a very famous man, VOpifo'U FortunatH! Plem/iNs ,Dodor of Phyfick and Arts in the Vniverfity of LD'VIlirJ, and \,rime pratlitioner there, whofeopinion of HAr'lJIJ we thought fit here to fet down, which he gave in his 2. BOD~ concerning the foundation of Phyfick, ChAp. 7. thefe are his words, Eng/find of late hath brouaht forth a new'opinion concerning the motion of [he heart , which WiOiA", HArvel hath publifhed in a little book purpofeJy fet out by him ; he builds his opinion upon very plaufible reafons , infomuch that it is allowed by many learned men at this day, and he is call'd as by a title of honour by one of his own Countrymen , the furrounder of the little World', to diftinguifh him from another Engliiliman who firft went about the greater World. This invention did not pleafe me at firft , which I did teffifie both by fpeech and writing againll: it, but afterwards when I did molt earneflly endeavour (0 refute and explode it , I was refuted and exploJed my felf", fo much are his reafons not

onfy

I

The Prtfllr:e.'·,

only perfwadihg but for~iitg; hut dillgen,ity d:d , I examine it all, and m fome dogs, dlffeCt:cd by me for that end, found it to be very true',

. being likewife advis'd to do this by a moft famous man, H'at'N/, Profeffor of L'Jdc1'l, whofe candid and Ietled judgment ] do much efleem , and in chis bufinefle am much engaged to him. Here~s a great change ~n ~is judgment. Hence 1 begin to hope. for eqUIty mothers , that laying afide all 'ha~red , .and ac~nowledgi?g their error, they, Will at . laft WIth P le"'pull begin to think well of Ha'l'7JeJ~ Iers a fign of a malicious aad wicked mind to be delighted with error to hate light , to follow darkneffe , to calum~iate the induftry of good men, which fault belongs only to very filthy and vile per· fons; vile we may fay, not a good nature , nav , no tollerable or high difpoficion was evet tainted with this blemifh, Search antient times, fearch OUf§, you {hall not read. bear, nor fee. any other than melancholy and malignant natures; which Slltur" . has blafled with hili conftellation , envious to others , and diflrudful! of themfelves , prone and made apt,

to this vice. Do not you fee that thofe little dogs which bark at guefts, do not touch wild beafts? fuclt men as thofe are worfe , being only born to wound and vex people ; born I fay, for really they do Io lean and encline to that vice, that they are never at reft but when they difiurb others. If his reprovers fhould .fay , William HnrvIJ bas obferved , and found fault

with,

The PrefAce. -

with the errors of the antients , tbey ftlonfd indeed fay true, butt~ey fhould fay m~ch truer ifthe{ fbould add, WIIl.am Ha1"tJI}bv his Jong and fiudious 'C?bftrvat.ion~ and medication of things in Anatomy,haspr~po~nded the m~ans to take away all Th~rns" Flmt5,and other Impediments out of thew~yLofPhyfic~, 'that-the journey orit might ·be plaiD! eafie, quick ~ and firelght', that not only the attainment to the rrurh ' and·!underfi'aadiog of Phyfick, but alfo to [he profit and fruit of it migbt be more esfie. TIle wifdom of Socratel is known weU eno~gfL by the Oracle of APDDf1, amongft whofe praifes that was remarkable and the chief. to refer the ends of liberal arts to the fruit of man; life, that menlieing inflruded by th~re ar~, mi~ht m()reeafil~ and morereadJly advlfeconcermng the tranfacbng ofbufin~1Te;and more readily execure and perform them; ODr H lirve., had this end before his eys , he operrd only the truth and fruit of the art of Phyfi ck ; for he faw that there wa~ ~ ~eat glea~ing Iefr , that many things remain d In the WIde acres of Nature hirherto un .. tou,ch~d andunpalfageable , into the' po1Teffion or which , as to an em,pry place, wife men might (~me; but Harvey did not trufl other mens writIngs, but his own faithfull eys , [h~ truefl reporters of A n,1t?my ". became Anatomy IS better gain d' by ocular 1~lp~cbon than ~Y lon~ reading,and pro. found medmtion, None is forc'd [0 (wear allegiance to a Maller, whom nevercheletle we likewlfe tf.Uft: after,experience. Eupompm a fingular good Lirnner Lemg asked whom of allrhofe that went

before

Thl Prtfoc,;' before him he chiefly followed, it is reported tbat ' he faid ; {bowing a multitude ofmen ~ Nature h~r \ fe1fwas to be imitated, not the Azttficer. This ,1 fame HArve} perform'd fo much, and has .arrived ~, fo far by fearthing of Nature , that he, Juft like " ..Archimtdu when he found out that the Coronet of Gold wa; mixt with Braffe, he cry·d aloud, I have found it I have found it. This is a [rue: and hallowed law' of antient Philofophy, Plat'/5 my friend and SocrllteJ too, but Truth is more my friend'than they both. Wherefore let ip{e dixit never be held here let no excellent mans Authori-

ty be brought for 'an argument, let no opinion have a prerogative, but let the better bear tt a~a~. Laftly whilft others endeavour to defend Andqui-

ty r/I let U5 together with H IWUtJ , plead Truthes ca~fe • Let us approve rhofe things which areagreeabJe to truth, an~ r~jca: thofe thi~gs whi.ch

are contrary to it, wClgh~ng and efteeming theinventions of Antiquity not In the Icale of Antiquity; but in the fcale of Truth. To this purpofe we have again fet forth H~rvt]s Anatomicall Esercife , which in the year 1648 was fee ~ut at Frll~cf()rt , very faulty by the fault of the Printer , which the Author oft complain'd of, finding .that ~he ~alumnies of his reprehenders had their begmnmg from thence, who not underilanding what he fa!d;' did take them ill, and endeavour'd to traduce him publicklv· I lay we have let it forth, and have taken a' gr~at deal of pains,thar fo mueh as was pof~ fible all things intricate, confufed , or ~nperfea, bc:ing taken away, that f~me exc:rclfe mIght (orne ,"

" forth

The Prtf"'t~

forth mended and reflored , .in this, bufine1fe Ita;' ving had the help of moil: learned De'RlCC1!. our in .. ' .tire Colleg, whofe judgment we do much efleem, 'But that we may fold up the fails of this our Preface, let us imitate Antiquity in honoring the in-

ventors of things. Truly, in former time the jn .. vention ofPhyfick was fo admirable,the experience of it fo fecret , that the authors ef it were, either plainly efteem'd Gods.as ApoUfJ and his Son If:fo~lapim_ J or elfe they were thought. worthy ol Di .. ' vine honour.as Afclepiadu.whom the lllyrians receiving as a God, did equalf in honour to Herell_ les, Trudy! do not approve all that Antiquity hath done; yet truly I do praife their affeCtion and judgement, as having rightly thought, and judged, no reward fufficiebtly worthy to be paid to the inventors of the art of'Phyfick. Therefore let HarveJ be amongft us in perpetual efleem ~ by whofe lear .. ning we have a way opend to fee fo great a light of the art ofPhyfick, to love and to imitate it. Let us freely attribute the modeft commendation of the Son of SJrach concerning his own work, to HarvtJ~ I watch'd taft of all , as be that gleans ears after the Reapers, I have Profited through Gods Grace, I have fill'd the Winefat; Confider that I have not taken pains for my felf, but for ~11 ,hQfe which love learning.

To

The Epiflle

Pn~in;'ng to the indtlfor] and diligence of Dthtrs ~ flnte ver] man, pro(t'{[e that the great'ft p"rt of thofe tmngswhich we do k..nDW, is the IMP of t~e thi-'ll' which we "-now not. N lither do PhiloJophers juffer thcmfelves to be aJdiEled to the (laver] of any mmls . prKepts, hut th;zt they give credit to their own t,S; nor do the] fo [wMr Alltgidlnce to Miftris A1Itiquit.1) ~I openl! tsltllve 1 or irJ the fight of all to deftrt tbei» friend Truth. For as they think th,,,, credu/oNllt1l4 idle peBp.le, who' at first fight do ·receive tina believe 11// thin(,J ~ [0 do the] t~kt them for stupid andfenfe- 1't;P't, t ~'#It will not fie ~h;ngJ malli(eff to the Jetl{e , d:,·,· .~rk~JoJJ'ledge the Ught at mid.daJ i ana riA teach

. ., ('~ to decline the rC'Dtds oftheSceptick.J,alfhe fQ/" .:.".r urth, rabble, 0" the fabltl of.Poett. Lik!wifo, tOllj1·tt.dt,l/# , gOfJa and honeft mm, do never [Nffer thei;· mindJo to be o"rwhelm'd with the paJlionl of indiJnationand env] , but that thq Wiltpatientl] h'llr ,"'ha: (hllll bc re'~m in behalf of the truth, or u1Jaerftand an) thing -which is ti'UIy demonJ1rated to the",; nor do the) tbink.,it bare to change their opinton. ;f tt-utb and open rt';~1;onflration fo perf Wilde them, and not thin~ it fharl1cftll to de/ert their errors, though the) be never fe amlent , fee;ill. thl] very Well k._nol'V that a/I men 'l'J#zy erre ; and tnfll1} t hingJ are {oHnd (Jut by chance, which any O'Ne may learn of l1.uother, tin ()Id malt of a cbild ; or an Imderftanding m.1n of a

, fDo/.

Bue my loving Col/eg.r,! had nodejire in thu Treatift tomak! a great vo/ulJJe, fwd to opmtate mj me .. mory, and/abours., .1HdmJ readingJ, in rche~ftn~ " 'Jo/Ji~g ,he work,..r ,n,1mu, ~nd opinjQl1S of the fih /14

t ors

Dedicatory~

th,rlllHJ ~rit'rl of vSnatomJ, {"tb {,eCAu(e I Jo 1Iot proft{/i t» ltll'fn and teach Anatom, from the a~iomJ of Phil%phtrs ,bllt from [}i[{eEfioJls, .mdp.o",

.l thefallrick._of N"tNre. As likt'AliJtth4t 1 do not m .. a'"'lIOUr, IIgr thi1J1t it fit , to defrllHd any of the antientsl)f the honour due to them, "". prD"~~t lilly of the mDd~, 111; nor do I ti,in~ it /ieml, to co.ttji 4nd ftrive with thofo that have been e~cellellt in .A1i1ato- 1IIJ, find wert m, teachers. MlJreo'lJer I "/pould n,t' willing" lay a" .J!JtrjioH of [aljIJofJd upo" an] that is deftYfJul of the truth , nor 6iemifh ~"J ",an b] accu· ling him of aM ''''-0'''; hut IfollfiW the truth DJlI" and have "ef/owld "oth m} ,ailll and chllrgu to that pNr- 10ft, that 1 might vringjorth /omtthin£ which m;,ght he both accept~b/e to good men, IIgreetlbU to leartled men , ana profitable to literlftHre. F.lre~e!l moft exceHllIt Dollars, ,,"d/a'tJ,ur J(JUT Anatomifl,

-~.

. WILLIAM HAf\VET.'

,To the moil: Excellent and

moft Ornate man V. Ar,.,. gent~Prefident oftheC;olIeO'e ofPhyficians in London, I~s fingular F riend, and the ref] of the Doctors and Phyfici ... ans his molt loving Col.-·

legs. - ·

s.P .. D.

Did open many timn ~efort'~worth, Mr. DocftJr, Pn, Dp;,.iol1 concer~ ning the mafion arId ufo of the heart, and Circulario» oj thl blood new ill mJ lef/llrel· hut heing c,nfirm-do, ,ccit/ttr d;",onJlratiDn for n;'ne 1,Arumd m~re in }(j:ar fi~ht, t'vlden~ uJ "1 reafon!, And ArgUments, freed {rom the o/'je- 8i,nl Dfthe mofllcarnell and sk.ilful/ AnatomiJh, defired "1 fome, lind moft earneftlJ required bl othef.t , 'W, h4f1e t1~ 'AP fet.'~ !''4t to open v,ie~ in thitlittle lIoD'<-; ~h"h, un/eDe Jf wer« paJs~d through JOU"

hand~

Dedicatory;

bdna! ,I colild harJ& ! ope thAt It would ~(}iJJe alJrlad entire and fafe , jiwce 1 cs» call moft of JOU, /;eing -worthy of credit, as \\'itnefT~1 of thDfe obJervlJtjoni from 'Which I gather truth, or cONfute error, Who fo"" nun] of m] DiJ!ecUonr, and in the ocular demonPrationJ ofthe{e things \l)hi~h I here aIfert to the /info.r; were uld to jlalfd 6, lind aJ!i(f me. And jince this InI} Book. dass affirm the Mood t» paft fort" and return through unlVtmted traus, ContrAr} to the received wa], through fo man] IIges of )ears infified upon, and evidenced 6J innumerAble, and t.hofe ",oft ramo,ul dnd learned mm, 1l1'al greatly afrAid. to ft1ftr thiJ little B()ok.,othcrwap peifeB rome Jears ago, either to come abroad, or go beyond Sea, lejf it might /ttm an .£lion tQO f,,11 of arrogant] , if J had "(}t firft propounded it to you, cbnfirm~d it bJ ocular tejlima"'Y,an!wer'd Jour dllNhts & objeElionl,llndg~tten tbe PrtJidents verdin in mJ fAVOr;Jtt 1 was per.l Jwaded if I could mainta;n 'What I propofod in the pr~foncl ofJDU & our Colltge,hav,ing bem famOTl4 h7 fo many; andfo great men, I "eededfo much the t,./fo to he afnlid of others, tllnd thtllt only comfort, which for the l~ve of the tru,th ,.u did gra'Jt 'j~, might iik.!'Wi[e be hoped for from "It wI;, we!"e Phil%phlrl Dftlu{ame nature. For true Phil%phers, who ar8 perfelll! i1t love with trttrh dna wi[dom , never filla

. themfelveJfo 'Wife, or fit/l of wi/do"" or fo "hllndantl] {JltiJjitd in theirowl1 k,nowlcdg , but that they .f.ive pl.tce to truth wiJe1f(oever, or from whofoever it COfnN. Nor a"c tbe, fo narro", [pirit edt» believe that ever an.! art '1' fcitnce 'WIlS /0 abfolutefJ lind perfeci./J taught in ll11pointl,tbat tber« is nPlhing re-

~ If 3 m.tining

6&11·:f&&~a&1161£. " \

:I'o the moll tlluftriousan,d in- t)

vincible Monarch CHArJ{_LS Kln~ of ! ,j

Great !Britain, PratlCe, and lreland, '

Defender of the Faith.

MoIl: Gratious King t

~~~, He Heart of creatures is the foundation oflile , tl;e Prince of aD the Sun of their Micro-

, .

cOlm, olllihicb all l1egetatlon

'does dependfrom whence aU l1!gor& prengt!,. does flaw. Likewife the l(jng is tle foundat~-

on of his KingdonJs) and tbe Sun ojlJis Micro- ' ,

corm, tbe Heal t ofbis Common-wealth, {rom whence al~ power and n~erCJ proceeds. 1 "»Jtt~fo

hold to offer loyallY M~/'Jly thoft things ~htch are written concernIng the Heart J fa mucb the rather becaufo (accordil~ to the cuftom of tl};s age jan tbings buma1zare according to the patter.n of '!Ian land mofl tbing s in a l( ing

4"or-

.....

according to tl1at ortbe Heart; Therefore the knowled,g ol/,is own Heart cannot be unprofitable to al(ing,as hei~g a dil1ine rf(emh!al~ce ofhu a8.ions (So us'd t!Jey (mall tlmzgs IlJltb great to campart,) You may at leafl, heft of l(ings, being plac'd ill tbe top of hum~1J things,at tbe fame time cmtemplate tbe Prm ... ciple of Mam 130dy , and tl)e l!llage of YO!4r l\jl1g.l.Y po'UJer~ I therefcre mOI~ humbly ~ll" treat, mofl gracious King, accept, accordmg toyour aCCt~Jtom'd p'Junty and clemency, tbeje m')}1 tbhgs cOllcernilg tbe Heart, 1}JbD are the new ligbt of tbis age) and indeed the ",holt Heart of it , a Prince abounding i,l venue and gr,lce, to 'Phom )}Ie tlcknowledge our tlHmks to he due, (or arry good that England receives; or any pleafilre tbat our life enjoyes:

Your Sacred Majdl:ies mof]

. devoted Servant,

WILLIAM. HARVEY.

·To

------ -

I '.aiaae a" *

The INDEX of the

CHAPTERS~

.,. H» Proeme goel before, h.J wMch it is demo~· i J. ftrated , that th8fe things which have hithert(J l1em Writte~ of the 11?Dtion and ufo of the htt'l-rt

lind Hrterju, ere 1I0t firm. .

Chep,'], The Cau/es for Whieh the AuthorwlU mov'a

to write. Page r.

Chap. 11. What rtHnner of motio" the heart hili in tile

DifliElion of living CreatureJ. P'4'

Chllp.llI. what »unner of motion fh, arteritl hAve . in the D! ffe Cl ion of living creatures. p.9. Char. If. What manner 9f motion the heart IIna tars

j q havdn the Di.fftClion of living creatures, p.I 3.

il Chap. P. The aClion, motion, ana fUfjaion of the " h,:z,t.. p. ao, " -Chap.Pl. BJ What lMJfthe b/Do(lis cnrried out oj the

vena cava into the artlrieJ,tJr out of the right -ue» ..

I tricle of the hearti1Jfo tb« left. ' p.26.

I Chap. VI I. Thllt the blooddllu paffe out of the right ventricle of t he heart, thrcu,r,h the P arenehJme of

II ofthe'bmgs intotbe arteria venofa, and 11ft ven .. ,

I tricle« P·35.'

Ch:rp. v I I I. Of the abundance of blood PlJlJing ihnmgbthe been OHt of the veins into the IIrt,-

, . riel,

------

INDEX.

,.it~, Ana of the C iTcHlar motion Df t he h/'Dd. P'44:Ch"p.l X. ThAt there is It CireH/Ation of the "Iood (rom the cOnfirrH"lion of the firp [UpPtJ(it iln. P·48.

ChAp.J.~Tht prn foppojit;,n(ofthe "hutiaanCl.{ blooJ )vhich palfes throughout th, vei"s into the ,,"terier .. ~nd Ih. there U II Circuhtti9n of th, "'ooa) i~ vi"dicated from oh;eEliolls,ltnd is !*rtber cOlljir71lJ.

• -6, experimentl. p·S6.

Chap. X I. The {econd {uppofition ;1 confirm·J. P.59 •

I Chap. X 1 I. That thereutZ Circu/lltioN ofthtvlHtI.

t from the confirmation of the [eco"afuppofition.p.69.

t . Chap. X I I 1. The third {jepP'jition iH01:.firnld, ~n~ ; \ tharthereis a Circu!at;(m "t ,he blood from the' third {uppojition. . p. 73.

Chap. X J V. The conc/ufton of the aemonflrlltion con-

cerning the Circulation rf ,h, blood. p.80.

Cljap. X P. The CirC1~/~tion olthe blood i6 cQn{irwlJ.

bJ !ik._ely rta[ons. p.8x.

Ch.p.X l' I, The Circulation oft he blood;s ~D"fir"ld

bJ the con(etjltt"etl of it; p. 86.

Ch.tp. X P I 1. The mstio» andCircutAtion of the bldoa is ,oHf?rm~d by thofe thi"ts which appeAr ;11 tht beart , /lind which /lire clear from DiffeEliont i. .An~tomJ. P'93'

j

,

The

Tbe PiJfJtfn,;

maffe of blood will be exhaufred in the fpace of half an hour. The experiment of Galen is thus, hind the Arterie at hoth ends with a little cord, and cutti.g it up in length, in the middle JON {haf! find. in that plac, which is comprehended /;et'JJIi:~:t the tW9 ligtlturer" nothin~ 6ut blood, and fo dotS h, prfJVc thllt ". co."t~i'H 6~/J bl(}od. Whenc~ we may argue likewife to the iame manner j If you find the fame blood in the a rt eries which is in the veins, being bound and cut up after the (arne manner, as

I have often tryed in dead men, and in other creatures.by the fame reafon ~e may likewife condu~e, that the arteries do contam the fame blood which the veinr; and nothing but the fame blood. Some whillt they endeavour to diflolve this difficul.t~, affirming that it is Arteri(tI.b~(}oJ. and full.of Spirit, '. they do filenrly graune that It IS the funch~n of the erterie» to carry the blood from the heart rnto the whole body and that the arteries are full ofblood. (For [he bl~od chat has Spirit is no Jetfe blood. J Likewife no man does deny that the blood, as It IS blood. and flowes in the veins, is imbued with Spirits. Albeit the bloo~ i.n the arteries d.o. fwell with greater ftore of Spirits , yet thofe Spirits are

to be thought infeparable irom the blood, as th?(e

_ which are in the ueins ; and that Blood and Spirit make one body, as whey and butter in milk, or heat and water in warm water, by which the arteries are fill'd , and the diflribution of which body from the h!art the srterie: do perform.and this body is nothing elfe but blood. But if th.ey fay that this blood is attracted out of the ht'art mto [he ar-

teries

i'

The Proeme:

teriu by the Diafrole of the arter;u, then they feem to preiuppoje that the arlerles by their own diftenfion, are fill'd with that blood, and not with the ambient air as before;but ifin the Diaftole,tbey fhall together receive the blood.the air, the heat,& the cold at one time, that is improbable. Further, when they do affirm that the D'Afto/~ of the heArt and arterj~s is at one time,and fo their S,jlole ,one of there two will be inconfiflent. For how {hall two bodies fo nearly joyn'd together, whim they are diflended one of them draw from the other, or when they ar~ contracted at one time, how {ball one receive any thing fro rother> Over and above, it may be perchance impoflible , that any body Ihould Io attrad into it {elf, as that it fhould l-e dill-ended, feeing to be diflended is [0 fuffer, un~ letfe it do it as a fpunge returning co its own natural confhtution after externalconttrichon. It were a hard thing to feign [hat any fuch thing could be in the Arteries. But I believe I can eafily demonHrace, and have heretofore demonflrated.that the erteries are diflended, becaute they are Iill'd like Sachells or baggs, not becaufe they are blown ~p like bladders. Yet notwithflanding G.llens expertmenr, in his book, that blood is contain'd in the arttrie.r,is otherwife, afcer this manner. He did cut the arterle being laid open in length. and into the wound be rhruft a reed or a hollow pipe and ilop'd the wound that dIe blood co.uld not leap out .. So long (fays he) 4f the arteri« is tbt« it!l of it will6tar9

. l'ul jf} [oun as with" tbred )011 b.'lve abov: th# arterifl and pipe &OntrrlCUa the tNHic/~ oJrhe erteri« Vl1IIh A

The PrDem~~

get into the arteries; if not altogether im~offiD.le .. ' Likewife fince all the arteries , afweH thole which lye deeper 1 as thofe .which ~re next to the skin, a~e diftended with the lame fwifcneffe.how can the air fo freely, (0 fwifely, paffe r~rough the skin, .fldh; & habit of'the whole body, into the depth, as It can through the skin alone ? A.:~ how £h~U the d,rt~r~(.f of Embry1"!s draw the air into their concavines through their mothers belly, and the body of tbe womb? And how {llall Wh~Ies, 1?olphins, and great Fillies, and all fo~ts of Fillies ,m the b?ttom of the Sea, take in the air, by the fWlfe pulfe m the SJftoie and Diaffole ofrheir arteries, through Inch :L great maffe of water? But to fay that they fup up the air implanted. in t~e water , an~ doe return their fumes mto It, IS not unlike a fiction. And if in the S J Role the arteries doe expell their fumes out of their concavities through the p~res ~f the ~dh and skin, why not the Spirits likewite , which they fay are contain'd there too, fince Spirits are m~ch rhinn.er than fumes? And if the arteries do receive the ~lr both il1:the SJI1olea~dt~e Di~ft()I(. and return ir, as,d.e 1"rI~g,f do in refpiration , why doe not they do this in infliCting of a wo~nd ~hcn an art erie i~ ~ut? In the euning Of the wind pipe by a wound It IS clear, that the air does enter and return by two contrary motions • But \t is dear in ~he Iedion o.f an Arter;~ .. that the air is rhrufl out With one continuall ill.OU" on . and the air does not enter and return. It the pulfe of the arteries doe refrigerate the parts ?fthe body, and cool it, as the IIII'J~I do~ the heart It Ielf, how do they fay that the flru~J(~ do carr61;~d

f

..

~.

>

The Prltme~

btood very full of vitall Spirits into aft the pans whrch do nourifh the heat-of the parts, wake it when it is afleepjand recruit it being lpcnt?and how comes it to paffe, that if you tye the arteries, the parts are not onely numm'd , cold, and look pale, but at laft leave off to be nounfhedj which happens, according to G?tlm, becaufe they are aifo - depriv'd of that heat, which did now from above out of the heart: Since it is dear from hence, that the arteries d~ rath~r carry hear to the parts, than-cooling or refrigeration, Befides, how fhall the Di41ql~, both draw Spirits from the heart to warm the pares, and likewife draw cold from outwards? Further, although {orne affirm, that the lungs, arteries, and he.1,.t do ferve for one and the (arne purpofe, Yet they fay that the heart is theIlorehoufe of rhe Spirits.and likewife that the arteries do contain fpirits and fend them abroad; but contrarie to the opinion ofe olumbuf, th~y do deny that the lungs do make any Spirits or retain them. But Iikewife there men affirm with G:lle'IJ againfl Erajijlr4ttlJ that blood is contain'd in the .. "rter;es. and not Spirits, There opinions feem to quarrel with one another , and to refute each the other, infomuch that all are not undetervedlp fufped:ed. It is manifeft that the blood is contairrd in the Arteriu ~ and that the arteries alone do car .. ry out the blood, both by the experiment of GAlen, as likewife by the cutting of an arterie in wounds, (which Galen in his book,that blood is contain'd in the M't~r;cJ affirms, and in very many _places) that by a gr~at and forcible profufio~ the who!e

mane

The PROE ME.

lJ.J »,hich is DelNDtlflrlttedJ thltt tbift: th,;,glwhi,h art: already 11'rittell cDHclrlling the 11Hlitla tint!

1I1e if the heart lind artlr;ls Art nDt firm.

~~~~~\T will be worth our while, (eeing we are thinking of the motion, pulle, ufe, attion, and utility of the heart and arteries; firfi to unfold fuch things as have been pub-

~ lilhedby others; [0 take notice of

thofe things wbich have been commonly Jpoken, and taught, that rhofe things which have bee~ rightly fpoken maybe confirmed, and thofe which are faJfe both by Anatomical diffedion , manifold experience, and diligent and accurate obfervation, may be mended.

- Almoft all Anatomifis, Phyficians, and Philofophers to this day, do affirm with Galen, that the ufe of Pulfation is the fame with that of Refpiration , and thac they differ only in one thing, that one fl ows from the Animal faculty, and the other from the Vi.taJ, bei.ng ali~~ in all other things, either as touching their utility , or manner of motion, Whence they affirm, (as Hieron]m. a{, AtJI p. in his Book of Refpirarion, which he has newly fet out) Becaufe that the pulfe ofthe heart and arteries is net fufficient to fan, and refrigerate, that the 1l"'ls were made about the he{lrt. Hence it appears, that

, ~--. ,,_ -'. what-

••• ..,J

\

-,

The PrDemt:

\ whatfoever thofe in former times did fay con'; cern~ng (he .?yflole and [he Diap,/e, concerning the } monon of the h'llrt and ar1erieJ, they {poke it in

I relation to the lungs.

\ But f nee the motion and conflitution of the . h~"rl is different from that of the tHIIgl., and the motion of the erterirs different from that of the breaft, it is probable [hat divers ufes and utilities fhould fo Ilow, and that th e pulfe of the heart, and the ufe of it, as Iikewife that of the Arter;u,fuould

differ much from the pulfe and ufe of the breafl and I""gl. For if puue and ref pi ration .doe ferve for' the fame ufe, and that the aruriu do receive the air into their concavities in the Diaftole , as they commonly fay. and that in their S,Jlole they fend out fumes through the pores of the flefh and skin'l5 likewife that in the Ipace betwixt the ~)flole a~d Di"po/e they do contain air; and that every time they do either expell Air.or Spirits.or Fumes; what will they then anfwcr [0 G.-Ilm! who wrote a Book, that blood was naturallv centain'd in the arterieJ, and nothing but blood, that there is neiI ·.r ther Spirits, 'lor Air, as from Reafons and Experi- 1 ments in the fame Book we may eafily g:tther.

And ifin the Di.;fto/e the arteries are fill'd with air . which they take in, and [hat in a greater pulfe \ there enters a greater quanritie of air; it will fol-

low, that whilft [here is a great pulfe if you dip your whole body into a bath of Water or Oyl, that the pulfe fhall either be leffen'd, or much flower ' fince it is a hard thing for the air to paffe through the body of the bath which encompaffes them, and

get

Th~ Pt'dlm/~ .. )

'!- "DOft, And nDtd it with httd, 1DU {hall Hot flt tke - • teri« ~/at lin] more above the noo{t. I have neither tryed this experiment of Gale,,~,nor dol think it can be tryed and the body kept alive , by reaf?n of the preruption of the bloud out of the art ert« , norcan the pipe clofe the wound without a ligll" tere: nor do I doubt but [hat the blood will.fiream t further through the concavity of the pipe. Ne- l .. vertheleis G ,den by this experiment Ieems to prove, j that the pulfifick faculty flows through the: tuuic!esj of the 4Yteries from rbe hCliP't, and that the ert erie« ';' whilfl: they are difiended by the pulfifick faculty ,{ are fill'd, becaufe [hey are dillended as bellows, not f. diftended becaufe they are fill'd like baggs. But ;,. the contrary is manifefl:, both in cu~ting ·of an arte- I" rie. and in wounds: For the blood 15 poured out of t; .;;

th~ arteries with a forcible leaping, fometimes far- .f·· ... '. ther , fometimes nigher, leaping by fits, but the

IClpingofit is always in the !Jiaflole of the arterie;

not in the SJft,./e. By which It aPll.ears clearly, .. that the a,.terse is diftended by the irnpulfion of Ii' blood. For of it felf it cannot by irs diflention fi throw the blood out fo far, it fhould rather at.. t traB: air into it through the wound, according to :; thofe-thingi which are commonly _fpoken. N?r f. ~ let the thickneffe of the arterial funtcles cofen us m ., that that the pulfifick faculty flows from the he~rt _ \ by tile tHnicl~s themfe1yes ; for in ,fome cre,atures i j

ttru,iu doe differ nothing from =«, and an the t' .. j ... mon remote parts of a man, and the difTeminations . ', ..

oftbe arteries, as in the brain, hand, &c. no bo4y .: can di11:inguiOt an IIrr,rie from a vein.forthey have

both t.,

"

The p,.Dem,;

~9th the fame tumCJ~,. Betides ,in ,an Anm,.i/"; whic~ is begot by the arro~on o~ iaciflon o~ an ar ... terie it has the fame pulfation With an erten«, and yet it has not. the t~n;"e of.an".rte~il. " ~oft learlied· Rig/an doth wlrners this With me an hIS feventh book. Nor let any man beleeve , that the ule o~ pnlCe and refpiration is .one. and theIame , becaufe ,hac the pulfes are . greater, more freque~t , and fwifter , for the fame caules a.s refpiraiion is, to wit with running; anger, bathing or any other thing which heats. Por not only that expe_-: riment is falfe (which Galen endeavours t? con~ vince) that by immoderate rept,eti~ri ~he pulles are greater,& bre~tbing I~fi"e.r;but Itkwl~e in boy",p~lf~s. are frequent,and refpiraticn the. while "Iery ~e1dom. Likewife in fear care) and anxiry of the mind, as alfo too in fome feavets the puhes are fwift a~d f~e.· ~uent, and refpirations more feldom~. Thel~ .. an~, 'he like Inconveniences do follow upo the opinions which are fet down co~cerning th~ puife ~n~ u!e. ()f the Art"U.r. Likewife thofe thmgs which ~r~ ar'ffimed concerning the pulfe and life of the heArt are no Ieffe eBtangied with very many and inextricable difficulties. They do commonly affirm that the h·eart is the fiore-hoUle and fountain of' vital Spirit, by which it gives .life to all ~he parts ~ and yet they deny that the right vtt!tr,c/e makes Spirits; but only gives nourifhment ~o the lun$s~ from whence fay th~y fifh~s have nor,¥h~ v~ntr.c/~ of chc"[;ellrt, and indeed Itt thofe whldl have no '.ngl it is wanting, and tholt .t~e ~;ght ventricle of the htllrt Was meerly made for the lungs f~ke~.,.. .

I.. Why I befeech yon? Iince the conihtUClon of

,_ . .. *,.. . . botb

~.... -J

The 'roemf~

,both the ventriclu is alike, their fiberJ fram'daIike;' and 10 of their teI1a'QnS, PDr,,,l!, vtff~/J, e~rJ 't and both of them are found full of blood in diffeaion I ~ alike blacxifh , alike knottie , why I fay Ihould we think that they were appointed to Inch diverfe different ures,feeing aCtion J motion, pulfe , is the fame in both? If the three three-poiared port,als,inthe entrie of the rigbtvtntriclt,be a hinderance of

the return of the blood into the vena CAVil, and if' thofe three femilunarie portilis in the Qrifice of the, Ilrterifl{lI 'rima were made to hinder the' regreife Qt

the blood; fince they are fo likewife in the 'eftve~, t.ytcle, {hall we deny that they we~e l~ewi{e made

to hinder the egre!fc and regrdCe ofthe blood there?

t. And Iince they are almoft &;:acther afeer, the fame man.ner.b~th in their fornl. ,_pofitiwl, ill, the left as in the right, why do tbey fay that h~re. they hinder the eg'reffe and regrefle of the Spiric~,. and in the right hinder the egr~fTe a,nd regrejJe f}( die blood? tbis (arne or.(An does notIeem to befie to binder the motion of rhe hl'oo~an_~ Sl?irit~ ~~C'.,

" 3. And how is it probable, as Reli/JuJ CO/I!m.. 1-

hm does obferve, that there needs fo much blood toJ the nutrition of the Illng I ;. fince tJtis veffel, that is f to fay the vena arterio/a, is pigger than ~Q~ t~c:

branches of the difi:ributives de[,eruiilJg into th~ '1/,',

crural uei« ? , , '

4. And I befeech y01;1 finc_e the lllllgl are 10 Jlear~ and the veffel is fo great, and -they in c:onE-i~t motion, what needs the motion of the, rz.ght veil .. tric!e, and what is the matter that nature for the nourilhing of the lungs was forc'd to' joyn another 'l/mtrk/~ to the hOIr,? . . - '!! hen

TheProeme:

When they fay that the Itft '!'tntr;t!e draws matter out of the'lu,zg J, and the ~Ight bofome of the be.rt to make Spirits, that IS to fay ~I.r and blood , a~d does likewife diflribute the fpirimous blood into the aorta 1 and chat fumes are fenr ~a~k by the Venal Artcr;~ i.n~o the,JuN<.~/, and the SP~rlts into the aorta what IS It chat makes the Iepara non, or bow come; it to paffe , chat fpir!ts and ,fumes palfe fometimes hither fometl.f!1cs thither wl~hout permifiion and confufion? It the three pointed mitre~fdhioned poruu« hinder not the return of fumes into the lungs, how {hall they hinder th~ return of air? And bow {hall [he half- moon portalJ hinder the regreffe of the fpirits from the aorta, the D1I4toJe of the htart purfuing ? and by. what maimer of way do they fay that the fplrll~ous blood is difiributed through the venal art erie into the/mtgl out of the Icft ventr~c!e, and ~hat the three-poiated doors do not hinder? feemg they affirm that the air does enter through the fame veffe! out of tho If tilts into the left ventricle, to the regreffe of which [hey ,:"ould have there threepointed doores to be a hinderance. Good God how fhall the three- pointed doors hinder the regrdfe of air and not of bloo.d? F~rther they having deflined the 'lIen.a arterJ.;f.a b~l~g a large ve~. fel made With the tHme/e of an artert« ,for one only and a private ufe,~hat is to fay to nourHh the /1I~gf, Why do tb~y affir~ that the. Vmlll dr,:,it bemg fcarce fo big, hav1l1g the tllillel, o.f a Vel" Ioft and loofe,tobe made for more ufes,to W1t three or tour? 'For they will have the air paffe through it, ,out of

,:~~~ -I~ngs into ~~e lefl lI;nr;;:II, an~ ~ey Will h:h:

L Jf.,. _ - _

,

\

rhe Prot1tu;

the fumes likewife to return through it O~lt or the. he4rt into the IHngs, they will have ~ part of ~~, fpirituous blood to be diflributed by It, for the re .. frefhing of them:' They will have thefe to ~en~ fumes from the heart, and the other to fend arr to the heart by the fame pipe, when l'Io[withfianding nature did not ufe to frame one veffel , and one

way, for 1uch contrary motions and u(esJ nor is it

ever feen to be fo,

~ . If they do affirm that fumes and air do ~oe 'and return by this way, as through the tranfpirations or Broncbi« of the liver. why cqtting up the Ilrte .. ria venofa em we find neither air nor fumes? An~ whence is it that we fee that /JrteriA venofa always full ofthick blood, and never full of air,~nce w~

fee air remaining in the IU14,_r!.$ ? .

If any would try the experiment of qalm, and c~~ the windpipe of a d02 being yet alive, and fO~Cl.

bly fill the bngs wit hair, and being filled bind zhern {height, afterwards cutting up his breaft he

fhall find great Ilore of air in the lungl, even t~ their urmofl ! unicl~. but nothing in the arter/~ ver;of~~nQr in the ltft -ucntricle of the hear:. But If in a living dog either the heart did ~ttraa: It? or the /lm,s.J did pulfe it through, they fhould d~ .tt m~(h

more in this experiment. Yea in the adrnmlftrat'(}~' IA

of Anatomic blowing up the bmgs of a hd~ad hod~'f' [ .... j'.J who doubts bur the air would enter t, .(s way, ~ } e

there were any paffage? But they do fo muche- ~ fteern the ufe of [his arteria venofo for the convey- h f ing of air from the b01g1 to the heart, Thac.'!Iir,.. ~. F ahr. ab 'Uf •. pend. does afferr , that the lu"gl ~ere made for this veflels Iake , and that itis the cbiefelt

. p:arc of the ItmtJ~ . " - -_. . .... ~u;

Tht Prt7eme; ..

Brit I befeech you, if the Arteria vinofo had be~. made for tbe conveying of air, why has it the con. fhmtion of a oei» ?

. Nature would Hand more in need of pipes, and of annular ones, indeed fhch as the BrDn~hia are, that fhould be alwayes open s and never lie flat, tlJat they might be altogether voyd of blood, left the wetnefle fhould hinder the palfage of the air as it is manifell, ( when the Lungl are difeas'd by:be fiu~.ng or leafl entrie of flegm into the Bronchi(/.) when we make a whiftling or a noife in our breathing. ~

. That opinion iii leffe tolerable, which (fuppo;

:fi~g that an ayne and bloody matter is necelfary for the !llaking of vital Spirits) does alTere, that the blood rs drawn through the hidden pores of the ~ediaJli1t of the hurt. out of the ,.;cht ventri,,, into the lcft, and that-the air is draw~ througb a great veffel, the ~rteria vtnoftl,Ollt of the Ltlngs j and for that cauie.r hat there are more pores in dIe' fiptH", of the heart, fitter for the production of the

blood. But by my troth there are no 1ilch pores .:

nor can they be demonfirated. '

For the fubfiance ofrhe (cptu of the heart is thick.' er, & more compad than any part of the hod y. except the 6(),.es and nerues, But if there were holes' 'how were it pomble,(fince both the ventricle! are' -diflended at one time) thatthe one GIn draw any thing from the other, or that the left can draw

blood from the righ'? And why fhould not I rather beleeve rhat [he right draws Spirits from the I~ft, . than that the left through the fame holes ~~ulddraw blood from ~h~ r.;gh~? ~ut'it ls truly

won ..

.. _' ....

, \

I . L

.,

I

ThePt'(Jt11l~;

.Qnderfull and incoherent, that at the fame-inGant the blood fhould be moll: conveniently drawn through hidden and' obfcure paft'agfs, and air chrough v~ry open ones. And why, I befeech JQU, have they their refuge to, hidden, invifible; Incertain, and obfcure pores for the paffage of the

.• 100d into the left ventricll, when there is filch an, ~pen way through the arteria 7JtJHJfa? Truly it is awonder to me, that they would rather invent or make a way through the (e pwm of the h,Nt, which is groffe, thick , hard,' and moll: compact, than through the patent Ji',u V,nofum, or elfe through £he. {ubfiancc of the Irlngl, thinloofe, moil foft and fpongious. Betides, if the blood could palft tho .. I'ough the fubftanee of the fiplf1m, or be imbib'd iy the 'lJtntric/e.r, what need were there of the ),ranches of the Coronal arteria divided for that: purpofe ~ Which is very worthy to be obferr'd , if in a Birth ( ~hen all things are thinner and fofter ) Nature: was forced to bring the blood through an oval hole, out of the Yena Cava through the Arte .. rile Peno/II, how can it be poffible that {he fhould valfe it fo conveniently, and with no trouble, through the[eptflm of the heart, being now made thicker after growth? .

AndrelU Ltlurtntifll in his Lib. 9. Chap. I I.' fLM.eft. 12. being back'd with the authority of Gillen, and tile experience of Holl"riter, affirms, that whey. and the atter, out of theca vi tie of the brefr, -beingfupp'd up by the arteria venofo, can beexpelJed through the left ventricle of the be4rt and the aruritJ, together with the Vrine and the Bscre-

mm~~ j A~ l~~!!f~ f~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ation ~f it he I re· . atc~

The Pr~m,e;

fates the cafe of a certain Melancholy man; wno was freed from a Paroxifm by the emiffion of trona. ;bled, fiinking, tart grinl, by which kind of difeafe ;at laft dying, and diffctting the body, no fucb fub .. fiance as he pilP d , did either appear in the 61.d~ der or in the reins, any where, but a great deal ill' the ltft ventricle of the heart, and concavity of the breafl, whence he vaunts that he foretold thecaufe of fuch difeafes. But I cannot chufe but wonder: fince he had guefl'd and foretold that Heterogene:

OUi matter could be evacuated by the fame paffage that he either could not or would not fee or affirm' that through the fame waves the blood could b; conveniently, according to Nature, brought out of the lunJI into the left ventricle.

Therefore from thefe, and many fuch things as thefe, it is clear, that thofe things which are before fpoken by former Authors, concerning the motion and uie of the heart and [he erteries; do either feem if:1~onv~nient or o~fcure, or admit of no compoffiblllt~, I~ one do diligently confider them; therefore It will be profitable to fearch more deeply into the bufiaefle, and to contemplate the motions of the «rterie» and htttrt, not only in man, but aJfo ill all other creature! that have a heart ; as likewife by the frequent ditTeaion ofliving things, and by much ocular tdlimony to difcern and Iearch the truth.

I

I

~

I

I

ANATOMICAL EXERCISES,

CONC~RNING

The motion of the Heart,' and 13/ood, in Living Creatures.

CHAP. 1.

Thf! CAlifos which mfnld rht Amhar ft} "Write.

.•.. Hen flrIl: I applyed my

. . '. mind,to obfervacion,from

I ~ the many diffediom of

. o Living Creatures as they

~~i1fH.~'~ came to hand, that by

• that meanes I might find OUt the ufe of the motion of the Htllrk and things con~ucible in Creatures; r firaightwayes found it a thing hard to be attained, and full of difficulcie,fo with F1'4- caft,rim I did alrnofl beleeve, that [he motion of the Heart was known to God alone: For neither could J rightly diflin-

. -A gui£F

!

1. Anatomicall Exel'ci{tl

guifu, which way the Diaj/ole and SJflo11 came to be, nor when nor where the dUIlta jim and ctmftriction had its exiftence. And that by resfon of the quickneffe of the motion, whichin fome creatures appeared in the twinckling of an eye, hke the pailing

C ntraai~ of Lightning; 1'0 that Iometimes the Sljf~ 0:" It' did prefent it felf [0 me from this place, E.x.~rnfior. and the Diaflole from that place, fometimes

jufl co ntrary, Iometimes the motion was various, fornerimes confus'd : whence I was much troubled in mind, cor did J know whl['to refolve upon my felf ~ or what beleefto give to others; nor wonder'd I at that which AfJ(ireM LaHrCl3tl1lJ writes, That the motion of [he heart, was as the ebbing and flowing of E ur] pm to Ari(!:f1- tl« .. At lail uung dally more fearch and di.Iigenfe. by often looking into many and fe. verall forts of creatures, l did beleeve I bad hit [be nail on [he head. unwinded and treed my {elf" (rom this Labyrinth, and thought 1 bad gain-d both the motion and' ufe of the beart , together with that of the (lrfcri( I, which I did fo much.defire : Since which rime I havenot been afraid,both pri, vately to m't' friends, and publickly in my Anatomie Lectures [0 deliver my opimono

\tV hich, as it commonly falls out; pleated [orne, and difpleafed others; Some there were that did check me, Ipoke hadbly, an4

. found

3

,

oft.f·, morio1r,ftht Hla,t',.c7c.

found fault that I had departed from tbe precepts and belief of all An.'Ito11lif/I' O« rhersavouching that it was a thing ~ew ,

· worrhy or their k~?w~edge~ and exceeding profitable, reqnlr d It to be more plainly delivered to them. At Jail, rnov'd partly by the requefh of my friends, that all men might be partakers of my endeavours, and

,p~rtly ~y t~e malice of rome, who being

· difpleas d with what I laid, and not underftanding it aright, endeavoured to traduce

· me publickly, I was forced to recommend th,~fe things ro the Prefs , tbat every man _ ~lg~t of me, an~ of the thing it Ielf, deliver .his Judgement freely. But 10 much tbe 'more wrlling I was to ir.becaule Hieromm, lib Aq. P •. having l,earnedly an~ accurately Iet down 10 a particular Treatife , almoft

"111 the pares of hvinc creatures left the

, . t"

. t'1'Jt'4rt only untoucl~ed. Laftly, if any pro ..

.fir.or advanr3.ge might by my induflry in this accrew to the rcpubluk of Literature

,it might perchance be granted that I bad done well, and others might beleeve that I had not fpentmy time altogether to no purpofe, and as the oldman fays 10 [he Co-

l'

mN~U,

.;. ·NrJ man (0 llJ~1 e'rl.zid hi! rount 10 Iiue,

I, Bier th.u (Iml~S, age, a?ld f~ft. feme (It'll' tbing p;ive, N Tb~t W{M[ ~Olt l i'ollgbt ),011 ~i!eW, VIlli /":11l T.1)1 ~fJf)!)':I '.'.1 Aad wb«: yOf~ once tlJOflgl1l befl, )011 (h:r!1 [rrgor.

1

,This may perchance fall out now in the

A 2 motion

i

I

4

'A".t;m;call Exercifil

motion of the h,,,rt ,that from hence the I way being thus pervious, others trufting to I more pregnant wits, may take occafion to , doe better, and fearch further. I

-.10 __ ------- , __ ~ , I

C HAP. II.

whilt maNISer of motian the Heerr /Jar in thl

diffeDioN of living Crl4t1lrtl.

F1rll then in the beAm of all creatures, .~ being difleded whilfl they arc yet alive, r 'opening [he lire.tjl, and cutting up [he cap- . fl4le, which immediately environeth the I 'flirt, you may obferve that the hrart ,I.

moves fornerimes , fornerimes rens : and ~'I, that there is a time When it moves, and ' when it moves not. ,. \,

This is more evident in the he~,.t! of col-' ;

der creatur~s,as th~ ToaJ."Serfe~tJl Frog~. :11,.' HfJf.t(e-S1J(lIif, Sh,-,mps, Crevi[u, and all "

manner of little: Fifou. For it fhews it [elf, .' mere manifcfily in the hearts ofh~tt:er bodies, as of D(1gl·r, SWmf, if you obferve at- :, rentivr ly till the heArt begin to dye, and" ; move faintlv.and life is as it were departing,' , from it. Then you may clearly and plain- '; Iy fee that the motions of ir are more flow, and feldome, and the reflings ofit of a 10n~er continuance: and you may obferve and diftioguifu m()r~ eafily , what manner. of

'motion ., I

., ,

0lth, mDtifJII fJfth, Htart, ~c.-

motionic is, and which wayes it is made; in the relling of it, as hkewite in death, the heart is ye.eiaing, flagging weak J and lyes

as it were drooping.

At the motion, and whjJft it is moving, three rhings are chiefly to be obterved, •

i I. That the heart i~ ereded, and [hat it ,; raifes it Ielf upwards intoa point, infomuch that it beats the breaft at that time, fo as the pulfarion is felt outward I}'.

2. That there is 3 cfJntrafiitm of it every way, efpecl~lIy oft~efides of it, fo that it appears leffer, longer, and contracted. The heart of an Eel, taken out,and laid upon a trencher .or upon ones hand, doth .:vide nee this: It appears likewife in the hearts of little Fillies, and of thofe colder Animals whofe hearts are /h~rp tit top, Ana lan«,

3· Thattbe hrart being grafp·d i7t 0 nes hand' whilft it is in motion; feels harder. This hardneffe arifes from ttNI;Dn like as if one take hold of the tendons of ~nes arm by the E ,''ow whilfr they are moving the fingers, {ball feel them bent and more rl:filling.

4- fismoreoverto be obferved in Fifo and cold,r An;ma{s which have blood ~; SerpmtlJ Frog1.s, at that time when 'the heart moves it becomes whitifh, when it t Ieaveth motion it appears full of l"anguine

colour. Nom hence itfeemed to me thar the motion ofthe he.rt was a kind Orlenti-

- , . - -,A - ..

._ 3 011

5

e

6

.,

.Atlatm~icAlt E xerciJis

on in every part of it 'J according [0 the drmrin,;and conffrtUion of the F b:rJ every ,(, way; becauie it appear'd chat in all its mo. J • tions, it was ereded, received vigour, grew -i" '~_' Iefler , and harder, and that the motion of {

it was like that of the mH[cln, where the contyaa'on is made according to the draw-

ing of the nerVQItJ p4rtJ, and fllnrs; for the 1»MJCln whilll they are in motion, and in atticn, are envigorated, and flrerched , of

fofr become hard, they are uplifted> and thirkned. fo likewife the hu, ... t,

From which obfervations with good rea- -',If fon we may gather that the h~"rt at that time whilll ir is in motion, Iuffers conflri- I dion, and is thickned in its outfid- , 'and

fo flreightned in its vtntric/(J, thrufling forth [he blood contained within it : which from the fourth obfervation is evident becaufe that in the tent ro» it becomes whir e, having thrult out the blood contai-

ned within it, and prefenrlv after in it rel'i>.:~t:OI1, and- reft , 'a purple and crim-

Ion colour returns to the jle'lrl. But.of this

no man needs to make any further foruple , fince upon [he inflitting of a wound into

the c .. wine of the -oentrscl e .upon every rnotion, and pulfation of [he /uiJt·t,in the very

t ent ion ,. you fhall lee [he blood within contained Co leap our.

So then thefe things happen at one ",: [he fame time.the t entio» of the hr;-;.rr,the ereEliot) ,

OfrlJI mot;6" oftke Heat't, aio"ofthe point, the beating (which is felt outwardly)by rea ron of its hItting againfr. the br~Afl, the incraffation oftbe fides ot it. and the forcible protrufion of the blood by conftriction of the vtntricla.

Hence the contrary of che comonly received opinion appears.which is,~hat the heart arthat time when It beats agamfi [he brurft, and the pulfarion is outwardly felt, it is beleev'd that rhe -uentricles of [he hel171 are dilated. and replete with blood, though you {hall underfland that it is otherw,ile., and that when the htart IS contracted I t IS emptied. For that motion w~ich is co~~ monly thought the Dia/hle or the hMrt, 15 really the SJ.ft4t, and fo the proper motion of the heart is not a Di!1ftO/t. but a S,JftJ/e, for the heArt receives no y~gour in the DirzPDIt., but in the SJf/oJe, ,for the,n it is extended, moveth, and receiveth VIgour.

Neither is chat to be allowed, though it is confirmed by a cornparifon alleged by the Divine P'tJ[aliU4, of a Vlr~ath ufO ..

. :tiers, meaning ofmany twiggs jovnd together in fafhion of a P}rllmlaC 0 that the /Jetfrt doth only move by the ftreight fib!r!, and fo whilfl the top is brought near to the bottom the fides of it are dilated round about ~ ~nd do acquire the form of a li~tle g,urd,and fo take in blood (for acco!dtn.g to aU the drawing of the Fibers which It

. A4 . has

I

I· i

I

I

,\

a

AnatDmicall EXtrci(tI

has ~ the hCll1't is Itiffned , and gatherd to; gether ) But that the outfide and fubfiance ' of it are rather thickned and dilated, and that wbilft the F.bers are firetched from the top of the corner to the bottom, the fides of the heArt do. not encline to an or/1icfllar (igurt, but rather ccntrary , as every Fiber circular lies plac'd , does in its contraction encline to fireightnels, and as all the F;"e.~1 of the mHftles whilfl they are contracted and fhortned of their length, (0 towards the fides they are extended. and are thickned after the fame fafhlon as the bodies of the Mufclel.

To this add.that not only in the motion of the hellrt. by ered-ion and incraffation ofrhe fides of it, it fo falls out, that the ventricles are ftreightned, but moreover all the fides inwardly are girt together as it were with a noofe. for expelling the blood with gr~ater force,by reafon that rhofe Fibit's or little teNdons, amongfi: which there are none but fireight ones, ( for thole in the outfide are circular) called by Ariflatl« Nerves,acc various in the vtntricln of the htdrtJ ofgreacer creatures, whilfl: [hey are cOntractea together with a moil admirable frame.

Neither is it true which is commonly believ»~, tha~ the heart by .tny motion or diftenrion ofirs Own doth draw blood into the vmt ric'es , but that whilfr it is mo-

.' red

Of the mot;",. Dftht H,,,,t; &c;

ved and bended.the Mood is theufl fortb ~ and when it is relax'd and falls, the blood is received in manner as follows.

-----------------'-\-- ..

C HAP. III.

What mAnnl" of motion th, Arteries h.ve ill

ai.D"e8ion of Ijfling createres;

THeir occurs in the motion of the h~",.t thefe things further to be obferv'd , which have relation to the moving and pulfation of the arteries,

I. That whilfl there is a tention.contraCtion of the heart, and a percuffion ofthe breaft, and an apparent S}ftale, the arteriu are dilated, do beat, and arc in their Dia[fole. In like manner when the right ventricle thrufls out the blood contained in it,t~e ~rtlrioUI 'lie;", beates and is dilated, together with the ren oftheaTttries of the body.

2,. When the lefc 'rImtride ceafeth to move, beat, and Co be contraded , the beating of the ertiries ceafes : nay when the tentio» is but faint, the pulfation of the arteries is hardly to be perceived, and fo likewife in the arteriall Vt;", when the right ceafes.

3· Likewiie cutting or piercing any ar. t erie in the very ttnti~n of the left vt1ltricl~

. ". . the

I

I

I

10 '_A"lIt,miC'1I1l EXlrciju

the blood is forcibly tbruet out of the wound, fo cutting the arteria!J vt'n at the fame time, and in the unti'" and contraction of the right ventricle, you {hall lee thebJood to burft out forcibly from thence.

. So Jik~wife in Fi-foes, cutting the c,,,Juit ptpe,~hIC~ leads from the h,art to the gills, at which ume you fhall Iee the heart iliff, ~nd ~on~ralaed, from thence you ihall likewife ice the blood forcibly thruft out.

Laftly t as in the cutting of anyarter;~, the blood leaps out Iometimes farther, fometimes nearer, you fhall find the outleaping to be juft with the Arterial DJ.!jfoIe, at which time the heart {hikes the ,'nft, and at that time then when it appears thar the heart is in its tentio.lt and contraction it

. . . '

IS IOns SJ(f,le, and that the blood is rhruft

out with the fame motion.

From hence, ithis againlt the Common rule appears to be clear, that the ArhrialJ Dilfj10le is at the fame time with the SJpole of the htart, and rharrhe art eries are fill'd and diflended , by realon of [he immiffion and intrufion of blood made by the conffridion of the ventricles of [he heart j as likewife that the arteries are flretchcd, becaufe they ar~ fill'd like Baggs or Sachets ~ and are not fill'd becaule they are blown lip like Bellows: and for the fame caufe do all the {Jftlriei of the body beat, by reafon

of

~\

(I

.J I

~

I

Ofth, mDlim of thl Htllrl, &~.

. of the te"t;()tS ofthe left Vt"tr;~/e of the htart, ~s the flrteriflll 111111 from the t""j,m _ ofthe right.

Laflly, That the pul{atior'l of the ."ft- , ries arifes from the impulfiol1 of blood from the 11ft 'lle1'JlrlC/fi jufi fo, as when one blow! into a glove, he (ball fee all the fin. gers Iwell up together, and aflimulate this pullation. As alfo according to the te1lti." of the h~art, the pulfations are greater, mor~ vehement, more frequent, fwifttr t· keeptng the number, quantity, and order

of the beating of the heArt. '

Nor is it to be expected, that becaufe of the morton of the blood there fhould be a certain diflance of time betwixt the conflriCtion of the hea~ t, an d the dilatation ofrhe arte:;o (efpecially ofthofe that are furtheft diftanr ) that they be .not at the .fame in~ant, became that in a ba{o>J ( as likewife In a Drum, and long peeces of Timber) the Ilroke and the motion are alike foon at both extrernes , fince she cafe here IS jull: as in the blowing up ofa glove, or a Bladd~r. Hence Arijl. 3. /Jr.lm. C. 9. de r(jp. (. lip. 15. The blood (fays he) fJf alt /;'V"'g C':t',lfurel, beats with:"n their vtin/, ( meanmg the Ilrttrtel,) lind with a continHlf1l rJJQ~"m metres ever] Where: fo d» "U tb« Ve,nJ heat to._f!,c;her, and bJ turns ; hecflufo they h~'l).e tbeir dtpu:dllllce /Jpm the heart. But it d~tS Illwllp move) wherefore thl,'

Ifk!-

II II

:A"""",ic"IJ E~w":fel:

1;~t'A1;fo ",fJ7"., lind i" '7*1" tfl ill "'(Jti01l '1I'h!" it Joth mlVl.

We mutl obrerve with GAle n .. that the 41'terilS were named VeiNS by the antient Philofophers, I chanced on a time to fee and have in hand, an accident which did moll plainly confirm cbis to me to be true:

A certaine perfon had a great fwelling which did b~at on the right fidl of his throllt neer to the defcen: of the fo6c/llvial a,.terie, into the armpitt, call'd Aneuri/",4, begotten by the corrofion of the «rurie it (elf, which grew bigger and bigger every day J being filled with the immiffion of blood

. from the erteri« at every pM/ration; which was found upon the cutting up ofhis body after he was dead. In [his man the ,M/ft of his arm upon that fide, was very weak, by reafon that the greater portion and influx of blood was turned into the fwelling, and fo diverted.

Wherefore, whether it be by compreffion, !luffing, or interce-rion, that [he mo. tion of the blood through tile drte,.i(!s be hindered, in that cafe the furrhermofr Arterie» doe beat leffe, feeing the pul{e ofthe .. rterie» is nothing but the impulfion of the blood into the arteria.

CHAP.

C HAP. IV.

whAt ,.lIm",. Df",fJlilll the Hellrt) tI"tl tlr,",rl ofir, have in liVing Crearllrll.

BEfides rhefe, there are to be obfen'ed fuch things as belong to the earl,which Gal} sr BIIUhil11u P. ( • Anat. 22. aI. and ]OhA1J.Riolanl#, men very learned, and s~~l .. full Anato",iJfs have obferved, and advlle. us.that (ifin the live dill'eaion of any ."i-

. m:lls you have good regard to the motion of the heart, you Gull fee four. motions, diilind: both in time and place: with leave of fuch eminent men be it [poken, there are four motions di!1intt in place, but not in time; for both the earl move together, and both the ve1ltriclll move together, fo that there are four motions difiinct in place, only at two times, and it is thus, . 0

There are as it were at one time two motions, one of the ears , and another of the srentricles themfelves ~ for they are not jua at one inflane, but the motion of the ear! goes before, and (he motion of [he helirt follows; and the motion feemes to begin at the ellrs, and to pa~e forward to the vcntriclu; when all rhlllgs are already in a languifhing condition, (the heart: dying away, as it is both in F/h.'J, and other ,g/d:r II.t:ITlJIlII which have bloodjrhere

inter ..

11- AntttomiC411 Exercifu

intercedes rome ilion reiling time betwixt thele two motions, and the htart heing as . 'it were weakned , feerns to anfwer the motioo,fometime$ [wi (cer , fomerimes flower; laft of all drawing towards death, it ceafes to anfwer by its motion, and only by nodding irs head teems as it were to give conrenr, and moves fo infenfibly. chat it feems only to give a figne of motion to the ~""J r So the h.tart firft leaves beating, before the t~"', fo that the tars are (aid to out-li re it: the left ventricle leaves beating fi,ell: of all, then its em', then the right Vlntnclf, la,ft of all (which Galen obfervs) ,.11 the rea giving off and dying, the rig/lt t,.fr beats {till: [0 that life feerns to remain Jail of all in the right. And whilIt by lietle and little the h/!.-/rt i! dying, you may fee after two or three bearings of the Ilir , the heart will, being as it were rowfed, an .. fwer, and very flowly and hardly'endeavor and frame a motion.

But this is cbiefly to be obferved, that after [he !J~t?rt has left. beating, and the ears are bearing frill, putting your finger upon the vemncle of [he heart: every pulfa cion is perceived in [he ve"H'iclrJ, jull: after the fame manner as wee [aid the pulfations of [he oentrrcles were felt in the Ar't~riu, a diftention being made by irnpulfion of blood: and at tbis time, the esrs only beating, if you cut away the

point

Of tile motuH Df fhl ~t'"t; c:r'~ J S

~ Joillt of the hll,rt with a pair of S"ffWs,yon

:1 fhall fee the blood flow from thence at eve"

~ ry pulfation of the ,ar, fo that from th~n,e

,1 it appears which way the bloo.d come~ into

, the ventrIcles ~ not by attradion or ~dlen-

tion of the heArt, but fent in by the impul- .

fion of the IIIrl. r. hi [

It is to be obferved t that all thofe w l~ 1

I call pulfations t both i!l the ears ; and In the "tArt, are contradions, and that the. fAr I are evidently firft contraded , and af. terwards the heMe it felf. For the e .. :&

1 whiHl: they move and bear, become whitifh efpecially when there is little blood in tb~m, for they arc fiU'd as the cellars and trtafuritl of blood, by the co~preffive motion ofthe VlillJ , and the tendtng ofthe blood to its proper Centre. Nay furthe~, .It is mofr evident.in the tltal and ~.\·trtmttllS of [hem that the whitenefs arifes meerly

from [h~ contraction of [hem. .

In Fi[hts, and Frflggs, and the hke., h~ving but one vmtrict« of the h~art ( tor 10 lieu of one ear they have a ,.ttle [,I"dder '- plac'd at the bottom of their hea,t full of blood) vou {hall mofl evidently fee the bl.1drkr firfi contracted, and the contra-

" a ion of the heart to enfue, .

.\~ Notwirhflanding I thought fit to infert :~ thole rhinos which were of a. contrary

·courfe. [hehh~art of an Ed, as ~lto of forne Fijhu and living creatures bemg tane out

, beats

t

j

. ' . A".tnn;ctCll EXtrci{e1

bean without t .. ,.I, nay though you cut it in pieces, you {ball fee the pieces when they are afunder contract and dilate themfelres , fo that in fuch, after tbe motion of the! eerr; the heart does leap and beat: But this perchance is only proper to _fuch creat~resl welt. are more tenacious of life, whole Ylldlcal .,ifiure is more glutinom . fatter, tougher, and not fo eafie to be diffolV-d. This al(o does ~pp~ar in the fleth c;>f Eell,whic~ aft~r the skinning ~ exenteration a and cutting In pieces, retains motion.

This is certain that upon a time trying an experiment NponA dQ'lJe, after that the h,art had quite left motion, and that the ear S had a while given over, I wetted my finger with Ipittle, and being w~rmed kept it a while upon the heart, by this fqmen~ation ~ as ifir: had received ftrengch and hfe a frefh , the heart, and its ears began to move to contrad , and open, and did feem ;s it were recall'd back again from death,

But befidesall thefe I have often obferv'd tbat after the heart it felf, and even its right t"ar,had at the very point o~ dea~h left offbearing.there manife!lly remairrd 10 the very blood which is in, the r~~ht eAr" an obtcure motion, and a kind of inundation • and bearing.that is to Jay/o long as it feemd to be poffeff-d wit,h any blood, or (pirit.

A thing of the like nature, 10 the firLl: gene:

!

lJ

of the moti 011 of th; Heert ; (j-C: l'j ..

generation of a living creature moil: evi~

dently appears in a hens egg within Ieven

days after her fieting, fi~fr of all there IS

in it a drop of blood , whldu~oves, a~ ~.

riflotl, likewife obferv'd , which recelVJng

encreafe , and the Chic/;:n being for~d in

part the earS of rbe he.1rt are fafhioned,

which be:tting there is always life; [hen afterwards withln a few days the bo-

dy beginning to receive _its lineaments, then

likewife is the: body ot the heart framed,

but for fome days it appears whirifh and, without blood, nor doth it beat and move

as the ref] of the body; as a1fo I have Ieen

in a child after three moneths , the hu~rt [0

be alfo form'd, but whitifh , and without

blood; in the earl of which notwithftan-

ding there was great fio~e of?lo?d, and of

a crimfon colour: fo likewife rn the egg

when the Chick... was new form'd , and e~lcreafedjthe he Plrt began likewfe to encreale,

and [0 have oemrictes in which it began to

receive blood and pals it through.

So that if a man will more narrowly pry into the truth he will nor fay,that the heart is the firft tIsing that lives, an.d laft that dies but rather the ears (and In Snakes; Fifhes and fuch like creatures s the part which i's inflead thereof) and rhatie both Iivesbefore rhe eee-r.and dies after ire

Nay its doubtful too.whether or no before th.em alfo the Ipirir and blood have: an ob.

U Icure

I

~ f

I I

v __ ~_~._. __ ..... _.__ • _

18

'A"tttomical eXtr,i/ei Oftltl'lID.t;onof,he Heart, d'c;

fcure beating, which to me it feem'd to b19Q~, the he4rt beats :ve~y Dowty, & with

retain ~fter ~eath '. or whether we may fay deliberate Ilroaks, as It does in othercrea-

that with this beating the life begins, fce-' tures which are dying,and is contraeted lei-

lng ~h~ Sperm. , and prolifique Spirit, of (urely,as in SnA'/S is eafie to difcern, whore

all.ltvmg crea~ure5, goes from them with h#art you {ball find in the right fide at the

a kind oflea plOg, as !fit felf were ~ Jiving bottom of th~t O·iflce, w bich it feems co

creatur~, So ~atu~e 10 death makmg as it op,en and {but for taking of air, and from

we~e .a rerapitulation , r~turns upon her whence it calls out foam,diffeCting it at the

felf With a retrograde motion,from the end top near the place which is anfwerable to

of her race to ~he beginning of it , from the liver.

whence {he fint iflues thither Ihe returns BU.t it is to be obferved likewife , that ill

feeing the generation of living creatures' Winta',and colder feafons, ferne creatures

f~~rn not being a living creature) is to be; which have no bloodj fuch as is the Sn.zil

hvmg creature, as from a non entitie to be have norhing wh.ch beats ~ but doe rathe:

an entirie , fo by the ~a~e fleps , corrupti- fee~ to be like plants; as likewife the- reft,

on paffes from an ennne, to a non emilie. which for that caufe are called P l..Inl a",-

,when~e it ii, that th~t which in living crea~ rna!,. It is likewite to be obferved that

~ures IS laft made, fads firfl, and that wh'ch in all creatures which have he~rts,th~re are

15 firfl made, fails laft, ~tfrs likewife , or fome thing anfwerable to

1 have likewife obferv'd , that there is - them J and wheretoever [fie heir,.t has tWO

really a .heart in all ~nimaJs, and not only v,ntricles, there are two esrs but not con ..

(as Ariftotle fays) In the greater torr and trarily.Butif you obferve rhe'rafbi('lning of

filch as have blood > but Jikewife in ~~ffer, a chick 10 the egg, firfb ur all there is in it as

and fu,-!1 as have none, as thofe [hac are I faid only a 61 .. ader or drop ofblood.which

crufled without, or have fuels, as houfe- beats, and encreafing afterwards the hlare

Snails, Cyttbfifo, Crev~rl/S, Sh;-imp.r, and in is perfected; fo in fome creatures ( as not

!llany others, nay in W.1(P1, H~rntt/) and reaching a further perfed.on ) there is a

an Gnats. by an optick glaes made for the - cert_i~. little bladder only like a point, red

difcovery ofthe Irail. thi~g!J, in the upper ' or white , as the beginning of life ~ as in

end of that place which IS called their rail, Bees, warps, Sl1aUr, Shrjm;Js/ revifes. .

I f,1W [~~ht4r( bt ".t,'& {hewed it to others. ~ There is tound here with us a fort of vee>

But .rn thole creatures which have no ~ ry litdt.Fifu,· calied in E~g1ith, a ShrImp ..

blood, { . B l. ' and

,

I'.

I

.1

:0

.AnAt~",jcaJ E ~tl';!11

and in Low Dutch Ee» Garnet!, ufuaHy ta; ken in the Sea, and in the River ofTIo"mu. all the bodie of which is tranfparent e This little Fifh I have often {hewn in water to fome of myJpeciall friends,fo that we could clearly difcern the motion of the h~art in that creature, the outward parts nothing at all obfiruCling our fighr, as if it had been through a window. In a Hens egg I fhewcd the firll beginning or the Chick, ike a little cloud, by purring an egg off which the {hell was taken, into water warm and dear, in the midfl of which cloud there was a point of blood which did beat, fo lierle,! hat when it was contraded it difappea .. ted, and vanifh'd out of our fight, and in its dilatation, fhew'd it felf again, red, and {mall as the point of a needle; infomuch ~ 5 betwixt being feen, & not being feen.as it were betwixt being,and not b~ing,it~did .re ... preren~ a b :ating, and the beglnntngjofl1fe.

C HAP. V.

T~e 6[fiotJ and office of the motio» of the

Heart ,

I ConfiJencly beleeve then, that out of thefe aad (he like obfervations, it will be found that the motion ofthe h~{lrt._is after this manner.

F irft cf all the eAr contrads it felf, and in rhat contraction throws the blood with which it abounds, as the head fpring of ~he ,!,'~n/,

_ Oftho1Jot;onofthIHe4rt,0~c; 21

veinJ, and the (etlttr and ciJlern of Moud,

into the ventricl« of the btart, which. being full,firaigbcway the heart raifes it (elt~firet-

ches all [he l1erVe1,contraets the ver.tric/eI,

and makes a pulfation ; by which pulfation

it continuaJly thrufts that blood, (which by thee~rJ IS fent in)forthinto the art"'rit"J,the

"ight oentrict« into the IU'I,l, through chat

velfd which is called the 'lien" a"lni'J(a, but

is indeed both in its place and function.and every thing elle, an arterit; the Itft ventri-

cle' into the ttorta,and fo by the erteries into

the whole body.

Thofe two motions, the one of the eltr!, the other of the vllltricla,are fo done in.a continued motion, as it were keeping a certain harmony, and nurnbe r ,that they are both done at the fame time, and one onely motion appears, elpecially in hotter creatures, whiHl: they move with a fudden metion. Nor is this otherwife done, than when in EHg,nes, one wheel moving another, they feern all to move together; and in the lock of a piece, by the drawing of the fpring, the flint falls, frrikes the fleel, fires the powder, enters rhe touch-hole.difchar .. ges, the balls flie out, pierces the rna- k, and 11 there motions by reafon of the fwifcneffe of them, appear in the twinkling of an eye:

So likewife in the deglutition, the meat or drink is thrown into the j~w.r, the leris« is fhut clofe, by its own 1IINfoles, and the Epi ...

. ?! 1 gl~~~

~ z. v/natD11J;,c&t1 Ex ,rei {e $

gIDtti!, the top of the Wt~(on, is lifted up ~ and opened by its rnufcle.r, juft as a Iack is raiied to be filled,and opened that it may receive; it tbrnfts down the meat or drink being receiv'd , bv the thfPart'ng "'Hft/ei. and with [be long m"[cld fucks it downjyet notwithfianding that all thefe motions are nude by ieverall and contradiflin8:'organl, whilft they are don in harmony and order, fe~m but [0 make one motion and atiion,

which they calliwallowing. "

So it comes to pafte clearly, in the motion a nd action of the heart ; which is a kind of lwallowing~and tran-fufion of blood out of the veins into l he arteries. And if any man urcfu'ly obferving this, fhall diligently tearch the mot' on 0:' the heart in the ,hffecbon 0'" any l:vmg thing he {ball fee not only tlut whuh 1 have laid, that the bea' t ereCts it felf.and makes one continued motion with the ears of it , bur likewife a certain motion and inclination fide-waves, and an ol.fcure leaning that way, in order to the draught of the right voztrrclf,fO carrying en the work. A~ we mav fee when a. Horfe drinks, and Iwallows the water, at every gulp the water is Iup'd duwn into the belly , which yeelds a certain node and pul.e to him that heeds him, and couches him; even fo it c- -rnes to pafle, thar whilfr fome pOf[lon OJ the blood IS drawn out of the v~j".t into the .rtcries» there is a bea-

ting

of the 1HDt;on ofeh, Heart~ &c~ :3

ting which is heard within the breafb

The motion c f the h,~rt then is after this manner, a~d ~he transfufion and propulfion by mediation of the erteries is one of the adions ofrhe heart, [0 [hat [he pulfation whir h we feel, is nothing elie bur 9A- 1}1 the impulfion of the blood by the iJtllrt.

But whether or no the h:art contribute any thing fife [0 the blood.befides the trsn/plJjitlon, locAL mo/;o'_).and diflributio,,,, oflr, we muft enquire afrerwards,and collert OUt of other obiervations, Let this fufflce for the prefent, that it is fufficiently evidenced, ~hat in the beating of the beart the blood IS transfufcd and drawn out of the 'Veins into the It rreries ,through [he7Je_1~tric/u ofilie beart,& fo diftributed into the whole body

But this all do .in tome manner grant .and gather from the fabrick ofthch~"rt. and from the jigr1re, pl~ct1 and uie of the port"'" yetftumbling as it were in a dark place, they feem to be dim-Iighred and dampe~up divers things, which are co'ntra~ ry and incontiflent, and lpeak many things at .ran~orn ( as we (hewed before, ) One

. thu~g teemes to me to have been the chief . caule of doubt and mifiake in this bufineffe which is, the contexture In a man of'th; h,are and lungs; For when they. did' fee the 'lJma arterlo!", and the arteri« "'tllo!a, comming likewife into the INngs, andlthere to difappear ) it could not fink with them

- -. . ~ 1- either

'.Anlfto.,i~al E xlrciftl;·

either how the right ventriC!~ fhould diflribute the blood into the body, or how tbe left ventric!e fhould draw it out of the vena Ceu«. This GaienJ words do tefrify in his book De plac. Hip. & Plat.6.Where he inveighs againfl: Erofijl,.atU!, concerning the beginRing and ufe of the veinl, and the concoction of the blood. To» will ,,»{we,. (fayes he) that it irio ordained, that she "lo~d be prepared in the Liver J and fo carried to the U,art, there to receive its pr?ptr. form and "b{o/ute per/eElion : whi6h trul] feemr not Without rttlfon; for 110 perfeEt 1l1ld

, greatWor~ is dane fuddenlJ, at one attempt, and gains aflits refillingfrom one ;uflrllment. Wh;tklf it he [0, fleW U1 "not her ve({ell . which draws (Jut the Mood, h,inl: abfolutelJ per/cad f,.om the heart, and difpoJes o( t t ~ the arteries doe of the iPiritJ through the ,vhale bodit.

See here an opinion which carries reafon with it left and rejeded by Gillen, becaufe (betides not perceiving the paffage,) he could not find a vetTel which from the heart fhould diflribute the blood into the whole body.

But if at that time in the defence of that opinion (which is now ours, & in all things elfe agreeable to reafon by Galen! own confeflion ) one fhould with his finger have pointed 'out the great .Arterie difpen~ng the blood from the Htart into [he

whole

Olthe 1»otion ofthl Heart; e-: woole body, what would that Divine man moft ingenious, and moft learned, have an~ fwered? I wonder whether he would have {aid that the arr_eriu difrributc Spirits and aot blood certatnly he fhould not by this ~ fufficie.nt~y h~ve conf~t~d a ErojifiratU! who did Imagme the Spirin to be contained in the arterjes only, our fhoald in the mean time contradict himfeIf, and bafely deny that, which in one of his own books he fiiffly maintains to be true, proves it by many and flrong argumenta, and by esperiments demonflrats it,that blood is naturally contain'd in the ~rrtriesJ andnot J'pirits.

But if chat Divine man, as he does often in the Iame place .. do grant that all the dirt erie, of the body do arite from the great arteri,.,and it from the heart, and profdfing likcwife that thofe three pointed door! plac'd in the Orifice of the Aorta do hinder r he return of the blood into the heart .and that nature had never ordain'd them for the befl of our intralls , unlels it had been for fome fpeciaU Office ~ I fay,if the father of the Phyficians fhould grant all thefe things, and in the fame very words as he does in his forementioned book, J do nor fee how he could deny [bac the great art erie was fuch a veffel as did carry the blood, after it had received its abfolute perfection, out of the laMrt into the whole body: Or per-

chance

AnalfJm;C41 Extrcifel

chance he would ftil continue to be doubtfull, (as all the reft fince his time to this very day) becaufe not feeing the contexture oftheh,,,,twtth the IU~gs he was ignorant of the wa ys by which the Blood could be csrryed into the «rteries , which doubt dots not a little perplex the Ar.atomiJiI when always in diffedions they find the ar» teri« veno/a and the idi: omtrsci» full of thick knottie black blood, fo that they are forc"d to affirm that the blood fwers through the encloferofthe hlarE from the right -umtricle to the lef; but this way I have Iufficiently refuted already, therefore there muft another way be prepared and laid open, whichbeing found, there can, I imagine,be no difficulty, which can hinder any body from granting and confeffing thole thingr which I propounde~ beror~ of the pulfation of the heart, and dilpenfation or the blood by the arteries into the whole body.

C HAP. VI.

R} wfJi(;h }'MJS the ""od is carried (Jilt D( the vena cd/va, into the arteries, or out of the r:gb, ventricl« ofth: he~rt i1JtD the left.

SInce it is probable, that the connexion of the be~tt with the lungs has given 'this occafion of miftake , they are to be blamed in this, who whilft they' defire to give their verdid , to demonftrate , and

. under:

r

,!

I

I

Oft he 1nDti01l ,Jthe' HIArt, &c~ underfland all parts of living creatures; look but into mao only t and mto him being dead roo.and fo ,do no more to the purpole. than mote, who teeing the manner of Government in one Commonwealth, frame Pohncks, or they who knowing -he nature or one piece ur Land, beleeve that tbey underltand agrICulture, or as it from one Particular p,fopofitlon, tbey fhould goe about to frame umvfrfal arguments. ,

Nevertheleis we e they but as well pra(\:it'd in the diffedion 01 creatures, as they are in the Anatomic of mens ~arcafes , this bufinefs, which keeps themall in doubt and perplexitie , would in my opimon feern dear without all difficultie.

Fint of al in Fillies having but one ven~ tricle of the heart ( as having no lungs) the tbng is clear enough. For it is certain.that it may be confirmd before our eys, (hat the bladder of blood, which they have at the bottom of the he.rt, anlwerable to the e4i of the heart_fends the blood into the heart and that the h~art does afterward, throu'gh a pipe or tirterle,Or. fomething anf-, wering to an artu'1,ope~ly trlm~uh: it,bo~h by our own view.and alto by cutttng the sr; terie, the blood leaping out upon every pullation of the heart,

Y IJU may lirewife fee the fame afterward ealily in allother creatures, in whic~ there is but: one tnntr ide only, or [ometll1ng an .. ,~ . {we·

] .

• I .

~ ,

"is '.A'tatDl1)icaIE~ertifo.r

fwerable to it, a~ in th~ Toaa,Frogg, S ~r~ pmll" b~Ufe.Sr)(fl/J, which although they are Iaid In fome manner to llave IU'ig!, becaufe they have a voice ( of the frame of whofe ~"t1gJI have many obfervations by me) which are not proper for this place J yet from our own eye fight it is dear after the fame manner in them chat the biood by [he pulfa~ion of the h~.1rt is brought out ofrhe Veins 10[0 the :Ir,terics, the way of It open, patent, mani~efr no occafion or doa~t ofdilficulc¥ at ~11.F~r the cafe is juf] fo With them, as It mIght be with a man, [he enclofure of whofe heArt were pierced through, or taken a'\'ay, and fo both the Vtnt71c!U become one. I beleeve no man then would doubt which way the blood 1110Uld go O~[ of the ve:nJ,into (he «rterics,

And feeing there are more creatures which have no IttnjfJ, than there are which have , and more which have but one Ventricle, than [here are which have two we may ve~y well aver for the moil parr, 'and almofi In all , rha: the blood is transfus'd out ofrhe ?1tinJ, into the arterieJ, throu~tl the bofom ofthebeart by an open palfa;e.

~Ut ~ conceiv~J with my [elf that i~ is plainly teen too II1 thofe Em61'701:1 whit h ha ve bearr J.

In a ilinh there are four vdfdJs 0C' the heart the uen« C';'V;t, the 'V;'"'1,~ art cr, O{d l ertcri« 7/C/';'ll/r~ and the aorta, or m.tt~i;

, .'

1

i I

Ofth~ m~t;onDfthe Heart, 6'c: 21.

m,1!.na, and are otherwife united then in

one come to age, which all Anatomifts know well enough.

The firfl touch and union of the vellA C.W.1 with [he arter .. ja veno/a, which comes [0 paffe before the VeMa caVA opens it felf into the right ventricle of thehart,or f~nds out the Coronal v.:if1,a little above its outgoing fn.m the livlr, d~fplays unto us its orifice fide-wares, that is to fay, a hole,

.. wide and large, of an oval figure, made through palfagable, from the vena CIIVA inrothat Arttrie : Infomuch as through [hat hole the blood may freely and abun, dantly paife out (. f the: venit caVil, into the «rteri« ve1Co!a. and [he left eer of the htar" and fo Co the left oentrrci«, There is moreover againfi that place which lookes towards the arteriA veno]« a 'mlmbrlll1t thin and hard, like a cover, which afterwards in thofe which grow to riper years, covering [his hole.and growing ro£;ether every way, does quite flop it, and takes awayalmoft

all figne of it. 1 his * mtmYrane, I fay, is fo It SeltUw. ordained.char hanging loofely with its own

weight, it makes way into the lungs, and

htll'1't, and is turned up giving paflage to

the blood which flows from the vena CAva,

but hinders it from flow ing back into the

Cte'1IIf again. So thar from hence we may i ..

rnagln in an Emhryoll, [hat the bloud ol1ght conriuually (0 paffe through th.s bole into

. the

~I c=====~ ..... m •• ~.n'J .... 1.... ........ _ ........ __

N

30 Aflllt~m;c"l:Ex"'&ifll;

the .,'e,i" 'Umo/ a .out of the 111114 cct1l4,3nd fo into the left ell¥' of the h,art, and after it is enter'd, that it can never return.

The other union is that of the vena ~rte· rio!a. (which comes to patfe after that that vein coroming out of the right ve"tridt, is divided into two branches) and it is as it were a third trunk.., or IIrteri~t con.d~ir-r:ipe , diverfe from the tWO former, from hence crookedly drawn, and perforate into the ,Arteri4 ".aj.nrt, j fo that in the diffection of :E"~;"l}ns, there appe:us as it were two aor : tAl, or two roots of the great srterie, This c,ndNit likewite in thofe that come to riper age is attenuated by little and little , and fades.away, and at laft is quite dryed up, & loft,like the Ilmbj/ic4l 1I1;n. This ~rtl,.ial condNit.piPc hath no membrAne to hinder the motion of blood backward, or forward, for there are in the orifice of that 'rIenA erter iofa, of which this conduit-pipe as I faid

ltV.llvub before is a hrar.ch.three* doors of the fafhi, -. . on of a!:. which appear outwardly and in-

wardly, and doe eafily give paffage to the blood .. flowing into the right ventricle by this way, but on the contrary hinder any thing which may flow from the erteri« or the /W4gS ,into the rigbt vent/ie/" which they {hut very clofe : ' So that here we have reafon to think, that in an Embr;!m when the heart contracts it felf', the blood muft alwayes be carryed OUt of the right vt1ftrj-

cl,

Of the mfJtioHofthe Hellrt, &t:~ 3~

cll into the .,teriA 11I4gna by this way:

In anfwer to that which is commonly Ipoken, that rhefe two conjundions, Io grca~, f? open, to wide, were made for the nounfluDg of the //In'll and that in thofe who arive to riper age, 'when the Illngs by reafon of their heat and motion require more abun dant nutrime nt, they fhould be tane away,and made up, is an invention improbable, and inconfiftenr. A .. d that is likewife falfe which they fay of the h,art of a~ E",[,r,on, that it is idle and does nothmg, moves not at all: whence it comes to pafle, that Nature was forc'd for the no .. rifhing of the IU"ls to .m.ake thofe paffages; when by our own eys It IS made plain to us that both in an egg whereon a Hen hatb fate, and in Em/;1'JIIIlI newly cut out of the womb, the hCllrt doth move as in thofe of riper age; and likewifethat Nature is yre~ed with no fuch necefflty; Of which motion not only thefe my eyes have often been Witndfes, but likewife Ariflotle him felf affirms; The '"1ft ( fays he) appem"14t the fiery 6egi1lni1lg ;" fhl confl;tuti~~ of the IJeart,which U fOHnd in thl difflCl;on of/tv;ng cr~~turtl, ""d "!.n egg in the form;1Ig of thl Check.: But we alfo obferve, that thole patTag~s are open and free; afwell in men, :a~ alfo 10 othe~ creatures, not oRly to the nme ofthe birth, which the Anatomifts have obferv'd,_but likewhe many monerhs

after

'3 z 'AnAtomical E~e"'C'ifet

arccr:yea in fome for many years, ifnot all their Iif7'time, as !n [he. GO()[e, and very many Birds. WhICh thang perchance did deceive Botalhll, fo that he affirm'd: That he had found a new paffage for the blood, out of the vena ra'?J:l into the left ventri.,; ofthe heart. And I doe confefle, That when I my lelf firft found this in a Rat of full growth, that I did imagine [orne fuch tbing. From which it is underftood, that in the unripe births ofmankind, and likewife in others, in which thefe unions are not taken away, this very thing' falls out,' that the heart by its motion brings forth the blood from the vena cltva openly; and by very patent ways, by the drawing of both its ventricles. For the right receiving the blood from the eer , thrutls it forth through the vena Arterioflt, and its branch' called canlliu arter;o!ffl, into the great aruric. Likewife, the left at the fame time ~y the mediation of the motion of the ear, receives thae blood , which is brought into the left _tar through that oval hole from the v.."a cava, and by its tentio» and can. ftri[fion thrufls it through tbe root of the AorfIJ into the great arteri« likewife. So in Emhryo111 whilft the"m~J are idle, and bave no action nor motion( as if there were none at all) Nature makes ufe ofborh the ventricles of the hellrt, as of one for tranfmiffion of blood. And fo the condition

of

O!tllb'llOtion ~ftbt Heart, (foe; 3'j

6fEiHhrJons that have lun!s and make no

nfe ofrhem.is like to the condition of chofe creatures which have none at all,

Therefore in there Jikewife the truth appears as'clearly, that the heart by its pulfation brings forth, and transfufes [he blood out of the vena CAVil" into the great Ifrtrrie, and by as open ways as ,ifbodl the 'VtHtricles ( as I [aid before) were made pervious to one another, by taking away the partition betwixt them. Therefore fee-

Jng for the molt part thefe wayes are open in all creatures at (orne times J which-do ferve fsr tranfmiffion of blood through the heArt, it now remains [hat we enquire either why in fome creatures.as in men, and thofe hotter, and of riper age, we do hold that not to be performed through the fubfiance of tbe lunf_ s,which nature did before in an Emh"'.'f()1J through thole paff ages(at that time when there was no ufe of ft,mgt,) which fhe Ieems to have made of force for want of paffage through the lUI'!,!. Or why it is better that Nature(for Narure

_ always does that which is befl ) hath altogether fhur up thofe open ways , of which {he before made ufe in the E mhrJon,and in the birth, and ill all other creatures does make uie of, nor in the lieu of [hem hath found out any other paffage for the blood, but hinders it altogether after this manner.

~o then the bufillefs is arriv'd to this,thae

. - C to

34 'Anatomical EXtrci/'ei

to thofe who fearch for the '1Ieim in men (by wnich the blood paffes out of the ven" cau« in the Iefc ventricle, and into the eruri» vennfll) it were more worthy their pains, and wifelier done, iffrom the diffedion of living creatures they would fearch the truth, why in greater, and more perfed creatures, and thofe of riper age, nature would rather have the blood [.0 b- fqueezed through the jh'qner of the I:mg.r, than through moil patent pa1fages, as in other crearures : and then they would underfland that no other way nor paffage could be excogitated.

Whether thisbe, becaufe that greater and perfecter creatures are hotter, and when they come to be of age, their heat is a prer to be fuffocated and to be inflamed, and therefore the blood is fireynd and fent through the ltmJ'J that it may be temperd by breathing in the air upon it, and freed from over-heating and fuffocation,or fome fuch other thing. But to determine and give a reafon of this is nothing elfe but a (carch for whar the lungl were made, And thus much concerning them and their ufeJ& all manner ofcooJing,ofthe neceffity & ure of air, & the like, of Ieveral and diff'e~ rent organs made in animals. For this caufe although by obfervation I have found out a great many things , yet left I fhould feem by firaying from my purpofe, of the mo-

-.---- ti ..

_. _ ....

0/ thl motidl1 of th~ HUitt, (J-e;

tion of the h'ilrt,rogo befides fil ioccntion{ and leave my task to confute the bufinefS' t 811d decline itj I lhaU leave rhefe things fit~ ter to be fer forth in a Treatife b}l themfelves j arid that I may return to my former purpofe, I wdl goeon to prove what re-

.r ! mains. And firlt I prove, t hat in die more

perfed An;","tls •. and thofe come to age,as in Man, the blood may palfe from the ri'lht '!'cntr;c/c of'tke beert ~y the venll arteritt; into the lungs, and {rom thence through the arteriA veno{a into the l~ft ell.r and from thence into the left 'lIef/frielt of'the htart.· and then that it is fo, •

C HAP. vn,

ThAt the /;/(lod does p4ffe trom tlu righ: 'lie,,;; triet« of the .heart, throug~ the ftrelner of the lungs, mta the arter,a veno[" and

Icft ventricle of the besrt, '

, I' T is well enou~h kno~n that tbis may be,' . an~ that there IS nQthmg which can hinder, If we confider which way the water' palling through (be fubfiance of the earth, doth procreate Rivulets and Fountains' 0; if we do confi der how r~etCt pafles thro~gh the skill) or how- urine flowes through the

flreyner of the reins : It is to be taken notice of in thofe that make ufe of the waters of the ~p~\tI,or de!a Jl1admna, as they call them in f! lIa'Jll , . or other brackifh or vi';

•. C ~ trioured

'.A,,~iom;cal E~lrclfej

triolated waters; or thofe who in carrow; fins fwill themfelves with drink, that in all ho~r or two they piffe all this through their bladder. This great quantity ougnt to fray a while in concodion, it ought to flow through the liver, ( as, they confeffe that [he juyce of the nourdhm.ent we re.

ceive doth twice a day) fo ought it through the vein! through thejlrtJ »er of the ~einl, and thro~gh the tlreter~ into the bladd~~.~ ,

Thole therefore which I hear denYing, that blood yea the whole maffe of blood, may paffe 'through [he" ~ub~a~tce of the IUrJr" as well as the nurnrrve JUIce !through tht[;~er, as ifit were impoflible , and no wayes to be beleeved . It is to b~ thought that thofe kind of men ,I Ipeak With the Pocr.whcre they like, they e:lfily grant,where they like not, by ~o ~eans : Here where ned is, they are a.raid, but where no need is thcv are not afraid to aver. The Jlreyncr ohhe liucr , and of the reins. too, is much thicker than tha t of the ltlngs, be .. caufe they are i2.r thinner woven, and of a fpongious Iubltance, if they be compared to the Iiuer and reins.

In tho! !:ver there is no impulfive , no ftren~th forcing; in the illF1j!J> the blood is thr~![L~ f}llnCt rhern by the im ;mJ~on. of the rja/g 1.lt »t> cli. of rile be.ir: ,by which irnpul .. , £15 rheren.utt 1 • eceffarilv follow rl. dift::nlio, or" the veflels , and porofities O!- the /rmX,t.

Be-

-~~

Oftbemotionofth6 Heart, &c.

Befides, the IHngl in refpiration rife and fal1, Galmdlu!1I part. By which moti6icfoJIow5

, of neceJficy, that the porofiries of chem an~ their veffels are open'd and fum, aslc fa·Us out in Jponges,& all things of a (pongy fub .. fiance when they are confirided anddila. ted again ; On the contrary, the /i.~ris at ref], nor is it Ieen at any time to be foconfirictcd and dilated.

Laft of aJJ, Since through the tivlr,tnereit none but affirms, that the juice of Bill thingl we receivemay paffe into [he 'lIeJlIl cav., both in Men, Oxen, or ·the greateff: (reatures, and that for this reafon ,becaufe .ic mutt pa1fe fome way into the'lltins if there be any nutrition,andchereis no.other way, and for that caufe they are forced to. affirm this : Why fhould they not likewife,believe this of the palfage of the blood through the lungs in men come to age,upon the fame ar .. guments ? And with (.otumhU4, a molt skilful and learned An4tomij}, believe and arrere the fame from the Ilrudure and Iargeneffe of the IUllll; becaufe that dIe .Arteritft 'lIctJo[tt , and likewife the 'tlcntric/t', are alwayesfuU of blood, which muCl: needs come hither out of the 'fIei1ll, by no other path, but through the lungs; as both he and we from Our words before, our own eyefight, and other Argumencs, do believe to be clear:

'. ~~~ f~~ing there afCe fome ruch perIh~~

~ 3. W leu

'.Anatomical Exerc;{u

which ~dmit of nothing,unlelfe there be an authority alleged for it; let them know, ChiC the very lame truth may be proved from G,dm.r own words, that is to fay,noe oDdy thac the blood may be transfufed out of the vena arterio("" into (he ",rteriA venafa, and [hence into' the l~ft ventri6/~ of the heart, and arierwards tranfmicced into the tJI:neries; but alfo that this is done by a continued pulie of the hearl,& rnotio of the IHn~/,whillt we breath. There are ID the (JrIfi~e of the Vtng a,teri!J!a 3. fhuts, or doors, ~ade like a ~,or.h.alf-Moon,Wl!' altogether lunder the blood lent into the ve·" 4rlerio"'l fa to return Co the h~art, which all know. .

G.den exprdlcs the ufe and necefficy of thole Ihuts, in thefe words, De Hfo pArt: 6. C.,. 10, f 1'1 a!! 'I. fa yes he) tber« il a ,nflttllli AHajlt.mojis or opening of the 'lIeinJ, tOlether With th~ «rreries ; in: th~i,. kimng, find thq lJor!'ow btlth Mood ana JPiri! {i-om one Illloth,er hy f,7'lvijible And very ""rr(l.'1I1 pafJageJ. But if the very mouth flfthe Veil" Arttrio[l4 ~ad atrMJIJ flood ope", and Nnter« h.1d !OHNd no 4''l1;ce t» (hut it, fPhen it WM reqMiflte, ana tIJ open it again, it c(}uld never have come to Idle that by thofo 'in'lliJible and little kJlfu the Thorax bting contrailedJ the b/~od could be trllmfNfed ;'1J/O the 4'1'/ erj~. For tverJ thillg U .. ot from an] thmg extracted and e",itted after tl'e fame manner ; for M Ih.1' 'Wh~ch is lit~t!~ eajib'er AtlraE~ta than ,hat

. ''Hhich

..

~ .!

I)

. i

.1

, 1

I

r--""'"

40

.Anat~m;C41 E~ertifl;/ .

thither, ~hich 'l!0ll/J lIot be C01l_'lI1nt1Ht !Dr t~ Mood: Bl!t thu may {e~m no gr~"t ",,"'tter, hilt that In tbe mea" t'me it jho,ld 'RIell'<!n the beHcpl ot r"/pirathJn, thu is »» m(}re ttJ ",_ counted a/matt 6uftnejf. And a little after, And lik_e'Wi}e thl! third ;Y1Co'1Veniel1cl 'JJIoHld fll/o'W, no flight ,nf, When in Ollr hreathing (JIl' blolJ{houla retNrn bClck...w"rdJ, unl JTe our Mater lad ord"zn~ d the .nll.tHrall po/Uion of tbore Membranc!. Whence he £oncludes,ch·z.lndeed ,he 11(e of till th~.AHU or portills 1-5 the {.me, '.1 bi>tder lh,~ retur» of th~ matter,& either 'f d:e l'a't e a trap'" ufo~ to draw mAl t er (rom the heart, that the, wa, f".etf1rn no more, and to Jp'aw mat! ers into thl IJeart,that thl'J m~J go~no ",ore (rpm thenet. For N atlir, "WQM/d not h !Ve the heart t» be ll'ear;ed~lth need/eft t.,.a;el, nor fond thi. ther whence it W& better to extrflff, Nor eXtrllEf trom thence "gRiN whith~r it WiU bette,. t~!end. For "!!hic?cau/e,here 6e"lIg four IIrificn on,l, , tWD.n eIther Venti'ide one tll~tS i~, the other drawn forth. And'a lit .. rle after. F urtherm,re, 1Pbrn ONe of the ver-

fils c(Jnjij1inl of6Ht oj(Jl1e Tllnicle 14 imp/lin. ttdi,t~ th, Hart, And the other confi/fing of. It d9!.J/;Ie "L'!nicl, is ~ra\\"n _forth from it, . VI~. (The right ventricle Galm means Io do I the lefi ventricle by the fame realon) It was nndjlJll t bat th: re {hilllldoe a~ it 'Were' a ciftern to both, to -Wbicb 'botb of {hem 6don. ging, that the blood might be ",'{aWn ost/;J

~n:.

orth~ motu" .ftbt "'tV". ~6~ .~

'III, And [e1Jt Dllt k.' th, ~tb".·

That argllment which Ga/enbrings for the paffages of the blood throngll. the rig"t ve1!tr~/, out of the 'lima c(lfla mto the lu,.;gl , -we may more rig~t1y ufe for the paffages of the blood out of the vei", through the heart into the 4rterieJ chan .. ging only the terms.

It does theerefore dearly appear from the words and places of Galen, a divine man, father of·Phyficians II both that the blood doth pafs from the v,ena R'urltJ[a into the little branches of the ",·te,ia 'lJe"Or~, both by reafon of the pulfe of the h~art and alfo becaufe of the motion of the lungJ and fhl-. ,.ax: See the commentarie oft he molt learned HofmannlU \lpon the fixth Book of GII.len de u[u Part. which book I law after I had written there things •

. Furthermore it was neceffary that the heart fho uld receive the blood continually into the Tlclltri;/et, a~n a pond or dfiern, and fend it forth again: and for this reafon it was neceffary that it fhould be ferv'd with four locks or doors, whereof two [hould ferve for the intromiflion . and tWO for toe emifiion of blood, left either the blood like an Eurirs« , fhould inconveniently be driven up and .down, or goe back thither from whence it were fitter to be drawn, and flow from that pax' to which it was needfullit fhould have been fent)and

fo

.J

u

~~ 'AnAt',.icJ E~trciJij .

fo fhould ~e wearied with idle travell, and the breatbmg ofthe /ungl be hindred. LaflI your affertion appears clearly to be true -, that the blood docs continually & incei: fandy flow through the porofities of the IUllgs, outof'the right 'Ventricle into the left, out of the vena CttV" into the IJrteri" 1IIagnil j for feeing the blood is continually fent out of the right 'Verricll into the lungs through the 'lima arterlofo, and likewife is continually atrraded out of the Iteng I into the left, which appears by that which has 6een f~oken, and the pofition of the Por. talls , It cannot be, but that it muft needs pafs thr~ugh continually.

~nd l!kewi{~ teeing that always, and Without incermiffion the blood entersinro the right.ve~tr~cle of the hMrt, and goes out, (,whIch 1S likewife msnifefl, of the left '!,'e11trlC/e, both by reafon and renfe) it is Im'p~ffible but that the blood fhould pars ~onttnQally rhrougli, out of the vena caVA lOCO the Aorta.

Th~t therefore which is apparent to be done 10 ~oft, and really in all whilft [hey are growmg to age ~ by di (fe~io~ through moft open pa1fages,IS here likewife manife~ ~o come to pafs in thofe when they are arrv d to full age, by the hidden porofities of the /U1'Ig/, and [Ouches of its veflels both by Gule»: words, and that which has 'been fpokem From whence it appears.that albe-

it

of th, ""ti,,, 'f th~ H ",t, d-c~

it one ventricle of the heart, that is the 11ft; were fufficient for the difpenfationof the blood through the whole body,and theedudion of it out of the oen« C.17N{ as it is in all creatures which want lungs )Yet Nature

defiring that the blood Ihould be ftrained through the lungs, was forc'd to add the, right ventricle, by Whole pulfe the blood fhould be forcd through the very lungs out " of the vena cava into the receptacle of the left ventricle: and 10 it is to be faid that the

left 'lJ mtrlcle was made for the illn!,! fake. and not for nutrition only; feeing in fuch an abundance of viduall, adding to it the help of cornpullionsit is no ways to be believ'd that [he fllNKs fhould rather wane

I' fo much aliment.and that of blood fo much /, more pure and full of fpirit, as being immel(, ,Hately conveyd from the ventric/e,r of the

I hc .. rt,than either the molt pure fubftance of

,'j the brain, or the mofl refplendent and divine coaflitution of the etu, or the flefh of the heart it ielf, which is more fitly nou~ rifhed by the "'enll corona/u.

I,

..._----------

-- .... --

C HAp •

....

~'

C HAP. VIII.

O/Ih, .11HnJ.nce of b!o~d ~ajJing thrfJugh the He",.t out of the 'lJtI"J ~nt" the ar.terln, IIIId of the circular m~t'o" afthe "''Jod.

THus much of the transfufion of the blood out of the veins into the arter;e.r, & how it is difpofed of and tranfmitted by -the pulfe of the heart, to fome OrWeh thofe perchance that were heretofore moved by the reafons of Galen, Colum6u.r,:nd others) will yeeld, now as conc~rning the ab~n. dance and increale of this blood, which doth pari through, thofe thing~ which remain to be fpoken,of though they be very confiderable, yet when I {hall mention the, they ate fo new and unheard of, that not only I fear mifchiefwhich may arive [0 me from tse envy of fome perfons, but ~ likewife doubt that every man almoft WIll he my enemy, fo much does cuflome.end dochine once received and deeply rootedf as ifit were another Nature) prevail with e. very one, and the venerable reverence of antiquity enforces . Howfoever, I?r refo .. Iurion is now fet down, my hope IS In the candor of thole which love truth , and learned fpirits. Truly when I had often and ferioufly confidered with my (elf, what great abundance there was, both by [h~ diffedion and living things. for expert-

meats

Oftht J1I;#O" Df th, HtlWt,r9-6; ._ ments fake and the opening of IIrter,u, and many ;ays of fearching , and from. the Symetrie t and magnitude of the ve~tr"le$ of the heart, and of the veJfeJs which goe into it and goe out from it, ( Iince Nature making nothing in vain, did not allot that grearnefsproporcionably to no purpofe, t~

thofe veifels) as likewife from the contl", nued and careful] artifice of the afJOre8, and fibers and the reft of the fa"r;cfr..~ and from ~any other things; and when

I had a long time confidered WJth my, .. felf how great abundance of blood waspahj fed.chrough , and in how fhort time that tranfmiffion was done, whether or no the juice of the nourifhment which we receive could furnifh this or no; at laft I perceived that the veins fhould be quite emptied, and

. \ theflrtcries on the other tide be burft with ~ too much intrufion of blood, unlefs the

. ; blood did pafs back again by tome way our of the veins into the Arteries, and return in to the ri[.ht 'Ventricle ofthe heart.

I began to bethink my felf ific might not have a cirCHIAr motio»; which afterwards I found true, and that the blood was thrufb forth and driven out of the heArt by the arteries ipto the habite ofthe body and all parts of ii: by tbe beating ofthe left ventri-. cte of the beart, as it is driven into the lungs through the vena arter~fJra by the beating of the right, and that It does re ..

. turn

.. ~ ..

~
~4; 'AnAI6micIII E xtrcifll Ofthl mDtl6ii Dflh, :8,,.rt~ tJ-,; ~
(Urtt through the little vei", into t6e. vliiit So the heArt is the beginning of life, the
\'
~6DA,. and to the right tAr of the hlAre, as ) ~ Sm. of the MicroGo{m , as prop9rtionabI,
likewife out of the lungs through the .afore- !, the S lin deferves to be caU'd the heart of the
laid ICrteria venofa to the left ventricle, as e I world, by whofe venue, and pulfation, the
. ~.
we faid before. , blood is mov'd, perfeded, made vegetable;
i
Which motion we may call cirnJlar ;ar~er ~~ . and is defended from corruption, and mat":
the: fame manner that ArJJlot/~ fayes that ). tering ; and this familiar houfhold.god
th~ rain and the air doe imitate the motion doth his duey to the whole body, by nouri-
of the fuperiour bodies. For the earth be- '1 thing, cherifhing, and vegetating, being
ing wet, evaporates by the heat of [he Sun; ~ . the foundation of life, and author of all.
arid the va pours beingrais'd aloft are con- But we {hall fpeak more conveniently of
demad and defcend.in fhowrs, and wet the i thefe in the fpeculationofthe finaU caufe
gt'ound, and by this means here are g~ne ... · ~ of this motion.
rated,.Jikewife, rempefb.and the b.eg;nnlngs l Hence it is, feeing the 'Veins are, certain
. of meteors from the circular motion of the ~I ways or vdTelscarrying the blood.there are
, ,I'
SlAt and his approach and removall- .' two forts of them, the Cavil and Aorta.
So in all likelihood it comes to paffe rn I Notby reafon of the fide, as Ariftot/~ fays,
JI
the body, thatall [he par~s are nou~i1h~d, '\ but by their funB:ion; and not, as is com-
,;\
eherifhed, and quickned with blood. w~l_cb 1\ N " monly fpoken, by their conflitution, feeing
is warm~ perfett, vaporous, ful! of ~Plflt ~ in many Creatures (as I have faid ) a vein
• I'
and that I may fo fay, alimenrative e In the . ' differs not from an ert erie ,in the thickneffe
; ~;
parts the blood is refrigerated, coagu- of the T unicle , but by their ufe and em-
Iated , and made as it were barren, from s-: ploymenr diftinguilhable, a vei" and an ar-
o .I.
thence it returns to [he heert ; as to j ter if. both of them not undefervedly called-
the fountain or dwell ing- houfe 0 f the body. veins by the Antients, as Galen has obfer-
to recover 1[5 perfection, and there agal11 ved, becaufe that this, V;.l:., the arterie, is
by naturall heat, powerfull, and vehement, I ,\ a way carrying the blood from the heart in-
it is melted, and is difpens~d again .. throu.gh \ to the habit of the body, the other a way
the body from thence, being fraught with ( ~ £arrying it from the habit ofrhe body back
/pirit!:, as with balfam , and that an the again into the hcert, This is the way from
things do depend upon ehe motional pul, the besrt ; the other the way to the heart.
fation of [he b:itrt~ ~I ~his contalns blood rawifh, unprofitable,
So ~ aud
I 'J .A"ifti/"'t~41 E~,,.cif;,

and now made unfit for nutrition, the 0; ther blood digefted; perfect, and ,Iimentative. ..

C HAP. IX.

Thdt thn'e 10 "Circu/6ttjon oflhl blood (To",

the confir1_»ation oft he ftr/l fuppoJition.

BUt left any fhould think that we put I cheat upon them, and bring only fair affereions, without any ground, and inno- . Vace without a caufe; there comes three thmgs [0 be confirm'd , which being fer down, I think this truth muft needs follow,

and be apparent to all men. .a

I, Pirft, That the blood is continually, and without any incerrniffion, tranfmitted out of the vena ((tVa into the arteritJ, in

Io great abundance, that it cannot be recruired by thofe rhings we take in, and infomuch that [he whole maffe of blood would quickly pats through.

2. In the fecond place, that continually, duly, andwithout ceafe.the blood is driven into every member and par: , and enters by the pulfe of the fi1'tCI';e.r!l and chat in far g,.~~at('r abundance than is neceflary for nourifhrnent, o~!.than the whole mats is a-, ble to furnifh, -.

3. ~n4

. of the "lJt;,~ (jfth! "illrl, d-c~

;, .And likewife thirdly, that the v,ln,t themfelves doe perpetually bring back this blood into the manfi on of the heAr-t.

Thefe things being prov'd 1 think it will appear chat it doth go rou~d, is retur .. ned, thrufl forward, and comes back from the heart into the extremities, and from thence into t?e heart again, and fo makes as It were a circular motion.

Let us Iuppofe how much blood the left 'lItntric!e contains in its dilatation when its;

. f~1J, ei~~~r by o~~.th~ug~.t. or experiment, either ~1J, or 3111, or 3J f., I have found in a dead man above ~ij.

. Let us fuppofe likewife, how much lefs in the contradion, or when it does contract le felf~ the heArt may contain and hew much :

Iefle capacious the ventric'" is, and from; thence how much blood is thrufi: OUt of the ' lI,.f~ri" mttglM: for in the SJ{/ole there is al- : wales fome tbraCt forth, which was demon- i ftrated in the tbird Chapter, and all men' acknowledge, being induced to beleeve it from the fabr!,k. of [he veffels ; by a very probable conl~C!:ure we may aver that there IS fent In of this Into the «rterle a fourth, or fi~t~, or .fixtiI, at l~aft an eighth put. So let Us Imagme, that In a Man there is Ient forth in everypulfe of the heart. ,an ounce and a half, or three drams, or one dram of blood, which by reafon of the hindrance of the portals cannorreturn to the heart.

-. D T!le

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,t

4nAt,arJ)ical Exercifol

The he~r_i in one halfhour makes above ~ rhoufand pulfes, yea in fome, and at fome times, tWO~ three, or four thoufand; now multiply the drams either a thoufand times three drams, or two drams,or five hundred ounces, or luch a proportionate quantity of blood, transfus'd through the heart into the arteries, which is a greater quantity than is found in the whole body. So likewife in a xheep or a Dog if there paffe ( I grant ye ) but one fcruple.inone half hour there pa(.fes a thouland fcruples, or about three pounds and a half of blood : in whofe

. body for the mofl part is not contained above four pounds of bleed, for I have try .. ed it in 1 Sheep.

So our account being almof1: layd, ac .. cording l'b which we may gueffe the qu~n .. city of blood which is tranunitted, counnng the p"JICniom, it feems that the whole mane of blood docs paffe out of the vei,u into the arteria through the hu,rt, and like wire through the lungs.

But gral)t that it be not done in half an hour, but in a whole hour, or in a day, be it as you will.it is manifefl: that more blood is continually tranlmitted through the he.irr, than either the food which we receive can furnifh, or is poffible to be co.o. rnin'd in the veins. Nor ii it to be {aid, that the heart in its contradion Iometlmes does thrufl out, fomerimes nor.or as much

:IS

0/ ~ht ~t~ol.( Df t Ii~, ~'Y'~~ &c ~

., nothing., or fo,~~ ... ~ing i.~ag~~.,~ry. This ~ ref~ne4 bef~~~; ~~~ ~e.fIdes J~ ~g~i~(l: (cnf~ 9r r~af(m· J;~r If ~n the dl~aq~~io[J Af the +e~r~ i.~ Jllll~ n~~4s cO\n,e rq' paJre tb~t Jb~ 1!l,,~r~cl~s are fill~a with blood, it ~~li~~W~f~ lle~~1fary' tq!lc in" its CQnfratti9~ ~ e (h~u~d ,!lw~Y~$ thrull: forth ; and th~t 110t ~ ~ittle,fe~il1g the fon4ui~ '~Fe no~ {filai; and the protrufion not Ieldorne . its very ~onyeQien~ Ij~~wilein eve~y prqp1df19p j the preporrlon cf ~he blqpd t~rufl: . out fhould be aj third part, or fixcp part, or ~iabcb part in proportion to t~a~ which i~ ~elpr~ contain'd in the vcntric!e,and which did fill it in~he dilatation, according as the prop~rtipn of the v~ntric/~ ~ein~ contrade4ls to the proportion of it heing incontraded ; and as in the dilatation it never comes tq palfe, th#· it IS '~ver :fiWd 'with nothing, or fQrnethipg meerly imaginary, fo in the contraction it never espells notbing, or ,th.a,t wbjcbi~ imaginary, but alwaYf:s fOl1\echjng , a~,cording to the proportion ofrhe ~.oQtr41;d:i,on. Wherefore it Isto be concluded, tha~ if in a Man,a Cow, ora fheep, the h''Jrt doth fend forth one dram, and thatthere be a thouf~nd pulfes ,jn one half hour. ,th,a.t it fhall come to pail e ,in the fame rime rhar there {hall be ten PQ.n.ng,s ;t~9 ,f;lve,oun.~es tranfinitted , if at one pulle it f~nd f~rr.p .rwo dr.~~s , ~~epty . IlOl,llld ~~ 0 ~ o"lf ~a.lf itn ~L!~ce forty one

D ~ pDtmd1

>,

" 'Andto",lcAl EgWClj'el; _~ pounds and 38, iran ounce, 83 tt, and 34 will come to be transfuf'd, I fay, 10 half an hour, out of the veins into the .rter;el,.

But it may perchance be that I fhall fec down here more 30curately how much is thruft out at cverypulfation, when more, and when leis, and for what reafon , out of many obfervations which I have gathered.

In the mean time this I know and declare to all men, that fomeeimes the blood paries in lefs , fometimes in more abunda~t quantitie , and the circuit of the blo~d IS perform'd fometimes fooner , fometimes flower, according to the age J te~perature', external and internal caufe J accidents narural or innatural ,fleep, refr, foo~. exer .. , ercife.pa mons of the mind, and the like.

But howfoever, though the blood par. through the heart and lungs, in the.lcail: quantitie that may be, it is conveyd in far ~reater abundance into the ar{,ritS, and the whole body, than it is poflible that it could be fupplyed by juice of nourifhment which we receive, unlefs there were a re~

grers made by its circuirion. 4

This likewife appears by our Ienfe, when we look upon the diffecti6 ofliving things, not only in the apertifi of the great erterie, bur(asGa/cn affirms in man himfelf)if any,

.. yea the leaf] 4rteri, be cut, all the mafs of blood will dedrain'd out oftbe whole bo-

'. .... dy

, l

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.'

Oflhe ",01;011 of the HeArt, e-: sf

dy ·as well out of the veins as OUt of the art;"IeJ in the fpace of half an hour.

Like~ife Butchers can well witnefs this , when in killing of an ~x.e,they cut the jugular ."r'eries, they dram the whole mafs of blood in lefs than a quarter of an hour, and empty all the veffelsjwhich we find likewife to come to pars 10 cutting off members and tumours, by too much profufion of blood, fometimes in a little rpace.

Nor does it weaken the force of this ar .. gurnent, tbat forne wiH fay, that in flaugh ... ter , or of cutting off members, the bleed flows out as much through thevel1lJ as through the arteries, feeing the bufinefs is far orherwite. For the 'IIe;.t, becaufe they flap down, and that there is no out-driving force in them, and becaufe their compofi-, tion is likewife with fioppagcs of portalb., as hereafier {ball appear t they filed but a very little, but the arurie» pour out the blood more largely, irnpetuoufly, by impulfion, as ifit were caft o~t of a fpo~t. BUE let the cafe be tryed omittmg the vlln and cutting the jugular Arttrie in a {beep, or a dog,it will be wonderfull to fee, with how gre'i1,t force, how great protruflon , how quickly , you {ball fee all the blood to be emptied from the whole body, as well from the VI;nl as from the eruries, But it is ma... feft by wbat we have laid, thac the. a'tI~'· rils .receive blood no where oIfc but from

. - ------ --. D l, -- --- -.. the

5'4 An,to1llical EXlrei/fi

the ve'~ni ~y t!a~finiffion tfll"ougb the'~/"I'"; , wherefore tymg thelilorta at the roOt ofth~ \ lleart, and op'e'nrng th~ jilgHta,. or any e .. ther art,r;c, if you fee the'.frtL"r;e~ empty, and the vli.1 only fu 11, it i. not to he woa,,:

dred at. ' '_

Hence you fltaUpIainly fee the 'caure in jf;,atomie why fo much blood is found in the veins ,andbnt;a little in the ttrtlru/,

w~Y t~ere is at great~eal round in thcri¥Jit vtntrul-e, and bllt a little In the left ,( Whlfh tping perchance gaye occafionofdotibt [0 ehe antients, and ofbefening, that [pi['its alene were containd in tbofe concavitfes, whiJfi: the'anima] was alive) thecaufe'perchance 'is, becaufe there i s ' no 'p~fTage afforded .from the Vii;', into th-e 'larle,.its 'but through _ the Iinlgs 'and thf! he~rt., but when the Illngs Itife :expiIl!d aildleave off to move,'tbe'bloOdis hinder'd to paffe from the ;1iitlebtandies of tlte - ve."" art~ri(Jfo into :thea,.tiria' '6,. ;zilla; i'hd fo jnto~thelt'ft'tiilJt~itle :df; rlt'e ~t'hrt(Min an;:?m~rJon' it was b'tfdte' otiferved , ~hat it 'wasfiopt by fea(on 6f1the wantofmotionofther".gs t whicho!irn and {hut up the tbudieJ,~nd ·hidl:ftnLaria io~Hil),le :po,rofitirs) bur fee~n.g.th~~~/irt does not leave offmOtlon at the/fame time

.with the/iinl/, but'doesfrtat;afrerWards

a~d.',()~~~~~~ t;h.em "it:~o,¥e~·topa~_~,li~t the (tft veht~lf'lnd-~he"Arter~"'r40 fdl'dfbrth . '. blood

of titt",-,tim ,fthi H tllrt, cfc; blood into the habit of t~e.body, and not receiving it through die fungI, doe there-

fore appear em~~. _ ,

But this likewne affords no fmall credit to our purpofe, fi·n~e thereca~ be no mhe~ caufe given for th~s but what 10 our fuppo " fition we have alleged.

Befides, fwm hence it is m1ulift~t, that how much the more, or more v,chemcntly rhe rtrttr;e_s doe beat.it happens !n all fluxes (If bleodthat fo much the Iooner the

whole body is emptied, .

Hence likewlfe it comes to {l~fs, that In all faiming. ,aU fear, and the lIke ,', w,hen the h~~rt heats more weakly,Jangutilimg .. ... and with no force, that it bapP:i1s.thut all fluxes of blood are Ibop'd and hindred.

Hence likewife it is that in a-dead body, after the heart ceafes to belt, you cannot out of the ;Hglflar or cruraH. ve,inl. an-do,pening of the arteries by any means exn att Above half the mars of blood.nor can a but~. cher when he hath knockt the oxe on the - head and flund him, draw all the blood from him unlefs he cut his throat before the

heart leavs beanng. ..

'Laft of all, from hence we may lfnagme that no man hitherto has faid any thmg aright concer~i~g the Anajf(JmoJis • ~here it is, how It IS, and for what caufe, I am now in that fcardl.

P 4 C II A p~

- ~------- -.

)'6 AlIlJtD1IIical Extrci,fo, I Oftht motio1l Dftbe H'Art, &t~ . -
i ~ r7.
C HAP. ~ be anfwe(.d)tha.t the heart is known to fend
x. ~ out fo much in one hour or two,
The flrft rllppoJit;~1J conccrning tht- 9.'I"1J~ But if not' as yet fatisfyed he fhall Ilil]
preffe further, and tay, that although by,
titie Df t~e bload which pllffes throllgh the difTeding of an,(rter1t, and giying ami
from the ,(lcins ;,nfO the Arteria, and th4t <I~ opening a way) it comes to paffe betides
tber« il a drCNlatia1J of the hiood is vindi-: the courfe of Nature, that the blood is
catea from objeElioJl" and further cen« forcibly pour'd out, yet it does not there-
firm'd "J o:pcri11ltnts. . ~ fore come to paffe in an entire body, no
THus far the firfi: pofition is vindica~ out· let being given, and the artlriu being
full, and conftitured according ttl Nature,
ted, whether the matter be to be rec- ., that fuch a great quantity fhould paffe in
\\
koned by account, or whether we refer it ;~ . fo fbort fpace, infomuch that there muft
¥,
to erperiment.or our own eye.fight, 'lIt:.c.~ e- needs be a regreffe , It is to be anfwer'd ,
~~
that the blood continually paffes out of the ~ l That by laying of an account it appears fro
vtins into tbe Artw;es in greater abundance former recKoning,that how much the httlrt
than can be furnifhed by our nourifhmenr , I being filld does contain more in its dilata-
fo that the whole maffe in a little time paf- i~ tion, than in its conflridion, [0 much (for
flng through that way, it murt neceffary f:. the molt part at every puIfation is rent
follow that there fhould be a circulation, forth, and for that caufe does there fo much
and that the blood fhould return, ij paffethe b?dy being whole j and couflitu-
. But if any here can fay that it can paIS 'I ted according to Nature. '
through in great abundance, & yet it is not But in Scrpenrs,and in fome Fifoes, bin-'
needfull thai: 'there Ihould be a circulation I ding the veins a little beneath the he4re-,
fince it comes to be made up by what w~ you {ball quickly fee the diftance betwixt:
receive, and that the encreafe of milk in the heart and the l:gtttrlr, to be emptied, fo
the pttpS may be an inflance , for a cow in that you mufl needs affirm the recourfe of
one day gives three, four, or {even galJons, ' blood, unlefle you will deny your own q'-
or more, a woman Iikewife gives two or )1: fight. The fame {hall dearly appear after ..
three pints every day or more, in the nur- ~' wards in the.confirmation of [he fecond
fing of a child or two, which is manifefi: ti fuppofirion. -
to be reflor'd by what fhe receives, it is to ~,: Let us conclude .. ~orifirming all thefe witl~
,.
- '.,' be I one '58 r.Anttt",.;,JlII E"xwel{tl k O/the Motm ~A; H~., ''&c:
one example, that everyone may beleeve J9'
his own eyes: If anyone cut up a life Ad- ~ tb~ hearl, yoti 'fbaUoil tire C0'Dttlll fee
.,r, he fball fee the heArt beat calmly, -di- , the fWellvehemeritly th~e wbere they are
~
fiindJy, for a whole hour, and fo contrad l grafp'~,?and th"at the /('lIr_t i~ fwell~dbc-yond
its felt: (in its conftridion being db long} meafure, and does Cfcquli:~'a purple cQlour
lAd thruft It felf out again like a' \ ' till it be btacki1h :again, a-ltd that 1C is at laft
Worm. That it is whitifh in the SyjftJ/t, opprefi: wit'hblood fo that you would
and contrary in the Dja5!?le,together with ! thi~~ i~'~oul,d,'~e fu'ffoea~d ,b~tuntying
all (he rcfi,by which I faid chis tfuth was e· J the firing, thttt It does rerum to its natura!
vidently confirmed, for here the parts are cdnftittltio'n,colonr, andbignefTe ..
longer and more difiinCt. But this we Olav So nQW there ate too forts of death ,ex~
more efpecially find, and clearer than the ' i' tindion, by reafon of defed: and Iuffoca-
noon-day, It! tion, by too great quantity: bert'You may
The vetHI cavil enters the lower' part of have-the Example of both before your eys,
the heArt, the arter;, comes out at the up- and confirm the truth which hath been
per part, now taking hold of the venit Gil- , f~ken concerning the 'heart, by-your own
'V" with a pair of pinfers, or with your . View.
finger and rhumb, and the courfe of the C HAP. XI.
blood_ being fl:op~d a little way beneath the
heftrt, you fhall upon the pulfe percei ve ' 1
to be prefentlyalmoftemKtyed that place The flc6ndr#ppDfitl~n·ue(jHflrmtJ. I
which is betwixt your ngers and the )
i THe fecond is to be confirm'd by us ~
1114"/, the blood being exhaufted by the .., ,
Ilulfeoftheheart; and that the heart will which that it may appear the clearer [~
be of a far whiter colour, and that it is lef- our view, fome experiments are to be taken
fer too ill its dilatation for want of blood, notice of,by which it is clear} that the' blood
and at laft beats more faintly , infornuch . doth enter into every member thrGughthe
that it feems in tile end as it Were to die.fo arteries, and does return by the vei1lt,
foon again as you untie the vern both co- I t and that the srteries are the veffels
Jour and bigneffe returns to the heart. Af· carrying the blood from the heart· and
terwards, if you do leave the veif'Jf ,and doe , , that the veins arc the -veflels and ~a yes
grafp or bind the arteri« a.littfu way from by which the blood is return'd to the
- . .. ' the heart it felf; and that the blood in the
memberi. 'AnatD",ical,E~e'tifll

members and extremities does palfc from the arteria into the 1/~inJ (either medidiatcly by an An.clr(JmojJ, or ,immediately through the fJorofirlt;s of [he fl'fo, or both wayes) as before it did in the hc.vt and tho,.0: ouc of the veins, into the artcr;',·s; whence ir is manifefr, that in its circsl4ti .. 0>1 it moves from thence hither, and from hence thither, to wit, from the cmtr« to the txtrcnJ,;'tin, and from the exlremititl ag~in to the centre.

But likewife computatio being afterward's \ made.it appears in the fame place,that in regard of the abundance it can neither be recruited by that wch we take in, nor is there

fo much requir'd for nourifhrnent, As Iikewife concerning /;'1,4tllres it is clear how they attract, that they do it not either by ,_:J", heat, nor grief, or force of vacuum, nor _. any other caufe known heretofore. As likewife what convenience and ufe ligllturtl do bring to Phyfick.how they {top.or provoke the flux of blood, and how they c:tufegaH- ;..reHes, and mort i fications of the members; and by this means how they are of ufe in the gelding of fome creatures, and in takillg away offiefbJ tumors, and wms; for I certainly from hence it comes topaffe, that none have rightly underfrood the caufes, I and reafons ofall rhefe things, though all 1 almofl according to the opinion of the An- ~ tients, do propound and give: their verdid I

. for

. Oftbe ",ai,m D[thl Hear;~ &c~

for liglftsrtl in difeafes, yet few in the adrniniftration of-them doe afford any help by them in their cures-

Some ligatHrll are fo iff ~ others of a

midall fort; ,

_ A flria ligaturt J call fuch a one, where the arm is fo fireightly bound with the h"Hd or rope, t-hat you cannot perceive the Ifrttrit to beat any where beyond the lig". tflre; fuch a one we ufe in the cutting off of members, taking a care of the flux of bleod.in geldingo! anim~ll , taking away of flJmors: by wluch ligature [he afflux of aliment and heat being altogether intercep .. ted, the veffels, the tefticlfs, fade and dy, and the great rllmorJ of flefh , and afterwards to fall quite away.

That I call a ",idale {ort of /igatrlrt!; which doescompreffe the. member every way, but without pam, inlornuch that it fuffers the arterie to bea t a little beyond the /ig~tllrt; fuch a one as is ufed in the attraction and emiffion of blood ; tor albeit you make the ligauwe above the elbow vee you {hall perceive the arteries to beat ~ iittie in the wrift if you touch it, ifin the bloud-Ietting the ligAtHre be made aright.

Now let there be an experiment made in

, a mans arm I tither taking a band, fuch a; they u{~ in blood letting, or by the Ilronger gralp 01 t be hand it ielf', which indeed is mofl conveniently done in a lean body

\\ h.ch

I

I

I

I ~

1

r A'(ft~kal R".&Wi

which has la{g~r 1I(~', an~ ':ihen the bO:_', dy beipg heat~A, the esrremmes a~e ~arm. and a greater quantitie of ~l()q~ IS, In, t~t: extremities, and ~ore v~hcmePt p~lfatlems, for then all things will more ~VldeJ.1t-

Iy app~ar. - ..

If you doe ma~e then a hilr4 l!g~tuf.~, drawing it as fire.ght as any can endure J~, you may fira obferve that beyond [~at I,,~, glltHri the srt eri« does not beat m the ."rift , nor any were ~Ife, ~nd then thae immediately tbe IIrttru begins above the ligAtHre, has its Dillstole higher, a~d beats more vehemently, and does as It ~ere with a kind of tide rife towards the 1~f.IJ- ' tHree as if it did i~de~v?r to beat through & open its flu~ which IS I,ntercep[e~) and tb~ paffage which is fiopt ,and that It doe~ appear to be fuller there than is C?nve!'llent. In the mean time the band r~talns lei CQ_ lour and confhtution ~ only m, procefs of time it begins to be a little coldifh, but no-

rn ing is attraded into it. .

Alter that this ligature ha.s .cont,lnued a while and that in a fodain J[ 1~ a little untied into a middle fort, fuch 1 ia y as they ufe in lettine of blood, it: is to be obferved tbat the whole hand is fireightways imbued with colour, and.diflended, and that the veins ofit become fwelld and lumpie , and that in the fpace oft~n or twelve puJfc~ the blood ~eing thruftt~r~a~d and ~aft l~h~

, ,

Of the .()t;QII of thl He4,-t; d-c; 'SJ'

the hand is feen to be extreme full. and that

a great quantitie ~fb1oo~ is quickl~ drawn

by the ligatHre,wlthout either angudh,heat.

or iliQnning of the 'IIACflflm, or any othee caufe heretofore mentioned.

In the mean time.if anyone put his fiAgcr to the arterie,in the very time of the unbin- 4ing, ncar to the 1~'l:l'Itu,e, be fua!l feel the blood as is were pafing by under his finger.

Moreover he in whofe arm the experiment is made, upon the change of a ftrdght . liglltare into a .,iaale Qlle ( the impediment being as it were removed) hefhall pla~nly fed the heat and blood enter by pulfation, and perceive fomething to be breathed by the conduct of the arteri« as it were immeciatdy, and to be difperfed over all his hand , and that his hand is prefently heated and diflended, As in a Jlr.a /igllture the arteries above are difrended , and do beat, and not below , and. the 'vtins be .. come leffer , fo in the middle fort of lil~" tur« the veins fwell, and become fiubborn, but not above, and the arterie« become lefs, nay if you fqueeze the veins, unlefs you do

it very fl:rongIy, hardly fhall you fee the blood pafs above the ligature, or the'llein.f fall.

So from thefethings it is eafie for any man that will diligently obferve, to know - that the blood does enter by toe arteries, for by their Jlrift lig'((fllr: nothing is at-

. . traded

i ~ I

/-

i ,

'A"lIilJ",;cal ~:t(lr&ifil - r I,·

tria-ed, the hand retains its colour,' nor, IIi

happens there any diLlenfion, but beIng a ~I

little untied as in the ",idJle or ~tntll Iil.tI- ! ,urI, it is manifeft that the hand is ,fwelld, I,'! and that the blood by the force and irnpul, \:t fion is abundantly thrufl in. W here the blood flows forth as in the gentle 1~~atHrel! they beat, where it does not flow they

beat not all. In the mean time the vein! be-

ing fireigbtned nothing can flow through them, of which this is a token, that beneath the ligature they become much more fwclltd, than above, and than they. ufe to be wben the ligllture is taken away, hence it is clearlv manifefl , that the "gAtitre binders the return of the blood through the Vei"l into the fuperiour parts, and mak-es thofe beneath the /iglltllrc con- t 1 tinue Iwell'd. , J

But the arrerle« in this cafe doe thrufl:'·~

out the blood beyond the Ugat"rll from I ji.·.~.~.",.,." theinward parts by the firengdr and im-

pulfion of the heart, Dotwithllanding tbe gentle lIgature. This is the difference of ., theftriU lig.uure from the glnt/~ one, that ,t theftrla "gatHre does not only inrercept

the paffage of the blood in the weins but in , the IIrter;es alfo, that which is gentle doth not hinder the pulfifick vertue , but that ir flretches it (elf and drives out ibe blood ir.ro thefurtheft parts of the body.

So that we may reaion thus i' when in a gt14tle'

- - ------------

O/thUHDtiDIlDfthe Heart,' &t'~ _' ~): ll-"tle Jiglltu" we fee the veilli [wdl~d

and ditlende~, and the hand [0 be very

full ofbJood, whence comes this? For ei-

ther the blood comes through the veinJ',

or through the ,.rte,.;es beneath the liga-

tflre, or through the hidden pores; Out o'f

the VetJll ~t cannot,by hidden paffages Jetfe, therf6r~ needs m~ft it by the arrerief ,as we

have [ald. That It cannot bV the ve;m is apparcnt,when the blood cannot be fquee ..

zed back above the ligaiHre, unleffe ~'o~

take the ligAture quite away : Then, you

may fee the veins fall and disburthen themfeIves into the uppper parts, and the _

hand grow white, and all the formerly gathered Iwelling and blood to vanifh a~

pace. He himfelf will better perceive it,

whofe body or arm has been 10 bound a

good while, and his hands by that means' become fwell'd, and made colden I fay,

he {hall. feel fomewhar tliat is cold'to creep

up to his elbow or armpin, to wit.with the'

return of the blood, which return of co Id

blood to. the h~art after bloud-letcing .. after

the untYIng_of.th~ band,!. did imagine to le'

the caufe ot faintIng which we likewi(e fee

come to pd_Ie in ~rong men, and mon af-

ter the untYing ot the lig"'tftre, whid] com-

monly they fay comes to patfe from the turning ot the blood. Bdides, when pre-

(endy upon the untying of the flriD lir«.

ture mto a gell,tle- one; we fee, that by ~he

E irn-

66 ~natDm;cal EXlrc;{ti

immiffion of blood through the ltY'tlriut. the VC;'IIS comprehended beneath the iig"t1l-re do fwell up, and not the arteritJ, it: is a figne that the blood does paffe out of the arteries into the veins, and not on the contrary; and that there is an Anapq,mo/is of [he veflels, or that the pores of the flefh and Colid pares are pervious to the blood. It is Iikcwife a figne that very many 7J~in.t doe communicate together, when a gentle ligature ~eing made about the arm many of them do {well together, but paffage being open'd out of one little vein with the L"". cett ; they flraighrwayes fall all of them and disburthening themfelves all into that one, do almolt alfflap down.

F:om hence.f!1ay .eve~y body know the caule of atractio 1whlch IS made by lig.1ture, and perchance ot all fluxes, vh. as in the band" when the vn'ns are drawn to~ether by that ltf,t7.tlfre ~hich I call gentle, the blood cannot go torch; in the mean time if ir be driven violently through the arteres ; that IS to fay,by the force of the btart of necefiiry the part mull be fill'd and di~ flended,

For otherwife how eouid it be ? for l, zt, ~"~"'i/h, andforce ofthevacm17» doe indeed attract, but Io as the part may be full, not that it fhould he difl:ended and [woln beyond its natural conllitution: But for the in- tbruning, and. firaight in-dri-

vmg

ofth~ meN(1n Dftht H,art, &~;.

ving of the blood.ir is neither to be bdeevd nor can it: be demonitrared a member-can be fuddenly opprefs'd, the flefh fuffer a {olunon of its cOnltntllf,m~ and [he veffels be feen [0 burtt, that this can either he done hy angflijh, hMr, or ["Ice of the var:ur,,1'J.

. Moreover it fo fal:s out, that [here is an

attraction made by the ligature; withouc all grief, heat, or (ore,· of [he v,tC"U1J7n. But ifby any Img.'1ifP the blood Ihouid chance

. to be attracted!which way fhould, beneath . the lig~rurc, the hands, and the fingers and 'fJeinl fwell. and become fwell'd the 'arm being tyed at the elbow,f~eing that by reafon ofrhe cornpreffion o! the li!(.!tll-'"c the blood could not eo me thither through the Vc,ns ? and why fhould there no figne appear above the ligarure either oft!~m(}ur or replerlf}11, neither any figne of attraction or a flux at all ?

But chis is the manifefl caufe of attradion beneath the lig ture ; and or fwelling beyond meafure in the hand and fingers, to WI[, that the blood does enter forcibly and apace, hut cannot get om a.; gam.

. Hence is all the caufe of tumour; and of

all oppreffive redun~ancie in ~ny part; becaufe the waycs of mgreife are open, and the wayes of regrelfe fhur : hence it mnf] needs follow, that the bHl1ioHr fhould a~

E ~ bcurrd,

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AnatDmicAI Extrcifu

bound, and the part be railed with fwel~ ling.

Whether may it not be from hence that in fwellings which are, inllam'd, fo l~ng as [he {welling receives tncr~afe, and IS not in its highci1 cfiat~, the~e IS a full pulfe f~lt in that place.efpecially In hotter tHmOrJ,tn which the lncreate ufes to be on a fudden , fhall be for our after-Iearch , as likewife whether that happens from hence, (which by chance I had experience ofir;t my (elf) I falling out of a Coach, aid bemg Iomewhat hurt in my forhead, there where the: little branch of the sri erie creeps out of the temples, I felt a [welling a~out the b~gnetre of an egge in the- (pace ot twe,my pulfes, without either heat or much pam, VI~. becaufe of the nearneffe of the arterie, the blood was abundantly and more fwiftly

driven intc the bruz'd place. .

Hence does it appear for what caufe 10 phl,{;otomic when we would have the blood leap out further and ,-,:,ith greater force, we bind it above the cuttmg of the vu«, not bclo w' but ifit flow in fo great quantity through the 1HirJJ from the Iuperiour parts, that l'gattire would not only ~ot help, bu~ hinder: fiji" it were more likely that It fhould be bound below, that the blood be.

. inc hinder'd might goe out more abunda~t!y if it did flow thither, and defcend from the upper parts into the veins. But

fince

Of the motioJao!the Ht.trt, &e: 69

Iincefrom fomewhere elfe, it is driven by

the ert eries into the lower vciJa.t, in which regrelfe by reaIon of the lillltur~ is hindred, the v~inl fwell and can fqueeze it

out, and throw it further through the fJri-

flee, but lee, the ligature being uncy'd, and

the way of egreffe being open, the blood

doth no longer come, but drop by drop,

& that which every body knows, If in F hle- ' botomie you either untie the band, or bind

it below.or bind the member with roo fir,Ef

a ligature it comes not forrh, as if all force were taken from it, becaufe forfoorh the way of entrance and influx of blvod through [he arteries is by that {trid: Ii.

g:ttHre intercepted, or a more free re- 1 grelfe is granted through the veiill, [be li~

\ g4tHre bing untyed, ..

C HAP. XII.'

Thttt thert u 4circ~/llti(Jn (Jfth, /;Iood, troM t6t confirmation of the fi~olld fop.pDji.

, J

t'(in.

SEeing thefe'things are fo, it is certain

chat another thing which 1 {aid before is ..

like\Vife confirm'd; that the blood does continually palfe through the heart. For

We fee in the habit of the body, that the

- - - - ---- ~ 3. blood

70

.A ""tom. icaJ Ex e IC;,(tI ~ :',

i

blood flows continually out of the arterie, !.

into the vtsn.r, not out of the vlins into the

arteries: We fee moreover, that from one ff

arm the whole matTe of blood may be ex. ha.ufted and that too by opening but one cuticula~ vein with a lance, if the ligatur~

be handfornly made: We fee befides, that:

i~ is powred out fo forcibly \ and fo abundmtly, that it is certain that not only [hat

which was comprehended to the ar,m b~-

neath the lig~turt, before the fedion, 1$

quickly and in a little time evacuated, ~.l1t •

Iikewife the blood out of the whole bodie,

as well the veins as the arteries,

Wherefore we mull confeffe firft that by firength andforce it is furni~'d , and by force it is driven beyond the b'gat U'le ( for with force it goes out, and therefore by the firength and pulre of the b,~rt) ~or [he force and impulfion of the blood IS only from the heart.

. Next, that this flux comes from the heart, . and chat it flows by a paffage made through the he",,.t out of the great vt;ns, feeing below the ligature the blood enters

by i he arteries; nor by the Vt;nl, and the ~rteri(J at no time receive blood out of the vein! unleffe it be om of the 'efr t/enrrscl« ofthe heart. Nor could there any other .. Wile fo great abundance be exhaufled out . i of one vein, making a lila'llre above, efpecially fo forcibly, fo abundantly, 10 ea":

'.' .'.' .. , '. .. .. " ~lr~

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Olthl mDtion o/th, Hfllrt, (f/c.'

lily, fo Iuddenly, unleffe the conf('qnentJ were atchieved by the force and impulfion ofthe heArt, as is faid,

And if the if things be fo, we may very' openly make a computation of [be quantit)·, and argue concerning the monon or

, blood. For if anyone (the blood breaking out according to its ufual effufion and force) fuffer it to come fo for half art hour, no body-needs doubt but than he greatel1 part of it being exhafled , faintings and foundings would follow, and not only [he erteries, but the greatefi: 'lIeins would be likewife emptied: Therefore it fiands with reafon, that in the fpace of that half hour there pafles fo much out of the great oe.» through the bcsrt into the eort«, Further, if you fhould reckon how many ounces flow through one arm, or how many ounces are thruft within the gentle UgatHrc in 20 or 30 pulfations.truly it would minilier occafion of thinking how much may paffe through the other arm, both the leggs,and ~ both thecolu[es, and through all the other arteries and veins of the body: and that the flux which is made through the Illngs and the oentrlol«: of the hellrt, mufl con .. tinually furnifh of necellitynew blood.and fo make a circuit about the veies). fince fo grear a quantitie cannot be furnifhed from thofe things we eat,and that it is far grea'" ter than is convenient for the nutrion of the parts, !; i It

71- '.AnAtomical EXlrcl/;e1 (Jfthl ",'ti~Df,h, Ht~rt~ 'd-i:; 2'j:
l~ is to be obferv'd furrher.that in the a4" l C HAP. XIII~
minirlratio of"1 hlebotomi~' this truth chances II'
lomeClme to be confirmd; tor though you ,,~ rbf tbirJ foPl1DfJt;on il COHflr,,"-J, ialld thAt
tie rhe right arm , and lance it as it fhould
be with a convenient Drifice, and admini- " ' there is II 'irc~/MiDn of the 61Qoa IrI,.
fler a11 things as they ought t~ he, Yet if !F the t/gird [uppOfttif/lIo
fear, or an v other cauie.or f oundlOg do in- H Itherto 'concerning the quantitie of
terveoe through paffion ofthe mind.fo [hat blood which pafles through the IlIng.t ,
the h~art doe beat more faintly, the blood and heart in the centre of the body, and
wdi by no means pals through but drop likewife from the art eries into the veins and
" arter drop , etpecially if the l({ature be 'l habit of the body; I[ remains that we doe
;1 made a little ftreighter. The reafon is. be- ~, explain which way the blood Bowes back
"
I'
i caufc the p!JICe Deing but faint.and [he out- ~ from e he extremities through the 71e;nl in-
;i
II .riving force being but weak, the enfee- to the h'Art) and how the vetns are tbe ver.
I,
\1 bled parr is not able to open the palfage fels that carry it from the extremities to [he
and chruff: out the blood beyond the lig4- centre.by which means we think thofe three
'i
'I, turr, yea nor [0 draw it through the !H"gJ~ Ii ~rounds propounded will be true, dear ..
orto remove it plentifully out of tne 'lIein.t firm. and fufficient to gain credit,
into tbe art eries, So a'ter the fame man- But this fhall be plain enough from the
;. I~.
ner does it come to pafs that Women! flow-, '.1 pIJrtals which are found in the concavities
ers and all other fluxes of blood are flop'd. \: of the ve;ns,their ufe,alld from ocular expe-
,
This likewife appears by the contrary, for \ rimenrs,
fear being rernov'd , and the Ipirit recolle .. 1, The moil famous Hieron. Fahr. ab. IIqfl~
Cte4, when they do return to themfelves, I· pend. a moll: moll: learned Anatornift, and
the rulfifick...Jlr-~ngth being now increafed , a venerable old man, or as the moll: lear-
you {ball ftreighrway fee the arteries beat ned Ri(}{anH4 would have it,JIlC SilviNl did
more vehemently in that parr where [hey ~I firft of any delineate the membranal P""
are bound, and move in the wrift I and the tals in the vei"s being in the figure of a
blued leap out farther through the or;flcl~ ~; s, or femilunarie I the moft eminent and
thinneft parts of the inward tun ides of the
'Veins ~ Their Iituation is in diflant places,
CHAP after a various manner, in diverfe perfons
, " .. -- !h~1 r:.tf""tm,;cAI E~e;'d.fii

they are connate at the fides of the vII"i_; looking upw~rds towards the roots of the, and in the middle capacity both of them ( for they are for the moft part two) looking towards one another, equaly and duly

. rouching one another, infomuch that they are apt to frick together "8t the extremities, and to be joynd; and left they fhould binder any thing to return from the roots of the veins into the littl,e branches,or from the greater into the lefs , they are fo plac'e that the horns of the hindermofl are ftrerched towards the middles of the body of it which is before and Io interchangeable.

The finder dut of thefe portals did not underftand the ufe of them .nor others who have faid left the blood by its weight fhonld fall downward: for there are in the ju!,ulll1' VI;11 thofe that look downwards and doe hinder the blood to be carried upwards. I (as likewise others) have found in the I.ulgent veins an.d bra,Dches of the Meftnterie, thofe which did look towards the vena cava, and ventfport.s; add to this moreover that there are no filch in the arteria and it is to be obferv'd that dogs and c;ttle have all their pIJrt!,is in ~he dividing of rhe crural veins at the beglO. ning of the » ('Icru,or in the Iliac branches near rheCoxendix,in'which there is no fuch rhing to be feared by reafon of the upright ftature in man. Nor are their port~ls in the

jUj!tJ/ar:

Of the mDtio.n·ofthe Heart; (foc: jugulArs as others lay, for fear of Ap';' ro=«, becau[e [he matter is apt in fleep to flow into the head [hroQgh. the Joporall

erteries, .

Nor chat the blood may fiand frill in tli- . vttriCtlti,'InS and that the whole blood fhould not break. in into tl.e {mail branches or thofe which are more capacious: for they are likewife placd where there are no diva· r:i~ations. though I. confefs they are more frequent where divaricalions are.

Nor that the motion of the blood may be retarded from the centre of the body; for it is likely that it is thrufi in J~yfurely enough of its own accord, out of the gre~. ter into the leffer branches, and 10 that It is feparated irom the mafle and fountain :

But the portalls were rneerly rnade , left the blood fhuuld move from the t.re~ter· veins into the le./for and tear or fwel tbem ;. and that it fhould not goe from the centre, ofthe body to the extremities, bur rather. from the extremities to the' centre, Therefore by thismotion thelmll!! Pr"r,,1s a~e e~ .. my fhut , and hind~r any dllng which ~I! contrary to them; for they, are fo pia, d and ordain'd, that it any thing fhould not be fufficiemly hindred in the pa1fag~ by [he harne« of the formofl, but fhould etcape ~s it were through achinck , th~ co.nvexity or vault of the next mIght receive It, and fp hinder it from paffing any further,

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':A 1I4timir:II' E xtrcifi I;

I have often tried that in dilfe8:ion if beginning at the roots of the veinl I did put in the Probe towards the (mall branches with all the skill I could, that it could not be further driven by reafon of the hinderanee of the Portalls: On the contrary if I did put it in outwardly from the branches rewards the root, it palled very eafiiy. In many places two port4/ls are fo interchangeably placid and fitted, that when they are elevated in the middle of [he concavity of the vein, they clofe with one another to a hairs bredth ~ and in their extremities and convexities a.rc united in~erchangeably that: you can neither fee with y@ui' eye;. fight nor any way diicern any crevice or conjundion : on the contrary from outwardly putting in a Probe they eafily give war, (and like thofe gates or Iluces by wh1ch the courfe of rivers is ftopt ) they areeafily turn'd back to intercept the motion of the blood from the veNA CAV4 and. the htllrt, and being dolely lifted np 10 many places whiHl: they are interchangeably Ihut they doc quite hinder and fopprefs, nor by any means fuifl!r the blood to move neither upwards to the head nor downwards to the feet, nor to the fides or arms , but do {top and refift all manner of !l'0tion of the blo?d', which is begun in the greattr VIf1I1 and ends in the leffer , yet doe obey any which is beguri

, b

" V

or th t fIJ ot ;O~ D,whl H ,"rt ~ d-c;

by the {mall VeifiJ and ends in thegr'Af~r ~ and does provide a free and open way fo~ rt,

But that this truth may the more deady appear , let the arm of a man alive be tied above the Elbow ,as if it were to let blood, A A will appear at diftance cfpecially in country people and thole who are fwoln vein'd, like little nodes, or fwellings:

And BCD E F not only where the divarication is E F , but likewiCe where there is none C D, and thefe nodes are made by the portals. They thus appearing in the infide of the band or cubite , if you draw down [he blood with yQur rhumb or finger from the node 0 to H in the fecond figure, you Ihall Iee that none can follow (the portal quite hindring it) and that the part of the 'lJei1t HOof the feeond figure J drawn down betwixt the fwelling and the finger, is quite obliterated, and yet full enough above the knot or portal 0 H: Nay if you do retain the blood fo drove down and the bl?od emptied H , and do prefs downward WIth tether hand the upper part of the vein o , in the third figure, being full J you Ihall find that by no means it can be fared or driven beyond [he 'fortal 0; But how much ~ore you do endeavour to do this, to much,the more {hall you fee at rhe portal or fwell1f1g of 0, of the third, the vein fwoln and diflended , and yet that HOof

the

:Jn1tttJm'. EX!rcife'

the third figure is emptie befow~

Hence, fince a man may make experl-' ment in many places, it appears that the fund-ion of the portnll in the VriNI is the fame as that of the SigmoidtS, or threepointed pDrtal!, which are made in the 0- r~.fic~ of the eorti or VeNti at"tenoj'a, to wit that they may be dOiely {hut up, left r.ht=y fhould hinder the blood to return back agam.

Befides tying the arm a~:\in as before A A, and [he 't-CHU !welling i if you huld the vein below any fwelllng or porrul at a .. ny diftance L of the fourr h.a nd afrerwa ds with your finger M drive the blood up .. wards above the p~rtHl N, you {hall fee that part of the uei» L N (0 remain empty, and that it cannot return by reafon of the Furrali H 0 2. but taking away your finger H 3. or L in the fourth figure, you fhall fee't again fll! 'd by the lower 1J:_'i~11 , and be like D C of the I. fo that from hence it appears plainly,that the blood does move towards the upper parts and the heart in the veins, and not on the contra"; Iy ; and albeit in fome places whch are not clofely {hut, or where there is but one PQrtal, the paffage of the blood from the centre feerns not to be quite hindred , yet for [he moil pare it appears fo , or at Ieaft that which is negligentlv perforrn'd in fome fJacei isrecompeni'd by thepQrraIJ, in or"

- der •

, "

_ ,

Of t~1 mfJt;o,; ofth, H,~,t~ d-e; "r:-]1j _ d~~ followtng.elehee through their num. ' . diligence, or fame other way infomuch as

the ve~nl are the open and patent wayes of teturnmg the blood to the heArt but quite

fiop'd in its going out from then~e.

This is moreover to be obfetv-d, tying the arm as bef~re, and the V~;NS ~welling. and nodes ?r l- ort als appeartng, If below any Portai rn any place where you find the next y?U place your finger,which may hold the vein, that no blood may goe from your hand upwards, then fqueeze with your finger the blood from that part ot theve_in L N above the Po;-tlil as was [aid before then taking away your finger L fuffer it ~o be fill'd up by thofe under as D C, and then preffing :lgain with yo~r rhumb in the [arne place, fqueeze out tbe blood L Nand H 0, and do this a thoufand times in a little:

Ipace,

Now if ~TOU reckon the. bufineffe , how much by onecompreflion moves upwards ~y fuppreflion of the fortal , and multiply .. mg that by thoufands , you Ihall find 10 _ ~uch blood pafs'd by this means through a little part of a vein, chat you will find your felf p~rfetHy perf waded concerning the cir .. culation of the blood and of irs f wife mo-

• :I

hOfu _

But lef1: you Ihould fay, that by this means N.ature ,is forc'd, if you doe this in p()rtuls [arre diflanr, and doe obferve, takng.

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~~ . . . . '.AnalotJIlcAI E~I"ti.fol

.. ~g away your cbomb, how foon, and how

. fWlfdy the blood returns and fills the lower ' part of the flein, I doe not doubt but you will find the very Iame,

--.----..~---. . - '. . . ---...._..,.

C HAP. XIV.

Tbl.CfJnc/~fion of the demfJnjlratioll Df Ih~

''''NtatlOn of the Mood. .

N Oy.r then in .t~e lafl place we may . brt~g our opmion , concerning th~ ClrCII/~tlon of the btoDa, and propound it to all men.

Seeing it is confirm'd by reafonl and O(It~ fAT experiments, that the blood does palfe through the lung s and hellrt by the pulfe of the ventricles, and is driven in and fent into the whole body, and does creep into the 'l/e;nl and porofities of the flefh , and through them returns from the little Vti"l into the greater, from the circumference to the centre, from whence it comes at laft into the venA caVA, and into the ear of [he he"rt in fo great abundance, with fo great flux, and reflux, from hence through tile ar~e"ie~ thither, fron:t thence through the vems hither back again, fo that it cannot be furni!hed by thofe things which we doe' take tn, and an a far greater abundance than'

... is'

Ofthe'Mti~'lOft"l "~It,.tJ&c: . it

iscompet~nt for nouriilimel1t: It mutt be

of neceffi cy concluded chat the blood is dri-

ven into ,. round by a c;rcHIar ",,,ti,n in . creatures, and that il: moves perpemaUy.

and hence does arife the adion and; fUh: lti0!l of the /j~M.t ~ which by pultation it performs ; and JafHy that the motion

and pulfatiQB of the ht(lTt is the onely caufe,

-------,------

C HAP. XV.

Theci?',-fJJ'.4ti,,, 'f the "food M '~nfir""d "1 prob"",, rM(onr.

BUt it will nor be amiife likewife to add· this, that according to. Iome common rea{o.ns it is convenient, and it ought to be fo. flrft( Art)i:. d, re/pir. '.7 lib. 2. 3' of tbe p~rtJOf~rMtf;,l.~e!) feeing death is a corrupnon which befalls by reafon of the defed: of hear, and all things which are hoc being alive, are cold when they die, [here mutt needs be a place and b~ginnil1g ofheat,(as It ~ere a Fire, and dwelling houfe ) by whIch the nurfery cf Nature and [he firfr beginni~gs of inbred fire may be contain'd and preferv'd i from whence hear and life may f1()IIf. ~§ from their beginnings,tnto all parts; whither the aliment of it fhould

F . come,

----------- - -, .

.AnMDmk,,1 Ex""{fl \ of tht 1IIDI;0" fJ/ th, Hellrt, &t;
8l ~ 83 I:
come, and on which all ".tr;tHII and 'Ue~ They could certainly by no means (efpe. I
getat;';* fhould depend. cially fo foon) recover heat, and colour, I
And that this place is the h~lI1't, from ~~ l- and life, unlels they were by a new 0-
f.
whence is the ~inning of life, I would ~ riginal,' a Flux, and appulfion of hear, a ..
have no body to oube, '. gain cherifh'd. For how can tbey attract
*'
There is therefore a motion requir~'d to ; I in w hom heat and life are almofi extinct?
the blond, and fucb a one as that it may , . or thofe that have their paffages condens'd
l
return again to the heart;· for being fent to' .' and fiopt with congeal~d blood, how
far a wa y into the outwar.d pa,rts of the b?- could they receive the comming nourifh-
dy (as If ,·iff.)." pal't, d~ Af.llm.) from,lts f~ . ment and blood unlefs they did difmiffe
own fountain, It would congeal and be un .. f thacwhich tbey beforecontain'd, and un-
movable. (For we doe fee, that by mo· ~' lefs the heart were real7e [hat beginning
tion, h':4t and fPirit is ingender'd, an~ pre- from whence heat and li e (as .,1, ;/r. rt{p;-
fervid in all thlOgS and by wane of It va- rs«, 2.) and from whence new blood be-
nifhes.) Seeing therefore, that the blood ing paffed through [he ert eri-s imbued
flaying in the outward parts is congealed with tpirit , that which is enfeebled and
by thetcol~ of [h~ extre.micies, an~ ?f the I ehill'd might be driven out, and all the
ambient all', and IS defhtute of fjirtu, as . ! parts might redintegrate their languiihing
l ..
- it is in dead ~hings,it was needful] it fhould beat and vital nourifhmenr almofl extind?
refume and redintegrate.,., by its ~eturn ~ .. F ' Hence it is that ic may come to paffe ,
gain, as well heats, as f91rlt. and indeed I,tl ,. that the h,Art being unrouch'd, life may be
own prefervation, from its own founrain refror'd to the ref] of the pztrs.and found-
and beginning. neffe reeover'd j but the h~art being refri-
We fee, that by the exteri~llr ~oldt the geraeed or aff'ed:ed with Iorne heavy di-
exrremiries are Iometimes chill, infomuch feate, the Whole Itnim~l mull needs fuffer,
as nole. hands, and cheek" doe look blew, and fat to corruption.When the beginning
like thofe of dead men, becaufe that the I ~ is corrupted, (as Ari!f. ~ de,!a~t. Anim. )
blood flands fhll in them,( as it does in car- there is nothing which can afford help to
kaffes in thofe parts which are down ten- it, or thofe thingo; which do depend upon
ding,)whence it comes, that the members . '. i/:. it • \
arc: numrrrd, and hardly rnoveablejfo t~at . 1,' And hence perchance the reafon may
they feem quite alm~fi: ~~ ~~!e loft rh~Y ~'i be drawn, why in thofe.tha, with grief,
. - F ~ love,
li '.A,qatomical EXIYci/t1

love cares.and the like arepoffeffed,« con: furnpcion or continuation ha.ppeQs. '. or cacochymie, or. ab~ndance ot crudiries , which caufe all difeafes and kill men. For every paflion ofthe £?ind ~hic~ troubles mens Ipirits, either with grief, JOY, hope, or anxiety, and gets acceffe to th~ heart, there makes it to change from us naturall conUitution, by diflemperature , pulfation, and the reft , that infeding all [he nouri£bmenc, and weakmng the Ilrensth , it ought not at: all to ~eem wondertliil if it afterward; beget divers forts of incurable difeafes 1 in the members, and in the body, feeing the whole b~dy in that cafe is afHicted by the corrupnon of rhe notirifhment, and defect of the na ..

tire warmth, .

Befides all this; feeing ~H creature~ llv.e by nourifhment inwardly ~oncoae~, ~t is neceffiry that the concodion and diflribution be perfed:, and for chat caufe the place and receptacle w here the nourifhment is perfected, and from w~lem;c It 15 deriv'd [0 every member. ~u.t this place IS the hearr ; fince it alone o' all the parts ( tklough it has for Its private ufe t~e. CO~O. na! 'VcitZ and Izrter:e) does contain tn Its concavities, as in cifterns, or a celler, (( 0 wire..;rJ or ventricle! ) blood for the rublick ufe of the body; but the reft ,ot [he parts have it only in veffels tor their own

be ..

OftlJe motion oftbe Hesrr, rY-c;

, behoof, and for private ufe. Befides, the heArt only is fo-plac'd and appointed, that from thence by i [5 pulfe it may equallie di .. ftribute and difl'ence ( and chat according to meafure.and the concavities of the ert»: ries which are [0 fupply every part) to thol~ which want, and deal it after this manner, as our-of a treafure and fountain. Moreover to this diflribution and motion of the bitJDd, violence. and an impultor is requir'd, fuch as the luart'is. To tbis-add. that the blood does eafily concentricate ,

• and joyn of its own accord, to its begin. ning~ as a part to the whole, or as a drop of water Ipilt upon the table to the whole maffe , as it does very fwiftly, for Ilender caufes , fuch as are eold , fear , horror, and the like. Betides, it is Iqueez'd OUt of the cltpNlar Vei13! into the liu/~ by/web!! , and from thence into the greater, by the motion of the members,and ,m!fc/~J :Likewife the blood is apter [0 move from the circumference to the centrejhan otherwi:e though the portals did not binder. From whence it follows, thatifit do leave its beginning, ' and move a~ainfl: its will, and enter into places narrower, and colder, that i~ has need of violence and an impulfer, fuch is the heart only, as we laid but now.

8)

F S. C H A p~

I I'

C HAP, XVI.

The circulation of tht ./dood ;1 prov'a 6, ((mjtqHt7tl(1.

THere are likewife QueCHons, which from this fuppofed verity, for creating efbelief, as arguments 4 poperiore, are not altogether unufefull, Thefe though they be envelop'd in much doubtfullnetfe and obfcuricy, yet eafily admit oftbe alfigna~ tion ofcauf.s and reafons,

. We fee in contagion, in pohoned wounds, or in the bitings of Strpents, or rt~ad doggl, in the French PQX, and the like, that the part touched being not hurr, it I~ f~l1i out that the whole habit of the body is vitiated. The Freseb Pox fometimes bewrayes it Ielf by the pain of the head.or the iliouJders,or other Symptoms, the genitah having no hurt at all. The wound made by the biting of a mild JOll being cured, we have notwithflanding obferved, that a {inver. and other horrible Syrntoms have enfued : Becaufe the conragion being imprinted into the part, it appears , that it i~ from hence carried to the hta/·t with the blood returqing, ~nd can afterwards infect the whole body. In the beginning of a tertia» feaver the morbilick cauie going to the h:art makes [hem

. - bua~~

Oftb,_tl,,,o/th, HI""t, &c: t

breathlefle • fighing, and lazie , becaefe the vital beginning is oppreffed , and the blood is driven againft the Junls, and thickned , and finds no. pafi"age (I fpe~k this, baving had experience fr~m [he dlf~ fe8iorf of them that have dyed m the _b~ ginning of the acceffion) then the pulfatiOIlS are always frequent. little, an~ fo~otimes diforderly: But the heat bemg increas'd , and the matter obtenuated , the wayes being open, and paffages made, the whole body grows hot, the pulfes become greater and more ve~cmen~, the Paroxifm of the fiavlr grow 109. hlg~er, to wit the preternatural heat bemg kindled in ~bc heart, is difl'us'd from t hence by the ~rttri'l into the whole body, ~ogerber with the morbifick ma~ter, which by this means is overcome and diffolved by nature.

Ltkewife , feeing medicaments o~t~ard.

Iy applyed, everufe their force wlthl~, ~I iftbey were taken inwardly; (-C%qum,,d~ and A/au loofen the bellie , Gar/;clt applyed to the Coles or the feet, c~u{e5 IX';' peClo)'at;tln; C anthAr.dll move ufm,e, a~d cordialls doe corroborate, and infinite of this kind.} From hence it is contlanrly averr'd, perchance not ~ithout caufe, that the VIi", through their or} pell, draw a little ofthofe things which are outwardly Ipplyed • and carry it. in with ~c blood.

'. ! i after

"

'A"AtD",;ClIl Ex.ercifol , .

after the fame manner as rhofein the Mefent erie do fuck the 110, /UI .out of the inteflintl, and carry it ee tbe J1'lItr, together

with the blood, .

In the ·.Jkt."je"tt>rielikewife, rhe blood entering into the C 'Eliac M"tcrie, the upper and neither M(:fillter;~J, goes forward to the illtejlinc s; by which ~ [ogecber _ with ebe Ch;rlm attracted by the veins J it returns through the many branches of them .into the PortA of the liver, and through it into the VellA CA'Ua; fo it comes (0 paffe, that the blood in thefe 71e;ns is imbued with the fame colour and confittence , as in the reft " otherwife than many belrever for we mull needs believe, that it very ~t1y and probably comes to paffe , in the ftemme or branch of the caplllM' 'Vein I , that there are two motionsv one of the ChJltu upwards, another of the· blood downwards; but is not this done by a main providence of nature? for if the raw Ch]llI4lhould be mix'd WIth zheconcoded blood in equall proportions , no concodicn, rranimutarion ~ or fanguificarion fhould from thence arile: But rather Iince they are interchangeably adive and par .. [ive , from the union of [hem being altered, there fhould arife a mixture, and a thing of a middle nature betwixt the two; as in the mixing of wine and water, there i~begot~cna win~foyt : iut now, w~e~

wuu

r!

Ofthlflltt_tJf_ H-urt."&c:~ ~9..

\Vith the great quantity of:biood whim paffes by, a !part 'of the Ch}llMis mi1~d

after this manner, and as it were in no remarkableproportion , that doth (as ANftor/~ fayes) more ea1ily come to paffe;

as when one drop of water is put into a Hogfhead of wine , or on. the contra-

ry ,the whole is nC)!: mixed , but it is either wine or - water ; to in the 4Mr[{trtUck, t~.1jS , being dUfeCled, there is found a (hpnm. not the ChJ/UI and blood a part.but mixed, and the fame both

in colour and confiftenceto the fenle , as appears in [he refl of the vei»J; in which notwitbfianding, becaufe there is fome-

thing of the ( hyl1lM inconccded, although inlenfible , Nature hath placed the liver,

in the .f,{tdnderJ or crooks of which it is delay'd , and receives a fuller tranfrnuta-

rion ,. left coming too foon raw to the h,,,,rt, it Ihould overwhelm the beginning

of lite. Hence in EmbrJrJ1lI there is no

ufe oftbe livlr where the 1lmbrliet" vein

doth apparently paffe thrcmgh the whole,

for there fiapds out of the porta of the liver

a hole or AJfdji01H(}jil, [hat the blood returning from the IPJtejl:ins of the birch, palfing not through the ltuer , but the forementioned ltmuils'calvein,might go to

the /uart,togcther with the mothers blood returning from the PldCtJ')t4 of the womb ~

from whence Jikewife, in the firft formin~f

u .

'A".i'".;c,l E~irtifel

of the birth it comes to paffc,that the Ijvl~ is made laft: We likewife in a womans untimely birth, have obferv"d.al.l the mem .. bers {hap·"', the Gen!ral, dlftlDa~y , and Jet fcaree any foundation of the Iwtr to have been laid. And truly fo lo~g as the members (as likewife the heArt It Ielf ID the beginning) are all w~ol~, and t~at there is no redneffe conteyn d In the v,~"s, you {hall fee nothing b~t a rude co lledion as it were: of blood, Without the veffels, in ficad of the liver, which you would think to be fome brufe or broken '111;1111. •

There: arc in a Elg as it were two Urn ..

Iilicttl veffels , one paffing throu~h t ~e whole liver, from the .,.,hitt, and gOIDg dl" rcctly to the he4rt; the other gomg trom the: Jol~, and endin.g i~ the vena p,artllJ For fo it is, that a ChlCb, ,5 firCl onely nonrifbed and found by the -whife,_ a~d afterwards by the ,"/~, after its perfedion and erciufion; for the Jolk.,.may be fo~nd to be contdn'd in the belly of the ~~/Ck. many dayes after the hatching, and ,It l~ anfwe .. rable to the nourilliing of mllk 10 o~her creatures.But we {hall fpeak of thefe th.mgs more conveniently in our objervations eoncerning the forming o~ .births, where there may be many cnqumfs of this nature, why this is firO: made and perfeded , and that afterwards; and of the pr1DClp~-

. lltle

0/ ':h t ",6t;,n If tht He"t, d-c ~ 91

litie of Members, what p.art is the canrce

of another j and many things lik(wife con- . cerning the h,,,rt , As why ( as Arjjl. @

part. Anim, 3.) it was made the firft con ... fiflenr, and (eerns'to have in it life, moti-

on, and fenfe, before any thipg of the relt

of the body be perfected; ~nd likewife of

the blood, whv before all tbings, and hoVi

it has in it the beginning of Ji{c, and of

the creature; why it requires to be moV-d

and driven up and down; and then for

what caure the hfart feems to have I>e~

made. .

After the fame manner in the fpecuIati .. on of pulfes, to wit, why fuch are deadly~ others not; and in all kinds by contemplation of their caufes and prel~geSt what thofe ijgni~e, and what thefe , and. why.

Likewife in the: C1'ifi/el and f;\:p""gatiolll of Nature; in nutrition, efpecially in difiributiQn of the nutriment , and likcwifc

in all fluxions, /Xc. .

L,aly, in all parts of Ph,Ji&k, PbJflO/fIgical, PAtholDgical, Semeiot;t~, Ther4pr". tickJ when I do confider with my feJfbow many queftions may be determined, this truth and light being given; how many doubts may be folved, how many obfcure things made clear " I find a moil large field, where I might run out fo far, and epJarge my f~lf i9 much, that it v;op14 nOI:

fn ..

, )

/, (

I

,

r..Anilto".;clIl E~etcifn:

. 'only fwell into a great volume, ~hic~ is not my intention, but even my life-time would be too Ihorc to make an end of

it. l' har i r •

. Therefore in this pace, t at IS to lay, in

the following Chapter, I fhall oncly endeavour to referthofe things to-their pro .. per ufes , and caufes, which ~oe appear in the adminiflration of AnatomIC, about the fllbrick_of the ht'ttrt, and arteries: for there where I intend to addrefle my felf , very many things are found whi.ch receive light from this truth , and do In return make it more dear, which I defire to adorn, and ron firm by Anatomical arguments)beyond all th e refl.

There is one thing, which althongh it ought to have place t~o in our .0bferva[io~5i ccncerning the ute of the. Mdt, yet will it not be impertinent 1.'0 take nonce of It here by the by.

From the JPlel'licJt 'ZIei,;, drawn down into the Pancreiu ,. there arife veins from the upper part of it : the Coronall) Poft~c~, GtI{frit·k,., and GaftyO!pip/oicl<.; aU ofwhich, with very many ~ranches and ttndOTJJ, are difpers'd into the vmtriclr, a~ the.71u(eraick.J are into the ittteftinu. ttkewlfe from the inferior pare of this Jfilcnick." down as far as- the CO/Qn and LO'llJ!.anon, the H ~~ morrhoia.tl vein is deduded. The blood rerarning through thole veins by both

. ways

Of the matiOl1Df tlH He4't~ &c; wayes, and carrying the rawefr juice witb it ( hence from theventricl~, thac which is waterifh and ~hin, the ~hilification being not as yet perfected ; from thence that which. is grolfe and terreUriall ) in this branch of tho JPltnic(, by the penaixtion of contraries, it is conveniently cemper'd • and Nature mixing rhofe two juices of more difficule concottion,by reafon of their contrary indifpofitions, with great abundance ofwarm blood , wbich ( by reafon of the abundance of arteries ) flows abundantly from the milt. it brings them, being now better prepar~d,to.the prJ,.ta of the' liver, and lupplies and recompences the de~eCt of both by ruth a flrudure of the

Ve sns ;

~A;:a.....-::~"_ -.... 2hir&::o _

C HA P. XVII.

;1

J

7:lJe motion andcircNI.ttiDn of the blood ir cQnfirm!d by thole things which appeAr in tnehearr , ana from thofo things. which appear in Anatomic,:,l diJlcEfiDn.

I Doe not find the heart in all creature~ to be a difiinct and feparate part; for feme, as you would fay Pl.uzttlni",als, have no he.'?'rl; Colder creatures of a iofrer make, and of a kind of fimilarie confij tnri ..

on,

'4 '.A"IItom;ctll B~lJ'c;rel

on, fueh as are P,,/ml7'-"fWm.f; and SI111;/'. and very m~ny things which are ingenderd of putrefadion, and keep not a fP~citl,have 110' h,,"rt, as neediag no impulfor to drive the nutriment into the extremitill: For they have a body CDnn~te and of one piece and indiftinCl: without members; fo tba~ by the contraction and returning of their whole bodie , they take in, expell, move and remove the nourifhmenr I being call'd 1/111111111;111411; fhch as areOlflerl; M"fflu, SpOl1gu, and all forts of Zoophlt1, have no h".rt ; for inflead thereof they ufe their whO'le.body,and this whole creature is as a h,ut •.

In vety many, and almoft all kinds of InleCls,by reafon ofthe fmallnefle of their Corpulency, we cannot rightly difcern; yet in BeeJJjli,1 and -wafp! we may by the helpe of a perlpedive glalle. You may Iikewife fee fomething beat in lice , in which moreover you may clearly fee the patTage of the nourifhmenr through the i~tefl;"".r ( this Animal being tranfparent) like a black fpot , by help of this multiply· ing g]atfe.Buc in rhofe that ha ve no blood and are (older, as in Snailt, Shell fifo, CrMfled-Shrimpl, and the like , there is a little part which beats (like a littl,614d. ~er, or an ~Ifr )withoU[ a hellre, making Its contradien and pulfe feldomer , and. fuch a one as you cannot di!cern but in fummer, or in a .h.~~ feafo!l~ III

oj thnllDIu" If ,h, H,,,,,; d'1~ "

In thefe creatures tbis particle is ordain'. too,that there is a neceffitJ of fome impu~ fion for the diftribution of the nO'urdh-. mene , byreafonO'fthev~rittyof the-:ga1lick.. parts , of the thlcknefte of theIr fubftance : but the pulfations a~e made feldomer, fometimes not at all, ~ reafon of their coldnelfes,as it it meeteft for them, being ofa doubtfu l! nature, [? that ro~e~ times they Ieem to live, fometimes to' die • and fometimes to live the life of an "ni~ mal,fometimes the life of aPIAl1t.

This is likewife contingent to' thofe In" feas which doe lurk in the Winter,30d are hid as if they were dead, and do only lead the life of a Plau!; but whether this doe likewife happen to fome creatures tbat have blood as to Frogs, SlIII1", S6,',tlltl, S\lt'~!lo'wel, we may not without

reafon mase a queflion. . .

In creatures which are a little bigger; and hotter, as having blood in them, there is an impulfion of the nutriment requir'd, and fuch a one perchance as is endued with more force i therefore in Fi(bu, S",.p",tl, Sllak.u, Sl1ails, FrlJgs, and others of the like nature, there is both one ear, and One 'Ventricle of the h,aft allotted, whence ti~ fes that moil: true Axiom of Arift. ,Ie ""rt. .Anim. 3. That no creature having blood does want a heArt, by 'the irnpulfion of which it is ma4~ fir~ger and more robuft, ~ ... - - - - - .. - -. - . '" . and

'AlIMOl1lic.J. EX~}'cifn

and the nutriment is not onlv fi'irr'd up and down by tb~ ,a~, but likewif~ is thruft out further and more lwiftly.

That ia creatures ,eli greatfr, hotrer; ancilll1()fe perfed, ( as abounding with .It gl'eat deal o~ hottes blood, asd tull of fp.ira ) eben: 1S a ftronger and: mare fieflue hetD't reqmr'd,uh-:!.t the- more 11:ron~1 y .more fwi£tly, or with greater force the nutrl~ rnenr may be thruft out, by reaion of the bi~ndfe of the bodie, and tbickne£f~ .of the habit, .

Alld moreover, becaufe that more per .. fea creatures need more perfed: ali ment , and a mort abundant native-bear, that the nutrimenrofchem may be concocted, and acquire a further perfection, it was fie that thefe creatures fhould have lu..:gt.,and another ventricle, which Ihould drive the nu~

rrirnenr through them.. .

So in whatfoever creature there IS If4Htfl', there is likewife in rhem two vntriclfl/ of [he bears , [he rtght, and the l~ft, aad wherefoeve- the right ,ar is in any, there is the left, not on the contrary, that where the 14t is, there is the right one too; that I call the left vmtricle which is diflingu:ithed in place, but doc in ufe from ~he tother which. doth diffufe the blood In[0 the 'whole bodie, not into tne lunJ':/ a .. lone, hence the left uentricl« feerns ~o m.ake up the heart ofic'felf,being placed 1f1

.- -_ -. the

OfthtmbfiO;'~tht H~iirt, ~&':

the middie, and fo fenc'd with higher dit~ ches , and Irarn'd wirh greater diligence, that the htlfrt feems to have been made for the left 'Vmt,.jc/t·s fake, and the right iltntricle [ferns as it were a ferva nr to the lift, and does not reach to the top of it; and is made up of atbiilfler threefold will; and it has.as Ariftotll fays, a kind of arrituJation above"tbe It{t, and is more capacious , as adminillring net only matter co rhe left, but giving nourifhmerit likewife

to the 1'"'11• .

But it is to he obferv'd in E";{Jr)Dn.t thefe are fat orherwife J and that there is' no fiich great difference of the ventriclu ~ bur like two kernels in a nut t.hey are aJmofl equall,che cotner of the right rea(hes' rhe rap of [he left, fo' thai in them the heilrt hath as it were a: double top at [he point. T hefe things come [0 palfe bec3ule' in them whim the blood does not paffe through the lungl, as jt does paffe from [he right !J'fomt of the heart to the' 11ft, both the V~"tr;c/u do perform alike the office, bringing the blood dlcough' ftom the VIlla cau« into the arteria m.1gn4 by that OVAIl hole and arreriou, pa1fage, as hath been faid , and do equally. divide ie into the whole body, whence proceeds an equal contlitUtion. Bur when it is time that [he lungs 1houJd be ufed , and the' rore~aid unions begin to be ftop·d, then

... G dc::s'

. 98. . Andtom;cal EXircifol

does this difference of ve,m,.clu begin to be in their Itrength, a, likewife in rhe reft, bccaufe the right drives only through the t:mgs ~ the lefc through the whole body.

1: here are betides thefe in the h,,,rt alfo tendon!, as I may fo fay, or flefhie twigs, and very many fihrous connex,iol1/, which Arift· in his book de reIP;r. and de 'Art. ,,_ nim, 3- calls nervu, of which fomeapart are ftretch'd with divers.motioru; and are partly hidden in furrows with deep ditches about them in tile walls and nudiaffin .. & they are like a kind of little mu[clc! which are underordained, and fuperad ... ded to the h.:art, as. auxiliaries, for the further cxpulfion of blood, that like the ciligenr and ·artificiall provifion of tackIinc ina fhip , th::y might hel\> the hca.rt

... co:;tral'ting it felt every way, and migbt fqueeze out the blood more fully and forciblv out of'the 7lcntrir/a.

And this is manifef] from hence, becaufe {orne Iln;m1ls have thern, forne not, and all which have them are Qronger in the loft ue etric! .. than in th~ tight; feme aIJim.ils have them in the/eft, and not at all in [he right, in. men there are more of them in the ltf: than is the right, and more in the 7letJt;"iclu than in tbe ears, an I in 1omeeri'rf alrnofl none; there are more of them in brawnie, mulculous and ruea 11 bodies't. and·1uch as are of rOllgher

. - habit

Of th, IIIDI;DIJ "th6 H'm't, d-~~ 9~

habit of body, than in thofe which are tender , and in women there are few-

er. "

In thofe creatures iJt which the velltri. clu wirhin are fmooth, altogeth~r ·with. oat fiber!. and. tendo,,!, and which are n?t deft rnto dItches (as almofr in all tittle ~Irds! S~r-peHfI J Frog!, Snaill, and the Iike, tn the Partr'-Jt_e hkewife and the: Hen: an~ the greaccft part of Fillies) in therr: neither thofe nerVI or fibert mentioned _ ~9r the fhree-for~'dportals are to be found rn [he. ".)m~iC/u. In forne 4nimlll.r the right v~nt"'c!e IS fmooch within, the left has thore fi"rouJ connexions, as in the GODf" SW.lIl , and greater birds: In them the (a~e caufe is .. alleged as in all, feeing their lutz,,?! are Ipongious & foft they need np fuch force to impell the blood through them; therefore 10 the right ventricle either they have no fi6,rl , or els f~wer and weaker, nor are (0 fiefbie and comparable co Muftltl, but in the left tbey are frronger and more in number, more flefhie: and mufculoUs, becaufe the left ventricle hath netd ot more firengrh and force, by reafon thaI: ~c ought to purfiie the blood fa~~through the whole body.

Ft'O"m' hence it is Jikewue', that the l~ft 'veNtricle potfelfes the middle of the" hea~t: and hath a wall threefold thicker and is ft~ongt:r than the rig!JJ ventdclr:

G 2 lienEe'

An.ftfJmlcal Er4rcifii

Hence all creatures , men. likewir~~' by how much the habit of their flefh IS harder and more folid, and by how much more their outward members are more fiefhie , and farthefl from the beart, and brawnie, Io much more fihrDul, thick" robuft, and mufculous a heart have tbey~ and this is neceffary and clear; 00· the contrary, by how much th~ more they are fine-Ipun.of a fofter habit, and of Ilenderer bodies fo much the fofcer, flagging, and Iefs jib;oflJ heart wjthin( or not at aH)have they.

Likewife confider the ufe of the pDrt4lt, which were made for that caufe , left the blood once let out fhould be returned to

. the btPlrt and as well in the orifice of the erterle ~s of a. vein, they are up' lifted, and ent:rchangeably joyni~g., th.ey make a three Iquare line, .Iuch as IS Impr!nted by the biting of a Sw.111ow, that being {but more clofely they may hinder the reflux. of blood. . . There are three forked portall in the en. trv of [he ven(J cavA;and arteria veno/a,le!'t thOat when the blood is mofl driven out re fhould fall back , and for that. ca~fe t~ey are not in all creatures,& in thofe inwhich they are , they do n~t teem to be made by the lame diligence of nature, but rn fome they are {hUt more exacHy, in others more carelefly and negligently .; therefore

In

Oflht mDtjlJn ()fthe Hl'4t't, cfor:; lot

inthe left vent ride , that for the greater irripulfio~ there may, be a clo~er fiOf'p3~e,

there are only two like a Mitre, haVing

te"da1lS reaching out far, even to the conss

of it, through it middle, that they may

be molt exactly Ihur, This perchance de-

ceiv'd .Arift()t'~ ,in making him believe thac

this flentric/I was doul)le, the divilion

being made athwart, left the blood fhouJd

faU back again into. the Arter;" and by

that means the ftrengh of the left ventric/,

in driving forth the ~Iood into the whole

bodie fhould be deftroyed, therefore

thele p~rta's do much furpaffe in bigneife,

llrength , and exad {hutting, thofe which

are placed in the r;ght. Hence Jikewife ofneceflity, no hMrt is feen wirhoue a v'ntricl~, finee it ought to be the well .. fpriag,tountain.and cellar of blood. The

fame does not always happen in the brain; ,

for almoft all forts of birds have no ven- j

trlcl» in the vrain, as it appears in the

Go~fo and S'iff1Il1Z , the urainJ of thefe, al-

though the hrlli,m of a. Coni,e be aim oft as

big II yet the C tmit hath vtntricles in the

Im.in, the Gooft has not.

Likewi(e,wherever there is one vlnt,.;cl!~ there hangs by it an la,. flagging, cuticular, hollow within, full of blood] where there are two ventricles, there are likewife two '#Irs; on the contrary, there

!~ only ~~ ~~r ~n ('Oe creatures, or a~

'-_ 3. ea.

I

I J

I I

!

I I I'

I

J.Pi. eA"4to",;cal EXlrci{1I

lean a h/adJer anfwerable to an ,Ar -. o. the vein it felf dilated (but nor the ~entricl~ of the heart) making a pulfe inflead of'the heart, ~s it appean in Hornetl,B::es, and other InieCts, whom I believe' I can demonflrate by fome experiments, to have nor only a pulfe, but a refpiration likewife in that place which they call the tail s whence it happens that it is length ned and contraded , fometimes oftner, fometiraes more feldome , according as they Ieem ~ore pantlR~ ?r to be more indigent of air: but ofdilS 10 the rreatife of Ref pi rat ion. It is likewifc: manifeft that the Mrs do beat and centrad themfelves, as lfaid before, and cal] the blood into the ventri,le- . whence it is ~ that wherefoever there iii ~ vt1Jtr_icle there an eer is requir'd, not only ( as IS commonly believ'd ) that it may he the receptacle and cellar of blood, (for

. w~a.t needs there any pulfation for the: re- , . l:ammg of It? ) but the firft movers of the

. blood are the earl,. efpecial1y the rjght

bemg the ~rft tbing that' lives, and th~' laO: [bat dies, as before is [aid j for which caufe they are nece(fary., that they may. ferve to poure [he blood into the ventricle. ¥u.t the ventricle immediately con[ratti~g n Ielf', doth more conveniently {queezc:. out, and more violently thrult forth the. blood J being· already in motion.; as, wben y'Oll play. at ball, you cf\n flrike

'. , it

Oftbe motiDII ()fthe Heart~ (joe.

it farther, arid more firongly, taking it It 111, ,vol~, than you could 0 nly throwing it out of your hand. But likewife , COntrary to the .vulgar opinion, becaufe neither the heArt, nor any thing elfe can Io ex~,,~d it (elf as that i t C;t~ a[~raCl: any ~hing 10 rts diaflole (unleffe 10 Its return co i. s former confliturion , being before fqueezed like a (punge,) but it is certain that all local motion comes firfl and did

. take its beginning, from tbe c;ntraClio·n of fo.me, particle; therefore by the contraCi!on of [he eares ,dse blood is cafl in to the ventricle! ~s I open'dbefore , and by the contradion of the v~"tricltl its

thrown farther and remov'd. '

Which truth concerninu locall motion and that the !mme~iate m~tJVe orJ!.an (i~ all, crea.tures ~n which a motive Ipiric is primarily ) IS contradible , as Ariff. fayes in his book de- !PirAte and elfewhere, and ,that 1rip~tll did know the 1mtfoln wh~n he did refer all the pains and motion 10 creatures to the ntrvu or that which is contradable , and :her(!forc: call'd tbofe tenJollS in the heArt nerves • I hope it {ball be made dear if at any time I {hall have liberty to demonfirate

. concerning the ""tive ortTII)fJ of creatures and the fabrick of the ;"folu, from my own obfervations,

. '~~t p~r.l~ing. ~ur purpo{e concerning

Q ~ !h.~

, 'i

I,

I

']?4 .A ""t,,,,i,a' E~tlci/il Ofthl mpt;op, ofthi"Hill,.t;tf~~ ~~-.
;loy'
rheufe of [he earl ~ which we did demon- rung the forming of the birth whichJmade
Urate was to fill the vr:WJ'ides with blood. in arion of befor e, and A,.ijlotl, confirms
we fee it comes to paffe , that the thicker andn egg, doe adde a great deal of credit
and more compact the heart is, and of ;1 I rc light to this bufineffe; firf] ,whilft the
grolfer wall, the more nervous and m"r- bi h i$ as it were a tender worm, and
CN/OI!,S the ears are to draw inaud fill ic j \ whilft it is yet (as is ufually fpoken) in the
and in thofe in whom they are contrary- milk, there is in it a little "'"dd~r or hag
wife. i~ does appear in them as a blad- which beats, and as it were a portion of
derof blood , or a membrane conteyning the tlmlnlica/ vein; afterwards, when the
blood, as in fifhes , for there the bladder birth being fhaped , begins to have a
which is in lieu of the eer is very thin , fironger corpulency, this little hAg be-
and fo large that the heart feems to fwim ~ eoming more flefhie and'robuf] ( chan!ing
above it; but in rhofe fillies in which this irs conftitution ) turns into tArs, a ove
bladder is a little more Beiliie, it feems which the body of the heart begins to
very precifely to emulate and counterfeit {pring, as yet executing no publick offiu~;
the /lmgs ) as in the Bar/leti , Tench, and but the birth, when tis already form'd ,
others. and that the bones are dillinct from the
In Iome men, to wit fuch as are braw- flefh , and it is a perfed creature , and
nie , and of a rougher habit of body, I that it i~ felt to have motion, then [he
I have found ther':~~ht ur fo ~lrong and fo heart is both found beating within, and
neatlv made up within , with the various does transfufe the blood a!! I have faid out
contexture of fibers, that it did feern to . of the vella into the arterie through both
be equall in ftrength to the Ve.';tricles of . the oouricles,
. other men; and iruely I did wonder that So Nature being perrea and divine, and'
i in divers men there fhould be [uch diffe- making nothing in vain, neither gave a
\l
i' renee. But it is to be oblerv'd , [hat' in heart to any where there was no need,
~ the birth the e~rl are farre greater than I nor made it before there was any ufe for
II proportion" becaufe be fore the besrt is I it, but by the fame degrees in the fdr-
'i made, tbat it may do its OWn function, ming of all 'ill1i,.~IJ palling through the
"
il ( as before was fhew'd) cLey do the office conftitutions of all creatures ( as I may
of the heart. ~ fay in the egg, Worm, and birth) it acquires
, f~~ [f)~ thipgs that I obferv'd concer- • its perfection in them all. Thefe thing$
i ~ - \ . . '-- fhllll
~lDg ~ '''' '.A""t,,,,kli/ Egerrifol

fhall be confirm'd elfwbere by many 0&';; fervations in the formmg of the birth. Y

L:dUy, Hlpple; in his book tie C.rd.did not without reafon call it a lI"I{c/e , feeing the adion and fuhction of both is the fame, viz. to contract it felf,and move fomewhat tIle, that is the blood.

. Moreover , from the conftitution ofthe fib,r/, and their motive frame, as Iikewife in the muftln, we may fee the action arid u(e ofthe heart. AU Anatomifls have obietv'd withBa!;n, that the body of the hed~t is-made with feverall draughts of p-

. lJ,er~ ftreight., thwart, and crooked.but in aht"rt, being boyrd the flrudure of the ji(,trJ it found to be otherwayes.

For all the fiberJ in the walls and in the inclofure are circular ~ as they are in a .sphiIlEhr, but thofe which are in the ta.dolts Ilretched OUt itt length, are crooked; (0 it comes to paffe thar when all the fibt,.J areconcradcd, it happens that the top is

. brought to the bottom by the tendons, and me walls are inclofed in a round, and the 1M",.! is contracted every way,and the tun,ridtl ftrengthned. Wherefore fince the attion of it is contraction, we muf] needs imagin chlJt the function of it is to thruft .Iood out into the arteries,

Nor mufl we difagree from .Ar;jlot!~ concerning the principality of the heart. a~d that it does not receive motion and ' fcnfc

-.

Oflbe PHltiim gfth, HeArt, &c~ ):~,

fenfe from tbe brain, nor blood from the

/iv,r ,but that is the beginning of the .,,,i"l

and of the blood, and the like; Seeing

tbofe that endeavour to confute him omit

that chief argument,to wit, That the htl!rt

~ the firfifuhfiflen.t,and that it hath blood,

life, fenfe and monon before the Imeill or

liver were made, or appear'd difiind-ly,

at Ieafl before tbey could perform any fun ..

ction. To this adde, That the heart, as a

certain internal animal, confifts longer, as if'Namre by the making of this firft, would

have the whole animal afterwards to be

made, nourifhed, preferv'd, perfected by

it, as its own work and dwelling place.

The he4rt is as it were a Prince in the Com: monwealrh, in whofe perfon IS the firfi: and

higheft government every where; from

which, as from the original and foundati-

on, all power in the 4nl11l«J is deriv'd, and

doth depend.

But be fides very many things about ehe arteries doe likewife evidence and confirm this truth; When it is confider'd why the ttrte,i" vmofa does not beat.fince it is num.. bred amongfl: the arteries; or why there is a pulfe found in Vena arterioJ"" fince the pulfe of the arteria ari fes from the impulfion of blood ; or that the arttrieJ in the thicknefs of their tlln;cltJ, and tbe ftrength of them, do differ fo much from the vlinl, becaufe they bear the force of~he impuffi ..

~.,

!loS

I: ~_

~- '.A"llt~",;cAl E~trci'6j

_ ~G ~

on of the heArt, and breaking out of ' the -blood.

- Hence, fince Nature who is perfeCt~

makes nothing in vain, and is fufficient in all rhings , the nearer the arteries are to the httlrt, the more they differ _ from the 'II,i"s in their confhtution ~ and are more robuft and full of ligaments, but in the furthefl difperflons of them, in the hand, foot, brAill, me(cnterie, and fjermatick .. :vcf-. {els, they are Io like in their conftirution , that earneftly viewing their 'Hnicln, it is 3 hard bufineffe to know one from the other.

And this is fo for juf1: caufes, For the further the arteries are diftant [rom the heArt, by fo much leffe firength a great deal are they flruck , the Itroak of the "'lITt being weakned by the great difbance, Adde to this, that the impulfion of the htart, fince it muO: needs be fufficient in all the trunks and branches of the artcria, it is leffen.>d at every partition, as being divided, infomuch that the laO: divifions of [he (lijilIAresfArterior~ feern to be oeins ; not f)Rly in conflitution, but likcwife in function, or doe not give a fenfible pulfe , or none at all, or elfe not alwayes , unleffe the heArt doe beat more forcibly, or (orne little arteris be dilated, or more open in fome pur. Hence it comes, that fomerimes we may find apnlfe in the teeth,

. - ·fum~

..J-

Oftbt PIIDt;on ,"the HI"rt~ &c~

- ~,

fometimes in the gums, and fornetimes we cannot. - From hence I did certainly obferve, that Boys whofe pulfes arc alwayes fwift and frequent were in an undoubted Peaver, by this one token; as Jikcwife in tender. and delicate people by griping of rheir fingers, I could eafily perceiveby the p~[~e of their fingers when the Peaver was 10 Its ftrength. ,-

On the other fide, when the h,,,r, beats fai.ntly~, not ondy not in the fingers, but neither In the wrIlt, nor in the temples can :tny pulfe be felt, as in fainting, byfiericall fymptoms, defect: of pulfe, weak people, and thofe t~at ar,e departing~

Here ClururglOns are to be admoniih'd,l~ft they be deeeiv"d; becaufe in the cuttmg off of members, thecucting away of fieiliie,tumors, and in-wounds· [he blood does indeed come forcibly OUt ~f [he nrterie ; but not alwayes with leaping, and that ~he {maHArter;';'s ~oe not beat, efpecialfy If they be tyed with a lig4tHr~. Betide that .rhe,fltn4 117te1'1ofo hath not only I:h~ confhtutlon and tn'llcle of an arler;e but that it does not differ fo much in the :hick .. neffe of [he tunicle from the vein! as the «art«: Thereafon is' becaufe [he aorta abides a greater impulfion of the blood from the Left ventr,clt',than that does from the right; rherefore ir has the confiinm, on ofche tllnir/n fo much the fofrer than

tbe

A ",'fJ",k.J B xl,.cife~

the .,,.t.e, by how much the right vlllme!" ofthe:blll"t i. weaker than the left: And by how much [he contesrure and fofcnelfe oftbe IS,lfgs does abate from the habit of the body and flefh, {o much does the tM11i. ,Ie s or che'llenll "rteri~[" differ from chat of thcMYta.

AU thefe things doe con{hntly keep proportion in men, for the more brawnie, mufculous, and of harder habit of body they are, and the firongcr, thicker. and more fibrous heart they have, fo much the more anfwerable ears and Arteries proportionably they have in thickneffe and in flrengch. Hence in thofe creatures, the vmtr;clu of wnofe bear-tJ are fmooth wi thin, without roughneife, pert als, and with a thinner wall, as in Fijhu, Bird!, Ser,mtJ, and very many forts of creatures, in them the arteri?s differ very little or nothing from the thickneffe ofthevein.r.

Befides, t[l~lHngs have fuch large veffels, their oe:» and srterie, that the truak of the arteria vmtJ!a does exceed both the crflral and } "'g'ltar branches. and are fo full of blood, as by experience and my own eyefight ( nor was I deceived in the int"pection of thofe things which l faw in diffeded creatures) that upon the wounding of them all the whole blood has run out; the caure: by reafon that in the 'unIs and in the heart is the fountain) cellar, and tre~fu~f

of the motion of the ReArt~ &c: , iI~

ofhlood, and ftore·hOufe of its perfea:i~

on. , . 1 d·ffi.a,· ,

Likewife we fee in Anatomies I ecn-

on that the leff ventricle and the arteriA 'l/e;ofl'l does abound with fo great a quantityofblood, and indeed of the .[ame ~olour and confiftence with that With wh,dl the right oentricl« and the 'Ut"~ Arter_o!" is fill'd alike black and cloned, becaufe the blood pafles hither from thence continual ~ ly through the lu,.!J. ,

Laflly, the 'Vein call'd arterio{", commonly has the confritut~on of an "~terie, the Arteria 'lien,,!. of a lIc!n,becau[t m truth,~oth in function confthueion J and all things elfe that is ;n arterie and this a vein,othfrwif~ than i; commoniy beleev·d_; be~des., the vena. arrerio]« hath fueh a Wide orifice, becaufe it carries a great deal. m.ore blood than is neceffary , for nonrifbing of the !#fJJ[. J.

All there ph.tnorfJenlls to be obferv'd in difledion, and very many more, if they ~e rightly weigh'd, feem to c lear the forefa,ld truth abundandy,and it~~eed to confirm It, and with all to goe agatnfr the common opinion: Seeing it is very hard for any to dernonftrate by any other w-ay than, we have done, for what cau.e all thefe things

are appoiated. .

FIN.I~.

There is premis'd,

A Speech to the R.eadei·~

. And arine~d,

~.' .An Additiell, in defence of Har'vty·s Cireularion ..

~ !". "

,I ~. ;' '4

. . .

THE

D'IS CO VR SE

. OF

1 AMES VB 7JAC I(_; Phyfician in Otdinarie to' the Town offJ{oterd4Cm.

.' In which he hariJtesj

Tht nul1jtie of JjirilJ,

SII,!gUi#cfltion, ,

The hetJt of1i)ing thi"gi.

- -~ . ,

-. •. ", "'"0., "_ , __ ...

,~ ,

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";"f

{ ,

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i~ l_- _.'

'~

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,,.. .. ','-I

..

.. =\ ,:.; , : ;, .. " '3 '.' . \

';

Itl8aalatl&

A

SPEECH

• TO tHE~ I¥

REA D E-R s

In'.hi,h .r~ b4ni/,J tb, b'llfJtirs ani r'Ur,ne, d,net. til, IntiJllltlrs'f Artl, the li.,rl, If

.,itIi.n .or' 'ft""" d; T "II~" II 'he III.nut;.~ of th' An 6f PhJfielt, Hatvey iI fb, All;;

fh,,. ,f th~ Ci,.,.lat;,n of ,je B /"4,, oJlPh;ch manyP'ftti"'s'fth~ Anltents ar' lV'rltd'n'd;

, ,h, ",atQn,! th' e/l "tho. 'S ",iring a 6ritj Tfllt

(Jf the 'Dmpend of Phyp&f ..

Ow much thofe were efleem'd, who amongft the Antients ear~ neftly endeavouring for the coman gaod,& watchfully caring for the fafe ty of their Countrimen,did communicate their invenuons & labours to their coevals &; pofteri-

"y;Rewa:rds of old propotind~d, and Honours ~oofeF(d upon them do Iufficienny fhew, The

- Hz- In ...

...

'T41h, R"t/ltS;

Inventers of Phyfick were number'd a~otlgLl the Gods;, rhoie that did excell in their Studies, and in the Liberal Arts, being number'd amongfi: the Mufes.and the inhabitantsofP4r~ FlaB Ucf, were all adorn'd with ~~vine honours, This was a 'ways the care of Cieies.Common .. wealths, and fOlmdcrs of Kingdoms, to incite the wits of their Subjects by iuch rewards, as with a deligh: and prick to thebldt, ~ts.~nd Sciences; Nor were .rhey cont!?ntw~~ this, but in diverfe places by their great f?3~s.houfes have been built,·by-.which theY'~ght.allure Ilranzerswho were ~~tclhmt: H11~, who wcr~ to be cntcrrain'dupon.the .oharges 'of the Publique, with the ad~iio? lik~wife.of rich rewards. There arc' hkewlfe. Colleges erected for the teaching ofyourhjwhich being imbued by the learning of Mafters, asd tendins to the like honours, were invited to adde th('~ own Inventions [0 thofe of the' Antients, by new rewards. .Neither by the. carefull diligence and endeavour of poflcriry , wa.s tl.cre <I ny thing thought to- be derogated from the dcferjs of the Inventors-of Arts, as If they bad not taug~t· the Art int:rennd ao.olurc in all points: Better It was tha t. the ground-wor~ was laid by them,:

. upon which, as upon a patnor way; the Sons

. . . of

.~,

,

,1

T, til, 1fllJlltrt~

'01· Art. nU~t walk, rhae t~ey mi~ht fi.t1y be . taught m SCIences, or bemg inflam d WIth the

. love or defire oCknowledge, they might be ·advanc~d.to higher things. The old Man be-

. Sins.his pofitionsll doa.:ine, Art "Ifml, 'if' : fI/bD', , well confidermg the bufinefle, the

length of ~)Ur ~rt hath not only vanquifhed , one mans.life-rime , but all ages; which hac ving-as yemor received perfeCtion, will in the . time of our poflerity, ~rchance, never find it. : So re~dy are oc(a~ons for fearch,. and fo gr~at the difficulty of Judging, efpecmlly If6emg

. bound' by the certain rules of the rmnd, they be hinderd to run out further for the fearch of - the rmth. The never-enough efleern'd Interpreter of Hi/",,,att, in his 3. B. '}{at. F"eu/t~ ClIp. x';> •. ,-who{o,w", fa¥es he, (not fpeaking

- any thing of the perfectlon of Art) deftr" u InD. '/'Jy thing more thA'il 0";;114"" Ollght tfJ IltellJ 'oth"s, 1I0t Inly in th, 'lldimtnts 0/ It.r(lIblg, 6ut~IfB be poff ,p."ith "mad lo'C), 'f truth,

::''"'.,.vlu"ng da} & night, to I'A'II thoftlhtngs .--:"hllh. are tallght 'Y th, mop [tlmous m'.~ jll(ll'. -, r,.nelrllueh tim' in ('4"thi,. g ;.nd &tmjid'r "hiZ'

tllil1gs agrll ",t" Ih,/e rhints "b,,/J aT' o"vi, '.$ to ,IJ' ('11/', .nll "hieh d" di{4gT". Befides the fame 9 II/'n docs fo much efleem the freedom of fcar,hmg out of the truth, that in

H3 6.£,;-

~~

'.

. T,.th, 1l!#f1":

:~. tp;dlm~ '41/;lIr. '7~ He c~ll'd~t ~ tyr41~ zhat any bodie fhould be .r~ftraIned to an, one opinion without haniom dell1o~~rat,iOl1s~ Likewifc 6. Epid. S_a. ';~ e-4,h.t.I7. he does tbarp_1y reprove thofe ~hat pequea~h,Q.nd give themie1ves over to their ~a.ll~rs ~l~holJt ,examination. YYho{o,vlr,{ayshe, does (0,-.

j'.ll' thein/lives to 6, t't {lr1/'?'JtS.r .IIllilt,s

- if a»y p'r/tln, thole /0 /DQI$.~$I"'J j1)a an] thiNg 1Prilt';'/;} him J pre(IlIt&4pp,o'v, 9/ iI, ~oth rafhly_ and 1!nad~if'IIIy:l From ~en~e it is manifei], how candidly thofe clear lIghts of Phyfick did love the light of Q'Uth, t~~be adorning of Phyfical art and COllllJl01l1af€ty of all ; fa that they prefer the f,eeqoll) of enquiring after truth, ~fting of r~a[ons. lind giving

opinion conce.rnmg any thing, (though them, .. felves wercrhc guides) to rvrannle andferv], tude, for the prifon, of there being broken; .1

(tee Jpi.rit is mafier of it felf; i

The lively IOi'cr,,'th~ SOlll o'reca',U, IInd'If' Bt)'ond the wsus o'tl/_flnmillg w~dd at IlIft~ .And 1I';'t this "".Ia{l in Jolt! anti thought doth driVE:

- whence Vlam', he rrlatrs what may a);'Ue,

. , Ii J.' ,

'I"IJ.1t not, bo,.,) and by WbfZ 1I!'!1I1h' r a t 'J!lJg. if •. r

.A beund is Jet, they C!llJitot pa Fe their hOJJi'.

Beine mfimB:ed, and as it were bred from tny. yo~th in the" d.o61:rine that rhefe Heroes Idt behind them, I did ~qrncitly emplace the

'.' pre~

I

,.

!

r, . .~. had "t-

o and .t1ia't . ,as 1 .

F~drts g1V~n llcr :h~~e to defend. rhem»

were ~ ftr,9ng ty , t: p .. feeing the fathers of

I nd fo'r-good reaion , .: t he fame , and

~~ (1 t~i4~rh:' ili:rOl:;; h~vc p-ro~d ill

w.e Q¥fe It to t e are forced to contd{~ ~ that rh:e art , and ~the knowledge to which we we have ga1J:lh·· '. rc /lance' and the help pf

'r. by t elralUn . -, 'L. li

are rlle~,) . 'hich we receiv d .lrom t. e~.

there thl~g? w es of art are tyed by an J-lip~ Befides, the fo~ frcem one another as pocraticall oau to ~cemof thofe of who~ brq~ers ,;, and to ~ as of their Parents) if they learn'd the ~r,~. d reverence to his theu .. 'a(Olt9we,shonQuran n who are tho

H~.. . h 11.. Id notw,-, ,

father, wy ~uou'nd fpc 9: our patrons fons of an, reverence a. re '" .

and parents,? . 'I did fet down and re'. - Ooonth~lradlJIC~,. k n the degree of

I ~ . . d havmg ta e. .

foi've 10 my JP.~.:> thing in the pracbck, unDoctor , to euay no . 'a all of reafon,

leffe being inducedh~o It bJeu ~ne or Ipokcn or'ifl heard any t lrgfuould endeavour to by another, that 1 in as it came to fearch thereaf?nh oftt~~1fa~isfic my felf; I hand, that I mlg t a~ ind it fo happened being thus prepared 1l1lh t the Anatomical about I 5 ye~rs. agee t ,a concerning the

exerciie of WIU~,,'!!. Ha1''T.)'J) me ..

- - lJol____ H 4 '

\' I

.: T, ,h,'kad",;

motion of the "tITt and blood, ' did fall into my hands, after it had been OUt about five or fix years, ha.ving. drawn :~ great many Iean:ted men to hIS opmlO~ mthis tfe~tife, he ~eavJ~g very ~anYPOfitl0ns of the anriene doCtrme ~n WhIch I had grounded my feIf, he was pleas d to fay, -rhar the blood did not mov~ .through the ~'ins from the li'IJlr for the numuon of every part by their attraCtion, but that .ehe fame was driven from the hlarttnrough the art"'ie~ for the aforefaid life) and that the fuperfiuous part did re-

I mrn ~?~gh the '1!I;1(JS, that being again re-

fr~ 'd ll_1 the. heart, and imbued withnew (pUlts, 1t nughe be again carryed back to .11 the members, and tllatit might be retur, ned ~gain ~ften throug.h the fa~e way by a ~c:;>ntU'lUal.clrcu1ar.mOtlon~ Th, s new thing r did examine , which a t the fir£l: entrance did

: Cee!ll v~ry eafy to be rcfuted,but being weigh~ , ed m a juft ballance, and having aClded to

reafon my Own ey-fighe, itwasfoundinex_ : ,f~gnabl(', nay, (rh,e very'prick of truth enfor, cmg).to be embrac d WIth both arms; what , thou!d I doe? md~ Hippoer.iltls be left, ga-

~'lJ flIghted? no , If we follow the truth fen, ced with reafon rind our fenfe, we are fiili ffjIP"~"~~ his, we are Ilill Cj'hlls~ ND-

~hin.(

. ~: 70th, It.;",;I~

iJ,ilig I, ~, !Dlltlmhld.,. fays theold man, it,:.·. tbinl rO.'''~'Jlldg'tI_ ,..JbIJ • .~ence he com .. mands us to exam me the WIltmgs of the moll: famous men, when they are obvious to our fenfes; ordifagree from the~. Rational and dogmaticalPhyfick confifts In true groundf, not is any thing to be thought finn and efi~~

I blifu'd, but what is approved by truth, This Herefie ,firft thought to be fo in Phyfick, grew dayly , fo that it walks not only' through the Llniveriities of ERglllnd, hIS native Country ; but likewife through thofe of alrm,n" Frane" ltal" and our Llnivcrfities of the La"":'CfJ""tr;IS , and befides a great company of learned men, it tied alfo the Pro-, feflors to it in many places, of w~~om , fome

t ion their publick Le~ures and Dliputat1on~, as alfo by books wntt~n.to tharpuipofe ,.dld at laft divulge this opmion , with the great: applaule of Students , thftt .you .,fhall Icarce find a Doctor created, who knows not, yea. does not approve of the Circulation of the blood. But as from one true Petition a th<!u .. Iand confequences are taken agreeable WIth reafon, and a rhouiand leaning upo~ ol}G which is confuted do totter and fall; Io did it come to pafle.that by [etting d?wn theCi~culatory motion of the blood , innumerable

. JJ.I0Rleti

> "r..'k_."i~

. .,

asiomes,ofantion.t .writers were ·~vfl'tw.l'dj: whence it coows~ that aUthe"9rdfr of, t~. ing is troubled ,and the ~.e of .PhyfilS .endevourd aodleamed altog~ther ~e~:: ftetoufly and mn,fufedly , wjth~u~ any certa~

merhod , whicheuW:tt tobe~,~Aabliibed. ~y Pofieions link' d ~ether). and: madhall'd Ul .

due order. . " ~ ,

This is the reafon that,a.ltdoe fOJllewm.&t. difagree in one.thinR·o.t:o~r.;e~f.in the Caufe of the motion of the blood ,or in the' Manner, or in the Eff~'t, or leave it as a thing too laborious or hatefull to their col-:

J~~, not fearching fareherjn it, aft~r . ther had receiv'd , and ~Y the!r books publi-

I filed, a pprov' d of the invennon of 1l ,,''1,,'8) ?J' ~ncfming the Circulation of th~ blood , be~ thereto perfwaded and convinced by rearon, and their own ey .. fight. But !I be~ng nqt_ handfome for me to neglelt the Icrutinie of this bufineffe , or to fiand in a doubtfull.condirion , I did undertake to fear.ch into, and examine the reafon , the attion , and ufe of the parts, and did endeavour through carefull fearch to peece up and ~uftrate in a little method that order which had been deflroyed. But this was not done with fp great Iilence , but that there did ~ftenifca ...

~ e

... cc.

,.., ,I, RI4Ii4,!~

\tim D~orB.r.'V'}s pnrpofe, and j?aftlfbe: eaufe I thought that the fcrueinie of the h'Arl was more acurately to be handled) and with amore dilipentc.a.re to ~e enquir'd afcer, Fo.r the beleev d excelleneie and fplendour of it . hath fo bewitched the minds ofborh.Aneiene and Neorerick Philoiophers, aadIo blinded 'their eyes, that not feeing the clear light of truth, they receive nothing but things Obl(:ure ·and conceiv'd in their own.imaginations for ·truth.Therefore,whiHl: I endeavour' to take a ...

! way thofe mifts & cararads fro their '!Js, I do eameftly intreat that I be not blam'dforfucha . one as endeavours to take awa y from the Aneients their proper honour, and from the Fathers of the Art the reverence which is .due to lhem, and as if I would diminifh brother-Iv concord amongft the Sons of ArtjifI expofe that little which I have conceiv'd in my mind, ~ing call'd to cOlJnfdl,whilfi: the reformation of the Method ofPoyfick is in hand; and leR: -I be accufed as if I would further Marder i,r, (it being not enough for me that by bring-

. ing in ot the Circulatorie motion, the natural ana vital faculties are confus'd) and rcjeCi HipP',ratl$ his a ntient o UOfJOmil of rhe.bo .. dy, hitherto received of all, and overturn the l,owtdation of that doari.l1e; I hopeit willbe

a

i I

'~

,

I'

. \ ,

T •• ~''''I;

. a ~edie. for that evill"if I exrufe and free my felf of it in the Ivery entrance, Since the Ana~ lytickMethod of reaching did alwayes feem mofbcomrnodious to themoR: eminent-in Phyfick for the explicationandfearch ofhumane namr~,. they tookadivifion out of .H~'~ ,,,,,rlS wflungs) 'by . which they doe divIde

t~e bodie, ir.to. things cont~ining,. ~hirtgs:con~ reined, and thmgs impelling or tmpulfivc: things cont~~ng, they call the foli~,p~tts; thmgs contein d)th~y' ~a~l humours; thmgs:impeUmg, they call i plrltS. ' But becanie, the fubtiliiie of iubfiance which is aferib'd tofpv. rirs, may infer indeed a mobility or promptnefs to motion, but not an aCtive motion, befides that, if there be any fuch, they mua pafs a~ohgft t~lingS contein'd, and being alfo deIlitute of life, ~hcY,r~1Ua l1ee~s be impell'd by fome other dung; It ,they will have theirdiv.f.. fion firm and efiabhibed, fame other thing muft be thought on, to which this force ancl

. power of impuHion may be more competent and agreeable. 'This will come to pafk.,-if you divide a living Man into that which conreins, that which is conteined, and thatwhkh is impulfive, underflanding by that whichIs contein'd, the folid mafle of the bodie, as it is by the An.:uomifrs handled as a !ubj~~; by

that

,

t

" I

'I l

I

T ()< till ZI6MrI.1 1

. at which is (QMeiI{ d,.ehQ bloom, or mltt.mvt I~: '

iruttlollr, as: it is cOllte~dby &'cfolidfub... I'I~

itatKe- of the bodie. Nor did we inlet ·thalt 1

there are mote mum0Ntsm a M:ans bodie, . d when) all of th<tm. do m~ke'ro patt ,m the' (On... ' ~. ~t'«>ll of tht: blood;, for either they' doe f· ~ eoncurre as patts confiitu£ive, or iFr rheexcre- . !

lion of it ar-e feparared from it a's Wl~ro6t:a:- " '~: bie excremenes, By the name of the meul. ;: I _ fivej,not the tp.irits,.but the jncorporeali knd : I is- to be called, \lfhich is aU in· all, and all in €.Io 'l

'fcry part, not conteinable by it, and all foree il

~d- impultion, this ffiliv'~ing. and Impel~-- l~ Imgy the order'd parts doe perform and ~X!eJ.· . \

£Ut1'e ,llh11t?lhr accions. -II d Cl._. . f' , rna n .... 'th .,. - .. ~l

(8 - t - e genera o~u~e 0 - - ~i1.'" 'I

po/Ilit, t~e parts o~ wl.l1~h,; I do O!\.1a:lW. to" "1':'-:'~

be, accordinz to this dlvllion" POChtJMgil ,

S oma',ologit ~ and H £ma'~t.git" . - inro the doCttine of the foul, bodie , and! blood :1 for i

in man' all furtS:ions which are [ten, as. welt t

hidden as' opew,-a~e perdf?!.lI1' ?i· .by rheioul :1 bas ,1~1

impulfo:r,1!>y rhebody ilPOS c ,·oper:nmg, . -.1 '

tn'e blood helf>irig andcolltutrmgas . a meclF,' . ~.~

um, 1 'J

Pfyeh'o/(Jg;' is!: do.'ttine which fearehes ~~Ii

ottt mans Soul, and the etf(\.'l:s of 1t ;thrs- It -, ~ the parr- of man whkh is the implanted caufJ . ' .~

T, ,Ite R''''''~

of all m0tionsand funaions,without which·. man cannot confi{\. . _ .:

Hence perchance an iln~1I1.is ~all' d iJlJ;~ Ii, \Yhau~ver hath thebeg~mg of fOOd .. 00 in it. Accorcling to the diverfity of a~i~ oils, and efirCts appearing in the body "1 we fttdown divers powars -and faculties 6f the

foul.. .

A faculty is a force and aptneffe of the foul to a& and pe.rform· its f~Ctions, {hewing it kIf iii the aetiOnsoftheh0dy.

. W€fce that the foul does cpieflyendea .. "our three things in the bodr' to ,wit, lif€' ~ a better and more .commodious life', and at taft erernall life: according to thefethte~

. aCtions we afcribe nnto it three faculties; litF· der which aherWatds we do comprehend th~ rea as·ltibf~rviertt •.

. Whilft, the tonI doesprocure life to tM body, we call, that the vital natural, or likewife·theo Vegetative faculty.

This faculty We divide into ptQp'aradv~ 1 tlifpenf~ltive )andaffimlllat~~'t ~h~b ft>t. the gtea ter part fhall be c~nvafs d m this' 0ilt dif~ourfe.

k bellows a hefter' lifeup'Ofi rlle body vthtn Itadoms it witn motion, fenfe, and mo{t- . .• f all with ~C'.benefit @fttafot1; ehar We call

.. ilie

T,th,~,;dcrl: ' I

thr Animal power, by which irdit\irtgtiU I files Animals from Vegetables, but from oj rhefe we call a man Ra tiona • L:.J,

, The foul, fince it can~ot, preferve life, itt . the Individuall , by reatonofthe , unfimeff~

of the tubflance of which it is compos'd J

it docs en devour to perform. thar in another,

which faculty we call Procreative. d h' ,1

Thofe parts are appropriate to t e ; p<?wcrs ofihe foul, by which they a!~ Ihown, which ( as the humours hkewife ) are 1\1

wrought and acquire their perfeaion from i:\~,

it. ' '"

. th~~~~~::' ~he:~~:f d:,fi:~::: f.·1

aaions of the parts is likewifc dear, r,and t

1:1p'0n them their.worksand etfea:s doe en ue;. ''''J if I do bind up the order of 7' /jeh'/'g, in fe~",

words, I hope I have perform'd the fame ill ,!

all the reft. ' ,:

I do think that thIs .AlIthrfJpol'licft sci:' ence , becaufe it is meetly Phyfical, is- to

be called Phyfiological , but that which /~ does comprehend the doctrine of Difea .. fes , whether they be natural or preter.. , natural, is to be called Pathology. By the one the aCtions of. the body are very well t

o pcrferm'd , by the other they are hurt; " l~

, this

T(J th'Re4deri; .

this range fidmeffe'andits caufes & aCcident's' are handled; in that, health and its caufes and accidents likewue , but the, Phyftcian pcrformeth his cure by preferving the health. ~n~reftoring it (if icio pleafe '-God) whe~

It IS loft. '. .. . : .

This narration of a compendious method we have fer before _our ~ook , t~at i~ may be kno.wn, that .thofe.thmgs which In it we fubJclfi to' thetryal.do not come out without due order, in which we alto did <.:ndeavour tobe fo brief ,; that thofe things. which ate fet down .and ::lea!l¥ e~ough exp~aned by 0- rhers.iin the:dekrJptlons of.tbtno:s obvious, we did pafle by;; ,thinking ittmn~ce1fary t~. repeat them ·;': .. an~·, doe only mention rhofe t~mgs, 4w.~leh'b.eIng· bac~'~ by reafon are di~erent !~Qtbe;vu~ar opl~lon. Thefe things mIght· .haY~Ctlm~~br0~d in a ," Philological dreile , and adorn d WIth a more eloquent

flyle. .. (.\:<~~ ••. : ,~\ c.',. 0

Bur 1I?e f(J.,It,j~net/mllft not le, _ ",

. ·O~~ Mufe halb mort.ufteritie. , ,.'

Nor IS 1t d~J:;,rnr rhac this purpofe 10 fat dif~ f( r('n~ from the vulgar 0pinion,tbould be [poken like a Fable that were to he related,' as' rhofe doe that tukc,-great delishr to exroll abjett things, a ,Gn.at; a Lowfc,.gr an Alfe,w.l.th;

I

rar~

· To th~ Read,rs;

rare eloquence, and highefl praifes ; or things abiurd and falle by the judgement of all the Ienfes , as that women are not homilies; or do endeavour not only to defend things far more abfurd, but by dawb'd and fophi!l:ical arguments endeavour to cloath them with a likelihood of truth, that by thcle things they may {how the qucintncfle of their WIt ,~and the excellency of their learning. I had never fuch an inrenrion.nor being rnov'd by any other reafon than the intreaties of my fnends, neither for any arrogance or delire of contradidion , but meerly .thereto_ induced by the love of truth,~ do I Lnng rhete thll1gs to the touchfkone ot rrurh, which is ahvav'es uniform and alike to it felt, the 1110fr gene'rall rule of all, being neirher darkned with any fophifl:ical argument~, or with unknown and feigned words', which, if they be not fcnc'd with true reafons , and ocular tdrmonie~, reject them, but if you think them worthy your conlideration, and to l.e received, enjoy them, and farewell.

THE

To th~. Rev¢rend and ~911 Learned Man, WiP,al1~ H~t),ey, ) ~iJ;l.gs ~hyftci~n.

Ol1fid~ring li!itb nry Jf/f u,l1tler (he f aflgua, r d 'of U?hoft nauze th~ o~r 'Di!co~rft if,tbe Heart;' heing tp [ee ~igbt ,migbf '~o.P

ere ditah~ ~nd hal}uam~b-,ome tibrc~d,l thoug17t it could be dedicatf better , and 1l7ith more rC(lfim, yea more adorn'J by ~lone,mofl learne4 Harvey, tb41l by bezng copficrated t»

Jour immortsl name.Lt 'PM fit it flould be of. ford te "one he{tdes JOt~,)QU only have poII'e, 0- l7er it, to you alon~ it OlVS the heginning of its Ii r.ift, without you it had not Jeell the light, nor i: ba~ it ever cO,me abroad to publick ')1iew; 1 !, &01lfeJfe i!1!,e,zioujly,IJqd 1 not been ro.,,~d and allur' d hy Jour uruenticn, 110 OCCLifiofl e'Ver /),td bill offird mr llcitbcrto paJs tbe muient DOllnds of Leanj~nJ, nor to t'l!ake fm tber jearcb into -the partr ofNature.1herfore willingly and de-

I 1, [e1'1Jfd

jerl1tdly do 1 dedicatt ($ B/for it to JQuin "bi,1) (me tl)illks) 1 perform t.."o Ihil1gs,/or t fhew tbe gratefuln~rs of tn, mind,and a mofllearned man does reap a part of the fr ";t 9f that Lear.

ning whicb ')}7M acquil"d by tbe acutenejs orb;, 0111" incomparable Wit. There does but a little hy tllis our Ojf~ing • cere IV to your N.ame~ ",hieh is already extolld to the Heal1ens, being 1c.1J7WlJ aver an Europe, el1en to the Indies, and the mop remote paTts of the World. We k.now 1l1e are indebted further, but becauft in

great matters good1lJiO i$ enough, let it /ttffiee tbar a grat~fu!J mind is prefented to you witb tbi; Difcourfe,/eeing we are able to do no more; TVe adjoil1.,tO this 'Pre/ent ,a Petiti m /4rllef/ly intreating you, tbat you .",ould lTouch/afe.to make 1M p.lrtakers of t!Jo/e imfumerahle Obler· lMticns conteruing tbe Elbrick of Malts t]3ody, JVchy:'u z,al'e hyyou,(ound out hY.'1fJur 1'}l1n dil!gfnce,M [ro'l1 tbe di(qrd fitionyou P"t forth is knoen, topubJijh thcmfor common ufo, and

further obl;~ e to your ftlf~l! lolJers ofT ,,,tb • ·jpecialb him llJIJo is )OU':5,"···

.J. DeBack~

r

I

I

J

.~tt't.tt •• t.t.ttt.~~.t CHA P. I.

Of the Firft Sed:ion~ of Iames 'De Bilek. his DJfcourfe

of the Heart.

'.'

He that iI to livt hi4 'pi,,;IJn;n an] ~H(rntil what mA"n" of 111"" hI Dught to f,,; th~ h,a,.t.u Jet n,t throsg/'IJ[eilych'd; ho~ mNch the ,Antie1lts did './fum it ; th« ex. pofltz'tJlI of it I EtJ1Hologie; there u no rille of .n, part over tlnot"er; the H eert ;, " ~"Vj', ,art; Flles/ti,s m, not ;"jlux~

''CIt.

AI !to rl~ a E that is to ~ive his opini~iD,;m:~ on concernmg the truth '" H ~ of any bufineffe, ollab,t .a .. not to be mov'd hy'Wl-e malJ1:D ~ authority o~ any famous iIi"", "'Ii l~ maa, nor With the . love

of an opinion receiv'd heretofore; nor with the defire of any thing. but only trufl: thofe things which are feen with his eys, known by his touch, and are confirm'd by reafons drawn from ocular teflimonie; chat whicb is the inven~

~!O~ ~f ~~~ !lI\agi,!!~!on only, ~'!~ grodd

_.' 11 ~~_

I

[I

~.A DiftdHr{t:

ded upon no~enfe. althoug_b it be commonly received by all,' yet he is not [0 bound to adhere to it, but that he would rather embracethofe things'which are evident-and approv'd by perceptible and fen-

'~blereafoiis. .

But let him etpecially refolve upon this, wbofoever'un({ertakes to' e'l ami ne rhernorionframe.and rife ofthe'ht.ir& by true and cemln reafons,

Momm reprehendingthe works of ~lllpi. ter, arnongfi: 'the reft , reqnir'd 'that there Plight be a wil1d~w 'made mrhe "rtap of man, throughwliich'hish't41~f, dod ·that w~ich lay hidin it,inight be fccrt ;.Btic notwuhfiandiog the wnolebreaj/ being~'open'd, a,nd the he_artit felfbeing feen again and ag:uo,both live and dead, as likewife being a~H1:ed by the diligence, and accurate obfervations : of moft learned m:en, yet there bas beenea difference .,4ti1re, our . age, even to this' time' 'J .. as yet can; grave and famous men for their learning ~gree ,coni:efning the ufe caufe, and effect 'of-its motion. Ther~ are ~ome who ~ never forfaking their once received opmion had rather erre 'with 'a great many, than think well with a few; others lea ving ocular teflimonv chufe ra~her to foli\JVJ fuch things ~which were ne~er Ieen nor never found "out by any' of the'fen(es; uponwlrich nowirhfrandillg, as

DpO~

,

Dflb, H,,,,I.

a.poll foundati()os,tbe.y build a great many things, which ~ing vented as undoubted truths by men indeed skillfull.and .learned; ithey,doembtac~,with .might & main. all~ .go,every one.of.them £lifty with great fer .. .vency, and alleging,of reafons, to defend ~theitownp~~u:ioQs;fo,that you.may jufily

doubt to which pant.to adhere. .

. Dr. :will: B4r,ve, the Ki~g Qf Eng/lina! mofl ,e.xpert"Phyfician)an~.mofi.f)!:ce1!ent .Pfofdror of 4nat.omie.in .the CoJleg.e..of ,Lo.nd~n, has {h.ew·d the, means latety .by .his finding out.the motion .of nhe ,hear.t.and t6uod;to.getout of thisJahyrimh .as it were witb .Ar. ... e.1 eheed , . if it had not been that the Authorbfing t90 curious. in the obfervationof1WCrtenetJ .of t11£ Antients .bad too lrelig~ounywodhip'dthat Princi .. pality which they.attribute, to. tfie,heart.

: Befides,this age fertile in the.produdion ofmofi: acute wits ,wha do excell both in ourart,and in Philolophie.has furnifh'd us with 3 man of an incomparable ingeny,be •

. ing ,iIldeeda firanger, but remaininz , here in the . Low Countries , who i; his mofb learned writings, reieding rna.nv of the tmltl of the antient Pliilofophers , and giving us other rules more clear than the noon day, has fram'd us a

new opinion concerning the caufe of the motion of the hurt, departing a little from the purpofe of the venerable Doctor

.. . I 1 .----,. ~~~~~~

.r~

Di/cD·,.r,

Willi"" Harvel, and though be do agret with him in the invention of the circular motion of the blood, yet does he not a; gree with him in the caufe of the motion of the heart; whether or no he have reaIon (0 to do,amongfl: other things which have been heretofore Ipoken concerning

the heArt, I ihal1 ~gin to examine. .

Since many ages the h,Art has had the report,not only to be theprinciple,or only ~eginning of life, but of the whole bod~,in' 'Yliicb the Soul has ta~en up Its ctwel11Dg houfe.,and from which as from a foun'" rain all the vital faculties and fpiries do flow. PI4to calls this the feat of the Ira .. fcible Soul: .Ariftotlt calls it the feat of Vegetative, Senfible ,Jrsnd Ratiocinative Soul. Befides it vaunts it felf to be the ftorf"!'"houfe of our moifture, the fire and nutriture of our native heat ~ the Sun of our body, by whore influx all the bowels are warm and refrefhed s Moreover,

. here they fay that artificial fire of ZellD is contain'd , here the Divine and celefhal heat is preferv'd , 'which the Poets feign PromethtUl to have fiole from heaven, that he might put life in man; Therefore it is called the firet moving, and the firft mover, and the firft if not the oaly ftorehoufe for making of blood. -

And for fo many gifts and fo many dig":

Iljties , it i, ~~~lcd the molt noble part of the

_!th,' Bta,,; •

~be body ~ which having the chieFe1l (ea~ isproclamed as Monarch, it only admiiliftring the Government of the Empir~. '

Itt lfoNgbt ",h,,, man] "';gll lett have 011,

Kill!. ..

Hence they d erive Ce,..From the Greek word K""'t, being conrraded from Kicxt. which comes from K'Gf to burn, and the Greek word K«rSi." they will have to found as much as Kffl.1f1Q, from principality ,or government, when it i5 rather deriv'd from the verbKllIfU.,a., whi,b is to move or {bake: It is very well called lJart in our language, which in the latine fignifies hard, becaute it is the bardeft a mongft the foft and fldhie parts, or (for I)atoen is as much as to endure) becaufe it continues in its aB:ion and motion without any fatigation. .

With thefe tides of honour J and more; if not divine 3Rd fiipernatural ( for, it is thought, by the heatofthehlATt, without the help of the Soul, that all the atlions in the body, Thinking only excepted, are performed) like lEfops crow, the heArt is adorned as it were , cloath'd and decked with the feathers of other birds, with fo much confidence and zeal, that it were . impiety to [peak any thing to the contrary: But let us fee whether or no (as fhe , when the reft of the birds did with good reafon require back their own featbers I . - did

'.If DJfc-fo

did dance naked} 'it,wilt ihave.any thing elfe befides leaping -left., when the Soul and other pal'ts'haverec~ived their own.

. JE/lJp:of PhrygHl does explode the.dominion of one part over another.in his Fable QQIlcerning the contention of thememhers about Principality. ~

But feriouflyhow fhall it command f which- .itfelf ferving for an inftrument forthea~ions ofthe Soul is, madetofeeve the whole body)at all times withoue-lcteemiffion', and goes on juft like an a;ff~ drawing a mill, eitherflower or quicker,

according.a~ itispriek'd forward,? .

But 'you will lilY we cannot want th~ help of the h,tWt. in our life ,and that life begins with the motionof the n'Art. ,This fame comes to pafle in playing. upon an Organ, where the Servant firft . blows . up the pipes with-a pair of bellows, not' without that blowing can they play,· yet he is not faid to play, but. he: that tunes the notes right.

The, greater dignitie or. primacie and perfeCl:ion.does not therefore fuic.withany part, if the Soul do want its affiftance firft , or that it be made before other parts. 'The Navell-gut. and the Secundine {hew this, being form'd before other mem .. bers ,a.nd_ the heArt it {elf , for they. are parts of the. birth too;.but the birth being perfected , .and .brought forth into the

. - !/orld,

'/ <*,H~4W: fi

',,"odd ~" they 1irftMoIwa 'Q'la!J ~ ·un.or·

thy and unprofitable. - ' .

Things do not become perfea at the firft, but be~ome fuch by delay and longer

time.

It is an imllgin!{ry.tthlgg, 'if not different

from reafon, to afferr , that Faculties do .flow.fro.m ailfpart.;i'or tb~y·«(Ie.tbeiPt)W· -ers 'of ;ibe Soul; -whi<lh .isprefent everywher~! it is judged to:be i~ the.w~ol~.bo. .dy., ·and·~very part of It,.w~th.all-1ts.,ta~ul • . ties . and its granted -shat bke .an ~Artlfan it.d~s-ptrform alhhead:ions,ofthe bo.dy,

ifit find fitinftrun1ents •

. The Members being Organsofrhe fame 5nul, cannot refer,their·aptitude to do anY4 thing more·to t~e ~eart , than.~~e.refr ok the parts, with who they have life-in common. I believe no man thinks that the tern .. ,p~r.offimila:ries, '3n~ tbe conformatjon of ,(tiffimi\aries confi(tlOg(n fit form, place, . -number, and:mag~itude, and.theagr«able union of both, flows from theblilrt,or

·out of any on~ I.>art'into another. . . .

1'hele and other-things are flIght" ~or -much to be eileem'd as unprofitabJe~avlb: . but if being Author of the perfeal<?nof -blood; the eb.borating of Ipirits , and the

more peculiarly i~planted ~eat ~and~f thefetwo fira at-hons ". as likewife of all 'the reft (at;they think) be pro~d unfit to ':.tJe attributed to the heart, all ~~ofe great

. pr~

:.41Jiflo.rp,

prerogatiy" -pian'd upon it wHkeafily be

0' r-turnd and fall. ..' . .,

~-' ---_

C HAP. U:'

. T"'III~"ti. or Ihl EtJ""/~."e Df/ltirit;tlJe . ""';,,,tl Dtjin#;fllI ~ it ; ", f"c/, thillg M , . ffJ#I!JJ i" ,lte 6Dtlj; tU there is " thr-eefoltl

.. /lIbJlAnce ;11 '''"l p",.t , fo I;" .. r"'if~ ill

L "he MIIJj hi,.;t ""d h,,,t are ill co.fo"d; flJi,.it IIfJlI4 J,,11 If Alice ill/epllr 11/'1, (Tollnbe 1IODd; fjirit'H nDt the IJI ofthl SQsl Alld 11141, riO,. the 1JI4reft ,,.f1rNI1I'"t of the 8(111/; Thl A1I;mlll f4e"'t;, il ",t Jr".,.,,, in.:

, t(l"Oioll"1 the 1}iritljhtmJ fl"fotiQIII"ri "'''Me .

THc Etymologic: of fpirit is diverfiy ta;

.ken,but that which is hereto bcconfi. dcred,is Defin'd by fome to bt,A very thin and (obtle body, hot and molt pure,begor .. tIn oft be thinneft and moft fincere part of the blood; or according to others, It is a 1Ubftance very thin and'[maf}, made up of air and the vapour of our blood, being the tirft and neareft inftrument of the Soul in IIDdergoing its fllnCtioD5.

. From wbich Definitions is Rathered ~ that the [P;y;t is a certain fubfiancc die yen from theolood, fu~fifiing apare, and

"-' b

.J

.,1111 HIA";, 'J by it {elf; becauCeit is made up of itsfineft

J.: and thinnefi: part; or bccaufe it is faid •

i rhatit is made up of its vapour and air.

But I befeech you where was there ever any fuch thing found in the body? it fhould be found in the habit of the body, " or contain'd in the velfels which are aC~ k crib'd to it, tbe."~te"'~/, VIIl1l, or."!NJel; ~.. which to affirm IS ImaglD~ry , nor lS It con-,

, firm'd by any demonUrations. . ..

In the habit, or indeed in any part, of the body, there is a threefold fubitanee confidered, that which is fpirituou5 ,humorifh , or folid 'j but to Ieparate there were to diffolve the frame of the part, "no letfe than if one fhould ditfolve' any. thing confiiting of the four Elements; 'i~to fubfiances exiflenr to the fenfe;" thiS tye of fubfiance being diffolv'd , it does Dot only leave to be a "art of the living creature,. but Iikewife a part of the body. . -.

1f it be found in the 'lI1/Jllt,itwill be there where it is thought that there is the greatell: abundance of it', [hat is to fay in [he' h,art and the tlrter;u: but the authority of G"I,n, and exper.i~ent drawn from'

, fenfe it felf which IS mofl of all to be :1 trufled tfa~he5 the contrarie , [hilt no-> :, thing b~t blood is conrelnd in the IJru.:l

ries,

If you tie the «rteri« above and below t and. ope a u bewixt the two lig4rHr~S , vou £hall ,

I~~========~~~~~~~~"""""""".

. '~ 1fJ.iP:1JIIi;fo

jbatl fi~" ,,()t.lli,* Itut. ~1,!q4 ). ~d.f~ 'P~b ofthaltfl:qw~~~lll tb~~,,~, ~~hc Cf,Mcio~qf~"fli.".tfr.j4 W~~ ~~~ to cq~ 'p:ehtllQ ~ If ~~ r"y· tn:{(it ~o.~ wit,~ the! -bIQGd ~ al\d d\a~ i~ " ~~e t~j~ne~ p'ar~ Qf that bl~ whitit\ is <:;~~i.Wil. in ~h~ ~t,f:!' N(I' :tflc\ *~, ~h~l w.~ Ilaftlfi Q1:'~; bt,lt in the tilf~n timf we 'o.n~1\l4e\tM~ i~ i~!Wt I any thing feparable fi-Qro ~~e bl09~ " fo,r • 'j how can it be fep~Jia~,d from the ~1~9-d,; thae togc:ther With the blood ~s 4fivCJi with Io fwift a motion ~

It: is to be believ·c,t that i~~. the a~tc~' p~~

of the blood, of which whe.i\ it, is dC?m~~te, 'it is called dead blood, att~r,or g9i1r, ~Ito. gerher unfit to perform the funCtion. of 6100d, for it is part of its fl.lbtlatwe. This likewife in the blood is threefold "as well as in all ocher parts (to wit the gr~ll'~ pare or thickning, the humor, ~Qa fp.r~t)put infeparable without the qe(iruti:ioq of the form of blood •

. They that difcoQr(e of ffririt, do fo confound it with heat, that they deny tha~ one can be without the other ; as likewife they aver that they are reallyand fubftanrially [he fame, and do only rationally differ , and that ic ought to be pofitive that thereare as many heats as there are JPirits; even as a certain heat fis'd to evety one of the parts is connate at our fidr beginning, by the aid of which all natur~J

acb·

DJ th"lhb't~ {.~

a8iorit are perform'd" Io likewifc: that

theee is a JFirit infi~d and imp ranted at our

firft birth, which does adminiftrate all fund:ions; for that caufe they do condude

that how many parts Ioever there are dif~ ferent in thcir fubflance and temperature,

there are fo many fi:&~d j}irit.l aifiingui-: thable in their /pte;,s.

Bot becaufe this htl$! and tpirit of every part does vanifh very readily, and confiantly,there ought fay they from the pri~ d\,31 parts another be fent, call'd the influent,by the continual accefs of wbich,the 101s of the former may be repaird,

Which being granted (though we c!~ bot grant that heAt does fo well agree with fpirituous fubftance) I ask you, for alike are nurfed by a-like, & refrefh'd by it, why the blood which flows in the veffels {hall not be {aid to be of a threefold fubfiance, and that unfeparable, feeing it does nourifh and refrefh the parts that are made up of it ?

Nor dol think that it can be certain , that the fpirituous fubftance can be refrdh'd in nutrition, without both the other tWo, unleffe they likewife receive' their part according to juft proportion.

I do likewifc ask~feeing the /fir;r or Ipiriruous fubftance belongs to the conflitution -of the parts, as likewife oftbe bfood,why it lfuou-I<1 be cOflfit!er'd apart? for to multi ply

ill-

Ii A Di/rillffo

attities withou~ (aufe ,is bevond the ali~ oms of;~11 PhJ1ofophers '. and is repug..-

nant to· teafon. . ,

, But Jet us fee for what good end, or to wh~t.ufethey thank th~fpir;l! were give~ to JlVWg creatu~es ; that there may be, fay they t a ,onnexlO~. of the Body with. the ~; Soul, becaufe the lOcorporeal and immor« ,Ir ta.l Soul <?f man could not be cOhjoyned \; with a fra,! body but by the intermediati- J' G.D of /pir-it fl' t

'Fotfooth indeed as. if an incorporeal,) fubftancc coul,4 not agree with a foIid bo-

dy bu~ by the intervenipg, of f~me~hing more lubtle; when norwlthflaoomg It has

no greater agreement with one than with

the oth,cr J that a flertion ,reelllS akcge- ,:11 thervam. '" . N

TbeyJay moreover ~hat'i[ ·is the next ) inftili"!ent {)~;theSoul, by. which it performs Its acbo~: ~ut .whcther is this Ipo- : 11 ken of thar ~hlc~ . IS. Influent or implan- .1, ~d? Thr:lChWhlch IS implanted is oftbe {ub.. ; lJ nance 0 [ e part, or its fpiricuous fubHanc;e, which being combind witb others :.

perform, no adions a part, The Soul is' \1' glv~n to the 'parts to perform ad:tons as . ,. an m)p~lfive, nO,t ~s an Implanted fpiril!: ,,' But a~ mflu'enc_fplrlt whi·lft it is not Jiving ":' but a {u~ftanC~I~leparable. ti rom the blood, .... j .. 1 unlelfe It paa~ Into the fub~anc:e of the ; "~I

part. cannot Immtdiately help any tbi'!g Y,.' I

10 J

i

•. i \

.... . o/thl Ht"rt; . 13: .

in the. performance of ~n.Y' a~Hon; •.

Poe the patt beieg prepar'd with ~.j1Jfi temper, a fit (rame, a right union ,beil:ig .enlivened by the power of the Soul J'. aha, being warm'd and made movable by t6e

. circular motion of the blood, docs in my' .

opinion perform any att~ns,.' '. ';

There may be a gr~at dIfficulty rais'd as concerning the an;n,.~l ftlcuJtier, which are •• . perform'd • b.ot~ by fenre' and, motion, through mediation ofthener'tl~I, thofe be-

ing (lop-d, held or-cue, the part it {elf re- : rnaining whole, ytt notwith(l~nding fen~e

and motion is taken away, . as they affirm, becaule the p#rag~' of the (pirits is nop~

ped. ' ". . '. . .':

For they beingmoft thin fubftancfs,:and quicklypafiing and.repClffilig [h~ough the pores of the ne1'1Uf, to carry and bring back the facultieto;the member, and the fenfibleffuciL"l tothebrain; The bufineffe

. being well look'd into. and rightly conf .. der'd, that going and returning of the Ipirits, even of the lighten air, . though free; cannot be fo fudden, even' in imagination.

Why do we multiply Entities and fly to thole things which art not demonftrable ? wemuft follow things evident, which may be perceiv'd by the fenfe,

. It is better in my opinion not to expect that from the interception of the Ipirirs, but rather from the hindering of that

\i action

'.A DifoDllrfi ' ac\ion, which is both comm?n • to the nerves and brain,' by the medladon ?f a certain humour with which they are lm~

dued from the brain. "

For it is to be thought here are ltkewlfe as in other places, a Iprrituous fU,b~an~e?of which the NerVes and the nutritive JUice with which they abound as well as other parts and the blood it {elf are c?mpounded ~' and which bring altogether infepareble from' the fiefhie and folid parts, cannot fubfifl a part.

But left any Ihould doubt of the esiflency of this humour j if a nerve be but only touch'd with a, very prick. fo great abu~dance of it fometimes flowes out, that 1t can be hardly ftop"d by an unskilfull Chirurgioo. For it is to be obferv'd , that as the body is cQntinual~y and uncetTantly refrefh'd with new nutrtmentlo the ".'r7JIS are refrefh'd continually w,th,out Intermiffion not with blood immediately paffi ng ou~ of toe artl!ries, which ,.\'erch~~(e belongs to the Hefh alone.bur w'th,:1 JUIce which they have in comm~n, ~lth the brain, from which they recerve 1t 10 ~r~at abundance, afwell that it may be nU~f1tIVe to [hem, as that it may be communicated to other parts endued with fenfe, , '

They doe evidently demonflrate th~t the nerues have their nutriment prepar d by the brain ;firft of all ,becaufe they are

. J0l'tl'd

. .

(jft~~ H'~fJ~t; lJ

Jo.Yl1'4 to ~h, ~~iil ~ ~ Ji~~wi(e th~ fpi~

~al, rna.Ji~OW, ~n4 iDfep~r@bJ~ from it witlL'!'

our hQrc, and ~$ ~ PQft,~n dr3Wp over ~~~ mmengu of the br~i"; jnfQmpc~ that yo~ \v~)ld4 f~y th~~ t~e brain wer~ q~~n4ed

over all ~b~ bo~y.

~diqes t~~y tHlve ~~ither tlilt~r;t~ noe

71t;nl which ~r~ any w~y~ viq~~e. '

Nor i~ t~er~ ~ny diffh:ulEy to be mad~ of the abundant mcreate of~hi~ hQffJQr,W~i~b is continqally ~y pulf~ ~rjven inn) the' 1IeT'IItl ~ ~or ofthe impulfive f9rc~ lVhic~ moves ~t mto the reJQQteft parts, as if tht= foft bram wen: no~ t;n~ued with fo greae power, Ve:1 flnce in [0 gr~at abuDdanc~ the blood is carried by the 'U~II~ cartJlidel jn,t~ the brain, much mpr~ rhan it Hands in

. need of, if it were not for commoll ure" ~ba~ wi~lt '~his ,cQctinuaJJ Plll_flJtoIy' m9d~~ it beats without refl, even like the art,ries

thclDf~Jvt~, and 40es Jikewife ~eppfite into th~ "prV~J. the jlJice (the (upcrBuiti~ of which the 'lI(ins doc receiye)being feplraeed by i~~pwn {egreg~tori~ power , and prelP,d "y its QWfl wcjgh~, :In,d IDov'd for~

, . war~ ~y cfl.e motion of followi,cg pulfes, ' '

l'b~e ~i~g once fet dowc, it is eafiJy £onc~v~d how t!he fenCes are mov'd ,or bow fenr •. ti9Qs are nude,

I, '1:l;\e -br~ b~i.ng' i~ ~o)1til~u,al motion, <>If and hav~ ,t~ ",r?u joyn'd to it, and VI;. di~er~·~ !~brQllgb .!l1I the feWibJe parts,

I. ' K 1 wbilit

16

A DijCoNrr,

whill1: it does through them move the n~' tritive juice, it does apprehend the l'eaft touch even in the moll remote parr, which is Ilirr'd up by the Ienfible objcrd.

Scarce is either any pa1"t rouch'd , nor the net of the eye.affected with any vifible object, but from thence the motion of tlte brain is alter'd , as in the ftretching of a firing if it be held whilft it is in'play,we f(e the found of'iralcer, .

This aCtion being fo fudden , yea much fwifter than the go;ng and returning of the Ipirits can be, and fo evident and per. ceprible , who will not more plaufibly think, and that it ought to be refolv~d with greater reafon ( fince this continued action is common toall the ntrvt.l; being fcattered through the fenfible parts, toge .. ther with the brain, which is environ'd with the mtninges ,by the mediation of this nurrieive humor) when through the obflrudion. compreflion I and incifion of a nerve the action ofa part is hurt, that that proceeds fro the action of the brain which is hurt which was common with the "'''V/, rather'than to fly to the miffio & remiffio offpirirs, which appear no where; for the immiffion of nutriment being ftop'd, the brain can neither perceive beyond the ligll'Nre .nor advance its benevolence thitber.

. Therefore I conclude, that fince there is Ileither any fuch fubftance in the whole bodefl-

Of 'be Ht.trt;,

dy to be found, which wiU agree with the

'definition of fpiritf, or which is agreeable with any end which is attributed to {piries. that there are neither any fpiries, nor can they be elaborated in the h,ltrl; for which

, thing more reafons wi1J offer themfelves whe we fhall be ~mployed in refutation of the Hl,mMOfis of the hlart,to which before we come, it feerns worthy our painsro relate in what manner J think it is perfomrd,

SE.CT. n. CHAP. I.

.

Th« dtfinitio" ~fthe ~/,oJ; ~h"t /dngNifi. c4Ii,,, if; h,., it is 6~gM. 11111 "irlh; th~ "prntj{e to lIollrifo, "DI c(liollr, is thllt whir:h mak(J6Iooa; SaHgHiftcation U "ot performld in on, part alDlle j C onelCl;. ~nl &01118 1o "e "J "da;t;on lind delra-.

llion. .

BLood is an humour famiJi3r to the nature of Animals contain~d in the Vii"" and Artl;iu, containing in it matter fit for the nutrition of the pares adminiftring heat: to the whole body, together with nouril'hment for the fut1:entation of life.

The Elaboration of this humour is called H"",,,toj;l, or Sanguification. This is perfetled two manner of ways; according

~ 3. to

-------------- ......... ~.

JS

A Difc~rtrfo

to the ~rft fnahner the H ti"'~tiJj; I is per'; feCted 10 tbe parts thtmfelV'es or in the habit of the whole b(hfy·,when the blood ~gain .artd 4gain paffiag about the body l~ ~ cIrcular motion, and afthrding i"C •. e;Ulrs tOi1\any places, and at laft receivmg it fi~ilitude of the parts(for ittannot receive a 'fimilitUdefrom auy bette'r tha'tJ from thofe to which it is to beallimiJated ) it is prepared that it maybe :fitted into its iubftance.

. The o~her is the pr~paringof the nurrilI1ent or meat and drink newly receiv'd that being mix\! with the other , it may~ palfe without hurt co the innermoll: parts ~fthe bOdy., that it may be firtecl to 80Urifh and perform the teft of 'the functions of the blood.

This is nor: perretted without the intervening of the 'blood prepared according 'to the former manner, for"that 'which is newly come in becomes not Jiich , 'but With requifice addition in divers places, • much :dilnrion, and af'rftlwa'rd it is jum, bled with a 'p'erfed llJiEtu~ ~ r t'is cerr a in , that'by the firfr life is begtrn,h'ythe'fecond

it 'is fuftainC!d 'and ·receivs'its'eIfCi.'eaf~.,

' J n the" fii."ft~glrlning ~fil CreatUre 'w hen ~I1 things are'u.rip~rff&ft" :tiii<i~fo rlftal1'~h:ac tliey' a:re'kttfiwn (0 God ;atdtte, :fjy1i-eafon 'of (their fh1alJh~lfe'they ;Up~r'nbNo our fenfe, 'lido imagine Ihkt~fo Iltltic:bttbOillUte

as

"

Of thl He",.t~

as irs fmallneffe can well fuffer comming from the mother is added to the Primoge~ neal, or firft imbred humour at times, and that by the Homogeneal heat c:ong~egative t and the Heterogeneal heat dlfgre .. gative it is mis'd and united fo ; that at Iaft a part of i~ f~l~ing. to.be the be~in~ing of a vei.n.:J It ral~es l~ u~ In[O a Jitde bladder which, whtlft In Its refifiance, makes a~ apparent beginning o~life.

It being goncthu!fa.r,all.d a Iiule more commins niH which-is mixad and made f~miliar wirh theformer , the H~miltoJiJ IS begun, and the Animal incre~NDg it conti-

.nues to the end of life'.

1 do not think that ~ny will deny the name of blood to thishumour, which is fit for a tender body whilft it: is white, and hadnot as yet requir~drednetre j for an aptnefle.of nouriOting, ami not redneffe makes the blood. T,heblood of moil: creatures is not red; That which is in the 'Vein! of [hofe whi<h are come to age, fhould be more or le1f.e blood , as it is more or lefle red,

The other H£J1J4tofis begiFls when the nourifhmenc receiv'd is nlrn»d into blood, for that chis altogether different from the nature of a creature, fhouldbe made fa-, railiar and alike to it by divers mutations, which they call concodions , that it ma, paffe into tbefubfianccofthe body Iii wcU ~~U&q~~~~ ,--- K!i All

20 '.A DifcoHrft

All there codions {erving for one end, that is co fay to fit [he nourifhmentthat it may turn into blood, which is the aliment of the body, may be called the caufes of fanguification: but fince fundions fo diftintt are not done by one part, J t is' an abfurd ching to afcribe fanguification to one part.

Gttlen being witnefTe in his fixch book concerning the Placirs of Hip. e;r Plat. 1.6 c. j o. That no great a"d perfeU "Work. U J9n~ h} one enJ~(4vou,"', ana cau receive its reji"" lW't. f om one n,vNrlll aEJion; I refolv'd to recite the narration of thefe concoctions, that is to fay in what order and manner they are perform'd according to my judgement J. undertaking only. fucb things whrch d-rerve credit, became they feem .~., be feac'd by ocular teftimony, and It:nfihJf' demonflearions , and reafons fuffici-:m tor proof.

Firft of all I would have it known that the aliment fuff~rs no manifef] or continuo ing mutation ofits colour or confiflence , t:oldfe rhat eo we to p~mc either by the addition or fomethlng pr-firable and convenient, or by the detraction of fomething unprofitable and repugnant to NaM ture ,and thatthere cannot be Iaid , that in any part cr member there is a concodion belonging [0 an H.unato/is or furtbering its perf~ion where either addition

or

Olthl He.rt~ ~I

or detradion.or both of [bern is r.ot mlni-

feflly perform'd.

Thefe things being premis'd, idhall very eafily be know n, and be more dear than the lighr; in what parts codions are,and in what pares they are not done, what things are ayding to the Httmatojis, which Dot» as likewife what things can give perr~dion to the blood, and which cannot at all. The following Narration Ihall bring irs proofs along with it; together with eVtf)' ll~ riod.

.J

C HAP. II.

"\ I

The {irjlclncofiion o!lIutyimtHt ~ltl:~ .. ~.;. dilltion of 11;# moij1ur# of th« SttnllllCh, not /;.J hMt or cDn/affioN; The Jr;IIk._i6 not fufficie»t fin' rhf diltJl;on of Ih~ ",eat,. "'hi,h ought to be di/Mttd ;t felf "lft; 'I he ItCide !uice in the StoTluch i4 ,,~t (rom Ihe If!eell; whethc,. tlure h, an)

thing carrieJ (Jilt of the SromArh into the Splee1l; the lifo of;t.

THe nutriment being received, and a little imbued with the Ipittle of the mouth, tbat.fo it may the more eafily receive the moiflure of the moutb by the bel p of the tongue ,and parts'of the moutb,

.' it

~i ".A Difu*r(e'

it j~ rfnc into the oe[oph;t!.1II ; and by the help of its mH[c/u and its p""J, down into the fromacb, there is it be{prinkJed with ·the .moifture which fweat5 always out of the inner t"nic/e, and mix'd by the force of the contradicn of the fromach,and jurabled as much as it can be. The forefaid t",,;tI, the more it is diftended feems to be the thinner.and the pores of it more open; and fo.on the contrary ~ Wherfore there is a greater quanrit)' of this moifiure pour'd in when it contains any thing in its capacioufneffe or diftention, which is [0 be diluted , than when it falls" for then it is thickned, and the neceflity of dilution is

notfo preffing. _.

I do not believe that it has been feen °by any N a turall operation, that the coJour or confifiency \ have been cbanged without the addition or detraction of fub'fiance; there feerns another colour co be 'brought upon the Looking-glaffc , accor-ding to the reprefentation of the ob ject , '8nd water is dilated by heat, yea .by it grea[e is melted ; but the ob jed going a .. ·way, and the heat being cane away, that which is dilated or melted returns to its naturalconfifbence,

I do believe-that heat furthers concottion,infomuch as itcongregatf Homoge-ge?CaJs, and ~ifgreg~( 5 Heterogeneal~ , al,'i>elC :fifilts I wh~emwardsJ aad,thClIve-

ry

()fiit htirrt. , ~

ry b,10f)tl'is (oid ~ do di~ thc:irfood be-

'fng fwaU()\VdI dOW,h ",bolt, and .e r.a-. Vel'iou5 'without tm:a(u~. .

If any 'bile deft~s to fee tht truth.of ~bis opimolJ \Vim 'bis Vtry~'S, ltt him Iook irttbtht ttomadl OfB:fit'h, -ofOl'dinarr bigttttft, .-;hth :be III'S fMlllotv~d ano .. ther for food J wb()fe b~y, buauft it is \1~ all &t 'ODe t~me'tonftlmed ·ill tbe digtfti\')b, . ~t the fK~rio\{r' parts, ... d tltofc thut ~re ~tareR to the boreome of t:t¥e not'ndth, ~ner I little, while 1H:lhan tee tbe'r~ti41Ilt5()fthe fWRlklWi.'d nih, and abo\it themrhepat't4~ge~a,'3n(hi;ear'(0 the wals ofdlt ftomach a ~m jttit'e'(wa-'lerilb indeed, :bUtft6t fo much m11.~4 'With ·thefood )l'lewlY'CGme eut efthe pqr'N 'Of the inmoft t"?fide, 'like:iWear, that being more diluted than thbt 'which nppears alrnoft.:digelted , it might'be ~htun into "rhe "ollie' through'the 'PJ I"rwm tby ehe Foree :()ftbe;contra~ion'()fthe notna~.

'ln6eed 'it behooves that tbatwnich is Jfii'3·nge ·OlOuld be-dtilutcif j~,ith ·much· and 'famiJiartrnoyllure , 'deprompeed JirOOl'chc body it fdf ) arid'which is condnuallyand inceffantly recruted by the new nutriment, 'Jeft palling into the,inwards·in "3'dHftmi. Jary conditide, idhould -rltfendthepart9 ; rhat'wese :ro'he ·notiriThed.Moreovtr if ·the·tl1eHt b'ehotwtll mi~'dwith moyfiurc i~n fhe 'fiemach:l C~nce :1:h~rc is rno facb

'. - moyflure

~-

------

~4 .A Dift,U,.fo

moyllure any where elfe, nor any fuch convenience for the mixture of it as in the ventricle, the fault of the firfi: concoction will not be helped by the fecond,

But left anyone fhould think that this i. done by drink, it is certain that it is likewife mix'd with this juice before it goes out of the vllIiriele, but that it needs not fo Jong time for it, bccaufe . Cooner , and rather foft and liquid things are digefled than grolfe things. for being vomited up a whi1eafter it has been recei'; ved , it appears thicker and more Ilimie, unleffe the ftomach be 'difeafed , and be weak of concodion , then it comes up tbin, and four, becaule 311 that goes in wanting that favorable juice, . becomes four, and is corrupted.

MoLl do attribute tbis,lo,~r juyce to the .';/t, trudy witbout reaCon, fince no-

I thing is carryed from it to the ftomach , neither Ilime, nor humor, nor acide Ipirie, to further digefHon,or provoke appetite, or for any orhercauje ; the reafon is, becaufe there is no way, nor no immediate pall'ages from the milt into the 11:0- mach.

It is a hard thing to fay whether any

• thing be ~arryed from the milt to the fromach, J know that grave men, and Ot no contemptible judgment, doc think that the {maJIerportion of the ChJIHI docs in-

finuate

.j

!

. 0/ (b, Heart; , , ~f'

ftnuate it felfinto the PW,J of its 7i111;clel ('after. the-fame manner as they believe

that tbe thin which is feparated from the grofTer left behind by firaining it after its egrefs,is admitted or received by the membranes of the I ntefhnes and the m'fera; ic!tv,;n/) and that it is drawn together

by the blood returning , it is led through

die fmallbrancbes of the Gl!ftricft v,i1l1

into the milt, and mis'd with the blood paffing out of the abundance of arttrill in

that place into the veitls, and mix'd with

the heat of the faid milt, and then that

it flowcs through the fplenick palfage

witb che Hemorroidal blood into the ""~

na portA and the liver.

Thefe things, finee they arc obfcure and nor apparent, I neither dare give credit to them nor contradid them. 1 he tlllli&l~ of the ftomach feems to be fo much taken up in emitting of moifturc, that I do fof{ped that it cannot ferve two motions fo contrary ; to fend out of the pDP'elofthe tunicle into its hold, and out of its hold into the ,orll of the tHnk/t,at one and the fame time , cfpecially fince it flays to be chylified there.

It proves nothing that in a living creature, t}'ing the vtillS which' go co the'milt they fwell towards the mill, for this is common to all ve;141 which are tyed, to fall towards tbe roots, and fwell toward's the branches, As

1

~.

I

f:

··f· ~,

,I

~4

:& 1)iflfnrfo

AHQthat, that theg4jlriql Vli,,1. are graf~~ i~to a br~llCh oft.heij1tlJit!t, and wbilft It 15 as yet m the ''''.(J hl~, b.ut the blood w hich is fent through th.eJQ 4o(~ not touch th~ fubflance. of [tic mil( If on Iy it is fIli,~d with that whkh COUlf$ Qut"ofir, and with a.quick motion it is carried into the PQrta to dilute the ,h}1l1m , which there it meets with, comming out of the g'."JlIltJ of the ",If~nter;t.

I do think that the ,.jJr was made for tbi$ ufe alone.tho\lgh~more att~ibu(ed to. it by rnofl learned men, and. prune Phyficians , that it may depofite Into the Jfrt4 that blood w bich it receives in abundance from the branch of tb~ . clt/llle' 'ZIlin ( nor does it receive ,oy thing befides blo~d, nor any thing from a~y Qt~er part) belD.G firft flrain'd through 11:5 thin ~nd fp~ngtous fubftance • that i~ may .tht.re dllute the chl"':M. which i$ but Iittle in ~eg<l~4 of the blood which fl.OW~5 to u , with -us abundance, tog.cthcr with tbat which returns from the nutrition of tile reft ofth\! bowels, which i$ fo n.e~drary,tbat when the "plt js obllru&e.c!, and [he pdf:'ge of blood is flop'd , and chech""tp is not well diluted , lhe wBoJebody by depravation of the nur·riment is extflll.1a~c.d, and the m#t fwells into a greater and mere rroublefome buJk by the rcftagna.tionof blood;

C HAP.

Of tI" lh.,t;

C HAP. IIL'-

7'h, lifo of ,I,e Ve,,~ utfe.·. ",hllt ;.1 th, tile I/th, PlIncrla& and Gi"tl4M/el'f till Mefollter;e; th, ChJ"'WI i4 tIM ,."eIt,. ,art 'ff""I*ipr:lItilJ. ~lgM1J; "hilt ell}- 1IIUI u ; Il.Je prep"r4'"" Df "I,M ill tw '

I jecHr Uter;liIlII; th,.rder of ""'"r, 'f"

~ "."r;/h"'.nt. . .

'I, AFhte~the:}.,,1U is let down into the

)1, I; t e ~1'I.'tf~;"I, that which is gro1fe is

, aJways moyd furthcrby aPeriftaltiCk mo-

f.i' non , but that which is thin is fqueez'd

".,,1,,'1' through their finer body, being diverfly ! perforate by- arterils and f/t;ns as well

milkle as ordinary ones. ' ..

. Thefe ,!,tndt ItlOtte opening themfelves rn th~ mlddeft of the bowels ( efpecialJy the b'ggcft of ~hern running ourin length rhropgh the middle of the'p,.",re.u, with. manifefl and open mourh, which it has. common both to it, and the biliary paff~ge. ). do, rf~ive chis fame being white'

ti hKe milk rnro them , and then c·ndeavou'.; ring to free' thc:mfelves &om difrention, tbe others do move it forward Co be refi~·d. in theglilndflltl of the me/eHteri!,and this Into thep4I1Cre4&. This i9"manifdt to

a.ny body, wbo with diligence and atten • . Cion does obierve in the opening up rhe

ab·

\ '1

.A Difl,urfi

,,(,Jnu. of a Jiving dog fo that you need to believe no body but y~ur Own eys.

The p"lJcreM or _c.-lI.creal, called by (ome the IIa"tlmon, irs called the 14fl~1 by fQIDe for itswhirenefle and foftnelfe: It

, • a flefhie body, made or plac'd near to

d.e firft JOYlIt of the /oills, three or, fo~r fingers broad, lying from the mIlt m length un,derthe hinder part and [he bottome of a mans fiomach, and is firer,chad OUt JyiQg upon the reins ne~r to tb~ ~ '111- jli/J"", "tlden"",. and the concavrne of [he livlr; Befides its glandu.lous ~nd [oft

fl t1... it bas 3 membra"e With which It IS

em , I /' .

cover'd , ATteriel, from [ re C~ 14r,. V"nr

joyn·d co the PO"14 ,and ""?" It has which (pring from the fixt~ pair; 1~ has likewife a paffage thr.o~gh Its Beth diverlIy diflrfbuted and divided.

The greatefiofthe '(mItt ~'lne" d,raw.n bither with [hat great opent~g Wb,C~, It has common to it, together With the, billa-

. trage bezins here very manlfefily

rre p.tm , "h , 'd'

from 'the ilfte{fiJfllm 1ePlnum, an IS

ftrerch-d out according to the bredth or the body & lenge h of the panCreAJ .. lmo~ as big as a goofe quil. ~n a ,d~ad,~orps,wh~ ir is open'd.i e has norhlng 10 It 1,Ike the ~e ott be lal]e.e: all which nOCw,thfiandlDfc by reafon or their fmallne1fe, aad bec3.'d e they are to like the memvranes that 0

uphold them.do varna. and cannot be feb; .

I

,I

~

, Of the llelltit. 29

bYD~jbut here by reafon of its bigndTe,and becaufe it runnes along the flelli, from

which it is ealily difcern'd, it is confpicuous enougb; in a: Jiving~r~ature, op:n'd forne

bours afterrepafi', It IS lwelI'd, being full of

white juice; being bound with a 1~~4It11'r,

it fwels mofi towards the Tntdlinu,", but beyond rhelig4tllre it is prefemJy empty.

For what end I befeech you? Chat it may become a nutriment to the Par.c"ttU !

- Not 3taIJ: F9rtbis moiCl-ureis not fit for nouriihmenr; and then rile Pllncre.u has Ifrter;u from the branch of the Celiac fit for tbat bufineff~, yea far greater than the fmall quancily of it requires, which is an evident token that Cbey [erve for another ufe, and for a greater, that isro l~y, the common good. For the milky juice depofired in irs foft and (pongy fiefh,'>eing with the blood (which flows [hither In great a .. bundance forehe caufea!orefaid) mix'd &

. jumbled, and having acquired the colour andthe conflUence of'ir, is carried into [he Tlt;nt~

We may think no other waves of the ChylUl, baving paLT·d by this opening,oue of which the Ch,m1f4, is, fqueez~J by the forcible contradion ofrhe intt/finel • and £hecom~teffive weight ofelle 6t1"We/1 lying upon' i[, as aJfo by the continual motion of the mllfi;lesof tbellbd,nnm, &is recciv'J by the "'t11~ IIICi,,, to be depoficed in the

L Gbn.

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