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Historic schematic A Colpitts oscillator, named after its inventor Edwin H. Colpitts, is one of a number of
Figure 2: Simple common collector Colpitts oscillator (with simplified biasing) Figure 1: Simple common base Colpitts oscillator (with simplified biasing)
Figure 3: Practical common base Colpitts oscillator (with an oscillation frequency of ~50 MHz) designs for electronic oscillator circuits using the combination of an inductance (L) with a capacitor (C) for frequency determination, thus also called LC oscillator. One of the key features of this type of oscillator is its simplicity (needs only a single inductor) and robustness. The picture shows the schematic as used in the first publication. The frequency is generally determined by the inductance and the two capacitors at the bottom of the drawing.
A Colpitts oscillator is the electrical dual of a Hartley oscillator. Fig. 1 shows the basic Colpitts circuit, where two capacitors and one inductor determine the frequency of oscillation.
Note that the feedback energy is now fed into the connection between the two capacitors. Fig. Thus. it should be a third one connected in parallel to the inductor (or in series as in the Clapp oscillator). using the Colpitts oscillator for a variable frequency oscillator VFO is best done by using a variable inductance for tuning. where in the Hartley oscillator the feedback is taken from a voltage divider made by two inductors (or a tapped single inductor). not voltage amplification.The feedback needed for oscillation is taken from a voltage divider made by the two capacitors. Instability criteria Colpitts oscillator model used in analysis at left. 3 shows a working example with component values. Fig. . Instead of bipolar junction transistors. instead of tuning one of the two capacitors. Real circuits will oscillate at a slightly lower frequency due to junction capacitances of the transistor and possibly other stray capacitances. 2 shows an often preferred variant. the amplification of the active component should be marginally larger than the attenuation of the capacitive voltage divider. If tuning by a variable capacitor is needed. could be used. Theory Oscillation frequency The ideal frequency of oscillation for the circuits in Figures 1 and 2 are given by the equation: where the series combination of C1 and C2 creates the effective capacitance of the LC tank. The amplifier provides a current. where the inductor is also grounded (which makes circuit layout easier for higher frequencies). As with any oscillator. to obtain stable operation. capable of producing gain at the desired oscillation frequency. other active components like field effect transistors or vacuum tubes.
Ignoring the inductor. Rin is . For initial analysis. An ideal model is shown to the right. Even with these approximations. Rin which is proportional to the product of the two impedances: If Z1 and Z2 are complex and of the same sign. is is a dependent current source given by Where gm is the transconductance of the transistor. which is the sum of two currents: i2 = i1 + is Where is is the current supplied by the transistor.One method of oscillator analysis is to determine the input impedance of an input port neglecting any reactive components. the input impedance can be written as Where v1 is the input voltage and i1 is the input current. If the impedance yields a negative resistance term. Solving for v2 and substituting above yields Zin = Z1 + Z2 + gmZ1Z2 The input impedance appears as the two capacitors in series with an interesting term. This method will be used here to determine conditions of oscillation and the frequency of oscillation. This configuration models the common collector circuit in the section above. The current flowing into C2 is i2. These terms can be included later in a more rigorous analysis. The input current i1 is given by Where Z1 is the impedance of C1. If the impedances for Z1 and Z2 are substituted. parasitic elements and device non-linearities will be ignored. oscillation is possible. Rin will be a negative resistance. acceptable comparison with experimental results is possible. The voltage v2 is given by v2 = i2Z2 Where Z2 is the impedance of C2.
the circuit will oscillate if the magnitude of the negative resistance is greater than the resistance of the inductor and any stray elements. the emitter current is roughly 1 mA. oscillation is more likely for larger values of transconductance and/or larger values of inductance.If an inductor is connected to the input. . oscillation is more likely for larger values of transconductance and/or smaller values of capacitance. For the example oscillator above. the input impedance is the sum of the two inductors and a negative resistance given by: Rin = − gmω2L1L2 In the Hartley circuit. In that case. but it can often be accurately estimated using the describing function method. the input resistance is roughly This value should be sufficient to overcome any positive resistance in the circuit. the circuit becomes a Hartley oscillator. The transconductance is roughly 40 mS. Given all other values.  The low frequency gain is given by: If the two capacitors are replaced by inductors and magnetic coupling is ignored. By inspection. A more complicated analysis of the common-base oscillator reveals that a low frequency amplifier voltage gain must be at least four to achieve oscillation. Oscillation amplitude The amplitude of oscillation is generally difficult to predict. The frequency of oscillation is as given in the previous section.
Operation A Hartley oscillator is made up of the following: • • Two inductors in series. who filed for a patent on June 1. It was invented by Ralph Hartley.Hartley oscillator Schematic diagram Original Patent Drawing.763 on October 26. The Hartley oscillator is an LC electronic oscillator that derives its feedback from a tapped coil in parallel with a capacitor (the tank circuit). A Hartley oscillator is essentially any configuration that uses a pair of series-connected coils and a single capacitor (see Colpitts oscillator for the equivalent oscillator using two capacitors and one coil).356. which need not be mutual One tuning capacitor Advantages of the Hartley oscillator include: • • • The frequency may be varied using a variable capacitor The output amplitude remains constant over the frequency range Either a tapped coil or two fixed inductors are needed Disadvantages include: . the circuit is usually implemented as such. 1915 and was awarded patent number  1. Although there is no requirement for there to be mutual coupling between the two coil segments. 1920.
An example is given of the Scott 310E RF oscillator for its FM section. In 1946 Hartley was awarded the IRE Medal of Honor "For his early work on oscillating circuits employing triode tubes and likewise for his early recognition and clear exposition of the fundamental relationship between the total amount of information which may be transmitted over a transmission system of limited band-width and the time required. if the inductance of the two partial coils L1 and L2 is given (e.• Harmonic-rich content if taken from the amplifier and not directly from the LC circuit." (The second half of the citation refers to Hartley's work in information theory which largely paralleled Harry Nyquist. History The Hartley oscillator was invented by Ralph V.L. the total effective inductance that determines the frequency of the oscillation is (coupling factor k): Applications Part of Scott 310E circuit diagram The Hartley oscillator was extensively used on all broadcast bands including the FM 88-108MHz band. Hartley invented and patented the design in 1915 while overseeing Bell System's transatlantic radiotelephone tests.g. in a simulator).) . Hartley while he was working for the Research Laboratory of the Western Electric Company. Note that.
using the combination of an inductance (L) with a capacitor (C) for frequency determination. which uses a field-effect transistor (FET). . thus also called LC oscillator. sometimes making the Colpitts circuit less likely to achieve oscillation over a portion of the desired frequency range. It was published by James K. the network is comprised of a single inductor and three capacitors. The oscillation frequency in hertz (cycles per second) for the circuit in the figure. Gouriet was in Operation at the BBC since 1938. This problem is avoided in the Clapp circuit by using fixed capacitors in the voltage divider and a variable capacitor (C0) in series with the inductor. and one developed by G. In a Colpitts VFO. According to Vačkář. the voltage divider contains the variable capacitor (either C1 or C2). Clapp in 1948. with two capacitors (C1 and C2) forming a voltage divider that determines the amount of feedback voltage applied to the transistor input.Clapp oscillator The Clapp oscillator is one of several types of electronic oscillator constructed from a transistor (or vacuum tube) and a positive feedback network. This causes the feedback voltage to be variable as well. oscillators of this kind were independently discovered by several authors. The Clapp oscillator is a Colpitts oscillator with an additional capacitor placed in series with the inductor.G. is A Clapp circuit is often preferred over a Colpitts circuit for constructing a variable frequency oscillator (VFO). Clapp Oscillator (direct-current biasing network not shown) Referring the notional circuit in the figure.
inverting gain) from the pi network and the negative gain from the inverter results in a positive loop gain (positive feedback).  the Pierce oscillator is a derivative of the Colpitts oscillator. making the bias point set by R1 unstable and leading to oscillation. The low manufacturing cost of this circuit. give it an advantage over other designs in many consumer electronics applications. two capacitors. The combination of the 180 degree phase shift (i. To see this. as the circuit can be implemented using a minimum of components: a single digital inverter. Operation Simple Pierce oscillator Biasing resistor R1 acts as a feedback resistor. and the quartz crystal. Named for its inventor. it can be noted that at the frequency of oscillation. two resistors. which provides a 180 degree phase shift and a voltage gain from the output to input at approximately the resonant frequency of the crystal. combined with the outstanding frequency stability of the quartz crystal. Pierce (1872-1956). . this resistor forces the input and output voltages to be equal.e. but in the transition region where it has gain.Pierce oscillator The Pierce oscillator is a type of electronic oscillator circuit particularly well-suited for implementing crystal oscillator circuits. the crystal appears inductive. Hence the inverter will neither be fully on nor off. with infinite input impedance and zero output impedance. George W. thus it can be considered a large inductor with a high Q. which acts as a highly selective filter element. biasing the inverter in its linear region of operation and effectively causing it to function as a high gain inverting amplifier. To understand the operation of this. Virtually all digital IC clock oscillators are of Pierce type. Resonator The crystal in combination with C1 and C2 forms a pi network band-pass filter. assume the inverter is ideal.
the stray capacitances from the oscillator. the Pierce oscillator (as always) drives the crystal at nearly its parallel resonance frequency. PCB layout. But that frequency is few kilohertz higher than the series resonant frequency printed on the package of a "series" crystal. This would also add additional phase shift to C1.Isolation resistor A second resistor could be used between the output of the inverter and the crystal to isolate the inverter from the crystal network. Load capacitance The total capacitance seen from the crystal looking into the rest of the circuit is called the "load capacitance". and crystal case (typically 3-9 pF):  When a manufacturer makes a "series" crystal. To get the same frequency performance. one must then make sure that the capacitances in the circuit match this value specified in the crystal's data sheet. Increasing the "load capacitance" slightly decreases the frequency generated by a Pierce oscillator. a technician uses a different tuning procedure. taking into account Ci and Co. When a manufacturer makes a "parallel" crystal. but never enough to reduce it all the way down to the series resonant frequency. a technician uses a Pierce oscillator with a particular load capacitance (often 18 or 20 pF) while trimming the crystal to oscillate at exactly the frequency written on its package. the input and output capacitance of the inverter. . Load capacitance CL can be calculated from the series combination of C1 and C2. When such a crystal is used in a Pierce oscillator. and Cs.
elasticity. For example. . Operation A crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms. Paul Langevin first investigated quartz resonators for use in sonar during World War I. although his priority was disputed by Walter Guyton Cady. so oscillator circuits designed around them were called "crystal oscillators". and to stabilize frequencies for radio transmitters and receivers. Pierce and Louis Essen. molecules. By 1926 quartz crystals were used to control the frequency of radio broadcasting stations and were popular with amateur radio operators. using a crystal of Rochelle salt. with much of it imported from Brazil. The first crystal controlled oscillator.Crystal oscillator A crystal oscillator is an electronic circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a very precise frequency. High-frequency crystals are typically cut in the shape of a simple. History Piezoelectricity was discovered by Jacques and Pierre Curie in 1880. such as ceramic resonators. or ions are packed in a regularly ordered. The most common type of piezoelectric resonator used is the quartz crystal. about 100. are typically cut in the shape of a tuning fork. Although crystal oscillators still most commonly use quartz crystals. This frequency is commonly used to keep track of time (as in quartz wristwatches). It was often used in mechanical filters before quartz. shape. since all objects have natural resonant frequencies of vibration. Using what are now considered primitive methods. such as those used in digital watches. devices using other materials are becoming more common. Quartz crystal oscillators were developed for high-stability frequency references during the 1920s and 1930s. During WW2. Cady built the first quartz crystal oscillator in 1921. Almost any object made of an elastic material could be used like a crystal. Lowfrequency crystals. Suitable quartz became a critical war material. a low-cost ceramic resonator is often used in place of a quartz crystal. repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. A number of firms started producing quartz crystals for electronic use during this time. was built in 1917 and patented in 1918 by Alexander M. demand for accurate frequency control of military radio equipment spurred rapid development of the crystal manufacturing industry. Nicholson at Bell Telephone Laboratories. For applications not needing very precise timing. with appropriate transducers.000 crystal units were produced in the United States during 1939. The resonant frequency depends on size. rectangular plate. and the speed of sound in the material. to provide a stable clock signal for digital integrated circuits. W. Other early innovators in quartz crystal oscillators include G. steel is very elastic and has a high speed of sound.
and oscilloscopes. Quartz timing crystals are manufactured for frequencies from a few tens of kilohertz to tens of megahertz. computers. and this can generate a voltage. filter or oscillator will remain accurate. the quartz will generate an electric field as it returns to its previous shape. clocks. (See RLC circuit. Most are small devices for consumer devices such as wristwatches. Therefore. This means that a quartz clock. either. Modeling Electrical model Electronic symbol for a piezoelectric crystal resonator Schematic symbol and equivalent circuit for a quartz crystal in an oscillator . the resonant frequency of the plate. capacitor and resistor. it can be made to distort in an electric field by applying a voltage to an electrode near or on the crystal. When the field is removed. This property is known as piezoelectricity.When a crystal of quartz is properly cut and mounted. such as counters. The specific characteristics will depend on the mode of vibration and the angle at which the quartz is cut (relative to its crystallographic axes). More than two billion (2×109) crystals are manufactured annually. which depends on its size. For critical applications the quartz oscillator is mounted in a temperature-controlled container. signal generators. called a crystal oven. and cell phones. Quartz crystals are also found inside test and measurement equipment.) Quartz has the further advantage that its elastic constants and its size change in such a way that the frequency dependence on temperature can be very low. The result is that a quartz crystal behaves like a circuit composed of an inductor. and can also be mounted on shock absorbers to prevent perturbation by external mechanical vibrations. radios. with a precise resonant frequency. will not change much.
For example. To accomplish this. a 6 pF 32 kHz crystal has a parallel resonance frequency of 32. Without this capacitance. Resonance modes A quartz crystal provides both series and parallel resonance. the oscillator circuit usually includes additional LC circuits to select the wanted overtone. Adding additional capacitance across a crystal will cause the parallel resonance to shift downward. the electronic circuit has to provide a total parallel capacitance as specified by the crystal manufacturer. Mathematically (using the Laplace transform) the impedance of this network can be written as: or. which means that the crystal appears as an inductive reactance in operation. which occur at multiples of the fundamental resonant frequency. a crystal can be made to vibrate at one of its overtone modes. or even 7th overtone crystal. Crystal manufacturers normally cut and trim their crystals to have a specified resonance frequency with a known 'load' capacitance added to the crystal.768 Hz. Crystals above 30 MHz (up to >200 MHz) are generally operated at series resonance where the impedance appears at its minimum and equal to the series resistance. the resonance frequency is higher than 32.A quartz crystal can be modeled as an electrical network with low impedance (series) and a high impedance (parallel) resonance point spaced closely together. 5th.0 pF capacitor is placed across the crystal. . Only odd numbered overtones are used.768 Hz when a 6. Any additional circuit capacitance will thus pull the frequency down. Crystals below 30 MHz are generally operated between series and parallel resonance. Such a crystal is referred to as a 3rd. To reach higher frequencies. The series resonance is a few kilohertz lower than the parallel one. where s is the complex frequency (s = jω). ωs is the series resonant frequency in radians per second and ωp is the parallel resonant frequency in radians per second. For these crystals the series resistance is specified (<100 Ω) instead of the parallel capacitance. This can be used to adjust the frequency at which a crystal oscillator oscillates. For a parallel resonance crystal to operate at its specified frequency.
fifth. amplifying it. In a real application. This means that a tuning fork crystal oscillator will resonate close to its target frequency at room temperature. As the oscillator amplifies the signals coming out of the crystal.04 ppm/°C². Natural resistance in the circuit and in the quartz crystal filter out all the unwanted frequencies. any spectral energy at the resonant frequency will be amplified by the oscillator. but will slow down when the temperature either increases or decreases from room temperature. A major reason for the wide use of crystal oscillators is their high Q factor.6 × 107/f. The rate of expansion and contraction of the quartz is the resonant frequency. called an overtone frequency. where f is the resonance frequency in megahertz. The crystal will therefore start oscillating in synchrony with that signal. and purely by chance. When the energy of the generated output frequencies matches the losses in the circuit. and is determined by the cut and size of the crystal. therefore only one phase is dominant. A regular timing crystal contains two electrically conductive plates. In a crystal oscillator. or seventh overtones. an oscillation can be sustained. During startup. Electrical oscillators The crystal oscillator circuit sustains oscillation by taking a voltage signal from the quartz resonator. The maximum Q for a high stability quartz oscillator can be estimated as Q = 1. a tiny fraction of the noise will be at the resonant frequency of the crystal. eventually dominating the output of the oscillator.Temperature effects A crystal's frequency characteristic depends on the shape or 'cut' of the crystal. the circuit around the crystal applies a random noise AC signal to it. and feeding it back to the resonator. A tuning fork crystal is usually cut such that its frequency over temperature is a parabolic curve centered around 25 °C. The output frequency of a quartz oscillator can be either the fundamental resonance or a multiple of the resonance. the signals in the crystal's frequency band will become stronger. compared to perhaps 102 for an LC oscillator. In many oscillators. with a slice or tuning fork of quartz crystal sandwiched between them. A typical Q value for a quartz oscillator ranges from 104 to 106. the crystal mostly vibrates in one axis. One of the most important traits of quartz crystal oscillators is that they can exhibit very low phase noise. This property of low . this means that a clock built using a regular 32 kHz tuning fork crystal will keep good time at room temperature. resulting in a collection of tones at different phases. lose 2 minutes per year at 10 degrees Celsius above (or below) room temperature and lose 8 minutes per year at 20 degrees Celsius above (or below) room temperature due to the quartz crystal. A common parabolic coefficient for a 32 kHz tuning fork crystal is −0. High frequency crystals are often designed to operate at third.
and OCXO (defined below). the number of distinct crystal oscillators. This is generally avoided by using low impedance oscillator circuits to enhance the series resistance differences. from a few kilohertz up to several hundred megahertz. Many applications call for a crystal oscillator . 10 MHz. The vast popularity of the 3. since each one introduces new. frequency multipliers and phase locked loop circuits. 33. These designs (particularly the OCXO) often produce devices with excellent short-term stability. 14. due to multiple crystal interactions. and 40 MHz. humidity. and vibration can change the resonant frequency of a quartz crystal.318 MHz. Using frequency dividers. Each new crystal source must be rigorously justified. The limitations in short-term stability are due mainly to noise from electronic components in the oscillator circuits. such as 3. in actual practice today engineers design crystal oscillator circuits around relatively few standard frequencies. significant (and temperature-dependent) spurious responses may be experienced. difficult-to-debug probabilistic failure modes. 20 MHz.58 MHz and 14. Even if the series resistances at the spurious resonances appear higher than the one at wanted frequency. Long term stability is limited by aging of the crystal. Due to aging and environmental factors (such as temperature and vibration). Although crystals can be fabricated for any desired resonant frequency. Environmental changes of temperature.58 MHz. and their associated clock domains should be rigorously minimized.33 MHz. These include the TCXO. pressure. it is difficult to keep even the best quartz oscillators within one part in 1010 of their nominal frequency without constant adjustment. the oscillator may lock at a spurious frequency (at some temperatures). For this reason.318 MHz crystals is attributed initially to low cost resulting from economies of scale resulting from the popularity of television and the fact that this frequency is involved in synchronizing to the color burst signal necessary to display color on an NTSC or PAL based television set. Spurious frequencies For crystals operated in series resonance. These responses typically appear some tens of kilohertz above the wanted series resonance. If this is not possible. atomic oscillators are used for applications requiring better long-term stability and accuracy. Commonly used crystal frequencies Crystals can be manufactured for oscillation over a wide range of frequencies. it is practical to derive a wide range of frequencies from one reference frequency. through techniques such as using a subdivision of an existing clock instead of a new crystal source. but there are several designs that reduce these environmental effects. Care must be taken to use only one crystal oscillator source when designing circuits to avoid subtle failure modes of metastability in electronics. within technological limits. MCXO. PLLs.phase noise makes them particularly useful in telecommunications where stable signals are needed and in scientific equipment where very precise time references are needed.
1.05 kHz.332 MHz is 4.579545 MHz) 7. sound cards.332 MHz = 8.144 Also allows integer division to common UART baud rates up to 38.5536 boxes 7. allows integer division to common baud rates Used in compact disc digital audio systems and CDROM drives. quartz watches and clocks.43361875 PAL B/D/G/H/I and NTSC M4.433618 MHz) Allows integer division to 1024 kHz and binary division to lower frequencies that 9. 256×48 kHz (28×48 kHz). allows binary division to 1 Hz signal (215×1 Hz) UART clock. a common second IF for FM radio 11. allows binary 11. . Because these are very common and inexpensive they 3. 4. or 215×100 Hz) 3.15909 NTSC M color subcarrier (2×3. divided to 1. MiniDisc.768×100 Hz. (213×32×52. allows integer division to common baud rates 4. used also in red 6.400 baud or 2048×1.400.0592 UART clock (6×1.2896 division to 44.536×100 Hz.582056 PAL N color subcarrier 3.0000 Mbit/s. 64×38. allows integer division to common baud rates up to 38. allows integer division to common baud rates. 6.664 MHz or 4×4.2288 MHz baseband 9.43 color subcarrier Used in CDMA systems. 128×48 kHz (27×48 kHz).194304 Real-time clocks. Used in CDMA systems (2×4.4576 (215×31×52. Frequency (MHz) 0.032768 Primary uses Real-time clocks. 2.2768 Allows binary division to 100 Hz (32. Allows binary division to 100 Hz (65. While the frequency of 4. mixes with 10.096000 Allows binary division to 1 kHz (212×1 kHz) 4. MiniDisc.328 MHz) have been used also.1 kHz). divides to 1 Hz signal (222×1 Hz) The RDS signal bit rate is at 1.DAT.8432 MHz).1 kHz (256×44.200 baud or 96×16×1. 22.1875 kbit/s.575611 PAL M color subcarrier NTSC M color subcarrier.8432 MHz). sound cards.7 MHz intermediate frequency (IF) yielding 10. or 216×100 Hz).DAT.579545 are used in many other applications.200 baud) 3. allows integer division to common baud rates 8.400. its multiples (2×4.288 Digital audio systems .2288 MHz baseband frequency as specified 4. divided to 1. and 11.216 are whole multiples of 1 Hz.86724 PAL B/G/H color subcarrier (2×4.frequency conveniently related to some other desired frequency.8432 16×115. for example DTMF generators 3.83040 frequency Used in radio receivers.025 kHz Used in USB systems as the reference clock for the full-speed PHY rate of 12 12.9152 by J-STD-008 Digital audio systems .9152 MHz).8432 MHz).245 455 kHz signal.686400 UART clock (2×1. so certain crystal frequencies are made in large quantities and stocked by electronics distributors.332MHz = 17.3728 UART clock (4×1.200 baud) UART clock. or multiplied up using a PLL to clock high speed PHYs at 480 Mbit/s 12.332 the most commonly used crystal resonator.
1184 UART clock (12×1.500 an exact multiple of the PAL and NTSC line frequencies) 13. 2×6. 25.9344 division to 44.56 Common contactless smartcard frequency (ISO/IEC 14443) Used in some teletext circuits. and PAL I uses 4.000 10 Mbit/s ethernet 22. 26. 200 Hz). 17.092 MHz.875 SECAM uses 6.727272 MHz. Digital TV receivers etc. sound cards. 22. 204. 1816 periods per 28.3676 or 16. allows integer division to common baud rates.000 exactly 96 times the GSM bit rate) Popular for 102.000 exact multiple of the PAL and NTSC line frequencies) Master clock for some PAL CCD cameras. 13. Master clock for PAL/NTSC DVD players. and 11. allows integer division to common baud rates Commonly used for down-conversion and sampling in GPS-receivers. also common on VGA cards.DAT. PAL G uses 6.368 sometimes used to avoid perfect lineup between sampling frequency and GPS spreading code. 100 Hz. 19.9152).375 MHz scan line.0000 common CPU clock 33.2288 MHz baseband frequency 20.000 Fast Ethernet MII clock (100 Mbps/4-bit nibble) Common Video Graphics Array pixel clock (i.6608 Used in CDMA systems (4×4. Used in compact disc digital audio systems and CDROM drives. In this case the FFT frequency bins end up to 26. and 192 kHz sample rates used in high-end digital audio. Digital TV receivers.025 kHz. when a power-oftwo size FFT follows the sampling. 18.33 common CPU clock .2144 MHz = 100 x 218 = 25 x 220.4912 UART clock (16×1.8432 MHz). (27 MHz is an 27. 512×48 kHz 24. (26 MHz is 26. allows integer division to common baud rates 30. 14.2031 MHz.203125 MHz.8432 MHz). allows integer 16.4 kS/s. Master clock for PAL/NTSC DVD players. divided to 1.1 kHz (384×44. Common seed clock for modern PC 14. 2 periods per pixel.8432 MHz). Also allows integer division to 25 Hz and multiples of 25 Hz (50 Hz. MiniDisc. 16.640x400@70 Hz.175  640x350@70 Hz.7456 UART clock (8×1.432 Also allows integer division to 48 kHz (384×48 kHz).579545 MHz). 640x480@60 Hz) Commonly used as a reference clock for GSM and UMTS handsets.4375 MHz clock) NTSC M color subcarrier (4×3.31818 motherboard clock generator chips.1 kHz).8432 MHz).5 MHz is 13.Also allows integer division to common UART baud rates up to 38400.636 MHz Master clock for some NTSC CCD cameras 29. Generates intermediate frequency signal at 4.576 (29×48 kHz) 25. 96 kHz. etc.9375 MHz (clock frequency of PAL B teletext. NTSC M uses 5. allows integer division to common baud rates 24 full-speed USB (24MHz * 20 = 480Mbit/s).e.433618 MHz) UART clock (10×1.2144 be at "nice" frequencies for humans.734475 PAL B/G/H color subcarrier (4×4.05 kHz.367667 MHz are 16. LCD monitor some MCU Digital audio systems . (13.8 kS/s or similar sampling systems. Also allows integer division to common UART baud rates. AC'97.. 567500 periods per frame 28.
etc. but these forms are deprecated.000 66. or ANSI Y32.667 80.40. are designated with the class letter G (G1. Y2. OFDM Fast Ethernet (2×25 MHz) common CPU clock common CPU clock Circuit notations and abbreviations On electrical schematic diagrams.0000 common CPU clock. G2.000 50.2-1975. or a crystal oscillator with XO. crystals are designated with the class letter Y (Y1. an adaptation of the TCXO VCTCXO — voltage-controlled temperature-compensated crystal oscillator VCXO — voltage-controlled crystal oscillator . WiFi. whether they are crystal oscillators or other. etc.) On occasion.) (See IEEE Std 315-1975. Crystal oscillator types and their abbreviations: • • • • • • • • • • • • ATCXO — analog temperature controlled crystal oscillator CDXO — calibrated dual crystal oscillator DTCXO — digital temperature compensated crystal oscillator MCXO — microcomputer-compensated crystal oscillator OCVCXO — oven-controlled voltage-controlled crystal oscillator OCXO — oven controllrd crystal oscillator RbXO — rubidium crystal oscillators (RbXO). a crystal oscillator (can be an MCXO) synchronized with a built-in rubidium standard which is run only occasionally to save power TCVCXO — temperature-compensated voltage-controlled crystal oscillator TCXO — temperature-compensated crystal oscillator TSXO — temperature-sensing crystal oscillator. one may see a crystal designated on a schematic with X or XTAL.) Oscillators.
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