JavaTM Portlet Specification

Version 1.0
Send comments about this document to: jsr-168-comments@jcp.org 5

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October 7, 2003 15 Alejandro Abdelnur (alejandro.abdelnur@sun.com) Stefan Hepper (sthepper@de.ibm.com)

Java(TM) Portlet Specification ("Specification") Version: 1.0 Status: FCS Specification Lead: Sun Microsystems, Inc. ("Specification Lead") Release: August 29, 2003 Copyright 2003 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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NOTICE; LIMITED LICENSE GRANTS Specification Lead hereby grants you a fully-paid, non-exclusive, non-transferable, worldwide, limited license (without the right to sublicense), under the Specification Lead's applicable intellectual property rights to view, download, use and reproduce the Specification only for the purpose of internal evaluation, which shall be understood to include developing applications intended to run on an implementation of the Specification provided that such applications do not themselves implement any portion(s) of the Specification. Specification Lead also grants you a perpetual, non-exclusive, worldwide, fully paid-up, royalty free, limited license (without the right to sublicense) under any applicable copyrights or patent rights it may have in the Specification to create and/or distribute an Independent Implementation of the Specification that: (i) fully implements the Spec(s) including all its required interfaces and functionality; (ii) does not modify, subset, superset or otherwise extend the Licensor Name Space, or include any public or protected packages, classes, Java interfaces, fields or methods within the Licensor Name Space other than those required/authorized by the Specification or Specifications being implemented; and (iii) passes the TCK (including satisfying the requirements of the applicable TCK Users Guide) for such Specification. The foregoing license is expressly conditioned on your not acting outside its scope. No license is granted hereunder for any other purpose. You need not include limitations (i)-(iii) from the previous paragraph or any other particular "pass through" requirements in any license You grant concerning the use of your Independent Implementation or products derived from it. However, except with respect to implementations of the Specification (and products derived from them) that satisfy limitations (i)-(iii) from the previous paragraph, You may neither: (a) grant or otherwise pass through to your licensees any licenses under Specification Lead's applicable intellectual property rights; nor (b) authorize your licensees to make any claims concerning their implementation's compliance with the Spec in question. For the purposes of this Agreement: "Independent Implementation" shall mean an implementation of the Specification that neither derives from any of Specification Lead's source code or binary code materials nor, except with an appropriate and separate license from Specification Lead, includes any of Specification Lead's source code or binary code materials; and "Licensor Name Space" shall mean the public class or interface declarations whose names begin with "java", "javax", "com.sun" or their equivalents in any subsequent naming convention adopted by Specification Lead through the Java Community Process, or any recognized successors or replacements thereof.

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This Agreement will terminate immediately without notice from Specification Lead if you fail to comply with any material provision of or act outside the scope of the licenses granted above.

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TRADEMARKS No right, title, or interest in or to any trademarks, service marks, or trade names of Sun or Sun's licensors, the Specification Lead or the Specification Lead's licensors is granted hereunder. Sun, Sun Microsystems, the Sun logo, Java, and the Java Coffee Cup logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. in the U.S. and other countries. DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTIES

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THE SPECIFICATION IS PROVIDED "ASIS". Specification Lead MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR NON-INFRINGEMENT, THAT THE CONTENTS OF THE SPECIFICATION ARE SUITABLE FOR ANY PURPOSE OR THAT ANY PRACTICE OR IMPLEMENTATION OF SUCH CONTENTS WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY THIRD PARTY PATENTS, COPYRIGHTS, TRADE SECRETS OR OTHER RIGHTS. This document does not represent any commitment to release or implement any portion of the Specification in any product. THE SPECIFICATION COULD INCLUDE TECHNICAL INACCURACIES TYPOGRAPHICAL ERRORS. CHANGES ARE PERIODICALLY ADDED TO INFORMATION THEREIN; THESE CHANGES WILL BE INCORPORATED INTO VERSIONS OF THE SPECIFICATION, IF ANY. Specification Lead MAKE IMPROVEMENTS AND/OR CHANGES TO THE PRODUCT(S) AND/OR PROGRAM(S) DESCRIBED IN THE SPECIFICATION AT ANY TIME. Any of such changes in the Specification will be governed by then-current license for the applicable version of Specification. LIMITATION OF LIABILITY OR THE NEW MAY THE use the the

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TO THE EXTENT NOT PROHIBITED BY LAW, IN NO EVENT WILL Specification Lead OR ITS LICENSORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION, LOST REVENUE, PROFITS OR DATA, OR FOR SPECIAL, INDIRECT, CONSEQUENTIAL, INCIDENTAL OR PUNITIVE DAMAGES, HOWEVER CAUSED AND REGARDLESS OF THE THEORY OF LIABILITY, ARISING OUT OF OR RELATED TO ANY FURNISHING, PRACTICING, MODIFYING OR ANY USE OF THE SPECIFICATION, EVEN IF Specification Lead AND/OR ITS LICENSORS HAVE BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. You will indemnify, hold harmless, and defend Specification Lead and its licensors from any claims arising or resulting from: (i) your use of the Specification; (ii) the use or distribution of your Java application, applet and/or clean room implementation; and/or (iii) any claims that later versions or releases of any Specification furnished to you are incompatible with the Specification provided to you under this license. RESTRICTED RIGHTS LEGEND

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U.S. Government: If this Specification is being acquired by or on behalf of the U.S. Government or by a U.S. Government prime contractor or subcontractor (at any tier), then the Government's rights in the Specification and accompanying documentation shall be only as set forth in this license; this is in accordance with 48 C.F.R. 227.7201 through 227.7202-4 (for Department of Defense (DoD) acquisitions) and with 48 C.F.R. 2.101 and 12.212 (for nonDoD acquisitions). REPORT

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You may wish to report any ambiguities, inconsistencies or inaccuracies you may find in connection with your use of the Specification ("Feedback"). To the extent that you provide Specification Lead with any Feedback, you hereby: (i) agree that such Feedback is provided on a non-proprietary and nonconfidential basis, and (ii) grant Specification Lead a perpetual, non-exclusive, worldwide, fully paid-up, irrevocable license, with the right to sublicense through multiple levels of sublicensees, to incorporate, disclose, and use without limitation the Feedback for any purpose related to the Specification and future versions, implementations, and test suites thereof. (Form ID#011801)

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Contents
JavaTM Portlet Specification ................................................................................................ 1 PLT.1 Preface...................................................................................................................... 9 PLT.1.1 Additional Sources ............................................................................................ 9 PLT.1.2 Who Should Read This Specification ............................................................... 9 PLT.1.3 API Reference ................................................................................................. 10 PLT.1.4 Other Java™ Platform Specifications............................................................. 10 PLT.1.5 Other Important References ............................................................................ 10 PLT.1.6 Terminology.................................................................................................... 11 PLT.1.7 Providing Feedback......................................................................................... 11 PLT.1.8 Acknowledgements ......................................................................................... 11 PLT.2 Overview ................................................................................................................ 13 PLT.2.1 What is a Portal? ............................................................................................. 13 PLT.2.2 What is a Portlet? ............................................................................................ 13 PLT.2.3 What is a Portlet Container? ........................................................................... 13 PLT.2.4 An Example..................................................................................................... 14 PLT.2.5 Relationship with Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition ................................... 14 PLT.3 Relationship with the Servlet Specification ........................................................... 15 PLT.3.1 Bridging from Portlets to Servlets/JSPs.......................................................... 16 PLT.3.2 Relationship Between the Servlet Container and the Portlet Container ......... 17 PLT.4 Concepts................................................................................................................. 19 PLT.4.1 Elements of a Portal Page ............................................................................... 19 PLT.4.2 Portal Page Creation........................................................................................ 20 PLT.4.3 Portal Page Request Sequence ........................................................................ 20 PLT.5 The Portlet Interface............................................................................................... 21 PLT.5.1 Number of Portlet Instances............................................................................ 21 PLT.5.2 Portlet Life Cycle ............................................................................................ 21 PLT.5.2.1 Loading and Instantiation......................................................................... 22 PLT.5.2.2 Initialization ............................................................................................. 22 PLT.5.2.3 Portlet Window ........................................................................................ 23 PLT.5.2.4 Request Handling ..................................................................................... 24 PLT.5.2.5 End of Service .......................................................................................... 28 PLT.6 Portlet Config ......................................................................................................... 29 PLT.6.1 Initialization Parameters ................................................................................. 29 PLT.6.2 Portlet Resource Bundle.................................................................................. 29 PLT.7 Portlet URLs........................................................................................................... 31 PLT.7.1 PortletURL ...................................................................................................... 31 PLT.7.1.1 Including a Portlet Mode or a Window State........................................... 32 PLT.7.1.2 Portlet URL security................................................................................. 33 JavaTM Portlet Specification, version 1.0 (10/07/2003) 5

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PLT.8 Portlet Modes ......................................................................................................... 35 PLT.8.1 VIEW Portlet Mode .................................................................................... 35 PLT.8.2 EDIT Portlet Mode .................................................................................... 35 PLT.8.3 HELP Portlet Mode .................................................................................... 36 PLT.8.4 Custom Portlet Modes..................................................................................... 36 PLT.8.5 GenericPortlet Render Handling..................................................................... 36 PLT.8.6 Defining Portlet Modes Support ..................................................................... 37 PLT.9 Window States ....................................................................................................... 39 PLT.9.1 NORMAL Window State ............................................................................. 39 PLT.9.2 MAXIMIZED Window State ...................................................................... 39 PLT.9.3 MINIMIZED Window State ...................................................................... 39 PLT.9.4 Custom Window States................................................................................... 39 PLT.10 Portlet Context ..................................................................................................... 41 PLT.10.1 Scope of the Portlet Context ......................................................................... 41 PLT.10.2 Portlet Context functionality......................................................................... 41 PLT.10.3 Relationship with the Servlet Context .......................................................... 41 PLT.10.3.1 Correspondence between ServletContext and PortletContext methods. 42 PLT.11 Portlet Requests.................................................................................................... 43 PLT.11.1 PortletRequest Interface................................................................................ 43 PLT.11.1.1 Request Parameters ................................................................................ 43 PLT.11.1.2 Extra Request Parameters....................................................................... 44 PLT.11.1.3 Request Attributes .................................................................................. 44 PLT.11.1.4 Request Properties.................................................................................. 45 PLT.11.1.5 Request Context Path ............................................................................. 45 PLT.11.1.6 Security Attributes.................................................................................. 45 PLT.11.1.7 Response Content Types ........................................................................ 46 PLT.11.1.8 Internationalization ................................................................................ 46 PLT.11.1.9 Portlet Mode........................................................................................... 46 PLT.11.1.10 Window State ....................................................................................... 46 PLT.11.2 ActionRequest Interface................................................................................ 47 PLT.11.2.1 Retrieving Uploaded Data...................................................................... 47 PLT.11.3 RenderRequest Interface ............................................................................... 48 PLT.11.4 Lifetime of the Request Objects.................................................................... 48 PLT.12 Portlet Responses ................................................................................................. 49 PLT.12.1 PortletResponse Interface ............................................................................. 49 PLT.12.1.1 Response Properties ............................................................................... 49 PLT.12.1.2 Encoding of URLs.................................................................................. 49 PLT.12.2 ActionResponse Interface ............................................................................. 50 PLT.12.2.1 Redirections............................................................................................ 50 PLT.12.2.2 Portlet Modes and Window State Changes ............................................ 50 PLT.12.2.3 Render Parameters.................................................................................. 50 PLT.12.3 RenderResponse Interface............................................................................. 51 PLT.12.3.1 Content Type .......................................................................................... 51 PLT.12.3.2 Output Stream and Writer Objects ......................................................... 51 PLT.12.3.3 Buffering ................................................................................................ 52 PLT.12.3.4 Namespace encoding.............................................................................. 52

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PLT.12.3.5 Portlet Title............................................................................................. 53 PLT.12.4 Lifetime of Response Objects ....................................................................... 53 PLT.13 Portal Context ...................................................................................................... 55 PLT.14 Portlet Preferences ............................................................................................... 57 PLT.14.1 PortletPreferences Interface .......................................................................... 57 PLT.14.2 Preference Attributes Scopes ........................................................................ 58 PLT.14.3 Preference Attributes definition .................................................................... 58 PLT.14.3.1 Localizing Preference Attributes............................................................ 59 PLT.14.4 Validating Preference values ........................................................................ 60 PLT.15 Sessions ................................................................................................................ 61 PLT.15.1 Creating a Session......................................................................................... 61 PLT.15.2 Session Scope................................................................................................ 62 PLT.15.3 Binding Attributes into a Session.................................................................. 62 PLT.15.4 Relationship with the Web Application HttpSession.................................... 63 PLT.15.4.1 HttpSession Method Mapping................................................................ 63 PLT.15.5 Reserved HttpSession Attribute Names ........................................................ 63 PLT.15.6 Session Timeouts .......................................................................................... 64 PLT.15.7 Last Accessed Times..................................................................................... 64 PLT.15.8 Important Session Semantics ........................................................................ 64 PLT.16 Dispatching Requests to Servlets and JSPs.......................................................... 65 PLT.16.1 Obtaining a PortletRequestDispatcher .......................................................... 65 PLT.16.1.1 Query Strings in Request Dispatcher Paths............................................ 65 PLT.16.2 Using a Request Dispatcher .......................................................................... 66 PLT.16.3 The Include Method ...................................................................................... 66 PLT.16.3.1 Included Request Parameters ................................................................. 66 PLT.16.3.2 Included Request Attributes ................................................................... 66 PLT.16.3.3 Request and Response objects for Included Servlets/JSPs .................... 67 PLT.16.3.4 Error Handling........................................................................................ 68 PLT.17 User Information .................................................................................................. 69 PLT.17.1 Defining User Attributes ............................................................................... 69 PLT.17.2 Accessing User Attributes............................................................................. 70 PLT.17.3 Important Note on User Information ............................................................ 70 PLT.18 Caching ................................................................................................................ 71 PLT.18.1 Expiration Cache........................................................................................... 71 PLT.19 Portlet Applications.............................................................................................. 73 PLT.19.1 Relationship with Web Applications ............................................................ 73 PLT.19.2 Relationship to PortletContext ...................................................................... 73 PLT.19.3 Elements of a Portlet Application ................................................................. 73 PLT.19.4 Directory Structure........................................................................................ 73 PLT.19.5 Portlet Application Classloader .................................................................... 74 PLT.19.6 Portlet Application Archive File ................................................................... 74 PLT.19.7 Portlet Application Deployment Descriptor ................................................. 74 PLT.19.8 Replacing a Portlet Application .................................................................... 74 PLT.19.9 Error Handling .............................................................................................. 74 PLT.19.10 Portlet Application Environment ................................................................ 74 PLT.20 Security ................................................................................................................ 75

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PLT.20.1 Introduction................................................................................................... 75 PLT.20.2 Roles.............................................................................................................. 75 PLT.20.3 Programmatic Security.................................................................................. 75 PLT.20.4 Specifying Security Constraints.................................................................... 76 PLT.20.5 Propagation of Security Identity in EJBTM Calls .......................................... 77 PLT.21 Packaging and Deployment Descriptor................................................................ 79 PLT.21.1 Portlet and Web Application Deployment Descriptor .................................. 79 PLT.21.2 Packaging ...................................................................................................... 79 PLT.21.2.1 Example Directory Structure.................................................................. 80 PLT.21.2.2 Version Information ............................................................................... 80 PLT.21.3 Portlet Deployment Descriptor Elements ..................................................... 80 PLT.21.4 Rules for processing the Portlet Deployment Descriptor.............................. 80 PLT.21.5 Deployment Descriptor ................................................................................. 81 PLT.21.6 Pictures of the structure of a Deployment Descriptor................................... 91 PLT.21.7 Uniqueness of Deployment Descriptor Values ............................................. 93 PLT.21.8 Localization................................................................................................... 93 PLT.21.8.1 Localization of Deployment Descriptor Values..................................... 93 PLT.21.8.2 Locales Supported by the Portlet ........................................................... 94 PLT.21.9 Deployment Descriptor Example.................................................................. 94 PLT.21.10 Resource Bundles........................................................................................ 95 PLT.21.11 Resource Bundle Example .......................................................................... 96 PLT.22 Portlet Tag Library............................................................................................... 97 PLT.22.1 defineObjects Tag ......................................................................................... 97 PLT.22.2 actionURL Tag.............................................................................................. 98 PLT.22.3 renderURL Tag ............................................................................................. 99 PLT.22.4 namespace Tag............................................................................................ 100 PLT.22.5 param Tag ................................................................................................... 101 PLT.23 Technology Compatibility Kit Requirements .................................................... 103 PLT.23.1 TCK Test Components................................................................................ 103 PLT.23.2 TCK Requirements ..................................................................................... 104 PLT.23.2.1 Declarative configuration of the portal page for a TCK test................ 104 PLT.23.2.2 Programmatic configuration of the portal page for a test..................... 106 PLT.23.2.3 Test Portlets Content ............................................................................ 107 PLT.23.2.4 Test Cases that Require User Identity.................................................. 107 PLT.A Custom Portlet Modes......................................................................................... 109 PLT.B Markup Fragments............................................................................................... 113 PLT.C CSS Style Definitions.......................................................................................... 115 PLT.D User Information Attribute Names...................................................................... 119 PLT.E Features Deferred to Future Releases .................................................................. 125 PLT.F TCK Assertions.................................................................................................... 125

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PLT.1 Preface
5 This document is the JavaTM Portlet Specification, v1.0. The standard for the JavaTM Portlet API is described here.

PLT.1.1 Additional Source s
The specification is intended to be a complete and clear explanation of Java portlets, but if questions remain the following may be consulted: • 10 A reference implementation (RI) has been made available which provides a behavioral benchmark for this specification. Where the specification leaves implementation of a particular feature open to interpretation, implementators may use the reference implementation as a model of how to carry out the intention of the specification A Technology Compatibility Kit (TCK) has been provided for assessing whether implementations meet the compatibility requirements of the JavaTM Portlet API standard. The test results have normative value for resolving questions about whether an implementation is standard If further clarification is required, the working group for the JavaTM Portlet API under the Java Community Process should be consulted, and is the final arbiter of such issues

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Comments and feedback are welcomed, and will be used to improve future versions.

PLT.1.2 Who Should Read This Specification
The intended audience for this specification includes the following groups: • 25 • • Portal server vendors that want to provide portlet engines that conform to this standard Authoring tool developers that want to support web applications that conform to this specification Experienced portlet authors who want to understand the underlying mechanisms of portlet technology

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We emphasize that this specification is not a user’s guide for portlet developers and is not intended to be used as such.

PLT.1.3 API Reference
5 An accompanying javadoc™, includes the full specifications of classes, interfaces, and method signatures.

PLT.1.4 Other Java™ Plat form Specifications
The following Java API specifications are referenced throughout this specification: • • 10 • Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition, v1.3 (J2EE™) Java Servlet™, v2.3 JavaServer Pages™, v1.2 (JSP™)

These specifications may be found at the Java 2 Platform Enterprise Edition website:
http://java.sun.com/j2ee/.

PLT.1.5 Other Important R eferences
15 The following Internet specifications provide information relevant to the development and implementation of the Portlet API and standard portlet engines: • • • • 20 • • • • • 25 • • • • RFC 1630 Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI) RFC 1776 Tags for the Identification of Languages RFC 1738 Uniform Resource Locators (URL) RFC 2396 Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax RFC 1808 Relative Uniform Resource Locators RFC 1945 Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.0) RFC 2045 MIME Part One: Format of Internet Message Bodies RFC 2046 MIME Part Two: Media Types RFC 2047 MIME Part Three: Message Header Extensions for non-ASCII text RFC 2048 MIME Part Four: Registration Procedures RFC 2049 MIME Part Five: Conformance Criteria and Examples RFC 2109 HTTP State Management Mechanism RFC 2145 Use and Interpretation of HTTP Version Numbers 10

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RFC 2616 Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1) RFC 2617 HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Authentication ISO 639 Code for the representation of names of languages ISO 3166 Code (Country) list OASIS Web Services for Remote Portlets (WSRP)

Online versions of these RFC and ISO documents are at:
• http://www.rfc-editor.org/ • http://www.ics.uci.edu/pub/ietf/http/related/iso639.txt • http://www.chemie.fu-berlin.de/diverse/doc/ISO_3166.html

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The World Wide Web Consortium (http://www.w3.org/) is a definitive source of HTTP related information affecting this specification and its implementations. The WSRP Specification can (http://www.oasis-open.org/). be found in the OASIS web site

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The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is used for the specification of the Deployment Descriptors described in Chapter 13 of this specification. More information about XML can be found at the following websites:
http://java.sun.com/xml http://www.xml.org/

PLT.1.6 Terminology
20 The key words MUST, MUST NOT, REQUIRED, SHALL, SHALL NOT, SHOULD, SHOULD NOT, RECOMMENDED, MAY, and OPTIONAL in this document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

PLT.1.7 Providing Feedbac k
25 We welcome any and all feedback about this specification. Please e-mail your comments to jsr-168-comments@sun.com. Please note that due to the volume of feedback that we receive, you will not normally receive a reply from an engineer. However, each and every comment is read, evaluated, and archived by the specification team.

PLT.1.8 Acknowledgement s
30 The Portlet Specification is the result of the work of JSR168 Expert Group, Subbu Allamaraju (BEA), Chris Braun (Novell), Don Chapman (SAS), Michael Freedman (Oracle), Laurent Guiraud (SAP), Randal Hanford (Boeing), Andre Kramer (Citrix), Axel Kratel (Borland), Danny Machak (TIBCO), Kris Meukens (EDS), Wes Mitchell (Broadvision), Takao Mohri (Fujitsu), Dean Moses (Vignette), Andrew Rickard (ATG),

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William Seiger (Sybase), David Sean Taylor (Apache), Stefan Hepper (IBM) and Alejandro Abdelnur (Sun). We want to give special thanks to (as members of the Expert Group) Subbu Allamaraju, Henning Blohm, Chris Braun, Don Chapman, Adrian Fletcher, Michael Freedman, Laurent Guiraud, Andre Kramer, Danny Machak, Wes Mitchell, Takao Mohri, Dean Moses, Peter Petersen, Andrew Rickard and David Sean Taylor for their contributions. We would like to thank OASIS WSRP Technical Committee, JSR127 Java Server Faces Expert Group and JSR154 Servlet Specification Expert Group for their cooperation. 10 We would also like to thank all the people who have sent us feedback during the Community Review and Public Review stages. Finally we would like to thank Maneesha Jain (Sun) and Stephan Hesmer (IBM) who led the TCK and RI efforts.

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PLT.2 Overview
PLT.2.1 What is a Portal?
5 A portal is a web based application that –commonly- provides personalization, single sign on, content aggregation from different sources and hosts the presentation layer of Information Systems. Aggregation is the action of integrating content from different sources within a web page. A portal may have sophisticated personalization features to provide customized content to users. Portal pages may have different set of portlets creating content for different users.

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PLT.2.2 What is a Portlet?
A portlet is a Java technology based web component, managed by a portlet container, that processes requests and generates dynamic content. Portlets are used by portals as pluggable user interface components that provide a presentation layer to Information Systems.

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The content generated by a portlet is also called a fragment. A fragment is a piece of markup (e.g. HTML, XHTML, WML) adhering to certain rules and can be aggregated with other fragments to form a complete document. The content of a portlet is normally aggregated with the content of other portlets to form the portal page. The lifecycle of a portlet is managed by the portlet container. Web clients interact with portlets via a request/response paradigm implemented by the portal. Normally, users interact with content produced by portlets, for example by following links or submitting forms, resulting in portlet actions being received by the portal, which are forwarded by it to the portlets targeted by the user's interactions. The content generated by a portlet may vary from one user to another depending on the user configuration for the portlet.

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PLT.2.3 What is a Portlet C ontainer?
A portlet container runs portlets and provides them with the required runtime environment. A portlet container contains portlets and manages their lifecycle. It also provides persistent storage for portlet preferences. A portlet container receives requests from the portal to execute requests on the portlets hosted by it.

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A portlet container is not responsible for aggregating the content produced by the portlets. It is the responsibility of the portal to handle the aggregation. A portal and a portlet container can be built together as a single component of an application suite or as two separate components of a portal application. 5

PLT.2.4 An Example
The following is a typical sequence of events, initiated when users access their portal page: • A client (e.g., a web browser) after being authenticated makes an HTTP request to the portal The request is received by the portal The portal determines if the request contains an action targeted to any of the portlets associated with the portal page If there is an action targeted to a portlet, the portal requests the portlet container to invoke the portlet to process the action A portal invokes portlets, through the portlet container, to obtain content fragments that can be included in the resulting portal page The portal aggregates the output of the portlets in the portal page and sends the portal page back to the client

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PLT.2.5 Relationship with Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition
The Portlet API v1.0 is based on the Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition, v1.3. Portlet containers and portlets meet the requirements, described in the J2EE Specification, for executing in a J2EE environment.

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Due to the analogous functionality of servlets, concepts, names and behavior of the portlet will be similar to the ones defined in the Servlet Specification 2.3 whenever applicable.

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PLT.3 Relationship with the Servlet Specification
The Servlet Specification v2.3 defines servlets as follows: 5 “A servlet is a Java technology based web component, managed by a container, that generates dynamic content. Like other Java-based components, servlets are platform independent Java classes that are compiled to platform neutral bytecode that can be loaded dynamically into and run by a Java enabled web server. Containers, sometimes called servlet engines, are web server extensions that provide servlet functionality. Servlets interact with web clients via a request/response paradigm implemented by the servlet container.” Portlets share many similarities with servlets: • • • 15 • • Portlets are Java technology based web components Portlets are managed by a specialized container Portlets generate dynamic content Portlets lifecycle is managed by a container Portlets interact with web client via a request/response paradigm

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Portlets differ in the following aspects from servlets: • 20 • • • • 25 • Portlets only generate markup fragments, not complete documents. The Portal aggregates portlet markup fragments into a complete portal page Portlets are not directly bound to a URL Web clients interact with portlets through a portal system Portlets have a more refined request handling, action requests and render requests Portlets have predefined portlet modes and window states that indicate the function the portlet is performing and the amount of real state in the portal page Portlets can exist many times in a portal page

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Portlets have access to the following extra functionality not provided by servlets: • • 5 • Portlets have means for accessing and storing persistent configuration and customization data Portlets have access to user profile information Portlets have URL rewriting functions for creating hyperlinks within their content, which allow portal server agnostic creation of links and actions in page fragments Portlets can store transient data in the portlet session in two different scopes: the application-wide scope and the portlet private scope

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Portlets do not have access to the following functionality provided by servlets: • • • Setting the character set encoding of the response Setting HTTP headers on the response The URL of the client request to the portal

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Because of these differences, the Expert Group has decided that portlets needs to be a new component. Therefore, a portlet is not a servlet. This allows defining a clear interface and behavior for portlets. In order to reuse as much as possible of the existing servlet infrastructure, the Portlet Specification leverages functionality provided by the Servlet Specification wherever possible. This includes deployment, classloading, web applications, web application lifecycle management, session management and request dispatching. Many concepts and parts of the Portlet API have been modeled after the Servlet API. Portlets, servlets and JSPs are bundled in an extended web application called portlet application. Portlets, servlets and JSPs within the same portlet application share classloader, application context and session.

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PLT.3.1 Bridging from Por tlets to Servlets/JSPs
Portlets can leverage servlets, JSPs and JSP tag-libraries for generating content. A portlet can call servlets and JSPs just like a servlet can invoke other servlets and JSPs using a request dispatcher (see PLT.16 Dispatching Requests to Servlets and JSPs Chapter). To enable a seamless integration between portlets and servlets the Portlet Specification leverages many of the servlet objects.

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When a servlet or JSP is called from within a portlet, the servlet request given to the servlet or JSP is based on the portlet request and the servlet response given to the servlet or JSP is based on the portlet response. For example: • 5 • • 10 Attributes set in the portlet request are available in the included servlet request (see PLT.16 Dispatching Requests to Servlets and JSPs Chapter), The portlet and the included servlet or JSP share the same output stream (see PLT.16 Dispatching Requests to Servlets and JSPs Chapter). Attributes set in the portlet session are accessible from the servlet session and vice versa (see PLT.15 Portlet Session Chapter).

PLT.3.2 Relationship Betw een the Servlet Container and the Portlet Container
The portlet container is an extension of the servlet container. As such, a portlet container can be built on top of an existing servlet container or it may implement all the functionality of a servlet container. Regardless of how a portlet container is implemented, its runtime environment is assumed to support Servlet Specification 2.3.

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PLT.4 Concepts
PLT.4.1 Elements of a Port al Page
5 A portlet generates markup fragments. A portal normally adds a title, control buttons and other decorations to the markup fragment generated by the portlet, this new fragment is called a portlet window. Then the portal aggregates portlet windows into a complete document, the portal page. Figure 4-1 Elements of a Portal Page

δ

Decorations and controls <Title>
M m E H

Portlet fragment

<Portlet content>

Portlet window

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<Title>

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<Title>

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Portal page

<Portlet content>

<Portlet content>

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<Title>

M m E H

<Portlet content>

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PLT.4.2 Portal Page Creati on
Portlets run within a portlet container. The portlet container receives the content generated by the portlets. Typically, the portlet container hands the portlet content to a portal. The portal server creates the portal page with the content generated by the portlets and sends it to the client device (i.e. a browser) where it is displayed to the user. FIGURE 4-2 Portal Page Creation
Client Device Portal Page

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Portlet A

A
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Portlet B

B D
Portlet Windows

C

Portal Server

Portlet Container

Portlet C Portlet D

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PLT.4.3 Portal Page Reque st Sequence
Users access a portal by using a client device such as an HTML browser or a web-enabled phone. Upon receiving the request, the portal determines the list of portlets that need to be executed to satisfy the request. The portal, through the portlet container, invokes the portlets. The portal creates the portal page with the fragments generated by the portlets and the page is returned to the client where it is presented to the user.

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PLT.5 The Portlet Interface
The Portlet interface is the main abstraction of the Portlet API. All portlets implement this interface either directly or, more commonly, by extending a class that implements the interface. The Portlet API includes a GenericPortlet class that implements the Portlet interface and provides default functionality. Developers should extend, directly or indirectly, the GenericPortlet class to implement their portlets.

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PLT.5.1 Number of Portlet Instances
10 The portlet definition sections in the deployment descriptor of a portlet application control how the portlet container creates portlet instances. For a portlet, not hosted in a distributed environment (the default), the portlet container musti instantiate and use only one portlet object per portlet definition. 15 In the case where a portlet is deployed as part of a portlet application marked as distributable, in the web.xml deployment descriptor, a portlet container may instantiate only one portlet object per portlet definition -in the deployment descriptor- per virtual machine (VM). ii

PLT.5.2 Portlet Life Cycle
20 A portlet is managed through a well defined life cycle that defines how it is loaded, instantiated and initialized, how it handles requests from clients, and how it is taken out of service. This life cycle of a portlet is expressed through the init, processAction, render and destroy methods of the Portlet interface.

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PLT.5.2.1 Loading and Instan tiation
The portlet container is responsible for loading and instantiating portlets. The loading and instantiation can occur when the portlet container starts the portlet application, or delayed until the portlet container determines the portlet is needed to service a request. 5 The portlet container must load the portlet class using the same ClassLoader the servlet container uses for the web application part of the portlet application.iii After loading the portlet classes, the portlet container instantiates them for use.

PLT.5.2.2 Initialization
10 After the portlet object is instantiated, the portlet container must initialize the portlet before invoking it to handle requests.iv Initialization is provided so that portlets can initialize costly resources (such as backend connections), and perform other one-time activities. The portlet container must initialize the portlet object by calling the init method of the Portlet interface with a unique (per portlet definition) object implementing the PortletConfig interface. This configuration object provides access to the initialization parameters and the ResourceBundle defined in the portlet definition in the deployment descriptor. Refer to PLT.6 Portlet Config Chapter for information about the PortletConfig interface. The configuration object also gives the portlet access to a context object that describes the portlet’s runtime environment. Refer to PLT.10 Portlet Context Chapter for information about the PortletContext interface.

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PLT.5.2.2.1 Error Conditions on Initialization
During initialization, the portlet object may throw an UnavailableException or a PortletException. In this case, the portlet container must not place the portlet object into active service and it must release the portlet object.v The destroy method must not be called because the initialization is considered unsuccessful.vi

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The portlet container may reattempt to instantiate and initialize the portlets at any time after a failure. The exception to this rule is when an UnavailableException indicates a minimum time of unavailability. When this happens the portlet container must wait for the specified time to pass before creating and initializing a new portlet object.vii A
RuntimeException viii PortletException.

thrown

during

initialization

must

be

handled

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a

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PLT.5.2.2.2 Tools Considerations
The triggering of static initialization methods when a tool loads and introspects a portlet application is to be distinguished from the calling of the init method. Developers should not assume that a portlet is in an active portlet container runtime until the init method of the Portlet interface is called. For example, a portlet should not try to establish connections to databases or Enterprise JavaBeans™ containers when static (class) initialization happens.

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PLT.5.2.3 Portlet Window
10 The portlet definition may include a set of preference attributes with their default values. They are used to create preferences objects (see PLT.14 Portlet Preferences Chapter). At runtime, when serving requests, a portlet object is associated with a preferences object. Normally, a portlet customizes its behavior and the content it produces based on the attributes of the associated preference object. The portlet may read, modify and add preference attributes. 15 By default, a preferences object is built using the initial preferences values defined in the portlet deployment descriptor. A portal/portlet-container implementation may provide administrative means to create new preferences objects based on existing ones. Portal/portlet-container created preferences objects may have their attributes further customized. When a portlet is placed in a portal page, a preferences object is also associated with it. The occurrence of a portlet and preferences-object in a portal page is called a portlet window. The portal/portlet-container implementation manages this association. A portal page may contain more than one portlet window that references the same portlet and preferences-object. Administration, management and configuration of preferences objects and creation of portlet windows is left to the portal/portlet-container implementation. It is also left to the implementation to provide advanced features, such as hierarchical management of preferences objects or cascading changes on preference attributes.

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PLT.5.2.4 Request Handling
After a portlet object is properly initialized, the portlet container may invoke the portlet to handle client requests. 5 The Portlet interface defines two methods for handling requests, the processAction method and the render method. When a portal/portlet-container invokes the processAction method of a portlet, the portlet request is referred to as an action request. When a portal/portlet-container invokes the render method of a portlet, the portlet request is referred to as a render request. 10 Commonly, client requests are triggered by URLs created by portlets. These URLs are called portlet URLs. A portlet URL is targeted to a particular portlet. Portlet URLs may be of two types, action URLs or render URLs. Refer to PLT.7 Portlet URLs Chapter for details on portlet URLs. Normally, a client request triggered by an action URL translates into one action request and many render requests, one per portlet in the portal page. A client request triggered by a render URL translates into many render requests, one per portlet in the portal page. If the client request is triggered by an action URL, the portal/portlet-container must first trigger the action request by invoking the processAction method of the targeted portlet.ix The portal/portlet-container must wait until the action request finishes. Then, the portal/portlet-container must trigger the render request by invoking the render method for all the portlets in the portal page with the possible exception of portlets for which their content is being cached.x The render requests may be executed sequentially or in parallel without any guaranteed order. If the client request is triggered by a render URL, the portal/portlet-container must invoke the render method for all the portlets in the portal page with the possible exception of portlets for which their content is being cached.xi The portal/portlet-container must not invoke the processAction of any of the portlets in the portal page for that client request. If a portlet has caching enabled, the portal/portlet-container may choose not to invoke the render method. The portal/portlet-container may instead use the portlet’s cached content. Refer to PLT.18 Caching Chapter for details on caching. 30 A portlet object placed into service by a portlet container may end up handling no request during its lifetime.

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Figure 5-1 Request Handling Sequence
Portal/ Portlet Container Client Request Portlet A Portlet B Portlet C

Client

processAction()

The action request must finish before the render requests start.

render() Fragment render() Fragment render() Fragment The render requests are triggered in no specific order. They may be fired one after the other or in parallel.

Portal Page

NOT DEFINED BY THE PORTLET SPECIFICATION

PLT.5.2.4.1 Action Request
5 Typically, in response to an action request, a portlet updates state based on the information sent in the action request parameters. The processAction method of the Portlet interface receives two parameters, ActionRequest and ActionResponse. 10 The ActionRequest object provides access to information such as the parameters of the action request, the window state, the portlet mode, the portal context, the portlet session and the portlet preferences data. While processing an action request, the portlet may instruct the portal/portlet-container to redirect the user to a specific URL. If the portlet issues a redirection, when the processAction method concludes, the portal/portlet-container must send the redirection back to the user agentxii and it must finalize the processing of the client request. A portlet may change its portlet mode and its window state during an action request. This is done using the ActionResponse object. The change of portlet mode must be effective for the following render request the portlet receives. There are some exceptional JavaTM Portlet Specification, version 1.0 (10/07/2003)

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circumstances, such as changes of access control privileges, that could prevent the portlet mode change from happening. The change of window state should be effective for the following render request the portlet receives. The portlet should not assume that the subsequent request will be in the window state set as the portal/portlet-container could override the window state because of implementation dependencies between portlet modes and window states. The portlet may also set, in the ActionResponse object, render parameters during the processing of an action request. Refer to PLT.11.1.1 Request Parameters Section for details on render parameters.

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PLT.5.2.4.2 Render Request
Commonly, during a render request, portlets generate content based on their current state. The render method of the Portlet interface receives two parameters, RenderRequest and RenderResponse.

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The RenderRequest object provides access to information such as the parameters of the render request, the window state, the portlet mode, the portal context, the portlet session and the portlet preferences data. The portlet can produce content using the RenderResponse writer or it may delegate the generation of content to a servlet or a JSP. Refer to PLT.16 Dispatching Requests to Servlets and JSPs Chapter for details on this.

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PLT.5.2.4.2.1 GenericPortlet
The GenericPortlet abstract class provides default functionality and convenience methods for handling render requests. The render method in the GenericPortlet class sets the title specified in the portlet definition in the deployment descriptor and invokes the doDispatch method.

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The doDispatch method in the GenericPortlet class implements functionality to aid in the processing of requests based on the portlet mode the portlet is currently in (see PLT.8 Portlet Modes Chapter). These methods are: • •
doView doEdit doHelp

for handling VIEW requestsxiii for handling EDIT requestsxiv for handling HELP requestsxv

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If the window state of the portlet (see PLT.9 Window States Chapter) is MINIMIZED, the render method of the GenericPortlet does not invoke any of the portlet mode rendering methods.xvi

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Typically, portlets will extend the GenericPortlet class directly or indirectly and they will override the doView, doEdit, doHelp and getTitle methods instead of the render and doDispatch methods.

PLT.5.2.4.3 Multithreading Issue s During Request Handling
5 The portlet container handles concurrent requests to the same portlet by concurrent execution of the request handling methods on different threads. Portlet developers must design their portlets to handle concurrent execution from multiple threads from within the processAction and render methods at any particular time.

PLT.5.2.4.4 Exceptions During R equest Handling
10 A portlet may throw either a PortletException, a PortletSecurityException or an UnavailableException during the processing of a request. A PortletException signals that an error has occurred during the processing of the request and that the portlet container should take appropriate measures to clean up the request. If a portlet throws an exception in the processAction method, all operations on the ActionResponse must be ignored and the render method must not be invoked within the current client request.xvii The portal/portlet-container should continue processing the other portlets visible in the portal page. A PortletSecurityException indicates that the request has been aborted because the user does not have sufficient rights. Upon receiving a PortletSecurityException, the portletcontainer should handle this exception in an appropriate manner. An UnavailableException signals that the portlet is unable to handle requests either temporarily or permanently. If a permanent unavailability is indicated by the UnavailableException, the portlet container must remove the portlet from service immediately, call the portlet’s destroy method, and release the portlet object.xviii A portlet that throws a permanent UnavailableException must be considered unavailable until the portlet application containing the portlet is restarted. When temporary unavailability is indicated by the UnavailableException, then the portlet container may choose not to route any requests to the portlet during the time period of the temporary unavailability. The portlet container may choose to ignore the distinction between a permanent and temporary unavailability and treat all UnavailableExceptions as permanent, thereby removing a portlet object that throws any UnavailableException from service. 35 A RuntimeException thrown during the request handling must be handled as a xix PortletException.

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When a portlet throws an exception, or when a portlet becomes unavailable, the portal/portlet-container may include a proper error message in the portal page returned to the user.

PLT.5.2.4.5 Thread Safety
5 Implementations of the request and response objects are not guaranteed to be thread safe. This means that they must only be used within the scope of the thread invoking the processAction and render methods. To remain portable, portlet applications should not give references of the request and response objects to objects executing in other threads as the resulting behavior may be non-deterministic.

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PLT.5.2.5 End of Service
The portlet container is not required to keep a portlet loaded for any particular period of time. A portlet object may be kept active in a portlet container for a period of milliseconds, for the lifetime of the portlet container (which could be a number of days, months, or years), or any amount of time in between. When the portlet container determines that a portlet should be removed from service, it calls the destroy method of the Portlet interface to allow the portlet to release any resources it is using and save any persistent state. For example, the portlet container may do this when it wants to conserve memory resources, or when it is being shut down. 20 Before the portlet container calls the destroy method, it should allow any threads that are currently processing requests within the portlet object to complete execution.To avoid waiting forever, the portlet container can optionally wait for a predefined time before destroying the portlet object. Once the destroy method is called on a portlet object, the portlet container must not route any requests to that portlet object.xx If the portlet container needs to enable the portlet again, it must do so with a new portlet object, which is a new instance of the portlet’s class.xxi If the portlet object throws a RuntimeException within the execution of the destroy method the portlet container must consider the portlet object successfully destroyed.xxii 30 After the destroy method completes, the portlet container must release the portlet object so that it is eligible for garbage collection.xxiii Portlet implementations should not use finalizers.

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PLT.6 Portlet Config
The PortletConfig object provides the portlet object with information to be used during initialization. It also provides access to the portlet context and the resource bundle that provides title-bar resources.

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PLT.6.1 Initialization Para meters
The getInitParameterNames and getInitParameter methods of the PortletConfig interface return the initialization parameter names and values found in the portlet definition in the deployment descriptor. 10

PLT.6.2 Portlet Resource B undle
Portlets may specify, in their deployment descriptor definition, some basic information that can be used for the portlet title-bar and for the portal’s categorization of the portlet. The specification defines a few resource elements for these purposes, title, short-title and keywords (see the PLT.21.10 Resource Bundles Section).

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These resource elements can be directly included in the portlet definition in the deployment descriptor, or they can be placed in a resource bundle. An example of a deployment descriptor defining portlet information inline could be:

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<portlet> ... <portlet-info> <title>Stock Quote Portlet</title> <short-title>Stock</short-title> <keywords>finance,stock market</keywords> </portlet-info> ... </portlet>

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If the resources are defined in a resource bundle, the portlet must provide the name of the resource bundle. An example of a deployment descriptor defining portlet information in resource bundles could be: 5
<portlet> ... <resource-bundle>com.foo.myApp.QuotePortlet</resource-bundle> ... </portlet>

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If the portlet definition defines a resource bundle, the portlet-container must look up these values in the ResourceBundle. If the root resource bundle does not contain the resources for these values and the values are defined inline, the portlet container must add the inline values as resources of the root resource bundle.xxiv If the portlet definition does not define a resource bundle and the information is defined inline in the deployment descriptor, the portlet container must create a ResourceBundle and populate it, with the inline values, using the keys defined in the PLT.21.10 Resource Bundles Section.xxv The render method of the GenericPortlet uses the ResourceBundle object of the PortletConfig to retrieve the title of the portlet from the associated ResourceBundle or the inline information in the portlet definition.

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PLT.7 Portlet URLs
As part of its content, a portlet may need to create URLs that reference the portlet itself. For example, when a user acts on a URL that references a portlet (i.e., by clicking a link or submitting a form) the result is a new client request to the portal targeted to the portlet. Those URLs are called portlet URLs.

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PLT.7.1 PortletURL
The Portlet API defines the PortletURL interface. Portlets must create portlet URLs using PortletURL objects. A portlet creates PortletURL objects invoking the createActionURL and the createRenderURL methods of the RenderResponse interface. The createActionURL method creates action URLs. The createRenderURL method creates render URLs. Because some portal/portlet-containers implementations may encode internal state as part of the URL query string, portlet developers should not code forms using the HTTP GET method. A render URL is an optimization for a special type of action URLs. The portal/portletcontainer must not invoke the processAction method of the targeted portlet.xxvi The portal/portlet-container must ensure that all the parameters set when constructing the render URL become render parameters of the subsequent render requests for the portlet.xxvii Render URLs should not be used for tasks that are not idempotent from the portlet perspective. Error conditions, cache expirations and changes of external data may affect the content generated by a portlet as result of a request triggered by a render URL. Render URLs should not be used within forms as the portal/portlet-container may ignore form parameters. Portlets can add application specific parameters to the PortletURL objects using the setParameter and setParameters methods. A call to any of the setParameter methods must replace any parameter with the same name previously set.xxviii All the parameters a portlet adds to a PortletURL object must be made available to the portlet as request parameters.xxix Portlet developers should note that the parameters of the current render request are not carried over when creating a PortletURL.

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The portlet-container must “x-www-form-urlencoded” encode parameter names and values added to a PortletURL object.xxx Portlet developers should not encode parameter names or values before adding them to a PortletURL object. 5 If a portal/portlet-container encodes additional information as parameters, it must encode them properly to avoid collisions with the parameters set and used by the portlet.xxxi Using the toString method, a portlet can obtain the string representation of the PortletURL for its inclusion in the portlet content. An example of creating a portlet URI would be: 10
... PortletURL url = response.createRenderURL(); url.setParameter(“customer”,”foo.com”); url.setParameter(“show”,”summary”); writer.print(“<A HREF=\””+url.toString()+”\”>Summary</A>”); ...

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Portlet developers should be aware that the string representation of a PortletURL may not be a well formed URL but a special token at the time the portlet is generating its content. Portal servers often use a technique called URL rewriting that post-processes the content resolving tokens into real URLs.

PLT.7.1.1 Including a Portlet Mode or a Window State
20 A portlet URL can include a specific portlet mode (see PLT.8 Portlet Modes Chapter) or window state (see PLT.9 Window States Chapter). The PortletURL interface has the setWindowState and setPortletMode methods for setting the portlet mode and window state in the portlet URL. For example:
... PortletURL url = response.createActionURL(); url.setParameter(“paymentMethod”,”creditCardInProfile”); url.setWindowState(WindowState.MAXIMIZED); writer.print(“<FORM METHOD=\”POST\” ACTION=\””+ url.toString()+”\”>”); ...

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A portlet cannot create a portlet URL using a portlet mode that is not defined as supported by the portlet or that the user it is not allowed to use. The setPortletMode methods must throw a PortletModeException in that situation.xxxii. The change of portlet mode must be effective for the request triggered by the portlet URL.xxxiii There are some exceptional circumstances, such as changes access control privileges, that could prevent the portlet mode change from happening. A portlet cannot create a portlet URL using a window state that is not supported by the portlet container. The setWindowState method must throw a WindowStateException if that is the case.xxxiv The change of window state should be effective for the request triggered by the portlet URL. The portlet should not assume that the request triggered by the portlet URL will be in the window state set as the portal/portlet-container could override the window state because of implementation dependencies between portlet modes and window states.

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PLT.7.1.2 Portlet URL securit y
The setSecure method of the PortletURL interface allows a portlet to indicate if the portlet URL has to be a secure URL or not (i.e. HTTPS or HTTP). If the setSecure method is not used, the portlet URL must be of the same security level of the current request.xxxv

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PLT.8 Portlet Modes
A portlet mode indicates the function a portlet is performing. Normally, portlets perform different tasks and create different content depending on the function they are currently performing. A portlet mode advises the portlet what task it should perform and what content it should generate. When invoking a portlet, the portlet container provides the current portlet mode to the portlet. Portlets can programmatically change their portlet mode when processing an action request. The Portlet Specification defines three portlet modes, VIEW, EDIT, and HELP. The PortletMode class defines constants for these portlet modes. The availability of the portlet modes, for a portlet, may be restricted to specific user roles by the portal. For example, anonymous users could be allowed to use the VIEW and HELP portlet modes but only authenticated users could use the EDIT portlet mode.

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PLT.8.1 VIEW Portlet Mod e
15 The expected functionality for a portlet in VIEW portlet mode is to generate markup reflecting the current state of the portlet. For example, the VIEW portlet mode of a portlet may include one or more screens that the user can navigate and interact with, or it may consist of static content that does not require any user interaction. Portlet developers should implement the VIEW portlet mode functionality by overriding the doView method of the GenericPortlet class. Portlets must support the VIEW portlet mode.

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PLT.8.2 EDIT Portlet Mod e
Within the EDIT portlet mode, a portlet should provide content and logic that lets a user customize the behavior of the portlet. The EDIT portlet mode may include one or more screens among which users can navigate to enter their customization data. Typically, portlets in EDIT portlet mode will set or update portlet preferences. Refer to PLT.14 Portlet Preferences Chapter for details on portlet preferences. Portlet developers should implement the EDIT portlet mode functionality by overriding the doEdit method of the GenericPortlet class. 30 Portlets are not required to support the EDIT portlet mode. JavaTM Portlet Specification, version 1.0 (10/07/2003) 35

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PLT.8.3 HELP Portlet Mod e
When in HELP portlet mode, a portlet should provide help information about the portlet. This help information could be a simple help screen explaining the entire portlet in coherent text or it could be context-sensitive help. 5 Portlet developers should implement the HELP portlet mode functionality by overriding the doHelp method of the GenericPortlet class. Portlets are not required to support the HELP portlet mode.

PLT.8.4 Custom Portlet M odes
Portal vendors may define custom portlet modes for vendor specific functionality. 10 Portlets can only use portlet modes that are defined by the portal. Portlets must define the custom portlet modes they intend to use in the deployment descriptor using the customportlet-mode element. At deployment time, the custom portlet modes defined in the deployment descriptors should be mapped to custom portlet modes supported by the portal implementation. If a custom portlet mode defined in the deployment descriptor is not mapped to a custom portlet mode provided by the portal, portlets must not be invoked in that portlet mode. For example, the deployment descriptor for a portlet application containing portlets that support clipboard and config custom portlet modes would have the following definition: 20
<portlet-app> ... <custom-portlet-mode> <description>Creates content for Cut and Paste</description> <name>clipboard</name> </custom-portlet-mode> <custom-portlet-mode> <description>Provides administration functions</description> <name>config</name> </custom-portlet-mode> ... </portlet-app>

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The PLT.A Extended Portlet Modes appendix defines a list of portlet mode names and their suggested utilization. Portals implementing these predefined custom portlet modes could do an automatic mapping when custom portlet modes with those names are defined in the deployment descriptor.

PLT.8.5 GenericPortlet Re nder Handling
The GenericPortlet class implementation of the render method dispatches requests to the doView, doEdit or doHelp method depending on the portlet mode indicated in the request using the doDispatch method.xxxvi If the portlet provides support for custom portlet modes, the portlet should override the doDispatch method of the GenericPortlet. JavaTM Portlet Specification, version 1.0 (10/07/2003) 36

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PLT.8.6 Defining Portlet M odes Support
Portlets must describe within their definition, in the deployment descriptor, the portlet modes they can handle for each markup type they support. As all portlets must support the VIEW portlet mode, VIEW does not have to be indicated.xxxvii The portlet must not be invoked in a portlet mode that has not been declared as supported for a given markup type.xxxviii The following example shows a snippet of the portlet modes a portlet defines as supporting in its deployment descriptor definition: 10
... <supports> <mime-type>text/html</mime-type> <portlet-mode>edit</portlet-mode> <portlet-mode>help</portlet-mode> ... </supports> <supports> <mime-type>text/vnd.wap.wml</mime-type> <portlet-mode>help</portlet-mode> ... </supports> ...

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For HTML markup, this portlet supports the EDIT and HELP portlet modes in addition to the required VIEW portlet mode. For WML markup, it supports the VIEW and HELP portlet modes. The portlet container must ignore all references to custom portlet modes that are not supported by the portal implementation, or that have no mapping to portlet modes supported by the portal.xxxix

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PLT.9 Window States
A window state is an indicator of the amount of portal page space that will be assigned to the content generated by a portlet. When invoking a portlet, the portlet-container provides the current window state to the portlet. The portlet may use the window state to decide how much information it should render. Portlets can programmatically change their window state when processing an action request. The Portlet Specification defines three window states, NORMAL, MAXIMIZED and MINIMIZED. The WindowState class defines constants for these window states. 10

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PLT.9.1 NORMAL Window State
The NORMAL window state indicates that a portlet may be sharing the page with other portlets. It may also indicate that the target device has limited display capabilities. Therefore, a portlet should restrict the size of its rendered output in this window state.

PLT.9.2 MAXIMIZED Wind ow State
15 The MAXIMIZED window state is an indication that a portlet may be the only portlet being rendered in the portal page, or that the portlet has more space compared to other portlets in the portal page. A portlet may generate richer content when its window state is MAXIMIZED.

PLT.9.3 MINIMIZED Wind ow State
20 When a portlet is in MINIMIZED window state, the portlet should only render minimal output or no output at all.

PLT.9.4 Custom Window S tates
Portal vendors may define custom window states. 25 Portlets can only use window states that are defined by the portal. Portlets must define the custom window states they intend to use in the deployment descriptor using the customwindow-state element. At deployment time, the custom window states defined in the deployment descriptors should be mapped to custom window states supported by the portal implementation.

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If a custom window state defined in the deployment descriptor is not mapped to a custom window state provided by the portal, portlets must not be invoked in that window state.xl For example, the deployment descriptor for a portlet application containing portlets that use a custom half_page window state would have the following definition: 5
<portlet-app> ... <custom-window-state> <description>Occupies 50% of the portal page</description> <name>half_page</name> </custom-window-state> ... </portlet-app>

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PLT.10 Portlet Context
The PortletContext interface defines a portlet’s view of the portlet application within which the portlet is running. Using the PortletContext object, a portlet can log events, obtain portlet application resources, and set and store attributes that other portlets and servlets in the portlet application can access.

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PLT.10.1 Scope of the Portle t Context
There is one instance of the PortletContext interface associated with each portlet application deployed into a portlet container.xli In cases where the container is distributed over many virtual machines, a portlet application will have an instance of the xlii PortletContext interface for each VM.

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PLT.10.2 Portlet Context fu nctionality
Through the PortletContext interface, it is possible to access context initialization parameters, retrieve and store context attributes, obtain static resources from the portlet application and obtain a request dispatcher to include servlets and JSPs.

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PLT.10.3 Relationship with the Servlet Context
A portlet application is an extended web application. As a web application, a portlet application also has a servlet context. The portlet context leverages most of its functionality from the servlet context of the portlet application. 20 The context-wide initialization parameters are the same as initialization parameters of the servlet context and the context attributes are shared with the servlet context. Therefore, they must be defined in the web application deployment descriptor (the web.xml file). The initialization parameters accessible through the PortletContext must be the same that are accessible through the ServletContext of the portlet application.xliii Context attributes set using the PortletContext must be stored in the ServletContext of the portlet application. A direct consequence of this is that data stored in the ServletContext by servlets or JSPs is accessible to portlets through the xliv PortletContext and vice versa. The PortletContext must offer access to the same set of resources the xlv ServletContext exposes.

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The PortletContext must handle the same temporary working directory the ServletContext handles. It must be accessible as a context attribute using the same constant defined in the Servlet Specification 2.3 SVR 3 Servlet Context Chapter, xlvi javax.servlet.context.tempdir. The portlet context must follow the same behavior and functionality that the servlet context has for virtual hosting and reloading considerations. (see Servlet Specification 2.3 SVR 3 Servlet Context Chapter)xlvii:

PLT.10.3.1 Correspondence be tween ServletContext and PortletContext methods
10 The following methods of the PortletContext should provide the same functionality as the methods of the ServletContext of similar name: getAttribute,
getAttributeNames, getInitParameter, getInitParameterNames, getMimeType, getRealPath, getResource, getResourcePaths, getResourceAsStream, log, removeAttribute and setAttribute.

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PLT.11 Portlet Requests
The request objects encapsulate all information about the client request, parameters, request content data, portlet mode, window state, etc. A request object is passed to processAction and render methods of the portlet.

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PLT.11.1 PortletRequest Int erface
The PortletRequest interface defines the common functionality for the ActionRequest and RenderRequest interfaces.

PLT.11.1.1 Request Parameter s
10 If a portlet receives a request from a client request targeted to the portlet itself, the parameters must be the string parameters encoded in the URL (added when creating the PortletURL) and the string parameters sent by the client to the portlet as part of the client request.xlviii The parameters the request object returns must be "x-www-formxlix urlencoded" decoded. The portlet-container must not propagate parameters received in an action request to subsequent render requests of the portlet.l If a portlet wants to do that, it can use render URLs or it must use the setRenderParameter or setRenderParameters methods of the ActionResponse object within the processAction call. If a portlet receives a render request that is the result of a client request targeted to another portlet in the portal page, the parameters must be the same parameters as of the previous render request.li If a portlet receives a render request following an action request as part of the same client request, the parameters received with render request must be the render parameters set during the action request.lii 25 Commonly, portals provide controls to change the portlet mode and the window state of portlets. The URLs these controls use are generated by the portal. Client requests triggered by those URLs must be treated as render URLs and the existing render parameters must be preserved.liii A portlet must not see any parameter targeted to other portlets.liv

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The parameters are stored as a set of name-value pairs. Multiple parameter values can exist for any given parameter name. The following methods of the PortletRequest interface are available to access parameters: 5
• • • •
getParameter getParameterNames getParameterValues getParameterMap

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The getParameterValues method returns an array of String objects containing all the parameter values associated with a parameter name. The value returned from the getParameter method must be the first value in the array of String objects returned by lv getParameterValues . If there is a single parameter value associated with a parameter name the method returns must return an array of size one containing the parameter value.lvi. The getParameterMap method must return an unmodifiable Map object. If the request does not have any parameter, the getParameterMap must return an empty Map object.

PLT.11.1.2 Extra Request Para meters
The portal/portlet-container implementation may add extra parameters to portlet URLs to help the portal/portlet-container route and process client requests. 20 Extra parameters used by the portal/portlet-container must be invisible to the portlets receiving the request. lvii It is the responsibility of the portal/portlet-container to properly encode these extra parameters to avoid name collisions with parameters the portlets define. Parameter names beginning with the “javax.portlet.” prefix are reserved for definition by this specification for use by portal/portlet-container implementations. 25

PLT.11.1.3 Request Attributes
Request attributes are objects associated with a portlet during a single portlet request. Request attributes may be set by the portlet or the portlet container to express information that otherwise could not be expressed via the API. Request attributes can be used to share information with a servlet or JSP being included via the PortletRequestDispatcher.

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Attributes are set, obtained and removed using the following methods of the PortletRequest interface:
• • • •
getAttribute getAttributeNames setAttribute removeAttribute

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Only one attribute value may be associated with an attribute name. Attribute names beginning with the “javax.portlet.” prefix are reserved for definition by this specification. It is suggested that all attributes placed into the attribute set be named in accordance with the reverse domain name convention suggested by the Java Programming Language Specification 1 for package naming. JavaTM Portlet Specification, version 1.0 (10/07/2003) 44

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PLT.11.1.4 Request Properties
A portlet can access portal/portlet-container specific properties and, if available, the headers of the HTTP client request through the following methods of the methods of the PortletRequest interface: 5
• getProperty • getProperties • getPropertyNames

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There can be multiple properties with the same name. If there are multiple properties with the same name, the getProperty method returns the first property value. The getProperties method allows access to all the property values associated with a particular property name, returning an Enumeration of String objects. Depending on the underlying web-server/servlet-container and the portal/portletcontainer implementation, client request HTTP headers may not be always available. Portlets should not rely on the presence of headers to function properly. The PortletRequest interface provides specific methods to access information normally available as HTTP headers: content-length, content-type, accept-language. Portlets should use the specific methods for retrieving those values as the portal/portlet-container implementation may use other means to determine that information.

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PLT.11.1.5 Request Context Pa th
20 The context path of a request is exposed via the request object. The context path is the path prefix associated with the deployed portlet application. If the portlet application is rooted at the base of the web server URL namespace (also known as "default" context), this path must be an empty string.lviii Otherwise, it must be the path the portlet application is rooted to, the path must start with a '/' and it must not end with a '/' character.lix

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PLT.11.1.6 Security Attributes
The PortletRequest interface offers a set of methods that provide security information about the user and the connection between the user and the portal. These methods are:
• • • • •
getAuthType getRemoteUser getUserPrincipal isUserInRole isSecure

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The getAuthType indicates the authentication scheme being used between the user and the portal. It may return one of the defined constants (BASIC_AUTH, DIGEST_AUTH, CERT_AUTH and FORM_AUTH) or another String value that represents a vendor provided authentication type. If the user is not authenticated the getAuthType method must return lx null. The getRemoteUser method returns the login name of the user making this request.

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The getUserPrincipal method returns a java.security.Principal object containing the name of the authenticated user. JavaTM Portlet Specification, version 1.0 (10/07/2003) 45

The isUserInRole method indicates if an authenticated user is included in the specified logical role. The isSecure method indicates if the request has been transmitted over a secure protocol such as HTTPS. 5

PLT.11.1.7 Response Content T ypes
Portlet developers may code portlets to support multiple content types. A portlet can obtain, using the getResponseContentType method of the request object, a string representing the default content type the portlet container assumes for the output.

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If the portlet container supports additional content types for the portlet’s output, it must declare the additional content types through the getResponseContentTypes method of the request object. The returned Enumeration of strings should contain the content types the portlet container supports in order of preference. The first element of the enumeration must be the same content type returned by the getResponseContentType method.lxi If a portlet defines support for all content types using a wildcard and the portlet container supports all content types, the getResponseContentType may return the wildcard or the portlet container preferred content type. The getResponseContentTypes method must return only the content types supported by the current portlet mode of the portlet.lxii

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PLT.11.1.8 Internationalization
20 The portal/portlet-container decides what locale will be used for creating the response for a user. The portal/portlet-container may use information that the client sends with the request. For example the Accept-Language header along with other mechanisms described in the HTTP/1.1 specification. The getLocale method is provided in the PortletRequest interface to inform the portlet about the locale of user the portal/portletcontainer has chosen.

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PLT.11.1.9 Portlet Mode
The getPortletMode method of the PortletRequest interface allows a portlet to find out its current portlet mode. A portlet may be restricted to work with a subset of the portlet modes supported by the portal/portlet-container. A portlet can use the isPortletModeAllowed method of the PortletRequest interface to find out if the portlet is allowed to use a portlet mode. A portlet mode is not allowed if the portlet mode is not in the portlet definition or, the portlet or the user has been constrained further by the portal.

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PLT.11.1.10 Window State
35 The getWindowState method of the PortletRequest interface allows a portlet to find out its current window state.

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A portlet may be restricted to work with a subset of the window states supported by the portal/portlet-container. A portlet can use the isWindowStateAllowed method of the PortletRequest interface to find out if the portlet is allowed to use a window state.

PLT.11.2 ActionRequest Int erface
5 The ActionRequest interface extends the PortletRequest interface and it is used in the processAction method of the Portlet interface. In addition to the functionality provided by the PortletRequest interface, the ActionRequest interface gives access to the input stream of the request.

PLT.11.2.1 Retrieving Uploade d Data
10 The input stream is useful when the client request contains HTTP POST data of type other than application/x-www-form-urlencoded. For example, when a file is uploaded to the portlet as part of a user interaction. As a convenience to the portlet developer, the ActionRequest interface also provides a getReader method that retrieves the HTTP POST data as character data according to the character encoding defined in the user request. Only one of the two methods, getPortletInputStream or getReader, can be used during an action request. If the input stream is obtained, a call to the getReader must throw an IllegalStateException. Similarly, if the reader is obtained, a call to the lxiii getPortletInputStream must throw an IllegalStateException.

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To help manage the input stream, the ActionRequest interface also provides the following methods:
• •
getContentType getCharacterEncoding setCharacterEncoding getContentLength

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• •

The setCharacterEncoding method only sets the character set for the Reader that the getReader method returns. 10 If the user request HTTP POST data is of type application/x-www-form-urlencoded, this data has been already processed by the portal/portlet-container and is available as request parameters. The getPortletInputStream and getReader methods must throw an IllegalStateException if called.lxiv

PLT.11.3 RenderRequest In terface
15 The RenderRequest interface extends the PortletRequest interface and is used in the render method of the Portlet interface. Currently, the RenderRequest interface does not define any additional method.

PLT.11.4 Lifetime of the Re quest Objects
Each request object is valid only within the scope of a particular processAction or render method call. Containers commonly recycle request objects in order to avoid the performance overhead of request object creation. The developer must be aware that maintaining references to request objects outside the scope described above may lead to non-deterministic behavior.

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PLT.12 Portlet Responses
The response objects encapsulate all information to be returned from the portlet to the portlet container during a request: a redirection, a portlet mode change, title, content, etc. The portal/portlet-container will use this information to construct the response -usually a portal page- to be returned to the client. A response object is passed to the processAction and the render methods of the portlet.

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PLT.12.1 PortletResponse In terface
The 10
PortletResponse interface defines the ActionResponse and RenderResponse interfaces.

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PLT.12.1.1 Response Propertie s
Properties can be used by portlets to send vendor specific information to the portal/portlet-container. 15 A portlet can set properties using the following methods of the PortletResponse interface:
• setProperty • addProperty

20

The setProperty method sets a property with a given name and value. A previous property is replaced by the new property. Where a set of property values exist for the name, the values are cleared and replaced with the new value. The addProperty method adds a property value to the set with a given name. If there are no property values already associated with the name, a new set is created.

PLT.12.1.2 Encoding of URLs
25 Portlets may generate content with URLs referring to other resources within the portal, such as servlets, JSPs, images and other static files. Some portal/portlet-container implementations may require those URLs to contain implementation specific data encoded in it. Because of that, portlets should use the encodeURL method to create such URLs. The encodeURL method may include the session ID and other portal/portletcontainer specific information into the URL. If encoding is not needed, it returns the URL unchanged.

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PLT.12.2 ActionResponse In terface
The ActionResponse interface extends the PortletResponse interface and it is used in the processAction method of the Portlet interface. This interface allows a portlet to redirect the user to another URL, set render parameters, change the window state of the portlet and change the portlet mode of the portlet.

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PLT.12.2.1 Redirections
The sendRedirect method instructs the portal/portlet-container to set the appropriate headers and content body to redirect the user to a different URL. A fully qualified URL or a full path URL must be specified. If a relative path URL is given, an lxv IllegalArgumentException must be thrown. If the sendRedirect method is called after the setPortletMode, setWindowState, setRenderParameter or setRenderParameters methods of the ActionResponse interface, an IllegalStateException must be thrown and the redirection must not be executed.lxvi 15

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PLT.12.2.2 Portlet Modes and W indow State Changes
The setPortletMode method allows a portlet to change its current portlet mode. The new portlet mode would be effective in the following render request. If a portlet attempts to set a portlet mode that is not allowed to switch to, a PortletModeException must be thrown.lxvii

20

The setWindowState method allows a portlet to change its current window state. The new window state would be effective in the following render request. If a portlet attempts to set a window state that it is not allowed to switch to, a WindowStateException must be thrown.lxviii Portlets cannot assume that subsequent renders will be called in the set portlet mode or window state as the portal/portlet-container could override these changes. If the setPortletMode or setWindowState methods are called after the sendRedirect method has been called an IllegalStateException must be thrown.lxix If the exception is caught by the portlet, the redirection must be executed.lxx If the exception is propagated back to the portlet-container, the redirection must not be executed.lxxi

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PLT.12.2.3 Render Parameters
Using the setRenderParameter and setRenderParameters methods of the ActionResponse interface portlets may set render parameters during an action request. A call to any of the setRenderParameter methods must replace any parameter with the same name previously set. lxxiiThese parameters will be used in all subsequent render requests until a new client request targets the portlet. If no render parameters are set during the processAction invocation, the render request must not contain any request parameters.lxxiii JavaTM Portlet Specification, version 1.0 (10/07/2003)

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Portlet developers do not need to “x-www-form-urlencoded” encode render parameters names and values set in the ActionResponse. If the setRenderParameter or setRenderParameters methods are called after the lxxiv sendRedirect method has been called an IllegalStateException must be thrown. If the exception is caught by the portlet, the redirection must be executed. If the exception is propagated back to the portlet-container, the redirection must not be executed.lxxv

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PLT.12.3 RenderResponse I nterface
The RenderResponse interface extends the PortletResponse interface and it is used in the render method of the Portlet interface. This interface allows a portlet to set its title and generate content.

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PLT.12.3.1 Content Type
A portlet must set the content type of the response using the setContentType method of the RenderResponse interface. The setContentType method must throw an IllegalArgumentException if the content type set does not match (including wildcard matching) any of the content types returned by the getResponseContentType method of the PortleRequest objectlxxvi. The portlet container should ignore any character encoding specified as part of the content type. If the getWriter or getPortletOutputStream methods are called before the lxxvii setContentType method, they must throw an IllegalStateException. 20 The
setContentType method must be called before the getWriter getPortletOutputStream methods. If called after, it should be ignored.

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or

If the portlet has set a content type, the getContentType method must return it. Otherwise, the getContentType method must return null.lxxviii

PLT.12.3.2 Output Stream and Writer Objects
25 A portlet may generate its content by writing to the OutputStream or to the Writer of the RenderResponse object. A portlet must use only one of these objects. The portlet container must throw an IllegalStateException if a portlet attempts to use both.lxxix The termination of the render method of the portlet indicates that the portlet has satisfied the request and that the output object is to be closed. 30 The raw OutputStream is available because of some servlet container implementations requirements and for portlets that do not generate markup fragments. If a portlet utilizes the OutputStream, the portlet is responsible of using the proper character encoding.

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PLT.12.3.3 Buffering
A portlet container is allowed, but not required, to buffer output going to the client for efficiency purposes. Typically servers that do buffering make it the default, but allow portlets to specify buffering parameters. 5 The following methods in the RenderResponse interface allow a portlet to access and set buffering information:
• • • • • •
getBufferSize setBufferSize isCommitted reset resetBuffer flushBuffer

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These methods are provided on the RenderResponse interface to allow buffering operations to be performed whether the portlet is using an OutputStream or a Writer. 15 The getBufferSize method returns the size of the underlying buffer being used. If no buffering is being used, this method must return the int value of 0 (zero).lxxx The portlet can request a preferred buffer size by using the setBufferSize method. The buffer assigned is not required to be the size requested by the portlet, but must be at least as large as the size requested.lxxxi This allows the container to reuse a set of fixed size buffers, providing a larger buffer than requested if appropriate. The method should be called before any content is written using a OutputStream or Writer. If any content has been written, this method may throw an IllegalStateException. The isCommitted method returns a boolean value indicating whether any response bytes have been returned to the client. The flushBuffer method forces content in the buffer to be written to the client. The reset method clears data in the buffer when the response is not committed. Properties set by the portlet prior to the reset call must be cleared as well.lxxxii The resetBuffer method clears content in the buffer if the response is not committed without clearing the properties. 30 If the response is committed and the reset or resetBuffer method is called, an lxxxiii IllegalStateException must be thrown. The response and its associated buffer must be unchanged.lxxxiv When using a buffer, the container must immediately flush the contents of a filled buffer to the client.lxxxv If this is the first data that is sent to the client, the response must be considered as committed.

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PLT.12.3.4 Namespace encodin g
Within their content, portlets may include elements that must be unique within the whole portal page. JavaScript functions and variables are an example of this.

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The getNamespace method must provide the portlet with a mechanism that ensures the uniqueness of the returned string in the whole portal page.lxxxvi For example, the getNamespace method would return a unique string that could be prefixed to a JavaScript variable name within the content generated by the portlet, ensuring its uniqueness in the whole page. The getNamespace method must return the same value if invoked multiple times within a render request.lxxxvii The getNamespace method must return a valid identifier as defined in the 3.8 Identifier Section of the Java Language Specification Second Edition.lxxxviii

PLT.12.3.5 Portlet Title
10 A portlet may indicate to the portal/portlet-container its preferred title. It is up to the portal/portlet-container to use the preferred title set by the portlet. The setTitle method must be called before the output of the portlet has been commited, if called after it should be ignored.lxxxix

PLT.12.4 Lifetime of Respon se Objects
15 Each response object is valid only within the scope of a particular processAction or render method call. Containers commonly recycle response objects in order to avoid the performance overhead of response object creation. The developer must be aware that maintaining references to response objects outside the scope described above may lead to non-deterministic behavior.

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PLT.13 Portal Context
The PortalContext interface provides information about the portal that is invoking the portlet. 5 The getPortalInfo method returns information such as the portal vendor and portal version. The getProperty and getPropertyNames methods return portal properties. The getSupportedPortletModes method returns the portlet modes supported by the portal. 10 The getSupportedWindowStates method returns the window states supported by the portal.
getPortalContext

A portlet obtains a PortalContext object from the request object using method.

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PLT.14 Portlet Preferences
Portlets are commonly configured to provide a customized view or behavior for different users. This configuration is represented as a persistent set of name-value pairs and it is referred to as portlet preferences. The portlet container is responsible for the details of retrieving and storing these preferences. Portlet preferences are intended to store basic configuration data for portlets. It is not the purpose of the portlet preferences to replace general purpose databases.

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PLT.14.1 PortletPreferences Interface
10 Portlets have access to their preferences attributes through the PortletPreferences interface. Portlets have access to the associated PortletPreferences object while they are processing requests. Portlets may only modify preferences attributes during a processAction invocation. Preference attributes are String array objects. Preferences attributes can be set to null.xc 15 To access and manipulate preference attributes, the PortletPreferences interface provides the following methods:
• • • • • • • • •
getNames getValue setValue getValues setValues getMap isReadOnly reset store

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The getMap method returns an immutable Map of String keys and String[] values containing all current preference values. Preferences values must not be modified if the values in the Map are altered.xci The getValue and setValue methods are convenience methods for dealing with single values. If a preference attribute has multiple values, the getValue method returns the first value. The setValue method sets a single value into a preferences attribute. The following code sample demonstrates how a stock quote portlet would retrieve from its preferences object, the preferred stock symbols, the URL of the backend quoting services and the quote refresh frequency.

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PortletPreferences prefs = req.getPreferences(); String[] symbols = prefs.getValues(”preferredStockSymbols”, new String[]{”ACME”,”FOO”}); String url = prefs.getValue(”quotesFeedURL”,null); int refreshInterval = Integer.parseInt(prefs.getValue(”refresh”,”10”));

10

The reset method must reset a preference attribute to its default value. If there is no default value, the preference attribute must be deleted.xcii It is left to the vendor to specify how and from where the default value is obtained. If a preference attribute is read only, the setValue, setValues and reset methods must throw a ReadOnlyException when the portlet is in any of the standard modes.xciii The store method must persist all the changes made to the PortletPreferences object in the persistent store.xciv If the call returns successfully, it is safe to assume the changes are permanent. The store method must be conducted as an atomic transaction regardless of how many preference attributes have been modified.xcv The portlet container implementation is responsible for handling concurrent writes to avoid inconsistency in portlet preference attributes. All changes made to PortletPreferences object not followed by a call to the store method must be discarded when the portlet finishes the xcvi processAction method. If the store method is invoked within the scope of a xcvii render method invocation, it must throw an IllegalStateException. The PortletPreferences object must reflect the current values of the persistent store when the portlet container invokes the processAction and render methods of the portlet. xcviii

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PLT.14.2 Preference Attribu tes Scopes
Portlet Specification assumes preference attributes are user specific, it does not make any provision at API level or at semantic level for sharing preference attributes among users. If a portal/portlet-container implementation provides an extension mechanism for sharing preference attributes, it should be well documented how the sharing of preference attributes works. Sharing preference attributes may have significant impact on the behavior of a portlet. In many circumstances it could be inappropriate sharing attributes that are meant to be private or confidential to the user.

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PLT.14.3 Preference Attribu tes definition
The portlet definition may define the preference attributes a portlet uses. 35 A preference attribute definition may include initial default values. A preference attribute definition may also indicate if the attribute is read only. An example of a fragment of preferences attributes definition in the deployment descriptor would be:

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<portlet> ... <!—- Portlet Preferences --> <portlet-preferences> <preference> <name>PreferredStockSymbols</name> <value>FOO</value> <value>XYZ</value> <read-only>true</read-only> </preference> <preference> <name>quotesFeedURL</name> <value>http://www.foomarket.com/quotes</value> </preference> </portlet-preferences> </portlet>

20

If a preference attribute definition does not contain the read-only element set to true, the preference attribute is modifiable when the portlet is processing an action request in any of the standard portlet modes (VIEW, EDIT or HELP).xcix Portlets may change the value of modifiable preference attributes using the setValue, setValues and reset methods of the PortletPreferences interface. Deployers may use the read-only element set to true to fix certain preference values at deployment time. Portal/portlet-containers may allow changing read-only preference attributes while performing administration tasks. Portlets are not restricted to use preference attributes defined in the deployment descriptor. They can programmatically add preference attributes using names not defined in the deployment descriptor. These preferences attributes must be treated as modifiable attributes. c Portal administration and configuration tools may use and change, default preference attributes when creating a new portlet preferences objects. In addition, the portal may further constraint the modifiability of preferences values.

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PLT.14.3.1 Localizing Preferen ce Attributes
The Portlet Specification does not define a specific mechanism for localizing preference attributes. It leverages the J2SE ResourceBundle classes. 35 To enable localization support of preference attributes for administration and configuration tools, developers should adhere to the following naming convention for entries in the portlet’s ResourceBundle (see the PLT.21.10 Resource Bundles Section). Entries be ‘javax.portlet.preference.description.<attribute-name>', <attribute-name> is the preference attribute name. 40 Entries for preference attribute names for preference attribute descriptions should constructed as where

should be constructed as ‘javax.portlet.preference.name.<attribute-name>', where <attribute-name> is the preference attribute name. These values should be used as localized preference display names.

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Entries for preference attribute values that require localization should be constructed as 'javax.portlet.preference.value.<attribute-name>.<attribute-value>', where <attribute-name> is the preference attribute name and <attribute-value> is the localized preference attribute value. 5

PLT.14.4 Validating Prefere nce values
A class implementing the PreferencesValidator interface can be associated with the preferences definition in the deployment descriptor, as shown in the following example:

10

<!—- Portlet Preferences --> <portlet-preferences> ... <preferences-validator> com.foo.portlets.XYZValidator </preferences-validator> </portlet-preferences> A PreferencesValidator

15

implementation must be coded in a thread safe manner as the portlet container may invoke concurrently from several requests. If a portlet definition includes a validator, the portlet container must create a single validator instance per portlet definition.ci If the application is a distributed application, the portlet container must create an instance per VM.cii When a validator is associated with the preferences of a portlet definition, the store method of the PortletPreferences implementation must invoke the validate method of the validator before writing the changes to the persistent store.ciii If the validation fails, the PreferencesValidator implementation must throw a ValidatorException. If a ValidatorException is thrown, the portlet container must cancel the store operation and it must propagate the exception to the portlet.civ If the validation is successful, the store operation must be completed.cv When creating a ValidatorException, portlet developers may include the set of preference attributes that caused the validator to fail. It is left to the developers to indicate the first preference attribute that failed or the name of all the invalid preference attributes.

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PLT.15 Sessions
To build effective portlet applications, it is imperative that requests from a particular client be associated with each other. There are many session tracking approaches such as HTTP Cookies, SSL Sessions or URL rewriting. To free the programmer from having to deal with session tracking directly, this specification defines a PortletSession interface that allows a portal/portlet-container to use any of the approaches to track a user’s session without involving the developers in the nuances of any one approach.

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PLT.15.1 Creating a Session
10 A session is considered “new” when it is only a prospective session and has not been established. Because the Portlet Specification is designed around a request-response based protocol (HTTP would be an example of this type of protocol) a session is considered to be new until a client “joins” it. A client joins a session when session tracking information has been returned to the server indicating that a session has been established. Until the client joins a session, it cannot be assumed that the next request from the client will be recognized as part of a session. The session is considered to be “new” if either of the following is true: • • 20 The client does not yet know about the session The client chooses not to join a session

15

These conditions define the situation where the portlet container has no mechanism by which to associate a request with a previous request. A portlet developer must design the application to handle a situation where a client has not, cannot, or will not join a session. For portlets within the same portlet application, a portlet container must ensure that every portlet request generated as result of a group of requests originated from the portal to complete a single client request receive or acquire the same session.cvi In addition, if within these portlet requests more than one portlet creates a session, the session object must be the same for all the portlets in the same portlet application.cvii

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PLT.15.2 Session Scope
PortletSession

objects must be scoped at the portlet application context level.cviii

5

Each portlet application has its own distinct PortletSession object per user session. The portlet container must not share the PortletSession object or the attributes stored in it among different portlet applications or among different user sessions.cix

PLT.15.3 Binding Attributes into a Session
A portlet can bind an object attribute into a PortletSession by name.
PortletSession interface defines APPLICATION_SCOPE and PORTLET_SCOPE.

The

two

scopes

for

storing

objects,

10

Any object stored in the session using the APPLICATION_SCOPE is available to any other portlet that belongs to the same portlet application and that handles a request identified as being a part of the same session.cx Objects stored in the session using the PORTLET_SCOPE must be available to the portlet during requests for the same portlet window that the objects where stored from.cxi The object must be stored in the APPLICATION_SCOPE with the following fabricated attribute name ‘javax.portlet.p.<ID>?<ATTRIBUTE_NAME>’. <ID> is a unique identification for the portlet window (assigned by the portal/portlet-container) that must not contain a ‘?’ character.cxii <ATTRIBUTE_NAME> is the attribute name used to set the object in the PORTLET_SCOPE of the portlet session. Attributes stored in the PORTLET_SCOPE are not protected from other web components of the portlet application. They are just conveniently namespaced. The setAttribute method of the PortletSession interface binds an object to the session into the specified scope. For example:

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PortletSession session = request.getSession(true); URL url = new URL(“http://www.foo.com”); session.setAttribute(“home.url”,url,PortletSession.APPLICATION_SCOPE); session.setAttribute(“bkg.color”,”RED”,PortletSession.PORTLET_SCOPE);

The getAttribute method from the PortletSession interface is used to retrieve attributes stored in the session. 30 To remove objects from the session, the removeAttribute method is provided by the PortletSession interface. Objects that need to know when they are placed into a session, or removed from a session must implement the HttpSessionBindingListener of the servlet API (see Servlet Specification 2.3, SRV.7.4 Section). The PortletSessionUtil class provides utility methods to help determine the scope of the object in the PortletSession. If the object was stored in the PORTLET_SCOPE, the decodeAttributeName method of the PortletSessionUtil class allows retrieving the attribute name without any portletcontainer fabricated prefix. Portlet developers should always use the JavaTM Portlet Specification, version 1.0 (10/07/2003) 62

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PortletSessionUtil

class to deal with attributes in the PORTLET_SCOPE when accessing them through the servlet API.

PLT.15.4 Relationship with the Web Application HttpSession
5 A Portlet Application is also a Web Application. The Portlet Application may contain servlets and JSPs in addition to portlets. Portlets, servlets and JSPs may share information through their session. The PortletSession must store all attributes in the HttpSession of the portlet application. A direct consequence of this is that data stored in the HttpSession by servlets or JSPs is accessible to portlets through the PortletSession in the portlet application scope.cxiii Conversely, data stored by portlets in the PortletSession in the portlet application scope is accessible to servlets and JSPs through the HttpSession. cxiv If the HttpSession object is invalidated, the PortletSession object must also be invalidated by the portlet container.cxv If the PortletSession object is invalidated by a portlet, the portlet container must invalidate the associated HttpSession object.cxvi 15

10

PLT.15.4.1 HttpSession Method Mapping
The getCreationTime, getId, getLastAccessedTime, getMaxInactiveInterval, invalidate, isNew and setMaxInactiveInterval methods of the PortletSession interface must provide the same functionality as the methods of the HttpSession interface with identical names.

20

The getAttribute, setAttribute, removeAttribute and getAttributeNames methods of the PortletSession interface must provide the same functionality as the methods of the HttpSession interface with identical names adhering to the following rules: • The attribute names must be the same if APPLICATION_SCOPE scope is used.cxvii The attribute name has to conform with the specified prefixing if PORTLET_SCOPE is used.cxviii The variant of these methods that does not receive a scope must be treated as PORTLET_SCOPE.cxix

25 • • 30

PLT.15.5 Reserved HttpSess ion Attribute Names
Session attribute names starting with “javax.portlet.” are reserved for usage by the Portlet Specification and for Portlet Container vendors. A Portlet Container vendor may use this reserved namespace to store implementation specific components. Application Developers must not use attribute names starting with this prefix.

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PLT.15.6 Session Timeouts
The portlet session follows the timeout behavior of the servlet session as defined in the Servlet Specification 2.3, SRV.7.5 Section.

PLT.15.7 Last Accessed Tim es
5 The portlet session follows the last accessed times behavior of the servlet session as defined in the Servlet Specification 2.3, SRV.7.6 Section.

PLT.15.8 Important Session Semantics
The portlet session follows the same semantic considerations as the servlet session as defined in the Servlet Specification 2.3, SRV.7.7.3 Section. 10 These considerations include Threading Issues, Distributed Environments and Client Semantics.cxx

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PLT.16 Dispatching Requests to Servlets and JSPs
Portlets 5 delegate the creation of content to servlets and JSPs. PortletRequestDispatcher interface provides a mechanism to accomplish this. can The

Servlets and JSPs invoked from within portlet should generate markup fragments following the recommendations of the PLT.B Markup Fragment Appendix.

PLT.16.1 Obtaining a Portle tRequestDispatcher
A portlet may use a PortletRequestDispatcher object only when executing the render method of the Portlet interface. PortletRequestDispatcher objects may be obtained using one of the following methods of the PortletContext object:
• getRequestDispatcher • getNamedDispatcher

10

15

The getRequestDispatcher method takes a String argument describing a path within the scope of the PortletContext of a portlet application. This path must begin with a ‘/’ and it is relative to the PortletContext root. cxxi The getNamedDispatcher method takes a String argument indicating the name of a servlet known to the PortletContext of the portlet application. If no resource can be resolved based on the given path or name the methods must return cxxii null.

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PLT.16.1.1 Query Strings in Re quest Dispatcher Paths
the PortletContext that creates path information allows the optional attachment of query string information to the path. For example, a Developer may obtain a PortletRequestDispatcher by using the following code: The
getRequestDispatcher method of PortletRequestDispatcher objects using

25

String path = "/raisons.jsp?orderno=5"; PortletRequestDispatcher rd = context.getRequestDispatcher(path); rd.include(renderRequest, renderResponse);

30

Parameters specified in the query string used to create the PortletRequestDispatcher must be aggregated with the portlet render parameters and take precedence over other portlet render parameters of the same name passed to the included servlet or JSP. The parameters associated with a PortletRequestDispatcher are scoped to apply only for the duration of the include call.cxxiii JavaTM Portlet Specification, version 1.0 (10/07/2003)

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PLT.16.2 Using a Request D ispatcher
To include a servlet or a JSP, a portlet calls the include method of the PortletRequestDispatcher interface. The parameters to these methods must be the request and response arguments that were passed in via the render method of the cxxiv Portlet interface. The portlet container must ensure that the servlet or JSP called through a PortletRequestDispatcher is called in the same thread as the PortletRequestDispatcher include invocation.cxxv

5

PLT.16.3 The Include Metho d
10 The include method of the PortletRequestDispatcher interface may be called at any time and multiple times within the render method of the Portlet interface. The servlet or JSP being included can make a limited use of the received HttpServletRequest and HttpServletResponse objects. Servlets and JSPs included from portlets should not use the servlet RequestDispatcher forward method as its behavior may be non-deterministic. Servlets and JSPs included from portlets must be handled as HTTP GET requests.cxxvi

15

PLT.16.3.1 Included Request P arameters
Except for servlets obtained by using the getNamedDispatcher method, a servlet or JSP being used from within an include call has access to the path used to obtain the cxxvii PortletRequestDispatcher. The following request attributes must be set :
javax.servlet.include.request_uri javax.servlet.include.context_path javax.servlet.include.servlet_path javax.servlet.include.path_info javax.servlet.include.query_string

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These attributes are accessible from the included servlet via the getAttribute method on the request object. If the included servlet was obtained by using the getNamedDispatcher method these attributes are not set. 30

PLT.16.3.2 Included Request A ttributes
In addition to the request attributes specified in Servlet Specification 2.3, SRV.8.3.1 Section, the included servlet or JSP must have the following request attributes set:
Request Attribute Type javax.portlet.PortletConfig javax.portlet.RenderRequest javax.portlet.RenderResponse

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javax.portlet.config javax.portlet.request javax.portlet.response

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These attributes must be the same Portlet API objects accessible to the portlet doing the include call.cxxviii They are accessible from the included servlet or JSP via the getAttribute method on the HttpServletRequest object.

5

PLT.16.3.3 Request and Respon se objects for Included Servlets/JSPs
The target servlet or JSP of portlet request dispatcher has access to a limited set of methods of the request and the response objects. The following methods of the HttpServletRequest must return null: getProtocol, cxxix getRemoteAddr, getRemoteHost, getRealPath, and getRequestURL.

10

The following methods of the HttpServletRequest must return the path and query string information used to obtain the PortletRequestDispatcher object: getPathInfo, getPathTranslated, getQueryString, getRequestURI and cxxx
getServletPath.

15

The following methods of the HttpServletRequest must be equivalent to the methods of the PortletRequest of similar name: getScheme, getServerName,
getServerPort, getAttribute, getAttributeNames, setAttribute, removeAttribute, getLocale, getLocales, isSecure, getAuthType, getContextPath, getRemoteUser, getUserPrincipal, getRequestedSessionId, cxxxi isRequestedSessionIdValid.

20

The following methods of the HttpServletRequest must be equivalent to the methods of the PortletRequest of similar name with the provision defined in PLT.16.1.1 Query Strings in Request Dispatcher Paths Section: getParameter, getParameterNames, cxxxii getParameterValues and getParameterMap. The following methods of the HttpServletRequest must do no operations and return null: getCharacterEncoding, setCharacterEncoding, getContentType, cxxxiii getInputStream and getReader. The getContentLength method of the cxxxiv HttpServletRequest must return 0. The following methods of the HttpServletRequest must be based on the properties provided by the getProperties method of the PortletRequest interface: getHeader, getHeaders, getHeaderNames, getCookies, getDateHeader and cxxxv getIntHeader. . The following methods of the HttpServletRequest must provide the functionality defined by the Servlet Specification 2.3: getRequestDispatcher, getMethod,

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isUserInRole, getSession, isRequestedSessionIdFromCookie, cxxxvi isRequestedSessionIdFromURL and isRequestedSessionIdFromUrl.

The getMethod method of the HttpServletRequest must always return ‘GET’.cxxxvii The following methods of the HttpServletResponse must return null: cxxxviii encodeRedirectURL and encodeRedirectUrl. The following methods of the HttpServletResponse must be equivalent to the methods of the RenderResponse of similar name: getCharacterEncoding, setBufferSize, flushBuffer, JavaTM Portlet Specification, version 1.0 (10/07/2003) 67

40

resetBuffer, reset, getBufferSize, cxxxix getWriter, encodeURL and encodeUrl.

isCommitted,

getOutputStream,

The following methods of the HttpServletResponse must perform no operations: 5
setContentType, setContentLength, setLocale, addCookie, sendError, sendRedirect, setDateHeader, addDateHeader, setHeader, addHeader, cxl setIntHeader, addIntHeader and setStatus. The containsHeader method of the HttpServletResponse must return false.

The getLocale method of the HttpServletResponse must be based on the getLocale method of the RenderResponse.cxli 10

PLT.16.3.4 Error Handling
If the servlet or JSP that is the target of a request dispatcher throws a runtime exception or a checked exception of type IOException, it must be propagated to the calling portlet.cxlii All other exceptions, including a ServletException, must be wrapped with a PortletException. The root cause of the exception must be set to the original exception before being propagated.cxliii

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PLT.17 User Information
Commonly, portlets provide content personalized to the user making the request. To do this effectively they may require access to user attributes such as the name, email, phone or address of the user. Portlet containers provide a mechanism to expose available user information to portlets.

5

PLT.17.1 Defining User Attr ibutes
The deployment descriptor of a portlet application must define the user attribute names the portlets use. The following example shows a section of a deployment descriptor defining a few user attributes:
<portlet-app> … <user-attribute> <description>User Given Name</description> <name>user.name.given</name> </user-attribute> <user-attribute> <description>User Last Name</description> <name>user.name.family</name> </user-attribute> <user-attribute> <description>User eMail</description> <name>user.home-info.online.email</name> </user-attribute> <user-attribute> <description>Company Organization</description> <name>user.business-info.postal.organization</name> </user-attribute> … <portlet-app>

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A deployer must map the portlet application’s logical user attributes to the corresponding user attributes offered by the runtime environment. At runtime, the portlet container uses this mapping to expose user attributes to the portlets of the portlet application. User attributes of the runtime environment not mapped as part of the deployment process must not be exposed to portlets.cxliv Refer to PLT.D User Information Attribute Names Appendix for a list of recommended names.

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PLT.17.2 Accessing User At tributes
Portlets can obtain an unmodifiable Map object containing the user attributes, of user associated with the current request, from the request attributes. The Map object can be retrieved using the USER_INFO constant defined in the PortletRequest interface. If the request is done in the context of an un-authenticated user, calls to the getAttribute method of the request using the USER_INFO constant must return null.cxlv. If the user is authenticated and there are no user attributes available, the Map must be an empty Map. The Map object must contain a String name value pair for each available user attribute. The Map object should only contain user attributes that have been mapped during deployment..cxlvi An example of a portlet retrieving user attributes would be:
... Map userInfo = (Map) request.getAttribute(PortletRequest.USER_INFO); String givenName = (userInfo!=null) ? (String) userInfo.get(“user.name.given”) : “”; String lastName = (userInfo!=null) ? (String) userInfo.get(“user.name.family”) : “”; ...

5

10

15

PLT.17.3 Important Note on User Information
20 The Portlet Specification expert group is aware of the fact that user information is outside of the scope of this specification. As there is no standard Java standard to access user information, and until such Java standard is defined, the Portlet Specification will provide this mechanism that is considered to be the least intrusive from the Portlet API perspective. At a latter time, when a Java standard for user information is defined, the current mechanism will be deprecated in favor of it.

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PLT.18 Caching
Caching content helps improve the Portal response time for users. It also helps to reduce the load on servers. 5 The Portlet Specification defines an expiration based caching mechanism. This caching mechanism is per portlet per user client. Cached content must not be shared across different user clients displaying the same portlet. Portlet containers are not required to implement expiration caching. Portlet containers implementing this caching mechanism may disable it, partially or completely, at any time to free memory resources.

10

PLT.18.1 Expiration Cache
Portlets that want their content to be cached using expiration cache must define the duration (in seconds) of the expiration cache in the deployment descriptor. 15 The following is an example of a portlet definition where the portlet defines that its content should be cached for 5 minutes (300 seconds).
... <portlet> ... <expiration-cache>300</expiration-cache> ... </portlet> ...

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A portlet that has defined an expiration cache in its portlet definition may programmatically alter the expiration time by setting a property in the RenderResponse object using the EXPIRATION_CACHE constant defined in the PortletResponse interface. If the expiration property is set to 0, caching is disabled for the portlet. If the expiration cache property is set to –1, the cache does not expire. If during a render invocation the expiration cache property is not set, the expiration time defined in the deployment descriptor must be used. For a portlet that has not defined expiration cache in the deployment descriptor, if the expiration cache property is set it must be ignored by the portlet-container. If the content of a portlet is cached, the cache has not expired and the portlet is not the target of the client request, then the request handling methods of the portlet should not be invoked as part of the client request. Instead, the portlet-container should use the data from the cache. JavaTM Portlet Specification, version 1.0 (10/07/2003) 71

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If the content of a portlet is cached and a client request is targeted to the portlet, the portlet container must discard the cache and invoke the request handling methods of the portlet.

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PLT.19 Portlet Applications
A portlet application is a web application, as defined in Servlet Specification 2.3, SRV.9 Chapter, containing portlets and a portlet deployment descriptor in addition to servlets, JSPs, HTML pages, classes and other resources normally found in a web application. A bundled portlet application can run in multiple portlet containers implementations.

5

PLT.19.1 Relationship with Web Applications
All the portlet application components and resources other than portlets are managed by the servlet container the portlet container is built upon. 10

PLT.19.2 Relationship to Po rtletContext
The portlet container must enforce a one to one correspondence between a portlet application and a PortletContext.cxlvii If the application is a distributed application, the portlet container must create an instance per VM.cxlviii A PortletContext object provides a portlet with its view of the application.

15

PLT.19.3 Elements of a Port let Application
A portlet application may consist of portlets plus other elements that may be included in web applications, such as servlets, JSPTM pages, classes, static documents. Besides the web application specific meta information, the portlet application must include descriptive meta information about the portlets it contains.

20

PLT.19.4 Directory Structur e
A portlet application follows the same directory hierarchy structure as web applications. In addition it must contain a /WEB-INF/portlet.xml deployment descriptor file. Portlet classes, utility classes and other resources accessed through the portlet application classloader must reside within the /WEB-INF/classes directory or within a JAR file in the /WEB-INF/lib/ directory.

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PLT.19.5 Portlet Application Classloader
The portlet container must use the same classloader the servlet container uses for the web application resources for loading the portlets and related resources within the portlet application.cxlix 5 The portlet container must ensure that requirements defined in the Servlet Specification 2.3 SRV.9.7.1 and SRV.9.7.2 Sections are fulfilled.cl

PLT.19.6 Portlet Application Archive File
Portlet applications are packaged as web application archives (WAR) as defined in the Servlet Specification 2.3 SRV.9.6 Chapter. 10

PLT.19.7 Portlet Application Deployment Descriptor
In addition to a web application deployment descriptor, a portlet application contains a portlet application deployment descriptor. The portlet deployment descriptor contains configuration information for the portlets contained in the application.

15

Refer to PLT.21 Packaging and Deployment Descriptor Chapter for more details on the portlet application deployment descriptor.

PLT.19.8 Replacing a Portle t Application
A portlet container should be able to replace a portlet application with a new version without restarting the container. In addition, the portlet container should provide a robust method for preserving session data within that portlet application, when the replacement of the portlet application happens.

20

PLT.19.9 Error Handling
It is left to the portal/portlet-container implementation how to react when a portlet throws an exception while processing a request. For example, the portal/portlet-container could render an error page instead of the portal page, render an error message in the portlet window of the portlet that threw the exception or remove the portlet from the portal page and log an error message for the administrator.

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PLT.19.10 Portlet Application Environment
The Portlet Specification leverages the provisions made by the Servlet Specification 2.3 SRV.9.11 Section.

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PLT.20 Security
Portlet applications are created by Application Developers who license the application to a Deployer for installation into a runtime environment. Application Developers need to communicate to Deployers how the security is to be set up for the deployed application.

PLT.20.1 Introduction
A portlet application contains resources that can be accessed by many users. These resources often traverse unprotected, open networks such as the Internet. In such an environment, a substantial number of portlet applications will have security requirements. The portlet container is responsible for informing portlets of the roles users are in when accessing them. The portlet container does not deal with user authentication. It should leverage the authentication mechanisms provided by the underlying servlet container defined in the Servlet Specification 2.3, SRV.12.1 Section.

PLT.20.2 Roles
The Portlet Specification shares the same definition as roles of the Servlet Specification 2.3, SRV.12.4 Section.

PLT.20.3 Programmatic Sec urity
Programmatic security consists of the following methods of the Request interface:
• getRemoteUser • isUserInRole • getUserPrincipal

The getRemoteUser method returns the user name the client used for authentication. The isUserInRole method determines if a remote user is in a specified security role. The getUserPrincipal method determines the principal name of the current user and returns a java.security.Principal object. These APIs allow portlets to make business logic decisions based on the information obtained. The values that the Portlet API getRemoteUser and getUserPrincipal methods return the same values returned by the equivalent methods of the servlet response object.cli Refer to the Servlet Specification 2.3, SRV.12.3 Section for more details on these methods. The isUserInRole method expects a string parameter with the role-name. A security-role-ref element must be declared by the portlet in deployment descriptor with a role-name sub-element containing the role-name to be passed to the method. The JavaTM Portlet Specification, version 1.0 (10/07/2003) 75

element should contain a role-link sub-element whose value is the name of the application security role that the user may be mapped into. This mapping is specified in the web.xml deployment descriptor file. The container uses the mapping of security-role-ref to security-role when determining the return value of the call.clii
security-role-ref

For example, to map the security role reference "FOO" to the security role with role-name "manager" the syntax would be:
<portlet-app> ... <portlet> ... <security-role-ref> <role-name>FOO</role-name> <role-link>manager</manager> </security-role-ref> </portlet> ... ... </portlet-app>

In this case, if the portlet called by a user belonging to the "manager" security role made the API call isUserInRole("FOO"), then the result would be true. If the security-role-ref element does not define a role-link element, the container must default to checking the role-name element argument against the list of securitycliii role elements defined in the web.xml deployment descriptor of the portlet application. The isUserInRole method references the list to determine whether the caller is mapped to a security role. The developer must be aware that the use of this default mechanism may limit the flexibility in changing role-names in the application without having to recompile the portlet making the call.

PLT.20.4 Specifying Securit y Constraints
Security constraints are a declarative way of annotating the intended protection of portlets. A constraint consists of the following elements: • • portlet collection user data constraint

A portlets collection is a set of portlet names that describe a set of resources to be protected. All requests targeted to portlets listed in the portlets collection are subject to the constraint. A user data constraint describes requirements for the transport layer for the portlets collection. The requirement may be for content integrity (preventing data tampering in the communication process) or for confidentiality (preventing reading while in transit). The container must at least use SSL to respond to requests to resources marked integral or confidential.

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For example, to define that a portlet requires a confindential transport the syntax would be:
<portlet-app> ... <portlet> <portlet-name>accountSummary</portlet-name> ... </portlet> ... <security-constraint> <display-name>Secure Portlets</display-name> <portlet-collection> <portlet-name>accountSummary</portlet-name> </portlet-collection> <user-data-constraint/> <transport-guarantee>CONFIDENTIAL</transport-guarantee> </user-data-constraint> </security-constraint> ... </portlet-app>

PLT.20.5 Propagation of Sec urity Identity in EJBTM Calls
A security identity, or principal, must always be provided for use in a call to an enterprise bean. The default mode in calls to EJBs from portlet applications should be for the security identity of a user, in the portlet container, to be propagated to the EJBTM container. Portlet containers, running as part of a J2EE platform, are required to allow users that are not known to the portlet container to make calls to the the EJBTM container. In these scenarios, the portlet application may specify a run-as element in the web.xml deployment descriptor. When it is specified, the container must propagate the security identity of the caller to the EJB layer in terms of the security role name defined in the cliv run-as element. The security role name must be one of the security role names defined for the web.xml deployment descriptor.clv Alternatively, portlet application code may be the sole processor of the signon into the EJBTM container.

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PLT.21 Packaging and Deployment Descriptor
The deployment descriptor conveys the elements and configuration information of a portlet application between Application Developers, Application Assemblers, and Deployers. Portlet applications are self-contained applications that are intended to work without further resources. Portlet applications are managed by the portlet container. In the case of portlet applications, there are two deployment descriptors: one to specify the web application resources (web.xml) and one to specify the portlet resources (portlet.xml). The web application deployment descriptor is explained in detail in the Servlet Specification 2.3, SRV.13Deployment Descriptor Chapter.

5

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PLT.21.1 Portlet and Web A pplication Deployment Descriptor
For the Portlet Specification version 1.0 there is a clear distinction between web resources, like servlets, JSPs, static markup pages, etc., and portlets. This is due to the fact that, in the Servlet Specification 2.3, the web application deployment descriptor is not extensible. All web resources that are not portlets must be specified in the web.xml deployment descriptor. All portlets and portlet related settings must be specified in an additional file called portlet.xml. The format of this additional file is described in detail below. The following portlet web application properties need to be set in the web.xml deployment descriptor: • • • portlet application description using the <description> tag portlet application name using the <display-name> tag portlet application security role mapping using the <security-role> tag

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PLT.21.2 Packaging
25 All resources, portlets and the deployment descriptors are packaged together in one web application archive (WAR file). This format is described in Servlet Specification 2.3, SRV.9 Web Application Chapter. In addition to the resources described in the Servlet Specification 2.3, SRV.9 Web Application Chapter a portlet application WEB-INF directory consists of:

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• • •

The /WEB-INF/portlet.xml deployment descriptor. Portlet classes in the /WEB-INF/classes directory. Portlet Java ARchive files /WEB-INF/lib/*.jar

PLT.21.2.1 Example Directory Structure
5 The following is a listing of all the files in a sample portlet application:
/images/myButton.gif /META-INF/MANIFEST.MF /WEB-INF/web.xml /WEB-INF/portlet.xml /WEB-INF/lib/myHelpers.jar /WEB-INF/classes/com/mycorp/servlets/MyServlet.class /WEB-INF/classes/com/mycorp/portlets/MyPortlet.class /WEB-INF/jsp/myHelp.jsp

10

15

Portlet applications that need additional resources that cannot be packaged in the WAR file, like EJBs, may be packaged together with these resources in an EAR file.

PLT.21.2.2 Version Informatio n
If portlet application providers want to provide version information about the portlet application it is recommended to provide a META-INF/MANIFEST.MF entry in the WAR file. The ‘Implementation-*’ attributes should be used to define the version information. Example:
Implementation-Title: myPortletApplication Implementation-Version: 1.1.2 Implementation-Vendor: SunMicrosystems. Inc.

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PLT.21.3 Portlet Deploymen t Descriptor Elements
The following types of configuration and deployment information are required to be supported in the portlet deployment descriptor for all portlet containers: • • Portlet Application Definition Portlet Definition

30

Security information, which may also appear in the deployment descriptor is not required to be supported unless the portlet container is part of an implementation of the J2EE Specification.

PLT.21.4 Rules for processin g the Portlet Deployment Descriptor
35 In this section is a listing of some general rules that portlet containers and developers must note concerning the processing of the deployment descriptor for a portlet application: JavaTM Portlet Specification, version 1.0 (10/07/2003) 80

Portlet containers should ignore all leading whitespace characters before the first non-whitespace character, and all trailing whitespace characters after the last nonwhitespace character for PCDATA within text nodes of a deployment descriptor. Portlet containers and tools that manipulate portlet applications have a wide range of options for checking the validity of a WAR. This includes checking the validity of the web application and portlet deployment descriptor documents held within. It is recommended, but not required, that portlet containers and tools validate both deployment descriptors against the corresponding DTD and XML Schema definitions for structural correctness. Additionally, it is recommended that they provide a level of semantic checking. For example, it should be checked that a role referenced in a security constraint has the same name as one of the security roles defined in the deployment descriptor. In cases of non-conformant portlet applications, tools and containers should inform the developer with descriptive error messages. High end application server vendors are encouraged to supply this kind of validity checking in the form of a tool separate from the container.

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PLT.21.5 Deployment Descr iptor
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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <schema targetNamespace="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/portlet/portlet-app_1_0.xsd" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:portlet="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/portlet/portlet-app_1_0.xsd" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" elementFormDefault="qualified" attributeFormDefault="unqualified" version="1.0" xml:lang="en"> <annotation> <documentation> This is the XML Schema for the Portlet 1.0 deployment descriptor. </documentation> </annotation> <annotation> <documentation> The following conventions apply to all J2EE deployment descriptor elements unless indicated otherwise. - In elements that specify a pathname to a file within the same JAR file, relative filenames (i.e., those not starting with "/") are considered relative to the root of the JAR file's namespace. Absolute filenames (i.e., those starting with "/") also specify names in the root of the JAR file's namespace. In general, relative names are preferred. The exception is .war files where absolute names are preferred for consistency with the Servlet API. </documentation> </annotation> <!-- *********************************************************** --> <import namespace="http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace" schemaLocation="http://www.w3.org/2001/xml.xsd"/> <element name="portlet-app" type="portlet:portlet-appType"> <annotation> <documentation> The portlet-app element is the root of the deployment descriptor for a portlet application. This element has a required attribute version to specify to which version of the schema the deployment descriptor conforms. </documentation> </annotation> <unique name="portlet-name-uniqueness"> <annotation> <documentation> The portlet element contains the name of a portlet.

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This name must be unique within the portlet application. </documentation> </annotation> <selector xpath="portlet:portlet"/> <field xpath="portlet:portlet-name"/> </unique> <unique name="custom-portlet-mode-uniqueness"> <annotation> <documentation> The custom-portlet-mode element contains the portlet-mode. This portlet mode must be unique within the portlet application. </documentation> </annotation> <selector xpath="portlet:custom-portlet-mode"/> <field xpath="portlet:portlet-mode"/> </unique> <unique name="custom-window-state-uniqueness"> <annotation> <documentation> The custom-window-state element contains the window-state. This window state must be unique within the portlet application. </documentation> </annotation> <selector xpath="portlet:custom-window-state"/> <field xpath="portlet:window-state"/> </unique> <unique name="user-attribute-name-uniqueness"> <annotation> <documentation> The user-attribute element contains the name the attribute. This name must be unique within the portlet application. </documentation> </annotation> <selector xpath="portlet:user-attribute"/> <field xpath="portlet:name"/> </unique> </element> <complexType name="portlet-appType"> <sequence> <element name="portlet" type="portlet:portletType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> <unique name="init-param-name-uniqueness"> <annotation> <documentation> The init-param element contains the name the attribute. This name must be unique within the portlet. </documentation> </annotation> <selector xpath="portlet:init-param"/> <field xpath="portlet:name"/> </unique> <unique name="supports-mime-type-uniqueness"> <annotation> <documentation> The supports element contains the supported mime-type. This mime type must be unique within the portlet. </documentation> </annotation> <selector xpath="portlet:supports"/> <field xpath="mime-type"/> </unique> <unique name="preference-name-uniqueness"> <annotation> <documentation> The preference element contains the name the preference. This name must be unique within the portlet. </documentation> </annotation> <selector xpath="portlet:portlet-preferences/portlet:preference"/> <field xpath="portlet:name"/> </unique> <unique name="security-role-ref-name-uniqueness">

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<annotation> <documentation> The security-role-ref element contains the role-name. This role name must be unique within the portlet. </documentation> </annotation> <selector xpath="portlet:security-role-ref"/> <field xpath="portlet:role-name"/> </unique> </element> <element name="custom-portlet-mode" type="portlet:custom-portlet-modeType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> <element name="custom-window-state" type="portlet:custom-window-stateType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> <element name="user-attribute" type="portlet:user-attributeType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> <element name="security-constraint" type="portlet:security-constraintType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </sequence> <attribute name="version" type="string" use="required"/> <attribute name="id" type="string" use="optional"/> </complexType> <complexType name="custom-portlet-modeType"> <annotation> <documentation> A custom portlet mode that one or more portlets in this portlet application supports. Used in: portlet-app </documentation> </annotation> <sequence> <element name="description" type="portlet:descriptionType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> <element name="portlet-mode" type="portlet:portlet-modeType"/> </sequence> <attribute name="id" type="string" use="optional"/> </complexType> <complexType name="custom-window-stateType"> <annotation> <documentation> A custom window state that one or more portlets in this portlet application supports. Used in: portlet-app </documentation> </annotation> <sequence> <element name="description" type="portlet:descriptionType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> <element name="window-state" type="portlet:window-stateType"/> </sequence> <attribute name="id" type="string" use="optional"/> </complexType> <complexType name="expiration-cacheType"> <annotation> <documentation> Expriation-cache defines expiration-based caching for this portlet. The parameter indicates the time in seconds after which the portlet output expires. -1 indicates that the output never expires. Used in: portlet </documentation> </annotation> <simpleContent> <extension base="int"/> </simpleContent> </complexType> <complexType name="init-paramType"> <annotation> <documentation> The init-param element contains a name/value pair as an initialization param of the portlet Used in:portlet

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</documentation> </annotation> <sequence> <element name="description" type="portlet:descriptionType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> <element name="name" type="portlet:nameType"/> <element name="value" type="portlet:valueType"/> </sequence> <attribute name="id" type="string" use="optional"/> </complexType> <complexType name="keywordsType"> <annotation> <documentation> Locale specific keywords associated with this portlet. The kewords are separated by commas. Used in: portlet-info </documentation> </annotation> <simpleContent> <extension base="string"/> </simpleContent> </complexType> <complexType name="mime-typeType"> <annotation> <documentation> MIME type name, e.g. "text/html". The MIME type may also contain the wildcard character '*', like "text/*" or "*/*". Used in: supports </documentation> </annotation> <simpleContent> <extension base="string"/> </simpleContent> </complexType> <complexType name="nameType"> <annotation> <documentation> The name element contains the name of a parameter. Used in: init-param, ... </documentation> </annotation> <simpleContent> <extension base="string"/> </simpleContent> </complexType> <complexType name="portletType"> <annotation> <documentation> The portlet element contains the declarative data of a portlet. Used in: portlet-app </documentation> </annotation> <sequence> <element name="description" type="portlet:descriptionType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> <element name="portlet-name" type="portlet:portlet-nameType"/> <element name="display-name" type="portlet:display-nameType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> <element name="portlet-class" type="portlet:portlet-classType"/> <element name="init-param" type="portlet:init-paramType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> <element name="expiration-cache" type="portlet:expiration-cacheType" minOccurs="0"/> <element name="supports" type="portlet:supportsType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> <element name="supported-locale" type="portlet:supported-localeType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> <choice> <sequence> <element name="resource-bundle" type="portlet:resource-bundleType"/> <element name="portlet-info" type="portlet:portlet-infoType"

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minOccurs="0"/> </sequence> <element name="portlet-info" type="portlet:portlet-infoType"/> </choice> <element name="portlet-preferences" type="portlet:portlet-preferencesType" minOccurs="0"/> <element name="security-role-ref" type="portlet:security-role-refType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </sequence> <attribute name="id" type="string" use="optional"/> </complexType> <simpleType name="portlet-classType"> <annotation> <documentation> The portlet-class element contains the fully qualified class name of the portlet. Used in: portlet </documentation> </annotation> <restriction base="portlet:fully-qualified-classType"/> </simpleType> <complexType name="portlet-collectionType"> <annotation> <documentation> The portlet-collectionType is used to identify a subset of portlets within a portlet application to which a security constraint applies. Used in: security-constraint </documentation> </annotation> <sequence> <element name="portlet-name" type="portlet:portlet-nameType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </sequence> </complexType> <complexType name="portlet-infoType"> <sequence> <element name="title" type="portlet:titleType"/> <element name="short-title" type="portlet:short-titleType" minOccurs="0"/> <element name="keywords" type="portlet:keywordsType" minOccurs="0"/> </sequence> <attribute name="id" type="string" use="optional"/> </complexType> <complexType name="portlet-modeType"> <annotation> <documentation> Portlet modes. The specification pre-defines the following values as valid portlet mode constants: "edit", "help", "view". Portlet mode names are not case sensitive. Used in: custom-portlet-mode, supports </documentation> </annotation> <simpleContent> <extension base="string"/> </simpleContent> </complexType> <complexType name="portlet-nameType"> <annotation> <documentation> The portlet-name element contains the canonical name of the portlet. Each portlet name is unique within the portlet application. Used in: portlet, portlet-mapping </documentation> </annotation> <simpleContent> <extension base="string"/> </simpleContent> </complexType> <complexType name="portlet-preferencesType"> <annotation>

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<documentation> Portlet persistent preference store. Used in: portlet </documentation> </annotation> <sequence> <element name="preference" type="portlet:preferenceType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> <element name="preferences-validator" type="portlet:preferencesvalidatorType" minOccurs="0"/> </sequence> <attribute name="id" type="string" use="optional"/> </complexType> <complexType name="preferenceType"> <annotation> <documentation> Persistent preference values that may be used for customization and personalization by the portlet. Used in: portlet-preferences </documentation> </annotation> <sequence> <element name="name" type="portlet:nameType"/> <element name="value" type="portlet:valueType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> <element name="read-only" type="portlet:read-onlyType" minOccurs="0"/> </sequence> <attribute name="id" type="string" use="optional"/> </complexType> <simpleType name="preferences-validatorType"> <annotation> <documentation> The class specified under preferences-validator implements the PreferencesValidator interface to validate the preferences settings. Used in: portlet-preferences </documentation> </annotation> <restriction base="portlet:fully-qualified-classType"/> </simpleType> <simpleType name="read-onlyType"> <annotation> <documentation> read-only indicates that a setting cannot be changed in any of the standard portlet modes ("view","edit" or "help"). Per default all preferences are modifiable. Valid values are: - true for read-only - false for modifiable Used in: preferences </documentation> </annotation> <restriction base="portlet:string"> <enumeration value="true"/> <enumeration value="false"/> </restriction> </simpleType> <complexType name="resource-bundleType"> <annotation> <documentation> Filename of the resource bundle containing the language specific portlet informations in different languages. Used in: portlet-info </documentation> </annotation> <simpleContent> <extension base="string"/> </simpleContent> </complexType> <complexType name="role-linkType"> <annotation>

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<documentation> The role-link element is a reference to a defined security role. The role-link element must contain the name of one of the security roles defined in the security-role elements. Used in: security-role-ref </documentation> </annotation> <simpleContent> <extension base="string"/> </simpleContent> </complexType> <complexType name="security-constraintType"> <annotation> <documentation> The security-constraintType is used to associate intended security constraints with one or more portlets. Used in: portlet-app </documentation> </annotation> <sequence> <element name="display-name" type="portlet:display-nameType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> <element name="portlet-collection" type="portlet:portlet-collectionType"/> <element name="user-data-constraint" type="portlet:user-dataconstraintType"/> </sequence> <attribute name="id" type="string" use="optional"/> </complexType> <complexType name="security-role-refType"> <annotation> <documentation> The security-role-ref element contains the declaration of a security role reference in the code of the web application. The declaration consists of an optional description, the security role name used in the code, and an optional link to a security role. If the security role is not specified, the Deployer must choose an appropriate security role. The value of the role name element must be the String used as the parameter to the EJBContext.isCallerInRole(String roleName) method or the HttpServletRequest.isUserInRole(String role) method. Used in: portlet </documentation> </annotation> <sequence> <element name="description" type="portlet:descriptionType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> <element name="role-name" type="portlet:role-nameType"/> <element name="role-link" type="portlet:role-linkType" minOccurs="0"/> </sequence> <attribute name="id" type="string" use="optional"/> </complexType> <complexType name="short-titleType"> <annotation> <documentation> Locale specific short version of the static title. Used in: portlet-info </documentation> </annotation> <simpleContent> <extension base="string"/> </simpleContent> </complexType> <complexType name="supportsType"> <annotation> <documentation> Supports indicates the portlet modes a portlet supports for a specific content type. All portlets must support the view mode. Used in: portlet </documentation> </annotation>

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<sequence> <element name="mime-type" type="portlet:mime-typeType"/> <element name="portlet-mode" type="portlet:portlet-modeType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </sequence> <attribute name="id" type="string" use="optional"/> </complexType> <complexType name="supported-localeType"> <annotation> <documentation> Indicated the locales the portlet supports. Used in: portlet </documentation> </annotation> <simpleContent> <extension base="string"/> </simpleContent> </complexType> <complexType name="titleType"> <annotation> <documentation> Locale specific static title for this portlet. Used in: portlet-info </documentation> </annotation> <simpleContent> <extension base="string"/> </simpleContent> </complexType> <simpleType name="transport-guaranteeType"> <annotation> <documentation> The transport-guaranteeType specifies that the communication between client and portlet should be NONE, INTEGRAL, or CONFIDENTIAL. NONE means that the portlet does not require any transport guarantees. A value of INTEGRAL means that the portlet requires that the data sent between the client and portlet be sent in such a way that it can't be changed in transit. CONFIDENTIAL means that the portlet requires that the data be transmitted in a fashion that prevents other entities from observing the contents of the transmission. In most cases, the presence of the INTEGRAL or CONFIDENTIAL flag will indicate that the use of SSL is required. Used in: user-data-constraint </documentation> </annotation> <restriction base="portlet:string"> <enumeration value="NONE"/> <enumeration value="INTEGRAL"/> <enumeration value="CONFIDENTIAL"/> </restriction> </simpleType> <complexType name="user-attributeType"> <annotation> <documentation> User attribute defines a user specific attribute that the portlet application needs. The portlet within this application can access this attribute via the request parameter USER_INFO map. Used in: portlet-app </documentation> </annotation> <sequence> <element name="description" type="portlet:descriptionType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> <element name="name" type="portlet:nameType"/> </sequence> <attribute name="id" type="string" use="optional"/>

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</complexType> <complexType name="user-data-constraintType"> <annotation> <documentation> The user-data-constraintType is used to indicate how data communicated between the client and portlet should be protected. Used in: security-constraint </documentation> </annotation> <sequence> <element name="description" type="portlet:descriptionType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> <element name="transport-guarantee" type="portlet:transportguaranteeType"/> </sequence> <attribute name="id" type="string" use="optional"/> </complexType> <complexType name="valueType"> <annotation> <documentation> The value element contains the value of a parameter. Used in: init-param </documentation> </annotation> <simpleContent> <extension base="string"/> </simpleContent> </complexType> <complexType name="window-stateType"> <annotation> <documentation> Portlet window state. Window state names are not case sensitive. Used in: custom-window-state </documentation> </annotation> <simpleContent> <extension base="string"/> </simpleContent> </complexType> <!--- everything below is copied from j2ee_1_4.xsd --> <complexType name="descriptionType"> <annotation> <documentation> The description element is used to provide text describing the parent element. The description element should include any information that the portlet application war file producer wants to provide to the consumer of the portlet application war file (i.e., to the Deployer). Typically, the tools used by the portlet application war file consumer will display the description when processing the parent element that contains the description. It has an optional attribute xml:lang to indicate which language is used in the description according to RFC 1766 (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1766.txt). The default value of this attribute is English(“en”). Used in: init-param, portlet, portlet-app, security-role </documentation> </annotation> <simpleContent> <extension base="string"> <attribute ref="xml:lang"/> </extension> </simpleContent> </complexType> <complexType name="display-nameType"> <annotation> <documentation> The display-name type contains a short name that is intended to be displayed by tools. It is used by display-name elements. The display name need not be unique. Example: ...

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<display-name xml:lang="en">Employee Self Service</display-name> It has an optional attribute xml:lang to indicate which language is used in the description according to RFC 1766 (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1766.txt). The default value of this attribute is English(“en”). </documentation> </annotation> <simpleContent> <extension base="portlet:string"> <attribute ref="xml:lang"/> </extension> </simpleContent> </complexType> <simpleType name="fully-qualified-classType"> <annotation> <documentation> The elements that use this type designate the name of a Java class or interface. </documentation> </annotation> <restriction base="portlet:string"/> </simpleType> <simpleType name="role-nameType"> <annotation> <documentation> The role-nameType designates the name of a security role. The name must conform to the lexical rules for an NMTOKEN. </documentation> </annotation> <restriction base="NMTOKEN"/> </simpleType> <simpleType name="string"> <annotation> <documentation> This is a special string datatype that is defined by J2EE as a base type for defining collapsed strings. When schemas require trailing/leading space elimination as well as collapsing the existing whitespace, this base type may be used. </documentation> </annotation> <restriction base="string"> <whiteSpace value="collapse"/> </restriction> </simpleType> </schema>

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PLT.21.6 Pictures of the stru cture of a Deployment Descriptor

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PLT.21.7 Uniqueness of Dep loyment Descriptor Values
The following deployment descriptor values must be unique in the scope of the portlet application definition: • 5 • • • portlet <portlet-name> custom-portlet-mode <portlet-mode> custom-window-state <window-state> user-attribute <name>

The following deployment descriptor values must be unique in the scope of the portlet definition: 10 • • • • init-param <name> supports <mime-type> preference <name> security-role-ref <role-name>

PLT.21.8 Localization
15 The portlet deployment descriptor allows for localization on two levels: • • Localize values needed at deployment time Advertise supported locales at run-time

Both are described in the following sections.

PLT.21.8.1 Localization of Dep loyment Descriptor Values
20 Localization of deployment descriptor values allows the deployment tool to provide localized deployment messages to the deployer. The following deployment descriptor elements may exist multiple times with different locale information in the xml:lang attribute: • 25 • all <description> elements portlet <display-name>

The default value for the xml:lang attribute is English (“en”). Portlet-container implementations using localized values of these elements should treat the English (“en”) values as the default fallback value for all other locales.

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PLT.21.8.2 Locales Supported by the Portlet
The portlet should always declare the locales it is going to support at run-time using the <supported-locale> element in the deployment descriptor.

PLT.21.9 Deployment Descr iptor Example
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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <portlet-app xmlns="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/portlet/portlet-app_1_0.xsd" version="1.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/portlet/portlet-app_1_0.xsd http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/portlet/portlet-app_1_0.xsd"> <portlet> <description xml:lang="en">Portlet displaying the time in different time zones</description> <description xml:lang="de">Dieses Portlet zeigt die Zeit in verschiedenen Zeitzonen an. </description> <portlet-name>TimeZoneClock</portlet-name> <display-name xml:lang="en">Time Zone Clock Portlet</display-name> <display-name xml:lang="de">ZeitzonenPortlet</display-name> <portlet-class>com.myco.samplets.util.zoneclock.ZoneClock</portlet-class> <expiration-cache>60</expiration-cache> <supports> <mime-type>text/html</mime-type> <portlet-mode>config</portlet-mode> <portlet-mode>edit</portlet-mode> <portlet-mode>help</portlet-mode> </supports> <supports> <mime-type>text/wml</mime-type> <portlet-mode>edit</portlet-mode> <portlet-mode>help</portlet-mode> </supports> <supported-locale>en</supported-locale> <portlet-info> <title>Time Zone Clock</title> <short-title>TimeZone</short-title> <keywords>Time, Zone, World, Clock</keywords> </portlet-info> <portlet-preferences> <preference> <name>time-server</name> <value>http://timeserver.myco.com</value> <read-only>true</read-only> </preference> <preference> <name>port</name> <value>404</value> <read-only>true</read-only> </preference> <preference> <name>time-format</name> <value>HH</value> <value>mm</value> <value>ss</value> </preference> </portlet-preferences> <security-role-ref> <role-name>trustedUser</role-name> <role-link>auth-user</role-link> </security-role-ref> </portlet> <custom-portlet-mode> <description xml:lang="en">Pre-defined custom portlet mode CONFIG</description> <portlet-mode>CONFIG</portlet-mode> </custom-portlet-mode> <custom-window-state>

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<description xml:lang="en">Occupies 50% of the portal page</description> <window-state>half-page</window-state> </custom-window-state> <user-attribute> <description xml:lang="en">Pre-defined attribute for the telephone number of the user at work.</description> <name>workInfo/telephone</name> </user-attribute> <security-constraint> <portlet-collection> <portlet-name>TimeZoneClock</portlet-name> </portlet-collection> <user-data-constraint> <transport-guarantee>CONFIDENTIAL</transport-guarantee> </user-data-constraint> </security-constraint> </portlet-app>

PLT.21.10 Resource Bundles
20 To provide language specific portlet information, like title and keywords, resource bundles can be used. The fully qualified class name of the resource bundle can be set in the portlet definition in the deployment descriptor using the resource-bundle tag. The Portlet Specification 1.0 defines the following constants for this resource bundle: javax.portlet.title The title that should be displayed in the titlebar of this portlet. Only one title per locale is allowed. Note that this title may be overrided by the portal or programmatically by the portlet. A short version of the title that may be used for devices with limited display capabilities. Only one short title per locale is allowed. Keywords describing the functionality of the portlet. Portals that allow users to search for portlets based on keywords may use these keywords. Multiple keywords per locale are allowed, but must be separated by commas ‘,’.

javax.portlet.short-title

javax.portlet.keywords

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PLT.21.11 Resource Bundle E xample
This section shows the resource bundles for the world population clock portlet from deployment descriptor example. The first resource bundle is for English and the second for German locales. 5
# English Resource Bundle # # filename: clock_en.properties # Portlet Info resource bundle example javax.portlet.title=World Population Clock javax.portlet.short-title=WorldPopClock javax.portlet.keywords=World,Population,Clock # German Resource Bundle # # filename: clock_de.properties # Portlet Info resource bundle example javax.portlet.title=Weltbevölkerungsuhr javax.portlet.short-title=Weltuhr javax.portlet.keywords=Welt,Bevölkerung,Uhr

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PLT.22 Portlet Tag Library
The portlet tag library enables JSPs that are included from portlets to have direct access to portlet specific elements such as the RenderRequest and RenderResponse. It also provides JSPs with access to portlet functionality such as creation of portlet URLs. The portlet-container must provide an implementation of the portlet tag library.clvi Portlet developers may indicate an alternate implementation using the mechanism defined in the JSP.7.3.9 Well-Know URIs Section of the JSP Specification 1.2. 10 JSP pages using the tag library must declare this in a taglib like this (using the suggested prefix value):
<%@ taglib uri=”http://java.sun.com/portlet” prefix=”portlet” %>

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PLT.22.1 defineObjects Tag
The defineObjects tag must define the following variables in the JSP page:clvii • 15 • • RenderRequest renderRequest RenderResponse renderResponse PortletConfig portletConfig

These variables must reference the same Portlet API objects stored in the request object of the JSP as defined in the PLT.16.3.1 Included Request Attributes Section. 20 A JSP using the defineObjects tag may use these variables from scriptlets throughout the page. The defineObjects tag must not define any attribute and it must not contain any body content.clviii An example of a JSP using the defineObjects tag could be:
<portlet:defineObjects/>

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After using the defineObjects tag, the JSP invokes the setTitle() method of the renderResponse to set the title of the portlet.

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PLT.22.2 actionURL Tag
The portlet actionURL tag creates a URL that must point to the current portlet and must trigger an action request with the supplied parameters.clix 5 Parameters may be added to the URL by including the param tag between the actionURL start and end tags. The following non-required attributes are defined for this tag: • 10 windowState (Type: String, non-required) – indicates the window state that the portlet should have when this link is executed. The following window states are predefined: minimized, normal, and maximized. If the specified window state is illegal for the current request, a JspException must be thrown.clx Reasons for a window state being illegal may include that the portal does not support this state, the portlet has not declared in its deployment descriptor that it supports this state, or the current user is not allowed to switch to this state. If a window state is not set for a URL, it should stay the same as the window state of the current request.clxi The window state attribute is not case sensitive. portletMode (Type: String, non-required) – indicates the portlet mode that the portlet must have when this link is executed, if no error condition ocurred.clxii The following portlet modes are predefined: edit, help, and view. If the specified portlet mode is illegal for the current request, a JspException must be thrown. clxiii Reasons for a portlet mode being illegal may include that the portal does not support this mode, the portlet has not declared in its deployment descriptor that it supports this mode for the current markup, or the current user is not allowed to switch to this mode. If a portlet mode is not set for a URL, it must stay the same as the mode of the current request. clxivThe portlet mode attribute is not case sensitive. var (Type: String, non-required) – name of the exported scoped variable for the action URL. The exported scoped variable must be a String. By default, the result of the URL processing is written to the current JspWriter. If the result is exported as a JSP scoped variable, defined via the var attributes, nothing is written to the current JspWriter.clxv Note: After the URL is created it is not possible to extend the URL or add any further parameter using the variable and String concatenation. If the given variable name already exists in the scope of the page or it is used within an iteration loop, the new value overwrites the old one.clxvi 35 • secure (Type: String, non-required) – indicates if the resulting URL should be a secure connection (secure=”true”) or an insecure one (secure=”false”). If the specified security setting is not supported by the run-time environment, a JspException must be thrown.clxvii If the security is not set for a URL, it must stay the same as the security setting of the current request.

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A JspException with the PortletException that caused this error as root cause is thrown in the following cases: • • 5 • If an illegal window state is specified in the windowState attribute. If an illegal portlet mode is specified in the portletMode attribute. If an illegal security setting is specified in the secure attribute.

An example of a JSP using the actionURL tag could be:
<portlet:actionURL windowState=”maximized” portletMode=”edit”> <portlet:param name=”action” value=”editStocks”/> </portlet:actionURL>

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The example creates a URL that brings the portlet into EDIT mode and MAXIMIZED window state to edit the stocks quote list.

PLT.22.3 renderURL Tag
The portlet renderURL tag creates a URL that must point to the current portlet and must trigger a render request with the supplied parameters.clxviii 15 Parameters may be added by including the param tag between the renderURL start and end tags. The following non-required attributes are defined for this tag: • 20 windowState (Type: String, non-required) – indicates the window state that the portlet should have when this link is executed. The following window states are predefined: minimized, normal, and maximized. If the specified window state is illegal for the current request, a JspException must be thrown.clxix Reasons for a window state being illegal may include that the portal does not support this state, the portlet has not declared in its deployment descriptor that it supports this state, or the current user is not allowed to switch to this state. If a window state is not set for a URL, it should stay the same as the window state of the current request.clxx The window state attribute is not case sensitive. portletMode (Type: String, non-required) – indicates the portlet mode that the portlet must have when this link is executed, if not error condition ocurred.clxxi The following portlet modes are predefined: edit, help, and view. If the specified portlet mode is illegal for the current request, a JspException must be thrown.clxxii Reasons for a portlet mode being illegal may include that the portal does not support this mode, the portlet has not declared in its deployment descriptor that it supports this mode for the current markup, or the current user is not allowed to switch to this mode. If a portlet mode is not set for a URL, it must stay the same as the mode of the current request.clxxiii The portlet mode attribute is not case sensitive. var (Type: String, non-required) – name of the exported scoped variable for the render URL. The exported scoped variable must be a String. By default, the 99

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result of the URL processing is written to the current JspWriter. If the result is exported as a JSP scoped variable, defined via the var attributes, nothing is written to the current JspWriter.clxxiv 5 Note: After the URL is created it is not possible to extend the URL or add any further parameter using the variable and String concatenation. If the given variable name already exists in the scope of the page or it is used within an iteration loop, the new value overwrites the old one.clxxv • 10 secure (Type: String, non-required) – indicates if the resulting URL should be a secure connection (secure=”true”) or an insecure one (secure=”false”). If the specified security setting is not supported by the run-time environment, a JspException must be thrown. If the security is not set for a URL, it must stay the same as the security setting of the current request.clxxvi

A JspException with the PortletException that caused this error as root cause is thrown in the following cases: 15 • • • If an illegal window state is specified in the windowState attribute. If an illegal portlet mode is specified in the portletMode attribute. If an illegal security setting is specified in the secure attribute.

An example of a JSP using the renderURL tag could be: 20
<portlet:renderURL portletMode=”view” windowState=”normal”> <portlet:param name=”showQuote” value=”myCompany”/> <portlet:param name=”showQuote” value=”someOtherCompany”/> </portlet:renderURL>

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The example creates a URL to provide a link that shows the stock quote of myCompany and someOtherCompany and changes the portlet mode to VIEW and the window state to NORMAL.

PLT.22.4 namespace Tag
This tag produces a unique value for the current portlet. clxxvii This tag should be used for named elements in the portlet output (such as Javascript functions and variables). The namespacing ensures that the given name is uniquely associated with this portlet and avoids name conflicts with other elements on the portal page or with other portlets on the page. The namespace tag must not allow any body content. An example of a JSP using the namespace tag could be:
<A HREF=”javascript:<portlet:namespace/>doFoo()”>Foo</A>

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The example prefixes a JavaScript function with the name ‘doFoo’, ensuring uniqueness on the portal page.

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PLT.22.5 param Tag
This tag defines a parameter that may be added to a actionURL or renderURL.clxxviii The param tag must not contain any body content.clxxix The following required attributes are defined for this tag: 5 • • name (Type: String, required) – the name of the parameter to add to the URL. If name is null or empty, no action is performed. value (Type: String, required) – the value of the parameter to add to the URL. If value is null, it is processed as an empty value.

An example of a JSP using the param tag could be: 10
<portlet:param name=”myParam” value=”someValue”/>

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PLT.23 Technology Compatibility Kit Requirements
This chapter defines a set of requirements a portlet container implementation must meet in order to run the portlet Technology Compatibility Kit (TCK). 5 These requirements are only needed for the purpose of determining whether a portlet container implementation complies with the Portlet Specification or not.

PLT.23.1 TCK Test Compon ents
Based on the Portlet Specification (this document) and the Portlet API, a set of testable assertions have been extracted and identified. The portlet TCK treats each testable assertion as a unique test case. All test cases are run from a Java Test Harness. The Java Test Harness collects the results of all the tests and makes a report on the overall test. Each portlet TCK test case has two components: • 15 • Test portlet applications: These are portlet applications containing portlets, servlets or JSPs coded to verify an assertion. These test portlet applications are deployed in the portlet container being tested for compliance. Test client: It is a standalone java program that sends HTTP requests to portlet container where test portlet applications of the test case have been deployed for compliance testing.

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The portlet TCK assumes that the test portlet applications are deployed in the portlet container before the test run is executed. The test client looks for expected and unexpected sub strings in the HTTP response to decide whether a test has failed or passed. The test client reports the result of the test client to the Java Test Harness.

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PLT.23.2 TCK Requiremen ts
In TCK, every test is written as a set of one or more portlets. A test client is written for each test, the test client must interact with a portal page containing the portlets that are part of the test. To accomplish this, TCK needs to obtain the initial URL for the portal page of each test case. All the portlets in the portal page obtained with the initial URL must be in VIEW portlet mode and in NORMAL window state. Subsequent requests to the test are done using URLs generated by PortletURI that are part of the returned portal pages. These subsequent requests must be treated as directed to same portal page composed of the same portlets. Portal/portlet-containers must disable all caching mechanisms when running the TCK test cases. Since aggregation of portlets in a portal page and the URLs used to interact with the portlets are vendor specific, TCK provides two alternative mechanisms in the framework to get the URLs to portal pages for the test cases: declarative configuration or programmatic configuration. A vendor must support at least one of these mechanisms to run the conformance tests.

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PLT.23.2.1 Declarative configu ration of the portal page for a TCK test
TCK publishes an XML file containing the portlets for each test case. Vendors must refer to this file for establishing a portal page for every test. Vendors must provide an XML file with a full URL for the portal page for each test. A call to this URL must generate a portal page with the content of all the portlets defined for the corresponding test case. If redirected to another URL, the new URL must use the same host name and port number as specified in the file. Refer to TCK User guide for details on declarative configuration. A snippet of the TCK provided XML file for declarative configuration would look like: 25
<test_case> <test_name>PortletRequest_GetAttributeTest</test_name> <test_portlet> <app_name>PortletRequestWebApp</app_name> <portlet_name>GetAttributeTestPortlet</portlet_name> </test_portlet> <test_portlet> <app_name>PortletRequestWebApp</app_name> <portlet_name>GetAttributeTest_1_Portlet</portlet_name> <test_portlet> </test_case>

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The corresponding snippet for the vendor’s provided XML file might look like:
<test_case_url> <test_name>PortletRequest_GetAttributeTest</test_name> <test_url>http://foo:8080/portal?pageName=TestCase1</test_url> </test_case_url>

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PLT.23.2.1.1 Schema for XML file provided with Portlet TCK
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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <!—portletTCKTestCases.xsd--> <xs:schema targetNamespace="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/portlet/portletTCK_1_0.xsd" xmlns:pct="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/portlet/portletTCK_1_0.xsd" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" elementFormDefault="qualified" attributeFormDefault="unqualified"> <xs:element name="pct_test_cases"> <xs:annotation> <xs:documentation>Test Cases defined in Portlet Compatibility Kit</xs:documentation> </xs:annotation> <xs:complexType> <xs:sequence> <xs:element ref="pct:test_case" minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> </xs:element> <xs:element name="test_case"> <xs:annotation> <xs:documentation>Test Case</xs:documentation> </xs:annotation> <xs:complexType> <xs:sequence> <xs:element ref="pct:test_name"/> <xs:element ref="pct:test_portlet" minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> </xs:element> <xs:element name="test_portlet"> <xs:annotation> <xs:documentation>A test Portlet</xs:documentation> </xs:annotation> <xs:complexType> <xs:sequence> <xs:element ref="pct:portlet_name"/> <xs:element ref="pct:app_name"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> </xs:element> <xs:element name="test_name" type="xs:string"> <xs:annotation> <xs:documentation>Unique name for a test case</xs:documentation> </xs:annotation> </xs:element> <xs:element name="app_name" type="xs:string"> <xs:annotation> <xs:documentation>Name of the portlet application a portlet belongs to.</xs:documentation> </xs:annotation> </xs:element> <xs:element name="portlet_name" type="xs:string"> <xs:annotation> <xs:documentation>Name of the portlet</xs:documentation> </xs:annotation> </xs:element> </xs:schema>

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PLT.23.2.1.2 Schema for XML file that provided by vendors
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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <!—portletTCKTestURLs.xsd - Schema that must be followed by the vendors to write the file that has mapping from a portlet TCK --> <!-- test case to a url. --> <xs:schema targetNamespace="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/portlet/portletTCKVendor_1_0.xsd" xmlns:pct="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/portlet/portletTCKVendor_1_0.xsd" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" elementFormDefault="qualified" attributeFormDefault="unqualified"> <xs:element name="test_case_urls"> <xs:annotation> <xs:documentation>Mapping of Test Cases defined in Portlet Compatibility Kit to vendor specific URLs</xs:documentation> </xs:annotation> <xs:complexType> <xs:sequence> <xs:element ref="pct:test_case_url" minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> </xs:element> <xs:element name="test_case_url"> <xs:annotation> <xs:documentation>Test Case to URL map entry </xs:documentation> </xs:annotation> <xs:complexType> <xs:sequence> <xs:element ref="pct:test_name"/> <xs:element ref="pct:test_url"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> </xs:element> <xs:element name="test_name" type="xs:string"> <xs:annotation> <xs:documentation>Unique name for a test case from the portletTCKTestCases.xml published by TCK</xs:documentation> </xs:annotation> </xs:element> <xs:element name="test_url" type="xs:string"> <xs:annotation> <xs:documentation>Complete URL that would result in a page containing contents of portlets defined for this test case.</xs:documentation> </xs:annotation> </xs:element> </xs:schema>

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PLT.23.2.2 Programmatic conf iguration of the portal page for a test
For programmatic configuration, a vendor must provide a full URL as a configuration parameter to the TCK. The TCK will call this URL with a set of parameters indicating the set of portlets that must appear in a portal page for the given test. Upon receiving this request, the vendor provided URL could dynamically create a portal page with the required portlets. Calls to this vendor provided URL are always HTTP GET requests. The parameter names on the URL are multiple occurrences of "portletName". Values of this paramater must be a string consisting of the test case application name and portlet name delimited by a “/”. The response of this call must be a portal page with the required portlets or a redirection to another URL where the portal page will be served. If redirected, the new URL must use the same host and port number as original URL. A vendor provided URL would look like:
VendorPortalURL=http://foo:8080/portal/tckservlet

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For a test case involving one portlet, TCK would call this URL with the following parameters:
http://foo:8080/portal/tckservlet?portletName=PortletRequestWebApp /GetAttributeTestPortlet

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PLT.23.2.3 Test Portlets Conte nt
The test cases portlets encode information for the test client within their content. As different vendor implementations may generate different output surrounding the content produced by the portlets, the portlets delimit the information for the test clients using a special element tag, portlet-tck.

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PLT.23.2.4 Test Cases that Req uire User Identity
Some of the Portlet TCK require an authenticated user. The TCK configuration file indicates the name and password of the authenticated user and the authentication mechanism TCK will use.

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Portlet TCK provides two mechanisms to send the user credentials: HTTP Basic authentication and a Java interface provided by the TCK. If TCK framework is configured to use HTTP Basic authentication, an Authorization HTTP header -using the configured user and password values- is constructed and sent with each test case request. If TCK framework is configured to use the Java interface mechanism, the value obtained from the specified interface implementation will be sent as a Cookie HTTP header with request of the test case. Additionally, a portal vendor may indicate that certain test cases, not required by TCK, to be executed in the context of an authenticated user. This is useful for vendor implementations that require an authenticated user for certain functionality to work. A vendor can specify the names of these test cases in a configuration file. TCK will consult this file to decide if user authentication is needed for each test case. Refer to TCK User Guide to get details on the specific configuration properties. .

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PLT.A Custom Portlet Modes
Portals may provide support for custom portlet modes. Similarly, portlets may use custom portlet modes. This appendix describes a list of custom portlet modes and their intended functionality. Portals and portlets should use these custom portlet mode names if they provide support for the described functionality. Portlets should use the getSupportedPortletModes method of the PortalContext interface to retrieve the portlet modes the portal supports.

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PLT.A.1 About Portlet Mod e
10 The about portlet mode should be used by the portlet to display information on the portlets purpose, origin, version etc. Portlet developers should implement the about portlet mode functionality by overriding the doDispatch method of the GenericPortlet class and checking for PortletMode("about"). 15 In the deployment descriptor the support for the about portlet mode must be declared using
<portlet-app> ... <portlet> ... <supports> ... <portlet-mode>about</portlet-mode> </supports> ... </portlet> ... <custom-portlet-mode> <name>about</name> </custom-portlet-mode> ... </portlet-app>

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PLT.A.2 Config Portlet Mo de
The config portlet mode should be used by the portlet to display one or more configuration views that let administrators configure portlet preferences that are marked non-modifiable in the deployment descriptor. This requires that the user must have administrator rights. Therefore, only the portal can create links for changing the portlet mode into config. Portlet developers should implement the config portlet mode functionality by overriding the doDispatch method of the GenericPortlet class and checking for PortletMode("config"). 10 The CONFIG mode of portlets operates typically on shared state that is common to many portlets of the same portlet definition. When a portlet modifies this shared state via the PortletPreferences, for all affected portlet entities, in the doView method the PortletPreferences must give access to the modified state. In the deployment descriptor the support for the config portlet mode must be declared using
<portlet-app> ... <portlet> ... <supports> ... <portlet-mode>config</portlet-mode> </supports> ... </portlet> ... <custom-portlet-mode> <name>config</name> </custom-portlet-mode> ... </portlet-app>

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PLT.A.3 Edit_defaults Port let Mode
The edit_defaults portlet mode signifies that the portlet should render a screen to set the default values for the modifiable preferences that are typically changed in the EDIT screen. Calling this mode requires that the user must have administrator rights. Therefore, only the portal can create links for changing the portlet mode into edit_defaults. Portlet developers should implement the edit_defaults portlet mode functionality by overriding the doDispatch method of the GenericPortlet class and checking for PortletMode("edit_defaults "). 40 In the deployment descriptor the support for the edit_defaults portlet mode must be declared using

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<portlet-app> ... <portlet> ... <supports> ... <portlet-mode> edit_defaults </portlet-mode> </supports> ... </portlet> ... <custom-portlet-mode> <name> edit_defaults </name> </custom-portlet-mode> ... </portlet-app>

PLT.A.4 Preview Portlet M ode
The preview portlet mode should be used by the portlet to render output without the need of having back-end connections or user specific data available. It may be used at page design time and in portlet development tools. Portlet developers should implement the preview portlet mode functionality by overriding the doDispatch method of the GenericPortlet class and checking for PortletMode("preview "). 25 In the deployment descriptor the support for the preview portlet mode must be declared using
<portlet-app> ... <portlet> ... <supports> ... <portlet-mode> preview </portlet-mode> </supports> ... </portlet> ... <custom-portlet-mode> <name> preview </name> </custom-portlet-mode> ... </portlet-app>

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PLT.A.5 Print Portlet Mode
The printportlet mode signifies that the portlet should render a view that can be printed. Portlet developers should implement the printportlet mode functionality by overriding the doDispatch method of the GenericPortlet class and checking for PortletMode("print"). In the deployment descriptor the support for the printportlet mode must be declared using 10
<portlet-app> ... <portlet> ... <supports> ... <portlet-mode>print</portlet-mode> </supports> ... </portlet> ... <custom-portlet-mode> <name>print</name> </custom-portlet-mode> ... </portlet-app>

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PLT.B Markup Fragments
Portlets generate markup fragments that are aggregated in a portal page document. Because of this, there are some rules and limitations in the markup elements generated by portlets. Portlets should conform to these rules and limitations when generating content. The disallowed tags indicated below are those tags that impact content generated by other portlets or may even break the entire portal page. Inclusion of such a tag invalidates the whole markup fragment. 10 Portlets generating HTML fragments must not use the following tags: base, body, iframe, frame, frameset, head, html and title. Portlets generating XHTML and XHTML-Basic fragments must not use the following tags: base, body, iframe, head, html and title. HTML, XHTML and XHTML-Basic specifications disallow the use of certain elements outside of the <head> element in the document. However, some browser implementations support some of these tags in other sections of the document. For example: current versions of Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator both support the style tag anywhere within the document. Portlet developers should decide carefully the use of following markup elements that fit this description: link, meta and style.

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PLT.C CSS Style Definitions
To achieve a common look and feel throughout the portal page, all portlets in the portal page should use a common CSS style sheet when generating content. 5 This appendix defines styles for a variety of logical units in the markup. It follows the style being considered by the OASIS Web Services for Remote Portlets Technical Committee.

PLT.C.1 Links (Anchor)
10 A custom CSS class is not defined for the <a> tag. The entity should use the default classes when embedding anchor tags.

PLT.C.2 Fonts
The font style definitions affect the font attributes only (font face, size, color, style, etc). Style portlet-font portlet-font-dim Description Example

Font attributes for the “normal” fragment font. Used Normal for the display of non-accentuated information. Text Font attributes similar to the .portlet.font but the Dim Text color is lighter.

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<div class="portlet-font" style="font-size:larger">Important information</div>

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PLT.C.3 Messages
Message style definitions affect the rendering of a paragraph (alignment, borders, background color, etc) as well as text attributes. Style portlet-msg-status portlet-msg-info portlet-msg-error portlet-msg-alert portlet-msg-success Description Status of operation. the current Example Progress: 80%

Help messages, general Info about additional information, etc. Error messages. Warning messages. Portlet not available Timeout occurred, try again later completed

Verification of the successful Operation completion of a task. successfully

PLT.C.4 Sections
5 Section style definitions affect the rendering of markup sections such as table, div and span (alignment, borders, background color, etc) as well as their text attributes. Style portlet-section-header portlet-section-body portlet-section-alternate portlet-section-selected portlet-section-subheader portlet-section-footer portlet-section-text Description Table or section header Normal text in a table cell Text in every other row in the cell Text in a selected cell range Text of a subheading Table or section footnote Text that belongs to the table but does not fall in one of the other categories (e.g. explanatory or help text that is associated with the section).

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PLT.C.5 Forms
Form styles define the look-and-feel of the elements in an HTML form. Style portlet-form-label portlet-form-input-field portlet-form-button portlet-icon-label portlet-dlg-icon-label portlet-form-field-label portlet-form-field Description Text used for the descriptive label of the whole form (not the labels for fields. Text of the user-input in an input field. Text on a button Text that appears beside a context dependent action icon. Text that appears beside a “standard” icon (e.g. Ok, or Cancel) Text for a separator of fields (e.g. checkboxes, etc.) Text for a field (not input field, e.g. checkboxes, etc)

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PLT.C.6 Menus
Menu styles define the look-and-feel of the text and background of a menu structure. This structure may be embedded in the aggregated page or may appear as a context sensitive popup menu. Style portlet-menu portlet-menu-item portlet-menu-item-selected portlet-menu-item-hover portlet-menu-item-hover-selected portlet-menu-cascade-item portlet-menu-cascade-item-selected portlet-menu-description portlet-menu-caption 5 Description General menu settings such as background color, margins, etc Normal, unselected menu item. Selected menu item. Normal, unselected menu item when the mouse hovers over it. Selected menu item when the mouse hovers over it. Normal, unselected menu item that has submenus. Selected sub-menu item that has sub-menus. Descriptive text for the menu (e.g. in a help context below the menu) Menu caption

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PLT.D User Information Attribute Names
This appendix defines a set of attribute names for user information and their intended meaning. To allow portals an automated mapping of commonly used user information attributes portlet programmers should use these attribute names. These attribute names are derived from the Platform for Privacy Preferences 1.0 (P3P 1.0) Specification by the W3C (http://www.w3c.org/TR/P3P). The same attribute names are also being considered by the OASIS Web Services for Remote Portlets Technical Committee.

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Attribute Name
user.bdate user.gender user.employer user.department user.jobtitle user.name.prefix user.name.given user.name.family user.name.middle user.name.suffix user.name.nickName user.home-info.postal.name user.home-info.postal.street user.home-info.postal.city user.home-info.postal.stateprov user.home-info.postal.postalcode user.home-info.postal.country user.home-info.postal.organization

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user.home-info.telecom.telephone.intcode user.home-info.telecom.telephone.loccode user.home-info.telecom.telephone.number user.home-info.telecom.telephone.ext user.home-info.telecom.telephone.comment user.home-info.telecom.fax.intcode user.home-info.telecom.fax.loccode user.home-info.telecom.fax.number user.home-info.telecom.fax.ext user.home-info.telecom.fax.comment user.home-info.telecom.mobile.intcode user.home-info.telecom.mobile.loccode user.home-info.telecom.mobile.number user.home-info.telecom.mobile.ext user.home-info.telecom.mobile.comment user.home-info.telecom.pager.intcode user.home-info.telecom.pager.loccode user.home-info.telecom.pager.number user.home-info.telecom.pager.ext user.home-info.telecom.pager.comment user.home-info.online.email user.home-info.online.uri user.business-info.postal.name user.business-info.postal.street user.business-info.postal.city user.business-info.postal.stateprov user.business-info.postal.postalcode user.business-info.postal.country user.business-info.postal.organization user.business-info.telecom.telephone.intcode user.business-info.telecom.telephone.loccode

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user.business-info.telecom.telephone.number user.business-info.telecom.telephone.ext user.business-info.telecom.telephone.comment user.business-info.telecom.fax.intcode user.business-info.telecom.fax.loccode user.business-info.telecom.fax.number user.business-info.telecom.fax.ext user.business-info.telecom.fax.comment user.business-info.telecom.mobile.intcode user.business-info.telecom.mobile.loccode user.business-info.telecom.mobile.number user.business-info.telecom.mobile.ext user.business-info.telecom.mobile.comment user.business-info.telecom.pager.intcode user.business-info.telecom.pager.loccode user.business-info.telecom.pager.number user.business-info.telecom.pager.ext user.business-info.telecom.pager.comment user.business-info.online.email user.business-info.online.uri

NOTE: The user.bdate must consist of a string that represents the time in milliseconds since January 1, 1970, 00:00:00 GMT.

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PLT.D.1 Example
Below is an example of how these attributes may be used in the deployment descriptor: 5
<portlet-app> ... <user-attribute> <name> user.name.prefix</name> </user-attribute> <user-attribute> <name> user.name.given</name> </user-attribute> <user-attribute> <name> user.name.family</name> </user-attribute> <user-attribute> <name> user.home-info.postal.city</name> </user-attribute> ... </portlet-app>

10

15

20

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PLT.E Features Deferred to Future Releases
The following are some of the features that would be considered in future versions of the Portlet Specification. The technical details of these features would be resolved by the Expert Group of the corresponding JSR. • • • Portlet filters Inter-portlet, event style, communication Allow portlets to produce and influence markup outside of the portlet fragment

5

10

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PLT.F TCK Assertions
The following is the list of assertions that have been identified in the Portlet Specification for the purposes of the compliance test. Assertions marked as Testable=false are not verifiable.

i ii

SPEC:1 SPEC:2 SPEC:3 SPEC:4 SPEC:5 SPEC:6 SPEC:7 SPEC:8

Testable=false Testable=false Testable=false Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable= true Testable= true Testable= true Testable= true Testable=true Testable= true Testable=false

Section=PLT.5.1 Section=PLT.5.1 Section=PLT.5.2.1 Section=PLT.5.2.2 Section=PLT.5.2.2.1 Section=PLT.5.2.2.1 Section=PLT.5.2.2.1 Section=PLT.5.2.2.1 Section=PLT 5.2.4 Section=PLT 5.2.4 Section=PLT 5.2.4.1 Section=PLT.5.2.4.1 Section=PLT.5.2.4.2.1 Section=PLT.5.2.4.2.1 Section=PLT.5.2.4.2.1 Section=PLT 5.2.4.2.1 Section=PLT.5.2.4.4 Section=PLT.5.2.4.4

iii iv v vi vii

viii ix x xi xii xiii xiv xv xvi xvii

SPEC:9 SPEC:10 SPEC:11 SPEC:12 SPEC:13 SPEC:14 SPEC:15 SPEC:16 SPEC:17 SPEC:18

xviii

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xix xx xxi xxii

SPEC:19 SPEC:20 SPEC:21 SPEC:22 SPEC:23 SPEC:24 SPEC:25 SPEC:26 SPEC:27 SPEC:28

Testable= true Testable=false Testable= false Testable=false Testable= false Testable= true Testable= true Testable= true Testable= true Testable= true Testable= true Testable= true Testable= true Testable= true Testable= true Testable= true Testable= true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=false Testable=true Testable=false Testable=false Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true

Section=PLT.5.2.4.4. Section=PLT/5.2.5 Section=PLT.5.2.5 Section=PLT.5.2.5 Section=PLT.5.2.5 Section=PLT.6.2 Section=PLT.6.2 Section=PLT.7.1 Section=PLT.7.1 Section=PLT.7.1 Section=PLT.7.1 Section=PLT.7.1 Section=PLT.7.1 Section=PLT.7.1.1 Section=PLT.7.1.1 Section=PLT.7.1.1 Section=PLT.6.2 Section=PLT.8.5 Section=PLT.8.6 Section=PLT.8.6 Section=PLT.8.6 Section=PLT.9.4 Section=PLT.10.1 Section=PLT.10.1 Section=PLT.10.3 Section=PLT.10.3 Section=PLT.10.3 Section=PLT.10.3 Section=PLT.10.3(servlet spec)

xxiii xxiv xxv xxvi xxvii

xxviii xxix xxx xxxi xxxii xxxiii xxxiv xxxv xxxvi xxxvii

SPEC:29 SPEC:30 SPEC:31 SPEC:32 SPEC:33 SPEC:34 SPEC:35 SPEC:36 SPEC:37 SPEC:38

xxxviii xxxix xl xli xlii xliii xliv xlv xlvi xlvii

SPEC:39

SPEC:40 SPEC:41 SPEC:42 SPEC:43 SPEC:44 SPEC:45 SPEC:46 SPEC:47

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xlviii xlix l li lii liii liv lv lvi lvii lviii lix lx lxi lxii lxiii lxiv lxv lxvi lxvii lxviii lxix lxx lxxi lxxii lxxiii lxxiv lxxv lxxvi

SPEC:48

Testable=true Testable= true Testable= true Testable=true Testable=true Testable= true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=false Testable= true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable= true Testable= true Testable=true Testable= true Testable=true Testable= true Testable= true Testable=true

Section=PLT.11.1.1 Section=PLT.11.1.1 Section=PLT.11.1.1 Section=PLT.11.1.1 Section=PLT.11.1.1 Section=PLT.11.1.1 Section=PLT.11.1.1 Section=PLT.11.1.1 Section=PLT.11.1.1 Section=PLT.11.1.2 Section=PLT.11.1.5 Section=PLT.11.1.5 Section=PLT.11.1.6 Section=PLT.11.1.7 Section=PLT.11.1.7 Section=PLT.11.2.1 Section=PLT.11.2.1 Section=PLT.12.2.1 Section=PLT.12.2.1 Section=PLT.12.2.2 Section=PLT.12.2.2 Section=PLT.12.2.2 Section=PLT.12.2.2 Section=PLT.12.2.2 Section=PLT.12.2.3 Section=PLT.12.2.3 Section=PLT.12.2.3 Section=PLT.12.2.3 Section=PLT.12.3.1

SPEC:49

SPEC:50 SPEC:51 SPEC:52 SPEC:53 SPEC:54 SPEC:55 SPEC:56 SPEC:57 SPEC:58 SPEC:59 SPEC:60 SPEC:61 SPEC:62 SPEC:63 SPEC:64 SPEC:65 SPEC:66 SPEC:67 SPEC:68

SPEC:69 SPEC:70 SPEC:71 SPEC:72 SPEC:73 SPEC:74 SPEC:75 SPEC:76

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lxxvii lxxviii lxxix lxxx lxxxi lxxxii lxxxiii lxxxiv lxxxv lxxxvi

SPEC:77 SPEC:78

Testable= true Testable= true Testable= true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable= true Testable= true Testable=true Testable=false Testable= true Testable= true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable= true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=false Testable=false Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true

Section=PLT.12.3.1 Section=PLT.12.3.1 Section=PLT.12.3.2 Section=PLT.12.3.3 Section=PLT.12.3.3 Section=PLT.12.3.3 Section=PLT.12.3.3 Section=PLT.12.3.3 Section=PLT.12.3.3 Section=PLT.12.3.4 Section=PLT.12.3.4 Section=PLT.12.3.4 Section=PLT.12.3.5 Section=PLT.14.1 Section=PLT.14.1 Section=PLT.14.1 Section=PLT.14.1 Section=PLT.14.1 Section=PLT.14.1 Section=PLT.14.1 Section=PLT.14.1(change) Section=PLT.14.1 Section=PLT.14.3 Section=PLT.14.3 Section=PLT.14.4 Section=PLT.14.4 Section=PLT.14.4 Section=PLT.14.4 Section=PLT.14.4

SPEC:79 SPEC:80 SPEC:81 SPEC:82 SPEC:83 SPEC:84 SPEC:85 SPEC:86 SPEC:87 SPEC:88

lxxxvii lxxxviii lxxxix xc xci xcii xciii xciv xcv xcvi xcvii xcviii xcix c ci cii ciii civ cv

SPEC:89

SPEC:90 SPEC:91 SPEC:92 SPEC:93 SPEC:94 SPEC:95 SPEC:96 SPEC:97 SPEC:98

SPEC:99

SPEC:100 SPEC:101 SPEC:102 SPEC:103 SPEC:104 SPEC:105

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cvi cvii

SPEC:106 SPEC:107 SPEC:108

Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable= true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true

Section=PLT.15.1 Section=PLT.15.1 Section=PLT.15.2 Section=PLT.15.2 Section=PLT.15.3 Section=PLT.15.3 Section=PLT.15.3 Section=PLT.15.4 Section=PLT.15.4 Section=PLT.15.4 Section=PLT.15.4 Section=PLT.15.4.1 Section=PLT.15.4.1 Section=PLT.15.4.1 Section=PLT.15.8(servlet spec) Section=PLT.16.1 Section=PLT.16.1 Section=PLT.16.1.1 Section=PLT.16.2 Section=PLT.16.2 Section=PLT.16.3 Section=PLT.16.3.1 Section=PLT.16.3.2 Section=PLT.16.3.3 Section=PLT.16.3.3 Section= PLT.16.3.3 Section=PLT.16.3.3 Section=PLT.16.3.3 Section=PLT.16.3.3

cviii cix cx cxi cxii cxiii cxiv cxv cxvi cxvii

SPEC:109 SPEC:110 SPEC:111 SPEC:112 SPEC:113 SPEC:114 SPEC:115 SPEC:116 SPEC:117 SPEC:118

cxviii cxix cxx cxxi cxxii cxxiii cxxiv cxxv cxxvi cxxvii

SPEC:119 SPEC:120 SPEC:121 SPEC:122 SPEC:123 SPEC:124 SPEC:125 SPEC:126 SPEC:127

cxxviii cxxix cxxx cxxxi cxxxii cxxxiii cxxxiv

SPEC:128 Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true

SPEC:129 SPEC:130 SPEC:131 SPEC:132

SPEC:133 Testable=true SPEC:134 Testable=true

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cxxxv cxxxvi

SPEC:135 SPEC:136

Testable=true Testable=true

Section= PLT.16.3.3 Section= PLT.16.3.3 Section= PLT.16.3.3 Section= PLT.16.3.3 Section= PLT.16.3.3 Section= PLT.16.3.3 Section= PLT.16.3.3 Section=PLT.16.3.4 Section=PLT.16.3.4 Section=PLT.17.1 Section=PLT.17.2 Section=PLT.17.2 Section= PLT.19.2 Section= PLT.19.2 Section= PLT.19.5 Section=PLT.19.5(servlet spec) Section= PLT.20.2 Section= PLT.20.2 Section= PLT.20.2 Section= PLT.20.4 Section= PLT.20.4 Section=PLT.22 Section= PLT.22.1 Section= PLT.22.1 Section= PLT.22.2 Section= PLT.22.2 Section= PLT.22.2 Section= PLT.22.2 Section= PLT.22.2

cxxxvii cxxxviii cxxxix cxl cxli cxlii cxliii cxliv cxlv cxlvi cxlvii

SPEC:137 Testable=true SPEC:138 Testable=true Testable=true Testable=false(impl) Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=false(impl) Testable=false(impl) Testable= false(impl) Testable= false Testable= false Testable=false Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable= true Testable=true Testable=false Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true

SPEC:139

SPEC:140 SPEC:141 SPEC:142 SPEC:143 SPEC:144 SPEC:145 SPEC:146 SPEC:147 SPEC:148

cxlviii cxlix cl cli clii cliii cliv clv clvi clvii clviii clix clx clxi clxii clxiii

SPEC:149

SPEC:150 SPEC:151 SPEC:152 SPEC:153 SPEC:154 SPEC:155 SPEC:156 SPEC:157 SPEC:158

SPEC:159 SPEC:160 SPEC:161 SPEC:162 SPEC:163

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clxiv clxv clxvi clxvii

SPEC:164 SPEC:165 SPEC:166 SPEC:167 SPEC:168

Testable=true Testable=true Testable= true Testable=false Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true Testable=true

Section= PLT.22.2 Section= PLT.22.2 Section=PLT.22.2 Section= PLT.22.2 Section= PLT.22.2 Section= PLT.22.2 Section= PLT.22.3 Section= PLT.22.3 Section= PLT.22.3 Section= PLT.22.3 Section= PLT.22.3 Section=PLT.22.3 Section= PLT.22.3 Section= PLT.22.4 Section= PLT.22.5 Section= PLT.22.5

clxviii clxix clxx clxxi clxxii clxxiii clxxiv clxxv clxxvi clxxvii

SPEC:169 SPEC:170 SPEC:171

SPEC:172 Testable=true SPEC:173 Testable=true

SPEC:174 Testable=true SPEC:175 SPEC:176 Testable= true Testable=false

SPEC:177 Testable=true SPEC:178 Testable=true Testable=false

clxxviii clxxix

SPEC:179

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