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Hydraulics IOE PPT

Hydraulics IOE PPT

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•Basics of Hydraulics •Major applications in Earth Moving Equipment •Major Components of Hydraulic System  •Hydraulic System Design

Basics of Hydraulics y
LIQUIDS HAVE NO SHAPE OF THEIR OWN. 
They acquire the shape of any container. Be cause of this, oil in a hydraulic system  They acquire the shape of any container  Be‐cause of this  oil in a hydraulic system  will flow in any direction and into a passage of any size or shape.

LIQUIDS TRANSMIT APPLIED PRESSURE IN ALL  Q DIRECTIONS. LIQUIDS ARE PRACTICALLY INCOMPRESSIBLE. LIQUIDS ARE PRACTICALLY INCOMPRESSIBLE LIQUIDS PROVIDE GREAT INCREASES IN WORK  FORCE.  FORCE  
This principle helps you to stop a large machine by pressing a brake pedal.

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HOW A HYDRAULIC SYSTEM WORKS HOW A HYDRAULIC SYSTEM WORKS
1. 1 2. 3. 4 4. 5. 6. 6 7. 8. 9. 10. 0.
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The PUMP which moves the oil. which moves the oil The CYLINDER which uses the moving oil to do work. CHECK VALVES to hold the oil the oil flow. h ld h l h l fl A RESERVOIR (and its Ancillaries) to store the oil. ( ) The CONTROL VALVE directs the oil flow. The RELIEF VALVE protects the system from high  pressures. Gauges show flow and pressure at various points. G   h  fl   d      i   i Accumulator (if fitted) smoothens the performance. Filters to separate the contamination. Prime mover to drive the pump. e ove to d ve t e pu p.
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Drive unit Drive unit
Hydraulic systems are driven by motors (electrical  motors, combustion engines). Electrical motors generally provide the  mechanical power for the pump in stationary  hydraulics Combustion engines are generally used in mobile  hydraulics

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ADVANTAGES
FLEXIBILITY‐Unlike the mechanical method of power transmission where  the relative positions of the engine and work site must remain relatively  constant with the flexibility of hydraulic lines, power can be moved to almost  t t  ith th  fl ibilit   f h d li  li      b   d t   l t  any location. MULTIPLICATION OF FORCE‐small forces can be used to move large  f g loads. SIMPLICITY‐The hydraulic system has fewer moving parts, fewer points of  wear. And it lubri‐cates itself. wear  And it lubri cates itself COMPACTNESS‐The hydraulic system can handle more horsepower for its  size than either of the other systems. ECONOMY‐This is the natural result of the simplicity and compactness  which provide relatively low cost for the power transmitted. Also, power and  frictional losses are comparatively small. frictional losses are comparatively small SAFETY‐fewer moving parts such as gears, chains, belt and electrical  contacts than in other systems. Overloads can be more easily controlled by  using relief valves than is possible with the overload devices on the other  l f l h bl h h l dd h h systems.

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DISADVANTAGES
EFFICIENCY‐While the efficiency of the hydraulic  system is much better than the electrical system , it is  system is much better than the electrical system   it is  lower than for the mechanical trans‐mission of power. NEED FOR CLEANLINESS‐Hydraulic systems can be  damaged by rust, corrosion, dirt, heat and breakdown  g y , , , of fluids. Cleanliness and proper maintenance are more  critical in the hydraulic system than in the other  methods of transmission. FIRE HAZARD‐ Due to neglegence. FIRE HAZARD D     l

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APPLICATIONS
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Major Components of Hydraulic System j p y y
Reservoir
Tank Filters Filt

Pumps Valves
Check Valves Directional Valves Relief Valves R li f V l

Hydraulic accumulators Cylinders/Motors

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Hydraulic reservoir y

The reservoir in a hydraulic system fulfils several  tasks. 
It acts as an intake and storage reservoir for the  hydraulic fluid required for operation of the  system; It dissipates heat; It separates air, water and solid materials; It supports a built‐in or built‐on pump and drive  I     b il i    b il     d d i   motor and other hydraulic components, such as  valves, accumulators, etc. l   l t   t

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Hydraulic reservoir H d li i
The reservoir consists of
Reservoir body Intake and return lines Baffle and separating plate B ffl   d  ti   l t Ventilation and exhaust Magnetic plug

The size of the reservoir depends on
Pump delivery p y The heat resulting from operation The volume of liquid The place of application The circulation time The size of the reservoir is not classified by its physical  Th   i   f th   i  i   t  l ifi d b  it   h i l  dimensions but its liquid capacity Reservoir size (litres) = pump (litres/min) x 3 ( ) p p( / ) 3
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Reservoir
Return Connection Filler Breather with filter

Volume of Reservoir 2 - 3 times delivery of pump in 1 minute

Pump

Return line

Access panel

Level indicator

Suction line Strainer Baffles
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Drain Plug

Reservoir Accessories
Hydraulic filter
The task of the filter is to reduce the contamination in the system to an p protect the various components from p acceptable level in order to p excessive wear.

Filler cap (breather cap)
It should be air tight when closed, but may contain the air vent which  I   h ld b   i   i h   h   l d  b     i  h   i     hi h  filters air entering the reservoir to provide a gravity push for proper oil  flow.

Oil level gauge
It shows the level of oil in the reservoir without having to open the reservoir.

Intake filter
It is usually a screen that is attached to the suction pipe to filter the hydraulic oil.

Drain plug
It allows all oil to be drained from the reservoir.  Some drain plugs are magnetic to help remove metal chips from the  oil.

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Reservoir Accessories
Baffle plate
g g It is located lengthwise through the centre of the tank  and is 2/3 the height of the oil level.  It is used to separate the outlet to pump from the return  line. This ensures a circuitous flow instead of the same  li  Thi       i it  fl  i t d  f th     fluid being recirculated.  The baffle prevents local turbulence in the tank, allows  The baffle prevents local turbulence in the tank  allows  foreign material to settle, get rid of entrapped air and  increases heat dissipation.

Suction and return lines
They are designed to enter the reservoir at points where  air turbulence are least.  They can enter the reservoir at the top or at the sides, but  their ends should be near the bottom of the tank.  their ends should be near the bottom of the tank   If the return line is above the oil level, the returning oil  can foam and draw in air.
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Suction and return lines S ti d t li
Suction line Return line

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Reservoir Accessories
Hydraulic filters The task of the filter is to reduce the contamination  in the system to an acceptable level in order to  protect the various components from excessive wear. Coolers In hydraulic systems, friction causes energy losses  when the hydraulic fluid flows through the lines and  components. This causes the hydraulic fluid to heat up. To a certain extent, this heat is given off to the  environment via the oil reservoir, lines and other  components The following cooling devices are available: Air cooler : difference in temperature of up to 25°C p p 5 possible. Water cooler : difference in temperature of up to 35°c p possible. Oil cooling by means of air fan cooler : when large  quantities of heat must be dissipated.

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Reservoir Accessories
Heaters
Heating elements or flow preheaters are  used for heating and preheating hydraulic  fluid. fluid Heaters are often required to ensure that  optimum operating temperature is quickly  attained. This is to ensure that once the system is  Thi  i  t    th t   th   t  i   started up, the hydraulic fluid quickly  reaches the optimum viscosity. reaches the optimum  iscosit If the viscosity is too high, the increased  friction and cavitations lead to greater  f i i   d  i i  l d      wear.
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Hydraulic Pumps Hydraulic Pumps
The pump basically performs two functions:
It creates a partial vacuum at the pump inlet port. The  vacuum enables the atmospheric pressure to force fluid from  the reservoir into the pump. the reservoir into the pump The mechanical action of the pump traps this fluid within  the pump cavities, transports it through the pump, and  p p , p g p p, forces it into the hydraulic system.

It is often assumed that pumps create pressure, but the  sole purpose of pumps is to create flow. Pressure is created by resistance to flow. A pump is a mechanism designed to produce the flow  necessary for the development of pressure. It cannot itself produce pressure, since it cannot provide  resistance to its own flow.
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Hydraulic pumps y p p
yp y p p Three basic types of hydraulic pump can be  distinguished on the basis of the displacement  volume: Constant pumps
Fixed displacement volume Fi d di l t  l

Adjustable pumps
Adjustable displacement volume

Variable capacity pumps
Regulation of pressure, flow rate.

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HYDRAULIC PUMP FAMILY U C U
HYDRAULIC PUMPS
GEAR VANE PISTON

FIXED

VARIABLE

EXTERNAL

INTERNAL

FIXED

VARIABLE

AXIAL BENT AXIS

AXIAL BENT AXIS RADIAL

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Hydraulic pumps y p p
Pump rating
Rated by the amount of fluid that can be displaced for each  revolution of the pump shaft Specified in cubic inches or cubic centimeter per revolution

Displacement is defined as the volume of oil moved or  displaced during each cycle of a pump.  There are two forms of displacement :
• Non‐positive displacement p p • Positive displacement

Positive displacement pump
Delivers to the system a specific amount of fluid per stroke,  revolution or cycle
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Hydraulic pumps
•Besides being positive displacement pumps, they are also categorized as either:

•Fixed displacement pumps Variable •Variable displacement pumps
•Fixed displacement pumps move the same volume of oil with every cycle. •This volume is only changed when the This speed of the pump is changed. •Variable displacement pumps can vary the volume of oil they move with each cycle - even at the same speed speed. •These pumps have an internal mechanism which varies the output of oil. 1/2/2010 Satya Narayan Shah

The centrifugal pump is an example of the non‐positive aspect, it simply moves the i l th fluid and allows for back flow. b k fl

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Fixed & Variable displacement pumps
Fixed 
Fixed displacement pumps move the same  volume of oil with every cycle.  y y This volume is only changed when the speed of  the pump is changed. the pump is changed

Variable
Variable displacement pumps can vary the  volume of oil they move with each cycle ‐ volume of oil they move with each cycle  even  at the same speed.  These pumps have an internal mechanism  which varies the output of oil. p
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Types of hydraulic pumps Types of hydraulic pumps
Most pumps used on today s systems are of three  Most pumps used on today’s systems are of three  basic designs:
• Gear pumps • Vane pumps • Pi Piston pumps  

All three designs work on the rotary principle; a  rotating unit inside the pump moves the fluid

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Gear pumps Gear pumps
y y y p They are widely used because they are simple and  economical.  While not capable of a variable displacement,  While not capable of a variable displacement   they can produce the volume needed by most  systems using fixed displacement.  systems using fixed displacement   Often, they are used as charging pumps for larger  system pumps of other types.     f  h  

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External gear pump
Gear pumps are fixed  displacement pumps  since the displaced  volume which is  determined by the  tooth gap is not  adjustable.

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EXTERNAL GEAR PUMP

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EXTERNAL GEAR PUMP CHARACTERISTICS
Typical displacements to 250 cm3/r Typical pressures to 250 bar Fixed displacement only Good speed range, limited indirect       drive capability, simple multiple  assemblies Generally noisy Good contamination sensitivity Poor serviceability Compact, low weight Low cost.
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Internal gear pumps
The internal gear pump also uses two gears, but now  a spur gear is mounted inside a larger gear. a spur gear is mounted inside a larger gear The spur gear is in mesh with one side of the larger  gear and both gears are divided on the other side by a    d b th     di id d   th   th   id  b     crescent shaped separator.  The drive shaft turns the spur gear, which drives the  larger gear. g g

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INTERNAL GEAR PUMP

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INTERNAL GEAR PUMP CHARACTERISTICS
Typical displacements to 250 cm3/r Typical pressures to 250 bar Fixed displacement only dd l l Good speed range Simple multiple assemblies p p Low noise Good contamination sensitivity Poor serviceability Good fluid compatibility.
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VANE PUMPS
•Vane pumps are fairly versatile pumps and can be g g p designed as single, double, or even triple units. •All vane pumps move oil using a rotating slotted rotor with vanes fitted into the slots. Two types of vane pumps are most often used: Balanced Vane Pumps-The rotor is driven by the drive shaft and The
turns inside an oval rotor ring. The vanes are fitted into the rotor slots and are free to move in or out. The pump has two inlet ports, located opposite each other. And it has two outlet ports, also on opposite sides of the pump. Both sets are connected to a central inlet and outlet.

Unbalanced Vane Pumps- The unbalanced vane pump uses the
same basic principle of a turning rotor with vanes working inside a fixed rotor ring. However, the operating cycle only happens once each revolution. So this pump has only one inlet and one outlet port. Also, the slotted rotor is now set offside in a circular ring.

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VANE PUMP PRINCIPLE

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Balanced vane pumps
The balanced vane pump is strictly a fixed displacement  type pump.  In the balanced vane pump, the rotor is driven by the drive  shaft and turns inside an oval rotor ring.  The vanes are fitted into the rotor slots and are free to  move in and out. Typical displacements to 200 cm3/r Typical pressures to 280 bar Fixed displacement only Provides prime mover soft‐start P id   i     f Simple double assemblies Low noise Good serviceability y
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Balanced vane pumps p p

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BALANCED VANE PUMP

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Unbalanced vane pump Unbalanced vane pump
The unbalanced vane pump can have a fixed or a  variable displacement.   variable displacement    It uses the same basic principle of a turning rotor  with vanes working inside a fixed rotor ring.  However, the operating cycle only happens once  , p g y y pp each revolution.  So this pump has only one inlet and one outer  port. Also, the slotted rotor is now set offside in a  Al  th   l tt d  t  i     t  ff id  i     circular ring.

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Unbalanced vane pump p p

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Unbalanced vane pump

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Unbalanced variable vane pump Unbalanced variable vane pump

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VARIABLE VANE PUMP PRINCIPLE

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VARIABLE VANE PUMP PRINCIPLE

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VARIABLE VANE PUMP PRINCIPLE

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VARIABLE VANE PUMP

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MULTIPLE VARIABLE VANE PUMP

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FIXED VANE PUMP CHARACTERISTICS

Typical displacements to 200 cm3/r Typical pressures to 280 bar Fixed displacement only Provides prime mover soft‐start Simple double assemblies p Low noise Good serviceability.
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VARIABLE VANE PUMP CHARACTERISTICS
Typical displacements to                10 cm3/ /r Typical pressures to 160 bar Simple multiple assemblies Range of pump controls g p p Low noise Low cost.

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Piston pumps
Piston pumps are often favoured on modern hydraulic  Pi       f  f d    d  h d li   systems which use high speeds and high pressures.  However, piston pumps are more complex and more  l d expensive than the other two types.  They can be designed for either fixed or variable  displacement. Most piston pumps are either: • Axial piston pumps p p p • Radial piston pumps Axial piston means that the pistons are mounted in lines  parallel with the pump's axis (a line down the centre). Radial piston means that the pistons are set  R di l  i t    th t th   i t     t  perpendicular to the pump's centre like the sun's rays.
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Piston pumps ‐ introduction p p

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Axial piston pump

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Axial piston pump
Axial piston pump

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Axial piston pump
Axial piston pump

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Axial piston pump
Axial piston pump

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Axial piston pump
Axial piston pump

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Axial piston pump

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Axial piston pump

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FIXED AXIAL PISTON PUMP CHARACTERISTICS
Typical displacements to  500 cm3/r

Typical pressures to 350  bar

Multiple assemblies  li l bli possible

High overall efficiency

Compact package.
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FIXED DISPLACEMENT PISTON PUMP

Q

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Q = (No. of Pistons) x (Piston Size) x (Piston Stroke) x (Drive Speed)
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VARIABLE DISPLACEMENT PUMP - MAX FLOW
STROKE

Q

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Q = (No. of Pistons) x (Piston Size) x (Piston Stroke) x (Drive Speed)
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VARIABLE DISPLACEMENT PUMP - REDUCED FLOW
STROKE

Q

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Q = (No. of Pistons) x (Piston Size) x (Piston Stroke) x (Drive Speed)
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VARIABLE DISPLACEMENT PUMP - REDUCED FLOW
STROKE

Q

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Q = (No. of Pistons) x (Piston Size) x (Piston Stroke) x (Drive Speed)
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VARIABLE DISPLACEMENT PUMP - ZERO FLOW
STROKE

Q

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Q = (No. of Pistons) x (Piston Size) x (Piston Stroke) x (Drive Speed)
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VARIABLE DISPLACEMENT PUMP - ZERO FLOW
STROKE

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Q = (No. of Pistons) x (Piston Size) x (Piston Stroke) x (Drive Speed)
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VARIABLE DISPLACEMENT PUMP - REVERSED FLOW

Q

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VARIABLE DISPLACEMENT AXIAL PISTON

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FIXED AXIAL PISTON PUMP CHARACTERISTICS
Typical displacements to  500 cm3/r

Typical pressures to 350  bar

Multiple assemblies  li l bli possible

High overall efficiency

Compact package.
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Bent axis axial piston pumps Bent axis axial piston pumps
The swash plate does not turn but it can be tilted  back and forth.  The angle of the swash plate controls the distance  Th   l   f th   h  l t   t l  th  di t   that the pistons can move back and forth in their  bores.  b   The greater the angle, the farther the pistons  travel and the more oil that is displaced by the  p pump. p

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Radial piston pump
In a radial piston pump, the cylinder block rotates inside a circular  rotor.  As the block rotates, centrifugal force, charging pressure, or  As the block rotates  centrifugal force  charging pressure  or  mechanical action causes the piston to follow the inner surface of the  ring, which is offset from the centreline of the cylinder block. g, y The pistons takes in fluid as they move outward and discharge it as  they move in. Displacements to 750+ cm3/r Pressure capabilities to 350/400 bar High noise level Sensitive to poor inlet conditions & contamination High overall efficiency h ll ff Good life expectancy Large, bulky units L  b lk   i Good fluid compatibility High cost. Hi h  t
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Piston pumps ‐ introduction Piston pumps ‐

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VARIABLE DISPLACEMENT RADIAL PISTON PUMP

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CYLINDERS
Piston‐Type Cylinders‐give straight move‐ment.
SINGLE ACTING CYLINDERS  give force only one way.  SINGLE‐ACTING CYLINDERS ‐ give force only one way   Pressure oil is admitted to only one end of the cylinder,  raising the load. An out side force such as gravity or a  raising the load. An out‐side force such as gravity or a  spring must return the cylinder to its starting point. DOUBLE ACTING CYLINDERS  DOUBLE‐ACTING CYLINDERS ‐ give force in both  directions. Pressure oil is admitted first at one end of the  cylinder, then at the other, giving two way power. cylinder, then at the other, giving two‐way power.

Vane‐Type Cylinders‐give rotary movement
In a round barrel, the shaft and vane rotate as pressure oil  db l h h f d l enters. Oil is discharged through the outlet hole in the  other side of the cylinder.  h   id   f  h   li d  

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Hydraulic accumulators y
Hydraulic accumulators are used for: Storing energy Absorbing shock Building pressure regularly gp g y Maintaining constant pressure
Types of hydraulic accumulators: Gas loaded accumulator Weight loaded accumulator Spring loaded accumulator
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Types Hydraulic Accumulators yp y
Weight loaded accumulators Gas loaded accumulators Spring loaded accumulators

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Characteristics of hydraulic accumulators y
Weight loaded accumulator Constant pressure is obtained Spring loaded accumulator S i  l d d  l Can be mounted in any position Gas loaded accumulators the selection and use  of this  accumulator depends upon the  pressure and volume needs of the    d  l   d   f  h   system
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PNEUMATIC ACCUMULATORS
g y g Uses inert gases like dry Nitrogen Oil and gas chambers are separated by  piston, bladder or diaphragm  bl dd    d h Gas is compressed while excess oil is taken  during off load period and expands when  supplying oil to the system Failure of packing seal causes mixing of gas  and oil 

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Precautions for Pneumatic Accumulators
NEVER FILL AN ACCUMULATOR WITH OXYGEN! p yg An explosion could result if oil and oxygen mix under p pressure. Never fill an accumulator with air. When air is compressed, water vapor in the air condenses and can cause rust. This in turn may ma damage seals and ruin the accumulator. Also, once air leaks r in acc m lator Also into the oil, the oil becomes oxidized and breaks down. Always fill an accumulator with an inert gas such as dry nitrogen. This gas is free of both water vapor and oxygen; this makes it harmless to parts and safe to use. Never charge an accumulator to a pressure more than that recommended by the manufacturer. Read the label and observe the "working pressure." working pressure Before removing an accumulator from a hydrau-lic system, y p release all hydraulic pressure. Before you disassemble an accumulator, release both gas and hydraulic pressures. When you di h disassemble an accumulator, make sure that dirt and bl l k h di d abrasive material does not enter any of the openings Satya Narayan Shah 99

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SPRING-LOADED ACCUMULATORS SPRING LOADED
In operation, pressure oil loads the piston by compressing the spring .When pressure drops, the When drops spring forces oil into the system. The accumulator can be used as a gradual pressure builder for an automatic transmission. When the transmission is shifted pressure drops and the shifted, accumulator sends a "surge" of oil in to "take up slack." slack " This fills the chamber behind the clutch pistons. Then pressure builds gradually for a smooth engagement of the clutch. clutch By controlling the flow of oil to the accumulator, the time needed to charge it can also be controlled

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SPRING-LOADED ACCUMULATORS SPRING LOADED
The operation of spring‐loaded accumulators can be  varied by changing 1) the strength of the spring, 2) the  i d b   h i   )  h   h  f  h   i   )  h   length of the spring, 3) the preload on the spring, 4)  the size of the piston or, 5) the length of the piston  ) stroke.

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Hydraulic Valves y
Hydraulic valves regulate
Pressure Direction Volume

Types of valve T   f  l
Pressure control valves Directional control valves Volume control valves
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Pressure Control Valves (PCV)  ( )
PCV are used to limit or reduce  system pressure Unload a pump Set the pressure 

Examples of PCV are
Relief valves d l Pressure reducing valves Pressure sequence valves etc P     l  
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Relief Valves Relief Valves
Used as safety valves Prevents the increase of system pressure  from the specified pressure range f  h   ifi d    Cracking pressure is the pressure at which  Cracking pressure is the pressure at  hich  the relief valves first begin to open e e e a es s beg o ope Full flow pressure is the pressure at which  the valve passes its full quantity of oil

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Pressure Reducing Valves
To keep the pressure in one branch of  circuit below than that of main circuit When not operating this valve is open Wh   t  ti  thi   l  i   The spring tension can be adjusted using  screw This valve will limit maximum pressure in  the secondary circuit irrespective of  pressure changes in the main circuit
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Pressure sequence Valves
To control the sequence of flow to various  branches of circuit b h   f  i it Valves allow flow to a second function  only after a first has been fully satisfied When closed, the valve directs oil freely  to the primary circuit When opened, the valve diverts oil to a  p , secondary circuit h   d  li d  b i  i   k   The second cylinder begins its stroke  once first completes its stroke
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Directional control valves
Directs the flow of oil in hydraulic  system
Types Check valves Spool valves

Check valves:‐
o One way valve o Open to allow flow in one direction but close to  p

prevent flow in the opposite direction o Mostly used  to stop reverse flow
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Spool Directional valve p
Directs oil to start, operate and stop  the actuating units on modern  hydraulic system h d li   Spool valve can be categorized by its  S l  l    b   t i d b  it   position and way of directing the oil  line For example three position and four  p p way valve
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Spool Directional valve p

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Spool Directional valve Spool Directional valve

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Spool Directional valve p

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Volume control valves
Controls the volume or flow of oil  usually by throttling or diverting Speed of cylinder or motor is  regulated by this valve l t d b  thi   l Mostly used in fixed displacement  Mostl  used in fi ed displacement  type of valve 

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Hydraulic filter
Filters the contamination from the oil It can be taken from the machine and  cleaned during servicing period. If  l d d i   i i   i d  If  clogged bypass valve comes in action Is generally cartridge type s ge e a y ca dge ype Hydraulic filter generally is in between  y g y return line and tank

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Hydraulic hoses Hydraulic hoses
y Carries hydraulic oil from one  component to the another in hydraulic  system Are of high pressure and low as per the  oil flow line il fl  li Flexible in nature Can be connected with another pipe  through coupling h h  li Sometimes steel pipes can be used for  connecting two components if they are  closed to other
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Hydraulic hoses

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Hydraulic fluid
The hydraulic fluid is the transmitting medium of the  hydraulic system. It performs various tasks: hydraulic system  It performs various tasks:
Transmission of hydraulic energy Prevention of corrosion of moving internal parts Removal of dirt, abrasive matter, etc Dissipation of heat Lubrication Sealing

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Hydraulic fluid requirements
Must not boil, vaporize or freeze within the  p y temperature limits of the system Must not corrode the internal parts Viscosity must remain stable Vi it   t  i   t bl Must be chemically stable Capable of resisting foaming Capable of separating from water Compatible with seals and gaskets Lubricating ability Oxidation resistance Load carrying capacity
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Too high a viscosity increases friction, resulting in :
High resistance to flow. Increased power consumption due to frictional loss. Increased power consumption due to frictional loss High temperature caused by friction. Increased pressure drop because of the resistance. Possibility of sluggish or slow operation. Difficulty in separating air from oil in reservoir. y p g Greater vacuum at the pump inlet, causing cavitation. Higher system noise level. g y

And should the viscosity be too low :
Internal leakage increases. I t l l k  i Excessive wear. Pump efficiency may decrease, causing slower operation of the actuator. Pump efficiency may decrease  causing slower operation of the actuator Increased temperature result from leakage losses

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Types of hydraulic fluids Types of hydraulic fluids
Petroleum oil Fire resistant fluids • Water glycols • Water‐oil emulsion Water oil emulsion Synthetic oil
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Typical  hydraulic circuit  yp y
.
Control valve

L.H. Cylinder

Pressure Relief Valve

R.H. Cylinder

Main pump Hydraulic filter

Tank
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Design of a simple hydraulic system Design of a simple hydraulic system
When designing a simple hydraulic system, we  need to calculate the following: Pressure, force and area Pressure  force and area Speed of an actuator Flow velocity in pipes Pipe size requirements Work, horsepower and torque Reservoir sizing R i  i i

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Pressure indicates work load
Resistance of a load generates pressure.  Pressure equals to the force of the load divided  by the piston area.  We can express this relationship by the general  formula: P = pressure; f = force and a = area

P =

F A

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Force is proportional to pressure  Force is proportional to pressure and area and area
When a hydraulic cylinder is used to clamp or press, its output force can be computed as follows: F=pxa

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Computing piston area
The area of a piston can be computed by this formula

A= A=

π

4

xd

2

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Speed of an actuator
How fast a piston travels or a motor rotates  depends on its size and the rate of oil flow into it.  depends on its size and the rate of oil flow into it   To relate flow rate to speed, consider the volume  that must be filled in the actuator to cause a given  h    b  fill d i   h           i   amount of travel.

Volume

Time

= Speed x Area

Speed

=

Volume Area
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Velocity in pipes Velocity in pipes
The velocity at which the hydraulic fluid flows  through the lines is an important design  consideration because of the effect of velocity on  friction. Generally the recommended velocity ranges are:
• Pump inlet line = 0.61 – 1.22 metres per second • Working lines = 2.13 – 6.10 metres per second

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Pipe size requirements
If the LPM and desired velocity are known, use  this relationship to find the cross‐sectional area: this relationship to find the cross sectional area:

LPMx 16667 Area(mm ) = Velocity(in mmper second)
2

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Pipe size requirements
When the LPM and size of pipe is given, use this formula to find what the velocity will be:

LPM x 16667 Velocity (mm per second ) = 2 Area (mm )
Alternatively, the area can be obtained from the selection chart chart.

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Pipe size requirements
Select the proper  conductor internal  diameter if the flow  rate is known. rate is known Determine exactly what  y the velocity will be if  the conductor size and  flow rate are known.

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Work and power Work and power
When a force  is exerted through a distance, work  is done. Work = force x distance Work is usually expressed in joules.  For example, if a 50n weight is lifted 3m, the work  done is 150nm or j. done is 150nm or j

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Work and power
The previous formula does not take into  consideration how fast the work is done.  The rate of doing work is called power.
Forcex Distance Work Power= Power or Time Time

The usual unit of power is the horsepower  ( (watt), abbreviated hp (w). (1 hp = 746 watts) ), p ( ) ( p 74 ) One watt is equivalent to 1 newton lifted one  metre in one second)

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Horsepower in a hydraulic system
In the hydraulic system, speed and distance are  indicated by the LPM flow and force is indicated  by pressure.  Thus, we might express hydraulic power this way: Th     i ht   h d li    thi  

Litres Newtons Power = x Minutes Square Metres q

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Horsepower in a hydraulic system
By changing the units, we get

LPM x bar kW = 600

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Horsepower in a hydraulic system
These horsepower formulas tell the exact power  being used in the system.  being used in the system   The horsepower required to drive the pump will  be somewhat higher than this since the system is  b   h t hi h  th  thi   i  th   t  i   not 100% efficient.  The formula is changed when the average  efficiency (η) is taken into account. y

LPM x bar kW = 600 x η
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Horsepower and torque Horsepower and torque
The following are general torque‐power formulas torque power for any rotating equipment:

q Torque

9550 x kW = rpm

Torque x rpm kW = 9550

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Margin of error Margin of error
When working on the formulas, we must take into  consideration the margin of error if it is given. Working pressure, p   =   operating pressure – margin of error i   f 

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Reservoir sizing Reservoir sizing
For industrial use, a general sizing rule is used: Tank size (litres) = pump lpm x 3 T k  i  (li )     l    

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Given the following:
• Load = 35 000N • Distance   0 5m Distance = 0.5m • Operating pressure = 60 bar • Margin of error = 10% • Rate of raising load = 0.15 m/sec • Flow velocity = 2.5 m/sec • System efficiency = 90%

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Area of piston A f it
Load  is 35000 N Pressure is 60 bar

Force 35 000 2 Area = = = 0.0065 m 5 Pressure 54 x 10

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Velocity
Rate at which load is to be raised  = 15 cm/sec = 0.15m/sec  15 cm/sec   0.15m/sec Which is equal to 9 m/min q 9 /

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Rate of oil flow R t f il fl
Rate of oil flow R t   f  il fl = = = litres/min = = travel rate x area t l  t     9 x 0.0065 0.0585 m3/min 0.0585 x 1000  5 5 58.5 litres/min /

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Wattage of motor

LPM x bar kW = 600 x η 58.5 58 5 x 60 kW = = 6.5kW 600 x 0.9
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Inside diameter of pipe I id di t f i
To determine the inside diameter of the pipe if a  flow velocity of 2.5 m/sec is to be maintained.  Using the nomogram, for 6.5 LPM and 2.5 m/sec,  U i  th    f  6  LPM  d    /   we get: Area of fluid conductor = 4 cm2

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Diameter of hydraulic hose
With the area of fluid conductor being 4 cm2 The diameter of the hydraulic hose can be obtained: y

π
4 d d
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x = =

d

2

= x

4 4 cm
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4 2.26
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Reservoir sizing
Reservoir size Reservoir size = 58.5 x 3

= 175.5 litres

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