Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics 160 (2003) 259–263

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Some properties of an extended Wigner function

R. Ramanathan
Department of Physics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007, India
Received 24 October 2002; received in revised form 10 March 2003
Abstract
A covariant generalisation of Wigner function proposed by us some years ago is reviewed, and its remarkable
and useful properties are elucidated; its being a natural solution to a relativistically covariant Liouville equation
is also demonstrated.
c 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Wigner function; Liouville equation
1. Introduction
In a remarkable paper Wigner [5] introduced a distribution function, which made the averages
(expectation values) in quantum mechanical observables look like the averages in statistical mechan-
ics. The function is so structured as to satisfy the Liouville equation automatically. This function
is interesting from both the applicational and epistemological view points [1].
The original Wigner function is of the form
,(x; r) =¬
−3

d
3
qt

( r + q)t ( r − q)e
i x· q
(1)
with the following properties:

,(x; r) d
3
r =,(x),

,(x; r) d
3
x = ˜ ,(r)
and the average of a quantity !( x) +q( r) given by
!( x) +q( r) =

(!(x) +q(r)),(x; r) d
2
x d
3
r. (2)

Invited lecture at the ‘International Conference on Special Functions’, September 22–27, 2002 at Chennai.
E-mail address: drramanathan@hclinÿnet.com (R. Ramanathan).
0377-0427/$ - see front matter c 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/S0377-0427(03)00628-9
260 R. Ramanathan / Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics 160 (2003) 259–263
The t and t

in (1) are, respectively, the Schr odinger wave function and its complex conjugate
and x, r are the position and momenta. It is readily veriÿed that for a free particle (1) satisÿes the
Liouville equation
9,( x; r)
9t
+
÷
t ·
÷

,( x; r) = 0. (3)
The Wigner function has proved to be a useful tool for easy evaluation of quantum averages in
analogy with the averages in statistical mechanics the past several decades, and has also been widely
studied in the past [1].
In this paper, I will briey outline a very economical procedure for constructing covariant Wigner
functions for the Dirac, Klein–Gordon (K–G) and spin-1 ÿelds as already elucidated earlier [3].
Finally, I shall list the useful ÿeld theoretic structure for the generalised Wigner function for the
Dirac ÿeld which can be extended to the case of spin-0 and -1 case by identical procedure.
2. The extended Wigner function
In what follows, I shall adopt the notation and conventions of Roman [4] and use the Euclidean
metric q
jv
with (+ + ++) entries along the diagonal and j, v taking values 1,2,3 and 4.
First, I deÿne a four-vector quantity
J
j
(x, r) =¬
−4

d
4
qe
2iq·r

t (x +q)i¸
j
t (x −q), (4)
where t and

t are free Dirac ÿelds satisfying

j
9
j
+m)t = 0 and

t (m − 9
j
¸
j
) = 0, (5)
where

t =t
+
¸
4
, t
+
being the Hermitian conjugate of t .
It is readily seen that the fourth component of J
j
(x; r) is the covariant Wigner function for the
Dirac ÿeld,
,(x, r) =J
4
(x, r) =¬
−4

d
4
qe
2iq·r
t
+
(x +q)t (x −q). (6)
It is also easy to see that by virtue of (5) the following conservation equation holds:
9
(x)
j
J
j
(x, r) = 0. (7)
The usual Dirac current is also recovered by noticing that J
j
(x) =

d
4
rJ
j
(x; r) =

t i¸
j
t , which
also satisÿes the current conservation
9
j
J
j
(x) = 0. (8)
Recalling that the Dirac matrices ¸
j
satisfy the algebra
¸
j
¸
v

v
¸
j
= 2q
jv
(9)
and the corresponding anti-symmetric spin tensor is deÿned as
o
jv
= i[¸
j
¸
v
−¸
v
¸
j
], (10)
R. Ramanathan / Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics 160 (2003) 259–263 261
it is easy to verify the Gordan identity

t [i¸
j
]t =

t

r
j
m
+
1
2m
9
(x)
v
o
jv

t . (11)
Now using (11) in (7) with the use of (4), we can split the conservation equation into the
convective and spin parts
J
c
j
(x, r) =¬
−4

d
4
qe
2iq·r

t (x +q)
r
j
m
t (x −q) (12)
and
J
s
j
(x, r) =¬
−4
9
(x)
t

d
4
qe
2iq·r

t (x +q)
o
jv
m
t (x −q). (13)
Remembering the total anti-symmetry of the spin part, it is readily seen that (7) implies the separate
conservation of the convective and spin parts of J
j
(x, r):
9
j
J
c
j
(x, r) = 9
j
J
s
j
(x, r) = 0. (14)
Now it is apparent that the conservation of the convective part (14) implies the Liouville equation
for the Dirac–Wigner function
9
t
,(x, r) +t
i
9
i
,(x, r) = 0. (15)
So, the conservation of the convective part of J
j
guarantees that the Wigner function for the Dirac
ÿeld satisÿes the Liouville equation. In arriving at (15), we have used the kinematical equality
t
i
=r
i
r
4
, the velocity associated with the Liouville ow.
2.1. Wigner function for the K–G and Spin-1 ÿelds
To repeat the procedure adopted for the free Dirac ÿelds for the case of the spin-0 K–G ÿelds and
the spin-1 vector ÿelds, we resort to the use of the Dun–Kemmer equation [4], which recasts the
usual second-order dierential equation for the integral spin ÿelds into ÿrst-order dierential equation
akin to the Dirac equation by introducing multi-component ÿelds for the spin-0 and -1 ÿelds with
appropriate identiÿcations for the components, to relate with the usual second-order integral spin
equation. Using the [-matrix notation of Roman [4] we have
([
j
9
j
+m)t (x) = 0,

t (m − 9
j
[
j
) = 0, (16)
where t (x) is a multi-component ÿeld, each of whose components t
i
satisÿes the K–G equation, and

t =t
+
n
4
and n
4
=2[
2
4
−1. The spin-0 and -1 cases correspond to 5- and 10-component irreducible
representations, respectively. The components are as follows:
Spin-0: t
i
(i = 1–4) = −9
j
m(x)m, t
5
=m,
Spin-1: t
i
(i = 1–6) = −F
j
tm, t
i
(i = 7–10) =m
j
, (17)
where m and m
j
are the usual K–G and spin-1 ÿelds, respectively. The [
j
matrices in (16) are,
therefore, the 5 ×5 irreducible representations for the spin-0 ÿelds and 10 ×10 for the spin-1 ÿelds.
262 R. Ramanathan / Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics 160 (2003) 259–263
The algebra of the [ matrices are given by [4]
[
z
[
j
[
v
+[
v
[
j
[
z
=o
zj
[
v
+o
jv
[
z
. (18)
The ‘spin’ operator is given by
iS
jv
=[
j
[
v
−[
v
[
j
. (19)
To write the counterpart of the Gordan identity for the [-matrices analogous to relation (11), we
need the further equation
(9
j
−[
v
[
j
9
v
)t (x) =

t (x)(9
j
−[
v
[
j
9
v
) = 0. (20)
From (18), (19) and (15) it is readily seen that

t (i[
j
)t =

t

r
j
m
+ 9
v
S
jv
m

t . (21)
Thus, with the Dun–Kemmer ÿelds replacing the Dirac ÿelds in (4) we can readily extract the
Wigner function for the spin-0 and -1 ÿelds by proceeding along the same arguments and noting that
the convective part of conservation equation (14) with the replacements mentioned above leads to
the corresponding Wigner function satisfying Liouville equation (15). As only the 4, 5 components
of t contribute to the phase density for the spin-0 ÿelds, the corresponding Wigner function works
out as
,(x, r) =
1
m
¬
−4
i

d
4
qe
2ir·q
[9
t
m

(x +q)m(x −q) −m

(x +q)9
t
m(x −q)]. (22)
2.2. Explicit forms of the extended Wigner function
It is now straightforward to use the usual free ÿeld expansions of the Dirac, spin-0 and -1 ÿelds,
respectively, to compute the corresponding Wigner function in terms of the Fock-space (number
operators) of the ÿelds [2].
I shall just present the outline of the calculation for the Dirac ÿeld which can be repeated for the
spin-0 and -1 ÿelds as well.
The Fourier representation for the Dirac ÿeld [2] is
t (x
1
) = (2¬)
−32

d
3
r
1
(mE
1
)
12
{r
r
1
r
1
u
r1
(r
1
)e
ix
1
r
1
+d

r
1
r
1
t
r
1
(r
1
)e
−ix
1
r
1
}, (23)
t (x
2
) = (2¬)
−32

d
3
r
2
(mE
2
)
12
{r
r
2
r
2
u
r2
(r
2
)e
ix
2
r
2
+d
1
t
r
2
(r
2
)e
−ix
2
r
2
}, (24)
where b and d are (c-number) electron and positron amplitudes, respectively, and u and t are the
corresponding positive and negative energy spinors. The latter are more conveniently written in terms
of the Lorentz boost operators as follows [2]:
u
r
1
(r
1
) = [(m − irr
1
)2

m(m +E
1
)]u
r
1
(0), (25)
t
r
1
(r
1
) = [(m + irr
1
)2

m(m +E
1
)]t
r
1
(0). (26)
R. Ramanathan / Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics 160 (2003) 259–263 263
Putting all these ingredients into the expression for the Wigner function and doing the covariant
integration, after the algebraic simpliÿcations, which are tedious but straightforward, we arrive at the
form
,(x, r) =¬
−3

d
4
ko(r
2
+m
2
+k
2
4)o(2r·k)
×[b

(
÷
r
+
÷
k2)b(
÷
r

÷
k2)e
ik·x
+d

(
÷
r
+
÷
k2)d(
÷
r

÷
k2)
×e
−ik·x
](2mr
0
+ 2i ˆ n·(
÷
r
×
÷
k ))

E
1
E
2
(m +E
1
)(m +E
2
)
, (27)
where ˆ n is a unit vector normal to the plane of
÷
r
and
÷
k .
Now the Wigner function of form (27) can be readily used in any ÿeld theoretic computation
involving free Dirac ÿelds. The same strategy may be adopted to compute the Wigner function for
the spin-0 and -1 ÿelds in terms of ‘c-number’ amplitudes.
References
[1] S.D. Bosanac, J. Math. Phys. 38 (1997) 3895;
R. Ramanathan, Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 13 (1992) 3095.
[2] C. Itzykson, J.B. Zuber, Quantum Field Theory, McGraw-Hill, New York, USA, 1980.
[3] A.N. Mitra, R. Ramanathan, J. Math. Phys. 39 (1998) 4492;
R. Ramanathan, Delhi University Report, 2000, unpublished.
[4] P. Roman, Theory of Elementary Particles, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1964, pp. 146–155.
[5] E.P. Wigner, Phy. Rev. 40 (1932) 749.

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