Production of sauce

Name: T.L.V.Peiris Student Number: GS/Msc/Food/3630/08

Production of sauce
University of Sri Jayawardenapura

Introduction A tomato sauce is any of a very large number of sauces made primarily from tomatoes, usually to be served as part of a dish (rather than as a condiment). Tomato sauces are common for meat and vegetables, but they are perhaps best known as sauces for pasta dishes. Tomatoes have a rich flavour, low liquid content, very soft flesh which breaks down easily, and the right composition to thicken into a sauce when they are cooked (without the need of thickeners like roux). All of these qualities make them ideal for simple and appealing sauces. The simplest tomato sauces consist just of chopped tomato flesh (with the skins and seeds optionally removed), cooked in a little olive oil and simmered until it loses its raw flavour, and seasoned with salt. Water (or another, more flavourful liquid such as stock or wine) is often added to keep it from drying out too much. Onion and garlic are almost always sweated or sautéed at the beginning before the tomato is added. Other seasonings typically include basil, oregano, parsley, and possibly some spicy red pepper or black pepper. Ground or chopped meat is also common. In countries such as Australia, New Zealand and in Southern Africa, the term 'tomato sauce' is used to describe a condiment similar to that known in the USA as 'ketchup'. In Britain, both terms are used for the condiment. . 2.1. Production of sauce 2.1.1. Materials SS knife Basin Ss sauce pan Weighing scale Sieve Refractor meter Bottles Capping machine PH meter Thermo meter

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Production of sauce

2.1.2. Ingredients Tomato pulp 500g Sugar 75g Chili 1g Salt 5.6g Vinegar 190g Spices 8g 2.1.3. Method Fresh tomatoes were washed and blanched for 2 min. Then they were peeled and liquidized in a blender. Pulp was strained to get puree pulp. 500g pulp and other ingredients except vinegar were put in to the pan and heated till it achieves 20 brix levels. Then vinegar was added to the mixture and heated up to 40 brix Sauce was filled in to the bottle while hot with one inch head space. Sauce bottle was pasteurized for 20 min in a water bath followed capping. 2.1.4. Discussion Satisfactory product was produced but it was little sour since tomatoes are not evenly ripened. However correct blanching time preserved the color of the product. All the ground spices were put in to the small cloth bag and introduced to mixture while making since addition of these directly to sauce will give unsmooth texture. 2.2. Determination of benzoate content of tomato sauce 2.2.1. Introduction

Chemical Formula

Synonyms Benzenecarboxylic acid Carboxybenzene Page 3 of 6

Production of sauce
Phenyl carboxylic acid Phenylformic acid

Benzoic acid is a white powder or crystals with a strong odor.Benzoic acid has good antimicrobial features, but because it does not dissolve well in water, sodium benzoate is often used, because in acidic solutions it converts to benzoic acid, and sodium benzoate dissolves very well in water Benzoic acid is used as a preservative in fruit juice, diabetic jam, and beer etc. However these preservatives are to be present within the prescribed limits. The analysis of benzoic acid involves three steps. 1- Acidification 2- Extraction with ether 3- Sublimation 2.2.2. Materials Beakers [100 mL, 250 mL] Measuring cylinder [25 mL] Filter funnel & stand Filter papers Metal holder, beaker and round bottom flask Water bath Desiccators Burette & burette stand 2.2.3. Chemicals Acetone Diethyl ether Conc. HCL Anhydrous sodium sulphate Phenol red 0.05M NaOH 2.2.4. Method 10g of sauce sample was weighed in to 100 mL beaker and mixed with 10 mL of distilled water. 10 mL of conc. HCL was added 25 mL of diethyl ether was added. Mixture was poured in to a separation funnel and mixed well. Ether layer was decanted to a beaker. Page 4 of 6

Production of sauce
Same sample was extracted with two more 25 mL ether portions and collected to the above beaker. Ether was filtered through anhydrous sodium sulphate. Ether was evaporated up to 10 mL under low temperature to prevent sublimation. Ether beaker was kept in a metal holder and covered with round bottom flask for sublimation. Sublimed residue [benzoic acid] was dissolved in 2mL acetone and 2mL of water. Then the acid was titrated with 0.05M NaOH using phenol red indicator. Same was repeated using 2g benzoic acid as a controller. 2.2.5. Calculation

3.1 Determination of Benzoate Content of Tomato Sauce Initial weigh of the beaker
Final weight after drying Weight of the remaining content Weight of the sample Value of the titration 1.0 ml of 0.05 M NaOH Amount of benzoic acid in the X g of sample Amount of benzoic acid in sample = Titre x 0.0061 x 106/X = 0.4 x 0.0061 x 106/10.12 = 241 ppm

= 63.560 g
= 63.588 g = 63.588 – 63.560 g = 0.028g = 10.12g = 0.4 ml = 0.0061 g of benzoic acid

2.2.6. Results Amount of benzoic acid was 241 ppm (mg/Kg). 2.2.7. Discussion When the sample was shaken with diethyl ether while extraction, separation funnel plunger is to be opened to release gas in the funnel for reducing risk of explosion Anhydrous sodium sulphate is used to remove moisture from benzoic acid which is extracted with ether. Since the sublimation is used to estimate benzoic acid, the metal holder, beaker, and round bottom flask are to be fitted each other to prevent the escaping of benzoic acid. Page 5 of 6

Production of sauce
When we consider our experiment benzoic acid may have escaped since metal holder, beaker, and round bottom flask were not fitted each other.

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