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P.inted in tbe Unite<! Stat .. of Americ.
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 I
ACQUISITIONS EDITOR Stuart Johnson
PROJECf EDITOR Geraldine Osnoto
EDITORIAL ASSISTANT Aly Rentrop
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TEXT DESIGNER Madelyn Le,ur ..
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QC2l.3.HJ52008

2OO6().I]J75
P,inted in tbe United SIal"" of America
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 J 2 I
Volume 1 Volume 2
PART 1 PART 3
Chapler 1 Measurement Cnapler 21 El ectric Charge
Chapler 2 Motion Along a Straight Line Chapler 22 El ectric Fi elds
Chapler 3 Vectors Chapter 23 Gauss' Law
Chapler 4 Motion in Two and Three Chapler 24 El ectric Potential
Dimensions
Chapter 2S Capacitance
Chapter S Force and Motion - I
Chapter 26 Current and Resistance
Chapter 6 Force and Motion - II
Chapler 27 Circuits
Chapter 7 Kinetic Energy and Work
Chapter 28 Magnetic Fi elds
Chapter 8 Potential Energy and
Chapter 29 Magnetic Fi elds Due to Currents
Conservation of Energy
Chapter 30 Induction and Inductance
Chapler 9 Center of Mass and Linear
Chapter 31 El ectromagnetic Oscillations and
Momentum
Alternating Current
Chapler 10 Rot ation
Chapler 32 MaX\IVell's Equations; Magnetism
Chapler 11 Rolling, Torque, and Angul ar
of Matter
Momentum
PART 4
PART 2
Chapter 33 El ectromagnetic Waves
Chapler 12 Equilibrium and El asticity
Chapter 34 Images
Chapler 13 Gravitation
Chapter 3S Interference
Chapter 14 Fluids
Chapter 36 Diffraction
Chapter lS Oscillations
Chapter 37 Relativit y
Chapler 16 Waves- I
Chapter 17 Waves - II
PART 5
Chapter 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First
Chapter 38 Phot ons and Matter Waves
Law of Thermodynamics Chapter 39 More About Matter Waves
Chapter 19 The Kinetic Theory of Gases Chapter 40 All About Atoms
Chapter 20 Entropy and the Second Law Chapter 41 Conduction of El ectricity in Solids
of Thermodynamics
Chapter 42 Nucl ear Physics
Chapter 43 Energy from the Nucleus
Chapter 44 Quarks, Leptons, and the Big
Bang
Appendices / Anwers to Checkpoints and Odd-Numbered Questions and Problems / Index
This page intenTionally left blank This page il/fellfiol/o/ly left blallk
U Measureme nt 1
How un the bet;ome fLid and sallow up
buiding.?
, -, 'Nhat I. Physics? 2
' -2 Measunng Thongs 2
' -3 The Intematon,1 S)'$tem of Units 2
1-4 Changing Units 3
1-5 LAngth 4
1-6 Time 5
1-7 Mass 7
R • .,.;e" & Summary 8
Problems 8
U Moti on Al ong a Straight Line 13
How CM • woodp«ker ""vi.,. tl>. •• "",. impacts
of its b.lak on • tfH 1
2-1 What lsf't1ysia? 14
2-2 Motion 14
2-3 Position and Dispillcement 14
2-4 Averag. Velocity lind Average Spe.d 15
2-5 Instantaneous Velocity lind Speed 17
2-6 Acceleration 19
2-7 Constant ,!,ccelerlltion: A Special Cllse 21
2-8 Another LooIc lit Constant Acceleration 24
2-9 Free-Fall Acceleration 24
2-10 Gr.lphicallntegration in Motion A ..... lysis 27
Rev.e" & Summary 28
QuestIOnS 29 I Problem. 30
U Vector 38
How dOfl an ,nt koow tl>. way home with 00 guiding
clue. on the desert plain.?
3-1 What I. 39
' -2
Vectors and Scalars
" ,-,
Adding Vectofl Geometrically
"
'4
Compo!'ents of Vectors 40
,-,
Un it Vectors 44
' -6
Adding VectOfi by Compo!'enu 45
' -7
Vectors and the Laws of I't.ysic.
' -S
Multiplying Vectors 4B
ReVJe" & Summary S2
QuestIOns 52 I Problem. S3
4B
Motion in Two a nd Three Dimensions
58
How do.. an outf..sd« know wi>«. fo run '0 atdt a high
fly ball?
4-1 What Is PhYSICS7 59
4-2 Position and [);splacem.nt S9
4-3 A.....-age V.loclty and InlUnuneou. Velocity 61
4-4 Average AcceleratIOn and Insuntan«>us
AcceleratIOn 63
4-5 Proj.ctlle Motion 65
4-6 Motion Analyzed 66
4-7 Uniform Circular Motion 70
4-8 Reiat .... e Motion in O11e Dimension 72
4-9 R.lat ..... Motion in TNo DImensions 73
Review & Summary 75
aue.t ion. 76 I Probl.ms 77
U Force and Mot ion -I 87
What is 1M fear factor in ,idi"Sl th.lion a' all a roller
coaster?
501 What Is f't1ysics? 88
5-2 Newtonian Mechanic. 88
5-3 Newton', First La"" 88
S-4 Fon:. 89
5-5 Man 90
S-6 Ne-Nlon", Second Law 91
5-7 Some Particular Force. 94
5-8 Ne-Hton"s Thm:lLa-" 99
5-9 Applying Newton's Law, 99
Revoew & Summary 105
Q ..... oon. 106 I Problems lOS
..... Force and Mot ron -II 11 6
How did tl>. .rldent Egyptia", mo.,. the h ... ge blocks into
place to b ... iklln. Greilt Pyrllmid?
6-1 Whatlsf't1ysic.? 117
6-2 Friction 117
6-3 Propertie s of Friction 118
6-4 The Drag Force and Terminal Speed 122
6-5 u"i10flTl Circular Motion 124
Review & Summa»' 129
a ... estlons 130 I Problems 131
U Measurement 1
How ( .. th. ",o'HId t..come fLjJ lind ,.l1ow up
b...u-"g,1
1·1 2
1·2 M.,.""nng Thongs 2
1-3 1M kllemltJOnal System 01 UnlU Z
1-4 ChI"9W'Sl Unots 3
1·5 Length 4
1-6 Time 5
1·1 M ... 7
Ravie .. & s... ....... 1')' 8
ProbI.ml 8
It. .. Moti on Along a Straight Line 13
How ( ... woodp«Jc., .... ,viw 1M ,aw,..
of itl b..1e on .1 .... 1
2·1 Whit II pt.,y$ia1 14
2· 2 Mooon 14
2·3 PosltlOfllnd D,tp!lcarMnt 14
2-4 Aver.gl Valoclty Ind Sp..d 15
2-5 I",unu ......... V.1oc,ty Ind 5pMd 17
2-6 AccoMr;.uon 19
2·1 ConlUnl.l.o;ca"""IIOfIASpKLlIClw 21
2·' 24
2·9 Ft..-F"I Aec<MrallOll 2'
2·1 0 .. Mouon AnliytK 27
RIIvI. .. & SurnmIIry 28
Qunt--.. 29 J ProbIen'll 30
U Vect or 38
Howo- lin Ill'll know 1M wily hewna WIth no guidng
d,,,"on 1M "" .. lpla .... 1
3·1 .....,...\ II pt.,y$1«1 39
3· 2 VICto ...... d Seal... 39
3·3 Adding VIC!O" G ... metrkally 39
34 Comp-Ot1ln!. of Ve<:!Ofl 40
3· 5 VII it VICtor. 44
] . , AddIng VtetOft by Componll1t1 45
3·' VICt ........ d the Law. of Phylic. 48
3·' Muitlply .. g VlClors 48
RIIvI. .. & s... ....... 1')' 52
QunllOnl 52 J Problem. 53
Motion in Two and Three Dime nsions
58
How doet Ill! OlAf .. know...h.. 10 Nn 10 ulm 1/ hisIh
fly b.M1?
.-,
What I, Physoa? 59
4-2
" 4-3 Awrage velocIty Ind Inuanllneout. v.1oclly
.. AWRgII Accel.olllOfl and Instlntaneoul
Ac:celer311Of1
"
4-5 ProjectIle MotIon 65
. ProjectIle MotIOn An.lyHd ..
'-7
Uni#otm Cirwllr MOIlOn 70
Relat IVe Motion III Ona D,m.nllOlI
.-, Motion ill T .... Dim.",ion,
Review & SlImmll')' 75
Qllesl iolls 76 I Probleml 77
71
"
U Force and Moti on - I 87
.,
Wfwl i. th. fe. f.,_in riding me LUI urol't a roller
RI.-I.,1
.,
Whal Is 88
5-2 Mtch.Ilic.1 88
.,
.. ..
H ..
.5 90
H Newton', s.c:ond lIIw
"
.,
Some PlftlO.l", Fon:<t. 9'
Ne-I'o'Ion', Thoi'd UI'N 99
.,
AppIymg New!on'.lIIw. 99
RevIeW & s,,1T'IIN1)' 105
QuestIOn. 106 I Prob ...... 108
• • '11 Force and Mot fon- II 11 6
How did lhe .00.,,' Egypl;'n. mow 1M hugoe bloch 1'"tO
p!.ce to build lhe (ireal Pyr.,...id?
6·' What I, 117
6·2 Friclion 11 7
'·3 Prope"lu 01 Fric;toon 118
64 The Drag F()fl;e ",d TermInal Speed 122
'·5 Uniform Circuli. MotIOfl 124
RIIV_ & SuITllNlI)' 129
QuestIOnS 130 I 131
_ Contents
U Kineti c Energy and Work 140
What prop<lrty of a funny car determine. the winning tim ..
in a drag rac .. ?
7-1 Wh.tlsPhysics? 141
7-2 What Is Energy? 141
7·) Kinet ic Energy 141
7-4 Work 142
7-5 Work and Kinetic Energy 143
7· 6 Work Done by the Gravitat ional Force 146
7· 7 Work D<>ne by a Spring Force 149
7-8 Work emne by a General Variable Force 152
7-9 Power 155
Revi<!w & SummaI)' 157
Quest ions 158 I Problems 159
U Potential Energy and Conservation
of Energy 166
Why can a /argelandslide mow almost 30 Ii"",," as far
across .. valley a. a .mal/landslide?
8· ' What Is Physics? 167
8· 2 Woo and Potential E""rgy 167
8-3 Path Independence of Conservative Forces 168
8-4 Determining Potent ial Energy Values 170
8·5 ConsefVat ion 01 Me<:hanical Energy 173
8·6 Reading a Potential Energy ell"'" 175
8· 7 Work Done on a System by an External Force 179
8-8 Conservat ion 01 Energy 182
Review & Summa,), 186
Quest ions 187 I Problems 189
U Center of Mass and Linear Momentum
201
How un II mal .. bighorn sh.ep surviv .. th .. s .. ve", h .. lld
coNision with which it glli"" dominanc .. ?
9-1 What Is Physics? 202
9-2 The Center of Mass 202
Neilton's Second Law for a System of Particles 206
9·4 Linear Momentum 209
9-5 The Linear Momentum of a System of Particles 210
9-6 Collision and Impulse 210
9-7 Conservation of Line ar Momentum 214
9·8 Moment um and Kinet ic Energy in Collisiom 217
9·9 Inelast ic Collisions in Qne Dime<lsion 218
9-10 Elastic Colli.ion. in One Dime<l.ion 221
9-11 Collisions in Two Dimensions 224
9·12 Systems with Varying Mass: ), Rocket 224
Review & Summary 226
Quest ions 228 I Problem. 229
il.IJ Rotation 241
How un II smaN snapping shrimp ."IIP its cL.w so firmly
t hllt th .. sound stuns its p",y?
10-1 What I. Physic.? 242
10-2 ne Rotational Variable. 242
10-3 Are Angular Quant ities Vectors? 246
10-4 Rotat ion with Constant Angular Acceleration 247
10-5 Relat ing the Linear and Angular Variables 249
10-6 Kinet ic Energy 0/ Rotation 252
10-7 Calculating t he Rotational Inertia 253
10-8 Torque 256
10-9 Neilton'. Second Law lor Rotat ion 257
10-10 Work and Rotat ional Kinet ic Energy 260
Rev;"w & 5<Jmmary 263
Questions 265 I Problems 266
lili l Rolling, Torq ue, and Angular
Momentum 275
What is th .. magic behind th .. ons .. t of II baU .. t danc .. r's
midair rotation during II tour jet .. ?
11-1 What l.Phy.ic.? 276
11-2 Rolling as Translation and Rotation Combined 276
11-3 The Kinet ic Energy of Rolling 277
11-4 The Foa:es 01 Rolling 278
11· 5 TheYo·Yo 281
11-6 Torque Revisited 281
11-7 AIlgular Momentum 283
11-8 Newton's Second Law in Angular Form 285
11-9 The Angular Moment um of a Syst em
of Particles 287
11-10 The >.ngular Momentum of a Rigid Body Rotating
About a Fixed >.xi. 287
11-11 Conservation of Angular Momentum 290
11-12 Precessionol aGyroscope 293
Rev;"w & Summary 295
Questions 296 I Problems 297
m Equilibrium and Elast icity 305
Why i. """" th .. sfight tih of th .. l .. aning tower in
Pis;! dang .. rous?
12-1 What Is Physic.? 306
12-2 Equilibrium 306
12-3 The Requirements of Equilibrium :>07
12-4 ne Center of Gravity 308
12-5 Some Examples of Static Equiliooum 310
12-6 Indeterminate Structures 314
12-7 Elasticity 315
Review & Summary 319
Questions 319 I Problems 321
__ Contents
U Kineti c Energy and Work 140
What p r o ~ r t y of a funny car d"t ermine. the winning tim ..
in " drag raclI?
7-1 Wh.tlsPhysics? 141
7-2 What Is Energy? 141
7·) Kinet ic Energy 141
7-4 Work 142
7-5 Worl: and Kinetic Energy 143
7· 6 Work Done by the Gravitat ional Force 146
7· 7 Work emile by a Spring Force 149
7· 8 Work D<lne by a General Variable Force 152
7-9 Power 155
Review & SummaI)' 157
Quest ions 158 I Problems 159
U Potential Energy and Conservation
of Energy 166
Why can a /argelandslide mo"" almost 30 Ii"..... as fa,
across .. valley a. II .mal/landslide?
8· ' What Is Physics? 167
8· 2 Woo and Potential Energy 167
8-3 Path Independence of Conservative Forces 168
8-4 Determining Potent ial Energy Valu". 170
8·5 Conservat ion 01 Me<:hanical Energy 173
8· 6 Reading a Potential Energy ell"'" 175
8· 7 Work Done on a System by an External Force 179
8· 8 Conservat ion 01 Energy 182
Review & Summa,), 186
Quest ions 187 I Problems 189
U Center of Mass and Linear Momentum
201
How can II m;ll .. bighorn sheep surviv .. th ..... veM h .. lld
collision with which it glli"" dominanc .. ?
9·1 What Is Physic.? 202
9·2 The Center of Mass 202
Neilton's Second Law for a System of Particles 206
9·4 Linear Momentum 209
9-5 The Linear Momentum ofa System of Particle. 210
9-6 Collision and Impulse 210
9·7 Conservation of Line ar Momentum 214
9·8 Moment um and Kinet ic Energy in Collisions 217
9·9 Inelast ic Collisions in Qne Dime<lsion 218
9·10 Elastic Collisions in One Dimension 221
9-11 Collisions in Two Dimensions 224
9·12 Systems with Varying Mass: ), Rocket 224
Review & Summary 226
Quest ions 228 I Problem. 229
U.IJ Rotation 241
How CIIn II SmIIU snapping shrimp snllP it. claw.o firmly
t hat th .. sound stun. it. PMY?
10-1 What Is Physic.? 242
10-2 ne Rotational Vanables 242
10-3 AIe Angular Quantities 'lectors? 246
10-4 Rotat ion with Constant Angular Acceleration 247
10-5 Relat ing the Linear and Angular Variables 249
10-6 Kinet ic Energy 01 Rotation 252
10-7 Calculating t he Rotational Inertia 253
10-8 Torque 2S6
10-9 Newton's Seeond Law lor Rotat ion 257
10-10 Work and Rotat ional Kinet ic Energy 260
Review & S<Jmmary 263
Questions 265 I Problems 266
lii l Rolling, Torque, and Angular
Momentum 275
What i. th .. magic behind th .. ons .. t of a baU .. t danc .. r'.
midair rotation during a tour jet .. ?
11· 1 WhatlsPhysic.? 276
11· 2 Rolling as Translation and Rotation Combined 276
11· 3 The Kinet ic Energy of Rolling 277
11· 4 The Foa:es of Rolling 278
11· 5 TheYo·Yo 281
11· 6 Torque Revisited 281
11· 7 ;.v,gular Momentum 283
11· 8 Newton's Second Law in Angular Form 285
11· 9 The Angular Moment um 01 a Syst em
01 Particles 287
11· 10 The Angular Momentum of a Rigid Body Rotating
About a Fixed >.xis 287
11· 11 Conservation 0/ Angular Momentum 290
11· 12 Precessionol aGyroscope 293
Rev;"w & Summary 295
Questions 296 I Problems 297
m Equilibrium and Elasticity 305
Why i. """" th .. sfight uk of th .. l .. aning towsr in
PiSil dang .. rous?
12· 1 What Is Physics? 306
12· 2 Equilibrium 306
12· J The Requirements of Equilibrium :>07
12-4 The Center of Gravity 308
12· 5 Some Examples of Static Equiliooum 310
12· 6 Indeterminate Structures 314
12· 7 Elasticity 315
Review & Summary 319
Questions 319 I Problems 321
rn Gravitation 330
Who! ·mon.! .... • !uro at t h .. c .. nt .... of our
Milky Way Galaxy?
13-1 What Is Physics? 331
13-2 Newton's Law of Gravitation 331
13·3 Gravitation and the Principle of Superpos.ition 333
13-4 Gravitation Near Earth's Surface 335
13-5 Gravitat ion Insde Earth 337
13-6 Gravitation Potential Energy 338
13-7 Planets and Satellites: Kepler's LaNS 342
13-8 Satell ites: Orbits and Energy 345
13-9 Einstein and Gravit ation 347
RevieN & Summary 349
Questions 350 I Problems 351
U I Fluids 359
How do ... II surf .... surf?
14-1 What Is Physics? 360
14-2 What Is a Fluid? 360
14-3 Density and Pressure 360
14-4 Fluids at Rest 362
14-5
14-6
14-7
14-8
14-9
14-10
Measuring Pressure 365
Pascal's Principle 366
Archimedes' Principle 367
Ideal Fluids in MotiOf1 370
The Equat ion of Cont inuity
BernO<Jlli's Equation 373
RevieN & Summary 377
Questions 378 I Problems 379
1I1-1 0scillations 386
]71
How can you .top the natural but annoying asciNation. of
a tall building in .. wind?
15-1 What Is Physics? 387
15-2 Simple Harmonic Motion 387
15-3 The Force Law lor Simple HarmOf1ic MotiOf1 390
15-4 Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion 392
15-5 An Angular Simple Harmonic Oscillator 394
15-6 Pendulums 395
15-7 Simple Harm""ic Motion and Uniform Circular
Motion 399
15-8
15-9
Damped Simple Harmonic Motion 400
Forced OscillatiOf1s and Resonance 402
Revie'li & Summary 403
Questions 403 I Problems 405
Contents _
i(.] Waves-l 41 3
What cau. e. the .Om<ltim ... dangerous ascalations of
footbridg ... lind mash pits?
16-1 What Is Physics? 414
16-2 Typeso/Waves 414
16-3 Transverse and Longitudinal Waves 414
16-4 Wavelength and Frequency 416
16-5 TheSpeedofaTravelingWave 418
16-6 Wave Speed on a Stretched String 412
16-7 Energy and PONer of a Wave Traveling Along a
String 423
16-8 The Wave Equation 425
16-9 The Principle of Superpositi"" for Waves 426
16-10 Interference a/Waves 427
16-11 Phase ... 429
16-12 Standing Waves 431
16-13 Standing Waves and Resonance 433
Review & Summary 43.6
Questions 436 I Problems 438
I i ~ j Waves-II 445
What caus ... th.. musical echo from the stairs IIt;on ancien!
Mayan pyramid?
17-1 What Is Physics? 446
17· 2 Sound Waves 446
17-3 The Speed of Sound 446
174 Traveling Sound Waves 449
17-5 Interference 451
17-6 Intensity and Sound Level 45]
17-7 Sources of Musical Sound 457
17-8 Beats 459
17· 9 The Doppk.r Effect 460
17-10 Supersonic Speeds, Shock Waves
Review & Summary 46S
Quest iOf1s 466 I Problems 467
464
W Temperature, Heat, and the First Law
of Thermodynami cs 476
How can ;> be..tI. d .. tect .. forest /i", at a larg .. di.tanc ..
without seeing or srnelSng it?
18-1 What Is Physics? 477
18-2 Temperature 477
18-3 The Zeroth Lawai Thermodynamics 477
18-4 Measuring Temperature 478
18-5 The Celsius and Fahrenheit Scales 478
rn Gravitation 330
What ·mon.t .... • lurks at th .. c .. nt .... of our
MUky Way Galaxy?
13-1 What I. Physics? 331
13-2 Ne ..... ton·.l.a ..... of Gravitation 331
13-3 Gravitation and the Principle of Superpos.ition 333
13-4 Gravitation Near Earth·s Surface 335
13-5 Gravitat ion Inside Earth 337
13-6 Gravitation Potential Energy 338
13-7 Planets and Satellites: Kepler's LaNs 342
13-8 Satellites: Orbits and Ene rgy 345
13-9 Einstein and Gravit ation 347
RevieN & Summary 349
Question. 350 I Problems 351
U I Fluids 359
How do ... II ""'ri .... "",rf?
14-1 What Is Physics? 360
14-2 What I. a Fluid? 360
14-3 Density and Pressure 360
14-4 Fluids at Rest 362
14-5
14-6
14-7
14-8
14-9
14-10
Measuring Pressure 365
Pascal'. 366
Archimedes' Principle 367
Ideal Fluids in Motion 370
The Equat ion 01 Cont inuity
BernO<Jlli's Equation 373
RevieN & Summary 377
Quest ions 378 I Problems 379
1I1-1 0scillations 386
]71
How can you stop th .. natural but annoying osciHation. of
II tall buildw.g in II wind?
15-1 What Is Physic.? 387
15-2 Simple Harmonic Motion 387
15-3 The Force Law lor Simple Harmonic Motion 390
15-4 Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion 392
15-5 An Angular Simple Harmonic Oscillator 394
15-6 Pendulums 395
15-7 Simple Harmot1ic Motion and Uniform Circular
Motion 399
15-8
15-9
Damped Simple Harmonic Motion 400
Forced Oscillations and Re5or\ance 402
Revie'N & Summary 403
Questions 403 I Problems 405
Contents _
i(.] Waves-l 41 3
What cau.e. the .ometimlls dangerous oscalations of
footbridges lind mosh pits?
16-1 What Is Physics? 414
16-2 Type.o/Waves 414
16-3 Transverse and Longitudinal Waves 414
16-4 Wavelength and Frequency 416
16-5 TheSpeedofaTravelingWave 418
16-6 Wave Speed on a Stretched String 412
16-7 Energy and PONer 01 a Wave Traveling Along a
String 423
16-8 The Wave Equation 425
16-9 The Principle of Superposition for Waves 426
16-10 Interference a/Waves 427
16-11 Phase ... 429
16-12 Standing Waves 431
16-13 Standing Waves and Resonance 433
Review & Summary 436
Questions 436 I Problems 438
445
lNhat caus ... th .. musical echo from the st";rs at an ancient
May.>n pyramid?
17-1 What Is Physics? 446
17· 2 Sound Waves 446
17-3 The Speed 01 Sound 446
174 Traveling Sound Waves 449
17-5 Interference 451
17-6 Inten.ity and Sound Level 453
17-7 Sources of Musical Sound 457
17-8 Beats 459
17· 9 The Doppk.r Effect 460
17-10 Supersonic Speeds. Shock Waves
Review & Summary 46S
Ouest ions 466 I Problems 467
464
iMTemperature, Heat, and the First Law
of Thermodynamics 476
How can ;> betltlil detect II forest /ire at a large distanc ..
without seeing or srnelNng it?
18-1 What Is Physic.? 477
18-2 Temperature 477
18-3 The Zeroth Lawai Thermodynamic. 477
18-4 Measuring Temperature 478
18-5 The Celsius and Fahrenheit Scales 478
xii Contenu
18-6 Thermal EJ.pa"sion 482
18-7 Temperature and Heat 484
18-8 The AbsorphOfl of Heat by Solicit and Liquids 485
18-9 A Closet Look at Heat and Work 488
18-10 The First Law of Th.rmodynamics 490
18-11 Some Special Cases 01 the FilSt laN 01
ThermodynamICS 491
18-12 Heat Tran.fer Mechani1ms 493
RevIew & SumrNlry 497
QuestIOns 498 I Problems 500
.L.°J The Kinetic Theory of Gases 507
What calMS th. fog!h.t 'pp"rJ wnen a arbonatord
drink;' opened?
19-1 What II S08
19-2 Avogadro's Number 508
19· 3 Ideal Gases 509
19-4 Pressure, Temperature, and RM5 Speed 512
19-5 Translational Kinetic Energy 514
19-6 MeanFreePath 515
19-7 TheDistributio.-.oIMolecular5peec1. 517
19-8 The Molar Specific Heatl of an Ideal Gas 520
19-9 Degrees of Freedom and Molar 5p<Kif.:: Heat. 523
19-10 A Hont of Quantum Theory 525
19-11 The Adla1»tic u;p<lOlion 01 an Ideal Gas 526
Review & Summary 529
Cuestions 530 I Problems 531
t.j)) Entropy a nd the Second law of
The rmodynamics 536
What;' tt...:onMC1ion bet_n a fUbb., band's stretch
and the dir«tion of time1
20-1 What I. 537
20-2 Irrewr'Slble Proc.sses and Entropy 537
20-3 Change '" Entropy 538
20-4 The Second L-BIH of ThermodynamiC$ 542
20· 5 Entropy in the Real World: Engines 543
20-6 Entropy;n the Real World: R"frigeraton 548
20-7 The Efficiencies of R.al Engi..... 549
20-8 A Statist ical View of Entropy 550
Revie w & SummaI)' 554
Quest ions 555 I Problems 555
t.li l Electric Charge 561
How can a video monitor in a .urgicM room increase
th. rilk of bact«",' contamination?
21-1 Wh.t Is Physics? 562
21-2 Eleclric Charge 562
21·3 Cooductors IWld Insulatoll 563
Coulomb's Law 565
21·5 Charge Is Quantized 571
Charge Is Conserv.d 572
Review & Summary 573
Questions 573 I Problems 575
t-t .. Electric Fields 580
Howdoes a be.t .... eI<t<:t"ntata to coIlect.nd fh ...
distribute po'''' gra",?
22-1 w .... t Is Physics? 581
22-2 The Electnc: Field 581
22-3 Electric: Field Lines 582
22-4 The Electric: Field Du. 10 a Point
Charge 583
22-5 The Electric Field Due to an Eleclric
Dipole 585
22-6 Th. Electric Field Due to a line of
Charge 586
22·7 The Electric Field Due to .. Charged
Di"" S90
22-8 A Point Charge in an Electric Field 591
22-9 A DIpole in an Electric Field 594
Revie'N & Summary 596
QUest;OfIS 597 I Problems 598
t.f:':J Gauss' law 605
How can lightning harm )0<1."- if jt does not $u •• you?
23-1 What Is Physics? 606
23·2 Flux 606
23· 3 Flux of an ElectrIC F",1d 607
Gauss' Law WI
23·S Gauss' Law and Coulomb', laN
6"
A Cha.ged Isolated Conductor 612
23-7 ApplyIng Gauss' law: Cylindrial
Symmeffy
6"
23-8 Applying Ga"SI' Law: Planar Symmetry
23-9 Applying Ga",,' Law: Spherical
Symmetry
'"
Review & SummaI)' 620
Questions 620 I Problems 621
f'.l: 1 El ectric Potential 628
6"
What danger doe, a __ 61' pot. 10. compur.r?
24-1 What Is Physic,? 629
24-2 Electric Potential Energy 629
24-3 Electric Potential 630
COI1t . nu
Th.'mal ExpanKN'l
'"
Tempe"'t" .. ..-.d Hut 484

The Absorptoon of Heat by SoIods lind lJquods

A CIoN< look It Hut lind Work 488
11-10 The lI'" of Thennodynamoa 490
11-11 Serre Sp.c; .. 1 Cuu of the First 1I .. of
Thennodynam..:1 491
1"'12 HUITrln_Mechanosml 493
Rw .. w & Summllry 497
Cluestoonl .98 I SOO
",'J The Kine tic Theory of Gases 507
c ..... the fog th.1 IIppHn II QI(/x>nM.J
drirJr.
19-1 What II PhY.le.? Sa!
19-2 Numblor 508
19-3 1de,1 (in., 509
19-4 P,.nure, Temperature, and RMS Speed 512
19-5 T'an,l.tIO". 1 Kine tie Energy 514
19-6 Mun F ... P. th 515
19-7 Th. D,Unb\llion of Molecular Speedl 517
19-8 Th. Molir Specific HU ll ol .n idelll (ill 520
48S
19-9 Degre •• of F...-dom and MoI.. Specific Heats 523
19-10 A Hont of QUlntum Theory 525
19- 11 TheAdlab.u;ExpMlloonofllnlde .. IGIII526
Rw .. w & Summllry 529
Cluestoon. 530 I 531
t ,{IJ Entropy and the Second Law of
Thermodynamics 536
v.-twl ;, the .... b.r!_n II n.obb..- o.nd'. st.-lOt""
11M the wKfion 01_7
20.1 'NNIIIPhyso? 537
20.2 Prou_llnd Entropoy 537
20.3 Ch'nge In Entropy 538
20-4 Th. Second L.. .. ofThfimodyNmia 542
20-5 Entropy on the Re,l World. Eng""" 543
20-6 Entropy'" the Rul World R.fngeraton. 548
20-7 Th. Efficiene ... of R.al Engln-M 549
20.8 A SI""t it;al Vi.w of Entropy 550
Revi.w & Sumn'lllry S54
Quution, 555 I Pn)bleml 555
t.fJ . El ectric Charge 561
How c.n • vid.o """nil .... in II .urgiaJ room ina. ....
the riM 01 &..;t.,iIIl t;or!tll ....... llon7
21· 1 What I, Phy*-'CS? 562
21 ·2 E\ec\rll;Charv- 562
21·3 CondUCIorslnd Insullll(q
'"
21. Coulomb'. L..','I 54S
21-5 Charv-I. QUIIflIJ:ed Sl1
21-4 ChIIrge I. Conwrved
57'
Revoew & SumrnIIry 573
Ouestoons 573 I I'IobIemt S1S
Electric Fields 580
Howden. bee ..... electrosr.tic. to r:oI/ect 11M men
distribute polen ".,..7
22·1 Whiitl.PhyslCll 581
ZZ·2 The EIKtnc F"teId 581
ZZ-3 EIKtric Field l'"- 582
22-4 The EIect!k Fteld Due 10 II POInt
Chllfge 583
22-5 The Electric: Field Du. to.n Electric
Dipole 585
22-6 Th. Electric Field to I Lin. of
Charg. 586
22·7 Th. EIKtnc Field to. Ch.,g.d
Disk 590
22-8 A Pomt Ch.rge in .... Eleetnc Fi.1d 591
ZZ·9 A Dopole In .... Electnc; F .. 1d 594
Revoew & Summllf)l 596
Quesuons 597 I Problem. 598
J"-itJ Gauss' Law 605
How an '91It"ing h.ot"".1'0".'" if " do... nol IIT".)'OU7
23-1 WhIt Is Physoal 606
23-2 Flu.; 606
23-3 Flu.; of In Electrll; Foeld
'("
".. Glust' L...... 6t:H
2l-S GaulS' L..· .. 1nd Coulomb's L.... 611
,3-4 A ChIIrged I.al.ted CondIKtOr 612

Applying G_,' L.. .... , Cylondnc.1
Symmetry 615
Applying (i1W1l' L..w· Pl.n ... Symmetry
23-9 Applying (iIWII' L.. .... ; Sphe,.,nl
Symmetry 61 B
Review & Summary 620
Ouestioos 620 I Probl ,m, 621
f'-l: 1 Electr1c Pot e ntial 628
...
wn.r .unger doel. _Nt., compur.,7
2 .... 1 Whit I. F'hysoa? 629
2 .... 2 EIectne Pot.nt,,1 Ene'9Y 629
2 .... 3 EIectnc Potent .. 1 630
Equipot ential Sunaces 632 24-4
24-5
24-6
24-7
Cakulating the Potential from the Field 633
Potent ial Due to a Point Charge 635
Potential Due to • GrOlJp of Point
Charges 636
24-8 Potent ial Due to an Electric Dipole 637
24-9 Potential Due to • Cont inu""s Charge
Distribution 638
24-10 Calculat ing the Field from the Potential 640
24-11 Electric Potent ial Energy of a System of Point
Charges 641
24-12 Potential of a Charged Isolated Conductor 644
Revie ... & Summary 645
Quest ions 646 I Problems 647
Jr+1 Capacit a nce 656
How can a spark ... t up an .. xplosion in "irborne powder?
25-1 What Is Physics? 657
2>2 Capacit.nce 657
25-3 Calculating the Cap.citance 659
25-4 Capacitors in Parallel and in Series
25-5 Energy Stored in an Electric Field
2>6 Capacit or .. itt, • D",lectric
25-7 D",lectrics: An Atomic 'I",w
25-8 D",lectrics and Gauss' La ..
Revie .. & Summary 675
Questions 675 I Problems 676
670
672
672
662
666
Jr.f·1 Current and Resist ance 682
What precautions should you tak .. if caught outdoors
during. fightning storm?
26-1 Wh.t Is Physics? 683
Electric CUlTent 683
CUlTent Density 685
Resistance .nd Resist ivity 688
Ohm's law 692
;!., Microscopic Vie .. of Ohm's law
Power in Electric Circuits
Semiconductors 696
Superconductors 697
Revie .. & Summary 698
Questions 699 I Problems 700
m Circuits 705
695
693
How can pit cr .. w avoid (ire wha .. fueling
chargttd rac .. car?
27-1 Wh.t Is Physics? 706
27-2 "Pumping" Charges 706
Contents
27-J
274
27-5
27-6
27-7
27· 8
27· 9
Work, Energy. and Emf 707
Cakulat ing the CUlTent in a
Single-Loop Circuit 708
OtherSingle-LoopCircuits 710
Potenti.1 Difference Between Two
Points 711
Mult iloop Cilt:Uit s 714
The Ammeter and the Voltmeter 720
RC Circuits 720
Review & Summary 724
Quest ions 725 I Problems 726
tl;J Magneti c Fi e lds 735
vvnat CilUS ... an aurora and why i. it 00 thin?
28·1 What Is Physics? 736
28-2 What Produce. a Magnetic Field? 736
28· J The Definition of B 736
28-4 Crossed Fields: Dis.covery of the Electron
28-5 Crossed Fields: The Hall Effect 741
28· 6 A Circulat ing Charged Particle 743
28·7 Cyclotrons and Synchrotrons 748
28· 8 Magnet ic Fo.-ce Oil a Current·Carrying
Wire 750
28· 9 TDfque Oil a Current Loop 752
28·10 The Magnetic Dipole Moment 754
Review & Summary 755
Questions 756 I Problems 757
740
xiii
J""') Magnet ic Fields Due t o Currents 764
How e<>n th .. hum,.., brain produce It d .. tectable magn .. tic
f",1d without any magnetic mat .. rian
29-1 What Is Physics? 765
29-2 Cakulating the Magnetic Field Due
to a Current 765
29· J Force Between T .. o Parall el Current s
294 Ampere's L.w m
29· 5 Solenoids and To.-oids 776
29·6 A Current·Carryir.g Coil as a
Magnetic Dipole 778
Review & Summary 780
Questions 781 I Problems 782
and Induct ance 791
771
How can mag""tic induction melt metal in It foundry?
30·1 What Is Physics? 792
Two Expenments 792
Equipot ential Sunaces 632 24-4
24-5
24-6
24-7
Cakulating the Potential from the Field 633
Potential Due to a Point Charge 635
Potential Due to • GrO<Jp of Point
Charge. 636
24-8 Potent ial Due to an Electric Dipole 637
24-9 Potential Due to • Cont inu""s Charge
Distribution 638
24-10 Calculating the Field from the Potential 640
24-11 Electric Potential Energy 01 a System of Point
Charges 641
24-12 Potential 0/ a Charged Isolated Conductor 644
Revie ... & Summary 645
Quest ion. 646 I Problems 647
J'+1 Capacitance 656
How can a spark ... t up an explosion in airborne powder?
25-1 What Is Physic.? 657
,>2
Capacit.nce 657
25-3 Calculating the Cap.citance 659
25-4 Capacitors in Parallel and in Series
25-5 Energy Stored in an Electric Field
,>6
Capacit or Nith a Dielectric
25-7 Dielectrics: An Atomic View
25-8 Dielectrics .nd Gauss' LaN
RevieN & Summary 675
Question. 675 I Problems 676
670
672
672
662
666
J'.f'·1 Current and Resistance 682
What pnte .... tions should you take if caught outdoors
during .. fightning storm?
26-1 Wh.t Is Physic.? 683

Electric CUlTent 683

CUlTent Density 685

Resistance .nd Resist ivity 688

Ohm's law 692

;!., Microscopic VieN of Ohm's law
Power in Electric Circuit s
Semiconductors 696

Superconductors 697
RevieN & Summary 698
Question. 699 I Problems 700
m Circuits 705
695
693
How can pit crew avoid a fire whae fueling
charged race car?
27-1 Wh.t I. Physics? 706
27-2 "Pumping" Charges 706
Contents
27-J
274
27-5
27-6
27-7
27· 8
27· 9
Work, Energy, and Emf 707
Cakulat ing the CUlTent in a
Single-Loop Circuit 708
710
Potenti.1 Difference Between Two
Points 711
Mult ilcop Circuits 714
The Ammeter and the Voltmeter 720
RC Circuits 720
Review & SummaI)' 724
Quest ions 725 I Problems 726
t"l;.I Magnetic Fields 735
\Nhat cau .... an aurora and why i. it so thin?
28·1 What Is Physics? 736
28-2 What Produce. a Magnetic Field? 736
28· J The Definition oHi 736
28-4 Crossed Fields: Dis.covel)' of the Electron
28-5 Crossed Field. : The Hall Effect 741
28· 6 A Circulat ing Charged Particie 743
28·7 Cydotrons and Synchrotron. 748
28· 8 Magnet ic Force on a Current·Carrying
Wire 750
28· 9 Totque on a Current Loop 752
28·10 The Magnetic Dipole Moment 754
Review & Summary 755
Questions 756 I Problems 757
740
XIII
J""') Magnetic Fields Due t o Currents 764
How can the hum,.., brain produce a detectable magnetic
field without any magnetic materian
29-1 What Is Physics? 765
29-2 Cakulating the Magnetic Field Due
to a Current 765
29· J Force Between T NO Parallel Current.
294 Ampere's L.w 772
29· 5 Soienoids and Toroid. 776
29· 6 A Current·Carryir.g Coil as a
Magnetic Dipoie 778
Review & SummaI)' 780
Quest ions 781 I Problems 782
and Inductance 791
771
How can magnetic induction melt metal in foundry?
30·1 What Is Physics? 792
Two Experiment. 792
xiv Contents
30-3 Faraday's Law 01 Induction 793
30-4 Lenz's Law 795
30-5 Induction and Ene.gy Tr;onsleu 798
30-6 Induced Electnc Fields 801
30-7 Inductors and Inductance 805
30-8 SeK-lnducoon 806
30-9 RL Circuits 807
30-10 Energy Stored in I Magnetic Field 810
30-11 Energy Density d a Magnet;';
Field 812
30-12 Mut ualinductoan 814
R .... ,.w & Summ.uy 816
Quest ions 8 16 I Problems 818
lei . Electromagneti c Oscillations
and Alternating Current 826
How djd .,o/4r eruption knock OIlt the power-
grid system of Ouebec1
31 -1 What II f't1Ylicl? 827
31 -2 LC Oscillations, Qualitatively 827
31 -3 The Electrical-Mechanical
Anabgy 830
31-4 LC OscillatIons, Quantitat ..... ly 831
31-5 Damped OSCIllations in an RLC
CIrCuit 834
31-6 Altemallng Cur •• nt 835
31-7 O5clllation5 835
31-8 Three 5mple CircUIts 837
31 ·9 The Senes RlC CircUIt 842
31-10 Power III AkematJng-Cu.rent
C.n::ullS 846
31·11 Transformers 849
R .... ,ew & Summary 853
Ouestoans 854 I Problems 855
Ie;"" Maxwell's Equations; Magnetism
of Matter 861
How Can a 1'00,,1 painting record the djrKtion
of Earth 'l field?
32-1 What Is f't1ysics? 862
32-2 Gauss' Law lor Magnetic Fields 862
32-3 Induced Magnetic Fields 864
32-4 Displacement Cllrrent 866
32-5 Maxwel!'s EquatlOfls 868
32-6 Magnets 869
32-7 MagnetIsm and Electrons 870
32-8 Magnetic Materials 874
32-9 Diamagnetism 874
32-10 Paramagnetism 876
32-11 Ferromagnetism 877
Revie>N & Surrrnary 881
Quest ions 882 I Problems 883
Ie):) Electromagnetic Waves 889
What CoIIUS .. a .undog, me brighr, m. ColIn
appear lefr or righr oJ rile Sun?
33-1 What Is Physics? 890
33-2 MaxNell'sRainbow 890
33-3 The TravelIng Electromagnetk Wave,
Qualitatively 891
33·4 The Traveling Electromagnetic Wave.
Quantitatively
89'
33-5 Energy Transport and the Poynting Vector
33-6 Radiation Pressure 899
Pola.izatioo
90'
33-8 Reflection and Refraction 905
33-9 Total Internal 910
33-10 Polarization by Refl ection
Review & Surrrnary 91J
Questions 914 I Problems 915
924
912
Howe .... fith._ dNrly inboth air ..dw ....
si...Ntaneous.ly1
34-1 What Is PhYSICS? 925
34-2 Two Types of Image 925
34·3 Plane Mirrors 926
34-4 Spheral MillO" 928
34·5 Images from Spherical MlrTOI"I 930
34-6 SpherICal Refracting s...rfac.s 933
34-7 Thm Lenses 936
34-8 Optical Instruments 941
34-9 Three proofs 944
Review & Summary 947
Question. 948 I Problems 949
958
897
How do inb on P"f"M rorr...cy ,hjfl colors?
3501 What Is Physics? 959
3502 ught as a Wave 959
COI'tento

F"racby'. L",w of InciuctOOfl 793

Lenz'. L",w 795

IndllCtlOn..d EMrgy Transfers
"8

!nd1lC.dEIKtncF.-1dI 801

1fld1KtOJ1;..d Inductal'Ktl 805
, ...
S.If-lnc!lICtoOn acw.

Rl.. C'IWfU; 807
31)..10 en..w Stor.d ,n • MlIgMlle FI4'id 81.
30-11
Enecv1 o.n"ty of " MlIgMtK
F.-lei 812
30-12 Mutu"llndllCtOOfl 814
R"" ..... & Sull'"l!T\llry 816
OuntOOfl. 816 I Probitmt 818
tel l El ectromagnetic Oscil lations
and Alternating Current B26
How did •• 01.0. e""PllOn knock 0<1\\'" power·
grid 'Ylltem of auebec?
31· 1 Wh,t I. F't1y.lc.? 827
31· 2 lC o.cill.IIO!'I., Qu,litatively 827
] 1·3 The
An"logy 810
31· 4 lC o.c,n"uonl, .... 1y
31· 5 O",.,ped In lIn RlC
834
" ..
AlwI'nIIU"5I c..,.otnt 83S
31·7 Fore..:! OKlbtlOM 835
31 ·'
nv.. Somp!. c...: ... tI 837
31 ·'
n.. 5enH RlC Cin:: ... t 842
31· 10 Pow.r .. AIr..n.ung-C.....nt
CIrCUM IU6
J1· 11 849
R"" .. \III & Suorvnary 853
Ou.stlOll. 854 I Probieml ass
831
1cJ--I Maxwell's Equations; Magnetism
of Matter 861
How clln. """ •• 1 p .... "ng record \". direction
of E ... th '. m.gnetie f;.kI?
32· 1 Wh.t I. Physics? 862
32· 2 G.uu' Law for Mlgnetic F,elds
'"
32·3 IndllCed MlIQfIelic Field,
'"
32· 4 OlsplKlmlnt CUl1'IInt ...
32· 5 M,,_I1', Equ,,"ons ...
]2·6 M .. 8 ..
32·7 MlIgnet,sm "nd Electron. 870
32... MlIgnebC M"t .. liIl. 874
32·9 874
32·10 P.-m"9MMm 876
32·11 Fem:mllgMbtm 877
ReYOe'N & s..n-.n-y 881
Outostoons 88.2 I PIobI.m. 88J
Electromagnetic Waves BB9
Wn-: g_" 'undosI, the &tip#ot, aH:wfuI'p« th. gil
«righf of die
33-1 What 1. PhYSICS? 890
33· 2 MaullI'. R.lnbow 890
33·3 The Tr ..... I .. g EIKuom.gnl!lC Wive,
Qu"l,tl tMliy 891
33·4 The Trlv.ling Electron'l.gn.tic Wive,
Quantitatl .... 1y ...
33·5 Energy T.ansport .r.d thl Poynting Vector
33·6 Radiation P.n.ute ...
3.,
Pollination 901
3]· 8 ReflectlOn.nd R, I ... dOOfl 90S

Toullntemal R,flection 91.

PoI"nation by ReflectOOfl
ReVle'N & Su,.,.",..",ry 913
Quest IOn' 914 I Problem. 915
rn Images 924
912
How c... fj"" _ deatfy in bod..r Ind ..... If"
""""--.1
'"
What I. Ph)'I'CI? 925
34-. Two Type. 011"'9' 925
34-, PIa". M,fl'OI" 926
,..
Spheral MIffOfI 928
34-. 10Nge' from Sphen;.l Mom:n 930
3U $ph"ne,1 Refl'Ktl"51 933
34-1 Th,n Len_ 936
34-. OptiClllnltl'umentl .41
34-'
Thl'fl. Proof. 944
Review & Summary 947
Quest ions 948 I Probl,ms 949
958
8"
How do coI_thihillfil i"q all Pflper CUIT«IC)' .hih co/or.'
15-1 I. Phy.o? 959
35-2 LoghtlS" Wa.... 959
35-3 Diffraction 963
35-4 Young's Interference Experiment 964
35-5 Coherence 968
35-6 Intensity in DoubJe-Sl it Interference 968
35-7 Inte rierence from Thin Films 972
35-8 Michelf>On'slnterie rometer 978
Revie N & Summary 979
Questions 979 I Problems 981
Diffract ion 990
What cau .... thot a"esting blu. color of the facial skin
of a mandral baboon?
36-1 What Is Physics? 991
36-2 Diffraction and the Wave Theo<y of light 991

36-4
36-5


Diffraction by a SingJe Slit : LOC<It ing the
Minima 992
Intensity in Single-Slit Diffract ion,
Qualit atively 995
Intens ity in Single-Slit Diffract ion,
Quant it atively 996
D"'raction by a Circular Aperture 998
Diffraction by a Double Slit 1002
36-8 Diffraction Gratings 1004
36-9 Gratings: Dispersion and Ref>Olving Power
36-10 DiffractionbyOrganizedLayers 1010
RevieN&Summary 1012
Questions 1013 I Problems 1014
.. Rel ati vity 1022
1008
How can ...... det"",,;,,e what lurla al thot cotn!er of th ..
galaxy M87, 50 mimen 5ght-yurs away?
37-1 What Is Physics? 1023
37-2 The Postulate. 1023
37-3 Measuring an Event 1024
37-4
37-5
37-6
37-7
The Relat ;"ity 01 Simultaneity 1 026
The Relat;"ity 01 Time 1027
The Re lativity 01 Lengt h 1032
The Lorentz Transformation 1034
37-8 Some Consequences of the Lorentz
Equations 1036
37-9 The Relat ;"ity of Velocities 1038
37-10 Doppler Effect lor Light 1039
37-11 A Ne'NLookat Momentum 1043
37-12 A NeN Look at Energy 1043
RevieN & Summary 1048
Guestions 1049 I Probk.ms 1050
Contents
leI:) Phot ons and Matter Waves 1057
How can molflCUles be mCNN one by enot and
til"" ;rrI8gN?
38-1 What Is f'I1ysic.? 1058
38-2 The Photon, tne Quantum 01 light 1058
38-3 The PhotoeJectric Effect 1060
384 Photons Have Momentum 1063
light as a Probability Wave 1066
38-6 Electrons and Matter Waves 1068
38-7 SchrOdinger's Equat ion 1071
38-8 Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle 1073
38-9 Barrier Tunneling 1074
Review & Summary 1077
Quest ions 1077 I Problems 1078
More About Matter Waves 1083
How can you corr.1 an otlotctron?
39-1
39-2
39-3
394
39-5
39-6
39-7
39-8
39-9
What Is Physics? 1084
String Waves and MatterWaves 1084
Energies of a Trapped Electron 1085
Wave Functions 0/ a Trapped Electron 1089
An Electron in a Finite Well 1092
More Electron Traps 1094
Two- arid Three-Dimensional Electron
Traps 1096
The Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom 1097
SchrOdinger's Equation and the
Hydrogen Atom 1100
Review & SummaI)' 1106
Questions 1107 I Problems 1108
r: r'l AIl About Atoms 111 2
lNnat;s so diff..,.,nt .bout from II b ... r?
40-1 What Is Physics? 1113
40-2
40-3
404





Some Properties 01 Atoms 1113
Electron Spin 1115
Angular Momenta and Magnetic
Dipole Moment s 1116
The Stern-Gerlach Experiment 1118
Magnet ic Resonance 1121
The Pauli Exclusion PrincipJe 1122
Mult iple Electrons in Rectangular Traps 1123
Building the Periodic Table 1126
40-10 X Rays and t he Ordering of the
Elements 1127
40-11 Lasers and Laser Light 1131
35-3 Diffraction 963
35-4 Young', Interference Experiment 964
35-5 Coherence 968
35-6 Intensity in Double-Slit Interference 968
3S-7 Inte rierer>ce from Thin Films 972
35-8 Michelf>On's Interierometer 978
RevieN & Summary 979
Questions 979 I Problems 981
Diffract ion 990
What UUSM th .. a"esting blu. color of the f .. cial skin
of a mlltldral baboon?
36-1 What Is Physics? 991
36-2 Diffraction and the Wave Theo<y of light 991

36-4
36-5


Diffraction by a Single Slit : LOC<It ing the
Minima 992
Intensity in Single-Slit Diffract ion,
Qualit atively 995
Intensity in Single-Slit D;f!ract ion,
Quant it atively 996
D;f!raction by a Circular Aperture 998
Diffraction by a Double Slit 1002
36-8 Diffraction Gratir>gs 1004
36-9 Grat ings: Dispersion and Resolving Power
36-10 Diffraction by Organized Layers 1010
RevieN&Summary 1012
Questions 1013 I Problems 1014
.. Re lati vity 1022
1008
How Clltl ...... detotrmin .. what lu,b at thot c .. nt .. , of th ..
galaxy MB7, 50 mimon 5ght·yul'S away?
37-1 What Is Physic.? 1023
37-2 The Postulates 1023
37-3 Measuring an Event 1024
37· 4
37· 5
37-6
37-7
The Relat ivity 01 SimuJtaneity 1026
The Relativity 01 Time 1027
The Re lativity 01 lengt h 1032
The Lorentz Transformation 1034
37-8 Some Consequences of the lorentz
Equations 1036
37-9 The Relativity 01 Ve10cities 1038
37-10 Doppler Effect lor Light 1039
37-11 A Ne", Look at Momentum 1043
37-12 A NeN Look at Energy 1043
RevieN & Summary 1048
Guestion. 1049 I ProbJems 1050
Contents
1e1:1 Phot ons and Matter Waves 1057
How can moll>CUles be movotd one by on .. and
th.." im.ogotd?
38-1 What Is f'l1ysics? 1058
38-2 The Photon, the Quantum 01 light 1058
38-3 The Photoelectric Effect 1060
384 Photons Have Momentum 1063
light as a Probability Wave 1066
38-6 Electrons and Matter Waves 1068
38-7 SchrOdinger's Equation 1071
38-8 Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle 1073
38-9 Sarrier Tunneling 1074
Review & Summary 1077
Quest ions 1077 I Problems 1078
More About Matter Waves 1083
How can you corr .. 1 an .. Iotctron?
39-1
39·2
39-3
394
39· 5
39· 6
39·1
39· 8
39-9
What Is Physics? 1084
String Waves and MatterWaves 1084
Energies of a Trapped Electron 1085
Wave FUr>ctions 0/ a Trapped Electron 1089
An Electron in a Finite Well 1092
More Electron Traps 1094
Two- arid Three-Oimerlsional Electron
Traps 1096
The Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom 1097
SchrOdinger's Equation and the
Hydrogen Atom 1100
Review & Summary 1106
Quest ions 1107 I Problems 1108
r:r'l AIl About Atoms 111 2
What is so diH"",nt about from ala ... r?
40-1 What Is Physics? 1113
40· 2
40·3
404
40· 5




Some Properties of Atoms 1113
Electron Spin 1115
Angular Momenta and Magnetic
Dipole Moment s 1116
The Stern--Gerlach Experiment 1118
Magnet ic Resonance 1121
The Pauli ExciusiOf1 Principle 1122
Mult iple Electrons in Rectangular Traps 1123
Building the Period", Table 1126
40-10 X Rays and t he Ordering of the
Elements 1127
40-11 Lasers and Laser light 1131
xvi Cont ents
40-12 HONLaserlW()I'\( 1132
R ..... iew & Summary 1135
Questions 1135 I Problems 1137
E!U Conduction of Ele ctricity
in Solids 1142
'Nhy do n>d: gvit •• ts ,hun fo, old-
f ... hiOMd tub. • ...pWi_?
41 · 1 What Is Physics? 1143
41 · 2 Th. Electric.;ll Propert'eI of Solid. 1143
41 ·3 Energy Level. Ina ... Solid 1144
.H Insulaton 1144
41 ·5 M.tals 1145
41 ·6 Semiconducton 11 SO
41 ·7 Doped Semiconductor. 1151
41 ·8 The p·n Junction 1154
41 ·9 The Junction Rectifier 1156
41 · 10 The light·Emitting Diode (LED) 1157
41 · 11 The Transistor 1159
R ..... i.w & Summary 1160
Quest ions 1161 I Probleml 1162
r:" .. Nuclea r Physics 11 65
What au_ the ,acNtion danger to ar CNWS flying
th.long ·po/;',",O<JtH?
42· ' What II Phys.a? 1166
42· 2 D,scovenng the Nucleus 1166
42· ) Some NuclNr Propertin 1167
42· 4 RadooKtoveDeaoy 1174
42·5 Alpha Decay 1177
42-6 Beta o..c..y 1179
42·7 RadioKtIVe Dating 1182
42·8 MNsuring Radiation OoSiIge 1183
42·9 Nuclear Model. 1184
R ..... iew & 5ummlry l1B7
Ouest ions 1188 I Probleml l 1B8
ru Energy from the Nucleus 11 95
What phYlies und.rlie. the image that ha. ho,rifi.d
the world ,ine. World W.o, In
43· 1 What II PI1Ylics? 1196
43· 2 Nuclear Fission: The Basic Proc." 1197
43·3 A Model !Of' NlIClear Fission 1199
43-4 The Nuclear Reactor 1201
43-5 A Natural Nuclear Reactor 1205
43-6 Thermonuclear Fusion: The Basic
Proceu 1207
43-7 Thermonuclear FuSIon on the Sun and
Other Stars 1208
43-8 Controlled n-monucle. Fusion 1211
Revie>N & Summary 1213
Quest ion. 1213 I Problem. 1214
H I Quarks. l eptons. and the
Big Ba ng 1218
How c .. a photog,;oph of the e./y uni_ .. be ... 1
44· 1 Wh. t l. Physics? 1219
44· 2 Part icle. , Particle. , PartICles 1219
44·3 An I"teo-Iude 1223
44· 4 The Leptons 1226
44· 5 The Hadrons 1227
44·6 St ill Another Conservation La" 1229
44·7 Th. Eightfold Way 1230
44·8 The Quatk Model 1231
44·9 The B. sic Forces and MelS8f>ger
Part ICle. 1234
44-10 A Pause for Reflectoon 1236
44-11 The Universe Is &panding 1237
44-12 The Cosmic Background Radiallon 1238
44-13 Oatk Matter 123B
44-14 The Big Bang 1239
44-15 ASumm,ng Up 1242
Revie-N & Sul'T'VNry 1242
Quest ion. 1243 I Problem. 1243
_ Appe ndices
A The International System of Unit. (Sf) A-1
B Some Fundament.al Constanta of PhYlics A_'
C Some AstlOflomicai Data A-4
D Conv .... ion Factors M
E Math .. matical Form"l ..
A-'
F Propt!rties of the Elements A· 12
G Periodic Table of tile Elements
A. 1S
Answers t o CheckpOints and Odd·Numbered
Quest ions and Problems AN·1
Index 1· 1
xvi Cont..,u
40.12 HOHlMersWotk 1132
R ...... H & SulTll'Nlry 113S
Q ... "'toonl 113S f ProbI.m. 11 37
[:il Conduction of Electricity
in Solids 1142
Why do n;>d: guitMisti shun """';st.,,."mpfr..,. lOT old-
'IIJhjon«l lube
41 · 1 1143
41-2 The ElectnYI Prop.rt ... of SoIdi 1143
41 · J Etwrtgy law" ,n II ... SoIod 1144
.... 1n...u.lotS
,,.,
41. S M-ul. 1145
41.6 1150
41 ·7 Doped s.mocooductotS 1151
41 .1 Th, p-n Junction
''''
4' ·9
Th, Junctia!1 Rea,I .. ,
115'
4\.10 Th. Ughl·Emittirog Diode (LED) 1157
4\.11 Thl T,aro.istor 1159
R .... "w & Summary
11 60
r: .. Nuclear Physics 1165
CIIU_ m. redUlion dJInger 10 , .. ct-. flying
m.1ong .. ?
42· 1 WhaIIIPbysoa? 1166
42·2 D,tcOY&nnglheNud..... 1166
42·J Sonw NlIClear Properttft 1167
42-4 Radooactove Decay 1174
42-5 Alpha Decay 1177
42-6 Botta Dec.ay 1179
42· 7 RadooactNl D.Dng 1182
42.1 MUlUmg RadoaDOn Dosage 1183
42·9 NudurModels 1184
R ...... w & SumtNll)l 1187
au •• loon. 1188 f Problems 1188
ru Energy from the Nucleus 1195
loVh"t und.rliH th. "'ag. thai hal ho,rif..d
the world ,incI World WoO, JI1
41· ' 1196
43-2 Nucio. Fissoon; The Bllsoc: Pnx... 1197
U ·J A Mod.! for Nucle ... FiM>Qn 1199
41-4 The Nuclea. RNaor 1201
4]· 5 AN.rotunol NudNrRNCtor 1205
4].6 The!monuo;lea, FullOl'l; n. BIIIIC
Proc. .. 1207
43-7 n-n-.u.: ..... FulOOl'l '" Ihe Sun.nd
Other St.rs 1208
4].1 Controlled TI-monucl .... FullOl'l 1211
Revoew & SUlTll'Nlry 1213
auestoon. 1213 I Problem. 1214
H I Quarks. Leptons. and the
Big Bang 1218
How un" pftologr."n 01 dw •• /y uni_ .. be
44-1 Whit I, PhysICS7 1219
44-2 PanIC .. , PartICle., PMlocles 1219
44· ] No Int.,lud. 1223
44-4 Thel. ptons 1226
44· 5 T,... H.dronl 1227
44· 6 Still Anolher Conservation La'l 1229
44· 7 Th. Eightfold WilY 1230
44-8 Th. Mod.I 1231
.... 9 Th. BiOIw; Fon:H and M.ssenger
Part " .. 1234
44-10 APIiUMfOfReoflKbon 1236
44-11 The Uno ....... Is 1237
44-12 The CoimIC Background RadoooDOn 1238
44· 1J Daric M,," .. 1238
44-14 The Bog BIIng 1239
44-15 ASummirogUp 1242
ReYMl'N & SulTll'Nlry 1242
a..-toon. 1243 I Problem. 1243
_ Appendices
A. The IntlfTlauon.l System of Unlfl (51) A. l
B Scom. Fund"mental eon.tantl 01 PhysIQ A·3
C s.:.m.Aslronotnocal Dati A-4
o ConYlf'llOfl A·S
E Malhemati<;al FQnT\4Jl n A-fl
F Propenl .. of theElem«l1l A·12
G Periodic Table of Ih, Elements A· 1S
Answen to Checkpoints and Odd·Numbered
Questions and Problems AN. 1
Index 1-1
Fun wit h a big cha ll enge. That is how I have regarded
physics since the day whe n Sharon . one of the student s
in a class I taught as a graduat e student. suddenly de-
manded of me:' What has any of this got to do with my
life?"" Of course I immediat ely responded. ··Sharon.
this has everything to do with yout" life- this is
physics. ,.
She a,ked me for an example. I thought and
thought bill could not come up with a single one. That
ni ght I creat ed The Flying Circlls of Physics for Sharon
but also for me I realized her complaint was
mine. I had spent sL'( years slugging my way through
many dozens of phys ics textbooks that we re carefull y
writt en with the of pedagogical plans.. but there
was something mi ssing. Phys ics is the most interesting
subject i n the world it is abom how the world
works. .. nd yet the text books had been thoroughl y
wrung of any connection with the real world. The fun
was mi ssing.
1 hnve packed a lot of real-world physics into this
HRW book. connecting it with the new editi on of 7711':
Flying Circlls of Physics. Much of the matellal comes
from the HRW classes I teach. where I can judge from
the faces and blunt comment s what material and pre-
sentati ons work and what do not. 11le notes l make on
my and failures there help form the basis of
ti ons. and solve quantitati ve probl ems. This process is
not easy for e ither student s or instructors. Indeed. the
course associated with this book may be one of the
most chall enging of all the cout"ses taken by a student .
However. it can also be one of the most rewarding be-
cause it reveals the world 's fundamenwl clockwork
from whi ch all scientific and engineering applicati ons
spnng.
Many users of the seventh editi on (both instruc-
tors and students) sent in comment s and suggestions to
improve the book. These improveme nts are now incor-
porat ed int o the narrative and problems throughout
the book. 111e publi sher John Wiley & Sons and I
regard the book as an ongoing project and encourage
more input from lI sers. You can send suggesti ons. cor-
rect ions. and positi ve or negative comme nt s to John
Wiley & Sons (http:www.wiley.com/college/halliday)
or Jearl Wal ker (mail address: Ph),sics Departme nt.
Cleveland State Universit y. O eveland. OH 441 IS USA:
fax number: ( USA) 216 687 2424: or e mail address:
physics@wiley.com: or lhe blog site at ,",'WW.fl yi ngcircu s-
ofphysics.com). We may not be able to respond to all
suggestions.. but we keep and study each of them.
Major Content Changes
th is book. My message here is the smne as I had with • Flying Circus mate rial has incorporated into
evely student J"ve met since Sharon so long ago: ·· Yes.. the text in several ways: chapter open ing Puzzlers.
you cal! reason from lxlSic physics concepts all the way Sample Probl ems.. text ex,1mples. and end-of-chapt er
to valid conclusions about the real world . and that un- Probl ems. The purpose of this is two-fold: ( 1) make the
derstanding of the t" eal world is where the fun is. ·· subject more int eresting and e ngaging. (2) show the
I have many goals in writing this student that the world around
book bu t the overriding one is to provide the m can exa mined and un-
instructors with a tool by which they can ders tood using the fundamental
teach stude nts how to effect ive ly read principles of physics.
scienti fi c material. identi fy fundamental
concept s. reason through scie nti fic ques-
... ..... ., ... "",
- ... _,-,--, ....... .
_ .... , .. , • • .., ... ... . __ ot
".J>-Dooko .. _ .. ... _ , .. _ ... , ..
... ....... ... -."" ... -
.... -.--,- -..........
........ ......... " .. " ............ ""' ''''' ..
................ _.. .... -
,,,.., .
------------ 1 ------"-- -- ,, ....... _ .
. ... _ --_._-...... _- _ .....
:-..:!:"'- ------- ..... -., . ll ·

" , ,
leVII
xViii
• Links to The Hying CirCIiS of Ph)'sics are shown
throushout the teXI nUl leriltland enj-Of..dUlpler prob-
lems with a biplane kon. [n the
of this book. on Ihe icon
takes )'ou 10 the corresponding item in F/)'ing CirellS.
The bibliogmphy of F/)'/I/g Circlls (o\'er 10 000 refer-
ences 10 scientific and engineering journals) is located
at _-w.nyingcircusofphysics.com.
• The Newlonian ga\'itlllional 1.11". Ihe Coulomb law.
and the Biol -Sa\'8r1 law arc now introduced in unit-
,·ector nolation.
• Most nlthe ( the examples
of appl ied physics designed to \"mice a reackr into
each chapter) arc new (uld come straighl from
research joumals in many differ\"nl fl\"lds.
• Several Ihousand of Ihc end-of.chapter problems
have ""'-' n rewril1en 10 Sirelllliline both the presenta-
tion and the (U! swer. Muny new problems of the mod·
craie :md elliegolies hllve been included.
Chapter Features
l)!IaIHs, A curi ous puuling situntion opens
ench chnptcl' and is expillined somewhere within the
chllpter. to entice a st udent 10 read Ihe chapter. TIlese
features. which arc 11 hnllmark of FWldlll/wnw/j of
Pllpics. are bused on current research as reponed in
scientific. ellsineering. medical. and journals.
Wlml is The narrative of every chapter now
begins wilh Ihis quest ioll.llnd with al answer thlll per-
tains 10 thi! subject of the dl.'l.pt\"r (A plumber once
asked me. "Wh.1t do
The sample prob!cms with thi!lnbel-Build )'our skill"
are Iypically lonser. with more guidunce.
Key in the sample problems fIXus a studml on
lite basic concepts III the root of the solution to 8
problem. In effect. Ihese key idens say. "We stmt our
solution by using t his basic 8 procedure that
prepares us for soh 'ing 111.111)' othcr problems. We don't
sian by grabbing nn equ.1t ioll for n quick plug-and-
chug. a prIXedure Ihat prcpnrcs us for nOlhing."
Pruhll·nt -soh-inj.: l aclil"" coll taiu helpful instructions to
guide the beginning physics ,ludcUI lIS 10 how 10 solve
problems avoid common errors.
is a brief oUlline nlthe chapter
COlllents that cOll1ains Ihe cssenl iul COIlC\"pIS but ""bich
is not a subslitUie for rending Ihe chupter,
ate like the checkpoints and require reason-
inS and understanding rUlher Ihllll Cll lculutioliS.
A,lj'Wr:f 10 litl' odd- liJ/J/l ber<'d </lOeJliQIIJ' are in Ih.' back
oflhe book.
are grouped under seeli oll lilies are la-
beled according to difficullY. AI/swers It) Ihe Qdtl.mUlI-
bert'd proble'lIs Urt' III lill' back of Ihe book.
Icolls ror hl'lil. When worked-oul solutions
arc provided either in print or electronically for cer-
tain of the odd-numbered problems. the statem('nts for
those problems include a trlliling icon to alen both stu-
dent and imlruclor as to where the solut ions are l0-
cated. An icon guide is provided here alld at Ihe begin-
ning of each sci of problems:
you do for .1 liv-
mg?" I rephed.- I
leach pllysics.'· He
Ihoughl for sc\'eral
minules ll11d Ihen
.... --......... ---................. ... _ I
c ._.,. _ .. _-_ .. _- .... -_ ..
____ ",..._c-of_ ...... __ ___
asked. "'VIlal is pllYSICS?- n le plumm-r's career was
enlirel), based on pllysics. yel he did nOl even know
whal physics is. Many sludeulS in introductory physics
do not know whal physics is but assume that it is irrel·
evant 10 Iheir chosen career.)
Chl'{kp .. Sloppi ng points that effectively as k
Ihe student. "C,n you Ihis question with some
I'.", &o ning basod On th;) nnc-raliv;) or probl"",
thlll you just If 1I 0t. Ihen Ihe student should go
back over Ihnt prev'lous malerial before traveling
deeper into Ihe chapl er. For eXll mple. sce Oleckpoint
I on page 62 and 2 on page 2&1. AlJ5wers
/Q (II/ checkpoilWJ (Ire in rite bllck oflhe book.
Sample IIr"hll'lII' are chosen to demonstrate how
problems eml be solved with reasoned solutiolls rather
thllll quick .1nd simplistic plugging of numbers inlo an
equ.'l.l ion with no regllrd for whnt the equ.'l.t ioll means.
SSM Solulion is in Ihe Sludent Solutions
WWWSolulion is al
http:// .... ww.wilcy.oomlcol!cgelhaJliduy
ILW Interaclive LearningW:,rc soluti on is (01
hltp: llw\\'W.wilcy.oom/collegeihlll lidllY
prohll'IIIS. These problems are /lot ordered
or sorted in wily so Ilml II studenl must determine
which p.1rts of the chnpler to nlly given problem.
Additional Features
Rl' .. souing A primary gtllli of
this book is to teach student s to reaSOIl through cllRl-
lenging si tuations.. from basic prindples to It solution.
Although some plug-and-chug homework problems
remain in the book (on ptlrposc). most homewor k
en:pllasize r\"asonillg.
tof reasonabl e I,·ngth. To avoid producing a
lxx>k thick enough to stop a bullet (and thus also a
student). I have made the chapters of reasonable
length. J explain enough to gel a studenl going but nOI
so much Ihm a studenl no longer must analyze and
fuse ideas. After all. a student will need the skill of an-
alyzing and fusing ideas long after Ihis book is read
and the course is completed.
of When vector calcn-
lations in a sample problem Gm be performed direclly
on-screen with a vector-capable calculator.lhe solution
of the sample problem indicates that faci but still car-
ries Ihrough Ihe traditional componenl aualysis. When
vector calculations cannot be petformed directly on-
screen. the solulion explains why.
Graphs 'is pIlUJ,'S. These are problems Ihat give a
graph and ask for a result Ihal requires much more
than just reading off a data poinl from the graph.
Rather. the solution requires an understanding of the
physical arrilllgement in a problem and the principles
behind the associmed equations. TIlese problems are
more like Sherlock Holmes puzzles because a student
must decide what data are important. For examples.
see problem 50 on page SO. problem 12 on page 108.
and problem 22 on page 231.
Prohirms with appli"d based on published re-
search. appear in many places. either as Ihe opening
puzzler of a chapter. a sample problem. or a homework
problem. For example. see Ihe opening puzzler for
Olapter 4 on p.1ge 58. Sample Problem 4-8 on pages
69-70, and homework prob[;:m 62 on page 302. For an
example of homework problems thai build on a con-
tinuing story. see problems 2. 39. and 61 on pages 131.
134.and 136.
Prubl ems with non·1 Here is one of several
hundred such problems: Problem 69 on page 113 re-
lates a lrue story of how Air Canada flight 143 ran OUI
of fuel at an altitude of 7.9 km because the crew alld
.,irport personnel did not consider the units for the
fuel (11ll impol1anl lesson for students who tend to
"blow off· units).
Versions of the Text
To accommodate the individual needs of instrnctors
and students. the eighlh edition of FUlldallll'/!Ia/s of
Physics is available in a number of differenl versions.
TIle Ihgui ar Edition consists of Chapters I
through 37 (ISBN 978-0-470-04472-8).
TIle Editi on contains six additional
chapters on quantum physics and cosmology. Chapters
1--44 (ISBN 978-0-471-75801-3).
Both editions are avaibble as single. hard-cover
lxx>ks. or in the following alternative versions:
Pre/ace
• \'" lun1l' Chapters 1- 20 (Mechanics and
ThemlOdynamics). hardcover. ISBN 978-0-47004473-5
• \'olun1l' 2 - Chapters 21--44 (E&M. Oplics. and
Quantum Physics). hardcover. ISBN 978-0-470-04474-2
• P:ut I - Chapters I- II. paperback. [SBN 978-0-470-
04475-9
• P:ut 2 - OJapters 12- 20. paperback. ISBN 978-0-470-
04476-6
• P-drt 3 - Ompters 21 - 32. paperback. ISBN 978-0-470-
04477-3
• P-m 4 - Chapters 33- 37. paperback. ISBN 978-0-470-
04478-0
• P:m 5 - Chapters 38-44. paperback. ISBN 978-0-470-
04479-7
WileyPLUS !ftVs
There have been several signiflc.lnt ndditions to the
WileyPLUS course th.at accompnnies Fwu/alllenia/s
of Physia:
• All of the end-of-chapter problems have been
coded and are now available for assignment.
• Every problem hns an associated Hint that c.1n
made available to the students at the instructor·s
discretion.
• There are approximately 400 additional Sample
Problems availnble to the student at the instnlct or's
discreti on, 111e Sample Problems are written in
the same style and fonnat as those in the text. i.e ..
they are intended to give the studell1 transferable
problem-solving skills rather than specific recipes.
• For every chapter. approximately 6 problems are
available in a tutorial formal that provides step-by-
step. interactive problem-solving guidmlce. Most are
marked here in this book with the icon Ql
(,·Guided Online··) but more are being added .
• For evel)' chapter. approximately 6 problems are
availnble in a version that requiles the studenl to
enter an algebraic answer.
• There are vector drawing and vector diagram
problems that use "drag·n drop·· functionality to as-
ses.<; the students· ability to draw vectors and vector
diagrams.
• There are simulation problems that require the
student to work with a java applet.
The overall purpose of this new material is to move
the on-line homework experience beyond simple
Right/Wrong grading and provide meaningful prob.
lem solving guidance and 5llpport.
tof reasonabl e I,·ngth. To avoid producing a
lx>ok thick enough to stop a bullet (and thus also a
student). I have made the chapters of reasonable
length. J explain enough to get a student going but nOi
so much Ihm a student no longer must analyze and
fuse ideas. After all. a student will need the skill of an-
alyzing and fusing ideas long after this book is read
and the course is completed.
of r,ll r llhutors. Whe n vector calcu-
lations in a sample problem can be performed directly
on-screen with a vector-capable calculator. the solution
of the sample problem indicates that fact but still car-
ries through the traditional component aualysis. When
vector calculations cannot be performed directly on-
screen. the solution explilins why.
Graphs 'is pIlUJ,'S. These are problems that give a
graph and ask for a result thm requires much more
than just reading off a data point from the graph.
Rather. the solution requires an understanding of the
physica l ammgement in a problem and the principles
behind the associated equations. TIles.:; probl ems are
more like Sherlock Holmes puzzles because a student
must decide what data are important. For examples.
see problem 50 on page SO. problem 12 on page 108.
and problem 22 on page 231.
Problcllls with appli"d based on published re-
search. appear in many places. either as Ihe opening
puzzler of a chapter. a sampl e problem. or a homework
problem. For example. see the opening puzzler for
Olapter 4 on p.1ge 58. Sample Problem 4-8 on pages
69-70, and homework problem 62 Oil page 302. For an
example of homework problems that build on a con-
tinuing story. see problems 2. 39. and 61 on p..1ges 131.
134.and 136.
Probl ems with non·1 sillmti oll s. Here is one of several
hundred such problems: Problem 69 on JXlge 113 re-
lat es a true story of how Air Canada flight 143 ran out
of fuel at an altitude of 7.9 km because the crew and
airport personnel did not consider the units for the
fuel (llll impol1mll lesson for students who te nd to
"blow off· units).
Versions of the Text
To accommodat e the individual needs of instrnctors
and students. the eighth ed ition of FUlldalll l'/!Ia/s of
Physics is available in a number of different versions.
TIle Rcgul ar Editi on consists of Chapters I
through 37 (ISBN 978-0-470-04472-8).
TIle Editi on contains six additional
chapters on quantum physics and cosmology. Chapters
1--44 (ISBN 978-0_47 I- 75801-3).
Both editions are availilble as single. hard-cover
lx>oks. or in the following alternative versions:
Pre/ace xix
• \'oluu1l' Chapters I- 20 and
ThemlOdynamics). hardcover. ISBN 978-0-47004473-5
• \'ollln1l' 2 - Chapters 21 -44 (E&M. Optics. and
Quantum Physics). hardcover. ISBN 978-0-47()"04474-2
• P:ut I - Chapters 1- 11. paperback. [SBN 978-0-470-
04475-9
• P:ut 2 - Ompters 12- 20. paperback. ISBN 978-0-470-
04476-6
• P-drt .\ - Ompters 21 - 32. paperback. ISBN 978-0-470-
04477-3
• P-Jrl 4 - Chapters 33- 37. paperback. ISBN 978-0-470-
04478-0
• P:1TI 5 - Chapters 38-44. paperback. ISBN 978-0-470-
04479-7
Wiley PLUS IfLVs
There have been several signiflc.lnt ndditions to the
WileyPLUS course th.at accompnnies Fwu/alll l' n/a/s
of Physics:
• All of the e nd-of-chapter problems have been
coded ilnd are now available for assignment.
• Every problem has an associated Hint that c.1n
made available to the students at the instructor·s
discretion.
• There are approximately 400 additional Sample
Problems availnble to the student at the instnlfl or's
discrctilm, llle Sample Problems are written in
the same style and fonnat as those in the text. i.e ..
they are intended to give the student transferable
problem-solving skills rather than specific recipes.
• For every chapter. approximately 6 problems are
available in 11 tutorial format th.at provides step-by-
step. interactive problem-solving guidance. Most are
marked here in this book with the icon Ql
(,· Guided Online··) but more are being added.
• For evelY chapter. approximately 6 problems are
llvailnble in a version that requires the student to
enter an nlgebraic answer.
• There are vector drawing and vector diagram
problems that use "drllg ·n drop·· fll nct iona lity to as-
seSl; the students· llbility to draw vectors and vector
diagrams.
• There are simulation problems that require the
student to work with a jllva applet.
The overall purpose of this new material is to move
the on-line homework experience beyond simple
Right/ Wrong grading and provide meaningful prob-
lem solving guidance and support.
Preface
Instructor's Supplements
Solutions Manllal by Sen-Ben Liao,
L1WrenCe Livermore National Laborntory.l1lis manual
provides wOl'ked--oul solmions for 1111 problems found
at Ihe end of each chapler.
lustrucI"r Comp,minn Sill'
http: // .... ww.wiley.comlcollegel1lullidlly
• In_trud"r's i'll.iulnll by J. Richnrd 01riSlll1an. U.S.
Coast Guurd Academy. Thi s resource contains lecture
notes outlining the most important topics of each
cll.1pter: demons trat ion experiments: laboratory und
comput er projects: film and video sources: answers to
all Questions. Exercises. Problems. and Q loCCkpoints:
and a correi.,tion guide to the Questions. Exercises.
and Problems in Ihe pre"ious edi tion. It also oontains 11
complete Ii$t of all problems for which solutions are
availlible to sllIck<nts (SSM. WW\V. and ILW).
• I.l'ftll rl· PO'H'rPoi nl Slirl l" by Athos Petrou and
John Cerne of the University of Buffliio. TIl ese
PowerPoints cover the e ntire book and nre heavi ly il-
lustrated with figures from the text.
• Ih spollW ,"Clid:cr") (Juestioll'i
by Dnvid Marx. Illinois Stat e Universit)'. 111e re are
two sets of questions available: Rellding Quiz und
hueractive U Clllre. The Reading Qui z questions are
imended to be relati" ely stmightforv.'ard for any stll-
dcnt who read Ihe assigned mat erinl. 'lllC InteraClive
Lecture questions are intended to for use in an inter-
act;ve lecture st'tting.
• Plt ),sil':> by Andrew Duffy. Boston
University. SO imeractive li imulations (Jlwa applets)
thllt clln be used for classroom demonstmli ons.
• Wiky Php ifs by David Mniullo.
Rutgers University. This is 11 collection of disital videos
of 80 standard physics demonstrations. They can be
shown in ci.'I5I; or accessed from the student compan-
ion site. There is lin acconlp.lnying Instructor's Guide
tlk, t includes "clicker" questions.
• 'Ih l llank by J. Richard Christman, u.s. Coast Guard
Academy. The Test Bank includes more than 2200 mul--
liple-choice questions. TIlese items are also avnilable in
Ihe Computerized Test Bank which provides full edit-
ing fe8\lJres to help you cust omi 7oC tests (availlible in
both 1 BM and Macintosh versions),
• All of the IIU/mcwr s SO/Uliolls lilli/Will ill MSWord,
and pdf fil es
• All text illustrations. suitable for both classroom pro-
jection and printing.
On· linl."" h01IllI."""'o rk 'lIId In addition to
WlleyPLUS. FIilIl/a/llellluls of Physks. eighth edition
also supports WebAssignPLUS lInd CAPA, which are
other programs Iha1 gh'e instructors the ability 10
deli" er lind grade homework and quizzes on_line,
Webe r and Ulaf kh" ard, A variety of materials h.-we
been prepmed for CaS)' incorporation in either WebCT
or Blackbollrd. WebCT lind Blackboard nrc powerful
and ensy-to-use web-based course,management 1i)'S-
tems thnt nll ow instructors 10 s.! t up complete on-line
courses with chnl rooms. bulletin boards. quizzing. stu-
denltrncking. etc.
Student's Supplements
Stmll' nt CUml)w niUlI sitl·. This web site
ht tp:Jfwww.wi ley.comlcoi legel1laliiday
was deve loped specificall y for fill/ dill/lmlilis of
Physics.. eighth edition. and is designed to further assist
student s in the study of physics. The siw includes solu-
tions to selected elld_of-chapter problems (which nre
identified wi th a www icon in the text): self-CJui v.es:
simulation exercises: tips on how to make best use of
a progrnmnlll ble cal culator. and the Internctive
LearningWare tllt oria ls thai are described below,
Studl'nt Study Guidl'. The student study guide cOllsists
of an overview of the chllpters importllnt concepts.
hints for solving e nd-of-chapter questions/problems.
and practice quizzes.
Studl' nf_ Manual b\' J. Richard Cbristnl.111.
U.s. Coast Guard Academy 'and Edward Derringh.
Went .... orth Institute, This manual provides student
wi th complete worJ,: ed--oU\ solutions to IS percent o f
the probl cms found at the end of each chapt cr within
the text. These problems are indic.lt ed ,,;th an ssm
Icon.
Int rntl"ti"l' This software guides stu-
dents through solutions 10 200 of the elld-of-chapter
problems.. 111ese problems are indicat ed with an ilw
icon. lhe solutions process is developed interacti vely,
with nppropriate feedback and access to error-spccirlc
help for the most cOlllmon mistakes..
Ul'.'okl op I-:ditioll , An electronic version o f
Fill/dum/millis of Physk.t eighth edition containing the
complete, extended ,'el1>OO of the text is aVnilnble for
download nt:
www.wiley.comlcollegeldesktop
Wiley Deskt op Editi ons Hre a cost effective aliernlltive
to the printed lext.
;1 S""und Lallgml gl': MU5/er /lIg Problem
Sol" illg by lliomas Barrett. of Ohio Stnt e Univcrsit y,
This brief p.1perback teaches the student how to ap-
proach problems more effICient ly and effectively. The
student willlcnrn how to recognize common patt erns in
physics problems. break problems down into mnn.-Ige-
nble steps.. nnd npply appropt"iale ledmiques. 111e book
takes the student step--by_step through the solutions to
nUlllerous exampl es.
Instructor's Supplements
11I .. lnlclnr·, Sohlliom Mlinual by Uao.
I..a"Tente u vermore Nallonal I..abonll ory. This manual
pro ... des workcd..{)ul solUlioos for 11011 problems found
lit the end of eath chapter.
h .. lnl cl"r Cmnpwnion Sill'
http://www.wiley.oornlcollcgenl;' Il kllly
• h l'l rllt"I "r'S I\I II um11 by J. Richnrd Olr'lstl1wn. U.S.
COIISI Gumd Academy. This rcsourw conlains lecture
nolU outlining the most imporuulI topICS of each
ch,'1pter. Ocmonslla lioo expcnmenU; loborntory and
CQmput er projects; fUm and ,ideo sources; answers 10
all Quc:slions. Elercises.. Problems. and
and II correLl tl(Jll guKk 10 the Qu..."'ShOM.
and Problems in the pre\'ious edition. It . lso contains a
complete list of aU problems for which solutions are
avallilble to studenl5 (SSM. WWW. lLl1d ILW).
• I..'rlll rt' 1' .",('rPoi nt Slid." by AlllOli Pet rou and
John Cerne of Ihe University of Buffalo. TIl esc
Powe"Poi lll s covcr thc e ntire book lllltl 01"(.\ he"vil y il-
lustrllted with figures from the text .
• QlIl',linll"
by David Marx. lUinois Sialo .. There arc
IWO sets of queslions a"mlable: ReltChng Quiz and
Intemctl\'e l...eclUre.. The Re.,dmg QuI Z questIOns arc
inl ended to be relati" ely str.:ughtfor...-.. rd for /lny SIU-
dent 0\' 00 read the aSlligned matenal . "The [nteracll\'e
l.ec:ture quest ions are intended to for Uie III an Inler-
aet ... e 1&l ure selling.
• \\1[ \') Silllu[al inns by Andre w Duffy, Boston
Universi ty. SO interactive simulptioJls (b va applels)
cun be used forc1assroom demonstrations.
• by DJvitl
Rutgers Universily. This is a collection of digi lill videos
of 80 siandard physiai demons1nIllOIl!. They can be
shown III class or accessed (rom the l tudent compan-
100 si te. There is an aa:onlpon)ing Instructor's Guide
that LlICludcs - cider" questIOns.
• T." t 1.lallk by 1 Richard Cbnstman. Us. Coast Guard
Academy. The Test Bank includn more th., n "200 mul-
"1,lc-choa quesliolls.. lbese items al"e Il lso avallabl", in
the Computerized Test Bank which prm'idel full edi t-
lUg (eBlUres to help you ClIstomi7.e (avoilable in
bolh I BM lind Macintosh versiol1s).
• All of the " lJ"/mclOr "s SO/HI/OilS Mlllullil In MSWord ,
alld pdf files
• All text iIIust rations.. suitablc for bot h clnSlirOOlll pro-
.teCtion and printing.
OIl ·lill.' hHIII{'..-ork and I,uiahl !:, In IIdd,ll(Jll 10
Wdey/'LUS. FliudamO:llla/s of Ph)'slt;s. eighth edition
ako suppon s WebAssignPLUS and CAPA. which are
ot her prosrams thaI gn'e inst rut toB the abillly 10
delive r and grnde homework nnd quin:es oo·line.
Webe r A of matenats
been prePMed for easy mcorporation Ul eIther WcbCT
or Blackboard. WebCT and Blackboard arc !X""'uful
and eM)'· to- use O\ eb-based course-management ')"S'
tems thnt /llIow mstfUC"tors 10 sel up complete on· hne
courses wllh chIll rooms.. bullelin bo.lrds. quir.l.ing,
denl tl1l ckl11g.ctc.
Student's Supplements
Stlldcnt .. n , itl' , This web site
htlp' J{""""'W. " iley.comfmlk."'ge1balhda)·
was de"eloped 5pedfICaUy for FUlIlldllltlllUfs of
Physics.. eiptt h OOlilOn, and is desigDed to furthel aSS1S1
siudents In lbe Siudy of phyYcs .. lbe site ind udes .KIl u·
lions to sd cded end-of-cbapler problems (v .. htc:: h al e
idenlirted wllh a w ..... ,,' icon in the text): se lf-qUl 7.7.es:
simulatioo tips on how 10 mllke besl use o f
/I prognlllll1lable CAlculator: and the IUlemctive
L.elll"ningWnre 11It Ori llis thaI are described below.
Stlldl'lll Stud) (;uidl'. ' n U,! student study guide consIsts
of an ovcTyiew of the chopter's importmll concepts..
hints fo r solving end..{) (-ehapler qUClitionslproblcn\S"
lind prllCttc::e quizzn ..
SllId('nl', Soluli."" Munual by J. Richard Cbristm.'1n.
U.S. CoaSI Guard Academy and E",,'Md Dernnp,
Went ..... orl h Inst,tute. Thl$ manual provKloes I tudent
wilh complete worked-OUl solutioas to 15 of
the prObif.' lnJ found nt the end of each chllopter ""thm
the text. "l"hese problems lire indicated with I n ssm
icol1.
t .' uruinI-tWHrf,', This software guides
dents through solutions 10 200 of the end·of·chllpter
problem!.. lllcse probl ems lire indicated ..... ith an ilw
iron. l be w lullons procc!ilS is developed IIl teractivel)'.
with IIopproprintc feedback lind access to erroro$JlCClrtc::
help for the mOSI common mistakes.
U""klUp Ed il ion, An eleclronic \'en;l(JII of
FIllIlIi",u:nlllls of 1'11,.sicJ. eighth edition w ntauung the
complete. Cl tended version of the lext is aYl\ILnble fo r
dov .. nload al:
WVo' w.wl ley.comfool legeJdesktop
Wil ey Edi tions are II cost effective "I' emative
to the pril11ed text.
I'hp in II SCf,, "t! Lungnag.': Mlisler/IIII I'ro/)/rm
5oM"8 by 1110111."<5 Bnrrell . of Ohio Stnte Universit y.
This brief papel back teaches the studenl how 10 np-
prooch probl.....,,, more efrlCiently lind Thl!
st udent wil1leam how 10 recognize common In
ph)"Sic:s problems. break problems down into nlan.1g<'·
able steps. and aPf'ly appropiatc techniques. lhc book
takes the student step-by-5tep thro1l!h the solutIOns to
numerous uamples.
Acknowledgments xxi
Acknowledgments
A great many people have contributed to this book.
J. Richard ClJrismwn. of the U.S. Co.. 1st Gnard Academy.
has once again created many fine supplements; his
recommendations to this book have been invaluable.
Sen-Ben of Lawrence Li vennore National
Laboratory. lames Whitenton of Southem Polytechnic
State University. and jetTY Shi. of Pasadena City
College. perfollned the Herculean task of working out
solutions for eVillY one of the homework problems in
the book. At l ohn Wiley publishers. the book received
support from Stuart lohnson. the editor who oversaw
the entire project. Torn Kulesa. who coordinated the
state-of-the-art media package. and Geraldine Osnato.
who managed a super team to create an impressive
supplements p..1ckage. We thank Elizabeth Swain. the
production editor. for pulling all the pieces together
during the complex production process. We also thank
Maddy Lesure. for her design of both the text and the
book cover; Lee Goldstein for her page make-up:
MnrisA.Abolins
Michigall Siale Vni"ersil)'
Edward Adelson
Ohio Slate Vl1i"ersily
N W":tJ
Texas Tech
Barbara Andereck
Ohio lI'esl,.,.alP Vniwrsily
MarkArnen
Kirh.ood Con",,,,,,il)' College
Arun Bansil
NonlwaslerlP Vlli"usily
Richard Balber
SalP/a Clara Vni"ersily
Neil B""",u
Weslchcsler Co",,,,unity College
Anand Balra
Howartl V"i"ersily
Richard Bone
Flon·tla International Vnh'ersity
Michael E. Browne
Vni,wsity of ltIaho
TmlOlhy J. Burns
LU"'af(1 Co",,,,,,,,ily College
Joseph Buschi
Manhall"" College
Philip A. CasabelJa
R<"I .... sela<"T Polytechnic ImlilUle
Randall Caton
Christopher Newporl
Roger Oapp
Vni,'ersity of Som}, Floritla
Helen Walden for her copyediting: Anna Melhorn for
managing the iliustT11tion program: and Lilian Brady
for her proofreading. Hilary Newman was inspired in
the search for unusual and interesting photographs.
Both the publisher lohn \Vdey & SOIl5. Inc. and learl
Wal ker would like to thank the following for com-
ments and ideas nbout the 7th edition: Richard
Woodard. University of Rorida: David Wick. Clarkson
University: Patrick Rapp. University of Puerto Rico nt
Mayagiiez: Nora TIlornber. Raritan Valley Community
College: L.. 1urellce I. Gould. University of Hartford:
Greg Childers. California State University at Fullel1on:
Asha Khakpour of C1lifornia State University at
Fullerton: loe F. McCullough. Cabrillo College. Fmally.
our external reviewers have bc.;,n outstanding and we
acknowledge here our debt to each member of that
team.
W. R Conkie
Que"". U"i,'ersily
Iknot. Crnwfoxd
V"i"ers;I)' of Massae/wsellS-Darlmourh
Mike Crivello
Sa" Diego Slate Vni"ersily
Roben N. Davie. Jr.
SI. Petersburg J"nior College
Cher)"t K. Dellai
Clem/ale COIII",unily Collt'ge
Eric R Dietz
California Slate at C/,iro
N. John DiNardo
Drexel V"i"ersity
Eugene Dunnam
V"j,'ersity of HorM"
Roben Endorf
V"j,'ersity of C;"dmWli
F. Paut Esposito
Vnil"<'rsity of Ci"dmwti
Jerry Finkelstein
San lose Slal<" V"il"Crsily
Robert H.Good
Califomia Slate fia.,·"·ard
JohnB.Grube-r
Sail Jrue Slate V"i,'ersily
Ann Hanks
A",<'Iic"" Rh'er College
Rand)' Harris
VIIi, 'ersity of Califomil,-Dads
Samuet Harri,
Purd"c Vni"ersil)'
Harold B. Hart
Weslern Illinois Vlti"ersily
Rebecca Haflzler
Se"lIie Central Com""",il)" Col/"ge
John Hubi",
North Carolin" Slale Vni"ersily
Joe)' Huston
Michigan Sml,· Vni"ersily
DaVId Ingram
Oloio Vni"crsil)'
Shawn J""k.on
Vnil"<'rsil)' of Tulsa
Hector Jimenez
U"i"crsil)' of PuerlO Rico
SudhakarB.Joshi
York Vnj,'ersily
Leonard M. Kahn
Uni, "' rsil)' of R hotlc /s/a",1
Leonard Kleinman
Vnh'ersity of Texas at Amlin
Craig Klelzing
Vnh'ersil)' of low"
Aflhur Z . Kovacs
Rochesler IIISliIUl,' of Tee/molog)"
Kenneth Krane
Oregoll Slale Vni,ws;ty
Priscilla Laws
Dickimo .. CoJ/,'gc
Edbertho Leal
PO("lec/",k V"i"ersil)" of Puerto Rico
V...,.n Lindlx-tg
Rod,esl<"T Iml;lwe ofTecimoiogy
Acknowledgments xxi
Acknowledgments
A great many people have contributed to this book.
J. Richard ClJrismwn. of the U.S. C0<1st Gnard Academy.
has once again created many fine snppl ement s; hi s
recommendations to thi s book have been invaluable.
Sen- Ben of Lawrence Li vennore National
Laboratory. l ames White nton of Southern Polytechnic
State University. and JetTy Shi. of Pasadena City
College. performed the Herculean task of working out
solutions for evely one of the homework problems in
the book. At l ohn Wiley publishers. the book received
support from Stuart l ohnson. the editor who oversaw
the entire project. Tom Kulesa . who coordinated the
state-of-the-art media p..1ckage. and Geraldine 0 5nato.
who managed a super team to create all impressive
supplements p • .1Ckage. We thank Elizabeth Swain. the
production editor. for pulling all the pieces togethe r
during the complex production process. We also thank
Maddy Lesure. for her design of both the text and the
book cover; Lee Goldstein for her p..1ge make-up:

Michigall Siale Vnil"Crsil)'
Edward Adelson
Ohio Slate Vni"ersily
N W"aJ
Texas Tech
Barbara Andereck
Ohio lI'esl,.,.an Vn'-"crsily
MarkArnen
Kirh.ood Co",,,, ,,,,i/)' College
Arun Bansil
Norr/,mslem Vlli"usily
Richard Baron-
Santa Clara Vni"ersily
B ...... ,u
IVnlch" sler Co",,,,,,,,//)' College
An.nd Bal ra
Ho",,,rti V"i""rsily
Richard Bone
Flon'r/a ImerIPmional Vnh'ersily
Michael E. Browne
Vni,wsily of ltIaho
TmlOlhy J. Burns
LU"'a,,1 Co",,,, ,,,,ily College
Joseph Buschi
Ma"hanall College
Phil ip A. CasabelJa
R<"I/5sda<"f PolYlechnic Imlirme
Randall Caton
Christopher Ne ... porr College
Roger O app
Vllin' rs;/)' of Somh Floritla
Helen Walden for her copyediting: Anna Melhorn for
managing the illustration program: and Lilian Brady
for her proofreading. Hilary Newman was inspired in
the sea rch for unusual and interesting photographs.
Both the publi sher l ohn \Vdey & Sons.. Inc. and l earl
Wal ker would like to thank the following for com-
ments and ideas about the 7th edition: Richard
Woodard. University of Rorida: Dnvid Wick. Clarkson
University: Patrick Rapp. University of Puerto Rico at
Mayagiiez: Nora TIlornber. Raritan Valley Community
College: L.. 1urellcc I. Gould. University of Hartford:
Greg Childers. California State University at Fullenon:
Asha Khakpour of C1lifornia State University at
Fullerton: l oe F. McCullough. Cabrillo College. Fmally.
our external reviewers hnve be.:n outstanding and we
llcknowledge here our debt to each member of that
t eam.
W. R Conkie
Que,'n' V"iversilY
iknot. Crawfoxd
V"il"N'Si/)' of Massaclwsell.<-Darlmomio
Mike Crivello
Sa" Diego Srmc V"i"usily
Roben N. Davie. Jr.
SI. Pelersb"rg J"nior College
K. Dellai
Glendale COIIII",,,,il.v College
Eric R Dietz
Califomia SI(I{C Vni,'ersily (l{ C/,iro
N. John DiNardo
Ornd Vni"ersily
Eugene Dunnam
V"i"crsily of HorM"
Roben Endorf
V"i"crsily of Cind"''''li
F. Paul Esposito
Vnin'rsily of Cind",,,,ti
Jerry Finkelstein
Sail lase Sml<"
Robert H.Good
Califomia SI{l{C VIPiverslij' flaY"'ard
John B. Gruber
Sa" Jrue SI{l{C V"i"ersily
Ann Han ks
A",,,,icm, Rh'er College
Rand)' Harris
Vui, 'ersily of Califomilr-Dads
Samuet Harris
Purd"c Vlli"ersil)'
Harold B. Hart
lVeslerlllllillois Vlti"ersiry
Re becca Harlzler
Seallie Cemral Com""",i')· Collt'ge
John Hubi",
North Carolina SWle Vni,wsily
JOC)' Huston
Michigan Sml,· Vni"usily
David Ingram
Oloio Uni ,-ersil)'
Shawn Jackson
Vllin'rsi/)' of T"lsa
Hector J imenez
Vui"ersi/)' of Puerto Rico
SudhakarB.Joshi
York Vlli"ersily
Leonard M. Kahn
VIIi, ','rsi/)' of R I, otie Island
Leonard Kl einman
VII;,'crsily of Texas (l{ Ai ..... in
Craig Klc-Izing
Vuh'ersi/)' of lo ... a
Arlhur Z. Kovacs
Roc/,esler IIlSlilw,' ofTecimolog)"
Kenneth Krane
Oregon SWIe Vui'"f!rsily
Priscilla Laws
Oickimoll ColI,'gc
Edbcrtho Leal
Poly.ec/mk Vui"ersil)" of Puerro Rico
V...,.n Lindb<-rg
Ro<:ioesr.-r Imlilllle ofTecimoiogy
xxii
AckrlClWl"dgm"nt.
Peter Loly
Vni" ersil)' of J hmilOba
Andrea. Mandelis
Vtli"ersil}, ofToromo
Robert R. Marehini
Memphis Slare Vni ,'er,ily
Paul Marquard
Caspar College
David Marx
IIIlnol. Stille V""''Crsll},
Jam", H.
TII"",e Vniwrslly
David M. McKinstry
Easlem II'ashingloli Vnil-er.II)'
Eugene Mosca
Vniled Slate. Nm'al AClIdem)'
James
Rmsse/aer PolYlahnlc ["'liwl,·
Mich.a<IO·Shea
Kansas SllIle Vnl"erslly
Patrick Papin
Sail Diego Slate Vnl"ersll},
Kium.vs Parvin
San Jose Stale Vnll'ersll}'
Rob....,.t
Bro,.." VniI'Cr.ll),
Oren P. Quist
Somh Dakota SlI1le Vni,·er.ily
Joe Redish
Vnl, ·ersil." of Maryland
Timot hy M. Rille!
Vnll'ersily of Nonh CaroUnll1ll
Pembroh
Ge".roo A. RodriglK'"z
Sk idmore CoIl"ge
John Rosendahl
Vnl,'ersily of Cllllfomia at ["'Ine
Todd Ruskell
Colorado School of MI"e.
Mi<"h:>el Schatz
Georgia [ "'liIHle of Technology
Darrell Secl<"}'
School of Engl"eerillg
Bruce Arne Sh<"fwood
Non" Cllrolina Slare VI/iversl/)'
Ross L. Speoc ....
Brig/wm Young Vnil'er,il),
Pau l Stanley
Beloil College
Harold Stokes
Brig""'" Young Vnlversil),
Mir.h:>el G. Strauss
Vnllwsil." of Ok /"llo","
Jay D. Strieb
Vii/mill",' Vnl,'ersil),
Dan Slyer
Obt'r!ln College
Mich.a<1 T:unmaro
Vnl,'clSlly of Rhode [,/al,,1
"l nrshall Thomsen
Easterl/ Mlchig"" Vnl, ·er.ll."
David Toot
Alfred Vnl,'e •• II),
Tsang
HOk'ard VtI;,'ersil)'
J. S. Tur ... ·r
Vnll'ersll), of Tr.w s at AllSli"
T. S.
Drexel VtlII'ersll)'
Gianfraoco Vidali
Syracuse Vnl",'rsllV
FI'<>d Wang
Prairie Vie'" A &. M
Robert C. Webb
Texa. A &. M Vnil'ersll},
\\"olliam M. Whelan
R),erso" Polytechnic V",','ersll)'
GC<lfge Wmiams
VILI,'ersll}, of Vlah
David Wol fe
VILII'crsll), of N,'", Mexico
xxii AckrlClWl"dgm"nt.
Peter Loly
Vnil'ersil)' of J/{III ilObll
Andrea, Mandeli.
Vtl i",'rsil}, of Toromo
Robert R. Mm"hini
MempM, Slare Vnil'ersily
Paul Marquard
Caspor College
David Marx
lII;no;s Slilte VII;I'er';I}'
Jam", H.
TIII""e Vnil'ers;ly
Da"id M. McKinstry
Easlem II'ashingloli Vn;I'Us;/)'
Eug.".. M"",a
Vll ilCd SlaieS Nm'ol Amdem)'
James Napolitano
Rmsse/acr Polytt'Chn;c ["'Iinu,'
Mich.:><IO·Shea
Kansas SUIte Vn;I'crs;ry
Patrick Papin
SOli D;ego Siole Vn; I'er.;I}'
Kium.1t'S Parvin
SOli Jose Stale Vn;I'ers;ly
Robert Pokovits
Bm"'n VniI'Crs;l},
Oron P. QuiS!
Somh Dakota Slille Vlt il'crsily
Joe Redish
Vn;"ersily of M".yland
Timothy M. Ri{{er
Vn;,·ersi!.,' of North CllmUnll1ll
Pembmh
GerJrdoA. RodriglK'"z
Skidmore CoI/"ge
John Ros.ondahJ
Vnil'ersir), of CIlI;fonria aI Irl'inc
Todd Ruskell
Colorado School of MiI,es
Mi<' h:>el Schatz
Georgia 1"'lilHlC of Teclmology
Darrell SecIC'}'
School of Eng;" ecr;IIg
Bruce Arne Sherwood
Non" Cllro/ina Stare Vn; versily
Roo. L. Speocer
Brig/Ill'" YOllng Vn;"ersily
Pau l Stanley
Beloil College
Harold Stoke.
Brigha", YOllng Univcrsil),
Mir.h:>el G. Strauss
Vnil-ersily of Okillhomll
Jay D. Str"oeb
VillmlOw, Vn;I'en;l)'
Dan Styer
Obt'riin College
Mich.:><l Tammaro
Vn ;I'ers;ly of Rhode IslllliIl
"hI/shall Thomsen
EaslCm /I/ichig"" Vn;I'ersi/}'
David Toot
A/fred Vn; I'c •• ;t)'
Tsang
HO" 'a rd Vnil'ers;/)'
J. S. Tur .....
Vn/I'crsil), of Texas aI Ausli"
T. S. Venkmar",mn
Drexel Vliil'ers;I)'
Gianfraoco Vidali
Syracuse Vnil','rsilV
Frt>d Wang
Prairie V;"", A & M
Robert C. Webb
Texlls A & M Vnil'Cfsil),
William M. WhelJn
R)'erson PoIyrcchnlc Vnil'CTsil)'
GC(Jfge W,lIiruns
VII;I'ersil), of Vtah
D""id Wolfe
VII;I'crs;l)' of Mnico
Fundamentals of
Physics
EXTENDED
Fundamentals of
Physics
EXTENDED
This page infellTiono/ly left blank This page ilifellTiolio/ly left blallk
Measurement
Whe" a n earthquake strikes a
populated region, jt can
shake apart buU<ings and
other sl/\lclure. or cause
them to topple over.
However, in some region. it
can cause structure. to .ink
into the g-ound until they are
sjgnjfjcantly submerged, a. if
the .true/u",. were on a
dense fluid i n ~ t e a d of solid
ground.
How can a
building sink
into the
ground?
lhe . n, 'Nef I, In tills (hapl'er.
1
Th ... SI B ... a •••• i . ...
Q.onrlty V. it N ""'"
V.l,Symboi
Length
...,to,

T_
-

-
kilo!,"'"
"
1-1 WHAT IS PHYSICS?
Sci"""" and engi""",ing am ba",d on mea,u,emenlS and
need ,ule. aoout how Ihiogs are n"'''''''M rompared. ",.d cxpeo-
n",nts 10 lh" "ui1< for lb""" measuw"",n" and compa,;.ons.. 0,,,, 1'"'-
pose of ("nd enginee,ing) i. 10 design and co"duel lhose "XJX',imOllls.
Fo, pbysicists slri", 10 dewlop clocl:s of exl,...tne accu.acy so lhal
auy lime or limo i"letval caD"" 1',"';",1)' dele,mirwd and compared. You m.ay
wonde, "'hNlli'r "'''h oew,,,,,,)' is >emally "' .... 4'<1 or worlh 11hl H.'fe is
00. example 01 lIIc wOrlb: \l'lho"1 docks 01 exlro"", .'IIX:lIr"'1'. III" Global
ANiiouing S),;tem (GPS) IIIaI is now ,ilaJ 10 worldwide M\'ig"ion would be
1-2 I Measuring Things
W. disco"" physics by learuing how 10 ""''''"''' IhO quanlili", invol",J i"
physics. Among IhO.., quanlili., "e k"gill. limo. m.,s.. lemp",alUre. p,ess",e.
aud ek>C1ric CtIrrenl.
W. ""''''"''' each physirnl qua"lily in;1S 0"'" u"ils.. by compafloon "-;Ib a
,, " ndard. Til<' oni, is a uniq",,- name ..... a'>Sign 10 lII<'a5U'''' ollh" quanlily- for
examph>, mcl", (m) for lh. qua"lil)' i.:lnglh. Th. Slanda,d cor,osJlOnds 10 e:xaclly
1.0 "nil of 100 q"anlily. As )'0" will """ Ibe Slaudard lor lenglh ... -hieh corre-
spond, 10 1.0 m. is llw diSlan", Ir.",led b)' tighl in a """uum du,ing a
''''lain f,action 01 a ",co"d. We can define a un;1 and ilS 6Iandard in any way w"
10. Ho_v" •. lbe i n1llOrlani lbing is 10 do '" in s"cb a .. -ay Ihal scienliSis
a,ound Ih. wo,ld ,,-ill .groo Ihat ou. definilions a." bolh ",nsibl" an" p,aclical.
On", we h,,·. sci "P a Slanda'''-"y.lo, "'nglh - _ ",usl wo. t oul p,oce·
by "'hieb any knglh ".-haw,,", .1x! il lhe ,adi", of a byd,ogo" ",om. II",
... he;,lba>e of • sl al,,0O3, d. or the diSlan", 10 a Sla •. can 00 OXI"", .. >d in lern" of
Ib" stanJard. Rulers. "' bieb our kngln 5Ianda.d. '" 00. sucb
p'o«->du .. for meas",ing lenglh. many 01 0"' oompa,;.ons nm" Ix!
indirecl. Vou ca!lllol use a ,"i.:l,. for oHmple. to ",.asum Iho radius of an alom
0' Ibe d;';lanCil to a"" •.
ll!ere a,e so many phys",al quanlilies IhOl;I" a problem 10 o,g.niz. Ih,m.
H:t"unalely. Ibc)' •• 0 ""I all for example. 'Jl"'i'd ;.; Ibe ."io 01 a
lcnglb 10 a H",e. Thus.. ",f1al we do IS piLl oUI-b)' ,nietoalional agrec"",nl-
a 5maU numlx>r of pbysical qu,nlitii's_sucb os Io nglh "ud lime. and assigo Slandard:s
10 I"'m alono. Wo IlIi'n defi,,,, aU olt"" physical quanlih,'" in 1o .. ", of In"",
q"amm<J and lhelt (ca Ued bau Sp..'<'d 10' e,.1mpie. is "".
r,,,,,d ollb" b.>e qua"lilies "' n&lh and lime and base
Ba>e "aDda,do; muS! t>o bolh aoo.'SSible and in'·an,bi.:l. If we dofi"" 100
lenglb 51all""',d as Iiii' <l i>l,n", ool",,"n o"e's nose and Ibc indox fingi)' on a"
a.m. "'e "''' la;nl)' h3\" an acressiblil SIa"<ia.d- bUI ;1 will. 01 00""".
vary lrom re,.on 10 pefSOn. llI<l demand 10' p=ision i" .d "noo .n"<ngi, ... ",,;ng
pushes us 10 'im firsl for inn,iabiJily. W. Ihen gr.al ollorl 10 mal:e
olIn" ba>e st.nda,ds Ihal am ocressibi.:l 10 Ih"", "ho "ood llwm.
1-3 I The International System af Units
I" 1971. Gene,al Conference on aod picl od ",'"n
quanlilics '" base quanlilies.. Ihe,,,by forming Ibe basis of Ibe Inlernalional
of Unils.. abbre",alO<l SI from ilS Fro""h nan", and popula,ly l no .. -" as
lhe 'YSI<IIt. Tabkl J-I Ih. u"ilS for the lh,oo b_
lenglh. m.ss. and li"lC-lhal .... "se in II", early eh'plers of lh;'; OOot . ]b"",
un;1S we,,, ""ftnM 10 bil on , "human senl"-"
M,ny SI d<n' ,'<d 1m," ,re dofin"d in lerm, "fi b .... OOSi) "nilS. Fo, eUlIlple ,
SI unil for call ed 100 "fltt (W). i, dofi noo i" lerms ,,[ Ihe b,sc unilS
for ma",longlh, "nd lin"'.Thu" a, y"u .. -;11 s.", in OJ'pler 7.
I ",.11 - I W - I m'Is'. (1 -1 )
"R<>'" the 1"1 roll...,i"n of unil "l"mools is read", kilog,am-IIl"ler squared ]X'r
""",nd ruoc'<l.
T" .xp,,,,, Ihe '"Or)' La' ge "nd ,""r)' ,m.1I qua"lili", Wi! " lie" run i"I" i"
pbysocs, Wi! u"" K;''''ific "o""io". "hiLh employs PO""''' of 10. 1" Ih" "OI'lion.
'"'
3 :1(£100)00) III - 3.56 X Iff III
0,(0) (0) 4'12 , - X 10- '"
(1 -2)
(1 -3)
ScienliflC nOla lion "" romp"te" som"limes lal"" on an "'""" b,iefer look. as in
3.56 E9 and .t92 E-7. ,,·ho,. E st"ndo; fOI "expo""nl of leo." II IS b,ief", slill "n
so,,'" helC E is "'placed ,,-;th '" emply space.
As • IUlI"e, con",,,;"/ICC ",be" d.:>ab"g with ""y la'g" '" wry ,mall m".-
su'elll ""l'i . .. .., usc 100 pwfixes lisloo in Thble 1-2. A, y"u can SN. eactl p,efix
"'P,"SC"l'i a ""flain PO""" olIO, 10 00 "scd" a mulliplicalion loclor. Anochiug
"prefix to an SI unil has Ih. elf..., 01 Illullipl}'in& by th" ""ociaIOO facto, . Thu"
.. .., can express a pa'ticular el. 'Clric POW"' as
1.17 X 10" ".-atlS - 1.27 gig''''''lIs - 1.27 GW
0' J panieular tinl' i"lerva! '"
2.15 X 10-' s - 2.15 "an06ilCOuds - 2.15 u" (1 -5)
Som" p,"fi_'''''' as """d in millilile', "' "li""'I"', ki1ogra m, and ""'gab}'le, ""
p,obably familia, 10 you.
1-4 1 Changing Units
We oli"n ",-",d 10 ch,ng" Ih" u"ilS in "'hien a quanlil)' is o'I',",,,,d. W"
do so b)' a n"'lhod call<'d cl,a,n-I",! COIW<rsion. I" Ihis mClhoo. "." multiply Ibe
o,iginal "",,,,uron,,,,,1 by a run.-ersion fO<1o. (a "'Iio of unilS thai i, equal 10
unily). Fo, enmp .... because I min aod 60s are idculieal lune inte rvals, WI' baw
lmin _
1
00,
'"'
Th"" Ihe ra li05 (I min)1(60,) and (60.)1(1 min) be used as oonv.,.,i011
focto ... This is not lhe same as .. -riling -k - I or 60 - I; earh ml",bu and its "",,
muS! be Ireated l<>gelh.r.
Bi'CiIu,", multiplying any quantily by Willy I"a'..,. Ih" qua" I!l y uneh.n!l"d ... .,
can inlrOOUCi! oo,wetSion faCIO .. "-h .. "'" find " ... ful. In chain-buk
ooo'",."on, ...., use Ihe faCIO .. 10 ca"",,1 u""-amoo unil' . For example. to oonv""
1 n,;n losecoods."'"have
2 min - (2 m,n)( I) - (2 """)( - 120 ..
(I-fi)
II you iOlrOOu", a oonve,.,;on faCIO' in surb " way Ih.1 u"w"nted units do nol
can",!. ;"wrt Ihe f.cto, "nd Iry again. In Ih' ""ilS Gb<l)' Ibe sam,
,Iget>raic ,ul", as , ... riablo s ,nd numbe, ..
Apf"'ndix D giws conv"";,," foclor, 001",",," SI "n<l otocr system, of
including o011 -Sf units still """d in lb. Uruled SIJ!e" Ho"",' ..... 100 0011"""'''''
loclors d' ... yillen in Ihe SI)"10 of "I min - 60 ," rail"", Ihan .. a ralio. The
loI10"-;n8 sa mpl" problem gin,,, au ""amplo of ho"'l0 set "P such ,alios.
, •• I Chong;og Uni ..
j
P",f", ... / 0' 51 Uni ..

S)1DboI
10" )Qua-
,
,.'
zett>_
,
,,,.
. ,
,
,.'
".
,
,.'
,.,
,
or C.
,.
• .. p-
" W


'"


,.
doh_


-
,
10- '
" .. ti _
,
10- ' .uDi_
'"
10- '
olicro-

10- '
.. -

10- "
...
,
10-" f","to-
,
Io-LI
.no-

lO-"
" .. •
lO-l<
""'.
,
'"1"11<. _ I""",.tty ""d ,,,"",, "'"
,a",..,,;. boll 1}..,.
When. accmdiJlg (0
'.-r,1e
Mar",bon 10 AlIII'll' in 490 RC. !O tning w01d of lhil
, Ii ;1
,-k-lOry ove, Ibe Pcrsi'"" h. plOoobl)' Jan al "
spa>d of abom 23 noos I"" bour (,;dc'Slb). The ride is an
aocicnl G"'<l l "nil lor h:lnglh, as arc Ih. ,{odium and
tbe plO!bron: I rid ..... s defined 10 "" 4 .tadia. I SI.dium
wos d.:lflll.d 10 1xl6 plolhra, and. in Wrms of. nloOO,"
""il . I plillblOn is 30.8 IlL How 1",1 did Ph,,;diPl""'" ."n
in k,lomewfS p<l' ",rood (kmls)?
Sample Problem m
lbi>.cnn is. Brilisll voIu",,, ""it for f,.sIlly mug/II h<>rrings:
1 Cfall - lil.r.; (L) offish. OOoot 7SJ oorrings. Sup-
pos.:! {hal. 10 tX' d,c " .. '<llliroug/l CU>lOOlS in Saudi Arab ... _"
shipment of 1255 = m..,;l 00 <led ... .! in Ie", ... 01
<"Ubic rovi<los. \I ""re Ill.> CO\'ido is an Arabic u!li! d !.>oglb:
I covi<lo - 48.26 em. WIIJI is lhe ""lUII'OO d.">dara!J0fI?
From Appendi.\ D Ihal I L isequiv-
a!.>nl 10 lOCO em'. To oonve'l lrom ",nl;mewrs to
PROBLEM -SOLVING TACTICS
Tactic 1: Significant FigurllS aoo D..amai PI"an If
you c>kul.,ed 11 .. ... we, '0 S"",pIe Probl,m I_I ";,lIou'
you, c.Uculotor ."tom. ,bHy i, oft ,n. oumbe,
4.m 666 666 67 X 10- ' migh' IIJ .. appe • ...t in tI .. di,pI.y.
The preci!ioo implied by tlili nurnbe, io W.
,ounoded ,b . ... ""'''0 U x [0- ' Un/, .., ... ot ' 0 "'ply ,b",
j, is mor. proci<e 'han 'be given dat .. The ti""o ..,..,d of
23 ,idWh oomi", of '''-0 digi'" call. d
Th .... we TOOIIded ,n. aru,.".. '0 'wo siS'ifica.o' ... In dli.
1>ooI:.!inal , .. uiu of rolrwatioru art of teo ,ounded ' 0 m.tcb
,be Ie"" rrumbel of ,i.!."ilk.,,' figur .. in ,b, gi""n d., ..
(Howeve,. ,om" ..... . .. ,,'" 'iylifir"'" figure ;, h pl.)
IVn.n 'be Itf'mOO1 of the digi" '0 be di"" .. ded io 5 or mor ••
,be 1:0<' digi' """,<led up: othtlwi .. it io re,ained
• s U. For exampk 11.3516 i. rounded '0 ,hI ... ,'.!."ilk .. ,
1-5 I Length
Calculation: Her. "" .. -rite
23ridi>,lh - ( 23
" ( "'.,. )( >em ) ( _ " )
I )00l", 3tOOs
- 4.7U7 )( 10- > loll' _ 4.7 )( Hr-' kml ...

cubic """,dos, ...., must cub< Ih. 00""",,100 "lio N -
n • • en """limN'" and oov;<!os.
Calcul.atlon: Ill< 10UOI'ing main-out CCOIVCfSion:
1155 nans
(
170.H4 L X lOOOcm' X I OO\1dO ) '
- (m5cnos) , ,. €
cr"n '---
- 1.903 x 10'cm·ioo.'.
... llA and ll .1279 ;, lOUJldtd '0 'hree 'i.!."ilkoot
ligure ... 11.3. (The ... ,,.'" '0 sample probltm. in 'bio
.re wu>ll}' pre .. .,td with ,be . ymbo} _ io".><1 of _ ."". if
rounding io involved)
Wb. n , "umbe, ouch .. 3.15 0' :l.15 X 10';' p,ovid.d i.
• problem. ,n. numb .. ofsignrlioan, fisures;, awareo'. bu,
how abou, 'be "umbe, JX1JI Is i, known '0 only 0'" .iy>ili_
can' tisur. (3 X HI)? 0, i. i, kDOWlJ '0 '"' maoy .. Iou,
signifioan, tigu .... (HOI X IO')? I. ,hi< book . ..-e .. sum. ,h.,
,u ,n . .. ,m in surh Yv .... numbt" as 3000 or. ,isoificao'.
bu, you hod be" ... not mak< 'h' 1!'umpbOO .I ..... he, ..
000" ooof".. sign/fic"", fig"'" ...;,. <kcto,a! plixn.
Coo,,,,,,, ,be leog,h. 35.6 min. 3.56 "J. .. d 0.00356 m. They . U
b. ve 'hr" sisnffican' figur .. bu, they b.ve OIIe. '''0, .. d live
dfcim>l places. , .. ptdiv.ly .
I" 1792. Ihe ne,,·oorn 01 Fran"" a S)'S1em 01 .'eighls
and meas",es. l IS oornerstone was Ibe me'er . defin...><1 to Dc one '"n-millionlh of
Ih. dis Ian"" lrom 100 nonb pol.>. 10 the Laler . 101 pnctical rea",,,,, IhlS
Eanb sla"dard ""as 3OOodo .... ><1 and IIhl "",lei "alTh' to Dc d<fil1ed as Ine dlSl""",,-
b<1"""n 1"'0 fine engraved "ear Ill.> euw 01 • plalinum-iridium bar. 100 """_
dart! .. "' .. ba,. ".-hion ......, kepi al lbe 1l1leIJlJlio"al Bureau 01 Weights "nd
Me"u, .. ,I(m Paris. Acrural' OOJ''''' 01 the bar .. -ere ",,"I to slandardizing laboralo-
"'" Ihroughoul 100 world. The"" >OCunda,y "and,trd, .. -ere u""d to prod",," oth«.
slill moOro """""hI.>. so Ihat ulllm"lol}' "",-"suring d..",ioo "",ive<! ,IS
aUlhoril)' from tll.> standard """,,r bar Ihrough "oomplial1ed chat" 01
Ev" nluaUy. a S1"nd",d more precise lb.u Ih. disla"". b,m .. "," I11'O fi""
scratch", 00 a ",.,1.1 bat ".-as ""luired. I" 1960. a now standard for 100 "",TO, .
l.o l Timo
j b,...,d on 100 lI-"-ek>nglh ollighl."", adopled SpocilkaUy. Ihe ,I,"dard 101
",..Ie, "'" ,ed.:lfi""" 10 00 I 650 763.73 of a p.arhcub, O1ange-red
emined by alo"" of hyplo" -86 (. p.anicul., i<;ololX\ 0' I)l"'. of in
" go, lube. Thi' ""'.'.'Jfd numlxl, of w", 50 Ih"1
Ihe no .. s\anda,d would 00 close 10 Ihe old ""let-ba, slanda,d
Some Appro.im .... l.e"9'h.
By 1983. hOll'ovet. Ibo diomaud f01 higl1c, preci,iou b,d re",hod ,ocb , poi"1
Ih'l OVO" lit. hypwu-86 'I'ndard could nol 01",,1 ;1. and i" Ih'l year a bold 'lep
... ".s lahn. l1ie ",.let was ,,,<i<fi,,,,d '" lhe disl"n"" \ra w led b)' light in. 'p'c;-
fi.>d Ij",,, inter,""1. I" th" " -01ds of !h. 17th (rio"",al Conlcn'"". 0" Weighl' sud
M" "nr .. :
r Themete,;' the Ie.gtb 01 tb<-patb t", .. IO<I 0)' liy.t ill • v"'-""u"' durins .1 .....
.,te",oJ 0111299792 ill 01 . oecood.
This lime inlo"'al w," ch""n SO th,l !ile 'p".d of light c i:s CI.1cdy
c - 299 791
M.asur e"", ,,!s 01 too sp'ed of ligh! h.d Ixoco"", o,uen", ly p,ecise. SO ;1 mad.>
..,"'" !o adopl !"".IpilCd olligll! ., a <ieftnod qU'"li!y W use i! !o ,O<kr.ne
Ihe mele,.
Table 1-3 sIIows a w;d.> tango olleng!b,.fro", Iha! 01 !he universe (lop I;",,)
10 !bose 01 so",e very sOIali objoc1s.
PROBLEM-SOLV!NG lIlCTlCS
M" a.. ,em,n'
Oi".IlC' to tbe fi,,,
gawie. fofmod
O;,!>"", to tbe
Amdrornod. golny
0;',. • .,.. to tbe
o ... by"",
Pr,m"" C.nuuri
0;',."", to PI.to
R:odi", 01 E.,.th
Heigl" 01 Mt_ Ew,e"
llOCkn"" 01 ,b;' pas,
Leng'h 01 . t)piocol
m •
Rodiw 01,
hydro!"n "''''''
R:odiw 01 , Jlf ot""
Leogt. io
M ... "
2 x II"
2 x 10"
4 x 111'
6 x 111'
6 x HI'
X 10'
I x 10- '
I x II}-"
5 x IO-
H
I x 10- "
Tactic 2: Order of The ON" <>/
of , o.mo., is ,be powe' 01 "n .. ·ke. , b, ."",!>eo- is .xpres>t<l
i • .c,ntilio not"iOG. For enrnple. if A _ 2.3 x HI' .. d B _
7.8 x 10'. ,ken ,be om,,, 01 m' yU,ode 01 bothA >nd B art 4.
Oft",,_ 'nsill'''iog >nd .ce"", prole .. ioo:w wiU esti_
m". tbe "",Ill, 01 • ,.kulatio. '0 ,b. ",ar<>l or"", 01 m.y,;_
,»de, FOf OW" " """ple, ,be ne .... ' Ofck, 01 m'gW,IKle ;. 4 fOI
A ODd 5 for R SIOclr ."i,m'''''';' COII1DIOO wben ""tailed Of
prod .. do .. '''i"irO<l ill ,he <>kulatioo are not kn""",,
or eao.iiy /OIlJId. S, .,pI, Problen, 1_3 giv .. an ,x:omple.
The world', I.,gest b,1I 01 ,;I,ing i, aOOUI 2 01 in .. dius.
To 'be "ear<':51 01<1.>, 01 magniludio. whal is IIl;o 100al
leng!b I. of lile Slriog i" ,w ball?
We collid 0( CO\Irse.lale IhIl ball aparl and
measu," '00 100al le ng!b I •• bill !ba' lI'oold Ial:o grea!
ell011 alld m,t. IhIll>aU's boJil<lo, "IOSI u""appy.
we wam orIly too ".are51 or"", 0( magoilud..\
....,can oslin,",l' any qlL1rllihOS ,eqni,i'iI i" Ihe calrnialioo.
Ca/cutat/ons: LN u, lit . ball is sphe, ical wi,n
,adius R - 2 m. Th. suing in 'be ball is nol dosd)'
paelod are u"cou""bk gaps txJ1W"OO adja"""1
""'lion, 01 "'ing). To a ll01l' (0' Ihese gaps.IN n, SOml' -
.. ·h"1 ""ereSli",al" ,h. e,eoss,,",Clion.1 ",ca 011"" ,";n8
by "",ming 'he eross "Clio" is "Iu",". wilb an edge
1-6 1 Time
lenglh d - mm.l1ien. wilh a cfOSS-s..'CIiooal area 01 J'
and a lenglh I .. lb. Slring oocupi<':5 " 10,,1 vol u"", 01
V _ (cfOOS-Si'Clion,1 area )(lo"Blh) - d'l_
This is approximate')' oqu'l to 100 volu"", 01100 b"lI.
gi",,, by f.-R-' . wbicb is aboll' oocau", ". is ,bou, 3.
ThUs. we baw
,I'L _
4(2 m)'
1· - 7 - (4xlo-'m)'
- 2 x lOOn, _ IOOm - l(lT t m.
(A"' .... ')
(Nole Ilta! you do nOi n""d a 10' such' sim-
cakula!ioo.) To !"" n"arcsl Older of magni!ude.
'be l>all ronlaim aboul IcnJ 01 string!
Tun., h'" 1"0 "'P<'Cti. Fo, <wil "nd som,,- scion,ilk pu'posos. we " 'anI W
!be hme of day so Iba! .. can ordilr til "'<Iuo,,,,,,. In ",uch scienlific "wk .
.. .., "''lin! 10 b lOW ho'" long"" 1as1S. Thus. any Ii""" standard mll>l be abk>
!o an''''''' ''''0 qlk'slio",: "lI'n<n did ;1 h3Pl"'n1" . nd "Wha!" ilS d"rarkmT
Table 1--1 sbo .. so"," lim"
j
Som. Appro.; ....... TIme 1" ...
T,m.
In'ervalin
M .......... n.
.-
Lif.tim. of ,h. pr"'""
(pr...wn«l) 3 X W"
Ag. 01 the unive, .. 5 X JO"
Age 01 ,b. pyramid 01
I X 10"
Humanm ••• pecI><><y 2 X 10'
u",g,b ol aday 9 X JI)'
r""" be".". bum ...
h"""beat.
S X IO-L
Lif.tim. of ,.e moon 1 X 10-'
Shof .. " hI> liSI" p.1ot.
1 X 10-1<
Lifetime of 'he m",'
1LII",bIe panicle I X 10-"
The 1'I>nd rim ..
I x 10-4>
tho mlic>, tim, o/t<rt)x til
.... ., .... icb th O"' 01 ...... "' .. ...
•• "" .. "" ... be .. "., •.
FIG. 1·1 WheD ,b. metric <y>IeOl
..... propooed in I m. ,h. bour ,n.,
,""'lioN to J'fovkle . W_bow cia)'.
The ide.didnOl catch 0 ... u.. .,"er
01 tim IO-bour "",,,b ";re]y pm _
vid. d .... .n dial 'h" l.,. 000""._
. iooal Il_holU , ...... Do ,be , .... <Ii ...
indiaotf ,h. >am<- lim.7 (S",-,"
PnktnJ
Any ph<'nomenoo Ihal .o""als itself is a JIOSsibk:> lime slOnd3fd. Earlh's
rotation. ,.-hkll ""wrm;",,, (he length of the day. II" used i" lhis 'CO)' [Of
«,olU""'; Rg. I -I sho"-' one "0,..,1 . xample of ... "Urn ba..,d 011 thai ,malioo.
A q"JrlZ clod:, io ",hich a q""'lZ ring is m,o" to continuonsl)', can be
agaiR<;l Earth', ,mJtion ,ia astrooomical obs<,vJtiorrs and u>cd to
lime ,"Ierval, in Ibe laOOratory, Ihe caoool be
oul . 'i lb .ccu,aq by IIIOdom sci""lific and enginee,iog
loclulolog),.
To Ih' "oed 10' a b<!uer tim" 't"od.,d. atomic clod, haw Ih>O" <l.:!.-.'I-
opild. An atomic clocl: at (ho N.tion.1 I",(ilm" 01 Sta"dard, Dod T"cllllology
(NIST) in Bould01, Color.do. is III.> Slandard 101 Coo,dioaloo Univ",sal Tim.>
(UTC) in Ibe Uniled liS signals aro available by radio
(sl'lion, WWV and WWV\I ) "nd by leh.."hono (3OJ-49"\1-7111). T'llli! signal:;
(a"d ,,,IJloo inlo,m'lio") ate .1<;0 ,,'ail"ble IfOm tbo Uniloo Slat"" Naval
O.,...,,,,.lory at .. "b"I' hl1p://1y<ho.usno.navv.mil/lim • . hlml. (To >cl • dock
eXI'''"JeI)' a= .. "ly.1 partirnl" localioo, )'OU .muid baw 10 "eronnl for
Ihe Iravol lim" req"i.oo f01 I"os.:! ,ignal, 10 reach you.)
Figuw 1-2 'ko .. ",rialioo, in th' "'nglh of 0"" day on Eartk owr" 4-),,",
I"'rioo, as deW,min.'<! by comparison wilh a resi"m (.tomi<"j docl:. Be"""", IW
varia!io" displ.)'oo by Fig. 1-1 is >ca50nal ,nd •••• n'peC! fOla-
ling E.1f!k "hen loom is a di/fctenre bet'"""" Earth and >tom as timekeopers.
Too "a,iahon is d"" 10 {id.1 ,/foCls ""u",d by {h e "",oon and 10 larg<'--scal"
wjmb .
TOO 13th General Conf",e""" on Wciglns and Me"",.", in 1967 ,dopled
> standard scroud b.sed on Ike ""'"U"' dock:
r OneJ«ODd ,sthe ',me .at,. by 9 192 631 77000<iII.,io • • 01 ,be ligb' ( 01) 'I""'i-
fi.d wavele0Slh) .mittod by. "",;um_133 .,om.
Alo",ic docks are .I() con,isWnl Ibal. '" principlo, t",o "",iu", docks lIIOuld h"-,,
10 run f01 «OJ before reading' .,ould dilf'" by ",oro Ib"" I s. Even
,ocb aa","'1' pakls i" comparISon .. ,{b (hJ! 01 dod, <>"'''"tty being dcvelop<ld:
Ih." p,eeisio" nlJ)' be 1 part in 10"-tbat is. I "n I X 10", ("biclt is .OO"!
3x I()IOy).
FIG. '·Z Vari.ti"", in ,Ile I,ns.h 01 ,he <layover a +1"'"' p",iod. Note lh .. ,h. e.tire
.. " .... 1 .co.l. ' lIlOOol>'oO<l ly 3 mo ( _ 0.003
1-7 1 Mass
The Standard Kilogram
The SI Slandard 01 mass is, platinum-lfi diulll qhn<hl' (Fig. 1-3) at the
In!Cmation.1 Bu,o,u 01 Woight< aod Mo",",,,,, " .. , Pa,i, ,nd assigned. by
"'t","ational 'g,er"",nt. 0 n",,, 011 kilogram. OOP>'" baw 00<0 ",nt
!O Slandardi",ng 1000rat01;"< in othe, countri"" and the n,",,,,, of other bodi ..
can bi! ""(ermined by b.l.ocing the", against a Table 1-5 sho ... ,
masse, oxp""S<'d in kilogram,. ranging 0' ..... oout 83 ordor, 01 magllltude.
The u.s. COP)' of the mlldard kilogram i, ho""'" in a ,'ault at NIST, h is
,oalO\'od, no mOfil th.n 0""" a for tho>. pu"""," 01 cbecking dupli,at"
tbal ar" ""'" ol", ... bere. Sin"" 1S89, it has be"n !ak,," to France t ... 'ice lot
,.romp.rison .. ' uh tbe prim'f)' standard
A Second Mass Standard
The m"""" of atolll'S ca" 00 oompared .. ' t h one anotb01 mor" pr"';sdy than
they 00 oompared witb tbe Sla"dard b]ogr.m, Rlr t hIS W"""" .... "
a second mass standard It i, tbe carOOu-12 atom. " hirh, by ;nt",n"l ",o.1 agr",,-
""""t, has 00.:.1l assigoed " m", of 12 . ",mi e uni., (uj, Tho ,elation
""tw",," tbe t .. .., gmt, is
I" - 1.66053886 X lO-n kg. (I -7)
.. ith an """"naint}' of :!: lO in tho las! t1l'0 ded"", ] pIa""" Sciont "t' can. "'ith
reasonable prOO,ion. ""!e,mine tho>. "JaSi'''' of oU",r alO"" rela-
ti", to the m.ss of carbon-12, What ,,,0 pre", ntly tack is a «,[jab'" me.ns of
eXI"ndu'8 Ihat p,o>ci,io" 10 mom CO"'"lOn "nits of ",", .. sud! as a kilogram,
Density
As we shall discuss furl ber in Chapler U. Ihe density p 01 a ma{('rial is Ihe mass
"' ... "oil ,..,tn"",:
m
, -- .
,
(I -3)
arc l)'pirally lisled io kilogram' pe' cubic meter 0' 8rarrtS PC' cubic
ccnl,metor, Tho do""ly 01 .... 'ill (1.00 gram P'" cubir lS ohon used '"
a oomparison, Fr"", SIlO1\' has .OOUI to'l'> 01 Ib.1 d.:>nsil)': plahn" m has a don,ity
tha! i, about 21 !JUlilS Ib.1 of w.{('r,
MI, ii.iM
So"", App'o . ....... M .....
M . .. in
Objt<! Kilogram.
K . .... lllLOi"", ... I x to"
0", g" "")' 2 x to"
2 x to"
M_ 7 x to"
A>\e,oid&", 5 x to"
s...011 OlOun,';n I x to"
Ocean 'me, 7 x to
'
EJep/l'.' 5 x to'
Gn,
j X to-
J
Sped of du<; , 7 x to-"
Penicillin molo<:ule 5 X to-
ll
U ..... ;umalom 4 x 10-"
' 0 00
2 x 10-"
EI""lfOll
9 x to-
J1
A be. ,')' ob/,- 'C! can 'ink into Ihe ground du,iog ao
e .. l hqu. ko if the sha king c."ses the ground to unde,go
Ilq"<Iac'w" in ., hicb the soil grail!<; eJp"rii-nce linle
(rielioo as they sl "'" owr 000 anolhe', Tho ground ;s
,bell eIfoc!i""ly qurlsaod, Tbe p<>SSlbili!)' olliqlli'fac-
lion "' sand)' ground call be predicled in term, of tt.:>
,'"Id rali" e for a ""'pIc of too ground:
liqlli'/oclioo can occu, dUflllg ,u e,nbqual:e. What j,
Ihe C01rosponding saoo ""osily p ...... 7 Sotid >iliroo di-
O1iOO {lhe prim:lf}' oompeo""1 of .. 0<1) bas a """"ty of
p,." - 1.(,00 X 10' kglm',
v_
< - ---.
'.-
(1-9)
Here, V ..... is lhe !Olal Vo! "flle of the sand sr""' in lbe
sampl<> , 00 V ..... is 100 lotal volume ""IWOOO t tl< grains
(in the ,<>ids), If excililds a cmical n.l u" of 0,80.
Tho 01 Ihe sand p_ in a samp"'lS
unil ,'OI U"'" - lbal os.. Ihe ra lio ollh. 10lal
mass "'-.. 01 the ,,"d gr'''lS 10 Ihe 10lal vol ume v", .. of
..
m._.

v • •
(1 -10)
Calculatlo ... : loul volume V.,..of a
V.- _ V ..... + V ......
Sut>slol uling for V ..... from Eq. 1·9 .nd soh' ing for v .. _
lead 10
(l · ll)
From Eq. I-&Ihe 10lal mass m ..... 01100 ,",ad g.ains is
Ih. product of Ihe dellSil}' of silicon dioxide and 11K>
10lal volume of lhe sand g.ains:
(1· 12)
REVIEW & SUMMARY
Meaou.amen! In Physl" PbY"'" i. i>......t "" ........ .
m..,' of p/I.)'>ical qu",,'i' i ... Ct,,.;,, p/l.y.ic.al qu,,,,;,ioes bav.
t-. , """"" .. too,. (.""h .. Ie'S,b. ,i., •. and
"''''r ... cb h .. bee" defined '" term< 01 • " • ..t. ro .r><! give.
. .. il of .,.as",e (,ueh .. me",. second. and
O!lle. pbl"iool qllMl1i1ies .re denn.d i.o ","" 01 1he b ...
q"",,,lriel ' oo 'heir . undarw .00 uni".
51 Units lb. nil ,)·"tm empll. s.ized '" book ,h.
Intorna,iooal S)'"'''' of Uni" (SII. The ph)"""1 qu • • 'i .
,. " rn.pI. yed i. T. bIe 1· 1 art .>t<i ;" 'be '''1)"
S, ... d"w. "hicb mm' be boob """,..,ible and ; .. " riable. b. vt
t-n .. ,.bbr.bed fill 'bese ba.., q. "'u;,ioes by intor"",iooal
.SfffmeDL The .. ".oo.rn. art "",d;. all physical .... ... re·
lIlen'. fill both ,b. b ... q.,.'ili ... r><! , he qu>rr,;,i .. derived
from ,b • .,. Scirntilic not.,ioo .oo ,h. p .. fu .. ofT. bIe 1·2
.re .. ed ' 0 "",plify me" .",,,,,,n' _ation.
Cha nging Unlto Coo,..,,;oo 01 uni1. m>f I>t p.,fOlmed
by .,;"g c"",',-"s in which , he OIigio. 1 data are
",.hipli«l succ ...... d y by ronv,,""" f><1or. ""illen '" unily
PROBLEMS
Sut>sliluling Ihi:! oxpression inlo Eq. 1· 10 and Ihen sub·
sliluliDg for v .. _ f.om Eq. 1· 11 lead 10
V .....
V,''" 1 + , 1 + ,'
(1· 13)
SUt>shIUI,ng PliO, - 2.600 X 10' 19lm' and 100 Cfllical
val"" of, - O.ilI . .. " find Ihal bqU<'faclion OCC"rs "hen
Ihe sand dcnsily exeoods
2.600 X 10' 19l rn'
..,.
(An' .... e')
aDd ,h. "n"'.re m>.Oipul.,«I Iil:. algebnJ< quan'iti ..
""If'''' de .. red uni" ",maiD.
Lengt h The "",,'er defuted .. ,he <Ii .. """" tr.".,1ed by
dUJi.s • precioely . ptcitiod time in,,,, .. l
nme The JKODd ""tine<!;" 'e""" 01 ,he oocm .. i"". 01
.milled by an .,omk (reoium. l.'J) ","n" . ACCIlr.'e
,ime ,ign.I> are "n' wo,lrIwKloe by ,ignal. <e),.d '0
>!omic doc<. in ... Drhrdizin! b borat<>rieJ.
Maos The kiloy ... ;. defined in "rm. of , platirrum_
iridilUll " ... d:ud m"" kepi lit .. Paris. fur "" .... ,"" •• t> on
'D . 'omic scale, 'be atomic""", uni" defined in "'m. 01 ,he
"om = boo!·12.i. ",":illy •• od.
De nsity lb. de •• i,y p of . """rial io 'he rn . .. I""" WIll
volume:
"' P -
V
' (1.8)
= r ... """, _ .... _ 1" WI ....... "' ...
.... w-............., ... ..... ",',, "...... _ "
• _ ••• _"'_,.,..,. ....... "'_ .. _ ,ew
,.s:;: _ ., "' _ _ ""',,_ c",,"o''''''',''''' ,,-..,....--..«>m
M<. 1..5 Length
• 1 lb. macrome1" (1_) 0I1e. railed ' lte mk"",.
(. ) How m. oy micron. mat. up 1.0 om? (b) Wbat ITact;OII
01 • ce.,ime'" .qual. 1.0 "m? «) H"", many micron. >I. i.
1.0yd7
• 2 in 'hio book .. "" ge .... aIIy doDe in units 01
!"'in" . Dd pic .. : 11 f>Oin" - I pic .. . Dd 6 _ I inclt. If •
6g>l" ..... m;,pI, cM in ,be p. ge proot. by 0.80 <"Ill, .. ha, ,....
,he .,;",1.,,,,,,,,., in (a) pic ... and (b) f>Oin" ?
. 3 Her ... are '0 r.", over a ren.ur Engli<h "",ad"...I", .
<Ii""""" of 4.0 furl""S' \\ib .... ,he ,are <Ii .. """" in (. ) rod<
, Dd (b) <balM' (I furlong _ 201.1108 m, I rod _ 5.02'1"2 .. ,
, Dd I , hal. _ 20.117 01.) I ........
., A py io an old Engh,h ""' .. Uf. lor IengliI. d,fintd ••
lila 01 . I;" •. wher. Un, i ... other old me.,ure for
Ie"S,h. detined .. 1112 inch. A oornmOIl "", .. ure fo, IenSth i.
,he publi<hi.! !Jm;"". i. ' poInl. d.fined as 1m in.cb. " 'b ..
io an art. 01 0.50 in point. "Iuared (poin"')?
.5 Eanb;, .ppro.imate!), a ",b". 01 ,<>di., 6.37 X 10' IlL
Wh" ore (. J ;" N<"Ilmfer.""" in t ilo"",,,,,. (b) '" ,uri"",
. re . in "I""re orrd (e) ;IS volume ", cubic kilo-
",,,,,,7 ...
··4 coo ..... MIT ..". iu
, ... __ lIIc Ch>rIr< Ri_. boo • ""S'. 01' 36'" s...-
pli' _ ... 01' 000' Smoot IS boted .. dIf Ia1Vb 01'
Oha s..-. I, .. d ... 01' 1Wi2. """ .... oatrieIJ co
dtIM«I 1t"S1b II)' ltDIII' Kr<IOI ,be 00 'hi ""or
pItds< ...... bo .. d dIf u..1>Jo a.. AIpNo f' .... mlly ""'-lId
.... t off (,.;,. poi.,) 1-Smoot"ngtkl"""'5 ,lie btod8O- n..
.... 1:0 . ... ho<n .. poi."'" bi.umually II)' , ..... ,",'y pIt<I& ..
,,_ 'lie ",,,101 ...... ............ oIIy don.a ''''' .. of , ... 1Ik
COOS"";"" .., Ib .. 'M pol"", ..,.._ .asily
(1"r. ", .. oI>ly. ,be pol..,. ••• ,," ori!inally upsc1 .. 'be
Srn_ is _ ... SI base URi,. ba' ,line <la)'l 'hoy ..... '(I
MI'O >=P'«l ,he onil .) Figw. 1-4 >II.,.... ". ...
".UIt . .. , .. w«l in Sm-. (S). Willie. (W). and Z.I<I>I ( Z).
"''b., io 'be "_t,b 01 50.0 Sm-. In tl) "',UI .. ....:l
(b) Zekl..?
• •
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,
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,
fIG. Problem6-
··7 Af>1.«l.... n . oo#1y
.... ""' ... 1 .... .. llh • ,adi .. d
.. (F\&. I.,';). n.. .....
... (If; lI n W"'" is .lOOO
m. 110'0' "'any ""bic « n,ime' en
01 k<> <loot. An,"",ica 00II, . ",1
Itv>ore ,ho<urv .. w. oI Eor,lL)
' .• ....
-.
T
flG. ' -' Problem 7.
•• , yo ...... ..,ily """"<I' oomm"" ... ill and m . . ......
• 1« " ... icoKy. bII, you "ill oIoollld be able ' 0 _ • «>fIV".""
.. bit ...... .., , • .- .. Appe_ D. Table 1.6 io pon 01. con-
we ..... ,obi. lor • 'Y"' " 01 .... ..,. ...... , ...... <0""""
I. Sf>ao.: • _.,.._ 01 1 fon<!l' it. eq ....... , '0 din'
(ooto< dod ....... )_ To OOBlJ'I<te ,lie , ......... , .... bo ..
(10 ,"' .... .-, 6p .. ) .... ouId be .... red II (I) , ...
<'l1li1 .......... (h) ... luqo .... 1II1>II. (0) ,be ... nall_
_ (d l , ... __ -.. ....... witb ,lie IOJ' bll"U
Elprno l.OC101l10d00 .. (.) ... dioo.(f}..uilleo.aad \&Into<
<.nw ... ten ( ... ,).
P ... b ......
aha f .... ga <:\lor,iII, , Im.d.
- I ,ohi. _
"

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'"
1 f .... "'_
,
" "
! < •• ,,;u. _
,

1.1m,,,. _ ,
1 ono;lio _
· .9 U)"h .... .. ....,B i. tho U .. 1Od SUl<. oI',on ...... I
.... , 01 001_..., 01 tbe acr..jooI. drlincd ..... .........
oI....ur 'bo' wiI "'w, 1 olllD<! '0 I ckp" d 1 h. A
.... '" ",.o.de",,,,,,, <bmoped 1.& in. 01 .. I in XI .... 0<1 I
,own d ..... U t il'. Wbat 01..-. ia ..... rn'. f.U
01111>01""",1 k_
......
.... 1.6 r .....
.10 The W'"' pIMI .. -.l;".
"*lpplri 1ha1 .1.7 .. ;., 14 dl)'" ..... f»j ""' ... 8"""'b ,_
io ......,...,tenp..-.. .,.,..n
.11 Aforuuy., is._n-.EItIi_ ....... eol ...... equoI
,. 20 (dIf won! n. coni,,,,,,;.,.. d - f""rtcftI nw.""
n..., II . Die< ""'...." of ''''''' i. p ...... , company h' pt,-
. 1lfII • paioful "' iDs d _ in ........... , - ..... 1).
How 1100)' Of" in • f",'Ris_' ?
. 12 A ...... " p<riod (SO"';n) io <Ii>to ' 0 1 "' ;""'''"'ury.
(a) HO'O'lo.S " a i" .. inu, .. l (b) VIi" t
(
"' ... _ 01'1' ''''''''''"'''' )
p.,ce.",!" dilt.reo« - 1<10.1 100.
find lbe ptn:en1age ditl . . .. .,. I,,,," 1110 OI'P'",""I>1ion.
.13 For .bou, 10 yoon of, • • U". F ...... 110 ..... """- ...
FRtX:h !" •• "nm.,., .",nopoed,o ___ 01 line ""
.... ipln of .. o: OK _ ""'""ltd 0110 <la,.. .... <1:0, COII _
... red 01 10 • .,.... _ ....... _011 01 100 mloulel,.1d
......... te -.d 01100 "' ..... .., <be ,no< 01
(0) , ... Fm><h _II week ,,, ........ dud ... ..,t ud
(b) , ... fuocb d • ." .. I .. «>OII1 10 .. ......-d....-r?
' U T .... <WIdards .'" ...... billtd (1ft """"'" _ A
promisiDA >OCODd .. _d " b .. od .. ,.w-.. ......,., are
roo .. .... ,""" "an (hip.ly","",fICl " ... <0 ...... ,., oaly of
" ,""",). Some 'ou ... . , . ..... 'M' I. .. _ ... ...ti. !
0Ul • ,adio beaooo ,b., .we<:p" bt,,'y "".,.. Eanh <>DC<- wi,h
.. en ,01' 0011, lik • • ligb'_ llelKUl. 1' ..... PSR 1917+ 21
i ..... urnple, il ,01.0<. """" '''''1')' 006.us 872 75 :!
J "'" ..-b ... ,h. 1r .. i.di<., •• 'he """,,, .. my in ,h.
I.." decimal pi"". (i' "'"" "'" mean :!oJ mol. (a) How m"r
"" .. ioo, doe> PSR 1937+21 , .. te in 7.00 d.)"7 (b) How
mod! I .... doc .... pW>ar ,01:. '0 .oo . .. one "';1Ii""
....... _ «I ....... is lbe -.."d ._ .... ,)'1
.15 n.-.. dip .. cIo<b A It .Dd C ... .. ......
ud do _ 10:0" ..... I..-ow 'eodinp 01' uro, 1.6
....... ......... ,lI<0II. reodi"," on put 01 .... cIocb for
...... Iieol_ .... fOl.:..opl<. B,ndo
B,O, _ C rndo two .......... (,00. apar1
"" dod: A boo..- far apar1 ... ,...,. 01 (0) dod: D .Dd
(b) do<t 0 (0) WbendoctA ,ndolOO .... 1I.'do .. dod: B
, nod? (d ) "' .... 0 dock C rood. 15.0 ..... , doe> dod: B .. od1
(Au ""'" ... , .odin!' f", po-e"10 6 ..... )
'"
."
I I
.01'1
"".0
'"
,. ,.
I I
B I')
9..0
,.
, ,
'.
FlCi . , .. l', otoIe .. U.
. 14 u.tiI 111113, ... " ... y on<! ,,,..,. il 111, U ... «I St ....
t .pI ill own 1oaoI,Dc. TodoJ. ,,"YoM" , .... .... r_cto..
ooIy ...b<D ... tiDe ,,110"8" "'I". 1.0 h, H_ 'M. "" ...
"_'. -1"" dove- 01' IOIIS"_ be ..........
, ... <--ztMW ro..daries .. W_ )'01' .... <II ..... be me' II)'
1.0 (H"",,Ean' rot-. J60' .. _ 24 11.)
. 17 Fi .... cIocb..-. be"" IOCtc<I .. o laboral"", EDnly ..
_ ... <10",_11)' ,he WWV I ..... "pol. 011 .oocceni ....
Chop'"1 1 MQawrQm<>nt
d.l'" oI._ek ,ne dock> ,ea<!.., in the ,.bIe. Rank
tbe 6", dock> oroJ<din! 1<> their ,elati .. vol ..... good'im. _
k..".", be.<t '0 ""'">t. Jw 'ify )<>u, cboke. .. ..
""'* ,-,
-
WO>, 11 .. "
A"",,,, ,,"",. tBN' '2:I'>!:rI
" It""" ".<nO> "","57 '2<&0'1
C """"" t"HI ""''''
o "'"'''" "-"",, "C!.tl lZ<nJO
E mo,," ,,"',.,. "m", I,,"U'
'''''10'''
moo.
'''''''
l1.9>'Jl
12.0U'

It""'"
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11,,"""
"'"""

"..,.".
""'ll
"5,.,'
"m."
•• 18 BKau .. E.nb·, 'OI . ,iOll " g .. duolly slowing, ,b.
Ie"t,b ol.""b d.y i.cre,....: The <by at ",d 01 l.0 ""._
tnry " 1.0 ... ""'ge' 'haa the day., "e "an ol,ne «"'UIJ'
In 20 ""'twi ... "b., " the tOl>l 01 the d>ily il>CJ .... , in ,im.?
••• 19 Su""""" 'hat, "hile !}'ing 0<\ • be""h ... .,. 'ke «1.>101
.. "chioS the Sun . ," <Yfffl • calm """,..)"u .".rt • "op,"",reb
jo>t as ,h. 'op ol,ne Sun d .. ,pp .... You ,be. ,,>nd, .1en. _
your .yes by • h'isht 11 _ 1.70 m, .. d >top ,b ..... reb
..-b •• the 'op 01 the Sun >g. in di .. pp .. JI the .I • .,..d ,im.
'" _ 11.1 u-hal ;, .b. radius rof E.rth?
.. e, ' ·7 MI ..
.20 Gold. ",lOCh .'" • <I .... ity 01 19.32 glen>'. th. moo.
docrUe m,,>1 :tnd c<." be p .... !If'<i in1<> • •• in Ie.f or <1m ... OIl'
i.to . '''''E fib ... (.) If" .ampl •. 01 gold. witb • m ... ol17.6J r,
"' pre<oed i"to • Ie.at oI UXX) "m ""' .. ",be . rea 01
the le ill (b) If. ""If"d. the gold dr ..... oot in,O" 'l'lindric>l
fibe, 01 r.rnu.l 'iOO "m. .. , .. the leoS.n oflne fib ..
.21 (.) tb .. ",. Ie, II ... "".,ityol.xaclly I !ic.,',
lind tb. m . .. 01 <>rI. cubic ... te, 01 w.Ie, in
(b) Suppooe 'bal j, , ..... 10.0 b to ruai" • cootain..- 01 5700 m-'
01 w.",. \\1ut i< ,b ... mar. ftow , ...... i" kilogram. pe' ""'_
ond,ol""t"fromtb,oon,:ti • .,1 ...
.22 lb. record for the '"g''' sr'" bOIli. w .... , in 1'192
by ....... i. Millville. N.w lersey _ .he)' blew • bOI,', ";th •
volume 01 19] U.s. fluid gall"". (a) How mIlCh .bon 01
1,0 ",IlK ,""",i",,,.,, i, ,h .. l (b) [f,b. bonle ..... "
filled with wa"," ,h. /ei<w.ly ,at. 011.8 sfmin, bow IonS
..-ould ,he liIIinS ' .... 1W"'., . ... de .... y oIl00J ks'm'. QI
.23 Eartll b ... m ... 01 5.98 X 10" kS The ave,oge rn . .. 01
,he >101ll.! ,h., m,k •• p E""b i. 40u. How mOH Y"OIl>! art
tbe,. in Eartb?
•• U 00. cubic <eD,i .. "" 01 • 'yp;caf cumul ... clOOId 000 _
»ill.! 50 to 'iOO ,...Ie, drops, ,.-bleb b.v • • • ypioc>l TadiUS 01
JO!=- For ,Ila, ''''s •. y"" the lowe, value >nd 'h'
v.lu., ,"'pecti .. !},. for tb. (.) How m .. y ,.1lK
mel", 01 wate, ... in • cyti!>drical <WJIul .. ciOOId 01 beigh'
3.0 km ar>d , .di •• 1.0 k.,? (b) How many l _lil" pop botdes
would ,b>< wat., fill1 (c) W'Ie' b .. . de .... y 01 lOCO kYm-'.
How mucb rn . .. does , •• ...,t .. in ,b, doud ha",,1
•• 25 If OIl bas. den"'y 01 7.87 !i<m' . ",d tb. "''''-' 01 ••
iron >!om i. 917 X 10- " kS If tb, orom • .,e ",berical and
'ishlly pocked. (.) "hal is .h. volume of an i,OIl >10m and (b)
"hat di<ta"". 1><._"" the ""01015 oI.di",.nt .,om.1
•• 26 A mole of atoms i< 6.02 X W" "'''''''" To ,b. ,...,."
order 01 m.gn;,u<l •. bow many mol.., 01 atoms "'. in .
<lome"", ca.? The .. "' ... 01 • b)'ru"!!",, . 'om. on o"l'ge.
atom. :tnd a c,.,bon "''''" .,. 1.0 u, 16 u, and 12 u. respec-
tively. (I/jnt: Cat. are """ .. im .. krI""",, '0 kill a mole,)
..27 0 ••• pe.ding SP'" in Mahy .... fOIl buy on ox wi,h
• weigbt 01 2S.9 p;cul. j. ,b. local URi, ol ... I pirul _
100 gim. 1 gin _ 16 rahil>. I "'hil _ 10 md 1 diet _
10 The weight of 1 h""" """"poods '0 a ..... 01
0.3779 g, Wh.n yoo anans. '0 5IIip ,be ox Ilome '0 fOUl
. "oni,bed family, bow mIlCh.,.., in kilogram. mo" yo.
ded .. , o. ,b •• m ... ... tl (Hmo Ser up mul.jple
ronvtJOioru.)
•• 28 0,,,,., 01 fi"" Califomi. be",h .and .re appro,i_
m.lely .pbe, .. ..-no .n ave ... ge ,adi •• of 50 "'" and are ",ade
oI .iIkoo dioxide. ",lOCh h .. a d.nsity 01 2600 kslm'. Who,
m,.,. 01 >and gr';". woold bave a 'OI>! ..... f""" ""' . (,h. 1OIa1
"T" 01 all .h. individual sph .. ,,) «luI '0 ,b •• urf",. ore. 01
• ""be. 1.00 m "" .. .qe?
•• 29 Doring b • • vy run.. """j"" 01. <OOlIn' ..... id. ru. o-
"'riog 2.5 kIll horizont>lll' 0.80 kIll up >lOll! tbe .1""" ... d
2.0 m deep .hl" in.o a vail.y i • • mud . lidoe.A,,,,me tb>l ,be
mud.nds up uniformly di<tribu,ed ove, •• urface "' .. 01 the
valley m . . .. ri.! 0.40 kIll X 0.-10 kIll and ,hat mud hOI •
de."ty of l!lOOkgllll'. ",ba,,, tb. m:o<> oI. he mud "ni.g
.oo.ea 4.0 m' II • • of ,b. v:olleyfloor? -::lG'
..30 11',re,;, poured in,o • co'lainer th .. b:t •• Ie.le
The ... .. m 01 'be ,. ... ,"' Vve" as. fu"",i"" oC ,ime' by
'" _ 5.000'" - _lOOt + 20.00, witb '''' O. m j. >lid , in
>«:<>r><k. (' ) AI .. bat ,im." ,he ,. ... , rn ... y,.'est .• nd (b)
Ihat gr .... " m., .. 7 In kilogram. pe' minu,,,- u-h • • i.
,he rare 01 .... "baIl!" " (C) t _ 2.00 ... d (<I), _ 5.oo.?
•• • 31 A venleal OOIl,.me, witll base >IT" .... ",ri.g
14.0 an by I 7.0 an .. Iill.d ..-on id.ntic>! pfi .. 01
'''''<i}' .• ",b wi.h • volum. of 50.0 "",,' .. d • m"" 01 o.O;'OO!-
As, .... 'hat the volu"" 01 .h •• mp'y'pare! bet"""'" ,be
"""die. i< n.sJiYble. If the b.ish' 01 ,b. caodie> in 'he 000_
''''." inc" .... at th. ",te 01 01..\Ocml .. .. wbat ra'e
(kiloy ..... pe' minute) 00...1Ie m ... 01 the candies i. tile
<oot,;"er in", ... ?
P,oblom.
J2 T.ble 1_7 .b"""' ..... ' old ... ",w •• 01 liquid volume. To
cornplore the tallk • .-bat nwobe" ('0 ,hr ••• i!"ili< .. t .. )
5lloold be .... ,ed in (.) ,.e wey column. (b) ,h. chaldron 001-
lUll". (C) ,be bag <01"'"0. (d) ,lie pOItlo coIwn •. ",d (.Jlbe siU
<OI1UlUI. "artin8 ";,h tb. top bl>llk? (I) The vol ...... of I bag i,
«10.1 '00.1091 m' . If .. oId>tor)' .... a wi,ch up some
vile liquid in • ""uJdr",, of volume J.'i chaldroru.. ..-h. , the
volume in ",IlK mer",?
M1'ii'"
32
,..,.y <baldr"" baS pOI,1e gill
I -r - llW 40fJ 6-10 1102-10
I cbaldron _
'"' - I pOIlI. _
I gi.Il _
3l An ok! EnsJioh childr.n' , ,byme ""eo, -lillie Mi ..
Muff" . .. OIl > ,uffel, ,,'inS b" ruret. ..,d "h,y, ,.toe. >long
<=I , > 'f'ide' who ", down t.e.ide b ... .. ." The ,pOd"
,,, clown .01 bt",,,,,,, of 'h' <Ur<1o .. d ",bey bUI btea"",
Mi", Muff" had > "aoJr olll !Illf,,, of dri«l Sie, The VO/U"",
"", .. u,e of • ,.ff .. " give. 1»' I luffer _ 2 poet. _ 0.50
Imp"ial bu>llel "",,, I Impe'i.:rl bwbol _ 36.3687
lire" Wh" ..... Mi" Muff,r', ".>11 in (a) poch
(bl Irnp<fi >l b",bek:u>d (e) bl"" ?
14 An ok! man"",,,po ,,,,,,.Ir Ih". l>ndo ... .,.., i. Ih. lime
of King ATth., b.1d 3.(10 >CTe. of plowed 1.00 pm. 0 li,.. _
"ock .... ol !.I.O perche. by HIO pelebt. Wtr ...... lhoe '0101
..... i. (.) lhe old "nil of rood. and (b) <he more ",rxIe ..
unil ol >qUm m.",,? Her .. I ocre an:uta of 40 pereb ..
by 4 I ,ood i. an ..... of 40 pe«be' by I percll, aDd
I pud> 11 .. 1.",.,," 16.5 h .
35 A I"""" !",rehosesa in Eog!.oo and ships i, homero
'be U";Ied St" .. , Th. <:0, ,ricke, adve"io.d 'h" lhe 00'"
f.el oowWDplioo ....... . , lb. rare ol 40 ",il .. per y.Uoo OIl ,be
opt" r<»d, The 'owisl 00.. .01 .. . U", 'k" lb. U.K. galloo
diff,,, from Ih. US gall"":
1 UK. gallon _ 4.545963 I .. "
I us.Sollon _ 3.78:'i n Oli", ..
fix .nip of 750 miles (i. ''''' Uni,e;:I St" ... ). b""" m .. y
100' ol fu.1 do« (0) lhe mi" . kt. I"""" beli,,,, >lie needs
and (b) 'be car "".all y ...
)6 Two 'Yl"" ol ""","units "",e in"", in ''''' 1910ir in '''''
U.i"d SI ..... lb. "f'I'Ie b .. rel J.ad a I'Sally .. , volum. of
7Il56 cubic inch .... lhoe cranbe,ry InneU82li cubic i""h .. If •
mereb.", .. U, 20 cranbu ,y ban. ", of Sood!; 10. cu"omu
,..ho Iwob "" io rec.iving "1'1'" "'n.Is...-h .. ;" lb. disc"p-
"'C)' in the,bipme"' volume in U,,,,7
37 The d .. cripooo 101 a cenoin b ... "d of h""" painl claim.
• c"'''''''S' ol 460 f,'/gal . (. ) E'p'e .. Ihio q"",,'ily in "Iu",
meren pe' lirer. (b) E.p'''' 'bio quan';I)' in an SI .nil (Jee
Apptndice, A and D), «) \\'h. , io 'be inve, .. of ''''' o'igin>l
ond(d) "bal " ii, phrrk>i . iy>i/i""",.?
38 In the U.ired SI. It" . doll b""" bo. lhe ",Ie oll : 12 of
• ,e>! """'" (III" ". ,,,,,b lenglb ol ''''' doll b"" .. i. h Ib" of
'be ,e" howe) aDd • mini"we II""", (> doll b.,.... 10 iiI
"';,bin • doll howe) b. , lhoe seal. of 1 :144 of. ,,>I b"" ...
Suppooe. ,,01 boo", (Fig. 1_7) II"" .Iroo' ol2Om.
• depoh of II m •• beigh' ol6.0 m, and . .. . . d.,d ,loped ,oof
(""n .... 1 '''''''gular f""" 00 , •• endo) of beighl 1.Om. J.
<ubic ",ha, or. lbe voIu ...... ol lbe
(a) <loll h"" ... nd(b) mi"hl"" ho",.7
B
B
B
B
fIG. 1 Probl,m.lK
39 A cord i . > volu." of cuI wood <qu. 1 10 • " ad : 8 II
lOll,!. 4 fr wide .... d 4 f' hiSh. How m • • y ,arch :u, i. 1.0 ",' 7
.u
.0 0"" molorule ol ... It, (H, O) oon,ains 'wo " om, of
by<irog<. ODd one "om of <I<J'E, • . A bydloge. "001 h .. a m ...
of 1.0 u.oo .. "001 ol "I)'getr b"". m.., of 16 u"pp,omnar. 1j<
(0) Wh ... the m ... in kilogT:ns of ODe m"",,!lIe ol ",,, .. ? (b)
H""" rn .. y molecule. 01" ..... , ..... ., the warld', "blclI
b."" an ... ""',ed ,,,,a! """'" ol1.4 X 10" kg?
41 A 'OIl is • m, ... ". of volu ... f'eq""'1y U><d i. ship-
ping. bul Ih .. U>e '"'I";''' oom, calf boc • • " Ihere .... ,
le",' IhI .. ')'pe' of 10110: A di<ploc,"","' 'oo is "l • • 1 10 7 b .. _
,e'" bulI: . • frrign""" io eqo. I,o 8 b .. "" bulk. and. [ttl""
ton i. equ,1 10 20 bar .. ", bv.lk. A """,/ b"lk "H)<I. ,,, .... _
,we ol vol"", ,, I ban.1 butt _ 0.1415"'. Suppoo< yoo 'pol
• oIt;ppi"8 OIde, fOl -73 10.'· of M&M ...
etTIai. Ih .. lbe die", lObo ""'" ,'''' orde, in"nd<d "Ion" '0
"fer 10 vol ume (..., . od ol "';glr' or """". " discu, .. d.,
Cb'pre, 5). U lbe. ,!;eM ",",u,Ur .... anl di",I",.rnen'
b"", many exU. us. b",b,', of ,b • ..-...die.! .. iU )'OU 0"0-
."",oIf "'ip if you ""''P'" lhe oroe, .. (.) 73 f"iEh' 'OR<
:u>d (h) 73rtgiol" ''''''? (I m' _ 2&378 Us. oo .... Is. ) ".
42 SIT""!.I)'. lbe wi • • for • I:uS' .... dding """plio. 10 be
.,"_ in • "wIDing ",'_g! ... ,ocepoacle "';Ih lhoe in!e"01
<Iim.omiorn ol 40 COl X 40 <Dl X 30 <m (b. ish'j. The """pla_
cle is 10 be ini'iall)' filled 10 'be '''1' The win< <:0. be
pwch .. ed i. booties of lbe si .. , gi"". i. Ib, foUo ... inS labl ••
l'ur,h,.,.,S' I"ge' bol"" .,"ead of mull",1e ... alltl boorles
dee'e .... ''''' oYtlaU co,n ol ''''' wine. To minimi .. Ih, oo,n.
(a) ... -bich hollie si"" ,b""ld bt purcb:osed:u>d b"... m>JIY of
each ,h",,1d be plUeb,e;:I and. 0"" lhe ,,,,. pt,,,1e "filled.
how mucb wi"" i. lef! ""er in I",,,,, of (b) ":rnd,,d boo,,,",
OlId« ) b .. ,,?
I "",d.,d boolle
I lIIagnWD _ 1 """dard """j..,
I je,oboam _ 4 ,,:rnd .. d boolles
I "boboam _ 6".n<brdbonl ...
I m"" ... lab _ 8 ,,:u>dard bool'"
1 »Inr .... 7.1I _ n """dard """I",
I balrllazar _ 16 ,randard bood .. _ I U56 L
I ",buch.>dntzz .. _ 2Q .. :rnd>rd bollles
41 A I)'pkil "'ga' cube b .. on edge jeoglb of I em. If )'011
bad a cubical box 11.." contained . mol. ol "'gar whal
.......Jd in . dge longlh be ? (One _e _ 6.02 X 10"
44 Uoi nS """ven ions :u>d do,. in ''''' chapltl. delenni.o.
,b. numb..- of b)'llr"!l.n >1011" 10 oo,ain 1.0 kg of
bydrog •• , A h)'<Irog • •• 'om "'" • m . .. of 1.0 lL
45 An ""rooomicol Wlil (AU) io lbe .,,,,,se di .. """,
bel ..... n Earl" and ,hoe Sun, approxim>lely 1.50 X 10' km.
The ,petd of hSb,;, .boUl 3.0 X 10' mit.. Expoe .. l!roe 'peOO
of Uglr' in ""ro.omkol ""its pe' minul.. .."
41> Wb>1 m"" of ...... , ... feU 00 ''''' 'own in i'rOOl.m 'I? W",o,
b"" adeMiry of 1.0 X 10' kg''''.
47 A pe""" <>II . <Ii" mighl Ia>e 23 kg pe' .....,.k. Expre ..
,h. m .. , I"", '"'-.. in miUigr>nK pe' oecood ... if ,he <Ii" ..
could .. ..., lb. 1<00<><1- by ->e«>r>d 10 ..
.a The mrn _h"!( ",,/0 i. a financial lerm U><d in !be pig mar_
ket .. d l"os"""bIy i, .. latKi to the COlt of 1...a1lS. ' pg it
io 1>rE' ",ough lor """"'". It i. defio.ed .. !be .. rio of the mar_
ket I"ice 01 • pig \Oit b uo:... of .H (}l .rugs to!be m .. ket I"ice 01
• us. bushel of oom. (Jb< WOfd -.rug .. i. derived from an old
a"man...,m th .. m ..... ·10 rut",_ b ... tb. same
lor ... ve,bio <I1oI>drm EnglidL)A us.bm.belio eq.>I to
35.2.\8 L If tho oorn- ""E ".,k> io listKl .. 5.7 011 tbe mart" .>-
,bOllS< ... b.t it in !bemettic.';" 01
(Jlint: S .. !beM,." ,.hle in Appendix D.)
• 9 y"" ..... orn din.", 101400 poople., . OO<Iv.ntioo 01
M" ic ... lood I ..... y"", 'Kipo lor 2 jal. pe60 popp<r>
PO' .. ,ving {ODe serving PO' po''''''} How.ve,. y"" bave only
b.bo"",o peppe" 00 bond The 'p;cioe.r. 01 poppe";' me ._
"".d in tenn, 01 the "", .. Uk h"" wll, (SHU). On . v.nge.
0 ... jalapofto peppe' h .. . of.j(OJ SHU md (I'"
b,b,.,.,o POI'P" b", •• pici""" of JOOOOJ SHU To get tb. de_
"'KI.pic:in .... bow many h>.l>an<o:o POI'P'" d>ouJd Y"" ... bo.i_
tute foo: !be jabpello popp<r> in th. ,edpo 101 the 400 WIne .. ?
50 A \mil 01 .... oI.en.oed in m . .. urillg laM "'il! is .b.
h«lD". defined as Io'm'. An opeD-pit ooaI mine """su" ...
75 b""""" 011.00. d""", to • deptb 0126 m •• acb 1"'ar. Wh ..
volume of .ann. in t"llbi<- io ,tlD""OO io thi! .im.?
51 (.) A unit of tim. """,,.imes ..... d in nri<r"""",ic
physic> io tho wt<. On. oJral:, equ." 10-- ' , Are there moo.
shak .. in ... 000:><1 tb m tl>oo:< are oerondo io •
(b) H"",aru h.ave ".;tOO 101 about 1(1 ye", ... ·b ... ,. tho
unive,,,, i,.bout 10" Y"" old. 11 the.ge of tbe .oiv, ... i.
d,fioKl .. I -unive, .. day:· wb .... unive .... day coru; ... 01
··l1.JIi"" .. fffOIIdo" ... ... rn.al day 00II<;'15 01 oOfm.1 ""_
ODd!. bow man)' wtiveno >KOo:>ds b.ve hum.:ur, .:w .. d?
52 A..! . ,,"11, . .. "",'1""" !be old and the IJIOdem ",d
the I..-ge .00 tl>o "'nil. ooruid" tb. 10Uooring; I.
old ,ual Eogland I hide (bet ..... " 100 ond 120 """) ,.'" tb •
• re . 01 1.00 ... ded to ,wtain o.e family .. ;,b • ".gle
pI""Sb!Of <IIIe 1"'''. (An ar .. of I acre i,.qual to 41J.17 rn' .)
Aoo. I .... pont" .. \01' tbe .re. of land.eeded by 100 ,ocb
familioes. In qu"",um physic>. the """,_""",iOll.1 " .. 01 a "u_
,leD' (defined in term. of tb. cbanoe 01 a p.u1ic1e rutting and
boing nhlorbed by i.) io m''''UJ.d io units of bar",- .. 1>0 ..
I ;, I X 10-- " m'. (In DUcIe" pbysics j"gon. if • •• cleu.
;, ·1"ge:· theo ,bootio!. p.u1icle at it;' lik. >I!_ing .IJW_
let'" a bam door. "tUClr can hardly be oW..,d.) What io tb.
r>tioof21 ,..pe.tal:e< to II ba,,\l 1
53 A to:adi.ional oIleogth in J. pan ,b. hn (I l .o _
1.'17 m). Wb ... f< tb .... ti", of (.) "I ..... hn. to "I"'"
",,,,,,,.00 ( b) <ubic ken. to <ubi<- ......... 1 Wb .. the vol_
""'" of . cyUodrical ....... onk 01 beiy,t 5.50 keno . nd radius
1.00 km. in (e) rubic ho, . nd(d) mel"'?
5. y"" ''''.;'''' O<d", to >ail due . ... lor 24.5 mi .<> put
y"'" >alv. ge ,hip dio:e<1ly """ a ,unk." pu-. .. >!rip.
when your dive" proo. tb. ocean Boo< at tbat
locatioo .00 find.o .>ide""" 01 • ,hip. you ,adio back to
Y"'" • .,u"" of informatioo. onl y.o disaw ... h .. tbe ,ailing
di .. """' ....... upposed to be 14.5 0'" .. gut"
mile>. U .. !be l."sth "bl. in App<ndi. D.
S5 A ... ndard in","" .. .u-.-... b .. 110!" .acb with . ri"
(b.igh. ) of 19 ClI1 and • ''''' (borirootal depth) of 23 em.
R ... ",b "'Sg"''' tb at the .. ",. "<><lid be .>1" !Of de.,,,", if
tbe IUD 10 .... in ... .ad. 28 em, fil, • panicul .... air<"1Oe of total
beight 4.57 m. how o",ch /anher into tb. room would tbe
"airc..., e"end if truochange i. run IOtT. made?
56 lb. con"""" Eastelo _ ' •• mammal. t)llically has •
m. " of 75 .midi con .. poods to about 7.5 mole. of .. oms.
(A mole of " om, 6.W X 11)'" .. In atooDc m ...
\!JIits (D) . .. bat;,.1>0 .. age "',." 01 tb. "om, i. the com-
mo. E:utem moIe1
57 An .... ""'ornkal "oN
(AU) io equ.1 .0.1>0 ""''''g'
di!.ance f,om Eanb to tb •
Sun •• oo..t '12.9 X 10' mi. A
P'''''''' (pc) i, ,b. di!t:"". at
",hich a leogtb 01 I AU
would ",bo.nd "" ",,!,!. 01
1 p< "\
FlG..4 Problem 57.
"XU)' I """""d 01 "'" (Fig. 1-8). A ligli'-Y'"' (Iy) io.be di>-
tone. tbat tigllt. tr. v.lins tbroIISb > VOl"UWD witb a .peed 01
186 OCQ would oove, in 1,0 ye ... &p"", !l>e E.nb_Su.
dinanc. in (a) P" """ ""d (b) .o.
sa 10 p<lI<h..u.! food 100: • poIitic:ll nlIy.)'lU m""""""'y Of_
<It, shocked mediUlll-Oiz. PaciD;: 0)""''' ( .. _ oome 8 to 12 pel
us. pin.) inst .. d 01 ,hocked mtdiltnr_>ize A Uantic 0)""''' ( ... flicb
com. 2b .0 -"l 1'" us. pint). lb. Iillod <»'>101 C«It:me, ohipped to
you Iw tbe in"ric< n>ea5Ure of 1.0 .. X 12 ,m X 20<111. and ,
us. pillt ;, equivalent .0 0.47.12 H,,,,. B)' bow man)' .. m io!be
oo:Ot, ""'t of )"'" an.icipaled 00"",,1
59 1M cubit io "" . Drient unit of leogth b"",d "" tbe
di""""" betwe.n the .Ibow.oo tl>e.ip 01 tbe middle fins"
01 ,I>e m.",,,,,,, A..!.u"", ,h.at ,1>0 distaD'" "",god from 43 to
53 em. .Dd , uPI""" that anci,", du"':o!.' iodicate that •
,)'lindrical pillar was to h.v •• I,"!tb 0(9 cobits aDd a di,,",_
tff 01 2 ",bi .. fi>r!be "ated ''''ge.",b., ... tb. lowe< .al""
.nd tb. uppc' vol .... '''p«tively.loo (.J 'he C)'lind,,·, 1'_S,b
in ........ (b) .1>0 C)'lin<Ie,·, length in millimet .... md «) tl>e
<)'Ii.oder". voIu"" io oubk ....... 1
60 An old cookbook COf''''' thio ,ecipe foo: « .. m 01
",,,Ie ""'I" ··Boil .. ock of the lollooring """'11.JI1: I bo-.. k_
I:..t<up plw I t"""" plus 6 tabi"pooIK plu, I de""n,pooo:L
U,ing glov ... "'par",. ",,,Ie tops until yoo h.,.. 0.5 qu. n:
. dd tbe '<>pi to the boilin! stocle Add I .. 1>I .. pooa of cooked
o:U and I ""'J'OO'I of Simme, !Of 15 min.- 'Jb< loIIow_
ing table give> ...... 01 tl>e """"",iau >mOOS old (1""''''' _
rir) Briti>.b me"""". and an"",! oomJI1OII (>tiU premttrir) us.
m ..... "" (Th ......... w,.. ""''''00 !Of metric .. ion.) fi>r liquid
" "'''''''- I Britislr ""'I""'" - I u.s. .. "'f'OO'L fi>r..-y me ..
"" .. I Brirub ""'JlO<III _ 1 U.s ''''pooDS aDd I Briti,h qU>t1
_ I us.q">t1. ln us.m .......... bow mud! (.) "oci.{b) ",.Ie
tops. (e) rice.aDd (d) salt of. "'l"ired in th, 'ecipel
Old Briti>l! Meaowe>
.. .,pooa _ 2>al"I""""
de .. "t"""", _ 2 .. .,pooa.
.. bl"poon _ 2 de"",n.pooo>
.. ",up _ 8 .. 1>I"pooB'
bo-e.kf .. "up _ 2 te>cup<
t.bIe<pooo _ 3""' 1'00'"
hall,,,,, _ 8 .. bl"poo<K
,up _ 1 boll cup.!
Motion Along
a Straight Line
A woodp<ICkerhammers its
beak into the limb of a tre" to
sea",/1 for insect. to eat, to
create storage space, or to
audjbly oovertioo for a mate.
rh .. motion toward the limb
may be vel)' rapid, but the
.toppo'ng once the Umb is
reached is extremely rapid
and would be fala l toa
human. Thus, a woodpecker
should seemingly fa ll from
the tree either dead or un·
conscious every time it .Iam.
a. beak into th .. tlP6. Not
only does it survive, but it
rapidly repeat. the mob"on,
sending out a rn!-tat·tat
signal through the a ir.
Why can
a woodpecker
survive the
severe
impacts with
a tree limb?
13
p""",,, <Ii",_
-
-

xl'"
_" 1 02
onp./
FIG. Z.1 Poo;!;OIl i",le' eTmin«l
00 .. :ro. ,hat is m .. k.d in URi",
oIle,,!," (b". mel.n) :tAd ,b>1
.. "nd! indelinil<iy in oppoilj1'
c1ire<1K>n The """ .am., btl • . ',
is always "" 'be "",i.ive .. de of ,he
0Ii.!,in.
2-1 WHAT IS PHYSICS?
0". purpose 01 pbysics IS 10 st udy 100 mO!ion of oo,<><:1.-ho,", las1
101 and how fa. lhey move in a giwn amounl of lim"- NASCAR
engin""" are fanatical "OOUI !hlS "'l"'CI of physICS" the)" &1",",;oe 1M
of In";, ""'" and "u,ing a rare. use Ihis to
lOCIOIIi'-r !:)!"· mOlion a, aUi'mpl 10 pn.>dict eartbquak ...
",00 Ibl< pbysics 10 map Ih. blood flO ... lhrough " pa!;""! \\'bcn diag-
nosing a parlially d=d ane,y. "nd motorisu ..... it 10 ho .. they might
slow snlfirionll)' " .. 11;>" Ih ei. radar OOh,do, sound, " warning. Th" .. are oollnll."
ot oo, "Jampl ... In Ihi' •. Slud}' Ih. basic ph}',i"" of "1Oliou 1\' II.2,e 111.2
objeel (raro ca., 10000nic pia .. , blood ""U, 0. "ny 01"", ob;ocl) "'OW3 along • ,io-
gle axis. Such ""01io" i, "aUed ,,"00'011.
2-2 I Motion
Iod,,; a lumbling IUmbl" ... e<l .. "",Id "01.
2-3 I Position and Displacement
To an objfft 10 flud ils posilio" relalive 10 so,"" .d",ence poinl , of-
'"0 Ih. (0' lNO poinl) of aD axi, such .s Ihe x a.is in Fig. 2 -I. The "",i,i'-e
difl....,ion of Ibe axis is io Ihe dirl'C,;on 01 iOCf"",inS "um""" (roo.d;nol",,), whicb
is 10 Ihe righl in Fig. 2-1. The OI>pO;<i1e is Ihe direction.
Fo. eJamplo. " parl id" mighl Ix>. Jocaled "' x - 5 m, .. -hich means il is 5 m ,n
Ihe posillVe dl1<'C1io" lrom 100 origio. If il .. ",e "I x - - 5 m, il ""ould be jU-;1 as
la, I,om Ih" o.igin hut in Ihe opposile di.OCIioo. On Ih ... is, a coo.dioale of
- 5 m is Iha" a roo,dina" of - J "' , and bolh roo.di o"I "" "" Ie,. Ihan a
roo.dina l" 01 + 5 ".,. A pi "" sign for • roo.dinale "oed 001 Ix>. sho"lI. hUI a minus
sign muS! bi> sbown.
A chaoge from pos;l;on x, 1o "calJed a di"Ia«'"",n, .1x. wh •• "
.1., - x, - x,.
(2-J)
(Tbil'ymbol .1. Ih. G,,,,, k uppe"a", d"II'. '"pro",n" a .ha"g" in a qua "lily, aod
T""- "-orld, a nd oWr)1bing io il. m""os. Evo" ",.",ingly "a' io"ary Ihings. such "'
• roa""-a)', 010'" ","ilb Eanh's ,otolio", Earlh', o,bila.OII"d 100 Suo. lh" SURS 0'-
bil around lhi' ""Ow. ollhe M,lty Way gala.ty. "ud lb., ga l.lIy", migfJlion ro[atiw
10 o,her gakaxi<ls llhl da<lsificaliou "od corup.:uison of ",OliORS (caUod kin. ",arics)
i, chJu"oging. Whal exactl)' do }'Oll "",asu ... and ho ... do }'OU
.. w •• " .mpl '''''''''. we shall examine some g<>"e,al p'operlies of
molioo Ihal is '''''!riClod i" 'h''''' ways.
1. The mOlio" is aloog a Slraigb' 01I1y. The ""'y Ix>. wrlica!. ho,izonl 'l. or
sl,oled, hUI il muS! Ix>. s!r,ighl .
2, Force, (push"" aod pulk) ,-""use olOli01l bUI wiU nol 00 disctr5.SoNl umil OIapre,
5. I" Ibis chapw, w, discllSS only Ih. mOlio" ilsdf "nd Ch'"g.3 in Ihe molion.
Doos 100 ""wing """,d up. slow do • .-n. Slop. or di,eClion? If lhil
molio" does .h"ng .. how is Ii"", involved ,n Ih. chang.·/
J. The mo"ing obJOCI;' .ilh .. n panicle (by .. -hid! we mean, pOInl-li t " object
such "' ,n ","eIfO") or an objecl ,bat mo ..... lite a particle (suell ,ho, e",,'Y
pOri ion 0'0'''' ,0 Ilkl sam" di.OCl ioo and al ,hil salllil 'ale). A "iff pig slipping
down a "",'gh' pla},grollnd slido mighl be ""n,.oo.oo 10 be ,no"iog like. po.-
il m,,"n, lb. final v.lue of ,hal quanlit}' min"s 100 ,"i1lal val .... ) Whon OHm"""
ar" inserled 10. tbe pos i"o" X, and x, i" Eq, 2- 1. a disrl.",,,,,,o' io ,bi>-
posili'''' d .. "Clioo (IO righl'" Fig. 2-1) al ... a}'s co""'s oul posil""'. and" dis-
2-4 I "", ... _V<>kxhyO<!dAv.rog.Speed
pb"""",nl in Ibo upposiw di.oClinn (Iofl in lb. figure) alway' 00""" oul negali",.
For eLlmple. if Ih. pafliek! moves f.om x, - 5 m 10 x, - 12 m.lben <1. < - (12 m)
- (5 ml - +7 m. The posit;vo .,.,;"11 indieale' Ihal lb. mOl;on "in 100 posili'·.
direction. If. in",ad. Ih. pa.tick """ 'cs from x, - 5 n, 10 x, - I m. Ihon
<\.>. - (\ m) - (5 ml - - 4 m. The "egalh ... result ind>cales Ihal Ibe molloo is in
Ihc nesalive dimelion.
Thc aetual numoo. of cov.,cd for a \rip" irr"lev, nl ; dispLaeemcm in-
volve. onl)' Ib, origin,1 and final poslliOffl. RI. if Ih' parlide mOV(lS
from x - 5 m oul lox - 200 m and loon bact 1o x - 5 Il •. Ih' displa"""",,nl from
,la,llofinish is<l.x - (5 ml - (5 ml - O.
A plu, ,ign for a dbpla"""",nt noed nol "" sIIo,,-n_ bUI a n,inu, sign muSi
always 00 ,bown. If .. " ignore Iho ,ign (and 1hu, Iho dir.Clion) 01 a dispLacom"nt.
.. " ar" kfI1.-;lh Ihe (or absolule '-a I"") of 100 displac<m,nl . Fo. exam-
ple. a dispLac.:>menl of <l.x - - 4 01 bas a malVlilu,,", of 4 m.
Displa""m.nl i,"u ",ample of a .-.ctO, qua n,i.); .. -hieh is a quanlily Ihal h ....
oolh a di.OClinn and a magnilude. We.xpJorc vectors more Iully in Orapler J (in
facl. som. 01 you may h,,-, alwady ,oad Ihal chapl .. ). bill ho," all .. " is Ih"
idea Iha( dispLacemenl h" 1"'0 fealures: (I) Its " lb. dislaocc (such ....
Ihe numoo. 01 mClers) b'" .. ""'n Ihe o.iginal and final positions. (2) Its diru,i<m.
f.om an orig,nal posilion 1o a final pos,lion. can 00 rcpre""nl.d by • pl"s ,ign o. a
minus sign if 100 mOlion " alon8 a Slngle ax;';'
fo llow. is Jim o! rna,,}, ch«Kpoims )'''''' sa In ,,,,.. book. Each
COl"''''''! out! or ,no,.. q""'jo,,, "'oou "'/" '" .."M nasOl1i"g or a
m,,,,,,1 and ,ach gil'" J "" a quiet dl«k of "",I' ,,,,dn",,,,,ding
of" poinr jU3I d'-"""sm/. Th< a" /is",/ jJ, bock of ,It. book.
0. H 'C I( POI NT 1 Her. are pail. 01 ;niti. ( ond fin>l (>OII;'iOl1<' ,,,poe-
,;"ly . • Iong •• x ..... Which pain y.. • n.ey,;ve di'l'I"",,,,,,,n1: (.) - 3 or. +5 m,
(b) - 3 m. - 7 m; 7 01. - 3 m1
2-4 1 Average Velocity and Average Speed
A compact "-ay 1o """,.ioo pas"ion is ",ilb a graph of pasilioo x ploned os a func-
I;on of lime I- a grapb of xl'). (Tho nOlalioo .1'(,) represen!. a lunctioo x of I. nol
Ihe prod",1 x li!lli!S ,.) A. a 'imple cIampi •. Fig. 2-2 show. 1M position function
..-(,) 10. a .lalionJ1Y a.madillo ("' bklt we I.eal as • pa,tie"' ) 0'''' a 7 • lime iow,-
' -al.l1Ie anima!", pasili01t Jlx - - 2m.
Fogure 2-.1a is morc u'I •• .:.sting. "",,"use il in,·olve. mo11on. Th;, •• madillo is
appa",nlly firsl nOlic.'<l al , - 0 il " al Ibo posil ioo x - - 5 m. It mov(lS
10,,-al<l x - O. pas"", Ib.ough Ibal poinl al I - 3 So and 11",,, mov •• on 10 increas-
iogly posili'-e valu", 01 X . Fig"re 2-Jb depicts Ihe ,Iraiglll -Jin. mOlion of
Ihe a",,,,dillo and is somelhing .. hal you would ....... TIle g.apb in Fig. 2-M is
mo •• abo\raCl and q"iM .. -hOl)'oU ,"ould bUI il is riclte. in inlormalion.
It also te",als ho ... fasllh. armadillo moves.
several quanhli..'5 are assoc.ateJ ,,-ilh Iho ph.a", ··ho ... la"." One 01
Ibem i, Ibe a' ... ,e],w;,)" ... _ .. -hieh is Ibo ,"lin of 1M dlSpLarem'"1 <I.< Ih.1 oc-
curs dUIlng a pa.lieular Ii"", inletval olt 1o Ibal i"t .. '-al :
<!. x x, - x,
v ... "
(2-2)
Tha nolahon m,,,n, Ibal Ihe posi!ion i, x, allune I, and Ibon .., al lim • .,. A rom-
mon u"illo. I' ... IS 100 per second (mls). You """ other unil' ,0 1M
bu! Ihey are always in Ibe fo.m of leoglh!lin"'-
On a grapb of x versus r. I' ... IS Ibe ' lope of Ibe st.aighl lioo Ibal ,onneCls Iwo
parllcul.1f pornls 00 1M x(,) cu,,-e: one is 100 jIOlullhal ro"esponds 10 x, and ',.
' ("'1
J'
f lG. 2· Z Thoyaphoh(r)lor
aD arm><JiIlo 'M' ;, ""i""",), "
x _ - 2 m. Tho.v>lueoh" - 2 mlor
all,im ....

,
• , ('1
" flG. Z_J (oJTh'gropb olx(,)loO'O
movin! armodillo. (b) Tho pa,h
.,,,,..;.,'" "';,h ,h. y.pb.Th. ",alo
below ,ho x .... ,hOI., ,be ,;m .. at
whicb ,b. armodillo re""b .. voriow
x
xl") aod the olhet " lhe poi"1 Illal lOX, and r,. Like dlSploct'n"'"I. I· ... has
bmh magnitu"," aod direcrio" (it is aoolher '"OClm quanlily). lis magOliuJo is 1M
maglliluw of Ibe slope. A posiliv" I· ... (and ,lop") 10lk us lhal (h. Ii""
slams upw31d to righl; • negalive I· ... (and 'lope) ICUS us Ihal Ibo Ii"" slanls
do"",,"31d 10 the righl . Th" aWf"g' ",Iocil)" 1' ... aJ.,.y. h" Ihe same sign", lhi!
displaceme"1 <l.x boca"", <I., in Eq. 2·2 i, al •• ays posili'·e.
f'
Figure 2·4 sOOw. OOW 10 find I · ... in Fig. 2·310' 100 Ii"", i"l<'rvaJ , - I .10 I - 4
I j 1
W. d,.w 100 miliglll h"" Ihal oo"""cr, Ihe poi"1 0" posilio" cu,,", BI (00 be·
ginning of lb. int,,,·. 1 .lId 1M (lOInl 0" lhe CII"·. al Iho end 01 too IGw,,·aJ. TIJ,on
,... find Ih._ slop<' <l.x!<l.1 of tlli! siraighllin,," Fo' tlli! gi''''" lime_ iOle"u.]. a",,-
"""" .I.I· ''' - H .. I . ',"

age wloClly is
Om
I' ... - 3'0 - 2 nlis.
:-&1 .•. _ 1 • • • ,
F1G. U CaI,u1.ti""oft"'.veras'
velocity bet""",n I· I ... d I _ 4 •
.. tbe slope of tb, line th.at connect.
tlle poin" "" 'he x(t) C\lrve "'p"'.
stntins too.e
,p.<>t.I ' ... is • difl.wnl wa)' 01 <l=ribi"g ··how fas!"· a "",ud"
m"""" Wbo,"", lhe ave'age ,",Iocily involh'S (ho pa,I .c1e·, <l.x. 100
aW_"g" sl""''<1 involves l h. lotal dislanro """e,ed (fol example. Iho numbel of
""'lets "lOwd).i"depend"01 of di'ee1ioo; lh.1 is,
, -

101al disl'""",
(2-3)
B",""u", ,!",cd tloos ,,," iocluJo dimcliou.;t an)' algebraic sign.
Somol; mes ' . .. is lh. (e_.",pl 101 too absrnro of a sign) a •• ' .... Ho"",,,,,. "'
is wmonsuawd ;n Samp'" P,oblem 2-1. Ih" IwoC1l" to. quil" diflo,on!.
Sample Problem m
Yoo a to..!-UP pd"p trud along" Slraigh! ,oad
fOf 8A km al 70 kmlb. al wbi<"h poinl I"" truck runs 0111
01 gooi", and Slops. 0,..,. the 30 min. you wa!J: an-
Cl her 2.0 l m /a'IIIO, along (be rood 10 a SI"i,,".
<"J Wha! is }'OU' "".,all from lb. b<>gin-
nmg 01 you, d"," 10 }'our arrival al (h, 'talio"?
"
firsl positioo.
ulculation: From Eq. l I. "'0 haw
<1..< - ..., - x, - lOA km - 0 - lOA km.
ThUs. your ow,.U displ.ce""'"1 i, lOA km io rffi-
live di'i'Clion of Ih" -< axis.
(b) Whal is lime iOIe,,'al <1.11,,,", 100 Iwginning 01
you, d",'. 10 }'our .",val al (h. ,talion?
,I,.ad)' know lhe walking Ii"", inh),val
<1.1 . .. ( - 0.50 b) . bU! ,,-. lock 100 d,i"0g 11"", .m.,,'al
<1.1 .. . How""et. k"o'" (hal fOf 100 displJce.
"","I ')"-.. is 8.4 l m and lhe average wooly IS
70 kmlb. IbIS awrag<'- ,'.Iocily is lb. ralio 01 dis-
place""'''t for Ihe drive 10 Ih. lime Inti',,, .. 1 for Ihe drive.
Calculations: W. firsl wrile

I' -
...... <1.1", ·
R.a"angi" g and suboliluling dala Ihcn gi'''' us
8.4 kO!
70 kmlb
<1.1 - <1.1 .. + <1.1 ...
- 0.12 h.
- 0.11 h + O.50h - 0.61 h. (Answer)
(c) Wbal is )'OIIr a",rag;> velocily I · ... from lhe hegin-
niog of }'OU' drove 10 )'our ."".,1.1 Ihe 'l"io01 Fi"d il
oolh n""""icall)' and gt.plucally.
From Eq, 2-2 know Ihall' ... fortn< e"';"
"1110 of the di",I:J<>'m<'n( of lOA ,'" m -
Ii", trip 10 100 1;,,-.., inl."u.] of 0.62 hI'" en';" trip.
Calculation: Here w. find
<U lOA km
, --- -
... <1.1 0.62 b
- 16.8 kmlb _ 17 kmlh.
To find v ... glaphlC,II)'. firsl .. " graph lh. IUfICllo" X(I)
<IS sho .. " in Fig. 2-5 . .. (he boginn;ng and a ... '-al
1"';"150" lh" graph are orig>" ,"d Ihe poinl lab;>l,d
'" ··Slalion:· You, ."",age wlocol)' i, Ihe slop< of lhi!
suaighl I"", IDn"oC1ing IbOSi' (lOIniS; Ihat IS, v ... i, lhi!
,
"
I
Tru<kHOf"
'"
".,l ••.•
i
,

,



I
,

,
j.L
I- to,,, "'"1

. .,"\

.,
•••
..,
Tlme(b\
FIG. z.li lb. line. marted -Driving" and"Walk;"!!" are ,b.
"",oioo_';m. pi"'" for ,he <!riving and ......a:iog "'S".(Tb.
plot fortbe waiting ""!' ... """"" • roruun, rat, of "",Iki.s.)
lb. slope of 'he '''''gh' U .... joining ,be oriy., and the poi"'
I.beled '"Statio.";' 'he .ver.ll"- v,loci')' lor tbe 'rip,from tho
beginn"'! 10 ,b. st.tion.
I'ROILEM-SOLVING lIlCTlC5
Tactk 1: Do You Under,!.nd tIKI Prolhm? Th. 000Il _
moodifliNhr" .imply "'" undo .. tandin& the problem. The be",
, .... ofunde,,'an:liD!;, , his:e .. Y<'" oxpI>in tbe problem?
Wri1f down the ¢Ven data. wi,b ""OS the ')'fllbok
of the <h.p''', (In S .... pI. Probl"", 2-1. ,h. given dou ..now
fou '0 find fOIl' net di>pl",emen' II.< in pan (. ) . nd ,he
time interval .1t in part (b).) Men'i!)' , he
lUllno'oIn aod it> 'J'IIIboI. (In the """pie p",blem. the unboI<n
in pan (e) is)'OOl' . ""r>.!" ""1ori1)' "...-) The. lind ,h. """"""
,;00 beowe.n ,he ""too .... :ond the d .... (Ihe C<JDH«:Iioa is 1"0-
vdedby Eq,l-2, ,II< delinilioa
Tactic 2: Ate I"" Units 01(1 Be """ 10 US< a """,,"en'
... 01 unit> .. be. ""I1",! ownh." ",'0 ,he oq.atioru. In Sample
Problem 1-1. the logical oniIs in leTOW of tho give. <h .. Ol' kilo-
""'"" for dis'''''''''',bour. I", time in' <fVaio,;ni kiIomet." ptr
how lor velorilie. y"" IRa)' >OO>eIim .. Di>Od'oroovm
2-5 I Instantaneous Velocity and Speed
2.,5 I ln". n'''''eo<nV.loc:rry""dSpoed
rabO of !he riu - lOA km) 10 Ih. nm (.1, - 0.62 h).
whicb gives us ", .. - 16.8 hnlb.
(d ) SUPIX"" (hal to pump (XI)' 101 " . and
walk had: to IbB Iruek takes }'OU anolb •• 4S "bn. What
is your ow .. !;" sp<.>OO from (he lK>ginniog of you, drive
10 you, 10 lhe trurl: "jlh {h.
Ca/CU/,otlon: Tha !DIal di,{."", is 8A kill -t 2.0 hn -t
2.0 km - 12.4 kin Tl>.> lOul lime is 0.12 h -t
b -t 0.75 h - 1.37 h. Thy,_ Eq. 2-3 give, \IS
' ... -
12A km
U7h
- 9.1 kmlb. (Ans ... ..,.)
Tactic 3: Is YOUI AM"' ... · Rea.onabl<o? Doe. your ail _
S,." m. b """, or is i, lor '00 large or lar ,oo.m..n? I. ,b.
sign COl''''''? Art tbe uni" ' pp<<>p<i . ,.1 1. pal' « ) of S.mple
PTobI.m 2_l.Ior ... mpie"he ""lrl'C1 ""',." i, 17 kmlh, lf fOIl
find 0.00017 kmih, - 11 bru'h. 17 kmi .. or 17 000 kmih, fOO
should ".Iiz, ., <IOCe ,." you kav. done """,.,hlng lOT""!,.
The m o.- Itla)' lie in you, ",,,,hod, io)'<>U, algcm ,or in)'OllI
"y",otinS ofnumbe" on • e>klll.,or.
Tactic ,,: Reading a Graph Fisu, .. 2-1. 2-3., 2-I , . nd
2_5 .... graphs )'OIl s.boukl be . bIe '0 "ad •• siI),. lo ....... y . ph,
tbe v:uioble "" ,be bOO"""al an. i, ,h. ,ime " ,.j,b 'be direc_
'''''' 01 in", .. inE ,ime '0 , he !ish" 10 .a.cb, ,b •• ari.bl. ""
tbe unicoi oxi. ,b, pooi'ioa x of the moving p.nicle wit •
re'f"'CIlO ,he origin, .. ito the p<»i1iv. dirw;oo of x
""" the "Diu ("""",,<10 or min., .. , ... " .. , or b lome_
len) in "'hicll ,II ..... iabl'" Of •• xpr .... d
You bave now Iwo ways 10 ""-'<:';00 bow 1""- "otJ"'lhing moves: ", .. '.ag<>
W(ocil)' and ,vc'"g<l sfl<"'d. bolh 01 "biclt aI<' "",asu,oo ow •• limo interval
Howe""., Ihe pb,.", " how mo." oommonl)' ,efers 10 bow faSI a pJ.liclo"
moving al a giwn inslanl-ils i. ""n, an"Qn, "elt><i, y (01 simply .-. k>d , y) ".
Th. velocily .uy is oblailk.>d ltom 1110> velocily by
tbe lim. inlo,,-.I t>.1 dose. and dos.>' 100, As d • .-ind(." Ih. awrage velocily oj>-
p.Q,Jeb", a llmiling value .• ,.hich is Ihe wlocily "1 lbal Ur;1"nl:
, t>.., dx
" - 11m -- - --.
• • _ . t>.1 dl
(2-4)
NOle Ih.1 " is Ihc rale al" hid po;silioo x ;s changing "il b lime .1 • giwn insIJ"I:
IhJI " is Ih. de';-"Ii,,, of -' "ilh ''''J'OCl 10 r. AI", nole Ih.1 ,'al any ; tr<lanl is
Iho sl"P" of Ihc posilion-lim" cu,ve al Ihe J'Olnl ''' p.'''''"ting Ibal ,nsIJIlI .
Vclocily is anOlhe, ""Clot quanlily and In", has an .ssocialOO dililClion.
Ch.opt ... 2 I Motion Akmg. Strlligtlt (j,..
S, .ed is tbe magnitude 01 ,..,Iocily; lbal is, s!"-'-">d is Inal ha, Ix ..... "
Sl,ipp<'<l of any iod;calictn of diro.1;on, <>il"'" in words Of vj, an algebraIC sign.
(OrUlion: and 3W rage spood can b.> qui,e d,ffe,"", .) A , ... Iocny of + 5 fils
and one of - 5 mfs oolh h3ve an """"ialed SJ"l"d 01 mt .. The sp.",oo"",(e, in a
car ",.asu", .. sp....m. nol wl<>city (il cannot d<lerm;oe 100 dirOClion).
/c H 'C K POI N T Z Tho following "Iu"iorn y.. ,he pooilio,u(r) 01 • I'",' i<l,
in four ,jtu.tions (in .",h "'I""tioA. x .. i ....... n" is in .. coods. and , > 0): (I ) x _
Jt - 1; (2) x _ - .\I' - 1: (J) z _ and (4) z _ - 2. (oj In which ,;,u,1ioD u.. v.loc_
"r v of lb. panicleroru","'? (b) In wbicb" v in , ••• dir«tiOll?
Sample Problem m
Figure 2-6.. is"n ..-(.) plol 101 an ",,""",0. cab lba, is ini-
lially Slalionary. Ibon moves upward (,,-hien we !O

00 lb. posiliVi' di'I'C,;on olx). "od Ibo" SlOps. Plot vCr). 2

We can find {he veloci!y a! an)' !i"", from j ""
Ike ,lope of lh. x(t) CIHW a! {k.! !une. g
Calculatio ... : The slope of x('j. and so"ko !Il<' "eiocil y. .E
is ,,,.0 in Ihe inlen' als from 0 10 1 ,and from 9 S 00. so
Ihen tOO i, Slalionary. Outing t OO inlerva1 1><-,
sl"Pi' is OXIslanl and lIO"",r",5O lhe" lhe cab mo'", "')In
rons!,nl .... locil)'. We s10Jl" of.«,) {heo ..
Hm - 4.0", - +4.0ml,.
{J. , 8.0 , 3.0,
TOO pius ,ign i"dicat" Ihat Ille cab is n,o'1n8 in Ille pos.
-< di';><lioo. Th""" '01",,""[<; ( .. lIew • _ 0 "od • -
m,.j .r" ploUod in Fig. 2-61>. In a<ldilion. a, too cab ini-
liaUy b.!gin' 10 move aod III "n lat", slow, !o a SlOp.
"va";", a, in Ih. inlerval, 1'10 J s "nd S , 10
9 s Thus, Fig. 2-6b is 100 required 1,101. (Figu,e 2-6c is
coosid<>roo in S<>cti0fl2.6.)
i

!
"
"



,



,
0

, . Urn ,
"
.. , ..... ,
-
,
,
,
r

.C-: 'I _
,
,
i
,
,
,
. ;:x
------
"
, ,
• •
0 0
,

Timol_)
,.,


j
T
1
• ."
,
/
./
, ,
• • •
0
,

'""'" 1- )
...
'"

Gwen" 1'(') srapb ,ocll as Fig. 2-6b. we could"w01t
b""[:W,,d" 10 prn<loco tOO sIIa"" of lile associaloo x(t)
graph (Fig. 2-6..). w. would "01 100 oc_
1".1 ,'.I"es for x ,I ,-"io", limes, t...caus.o Ihe .'(t) &faph
ind;c;.I" only in x. To find ,ocil "cb,nge in x
during an)' inwrv.l. musl. in Ih. languag<l of cakulus,
cairuJal" lhe area "un""r Ibe curv.·· 00 Ine v(t) &f"pb f01
Ihal iOlerval. Ror onmple. during Ihe inl'-'fVal 3 s 10 8 s in
"'hiell lb. cab ha, a ,-"Iocil)' of ,",s, !heebang<l in .• is
i
L
, .""'.i.r..;O.;
fJ..- - (4.0 ,",,)(8.05 - 3.051 - + 20 m.
,
,
. I

!
,
U
.-
'"
,


±
'I

,

1 j

=
(This a,". is I>o<:ause Ihe curve "
, Figure 2--6a show. Ih" x doe5 iooooo i"" •• ", by
20 m in Ihal inlC'v,1. How""",. Fig. l-& <Io.>s nol leU '"
Ihe mlu<s of x allh" b..oginmng and of 100 iO''-'fVal
For Ib.l . need additional inf01mahon. sueb .,
value of -' a! sorue iw;1anl.

,*",",00

,
,
,
<IIrvelO£ an . lev"or ""b ,bal move. "pw..-d aloog .. x ""is. (b) Th. 'i') <urYe
lor Ibe<. b. Nore Ib>l il is ,b, d"ivali", of ltoe x(r) curv. (., _ IWdrH<) '"'Ye lor ,be cab. I, is
,toe cleriv.live of ,b. Y(r)<urve (. _ d.MI). The ltd figures alOll! ,be bonom bow. pa<><0ser".
body migb' 1,,1 during ,b. acrel""io ...
2-6 I Aca>k>foti.",
1M posilioo 01 a p.1.lie'" mo\1ng 00 IUl .< ,,-,is is giV('n b)-
x - 7.8 + 9.21 - 2.11'. (2-5)
- 2. 1 mI,'. Takiog Ibe 01 Eq. 2-5. 1 ...
'" "
" - T, - d, (7.8 + 9.2f - 2.11') .
.. ilh -< ill ,,,,,lets and ,,0 ",",nds. Wbol is iI' ,-.Iocily al
I - 3.5 s1 Is Ihe ,-.IOCIly conSlIUlI. ot ts il conlinuousl}'
changing?
whieh tK><:omes
,. - 0 + 9.2 - (3)(2.1)r - 9.2 - 6.3f.
AII - 3.5s.
(2-6)
i Vcloc,I}' ts I .... firsl "",i' -ali,.. (,.-.Ih m'p.lCI
10 Ii,,,,,) of lhe posilion IUOClion x(, ).
u/culationo: Fot ,implirily. lh. unils have b,.-;eo omil -
IN from Eq. 2-5. bUI you can lhem if }'OU like
by cbanging COi'foc..nl' 10 7.8 m. 9.2 mls. IUld
I' - 9.2 - (6.3)(1.5)' - - 68 mls. (An,""')
All - 3.5 '" Ih e parl id" is mm-lng in Ih. negalive di.ec-
lioo of x (0010 Ih. min .... sign) wilh a sl"'"" of 68 mls
Sin"" lhi> quanlily , apl"'''' in Eq. 2-6. Ibe ",Iocil)' •
d"l"'n", on , .nd so is conlinuO\I'Sly ch,ngiog.
2-6 1 Acceleration
When a pa'lie"", ",locily <hng"" lhe. p.1l1icK! is said 10 "nd.:!'go """,Ie"nion (or
10 accelerale). Fot mOlion along an .xis. Ih" IW' "" OK'<'(· le, . ,lon a ... 0"" a Ii"",
,""·",al!J.lis
a ... -
I', - I',
" "
- - .

(2-7)
.. 11<!,,, Ihe bas velocilY ", .11ome I, "nd Ihen ,-"Iocily 1-, alIi"", f, . The
i._,to"",ncou, locele,mi on (ot ,imply "",: .. k:Mion) "
".
a - T,'
(2 -S)
In .. -otds.lhe. .=""a(lon 01 a p.1 l1ic1e a( any msl.,,1 i, Ihe ",Ie al .. -bieh iI' '-CIOClly
" rnanlOng allhal ;flS1anl . G,aphically. Iho a=letalion aI "ny I>OUlI " 1""- ,Iop<l 01
1""- eu,ve 01 "II) al iIlal point \\e can oomhlM Eq.1-8 .. -il b Eq. 2-4 10 w';IC
" '('") ",
o - T, - d, dI - dr"
(2-9)
In wo,ds. lhe """"' '''",1;00 01. pa,{icle 'l an)' inslalll i, Ik. "","nd denvali", 01
iI' ro"lion xl') "',Ib ">;p<'<I 10 limo.
A common UO;I 01 aerole,"l;on i, 100 ,,,,,Ie, per second pc. S£'rood: mI(,·s)
0' mls'. Olhe. unil' are;n too lorm of "'ngllli(lime'lime) ot 1""Slhllime' .
A="',aliou bas t>olh magnilU"" and dlf.x:1ion (il i, yel anolh", "0<:10' quan-
lily). lis algebraic ,;gn "'p,e""nls ;IS di ,ecl;ou 00 an axis jusl as lot displa", ,,,,,,nl
and wlOClly: Ihal '" "="""Iion .. -;Ih a posilive is in Ih. posili", dir oC1ion
of "" axis. and "ocel.' raliou ,,-;Ih a nogali", '-aluo i, in negali,.. di'OCIioo.
Figure 2-60: is a plol 01 Ihe of I .... diseus""d in
Samp'" Problem 1-2. Compa,e Ihis a(,) eu,ve " ;Ih lb. "( ,) flOinl on
{he <1(1) eu,w ,110 ... Ihe of lhi! ,-(,) eurvo al Iho rotI'es("J1lding
I;m<>, Whon • is conslaol (al ei lhe, 00' 4 ""'ivali", " Zi'ro and so atlo;, lho>
ooc.l "'ralio" . When lhi! cab fus1 begin' 10 mo,,". Ihe ,-(I) eu II ... ba:s a polili"" deriva-
Ii .. (Ill« ,Iop<l;, (XI'ilive). wblch lThlan<; Ihal 0(,) is pre;I;"", Wbeo lho> cab slows 10"
9-op. l",,- IUld slop.:! oIlhe 1'(1) curve a,. Ihal is.a(I) is neg'tli' ....
NeXi comp"'" lhe. slopo.>s of Ibo "(I) CUf\-e during Ih" 1 .. '0 I"'ri-
ods. Th •• lope associa l"d .. ilh lb. cab', slowing do",n (commonly called
. ,ahOll ") is "",,"USil cab Slops in hallihe I;me il look 10 gel up 10
'P'-;ed. Tho 'Ieepc' 'lop« """IUlS lhall be magnilude ollhe dOC<'lerahO"" [a.S'"
{bau Ihal 01 {be as in Rg. 2-&.
FIG. 2·1 CoIOIl,1l P. St' P!' i ••
rocket ,led as it;. bfOlly.t up to high
ope«! I""",,,,.tiot> OIlt 01 tbe p'!")
.Dd th .. Y'"Y J >pidly b"'N (""'" I·
'lOtiot> into tbe page). (C .. "",y U.S.
Ajrf"omo)
TiI.CI1C5
n." ""O""oos IOU would 1",,1 .,hilo riding in Ihe cab of FIg. 2.fi .w ",dicalM
b). tho slotchoo figuros at the bolton!. Wh"n lhe cab fi.st acede"tes. you fe<>1 as
Ihougb )"ou 3te p,o",,'<l d01I"1lW •• d: wb,n lale, Ih. cab IS bf"ilhd 10' "op. YOll
",em 10 be stretched "" ward. In ben .... ". you fe<>1 nothing 'P''CIal. In olbe,
yO"' body .e""ts 10 ooc"k,a{,ons (II is all OC<>:'IOf01ll<'le.) but nol to
velOCIties (il is nol a 'P'",dom"lCr). When }·ou a,e in a car !ravehng al 90 lmlh 01
at, "i'1'l.oo t .. ,voting at 900 }·ou have no bod,,}· a"',,,,oo,. of moho".
Ho .. """ •. illh" ca, 01 1'1'00 quiel l)· change, velocity. }·ou ma}· "'-'COOl" l""nly
""'are of lb. cbang<'. pe.haps ,,'"Cn I.igb"'ood by it . Part 01 the Ih.dl 01 ,n ann"",·
""'01 ri"" i, due 10 Ih" ma"Bos of wlocity thai yO" ""<1.. ... 80 (yO" pa y
10' Ihe acceleration" not fo. spnJ). A mow .xl,eme '''011'1. is sno .... in lhe
pholographs of Fig. 2·7 .... bieb .. " .. lalen 1 .. hil" • mctel sled ,.."' .ap,dl}· _=10.·
aled along a 1ract and Ih"n rapidly bral"" 10 a stop.
La,S" a=lo,."ol15 are exp'<"S5<'d in le.ms 01 g ""ils. ,,-;th
19 - 9.8 mi.' (s "nil ). (2· 10)
(As w. 'haU di'iCUSS ," &>clion 2·9. g is Ih. magnitude 01 Ihe """, ,,,.ation of a
faili"g ob,ect oo.r Earth', ,u,f"",.) On a rollo. roJ.ste,. you may experie nce b.ief
"""""'talio"' up to Jg . .... hich is (3)(9.8 mls'). 0' .00", 29 mls'. Ib.n eno"gb
10 justify the cosl 01100 .i""-
Tactic 5; An Acce/eracion·s Sign I. commo. l:m-
guag<. ,he "S' of:m occel".tion It", • "".oc:ie.,ffi< """""i.!'
pooiIive """l,,,tioo ""' .... ,hat ,he .peed 01 an obi ....
ioe","".g. and .. ytive """"" .. ,;"" m ..... tb., tb •. 'l""'d
d.ecr • • ",,! (tbe obj«t is d""l .... ing). In 'his boot. however.
,he";gn 0I :tO "",,",.,ioA iodie.,es. dir«tiot> .• ", ,.bethe,
""ob;":<"" f'f"d incr.""'! Of dK"aoi.g..
H". then ,he proper , ... y 'oin",I"" 'be ';gn"
... II tbe .;gn. 01 tho yelodty ... d """"",..ti"" of . port;"''''
"etbela/1M.". ,he .ptodof'be panir" iner ...... II tb, .. S ..
"0 oppoo;1e. ,It •• pood <I«" ...
VcH'CKPOINT 3 A """"bat mo"""oIo.s onx
FOf .xample. if • car witll •• initial yelocit)· I· _ - 15 mi.
i, b,lIkod to Ht"!' in 5.0 then _.., _ +5.0 m.'t' .Tho >«,1 .. >-
,;"" ;. but tb. =., speed It .. d",,..,.,.d. Th. " ...,.,
i, tbe ditt,,,.,,,, in .iyu: tbe di'e<tio. of tb, """,,,,..ti,,,,
opposi" tb., 01 the vt100ty.

"·ilb Xln m,",,,, and, in seconds.
(a) Boca"", position.< depends 0" lilllo t. pJrtielo
nlUst b<> moving. Fwd tile pJ,6clo·s wlocily fuoction
,·(1) and a=J.ora1io" I"oct;"" ntl).
...... Wltor i. tb. 'ign of ito """ ... ,,100 if;, .. onovinS (a) in
,be p<>!;'iv. di, .... ;"" wi,b ioc:ro""ng opeN.(b) in th. posi_
,iv. dir«t;"" wi,b do<re ..... s 'f""'d. (e) in 'bo "g";ve
dirKlio. wi,. iocr •• ",,! . pted. ODd (d) in tb, O'!";'"
diroctio .... b decr • .,in8'pt<d"l
Co/cWtions: Difkrenliating ,lie. posllioo fUOClion ... " find
I· - - 27 + ),' .
wilh,' in mme .. P'" secood. Dlffe,enlialing Ibe velocilY
funclioo !hen giws u,
a - +61.
"'Ih a in n"Ne" f"" squa,ed.
(b) [, loo,e ow, a !in", .. tlen v - (f/
u/culatlon: s"nio& "(1) - 0
(An,,,,,,)
A! I - O.!OO ",,'Ilde ;, a!x(O) - + 4 m and is mO'ing
"'Ih a velocilY 01 "(0) - - T/ mi,-!hal i:s. in !lie n,ga-
li"e dir<'Cl;oo 0( Ibe ..- Jt< .=Ioral;oo is a(O) - ° be-
cau,", juS! loon !be ""nic"", veloci!y is 001 rnaoging.
0 - - 27 + 31'.
"b"'" has 100 ,.,Iulion
Fo, 0 < 1<3" 100 ",,'lid.> siul has a ooga!ive
so il oonlin", ... !o move in Ihe ""gali"c d;,e<:{ion.
Ho .. "vef. i!s accel"ralion is no longe, ° bY! is iflCfeasing
and (X'Si!ive. B • .-"",u,", !oo sign, 0( too '"Iocily and Ilia .c-
celoralioo are opposi1e. It.. "",!ic'" muSI be sln"-ing.
I - :!o 3s. (AllSwe.)
Ihe velocl1y is ''''0 oolh J, belore "nd 3 5 afler
looclock ,ead,O.
lnd""d . .. " al,eady how !bal;1 'lOP' n,omen!anl)'
a!, - 3 s JuS! Iboo !he parlick is os far 1o the lell 01 llIi!
o'igin in Fig. 2-1 as i! ""II eWI!('1. Subslilllling 1 - 3,
inlo 100 exP''''''''''" 10u(I)."" find Ihal 100 panlde', """-
"00 )!lS1 Ihen i:s x - - SO m. lis II<n'Ii',alion "51iU (X'SillVe.
(c) Dose,i"" Ih' paniclo', molion 101 ,,, 0.
Rosonlng: We need 10 exam;oo Ihe 101
x(.). 1'(1). Jnd a(,'.
Fo, ,> 3 s. Ihe "",Iicle moves 10 Ihe righl on Ih.
axis. lis aoce le,alion ,,,main, posihve aud grows p.o-
gress""I)' lar&", tn mJgI1illlde. Th. wlOCJly " now posi-
Ii", .• nd tl 100 grows prog,essively larg<" in mag"ilud"
2-7 1 Constant Acceleration: A Special Case
10 lIl.ny I}'P'" of n"'lion. ,II. aoc.I""lioo is eil ll", co\l,;lanl 0' apPIOI;ma"ljI so.
FOl oxample. you migbl a=lera" a ca. al an 'pproxim.lIdy con",nl ,"10 ".-hon
a "'ffie lurn, lrom ,od 10 g"eo. Ttk>fl graph' of }'Oll' posilion. wloci'y."M
""""Ie,alion would Ib"", in Fig. 2-K (NOlO Ihal a(1) in Fl.!;. 2-& is oon-
SI.nl. " ' hirn ''''Ill''''' 111.1 1'(1) ,n Fig. 2-& a conSlnn! slope.) Lal", when }'OU
,00 10 a Slop. Ihe acc"",ralioo (01 1k'CCt."lion in oommon language)
mighl .Iso be 'I'ploximal"l)' conSiant.
Such cases a,e so common IIID! a 'p"cial sN of equD!ioft'l bas ""en do,ivoo
101 de'ling ",illl 100m. On" apPloarnlo Ihe do.,,-alion of Ih<lse "'Iualioft'l i, gi'-on
in thi' ""'lion. A second approadJ "givo" in tbe nexl ",.,ioo. ThIOUgbOlll oolh
""<Iiou, and Iale, wll,'n you .. ".t 0/1 Ih. 1I0mo"",k teepin m,ndillal
rluu <IT< \'alid only fo' "",,,,,,,, occ"",mum (Q' siom/ions .... hich JO"
call ,/", ««fcmlloll os b"'''g «"Ula"').
Wh"n lho> """,icral;"" "OJOSl'O'.IOO awrag<'- .. ,.:<Iera,ioo and instanialk)()lt; 0<: -
<>.""""""", at. equal aoo ""can "'file Eq, 2-7. wilh ""mecl\ang" in notali"" ...
v - I'.
a - a - ---
.... 1- 0 '
fIG. Z.. (a) Th. positio. xU) of . particle moving wilb oon"',nt acc.lentioa. (b) I"
velocity "").given at .",11 poi.t by the slope of tb. """'" oh(I). (c) It, (ro .... 01) >«<1 .. _
>l ion, tqu>l 10 tho (ron>t .. t) .. ope of the curve 01 11/).
"
I
::t::::::::::..::=-
,.,
,

!

. ,'--------
'"
"j ---. ,.". =' .::""-
'.'-------
Ch.opt ... 2 I Motion Akmg. Strlligtlt (j,..
He," ". is the ""loeOl)" at {Il"'" - 0 and v is tbo velocity at any lal", lime I. We can
"-'<"3"iI {his ,,<!uall{ln ""
,. - ". + a'.
(2-11 )
As • cbock, nOie Ihallk ... equ.,ion •• duG'S to ,. - \'0 lor I - 0, as ;1 must As a fu, ·
th., ,hod. lake tbe tkrivOIiv. 01 Eq. 2-11. Doing so yii>lds d,M, - a, .. -k"", is I""
di>finili"o 01 a. Figure 2-Sb sho .... " plot of Eq. 2-11.1ho \'(,) fUlKtion , Ih. Illocl;on
is Iia;>Jf "nd thus thc plot is • Slraigbllin".
III • similar maone, . .. " can ,.,,·rite Eq. 2-2 ("ilh a low chang"" in oomion) ..
x - x.
v, .. - , 0
and Ih"" as
(2-12)
in • .-bich x. is the rosi!iO" ollbe panic"'., , - 0 and ", .. is 100 avc .. yelocity
""1 .... I - 0 and a law. 1;""" .
For Ih. Ii",,", v.loci! Y Ill"Clio" in Eq. 2-11.lbe a"Hag' velocity ""C, any Ii"",
interval (,"y. from I - 0 10 a later l;n", ,) is thc aver.go of the velocity.l Ih. 1><>-
ginning of 1M interva] ( - "oJ and 100 velocily al Ibe .nd 01 Ihe in!",,-al ( - ,'). For
Ihe inlorval from, - O!O la!", !ime 'IOOU. Ihe aw,"g<' ,,,loci!)' i,
" ... - 1<'-, + ").
(2-13)
SUbsli1U!ing the 'igh! "de of Eq. 2-11 fo, " yields. .h", • li a le f('.rra"ge"",n!,
1'-. - I', + ta'.
(2-14)
Fioally,subsliluling Eq, 2-1 inlo Eq. 2-12 yiold:!
J( - x. - I'.' + iar'
(2-15)
As a cbod:, no!e Iha( pu l1ing , - 0 )'iold:! -' - x .. as il lIlust As a fU'I IIe,
laking Ih. <J",j'-ah'-e 01 Eq. l -15 )'ields Eq. 2-11. again as il filUS!. Fig",e 2-8a
sllO"s a plol 01 Eq, 1-15: I he fU"'hOn is quad,atic and Ihu, Ihe plot" cu,ved.
Equalioos 2-11 ""d 2-15 are Iho basic eq"alW'" for ccmsralll acalualum:
can "" used 10 solw any consl,,,( aocele"lio" problom i" Ihis book.
Ho .. ..,ve', w., ran "",ive olil<>, "'I"al""" Ih.t might useful i" ""Iai"
spox-ifi. Sllualions FItS!. "Ole Ih"l "' mao}' a. five qua"I ,I"" ran possibly""
i"volved i" aoy problofil "bout con"""l a.<n1e .. IKln- "'lIlely.x - x .. I'. ',<I, and
I'". of lhi>.se quanlilies io; "ar io'-ol""d in (he proble m. ';,hn- "-' Q gi.'en
or ru an W'o are Ihen p,e"'"!ed "'Ih !h,ee olille f('mainiog quanti!> ..
"lid asked !o find Iho fourlh.
Equations 2-11 ""d 2-15 coc h co"lallllour of the"" qu"ntilie" bUI "01 lhil
"'"'" fou, . I" Eq. 2-11. Ihe "m.-;si"g illgtedi.",., is Ih. disp]"",nwnl -' - In Eq,
2-15. il is Iho ",Iocil)' " 'Th<!se Iwo "'Iualioos "Iso "" combined in wa)',
10 )';"Id (h, ,,,, addilio"al eq"'tions. "arn 01 which ,n'-olvos a diffe""1 "mio;sing
v31iabl •. " Firsl. we can 110 oblai"
I" - "j + 2a(x - J(. ). (2-16)
Thi' .qual""o is u",lul if ..... do "01 how, and 31e nol ,.qui,.<l1O find it s..'COnd.
eliminal" Ihe OCCI'Ie,al,on a ""I",en Eqs 2-11 .. d 10 produce""
eq"'lio" i" "'boch a doe, nol app"ar.
-' - x. - t(", + I'}I.
(2-17)
Final!)'. can eliminale I'o-obl,ining
x - x, - '" - iat'. (2-18)
NOIe 100 ,ubU. bill",,"n Ibi, equ"lio" .ud Eq. 2 15. 0",,- iuvolw51hil
i"ilial vekocily I''; 1"" olb .. , in'-oh'es Ihe veJocily I' al lin," ,.
Table 2- llisl5 lhe baSIC co""anl a=1.ralion (E'I"
2- 11 a"d 2-15) a, .. ",U as lhe 'p<'Cializod cqualion, ,hal we have
deri".d. To sol, .... simpl. ron"",,' ac<l'leralion p,oblem. )'OU
usuaUy us.> an equalion frOlll Ibis Ii/you hove lhe " 'ilh
you). ChOOS<' au equalion for" hich Ihe only va ,iable is
Ihe va,iab"'rcq"",wd in lhe problonLA 'impler pi"" is 10 ",mem-
00' onl)' i -II aJId 2- 15. aoo lhen loom "' simullaJl<'Ous
equ.:llioru .. 1I""e"" needed.
Eq""'iom for Mo.ion wi.h Con ..... Ac"" ....... ion·
Equ.,;"" Mi<"ng
Number Equ.tioo
0."""1
2_11
'' - ', + 0' < <0
W x - x, - ''0' + !to.' >
.y-;; H 'C I( POI NT. . The «Iu" ioru give ,be po>i1ioo
x(,) 01 . panicle LO fou, . "u.,ioru; (I) r _ 3r - 4, (2) X _ - 51' + 4.'
+ 6; (1) r _ 2},' - ./It, (4) r _ 5t' - 1 To ",hiCJr 01 'b .... "tu:"ioru ""
'he «I." ;"'" 011>010 2-1 apply?
w ,,' - "I + "1Jlx - r,l
W
r - "a - if", + VI'

W r - "a _"' _!-" >,
'!-"'k. """ thot to. """,boo.,.. u...!<,d..-... b<fo ..
..... th, 'qw""",",
Sampl. Problem m
lhil 01 a woodp<'Cl ., is rno'ing f,,",<I,d •• a
of 7A9 OIls "'he" .be tx-.l makes fitsI con."", .. ; !h • 't.,.,
Th. ooal SlOps .fle, Jl"r1<!rali"g !h. limb tr,' 1.87
mm. Assuming the a<U'lerali"" 10 be OO<ISlanl . find the
a<U' lornhoo m'gnilUoo in !o",,,of g.
loVe ca" us.> !he oonSlan1-ac<l'le.alioo equa-
.ions; ,0 panicllla., can use Eq. 2- 16 (,' - Ii +
2,,(x - xo) ). "'bkh relaieS wlocily and displacem,,"t
c..lcwtions: B .... u"" !h o ... oodJKldo.·s ooad Slop'<.
the final velocity is " - O. The inilial v.locity is ", -
7.49 mls. ""d .he du,iog !h;, coJISI",, !
aocok .. !iOll is x - x. - 1 ii7 X 10- ' m. Sul:>s'i!Uli"g
.he", v.lue, IIlto Eq. 1-16, "'. bal"
0' - (7A9 m/ s)' + 2,,( 1.87 X 10- ' m),
0 . Q - - 1.500 X 10' mis'.
Figure 2-9 gi'·.s a parlide's ",[ocily " "'1SU' its posilion
"' il m",'", along an x axis ",,"slanl
What " ,IS ",I<lCily al """,ion x - a?
loVe can use lb. oonS!a"'-""",)('.alioo equa-
paniclllar, can us.> Eq. 2- 16 - ,i +
2,,(x - x.j). ,,.hidJ ,ela!es wloci.y and IlOSilron.
First try: No.mally wo ... an! 10 """ a" equalion Iba.
includ.s .he ,equ.Sled I" Eq. 2-16 ......
ide"'ily ... as 0 ""d I'. as b..';"S !h •• eque.slild v3fiabli>.
Th.o .. " can ide ",ily a second pair of as beiog
I' and Jr. Fro", the g.aph ..... II .. .., ''''0 ,uch pai.s: (1) " -
8 n,l. and x - 20 m. and (2) • - 0 and x - 70 "' . Fo.
enmple. wo .. Tile Eq. 2-16 as
(8 - 1'1 + 2,,(20 m - 0). (2-19)
Ho .... '''' .•.• l "01I' OOilllo, I', "0' a.
S.cond try. In".ad of directly invo"'ing lbe .equeSl.d
Dividi"g by g - 9.8 mli- and .be ,·.Iuo.
"'. find Iha! Ibe magni!uoo of!oo he.d·s aOCek,.llOn"
,, - (1.53 X 1(0)g. (A", .. ..,.)
Co ....... nt: This !)')>ical a=Io .. ,iol\ magnituoo for a
woodpi'd •• is aboll! 70 lim", !ho OOC<'le,alion masni -
IUd;> of Colonel Slap!, in Fig. 1-7 and ceminl)' 1I'0ukl
h.ve been le1hallO h,m. T1Ie abili.y of a 1I'()()(]p<'de' 10
wiltlSland such huS' """,lernhOl! magnilUoos;s!Xl' 1I'('U
uOOo:>l'S!ood, but !boom ",e !"'O main argun ... ""s (1) n...
... oodp.'der", molion is ,Imoo alo"g a Slraigb! line.Some
r.",an:b"fS bel",,,"" !ba! ooocu"'oo can occur III "uIllaos
.nd anima" .. nc" the ooad is rapidly ro1a100 arou"d!he
neel (o"d b,"in Slem), 00llhal il is "'"s in SlIaigll! -
lin;> motion. (2) n... "'uodpilcl ds brain is anocbM S()
"'01110 100 "'Ulllha! lhore is linl.:l re,idu,l ",,,,,,men! or
osciU .. i"" 01 !he b.ai" jus •• Iu', lhe impact and nocha"",
for tOO lis,u. oo"U"",ing !h . skulllUld b,ain !olcar.
. ( .. )
FIG. Velocity""".' positioo.
variable, Ids","" Eq. 2- 16 " 'ilh !ho ',,"0 pairs of koo"'o
data, ,denlif}'ing "0 - 8 m/s and x, - 10 rn as the fitsl
pair a"d • - 0 m/s and x - 70 OJ as .he s.."O)lld pai •.
Then ".., cau
(0 mI,), - (8 OIls)' + 2,,(70 m - XI m),
which gi"", "S a - - 0.64 nili- . Sul>Slitu!i"g Ihis val""
into Eq. 2-19 .nd solving fo, V. (Ibe ",Iocil)' associated
wi.h !h . posl1ion of, - 0), .... fi"d
I'. - 9.5 (A""" .... )
Ch.opt ... 2 I Motion Akmg. Strlligtlt (j,..
ComllHlnt: Some problem'S ;,,"01,.., an equationlhal in-
dud., the r"'lU<!Sloo va,;abk A mo," chal!.:>nging p1Ob-
10m requires you 10 firstll'" an lhal doe, no'
,,,,,Iude Ibe roqu"'led va".!>'" but I"" gi"es yOU"
value floWed 10 find it Some,;"",. ,""
pnpu. 00<:3""';1 is 50 indlfec1. How.,"", . if
you build )'our 5OI\10g by solving 10[' 01 problems,
Ih. proceduro g,.JuaUy mquires loss rourage and "JaY
eveo "''COme obvious. Soh-ing probleRls of .ny
ph)"iCll or social. require. pra<1ice.
2-8 I Another Look at Constant Acceleration*
Tb.:l firs! 100'0 equalio/\<; ill Table 2-1 are {he basir eq"",iol\<; from "'hir h the mhers
ar. """v;,d. Tn.,.,. 1010 ClIn be oblJloed by inleg"I ;"" of lb •• = I,,,. ,ioo wilh
Ih. cood,lion Ihal Q is oouSlant To find Eq. 2-11 . we .. lh. ""fin;I;O" 01 .c-
ederalion ( Eq. 2-8) .s
d,' - adl.
W. 0 •• 1 ",.ile 11>0> ,/Od'Jim'" ;""grol ('" II",id,,;mlil'<) of bolh ,ide5:
Sinro a""lotalion a" • COOSlanl, il can bo<> lahn outs;"" lhe in1eg<alioo. oblain
,' - a' + c.
(2-20)
To I"" c"""aBl of inlegralion C. w. 101 , - 0, ,I " ' hkh Ii,"" I' - " ..
SubslilUhng lhese values inlo Eq, 2-10 (,,-bkh musl hold fo. all ,·,1",-><; of "
HK"ludmg, - 0) yields
". - (,,)(0) + C - c:
SUbsl;luI;ng Ihi' inlo Eq. 2-20 giws us Eq, 2- 11 .
To "",we Eq.l-15, we 100 defi",tion olveooly (Eq. as
dx - vd,
.nd lh"" loko Ih. inoofi"ile inlegral of bolh 5i"", 10 obl'in
NeXI , wo for " .. -ilh Eq. 2 -II :
[,1"' - f("o +"')d'.
Since I', i, a COllSlanl , os i5 Iho a=kralio" a. lbi, can bi? .... ·.inon as
now yie ld,
-< - I ''; + ia,' + C .
(2-21)
"ho •• C ;s ,001be. con,I,n( of iUlograli01l . At lime, - O. wo baw x - xo
SUbsliluhng lho", "3Iu",,;" Eq, 2-21 yiekk Xo - C . Replacing C "'Ih ... in Eq,
2-11 givos us Eq. 2-15.
2-9 1 Free-Fall Acceleration
II }'OII I"",,>d an obI' ",1 " 'lh'" up '" down ,nd could ""mehow olinlJilal. 100
effects of ,i. 00 iI' flighl. )'Oll would find lnal Ih. object 3"",loral" do,,-"ward "1
"",nain CO/I'Slanl ,ale. Th.1 rale ;,; calied 100 rr..,.r. Ii IK'WI • •• ' io n. "nd ;1, magn;-
lude;,; "'PfCS"nted by g. The .""ol.."'l;on i, inlk'P"n"""l of Ihe objc",f, ch,,"c-
leri'lics.surh os mass, densily,O' sha",,: 11 is lh. same for all objoc{"
Two examplos 011,..,-1,11 OOC<'le,a!ion ,no..-n in Rg. 2 -10. wbich i<; a """OS
of mobosoopk photos of a fea!h'" and ao appl ... As !h= object' loll. !lIey
.",ebale 1kJ • .-nward-bO!h a! the san", ra!o g. Thu,. !ooir 'I_d, in",oa .. a! lb.
saOle raw. and !boy fall !og<>!h.,.
The ""Iuo of g va.;"" !Jigbd)' .. ;\h 1'li!Udo and with olenl ion. Al ... a li'Vel in
Earlh', midlali!Ud"" Ih. value is 9.8 m1S' (or J21!/s'j. whim is whal )·ou should
u"" os an ex",,1 ""moo, lor ,hoe problem' in 'his boot unl",s o,h" ... -;"" nOled.
equalions of mo!ioo 1II Table 2-1 lor conslan, a.cc<'loralioo also awly 10
f,e" lall nea. ,urlace: lbal Ihey awly 10 au objecl io ve'heal llighL
eilbe, up 0' oown." ho" !1Ie effoct5 of the air call "" IK'gkCled nole
!hal lor Iree faU: (I) The dire"lions of mOlio" are"".,. along a 'wheal )" ax",
iltSl •• d of Iii.> x axis. wilh Ih. posil,ve di.ectron of y up",,,d. (nu, is imporlanl
for lal'" chaplo" combin.>d horizonlal and ,-..lical mol ion, ore examiuedj
(2)"J"b.> I • ..,-Iall ace"Ii'''lio" i, uegah"e-Ibal is, on y axis. 10-"'ard
Earlh's cenler-a"d so il has In. "alue - g ," Ihe
.- The boe_falt """,ler.,ion .... Bank', .",[ace ;u _ - g _ - 9_8 ",!<'.and tbe
of ,be """,ler. '"", _ 9.8 mI, l. Do_ ,ub>';1Ute - 9.8 mI, ' lor !.
Suppose you loss a 10",:110 di,i'CIly up..-,rd "'lh ao inilial (posil;"') "("\oc;1)" v.
and Iho" calm ;! "000 il rclUlfl'i !O lbe rdo"", ",,,,I. Du,ing its fru-fall f/lg/II (Irom
jltSl ruw, ils r.lo"", !O jll5l bo.:>fore;1 is ca ug/n).!1Ie eq"aliollS of Table 2-1 apply!O il'
mOliofL The a.ocolofJtion " al ..... ys a - - g - - 9.8 ,n"'. lli'gal;W arid Ihu, """-n-
"<lid. The velocil)·. as b)' 2· 11 alld 1·16: ,juring
. scen!. lbe magnilude 01100 posil;", '"locily d<'Cfo",",,, U"hl il nlOO.ICnlarily b.>-
romos Z\'fO. Bocau", Ihe lomalo h" lhoo SloppOO. i! i, a! i15 maximum hcighl .
During Ihe """"'" I. ! 110 m agnimdo of 1M (now "" gati''') loci 1)" i'lffil as..,,"
-/c H 'C Ie POI N T 5 (.j If y"" '''' .. ball ,,"';yn"p, ,.ha, i .. ", "ED 01 ,be ball".
di.pbcem.n, lor ,h. from tbe T.Ie ... po;", '0 , .. hiS"" poin'? (b) Wh" iT i1
lor ,be de.oc.n,. ITom ,b. highe.l poinl bod, to , .. rele_ poin'? (e) \\11 . 1 ;.'0. boll".
""",1e ... ,iorI .. ;" kiy.e .. poin,1
Sample Problem m
F!G. 2·'O AI"'''r . od,"'Ppi.
freeloll ;. vacuum" ,be =n.
m.gni ,ude 01 """,1e"';011 g. The
occeie",ti"" ;ncr .... , ,be disUIIC.
be" .,.,," ,,,,,,,,.,ive irn.8 .... In ,b, .1>-
.. oce of .... ,Joe f ... her 'M ,pple fal l
'ose,b ... (Ii", :;"1;II7/0"I>/,lnI(J8")
a.. Scpwmbe. 26. 1993. Dave Munday ",",,"I o",r lbe
Canadian odge of Niagara Falls ," a Slt'<'ll>all "'l"ip[l"<l
.. -iln "n air bot;, and then rell 48 m !O Ihe waler (and
,ocks). Ass"ma /U, milial veloci!)' .. -as zero, and "eglecl
Ihe el/"'l of lbe air on Ih. ball during tne fall.
(a) How long dod Munday laU !O roacto Ih. waler surf"",,?
that Munday's displacem,,"t y - J. i<; a neg.I""
quanli!y-Munday fcU do"'". in the n<go,j,·< d,rulwn
of lh" ). axi, (be did nol fall "I'!)' Also uolO that -1&'4.9
has Iwo squam rools: 3.1 and - 1. 1. Hem
posilrve ,oo! b..'C3U"" Munda}" ob'-iousl)' reach"" tli.>
wal<'f ""face aft" 00 begins 10 lall al 1 - O.
Mu"day', faU "-as a Ireo lolL lhoe
oon'la"l -o""" Io,"lioo "'l"'lioo, 01 Table 2-1 apply.
Cakwtions: Lei us place aj-".xi<; along Ihe palh 01 his
lall. wilh y _ 0 al hi' slarling poill! aod !b" posil;'"
di,el.1ion up lh. axIS (Fig. 2-11). Tlwn Ih" a.creloral,on
i:s a - - g along Ih.! alis. ,"d too ..-al,-, Iovel is a!
y - - ./8 m ("'galr,"" b..,<"3USC it IS below y - 0). Lm !oo
falll><"gio al Woo, - O. ",Ih in,lial "'loci I)' "0 - O.
From Table 2-1 Wi'- choose Eq. 2-15 (bm in)" nola -
lion) beca ..... n oonla,ns lhe r"'lU"'led lime < W" find
J - Y. - , ... - !gl'.
m - 0 - Ot - j{9.8 mlrjl'.
I' - -1&'4.9.
,.,
1 - ).1 5- (An,wer)


"
,
,
<)
,
,
<)
,
,
,
fIG. %- " The position.
1
veloc;'y . .....J ""'.I ..... ioo
,
01 • freel)' laII"",- objed.
"
bue ,h. "eel ball ri<kIon
by D.v. MW><hy ovu
,

N;. !,n
• • •
,.,
'"
Im/"I";.',

" "


- 0. 4.

_" .6 _, ...
.
,
_H .l --29.4

4. '
Ch.opt ... 2 I Motion Akmg. Strlligtlt (j,..
(b) MumlJ Y eould oouo! Ih','" .. oond, of r,,,,,
rail but rould nOl .... how /" be had fallen with each
count Dil,,,.mio" his pos<lioo alo,ch rull s«:ood
CalcWtiorw: W. 'gain"Sil Eq. 2-15 but now we ,"tlsli·
In {Um. 100 ,.,tu...." , - 1.0" 2.0 s, and 3.0" and so[",
101 Mumby', p<>;ilion J.n." ,",uits are silo'"" in Fig. 2-11.
(c) Wh.1 WM Munday', velodly a, "" ,.""h..-..:I Ih. "'.-
w. ,".I.",,?
Calculation: To find 18.> velocity froRlIl\;> "rigi"al data
withool u.ong tilTh' of faU from (a), we Eq.
2-16 in J DOlalKm and Ihen ,"t>sli!Ul" d",":
,.' - \'1 - 2g(y - "0) - 0 - (2)(9.8mls')( - 48 mI.
so • - - .10.67 mrs _ - 31 nlfs - - IlO
(Ao".-,,)
We eb""" 100 negalive 1001 hefC D..'Call'" 100 ,,"iomy
"-as in the !I<'g";'-e direction.
Sample Problem m
In Fi[l. 2-11, a pilCh[>f loss.>s a baS<'h,lU up along J y Jlis.
""Ih.ninilial'p"odol11 nu..
(a) How loog d"", 100 Nil lah to leacb ilS maximum
heigbT?
(1) Ooco Ih. the pilCh .. and
before il ,elUlllS 10 his hnd, its occc\i>IOlioo is Iho f,,,,, -
lal l "",ol<1""lioo ,, - - g. Ikrnuse this is CO"SI,nl ,
Tabl. 2-1 appties 10 ",olion. (2) TIle '-olocily ,. al lhe
maximum must be O.
ulculation: Knowing ,', Q, aud lhi! initial velocilY
". - 12 mI .. and I. we soh'" Eq. 2-11. .·hleb oon-
FIG. 2·12 Apilcber
'0 ...... baseball
",aigh' up ;n'o ,h. Ur.
The "I"";"'" off, ••
loU .ppIy for ri";ng"
"",U .. forfaU"'gob_
je<1.,p"'vi<IKI ... yef_
r"", {,om ,!Ie air carr be
•• glKl.d
,
"'s'-P"'"' :'
, I
"
"
"
:'
"
"
"
, '
""""II :
.. "
'1"-"'" ."' ........ ' :
... d_ .. : .
-.,.,.,."" :,'
1""'- "
"
"
"
......
--.
..
.-
'''' .......
on' """"'''
--
(d) What ""as Muoday', v.IociI}' ., "oeh oollnl of ""'"
IllU s.>rond? Was he ''''"'" of his incfCasing sJl"'<ld?
Calculatio ... : To find 100 wIOOl;'" from the o,iginal
1I:!!a ",ing tbe pi>Sl!ioll'> lrom (b), w. lot a - - g
io Eq, 2-11 "nd then substitute. in lum, thi! valu",
1- 1.0 .. 2.0 .. and 3.0 H.," is '0
' - ' . - 8
1
- 0 - (9.8 ml,')(1.0 s) - - 9.8 mls. (An' ..... ')
Tlleolhe, ",sul!s ,to in Fig. 2-11.
Once be was in lree fall , Munday was unawarc of
tho incr"",mg speed b..'C3use the accele,ation du,ing
tho laU alway,; - 9.8 mis', as nOl.d in the 1",1 col-
umn of Fig. 2-11. He ... as. 01 COU'1O' _ sharply aware of
biuing IhO''-alO' herallse Ibon the accelo .. l;oO amupdy
ch.nged (Munday sun-iv.>d too laU bU! lhen lao.. '<I stiff
logal fin", for his OClioo.)
lains IhOSi! lou, This }'icld<;
,. - ,.
,- .

0 - 12 ntis
9.8 ml,'
1.2.. (Ans ..
(b) Whal;,; Ihe ball'. maximum h.igh! ahove ils reloa",,-
poinl ?
Calculation: We lake Ih e ball'. leloase poinl 1o
be Y. - O. We can 'hen Eq. 2-l6 '" Y nOI.1ion, ""-1
y - y. - J and ,. - 0 (.1 too ",ax,mum belgbl), and
solve fo, y.W. gel
y _ ,., - "i _ 0 - (12 mls,>' - 7.3 m. (Ans ..
2a 2( 9.S mig-)
(cl How long does 'he ball t"ke 1o ,.ach. po,"1 n,
ils ,,,Io.se "",n11
Calculations: We know,· ... - - g. and di'l'lac"n"'''1
J - J. - 5.0 m, and .. " t, so we ehOOSoi' Eq. 1- IS.
R • • -nling illo, J and selhng y. - 0 give us
y - , ... - }gl' ,
Of 5.0m - (12 m/' l l - (f)(9.8 n,I>')I' .
If we lempo,arUy omil lb. unil' n01ed Ihal Ih<>y
are c!l1lSi'I"nl), .. e can Ih;,; as
- ]21 + S.O - O.
Soh'ing Ihis quadralic iiquOlion fOf 'yields
1- 0.53 , and 1- 1.9 .. (Answ.r)
There atO Iwo such Ii",,,,! Tlus is n01 ,eally '",posing
b..>ca""" lb. ball passes IWicc 11uougb y - S.O m, once
on 100 wa)' up and OOC<l on Ihe way down .
I'ROILEM-iOLVINCl1It.CTlCS
Tactic 6: Meanings of Minus Signs In S"'ple
Probl.m, 2_7 ... d 1-1\. "'" .... b/i,b<d • v." .... ] all .. (,be
Y all,,) ADd we <boot _ 'I""e up ... ",d di,t<1;011
'0 be poolti_ W. ,h.n cboot lbe origio 01 'be y .... (,b" io,
'be y _ 0 "",i'ion) '0 .ui, II", pfOblem, I. Sampl. Problem
eitbe' .... pos;';"" or ..... ""sa'i",,_ Th .. ;' nu. "" "", .. ,
wb".lI .. body "Iocated:ond "" maUo, bow /,." 0';' IOh:o,
dir""io. i, .. DlO'-in!o In S .. nple Probl.m 2--8. ,be """,Ie' . ';011
of ,be baU n'l" '" {dow", .. ,dl 'b,OII£O"'" ;" !iglr',
wbtlher ,lie bill ,i,inS or Caning,.
2-1, 'ke Ofiy.. ..... .. ,be ''''' 01 'be loll>. ..,d in Sample
Probl'1ll2_8 it 10 .... ,hoe pilei .. ,', h. od A nes" iv. val •• 01 y
,he. m, .. , ,b. , ,.e bod)' ;, bel"", ,b. cl>ooen oriSiD. A ""!"-
,iv. veloc;,)' mearu ,bo, ,hoe body i, movin!;. ,hoe ""!"I;ve
direc';"" of ,b. Y .. is, oo...w>rd. ;. Hue no
Ill. " ..... hoe .. ,b. body;' Ioca,ed,
We ,.te d .. """,Ien';oo '0 be DeS,live ( - 9.8 mi.') in all
problem. d.oIi'g ..-i1h CallinS bodia A "'g .. i"". "",ele .. ,;oo
"""0", 'bat, »';m, goo. 0., ,b. v,loci')' 01 'be body beoom",
Tactic 7: Un<!xpeaed Answ .... s M.'''m,, ><> 01,._
g.A ...... ..,.,.." ,na, )'OO migh' "'" b. ve ,""ugh' 01., poo_
.. ;. Sompl. Probl.m2_8c. 1f)'Oll E" mOfe "" ... ..,n
,b • • yoo expect. do "'" .lj,olll>1k>Hy discord ,b. on ... tI .. , do
_OI "",m '0 fi" E.,rui •• ,bem car<foUr for pby"",1 me .. iDg
If ti",. ;. your vo,ioble. ,veQ • AeS" iv. val ........ eo. "' .... _
,binS' Dt!"",, ,im, .imp!}' ,ef", 1o lime befof. 1_ 0. the
{arb;"' ry)'ime at which)'Oll decid<d 10""" your >top""c.b.
2-10 I Graphical Integration in Motion Analysis
Who" "" graph 01 an obj.."C!'s accek:lralion ",''us lin",, "''' can
on Ibe graph 10 filld Ih" Obj..'CI'S WIociI}'"1 '"y gi'"en lim •. Soc,u", acee",,",io"
a is dofi"'-'<l in 10,"" 01 ",Ioclly as " - d,-/;/,. ,he FuudamO"lal Thl'Or"m 01
Calculus lelk \IS Ib.1
", -". -r
adl
.
(2-22)
The righl ,;00 ollbe <'<luJlion is a <li'finile i"tegral (il gi'"'' a numerical ,",uli
ralbOl Ihall • fUllclion). ", is Iho ",loci')' alliffii' ,.. "nd ", i, Iho velocil)' >I lator
Ii"", I,. The <li'fini,o inlegral ca" be evalua,ed from an 0(') graph, SIldt "in Fig.
2- 130. III par'icular,
f.
, , ( area bel""O" .=lo,aI10" cur",)
,"" - .
(2-23)
[I a "nil of occder.lion IS ) m!s' and a u"il of lim" " ) .. Ih"" Ibc 00 ... ·
spondi"g "nil of area 011 100 gr aph is
(I m/,' )(I s) - I
.. -hieh " (pror<'rly) a "nil of voloctly. WOO" Ihe """,,"'r31io" ""''''' is at>ovo Ib"
li me "i .. lho area is fX'S,IIvC: ".-he" curve" t..IOW lhe ,ime Ih. ar"a is
""gal;' ....
gimilarly. beeallSO vcloctl}' " is defined in I""", of ,h. posi';"" .< as v - dxM"
Ihen
x, - x. - f"dl,
(L-U )
.. -her" Xo is 100 p""'ilio" .1 I;"", '" 3Ild x, is Ih" pos'hon "I limo I,. llI<l
0" Ihe rigbl ,i<li' of can t.."". lua' ed from a "(I) graph.lil . Ihal
sno .. "" ill Fig.l - 13b. r" parlicular.
r',. JI _ (area heIW""': velool)' curve).
J.. andl ,"", ..
(2-25)
[Ilhe unil 01 velooty is I mls alld Ih. unll olliffie i:s ) .. Ih'" lhe rorr.-
spond,ng uRi, 01 arca on ,he graph is
(1011, )(1 sJ - In,.
.. -hien " (pro]lo'lly) a U";I of pos,lion and drsplOC<!nlCnl . Whelhe, Ihrs ",c. is
live or "'-'1:al"" i, ddernrillod as described lor Ih. 0(1) Cll' '''' 01 Fig. 2-13.>.
A

, "
,.,
b::'L
'. '
'"
flCl . 2·1J The ... abe,woen.
plOI,ed rurv •• 00 ,.e hOfirorl," lime
aJlio, f,om lime I, '0 I;me I, ';. indi_
""t.d fOf (0) al"''''' of ""","',a'K>A
o v.", ... I . OO{b) , !""pb 01 veloc;Iy
,'ve,,,,'"
"Whipl:lsh injUf}'" commonly occurs in a " • ...,nd
,iou ,.·ho,e a lroul ca, is lIil I,om b<hiud by a ",coud
ca,. I" ]97Os. ,,,,,,a,,ho,, coociu(i<><l tbat tOO injury
"ill' to occupalll', tIoad being 1Iipp."'II bad 0,",,'
too lop d Ih. ",.1 as lile car 11-,., siamll1<'<l 10 ..... 'dAs a
,,,"ult oflhis findioLt- tIo.d ',,"I,ainlS 11"" buill into cars.
)"CI n«:l inju,ies in 1\)aHnd colhsioo, continued (0 occu,.
1" • "",,"1 (<lSI !O oIIooy """" injury u\ ro3H"d OJlli·
sions:. a l"Olunt"", ..... s SIIapp"d 10 " ",a! Ih.t wa, Ih,,"
moved abruptly 1o "mu].le • coIlisioo b)' , ca, mov·
ing al IUS tmlh. Figure 2· ]4" giv,," aoceliJratKJos of
volunl""", 10rs0 and he,d dU'lfig collIsioo, "hJCb
Ix';!:an 01 lime f - 0. The IOfiiO acc<·le,a uo" "'as doia)·.d by
.j() ms bi'cau"" during Ihal ,ot<'1\"31 tb" se" bact bad
to romp''''' againsl volunl'w.llhl h"ad aocek"1"alioo
was dd.yed by 3" .ddillOflJl 70 ms Whal was 100 10rs0
spoc'<lwhe" bead tl<>gan 1o aroelofJle?
can Ine lorso ,!",w al aoy
lorso at') gtaph.
Calculations: W. loo,", ll1at Ibe i";tial torso is
"0 - 0 al lime 10 - 0. al lb. slall of 100 "colli,ion:'
w.nt to,.., ' I""d ", al time " - 110 ms. .,hicb is
\\ he" 1110 h.ad begins to ""co]o,ate.
Co"wini"g Eqs. 2·22 .nd 2 ·23. can '.-rile
,. _ I' _ (area .. o a.e<:ele,"!iO"CU"").
'0 ""dhm • • xrs,lrom"to' L (1.26)
Fo, co"wn;.""", lei u, "'pa'''. too a,,,a into th' '''
(Fig. 2· Ub). F,om 0 to.j() "IS. regioa II h .. no

",ea. - O.
From .j() m, {o 100 ms, ''-'!lion B ha, tOO sbap" of , 1';"0'
glo ... 'ith
'fea . - kO.cI60 .)(50 mfs') - 1.5 mi •.
REVIEW & SUMMARY
Position The p<!slrwn.< 01 a panicle 011 .. . , a:JI" Ionl ... he
p ... jd. with '0 tbe. ..... i,; •. Of "'TO point. of tb. oxi.
n.. position i. rid"" posili"" Of ""9ti"", ocrording '0 "hicb
• id. 01 .b. or igin Ih. p ... iocle " OIl , or :reTO if th. paniocl, i. at
.b. or;gin. lb. po>itj,., dir<<1io. 00 all oxi. ;.lhe dj' ..... ;011 of
incIe., ,,,! poo.;ti'" ""mhe", ,b. "I'poo.;l' direction tb • •• •
• ..
Displacement Th. fwp/<><'mtnr .I., of • p .. tioc{. is lb.
<h""se in;1< "",ilioo:
(2. J)
Di<pI>C'em.nt i. a """'Of quan.ity.1t iT pooit; .., tb. p.,.tiocle
From 100 ms 10 110 ms. ,egio" C bas Ih e sll'pilof . ,,,,,.
{aaglo ... 'i{h
a,,,a
c
- (0.010.)(50 mls') - 0.50 \l\Is.
SubshtuhGg ll1c5o "olue, and I', - 0 iOlo Eq, 2·26 givo:; us
", - 0 - 0 + 1.5 mi. + 0.50 ",Is.,
I', - 2.0 mi. - 7.1 kmlh. (An' .... e')
Com""",tI: When 100 ;. just Slarl'l\g to
(o ... ·,'d, Ihe 101S0 .I,,,ad)' bas a sr-<! 01 7.2
R"",archo" 31&Ue Ibal ;1 is {bi, diff ... nce in """,<Is
du,i"g Ih. early stage of a ,,,a,",,,"d {b.1 i"iu,",
(h. ""rI:. Th. b,rI:"'31d .... hipping 01 Ih. head h3pp"ns
law, and eould. "periall)' if .. i. "0 oo.d
;oc,e,"" Ihe injury.
' 00


"""I
'0'
1;:--2'1,
'" \00 n"
'"
fIG. 2·" n.. 0(11 <UlV. 01 th. tor", >ALl •• adof ovo/u.o·
",' i. a ,imul>tioo of . " .. ·end ooIli<iOlL (b) B, ... ling up lhe
"'gioo 1><,,,,,,,. tbe. pIot,Nl curve ond tb. ,im. axi,'O calru·
late Ihe ar ••.
b., M<>v.d '" .h. positive direclioo of Ihex """ ""d •• saliv,
if tbe. particle II .. lIlOV,di. tbe. ""!iui"" dir«liOIL
Average Velocity \\0." a p.njde h., m<>v.d I",m pooi .
tiOA x, '0 poo.;tioo.<, d.ri"g a. im.e "," .. ai d' _ ', - I" ito
",'<fog' 1.t<><1ty dllfiog Ih, l iot'TVa! i<
.1,
, -- -
• .I.t
(2. 2)
n.. algeb",ioc 'ig. 01 indk<i'e< th. dir«tion of mo,ion
(I'..," a vec.or quan'ity). Avenge velocity cIoe. 001 ""p .. d
01\ .he actu,l dirt .. ce . p>rtid. '"<>v ... oot io".ad d.pe"""
OIl it. original .1Id tin' p<>Ji tion<.
0. a gnoph o(x v ....... I.the .YenS' velocity for • time in_
t, ,,,01 .1r i. tbe . Iope 0( tb. ",oisht tine """",,",ins the poin"
on the <Utv. tb>t " P'''''"t tbe 'WO end! 0( the lo,.tvol.
"'""rag. Spud Th. ' pu d 01 a p.,ticl. dur_
i.S' time intorv>.l b., cleptodo 0<1 tb. total di>t""'" tb. parti_
, .. Dl""" i. th .. time int<rv. l:
-
tOlat di .. :u>ce
"
(l-3)
Instanta n<K>US V.loclty The ""'''''''''''0''' I'rlodl}' (or
,imply .. lOOt}) o'of > moving 1=''''' ..
. .1.< dx
_ _ 11111 _ _ _ •
. H ' .1r dr
wh"e <h .. d :O' m by Eq.1_2. The i.""""., ,,,,, ",,_
locit}· (.t a particul ., time) ...,). he fOU.ll d os tb. sl""" ("t ,hat
panicul. , , .... ) 01 'he graph 01 x ve ..... I. the
,ud •. 01 lo .... WIt-OU> veloci'),
Av. rag. Ace.l. r a tion AI'"oK< 0"':</""_ .. tbe ... tio
0( • chan! . in v.l<>city b.v to the ti .... in .. rvol :0, in ,.,1licb the
cbmS' "",ws:
(l -7)
Th • • Igeb",ioc >.i s'' indic., .. 'be diroctioo of" ....
In.tant.ln<K>us Ace. l .. ation /,.,'0","""""' «<rl",nion
(or , imply K""lo .. the /i""im. dtTiv,ti .. 0( ",Ioe-
QUESTIONS
1 Figlll' 2-15 oil".., foo, patn. I
aIong..ruck objeru move fTO'" •
" . rting poin' '0 , final point. aU
in II" ....... time lottrvill. Th.
path> I"'" ""., a grid 0( "'Iually
,paced "'aitlh' lines. RaAk ,h.
path> ><oording to (.) ,h • • ve,_
age wloc;,y 0( tho 00je<" ood
(b) ,b, ..... S" >j><'«I 0( tile oil-
SI.at .... fi" •.
2 Fig.« 2_16 .. . gnopll 01 •
l=''''Ie·. """,tion '!oos an .•
axil , .. ,,"'!tim •. (.) At time , _
O. wh>1 ;. ,be , iY' of ,he
pa""' .... poo.iIi",,?], ,he p ..
, .... velocity pooi'i ... neg. tiv •.
orO>1(b)' _ 1 ,,(e) t _ 1o.and
(d) , _ 3.1 (e) How m.oy
,im.. doe. tb. panic..
'"'''''Y. ,be poi.' x _ O?
1 Fig"" 2_17 giv .. tho v.1o<:-
i1)' 01 , partide moving on .. oX
..... Wh"t are (0) tile i.itial ood
(b) the fi.1lI dir.cti"", o(tr.,..,17
(e) Doe. ,b. 1='",1e """ mOo
"",n'oril y1 (d) Is 'he oo:e"""
,ioo pooiti ve or .'g.'i",,' (.) Is
it OOI1<t .. , orv"'Yin!?
, I I
,
,

I I
FIG. I · 1§ Qu .... io.1.

-ot,f-t-1,,- '('1
" L '
fIG. Z·" Q .... tioo 2.
fiG 2-17 Qu."ion 3.
i1)' . '( t) . 00 the"""""; time clerivat iv. of pooitioo x(
dv d' x
.-- --- ., dt' .
(2_8.2_9)
0 • • IlJaph 0(" ."''''' '. , • • occe"IlI1ioo u at ""y time r i. 'be
.Iope oI,he<ur"" . t ,be poi.t ,10" rep ...... "',
Constant Ace. l. ration The five "'Iu. 'ioru in Table 1-1
de><Jibe the mOliOll 0(, p.,ticJe with OOIlmot """,",,, i,,,,,
v _ .\) + .r.

", - vi + 2a( .• - x,).
x - x, _ !<., + o}l.

(l -Il)
(l -15)
(l-16)
(l-17)
(l -IS)
The.., are "or ""lid ",,1> •• 'be ocreler"iOll;' .'" OOIK1>n'.
F .... Fall Ae.-I .... "'lon A. important exomple 0(
Itroiy.t_1ine mOlioa witb 00II<".' occe .... tioo .. that 0( ...
object ,;'log or fallin! f, ,,,1y ."OJ Earth·, ,wi""" The COII _
" . n' . ere" "'tioo "'Iu"i"". d.lCJibe .. DlO1iOOl. 00' we
mak. ".0 chang .. in nor.,ioo: (I) we ,.f .. the 1110<io. '0 tbe
, .. "tioclll y axil witll +y ""nically "I" (2) we .eploco . .. ito - g.
wh ... g " ,!Ie ""'110,1\1<1. of tb. fre .. faU ><c.l.ntiOil. N.ar
. ... ,face.! _ mi.' ( _ 32 ftj,' ).
.. F'Ilute 2_18 gi ... tbe occe .... tioo 0(1) 0( , Chihuahu ... it
ch:o" " • German , b.pIoe<d """'S an aD.. i • ..-trieb 01 tbe ,ime
pe<io<k indicat«l does tile Chihuahua """'" . , 00001a," , pe-ed?

, ,
, , ,
, , ,
, , ,
, , , , ,
AIBI c
'"'
,
1,1 c I
"
flG. 2-11 Qu,,'ion .j.
5 Figwe 2_19 give. tb. v.loc_ •
i1)" 0( • porticle movi.g atOll! an
..w. Poi., I at ,b. hiSlk-lt
poi.' o. tb. rurv" poin' .j i, >1
,b. knoe .. poi." .. d point< 2
... d art . , 'be ,am. "igllt.
II'h., ;. tbe di' e<1ioo 0( tr . vel ..
(a) time t _ 0 and (b) poi.,.j1
,
f1G. 2-19
(e) A, ,.rueb 01 tile six numbered points dotS the pank .. ,._
ve"", its dire<1ioo 0( "'o",l ? (d) Rank the .iI point> according
,<> tb. magnitude of tb. acrel .. ,.io •. !' • • , ... , fin"
6 The loU""ing '"'Iu" ioru give "'" velocity .'(1) 0( a
pank .. in fow ';'u.uio .. , (oJ I' _ 3; (b) v _ .j,' + 2J - 6:
(e) 0 _ 3r - .j, (d) .' _ 51' - J. To .,.iclo oI'he .. ,i,uations 00
,b. "'I">1ioru O(T. blel_1 apply"!
__ Ch.opt_ 2 I Mation Along. Strlligtlt (j,..
7 I. Vi&- 2_20 .• cream '>n_
cD
E,ri.e .. Ib,,,,". diJocUy
"p ...... ,d (WI 'hr"", evenly
",.,,,d windows of e<ju>l
•• igb" Rank tbe windows >c_
cording t" (.J ,h. ' '''''age
speed of 'be "eam '''''gerin.
.. hile p ... Ibem. (h) th.
time 'be cr."", ''-''germ. , ....
10 p ... them. (0) 'he magni_
tude 01 ,b. occele .. ,ioo oI ,b.
rr.am tans,nn. while
thorn, and (d) ,he cJ ... Jlg< 4v in
,b. 'f""l"d ol, •• cre. m ' ''''gel-
i •• dmiog ,b. p .... age.y .. ""
6, ...
• A" _ 0 . • parti<l. moving
. Ioog • .11 x ,xi, a1 pooiIiOll
PROBLEMS
,
,

FIG. z.20 Qu."ioo7.
SSM 'N .......... """"'" "'..".. ...-, ,,,",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
. _ ... _oI_"'""" .. ... .. _
Me. Z·' " .... '"9. " v.'"9_Sp .. d
. 1 An ,u,omobile t .. vek 011 • " .. ight ,o.><! lor -10 km .,
-"0 kmlh, It thenrontin".. in ,toe =n, diactioo lor another-lO
km at 60 kmlh_ (.) "''b., ;, the average velocity 01 tb. cor du, _
ing 'his SO tm nip? (A".m. ,b .. i, """' .. in ' be prui'ive .T di _
'«1iOll.) (h) What ''''' ''''' ''B' 'l""'dl «) Graph x "", ... I
. nd i.We.,e bOlO' ,he ."'''so velocity i, lound 00 the graph.
.... -
• 2 A car up , hill " • oorutan' 'p"ed 01 -10 krnlb ,nd
re'.ntO dowD the hiU at • COlIS" ", 0160 kmlh. Caku.l."
the . ... age.p<ffi 10' the 'OIUId trip.
.3 During a hard "'''''.)'011' ey .. migh' 51\., IOf 0.50 II
y"" , re drivin! • car at '10 krJ.1I du,ing ,uch "noez .. how far
00.. th. car move during tll .. ,im.7
., Th. 199'2 """Id .p<ffi 'O<OId lor a bK-ycle (b uman pow_
ered vehicle) .... , ... '" by Chri> H.be,. """ through tho
me"wed 200 m .. retch ,. .. . ",:din! &.sw '. at ....ttich h.
co""""ntod. "Cogito "go zoom!" (I think. ,herelore r
fo .. !). In lOOt. S ... WhiltinBhm b .. t Huber. 'e«JId by
19_0 km!h. Wh at was Whittingham', time 'hrough ,he 200 ml
. 5 Th. posiIiOll 01 >It objtct moYin3 >II x .. is is given
by x _ .lr - 4P + ,,_ u-h"ox;, in mot." >J>dl in >oooodri. Fiod
the po>i'iOil 01 'he object" 'he loU"",ing vol." 01 t. (a) I ..
(b) 2 «) 3 .. ODd (d) 4 (.) "''bar ;, tb. obj.<I' .
eIi'l'l.xe .... , be""" •• , _ 0. ""d 1_ 4 .1 (I) What is its ave, _
.ge velocity fOf 'he ,im. interval lro., , _ 2. to , _ 4 .7
IV GTapll x vm". I lor 0,.,,. 4, >lid how the
. .. ,." lor (I) <"<i. be I""ndon the S .. Ph. .o.
.6 CornP"" Y"'" avenge ",lociIy in ,b. followin! ,.....,
, .... q.) You ,.alk 73.2"," "p"edol L22 ml, >nod tb<n ,un
731 III at " ,p«'d of 3.0:5 mi. alOllS . .. raig.t """k. (b)
Xo _ - 2011L The ,,;gao 01 ,h. partide', i.in. 1 velocity v, (>1
time ' ,) ,nd ro ... """ ocale .. ,ioo a .. e. r''P''<1;".,Iy. for fOIl,
",.",low, (l) +. +; (2) +. - , 0) - . +, (4) - , - . 1. ,.,1>kb
";,",,ion> ,.;]) ,b. partie" (0)
.. op """",,", .. (b) pa.. •
through Ihe origi., and «)
II."'" pas. Ihrougb the origi.?
9 H""gi.g ""or tbe railing of
• brkJ,o; •• YO" drop (.0
initio! velocity) • • l"'" ,b,ow. 0 r;CC7<';----
..,oo.d do ..... ward, lib ;".
<tl,Ye'5 io Fig. 1·21 Siv. ,be",_
[<>city 1'(') 1m (.) ,toe dropp"d ,- , '. "', ', c
'U ond (b) 'he 'h,,,,,,,, 'U7 ','< ... ,",""' .. :.',' .,
(Cw",,", A . nd B at. pa,aUe" '. '
.., at. C. D • • nd E, '0 ' r< F
'G ' F ' c
IUId G_)
_ 'N""""",,,, ",""""
u.w ... """' . .... "" . "
F1G. l-Z1 Q ... , ioo 9,
You ,.alk fO< LOOmin., • ..,...d 01 L21 mI, aDd ,h.n run fo,
1.00 min at 3.(l'i mI, along . ""ight tract_ (e) G-tapltx verso, I
for boob "' .... d indicate ho .. t" ."""ge velocit), i, lound
on tb. sraph.
•• 7 III I k .. r-.ce-s. 'WIDtI I OIl "",k I ("';tk time 2 min.17.9'i
.) appear, '0 be I"'te, ,h ... 'WlDtI 2 00 track 2 (2 min.2K15
Howeve,.l<oS,h L, 01 track 1 migh' be yea'tI ,h.n
t,ng,h L, oInack t. How largo <= I" - L, be fO< u, still to
c:onclude tll" ruDner I ;, I"'ter? ....
• • 8 To .. , • "",ed ,t<:On! in • .,.",wed (""ight_line)
di<t""'" d .• rxe eo, mu!t be driven Ii", in 0'" dirwioo (in
l inoe ,,, ODd ,boen in tb. _ito di,ecti"" (i. ti ..... I,), (.) To
eHmi .. ,. ,toe .1Ie<!' of ,be wind >J>d obrain 'he car', "",.d v,
in" wind) .... ,i,u>tioo. .hould w. fiod ,toe overag' of Jit , ",d
dil, (method I) Of .bould we divide d by tb. ,v""Ee 01 't and
"l (h) Wha, is 'be l,actio ... 1 diff.rt"", in 'he 'wo metbod.
wb,n • ".ody wiod blow> alons th. c,,', ,oute >J>d the "';0 01
' h, ". ,,,,toe <at 1 '1"'f<I ", ;, o.024o.?
•• 9 You >te '0 dri"" '0 OIl intervie .. in LU>O,htl to_oat • eli ..
' ''''''' of JOO kin on aD exp'''' .... y. Th. in"rvi.w >t 1 L 15
....... You pi.., to drive at 100 kmlh. 50)'011 I .... " 8, 00 ...... to
aU"" I00I .... ,. 'ime. You drive " thM 'pe<d fO< ,h. {i", 100
kill. bu, ,h.o con""",i"" ...... k fO<reS YOO '0,1.,.. to 40 kmlb
for -10 km. What would be the Ie .. ,.p<ffi needed lor 'be ,ell
of 'he trip to anive in time lor th. inte"';'-./!
•• 10 p",,", ''''''p<o Figure 2_22
,bow, D Bene,a1 situ"i"" in
.,1Ikb • ","'''' 01 _" ,,_
" mpt to """I" through aD .. i,
door ,hat 'urll< 0"' '0 be locked.
'The _" ""''''' 'oward tbe
door at .p«'d v, _ 350 mrs. . rt
FIG. Z.U Problem 10..
.1<11 <I _ QlS IJI •• ""pilL >lid ar ... pan."d t>y L _ 1." ...
n ... I'M ..... '" iII"& 2.-.U 0CCIIn" 'net -o.tl) 1.1_
""'f'I8t I'll''''''' 'M by" of p"opI< .. Ibo _ iKR_1 tb)
A' "hoi bnoc _ tloo loyn' <l<ptIo rndo 5.0 .. 1 (TM ....
............ ....... a .. "' ...... 11« .. _ dq".
-I .e
" 11 T_ "" .... nch • • vin!. of .lO tmJb. or. I><lId<d
.... "" ..... 0<> lhc iH>O ...... 9' ,net, A \lord Ih .. <lolly
(,I) koMI ftieo off ,100 Iroo, of .,... lraill ...... ',,", .'" 60 ttn
0<Id h'",* dir«'ly {Of the "'h'r " .. n. On "oclIJO! , ...
"'her lrai •• , ... tlird iii .. directly bact '0 'he fir" '''';0. and..,
{Mh, (We h .... 0 ide. • bird WO\II.:! .,.h, .. i. ...
.... 'h .. io Ille ",,01 dr.,,,,,,,,, d, •. bird .. ,v.1< t.,f"re tI>< ""'., """
lid.?
" , ,2 r'affit shock alnpo <1_00.-. UI <00< ....
" .. «I , .. tIi<:.,." ,,,,,,,,1 as I puhe.. ' .. mrd a Joad IIIonS
,,.. lao '" ........ ,be. "",""", .. am (i. ,I>< 'rati< dlr."'ionl ..
ups" ......... " <WI be .... 2.13.-.. • ...
1 ..... 1y 'f*'Od 1_ of an '"""""8 .. IP«4 •. _ 2:5.0 M Ie..
ward I ..... I ...... ly opoccd b. of...,., c.-. '"""""S" spo«l
", - 5.00 ... '>.A>s..... ,bale><:b bilt<car _ .. """ L _ 12.0
.. (<I, .. ,,,. plus buffe..-z"".) ,,,,bo .... of ""'" <WJ ""'., it
,lit .... and ___ iI_obnpoly" , ..... inola!>!.
(a) FOf lOtI» .. pauo<> diu:uu d btllWtll I'" IU'H Qn
'Iou , •• , .... iII .... ion .. )'! II 'hI "p""'lion io
I....;". IM1 ....... or. ,be (b) .p«d -' Ie) lIi,ect, ...
(lIpm ..... "dowmu .. ",)of'b. ohock .... !

(
Car """..
RCi. J.zJ I'robI<m!2.
' ''13 y"" dr, ... "" 10 Iron Su. AnlOnio ,,,
11-,_ IIaII ,be ,11M .. 55 tnrIo -.:f 'he OIlIer •• If ..
((I t ... 0. 'M OQ)' b...:k _ ...... 1 half ,,.. 1##4.,,, '"
55 t ... '11 -.:f ,he "' .......... \Q UrIIo. Wha ia .,... ......
.... «1 (0) Ito .. s.... A.l<Jajg I" (h) f""" II.,..",
bact '0 Sao ""'OOIO.-.:f «) I", 1bt •• ,,,. trip1 (d) .... "., ia
.,... ..... "" 110 •• 1Ili", ,rip? (0) St .1dI ..... .
,'" ('),""'iD! ... rn<>tion;'.a i. 'h, p< ... iii,..,.
Ii.,.. rodio:o,. how ,10.< ...... !" .. 1Dri1y ClIII boo l oud Of! ,boo
......... . oo
Me. 2·5 1 .. __ ... V.lo<ity_ Sp .. d
0,. Tho pooilioD f ..... i ... XI') d. ponkle """;08 'k>na on
...u ;, x _ - 6.Or', .,ilh x in ... It" IIIld, in
(.) A' IO hOi ,i_ ud (b) u1I< .. d"", ,b. pankle ("' ..... n' ...
ilyl "",,7 A, "'h' (e) ",!"iY. ,i..., .00 pooi""" Ii ... <10<0
,.e """kle pan 'hrough ,he .,.;p.1 (OJ G. """ ... ,n., lot
, ....... !" -So '0 +5 L(I) To >itif, Iht <1>< .. "3i>lword ... ,be
,,"P'.'- _ iod ..... ,10.< ..... +JJtor 'loc ..... -JJt i.
.«,)1 W 0- lh .. ...t ..... ioat..., '" <It=- 'he .. hot of
""'i<1I ,10< I"'rtick ...... "'ariIy .. ""'!
01 5
("here, .. ill _ .. _.-.. II ....... ). wtoat: iJ .. ... Ioco:, OJ
,- 1 11 (b) II i, -,;.S II ,100 p<JOiti .. ot "'V'''' .... of
.r j ... Il ... ? Ie) ....... ;. , .. sp<ed j .. " ,bo.? (d) , •• be 1f><<<1
i ........ ., '" <Iea.aIi., ja .. 'IItn? (Try ....... ,;.! "'" ..... ,
I_"", .. i ... , ..,,_, 1 .... 100, cakW.non. ) (0) I, Ibe"' .... ..
, .. !Mr' whor:r , he ... loaIy .... ..,1 If 00. "". ,be ..... " if ....
11.-' ..... (I) b ,10<.., • 'n" ., .... , _ 3. whe. ,he por'- ;.
...... "8 irr Iht .... " ... dir«llOOl "'Xl II 10." .. ,he .... /; if
_ .........
_16 A.rr tltclrOD .."...,. olen! .... .r axio '- • pooiIioo
"" .. t>y .- - 1!>or' D ......... , • io _ Ho. "" io ...
.!«or.,.I...,.. lhc "'iv ........ .......... ..,ly .. "",1
.. '7 TH politi ... of • I"'''id. """;'! -, 110 . .. oxitr
i. si-fn in eo"'''''' .. n t>y.r _ + 1.50" ....... '" , io ;"
"""""" CakW ... (0) 'boo ue"!' do.'iD! ,1>0 ,ime
i."",011 _ 1.00. '0 I _ J,OO 0: (b) '100 i"" ..... ,,"'. v.lo<ity
" , - 2,00 0: (e) ,h •. i." .. ,.,...,,,, .. Io<ily .t , _ 3.00"
(d) ,1>0 m"an'....,,,,,,, ""I"';.y.' ,_1.50" and (.) ,h.
i .... """',,,.., ",lociIy ...... , ... I"'n;"10 iI ........ y be'W"'A
II, pooi.loru . , , 2.00. """ , _ 3.00 I I) % V" ....
, 0<Id ir><b< ... )'<lOI' ....... n V"f'tOoallJ<
_. 2.6 Ac'-.tion
. " (0) If 'M PJOu"", of . po.nido • r'" t>y s _ lOt - yr.
..... ore s io io _.ro and I ...... _ ... ,.. • • e ... , ... ...
porlio:l ...... 1ociIy urn1 ( h) Wbt. ia i .. .""Ie,Oj"", 0 ..... !
(e) Far ....... timo ""lII (pow"" '" "","",., io 0 "soU .. ?
(d) _""'? (.) GupU(I).I{l).ond":l).
-19 All ctl"Utia ILIIc. patUd. 1 1pm! of 18m!.;"
,10< potiIin .. oil"",..,.. llId U • ..... ... ..... lJDfs
irr ,100 """"", .. dir .. oon. WII .. io H ..... "!' """"Ie . .. _ d
,110 I"'nklo Lbio 2.4 • i., .. "",? •• _
_ZO 1be pori'''''' of • p.v1l<1o "'''''''''! ""'"' orr % .xi, io
tw •• by .• - 12.' - 2". "btl •• is I .... , ... and , io ;"
se<:oo<k Delermine (') pooi';OII. (b) 11>0 ""Iocily, .nd
(e) ,b. "",1e ... iOll of ,h. p,,"kle .. , _ J.O. (d) Wb .. ;, ,b •
.... imunr pooi'iY. OOOfdin", O ,....,_ br the panicle . 00
(e)"' ....... 'i .... io i , , .. <1>,,11 (f ) .... 'h .. is ,be max" .. m p<JOi.
Uve v,lod,)· .. _ br , ... porlido """ (&I"""'" ti..., io
",_bed? (.) "'!haI .. ,b ........... ion '" llot ..... 'ido .. ,10.<
i"!Mr' LIr. porUdr .. _ ....... ., (OIlIer ,1Ian .. 1 _ OJ!
(i) 0. .. , ..... tbt ........ loa""' ..... partido be' .... n. _
O .. dl · h.
__ t1 TH p<&ioot of. po.I,dt """'''& ...... lhc .- oxitr
""p"- 01 ,,.. '''''' arnonIIoS .0 ,bt .qor ...... ..- _ cr' bt'.
........ .- ;. ill .... " .. >lid ". se<:oo<k ",,,., "'" ,10< ...... of (.)
""" ..... , < ODd (b) romla!>! b? Lt. ,heir nu ... ricol.,,1ues be
3.0 .ad 2.0, ",,,,"""ly. (e) A' ..... , .; ... don ,b ...... tido
,.",b '" m"nUl poo"; .. .r pooiIi.,.t Ft""" _!lO, '0' _
.. Id) ... b .. <fu" ... "" don partido ...... l ad (.) ,,1IaI io
it! d"f'l"' . ... "'1 Find ill .. lo<lIy a, 'im .. (I) 1.0 .. fA) 2.0 ..
(h) 3.0 .. """(i ) 4.0 .. Fwl ii, O«'<Io •• ,i .... , .im .. 6) 1.0 ,,(k)
1.0 .. (1) 3.0 .. and (01)
.. U From' _ 0 ,,,' _ 5.00 "" •.• <nan " ...... " iU, ud 1,001
, - 5.00 min ,,, t _ mo """.1>< wolle . """t ly il 0 "my., li.o,
.. I ..,,"', ... , optt<I of 2_'0 mil .... 'Iu< or" (0) bio ...... !"
"_y " .. and (b) •• .... na. _'"""'" .... ,he , ....
• ...... of 2.00 "'nlO 8.00 .... 7 W .... , ...., (eJ v_ """ td). io
" . • -0 ..
,_ , ........ .....! 3.00 ...... 10 9.00 .... ' Ie) Sb,cIo s _,
_ , •....... t. and ondicat _Ibo ......... to (0) lloralp (d)
""" be obIoi.<! frOID tbt g..p...
M<. 2·7 eo. ..... A<.-.u...:ASp.doIea...
_n A.o.Iortrort ...... ronot ... """' .... ,"'" of +3.2 ..,.,. A,
• <a .... ;" .... " .... Io<toy i. +9.' ....... 1'.'11 .. ;, iut .. loci" (.)
2..S •• .,Ii..-:and (b)2..S .I .... ?
Ch.opt ... 2 I Motion Akmg. Strlligtlt (j,..
• U A muO<l ( .... lem,n''''Y particl.) e."", reg;'" ";,h.
spe«l of 5.(0)( 10' mi. and ,b.n .. dow..t ., 'he ... ,. 01
l.2'i X 10" ",,'s'. (.) How far 00.. .b. mooo lake 1<> "01'7
(b) Gr.>pbx """u.,.nd ,. 'm ... , for !be muoo.
.25 Suppose , rock .. oIlip in....,p'pace 1IlOVe<.,.j1b 000 _
"'., """,Ie",ti"" O'I"al . o 9.8 ""o'. "Ilkb giv .. tho iUU"OII 01
.0 ..... 1 gr.vity the ilight. (a) If it "art! Irom ,,,to how
wiU iI .. t . ,,, acqllire • speed oDe_'en,h ,bo, 01 ligbt ,
,.-hick ,,..v,l> .. 1.0 X HI' .. ,1 <b, How 111 ",II ;, IIu, l in 110
<loinS? ....
.26 0.. . <Iry road. , nr " i , b !""'I lire. may be oble to
blak. wi." • conNan' d«. I,ulioa 01 4.92 l1li,'. (a) How 1008
<100. ,u,h , car, inili.Uy " . ""Un! at 24.6 .. ko 10 " op1 (b)
far 00... iI n,vel in ,hi.,im.? (eJ Groph x v", ... , 0JId ,-
v ...... <lor ,be clecrleratioo..
.27 An .lenroo ",th aD ini_
tial velocity '0 _ 1.50 X 10'
mi. ,.,,,,, "yo., oIleogth I.
_ 1.00 em .. be" it is <loctri_
<aUf :occele,."d (Fig 2-24)_ It
emtrge> "';,h ,. _ S.70 X 11)'
lI'hal ;, it> """)tT"ion, II<-
oumod 000>1>nt 7 ....
.28 C .. ","g,r""nu.
On. in IIl",hroom. I. WlCh
Nooo .. « . ... dng A<<< .... d"!!

1-'--1
Z:.:rT -1
F1G. :la l'robl.m17.
.pore. by • <"'Pult mecb""m. A ... >ter 00Dd0e ......
from tb. >i r ""to . 'f'Of' 'h>< ;, .,t,.,b.d '0 tb. mu,hroom .•
dr"" grow, 011 ()[I' .ide of ,n. ' pm' and • film !'''''''' on tb.
"' ... >ide. Th, .pm. ;, bent""'" 1»' tb. dr",,', weigh'. bIl,
... 11•• tbe film "ache. the drop. the drop', water .ucklenly
'l".odo into the film .. d ,he 'f'Of' ' poi_S' upw. ,d ", .. pidJy
th., it .. >llmS oIf iIl,o the air. Typically. the .pm ... ""b ...
>peed 01 1.6 mi, ill a 5.0pm I,uncb: its .peed it ,he. re dwo.d
to "'to in LOrn", 1»' ,be .... u ... s th., d.,a and "'UmiD!
co",ta"' occtl .. .,iOlU. lind the """,Ieration ill, .. "" of g dur_
ins (.) the 1.lUICh and (b) the >peed reducti"".
.29 An . I«"k .. hid. "am fTOm ... , and """"Ie .. "" ., •
r.le 0I 1.0mJs' in . "raigh' Ii"" uMil i, "oclte •• >peed 01
20 mr.. The v.hide ,b ... >low. >< a "",.""It .. " oi l ,0 mi.' UD _
,il i, stop< (a) How moch ,1m •• I. poe' f,ol[l "OI' '0 "op7 (b)
H"... f .. 00.. ,b. vellkle " .",1 from .tar, '0"'",,7
• 30 A world', land 'I""'d ,,<Old ..-•• se' by CoIon.1 JoII"
P. Stapp lObe. in MOIcII 1954 lie """' . rocket _proptlled sled
'bot moved .1oog. t.-.d:., 1020 kin/h. H •• od the sl.d wert
b .. ,ugh' '0 .. '"" i. ]A (St. Fig,2 _7.) In '''' ... of g. wh" >C_
celerati"" did b. ,_i.oce -.hile """pin!7
.31 A «n>in .Iev"", <all b .. . ,,,,.1 IUD of 190m and .
m>XiOlwo .pot<! 01 !OS mllIli.o. and i, >ecelerat" fTOm , .. ,
.nd ,b •• back '0 ,," ., 1.22 mi.'. (.) H""" for do., ,h. cob
",ov< ... -kile ,,,,,,,lfIa'ins 'olull 'p'edf,om .. ,,? (h) How
00.. i, take '0 m:a. ,h. """,,"" 190 m and .nd_
inpt , .. ,7 • •
. 32 Th. bo-ake< on )'Our ,,ar can sl".. you ., • "''' 01
5.2 OIi". (.) If)'Ou . re SoinS 1J7 bnlb and "-_Iy >t ••
... " "OOP<"""''' i. the minimum time in wlliorh you caD set
yottr cor undor ,he 90 balb >peed limit? (The ......." ,ev.>!,
,he fu'ility of bo-akin! '0 kNep )'O"r bigh >peed flOlIl be;nS
d<1«1ed wi, . . .. d", or I ... r gun,) (b) araph x"", .... , ond "
v, ..... 'for . ""h , sJo..-i0So
.n A cor , ... velillg 56.0 kmJh .. 24.0 m from. ban;", ...-be •
, ... driver ,!.un, o. ,he bo-ak ... Th. "'" hi" , be bani" 2.00 ,
later. (. ) Wha' tbt m.Y';'"'''' of ,b. c.r". roo""'" occel_
.r>,iOD before imp. <1 7 (bJ How f"" the ... r ,,,"v.liIl! at
imp:or1 7 ... KW
•• :u A "or move. ol",,! ... x .... '",,,,,,gh • di<,..,:o 01
\100 m . • ., ,," (ot x _ 0) . nd 11 re" (ot x _ '100
mI. ThrOllSb ,1>0 6", t of 'bat <Ii"""", its >CCtltoa,ion
.. +1.25 mis'. Through the .. xt ? of tiw <Ii".DC'. iu >«'<'Ier_
.g"" .. - 0.750 .. I". What or. (.) it< ' ..... 1 ,ime 'hrough ,he.
\100m ""d (hI i" m",imum .pt't<I'I (C) G .... pb posi'ion .T,
veloci'y ". ""d """,ler.'lor!" .to .... time 'lor 'be ,rip.
• • 35 Figure 2-25 "'piru ,Joe
o(m)
lOO,iOD of . 1""' ..... moviD! .1oo!
• • x >xi> with • oorutan, acctl ....
, ion. Th. tigur,', venk al ",aliog
.. se' by .T, _ 6.0 m. \\ba' >t. ,be
(.) magnitude . nd (bJ dir.rooo
01 ,he. portid. " """,ler>! iort?
'.
•• )6 (a)]f'belltaltimwnaocel_ " - -1\-- , -
e .. ';ott ,b .. i. ,oIer.ble for p .. _ ,
, (.,
"".ge .. ill .... bway ' n ill is U 4
mi" and ,ubway ".ti".,. or, lo-
'Med SO; m .pm. is ,Joe
flG. Z.ZS l'robl ... 3.'i.
mmnuun .peed • • ubw.y tr.o. COIl an >in be ',...,0 .... 10m 7 (b)
Wbat i. lite , ... ,.,j ,1m. be' ween " . ';00>1 (e) If .... bway 1r:li.
""I'" for 20. at . ",b , ,.lion. ,..hat i, th. m:OOmwu ._"@"
>peed 01 ,he ,rnn.f,om""" .... , _up '0 tbt l1ext? (d) a .. pb x. ".
ond .""" .. ,,'" the iIlt"">! _<me .. an_up '0 ,h. next.
• • 37 Con A and B """" ill
tbt ...". dirtclioo in
!>rI .. Th. p<>OiOOo x of n, A.. !
givffi ill Fig. 2_26.trom time, _ 0

'0 , _ 7.0. The figun'" ",nn!
ocaIint .. • ," by x, - .11.0 m. A' ,
_ 0. car B is atx _ 0. with , ve_
locity 01 12 .. >Ad •• 'g>'i",
COD'"'''' """ ... .,ioo '" (.)
1
.L""";-•• , ,Ci.;-i,
FIG. Z_Z6
0("
ProblemJ7.
\\b., mmt _. be sud! """ Ib..c"", or. (""""".,.,ily) "'" by side
(""""".wi!)'" the ...... voIue of x) '" ,_ ,to.? (b) JU """
val"" of _ .. 00... ..,.,)' tim .. ore the can.ide by side? «) s.t,etch
the p<>Oitioo .T of cor B"' ..... time , txt 1r2b. H".. """')' times
will ,he " ... be side by side if th. ""!niIade 01 """,I" ",ioo _ . ..
(dJ ma-. ,hl1 .. d(.) "'" til .. th. """"'''-'''port (.)1
• • 38 you .... drivillg '<>word a "affio .ignal ,.,1teo i, "" ••
yello .... Your.peed i. ,b. Ie!>! 'p'.d limit of ''0 _ 55 kmlh,
YOll r be" do<:elor.,i"" r.te b .. 'be m' gni'u"" _ _ 5.18 mI".
Yom be" ", ,,,,lor! ,ime '0 begill .. T _ 0.75 To
. void ,he f, ,,,,' 01 )'OIIr ' '''' enter ,be into",e","'. af'er
,he 'urn. " d, obould you Ink"o. stop or con,in .. '0
move at 55 balh if ,h. di>,,,,,,,,, '0 ,h. iIl .. ".roon and 'he du_
... tiort 01 ,he. y. 11ow ligh' are I') .w m .. d2.8 and (bl 32 m
.nd 1.8 , ? Oi .. OIl .... lOtI of bnke,roo,il1u, . • ither (if .i,b ..
"""'Sf 100<"'). or nei, her • • i,he, .. ork. ",d ,he.
yellow du"";011 .. i. ' PI"""ri-
.tt).
• • 39 A" .. o' ....... movealoog
• "",t. their C<Clducton IUd-
"'nly _ ire 'b>! they "'. beadtd
toward eaclo ",btl. Figw, 2_27 flG. Z.Z7 Probl.m39.
give. their velocit;"" " .. fuoctkru 01: time t .. 'be C<Ddt>cton
, low the ,rains The fiEure' lV,nkal ocalins io .. t by ", _ 40.0 miS.
u.. _ ... s 1"""""'''' btVn..b.e. the tctin< "'" 200m opan.
What io th,ir "'F'''''tioo .. 1ten both train< """ •. stopped?
··40 .. Rs.2.28. , red car """. Y"'" "",. id,n'ical ' !Hpt III
,b. roIor. mo", towMd ea<h ott... ... odj>eent I .... .. d
'o,,"x :m..A, ,ime t _ o.the rodcor" it x, _ O:u>dthe gr".'"'"
. , x, _ Dl m. If ,be red C'>I Iw • """" .. t vekxity 0110 kmlh.
,b. can p .... odr ott... . , x _ 445 m .... d it ... . """"an' ve·
Iocity 0I-W kmlb. ,k,y P"" e.dt ott... " x _ 76.6 .... "ba, are
(0) the initial ",loci!), and (b) the 1t<'C<'I"",ioo 01 the!JN'" car?
,
flG. z.n I'robl. m.40 ond41.
••• 1 Figure 2·18 .ko,., . rod
""' .nd . E"". cor ,nat ,"<we
'OIOntd . ocb OIber. Figure 1.29
i •• graplt 01 tb. ;r mooioo. •
.bo...mS , ... p<>'l itiOllS X,o - 270
m andx", _ _ 35.0 m at time

.. "
,= O. Tho E ..... car Il:ti. 00.·
""'" . p«d 01 W.O mi. ond ,he
red car bt!i'" I",,,, r .. t. Wb>t
flG. Z.Z'1
is tlte """,Ie .. ,i"" m' y>itude oI:,b. led cat1
'I')
Probl,m 41.
••• 42 W ..... bigh-"",ed P" "'"E" ,,..in at
161 tmlh .ourtd • • ber>d. ,he •• gino •• i. ,boded '0 .... ,nat a
looomOl;'. bas improp<rly en'tIed 00' 0 tlte 'rock fr"", a
,idi.rtg • • d • eli"."". D _ 676 m ab .. d (Fig. 1.JO). 1bo
looomOl;' . .. m<wing at 19.0 1",1b. u.. '.gin'" 01 tlte higlr.
'1"'''' II>i. imm,di " .ly ' ppl;"" the bu ••• (.) What mUlt
be ,be ""'En.i,ude 01 tlte "",ubing oorutant """'Ie,..,i"" if a
ooIlioiorr io '0 be ju .. avoidtd? (b) A .... me '.at ,he eng;oee."
• n _ Owhe •. " I _ O. he fir .. spoo the Iocomoti .... Ske'ch
.• (1) ",rve. III the looomOliv. ond high-"",ed train fo<
'be <a><1I i. "bidt • ooI];.ioo j .. , .void. d and is .ot
q"ite .void. d.
III
fIG. lol O Probl.m 42
1111
-
••• .0 Y"" are "&Wn! ov..- • ",U phone ... nile tnilin! on
Ul1JIUIked police c .. by 2'i m: both your "'"" .. d the police car
or. tr. velin! >t 110 kmilL Your "gum,", e1i",r" your . ",ruioo
110m the pobc< cat Ie< 20, (Jong rnooglr for yoo to look .. the
phme and )" U. - [ "",,' t do that! -). A! tbe beginning oI:!Iu, 2.0
,h. police oIiX" begir>; bntinB,uddonly" 5.0 mI,'.(., Wb>t
,b ... bet"""'" the ''''''cat. when )'OW ."",tion finally
r<1u..., l StIpp""" ,h., )'OIl,ake """,b ... 0.40,'0 reoJi", your
cbnget and begin braking. (b) If you ' 00 b .. ke " 5.0 mJs' , wh>t
)'OIlr ' f'l'tdwhen)'Oll bit the poIic< car?
-=- 2·9 Fr .. · FoIl k <.I • •• • ion
.« Roindrop btl 1700 lit f,om a <loud '0 u.. ground. (.) If
'be)' were .01 slowed by . ir ",;,,"""'. bow f,., """Id ,be
ProbHlm. __
drop< bo m<>vins when !bey "ruck th. ground? (b) Woold it
be oafe to ... >i k outside duri.! •• oinsto .. ,,?
•• 5 At, corutn><1iOll,;Ie, pil'" "",ndt SlnKk ,he grO"nd
,.,i,". '1"'''' 0124 mI, . (.) fr ... ""' .. bfiSb' W1! i, inadv,,·
... tI)' dropped? (b) How 1003"'" i, (C) Skt,clt
of y. v ... d. "'''.ISI for the ,"""och. .IM
.t6 A hoodlum thr""" • " 011 . .. rtiocally doMt .... d wi,b
on initi. 1 """" 01 120 ml. Irom tb. roof 01: • bu"ding.
30.0 m . !Jove 'he grourtd. (0) How ' OrtE dot. it ,ok. the """e
'0 ",.,h ,b. ground? (b) lIb .. is , ... 'pe<d 01 tbe "()(I' at
impact?
•• 7 ( ' j II',," ... hat sptM must. baU be ,br<>Wlt v,rtioc>i!y
lrom !!Iootnd level to rioe to , moxirnum h.is/lt 01 50 m 1
(b) How lOA! ";U it be i. tlte >ir7 «) St.,," grnplu 01 y. v .• nd
• ve"us <for the boll. On tbe two graplts. indk-.l< th. time
" "'biocb50m i,reocltod. ... _
.41 w""" " . nlt<!..n """odilJo willle. p up ... :mI. Suppooe
it ri ... m in tlr. fir .. 0.200. (a) Wh., .. it. initi.r.p«d
.. it Ie , ,,,,. the ground? (b) What ;' it, ."""d., the height 01:
05 14 011 (c) How "'\loCh rugher <lot. i,.';01
.49 A bOl· air barloon is aorer><lins .. tlte tate 0I 1l ",I • • nd
i.80 m aoove the grourxl wbrn , p""bge .. dropp«love, ,b.
,ide. (. j H"", k>rIg doH Ik. ",'kag. 1>1:. lo,",,,,b lb. goo""?
(b) With wh., 'I"', d dot. i'M tb. grourxl? ...
•• 50 A bolt is dropped from , bri<!s' u.der oon>lnlCli"".
90 m '0 , ... volley be.". , ... bridB" (. ) [0 much
,im. does i! paM throoglr ,.e la" 10% 01: i,. lam Wb .. i. its
'1"''''' (b) "'beo it begins tint I .. t 10% of it< fall ond (C) 'OI he.
it ceacbe.,h. vall,y beoe"" the bridge?
•• 51 A key fall! f.om • bfid!le ,hat .. 45 In obove the .. .,.ttl.
It lall. di.oetl), ;"to • mod,1 boa, . Dl()Yio! orith """" .. t
.. k>city.'Jr.at ;, 11 "' from ,he point 01 impact wh. " tb. key ;,
" Ie"""d. Wb>1 istb. spud 01 tbe boat1 ......
.. 52 At time I _ O . • ppI. I .. dropped /r"", , bridge 011'0 •
rooclw.y be.t >t h the bfidB'; """""'hot b'tT .• ppIe 2 ;,
'hrown doMt 110m th . ...... bfiSh'. Figure 2· 31 gives 'be
wniocai po>itio .. y 01 tb. apple< "'mi, ' durin! tb. falling. un·
,il both apple. nave ru' tb. roadw,y. ",tb opproxirn, "l y ... nat
'1"''''' .pple 2 thI","" <101m?
"
'0,
,
,
]" ,
0(, )
o
,
,
,
fIG. Z· ll Problem 52
•• 51 A. 0 .un, ,,,,,y "';.n'ific
boUOOIl """nru .. 19.& 011 .
01: it, inmum •• ' p><.tage.
o
1
o
o
,.,
br . . .. f ... of . b.m,,, .. d 0r-, C-'l,-;- T'"
Ir",.fall, FiSllIe 2-32 give> tb. 1 1 0
",,,kal .. Ioci'y 01 the
.. "." 'ime. from belore i,
br. rn fr .. '0 wh,. it reaclt ..
'be ground. (. ) Wh.u """,imum
fIG. Z· J2 Problem 53.
__ Ch.opt ... 2 I Motion Akmg. Strlligtlt (j,..
bdgh' ,bow. ,b. bf.ak_lroe poin' doe. i, ri .. ? (h) How rugh i .
,be bI •• k_f, .. point , ..."" the YOWld?
•• 54 Fi!,," 2_33 ,h"", ,h • • peed \' ve" •• height y 01 , baH
,oo .. d directly up,. .. d. oIoog • Y Hi<. Di<,,,,,,,, d is o..w."Th.
spe«l ., heigh. y. ".t_ The . peed al boiS'" Yo is 1'-.<. \I'h. , i.
.p.«Iv.?

..
,
,
,
------r ------
________ _+'----------+'c.

.. .
fIG. Z-3l Problem 54.
•• 55 A boll 01 moo' d ay fan. 15.0 .. to ,b. ground. It i.
in 000'><1 with 'he ground to. 20.0 ... 1><101 . .. opping.
(.J \\'hal;, ,be oI lb. ave,,!, a<releratioo 01 lb. ball
durin! ,b. time it;' in 0001><1 with 'be V""nd? {Tr .... tbe ball as
• JW1ic\t. ) (b) 1 ..... av.",!" """",1" .. ,;00 upor """ .. ? .. "
•• 5& A " """ is dropped into, ,iver {rom, briodg. 43.9 m
above ,h. water. AnoIber " """ io ,blOwn .ellicott}, <Iowo 1.00
• after tbe fin' i. dropped. The " ""." stril e tbe ","er . t Ih.
>am< lim • . (.) n.", i. 'he speed of ,toe """"'" "one?
(b) Plot oeloot)' v ...... ,ime 00 • yap!> to. . ,.,h " one. 'akinS
zero time .. tho in" • ., ,b. firs' "OIIe;, released.
•• 57 To , .. , tb. q.>Ii,y of. to.o;' 00ll, fOIl drop ;, 00' 0
, be floor f,om a heiEh' of 4.00 m. It ,ebooodo to. h' igh' d 2.00
m. 1f ,b. ball ;, ill oo,,, :oct ",til ,i>;, 1I0OI to. 12.0 ..... (.) lObo, i.
,he .... sni'ude d it< """.g. "",.1 . .. ,,,,,, dwill8 .h>1 rootact
. Dd (b) io the "" .. "!!. """I".,,,,,, "pOf_1
•• 58 A 'OC. ,hro ..... vtItic. lly upward Irom grounod 1e".,1
>! ,ime , _ o. At' _ l.5, i, !W'" ,he ,opol > tall tow" . • Dd
1.0. I.,,, i, , .. ebe. iu maximum heigh', lIb., ;, ,he h.igh' d
,he t"....,.. 1
•• 59 W" ., drip f,om ,he ""zzI. 01 a showe, onto tile tloor
lOO cm below. The drop< 1000.t resub, ("1" 01) in'ervak d
time. ,he /int drop .. rikillg tbe ft oor at the ;""ant .b. lourth
drop begi .. to loll. wtr...,he fi", drop ",ik ... the ft OOf. bow
far below tb. i>OzzI. are ,b. (. ) .. ooad .. d (b) 'hird drop<1
•• 60 A. obje<1 I. Us • Irom , .. ,. If • , ,,"v.I. 0.';(Y;
in the I .. t 1.00 ,. Iind (. ) ,h. time and (b) 'he heigh' d it> fall
(e) E,pI.iIl ,Ir. physkolly w\>OCepl . bIe soIu,ion d the GU' -
dratic "Iu>tioo in ,til" you obtain .
•• 61 A dr"",y "', >pOt! •
_rpot thai ,oils fir" up
ond,hen doom pail ... ope-rr 'Olin.-
<100< The pol .. __ for a ,0l0I
d 0.'i0 IDl ,b. '<>p-'o-boot<>m
ir.eiEh' of tho wD;low io 2.00 m.
How .rove the ....;,.oo...'op
<lots the
••• 62 A ball shot ,..rtically
"pw>Id I,om ,b • • urlace of :u>-
OIIr<-r pi .. " . A plot d Y "" ..... ,
10< tl>o ball ,bOWD ill Fig. 2_34.
,

"0 " "
fI _1
..... Z.J4 Problem 62.
wbere y ;, 'he b.iSh, 01 II" baU .boo. i" " .. ting poin' ond ,
_ 0 at ,b. ill" ... , ,1>0 ball ,boo. The figu,," vertical O<:ali.og"
. ," by y, _ 30.0 m. "Iibat ... the m.sni'."" of (.) , he 1, ... _foU
occele",tioo 00 ,be pi .. " and (b) 'be initial v.'oci'y d ,he

• •• 61 A "..,1 boll dropped lro", • building', ,001 and
p ..... a "'.dow. 'aking 0.115, '0 fall hom ,be top '0 tbe
bot,,,,,, d ,b. ",.00..-. a disronre d 1.20 IlL It ,be.lall. '0 .
sidE-wolk .00 boo""tl bad !W' ,be wmoo..-. lIIovieg lrom
bot,,,,,, '0 'op ill 0. 125 As'UJIlO 'hot ,he "P'"",d ftigh' ••
. DC' reve, .. of the lall. The ,im. ,Ir. boll 'I"'odo hel.,... ,he
bot,,,,,, d ,be ",in<!.,.,. 2.00. How ,all is ,he building? =
••• M A b .. ke,boll pl')"" Y"bbinS ... bound jump"
76.0 cm ""rtically. H"", much 'OIai time (. "","t .. d d.JCeDt)
does ,he pl.ye' "",00 (' 1 in 'he top 15_0 crn d jump and
(b) in ,b. bot'om 15.0 em? Do y"'" multo "plai ... -b)' ,"cb
pI.y", .... m '0 banE in ,b. oi, . , ,be ,op of • jwnp1
Me. Z·1 0 in Motion Analysi •
.65 In Sampl. Problem 1-9. at nwrimum bead acceleration.
",-h .. ;, ,1>0 'I"'tdo{ (a) tb. h. ad .. d (b) ,b.
.66 A .aIam.OOe, of tbe
gffiU. lIyJ"'''''./II'' ca pture.
prr)' by l ' UDChin! iu 'OIl!"" ..
a proje<tilt: The stele .. 1 part
d the 'ongue ,.01 for .... rd .
u.foldiDg ,b. res' d tlr.e
'''''sue, "",il tb. ""te, J'Of' ioo
lands on ,b. prey. "kDrig to i,.
Fisure 1_35 .now. , •• """,Ie .. _
"
1

FlG.z.n
'1"'1
Problem66.
tioo magnitude. ",nw ,ime , fOf tb. """,Ie,ati"" ph"" d
,he laundr ill • 'HOcai si,u.,ioo. The indicattd >e«lo,>tioo. :ore
., _ -100 .. '.' and . j _ 100 m .... ' . Wh., ;, !be ,"",....,d opetd d
the tongu. at the .Dd d ,Ir.e
"""I.""ioo p/laoe1
•• 67 H .... lardoesthenll"' ..
wbo .. velocity_'ime gnoph
"""'" ill "OE- 2_ J6 Tr.",,1 ill 16 .1
The figur e , v..-tkaI ocaIillg is set
b)"\". _ ".
•• n In a !Of,..,d puncll ill
k.,..". the fist beY.' at ,," at
,he woj" and io brougllt

"
,
-I
,
,
. '-'-,;---, .-" ,\,--"".
, I')
Probl.m 67.
.. pidly !Ofw..-d UII,il tb. u rn ;, fuU)' ex<.odtd. lb. ' I"' td \',,)
d ,h. fis, is givrrr ill Fig. 2_37 for ' 0">00' " r..tilltd in karat ..
Ho.,.l., h .. ,h./ist m""td at (.) ,ime , _ 50 "" .. d (b) wbe.
,he opetd d,be /is'ism:oximum7
=
,oo '"'"
, (moj
flO. Z.J7 Problem 6&
•• 69 "b •• a 5OCC" ball is kicked 'oward • play .. and
,be pl. )",' do!loct. 'he WI by ··heading"· •. lb. acceleratio.
d ' he h.ad durillg ,be ooI.Iisio. call be .igoifi e=t. Figure 2_.\8
give.< ,h. me.,wed >CCe1e"uion a{') 01, o<><c< ' pl. )' ..... b. ad
for . b ... b.od.oo, belmet.d ".od. ",,'ing f,om ,.". A,
,im. I _ 7.0 m, . .. -b" i. ,b. di!J".nco in ,he '1"«1 ocqui,od by
,h. bar. heod :ond ,b, speed ""Iuirod 0)' , h. b, ' mtlod boodl

""'1
FIG. Z.JI Problem 69,
••• 70 Two pan iod .. m<>v, along." x >xi. Th. poo>' ion of
pankle I Yv'" by x _ 6.00r' + lOOt + 200 ('" mele" """
.. «>D<lo): , he aocele,,, iOll of p."iod. 2 i. give. by Q _ - 8.m
(in "" " ... 1'" ..ooncls "I"ared . nd >e<XlI>d>J .00. " , _ O. i"
velocily 20 111'. When r •• v.lociti .. of ,h. pan"' .... m.",1I,
wbar .. ve' od'yl
Addition. ' Prob'. m.
71 A, ,h . ... ,.", ,lie ,'-'/fi< ' u,., y ota an .u'omobile
"an • ..-ith a co.,"" acc.'"arioo. 01 2 2 mii-. A, 'h .......
in" •• ' • rrud. " . "..,l",! whb • 000<".' opeed 01 9.5
o,",nal ... nd p"""" d"" • • ,omobile. (. ) Ho .... far be)'OIId ,he
uail>< , ign.1 ,b • • u' ornobile ov" .. ke ,b. u""kl (bJ How
fa" willtb. au,omobil. be ,,,-,,,,I"'g" 'h" '''''''-',? ::lI
7Z Fi! ure 2-19 .b""" pan of • ","", "her. ">lIi<l.o .... ;, '0
be OOIl"oUed '0 allow • plo"x,," of can '0 mo,", """"'hI)'
>Ions ,h. ",oe1. SuJlP<lO< 'kat 'h, pb ,oo. Ie"",,, have jlU'
,,:.:b.d in' .. ""'io. 2. ,.,""'Te,he E""' • • w",red _ . ,hey
w.". di< ... "" d f,om ,b. icle'_io • . Th.y """,i.u. '0 tr""eI
" . ""rt,;n speed ", (,he ,petd limi') '0 " >eb i.Ie,_ion 3.
wh." , he S'''. appear, wb,. ,h.y M. di .. """, d f,om it. 1be
inle'_io •• • re "'p>Jared by di<,,,,,,,, Du and D". (.) Vi"",
,Ioould be ,b. ,ime <le l. y 01 ,h. """" of y . tH " in .. """ion 3
"I"i"" '0 ,1Lu " in,,,,,cooo 2 '0 k..,p 'Oe ph''''''' moving
,mOOlhlyl
SuI'P""'. "'"ad. ,b" ,be pia''''''' hod """0 .. oppod by ,
red tiEh' "inlen«1i"" I. \\ibe. ,h. Vot. rom • • o. ,b" •• lI ..
lea<le" "quire oem"," ,ime " '0 ,e'f><'l'd '0 ,be and
on addjrio ... ,ime '0 """,lor". ar some ,," Q ' 0 ,b. Cluising
'I"t<! v,. (b) If ,b. y ..... inte,_ion 2 '0 appear wh ••
'.e leado" ar. di .. anco d f,om ,k., i.,,,_io., 100 ...
afre, ,h. bY.' ar in" .. "",ioo I 'ww V". should ,b. bY.' at
i.1e,_io. 2,ur. --:s;
-' -
---
, ,
r---l\,--+o,,""
FIG. Z.J9 Probl.m 72.
73 I • ." mad. vidoo ......... . 'f'OI is prosramrned '0 rnov.
ocr"", the >creeD oocoo-ding '0 x _ 9.00t - 0.750<'. where x i,
di< .. ""e in ",.,i"''''1"11 .,."""ed f,om the left edge 01 ,b.
Ja.., • • nd, i. ,im. i. """"""'" Wh<n the 'I"" , ,,. che. ' lICJetD

•• or .i,b., x _ Oor .• _ 15.0 em. I i. ,."" '0 0 and , h •• poI
. u n. moving lIE';. oocoo-di.g '0 X(I). (a) A, .. ·.at time ofrer
".ning i. the ' PO' i." •• , .. eouoly .. ",, 1 (b) A, ,,"", val",
of x does ,hi. occurl (e) Wbar is , h. 'pol " """. I"atioo (i._
cludinS sign) ..-he. ,his oocw.? td) Is ir movi.g 'ighl or left
jR" prior '0 coming '0 ,.,,1 (e, Jusr >I, .. ? (I) A, "M' ,im.
I > 0 does i, fir .. re >eb .. of , h. ",,,,,.1
A I.ad boll;' dropped in • lak. f,om -" !>o:r.rd
5.20 m , hov. ,he """,. It hi .. ,he waro, ..-irb • "nain veloc-
ity ond Ibe. ,ink< '0 ,b. borrom with ,hi. >am. <001"'"
II "",ne. ,h. bon"," 4.1.0 I ai, .. i, dropped.
(0) How d"p" ,he Iak.? ""'h., or. ,he (hI ""gni''''''' and (eJ
direc' io. (up or cIoron) of ,b. Dve .. !"- v. loci'y of ,b. ball for
,h •• c,ire foll l Suppose ,"", all ,he ",ate, i. dr.in. d fr om ,h •
I . ... Th. ball no..- rb,o..-n from ,h. diYirlg !>o:r.rd so ,na. i,
. gain reaches ,b. bonom i. 4,80. Wb" ar. the (d) m. gni_
,ud • • nd (e) dir<fliOll of ,b. ini,iol veloci, Y of ,he ball?
75 1be single cabl. , uppon inS . D UIIoccup;ed ","'''lI<1i""
.1, .. '01 t,..ili ..-b •• ,he , leValor i." , ... , .. ,he ''''' of . 120-
m_higlr building. ( . , """b ,.,t" 'I"t<! does ,h. ,lev,,", .. ,ile
'Oe E,ound1 (bJ How Ion! i . i, follin(.' te, Wbal i. i1> ' f>«'d
wh •• i, pa>oe> ,b, halfw.y poin' 00 ,h. '''ydown' (d) How
lOllS b .. it """" falling wh •• i, "" ... ,lie h:rlfw:oy poin' ?
76 TwodiamOllw begin . fr"", fall fr om ,<0' from ,he .. m.
b,igh' _ 1.0. >pan. How loo.!; of,,, ,b. fir .. diamond beEiru '0
fall Mil ,h. ' .. 0 di:tIllollOd. be 10 m . """
77 If , b_ alI pilcOe' ' hrow> • f .. ,ball .. a horizon' a1
' 1"«101160 kin/h. bow IonS dou ,h. ball,ake10 "aclr born.
pi ... 1M m . w:oy?
71 A proroo., ..... aloog ,h. x..;, >OCO<ding ' 0 ,ho oqua_
,ion x _ 50< + 101'. "b ... .... in m," .. and,;, i. """"""
Cakula .. (.) ,he , v"IIE' .. lociIy of ,he proroo durins ,h.
5", 3.0 . of in rnori"". (b) ,h. "'!tan' .. """ voloci' )' 01 'be
p'OIOO " , _ 1 0 ""d (e) ,b. i." .. ,,,,,,,,,,,. """,Ie, . ,i""
of ,b. 1"0100 .. , _ (d) G"pIr x ve, ... , r .oo Ondi" ..
bow ,he ""we, '0 (a) carr be "bloi.ed f,om ,lie pk>!. (e )
lndic. " ,h ..... "'." '0 (h) o. the y . ph. (I) 1'101 Y v", ... t>M
indica .. 00 i, ,he .... ,.," '0(' ).
79 A rnorOl<)TIe .,,,,,i.!., 30 mi. _. ,h. ri<le, .pplielr
'be bo"h • . ,he moror')'cle a coos ... , """"Ie'al iOll.
Doring ,be 10, i."rval immodi." i)' af .. , i>nting begi"" ,h.
. pt «l docre .... '0 15 mi. "''hal di,,= does , he moror,),,1e
u,"v,l f,om ,he .... "'" boiliDg begi., "",il the moror,),,1e
""",,?
10 A pilor flies horlz"" .. Uy at 1300 kmib. " hei!h' h _
35 ra , hove ini'ialiy Itvel yound. H"""ve, ... ,im. , _ O. 'he
pilo< begirt< '0 ft y 0 .. ' Vound lI""ing upward .. . .
_ 4.J· ( Fig. 2-.\0). If ,he pilOl doe. 001 ,he oilp!> ... ..
h.ading." .. Iu, ,ime , do .. ,he pi ... strike ,he groundl

- I
AG. Z..o Probl.m 80.
11 A ,bulft.!>o:r.rd di<k ;, """,Ie,.,od" , corn""" , . ro f,om
" .. '0 a ,pt.d of 6.0 mi, ow, a 1.8., dir,,,,,,,,, by • pI.yer
usi.! . cue. A, ,his poin' ,b. disk lose! 00II10<1 wi,. II .. cu.
Ch.opt ... 2 I Motion Akmg. Strlligtlt (j,..
.Dd ,10 ... at • COlI" . " ,..,. 01 lJ lIIi.' "OP< (. J How
muciJ tim •• I. p>« from .. 11<" ,b. di<k bt!iIU 10 """"I,,,,,,,
until il .. op1 (b) W"a' 'ou. w.u",,, cIoes th. dist n.ven
12 Th. t.ead of . ",,,Ie.,,ok. "". ""reI,,,", al 50 .. /1' i.
vicl ..... If. COl rocld do as well, now loog would il
talre !oTeach • speed 01100 lmib f,om ,.,, 1
Il A jumbo jet mw' ,."b. speed of 360 kmlh "" ,b. "'. _
" ' y lor ,>ked( Wb>t is !be I.....", oo.""nt """,J" .. ;oo
• ...t..d!of takeoff/rom, 1.80 km .. oway?
U An automobil. driVel iocr."",. ,.,. speed .. . const ... ,
r.t, f,om 25 kmlb 10 55 kmlb in 0.50 mlo. A bkycle rider
"",ods up " • 000>1..,' "',. f,om ,," 10 .lO l mlb in 05() mi • .
\\nat ... , ... m>gll;tu"". of (0) ,h. drivd. """,,10 .. ,;00 . nd
(b) ,b. rid,,-, "",.lfIatioo?
85 To st"l' • <:al. ti", Y"" require a "wain re.ctioo tim. 10
b<gin tnki,!' ,.en tho car ,)ow, ... """'" .. , r.' .. Suppose
tb .. ,he 'oul di""""" !DOve<! by you, cal these lwo
p/>a><'< is 56.1 m .. ben j" i.itial 5f><ed 80.5 kmIh. and 24.4 m
.,ben it> i.iti. I'peed is 48.] un!h. What art (oj )<><l' ,..ctioo
lim .... d (b) 'be ""yIi,ud. 01 ,he """,ler .. i"..?
16 A r.d "aio t" .. ling" 72 k",lh and, gree. train ".",,1_
ingot 144 kmlh are b.oded toward . oclr otb .. oI""g " ''''igllt ,
1e",,1 ,,,,,,Ie. \\!h," tbey.re 950 m . pari .• ocb .ngineer .. ", the
OIber', Iraio .. d . ppIi.s the br.t .. The b .. k", ,I""" ncb
trun >t rhe,." 01 1.0 mI,'. I. lbe", ooIIisioolU '"
y ... ond yve 'he speed of the rod "ain .. d ,be sp<od of tb.
Sr<1m .",in ,t I",pan. r<.<p"<ovely. If 001 . .,..we, no .nd !iv'
tbe "'p"""I<>IlI><'"""n tbe "ai • • wben tb,y ""I'-
17 Atnm., _ O,.rcd
climb< r . <ridentally :oIlow>
• pOOII'O f:ill froely from 0
hig,hpoiDlooth.rock,.:ill "
to the valley 1>.""" rum.
The ... after 0 !:bon deLa)".
his climbing porrnor. ,.00
is 10m higher on ,h. wail,
throw! • plOD downward
The pooilioos Y of the.
pit"'" ,..,."" , during ,be

, ,
, I-I
f lG. Ul l'robl.m87.
falling • • givetl m Fig. 2-11. \\\th ,.h>l speed is lhe pit""
- ,
II A rock ;' >1101 ""nically op·. ,.rd from ,be edg< 01 'be lop
01 0 I. U building. Th. ro<k reach" ;u l1IaJ1imwn heigb' .bov.
tbe top of 'be L.60, 0/", beinS .bOl. Th.n, afte,
b .... 1y m;.,mg tbe edge of tbe .. It fails dowJIw.r<1.
the rock Slrih. tb. ground 6.00 1 .r,,, ;, is l>"ncbed 10 SI
(.) wi,h ..-h,t .,.,..-:od vttocity is tbe rock , i>oL (b) ..t ••
maximum bel£llt .brrv • • b. 'op 01 ,b. buildi.g;' ,,,,,,tied by
tbe ,ock ... d bow tall ;, Ihe buildi.g?
19 A panicle', ooceler. ,IOII oI""g"'u ' :D' • _ 5.0l,\,i!h ,
in..-ooods and. in .,,'er, per second "l"",ed. A, , _ 2.0 " Its
vtloclty i , +17 mi. \\il",' I. Its ",Iociry •• , _ 4.0 .7 ....
90 A ITaio " ... ltd from , .. t . nd """,. d wi.h ooru ... t """,1_
... ,ioo. At one tim. It ..-.. u,,,,,U,S 30 mls, ond 160 m fanh"
"" II 10., C.kulate (., tbe """.I • .-atloo, (b)
tire 11m. ""'IuiTed to tr.",1 ,be 160 m mentioned, «) tbe lim.
rtquire<!.o ." ... tbe speed 01 JOn's, ... d (d) 'be w.t.",,,
moved from rut to tb. I""" tlr . trai. hod .'pe<d 01 JO
(.) a.-.pb xv ...... , ..,d \' "'''w 'for tb. traio.from r .. ' .
91 A boo rod con """Ie .. " fro., 0." W kmIh in 504
(.J Wb .. ;, ill . .... "'" "",,1e .. ,iOll. i. mi.'. durin£ thi> lim.?
(b) H"", far..;u It ",,,,,I during ,be H ""umi.! it, ><=Ier_
' 0"" i. cornt.,,,? <el From ,.,,_ how muc.b lim. would II
""'Iulre 10 go 0 disI"""" of 0.25 kill II> IOCcele.-.,Ioo ,,,,,ld be
moi.,olnedat,b.valoeirr (a)1 ...
92 A roclet--driven sI.d rwuoinS "" 0 ",.Ig,h, . Ie..,1 ,.- i.
u«<l to investi!,," .Ir •• ffects 01 largo :occel."'tions on
bum .. On. 50Cb sled <an . naio . speed of UiOOkmib In
1.8 I, "arlmg from r ..... Find (oJ ,be """Ie ... ,i"" (.S>UIDed
<oo>""'t) in t"m. of g and ( bJ the <futance tr. ""Ied. -::IG'
93 Fi!w. 2_,(\ >how< • si"'ple device for rne .. urins your
,,,,,,;0. time. lr ooru;,ts of • ,,,,dboard "rip , .. rkNf with 0
",ale ... d ,,..., I"'g' A h;'od boIdr 'he "rip ""''''ally.
,.;.b .humb and for,IinS" .. 'he dOl on the 'isht m Fig. 2-12.
You .hefl poori.ior:> y""r 'humb and foreti.ger ,t th e <>Ih" dol
("" .he Iefl m Fig. l-ll). !>om! <ar.ful "'" to toud! the "rip.
Your fri.nd rele,..., ,be "rip. and you !lylopiocb i1 ao soon ..
poo.<i b\e .r", you .... it begin to foil. The mork ., ,be pl>«
..-bere yoo pinch 'Ir< '!lip yve, )'00' re>eti"" ,ito., (a) H"",
f .. from ,b. low" dol >llould you pIace.be 50.0 .... m"k?
H""" moch hiy.er ,book! you pi""" oil. m:uks !of (b) 100,
(eJ ISO. (d) 200 .... d (.) 2,';(j ""? (For eumple. >lloold ,Ire
(00 m. ffi>rk.r be 2 om .. . . far from tho dol '" In.. m.
.... l"l U '" y"" ." an"." 01 2 0", you fi.d >my p.'_
'un", ,be .. ,we,,?)
"",,,,,,," ,ime 1""1
i
Problem 93.
9' Figur. glveo ,b. >c_
eole .. """ • ""IS'" 'I .... , for •
porticl. moYing ol",,! aD X :ru..
The . _axi. scaie i . .. t _
12.0m/. ' . A" _ - 2.0 par_
tid" velocity i, 7.0 mls. "''h.,
is iI. velocilyatl _ 6.0.1
.)
95 A mining cart I. pull.d up
a hill >I 20 kmlb and ,ben
I"'UNf baok down ,b. hill . , 35
FIG. Problem 9-1.
k",lh 'hrough lIS origin] Ie",l (The ,ime required for ,Ire
<an', r .. ,,'" ., the 'OP of ill ,limb;' rrogligibl.,) What ;, tbe
OVtr'!" speed of ,Ire cart !of ilS round ,rip. from lIS OI'ginal
level back '0 ii, originol Lev.n
96 00 ,ve",!,." '1'" bIi.k I ..... bour 100 mr. H"", f ..
<100 • • MiG_l5 'Fox,,"I " fis/lter In",,1 during, paOl', blink if
tbe ph".', .""'go velocily;, 3400 kIru1t1
97 Wh"" ,be L.!ol speed IimiI !Of ,b. N<-w York Th .. ".-.y
was I"" .... d from 55 mifh 10 65 milb. bow moch lime Yo.",
.. ved by , mOlori>l ..-bo dr"". ,he 100km !>O,,,,,,,,, tbe
Buffolo ."lran« ond tbe N.", York Cily .. it ., the legal
speedlimil? ....
91 A " OIor'YoIKt wbo i. moving on x aJlis directed to-
.... d 'Ir< .... n:.. >II ><ttlen ,Ion giv •• 1»' _ (6.1 - 1.21)
mi.' for 0 '" , '" 6.0 • A, , _ O. 'be .. lociry . nd """ilioo of ,be
,)'d;'t ... 2.7 mI, ond 7.3 OL (.J IVh .. ;, .be lIlaJIimum speed
ochi.1'KI by 'h, (b) Wh" '0,01 <Ii""""" <Ioes ,be
eycli.;, ,ra .. l bel"""m! _ 0 and6.0.1
99 A <en.in juw" usu:dly 'os." boll. v."icoll}' '0. heigl"
II. To ,.,t" heigh' OlU" ,hey be ",.oed ,b,y.re '0 "",nd
,......, • • s mocb ,im. i. ,he .iT? ....
100 A <ar ",<>"i0! ",i,b ooru'an' ace.'en,io. rove"",, , ...
dk .. ,,,,, bo'_en two poin" 60.0 m "Pa1t in 6.00 II. 'p .. d ..
i, p:u.ed ,be .. 000<1 poin' w .. (.) 1\0" In. , ...
'I"'od., tb. fir" poio' ? (b) Wh .. "'., ..... magni'u<le. 01 ,he ><-
""Ien.'ioo? (cJ A, ·.,tn, prior <Ii"m<e f,<XII d.e fin' poin' "' ..
,h. COl ., "",? (dJ ataptt x' .. "" •• , and .' """w , to. ,b. <>I.
I""",,<t(, - OJ.
1 01 A rock .. dropped /r"", • lOO-m_high clif( How long
00... it ,>to '0 loll {'J 'be fir" 'iO m .nd {hj ,h. >eoood 'iO m1
102 Two ",bw'ptol" or, "p.n,ed by 1100 rD. If a subw.y
Irain """"Ie,. , ... , +1.2 fIll,' /rom , ." ,hrOllY. ,be h.1f
of ,be dio,= . nd doe,le,," ... , - I.l ",i.' 'hrough 'he ""'_
ODd hol[ "h. , or. ('j ;IS , ... ",,1 ,...., >lid (b) ;" maximum
'I"'odl (c) Oraph x. '" and. """u. "or ,b. ,rip.
1 01 A cen>io '1"""" h .. . 'op sp«d 01 11.0 mil. If , ...
'I"int., "Ol" I,om "'" .. d """,'er"'" .. a """".,>1 , .... he
is .bl. '0 "'>ch hio 'op ,,,,,,,d in • di .. """" of 12.0 rn. He ..
,b •• able '0 maio'",n ,hi. 'OP 'p".dlor ,h. ,emainder 01 • 100
'" ,oce. (.) II'h.,;. hi> ,ime lor ,he 100 m ,acel (h) I. or<i<, '0
improve hi> 'ime. ,b. ' I"in'er ,ri" '0 <lea .... ,be dj .. """" ,,_
qui,od for him '0 , .. ch 'OP """,d. Wh, m",' thi. di"""""
be ifbe;, '0 oclDeve . ,ime of 10.0, for ,h. race?
10. A panicle "am from ,he
onEin." _ 0 and rD""" aloat
'ke poo;,;ve x >:I;" A yapb 01 "
'he velo<;'y of ,b. p:ortici, .., . ]:
fu<>c,ioo of , ... ,....,;, .hown in >
FiS- 2-44: ,b. Ie",,;' >Cal. i •• ,"
by I', _ 4.0 (.) WIt .. io ,he
roordi.o." 01 ,h. p."id • • , , _
"
, '-,-;,- ",." ,-1,
, (.)
5.0 , ? (b) Wlut ;, , ... veloci'y 01
flG. :u. 1'robl,,,,I04.
'ke par'iel • • , 1 _ 5.0 . 1 (,)
"'b.,;, ,b. """,I . ""ioo ol,b, p.,.,ide" 1_ 5.0,? (d) I\ih.,
i. the .v.r.ge ""I",;,y 01 ,he partid, I><'""",n 1_ l.0 . and
1 _ 5.0 ,1 (e) l\b., i> ,be ' VeT.ge. .. ,ioo of 'be pan;,,1e
be'weeD I _ 1.0 ... d, _
105 A " """ i> ,b,.,...n "",ti<.UJy upwllJd. O. i ...... y up i,
.,..... poin' A wi,h 'p"od I' • .00 poin' B. 3.00 m higheT 'h""
A. wi,b """,d iv. C.kIllm. (. ) the 'p".d I' """ (bJ 'be m",,;_
mum heigh' "'>cbod by ,be .H, ... ' OOvo point B.
106 A ,ock i. dropped (from re.,,) f,,,,,, ,he 'OP 01 • W-m-
,011 buikli.S- Ho..-far . bove the !loud;' ,berod: 1.2. belor.
i, r .. ,hes 'he YOllnd?
107 AD iceboa' •••• "",,, . nI voloci'y 'oward ,I>< ... ,
" •• n • sudd,n gu" of wind the iceboa' '0 b •••• """_
"aD' """,Ie, .. i"" 'oward ,he .... lor. p",iod 0110 plo<
ol x ven", 011""", in FiS- 245, wher" _ 0;' lak.n '0 be ,he
in,"n' ,be wind " .. " '0 blow """'be pooi';" x >:Iio i. ,,,,,,,,rd
'be .,.". (aJ Wh., io ,he occel" .. ioo 01 ,be iceboa' d\lIinS , ...
10, in,,,,,. I? (b) lIRa, ,he veloci1y 01 the iceboa' .. ,he
.nd 01 !h. 3.0. i.,.,,,,,)1 (c) If ,be o=le, .. iOll Itn.';", 000-
"an' for IllI oddj' ;OIIoJ how fOT doe. tb. iceboa' Ir""el
durm3'hiooeoond3,O.in"rval? ....
"
..
"
,
" •
" ,
"
"
"
,
"
,
<1-)
flG. z.e Problem 107.
10& A baU i. ,broom ."'icalty dowD .... rd from 'be 'OP of
• .J6.6-m-,alJ building. The ball pas.oe> , ... 'OP of . wi_ ,na,
i. 122 o, .OOv. ,b. gTOIUId2.00 • • h" beinS 'hrown. Wh" io
'he . f'<'edof 'he boll :u i, pa .... ,ho 'opol ,b. window?
109 n.. ,peed 01 a bulle,;" ",e ... ,od '0 be &10 mil .. 'he
bulle, .merge> 1,00l • b:m.1 olleng,b 1.20 IlL A".mi.! <OIl _
" , ., "",<1 ..... ;00. find ,b, ,im. ,k .. ,b. bulle, 'p"Dds in 'he
ban.1 "'," i," m.d.
110 A p .. b",,,, OIl' and lre.ty 1.1l< 'iOm. n..o ,k.
parachute optns...,d !h ... ",,,, ,0. <leeele .. , .... l.Oml,'.
Sb. ",.d". , ... Y""0d wi,b • • peed 01 >'0 (.J How I",,!
i, ,b. in ,he >it? (b) A, wh., beigb' doe. 'be fall
beEin?
111 n.. z...o Gravily ReOf .. , b FacUl,y .. ,h. NASA
Ol,"n Rue .. ,h Conlt, i""ludes. 145 m d,op 'ower. Thi< io
." e""", .. ed ,..,nical ,.,..", 'hrougb ... bich.. .nH'.S oth" poo_
I m <Ii ..... ", .pbero ooo'>ining ... expelimenu l
p,kag. =0 be dropped. (.J How long i ...... pIleTe i. f,ee
foil? (bJ WIu, is i .. 'I"',d j"" ar i, """he .. ",,,h,,,! devie ...
,h. bot'om 01 ,b. ,,,,,,,,,t? (,) When c. ugh'. ,he 'l'h"e
expeli .. "" '" . ve.,8" d".I" .. ioo 01 1'ig .. i .. "",od ;"
reduced '0 ",ro. Thr""gh w!la1 diou"", 00...;, , .. ,..,1 during
,b. doc.Ie, .. iOll?
112 A b.all ;" 'hrown .w..'n v,,,icall)' ",!h .., ini,ial ol
I,lrom , heigh' 01 h. (.J WIt" ;, it! "",od ju>1 belore i, >trikes
'he g,ound? (b) How lOllS doe. ,he b,,1 ,ak. '0 Ie""h 'he
YOWldl lib., ,...,.,kl be ,he .,.""'''.'0 (c) pan • and (d) por'
b ,he baU "'.,,' ,hrowa fr"'" 'be ...... heigh'.""
wilh the same ini,iol "",ed? Befor. ,.,Iving any «[ ... ,ion<, de_
cid, "h"he' ,he "",'.',n '0 (c) and (d) .houkl be Y' .'"
'bOD.Ie .. ,b. •. or 'be .. m. '" i. (. ) .""(b) ,
113 A car "'. be brak.d '0 a "OP from ,b •• u,obah. _b'e
' p",,:lof 200 km!h in 170 m.A .. wning ,he acce'tT.,ioo io roIl _
. Un'. ii"" i" in (.) SI uoiu """ (h) in "n", 01 t,
(cJ H"", mllCb ,ime T. ;" ""Inired for ,h. b ... king1 Your
' ....... Ion ,j"... T, ,b. ,...., you ,«[ui", '0 I"'",.iv. an ... ,,_
1l""'Y. ,"""e )'OIU" f_ '0 ,h. brak •. and begin ,b. brak;nf. If
T, _ -100 ,b.n (d) wh., ;" T. in 'orDl' 01 T" and (eJ moot
of 'be full ,...., required '0 >lop 'perl' in """in! 0' b ... king?
D:ork 'Wlgl ...... del.y ,b. vi",al .is"''' ..,,,, I,om ,h. e)'" '0
'he v;,ua! ron", i. 'he blain. Te (f) I. ,he ,,"eme
c ... in wttich T, incr.aood by lOOms. how .,,,,h "nher
""""h., .. ".vel duringyowTea<\iOD'ime?
114 n.. ,pot' wi,b the I .. It" moving ball;' joi . Iai. where
..... \lCed '''''''''' b.ve """hed 303 krnih. U • 1"01 .... "". 1 j>i
oJ", pl.)," face • • ball .. ,bo, speed and invoiunt>rily bIi.h
h. black> out the ICeD. !Of 100 ..... H.,... for ""'" ,h. ba.II
"'<>I" during ,h. black"", ?
Vectors
,
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,
,
,
,
,
;/
,
,
,
,
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,
,
,
,
,
, ~ " ' "
,
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,
,
i cC
,
The desert an! Cataglyphis forti. lives in the plains
of th .. Sahara desert. Whe" on" of the ant. forages
for food, jt travel. from it. home nest along a
haphazard search path Uk .. the one shown here. The
ant may travel more than 500 m along sud! a com_
p/jcated path over flat, featureless sand that con·
lain. no landmari< •. Yet, ....nen the an! dedd ... to reo
tum home, it turns and the" run. directly home.
38
How does the ant
know the way home
with no guiding clues
on the desert plain?
The answer is In t hls chapt ....
}'3 I Add;"gVKlorsGoomCIt,ic:.lty
3-1 WHAT IS PHYSICS?
Ph)',;c,; deals with. gre.1 many quantilWs Ihal h" ... bolh sire and di.ection, aOO
il """ds • "" ..... '1 fIlJlhomalicallanguage-lhe langu'ge of veclors -Io <ksnihe
those quanlil;" ... This language is also used ,n "nginee.ing, Ih" olhe. ,00
.ven in con,nlOO .p..oecb. If you ha"" • ...,. gi"OIl dj'oction5 sum a, "Go ti,'e blocks
do""n tbis SIf""t arid loon hang a I<fl : )'OU ha"" used In .. langu'ge 01 vi'CIou, In
fOCI , navigalion of an)' so" is NlSi'd on veelO." 001 ph)'sics ,nd .ngin ••• ing also
nood vectors in sp..>ciaJ "'"y' 10 explain poonom"n" involving IOtation .nd m.1g.
nOloclorees. , .. biclJ , .... gel 10 in la"' , mapte ... In thi' .baple •. , .. focll'S on 100 ba·
sic languago 01 wetOf'<
3-2 I Vectors and Scalars
A partie'" moving along. straiglliline can mo' ... in ont).' lwo di''''lion •. \Ve ean
take its mOlion 10 be posiliv. in one of IIhlse diroclion, "lid Ili'salivc in lbe olbi> •.
r'ill a pa."e'" mO'o'ing in II .. ",," dimen,io"" ho .. """., a plu, sign 0< minu, .ign is no
Ionge. clKlugh 10 indical" a dimClion. Illstead, we mUSl u,,". ,',,"IO,
A ,· ... 'w. has magullude as " .. ell "" di.;>CIion, and v.Clo,.. lollow ""flain
(\'I)cto<) ,uk>s 01 combinatioo, "'him ,.., ".,mine in Ibis chapl"' , A ,..,ClO.
4"amil)"" a qu,nlily Ihat ha, bolh a m'gnilude and a direCl,on and Ihus can ""
.. p.,,,,,,ted "'ilh • '"('Clm. Some physical quanlili .. Ihat me v;>CIo. qu,nlilies arc
d;,;pla«'n..,nl. velocily. and a<U'k""lion. YO" will ... many mote Ih:roughoul Ihis
book, so loaming lhe .uIe.s of WClo< combination "OW wiU bi>lp you greatly in
laler cbaplOf'S.
NO! aU ph}'sical quanllties involve a direclioo. p."SSUte.
mass, and lime, fot example, do nol "poi01" in Ih' 'l'alial "'"""" We call sudl
quanlilie.s ... " l ... >. and",,,, doal wilh by Ih' .ulo. 01 Ofdinary algobta.A sin-
g\< \·aluo. ",Ib a sign (as;n a wmp<'ralU,a of - WF). a scala •.
Tho simplest vo<lo. quantily is di'pl"",",.nl, 0 ' chango of rosilioo. A '"OClo<
Ihat '"plesenlS a d;,;pla""""'"1 is called, a <li spl"",,,,en, 'ecta,.
(Simil .. ly, we hal'" VeCIOfS and a<CI'leralion v<'C\ors.) If a
dl,nge5 its posilion by mOl"!ng lrom A to B in Fig. 3· 1n. we >a)' that il "nd".gnes "
d"pl"",,,,,,nl from A 10 B, .. 'bicb w" ''1''osenl "'11b an ... 0\0' poinling from A 10 B.
lb.> arrow ",,'Ci/ie, Iho '>'CI0. g .. phkaUy.To dislinguish ,",'<1ot symlxll' f,om olbe,
01 atro .. in lhis 0001: .11'" use lb. 01 a lriangle. as Ibe ..
In Fig. 3· la, 100 hom A 10 B. lrom A' 10 B' . and f.om A" 10 B" h,,·.
"'''''' magnilude and di,;>CIion. ThUs. Ihey s""cify ioomical di'pJ""""",nl we·
lOIS and '"pfOscnl Ibe 5aJl1C chang<' of position for lhe particle. A v<'Clo. can 00
WilDOUI changing ,ts value ifits lenglh and direction atO nOi cb,nged
The di'fllacomcnl"oClo, wit. u, nOlhing aDoullhe aClual path Ibat tho
In fig. 3· lb. fot example, aJllh .. , palh<; connecling (>Oi"1S A and B cor·
re'JIOod to Ihe .. "'" displacement welot . Ihat 01 fig . .1- I Q. D;,;placomcnl '"OClors
"p .. ",nl onl)' lhe OW,.U "ffect of Ihe mol ion. nOlllla molion i""lt.
3-3 1 Adding Vectors Geometrically
SUPJlOSl' Ih.l. as III Ibe '·<'Clo. diagram of Fig. 3·20,' 1'.,1;';10 m""", from , I 10 B
and Ihen law. from 810 C. W, can ,ol,,,,,,,nl its ",,",.11 displacen",nl (00 mall",
"'hal its aclual path) wilb Iwo SIte"''"''' .... displa""m.nl '·<'ClotS. AB and Be.
The 11<1 displaromenl oIlh.", Iwo d"placements " • single dispL:tcome"1 from A
10 e. We eaU Ae lhe , . .,.." •• "" '" (0. "" "kant) of Ihe "eClors AB and Be. This
sum is DOilhe u,ual ,lg<bfaK: sun
In Fig. 3-21>, we ,00,,"'100 ,·octors 01 Fig. J·la and fCiaoollhcm in the way
Ihal ...... shall u'" ltom no ... on. namely. " 'ilb an .. to"" OVef an italic symool. as

"
/ / '
,
,.,
'" FIG. JoI .......
,b. """" mognj,ude .. d dire<1j""
""d Ihu, ,epresent ,be =no di>.
pI. cem"". (b) Alllh,te path,,,,,,,"
nectios !be two points oon.spood 10
!h. >ame di,pI"",,,,,,,,' vO<1or.
,.,
'"
FIG. }.! (oIACi"bovo<;' OI'umoi
the """'01. AB .. d BC (b) Th ......
vtClo,,,.L:tt..led.
FIG. J..J Tbe"mveClonifon.db
<an 1>0 addod i.o .;'ber Ofder. >t.
Eq.J.1.
FIG. J.5 The veClon b . ad - b h. v.
,be ...... m. gnitude .. d opposite di·
rocUo ...
,.,
'"
fIG. " (a,IV.C1onif.b.ond - b.
To,.blr"" _'Of b from veClOf
3. addVO<' Of - b 'oveClor 3.
..
flQ.'" Th. 'luee veCl"" 3. b. ond i' <">.11 be youped" OIl)' way .. Ihey are addN,_
Eq,J-J.
i" 'ii . If w,""o indiea. e 0"1}' , .... m,soitude Ollhe Voct01 (a quantity that lad.
a 'igo ot dircClioo). we • hall "'" t .... italk symbol. as in a. h. and •. (YO" can "S<)
a ha"d"Til1"n symbol.) A S}m!JoI wilh a" ove,head ."ow .Iways implies
both P'''P''rti.:l.s of a vo<.m. magoit""" "od di,octioo.
Wo can ropre",nt Ih. rol'lio" amo"g 100 tb,,,,, wC'ors in Fig. 3-21> "ith 1!Ii>
""'"'0/" 'qro""',,,,
7 - li + b. (3-1)
,,-hien ,")', th't Ih. vecto, 7 i, Ih" vOOo, ,urn 01 vOOors a aod b. .ymool + ,"
Eq. 3-1 and II><> wo,d, "sum" and "add" have diffe'''"t meanings fot VOCtors than
the)' do i" too usual algebra OOcall'iol Ihey involvu !Jolh magniluc:l;> and diroclion.
Figu,e 3-1 suggests a prOCi'du," fot adding Iwo-di"IC",io",i wClots Ii and b
(l ) 0. pap"'. ,-octot --.; to some COIIve"K-"' "",10 and al Ihe
P'''P''' "ngkl. (2) .-000' b 10 Ih ... me seal .... lIh its 1ail allh. ""ad of v.c-
101 --.;. again at the P'''P''' angle. (J) The wetor ,un, 7 i<; tb. ''''to' Ihal eXI""w
lrom lhe lail 01--'; 1o Ih. hoad of b.
addiliOll. tIofi ""d in Ihi<; wa}'. has tWO important pr"P"rlK-s. Firsl. Ih.
0'00' 01 addition does n01 mailer. Adding Ii to b givos Ih. ,am<- rosult"' adding
btO --';(Fig. 3-3); Ihal is.
(3-2)
Serond. whe" lhere at. mo,e than '"'' v.cto .... ...., can groul' 1h.m in a"}' otdet
as add toom. ThUs. if 10 add ""Clots if. E. and 7 . ... .., cao add if and r;
first and loon add their wClo, sum (0". W. can also add band 7 6rsl and thcn
add IIw, ,um to a. W. ,ame re,ull eitoo, "")' . •• ,no,,-o in Rg. 34. Tha1 is,
(ii + b) +" -a + (b + <') ( ....... .. I . .. (3-3)
The veelot - b i" ,,-,,,tot .. -ilb lhe .. me ma[(llllutlo 0' b bUI 100
direction ("'" FIg. 3-5).Adding tWO ',-",1015 i" FIg. 3-5 ,,-ould yiold
b + (- b) - o.
Thu •. adding - b has 0110<1 01 SUblrOC1illg b. We use lhi< prop"'")' 10
the dilfere"", bel"""" 1"-0 vO<1o,.: leld - 'ii - b. Then
J - 'ii - b - a + (- b) (m." .. (3-4)
Ihal is. ". find Ih. difl.,,,n,,,, VoctO' J bJ-' adding lb. "'etot - b 10 Itt. wClo, Ii.
3-6 sho .. how this is dOBe get>",clricall)'.
A. in Ihe tlSUal algo,bra ... can "'0'''' a letm Ihal ;nduWs a \'OClot ')'",001
I,om on" side 01 a vo<1m equation '0 01lK" . but w. ",usl chang. ,IS sign.
RI, ... mpl;>. if WI! are giwn Eq. and "oed to soh" fota. w. can Ih.
equation as
(] + E - ii 0' 'ii - (] + b.
thaLalibougb"" h,,'e uS<'d di>pla",n",m veClo," he"' . lhe ,ulos
f01 addition ,nd ,ublraClioo hold 10' "OClors of all bllds •• ,helhe, '''P,eS<'ol
,,,Ioolies. acroie,alions. 01 olh., ' "OCI01 qua"'i'Y. Howeve, . •• ., can add
only vOClors of the sa me kind. Fo, example, we can ,dd '1"0 or Iwo
.. but adding a displa""mollt and a wlocity ma kes no ""nS<'. In the a,ilh·
""'Iicof scalars.'hat would 00 If)'ing 10 add 21 ,and 12 nL
H 'C Ie POI N T 1 lb. mogru'''''''' of <Ii ",l.:ocem.o" if ond b are 1 m >nod .. ,
"",,<"lively. >nod ? _ iI + 5. Coo,iderinS""'ious Of;' . " '_ of iI .oo S. "b.r ..
fA) lhoe maJIimum """sible magoirude for? and (b) the mioilllUlD poosible m'Y'i,1Ode7
Sample Problem m

,.,
3·. I Com"""""" of Voctor.
. ,

-- --
" .... - ,
,
"
10 ao class. h,,'e goal of mo",ng a.
far (Sirughl· Lne d.'l1a"",,) 1'001 baS<' camp"" possible
by ma king Ib,,,,, mov ... You m.y II'><! 100
following displ"""m",," in 'ny or""" (a) 3.1.0 km d""
east (direct ly to"'ard ,he .,st), (b) b. 2.0 km .lO" nor,h
of eaS! (a! an angie 01 30" lo •• ard ,he oorln from d""
oa,,); (e) 7 . 1.0 km due " osl. Allerna'iwly. you ma)'
,ubs,;,u,. either - b 10' b or - 7 lor 7. WnJi i, ,ho>
diSl'OC<' you can be from baS<' camp a! ,be
01 Ih. Ihird
U"ng a co,,"en", o, "",Ie. \IIC dra ... vOClors
"J. b. 7. - b. and - 7 as;o Fig . .1 ·711. We Iho. mco .. lly
sbdi' Ih. vOClors 0"01 IIle page. connoo;ng Ihree 01
Ihem a1 • lime in h",,<l-Io-Iail an"l,ng.>fl",n1S 10 find Ihei,
"",or sum 11. The tail of Ihe fits! vOClo, ,ePfl'S"nts b"""
camp. head 01 Ille ,bird '''p,,,,,,,n'' point
al which you stop. The """lor ,um II eXI"nds from Ille
lail olin" fiN 10 Iho hea d Ollh" Ihird WctO'. 11,
m'gnilude d i<; )'ou, disrance lrom ba,., ca mp.
fiG. J·7 Di!pl:.:emen, v«tOf'S". rh..,., Ole ro be u .. d, (b)
y"", di""""" f,om base C>Ill P i< y eat." if yoo wwle,.o:o di.·
pI.« .... " iI. b,.nd - ?, io "Y Ofd".
01 ' ''''Iors"if. b. and - ... call t>c in an}'
0''''''_ becau,., 100;, vecto, sun, is Ihe sa'ni' for an}'
0''''''. Tlhl 0''''' ' sho .. n in FIg. J-7b " 10' Ille vecto, sum
d - b + a + (- 7).
scal. giwn in Fig. 3·7". "'0""'" Ibe kon gl h
d of Ihrs voClo, sum. find,ng
We find ,hal disrance d is g,oaleS! lor a bead·lo·tail
3·4 I Components of Vectors
Adding ' "OClors ge<I'Thl"icatty can N Iedious. A and e."., lochnique
,nvol,,"s alg<'bra bUI requi'''' Ina! Ihu vectors bi> plac.-.,j "n a 'OCIangular coo,di ·
nale and , axes aro usuall)" drawn ,n 'he pia ne of Ih. pag<' .... sho"'"
in Fig. 3--&. The , .. i, com"" di, ocll}' oul ol In. pag.> at Iho O1;g;n' .... ignore il fo,
no ... . nd deal only .. ';In ,o.'O-<l; """n"ooal WClors.
A compo. on, of a WClor is p'o,OC1,on of Ibe "000' 0" "" 3J;" In Fig.
3-&. 101 . xampl<>. Q, IS lbe componeul "I veclor a on (",- aloog) Ihe x axis ,nd a,
IS compoooni aloog 11le, axis. To find Ihe p'¥llOn "f" veClo, along an ni:s .
...., draw J"''P''"diruIJr liBes from Ibe Iwo ends of Ih. voclO, 10 'he .11is.", shown.
The proj.>clion of a '"'ctO' 00 an.< oxis is ,1S x co""pmum . and sin,;I.,I)' Ihe p,o·
jeclion 0" Ihe, .. is i<; Ibc J COlt'PO"'''''' Th. P'"""" of findUl g Ih e 01
• ' >'C101 i, called rhe ""('10',
A compon" nl "I , wClo, b"" Ihe sa"", d;'OClion an .. is) as Ille voClo,.
lu 3-8 . a, "nd a, Jre bolh because a Hlends in Ihe di,oel;on
01 ooth ax"", (Nole Ihe small "wOo-heads "n lhoe comllOnMts. 10 indica .. Ihoir di ·
rection.) If ... "",e to , ew,,., vOClo, a. Ihen bolh componon" "ould 00 negal;ve
and tho;>i, arrowheads would poinl low,"d negat;'-o x and y. Rosoh'; ng "CClor b;n
Fig. ] ·9 }'idlk a pusi"ve compoaonl b, and a ""gal;ve by.
In a voclo, h:rs Ib'N componenl s.. all hough 10' case of Fig. 3-&
d - a m. (An ...... ')

FIG. J.. (o)The"""'p"""nt5. , >lid.,
of v«ta' if. (b) lb, """1""""1' >Ie un-
dwI,ged ,hoe """"" io _od ... 1oot '"
,he .... gnitude aad orien, .. ;.., >re m ... ·
fOfIll the Ie!!
of UiEh"<i." g.Ie 'I1oose b)'1lOOen""' ;,
rhe magnitude of ,hoe ""'Of.
FlG. J.9 The ""'"porIen! db 011 Ih.
x axis i. po>iti"".and th.a, on ,b. Y
u "is "'S"ivo.
Ihe oomroOOOI ,long : His i, ';Om.A, Figs. 3-& and b sIIow. if IOU 'hift , we·
lot ",lhoUI cbanging i" di,ooion. ils romro""nl' do 1101 rn,ngo.
ClIn fiod oomponeniS of Ii in Fig. Cl-& geon1<lf>C<IlIy from IIle "Sill I,,·
'ngle II1.:>,e:
" . - aoosB ,nd a, - a.i0 8. (J.5)
wb.,. 8 i< l/Ie anglillhallh. ,,,,,,ot;; mak., ... ilh Ih. posil,,"" dir"",io" of lbe
.< uis. ,nd Q i, lb. magnilude of a. Figure 3-& sbow, Ibot a "nd its.< and )' .om·
pon"nlS form a nglll Iri,ngle. II also sho,"" bow .... ,coon,lIuel • '·i'Clor from
ilS oomronents: tbose compo""n" Mr.,/ '0 'ail. Thon " .• oomplo le a
righl triangle ""h tb. \\.'<"1or forming Ih" b)·pol""""'. from Ih. lOil of on" com·
I"'"cnl 10 IIle b.ad of In" mOOr oompon"nt.
Once" \"OClor has ooon r.sol,,,d into ilS ooml"'nents along a ""I of ""'.Ihe
con,l"'o""" 10001",1\"0' can 00 u",d ,n plaro of lb. ''''''ot. For example. Ii in
Fig. J.g.,. is given <l;>1.rminoo) by Q and 8. h can a<so 00 giwn by i,s
co"'rone"" G, and a
r
BOlh pallS of ,·alues oontain Ih. san", inform. Iron. If w.
know a veclor in compcmm, nmar'<m (a, and a,) and wanl" in
no/arkm (a and 8). can "'" Ihe equations
a - ..Ja' + a' and , ,
",
I3n 8 - - (J.6)
"
10 II,n,/orm il .
In 100 more g"n"ral Uue.·di"",n,ionJI ca",. "" "eed a magnitude. and ''''"0
"ngl. .., (sa)·. a. 6. "nd or Ih",. 00011"'0""" (a, .a,.. ,nd a,) 10 'p<>ci/y a \"i.'Clor.
Z J r ,
I. rh. figur •• "hkb 01 p{- , i>< iAcIka«d metltods
" . ".".
foI """,bini'8 the x
and y rompoo>""" 01 " .,.,
ve<1or it 0" prop .. to. .. ..
d""mine 'b>t YKtor1
,.,
'"
"
, , ,
pt'
"


" -
"

"
"
"
'"
A small airplane leav,,", ,n airport on "n ",,",cas, day
and is I,wr ,igilioo 215 km ""Jy. in a diroclioo m,king
an .ngle of 22" caS! of north. How far .as! ,od
nOrlh is Ih. airplane from Ihc airpo<l wb"" ,ig/lled?
,

,
,

,
'"
,
,
W ... e giv.n 100 magnilUdil (215 In,) ,,,d
Ih. angle (21' ea->! of due norlh) of" vi'Clor and ....... '<110
find oomro,,"nl5 of Ih" '"Clor.
i " ••

,
,
,
,
, ,
,
,
,
We draw an .ry coordinat. 'yslem wilh
Ille posi!l\·e direclion of x du" east .nd Ihal of y dthl
nortll (Rg. For oonvcu,onro.lhe oflgin i, pl,rod aI
FiG. J.l0 A pI . ... t .... oIl
I,om .. :oi rpor,.t the lIfi!iA
""d io I.ter l ight"" or P.
,
,
,
,
'i" '00

IIi ...... '''''I
Ihe ,irpo1l . Th' ai'plane', d POl/II' f,om
Ihe o,,&>" !O ,,·hil .. Ihe 'irpLa"" " ,igillild.
To find Ibe componenls of 11 ... " Eq. J.S wilb
e - 68" ( - 90" - 22"):
F01 tWO &cad"" sp<'lnnling lealll'S sought' connooion
""Iwcen tbe Flinl Ridge ca,'e and Mammolh
"'b;ch are ,n Kentocly. WIk:>n th. coooocho" was
finally disco,,",ild. Ih. combioed ... as decla,ed
Ihe wo,ld', long.,t ca' ... (mo,e th'" 2((J bn long). The
learn th.t found tbe conneC!ion had to cr,,,·I. climb. and
squi,m Ihrough oounU"" pa'>Sag ... !raveling a
, ... "'I .... 'd. 3.9 hn soulhward .• nd 25 m upwar d.
Whal w'" Il><i' displact'me.nt from 'Iarl 10 fini,h7
We have Ihe compone"t' of a Ibree-di""'n-
sioo.1 vector . and .. 'e n,ed to find 100 vector', masoi-
tud.:! and .nglo, 10 spc'Cify Ihe 1',,<:1or', directiOfi .
Hom:ontal Compon..,tI: We flfs! draw 100 <»IIll)Q-
""n!, as in Fig. 3-1111. The ho'i"'ntal component'
(2.6 lm "",! "nd 1.9 km south) fo'm the I .. gs of a
bOO"'''I.1 ,ighl triangle. Th. leam', hOO1.Ont.1 ..... -
"",nl lo,m, lhe hypo,"n"se of tOO triangle. and ils
-'"
FIG. J." ,.,
compo"""iS of the
'p"lllIIuo! """,',

o .. nIl di<plocem'nt
1);"
c,
.. d !b.ir borizoo!aI
,
c 9,
I
dkpl..,.,IIl,nt (b)
,
A side vie .. >.bowing
T
'.
d • • Ddlbeteam·, 0= ...
o .. nIl di<plocem'nt
- V«1or iI.
'"
PWOIlLEM-SOLVING 1II.CTlCS
Tactic 1; Angles--D"9"'''' at>d Radjans Angle> tnal
OJ ..... .aoured ",I.,iv. 10 lb. posil;"" dir"",;oo 01 Ih. x aID ...
"",itiv. if art .... ,"'e<! in Ib, COOllI1trdocl""" dire<:-
tjOll ond negative if ..... "'0<1 d ockwi ... For .xompl.,21(),
.. d - 150" >I. ,no =ne >ZIg\<.
3·. I Com"""""" . f Voctor,
d. - d COS e - (215 (,8' )
- 81 km (An' ..... ')
,1, - dsin e - (215 68')
- 199 _ 2.0 X 10' (An' ..... ')
Thu .. lh. ai'plan, is 81 lm east aod2.0 X 10' lm nor1b
ai rport .
m'gnilude ,1. " giv,n by the Py!hago,ean theorem:
1/. - ¥(2.6tm), + (3.9 km)' -
Also lrom ho,izon!al 1riangie 'u Fig. 3- lla. .......
Iba! this horizontal displ ..... m.nl IS dlfoo,d SOUlh of
due "-OS!. by au angkl e. given by

1an 8. - 2.6 .
_ I 3.9 56"
8.-lan - .
(Ans ...... )
wh;ch is one !""O .ng\<>s "",">dlo Uti!
diwCliOfi of too displar'HOOfll.
Overal D/sp/aaollNlnt: To indude Ih. wrlical comp<>-
n"n! (25 m - 0.025 l ml. we now tale a ,id.;> "iew of Fig.
north",.,!. We got Fig. 3-1Ib ... ho .. !he
ve' tical compo""nl and tOO hOOm"!al displacen",nt d.
lorm Ih" legs 01 anO!hor right Ir;auglc. No'" !ho Ic.m·,
o\'('rall di'!'l"""rnon! fo,,,,, Ihe h)'pot"nu,", Ol lha! tri -
Bngl ., wilh " magtlltud.:l ,/ ginn by
J - + (0.025 - H9
_ 4.7
(An,,,,,,)
Thi' displact'm"n! i, olf(lC!ed upwa,d lrom Ibe ho,izon-
lal displ"""m"n! by Ib" an&L.>
_ I 0.025 knt 0]"
8, - !ao 4.69 - ..
(Ans .. ..,,)
ThUs. !bo team', d;.pl,,,,n,,,nl vector had a magnitude
of ,ud w'" ,t au .nglo:'- of 56' ,,"nth 01 .. ..,! "nd "!
an angle 01 0.3' upward. Th. ",,1 ,-,.,ic"rll ",otion "'as.
of course, insignificanl compared wilh IhI> hori7.0nlal
mO!ioo. Ho"-ovor . !h,( I"", would haw oo"n 01 no
comforl !O Ihe team. which had 10 climb "P Dod down
OOUOIJ.o.ss hm., to gel Ihrougb Ih. cave, The roulo IhilI
"C!u,lly covered was diff,,"ul from Ihe di",la",, -
""'nl vocto,.
A_g)" m. y be .,e.,wed", doy ... or.-.di>n> (00), To
rotal' Ih, two m' .. recall that. luU ,ircle 360" .Dd 2 ..
",d, To con,"', .. 4CI' 10 r.d;'.." wrile
-II)' 2,,,00 _ o.70rad.
-
Tactic 2: Trig Functions You ... 0<1 '0'''''''' ,h. defini _
,ion< 01 ,h. 00""""" 'rig<><><> ... ,rk fW>C'iOlU _ , .... «>lin •.
• 0<1 ' .. ge.' _ M .... ,b.y are !W' of the Iaogu.g. of
.""" .. d •• art give. i. Fig.l-tl in • lorm ,b.,
<10<. DOl deptoo 00 how ,he "ianEIe i.lal><led.
You .hould , 1oo oo . bIe '0 "'etcb 0010 ,b. 'riS /unci"'.'
vary wi'h >lisle. "" in Fig. .\-13. in Ofd", '0 I>< . bIe '0 jIodg.
",b.,he, • cokul>lOf re.ult ,,,,,,,,,,.bIe. Eve. k.oo..iog ,b.
sign< 01 the IUncli"". iD ,he .",iom quadran" can I>< 01 help.
Tactic 3: Inverse Trig Functions "'be" 'he
f""CIiow sin- '. 000- ' . and , • • - , >I ... ken"" , calrul>1Of. fOIl
m ... ' cow""" ,b, ... """,bI"""" 01 ,he ""''''''' )'00 set.
btc."" ,he .. i ...... Uy . oo<her po><ible .... _r ,.." ,b.
<,akuh,,,,, <10< •• 0< yo •. The ,,,go 01 ope",'i"" "" a c. ku!>_
'Of in 'akin! . >cb inve ... trig {u"<Ii",, indic.,tdi. Fig. 3_11
A. an .:umple. ,in- ' 0.5 h .. .,<OCi.,td anye.< 01 !O' (which is
diSfllaytd b)' ,be calr:u1"Of .• iDee!lJ' f>lk wi,bin its ""go 01
ope'.'''''') and IS(I' . To ... booh v>l u ... du'O{. bOfiron,,,, ••
'hroogb o.S in Fig. 3-1.10 ... d "Ole whe re i, ",u ,h •• in. c",,,,-
How <10 yoo di<'ingui<h. oon",,' ", ...... I? It i. ,he "".
,h., ><em. more ,.:.sooabIe lor 1lIe giv,n .i .... i"", A • • •
''''"ple. 'KO.""'" , be calr:ul"ion of I/r, in Sample Probl.m
3_3. ",b." , ... I/r, _ _ 1.5.Takio!'an- ' [j ()[I y<>UJ c"' _
CUla,Of "U. ) 'ou ,k .. I/r, _ 56°. bu, I/r, _ 236· (_ 180" + 56°)
. 100 bas a "'''gm' of U. Wbicb i. COlI""? F,om 'be plrysicol
si,u"ioo (Fig. 3-lla). 56· .. ,,, •• o,uble and 236· i. cle .. ly DOl.
Tactic 4: MeasUlmg Yecto, Angles The "iU,tiOfU lor
cos t and ,i" t in Eq. 3_5 and lor tan Eq . .l-<i Ole volid ooIy
if 'be "Osl' i. "", .. ",td f, .... ,he pooi'i ... dir",,,,,, of ,be %
n" 11 i, ....... "',d "I"iv. '0 ",me o<h" dir.<1i"". ,be. ,b.
' riS fu""i""" in Eq, 3-S Ol. y h,ve '0 I>< in'"ch>ngod and ,h.
w
,
..
'" "
f
I , I
/
-
,
i /, 1
' f'..
=
i
I I
,.,
",

II
,
,
.,
-
..
/
i l.

,
= -
I
i-
t ..
r
,.,
FIG. 1-1l ThI .. =Cut curv."o rememl><'.A cokul.,,,,,·,
r.i.llse 01 ol"" >1iOll lor 'aking trig fu""io •• indica,td
by ,he d",ke, I""'io ... of 'be ooI.oredcurv ....
",,10 in Eq. 3-6 m, y b . .. '0 be i.",,,,d. A oaf" me,hod .. '0
cooven 'be ... g.te '0 0IIe me.,ul<'dl,om 'he positive dire<,ion
01 ,he % "" ...
3-5 I Unit Vectors
,
,
" n,
A uni, "ecr,,, is " '"OC101 that bas a magn,tude of 1 "od po,nt' in a particu-
la, di''''''ioo. It I,ds bot b "nd uru1. 11, .ok> P"'p<IS<! is to poin'-that
is. to .IpilCtly " di,,,,,,ion. The "n,t ".'<'t01S in tbe posiliw direction, oltbe x . y. and
z ""'" ,re 1'001.'<11. j. and k. tbe bat' " """d instead 01 ,n '"0W
as 101 otbe, WctOIS (Fig. ] -U). The arrango"","t 01 axe, '" Fig. 1- U ",aid to be ,
.. d<<I ,_"Hn.t. ' l ,w l1. The system ,emaios ,ight -handed if it" rotated
rigidly. u"" sueh udu,iwly in tbi<; book.
F1G. 3-U UDi,,,,,,,,o,,i.j >nd kde_
line ,he direc' ion< of . IiYI1_b...ood
""",din". '),",01.
Unit ''OCt01S ate wry u,dul 101 eXfl,""';ing oth;>, .... ctors; 101 oHn'pl . . .. " can
eXfl'''''' a .nd b 01 3-£ ,nd 3-9 ""
. .
il - " .. +a)
,."
E- b) + b,j.
(3-7)
(3-S )
Th .... lwo equ'hons a:re illuslralod in Fig. 3-15. quanlili", .. J "nd oyi a,. we·
IOrs. mUoo lhe ' '''''0' run' ponenj, of "if. quatlliliils a, "nd "y a,,, ",. I"rs. caJ.,d
Ih • rompone",,· 01 a (or.a, before. Stmpl)" ils <""'ponen",).
A, an .xampt..l.:>1 '" Ih. dispLac.:lmenl J of Ihe sl"lunking leam of
Samplo Ptobl.:>m}'3 ill I"mrs of "nil wclors. Firsl. "'P",impos<llhe coo!,!i"""
of Fig. 3· 14 00 lb. 0"" sltown in Fig. 3· lla. Ih. dir.ction, 01 ;. j. "od
k are lo .. ·"d Ih. ""I. up. "nd loo;"d lhe soulb. respe<:li wI)·. ThUs. d;.pla",n",nl
d from Slar110 finish is neal I)· 'XP'M5i'd in "n,l ·vecto, nomion as
(} - - (2.6 kn,); '" (0.025 kmll + (3.9 (J.9)
Here - (2.6 t m); is Ih. \"Octo, compon"nl <I; along lhe .. axis. and - (2.6 t Oll is
Ihe ...
3-6 I Adding Vectors by Components
Using a skelm. we can add vectors geomc11icall)·. On a C"IcuIaIOf .
.... can add Ih"m di.ilCIly on Ih" scr.,n. A Ihi.d .. ·a)· 10 ,dd vectors" to
th"ir compon"nls axi, by iX"'. ""hirh is lhe " 11)" we """.
To 51'rt.con,ide. slale",",,1
7 - iI + b. (J- to)
• .-turn says Ihal Ih. wctOf 7 is lhe sam" ,.. til<' weto, (<i + b). ThUs. eacb
compo""nl of 7 m",1 he. Ihe san", " Ihe corr"'POnding romllOn"nl 01 (Ii + h):
., - a, + b,
'y-a, + by
r, - a, + b,.
(3-11)
(3-12)
(3-13)
In wo,ds. wetors mu,l De equ"1 if Ihoi' ror"'JlOnding .. "
oqU"t. Equation, 3-10 10 3-13 lell u, Ih'110 add '""Iors a "nd ri. musl (I) '"-
solw Ihe vectors illlo Itl<';, scal. . compoo,nlS: (2) comt>ine tin.""" scal" comro-
""nls. ax;, by axis. 10 g<'1 the compo""n" 01 I"" 'UOI 7: .nd (3)
,be componCllI. 01 7to gel 7;'",tt We h,,'e a choice m Slep J. We call exp'ess 7
in unit-vector notat;on (as in Eq. 3-9) or in OIagnitu""-angk> nota,ion (as in ,oo
'"''''0' to Sample P,oblem 3-3).
This p,ooodure for .dd,ng vOClors b)' comIXl"elll' also .ppl;'.., to ,,,,,tor
R<'<:alilbat ,subtraction sueh .. If - Q - Jj call 00 as ,n
.dd;t;oo d - ;; + add Ii and g"'
d, - a, - b, . dy - ay - by. ,nd d,-a, - b,.
11- II) + d) + d,i:.
1 (' J [Dtbefig",oh"e .• ,b .. 1
Ol' 'he . i3'" 01 ,hex ooml"""'n" 011, .Dd'!i.1 (bJ Wh ..
or. ,n. .igo. of 'be )' romPOOODU oi l, .Dd 0,1 (cJ Wbal
Ol' ,h •• i!'" 01 !hex atldy component! 011, + 1,1
-f----.
Sample Problem m
,
"1
_-0 ,,"_ 1'-;-,..." -.
".'
, "
'-.;,---'---""' ",- , .
,"
flG. J ·15 (a)Thev.Cloroompo-
.e"" of vet10r iT.(bJ Th. voctor
oomp""'"" 01 VKlOI b.
Figu .. 3-16.. sltows the lollo .. ;n& '""tOf" What i, lhei, vce10r ,um 7 ... h;dt is abo slto,.-n?
. .
<i - (4.2 m); - (1.5 m)j.
b - (- 1.601)1 + (2.901)].
7 - (- 3.7m)j.
We can add lhil th .. e ,""elors by compo-
,0
'""
"',ite Ihe vOClo, sum 7.
Chap_l I Vectou
Calculation., For tho ..- .. " add lb. x oomroni'ms 01
ii. b , aoo C, 10 gel oomponi'nl 01100 "eclor SlIm r:
'. - G, -+ b, -+ c.
- m - 1.6m + 0 - 2.6m.
Sunila,I)',lor the)' axis.
', - 0, + 1>, + <,
- - 1.5m -t 29m - J.7", - - 23m.
w. ,bon combine Ih .... oomllO"""(' of -; to I""
"octo. in "";1-\"0. '<:10' oomion:
. .
-; - (2.6 m)i - (2.3 m)j .
,,-here (2.6 m). IS tho ",'Cl0l rom",,""1\1 01 -; ,lo"S 1""-
..- axis and - (2.3 m)j;, lbal alO"g th. y axi .. Figure 3-16b
sho .. one "-ay to """Il" th ese veclor ro",!X'nent' to
form T. (Can you stNch tbe O!he' way?)
W. "'"0 also an,"w tbe qoostioo 1»' gi',ng too "Jag-
mtud" and ao "ogle 1m T. From Eq. 3-6, lhil maguiloo" i5
, - m)' -+ ( 1.3 m)' _ 3.5 m (A"s"",)
and Ih. anglo ("",,,,,,,ed from tho He di,ooion) i,
e- ,"" _'(-:,2.1m) _ (An,",,)
_.6m
who", lhe mllm, .ign
I Problem
Aerording 10 .'rerim""'<- Ih. &;;en an! sIlow" in lhe
ebapIC. opening pbolograpn l .",1" Ir'''' of ;1, ,00""
"",nl. ,long a mculal coonhn.lC S)'SWIIl. When;1 .. -anls
10 ,<'l"m 1o its ne'I , il .lfeel;, ... I)' 'UOI' i" dlS-
pl""""",nls along Ih. ue, oIlhe 10
vector Ihal poiols directly bome. As an .xa'"pJ.> of
IN's consid", an ,01 m.ling fi,'. run, 01
- fZ---+-P-">-'
,.,
• •
'". ''''
' '--' ---"T'
'"
,.,
FIG. ,." (o)A p .. b of!ive run> (b) Thu and Y compo-
n,"" of" .... (e) Vector " __ poiD" ,t.. -..y '0 tho hom ......


'" FIG. J.16 V""or 1';' ,I>< vodor sum of'h. orbe, ,h,..,
'\'teto ..
6.0 rnl "och on ,n xy coordin.l. 'y'lem, in Ibe dire""
lioll<; shm<lI in Fig. 3-17 ... ' l"ling f,onl bOIll • . AI Ilh>
"nd olin. fillh run. ,,·b.1 arc lb. "nd angkl
ollhe "nf' 001 displ"""""'''' """lor :1_ .• nd whal
IDO"" ol lh. bom ... ,rd ''\'Clor 11_ thai "-,,Iem/<; from
tne anl"'final posil"," back 10 home?
(I) To find Ilh> nel displOC>lm'"1 11_. we
10 .umln.. fiv. ,"d,,"du.1 di<;pl.","",nl ve<1oro:
- 11, +", + 11, + 11, + J, .
(2) We e,'"I""e In;'; sum lor t he x compo"","I' "Ion".
Ii .... - db + d" + d" + <I" + <I""
(3-14)
and for Ibe y components alone.
d-., - <l", + d" + d,. + J., + d,,. (3- 15 )
(3) We ronslroc1 11_ lrom i15x andy compon""Is.
Calculatiolll: To ",-a]ual' Eq. 3-U .... appl)'11hl x pa'l
01 Eq, 3-5 1o .arn run:
ti" - (6.0cm)=0'" - +6.0rnl
<I" - (6.0 em) = 150" - - 5.2 em
d,. - (6.0cm)= I&l" - - 6.0rnl
d., - (6.0cm)oos( - 120') - - 3.0cm
ti" - (6.0em)=9O" - O.
Equ,,1OfI 3-1 gi''''' u,
d_. - +6.0em + ( - 5.2 em) + (- 6.0em)
+ (- 3.0"",) + 0
- - 8.2em.
SUllliarly. we evalual. lilil indindual y compooool' of
Ihe five rull<; using Ih. J' par' of Eq. 3-5. Tho r",ullS
.how" in Table :J.-l. SubslIIUli"g Ih. r.,ulls inlo Eq. 3-15
Ihon g>w, us
d-", - +3.8 an.
V.ctor d _ "nd ilsx "nd )' componenl' are ,how" ," Fig.
:J.-17b. To find Ihe magnilud. and '"glo of J ... from ;1,
oompo""nl', \ISO Eq. 3-fi. Th. magoilude ;,
d_ - .• + d!...,
- 8.2 em)' + O.8<m)' - 9.0cm.
To findlhe a"gle (measured f.om Ih. posil;ve di'OC1;on
of x ), we an ;o'·c'''' la"!\<nl :
8 _ lan-
L
('-' )
d_, ..
_,( ""
- Ian &2cm - - 4.au.
Ri'C3U from Probli'm-Solving TOCl ic 3 Ibal
laking.n i","",,,, la"genl on a cakulalOf may nol gi'"
Ihc oorrOCl ,,,,w.,. The all"'''' - 24.86° i"dical'" Ihal
fk .. i, a problem invol'lng vi'<"1{)f oddilio" IMI amnol ""
001....:1 du,'CIiy 00 a Vi'CIO.-.eapabloo calallalor, """g 100
vOOor IlOtalioo of 100 calcul3lOf. A f"EIo .. · cam .... ' is 10
.. " II; awa)' from )'Ou i" a ""ighl (Vi'CIO' A). Ill ...
iII a ..cooJ (vi'<"1or 11) .nd 100" slOp. How fa,
musl )\)u in a S!roighllioo (W<"1Of C) lO .. am h.. >(/
Tbc Ih"-"", '.'<."1ors (show" i" Fig. J-18) at. ,<'Ialoo by
(3-16)
A h"" a magnilude of 22.0 01 and is di,oood al"n angli'
of - 47.0" (dockwise) from 100 dirOClio" of ao
x 11 bau magnllud. of 17.0 m and;'; directed COllll -
1".clock,,-i50 from Ihe posl li ve di,ooion of Ibe -" al;'; b)'
a"glo. Cis in lb. posil;'''' di,celiou of Ih. x . xis. Wbat
is magniluooofb
Wo can"ol a","", lIIe queshoo byadd,"g
a voclOf-capablo cakul, IO'. say. io
I magniludi! A. L angk> A I + Imasnilulk> B L BI
... w. do nOl l """, Ihe fo, Ihe angle d> of 11.
HoI'''''''', we call exp' e..s Eq, 3-16 in I"",, of compo-
00"1S fo, llie -" alis 0' 100 Y alis.
Calclht#ono: Since (: is dlf('CI"d along Ihe ..- ax's. 1L"
Ihe dirl'Clion of J_ is io
Ihe fou rlh quad""1 of ou,
xy COOf<!in"" 'I,wm. Run d.(rnt) d,(<m)
Ho .... "" •. ",-lie" " .. C011 - 0
,1r 0C! Ibe '-.eIOf f,om its 2 - 51 +3.0
compooonlS (Fig. ]-171», 3 - 6.0 0
... Ihalln. di,oo,oll of
--, 4 - 3.0 - 5.1
,,_ is In Ih" SI'COud quad-
,,"I. ThUs. .... must " fix"
Ihe ClllallalOr', ans..-" 82 +3.8
.ddi"g 1.'0':
8 - - U .86' + 180" - 155.14' _ 155'.
ThUs. Ih. ani', di",laCl'me"1 d_ hos magnllude and
'"glo
d ... - 9.0cm'1155'.
V'ctOf d dirl'Cloo hom Ina a"1 10;15 ho"'" has
Ihe san", magJuiudo as d_ bUl loo oflllO'il" d"ooioo
(Fig. 3-17c). We h,ve 100 angle (- 24.86' _
Opposile 1 .... Thus, d-. hos
,1_ - 9.0<""al - 15'. (A"",,,,)
A d""," ani traveling Ih'" 50) m from ill bo"",
",ll ""lu,lIy 11I<lusaod, of individual ,un,. Yel. il
oomehow bolO' 10 calculale iT --. (wil1l<lm 'llldy-
109 lhis chaple,).
en""", Ibal a_. is ."0 ",iIO
C. - A, + B ..
We ""xl "Ipross ead! x oomiX'"e"1 in 1M form of 1M
-' pari of Eq. J.5 and ",b;l;IUIC l "",,-" data. Wo In.,, M""
C cos 0" - n.OCC<l( - 47.0") + 17.0cos d>. {3-J 7)
Ho .. """,. Ihi' hardl}' sw"rs 10 help. b;o",us<> wo still
can"ol 00]"" fo, C .. "boul d>.
UI us now "pr.5s Eq. 3-16 i" Ii""rs of OOO1PO" ""1S
,Ioog Ihe yam :
C, - A, + B
r
We 11,.-,0 caS! Ih"'" y compo"""1S i" Ihe fo,m of 100
y pall 01 Eq, 3-5 ."d SUbslillllO l no,,-n data. 10 "Tile
C s", 0" - 21.0 si"( -47.0") + 17.0 SuI d>,
,
.. -
C < .... 1' ..
,-i<,--'---<i'--- ,

Chap_l I Vectou
wbich y;"I'" SUllslllUliog Ihis ."",11 i"10 Eq. 3-17 lead, us 10
o - no sin( - H .IY') + 17.0 sin 01>.
C - 20.5111. (AfI'>"Y.w)
Solving for d> Ih." give, us
22.0 sin(
17.0
- 71.17·,
Nme 01 When wo gOI 'luck wilh
compo"ents on lb. x uis. wI! .. .."ked ",jib compo""""
on Ihe J axis, 10 .v. loal" 01>. noxt mowd 10 Ih.
A' uis. 10 C
,
,.,
,
"
"

"
FIG . ... '9 (a)Thev!'CIorih .. d;"
rom..,...,nl<.(b) The .. me _"II,
..-ith the >xes of ,b. OOOIdinat •• ys_
'em rolated 'hroogb aD aIlgle 60.
3-7 I Vectors and the laws of Physics
So for, i" eV"f)' figure Ihal welu"", " coordioate 5j'S1"m. Ih. x ood)' aXilS par·
aUd !O tile edgos of Ih. pag.!. ThUs. ".-h." • ,-octo. Q " ,ndu""d. lts compo-
",,"IS ", .nd a, ar. al"" p" •• liollo lb. odg"" (as in FIg. 3-19.» . The only reason f"r
Ih.1 "",,",",ion of u.s IS Iha, il looks "Propil' "; 'b.:>re is no d""p'" r •• son.
Wecould.lIlS1e.d. to!>,. Ihe axe. (bul nOlloo vOClor II) Ihrougb ,n 'nglo Ibas in
Rg. J.19b. ", "'hir h case t be compo"o"t. would ba ve new ' -alues. call1''em a: and
a;" Si""e them arc an "umber of Cboir<>5 of <1>. Ih ... '" are an infinit. number
of djff .. pairs of compo"""'S fo, II.
Whirh toon is Ibe ··rig"'·· pair of The an'WIlr is Ihal tooy are aU
"'IuaUy v,l,d becallSi' each p,i. it' u.s) just g>'"eS u. a diff .. ent way 01
scribing too same ve<101 ii: all P'oou", tOO sa"" aod direction f01 too
vi'CIor. In Fig. 3-19 .. ..,
a - + a' - + a"
< , ' ,
(3-18)
and
6 - 6' + 1b. (3-19)
The poi"1 " that we h,v" f, .... >dom in choosing a eoordinal. 'y'tern. be-
cau", tOO rel"iolls among vOClors do ROt do]X'"d 00 loc",io" of 100 origin or
0" the of too a ..... "This i. also lru" ollb" rolalions 01 ph)',ics: Ihe}' arc
all inoop..'1Idellt 01 the ch <lic. of coordinate Add 10 thai Ibe simpljol}' and
ricbn". of language of ,..,ctOts and you caJl "'" .. -hy too of ore al-
mo.t al".-ay. pre",nl.d ill Ihal language: one equation. liko Eq. 3.10. can "'P'"-
"'nl Ihr,,,, (0' .... n ,ohliolls.!iko Eqs.) -I l. 3-12. and .J.-13.
3-8 I Multiplying Vectors·
There ar. tbr"" way. in "'hkll v'-'<:tors can hi< nlUlliplied. bUI "one i, exactly like
Ihe usual algebraic multiplicatIOn. As }'OU , oad th" section. k""p III mllld thll a
"i'CIor-<:3pable ca]cu!.:lIo. bolp you mult'pl)' vOOors only 'f }'OU u"dorstand
Ihe bask rulos of th'l mu Itiplicalio".
Multiplying a VectOl'" by a Scalar
If .. ,.. multiply a '"OCt01 --,; by a "",I., '. gN a",,"· '-i'CIor. lis magnitude"
Ihe proouct of of a ""d 100 a!>solul. •. Its di .. ctio" i<: too
dirooioo of "iI , i<: posItive blllihe di'e<:1ioo if. i. oogal;vo. To di,-idi! 'it
b)' •. w. multlJll}' 71 b}' II ..
Multiplying a VectOl'" by a Vector
ThOle are Iwo ..-.ys to 1Il"I"pl}', \\.'<:t01 by. ,,-,,,tor: "". w'y p,oou"," , seal"
(call"d Ibe .rola, p,od"".). and Ihe other prod"""" a "" ... veet01 (""lied too ,..,c/o,
prod"c'). (StuOO"" commoutj' confuse Ihe Iwo way •. )
.... mol ..,. be ,m"",,«1 "",iI .. ", (CIooj>'" 7 I""...,.w ",<oJ"", on" u.",,, II Io,.w-
'''" ",<oJ"", \, .. " '" ""', .. _ ",,",0' ... , ,.-;,.0 ............. ' of ,h,O ...no..
The Scalar Product
The ..... .d., p,!>duct of 100 '-oclotS Ii and F in Fig . .\.2& .. -nne" a, -;;. Ii aod
dofl,,,,dmoo
(3':10)
... hoe'il" is Ibe mag'"iude of It. b" lh. magni!Udo of b. and d> is lb. anglo 001"",,"
7! and Jj (or. mom p'OJl",ly. oolw,,"" Ihe d"""hOIlS of;J and b). The," .r" a<1uaUy
lwo ,urn "ngle.s, d> and J6O' - lb. Eil"'" can be "",d in Eq. 3-20. I'oecaIlSo' lbcir
=in" the sam •.
lhal {he," only "",lars 00 Ihe rigbt of Eq. 3-20 (ineiuding Ibe
valu" of cos 011) . Thus a· b on Ibe l"f1 ,ide "'P''''''''{' a ,cala, quantity. B.."'CJu"" of
the oOlalion, II· b is .110 .. n as dot prvda,'1 "nd" .poh" as ". dOl b: '
A dol p.od"e! can N "'g.1.d.."'<l as Iho produe! of ,.0 qu""",ics; (I) lhe ",ago
niluoo of one of Iho voe!or.; "nd (2) Ihe seal .. of Ihe second '"{'Clor
,long di.eelion of Ihe firsl VoctOl. For exampk , in Fig. 3·20b, II has" scalar
compo""nl a ros dr .Iong Ihe direclion of b: nolc ,h., • p<l,pcoJicul., d'OJlpod
f.om lhe hoad of -a 0",0 b oolerm,n" Ihal oompon"nl. Sin,il.,ly, b hos a scalar
rompo""nl b 00< oil along di.oe!'oo of II.
.- If lhe IUIsie oil bollO". I""" _Ion is 0', lbe componeOI 01 one VK10r alomg.n.
OIb", is ", .. imllll1. aad.., also is Ihe dOIprOOucI oflbe _1", .. lt i." .. d,dr ;,110', \be
""",,,,,,,enl 01 OfIO VK10r aIong.n. <>Ih,,;, .. ro ... d 50 i"b. dol prod .......
Equal;on ] ·20 be ... wrin,," as folio., ro",ponents:
"iI. b - (a COS dr)(b) - (a)(b ros oil (3·l1)
lbe rommu,"I;'''' law appi,e, 10 a scalar prod"e!. so " .• ean w.ilo
a·b - b·-a.
When ' '''0 wetors a.e ;n unil ,vOCIOf nOlalion, "''' ,,'.,10 Ih.it dol p.odUCI as
lI·b - (a,; + oj + a,k)'(b,; + bj ... b,I:), (3·22)
"hich call aCOOfding to lhe distributh ... law: Each welo.
of Ihe fitsl vOClo. is 10 be dOl,.d wilh .""h veelOf compon"nt 01 lhe .. oond vee·
10 •. By d,,;og so, "' ... ,how Iha!
-a.Ii - a.h, + a,b, +a,b,. (3·23)
/c H Eel( POI NT. VecI"' , t .Dd I) • • •• m. sru,ucle. of j unitt . Dd 4 URi,.,
.esp"<tivoly. WII'" I •• 1lllsJ. bel",.,.. ,be dire<l;"'" of t:u>d I) if t·I) equrn
(.) zo:ro,(bJ 12 nAilS, >nd «) - 12 unitt?
I Problem
,.,
'"
FIG. J.zo fa) Two •• <lor.;; and S.
wj,h aD . ngl. oil be,,.,,.," ,h'HL
(bl E,.,b VK1", has • comp""enl
olong 1/", dire"'ioo 01 ,b. OIn.,
"" .... 0 • •
Wh" IS d>
- 2.oi + 3.ot? Althougll many of Ihe foUow-
iJlg slep' can 00 bypassed .. itb a wClof-<:apablo cJlcula- and I> is lh. magn;luoo of Ii ,or
101, you \liIIl,am mo," aboU1 ",alar products i/. .1 I<'asl
• - " 2.0)' + 3.0' - 3.61.
h'-'fc, you use In""" S1eps.)
(3·26)
ucl(Eq. 3.20):
Ih. dilcclions of
of Ind, scalar p.od·
0 ·24)
Calcwtiono: In Eq. 3·24,a is lhe m"gnnude of"il. 01
w •• an separalely Ihe 1"11 sid. of Eq. ] ·24 by
, ... ihng Ibc veelor, in uni! ·'"OCI01 nomio" ,nd using ,''''
disl.;buI;v. law:
a·Ii - (3.01 - 4.0j) . ( - 2.01 + 3.0l )
. . . .
- (J.Oi)· ( - 2.Oi) + (3.0i )· (3.0k)
+ (- 4.0])·( - 2.01) +
Chap_l I Vectou
W,· "exl apply Eq. 3-20 10 ",1m !eml io Ibis last .xpros-
angle bel"''''''' unil wClor, in firsl1enn (1
and I) is 11'\ and in WmlS ,1 is 90'. We lOOn h.:I,-,'
Subsliluling Ib" ,,,",ui! and ,"sui,. of E",. 3-15 and
) ·26 uno Eq. J-U yiolds
- 6.0-
iJ'b - - (6.0}(1) + (9.0)(0) + (8.0)(0) - (12)(0)
- - 6.0.
- CO
so '" - COIl -I (S.tXl)(3.61) - 109" _ 110". (An' ..... ')
'0'
-- -
, ' •• x •
'"
F1G. NI IU .... ratioool' ..
risb,· b>r>d ,oJ. eo. VEflor
(0) s,."P """or <1into vec(Of b
with lb. fio!€" of yow ,;y., bood.
Your OIl "",,,<hOO tb umb 0II0Wl! tb.
dif«1io. of .. <1or" _ if t . (b)
Showin! thai "Ii " if io ,bor.veu" 01

The Vector Product
Tho. "" •• tor prvdlK"f of a and b, .. ...;(10" 7i )( b, pmduro.< a Ihird '"i'Clo." o.'h05Ol
m'g"im"" is
(3-27)
whore d> is ",,,,lla of 1he 1'''-0 angle, b<!l .... " ;; and b . (You RlI/'iI use lhe
smalle. of Ih" '.-0 .Ilg!;" bel""'''" 1"" veelors l><>cause 'in d> and sin(:l6O' - o j
differ in algcbrak sign.) &""' .... oltbe o01>1ion. Ii " b;,; abo as th. rf" "
prod" .... and in 'f"l"Cb it ,,"a rf"" b:
.- If if ond"liOl. p.",IIe! Of ""'; por.tllel if ,,"Ii _ o. The mogni'udoe of if x b. ,.Ilkb
can be .... in .... ji1 " lil ;, """;"' um ",n.n if . Ad li are l""l"'ndicul .. ,o.arn "'her.
The d'r"",ion 017' i,; Jl<rpendicular to ,n. plane tnat con,a;", a and h. Hguw
3-11a sho ... how to ""termine tbe di,e<1ion of 7' - Ii " 1i ... ith ,,-hat is known .s
a .. d PI"", tOO vectors a and b tail!O lail "-;lhoUI altering th";. ori-
""lalio"", and '"l.1&!n, a lin" that i:s Jl<'p'nd>cular to th<i. plane ,,-ooro thlly
n",et . to plaro }'om riglll band around Ihal I,n, in soch • way that you.
fing<'rs would sweep --,; in to 1i Ihrough tlhl smallet "ngle b", .. ",," Ihem. Your out -
strctrhe<l tbumb pomts in the diroction of7'.
The Old". of the mclor mulltpl kalion i<; ,mpo"""t . In Fig. 3-1Ib. we are
determming the di .. 'Ction 01 C' - b >< 3.,., 100 fingers am pl,ced 10 b ,"to
Ii Ihrough the smal!.:!r anglo>. Th. thunm "nds up in Ih. oppo>ite directioo from
p.evlOusl}'. and so it must "" th"?' - - .... Ihat
F"a - - (Ii ><b). (3-28)
In other .. ..,.d" Ih. rumll1"t"ive la ... does uot a"ply 10 a w<1or product.
In unit-veel'" notation . ...., w.ite
a" b - (a) + o,j + >< (b,l + b,j + b,h (3.19)
" ' hk h CJn "" expand.>d nccof<l;ng 10 the disl1ibulive law: Ih.t is. earb
of Ihe firsl V",-",,,, is 10 "" CfOSS<'d ,,-;Ih each ",n'pontOI of the ... 'COod v"<1or. TOO
CfOSS prodocts of uu;t vectors are giveu 'u Appendix E (see "P,odocts of
V",-",OJ'S·· j. Rtr """",plo. in Ih" expansion of Eq. 3-29. w" have
., .,
a,i " b,1 - u,b,(i ",) - o.
"'-'CaUSi' the two unit '-octors 1 aod 1 are parallel .nd thus h.w. ",rorross prod-
oct . Similarl}'. haw
In the last useU Eq. 3-27 to Ihe magn;lII"" 01 r" j '" unity.
(The", ,,,,,tors i ""d j urn have a masniluJ e of uoity. and (00 a"gt. betw .. n
is 90".) Also. u",d lb. righi -hand .ulo to gel diwetion 011 >< j as
being in 100 posih.e d".<1ioo ax" (Ibu, in 100 d"ectioo of k).
Continuing to oxpand Eq. 3-29. }'OU can ,ho"' lh"
-;;" 1i - (o,p. - + (a,!>, - b,u, ); + (a» , - b.a,)k. (3-.lO)
A dote.minanl (APP"odi x E) or a vector-capable calculator cau a!:so he used
Todlecl: "'tlNh'" ao)' xJ: rootdiIL:lIe ')'>tem is. right -h.:uJded wonlin,t •.• ):sIem.
usc too.tight-band .ok< for the "'oss (>!oooo ; " j - b';lh trut s)'>1Om. If your fingers
"'''''p i (p<'llit;'" difOC1;oo 01. xl into j (pasil;" d;'OCll00 01. yl ";lh tlK> ootstrotebcd
thumb po;nling ill too pasilive difOC1;oo 01.:, t!l<n lbe sy,,,,m is right-baod<'<l.
/c H 'C K POI NT 5 Ve<1or. C and D h, ,,,, magnitude.! of 3 units .nd 4
Vi."" is ,be "Ele be,-.,. the dj"""lo •• of r ODd n if ,be m:ogoi'ucle 01
the "",",or proo"", C Dis (. J zero .. d (b) 12 units?
Sample Problem m
In Fig . .l--22. ",Clor 0 I,., ill tho -<y plane. bas a ""gni-
moo of 18 ""i15 and point' in a dirOClion 29J' f.om thoe
+x veC10f Ti has" magnitu"" of]2 ""i(,
and poillts in tho +< dlfoctlon. What" the vector prootlCt
7 - 0"b'l
When have t"o ,,,,,tors in m,gnituOO.
"ngle notation, .... find the magoituoo of their ",os,
P'OOtlCt with Eq. 3-27 and the di'''''tioo 01 t .... i. etOSS
proooct \lilh Ihe rule of Fig. 3-2] .
c..lcul.ation.: Fo, too magnitude we .. nte
c - 'in - ( 18)( 12X,i" 90") - 2]6. (Answe,)
To ""te,mill. too direction in Fig. 3-22, illlagine placing
tbe finS"rs 01 you, right haod afOund , lioo p""p"ndk"-
la, to the plane 01 "i1 aud b (tho line on ".-hieh 7 i,
sbo,,,,,) such that you, fingers , .. "ep 0 into b. You, O"t -
Sample Problem m
When t",o vedo" are ,n "nil -v,ClO' rIOta-
tion, .. " ClIn find thelf eross prodOCl by "sill g the distri!>.
utive law.
c..lcul.ation.: He ... "'nle
7 - (31 - 4j) " (- 21 + 3k)
- 31" (- 2;) + .1; " 3k + (- 21)
+ (- 4)) "3k.
PROBLEM-SOLVtNG 1II.CTlCS
Tactic 5: Common ["rrOls with C,oss Products Sov_
ual ",on or. com.,,,,, in fi.ding a "1M' p,oduct. (I J F .. h".
to . mu'ge """or. t:ill to toil i. ''''''plinE 'OIhe. Ill> m"'tn,i""
P""'Dt> ,b"", bead '0 toil: yoo mu" ... n'>I1y .hif, (0' be" ...
,.<1<"",) one vWo, '0 ,he 1"01"" ...... gem'"' ..-ithoo' cb .. g_
iog it. or;'o" ,oo. (2) Roiling to we ,he rigbt bond i.
tho ,ign' _bmd ..... is e .. the 'igb' i. r>«:upitd
wi'b • cok •. !>tor or I"'ncil (1) Foilu,. '0 .weep the fi", VectOl
FM;. J;lZ V."or
? (i. tho xy pi .... )
iotbnectOl (01
<f<,.,) p,oducr 01
v«tor.iJ .. dS. ,
strctehe<l thumb then giw' th. di'oction 017. ThuS-. as
shown ill the figure,? lies in too x )' p]ao" EJ.. ... "use ill d, -
'Mian IS P"'P"od;cular to too dir.><:tioo ola. it is at"n
angl. of
2SO" - \U' - 160" (An,""')
from the positive di,ooio" 01 tbex axis.
We neXl evaluate oach t<fm ,ntb Eq. 3--27. finding too
di"",on with the ,ight-band ,ul" Fo, the ftrSt t01m
"",., too angle oot"eon the two ,,,,,tors heing crossed
is O. Fo, tbe othe, terms, W. find
7 - - 6(O) + 9( - j) + 8( - k) - 12i
. . .
- - 12i - 9j - 8k. (An",,,,)
This VOC1or 7 IS p"'tx'nd,euiar to botb r1 ""d b, a f"'"
you can chcd: by showing (hat 7· 0 _ 0 "nd 7· b _ 0-, that
is, !here i, no compooont of 7 along the direction of
eithe, if o, E.
of tb, prod"" ioto ,be "",tor cm OOCIU .. ne. ,beon,n-
t>tions 01 tho l'Nt0l. ''''IuiJ.:m • ..t,.=I'wi"ing 01 yow hand
to opp/}' the riy., _hand ,uk Sometime.t ,.,t b,W"", .. 'he. yOll
try tom,l" tb ....... p m •• ,ally ,,,bu tna. """oily ">iriS your
bmd. (4) Roih".,o wOIk wi,h , ri!,h' -1wlded OOOIdio"e .y ..
t.m , .. un. lObe. you illlge' how '0 d",,. • ...,b a 'l"""". Se.
Fig, 3_14 iIII ooe l""l""'ive. Pr:rC1ko dn"';"g ",he, p..-spe<'-
t"""",rn '" tb. loon«, one.) .bOWl! in VI!!.3_2'i ""pageS3.
REVIEW & SUMMARY
Scalar. and Vectors Sca/"" , ucb os I<mpt,.t.", b,v.
m, gnitude only. They art 'f"'Cilied by, numbe, with. unit
(I(),C) and ob<y tb, rule< 01 ",itbm"'", and ordi ... ry olg.n
I;'ct"" ,ucb :u di>pl"",,,,,,ot. b. v, both m. gnitude ... <1
directk>. (5 m .• Oftb) and ob<y thoe ,uI .. oI vOClOf >\!ebn.
Adding .. Geometrically T...,,,,,,,Of' it and. m. y
be ><Uedgrometricall}' by <1r>wi.! lb • ., to AC<m1OOlll seal. and
pl:oa'n! tbem h.od to tail. The """Of e<m>e<ting!be tail <>I" Ib,
Ii", ", !be beod <>l" the >eoo<>d .. the vtctOf ""'" Y. To ... •
from it, ,eve".,b. dir<'<tioll of. to!<1 -."b •• odd - . to it.
Ve<1or :ddi,ioII .. rommu,",ive and oo.ys !be .,,,,,,ialive 1,10.
Components of a Vector The ( scal"" ''''''poom'' .,
. nd '" 01 .ny tw<>-<lim .... "".1 vtctor it the ooo,dim "
..... aI.lound by dropping perpendi cul:lJ line, /' 0IIl tb. ends
01 it ooto tb. OOO<di •• te >xe<. The com""""." Ol' y... by
... and (J-5)
.. b, .. .. , ho ... gIe be,,..,.," tb. pooi'ive direction 01 ,he .'
.... and ,be directi"" 01 it. Th. >lS.brak siS. or:. compoo'.'
indica, ... i" diroc'ioII """'g ,be """"""ed JIll;" Oiven iu <001 _
.... can fin<! ,ii, magnitude and Of;"n, .. ;"" <>I" 'be vee_
' Of it";,b
" - , ''; + 0) .. d
Unit_Vector Notation Unit ""10" i.], ... d b.v. m,gni _
,ude, 01 u.ity and . re directtd in tb. po>;tive dir,"';o", 01 ,b.
x. }: and , "'pt<bvely. ill a ';gh' _haded oooHlin, ,.
')'I"m. We caJI ,.,me. ",",",or itm le,m. oIWli, vtctor, ..
(3-7)
in whicb aJ. D,J. and .re ,hoe ""'0' rom""n,." of it ... d
a, ..... and 0, :u. ;",<111.,
Adding Vector. In Component Form To add V""',,
QUESTIONS
, B<iog p'" <>I" the -Oato .. : tI,e ,
URi" .... , ,), of Florida gollins te ...
m"" play 00 . P",\inSye<n will> >II aI _
plt. Figur. J-2J .... OM ... over_
bead view 01 011. p"ttmg ,b.n.nge 01
the team; ODX)'<oc<din:ole.y"em ,.-
P"rimpooed. Te.., .... mbof. m .... pUlt
from tb. oriy.. to !be 1'IoIe.lI"hich
xy roordin .. ", (811l, 11 mJ. bitt thO)'
<"" f"'n tb. golf bali"';n! omly ODe Of
.-
L----,---__ ,
FIG. J-2J Q .... ' ioII I.
more <>I" the 100"'*inS di>pla<em<n ... """ or more times:
if, - (SIII)1 + (6111)). if, - (6 DI)i. if, - (Smjl.
lbe pi' .. >1 ooordinat .. (8 Ill. 6 m). 11 • 'e.., membtr I"'t" ,h.
ball into Of through ,be pt, tb. mernbtr is . utomatically t ...... _
ill oompoo.", form, w,.'" ,h. ,ul",
', _ a, + b, r, _ ., + b, r, _ o, + b< (J-llt03_1l)
He .. it and b are the .... "" to be odded,and 7 .. tb. _101 <UID.
Product of a Scalar and a Vooctor The p,oduct <>1" .
scol.rs and a VOClor " .. a,,,,., ve,"Of ,.,11".. m.gnitude ;",.
.nd "bose dire<tioll .. tb, """ . .. ,na. of Vif, positive. and
"I'!""i1e to>1 <>1"" • is ",!"ive, To divi.d. "by •. mul';ply V
by
The Scalar Product The ......... (or do.>t) product of ,...,
V«tOf' it and 5 is ""it ... it· . .. d tbe u al., qU,,"'ity gi"".
"
(J-20)
ill which oj.;' ,hoe ""90- bot,.....,. the dire<1j"", <>I" it and S.
A ",.al.,. prodoc1 .. ,he produ<l 01 !be m. g,.oitude of OD. vector
.nd tbe .... 1ar """po."'t 01 ,., oerond vectOf atOllS the di _
rect;"" <>I" t be fin' VOCl or. In Wlit _ ""'or "" .. ,;"" .
{J-22J
wbicb m. y bt .. p .. dtd """"dinS to tb. di>triblt,iw I. w,
N",. ,." it· b _ •. "it.
The Vector Product The ' ·reto. (or """".) pn",dll'" 01
'wo .,<lon " ...d b is writ ... " b . Dd a C ,. ... .,..
m.gni tude < ;, give. by
(J-17)
ill "'hicl! oj. j>1he ""aller 01 U ..... gl •• bet .. ". ,b. dire<1K>n'
01 it md S. Th. dire<1k>n 0I ? perpeDdicul:u to thoe pi"""
defi_1w it and b and is given by • 'ioht_hand mk all ,00,.."
ill Fig. 3:2 1. Nor. that it b _ - (Ii Jt). I. urut _ve<lO,
Dor.Oon.
it b _ (a; + ",i + a, k) (b,1 + b,) + (3-29)
wbicb we m, y .xp>nd ,.,it. tbt di,"ibu,ive law.
fmod to Fbida St ... URiv . .. " )'. the .. , b rival. Wh. , oequ."",
of dioplacem ... t< s.bould • te:un member uoe ", .. <*I tbe plt?
Z Eq."ioo.l-2 ,hoM "'" the addition 01 two ""'or. it IIlId 5
.. commut,,;v._ Do .. tb" "" "'" .ubtr:o<tioll is oomnlUt>1;ve.
", tbatit - b _ b - itl
1 em the . um of ,be masni-
,ude. of '''-0 ve<tOf' eu, bo
"'l 0.J to tb. m.a.gninrde of ,b.
• um 01 ,b, >ame two VOClon? If
.0. ,.1Iy .or1 If wbe.?
,

-f-+-- '
, Th. 'wovWor, r.bown '" fig.
J-24 lie in Ill! .• y plane. \\'h >1 are
,be ,;gr.. 01 tbe x and y compo-
aentue.<pectivel}'. of (a) it, + if,.
(b)l, - if"H1d (c) if, - l,? Que";OII',
5 1f1 _ ;r + . + (- i'). d.oes (a) i1+ ( - It) _ i" + ( - b\
(b) iJ _ (- b) + II + ", .•• d(e)" + ( - 1) _ it + -';1
6 D<>cribe 'wo V''':!Of' jf .. d"li ,uch ,na,
(a)iI' + b _ i' ... d o + b _ C",
(b) J' + Jj _ if _ b:
«j il' + b _ ? :u>d <T +b' _ " .
7 Whicb 01 ,be ar ..... geme ... 01 >Xe'S in Fig. 3-15 <an be
't- .t-
1_) ihl ,,)
, ,
PTobIom.
I. beled -,igll,. bando<looonlin." .ystem"" A. usual,each all;"
I.bel indica, .. ,be """iliv. ,,<Ie 01 ,n.. :ro..
• Figwe 3-26 ,how, """or
A and 10111 "'her vWon
'bat h. ",!be ,ame magni,.d.
but dill.. in on •• ,arion.
(A) Which 01 ,no... OIbe, (OIl'
"",",or, ha"" ,be ...... dol
prodU<1 with A1 lb) Whicb
have a negot;", dol produn
wilhA1

9 ... dVi.
FIG. J.z6 Que";"" 3.
perpeodirnl" 10 11. ,b,n wha' ;, !be dirO<1K>n of]j i. 'be throe
, ;,u1IiOll' 5IIown in Fig. J_27 <00<".' q (a) I""i';ve
ud (b) ·'S· ,lv.1
1'1 III j'l
.' flG . ... Z7 Q.",,;oo9.
(') j' l if)
fiG. J.ZS Qu..,'i0ll7.
PROBLEMS
Me. 3,,( Compo n. nt. of V.don
. , The x comp<lII.n, of ""nor A i, - 21.0 m aDd tbe y rom_
pone.'" +4QOm. (0) W"", ,he ""gni'ude of A7 (hl \\ih"t
i, ,he angle be ,,. .. n the dir«1K>D 01 A and ,h. pool';"
direct;oa 01 x? .. M
·2 &pre .. 'he ""gIe< in (. J lQ,lJ',
(h) 'j()'o:r, (oJ 100". C"" .... " ... loIk>...mg aogl<.1 '0 dey"""
(d) 0.3)1 rod. (e) 2.10 oo,(t) 7.70 rod.
.3 Wh. , aIe (oJ ,h. x 00111 """,,"' an d (h) ,be Y compO","'
01, ", .. or it .. ,h. xy pl .... dir.<1iOll is 2'j()" oou.ler_
,lock ....... lrom , be pool';" direc';"" of ,h' .T "is HId;" m.!_
ni'odeis7Jml ...
• .( In fig. 3-28, a heavy p"'"
of machinery ;, r..t.ed by oIidioS
"a di<;talloe d _ 12_1 m:olont 0
plaat oo.."'ed aI aogle _
3l()" '0 ,be horiro.llo1, H .... far
;. " """,td (.) v,,' io<oIIy ""'"
(h) hori"""aJ]y?
. 5 A ,hip .. " ou, '0 , :oi) '0 • ..... J-21 Problem • .
poi., 120 km due .onh. A. Ull _
'xpe<,NI "orm bI""" ,be >.h;p '0 . poin' 100 km due . ... 01;"
10 [lif·. _ if·7,mu,,5 "Iuol n
" . nin! poim. (aJ How laI .00 (bJ ;.
.... I,.' eIi,...,i"" mu" ;, <>OW .. il '0
roach i" oriSin .. d .. "ma'ion?
.6 A cli<placem •• , _'or .., in ,b.
xy pl . .... is 15 m long IlIld direnNl >1
... gle _ 30' i. Fig. J-..?<j, D<ltImin,
,
L-.Y
"" - c"'--c-C-'
FIG. J-29 Problem 6.
(0) x com""",", ... d (b) , b, y <Om"",,"" of ,be vector.
•• 7 A room b .. dim .... .,.., 3.00 OJ t heish') X 3.70 m X
4.30 m, A II}" " ""ing .. ODe. <orntI !i .. """""" '1I<Iins "p at
'he di>g<llLllly <>ppOIIito <orn«, (0) 1',,">1 ,b. m.gnitud. of
i" displaceme.,? (b) CollI.! ,be Ie.S,h 01 its p .. h be I ... 'bon
'his magni,ude? (oJ G",,,.r? (d) Equ. tI (e) Cb"""" • ,Wt.bIe
OOOfeli. at. I)'".m ""'" ' XJ"<'" ,be oompooe"" of ,h. di'l'la<:e_
me.' "'«Of in ,nat ,y",m in uni' _vector .ota,ion. (I) If ,.., IIy
.... Ib. ,.'ha, ,b, Ie.gth 01 , ... ,hon." pa,b? (Hblt 1"b" can
be ... _.d ,..j,h"", ealruI .... Th, room is like a boL Unfold
"" ,..,.n"oA, ".n1hernin'o,pI ..... ) .. M_
He. 3.0 Adding v.ctOrl by Compon. ntl
.1 A car;' miv, • ..., lor ow,u rx:e of 'j() km,' ben oonbfa- 30
t lrl, .. d ,ben to adirectialJYea>' of oonh lor 25 km, Sketch ....
vector di 'l!' >JII .00 de"""in. (.) ,be m'f!'litude ond (b) ,b. an_
gie 01 ,be car', lOt" dispI""''''''"' from i" " ",ti.! point.
Chap_ l I Vectou
.9 (a) In ".i,_vector ."' '' '''''_ "bat il tb .... m it + ri
if ii _ (4.0 111)1 + 13.0 111)] and -,; _ ( - lJ.OlDji + (1.0 m}j ?
W,.." ne ,., ( b! m. yllrud. and (e) directioo 0171 + bl ....
.10 A 1"''''''' ",ill.. i. the following 1'"""'" J.l km .orth.
tbe. VI Om "'"". and 6n>lIy 51 'm ""'tb. (.) Sketch tb. vec_
tor di . g.nrn ,b., rtpruenl.! ,hi< mOl;OIL ( b) How for and (e) i.
..-bat dir«1ioa would a bird fty i •• "'aigb, line from the .... .
" ",ting point 1<> 'be .. m. final point?
.11 A person <!<sir", to " ""b , point t." ;, lAO ko> 'rom
htl 1"'''''''' ""'atioa and in. dir.Clioo that ;' 35.(]' nonb 01
e. " , Howev". sb. m .... ,,,,,,I >1", ... to .. Ol' OIi. nted
,itb" nonb _",uth or .... _"' ... . Wha, ;,. ,he minimum
cIi ... """ ,b. could Iravello ",.,h her """irI .. io.1
.12 IU ,b. vWon it _ (l.0 m)1 + .. d b _
(5.0 m}i + (- l .Om)l. it + ri in (.J unit· vonor .", .. ioo.
. 1Id "" {bJ • ""S";''''''' .. d (e) an OIly.. (re1>ti"" to I).
Now give b - ;J i. (d) ".it _veclor ""''';011. and .. Ie) • mag_
.irude and (f) an
• n Twovtc!or .. regiv •• by
it _ (4.0 .,)1 - (1.0 .. >1 + (1.0m)t.
.Dd b _ (- 1.0m)] + (1.0m)) + (4.0m)k.
In uni' _v.nor nOl,,"'" find (.J if + b. (b) if - b. >nod (e) •
,hird vector i" ouch ,h.a, if - • + i" _ O.
.14 Find the (.) x. (b) y • ... d (e) , """'poIIe.'" 01 'he >lim 7
01 ,b, displ:oc ..... n'" i" . nd d whOSf compoll.nts in met."
. Iong ,be ,hr .... " or. " _ 1.4" , _ - 1& " _ - 6.1; d, _
4.4. d, _ - 2.0. J, _ 13.
.15 An "'. crazed O}' ''''' Sun "" a 00' T • ..., of" ... ooa.
d . n. OVtr >J1 xy pi"". II<U"bed in ''''' din. Th, x >nod y
rompooenu of fOIl, oon"""';ve dan. or. ,b. foliowinE.
, U in cen,imtl ... ' (.\0.0 . . 1(>-0). (b,. - 70.0). ( - 20.0. c,J.
( - &0. - 70.0). Th. over>ll di>pf>e<men' of ''''' fOl" d"" b ..
,be xy compolle." (- 140. - W.O). Wh>t ar. (0) b, >nod (b) e,?
Wh" Ole ,h. (e) m' g""oo, and (d) .. gIe ("la'ive '0 ,he po<i _
,ive dire<11on of ,be x ""ill) 01 ,h. over>ll di>pf>ee ... n, 1 =
.16 I. ,be.urn A + 'A _ v.n,.. A h .. , magni'ude of 11.0
., and i> ",,0.1«1 -lO,O" """.t<rdod< ...... frOllT ,b. +x dire<lion .
• 1Id vee'''' I:' .... a "'agDi1>o, 01 IS.o m .. d ill OIlgled 20.0"
<OUll'ercloctwi<e fTOm the - x direc'ioo. II'll .. ar. (.) ,b. mag_
""ode :md (bl ''''' >ngl. (relo-
'''fto+xl ollf?
.17 Thftwo verto .. if >nod b
in Fig. J-JO have "lu>l ""gIll-
'udes of 10.0 m and ,be mgl ..
• re _ lO" .nd t>. _ 105'.
Find the (0) x and (bl y """'PO-
n •• " ot ,b. ir vector ... '" 7. (e)
,be m. gni'od. 0I7 . • 11d (dl ,be
, ogl. 7 ",ok .. wi,b ,toe
,ive dir,<lion of ,be x a=.
............
.1. Yo. art '0 m.al<. four
,
0'4'-----·
fIG. )oJD l'",blem 17.
"r';!,hl -lin. move. OVtl a fl .. de . ... ftoor. ",,'ing " 'he Ofi _
gin 01 .. xy OOOfdin>te and ,nding .. ,b, xy roordi _
n.' .. (- 140 m. JO m). The x "'mpooen' ."d y """'poll'.' 01
y""r move> are ,h. following. in met ... , (2tl . od
(0) . the. (b, 1UId - 70). th •• (- 20 ""d e, ). tbe. (_60 >nod
- :ro). \I'h" are (. ) OOnlpo!><ot b, >nod (b) component e,?
Wbat are (e) th. , nd (d) ,b. >fly.. l rel"i"" to tbe
posit;"" dir«,ion of ,be x .. ill) of ,be overoll dkplocem. OI?
.19 Th, .. V",' Of. if .•. >nd i" .:ocb have. magni'ude 01
50 IJI .. d tie in ... . T)' pl ..... diroctioru ",I., ... '0 ,be
posi'i", dir...,iOll ot ,be .T >xi. are 30'. 195' .... d '''pee-
'ively. Wb .. or, la) ,b. maE.i,od. and (b) ,be , ogle 01 '''''
v«''''" if + b + 7 ... d «) ,h. m.gni'ude and (d) ,be msJe 01
iI - • + n \>''h .. at. ,h. (.) m:ogoi'ode >nod (I) any. ot •
I"""b """or d.uclJ ,na, (il + b) - (7 + d) _ fJI ....
.20 (a) Wh" is 'he , um 01 ,be foliowinE lou, """or. i. uni, _
vee'"," nou,i",, 1 For tb. , '1UIl. wha' at. (b) ,be ... yti,.de. (e)
,be >llgIe in d.y .. ""d (d) 'be angle in radi.",?
-c: 6.(IOm., +O.\lOO,.<I
4.00 m at + 120 r>d
1", 5.00 m at - 75 .rr
R, 600m ot-ZW'
.21 In . !=. ot 1, "'11 ch .. wbere piKe. Ol. mCll'ed
be' .... n ,be cen'm ot squ ..... ,b .. at • • arb 1.00 m o. edge . •
knigll1 moved;n 'he foUowi.! w.y: (I) '..-osquart> fo,wrnl.
OIl' squ"e Ti!h,..-. rd, (2) 'wo squ. "" l.f,wOld. 011 . square
lon.-.rd: (3) 'wo squat .. 1000Old. on. square l,f,,..,rd \\11.,
. re (') lb. magnitude :iIId (b) ,h. angle ("I" ... to "Ior_
w>rd-) 01 , ... bUg/I1·. overoll dkpl" ",,,,,nt!Of 'he ""'. " 01
,hr .. mov .. ?
•• 22 A. explort< is <,ufll' in • """'.ou' (in .,hicb '''''
... owfall ill so 'hid ,h., ,h. ground <"""'" be di<'i.guislled
from ,be .ky) ,.hil, "'WDing '0 camp. H, ,... .. upposed
'0 tr-.vel duoe """b for 5.6 km. bu, ,.heD ,be 10"'" clear,. he
disro",,, 'hat be ""u>lly tr,veled 7.8 km ., north of doe
..n. (0) How lar aod (b) in ",nat dire,,1on mu" h. now ,,,,vel
,ore:ocbb,..""",p?
..23 0 .... B iII ]'j tm due .. " 01 =<is A. S,,,'ing from
oasill A • • c ..... l...-.JkJ 24 krn in a dil'<flioo IS' """b 01 • • "
. nd '''''' ",oIt, 8.0 km du. """ h. f:or is ,be c .... l ,he.

•• U Two be011 ... 'WI across!lat ...... ",,'ing" ,he >arne
poi.,. Bud, I run. 0.50 m d ... ' '''. , .... O.!IO m .. JO" ""nb
01 due ."". B""l. 2 >150 mok ... ,wo fi", is U; m oJ
40"."" 01 due nort" \>''h" mu!! be (. ) ,be maY'i'ude . nd (bl
,be dil'<flion ot its .. <Of>d rw> i1 is '0 end up " the ...... 10<0-
,ioo 01 bee,le 17
•• 25 If If ill a<Ued '0 (; _ J.ol + 4.o;. ,he .. oul, is. vec10r
in tb. positive direc' ion of 'he )' :ro., -.i,. , m.a.goirude .qual
'0 ,hal \>,11 .. ill 'he m.gni'ud. 0I1f?
•• 2& V.nor A. "hiClJ is dire<led oIOIIg an .T ""ill. is '0 be
. cUed '0 vector 11.wh.icll b", • magni'ude 017.0 m. The , um i •
> ,hird """'or '"" i. dire".d . long ,be y .. iII. wi,h. m'gIll-
,ude ,b .. is 3.0 tim .. ,na, of A. I\'h .. i. 'hot m'gni'ude 01 A?
•• 27 T)'pical backyard """ oflen cr •• " , ""work ot chemi-
cal ,,,ik C"," guidonce. "",,.rnI from ,be n.". >
,nil braD<"", lb,,.,,,·,.,,) r<p<>"tdJy . ..-i1h In be,w«. '''''
br"""beo.lf . roamins , n! ,b:u>ce. upoo > ".U. i, <>II tell tbe
.... y '0 ,be """ at .. y braocb poirn: If i, i> moving ,,,,ay frOID
,be n.". i, h" '\00 choice. 01 patb r"lw,ing' om.all turn in
ito ",,,,I dir'<1ion. ei,h .. !O' ltf' ..... rd or .l(I' rightwm"d. If
i, i. ,,,,,,,rd ,b. """. b .. ooly OIIe ,,,,b <hoi«.
fig"" l _ll ,hOW! • typic>l "'" ,r.oi). wi,h l,"eroo ,tt oigh' ><c-
FIG. J _11
Probl.m27.


L.
';011. of 2.0{'ll1 ),"!tb """ .ymmetric bifIlICa1k>D of UJ'. \\ilu1
Ol' the (0) ""'!"irudoe """ (b) onSIe (rei";", I" ,he posit;""
diroctioo of It.. "'ptrimpooedx .. is) 01 an ..,t'. di.plocemont
flOm ,h. ""'" (tiod i. in ,h. figure) if ,he aD' enl ... tbe !roil at
PO;"' A7 What or. th. (e) m"!'lilude ODd (d) ""£Ie if " , .....
., poiot B?
•• 2& H ...... two_to .. ,
Jf _ (4.0m)i _ (J.Om)] """
Wh. , ar. (aj ,b. magnitude .. d (b) the •• V. (rel. ,;.. to i) of
if? What aIe (e) tb. m. !)lilud. aad (d) ,he .. ole of"61 What
Ol' (e) ,he m'glIim<le.M (f) It .. ..,gII! on + t (!l Ib, m.!_
";Iud< . Dd (h) !be :ongle 01 F - if: aDd (i) ,he .. . gnitude
.. dW ,h. angleolif - 01(1::)Wb" is !beany. ... , ....... the
dirKlIOlKofJj _ iTandif - 'Ii?
•• 29 If J, + J, _ 5<1,.I1,_ J, _ 3J,_:md J, _ 21 + 4).
tbe. wnat ", •. in unit_ •• aor ."'",iO<l.(') dt """ (h) J,1
• • JO \\iha1 i . tb. sum of ,he followiDs fom \'eClor< in (.J
unil_VWOf 00''';011. and or (h) • m"llllilud .... d Ie) OIl .. gle l
A _ (2.00 + (HIO m)] 11: 4.00 m . • ' +65.0'
L _ ( - 4.00 m)1 + (- 6.oom)) D, 5.00 Ill. at - 235'
••• 31 In Fig, 3_31 . • ,ube of
tdge " ns,h a si" "';,b 00. <Ofn"
., u .. origin of .n xY' OOOf<li • .,.,
')''''1IL A boJy JI<JK"".I i •• Ii""
'hat .xteo<lo from or" cor ... r '0 ,1.;;::1,.1----,
.. ",ber ,hr""sh ,he o",ltor. In" •
uni, _vt<tor ""'a'ioo .... h., .. ,be •
body di>gorl:d 'bot .xt"net. from RG. J-32 Pr"Nem 31.
'he corner" (0) ooordin., .. (0.0. 0). (b) coordinate. (a. 0. 0).
(C) <OOfdin.,.,. (0 .• , 0). and (d) coordina'e> ( •.•. 0)7
De,.rmi ... ,be o.gI .. ,ha, ,n. body di. goo'" m.ke ";,h ,boo
><lj"""" edS"'" (I) D""min. ,h. kns1b of ,n. body di agonal<
io 'erms of a.
Me. 3_7 V.doro . nd
tho Law. of Phyoia
. n In Fig. 3-J3 • • vee-
'or iT";,b a m. gnitod. of
17.0 m i. dir«,OO", >lisle
56.!)" oouot.....cloct_
wi<e from ,be H .. is.
"''hot are n", rornponenu
(a) ", and (b) ., of
,b. """,or ? A OOCOIld c0-
ordinate 'y>lem ..... _
dined b)' .. .. r _ 18.0'

..... JoJJ Probl"m J2.
PTobIom.
..i,b r.opec' '0 ,h. fi"" Wbat ... ,be componenu «) a; . Dd
(d) .; in 'hi< primtd coordinat •• y"em1
oK. 3.. Multiplying V.cto ..
• 33 Two v.cton. l' and 7. (;" in u.. xY pi ....
lbeir maeru".d .. ore 450 and 7JO unit!. r'spe<1ively ... d th.u
direct.,.., are 1..'>0" and &'iXf'. re>peeltvfty. as ""'''''''00 <OWI''' _
clock ...... from the pooiIive x ali!. \\'h.a, ... ,be val ... , of (a)

.3. If .. d J, _ _ 5' + 2j _ \, ,heo
.. iI., .. (it, + J,). (it, 4it,)1
· 35 Thr .. "",",or. are giv." by it _ 3.01 + 3.<8 - l.ot
b _ - Lol - + 2.(»:. and ? _ 101 + 2.0; + ui, Find
(a) it· (6 7).(b) J1. (6 + ?), and(e) J1 (6 + 7).
. 3& Two "",",or. .... P"" by J1 _ 3.ol + . nd
Jj _ 101 +-1,0; . Fiod (0) b. (b) iT'b, (e) (if + b)·b.
and (d) ,boo component 01 J1 """S ,be dir«,ion of b. (111)1"
For (d). ooruider Eq. 3_20.Dd Fig. 3-10.)
. 37 For ,h. ",,:tor, in Fig.
3_-'1. with • _ 4. b _ 3 . ... d,
- 5 . ..-h>t are (.) 'h, masni-
,ude .. d (b) the din>ctioo of
J1 E, «) !he ",agni1udoe
ond (d) ,b. di""tion of
it x ?, and (e) the masni-
,ude and (I) the direclioo of
...... "",
.h<l'l'lL)
• • 31 Diopl""''''''n' J, is
,

..... J..J4 Problelru 17 and50.
in ,n. y. pi ... HO" from ,b. posi';ve dir«,;oo 01 ,be y .. is.
bas . posi';"" oompoo,n'. >lid b .. a m"ll"iHod, 014.50[0.
J, i, in ,h. x. plao. 3(1.0' flOm ,he positive <Ii _
rec,ioo of ,n. x >Xi<. bas • posi';'". <OOlponen'. and na. mag_
o;,.de 1.40 m. Wha' ore (a) J, . J" (b) J, x it,. and (e) 'be .. _
y' he,,....,., dL :uod d,?
•• 39 U .. ,n. drnlLl,iOll of ",alOl p.-oduc,. if· 6 _ .b roo ,.
and ,b. be' ,ha, it· Jj _ .,b. + a,b, + .,b, '0 ealcul.te ,h •
"'$" be,,."," ,he '100 _'or. giv.n by J1 _ 3.01 +
3.(Ij + J.ok .Dd b _ 2.ci + Lo; + 3.ok. ....... _
··40 • .:" .. >l'·(2A lIJ?
A _ 2.00 + 3.(Kij - ud
11 _ - 3.001 + 4.ocij + l.oct. (; _ 7.00 -
••• 1 Venor A b"" magni'ude oI 6.oo»oiI,.v«lOf 11 bas a
magni'ude 01 7.00 .. d ;r ·11 bas • v:U"' of 1-1.0. Wba' is
,b. IULgle be, ...... " ,b. dir«1;OIL. 01 A and 81
..42 In ,be prodlOCl r _ qV x 11.,.ke _ 1.
,. _ + 4.0; + 6.l1o ond 1" _ - lOj + 121.
1I'h>! 'heo j, 11 in uru1-Yenor
o"'>!iooifB, - B,1 C
••• 3 The ,br ... vector, in Fog.
3_l'i have JIla!IIirud" • _ 3.00
Ill. b _ -I.m m. and , _ lO.O m
",d >ogl' _ JO.O'. lib>! ...
( ' j ,he x rom"""e", and (b)
'be y """pone.' of if: (e) ,boo x
com""""" and (d) the Y com_
,

,
fiG. J-35 Problem 4J.
Chap_l I Vectou
pont"' of O, ... d (.) ,be X oompoo,n' >lid (f) ,b. Y componen,
01 n If i" _ pil + qt. ,.h, m the values of (g) P .Dd (h) q1
......
•• 44 In. 01 mim.' I goes 'hroug/l a di. _
plaoem,n' ilL _ (4.0m)i + (5.0 1D)j .Dd mime 2 soe.
through. di,pI:=menl "il, _ ( - 3.0 m); + (4.0 .. ,). Wh.,
.re (0) ;I, (b) at' J,. (e) (a
L
+ !I,), II,. ,lid (d) ,b.
oompone"' of J, .Ioog ,h. dir«.;oo 01 J,7 (H."" fur (d), >t.
Eq. 3-20 .Dd Fig .!-20.)
Probl.m.
45 Rock faullS or. "'pow .. '"toeh """",i'. foee .. 01
rook •• v, slid pa« .orn ",h ... I. FIg. 3--"6, poi ... A and B
ooiDcided ""for. tbe Joct in --ilie for.you"" ,lid down to tb.
lith,. The "" di5f>lacem.", AS ,be pi .... 01 ,he f.1lIt
The oo..izoolal-S"'P""""' 01 Ajj i> ,b. strib..up AC The
"""'po. ,,", 01 AB 10>1 i. dir,('!fd dowo tbe plaD.e of the f, uh
.. the Jjp->IiJi.flD. (. j YOb., .. the "",£ni,.<Ie of ,b, net dio_
pi"",,,,,,", AB ,he .. ,ike_slip io 22.0m and ,he dip->hp i.
17.0 ml (b) If the plaDe of ,h. bull i. ilOdimd "' angl. i.-
52.11' '0 d •• hocizOll'al. wb .. to ,b. vertical com""" ... ' of AB 1
fiuh pLm<
FIG. J . JIo f'roillem 45.
" Two Y<flon iJ .. d -,; hav. 'he compo ....... i .... 'e, ..
• , _ 31. _ l.6. b, _ 0.50. b, _ 4.5. (.) Fud , ... . ngle
be' ..... n rh. dire<1ion. of II.Dd -,;, Th". are r"", v,,"ors i.
,lie xy plln. ,b>l . .. perpe.di<uJor to if and h.ve • magnirud.
01 5)) DL 00 •. V«tOf? ha. a pooiliv. X"""""""., .Dd th o
orhe" v«tor J , a .es.tiv. z romponen\. Wh ot Ole (b) tile x
rom""",,", amd «) tbe y com_or of?, ... d (d) tile .• rom_
pO"'"t ond (e) ,be y"""'pone.r 01 vectOf J1
(7 A "",",Of if 01 m. snirud. 10units . Dd .. orhe, "":l0f S 01
m',gJli1ude 6.0 .ni" dill" i. dire<1i .... by 60". FlDd (. ) th e
0Cil .. p,odurt 01 th, two '''':l0f' ood (b) tbe m. gnitu<le 01 the
voctOf p,odoct if S. uti
.. Vo<tOf iI na. a magnitude 01 5.o., .. d i. dir. cted .....
Veet .. S h • •• m>toitu<le of 4.0m :md .. dire<1ed 35" """,t 01
duoe .onh. "'bat or. (.) tbe magnitude , Dd (b) rbe dir«ti,,"
01 if + S?Whot . re «) the maBnitude and (d) the dir«tion 01
Ii - il l (e) Draw, v«t .. di ' g<"'" ro. .. cb """,binat"""
(9 A parricle W>doefgoe.r thr .... ue ... ,,"v. .. in,
pi ..... .. foU""", Ill. 4.00 m ..,.,tnwe", tb," J,. 5.00 m .... ,
.Dd fin>lly d,,6.00 D1 in • dire<1io. IDfJ' DOftb of , .. t. Ch""",
• coordinate , y",m with rb. y uk poi"'in! ... tn .. d 'he x
.... pointins e .. t. W",,, or. (.) the ,<OlD"""".' aDd (b) the
y compon,nt of il,? ""nat .... (C) 'be x com_n, and (d)
tbe y oomponeO! of J I1 Wb., >te (e) ,b. x component ond
(I) rhe y com"""e", 01 d,? Ne ... ooruideo- tbe"'tdi>p""" ... n'
01 the p. nide lor 'be rh,ee """",i"" Wb,
. re (l) tbe x """,,,,,,,e.,. (h) tbe y """,,,,,,,e". (i) tb. magni_
tude ... d (j) ,.e dire<1ion of tbe Del di'pl><em.nt1lf tb. ""' _
ticlt i. to "tI". dire<1ly to tb. ""in,. (1::) bow f ... ""d
(I) in ..-hat dir«tiorr >hoold it mov,1
50 Fo, the ve<1on in Fig, l-3-1 , with 0 _ 4, b _ 3, and < _ 5.
<alrul ... (a) iI· Ii, (b) iI·? .. d «) Ii·?
51 A >ailboat .. " <JOlt from , ... US,"<Ie of Lote & io f .. .
point 00 the C ... odi.., .ide, 90.0. km duoe . .. tb. The ,ailor,
how.""" ends up 5o.0 km due .... 01 the Jlarring poi ...
(. ) H.,... far ud (b) in 10",,' di, .... i ... mint the .. ilor now .. il
to "''''h 'be origin>l de.nination? 11M
52 F\nd 'he ' IUD 01 tho following low ve<1or. in (a) URir_
vo<t .. "",atio.,:md • • (b) • matnitude ,Dd (e) .. angle ",10-
,i",roH.
-PO. 10.0 DL at 2.. 1.1)" ooun,,,dockwioe f,om H
(t. 12.0"'.>1 10.fJ' ''''''.'erdock ..... f'''''' +y
:R: 8,OOm,>12o.O' do<kwioefrom - y
,!, 9.00 DL at -10.0' oounte'dock ....... f,om - y
53 Ve<1o .. A ... d» Ii. in . n xY pl •• t.. A h • • m'3-Ditu<le
8.00 .. d ' .Sl. DO", It b .. rompoD<'" B, _ - 7.n .nd
B, _ - 9.20. Wha' .re ,.e OIly ... be,w"n ,Ir.e ..
&"<1ioo y >xi. and (a) tho di,enion of ;to (b) the di _
'«lion of ,h. P'OOU<1 A », and «) ,he dir.ction <>1
A (» + 3.00k)1
5( Her. "'. 'hree each in
it, _ 4.<X + 5.0; - 6.0'- J, _ + + J1i .• Dd d, _
-I.<X + + 2..ok. (a) Wh.t ,,7 _ J, - J, + J,1 (b) Wh>1 i.
tbe angle bet"""'. -r ""d tbe p<lIli'iv., ""is1 (0) \I'h ot ;, tbe
COfD""""nt 01 J, . ioog ,he directio. 01 it,? (d) Wh>t i. tbe
"","""""ot of J, that ;' p< rp<.diNlar ro tbe dire<1ion of a,
.Dd i. ,be pi""" of J, . Dd 11, 1 Fo, (c). oom;o. •
Eq. 3_W ,Dd Fig. l-20, lor (d), COrL .. <Ie, Eq, l-27.)
55 VeetOf.;{ and It I;"
in orr xy pt .... A b,.,
m>yIi,udeHO:md .. gIe
IJW-. » has """ponen"
B, _ - 7.72 ""d B, _
- 910. (. ) What i, £Of ·It1
Wbat 4A 3» in (b)
u.ir_"""t .. ""'ation nod •
(0) m'gni,ude_""gIe 00<0-
tiorr with "' .... icaI co-
ordnate. ( .... Fig, 3-J7)?
AG. J. J 7 rrobl<",55.
(d) What is ,be angle be,,...... the direnio •• of A and
-I;{ 3It? (iii"', Think. b" belor. you ",on '0 . ",leul . _
tio .. ) Wb., i, A + 3.00k i. (e) .nit_.«t .. ""tab"" :md (f)
m.gnitude_an Y' "or "ion .. i, b splre,;"o! coordinate.1
56 VeetOf i, i. in tbe ""9ti"" dir«1ioo 01 a y "" ..... d I'<C-
t .. J,,, i. tile pooiti •• di'e<1i ... of an x >XU. Wbat ar, tile
dire<1ioru of (.) J,I4 and (b) J, I( -4)1 \I.at.re ,.e m. gni_
tude. 01 1"00""" «) i, . it, :md (d) J, . (it, I-I) 1 Wha, i, tbe
dir«1ioo 01 tb. Vf<1or re.ulting f,om (e) a, J, ond (t)
d, J ,1 lib .. ,b. m>gnitude 01 the vector prodU<1 i. (8)
p>It (.) . ad (b) parr (m Wb>t >t. 'he (i) m>gni'udoe ond
(j) dir«1iono/J, (d,l4)1
57 He" are tb:r.., ",<1on in
1, _ - 3.01 + 3.0; + 2.!XO
1, _ - 1.01 - + 2.!XO
1, _ 2.01 + 3.0; + l.ok
Wh., , .. ut" from (.J 1, · (1, + 1,). (b) 1, · (1, x 11, ). aDd
(eJ 1, " (1, + 1,)1
51 A golf .. t .... tb:r.., p'"'' '0 get th. boll into ,Ire bolo.
llr. lir .. 1"'" diopl0C<"5 'be ball 3.M m ""'tlr . tbe .. ooa.d
I.SJ m """tb . .... and tire tbird 0.91 <II JOu ,",..,,,, Wh" ' " (.)
,b. m. gnitude ,lid (0) ,b. di,ecti"" of ,Ire di<pb cem.nt
t>eeded to get ,Ire ball ,oto tire hole on tho fir ..
59 C"",,<ler it in , h. """iii .. dir.ctioo 01 x. ]j '" tire ..
elirect'oa of y. ""d. x:al .. d. "'lr,t Or ,b. dirKti"" of "lild if
d Or (.J pooi'ive and ( b) n'g";""? Wb" i. ,Ire m' grritud. of
(ej it· r ""d (d) if· tid? What i, tb. dim:';"" of .h. V",,' Of
T.>Illt"'g ITO'" (.) it " "Ii and (t)"Ii Wh .. is .Ire mag·
nitu"" 01 ,he. ve<1or p'odU<1 in (.)7 ( h) Wh" is tbe .. 'S"ilude
of tire V.<1Of prod .... '" (I)? IllIat or. (iJ tire m.gnit..& aDd
lJ! tire direc,ioa 01 it " tid if d i> "",,;tiv.?
&0 A ve<1or J ..... m' gni'ude of 1.5 m , od point> .orth.
"'b>l .r< (a) th. m".!."i, ude .nd (0) ,h. diroctioa of
"'b>l are (eJ tire Mog.o"ude .. d (d) tlr. dir.<ti"" of - 3.011
&1 Le. i be diT<fled to ,h. " ". i b< dire<:tro.o ,Ire .orth.
.. d k b< di,ectfd up"' ord. What or. ,b. val." 01 prod ..... ('j
1· k. (bJ (- k)· ( -iJ. ond (e) i· "'b " or. th. direct''''''
(ouclr. ... .., Of ""-) of productJr (dJ k " ;. (e) (- 1) " ( - i).
.. d{f) (- k) ,, ( - jJ?
&2 COII"""r 1'"0 <fuplacemen'" 0'" of m. gnitude 3 m aDd
.. ",Ire, 01 m'gnitude 4 m. So.,... h"", tire displ""' ..... , vec-
lor, m. y b< oombin.<d '0 Eet • ">Ill.",,, di<;plocem,n' 01 m,! ·
nitude (.)7 Ill.. (bj I m. ""d (e) 5 m.
&3 A IwIk i. ""-t"", .. Booton i. rOObed (see tire m. p in
Fig. 3 . To .I ud, pobc • . tb. JObber> u"""" by lrelioopl ...
".""'S thrt. SUNe.!.ive digll" "" ...... ibed by tire lollowi.E eli,·
pi"" ..... ": 32 km. 45· "",tlr 01 ... " 53 km. U · nonh 01 ,. .. "
1f, lm. 18· • .., of JOUth. At 'be end 01 ,lit ,bird 'hey ...
<aptw«l. I. ,.h" 10\011 ... ' pprebended'!

"
..... '''"'''''l"
+
,

, -
L<n..p:






--
-.
Lt""

""""'. 0><0 •
.,
(,.( A whed wil"' r>diuo of
45.0"", ,oil, withoU' oIjpp"'S
. IonE • bOO""'tal ftoor (Fig.
3. 39). At lime ' ,. ,be dot P
palo"d on .be ,im 01 ,Ire
,.1",,1;' " tb. point of <"OII,,,,,t
be,,....,. ,h. "heel and ,Ire
A,'roo "
ftoor. A • • hteT ,ime ,Ire F1G. J.JII Problem64.
wh",I""" roIlod througll """.
half 01 . ftvol Ulion. Wh., .re (.j tbe m.goilude and (b) th.
IUISIo (rt l>tiv, to the !loo,) of 'he displ. "" .... , of P?
&5 A """ tire IlUgnit"'" 11.0 m .00 is .. sJed &0" OOWI' .. ·
ckxklrise from the posi'iv. eM"""", 01 !Ire x .... 01 lUI X}'
coon1ioale ')'>Iem. Ako. !! _ (11.0 mp + (8,0) '")1 OIl tb"
• ..... 'Y"om. We .""""'a" tire 'l"'om oountercloct·
....... boo. the orig.. by 2OJ)",0Iorm ""x'y' ,y5t ..... O.thi .....
. )'Stem. wb .. ore(. ) A .oo(b) 11.b<Job in uni' ·vector ""'>lioo?
1M> A '"""""" woJ'. 25() "' '" ,Ire diroctio. 30" ... t 01 .onh.
'be. m <lli<nly e .. t. Ymd (') ,b. m. gni.ude . nd (b) tb.
ooSIo 01 Jr.,,, Iioal displ",. "", • • Irom tbe " .n"'S point. (e)
Firod the eli""""" .h, ....Jh (d) Whicb i. gre" oT. ,bo, di"""""
or .b. m. gnit.de oIlre , dispi><em.nt?
&7 (' ) I. unil ·ve<1or _atioo. ,.ha, ., _ if - t + ? if
it _ 5.01 + - 6.ot. ,; _ - 1.0; + 2.0] + 3.Oi:. ""d ? _
4.01 + 3.0; + 2.!X01 (b) Calcul." t be ""sle bel"""n ., and tb.
"",,'tiv. , .. Us. (e) "'lr., ;, tbe oompon.n, of it oJ""! 'he
dir«tio. of b1 (d) II'h.t the <O<I)pon,nl of iT perpeodicul or
10 !Ire diT<flioo of r; bIIt in ,be pl . .... 01 it and t1 (HIIr': FOf
(eJ. _ Eq.3.20 >lid Fig. 3-10: fof (d) .... Eq, 3.27.)
" lfit - ]j _ 1? it + t _ 4? and? _ .Ii + .\j.,h •• ,.hal
or. (. ) iT .. d (b) b1
&9 A 1""' .... , "arri .. his 'igo 01 1"0"". " " ting from the
oriE'" of aD xY' 00<J<di." •• )" "m. wi,h 'he xy pl,ne noriz",,·
'aJ. H. move-s 40 m in tire .'g"i", diT<fli"" of .lrex ,be.
20 m >lOftS ' perptndicular path ' 0 hi. lell. aDd tire. 25 Ol up a
...tOf to ... ",. (.) I. uni,· ve<1or .",arioo. ,.Jut ;, tire <fupl"",.
meat of ,Ire 'igo lrom ."rI to erodl (b) The "En ,b,n bU, to
'be loot of the 1<,._eT. Wha. is tb. magni'ude of ,Ire di>pl"".
men' 01 ,lit "E. f,om " .. , 10 'hOr new eod'l
70 A ve<1or dn,"" m. gnil_ 3.0m and is wrected "",tb.
IIb.t are (.J tire m. gnitude ... d (bJ ,Ire dir",.ioo 01 d" vWor
5.od? Wb" art (e) tho m. gnilude . nd (d) lire directi"" 01 the
ve<1or - 2.011
71 If!! is rrdded '0 A . • be. r .. uIt is wi + ul If !! "
I,om A. 'be ,,>Ill, i, - 4.01 + 7.0;. Wh., i • • h. mag.
oitudeo! A? .. ..
7Z A Iir. "'t . .. orching !Of b", >au,,",;. a pkok ... a. EO<:<
tbr""gII . b:r ... dirplaceme." oJon! le vel t'owrd: 1 , lor 0.40 m
""" h"" .. (that K." 45° lrom '''"t b and !TOID dittod)"
_ .. ).I, !Of 0.50 m en.. . .. ,.1, 1010.60 OJ ,, 60' nonb of . .. t
Let tire. posit .... x <lliectioo be ... , mel ,be posit''''' Y di""";",,
be """h. \IlIa. are (a) tire x com""",", . nd (b) tire }' compo-
o.nt of 1, "'b.t or. (e) ,b. x <Om""",", arid (d) the y com·
ponen' of II,? "'lIat . re (.) ,Ire x rompotI"'" .nd (f) ,h •
Y oompooenl 0I 1,?
What ore (g) tb. x com!"""'.' . (b) tire Y <OII1pone.t. (i)
tb. magni.ude. and 0) !be. dir.ct'on of the an", oet di>p!oce.
"""" ? If ,Ire •• t i. '0 ,"urn directly to tire " . ning poi.t . (k)
h"",l .. ""d (I) in ,.,hot sI>ouldj, """,.1
Motion in Two and
Three Dimensions
Whe" a high fly ball is hit 10 the outfield, how does the outfielder;" the
area know where to be in order to catch it? Often the outfielder will jog
or "m at a measured pace to the catch site, amOving just as the ball
does. Playing experience surely help., but some other factor seems to
b .. j"vo/ved.
58
What clue is
hidden in the
bali's motion?
The .nswe, is In !hl,chapter.
4-1 WHAT IS PHYSICS?
In Ih ... cbapl'" oonl1nu. looking al aspecl 01 ph}"ks Ihal analJ'l"" nl0lion,
bUI oow the mollOO can 00 in '''-0 '" di"",o,io" •. Fo, medical
le .... ,eb",.., and engi""",.., "ughl conco"'m" on lhi! phy."" of
'''-0- and Ihlee.-ilin",o,ioo"llllm, by fighw, in dogIighlS a
modtm higb-perlO1l11ance ;'1 can • lighl Illm so quickly lhal Ih. pilol
imm"diawl}' loses A ;polIS ,ngi".'" migh I 10ClI'i on Ihe ph}',ic.s 01
ba"',,'baU. Fot exampl., in a /'u </,,,,,"' ("'b,,,o a pia)"" ge" aou"oo"w,1ed .hol
"' Ih. b,,1oil1 110m aboul L1 m) . " play., mighl employ Ibe ol'ernnlll/ p",h Jhot.
i" whicb 100 ball i, pu,bed away lrom abool shoulde. heigbl and Ih"n .okased.
Or the play .. mighl use an ,mdul",nd loop .1101. ;0 .. hieh ball is broughl
up"'Md from aboul 100 b<oh-lioo 10",1 ""d relea",d. The firs! lochniqllo " lbo
ove.,,'hrlming choke among plOlossio",1 pia)"' ... bUI I"" lego"da,y Ricl Barry
...,lltie '<XXl.d 1o. /''''' -Ibww ,hooling "-;Ih Iha und..."h."d lochniqoo.
MOlioo In Ihre. di"",n,io",,;, 001 easy 10 Fo. oxamplil, )'OU
p.obably 8000 al driving' car alon& a froc"'a)' (o",,-<I;mon,;;on,' molion) bUI
.. 'Ould p.obably have" d,locull lin", in landing an ai'pbno on a ' un .... y (lh.",,-
d,"",,,,;o"al mOI>on) J 101 ollraini"g.
In 0"' Sludy ollwo- and Ih,.p-<li"",n,ional ",oli09, "'. star! "-lih posil;oo
and d'SfIIac..">flli'm.
4-2 I Position and Displacement
000 8""".al way of iocahllg a parlide (0. parlickl.Jj t e objocl) i, "'Ih " po>ilioi
>"<'0". --;,1.-bkb is a voclo. lha! I.om a poi'" (u,ually Ihe
gio) 10 Ihe parliclo. I n Ihe uoil -vO<"1o. "O!al;On of S.'Clion 3-5,7 can be
--; - xi + yj + zk. )
.. xl ,yj. and z are Ihe ""Clo. OO"'POO'"IS of 7 and roc/lkienls x . y, and
z a1e i!, sealar compon"nls.
The roc/fieieols x, y, and z gi'-e pafliclo', along Ihe ooo.dinale
n .. 10 Ihe o'igin; IhOi ;.,; lhi! has Iho teCiangu]: .. ooo.di"",,,,
(-<, y. z). F", lostance. Fig. 4- 1 sbow, a p""ide ",ilh posilion wClo.
7 - ( - 3m)l + (2m)j + (5 m)k
"nd .oclangular ooo,dina"" ( - ] 01,2 Ill, S m). Alo"g 100 x axi, 1M panic lil is 3 m
from Ih' origin, in Ihe - i di,eclioo. Along 1110 y .xis il is 2 m I.om 100 "';g>". in
. .
Ibe +j diteC1ion.Alo"g Itie z .. i, il is S m from Ih. origin_ in Ihe + k direclion.
A,. parll("1;>. n","e .. ;1S posihon veCio. ch.nge, in ,uch ..... )' Ih.! 1110 '-ocl",
always eXlond, 10 100 pa.!iclo 110m lhe .eI","""" poi'" (the origin). lillie
lion v"""o, changos-sa)'. 1.001 7 , 10 7, dlUing " ""flain Ii",,, i"I""'"I- tbon Ibe
par uc],,', .... ..,m .. ' fJ.7 during Ihat lime inw,,·.1 is
fJ.--; - 7, - --;,.
Using Itie UID1 -verl'" nolaloon 01 Eq, 4- 1. can " .. -.ilO this displace"'""l as
fJ.--; - (x,; + y,j + z,k) - (x,; + y,j + z,k)
(4-3)
"'00" OOO1<1in3l" (.-,. ,.,. z,) oo'''''llO"d 10 posilioll voclo. --;, ,"d ooo.dinal""
(x" )'" z,) 10 posilion v<'CIo. 7,. cao also ",,,,rilo lh. diSflI . ceflK'ol
hY'UDslilulingfJ.<fo. (x, - x,), fJ.,.I", ()" - y,).and fJ.z lor (z, - z,):
,
FIG. '" The "",,;'ion .. " .. u ...
panicle ;. ,b. v«, .. . WJj 01;" ",,<lor
compo.""'"
Chop .... I Mo'''''' in Tw<>_ Th, ... Oim<il!1slon.
Sample Problem m
I" Rg. .• he posit,on voelo. tOf " particlo iRili.Ups
7, - (- 3.0m); + (2.0m)j + (S.Om)k
and .hon I"o,i.
r, - (9.001)1 + (2.0 m)j + (8.0 m)k.
Whal is 100 jIIInirk', d;.;pl.","",o' <I. 71rom 7, HI 7,1
The dispLacemeot fJ.7" oblainoo by suI>-
tr>e,ing lb. initia'-;, from ,h. law, -;,.
Calculation: Th. subtra<1;o" giv .. us
fJ.7 - 7, - 7,
, . '
- (9.0 - ( - 3.0)Ji + 12.0 - 2.0)) + 18.0 -
-(12m)! + (3.0m)L
Sample Problem m
A "t>bil run, 0C10,", • parking 1m oil whirh a ... , 01
coo.din"o axe, SIr.ngi'ly "Rough. """0 drawo. Tbi!
coo.dioal", ("lillers) of Ih. rabt>it's posilion as func·
';011' of li""" (So'rond.) are gi'"'" b)'
.. ,
.< - - O.Jlt' + 7.1, + 28
Y - 0.22,' - 9.1, + 30.

(H)
(aJ AI , - 15 So what is t"" rabbi!", position '·eClor 7 in
"nit ·vectOf nOlalion "od in magnillloo·angje oot.Hon?
The ... and y cootdi".h. ... 01 the rat>bil"s
position. as given by 4· 5 and 4.0. are Ihe scalar
compon"nlS oIlh. rabbll·, posilion VOClOl 7 .
ulculalions: We ""n ,,,,il0
"('l - + J('Jl .
7)
,,·.ile 7(/) .alh., Ihan " b..'C:l"SI' Ih" ronl(Xln""iS
a •• f"OClion, 01 I."nd Ihll"S 7 is also.)
AI I - 15 •. Ihe "".Ia, are
x - (- O.3I){IS)' + (7.2)(15) + 18 - 66 OJ
and J - (0.22)(15)' - (9.1)(15) + :JO - - 57 OJ.
" - (66 - (57 m)j. (An' ..... )
"hien i. dra ..... in Fig. 4·:\'. To g<'1 Ih. m'II.11iu"" and
"ng).ofr ...... u ... Eq. 3-6:
, - + J ' -
- 87 nl . (Ao, .. ·",)
.. , 8 _ la,, - '.L _ tan-'( -5701) _ - 41°.
• "m
(All" .... )
,
FIG . .w lhedispl"""""'D' 4-' _ 7, - -', ."'rock/rom the
beodoltbe iniIi>l pooltioo -'Of 7, to !be be:odoltl .. la' ....
I""itioo "",'or 7,.
Th' d"plac<m"n, '"0001 is "",aUd 10 Ih. x, pl.M
il laeb a y compo"""l .
1im;
""
,.,
o '" " "' , tim'
(

:
1im)

"
'" FIG. 4-3 la) A ",!>bit", ",,"ilion _tOf 7 .. time t _ t5 • The
""al .. comP"""." of7Ole ,bow. oIoog tbe un (b) The.-.b.
tm·, p"b arid its positioo ., fiv. vol ... of ,
C".cI<: Allhough 8 - 139" has 1M san", langeol as
- 41' , lhe COfI1tXln""1'> 01, Ihal 100 desi,e<! an-
gffii, 139" - IIlO" _ _ 41".
" · l t Avo'''9''VoIo<ity. r!d In"on'."""u.Vok>city
Graphing' We cao Io'p"" pall (a) 101 ",.-etal '·.I .... 'S 01 ,
,nd 1000 1'101 lhe ,esullS. Figure 4- 31> silo"",, Ihe pkJls 101
five "alu", 01 ,and lhe pain coooochng Ihem. c,n
(b) G,aph 100 rabbi!"s palh 1011 - 010 I - 25
,Iso plol Eqs. 5 aod 00 ,calcul"or.
4-3 1 Average Velocity and Instantaneous Velocity
If. p'rlide ",oves hom 000 poinllo a"Olnor .... " mig/ll n."d 10 know
JuSi "' in o.apl'" 2, we can Ikfioe 1"0'0 quanlilies Ihal d<>al .-jlh "ho ...
r",I" , <1"''''8< , .. Ioci'y ,nd i"..,allla",·o." ,·<Iod,y. he,. "" m",,1 coo-
sid<>. Ih • .., "' '"CCIms ,nd "'" ' -eClm nOlalion.
[I " parlide mo,"", Ib'Ollg/l • displ"""",,,nl !J.' in . t ime iOlO,val !J.I. Ih"" ilS
• ,-. Io<ity 1' ... is
. displ"""m""1
av",ag" velocily - _. ,
hme ,nl",va
"
I' . ..
(4-8)
ThIS 1,,11s us Ihat Ihc di,eclion of 1', .. (Ih • .-..<:10' Oil Ihe I ell si"" of Eq. 4-8) muS!
he SJIll" irS Ihat of dispIOCl'm.-'nt !J.r (the vector OIl thc right ,ilk). Using
Eq.4-4, we C.l0 .. --.il" Eq.4- 8 io veelm compo"ents ""
!J.x; + !J.)'l + <I. .. ,
17 ... - - --,
!J., <1.1
<I.)' . <l. z ,:
,-- , ,--..

(H)
Fot enmpl., if Ihe panicle in Samrlo Probl.:lm 4- 1 moves 1'001 ,IS inllial posihOO
10;ts l'lc, pos;l ;"n in 2.0 " Ih,n its .'""agll VelocilY duri08 Ih" move is
v _ <I., _ (12 m); + (3.0m)t. _ (60m/s)i + (1.5 ml.)(
... <I.t 1.0, ' .
Thai iS,lhe a,""rage (a ''l'Clo, bos a component 01 6.0 nll' aloog
Ihe x axi, and, componem 011.5 01 /' aloog Ihe : axi,.
W .... n 'p"a1: of !h. ' -('[ocity of a p.rtielo, we usua lly mean Ih. partielo's in·
.. ant""'"'''' ""I"dty -,: aI so"", lIIstanl. This v i, 100 Ibal v, .. app,oaehos in
Ih. as we shrink Ih. lim. inlerval <I.t to 0 'OOlll Iha l iffilaOI. Using lhe lan-
guage 01 catcu]"" we wril" , as lb. ""ri'-al,,""
_ d,
" - d,'
(4- 10)
shows Ih" palb of a Ihal i, tcstricted 10 Ih. xy pl.oo. As
lb. panic",- Itawl, to Ihe righl along Ih. cu, .... its posil;o1\ ""clor ,woel" to Ihe
,igbl . During I,n"" inl"",al !J.t. lhe posilioo "OC1or eh'"gm from" to" and Ihe
pat1ielil', disptaremen1 is <1.7.
To find lb. ,oSlanl,"""u, .-olocil)' ollh. particle"" 53)" inSlalll 'J Ihe
pat1iele i, at po:sil;oo I), we ,brink inlerval <I. , to 0 '00ll! " . Th ... Ihings bal""'"
.. " "I! do so. (I) Posilion "OC1n, 7, in Fig. mO'.-os low3,d 7, so Ihal <1.7 sh'inks
zero. (2) Th. direclioo 01 <1.71<1.1 (and Ihu, 01 v".) app'ooctt", Ihe
dlfeClioo Ollbe I"", langll"1 10 Ibe parlide', palh al pos;I;OO J. (3) Th" "",rag"
velocily I' ... Ihe il1'Slanl.noous v all, .
In lhe limil as <I.t 0, .... bave v ... v "od, mO>! imporlanl her •.
v, .. ta h", 00 Ibe di'ection of lhe ,"ngenl tine. " has Ibal di'ection a, .. ,..U,
To. dire<tioo ofthe ias" .tm. ouoY.locity I' of. , panicl. ;. """»'I tangent to the
partlcle'!"'t" at the p:u-tkle i "",it"' •.
,
Tmij'.'

"

f IG. U The lIi'!'I"" ...... ' .170(
• p>rticJ. during. time in1trvai .!.t,
Irom """tioo I ,.-itb """tioo vector
I , aI time I, to """tioo 2 witb
"'" il"'. """ or -r, .. ,ime ,,_Tho
... gffit totlle panicle' , patb at
"",it",. I .. slJown.
Chop .... I Mo'''''' in Tw<>_ Th, ... Oim<il!1slon.
,
,

- -0.----
11k' result is the "'''''' in <liln<nsiOflS' ,;' al .. 1:1"8""110 the patlick's path.
To Eq. in unil -vcct01lorm. "'. ,ubstitu,. lor -; from Eq.4-1:
d . • • dx . !fL, d- ·
" - - (xi + yj + :: k) - - , + ) +-- , _
d, ill d, dl
This "'IuahO" "" simplifiil<l somewhat by "'fI,ing il "'
- . , -
" - I',' + v,J + v,k.
"00'" Ih. scalar componen15 of v ara
'"
,', - d/' ", ---1,-.
,"
and ", - d,'
(4-1] )
(4- 12)
For example.dddt is Iho ... compo""'" of"" alons Ihe x ThUs. we can find
tile .. compo"e,," of, b)' diff.",o' i.:Hing III.> oompo",n,s 017.

Figu,,, 4-5 sho .. a ,-docil)' '"<'clor " and it, .... 13' x and)' oon'ponen's. NOlo
Ih3l"" ""gent 10 1M partid "'s palh., 100 partid ,,'s pooilioll. Cawi", ,, W","" a
posilioo vocto< is drawn. as in Fig •. 4-1 tbrough il is an ano"lbal •• toow
(rom""" point (a "here") 10 anOlher poin, (3 "Ih.,."). HOlli.ver ... -00" a ..... loci!)'
vi'fiO. is d,a"". as in Fig. 01 does '10' f.01I1 01IC poinl to aJ\Olh ••.
R'lher. il slJo .. Ihe ioslanl,noou, direction of u",,1 of a (XI'lie'" " I Ihe I,il. and
its k>ngth [he , ... om tli! to aoy !Cola
FIG . .... lhe velocity -v 010 panicl •.
:oloog wilh !he oc:il>r OOiIlp<XIeJlU tilt
1 lb. fi g",e .bow,. drcul.,
,
p>t h tak." by. particle. If tho irut""t ... "'" v.locity 01
tilt particle ;, ,, _ (2 - (2 mi.)). tlu-oogb. ",bkb
quadrant ;" the pankle Olovi"g >1 ,bat in .... t if it;' t"'v_
• ling (.J clock",i .... d (b) """" terdockwi", around the
--++-1- .
cio-clt1 For boob ""' ... dnwl' "" the tiS"'''
I Problem
F01 III< .. Dbil in S,ml''" P,OOlom find IIhl .... krily v

<"An find" b)' laking d.:>ri,--. Ii,·., of Ih,
COOljlOn,nl' olin •• abbi!" position v.Clm.
u/culations: Appl)'in& 100 ,', p.,1 01 Eq. to
Eq. we find Ihex oompoooni of v'o ""
v. - - (- 0.311' + 7.2, + 28)
- - 0.621 + 7.1.
AI I - 15 " Ihi, giws ", - - 2.1 Simiia.ly. "I,pl}'in&
Ih. Vy pari of Eq. 10 Eq. ". fUld
d)' d
\ 'y - Tr - dI (0.22t' - 9.11 + 30)
- - 9.1. (4- 14)
AI t - 15 '.Ibis gi"" \'y - m/" Equ,lion 4- 11 Ihen
y;" lds
, ("'I
- -

"
. f-" ,\
I-
xl .. )

• I'X

,, - ( - 2.1 mls)1 + ( - 2.5 "",)j. (An,we,)
which is ,bo.,n in Fig. 4-6, laug,n, 10 '00 rabbit's (XIlh
and in 'he direction I"" ral>b.' is .unning 8' t - 15"
To gN ,he magllltuoo and angle of v.ci'he, we usc a
\'OC!o,-capablc calculator or 'c. foUo" Eq. 3-6!O wri,e
'""
6 - tan- '
'. (-105ml')
I', 2.1 ml'
" - + "; - 1.1 mk)' + ( 2.5m/s ),
- tan- ' 1.19 - - 130'. (An""",)
- 3.3 ml' (An,we'l
0I1Idr: Is too angle. - I J(f Of - 1.lO" + 180" - SO"?
4-4 I Average Acceleration and Instantaneous
Acceleration
When" ",'l ic"" wlocily changes from v,!O V, in a t;me inwrval fJ. 1. its
"""",Ier.llion Q, .. du,ing fJ. 1 is
awrage change in "clocity
_ccele",ion tinw in,orval
.. -
v, - "j


"
(4-15)
If we ' 0 zero ,00"' SO"'" insun'. ,hen in 'h" lim;, Q, .. app'oacoos 'he
."",n, o ... "., ... ", I",.,iol (0' ... wier. ,i un) g a! 'h" ;nSl,", ; Ihal is.
(4-16)
II ,be wlocil)' ch,nge, i" eilhu magn"udc Of" direction (0' oo!h). 'he parlicle
m"<;I have au QCCI' ie ,alioo.
We can write Eq. 4- 16 io U";I -WctO' fo'm by subslitu,ing Eq. 4-11 for" 1o
ob,ain
We can .. ",ite thi' os
",
and ", - d,"
(4- 17)
(4-18)
To find !he sea,,, components of «. we diflemnlia,c lhi! seab, componen" of v.
FiguIC sltows on 3="" "ion ... ClO'« and its scalar comp""en" for a
particle moving in Iwo C"",ion' Wben an aro:ie", ion voclo, i,
dra"·n. as in Fig. 4-7. il dOi's "0' exwnd from 0"'" posItion 10 anOI""'. Ratn«. il
,ho .. ,n., direction of occek>",ion for a ",rt",1e located at ;IS lail. and its "'ngln
(rrp,o:seoling 1M &<nl le ,a(ion m.lg:lll,udi!) can t>e d",1I." 10 any seale.
/c H E C K POt N T 2 He .. ue fOOl """'riph"'" of the pooi1k>o (Ill ","en) of
• plOd "" it 1ll<>Ve. in . oxy pi"""
(l)x _ _ .ll' + 4' _ 2 IU>d , _ 61' _ 4, (3) 7 _ 21 ' 1 _ (4r + 3)j
(l)x _ _ .ll' _ 4' >nd y _ _ 51' ... 6 (4) 7 _ (41' _ 2,)1 + 3j
Are 'be x ond y >OCeIe,.,,,,. oompoo'o" <OIl" "'? Is ><=lentiOll. oorutar,, 1
,
" L ____
..... 4-7 The """,Ie'>liOll • 010
par'ide ",d !he ""aI .. OOOIpooe."
of • .
Chop .... I Mo'''''' in Tw<>_ Th, ... Oim<il!1slon.
Sample Problem m
Fo. "bbil in Sample Problem, 4-2 and 4-3, find
ocrel.13hon Ii - 15 s.
can find Ii by to l ing derivaliws of Ihe
Ca/cu"'tIoM: Appl}'ing a, 1'"" 01 Eq. 10 Eq.
. .. " find lb. x component of" to ""
<I,'. d
a. - J, - d, ( - O.62, -+ 7.2) - - 0.62 mls' .
S"nilarl)',appl)'in& the ", part of Eq. to Eq. 4-14
)'io\ds 1he J comllOnenl as
d,' d
., - --:;- (O.,w, - 9. 1) - mis',
d, ur
We see thai lb. 3<nlkfJl;OO doo.'S not vary .. ;th tim. (il
is a ronS(aol) becall>'il tb. lime '-anable, does nO! ap-
1"'"' tU tbe expwssion for e;llIe. rompo-
""", . Equation 4-17 .oon yields
{j - ( - 0.61 tn!s'; -t III !")i. (ARS ..... )
"' bidl " ,u"".imp0Si'd on Ihe rabbil". palh in Fig.
To gel tbc magnimoo and angle 01 a.ei1be, .. " "'" a
wClor-capablo calculalO1 or we follow Eq. J-fi. F01 tbe
""agoit,,"" we h,,-.
a - +"; - 0.62 mls')' + (O.4-lmli)'
- 0.76 ml". (A"' ... ..,,)
Sample Problem m
A 1".liolo "'ilh .... Iocily 1', - - 2.0; + 4.oj (i n molors
IX" """"nd) "' , - 0 U"&lgo<!S a rouSiaul .. ",lo18tioo ;;
of nlago" ude a - 3.0 m'" al ao .ngl< 8 - 130" from
pl>'ilive di.octioo of Ibe .< axis. Whal is Ihe p311id.'s
velocily"al, - .'i .O,?
Beeall5C is con't.nl, Eq. 2·
11 (,' - I'e + a') but .• musl u .. it S<'1" •• 'ely
for motioo p","Uollo 11Ie ... axis "nd mOI;oo ra.al1.:l11O
Ih. y .. is.
ulculalions: fiod Ih. Wlocil), con'ponenls I', ,nd I',
from Iboequ'lio",
". - I· .. + a,' aod ", - I' .,. +a,"
In Ih"'" I'", ( - - 2.0 on Is) aud I'.,. ( - 4.0 on /s)
oro Ille x a"d)' rompo1l.ms of l' .. and a, .nd a, a.e lhi!
... and y rolllpo1le"" of"ii. To find D. and "" we .esolw
"" e;I"" .. .,In a vooo.-eap.b1.:l caku!ato. or "'Ih
Eq. J..'i:
FIG. '" The"""l·
.TII""" ;; oI'he
... bbi1 ." _ 15 L
The .. bb;, b"""" ...
'obo .. this .,"'"
oocele,,"io11 >I .u
point! on i1s pa,lL
FOf 100 ,ug!;> .. "
8 _ lao- ' 5:. _ 1"0- '(
".
mI,' ) _ - 35 •.
0.62 mis'
Ihis angioJ, IllOCh is 100 OIl a cal·
cuI3l0., indio.les Ihal "ii " dir<'CIM 10 nghl and
downward i" Fig. Vel. we from rompo-
nenlS Ihal "ii nnt;! b" di.oooo 10 Ille lefl and up"'ard. To
fi"d I"" olb" •• ngl. Ih.1 has Ih. sami! ""genl as _ }50
bUI is "01 displa)'oo on " ca k: uJ.,Of. add 180":
- 35' + 180" - US". •• )
Thi' u ro""slenl wilh rompo"""I' of"ii. Now Ihal a
ba, I ....... ".e m,agnil OOe and diroc1io" Ihe
rabbi!" rim oocau .. """,,1<,"liOll is rooslanl .
", - a COS 6 - (3.0 01 1",)(= 1.10") - - 1.93 01/",
a, -"si" 8 - (3.0 mli)(si" 130') - +2 . .10 mls'.
When In ... ,·.Iu,," are in"'l1ed ,,110 lhe equ"iOlls fOf I'.
and v"we fi"d Ihat, '11ilTh" - 5.0 "
I', - - 2.0 OI l' + ( - 1.93 mli)( 5.0 , ) - - 11.65 mis,
I', - on /s + (2.30 ml")(5.0s) - 15.SJ onl ..
ThUs. ,I, - S.O S. ha' .... aft'" lOu"dlll&.
-;: - (- 120,1,); + ( 16mls)j. (Ans"'.,)
Eithel using a voclo.·capabk cak:ulJlor 0. following
Eq. 3-6, "" fiod Ihal Ihe magn,IUJe and angk of I' are
.' - -Iv'; + I'; - 19A _ 19 OIls (Answer)

8 - lan -' .2.. - 127" _ 1.l0·. (Aosw.,)
'.
Check: 127' aplX'a. on ",1eu!,lor's display.
o. 00.., aW"a.' Now sketch ",,-jlh Its
rompon"nts 10 SI"il "'bien '"glo is ro''Klnabk.
4-5 I Projectile Motion
We "",x! conside. a 'p«:ial of ! .. "O-dimensional molion: A p"'licIil moves in a
,,,,!ical plaoe "'lh some inilial vtlloci!y 1'. bUI ill orccl.:>,"lio" i:s al"ays lhi! /r",, -
faU >erel"al;oo If, wbicll is do"-ol.-a.d Such a pamr1> h c.:lUod • p.uj ..... ilc (n",an-
ing Ih.1 il i. p'ojc'<1od o. lauoched). olld ilS mol oon IS calloo p.uj<'<1 iic mu,iun, A
p'o;ocliic miglll 00 a 1O"oi, ball (Fig. 4-Q) m ba",baU In f1igll!. but il is 00! an .,, -
pi, .. Of a dock in flIght Maoy spo'!S (from golf and foot baU!o OOC\l.Sil "nd rac-
qUNbaU) in"olw proj<>cllic motion of a ball . • nd nloc h 0110.1 i. Sl"'"! In Irying
10 ooouolibol motion fo. '" a<lvamage. For examp"'- Ihe "eqUil!ball plaF' who
di>oowrod !h. Z-shot In lb. 1970s "asil)' .. 'On hi. gam., OOcau,,- !be ball's Jl"culi:l.
Highl 10 Ih. m •• of Ih. court atways Jl"rplexed bi. OpPOO" nlS.
au. goal b" •• " 1o analyze proj;>Clilo mo'ioo U'1Og 100 lools 1m 10.-0-
d,mefrSioo.1 mol ion oose.;t>.-.J in Se<:1,ons 4-2 Ihrough 4-4 and ma king Ihe
3SSUntphOll Ih'l .If has no elf<'<1 011 Ih' p,o;i'C1ile. Figu." 4- 10 ... -hieh is " nalyzed
in 100 O<Il ..cr:ion, sIIows Ih. palh fol[O,,-oo by a projectile ,,-bon 100 ai, has no
olll>d. Th' p,o;."C1ile i, launched wilb ,n inilial wloc,ly 1'. Ihal "" w"'11on as
1'. - I'",i + "o,j .
(4-19)
Th. oomponenlS I'", .nd 1'0, Ih,n 00 found if we l no .. ' lh. angle !Iv oolwoon 1'.
and 100 posi!i'" x di.""lioo:
(4-21)
Du.ing ils l .. -o--di",en-;ion.1 motion.ll1e p.ojC<1ile·s po,ilio" wc!m 7 .nd veloc,ly
wc!m I' chang< conhnuously, bUI ilS """"Ieralion "octo. a i, oou,lanl and
di.",,10d vortically OOwn,,'a.lI. The 1",*",1;1> has "" ho.uonlal a=lo .. !;OII .
Projoclile nlOtion.like lital in Figs. and 4-10, look. complicated, bUI .. "
haw Ihe follo"'n8 "mplilying f"lu.e (loo"·,, from eXp",;",,,nl):
.-: In P'o;.<tile II>OIioa. the borizoa,aJ "01ion and tbe V<I1ica1 m01io. or. iod'p".""n'
of ,oc.b 010tT: th., ""i,h .. moIioa affect> ,ile 01he<.
This f .. 1Ute oUows u, 10 b.ea L UI' a p.oblem i"voh,"g lwo-di",,,nsioual mOli"n
inlo Iwo "'parale aod cas;". "oo-di"",o,ion.1 p1ooloms, ooe fu. 100 lIo.OOnl,,1
mOliOll ("'ib 0'''' acc<{ua,oon) and ooe fm Ih. wnical ",olion ("'Ih cotlS"''''
.. y",J H ... are Iwo oXp",im.nls Ihal sbow Ihallhe ho.izootal
motion and lbil ""lieal mol ion are indi>JI"ndent
FIG. "'0 lb. p>1b oc.
projec'iIe 'h" l,oDChod"
.<0 - O .. d Yo _ 0, ";Ib an
ini,ioJ ""Io<i')' The ioi,Lo]
veloci'y md ,ile ""Iociti .. >1
variow poin" oloo.g it! palh
or. 511""",,- w;,h tbeir
rornpooenlS.N01e 'h>1 11",
boo-izoll1aJ veloriryoompo-
... Ill " .. aio, """', .. , bu,
Ihev..-,i;:aJ velocityrompo-
""., clwlge> <OO1"00ll'i}'.
The rang< R;" 11",
boo-izoo,ol di"anre , .. pm_
h .. t ... velod
,"',ms" I .. ia"och Nighs.
,
i",,-- ·
.,
----1, '
"
"
FlG. "9
of a y.Uow ICO";. ball b<,,"><Lo,g off .
b .. d 'lUf ace. Between ,b.
ball b .. proje<1ile Il>0l;011.5,,,,,,,,.,
Rd ord M, .... ' F..,""""' .. ,
P!.olOV"p""
Chop ... . I Mo'''''' in Tw<>_ Th, ... Oim<il!1slon.
AG. _· " o..ebal lis"l< ... dlrom
Ie" at 'be ..... j",un' ,h., •• otber
baU is ,hOI "'iroot>!!}, 10.1>0 light.
"",ical mOl;"". are identic>!.
s"",,, .. Rd u,,d M.p»! n-w",.".

FIG. ' ·12 The >1 ... )"1
hi" 'he falli.g ran. Each lalls • dis-
':u><e h from .. here it would be we"
'bere Do/roe·hll """, .. , .. ion.
Two Golf Balls
4-11 is a suoboscopic phologtapb of '''''0 golf b,lk. 000 s;mply ,ole""d
aod lb. 0Ih", shO! borizo""II)' by a spring. golf balls h,,-. the ",me venical
mOltOn. ooth lalLng ,hrougll the """" dis,ao", in ,be same in'.rval of
limo. Tlu fac' ,hoI ball i. mot-ing lto,i,o"",II, I,j/. i, is failing I,,,,, "0 _/fur ",n
,'" "<T,kal mol<O,,: 'h" is.lhc hntu,,",.1 "oJ v,.,ical "lOlIon, are ;"'''',)i)"ocn, of
eoch ot oo,.
A Great Student Rouser
Figure shows. ""monmo"o" Iha, has .nLV{'noo m,")' a ph)"iCll lecture. It
in'-ol,,,,, a blowgun G. using a rull os a p1'O)ooil"- The ,a'gel is a can su'pended
from a n"'gR"1 M, and Ih" lUbe of Ih" "Iowgun;,; allned di'''''11y allh" can, Th.:l
experim"ol is a"ang"d so Ihal Ibe magllel rel<ase.s Ih o can jnsl a, Ih" ball leaw,
Ihe blo,,'gulI,
II g (11Ii! magnilude 01100 f'N-fall accek-.alion) Wi'f" ze.o. Ihe ball wonld
10Jlo,,' lh. palh sIIow1l in Fig. and Ib" "'," "ouid flool in pi",,,
Ih" magool '''i<>awd it The ball "-ould {wlJinly hil lb. call,
HOl'''ew" g is no< u'o. bUI 100 ball s,,11 hil' the ean! As Fig. sho"",
du.ing Ih. Ii"", 01 nigh! 01 1"" Nil , bolh ball and can faU Ih. sail'" di'lao", h
lrolll Ih"" zrfO-g \ocalions. Th.:l bard'" Ih. ""mon,l.alo. "lows.lh. g ••• le, is 1M
ball', inilial sp..-.ed,lhe sho,w ftiglllllloo, and vaJoo of h,
Vi H 'C I( POI N T 3 A, • ce:r,aio io,"o', • By boll h. v,loci'y " _ 251 - 4.9;
(.he _f "",,;, borizoo'aI. 'h, y >xi,,, up"'>rd, ODd" is i. mOl", pe>' H .. the
ball paosed ju high .. , poin.?
4-6 I Projectile Motion Analyzed
No", "".re •• ady 10 ana 1)7" p.ojoclihl ".olion. ho.izon,"lIy and ...,1!;eally,
The Horizontal Motion
Be""use 1h"." is 110 in Ih. bori",",,1 d"""ion. lhe ho.izonlal
rompo,",nl I', of lhe p,oJoclilc's vdoc\!y mm",", "n,banged lrom ilS ,,,ihal val""
I' .. l"ronghoUl Ih. mOlion. as domo",I13led in Fig. any Ii .. " /. Ih. proJ"'-
Ii"", horizonlal x - -", f,om an innial posihO" x,;,; g"',,n by Eq,
2-15 "-;Ih " - 0. ,,-h.ell "" ,,-.i1" a,
" - X, - I' ...
Bo""n", "", - I', cos /l,.lhi' Ixlco"""
,, - -<0 - (".= 60)1,
(4-21)
The Vertical Motion
The \'Onical 0101ioo " IhoO mOliOfl we disrul.s.:>d in s"aio" 2-9 for a ".,!id" in f'''''
fall MOSl ,mporlall! " a<n'", •• lron IS COllstan! , Thus.. Ibe equailOn, of
Tabl. 2-1 aPl'I)·. p.oviOOd "'e ,ubsl;lnle - g fo, Q "nd ,,,.,Im !o J OOl.lioo, Then.
1o. example. Eq, 2- IS t>c'COn""
J - )< - I'o,J - W'
- (''ostn 60)1 -

. 'bore inllial vollical volOClly compo""nl I'",;' .epl...,d .. 'ilh Ihe
I'.sin 60, Simlla,ly. Eqs. 2- 11 and 2-16 t>c"COm<!
", - I' .sin 60 - 8/
."d
I'; - (I',Sin 60)' - 2g(y - Yo) ,


W I
A§ 15 111",1",<><1 In &00 Eq. 4·2J. lhf ,·e.llcal , ... locIly OO'"polk'nl b;>.
""\'6 JII'SI ... for a ball Ibro .. ·• Wri""'l/y upward, II 11 d upward ""hally,
aooll$ magnltlKic 10 UfO. "'/fJdt _rlu ,bt- MJgh' of
'M "..,It. The WIooIJ componenl Ihen re'l'fSi!S ""00100. and ill. mago"
lUo.t. oo.oo.ne.la.IlI'" .. ,Ill hlDi!.
TIl. Equation ofth. Path
can fil>ll Ihe equalion of III<! palh (II'! n" .I<'<1"I}') oli1ll1Ral,ng
limn, OOlwccn Eqs.4-2] "nd 4- 22. Solving Eq 4·2] for, nnd SUbslllUhng iom Eq.
4·22. \II. obl"n .• it •• " liule •• ",ange"",n!.
(4-25)
Th,s ,5 100 <,</"nIlOO of p;tlb ,"",.-n In Fl$. 4·10. In llc.h,ng 11 . 10' .ilqllicily .. ..,
lei .... - 0 al>ll,. - 0;" Eqs. 4-21 and 4·22. Iw.:.. .... ,. II". I nd I. gr.
constants. Eq 4·25 .. lorm, _ ..... + Iu', ,n " 'hoch Q and h a •• COOSIaott.
TbIS IS tile equ31 ..... of a p.rnbola_'" lbe Pllh .. panol>olic,
TN Horizontal Rang.
The Ioonwnl<ll R ofille IS I:;" 4-10 sl\oOl ..... Ibf 1KN,:onuJ
diliaoct lite Jlfo,tlCllk! hilS IflIwli'tl "hen II relUrns 10 liS Inlllil (llIuDCb) hi'lghl.
To find "1\80 R. 1<:1 '" pul ... ... - R ,n Eq, 4-21 and :t - :to - 0 ,n Eq. 4·22.
oblalmng
'"'
R - (.'. ros 'oJot
0 - (I'.,u'60)r - tI,'.
El,nun.hng ,00111'""0 19..'Si'- I"" oquo"0<15 yi.kis
M
, - --St" 8ocos 90.
,
USI"glhe ldentlly.", 280 - 2 ",n a. cos a. (_ Append,. E). "'e obta'"
.'
R • ..:i.,,,, 2 ...

(+-26)
C ........... Tho. equallOO doos _ 8''''' lbo' "o("rontal disla""" tra",t;,d by a Pf'OIo'C'
l,kl .. l\ca tho b.,."g111 isnOlIl\;> launcb
NOIe Ihl 11. ,n Eq 4-26 " ... its mu,mum ... .on 16" - I.
10 260 _ 90' or ,. _ J 5' .
... The Il00,,,,,,,01 'lIII80 R .. m>JIimlUll fOJ • "'ste 01' 45' .
Ilowe'·cr ... ·hen tbe la"ncb and land log beiShlS diIIC'. ". '" . hol put, h.m""".
throw.ud b.l,kclbaU,a laun"" nngle ol 45' d<.Ies nol yocld Iho m .. unum ooriron,
tnl dl51ance.
Th. Effects of the Air
ha,'e ..... ""'" Ihal alf th.ough .. hlrll tI'" .. t11OI'''' has 00 on
lIS mOhon U ...... ,..,.. 1(1 maDJ s:itualooos. tile 1>;,1 .. ..,"0 our calnrla·
llOllS looille actual mo"o. of I"" fIfOIoK'Id;> can 00 Ia.go Ilea .... "'" arr
1<:JPJ"CI$U) Ihe motlOO_ Figu.e t-U. lor tJglOlploo>. sit ... " I_palbs lor a II}' baU lhal
lc3''es lhe 1)<" al aD angle of flJ' .. "h Ibe bomonl.1 and aa ,m".] of.\.l.7
mls.Palh I (''''' ba ... ball fty baU) IS. calnrlalild palh Ihal appro';malo>S
flG . .a.U Tbe .. .. "
d Ib;"-"bool<k, .... lociIy;'
<:t.o.opSbuI "Of 1M l>on<ooIoi
_"l_"-"bc
Jot ... -.J', .. Io""y. As • .-. "'"
bUD,
aIJoo,o,.os lIIno tn lond DO • • s...."
_. 1Io ..... 1.o-'G.r" ,-£ ... ID<.
flG . .a.U (I)Thof'"'bohlyball
cU:ui>IN by lKloS"" ruutaK<
;''''"",,"Ol { IIJ n.. pm. II>< ball
'"'""" 101.,.. .................... i>IN
by I ..... tl>odo 01' dlioobopon-. Sec
TobI ... , for "",wI"""'">! <Iou.
It ..... "'TIoo T tojeaorJ of
a Fly Ral: by 1' ... , ! B",ocmo. 11ot:
1'ft,1k> T_Jr .... , n..u .. y 19@5.)
It'II''+
Two> Fly B.U ..
"" ..
Palh II
(Air) (V..,..,,,,)
.....
.,.
m •
MuiJDo.,
.,.

.Am
"-
oI'fbpl
",
7.9.
normal 0000"""'. of pI.y, til alf Path" (the physocs r rofessor. fty roD) '" Ihe "St. r ....... Th. __ ok "6O'.d
palh Ihe ball " -ould lollow io a ""mum. th. __ 'P'«I" "'.1 -..
Chop .... I Mo'''''' in Tw<>_ Th, ... Oim<ilnslon.
/c. H Ii C K POI NT. A fly ball " IriI to ,be outfield During ito Iligbl (igIKI' ,b •
• If..,.. 01 th. air), what haW .... 'oiu (0) horizon!al and (b) ""nkai oompooeDt, 01 "".
J""ity? Wb.a, ... lb. (e) horizontal and (<I) vertical rom""""",, 01 iu acc, l""ioa d.,_
ins ."".nt. <luring <Je.sce.',and ."b • • """'''"' poi"' 01 ito ruglnl
'" FIg. 4-15 .• fCSC"" plano fl"" al 19S hnlh (- 55.0 m/s)
and ronst"". beigh,l, - 500 III lOW"," a JIOln' directly
0\-'" a victim. whote " 10 land.
(a) What should 00 Ilhlangloo d> of .be pllo!'s Ii"" of 5igh,
10 the ')clim ,,-lion the capsulo " madi'?
Onoo ,"",.sed. the c'1"ul. is. projecti!;,.
so ;10 ho,i:molal ""d venkal mO!iollS can "" oon,i<lo .. <1
s<paralely (we ni'<.'d not con,ide, Ih. ac,u,' ru,,,,d path
ollho capsule).
Calculations: In Fig. 4- 15. w . ...... Ihal d> "given by
(4-27)
.,-h",. x i:s !b" ho,izon'" coo,din'le of!hil vid,m ("nd
of llIi! capsuk> ,..hen i! hi" lh" .... He') and I, - SOC! m. W"
,hould 00 abk> 1o find x .. i! n Eq. 4-21:
X- .... - (I'.=6,). (4-28)
!hal x. - 0 t>.>c.ause the o,igin" pl'Ci!d
al pOlO! of B.causc the capsule IS ",1.G .. d
and nO! snO! f,om Ih. plane. its ,",!i.1 "eIOCl!)' 1'. IS
equal 10 Ih" plane', wlocny. ThUs. .... .. · .1so !ba!
the inilial ,..,looly has mag""uM I '. - 55.0 01/' "nd
80 - (I" ("",asur.'d 10 tho po<i!ive
dir.C!io" 01 !b" .< , xi,). How .... ' ... .., do no!
the the ""psule f,om lbil plano!O
!ho vidiOl.
To find I. w. ,,,,xl oon,i<k, Ih. lu.k,,1 "lOlion "nd
'perificall)' Eq. 4-22:
(4-29)
He,e Ihe v,,!nl displace"","1 y - ". of 100 capsuh:!",
- 500 m (!M n"8a1iv" val"" indkall'S !ha! capsule
mm'os ",,.,,,(1) . So.
- 500 m - (55.0 mls)(sin!1')l - i (9.8 01/")1' .
Sot.-iog fo, I. ".., find, - 10.1 5. Using Ihal value in Eq.
4-28 yio/d'
x - 0 - (55.0 mls)(cos 0')(10.1 5).
... - m.
, ,
:
FIG. ""S A pi .... drop> .......... <""'., .... nil. m<ning.t
"""", .. , ., 'IDly in I"", I ghl, Wbile I b. C"I"uli!
"maiD' Wldeo- the pi ....
Th'n Eq. 4-27 giv,"" '"
,- (Answo,)
(b) A, 1M C3"",h:! reacM' Ille waw, .• ,h.1 is iT'; ",,'ocily V
in uoil -'"ilC1o, "OIalioo ,nd io m,gOlluoo-angk nOla!ion?
"
" 1',<lo<>,OO!
"
I" n ,
!be,,,", a ",,!ical """eleta!io".
Ca/cu""tlons: Wh,m !h. caps"'. lhe ,,·alO'.
I' . - I',COS /10 - (55.000')(0050") - 55.0 005.
U""g Eq. 4-23 and !he ca"",""s lime of fall I - /0.1 s,
"" also lind Iha! capsu'" IOaeh", !h" .!"e,.
I, - I',sin6, - g' (4-30)
- (55.0 mis)(,in 11') - m/s')(I0. 1 s)
- - 99.0 mls
ThUs, >! !be "'a!e,
I' - (55.0 mts)i - (99.0 m/,)j. (Answe,)
U,ing Eq, ]-6"-, • gu"", ... '" find !h'l lhe and
!ho aogle of I' are
v - 113mi. and e- - 60.9"'. (Answer)
Figure 4-16 a pirale sbip 560 m from a lorl de-
lo"mng a harbor ""Uanc;o. A ddens.> CaU"OD. Iocaled al
Si" le-vel,fir'" baH ... 1 inilial s!",oo I'. - 82
(a) AI "hal a"gle a, f",m lile must a baU be
firM lohil Ih. ship?
(I) A fired «Inno"ball is a projoc1U,,-
'.-aul 0" equalio" Ihal lau"m anglo a, '" lile
ball's horiT,OIliol displ""",,","1 os il m"".s 1'001 "",,"on
10 shIP. (2) B.«Ius.> Ihe ",,"non and 100 ship a,e al 100
same heigh!.lh. horizoolal di'l'I"""",,,nl is 100 range.
Cakcations: We can ",Iale III<. launch anglo 60 10 lile
fa"ge R wilh Eq. 4·26 (R - (I"i!g) ,io 260). "hieh. afler
.. arrange""'"I. givru
Il" _ J.. "n-' .f!!:... _ J.. sio- ' (9.8 mls')(S60 on)
2 I't 2 (82 misT
,
- 2 Sln- 'O.816. (4-31)
000 ",IUlio" 01 sin- ' (54.7' ) is displayM by a caleula-
lot: w" sublrOC1 il lrom l&l" 10 g"l Ihc olher sol Ulion
(125.3"j. ThUs. Eq.4- 31 gi\'Cs us
""'
a, - 63". (An,,,,,r)
Suppose a oos.>balJ ban"r B hils a high Oy ball 10!1Ie
oUlfield. di,ecUy 10ward au ou!field..'1 F and "';Ib a
lau"eb spM<! of I'. - 40 onls and a bunch angle 01
a, - 35'. During Ih. Oigili. a Ii"" lrom Ibe oUlfielderlo
Ihe NU an oil "'Ih Ibe gtou"d. Plol cl",.,.-
lion a"gli'- d> vcrs\/'; I,n", ,.assuming Ihal 100 oUlf",ld", is
alre"dy posilio"M '" calch Ihe ball. is 6.0 01 100 cloSi' 10
Ibe bailor. and is 6.0 01 100 far aw.y. .""..,
,
ball i, ""ugh! al approximawly
hotizonial diSianro !f1I,'CI.d by I
C
. ,"'"
given by Eq. 4-26 (R - (Iilg) sin 28,).
Calculations: ll>e OOU can 00 caugbl If the oulfielde'.
dislance Irom baner is equal to Ihe range R 01 lile
ball. Using Eq. 4-26 .... " find
..1. , (4Oo1(s)' . ,_, ,".,
R - S ""·60 - 91l mIS' SIn (u - m.

4-6 I Projectil. Mot'" AnotyzO>d
FIG. ' · 16 A pin'. s.II;p ui>der file.
(b) Wbal is Ihe """,imum range of Ine cannonballs?
ulculations: We bave "'." Ihal maximum ,ang. cone-
sponrn !O . u " le-valio" anglo a, 01 45'. TIt""
,j " (8:' OIls)' . (1 ,_,
'- - Sln_lI", -
S 9.8 onls'
-686m _ 690m. (Answer)
As Ibo ship sail<; , .... y. lwo " le-va!ioo aoglo...,. at
w bid! lile ship can "" hit drn .. l"I"'I!1i". ew" maUy merging
aI/io - 45' whoc'" lho ship is 690 01 away. B.:>yco,d Ihal dis-
taIloCe Ill<! sh,p is safe.


, , . "
, ('1
'" FlG. '-17 n.. .l.va'ioo lingle .. for a ball hi, lo ..... d •• ""'_
fielder i. (oj ""fined and Ib) pI",,.d ..,,,w time t.
Figure 4-17" show, a ",apsbol ollhe Nl! i" High! whco
Iho b.,U is al Iklighl y and horil.oOlal di<;1ance -" from tile
ban .. ( .. -ho is al 1M origin) .llIc horiro"lal dislaoro of
Iho baU from the oUlfiold" is R - x . and .levalion
'"gl. d> of Ihe ball in Ih. oUlfiolde,', ,·i.w is give" b)'
Ian d> - y/(R - x ). r", the he.ghl .", "-e us.> Eq. 4-12
(y - )'. - (I'. sin 00)< - seni"g y. - 0. For 1M
Chop .... I Mo'''''' in Tw<>_ Th, ... Oim<il!1slon.
bmizon,aJ dlSt.n", x, we S"!>sI ,IU!O ""n Eq. 4-21
(x - -'0 - (I'G cos 80)/). Sl'nin8 ... - O. Thus, uSlIIg
I', - -10 "li, and /10 - 35' . ""'.
, (-10 sin 3Yj, - 4.9,'
<1> - 1"0- 153.42 (4000.35°,, "
(4-33)
Graphing Ih" function V"tsU' I gin', !be middl"
plol in Fig. 4-17b. """ Ibal 100 ball'. in
oUlfield .. ·, ,·io ... iOC1c","" a! .n ,101051 steady rale
!itroughoulloo ftiglll.
]{ 100 oUlfidrlor i, 6.001 100 doso. 10 Iho ball .. ,
we lhi>. di'l.n"" of 15:JA1 m in Eq. 4-33 "';111
AI IUnc I - O. a golf boU is ;/JOI from ground levd jnw
lhi>. air. as indicaled in Fig. 4- 1&,. Th •• nglo 6 Nlw""n
lhi>. boll's dir""1Ioo of lra",,1 and Ih. posi!i'" dir.Clion
ollh • .< .xi, is given in Hg. as a IUnClio" 01 lim" I.
Tho balllanJs al I - 6.00 s Wh,l is Ihe magnilUrlo "0 01
lhi>. b.Ws laullch "'loci I}". al .. h.1 h.,ghl (y - )'.) aoo",
1hi>.launch lowl doos Ih. ltaU land. and "'hal is 100 b,U',
dileelion of Ifavd jusl as ill,ods?
(I) Th" b,ll is • [l1oj<.'Clilo. .nd so ilS hori -
lOnla! and ,""niral mohon, cao t>e consid" .. d sep" -
ralely. (1) The hor;lOnl.1 compon" nl v, ( - ",000; /1,) 01
Ihe ball', "olocily doe, nol du""g Ihe flighl .
(3) v""ic. 1 componenl v, 01 ,Is ,ulocily d"".
ch,ngo .nd is uro "hon lile ball ro",,1Ies ma,,,num
Il<>Ighl. (4) l1Ie baW, dir.Clion 01 lfawl.1 aoy lime dur -
ing Ibe Highl is al lite anglo of i1S vclocil)' wclor v juS!
11k'1l .Tbal "ngie is given by Ian 6 - ,·,/'· . ... -;Ih veloc-
ily compo""nl' ev. lua",d "' litOi lime.
Ca/cu"'tions: Whi'n Iii<> ball reach"" ilS maximum h"iglll ,
., - 0. dir<'ffion of lhi' ""locil}''';' I>orllDnla!. aI
"ngle 6 - 0". From Ibe graplt. " .. SN. Iha! IbIS coooitioo
O«"\IIS - .. We .Iso..,. Ihal Ih. launcb angle /I, (al
, - 0) is 80". Using (v
y
- ",sio It - gIl, .. ilb 1-
4.0"'8 - 9.8 """.It - 80' . • nd "y - O. we find
153.42 m - 6.0", - lHA2 m. Regr.ph,ng Ih. [UllCtion
gi"" th. "Too dOSi''' plot in Fig. 4-17/>. No ... lb •• "" -a-
lio" ""S'" of the ball "pidly lo • .-ard ,nd
Oll ho Hight as Ih. baU soars 0"'" 100 ou,fi.:.kle, 's head.
If Ih. outlk:lld<'1 is 6.0 III too far aw.)' from ["Hie,.
..... repla«> di'{JUCIl of 153.42 m in Eq. 4-33 ,,-jIb
159.42 m. Thi! ""ulling plot i, laN-l.d "Too fa,- in tho
Tho angkl fim ilK"" • ..", anJ Ihoo rap><lly
d""",,,,,,,,- ThUs, if a baU is hit dirocUy loward an
o Ulfielde •. th. play., COl" 1011 from change in Ih.
balf, d",,,,ion 109\<' d> "holl\i>r to ,lOy p"LfIln toward
,II<> bane •. or bad: 'W")' from In" b.II",.
",-,

".
,
;- 01--", - \:- ,
d
, ('1
101 (' )
FIG. '"1' (0) P:ub 01" .goIf balhhOl ""'0. pI.",u. (b) The
... gIe give. 'h, b:ill', di, .... i"" of mOlioo ,be
Big'" i. pio".d ..,nu, ,im. ,.
\', - 39.&1 _ .jQ mis. (Answer)
baU I,nds", I - Using Eq. 4-12 (). - ,", -
(", sin /I,)t - }gt') wilh I - 6.00 s ... .., oblain
(Answer)
JuS! a, lb. ball lao"'- iIS horizonlal , ... locily ,', is slill
",005 A,; sub.sliluling for ,', and I\, gives '" ,', - 6.911 mls
find ilS jusl Ibon by using Eq. 4-23
( ' :' - ". sin 60 - gl) "',Ib 1 - 6.00 ... "hirh yiekls
':' - - 19.60 ",Is. Thuslile aogkl of lite ltaU', di,,,,,tion of
Itavol ,I landing i,
, '-'i','C"'"m,"
6 - Ian- ' - ' - I.n- ' _ - 71'. (An,"'''' )
", 6.911 mls
4-7 I Uniform Circular Motion
A pal1K"li'" in uniform ri m .. ,", motion il it lfa,'ol, 31ound, ri,de or a circular
arc al const.nl (u."pm) sp"od. Allhouglliho sp<lM doe, nol '''ry. ,It. pdrric/. i.
QCu/"",;"g Ibe velocily .hangos ,n direC1ion.
4- 19 sho .... 100 .. Ialionship b<11l'OOO Ihe V"IociI)' and "CCdOralion
vOClors al various siagill during unilorm circular mol ion. BOlh veelors h,w
conSlanl magnjlurlo. bUl Ih'" diwclions chang<> conliouousl)·. l1Ie velocily i<
al"'a)" dllOClOd ,""gonl l o Ihe ci,cle in Ihe direC1ion 01 mOlion. llw acceleralion
i, radially Because of liti,. Ibo a<XI'leralion assoaalOd
",jib umforn, cir<:ula, mOlion is .aUed" c .. "i p<'fol (moaruog "CO"lOr ...
O<'<.I<>,., ioo, As we p,ove (be n"'[(IIim"" of (hi:! = I,,,a1lon Ii"
"
• - - (""tri ""'&l ............
(4-34)
,
.,h<>,e, is (he ,.dius of (he and "is speed of par!icl<>.
In .ddi(ion, du,ing (It" ,=Ier.(;on aI rooS!,n( "",,' {l, parlicle ("wls (he
circumfcre""c of (he circle (, di:!l,n"" of 2",.) in ""'"
(4-35)
Ti, caUoo lite puioJ of "I'OJurion. or simply!he pu W. of!he 010(10". h is. u,
general. !bo (ime for a p,nicle W go awund ,ci(l5Od pat h .xacdy ooc ...
Proof of Eq. 4-34
To find (h. magnitude and diro<:hon of (he .cede,"!ion for uniform circular
ronsi""r Fig. 4-20. In Fig. 4-2fu, p.rI>c1e p 910\""-' a( ronS!.,,( 'peed
" around. drc1:l of "dill'S ' .A( in",", slto"·".1' bos coorJin,,", x, and Yr
Recall from s"crion 4- ) !ha! (00 velocny, of " fll(lvillg pa:r!kl" " ,I"'a)', !an·
Il"'" (0 the pa" .. Ie·, pal" al (he panic"", posi(i"", . In Fig. 4-2Oa, (h., "",,",I' is
l"'fJ"'nd,cul" w . rad.us, drawn (0 panic""s position. Then (h e "nglo 6 !b.!
, a vUlical a! I' equals lite angkl e (hal radius , willt (be x axi:!.
Tho scalar compooo"15 of " ore ,ho,,'1l ,n Fig. 4-2Ob. With !tIcm, "" ean write
(he ,,,Ioo!y, as
, - ,) + '''; - (- Y5in 8); + (., = 6)i. (06)
Now, ""ng !he right (riaogie in Fig. 4-2fu, .... can r'1' laoo sin 6 wilh y,/' .nd
oos 6 with x, l, to '.-ril.
, -(-','} +;-} (' ''l
To find (he OCO''''ralion Ii of par!icle p. " ... muS! (be lime of
(hi, "'llla!ion. NOIing (ha! spNd " and radius ,do nOl ehange ""h linw, " ... oou;"
Q _ J, _ (_.>::. dr, ) ; + (.>::..!!2)i.
d, ,d, ,d,

Now nOl. !ha! !be rat" dy/ d, a! "hicn )j. changes i. equal to !hi! "oloci!y
rompo""n! ",. Similarly.dx, ld, - "" .nd. again from Fig. 4-2(11,. we "'" (ha( ,', -
FIG. 4-19 V.loci'y and >«.1e"";011
"""'or. lor uniform cir-cular IDOtioD.
,
- .
,.,


"
--+--.
- " si" 6 and " - ''cos 6. M, t ing (he ... subs!;!u(i"", in Eq. 4-3S. "-e find (' )
0 - ( - ';OO5e): + ( - ':5in6);'
This '"<'C!or ,nd ,IS comrooonlS are shOl'.n io Fig. Following Eq . .>--6, ... ., find
"' "" wanted !o prm-•. To orWn( 0, •• " fi"d the angle d> ,hown U\ Fig. 4-2Oc:
a - (," I'j,;n8
!an d> - - ' - - !an 8.
d, ("'1, ) = 8
Th"'" d> - 8 ... h",h means !hal --0 is di"_ ,,,(.<1 .Iong (he radiu, , 01 Fig. 4-2fu.
((IwarJ circle's """tor, as we wa"!.<1 !o pro' ....
../c H ' C K POI NT 5 A. oIIjed mOVK "",, .... , .. , 'p""d along a cir","" I"' ,b in
• bOl jron,alxy pi ..... wi,h ,II< ",,",Of" ,o. or;tiJo. Wbe. ,be obj<ct is " x _ - 2 m.iI.
",Iocily is - (4 mi.»). Giv. ,h. objocl', (aj ",,10<;1)' .. d (b) """,Ie,..,;"" at y _ 2 m.

" FIG. 4-20 p,.,;de r """''' i. COWI_
.. <clock ...... unilonn rim.tar mo-
';OIL (oj h. ",,";,;00 and •• 1001)''' "
a<",aio Wlan'. (b) V,loci'y ".
«jAce,!.,..';"" -;,
Chop .... I Mo'''''' in Tw<>_ Th, ... Oim<il!1slon.
"Top guo"pilot. long "",rriod lu,"
100 lightt)'. As " pilol', llod)' "ndorg"., ""n,rip<'tal
""""Ie •• ,ion_ .. ."h Ih" be.d ,,,,,-aId lhe CEn,er of cur .... -
'U,", Ihe blood in Ih" brain
to Joss of bmlll '"OC1;00.
llw •• aro ... "" •• 1 "-.mjog siglt'l. Wh,," «'0-
tripe'" a<n!loraiion is 2g Of 38, '00 pUnt 1""" he.vy. AI
.""u, pilot ', vision ,wileoo, 10 black and whit"
and 10 "Ill"""[ visioo." If Ibal """,,'orn.;o" IS
or incre.sed. ' -;sioo CE.s.>, "nd.soon aflor.lhe
pliO! is ullcof5ciou, -a condition "nown os g-LOC (Of
.. g-in<lucoo loss of conscWu," ",,:"
\Vhal is the magnilUoc of the OOC<'1.,ahon. ,n
g ""i,s, ol. pilot .. -hose '''Nall colOrs a horizontal cir-
culor IUrn with. ""locil)' of V, - (41))\ + 500j) mls
and • "Her 10."" the lum .. "n" vclocity 01
", - (- -IOOi - 500j).".?
\\'c "",umo ,he lUrn IS made wilh un,fmm
mOlioo. Tlhln plIo!", accele,alion is
"onu;peml and has magnitude a gi'''" by Eq.
(a - "'R). ,,·bore R" too ci,,"'·. "di""Also. Ih. hlThl
''''lui,.d 10 romp"'l. a lull i, Ibe p"riod by
(T - 2"RN).
Calculations: Because "' ... do 001 lnow ,adiu, R. I.fs
sol, ... Eq. 101 R 3nd 5ubsl,IUIO into Eq. find
""'.
· - T ·
SI"'oo v bow i, Ihe (ron,!anl) magnitude 01 lhe velocuy
du,in8 I .... m,ning. L:1f, 'UbsliIUI' !b. rompo"enl' 01
Iho inili,1 WOOl}· i"IO Eq. J.6:
,. - mls)' + (500 ml,)'. - 640.31 m/s.
To find lb. p""od T of lhe "IOIion. firs! Ihal Iho fi·
nal volOClty " tho ww,,,,, of lhe in,li.1 velocity. This
means aire,afl kaves on lhe o('pOSi!e of 1M d,·
d" from 100 ,"ilial poUlI ,nd musl b.,·e complNc>d balf
a ej,dc in Ihe gi",n s. Thu," lull WCN. would Ita'""
T - .t8.o s. SUt>s!ilUhng val .... , iOl0 ou,
(l(juJliou lor D. we fWd
.-=
0""" - 83.81 mis' - S.6g. (Ans"',, )
4-8 I Relative Mo tion in One Dimension
, ,
f .. .m •• t f <ID< B
L ___
'" ."" ."", ....
AI.x(f,..,.A)and
B:ubata(fr .... 8) ... rcb car P ...
both 8 aDd Pmove ., dil'l".",
veloci!ies oI"'1!l ,be commonx ""is of
!be ',.ol ... A, ,be i"""", shown.
x&< i. tbe coordina'e of B in ,be A
hmo, Abo, P is at coordi .... x .. ill
,be 8 f ........ d OOOIm •• !e.<, .. _
x,. + x ... in ,b, A I,,,,,,,,"
Suppo"" )"ou ... " a tlying fIOrth at :JO l mlh. To anoth", fl)·ing ,Io"g,id •.
first dud; ""en" 10 b.:! stalionary. f" Olher .. ·mill. lho ,·d only 01 a pa'licle de·
Jl"nds on Ih. ",F" .. """ Ihnle 01 whoo ... , is observing 01 moasuring Ihe velocil)·.
RI, OU, pU'I>OSOS.' refe,e""o f,.me" Ihe objocllo whicb ",. attach ou,
coo,dina!e In "".ryday ble. Iba! obi"'" is Ih. ground. For example. lhe
on. sJl"c>ding lickel is .I, ... ys me ..... roo rolaliv" 10 100 ground. The
SfX'Od relalive 10 Ih. po"'" ,"ould!l<' diU,·,,'n! if tbe olfiror ..... r. moving
,,·hile m.tinS lhe 'p"ed o",.suren",nl .
Suppose Ihal Alex (al 100 origin of Ir."", A in Fig. is pa,l"" by the ,ide
of" hig/l..-a)' ... -atohing ca, I' ··p"'I ich> .. ) spc.d paS! . Barb.ra (at I .... migin 01
Irame 8 ) is driv;og along higllway al conslanl s1""'d and i, also "atching ca,
1'. Suppose Ihal Ibq bolh lho> ]lO'ilKm of I"" ca, al • give" u"""","t
From Fig. .. " .... Iha!
(4-.j()
The equalioo i, road: ··TIhl of I' is ",.a,",ed by A i. 'q"a/ '0 lhe
coordin. !. x"" 01 f' a, mo",ured by B Ihe ... 01 8 a, ",oa,u"d
b)' 04:· NOle bOll· Ihis read,ng i, ,upporloo by 100 oIlh. subscripls.
Taking lb. lime of Eq. "'" 001","
,/ II d
dr (X' A) - dr (x, .) + dI (XM ).
Thus.lho ""Iocily ar. reL:,,"'] by
, .... - ,',.. + " .....
This "'lualion is r • • d: ··The velocil)" ' .", 01 I' a, measured by A i.J 'q!lul ,,, lho>
velocit)" "n 01 ('"' bj-' Bpi .. , Ihe "'OOI)' "M of B as "",asu,..d by A:·
Tbe l.,m '.&0\ IS Ih. ""Joci!)" of f,ame B relali,·. 10 lrame A.
.. 9 I Ro!.>t"'. MOf""'inT_Di""""ion' __
He,. only f .. mes Ibal aI con,laol ",Ioclly 10 eocb
ol tler. In 0"' "lample. IhlS "",.n, Ibal B.mara (frame B) d,'w" an--ars aI cou-
.lOal wlocily ,-&< ,ebb'" 10 AKl-x (f.,me A). eM P mO\'iag ho .. ·-
evo,.cau ehange 5p<l0il and diroellon (Ihal is, II can """"Ii>
To relale"" 3CCi'[;"allon of P '" "",",urod by B"ba.,a and by AIi>l .
lime do,'valive of Eq. I:
B<'C3use "s< ;,; coRslanl Itle lasl lC,m IS 7-"'0 and we
(H 2)
In olh", ,"o,m .
.- Oboerve .. on diff"eD' f ........ of ref"e""" Ib .. """"'., 00 .. ".' •• Jocl,y ,ela';" ,<>
eocb <>lbe,..-ill mfa.",e ,be .. "", """,I".,.., f<>r , "",.u.S pankle.
Sample Problem C'"
I" Rg. 4-21, suppose !hal Barna,,', veIOCII)' 10
AI", is a rod,!an! '-u - 52 .. nih and car I';'; moving in
!hu "'-'1:al;"" dlrec!;on 01 !be x axk
(a) If Alox nJ.""""" a rod>!an! "", - - 78 l mlh f01 ca.
p, .. -h.! ",loCHy "n w,U Barna" r""",ll1el
We aBaeh a f,ame of ,olo,eno> A 10
AIoJ and a I"me 01 B 10 B.,ba,a. Boca"",
tile fran",s """'" a! rons!anl '"locil)' mile,
along 0"" "" can u,," Eq. I ("", - "", + yaJ 10
"n 10 "",- and "&<.
ulculation: We
- 78 - "n + 52 kmlh.
,',.,. - - 130 tmlh. (An,wer)
Comment: II car P con"'-'C!c<! '0 Barbam', car by
• co,d 00 . spool. !be co,d ,",ould be unwinding
01 • spil<ld 01130 as Iho !"ocars sepa,a!ed.
(b) If car P to a .!COp relali'-e 10 AI"x (and Ihu,
.. Iallw 10 ground) in hme, - 10, a! cooslaO! ",.
eel.,alion .• dlal is ilS .ccohlrahon a", rolaliw 10 AIox?
To calrolal. Ibo acceNralio" 01 /' rda-
';'" '"Akx. we m",!""" Ihe ca,', velocities ,,,
Akx. Because Ihe a=lora!ion is rod,!"nl, wo can """
4-9 I Relative Motion in Two Dimensions
Eq, 2- 11 (,' - '-, + a/) 10 '01.110 Ibe "cook,,,ion 10 Itle
inil;"1 and fi"al WOO!;"'; of 1'.
Calc"latlon: Ttl.> inl!lal WOO!)" of P ,d.:Hi,,, 10 Alox i,
" .... - - 78 " mlh a"d the final velocity is O. ThUs.
y - "

, 10, 3.6 "milt
- 2.2 m/';. (An' ...... ')
(e) What " Itle acr-ele,a!ion an 01 ca. I' re!alive 10
Barbara du,ing 100 brallngl
To lhil <>ccokora!io" 01 "'" P "Ia-
Ii,,, 10 Barbaro. we musl .... Itle ca,', veloci!ies ",Imj".
10 Barbara.
Calclllatlon: Willal WOO!)' of P ,dalive to
Barbara I.om parI (a) (,'''"' - - 130 The final ""loc-
i!y 0( P ",Iall", 10 Barlxtra is - 52 l mllt (Ihis is !he ",locily
0(100 Slopp..-.J ca, ,d:H;,,, 10 tho moving Ba,bara). Th""
y - '-, _ _ -", '" .,.m""'-i;i(,-""""-,, .m"'",cc,,'i
m
,',',
0", - , 10.
- 22 mi.'. (An, .. ",)
Comment: We should h .. " 10""""" this .. sull :
&-..c",use Alex "ad Barb.ra hJ\" • "",,!ant ,dative
v"Ioci!)', Ibey musl measu.e !tIe "", .... acr-elera!iorl 10.
lb. car.
Our 1" ·0 obS<'r,..rs are agaiu "alchi"S a moving pa'lir'" I' lrom Ihe onglrrs 01
eno> Iranles A Dod B, whikl B """,es a! a ",locil}' "!fA ,,,lalive 10 A. (Jb.:l
cor,esponding axes of !h..,., lwo f,ames romain pataUd.) Rgum 0>,-
!aln iIr>lanl dUflllg !be nlOlio" .AI !hal in<!anl,!oo posllion ,-octo, ollile origin of B
Chop .... I Mo'''''' in Two_ Th, ... Oim<il!1slon.
,
,
rcla,;vu 10 ,ho> orig>o of A is'" .... AIso, Ine post!!OU voctors 01 ",,'he" Pale -; «>!-
3,i,,, 10 lhi> origin 01 A and,.."" .. lal;'" 10 100 of B. From Ih •• ft.ngm"'"t 01
bc,ds 000 ,ail:! of too... Ih'''' posilioo veClor" "'" can tOO veClors with
(4-4])
'.

By th. Ii"", of this equalioo. "-,, can ,elate ",k"",I<" " PA
and \' n! 01 ra'hel. p ,dal"''' 10 our observe",:
' ,-.B

rr ......
(4-44)
FIG. Frame B h .. tb, oon.""'
"""-4"",,.,,0"'.1 .. Iocity " ... r.I._
ti .. to A. Th. position vector
01 B ",I.,iv. to A i." posil;OII
vWon 01 p .. , id. P or. 7 .. ,.'"ive
to A ... d 1' .. rel.,iv. to B.
By 100 lime """'·mi .... oflhis rdahon, ... rulaw Ihe """"""'Iioo, -;; M
.nd (in of Ih. panicle f' .. Ialive to our observer" Ho"'."", noW lhal ll<'cau,""
" ..... is cOO5lanL ". HOle di'riv3liv. is zero. ThUs, we get
(4-45)
As lO1 onc-din"'lUsional mol ion . .... have Ibc loUowing rule: Ot>s<-''""ts on differ·
ent h,m"" of ref'>fe"oo I hal mow al ooos,""1 volocily ,,,Iali,,, 10 eocb ",II
""""""0 100 »CCo:lJ.:>1alio" 10' a moving pa'lido.
I" Fig. ""23<>. a plane n'OW5 due casl whilo Ih. pUOI
POUIiS Iho pIa .... """"",,hi ""ulb 01 e<r<l. 10,,-.,<1 a
.. ;od Ihal hlo." 10 lit.:> OOflOOa,1. TIl<' plaoo b",
,",roly 1' .... ,elalive 10 "'nd. "ilb all ",,,p<><'d
(speed rel'live 10 lbe "';"d) of 215 tmlb. di'o<:loo al
angio 6 soulb of ea<;! . .. ind bas velocily -V.-" ,elalive
10 lne grouod 'P""d 65.0 duoClod 20.0"
01 "o'ih. Whal is 100 magnilurl;! 01100 wlOOly 1'", 01
Ib" plan. ,cial,,"" 10 100 ground. and " ' hal is 81
Ihe """- in Fig. 4· 22-
Ibe plan •. Iran"" A is al·
,I OJ. and f,am" B is
il wi. We ."00 a vecto, dia·
Ca/a<lat!OM: Firsl _ oonSltucl a ",,,W,,ce Ibal ,.Ial'"
lb. Ihree VOClors sbow" ;n Fog.
veloci1y of pi""" ""OO'Y of pl • .., ""loci1y of"-;OO
r.I.,ive '0 ground - ",b,iv. '0 wiOO + ",I.,iv. 10 ground.
(PG) (PW) (WO)
This ,,,(al;on is ,,--';UO" io ,'oCl", "Clal;O" as
1',., - 1'.- + 1'",," (4·46)
W< "oed 10 '''''''h'. lb. veel"" inl" oo"'l"'0oniS 00 Ib"
coordi"al" 'ystom 01 Fog. "ndlben sol,·c Eq. 4· 46
ali< by axis. Fot Ihe y 00"'1"' .... 015, .co fin d
"",-, - v-., + """,--,
'" 0 - - (215 trnlb) sin 6 + (65.0 )(000; 20'<1').
,.,
'"
L .
flG. 4-ZJ A pI .... llyi.g iA • ..-ind.
Solving f", 6 gives us
- 16S. (An,w.,)
Simila,ly. fo, Ibex oomronenl' we find
""". - + ".,...-
Hew. "",,"use ",., is parallel I" 100 .. axis, lhe rompo-
oenl is oqual 10 Ihe magnilude l'",. SU"'lilllling
IbIS OOlali,," andlhe '-aluo 6 - 16.5°, ,,,, find
l'", - (215 k"' lb)(cos 16.5') + (65.0 20.0")
- 228 kmlh. .. )
REVIEW & SUMMARY
Position Vector TIle 1"C01iOll of • par' icl. ,elative ,,, ,ho.
oriSin of . coordinate ' y ... m is give. by .p<>>ltl<m 1' '''''1 7.
wbicb in uni, _ • • cto, .00.U"" ..
7 _ xi + y) + ,i. (4_1)
HeTe xi. yi. OJId ,i: are !be Vec' Of rompoo"" 01 posi'ion ve<:-
'or 7. and x, y,.Dd , ar. its "",lac cornpone"" ( .. "",U a. ,n.
<OOrdin,,,, of 'be p .. ,kle), A "",.iOll ",,<tOf i. describ«l
.it,.." by • '''9'i'udc .Dd on. '" ,,.0 0Il9o' for Of;",,';on.
or by i" vector Of ",o!ac
Displace"",nt If a .,."icle m""", .0 'hat i" p<IOi'iOll ..ee-
lor cII"S" f,om 7 , '0 7,. ,b,e .,."ide·, dl>plarm"nr 1>.7 i,
:'7_7, _ 7,.
Th. cfuplacern •• , can ako be ... itt ....
:.7 _ (.l' , - x,)i + (y, - nil + (z' - 'uk
- :.,i + :.y; + :..:i.
(4-21
(0 1
(4-4)
Average Velocity and Insbnb"""u. Ve locity If,
panicle ooo.,!o." • diopl>«me., 1>.7 i. ,ime in"rv.1 1>.,. i1S
1',lo<ily " ... for ,b .. ,ime intervol is
_ 1>.7
. ---
-. :., .
(4-11)
A, :., in Eq. 4_8 is d .. u.l 100,1'_. ,.",,1Ies . Iim .. c.Ued ,i,b.,
,b. or ,h. '''''''''''.IIr0u5 V:
_ dr
y - T<'
which can be , . .. Titt.n in o''' _vector """,,ioo ..
1' - y,1 + I.,l + Y,k.
(4_10)
(4_1l)
... htl. I', _ • . Ti d,. ", _ dyid, .. d I', _ d,Id, The i." .. ta-
... "'" veloci' y ,of, .,."icle ;, dir<"cted 01",,& ,he
""s"'" ,,,,b,e panicle', pa,h . , ,b. p .. 'icle·, position.
Average Accele ration and In.tantaneo", Acul.·
ration If • par'icl". v.loci'y ,b" g'" f,om 1', ,,, 1', in ,ime
;."rvoll>.',;u ""<I"",,,,,, duri.gl>., "
if _ I', - 1', _ :."
... !JI !JI .
(4_15 )
A. :',;n Eq. 4_15 >.brunt ,,,0. if ... Ttarh .. . limi'ing v"'"
<ailed .i,ber !be .«<1,,,,,,,," or ,b • .,"''''',"",,) .... 0<"<<1_
<"""'"a:
In uni' _vedor 1>01,,100.
if - o) + oJ + a,k.
"ber •• , _ JI',ld" 0, _ Jy,ItA and a, _ ,w,ldi.
(4-161
(4_17)
Projectile Motion mOlO>/l i. ,b,e mo,ioo of •
panicl. ,II " i. I,o.,h«l with >II inilW .. lociIy Du'ing i"
fligh" It.. panicle. horizontal """"I, .. ,ioo i. zt<o .... d i"
"""ical """"1,, .. iOl> the free_bU acede"";011 - E. (Up">rd
i. ,aken I" be • dirertiOll.) If,,;' exp, .... d '"' ,
m.gni,ude (,t..'f"""d y, ) and aD aog.le", ( ....... "d fTOm the
bOfizootol ). 'he par'icle', "Iu>1l"", "fIJlOl;oo oI011S ,b. bori_
. 011'" X aID .Dd .",ic<ll Y u" or.
X - XO- (I'O<Ol/\,)/·
Y - )b - (.,.in (0)/ - W'.
I', - I" "' I/o - g<.
(4_11)
(4_12)
(4_23)
'i - ("o.in 10)' - 2gIY - nil. (4_14)
The I .. j.<t.", (.,.,bl 01 • .,.nicle in F""ie<:tile Il10l100 ..
par,boIic and;' gWeII by

y - ('''' 8;,)T - 2(...,,=
(4_2.\)
if Xo ",d Yo 01 Eq< 4-11 10 4-2-1 or ... to. The panicle:.
h<>ri lO"toi "'"iii" R, ",1tlcb" Ih. bofizont>l di<",,:t I,om ,b.
I, unch point t" ,h. poin' " .mieh tbe panicle Ttt""" 10
,b. launcb !>eigh'. is
.6 , _ _ ... 2(1,-
,
(4_26)
Uniform Circular Motion If, particle , .. ",Is >lOlLS ' cir_
cle or circular ore oI...mu, r .. ro'''''''''f''''''d 1'.1. ;, ,aid '0 be
i. u"I/<>Im dmJ., mol",11 and b"" >II """"1,, .. 100 a of ""'_
.. ,., .,.gnitucle
.'
' - - .
,
(4_.4)
The di'f<1iOll 01 a;. ,,,,,,,,,d ,h. c.n't< of ,n. <irel. or cimIl"
arc. ",d a ;, .. id ,,, be ,",,"'rlp<wI. The tim. fOI tb. panicle '0
OODlpl'" , circle i.
T _
2
", .

(4_.\5)
Tio caII«I ,h. p,noJ offrl' olul",,, or ,imply the p<'Wd, of ,b.
""-
R. lative Motion "'he. ',"0 f,ames 01 "f.""", A and B
ore moving reiatlv. ,,, . acb OIber at ron,""" velo<ity. ,b.
velocity 01 • p. "ick P .. m ..... ,od by aD <>bo""", in I ....... A
ooually dilf,,.. from ,ba, m ..... 'ed I,om f,ame B. The ''''0
",.".oured v.loci,;'. are Ttl"ed by
(441)
-..'her. 1' ... i. ,b ... Ioci'y 01 B ,..j,b '"1''''' ,,, A. B01h
oo.erv", ",e .. ute ,bourn. >«<Ie,,"ioo fOI ,b,e panicle,
(4-41)
Chop ... ' I Mo'''''' in Tw<>_ Th, ... Oim<il!1slon.
QUESTIONS
1 Figure 4_24 oIIows .be in;'b.! posit;"" I ond 'be fin>! "",i _
,ion f 01 • p,,'icle. What OJ. ,lie (. J ioi,i:il """ilion ",,",or 7,
• Dd (b) fino! """i'iOll ""'or If. both in "";1_""'<>< ."",jOll?
«) Wb" i. ,b. x rompon'"' of eIi,p!>"""""' .:. n
o
.... ,r'
, ", l
' m
FIG. 4-Z. QUe!'iO<lI.
2 Figure . _25 .h""", ,h. path
!>un by •• longi.g
fox n":'lcod,from initi. 1 po;". I.
The . kunk took ,h. >am<- time T
10 to 110m eodllabtled point t"
,he ""XI olo,S j .. path. Rank
poi." D. b, ond c acoording to ,be
m:osni'ode of ,h • • ,.,togo ",\oc-
0-
••

jty of tI>e >.I:1lIIk t" IOocb .b.m QU",Ijoa2.
from initial poiO! I. y'''''' lim.
1 Yoo art to I.uoch. ,od". I,,,,,, illS' abo"" th. grOll.d,
with one of.be following ini.i>i velocity YKlon: (I) 1', _
201 t 7(ij,j'2) 1', - -m + (3) 1', - 201 - (4) <'0 -
- 2Qi - 7Oj . ln)'<lOlf OOOfdinaoeoysl.m,x runs level yoomd
ond Y incr ..... upward. (.) JUnI: !be """on:ocrolW!t t" 'h,
bundl spetd d the pcojt<1ile. gr'"'''' IiI ... (b) R>nt the ve<1CJ1'11
""",,"ding 10.be ,De 01 ruy" 01.1>0 prC;KIile. ye""" fiI>I.
, NgU,. 4_26 sk"", thr .. situ.,,,,,,. in ",hkb ide"'",,,!,,"_
.... la.""tlofd (.t II ....... level) .t id,ntical m;, ial
speods :u>d Th. proj<ctile. do motl.DdOll ,b ••• m. to,_
,>in. h"""", ... R ..... ,be "'na'ion< OOCOIding '0 ,b. fin al
speods of,b. ... ju" before they 1>Dd£l'"'''' fir ...
, ..
..
FIG. 4-U Oo."io. 4.
5 Wh •• P ........ sIl,1led from 100 km aw. y wi,h ,lie WWI
loog_ ... g ... 'ilIery F'e<:< "BiS B,nb. :· ,h •• I><U. ,.,.. fired
., on . ngle y .,"T ,Iwt 45° '0 give ,hem a£lea1e' , ange, po<-
.. Illy <V"" ,wioc. ' s Ioog .. ., 45"'. Do.s 'hat , ... 1, """'" . h>1
.1Ie ai, d.nsi,y a. bigh . h;'oo" incr' .... ' wi,h abitude 0'
d<cre"",1
6 J. fig, . _17, . cre ... ''''SOlin ... ,hr ...... tIp pa>' ,..-in,do,.,
I. 2. and 3, ,..-hidt are iden,ical in .in :md TeguJarly ,paced
ve:r' ica.ll)'. Rank .hooe 'hr", window, according '0 (a) ,b. ,ime
,he cr.am ,,,,,!,,m. , .... 10 p"" 'hem :u>d (b) tho . v,,,age
speed of ,h. cr.am 'anS"i.oe dwing ,be pa>!ag<.Y'" '''' finI .
The cre ... '''''SOli.e ,hen m""" dow. J"1>' windows 4.5,
, Dd 6. ,.Ilie •• re id'"''''01 in ,ize and inegularly 'l'aced bOli_
Rank ,hr.., windo ... ocro,ding '0 (0) ,b. ,ime
,he cr.am '''''!,Tm. , .... 10 p"" 'hem :u>d (d) <be . "",age
speed of ,h. cream 'anS"i.oe dwing ,be pa>!ag<.Y"''''' finI .
"- ,

'\

'1
flG. 4-27 Ooe""",6.
7 Figw •• _1.8 >I>oIn '''eo
pa,h.la- a football tickod I,om
yomid level, 'he .1_
10(," of air. nnt ' be p"h>
"""",ding '0 (a) rime of Aigh ••
(b) ini,ial ve:rtical v,loci')' <001_
_",. (eJ initial .a-""",,.I ""_
Wry comPOI"O!, :u>d (dJ ;ru_
,,,.. >peod.!",aI"" Ii ....
I Th. ooly good .... of ,
lruitc . .. in c.up"l, puc_
,ice.. Curv. I in f\!. 4-29 gi"'"
,b. beigl .. Y of • catapul'ed
lruitcat. ve"w ,h. ""Y'
be'ween it> velocity """or :u>d
i .. """," ,a'io. """or during
!liSI ... (0) \>''bicb of ,Ite Ie" .. ed
poi"" 011 . hal co",. rone_
fiG. (.211 Q .... ioo 7.
o
LL.l.----:.i -.
sp<>a<1s '0 ,be 1>n<1i.g of ,be ".;,cU, ()[I ,be £IOUJ1d? (b)
Cwv. 2 .... imilar plot 10' ,be ...... laUJIrn 'p",d bu, for .
dill" •• , bw>ch ""!Ie. Do .. ,be IruitcH. now l:md I. nb"
alO'y or dooe, '0 ,n. launch poi.,?
9 An airplan. .... izoo'ally " • "",,'a, ... peed of
-'50 ove, level S'ouDd "' ......... bwidl. of lood ",ppl""-
Ignore <be dfO<'! of.be air 011 ,be bundle. Wha, are <be bu.dle·,
init ia.l (aJ ven ",at .. d (b J horiroo,,. com J>ODI'0" of ""W'yl «)
\\il .. , to it! borizOll,al oorupoo,n' of velOO1)' j"" bolore hitting
do. YOII.d? (dJ 11 th. airplan",
ope«! ... ro. i .. , • .ad. 45(1 b.lk. 11
,,-ould ,be time of/all be Iooge:r .
.oon<'-octbe ..... 1
10 A b:ill i •• bot from
ground level oYeT level ground
" • <en .... ini.ial .pee<!.
Figw. 4-30 gives.be ""'s. R flG. 4-JO o.."iooIO.
of ,be ball .. nu. i" LaWlob ... gIe
flo. R .. k the 'hr'" .. ",,«I poinu
"" ,b. pi'" ocoording '0 (.) ,be
,,,,.1 Bigh' ,i",. 01 'he b.1l and
(b) ,b, ball', spe«l" m .. im"",
heigh,.y • • '",'finL
11 10 Fig. 4-31. p .. 'icJe P in
unifofm cirO\ll., """iOll. cen_
ter«lOll ,h. oligin 01 atI.<y 0001_
/
'-
,
;)
din ... ') ..... ". (.) A, ..-bat valu.. FIG . ... J, Q .... 'ioo II.
of """icaI romp""en' r, 01
,
,h. positioo """01 !"'"'' in (b) A, 10'" v.rue. of
!be ,..,.tiral componen' ", of !be par'"'''' velocity Y""""
in m'gni,ucle1 (e) A, ,..." I'1Iues 01 I;' ,h. "en""l "Im_n,
PROBLEMS
"
".
• _ ••• .......- of do"""",,, ....... "' __ ..".
N C. ( · 1 Position . nd Di'P"c.m.nt
,1 . A I"}';"oo uncle,goe' • di>plac,,,,,,,, .:.7._ 2.!Ii;-
10; + HIk. e"din! ..-ito !be posi' ioo YOC'OI -; _ J.Oj - 4.ot.
i •• ,,1f,. Wh" was ,h. positron', ini,iaI posi';011 YKlor1
.2 A ,.." orm.IOII Off<! has 'he <OOrdio .. ", x _
- 5.0 m.y _ 8.0 O1 ... d , _ 0 .... Find;" posit;OII V«'OI (.) in
uni' _Y'''o< .o .. ,ion and .. (h) . m.gn;tude and (e) .. >OSlo
"I,,;,.., '0 'he """itiv. direc'ioo 01 ,.e x:OOo. (d) Sbtcb ,...,
"""or 00 • rigb, _b.ndtd coordinat. ')'''TTII_ If ,he ...,d ;,
m<>v«I '0 ,I\< xY' COOIdin"es p.OO m. 0 m. 0 mi. wb" ;, i"
eIi.pl"""."., (e) in ".i'_""" 01 n",,,ion.ad as (I) • rn.!";_
t.d. aDd (V an ang" .. I.,iv. '0 'h, """;,;",, .< directio.1
.J The posi' ioo """0< 10< an .I«!JOII 7 _ (5.0m)l -
(3.0 m)l + (2.0 m)1e. (.J F!od ,b. mogm".de of .,. (b) Ske,cb
,b. vedor 00 'riSb'-ban.ded roordina .. Iy"em.
••• The mi.u,. "."d of. wall clock me .. u, .. [Oem I,om
i" ';P ,,, 'h, >xi • • boo, which i, ,ola'et. The m'gni'ude and
"!Ie of ,..., displ....,m.n' YKlor 01 ,h. 'ip or. '0 be det,,_
mined for ,hr •• ,im. in"",,,,,. Wha' .re !be (I) m"!'l;'ucle
.. d (b) .. gle from • q".ner afte, 'be boo, '0 b.1f paoI_'"" (e)
mogni'oo.e and (d) angle lor ,be "u' hall boo, .• ad ,b. (.)
m' gni'ude ODd (I) .. gIe lor ,I>< bow .. ,., ,bat7
N<. (03 Av. ,ag. V.locity.nd 1 ... ,.nt8noolll V. locity
.5 An io ... po1;'iOl> V«' OI -; _ 5_!Ii - 6.01 +
2.ot.an.d 10.1" " i, i • ., _ - 2.oi + 84 - 2ot.all i.
In un" _YKlor ""'a'ioo. ,.h.a., i.;" v ... duri.!!be 10 I?
• (, An ' '''''011'' pooi' ioo i. gi"'" by ., _ J.(X); -
+ 2.coi:. "';,b, i. """""cb aDd -; in (.) I. D';' _
vedor .",,,ion • ..-b" ,b. electr",,', ""Iocity '" 'I? A, , _
200 ,.h" " " (b) in uoit _YKlor .",,,ion >lid .. (e) • m' gni_
,ud. and (d) .. >ogle ",I"iv. '0 ,b. """i'iv. directioo 01 'bex

.7 A traiD ot • COlI".'" 60.0 tOllh move> .a>1 fOI -10.0 min..
,b •• in, diT<"<1ioo 50.0' ... , 01 due north lor 20.0 mi •. and
" .
• of 'h, p..-tid.. """ .. ...,ioo
Y'"'''' in m,gnlloo.e1
,
,
, ,
N.
, ,
,
,
I
1 ! (.j k i, pooolble '0 be """In_
.<intI u1We m.veting "
. p«d? b it po1,;!>Ie '0 ro<md a curve
wit. (h) "ro oocd",,'" and (e) .
cx:mt .. , m>gDitude of "",,*rntioo1
13 Fi!we 4_11 ,bow> low ,rac.t.
(.i,btl haII_ or q"""ol-circle.!)
,h.tean be "ken by • tr:oj • • wh"h
"''''' .. " • 00II'''11'' """,d. Rank
'be ".cis """"",ding '0 ,be rn . gni_
,ud. 01 • tr:oj ... """,Io,,,i,,,, 011
,b. CIITved portiOll. Y""" fin' .
FIG . .... n Qu,,,;oo lJ.
,b ....... , lor ,;(Wmin. Wh.a., .re ,b. (.J m.gnitude . nd
(b) ... gIe 01;" ave .. ge velocity during ,hi< trip? ...
.., A pl."" flies -183 btl ... , f,om city A '0 d,)· B in
45.0 mi. and ,b<. '166 km """,b I,om ci')' B '0 city Ci. l.,;() h.
Fo< ,he '01al trip, .,h.,
. re ,he (.) Dng";,ude
ODd (b) direc,iOll 01 ,b.
pi""., displ""""","'.
(d) dire"i"" 01 it • • ve r _ ,.J::::.j..
,b. «) m'gni'ud, and " 1
.ge veloc;,)·. and (.) ;" t±:t
.,..,rag. "I--T' :·=',.1·>:::;;1-1 '1 .. 1
•• 9 FigOJ' 4_33 gives
,
'be p.,h of • oquiI .. 1 Jj :l"-s
m<>Ving .boo, 011 lev,1 - " '- r-I::i:
Voond. from poin' A
(ot ,ime , - 0). ,,, ---W
poi.", B (., • _ 5.00
min). C (>t • _ lO.O
min). and fi •• Uy D rot'
FIG. ' .JJ Problem 9.
_ 150min). Coosider!be average ",loci,;... 01 !be "IDirrtl
ITO .. poin' A '0 .",b of ,he O1her ,hr •• 01 ,ben •• wh.a.'
. re ,b. (. ) "'''VI;'Dde and (h) . ogle of, •• one "';'h 'he I ... ,
m. lI,ni too.e and ,Ile (e) m>g.;'ucle , ad (d) angle of !be ""e
with ,he gr""" Dlagoitude1
••• 10 111< posit"'" _'or
., _ 5.(0'; + (t< + .Ii')] loca'es
' I""icl . ... 11ID<tion 01 ,im ••.
Vtctor" is in in OK_
onds. aDd bc'"" , .nd f Ill.
oon.",,"'. R!ure 4_3-1 @"'"
,be . ogle p. nic,,·, di _
rection of ".v.1 .. a luncti""
of , i. '"':.lured lrom tht
"""i'iv. x dirtctioo). Wh at Oft
(a) , ""d (b) ,. includinS ",;,,1
'i_)
flG. 4-)'! Probl.m [0.
14C. .. 4 "_'''9 . ........ '<II lon ...:l ",.tw>UII._
... ,,,,.I. r.tion
·1 ' A ponidc .. , ..... ;0, pool!"'" ti!' .... 1 • .,' ..
• fIm<IiDn of Ii"", (;" -.) iI -; _ i .. .. It. IVri ..
nprnoioM lot (0' il> ........ , _ (b) ill """lor",.,., .. 10.,.
"-of ...... ...
• 1) A p<t>IOII ;"i'; ... y, '.l' oj. .Hi....t lhrD
4D ..... r b .. l' _ -!.Oi - HIj .. Mt r. _
IU t.Io .. 4.0 .. ""'"' •• (0) lbe P''''''''-''--S< "",,"D!o.
_ .. ia _ •• ..,.'" t<l4:ltiooo. (bl III< .... """ 01 i' ... -.t (e)
IX ..p toct-.......... die """"M <IIr«1.,. cI 1IIt.r ... T
· n The l' of. l*.1idc """"at .. ""-1 pbD< ..
JIli ... by 7 - (2.OCf' - liIOr)l .. (6.00 - wil' ., III
_ .... oDd. ill _ 10 ... , .•• m. 1oOI .. """"bol2le tal
7,(b) i' ... d te) i I'ot, _ 2.00 .. (d) Wlu, .. lIIt"&I<
tbc dlr«lIOII ct ,II< < u'" ond '''.8''"' I. lbt
pand ... I"'" .. I _ 2.00.1 :-
.'4 AI on<- ;",WIt • bo<')'dioI io ;1(1.0 .. do>< •• t of a po.<k',
1l,!1'0Io-l"""' __ I' wi •• I or«<! ct 10.0 0010. Th<n )0.1"
I ... ,., •• .. 010.0 ....... I«lb ct ' ho duo<
eooI ... 111 •• fWd at Ino ....... Fo! 'lie <)'dill .. I •• )Illh
iat.f'OII. no, .. c II>< (0' nu,pi,\Odo """ (b) (Ii .. ",;.. cl
1M dOof1b<'<n •• t, 11>t IC) onayUllKlo II>d (d ) <Ii_ion of 1M
""' .. ",my.11Id 1M (., W (f) dire<:tJon of
tbe ove .. &< o«cIe .. ,lon1
.. 15 A <IU'I io prop:U«I OYer .. "-1 pI.M witb """,It .. ,ion
oomp<>II<"" ., _ .,10' .IId ., _ -2.0.,10'. Ito ;'",io.l
velo<i'y .. """'''''''"." 't. _ 8.0 mi. a.d ''10 _ 12 ,. iL In
",",· vector 00 • .,'001 •.. ho. iO'M "'o";'y 01 'h,. un "h,. iI
" ""bes iI. p . . .... y coordi.".1
•• ,. A wind "",," ,o'es 0 I"'bbl, 0 .. ' • bOfizp<>.
,al Xl plaooo ";!h • ""nllan' """.I"a,i .. i _ (S.oomJ"" oj-
(7.00 """ , _ 0. .ht vcIo<ily io ,.Iop. Wh. , "'.
, be (.) ... and (b) ".!Io 0( iIJ .. lo<>Iy .,""n i. """
1><,. "'f'l..:.d by IHI ., potOl .. 1 ' 0 !I. u .. is?
•• 17. A """",10 .... ,b. 0'"". "'uk"" inilial .<loci.)' \! _
(3.00;) ... IO'Id • """" ..... KCOIero.ion i_ (- 1.00;-
0,.500;) ............ " •• ;, .. ""I><. ill .,ui.,,,,,, x coordI .... . "b.,
aI' ill I') .. I"",'y 0I'Id (b) pooitioto .... or? ...... .
.. , . lb ... Iocity;; 01. p'ulid. --.'"! i. ","Xl pi ... ;.
!'liYOo "" "II _ IGJlo - .. l! i. _ .... pt.
1«<*1 IO'Id I (> 01" ........wlI. (II .... "11 .. 'h. _ ....... ,""
.. booo I _ .l.O o1(b) ........... (ll ..... 1 'ul>< ....,1<""""" ... ro? (.)
.,Iib ... (iI' 'YO'I 10."" Y<Ioaoy .... 01 (d) .... ".n lif ..... ) don
,I>< opeed oq •• IIO "".?
• .. '9 no. __ of • 1*, .... _8""'Y "" • bori..
.... .. p .... by7 _ l<i .. ..,j ....... .......
;"""'-"",.G.UI< __
-'or ., _ (20.0 .. )I .. (oIO.Olllj _ .. Ill< portdr. "kdl
tbe. _ tbe . ........ 'Y
;: - ('.oo ... .Ii .. {2.00 ..... 11.
,
.... ,_ UKh. _ ... (I) ioopo- _ ___ _
"""" _ ....... • .... Of """" A.
,.,.. _ (b) tbe...p be ........
ito of ,nr"<i and 1100
1"""'" dftdiOD of ,100 x .... ?
··· 20 I. Fia- .... 15. .... ><10 II
...,.... 'Ions ,I>< ... 1 - )0 II
";,b • .,.,.,."0' ... 1o<i'1 ;: of
""11"",<1< l.O ","" ond p.uo.II,l

' 0 II •• x ..... A, the .... ,.", panicl.1I poo ... the, IlIOo. porlid. 8
Ita ... ";'h,rro ioir, ... ,po«I .......... _f3IiOa
-; 01 ".yU,.<It. O . .()...t". Wb., ...y. ,1><, __ 7.1Hl tilt
po>i"" dU«!iooo 0( ,Ioo, niIII ..... 1d , ... i ••
OK.. U Projooctilo _. ",*pod
.2' A p<Of<CIil< ;, !ired boriwDloly tr_ • SUo ..
4.s.0 II .00., B .. gtJUod, ''''''!'lios f"' ...... sun .." •• opHd
of250 {al H".. D!don tho proje<.1ik .. "' ..... ,boo ... ?
(II)"" 'II'bat IIorWDtal dBlOI><C!rom ........ """" do ..
.... g<lUDd! (.) W\II io the _itude 0( ,Ioo ... nioal
.. I "" of ill .. it >trib .. "" sroond!
. 22 10 tho 19'1l World. TJXt _ f"1rid o.-pictIo'"p'"
Tokyo. Miu _. juIIIptd ... brnbn8 by I full 5.,.
til. 21-_ 1oaf!.-i1mp recood .. , by Bob _ . .........
tlllI !\Ior,.·" ptedOil toked£ _ 9.5 roIoI.bool «[ .. 110 ,,,",
01 a _ tbo', _ 9.1ll raJ.' in Td;y.>. H".. "'..,.. ....
_ !\lor •• ', ."".!" _ tlot ... 1Ii ..... fOf I
par'><Ioluocbodal''''' ..... .,......n
· 23 n.. """""' ....nl-r«<lfd DlO<IftJ'<Ie JIIII1fI;' 1UJ ......
by ..... R.,.i" ................ boo lei, the toke-dfru>pac 12JJ'1O
tI1r b.oriz,;mt>l _ ... , ,100 .... -<if...& bndiOS boo.vl< .... ,100
>am<.. N.g.!e<tin! .. <In!. <1<, ........ boo 1Ote-df """""
. 2t A .... U b2.l1 folk ofUI>e q. of I .IIIlJIIOJ'I
,b.,;, 1.20,. It "'ikes ,he floor" . pa;n' Ul .. bOfj ..
roonlly f.om ,I>< ,able edge. (.) How I"", i.,boo ball i. Ih •
air? (b) Wh' il it> opHd at ,b, u. .. ... , i, ... "'" ,he 100l.?
.25 A dar, io thro . ... bOf izOll,olly"';'h ." Wliallf'«<l 0(
]0 mlo tow.,d pa;n' p. ,he bulr •• ey' 011 • d.n boord. It hi" .,
poin' Q on ,I>< rim. ven K-al ly bel"", P. • I ..... (. ) Wb .. i,
, h. disI """, PQ? (b) How fa. ""f I""" . h. don board Ih •
d. n ....... dl
. 26 I. Fi!- 4 .. ..\6, a .. on. iI 1"0;.<1«1 II • dJf 0( hri!b' A
with on irli,w If"'od 0( 41.0...t, di ,«.od " .nyt 80 • 60.0'
abo .. the borlroo'o.l. Th. 1100' ",ik ... t II . of •• ,
l>llDl"hi.Da- "I.Od I'] tho hei9l' of ,bt. clilt (b) ,h ....... d 0( .h.
"OIl. iw' bef ... , impKI AI A. _Ic) , b< ........... ""!) , 1/
.. am.d abo .. the 11'''''0<1.
.n ... <fttIi.oair ....... b ••
opted 01 290.11 k ...... 1Id ;.
di""SAI'" uslt-of f _ JUO'
bo_ ,I>< .oo"""tal .....
,t.. pilot .... _ a ..dar do-
""I' ( Fia- .... lloe .....,,,,,,,tal
WUl><e bo ... ". ,boo ..... ..
poio' . od ,toe pa;., ........ ,toe
""""'ilrit .. yowodill d _
700 n (.) is ,boo do-
""I' in ,I>< air? (1)) How bigb
..-.. ,he "' .. _ poi"'? , ..
FICi. l'rOOIem 27.
_za A .. on. is oa.,ed., , .... , _ 11 "",b .. inI, ...... lot.
i.y 0( "'osni,udt 2011 "'" .rod., ... ..go 0( .lQO" l!><w. ,I><
tooiz"." ... ........ , ... ,ho ... ag>II""'" 0( ". (.) I>o<iz"."" _
(b) wcnioal """'rono"" "Ii .. dioploc .... n' I,,,,,, ,ho
,ile IU _ 1.10,1 Rtpt .. 100 ( e) IoooW><ol" ODd (dl .. rua.I
coq>o ........ ,_ 1.80 L ODd 100 ,''' (,' ODd (f)
""nioal "" _ S.oo L
__ 29 A I.,...". '-P di ... puoloeo ofl""""""'''y'';'h. 'Pod
of 2.00 .... ftedl"" pIa1lO1I1 ooJao 10.0 .. __ ,II< nrlxc
of doc .... ...-. ('1 A, ... .. bon ... , .. olin-, I ...... , ••• ..
,ke d,_ OJOJ. ,f ... puoN,,! "'" (bl Al ...... ""11<.>1 diJ.-
, ..... ...... I""" of II .. "lei is , •• "' .. , I'" ' ..... 1 (e)
AI ................... dioI""", f..- II ..... don .... do ... ,
nrikc ........ ot'I .... _
__ )0 A ,rc __ • -", .. '" IU""" ,I><
....... of ....... .. dot, Mao. A Iarp • .,. "",,1<1 be burltd
............. 1 to ...... t OJ'II' ,lit W>ll Tho...m ... __
plxcd ..... ,lit wall _ .. , .... anow<""""' .. """ " from
,ke _tie .... L lnsIud,;1 ..,. po.uioootd 00 , ... 'be ot.- .tt
,ke _ <kIr1ll& ,ke .. 0>0<1.,11 of •• s._ ....... ..
.... .clKd ",tit .<pHd"''''_ 28.0 ...... <1 ..... of",,_
4U{I'. "'ho' is , ... 'fWd of II .... .,... if i' hoi, lioo ..... , (I) ju.11
• it r.a< .... , ... 'Oft of ," puobolk patb 0<Id (bl ...... ;, ...
doo.>md.od '0 hoI! ,bl be,p!? (t) AI pt.oenu,g:'. how mU<!l
I .. ,or. i, meM"!;" par' (bl ,b •• III par' ,")?
.. i 1 A pi .... d,";"! ",Ib coo",., 'f'Ud at on ,ns" of.
SJ.1l" witb .... ",,"ioal . .. I ...... "" .1,,,_ of.
7.lO III T ... proj«tile bill Ih. SrouAd 5.00, oft ...........
(.) Wb .. lr ,b. If'«d!lli 'he pl ..... 1 (hJ How fill <10<. ,t..
pro; .... ile " ... 1 borizootoUy ""ri03 ito I\;gh, l Wh .. Ole ,be (e)
tooiz" ..... ,nd (d) •• " ... 1 com""",."!IIi i,. •• Iocity ju .. .,..
I", ... ritins 'h. !"'Un.l? ...
·_n Oor;.I' , • • •• ", .. <II • • pl. )'I" .. r .. , ,h. ball ..
21.& ""0, w;, h .... ccn .. , of tho ..... 11e.vi.8 'b.
'001, .. !,l.l1 ... ,_ 'M """"lwl .... Th ..... 12 fa :OW")"
.. d 119(1 fa hip. v,'ben 'M ban ","""e, tit. "". (.) don ,I><
b.:o!l ,Ie., it 0IId (b) w .... io .... diot .... bt, ...... tboo . .... , of
,lot b.:o!l....a 1M lOp of ,b •• ,,7 5._ , ......... n<!. , •• baD
it .. .--I .. bel",o ""'now illn ... '1>< '''''I''''' HUboi"""
,ke Iooruonl.t .... 'ben I •• b.n""""'I'''' ..... (e) don , ... ball
dn, iI....a (d ) t.,,,, _ ,lot Ili ....... "'" ... Ift of
... bol .. <lt'" 'Of'ofllot ... !
.. n ,.,;u..p orit .... cIlt,.,.a pIo)'l" _ , ... bolJ froa
0_ 0IId , ....... d , ... 100<. c-rolq Ih< ."tIe
of tlot >pit. iodif""''' Suppoor. tool "1J'iI:«l I ....... bop of
Lll Of ....... ... tp«d of 20.0 ....... dcwm_d oqlc of
1&00". H __ lot"",,,, 'M b,o.,..,
lMdoedithedcwm_ .... r ...... o:l.8.00'7
__ 14 A_ bol .. tidoed from ""'-.h • • , ......
'l"'od of 19.5 . ' ... ." upward...p A S.'i fa
..... y .. the di"",,_ 0( tiel: ...... ""'"111& to ....,. ,II<
boll .. tit ........... . " 'hal .... , be "" '",",' 'I"'d if ioo ... <>
....... , ... bd jao bolo .. .... the srouod?
'_JS A p.':;'""Ie·, 1 ... 00II 'fWd io fiv. II ...... it, op<ed ..
IDui",.m t..i!bL F"u>d lo.adllI1p. "'-
.. 36 Sup""",, ' hOI "''''''' PU"" not put • IlL'" " the """Id.
d .... ' f'<'<d ", - 15.oo ... ,04" • beipl of 2.160 ... \Iib. ..
boo"".t" diI' ..... loOt>ld II>< Ib", ,,, ... eI ifllot IauJ>dt anpe ""
i, (.) 45.00' ond (b) U OO"? Tho .......... mdicate 'hOI ,t..
.. s .. oi 45" ... "hkb maOot.iz ...... r""SC!IIi P<ofo<1ile _i"".
don _ ... :tim'" ,II< tooiz"." . 1 "',."" . .. ·hoa ' M I>unob
... ,;t!>Ddin! ar ... diU<r • •
.. J7 A baII.1Ioot frog .... in,o tlto oi, A,. Mip'
of 9.1 ... lU .. loci". is V _ (7.6 ... 6.l j) """ ... lIb i toollO""
0IId j .",., .. d (.) To ...... """'u> beis.' doc. ,be baD , ... 1
(h) Ilib'" ,,,,,,1_,,,, .. 1 diruoo<o don Ih< boll " ... 11 .... .....
ore,'" (e) ... .. d (d) .. p (1)< ........ .. 1 of
... bolO ",,_, jOi' bd>R" .. IM!""Iad? " ...
__ It Yooalhrooo.boIl_
• _ >l1J>ft"d 15..0 ..... ODd ...
.. _ .tIlO" ........ ......
ZOIIIoI (1'1& 4.38). The wall ..
diot ..... of _ 220 Of froo:> ....
.- polo' of • boL
(a) H_ far .bo", .... .......
poiDI doeo the boll kit the ..... 1
Wh .. are tile (h) boritiontoIODd
AG._ .. 38.
(e) v.ui<ol compon<." of It" .. " ,t.. ... aU (d)
When it .it<.1ua i, 1"'- .... hi!h<>' pou1I "" ito , ... jK1ory?
.. 19 A ril< that >It_. I>olle .... -1611 .... io to be . ""ed ..
• 'US" 45.7 m a .... y. H , ... omt .. nf 1M W! <I is 1< .. 1";,)
.Ile ,ille. ""'" kiy. abo .. , Ile ""&e' ""'t 'M rille batrd be
poi",ed so ,bit tbe bullet hi .. dndo..,,,07 •••
__ «I A bas<hall 1 .. _ • "t<be,', IIaod bori""",aIly 41
• If'«d 01 161 kmlh. The <Ii" ..... 10 ,h. bo,,,, i. 18.1 ....
( a) H"... 1ons <10<, tb. boU 10k. '0 .",,,,,1 .... Iiro, Mllol 'MI
dio,,,,,,,,? (h) The .. <ODd bolfl «) How for d"", ,t.. bol l IoU
f,eely durin! .... Ii .. , holl? (dl DurinS th. """"'"
(e) Wh y .re,,·' 'be q ... otitioe, i. (el ,.d (d) .quoI1
.. 41 In Fi!,- 4·.!I • • ball
,h, ....... lel ... ",d Ir"'" ,h. 101,
eodse of ,b. rool ... beitb' h
._ ,t.. yootnd. The b<LlI
'begOUDd 1.50 . I ....... <Ii>-
,,""" d _ !5.U", I,,,,,, 'M
0IId >I ...p , _ 60.11"
).
""0 T
ODOU
,.;,) ,he _""' ... (.) F.dft. ( Him: Ono it ' 0 , ....... lilt
_ or if ooa ridoobp<. ) Wh .. or. ,lot (h) NpIi,udo ODd (e)
.. _ of,1oo __ y" " "",,,he boll
it: _ 7 (d) I, .... ""p abo .. CO" beIa-.. ....
__ 42 A!<JI" boll • """" >I
gOUDd ...... Dc IJ>ft"d of , ...
pi ball ... I .. "tim of 'M
...... ..... '"
t _ 0 .. tIoe ...... t ,be boll ..
otnod.(.) H .... fo,don .... pi
ball , ...... boI"""
r ......... ,,, pouo:d .... 11 (b)
Wit .. it ,lie .. Hint ... "'1#1'
.bo", U- .... 1 .. _ bJ
.Ioot boII?
.. u ht fi B- 4-11. , ball ..
1000000d .... 'k a of
.. .ptude Of .. artpc
of SQ{I' . " .he ho"' ..... l The
"

2 , , I
••
' .--1
11W>C. poi.' ;, .. 1M _ of , ...... p oi .... izootolle.!'b d, _
'-Ill II """ t..igllt d, _ J.6U ... A pl .... u • Io<:atod " 'M 'O!'
oi .... ramp. (a) Doeo ,be boU ""'" <HI tile "'mp 00
Chop .... I Mo'''''' in Tw<>_ Th, ... Oim<il!1slon.
tb. pb te . u? \\'be. il l...w. wh.at ar • • he (bl mag.ilud • .00
(0) angle of; .. di<pI"",m,.' fr om ,he laWlck poiJ111
•• 44 1. 1939 Of 19-10. Em. DI"'] z..cchini 'ook b;, bum ... _
< ... ""baU "'" to an 'Xlreme: Afitr being slloo f,om
h. soored ove, ohre< Fer";' ...reek aDd inlo • • f1 (fig. 4-11). (. )
Treatin! him "" • p:utide, ",Irub,. his clearance """ the fin.
w\>e,l (b) Ifhe ,eaohNlrn:oximum h.iy., <JVe' the midJI, .. _.
by _![loch <tid bede ... i,7 (0) Howf .. {rem <h. """""" sboold
the .... .. ",,'e:r have bee. pooiliooed (neyt<1 >ir draV?
FIG . .... ! ProbI , m-l4,
•• 45 Upon 'P"""'! on .. _
00 ol"';g """ nangiog ..... er. an
archef lish "I""" .... ", <icopo
.. ,he m..rt to k.oodr. iI inlO the
"",,'e, (fig. AlthoOIy. the
fuh ..." the iM<ct aloog •
.. r.liy., _line JXiI,b "' >rlgle. and
di .. """" d. • ci"op In.... be
111lIKbed at a <liff .... , ""90 80
its p .... boIic path;, 10 jot.,._
SKI ,he in>trt If .; _ .l6.O".J _
o.!OI m.. and th. !au""" "",0<1
iI 356 wnat tIo ;, ,.quire<!
101 lb. drop 10 be .t ,b. top 01
tho lWaboIi<: ""til when "
r.",he"""- i."",,1 .,,;
•• 4iI I. Fig. 4_+1. • ball iI
lb,,,,,,",, up 0"0 • roo( , ... ding
4.00. low " n..;sh' h _ 20.0
m . bove the ,.Ie ... Ie""l The
bat!". pM. jU>1 befol. I. oding
</
-'
,\f
-.
,/ "" .. ;g
\!&""'"."' ...
flG. ""'l l'robl.m45.

i i' r* ; '" qn(oc"' o
.. Og OD
""--------- --
1 I
Probl.m46.
..,gIo-d " _ 60.0" ..-i," ,b. root: (.) Roo 'he hOfiroru.J dis·
tance d i, tr"",1I. (So. ,he hin, '0 Problom 41.) W.O! lIle 'he
( b) m' gni'ude and « ) .. y. (rel.,i ... '0 ,he borizo.'aI) 01 ,b.
baWl initi>l ""loci! y?
•• 47 A b. u., hi" • pitched ball ... b,. 'be ""nte, 01 ,be boll
122 m abov. 'be !found. Th, ball I •• """ !be b., a' an ""!ie
of 45
0
wi'b ,h. ground. With 'hat l.1uncb. 'be b>ll ,book! have
• bori"""al .... se (r<turnins '0 ,he Im<nch level) of 107 Ill. (a)
Do .. ,II< b>ll d "," • 7.32. m. higb I,ll<, 'h", i. 97.5 m oo.iro.·
tally IrOOl 'be lou""b poLo,1 (b) A, ,b. fene •. what;' 'be dis·
tarKe be" . ... ,h. leo"" ' '''' and ,h. baH Cf "' er1 .... __
•• 48 10 ba>.l<otboll. hong;" • • iIl .. io. in ... 11kb • pl . ye'
.. em< ' 0 "",>1: • • ,he yavi'atioo:d acceltra' ioo wbile in
.,;wir. The illusion depe nds mocb 00 • • kilkd pl.)"," .biIi'y
'0 .. pidly ohif, 'be b.u be,,,,,,,,o b,od> during the ftish, .... , i,
migh' .1>0 be "'pp<lftod by 'be Iooger hOOIXlll,aI di>t""", 'be
pl.1) .... navels in ,h. "pptl part of ,tie jump ,ban in ,b. lower
por,. If . pl' )"'1 jump> ""'b aD initi>l "",«I of '., _ 7.00 0>1. "
an .ogle 01 80 _ .15.0" . ... b., p",ce", 01 ,be jllIDp·, nIlS' doe •
,b. play" spend in ,he upper half 01 ,b. jump (be,,."," m:ro·
mWll heig/ll "'" b>lf maJIimuM l>eigh')? -:::.:
••• 49 A ,k.illed , ki" bI ....... '0 jump up,.....-d befol. Ie,.,h·
ing a doIo-n....-.rd..tope. Con,ide, . jlUllp in wbich 'he buncb
. peed i. ' ., _ 10 ,n. I, """h an!ie _ 9.!J'. ,he ini,i . 1
cow .. ;, :oppro>:im,tely fta' . and !be ""I'''' track b:.. a
.Iope of 11.3'. Figu .. 4--150 .bow, a p"f"mp 'bat oll .....
,h •• kin '0 1.00 0fI the ' '''' poniOrl of ,b. ""'per u,.,k.
Figwt 4· 45b .bow, a jump " ,h. tdfle 01 the ""I'''' u ",k. In
Fig. 4·450. ,110 ,b., lands" _o,;.,,, . ly the lauocb I. v.l.
(. j I" !be I:UldioS. u1\a, is , 110 ... y.." h<'""",n 'be .ki,". P""
and ,II< o.Iope7 In 4· 45b. (bj b .... faJ below 'be I .. nch
1e,..1 does the , kier land.oo (e) "hat .,,? (The g"'" l:ill and
re.mh .. los< 01 000,,01 in ,lie 10DdiDg.)
,.,
(0'
fIG. 4-4S Probkm-t'l.
••• 50 A InII '''0 be .hot lrom level grOll.lld 'oward . _I "
di>lan« x 4-46.T). Fi ....... e 4-46b >IIows ,he Y oompon"'" '.,
ol!he hair. v.locity just .. it wooid "acb ,b . .... D . .. . 1m",·
,ioo 01 ' bat <Ii<,,,,,,,",x. Wha' the 1.lUICh an!ie?

"
fiG ..... 1'robI< .. 50.
,,.
",
••• 51 A lootball kick" can glv. 'be boll ... ioi'i .J .f><"d 01
15 \\11" ore 'be (0) Ie ... .. d (h) ye. ,." elevatio.
OIly.. "' ... l1kh he <a" kick ,he b.u '0 >ror • • fi.k!!;<>al
from a p<Jin' 50 m in 11011' of gooIpo>1. wh""" oo. izOll,>I bar
is H·I til above ,be ,",ouncl? .o.
• •• 52 A boll i, '0 be . bot
from level growd "",b • <tI·
, .... peed R ........ 4--17 . h"""
!be range R i, will hav. ve .....
the i>WMi> aoy. tI, Th. vallie
01 80 do'e:rmme. th. fii£.b' time:
Ie, "P'''''''' ,be IIlaJIimum
Iligb' Wbat is ,be I ... ,
..,.«1 tho boll will hove dori.og
its 1I<£.b' if It;" cbooe. "",b tha,
the ftigllt ,ime is 0.5Ill1_1
,


)00

flG. 4-47
I
J

l'robk .. 52
••• A ball roll. horiroo,olly 011 ,b. ''''' of. stoinoay "';,b
• "",ed of U1 miL The st."" are 20.3 em higb .00 20.3 em
wide. l\"hicb "'P doe" • • ba!I bi, lim? ....
• •• !i4 ""0 _'" 01, .. l>eill! p<oj"".d I,.,.. pOOlId Ie .. !.
• p. o;.c.il. io dioploced 40 m I>oci!O'II.II, ond SJ ....
.boo. ill 10.0<' poonI . .... 'b ...... \he iO) bori_,>1 0<Id
i1» •• nocol """"pooI"'1O 01 life i .. lI,oI odoei" 01, •• ""*'"
,ile! i<' A, ,100 ioOj"" ,1M projK1,1o odu .... ill ............
_.p, ..., .. l""''''' Ic'od.'ow I .. it i, di.opbnd 1>o<U:""",.,
hOlllItloI •• ld>poinIl :
... 55 I. Fis..us.. 1>u.toal1 it l1li ... lit"", It _ 1.00 to
• .d '''''a .. , .. _1It1&lM, II " ... 10 oIooIgIid< ......
... ,,'os .... p ... ,lit 'OP of.1It .. 0111.00 ..... , ... onol ......
' ... opof'''"waII'''OO.Iao ..... dio<'''''''' D _30.0
.. brtlM< ""-t , ....... 1. (.) W .. , iIofm.'oI1It.o1MK'eiluooc
clod by ,.., boll II ... III, '0 coIdl1 ........ .... '1Ie ib) ",""".1Ido
• .d i<) "s" i<flal, .. 10 ,lit bonloo .... ) of'he boI' • ..!oci.y
1"'" ohe. beons ",.1 i d) lIow IIISh If III< .. ..u
M< . ... 7 Uniform art .... Motio"
• 5(, A .. n"ipe'oI.""","',..''''' odd'" rido. on ""if"" ",ir"",
Jar mol"", "';,h period T _ 2.0. """ ,,",,w , _ 111. A, I,
hi> """,lera,IOI'I io if _ i6.00 ",,")i + i -H"Q ",,")j. At .ha'
",".n', " hOI or"-."" v.I .... 01 i.) l' ·11.<><1 i1>J ., 111
' S7 A """,,"0 ,i"" •• corni.oI For". "h .. )., ,ao:.Ii ... IS m.
«ompl,!!i"1 6 .. ,.m •• .",." n, bOfW>olO' lUi, ..... mi •• ,o.
Wb'" a .. (.) ,b. po,iod oIlb. molion. ''''' i1>J "''P'i'u'''' ond
i<J <Ii,..",,,,, 01 her .... "ipe'oI ...,."' .... i"., .. ,he hi.!JI."
poi.l. _ Ih. (d) mayUl ..... .0<1 (0) <Ii,,,,,,,,,, 01 .........
'ripe. oI ........... ,"" " tho lowrOj poio' ? .w
.SI .... 'b .. ;, lilt .. 01 " .. ....,."' . .. "'" of • sprin ...
f1"mi.! .. 10 w, "k.n .ou<lin, .'WII 01. rodi .. .. 1
• 5. ....bell.I •• " •• _0"",,,,,,,,,,, "'0000 .. ayt..
1XOp< .... d ... tiJb,1y ,hal it -... 0 .... "'" "Q,. ontb I Do
diu. 01 about 2() ht '"""'" 11 ..... 01''''' SolI Fnaci>m ..... ).
If a " .. uoo " ... ot.1a " •• :0 ... " SoOCOod. (.) ....... ,w
opoed 01 11*1icIe 00 1lIe OJ .... 'qu"'''' ond (hi ...... " tw
mopitvdt 01,.., I*"elo'. ",,,,,,'01 ...,......,..,,,,,1 (c) 1/ tw
... t"'"". rot_ 10_. do ,b .......... to (I) 01>1 (h) , ..
...... _docJ._.ot ,., ..... ' ...... 1
. 6CI A. Ear, ••• tII ... """' •• ;., • nmdo, oet>ot 6.MJ "'"
• boo_ Eon.a> .. If..,. WI" I ponod 0I9lU1 ....... wa .. are'"
(.) oprcd and ib) Npi""x of ,lie """poIoi ...,..It""ioo. 01
,., .... .. 1
. " A "..;...1 ... "' .... - rot ..... """, ... rtJnI ....
.. • a.m., .ote. A om/! 01"""",&'" 'he «\s' h ... COM .... '
opoed 01 l.66 "'" lid I «1"'POIO! """''''''''_ ;; 01
.""'" 1-83 ...... Pu".,., w.ctoo" ., loa ....... ", .. ive to
,be. . 01>1.,., .... (0) Wblt 10 ,lot 01 11 .... ,. .... ,he
.--..... at 1 """"" 1 it dirKttd (b) d\Io ..... ot>d ie) d\Io
""".1
' 62 A .ot .... , WI """,plett, 1200 .00000;ortf e",'Y
tni.ut .. Considoo. II>< tip 01 • blod •• or 0 .O<LUO 01 !lIS nL
(IJ TIlrouy,....t. .. ofu ... ", doeo ,b. tip "'_"' _ •• """ ...
11" " or. (h) .b. 'ip', oprcd _ «) ,he 01 n,
-.Ientioo? (d) .... "" io ,w period 01,,,,, "04"",1
•• 6l A purs< '" DdNo 2.00 at • .,;1 • wall<1 ., rodi., ),00 ..
.. ... 1 i. oif", .. ci ....... tao<"'" "" , ••• ..,. 01 ..... ry-
BO-ro • .d a, .... rid< ,,.u n..y ar. OIl ''''' _ .odiltIl ... .
A, one .... _ ..... occelo",tioa 01 ItIo "" ... ;1(200 ".,0>)1 +
m/r)j. A, ,bat .. " .. , ODd .............. "" ..
;, 1he ..,.,.10 •• """ 01
..... A portido ........ aIoto,. a"",1ar pooh ..... I ......
1DnI.Ol JY <XltIOdiu1<.,..... •• """', ... , 'reod. A, ,,_ 1,_
.. it ill .. point (5.00 to. 6.00 at) WI" .. !oat, 0.00 "".)j
.. tiott., "" _u ........ """-.A' """'_ 10. 0 ..
it ... v.lociry (- J.oorols)l_ ...,.Ior.ioo.., , •• pooIu"
J <litKtioL W" ........ (.) -< _ (b) J _ ..... of 11M
... 1<. oItlleci""' .. pot. if" - I, " .... t ..... "... ponod"l
.. (,5 AIt, _ 1.00 Llhe ....,.10.","", of. panidt io _11ft"·
doctwioo cin-uIa. mot..,. • (6.00 ....r), .. i".OO "!")j . II
"''''en' """' .... t , peed. A, tim<., _ s.00 .. i .. ...,..Ior .. ioo ;,
(HlU M')i .. ( - 6.00 .. !,,)j . ........ io ''''' .-.. 01 ,he pom
Loku by ponide if ', - " 10 ... •• """ pttiod'l :
•• 6(, A pan.do. """'eJ borizmtoUy in ""if ..... amrl ...
MOl'''''.'''''' ' hoIiz_tal '1 pi ..... At"... , ........ it "' .....
,I>< poi.' .. ooordinat .. (1.00 ... ";Ih •
01 - s.oo1 mi. and III __ Ioroti"" of +1 25) """ .
Wbat are the (.) -< :tAd (1)) Y ooordinot .. 01 tho ""n .. , 011""
cj.ruIar pa,b1
... (,7 A bo-f whirl< a "on. i. a hOfit.on •• 1 ,ir,1o 01 rOiliw
l.'l m and ., be,£ht 2.0 CD .bo"" 1e",,1 9"",,<1 T"" """'
br .. and "" "ODe fti ... 011 bOO""".lIy ... d .. ,it .. lbe
grOlUld of,,, • hoI iz"" .. 1 <Ii" ..... 0110 ro. 1I'b., "
"'" .,agnitud.e 01 tbe cooIJipe'ol """,10 •• ,;"., of ,be II"... dw·
"'8 ,be circular mot""' ? ... .....
• •• 101 A co, ride< ...... '''''.8 ";,b "nil"""
rim, .... tao< .... A, lime I, _ ,1\0 ",,', io', _
{J.OO ..... " .. (4.00""'))" ........ ,o.l "". 'onzonlolx,
. .... Y' .... , A, " - i ... <10"'1 is " - (-3.00 ..
(-4.00""'Ji. "' ..... (.J II •• ..... 01 , lit co ........
lripolOl _""'"., ud (1)) ItIo <00" • • • ..,.,.1" .. "",
duria! Ib< ,ime "'orn! " - .,. "" .... " Jeooo , ... "... ptriotl?
-.... RoIoti". Motion in 0... DItn. ... ion
06' A eu><nr:o .. 011 • podc .... uu<t io t" ... ,,,, __ d
.. 20 knI1I ..... 10 lit _opn' """'"" tIoat .. """"Itt ......
"'"'" )II k .. 'It I ...... tbao "'" uu<t. Suddenly. ItIo _,oil
,,_ "_ ud Ibm IUD .. 4S kn'lt .. ,,_<I.. _ .... ..,
by • _o/y "',..""....,.,.. _mbc. 10100"- , ..
......... polL l10t ""_ ..... __ • ..noc..y _ 2.0 ..
Wbt or< the (a) and (1)) dir«:t_ 01,.., """',
ao:cftt ....... a«IO<diD, '0 III< .......... _ !he .......
tude _(d) <Ii""";"" ...... dIr" '0 "" ..... _ .......... tnber'l
.70 A boot .. tnvtlin! ..... t"' ..... ,he ",,","" eli""""", of
." zan. .. 14 tmIb ..,th .eop«1 to ,I>< ....... of • n .... TIle
""'cr io 9.0 bo!Io with .eop«1 ' 0 , he p<IUtId. Will,
ore ,he (0) _;,1Ide _ i1» dar.",,,,,, 01 'k """,', .. I"""y
";'h ""pe<1 to ,he groooD<l"l A dtild on ,he """, ... Ito I, ...
hoo' t" " , .. .. 6.0 balb "'1"'''' , ,,,he """l "''b.1t ... 1""
(e) ud (d) <Ii.-iott 01 tb. child', •• ";,b re.
1p«I ,,,,ke V'"".dl
Chop .... I Mo'''''' in Two_ Th, ... Oim<il!1slon.
•• 71 A ... m ... run. as ("" os h. = along
• moving ,k\ew:ill: frOID ""0 tnd to ,be otber, toking 2.5Q
The ... <limy . g •• " "PP'''. ond 'he ma. run. '" r .. , .. b.
<aD back ,b. , ;dewal' to his "ani.! poi.'. !>king 10.0
Wb,t is ,be "";0 of .... m . ... runnin! '1"'00 10 d.e , idewalk",
'l"'oo?
Me. 4-9 Roolativ. Motion in Two Dim. nNon •
• 72 A ,ugby player '.0. ";,h tbe ball dire<11y toward hi.
oppooent". goal "OIl! .b. positive dif<'C1K>n of.., x:ro.. H.
' '''' 1e!'illY PO" d .. baU to. ' • • mm", ,., Ions as d.e balr.
velocit), ",I.,,,,. 10 ,be 60id doe. not bav. , pooi';"" x rornpo-
"'nt, Suppooe .be pIa)'.r ruru ., .pe«l 4.0 mi. "'>1iv. to ,b.
bold "hl]. b. pa<'" the ball ",it" velocity" .. ,,1>1iv, 10 him_
.. If"", .... lIl"@ljlude6.0mls.wh., i.lI .. ... :ill ..... gIo it
' '''' b,v. ro. 'be pa .. to be ].gan
.. n 1\o0!.llipJ. A . nd B, I •• ", por1 at ,h. <am. tim<-. Ship A
,,,-,,,,Is oonbw ... , at 24 kno ...... d .hip B ".""Is ,, 28 11>01, i •
• dir"",ioo -10" .. "" 01 """n. (I hOI _ I .a",., .. mile per
how: .... App<oc\i. D.) ""nat are d,., (a) magnitude .nd
(b) &""";011 of tb. Vfloci'y 01 5IIip A relative '0 8? (c) After
wbat ,im ... ill 'h, .lUps I>< 160 MU' icoi mile. "Pan? (J) ",h"
.. iU be ,b. bearing of B (,Joe dir«iioo of B'. "",,'io. ) rel>!iv,
' oA at,battime1 .. "".
•• 74 A Ugh, pl •• e .1tai.o. an aiT>pe«l 01 500 kmlh. 1be pilOl
.. " ou' for • de"i."ioo 800 k", _ . 00,b bu, diKXJV'" ,b ..
,be pi..,. mu" be beoded 20D' " . " of du, .onn '0 fly ,b."
dir«ily.1be plan, .. rive.! in 2.00 h. II'b, were ,!Ie ('1 m.gni _
,ude .od (b) dirtcli"" of ,b. "lind v,loci'y1
•• 75 Snow i. falli.g venK-ally ... ooru'",,' .J'ffd of 8.0
A, "b .. ansIe from ,b. vertical do ,h ••• owIIake-s . ppeor '0
I>< falling,., viewed 1»' ,Joe driver 01 a c>r '''''''lint "" a
."aigh,.I,,,,1 rood ,.,i,b • ,pe«lof 50 kmlb? ....
•• 76 Alter 101 15 mi. i • • IOiM bl""';'g 42 kmlb ., • •
• 'Y' of2(l· """b of ' '''. >II oirpl:me piio' ;, over a '''''" 'h>1
;" 55 km _ DOI,h 01 ,b. " .. ,inS poin" Wh>l i. ,b. >peed 01
,be oirpl .... ,.la,i"" 'o,be air?
.. n A , ... in !Javel> _ JOO,h ", J(I", /s Irt]>'iv, '0 , b.
ground) i. a r';n ,Ila, blown ,,,,,,, .. d the ..,."b by ,be wind.
Th. pa,h of " "b ... iodrop m>k .. or> ongle 01 70' wilb ,be .. r_
tical ...... """ed by ... observes "ationaryoa ,b. younod.A.
oo..rver 00 ,b. mio. bowev ..... "''' the drops fall .,.,-f«ily
veni<-.lly. o.'"mm, ,b. speed oI,b. roill<lrop;< rel>1iv. to ,h.
ground . ....
•• 78 A 2OO-m-IOid, rivtr IIowI due ... , ., • uniform >peed
01 20 A boo, ";!h •• J'ffd 01 800 mi. rel. ,iv, '0 ,h. w.ter
Ie."". ,h. """b bank poinled io • direction],()' _ ." 01 ' OIth.
WIla, ar. tbe (.) . » goitucle aid (b) dirwioo 01 the boo,', v. _
locily rtl"iv. '0 tbe 'pound? 1<) H"", I""S 00... , be boa, tok,
to<[oostbe riv,,1 QlI
•• 79 Two high ... ),. in,."""t ... hO\Oll i. Rg. 4-19.A' ,b.
io""", .ho.,n . • poIire c u P <Ii<'anoe d, _ OOJ m fIOOI ,b,
i."r"",,1oo ODd moving at .peod I', _ !!O kIll/h. MotOl;'" M
;, dis'>nre J" _ 600 m fu,.. tl>e in'mect1oo ODd movi.g
" 'pe.d" .. _ 60 kmlb. (0) In 1lIIi'_v«tOl DOtalioo. " b., ,b.
v.loci,y oI 'be mOlOl;,t ,.;,n r .. p" " '0 ,he pobe< cor' (b) For
,be inst .. , 011""", in Fig,. 4-19 .... bat i. ,b. angle 1><,-." the
velocity founod in (.) and ,b. 'iDO of 'igh' be,....,. ,b. '''''''
can? to) If ,bee"" m.;.,.in their do ,b. on.""'" to
(a) and (b) chong< .. ,he can move ...... ,b. inle""",iOll?
FIG. ' .. 9 Problem 79.
•• 80 In the """,bc, d
view of Fig. 4-50. Ie.p' P
. ad B rare alons "'oiS)"
lin..., """"" h' .. "oin •
.nd p'" .",100",), bol_
der 3u.ro A. R.la,iv. '0
,be guard.. B traveb '" •
coruUll' ,.,..d of 2IJ.0
., ,b. "Y' !I, -
.lO.<Y'. Rel.,i"" '0 ,I>e

Eu",d. P b .. acreler>tod FIG. "SO ProlJlem80.
from rt" ., • ron","'
... Ie 01 0.400 mls' at ,be angl' _ 6(J.()'. A, • <",ain ,ime
dllring ,I>e ace,I«",;oo. P b .. . >peed of 4o.0mio. A, ,b.,
'ime . .. 1Iat.Ie ,be (a) =yUtude ""d (b) directi"" of lbe v._
locity of P rel. ,iv, '0 B aid ,b. (e) rnaeni'ud. and (d) direc-
,100 oftbe a<rele .. ,ioo of P rel>live to B?
•••• 1 Ship A .. Iocated ·1.O kIll oonh .nd2 5 km e"" of.hip
B. Ship A b ••• velocity 01 22 km!It tow",d , he .""'h. and .hip
B b., a veloci')' of -10 krnIh io • direct100 5]. " OI,h of .. " . (.)
Wbat ;, ,b. v,loci'y 01 A "lativ. to B in uni, _v«toJ DOI.,ion
willi l'OIO..-d ,h ..... 1 (h) Writ. ,n <Xp"",1oo (io tern" 01;
aM j) 101 lhe """i'1oo 01 A "lati"" ,<> B .. " fUlK'li "" of '.
"'be .. 1 _ 0 wh,n the 5IIip> ",. in lhe positi"". de.ocribed
. bovo. (e) A, .. hat time i. the oepano,1oo be,..".," ,b. sII;p.
Ie",, ? (d) Wh>1 ;" 'hat Ie ... .."",.'i",,1
• •• 82 A 200-m_IOicie Jive, ba • • uniform low >peed 01
1.1 ml, 'hrough • jungle aDd toward 'be ."". An .. pIorer
wi,b .. '0 I .. "" • omall clearin! "" the >OU1" book and
<ro<. ,Joe ri""r io • "" ...... boal Ib>1 moves .t a oorutao, >peed
0I 4.0ml. wi,b r .. pea '0 ,b, Th,,,;' . clearing o.
,be .on. bank!Q lit up."eam from a point dir«dy oppmite
,I>e d ... ing 00 ,h. JOg ,h ba.Ak. (a) In .. ha, directi"" m ... ' ,be
boa, be poi",«l in Old .. to ,rav.1 i ... u';gllt lio ... d lonod i •
,I>e clearing OIl tb. non. bank? tb) How lonS IOiU ,be boo,
'ake 'ocr"", ,Joe river .. d land i. ,be rle ";"!?
Problom.
IJ You ... kidn.pped by poIi'icol-.<ci<nre m. jOl' ( .. bo are
gPS<' because you ,old ,hem poIi'icai ",",nee ;, .OI • real
><i.DC.). Altbough bliodlold,d. yoo can leU ,Joe >pe«l of , h.ir
"'" (by tbe .. tun. of ,be <fIyae). lb. ,im, oI lf. v.1 (by men_
lolly oIf ...oonds), """ lb. di'l'CIi"" of 1r ... 1 (by
,""" oIong lb. ""an.<lul", 51,.." ')'Ilem). F, om 'b".
yOll b>O\O thai you ar. lokerr oIong lb. foUowing 0001''',
50 0",1I! for W min. "un 90" '0 lb. 20 omlb for 4.0 min.
lurn 90" '0 ,b. right. 20 0mlll for 60,. ,"," 90' '0 lhe lefl.
50 om!h l1li 60 tOlD 90' '0 11 .. Tigh,.l0 .IIIII! for 2.0 mi •. lurn
510' '0 lb. ItI,. 50 kmlb for ,(h. AI ,II " poi.,. (. ) trow f .....
you from yow "arling poinl. OJId (b) in wb>1 dire<1io. ,.Ia,i ..
'0 yow ,niti.1 diIec,ion oI'nvel .re ),<>u?
114 [\"'oin <k.dr. A !argo mel>Uk .. ,.,old "rike. Eanlr
ODd 'l"ickly diS' n en", ",to the TOCty ", ... ,ial helow y ouoo
levtlby lawoching ,oct.. upw>rd >Ad OIl lw:om The
!a ble giv .. five p>in of 1.1UIC1r . peed! ond angle> (/,om ,he
lrorizOll'oI) fill m"b bao<d on • model 01 eral" fonna-
liOll. (O,h" roc .... ";,b i ... """di. 1e .f"'<"d> ond ...
oIro lau,dled.) Suppose that )'ou ... at x _ 20km ",he. lhe
"""old "rike. lb. you.d .. ,ime , _ O."d pooil'OII x _ 0
(Fig. 4_51 (. ) At , _ 20 ",lr.at .... lIex .00 y roordinat .. of
,b. ,oct.. b •• de<! '" yOW' dir«,iorr f,om lawoch .. A 'brough
E'1 (b) Plot ttoe.. <:<><>r<:Iin . .. , . 00 lhen . u 'clr • <"IIIVe 1.'OUgh
lb. poinl> '0 illd.d. roch willi i .. ".,odi ... launcb
ond angle. The ewve ,b",,1d iodie . ... ,b" fOIl .. oold ..., '"
you look up i.,o ,b. 'pp,oachi'B Iocb •• d wh .. din"", ...
mu" b'''''''''D <!wing .... ,old ",ik e> Ioo! .go.
Lauocb Spud(mI. ) Angl. (doey ... )
,
""
14.0
,
16.0
,
'" "" D
".
n"
,

""
FIG. "S' ProbIom 84,
85 l. ng. 4-52 . • lump ol_
pUlly m ..... in llOiform ern:u_
I .. 11>0';00 .. i, ridH " H . di ...
of 2(lOcm 011 ,h. Tim of •
..-b .. 1 I"'''inA """.,e,clock_
,.;.., u-ith • p"ioo 01 5.00
Th. lomp ,b •• tr"PP"ru '0 Oy
off the rim " tlr. 5 o'dock

RG. 'SZ Problem 85.
p<>llilioA (:or if o •• cloct lace). II lea"", lhe ,im at a of
h _ 110 m f,om ,b, floor ond " • dio .. nc. II _ 2.50 m f,om
• ..-aiI.At .,b" height on ,be .. 011 does 'be Jump hi,?
116 A panic .. i. i. llJIiflll m cl,mh , mOIi"" .00.., ,h. lIIigill
of an xY NOfdin"e , y" .m, mov",! doc .. ri .. ..-i1b • perioo
of 7.00 011. im, .. ,. iu pooi' ioo """ III (flom lbe origin) is
7 _ (2.00 m); - (3.00 m)j. AI th>l iDS" 01. ","",' i. il> veloc-
ity i, omi, _vocto, .",,,i001
87 I. F'E- 4_53 .• "U i. 010", directly upward ITom lhe
yound "i1h .. i.iI,.1 'pe,d of '" _ 7.00 mi. Simul ..
• oorutru<1ioo .I •• "or cab hegi."o move upward f,om ,he
'.
YOIlnd ";,b • """,,,.,lI sp<e<l of
1,, _ 100 .... Wb .. muimwn
b";gh' does <be ball ,,:ocb ",l:>-
Ii"" '0 (oJ the [O!"ound ond ( b)
lb. c. b Iloo<1 AI "lral ",Ie does
th •• peed oI ,be ball mange
"i"" to (e) Ih. ground and (d)
th. ",b ftoOI1
AG. ' .. 53 ProbleDl87.
II In Fi,,4-5-1o. a >led move> in 'be neg. ';" x directiOll at
00.""" speed I', .. hile • boll 01 ice .bot I,om Ibe .ted u-i'b
• ""I<>cily Vo _ ,.,I + "I"ive '0 the.ted. V"b"n '"" ball
lond, iI. blllizorolol diopl:ocem.n, <1< .... Ia,i"" '0 ,b. grouOO
(from ii, launcb pooiliOll '0 ilS la.ding "",ilio.) is m . .. urtd
Figure 4-.'i4b giv .. <1< .... . IWK1io. of I'e A"um. tb. ball
lond •• , approxim".ly il>launc.b beighl . Wb. , "'. ,be v.h ...
01 (0) v" . 00 (b) 1'0,1 lb. ball', displ"",menl .1.< .. relative '0
Ibe .t.d = 01><> he me .. wtd AMwne Ib>1 lhe .ttd·, v.Io";,y
,. "'" cb .. ged .. ·b •• ,h. boll io .bot. W." is <1< .... ben I', is (c)
5.0 mi. ODd (d) 15 mi. ?

'"
f lG. " S' Probl,m 88.
'. '''''''1
'"
89 A .. om.n ,.,bo <all 'ow . boa, ., 604 km!h i ... m wal er
lac ... 'oros."njsb' ,ive, ";,h • wid,b of 6.4 to> .. d. a <w"",
of 11 tml1o. Le, i poin' OcrOM ,b. ,i"", and i poinl di _
,«tly do .... 1I0:urr. If she TOWS i •• lin. '0 • poin' di _
,ectly opp<>rile ber "ar1ing "",i'ion, ('.1 " "'b,, angle '0 1
mu" ,b. poin' lbe boa, ODd (b) kow Ion! will she 'ako? (cJ
How !oro! ..-ill.b. uk. in"ead she ", ... !o2 Om 00..'" 'he
,ive, .00 ,b .. bock 10 her ".ning poin'? (d) How loog if sIo.
'''''''' 32 kIn"r ,b. riveT ... d then bock '0 her .. .. ,inS point?
(0) AI .. tr>1 orrgle '0 i .bouId.be point lhe boa, if .h . .... " '0
ClOSII ,lie ,ive, in ,b. ,bor .... !"",ible lime? (I) How 1003;'
Ib>1 .lIones"ime?
90 In Fig 4_5.5 .• n<br ,,,,,ion <Ie,""," "" airpl.", .pproacll_
in! directly from ,h. ea>1. AI Ii", observation.,he oirplane is at
dis1= J, _ Jt<I m from lb •• ",iorr .00 at "Sloe 110 _ 40'
.bove ,ho Iroriror:>. The airplane is "",otd Ih'OIlgh arr ",sol"
clrange U _ In· in tb ... nicol .... , _"""" ptar..: il> dio'>n<e
,boD II, _ 7'X) IlL Fiod tb. (0) "'"goi«,"'" and (b) dirtclion of
Ibe airpl .... , dispi""men' durin! ,hi, period
RG. ' .&5 Probl.", 90.
Chop .... I Mo'''''' in Tw<>_ Th, ... Oim<il!1slon.
91 A ,tile ;, aim"; I". izoaully at , tar!". JO m away. Th.
bull" h.j" 'be urge' 1.9 <DI below ,., poi"" Ull" art
(oJ th. wile,., lime oI l1iy., and (b) jl< 'p""d '" it em"se'
from ,b. rift.? ....
92 lb. fa>! Frt""h ""ill t."", ... ,be TOY (T, "" • G, .. d.
\"t,. ... ) bas • ",h. dul«l . ve'''S' .p«<I 01 216 kmiIL (a) If ,h.
, ..... >louO<! • ">r'" >1 ,hat .J>f'I'd IlIId ,b. masnitud. 01
,be ><e<lentioo .xperienced , •• passengers is ,obe .milO<!
'0 ,,-b>t ,he ,m.all .. , ralli ... of "',,-.,.,. lor ,h.
'roct to>! caJI be t",,,,,ed? (h) At "'h>t .pt«! row' 'be ,mi.
go ",ound a CIIrve "';, b • 1.00 km r..aim '0 be '" 'be """,lera-
tioo 1imi1?
93 A lila!!",'''' field can ro.oe • ohar!"" particle to """'.
in • circular path. SUP!""" ,h., aD .1 ..... ,011 movi.og i.
• cilcle ",p,,,ie,,,,,,, • rodi.al """"ler"iOll of m. srutod.
1.0 X LO" mi.' in a p .. ,icular m"V'.'ic field. (" Wh., is ,b.
opeed olll", ,1«trOll if ,b. ,adi., 01 il> cirrular "",. is IS <J11 1
(h) What is 'be peliod of tbe .. orioo?
94 Th. pooitioo ",<lor lor • PIOIOO ;, iojtj oll ), -; _
'i.Q - 6.01 + 2.1i >nd ,be" I,,,, is'" _ - 2.01 + + 2.ok ,
aU in """" .. ,(.) Whal ;, ,h. prOlOO', di,plooement vOClor . ... d
(b) '0 ,.hot pi .... " ,h.:i, """or palaU.!1
95 A panicle P , ... vek wi,h
CODS'..,' ,p<"<"d 00 • circl. 01
r.m., r _ 3.00 m (Fig.. 4.';/;)
.ad oompi"" one ,evoru,ioo
in 20.0 . Th. p.nicl. passe,
'hrough 0", ,i",. , _ 0. Sta"
,be fol io"",! vWoor in
oitude ... gIe """"ioo (,oV'
"b,iv. to 'be posi'i ... direc·
,ion 01 \>'"b "spec' '0 O.
lind , .. panicle', pooi'ion ""'.
' 01 >< , ... ,iI .... , of (. ) 5.00,.
(b) 7.';O ... d «) 10.0
,

)
- --"'ol----.
flG. 4-54o Problem 95.
(dJ For ,b. 5.00 . iolervai f,om ,h • • nd 01 'he tif,' .. ro<>d
'0 , •• end of ,h. " .. b semnd. lind ,be panicle , d;,pl"". _
"' ... ,. fix !h>1 in' ... oI. tiad (.) iu , v"'ge veloci'y :md it, v. _
loci' y >! ,b. (f) .ad W . 0<1. Nexl . lind , b.
>CCe1 . ... ,ion., lb. <hJ begi.ning :md (iJ •• d 01 ,ba' i ..... oI.
96 An irebo>! >ail! ocr"", ,be ... rfoc. 01 a fTO:Z •• Iak. wi,b
co .... '" oocel . ... 'ion p.-oduced by ,b. lO"i",,"- A, " cerui.
i .... n' ,b. boo,., veloci'y i, (6.3Oi - 8.41]) .. Is Thr'" II«OOOdo
I". r. bo",u .. of, wind ,hiI,. , •• boa, i. in."."neou,1}' "
res' . \\!b" i, ito , ver.ge """"Ie."i"" for ,bi, 3, i,,,,,,,...ll
97 10 3.10 b • • ballooo drift, 11.1 km nonb. 9. ro kIn '''' .
• ad 1.1\8 kIn up",,,,d frOll1 i,. rei .... poin' 00 the yOUJId. F",d
(oJ lb •• "gni'.& of i11 .,.."g. v.!ocity oDd (b) ,b. ongle ito
' VO"te ..,loci1y ",.t .. wi,h ,be hOO"""aI.
91 A ball ;, ,brOlO"1l bOO:zootaUy from > bciS" 01 20., . nd
hit! ,be sround wi,h , ' p .. d ,h.:i1 i, th, oe 'tmes it> ini,i ol
"",«I. Wh" is , •• ini,iol , peed"!
99 A proj<"CIile is lau""bed wi,h on initial ' !""'i 01 JO.,Is .,
, n..,gIe of In' .bov. ,be bOlizon, " . Wb., ... ,h. (.) m. gni _
,ude :md (h) ' .sle of it! veloci'y 2.0. or"r l,u""II. and (e) i ,
,be alIV' obove 01 bolo..-!he bOlizon,0I1 W"" Ol' ,bo (d)
. ,.gni'ude :md (.) ."gIe 01 ito veloci'y , Ittr 1.=b. 1U\d
(f) i, d .. >ogle .Ixw. 01 belolo- tho hOO"""aI ?
100 An ai,poc' 'ermin. l h., • moviDg , ide..-. tk '0 opeed
p..,.n!", 'hrough a lOllS corridor. Larry does.OI ... ,he
meNin! sidewalk". b. , .... 1';0, '0 , ... "lk 'brough ,be <OIridor.
Curly. "ho It.odir 00 ,b. moving .ide .. >.Ik. roven ,be
""". dr>1:" 1re in 71h Mre board> ,be oideI<alk .ad walk.
"""! il How long doe. Moe , ... '0 move ,broogh 'be coni_
<lor? A .. wne 'hat Lorry.ad Moe walk '" ,be Jam. ,po«!.
1 01 A fOOlba.li pl,y.r pUJI,,,befOOlbail so ,n,,, i, will nave •
-hallg ,ime" ('ime of ftig!r' ) 01 • :md Iafld.j6 m , w' )'. If ,be
ball Ie , ... ,h. pia)'" '' fOOl 1';O,m , boY< ,be ground. """.,
mu .. be ,b. (0) :md(h) "ngl. (rela'ive '0 ,be bOli_
z"",,oI) 01 ,1>< 1Wl', iIli1i >.! velo<ityl
102 FOI .. om.n·, volleyball ,b. 'OP of the"" i, 2.24 ..
• boY< ,b. Ooor and tI .. oow' ..... ure. 9.0 m by 9.0 m "" e.cb
, ide of ,be ""'. U,i"!. jump .. rv • . • p1>)"'r " rike> ,h. bon a' •
poi"' ,h .. io3.0 m .bov. 'be moor . Dd. horiz"""l di .. ... " 01
8.0 111 Irom ,1>< ""' . If ,be in"ial v.locity 01 ,be ball is borirorr_
'111.(. ) u-hal minirrlUln m.agoi'ude m .. ' i, h.:ive if,bo ban i, '0
de .. the "," and (b) ..-h., maximum mayrnud. """;, h.:i .. if
, ... baU is 'o"rike ,be fIoOI irr<id. ,h. ba<k line 00 , he oober
,ideof,b.n,,1
101 Fisure 4_57 011""" tilt malgh' path of .
pankle ocr"", an xy roonIi •• te ')"ltm ., ,b.
par,kle i< """"ler.,ed from ,..., 0"'" in_
"IVai .1r,. Th, oocele .... 'ioo is """"m'. The xy
OOOfdin.'es for poin' A "'. (4.00 m. 6.00 m):
,booe fill poin' B >I. (12.0 "'. 1M m} (.J Wha,
the .... 'io .,10, of ,b. aocel".,iorr <:OII1jK>-
( b) Wh", ..-. ,b. OOOIclna' .. 01 lb. pu_
fIG. 4-17
Problem lOJ.
,id, if tile moIioo i< oootinuedflll ",<><ber llu,rvol oqual 'o.it,
104 An , "ro ... u' i, ,oo . .. d in , bori",.,01 cen"ifu!" " •
,adio< of m. (. ) Wbal i< ,be ,,"on.ut". >p<ed il ,b. ce. _
uipe,aI """"leralio •• ",. "'>gn;,ude (bJ H"", lIIany
revol.,ion! p<r minu" are '0 I"oduce ,hi< >«"<' Ie.-.-
,i",,? «) Whal is , •• "",00 of ,b. mooion?
105 (. j What ,lie m. grrnud. 01 'he "'"'ripe,aI """,Ie.-.-
,i"" of on objt<! OIl Eanll' , "I">oor due '0 , •• rOl .. i"" 01
Eanb? (bJ IVh .. would EOl,b', ,oo. ,ion I"'riod h.:i .. '0 bo for
obj"'" 00 'he "'1""'01 '0 b, ve • ","'ripe,aI """"l ..... , ion 01
m, gnitude 9.8 1111" 1
106 A pe""'" ",>lks up , ",ll.. -..I 15_m_long ....,... ,or in '10
Wh,n .... di.g 00 ,h. "ill" """,Ia,or. r>OW OleNins.'.e pe"O"
i, e.mod op i. 60 L Ho .. mucb ,ime ,...",Id i, uke ,hal po"".
'0 walk up ,be moving escal >1or? Doe! , • • • n,,,,,, depe.d o.
'bel,ng,b 01 ,b • • ocaI>1or?
107 A b...,b>.ll i, bit >< grOWld level Th, baU " ",be> its
m"-Umum b.igh' above ground level .1.0 , aft..- being h" .The •
25 , after re.rnin3 it! maximum .eigh'. 'he balllw.l)' de, ,, ,
f . "", ,ha' i, m Irom w"' re i, 10"" hi,. 1\5,."" ,b. grow>d
i, level. (.) WIr., rnaJlimum heigh' above yound level i,
,,,.<b.d by ,h. 1Wl? (b) How hish ,b. feoce? (e) How I ..
be)'""d ,h. ler .. " doe"b. b>.ll "rike the ground? ...
108 n.. ,all.'" of , projeclile depend> 001 only "" II, ""d II;,
bu1 . bo 0<1 , b, val ... g 01 ,he f,ee-fall "",le" ,iO<l. IO"tlkb
VOl;'" Irom pIac< '0 pl>re. 10 19.16. .!ewe Ow.II> .", bIj,b,d •
"""ld', '\IJl.OinS broad jump ,.oont 018.0'1 m.' tb. Olympic
Gome, >1 Bo,lin ("' ... " g _ 9.8118 mi.'). A .. umirrg ,h. oame
v.rue. 01 'b and 0)' bo..- mocb ..-ould his record b, ,, diI_
f"ed if b. b>d compe,ed in".ad in 19'i6 at M.lbown. (..-b.re
g _ 9.7'I9911l1,' )7 .:s:;:
109 Dwing volc .. ic .ruptions. <hunks of ><>lid rock can be
bI .. ,ed "'" of ,b. volc. nO". ,b..., projwilH are called ,'ok""",
bomb. Hsur. 4-58 .how. a "'00' Jfi'1ion of M,. Fuji, in Japan.
tal A, ,.,1", initi. 1 .f"""d would . bomb b.", '0 be .joct.d. at
>ogle 80 _ 35" ,o'too borizOllt>Urorn ,too v.n' . , A i. orderro
Iall at ,too loot of 'b.volcano at B. at venkal eli"." ,,, h _ 3.30
om .. d bor'lOrlta! d"u nceJ _ 9,wtlll? [yror •. ["" ,too mo-
ment. ,be .11 ....... of >iI "" ,be bomb', tr.vel. (b) Wha, woWd
be ,he ,im< 01 !liS.'? (cj Would ,be .lIed 01 ,h. air incr . . .. Of
<leer • .,., yow .".wer in (a)1
• •
fIG. Problem liP.
110 loog ft igh" " midla.,itu<le, in !be Non •• ",
Hornispbere ."""".'eT 'he jer "ream. all .a>I,.."rd airflow
'bat COIl alf"" . pi.,.. .• 'l"'ed rel.,iv. '0 Earth·, .wf.,..,. If a
pilo! m. in,ain., ce"aln speed ",Iativ. '0 !be air (,be plaD'"
,b. 'f"'ed r.Ia,; .. ,o!be ... doc. (!be pi"",,', WJ<lnd
spud) ;, mort ... "hen ,b. ftigh' i. in ,he dif«1K>n of !be je'
"r""" .00 Ie", wh.n ,he High' .. oppo>ire ,h. je' "ream.
Suppose • row>d_'rip Kigh' ",_cl.d be'we<n 'wo <i,i ..
.. parated by 4000 km. wi, h 'be ""'gomS ftigh' in ,he <Ii,,,,,i,,,,
of ,he je' "'''.1Il aad ,hoe ","urn fligh' opposir . i,. lb. ai rline
COIIIJl'l'" odvio ... "" aU'f"'ed of lIXXHmIb. lor u1licb ,be dif_
feTene. in fligh' '''''to for 'he OII'gomS :md ,"urn I\igIIts;,
70.0 min. Wha, i" "'f< ' ''''pe< d i. d.". 00IIl Pili" ""n g?
111 A panicle ...... from the origin ., , _ 0 wi'b a veloci'y
of 8.0; mi, .. d moves in ,he xy pi"" wi,b COlI" .. ' ace.I" ...
,i"" + 2.01) lIIis'. Wbeo ,b. pankle', x ooonIin.1e ;,
29 rn. ,"", >1 .re its ('J y OOOf<li." .... d (h) .1'f'I'dI ...
112 A 'printe, running OIl • ci,cu.l .. track b" , ..,Io::i,)' of
COfI".rlt lIl' gni'Ude 9.2 ",i •• IIod a cenu;pe,. 1 acce]tJatioo of
m'gni'U<Ie 3.!! mfr. Wbat art (.J ,b. 'flOCk radi u • • IIod ( bJ ,hoe
periodof ,he circular motion?
113 An .ledrllll b:ovinS >II initi.1 b""izontai ""Io<i' y of
m'gni'U<Ie 1.00 X 10' em.'. tr.\'Ok in'o ,be ,epOll be,wttn
,...., b""izon .. 1 m"a! pi" .. ,b>l .... Ie<,rkallr charg.d.
lD ,ha, region. ,b. el""'JOn ""v.l, • bOfizon,a! eli"."",. of
2.00 em .00 b • • , COlI""" dowmo-ard """"len,i ... of m, !";_
,ud. t OO X 10" cmJs' due '0 'be cb" S.d pi"'" Fmd ( aJ 11 ..
,im. ,b •• leet,OIl 'H • • '0 "avel ,be 2.00cIII. (h) !be venir->!
dis ...... i, ' ravek dwing ,hat ,im. ,.IIod ,b. m' gni'ude> 01 ill
(CJ hori"""al and (dJ v.nical velocity oompo",n" .. ;,
''''''''SO> from ,h. rogior:>.
11.. A • • Iev.,or wi,b"", • i, wi,b • COII _
""", .pe<"d of A boy 011 ,be .I.va,or >hoot. , ball
dirKrl y uP""">'d. f,om a beWU 01 2.0 m . bove ,hoe . levat""
floor. iu<' .. ,b •• le vat"" HOOf' i. 28 m abo .. 'be Y'""od. The
io"i. 1 'pe<d of ,be ball "';,h '''peer '0 'be .1 •• " "" is 20 mil.
(aJ Wha, mnirn"", hoeiglr' .bove ,b. g,ound doe> 'be ball
Teach? (b) How long do .. ,b. ball 'H. to re!wn '0 ,ho .leva_
'or ftoo, ?
115 Suppoo.e ,bat • • pac. probe can .. ;,ho,aad ,he ""'".,.
of. 20g """,Ie"ilion. (.J Wh at ,b. minimum ,urning radiI&<
of , uclr • ,,>I, moving at •• f"""d 01 O<I. _ttntb ,be .p«d of
liglr' ? ( b) How 10f\! ..-ouId i, uke '0 oorupl" • • 'lO' 'UI'II at
'his.pe<d'I
11& A, 'O/b" initial
.pet<! Ill"" 'he b ...... _
ball pl.ye' in Hg. 4-59
,b,O\O' ,he ball., "'Sle
_ 55· abo ... ,be bori_
zoora!. '0 make ,h •. foul
.bot ? Th. boo-izon,a] dis_
'ance. art Ii, _ tOft
",d J, _ 14 f, . • IIod ,b.
b.ighu are h, _ 7.0 ft
0J>d h, _ 10 fr.
"
fIG. Problem
117 A wooden bo.car moving a!IIIIB ' "T!lith' ",ilr""'"
, ,,,ck at .f"""d v,. A .n""" fir .. a bulle, (in;'ial speed v,J ., i,
from • high_powtJed rill •. The bull" IW"'" 'hrough boob
I"'g,bwi .. ..-, U. of ,h. car. it! .nuance.oo exi, bole. being
exaclly oppr>!ir •• ach ",he, ...... ,.. d f,om ..-i!hin ,h. cor.
F,,,,,, ..-h, direc' ion. ,elative ,,, , hoe IT,d. is 'be bullet fi,t<!l
A""",. ,h., ,h. bull" i, not d.fteeted upoo .n'tTing ,he car.
bul Ih.1 il • • pi'O'd <leo.""" by 10%. Tal:. 0, = Il.'i :lfId 0,
_ 650 mi. (Why r!or:>', yOll ""'" ,0t1>OW 'be width 01 ,ho bo._
car ?)
11. YOII are,o,ruow . ball
"';,h. 'f"'ed of 12.0ml •• , •
'arSe! , b" ;, heigh' h _ 5.00
m . bove 'he 1,,..,1 at...rucb yoo
" Ie ... ,h. ball You
,.."n' ,he baU', velocity '0
be b""izOD,aI " ,be in""", ;,
" ach .. 'h, , arg.L (. ) A, 'O/b "
angle ' . bove ,be bori"""al

•••.... 1
A
-- ,
. I
-" -------------
FIG. 4-60 Problem llS.
mu .. you , hrow!be baD? (bJ \\'b., is ,be horiZOfl,al di ..... '"
from !be " Ie ... poin' '0 ,b. 'ar!"? (C) Wha, ;, ,hoe , peed of
,h. baU jw' ., i, r.:r.ch .. ,b. ' arS,,1
119 Hgme 4_61 .... .,.... !be
path ,ahn by a .kunt
ove, level youod. f,om initi. 1
poi., / '0 tool poin' J The :in-
V'" are" - 30.0'. '" _ 50.0'.
0J>d ,, _ SUO'. ",d ,be <Ii<_
,ance . . ... d, _ SIDra d, _
8.00 m. "'" d, _ 12.0 m. 1'.'1"
ore !be (. j "",&"inrde 0J>d (b)
angle of !be ,hint. dispi""'"
"",n,f,om/ ,ofT
120 A projec'iIe ;, fir.d..-ith
an ini,i.a] 'f"'.d " _ 30.0 mi.
fT"'" level !loullod" , u 'ge'
'hat .. OIl !be. youod. at <lio-
,""'" R _ 20.0 ra as ,boo.-" ill
Fi .... Wbat . re ,h. (oj
Ie,,' .. d (h) Y' ''''' I •• ncb
"'Sle. ,h .. will , U.,.... ,hoe pro-
jectile ,,, ,he ,arget ?
121 aa.is A ;, \10 l., du.
""'" of ...... B. A <Ie", n c .... 1
"
flG. Ul Probl. mll9.
"
flG. U! Probl. m 120.
Chapt ... ( I Mo,;"" in Two ond TIll'" 0;........,. •
.. .... A _ ,01: .. SO b 10 wlIIk 7'i bP. .. 11' ...... 0( .....
NUl "' .... Ik t.'i bI Wt ..... th. TOttI il ra .. fOf
1011. \In.. _ ,be -' ( b) duowo. of I ••
.-t. "'<pi .......... 10 A .. tW _LoS """,,7 """"
, .... h ... ...... 10._ A uti! tho .. d 01 ti, ..... p<nod.
...... or. ,ho (e) ""P.lId< :and r d) dir<Clloll 01 It_ "'''!'O ...
loa!)' _ (.) i ....... opeed'!lbo <211><1,1 ... <!riot w.,. to
, .. " ... to B 11<> ...... IUD 120 h hi ... f ... ito ..... drilot. If
iI to ,nell B jail in Iimo,...u IU" be , .... If) 0IId
IV """""00 01 ill .... "!I ... lociIy after Ib, 'u, p<riod? ....
112 A .. "p, .... AI limo , _ 0" bwrilO b.uro<b«l
f<¢n\ lev.1 !>,,,,,.d. with .. initial 5f><od 01: 16.0 .. to ond I."""h
".V' Imogine • pooi1iOll v.CIor 7 ooo''''"''''''y " ... Clod
Iron> ,1>0 I."""bin! poin. 10 tho burnt<> d.,;08 n .. ftighl.
Gnrb 'M ""'t"iludoo , ot II>< poIilion V<dOf roo il) " ..
40.0" -.I (bl ., _ 80.0". fur .. _ · .. ur. (e) "lor. does ,.ncb
'IJ .... ,"'"'" ....... (d ) ....... tbO! vol ...... d '"""' far (e) bOO' .
iront"y .. d (t) .... ,lCIIIIy io til< bur.dO f,_ !he I:IIJndI
pouo'1 Fu .. _InO", tAl .... don , rndt , .. onu .....
....... io,I .. , ..... __ f .. (ij _i<onIoly_
til .. """.,.;, ,II< buoT.o from .. buDdo p<U.1
123 I. s..pIa ProbImo "-7b. • bioi! .. _ dlrooop I 1Iori_
_,01 dl>1MaI of 686 .. .". • """_ k><",od ..... 10<<1 ud
• -'JI«I aj 45" frMIlho boriwol:al. HOIlI wookl
,lit !tori""" .... di"..." b •• been ... :1 ,lie ...".,., been )(I '"
1'&1>«1
12. (0) Jf ... 10<1,"" io !'<.;.cted !tori"""alIy 0 '!'«'l
of .1.0 X 10' .. ,., b .... lar wiJI {all i. , .... 1.0 .. of ""'i .
",.W dUl."",,1 (II) 000. ,b ........ , incre ... .,. <1«1 .... if
,1>0 itU,W If'«'l io i."o ... d?
125 Th. ""Pi,,,,,, III ,he ,..Iocity ol • prcj«lilo ,,""n il i.
.t it ........ "'" boigl" .bo,., 1tv.1 ill 10 ...... (II 'I'll",
"'lie ...... i'''''' d tl>o .... oci1yol ,lie pr.;.<tile 1.0. btl.,.. il
ocbieYt. i ...... ilnu .. lIt\!llt? (II) \\'bot io , ...... t",1Ude of
,lit yftoal)' of tM proje<:tile 1.0. of .... Idu,,,,,, ii, IOU;;.
..... lI<tt!lrllf _ tot ... k 0 _ y k 0 10 lie .. ,i.e point of
...... _ ... tt!lt on<! fI<lOiti ..... 10 br ;" lilt Wr«Uoo of ".
Y,lo<IIy I ... re. ......... ,i.e (c)."""ordio __ (d )y......,...;.
._ of tM po--oj<ailc 1.0. btl .... " .-,,. ..........
• 'O&IM .. <I lilt (., .. .".,._ on<! (f) yDOordl .. 1.0 ",lit.
i' ......... ... " ... ., boipl1
124 A lrip .... d rabbit ..., ... ot 6.0..r. "'" '.'IU.'
",",,, 0 I.". ..... 1Il1o .. 1 i<e III Dl"J!tiyt>le f,,,,.,.,. At " , ,ab-
"" .ridot ><fOSS tile iu.. ,h. force III the wind <a ..... 10 h •••
o CON, .. I """' .... 'i"" IIlIA ",Is',.me .""h, CtOOH • root.
(Ii.". 'Y"." with tho origiD .. ,he ,.bbi.-. ,""i>l pooi'ion 00
'he icc """ tbe paolli .. x ""io directed to","ud 'be ."'. III """ •
•• t:t", IIOIa'ioo. "'., or. ,he ",bbit'. (.) ,..Ioc"y .. d (b) pooi.
'ion .. b •• i, "'" oIid 10, .l.O.T
127 1M ""'" of .... «nI. Sit • .me e>.!' "''''" ... 10 'b.
aro\llld itt . ........ bI<rWins 10 k_ ,,,,",d II." """". II 'be
'!'«'l of, ... ...-a--of, .. tbe .... "", oforiod. 10 k .. !h ..... , is
lilt '!'«'l of ,i.e ."""" rel:oti ... ,,, .... g<lUllod1
12. Tho ",1dI.,.,. oIaw_pO:dI _all _ ........ ,,_
bali .. I P"''' Jil It """"'good ....... " .robooo:>poc pIoI of
,lit _,ion of til< booIl Ii _ ia Fit. UJ. ""re 'M ,.ad.
ios> or. Q.25. lpon ood tbe bol .... Io_d 01' k 0. (II \\'hat
iI,'" i .. ,ol."._d III ,lit bolI1 fb) Wb>t .. ,be >poe<! of I ... bol
• • the inso .. , ,."' .... it ... Him ... ll<ip •• """. !,,,,,od
10 .. 11 (e) ....... '" io ,l\:M .. axirrru ..
• •


• •
129 Th. New Hampohioe S"'e I'die. u .. li .. :uft '" ,nf",,,,,
h;y.,..y opeed Sol'!""'< 'h. ' OM of ,b. oi, ........ b ...
opted 01 U5 ",i/h ill "in li,. It .. flyi., ."li!ltt ootlb '" tb .. i,
io ... U tira .. <liro"ly """'" • nortb_IOU'" .i!ltwoy.A yound
_ ,,,,,,.Il. tbe pilot by radio tb" , XlO .. i/h wir>d .. bloor·
ina bot "'!it<t> '''!I'''' ,i.e ",ad <lir«oioa n.. ",lor _rva
tht .. >pi .. ol 'br.nod ,be p .... no , .. .-.I In la, aiooIB
tbe LOll 10. In otIIe< wordo,''''gcood'f>O<d .. lIIt
....... if lIItrc ..... "'" ",od (I) F""" ....... di_ .. lilt
(b) Wb .... lIIt ... ado'Boflll< pI __ ,thl iLia
"' .. dHctior> does i, P''''?
110 l'bt r of • poll .... "'?"I"! ,. ,,,uy pl . .. ..
B'''' by r - ]Ji -4- 2 ....[(.14 rod'.)tj j, ""'_re .. Ii in .... Ion
.adl "il...,.,... (. ) CoI",b", d.u MIl, """Jl<'Oo<'" III ,be
,,"nid ... "",,'ion" I _ 0. l A 2.0.lO, ... d4.0 •• *hb"t ,i.e
J'Orliocl", I"'tb iD ,lie xy pw.. f", ,be int.rv.1 0" I "4.(10. (b)
Cok:lI l.t. tbe """,,,,,,,e.,, ol'he 1'""';';1.', '''''''.y " I _ LO.
2.0. and .1.0. Shoo< ,b. ,.1\< .. Iocily i. , .. !"M to ,b. path III
.11< pon;"1e MIl in tho dir«tion 'he I'""'ido ;, OIOviog at .""b
'ime by dr.winS ,II< velocity""",,,,. on lb. pi'" of ,h. p ..
0 .. ·• path i. pari (o} Ie) Cakul""'be """'1"'''''''' of.1\< por·
,"",'. ac<>< .. , .. ioa '" k tA2.0. ondJ..O.
111 A 8'JIk' tff'< oI! f,on til< lOp of. n .... 'Yi'" tM solf
boa In .. itial ... Iority of 4).,!, at ... "&Ie of lO' ""',., ti.e
totillODlal. l'be boll nrikrl ,i.e f .. I\OI.Y. II«llOOIaldlotanoo d
ISO .. I""" lilt .... AB .... til< I ...... Y ...... l (I) H.". biop
io tbe rioe abo ... til. I ....... y? (b) Wh, ;, 11It.p<C<l of ..... boll
.. it "rib. tile f.....-. y?
1U ",TXt ...... " ... 1<1 OIl, pIIwI<l , •• diot .......... 'Y'-
'''''. A oboo. putlt, ,,,",,,, • _ at • 2.0 .. .-
p"".d I .... J. A .. robooropoc pi", of Ib" porotlOll of 'M ... '" ..
... _ i. f"'.!- 4--6-1. "bt .. 'b. , ... lia.p ." O!(l, 1If*' _ tilt
...'" i, .. 10_ at time t w 6. (0) 11').01 is inoial ,d",,;' y III
,!Ie .b", i •• ait·,O<101 "",. ,ioo7 What i. III
tbe h ... ·!OU "",,1e .. ,iOll 00 tho pI .... " (0) II .... t",,& 0/,., i,
io "d ... 0<1 ""'" ,he """ ,.odI .b. pOWld1 (d) If on i<lent;"'"
Ih, ..... ol'b< .b", ;, mod. "" tI>e ",rl ... of Eor'II ....... 1""& af·
, .. it .... I<aoed cIoe. i, .. IIdI'he """ad?


!




, ..

• •
"
"
N
"
• ,ro)
1'roI>i< .. Ill.
l
j
I ·
f
,

Force and Motion I
Many roller_coaster enthusi_
asts prefer riding in the filSt
car becauoo they .. njoy being
the rrst to go over an "edge ·
and onto a downward slope.
However. many other .. nthu_
siast5 prefer the rnarcar_
they claim that goin9 over
th .. edge is far rn<:O'"e frighten.
ing th .. ",. The roller coaster
is certainly moving faster
when the last caris dragged
overthe edge by!he rest of
th .. roller coaster. But there
seems to be some other.
more subtle element that
brings out th .. fear as that last
careom" . to the edge.
What is the
subtle fear
factor in riding
the last car
in a roller
coaster?
The a n ~ N " ' - rs In mi. chapter.
87
Chapter 5 I Force and Motion-I
5-' WHAT IS PHYSICS?
We have seen that part of physics is a study of motion. including accelerations..
which are changes in velocities. Physics is also a study of what can caliS .. an object
to accelerate. 111at cause is a forn', which is.. loosely speaking. a pnsh or pnll on
the object. The force is said to act on the object to change its velocity. For exam-
ple. when a dragster accelerates. a force from the track acts on the rear tires to
canse the dragster's acceleration. When a defensive guard knocks down a'lnar-
terback. a force from the guard acts on the quarterb..1ck to canse the quarter-
back's backwmd acceleration. When a car slmns into a telephone pole. a force on
the car from the pole causes the car to stop. Science. engi neering. legal. and med-
ical journals are filled with articles about forces on objects. including people.
5-2 1 Newtonian Mechanics
The relation between a force and the acceleration it causes was first lUlderstood
by Isaac Newton (1642 - 1727) and is the subject of this chapter. The study of that
relation. as Newton presented it . is called NeWlOllitlll lIIt'ciWlliC5. We shall focus
on its three primary laws of motion.
Newtonian mechnnics does not apply to all situations. If the speeds of the in-
teracting bodies are very large - an appreciable fraction of the speed of light -
we must replace Newtonian mechanics with Einstein's special theory of relativity.
which holds at any speed. including those near the speed of light. If the inter-
acting Ix>dies are on the scale of atomic structure (for example. they might be
electrons in anatol11). we must replace Newtonian mechanics with quantum me-
chanics. Physicists now view Newtonian mechanics as a special case of these two
more eomprehensi"'e theories. Still. it is a vely important special case because it
applies to the motion of objects ranging in size from the very small (almost on the
scale of atomic structure) to astronomical (galaxies and clusters of galaxies).
5-3 1 Newton's First Law
Before Newton formulated his mechanics. it was thought that some influence,
a "force." was needed to keep a body moving ill const;ant velocity. Similarly. a
body was thought to be in its "natural state" when it w;as at rest. For a lxxIy to
move with consta nt velocity. it seemingly had to be propelled in some way. by
a push or a pull. Ot herwise. it would "naturally" stop moving.
These ideas were reasonable. If you send a puck sliding across a wooden
floor. it does indeed slow ;md then stop. If you want to make it move across the
floor with constant velocity, you have to continuously pull or push it.
Send a puck snding over the ice of a skating rink. however. and it goes a lot
farther. You can imagine longer and more slippery sUlfaces. over which the puck
would slide farther and farther. In the limit you can thi nk of a long. extremely
slippery sUlfaee (s.1id to be a surfan·). over which the puck would
hardly slow. (We ca n in fact come close to this situation by sending a puck sliding
over a horizontnl air table. across which it moves on a film of air.)
From these observations. we can conclude thm a lxxIy will keep moving ",ith
constant velocity if no force acts on it. That leads us to the first of Newton's three
laws of motion:
... N(· .... ton·s Fin;t If no force acts on a body. the bodi_ velocity cannot change:
that is. the body cannot accelerate.
In othu words. if the body is at fest . it stays (l\ rest. If it is moving. it continues to
move with the sa me velocity (same magnitude (lfld sa me direction).
5·4 1 Force
We now wish to define the unit of force. We know th<lt <I force can cause the
acceleration of a body. ThUs. we shall define the unit of force in temlS of Ihe
acceleration thai <I force gives to <I swndard reference body. which we t<l ke to
be the swndard kilogwm of Fig. [·3. TIlis body hru; been assigned. exactly <lnd
by definition.<I mllss of I kg.
We pntlhe swnd<lrd body on <I horizonwl frictionless wble <lnd pull Ihe body
to the right (Fig. 5-1) so thllt. by trial nnd error. it eventually experiences n mea-
sured acceler<ltion of I m/s'. We then dednre. <IS a m<lUer of definition. that the
force we <Ire exerting on the st<lndard body has <I m<lgnitude of I newton
(abbreviated N).
We c<ln exert <I 2 N force on our standard body by pulling it so th<lt its
nle<lsllred <lcce[er<ltion is 2 m/5
'
. and so on. TIIUS in general. if our standard body
of I kg mass has an <lcce[er<ltion ofm<lgnitllde o. we know th<lt <I force Fmust be
acting on it and that the magnitude of the force (in newtons) isequ<l[ to the mag-
nitude of the accelenltion (in meters per S<lcond per S<lcond).
ThUs. <I force is me<lsllred by the ncce[er<ltion it produces. However. accelera-
tion is a vector qU<lntity. with both magnitude and direction. Is force also a vector
quantity? We c<ln ensi[y assign n direction to <I force (just Ilssign the direction of
the ncce[er<ltion). bm that is not sufficient. We must prove by experiment that
forces are vector qU<lntities. Actually. tlwt h<ls been done: forces are indeed vector
quantities: they have magnitudes <lnd directions. and they combine according to
the vector rules of Chapter 3.
TIlis me<lns thill when two or more forces act on <I body. we can find their lwt
forn·. or rl'sult ant forn·, by ndding the individual forces vectori<llly.A single force
th<lt has the magnitude <lnd direclion of the net force has the same effect on the
body as allthe individu<l[ forces together. Th is fact is c<llled the principlr uf supl"f-
fur fo rrrs. The world would be quite str<lnge if. for exmnp[e. you and n
friend were to pull on the st;mdard body in the same direction. each with a forre
of I N. and yet somehow the net pull was 14 N
In this book. forces are most often repreS<lnted with a vector symbol such <IS
F. and a net force is represented wilh the vector symoo[ F,.". As with other
vectors. a force or a net force can h<lve components along coordinate axes. When
forces <let only n[ong a single axis. they are single-compom'llI forces. TIlen we 1:.1n
drop the overhead alTOWS on the force symbols and just use signs to indicate Ihe
directions of the forces along that a."I::is.
Instead of the wording used in Section 5-3. the more proper statement of
Ne"10n·s Flfl;t Law is in temlS of a lIel force:
.- Fi r:sl 1.3"·: If no net force act, on a body (F"" = 0). the bod)··,
cannot change: thai is. Ihe body can nol accelerate.
There m<ly be multip[e forces acting on a body. but if their net force is zero. the
body cannot acce[er<lte.
Inertial Reference Frames
Newton·s first law is not true in all reference frames, bm we can <llways find
reference frames in which it (as well as the rest of Newtonian mechanics) is true.
Such frames are called inl'fti;l[ rl·frrl·ur r or simply ilwrlial framrs,
.-An inerTial reference frame i, one in which NewlOn·, law, hold.
For example. we can ru;sume th<lt the ground is an inertial fr<lm,; provided we c<ln
neglect Earth·s astronomical motions (such as its rotation).
5-4 I Force
,
FtG. S·' A forc" F on Ih" standard
give, lhal body an accelera-
lion a.
Chapter 5 I Foree and Motion-I
,.,
'"
FlG. 5·2 (a) The path of a puck
sliding from nonh pole a. seen
from a .tationary poin! in space.
Earth rOlates to the easi. (b) The
path oflhe puck as seen from the
ground.
That asswnption works well if. sa)'. a puck is wnt sliding along a siron strip of
frictionl ess ice - we would find that the puck's motion obeys Newton's laws.
However. suppose the puck is wnt sliding along a long ice strip extending from
the north pole ( Fig. 5-2a). lf we view Ihe puck from a stationary frame in s]Xlce.
the puck moves south along a simple straight line because Eanh's rotation
around the north pole mere1), slides the ice beneath the puck. However. if We
view the puck from a point on Ihe ground so Ihat we rotate wilh Eilrth.the puck's
pmh is not a simple straight line. BecaU5e the eastward speed of the ground be·
neath the puck is greater the filrther south the puck slides. from our ground-
based view the puck appeilrs to be deflected westward (Fi g. 5-2b). However. this
appilrenl deflection is c<llised not by a force /.IS required by Newlon's laws bill by
the fact that we see Ihe pnck from a rotaling frame. i nlhis situalion. Ihe ground is
f"l l1I l',
In this book we USUill1)' assul1le Ihat the ground is an inertial frame and that
measured forces and accelerations are from this frame. If measurements
ale made ill . s<ly. an elevator Ihal is accelerat ing reliltive to Ihe ground. then Ihe
measurements ilre being made in a noninert i<ll frame <lnd Ihe results can be 511r-
prising. We see all example of Ihis in Sample Problem 5-8.
/cHE CKP O tNT 1 _
addilion of forces 1', and 1', 10 yield the Ihird "ector. which is mean! 10 represent
their nel force F .. ,?


LJ
,.,
"
'"
"
(e)
F,
(0)
{7
,.,
{2J
(fI
,12]
"
F,
5-5 I Mass
Everyd<lY experience tells ns that a given force produces different magnitudes of
acceleration for differenl Ixxlies. Put a baseball and a bowling ball on the floor
and give both the same sh<lrp kick. Even if you don't actually do this. you know
the resnit: The bilseball receives a noticeably larger acceteration Ih<ln the bowling
ball. The two accelemtions differ because the m1l5S of the baseball differs from
the mass oflhe bowling balt - bnl whal.exilctl),. is mass?
We can expt<lin how to measure mass by imagining a series of experimenls in
<In inertial frmne. In the firsl experimenl we exert il force 011 <I st<lndmd body.
whose mass 1110 is defmed 10 be 1.0 kg. Suppose th<ll the standard bodyacceler-
ates at 1.0 mls
1
. We can Ihen Sol)' the force on Ihill body is 1.0 N.
We next ilpply that same force (we would need some way of being celiain it
is the same force) to a second txxI)'.lxxly X. whose mass is not known. Suppose
we find tlmt Ihis Ixxly X accelerates at 0.25 IIlls
2
. We know Ihat H less mossire
oowixlll receives a greater acceleration than a more massive bowling b..lll when
the S<lme force ( kick) is applied to both. leI us then nmke the following conjec-
tme: TIle 1<ltio of the masses of two txxIies is equal to the inverse of t he ratio of
their ilccelenttions when the same force is applied to both. For bod)' X and the
standard bod)'. this tel1> us thm
Solving for IIIxyields
1.0 mis'
IIIx = mu-=(1.0 kg)02' /'
ax . "ms'
= 4.0 kg.
Our conjecture will be useful. of course. only if it continues to hold when
we change the applied force to other values. For example. if we apply an 8.0 N
force to the standard body. we obtain an acceleration of 8.0 mls'. When the 8.0 N
force is applied to body X. we obtain an acceleration of2.0 mls'. Our conjecture
then gives us
au 8.0 mis'
mx = lIIo -=(1.0 kg) 20 /' = 4.0 kg.
ax . m s
consistent with onr first exp.;rimenl. Many exp.;riments yielding similar results
indicate that ou l' conjecture provides a consistent and re liable means of assigning
a mass to any given body.
Our measnrement exp.;riments indicate that mass is an inTrillsic clmracter·
istic of a body- that is. a chHracteristic that automatically comes with the
existence of the body. They also indicate that mass is a scalar quantity. However.
the nagging question remains: Whm. exactly. is mass?
Since the word mass is used in everyday Engli sh. we should have some intu·
itive understanding of it. maybe something thm we can physically senS<'. Is it
a body's size. weighl. or detlsity? The answer is no. allhough those characteristics
are sometimes confused with mass. We can 5<1y only that I/Ie mass of a body is
1171' dwrtlclcrislic Ihal re/ales a force 011 Ihe body 10 Ihe resldlillg IIcce/era/ion. Mass
has 110 more familiar definition: you c.1n have a physical sensation of mass onJ)'
when yon try to accelerate a bod)'. as in the kicking of n baseball or a bowling ball.
5·6 1 Newton's Second Law
All the definitions. exp.;riments.and observations we have discussed so far call be
summarized ill one neat statement:
.-N",,·lon'. S,..,,,,,d i-u,,·:The net fOKe on a body isequalto Ihe product of body',
mass and ii, acceleration.
III equation form.
r. .. = ilia
second to ... ). (5.1)
This equation is simple. but we must use it cautiously. First. we must be
certain aoout which body we are appl)'ing it to. Then F"" must be the vector sum
of all the forces Ihat aCI on Ihal body. Only forces thai act on 117m body are to be
included in the vector sum. not forces acting on olher bodies thai might be
involved in the givell situation. For example. if you are in a rugby scrum. the net
force on YOII is the vector sum of all the pushes and pulls on your body. It does
not include ll1ly push or pull on another player from you.
Like other vector equmions. Eq. 5·1 is equivalelltlo three componenl equa·
tions,one for each axis of an xyz coordinate system:
F"",.x = 1110", F .... ? = mar and F"",. , = 1110,.
(5.2)
Each of these equations relates the net force component along an axis to the
acceleration along that same axis. For example. the first equation tells us that the
5,6 I Newton's Second Law
Chapter 5 I Force and Motion-I
Ii' I""
Uni ts in Newto n's Second Law (Eqs. 5-' and 5-2)
S)"Slem Force
Sf newlon (N)
CGS· dyne
BriTi,h' pound (lb)
"J d)'ne - I g·cm!" .
' lib - J slug· fi ls'.
Moss
kilogram (kg)
gram (g)
slug
Acceleralion
mi.'
eml"
fi ls'
sum of all the force components along lhe.t axis causes lhe x componenl a, of the
body's acceleration. bUI caw;es no acceleralion in lhe y <lnd::: directions. Turned
aronnd . the acceleration component a, is caused only by the sum of the force
components along the.t axis. III general .
.-The acceleration component alonga given axis i, caused onfy b" Ihe ,urn of The
force componenls along th.15"",e axis.and nol by force component. along any
olher axis.
Equation 5-1 teUs us that if the net force on a body is zero. the body's
acceleration a = O. If the body is at rest. it stays at rest: if it is moving. it continues
to move at constant velocity. In such cases. an)' forces on the body bl/fallet' one
another. and both the forces and the body are sai d to be in eqll ifibriwlI.
Commolily. the forces are also said to wlleelone another . bU1the term "cancer' is
tricky. It does 1101 mean that the forces cease to exist (ca nceling forces is not li ke
canceling dinner reservations). The forces still act on the body.
For SI units. Eq. 5-1 tells us Ihat
I N = (1 kg)(1 m/s2) = I kg·mls". (5-3)
Some force units in other systems of units ale given in Table 5-1 and Appendix D.
To solve problems with Newton's second law. We often draw a rrN'-budy
in which the only 1xxI)' shown is the one for which we are summing
forces. A sketch of the body itself is preferred by some teachers blll. to save space
in these chapters, we shall usually represent Ihe body wit h a dot. Also. each force
on the body is drawn as a vector arrow with its tail on the body. A coordinate sys-
tem is usually included, and the acceleration of the body is sometimes shown with
a vector arrow (labeled as an acceleration).
A consists of one or 1110re bodies. and any force on the !:odies inside
the system from bodies ontside the system is called illl l· ... lerlmi If the bod-
ies making lip a system are rigidly connected to one anot her. we can treat the sys-
tem as one composite body. and the not force F,." on it is the vector slim of all
external forces. (We do not include intl·rtlll i fo rcrs- that is. forces between two
lxxlies inside the system.) For example. a connected railroad engine and car form
a system. If. 5..1)\ a tow line pulls on Ihe front of the engi ne. the force due 10 the
tow line acts on the whole engine- car system. l ust as for a single lxxly. we can re-
lale the net external force on a system to its acceleration wilh Newton's second
law. F"", = ilia. where III is th" total mass of the system.
H E C K POI N T 2 The figure here show. two .!'orizontal forces acting on a
block on a frietionlcS5 floor. If a Ihird horizontal force F
J
also acts on Ihe block. whal
ore Ihe magnitude and direction of F, when Ihe
block is (a) STanonary and (b) moving 10 the left with
a constant speed of 5 mi.?

5N
,

Sample Problem QI
Fi gures 5-Ja to c show three situations in which one or
two forces act on a puck that moves over frictionless ice
along an x axis. in one-dimensional motion. TIle puck's
mass is m = 0.20 kg. Forces F'., and ':, are directed along
the axi s and have magnitudes FI = 4.0 N and F, =
2.0 N. Force is directed at angle 0 = 30° and has
magnitude F
J
= 1.0 N. [n each situation. what is the
acceleration of the puck?
In each situation we , an relate the acceler-
ation a to the net force F." acting on the puck with
Ne"10n's second law. f:"", = ilia. However. because the
motion is along onl y the x axis. we can simplify each sit-
uation by writing the second law for x component s onl y:
F"".x = ma ..
(5-4)
The free-oody diagrams fo r the three situations are
given in Fi gs. 5-3d to [ with the puck represent ed by a
dot.
Siwation A: For Fig. 5-3d. where only one horizontal
force acts. Eq. 5-4 gives us
FI = 11111, .
which. with given data. yie lds
FI 4.0 N
" - = = 20 m/s'. (Answer)
• //I 0.20 kg
llie positive ,lllswer indicates that the acceleration is in
the positi ve direction of the x axi s.
Situation B: In Fig. 5-3e. two horizontal forces act on
the puck. r., in the positive direction of x and f:, in the
negative directi on. Now Eq. 5-4 gives us
FI - F, = mo
x
'
Sample Problem QI
In the overhead view of Fig. 5-411. 11 2.0 kg cookie tin is
accelerated at 3.0 mls
1
in the directi on shown by a. over
a frictionless horizonwl sunace. The accelerati on is
caused by three horizontal forces. only two of which are
shown: F'I of magnitude 10 N and f, of magnitude 20 N.
What is the third fo rce F
J
in nnit -vector nowtion and in
magnitude-angle notation?
1'4" iJ' The net force F "'" on the tin is the sum of
the three forces and is related to the acceleration avia
Newt on's second law (F." = mal. ThUs.
F! + F, + F, = ma. (5-6)
which gives us
(5-7)
5-6 I Newton'sSacond Law
,

fo'
'"
rl'ud Ii
I

I;
Ii

,.
-<
p

f" f" In
Ft G. 5·3 (a )- (c) 1 n I hree sit ualions. forces act on a puck thaI
moves along an x (d )- (f) Free_bodydiagram"
which. "ith given daw. yi elds
4.0 N - 2.0 N
0.20 kg
(Answer)
Thus. the net force acce lerates the puck in the positive
d irection of the x axi s.
Situation C: In Fig. 5-3[. force f:
J
is not directed al ong
t.he direction of the puck's acceleration: onl y x compo-
nent Fl.. is. (Force F
J
is two-dimensional but the motion
i5 only one-dimensional.) ThUs. we write Eq. 5-4 as
(5-5 )
From the figure . we see that F
J
.
x
= F
J
cos O. Solving for
lhe acceleration and substituting for F
J

x
yield
FJcos O- F
I
no m
(1.0 N)(cos 3D") - 2.0 N
0.20 kg
= - 5. 7 mls'.
(Answer)
ThUs. the net force accelerates the puck in the negative
direction of the x axi s.
,
,
,
(a) (b)
,
-/-i


Ft G. 5-4 (aj An over head oflwo ofl hree horizontal
forces Iha13e1 on a cookie lin.fe. ulling in acceleration a. F, is
not shown. (bl An arrangement of ilia. - I"; . and - F,
10 find force F ..
Chapter 5 I Foree and Motion-I
Calculations: Because this is a two-dime nsional prob-
le m. we C(/1l/101 find F 3 merely by substituting the
magnitudes for the vector quantities on the right side of
Eq. 5-7. l nSlead. we must vectoriall y add ilia. - F
I
(the
reverse of F!) .llnd - F
1
(the rever ... of F1). as shown in
Fig. 5-4b. This addition can be done directly on a vector-
capable calculat or because we know both magnitude
and angle for all Three veCTOrs. However. here we shall
evaluaTe the right side of Eq. 5-7 in Terms of compo-
nents.firsT along the x axis and the n along the y axi s.
x components: Along thex axis we have
F
J

x
= ilia, - F
1
.
x
- F1.x
= m( II cos 50°) - FI cos( - 150") - F2 cos 90°.
Then. substituting known dma . we find
F],x = (2.0 kg)(3.0 m/s' ) cos 50° - (10 N) cost - 150°)
- (20 N) cos 90°
= 12.5 N.
PROBLEM·SOLVING TACTICS
Tactic 1: Dimensions and Vectors When you arc
dealing with forces.. you cannot just add or subtract Ih .. i, mag._
nit ude. to find Iheir net force unless Ihey hnppen to be
directed ,,/m.c tlte "xil<. If they not . )'ou must usc
vector addition. either b)' means of a veetor-capable ca1cu lator
or b)' finding components along axes.. one axis at a time. a. i,
done in Sampl e Problem 5_2.
Tactic 2: Reading Force Problems Read the problem
statement several tim'" until you h"'e a good menial picture
of what the situation is, what data are given. and what is
requested. If )"ou know .,hat the problem is about bUI don't
know what to do put the aside Dnd reread (he
text. If you are hazy about Newton's second law. reread that
section. Study the sample problems.. And remember tha t
.otving ph)'sics probtems ( li ke repairing cars and designing
computer chips) lake. tmining .
y components: Similarly.along the y axi s we find
F J_ y = /lilly - F Ly - F
l
"
= m(a sin 50°) - F! sin( - 150°) - F, sin 90°
= (2.0 kg)(3.0 m/sl) sin 50° - (10 N) sine - 150°)
- (20 N) sin 90°
= - 1O.4 N.
Vector: I n unit-vecTor notation. we can writ e
F
J
= F
J
) + F
J
) = (12.5 N)l - (10.4 N)l
"" (13 N)1 - (IO N»). (Answer)
We can now nse a vecTor-capabl e ca lculmor to geT The
magnitnde and the angle of F
J
• We can also nse Eq. 3-6
to obtain The magnitude and the angle (from the posi-
tive di recTion of The x axis) as
F
J
= -i Fi .. + n, = 16 N
and
F
J
_,
fJ = t1ln-
I
-- = _ 40°.
F,.
(Answer)
Tactic 3: Draw Two Types of Figures You may need
two figures. One is a rough . k .. tch of the actual situation.
When you draw the forces. place the tail of each force ' ·ector
either on t he boundary of or within the body on which th"
force acts. The other figure is a free-bod)" diagram: the forces
on a s;/lgle body are drawn. with the body r .. presented b)' a
dot or a sket,-h. Pl ace th .. tail of each force "octor on the dOl
or . keTch.
Tactic 4: What is Your Syst em? If )"ou are using
Newton', second law. you mu", know .,hat bod)" or s)'st em
)"ou are applying it to. In Sample Problem 5_1 it is the
(not the ice). In Sample Problem 5_2. it is the cookie tin.
Tactic 5: Choose Your Axes Wisely Often. we can
save a lot of work by choosing one of our coordinJle axes to
coincide .,ith one of the forces.
5·7 I Some Particular Forces
The Gravitational Force
A rorC{' F.-on a body is a cel1ain type of pull that is directed TOward
a second body. In these early ch .. pt ers.. we do not diSC\lsS the nature of this force
and nsually conside r situati ons in whi ch the second lxxIy is Earth. ThUs. when we
speak of the gr .. vit.:lIional force F.- on a body. We usually mean a fo rce that pnlls
on it directl y tow<lrd the cent er of Earth - thaT is. directly down toward the
ground. We shall ass ume that t he ground is an inertia I frame.
Snppose a body of mass III is in free f .. 11 with the free-fall accelemtion of
magnitude g. l1te n. ifwe neglect the effects of the air. the only force aCTing on the
body is Th e gravit ationa l force Fl' We can relate thi s downward force and
downward acceleration with Newton's second law (F = ilia). We place a vertical
y a...as along the body's pmh. with the posiTive direcTion upward. For this axis,
Ne\\10n's second law can be wrillen in The fonn F."., = mar which. In our
situation.
- F. = III( - g)
0'
F. = IIIg. (5-8)
I n words. the magnitude of the gravitational force is equal to the product mg.
This same gravitational force. wiTh the same magnitude. sTill acts on the body
even when the body is not in free fall bUT is, say. at rest on a pool wble or moving
across The wble. (For The graviwtional force to dil;appear. Earth would have to
disappel1r.)
We can write Newton's second law for the gravitational force in these veCTor
forms:
- F ' . -
r . =- .) =-lIIg) = lIIg. (5-9)
where J is the Imit vecTor Thl1t points upward along a y l1xis.directly away from the
ground. and If is the free-fall acceleraTion (wriTten as a vector). directed down-
ward.
Weight
The \H·ight W ofa body is the magnitude of the Ilet force required 10 prevent the
body from falling freely. as measured by someone on the ground. For example. to
keep 11 balll1t rest in your hand while you stand on The ground, you must provide
an upward force to balance The graviTmionnl force on The ball from Em1h.
Suppose the magnitude of the gravitational force is 2.0 N. Then The magnitude of
your upward force mUST be 2.0 N. and thus The weight W of the ball is 2.0 N. We
also say That the ball ... eighs2.0 N and speak about the ball ... eighillg2.0 N.
A ball wiTh a weight of 3.0 N would require a greater force from you -
namely. a 3.0 N force - to keep it at rest. 11le rel1son is Tlll1t the gravitational force
you mUST balance 11115 a grel1ter maguiTUde - namely. 3.0 N. We S<1y that this sec-
ond ball is heavier tha n the first ba 11.
Now let us generalize the situation. Consider a lxxly TIKIT hl1S nn ncceleration
Ii of zero relative to the ground. which we again assume to be l1n inerTial fmllle.
Two forces act on The body: a downwl1rd graviwtional force F. l1nd n b.1111ncing
upward force of nl1lgnitude IV. We can wriTe Newton's second law for 11 vertical y
axis. with the positive direction upward. as
I n our siTUation, this becomes
"' - F. = m(O)
0'
IV = F, (weighl , .. ,In ground as iocrliat frome).
Th is equation Tells us (assuming the ground is an inertial fra me) That
.-The Wof a bod)' is equal 10 the magnitude F.of the gra';lational force
on the body.
Substituting mg for F, from Eq. 5-8. we find
w = IIIg (weighl ).
which relates a body's weighlTo its IIl11SS.
(5-10)
(5-11)
(5-12)
S-7 I Some Particular Forces
Chapter 5 I Foree and Motion-I
Fp. _ .. ;;
FIG. >'5 An equal-arm balance.
When the device is in balance. the
gravitational force F;L on the body
being w .. ighed (on the left pan) and
the total gravitational force F;R on
the reference bodi", (on the right
pan) are equaJ.Thus, the mass me of
the body !x-ing weighed i, equal to
the total mass "'R of the
bodies.

Scat,· m,.,-Led
in dth«
or
""". ""i1 ..
FIG. A spring ,cale.The reading
is proportional to the ,w;gh/of the
object on the pan.and the scale
that weight if marked in weight units,
If. instead.it is marked in mass units,
the reading is the object', weight
only if the value of g at the location
where the is being used is the
same a, the nlue of g at the location
whNe the scale was calibrated.
To weigh a body means to meaSUre its weight. One way to do Ihis is 10 place
the body on one of the p..lns of an equal -amI balance (Fig. 5-5) and then place ref-
erence bodies (whose masses are known) on Ihe other pan nntil We slrike a hal-
ance (so thatlhe gravitalional forces on lite Iwo sides malch). The llIasses on the
pans Ihen malch. and we know Ihe mass of Ihe body. Ifwe know lite value of g for
the local ion of lite balance. we can also find the weighl of Ihe body "1th Eq.5-12.
We can also weigh a body with a spring scale ( Ftg. 5-6). The body slrelches
a spring. moving a pointer along a scale Ihat has been calibrated and marked in
eillter mass or weight units, (Most b..1lhroom scales in Ihe United Stales wor k Ihis
way and are marked in the force unit ponnds.) If the scale is marked in
mass unils. il is accurate only where the value of g is Ihe same as where the scale
wascalibrmed.
TIte weight of a body musl be measnred when the body is nol acceleraling
verlically relative 10 the growtd. For ex..lmple. you can mea511Ie your weighl on a
scale in your hillJtI'OOlil or on a filSl train. However. if you repeal the measure-
ment with Ihe scale in an accelerating elevator. Ihe reading differs from your
weighl because of Ihe acceleration. Such a measuremenl is called an apparent
weight.
CaU/ioll: A body's weight is nol ils nl1lSs, Weight is the nwgnilude of a force
and is related 10 ma,s by Eq. 5-12. If you move a hod)' to a poinl where the va lue
of g is different . the body's mass (an inlrinsic property) is nOI different but the
weighl is, For example.lhe weighl of a bowling ]).11 1 hilving a mru;s of 7.2 kg is 71 N
on Earth but only 12 N on Ihe Moon. The mass is the same on Earth and Moon.
but the free-fall accclentiion on Ihe Moon is only 1.6 mis'.
The Normal Force
If you stand on a tnal1ress. Earlh pulls you downward. bUI you remain slalionary.
The reason is thai Ihe mallress, because il deforms downward due 10 you. pushes
up on )'ou. Similarl y. if )'ou sland on a floor. it deforms (it is compressed. benl. or
buckled ever so slightl y) and pushes up on you. Even a seemingl)' rigid concrete
floor does Ihis (if it is nol sitling directly on Ihe ground . enough people on the
floor could brell k it).
The push on )'ou from the mlll1ress or floor is a lIornml F;, .. The name
comes from Ihe mathemalicallerm normal. meaning perpendicu lar: llle force on
you from. say. the fl oor is perpendicular 10 Ihe floor.
,.. When a body presses against 3 surface. the surface (e,·e'!. a seemingly rigid
one) deform, and pushes on the body with a nonn31 force F.v that is perpendicular to
surface.
Fi gure 5-7a shows an example. A block of maSS til presses down on a lable.
deforming il somewhal because of Ihe gravilational force r. on Ihe block. The
lable pushes up on Ihe block wilh r;, .. l1le free-body diagram for Ihe
block is given in Fi g.5-7b. Forces F
8
and F, •. are the onl)' Iwo forces on Ihe block
and they are bolh verlical. Thus. for lite block we clln write Newton's second lilw
for a posilive-upward y axis = as
F, •. - FI = /liar
From Eq. 5-8. we substitule mg for Fr finding
F", - IIIg = 11111,.
Then Ihe nlllgnilude of the nomlal force is
F, •. = IIIg + /1U1, = m(g + a,) (5- 13)
for IlnyveJ1icai acceleration I I . of the lable and block (Ihey mighl be in an accel-
erating elevalor). If Ihe table and block ilre nol Ilccelerilling relative 10 Ihe
ground then a
y
= 0 and Eq. 5- 13 yields
F.,' = mg. (5-14)
H E C K POI N T J In Fig. 5_7. is magnitude of Ihe nornlal force r;, grealer
Ihan.less Ihan. or equal 10 IIIg if Ihe block and lable are in an ele'olor moving upward
(a) al conslant speed and (b) al increasing speed?
Friction
[fwe eilherslide or attempt to slide a body over a surface. the motion is resisted
by a bonding N;tween the body and lhe surface. (We di scuss this bonding more in
the next chapter.) 11le resistance is considered to be a single force T. called ei ther
Ihe fricti on31 or .i mply fri ,·li" " . This force is direcl .. d along Ihe sUlface. op-
posite the direction of the intended motion (Fig. 5-8). Sometimes. to simplify a sit-
uation. fric! ion is assumed to be negligible (the surface is frictionless).
Tension
When a cord (or a rope. cable. or other such Object) is attached to a body mid
pulled taut. the cord pulls on the body with a force r directed away from the
body and along the cord ( Fig. 5·9a). The force is often called a lellsiOli force
N;c;mse the cord is sa id to be in a stat e of lellsioll (or to be Imiler lensioll). which
means that it is being pull ed taut . TIle lellSioll if/lhe cord is the magnitude T of the
force on the body. For example. if the fore<:: Oil the body from the cord has magni-
tude T = 50 N. the tension in the cord is 50 N.
A cord is often said to be massless (meaning its mass is negligible compared
to the body's mass) and HllSlrerdwble. TIle cord the n exi sts only as a connection
between two bodies. It pulls on both bodies with the same force magnitude T.
even if the bodies and the cord are accelerating and evell if the cord 11l1lS around
a massless. f ricliolliess pldley (Figs. 5-9b and c). Such a plliley has negligibl e Illass
compared to the bod ies and negligible friction on its axle opposing its rotation. If
the cord wraps halfway around a pulley. as in Fig. 5·9c. the net force on the pulley
from the cord has the magnitude 2T.
H E C K POI N T 4 The suspended body in Fig. 5·9c weigh. 75 N. Js T equal 10.
grealer Ihan. or les. lhan 75 N when Ihe body is mo,-ing upward (l) al constanl speed.
(b) al mcreasl ng speed. and (c) at decre .... lng speed'/
,
,
\
,.,
10( ,<i
FtG. 5·9 (a) The cord. pulled laU! . is under ils Illass is negtigible.lhe cord pulls
on Ihe body and Ihe hand wilh force r.e,-en iflhe cord runs around. massless. frictionl .....
pulley as in (b) and (c).
S-7 I Some Particular Forces
Non".l fOITe I;
BtocL
I.)
,

,
III!xL
----11--.
,
,
''l
FtG. 5·7 (a) A blocl r",ting on a
lable experiences a normal force 1).
perpendkular (0 (he tabtelOp. (b)
The free· body diagram for Ihe block.
FtG. 5·8 A frictional force Top.
poses (he a11empled of a bod)'
over a surfaee.
Chapter 5 I Foree and Motion-I
PROBLEM_SOLVING TACTICS
Tactic 6: Normal Force Equation 5_14 for the nonnal
force on a body holds only when PH is direc1ed upward and
the body's vertical is zero; so we do flol apply it
fOf mh.r orienta1ions of f!.v or ,,·hen the '-enic,,1
is not zero. Instead. we must derive a new expression for r:v
from Ne"'lOn's second law.
We are free to move J:;v around in a figure as long as we
Sample Problem '"
Ttlkeoff illusion. A jet plane taking off from an aircrafl
c.11'1ier is propelled by its powerful engines while (x>ing
thrown forward by a catapult mechanislll installed
ill the carrier deck. 111e resulting high acceleration
allows the plane to reach takeoff speed in a short
distance on the deck. However. that high acceleration
also compels the pilot to angle the plane sharply nose-
down as it leaves the deck. Pilots are trained to ignore
this compulsion. but occasionally a plane is Hown
straight into the ocean. Let's explore the physics (X>hind
the compu [sion.
Your sense of vertical depends on visual elues and
on the vestibular system loc..1ted in your inner ear. That
system contains tiny hair cells in a Huid. When you hold
your head upright. the hairs are vet1ically ill line witb
the gravitational force r. on you and the system signals
your brain that )'our head is upright. When you tilt YOUT
head b.xkward by some angle </>. the hairs are bent and
the system signals your brain abont the tilt.111e hairs
are also bent when you are accelerated forward by an
applied horizontal force F'<'I" The signal sent to your
brain then indicate"erroneously. thm YOUf head is tilted
b..1ck. to be in line with an extension through the vector
snrn F .... = F, + F_ ( Ftg. 5-1011). However. the erro-
neous signal is ignored when visual clues clearly indicate
no tilt.such as when you afe accelerated in a car.
A pilot being hurled along the deck of an aircraft
carrier at night almost no visual clues. TIle illusion
of till is strong and very convincing. with the result thai
the pilot feels liS thongh the plane lellves the deck
hellded sharpl)' npward. Withotll proper training.a pilot
will attempt to level the plane by btinging its nose
sharplydown.scnding the plane into the ocean.
Suppose that. starting from rest. a pilot nndergoes
constllnt horizontal IIcceleration to reach a takeoff
speed of 85 mls in 90 m. Whm is the angle</> of the illu-
sionllrytilt experienced by the pilot? -;S=
'iiJ".jj ij .
(1) We can use Newton s second law to re-
Ime the magnitude F_ of the force on the pilot (from
th" seat back) to the resulting acceleration II,: F,,,,, =
11111,. where III is the lllass of the pilot. (2) Becausc the
acceleration is constant. we can use the equations of
Table 2-1 to find IIx'
maintain its orientation. For in Fig. 5-711 we can slide
it downward '0 that its head is at the boundary between block
and tabletop. However. F.v is least likdy 10 be mi,interpreted
when its tail is eithr at that boundary or somewhere within
the block (as shown). An e'-en bener technique is to draw a
free_body diagrnm as in Fig. 5-7b. with the tail of F.v direc1ly
on the dot or,ketch representi ng the block.
Calculations: We need to find the tilt angle</> of the line
that extends throu!!,h F""". the vector sum of the vertical
gravitational forceYI acting on the pilot and the horizon-
tal applied force F •••. We can find <f, by rearranging the
force vectors as in Fi g. 5-1Gb and then writing
"'
F.,
tan cf>
,
(
F.w )
</> = tan-
t
F. '
(5-15)
Since we know the initial speed ( I'Q = 0) . the finn I
speed (I'x = 85 m/s) . and the displacement (x - ,to =
m). we use Eq. 2-16 (1" = 1'3 + 211(.r - xo) to write
(85 mls), = ()' + 211,(<xJ Ill).
"'
ilL = 40.1 mls'.
TIJen. by Newton·s second law. F."" = 1Il(40.1mls
1
).
Substittlling this result and the result Fg = 111(9.8 Illls')
in Eq. 5-15 gives us
_ _, (111(40.1 tillS') ) _ 76"
</> - tan -
111(9.8 til/5
2
) .
(Answer)
Thu" as the plane is accelermed along Ihe c.1rrier deck.
the pilol feels an illusion of a b.1ckward tilt of 76°. as
Ihough the plane is IIngled nose-up by 76°. The illusion
may compel the pilot to plll the plane nose-down by 76°
just after Iilkeof(
'o}
,
-- ,
- .'

f"f'P
'"
FtO. 5·10 (II) Force r""".directed to the right. i, applied
to the pilot during takeoff. The pilot's head feels as though it
is tilted back atong the red dashed tine. (b) The vector sum
r .... (= " + r "",) is at angle </I from the vertical.
5-8 1 Newton's Third Law
Two bodies are said to illleraCl when they push or pull on each other- that is.
when a force acts on each bodr due to the other body. For example. suppose YOll
position a book B so it leans against a crate C ( Fig. 5-ll n). TIlen the book and
crate interact :TIl ere is a horizonwl force F
BC
on the book from lhe crate (or due
to the crate) and a horizontal force FCBon the crate from the book (or due to the
book). This pair of forces is shown in Fig. 5- llb. Newton"s third law swtes that
... Nc"t on-. Third When two bodies interact. the forces on the bodies from each
other are atway. equal in magnitude and opposite in direction.
For the book and crate. we can write this law as the scalar relation
(equat magniluoo.s)
or as the vector relation
(O<jual magn,luoo.s and OJIposilo dire<1ion. j .
where the minus sign means that these two forces are in opposite directions. We
can call the forces between two interacting bodies a third-];I,," furn' When
any two bodies interact in any situation. a third-law force pair is present. The
book and crate in Fig. 5-lla are stationary. but the third klw would still hold if
they were moving and eVen if they were accelerming.
As another example. let us find the third-law force pairs involving the can-
taloupe in Fi g. 5-12<1. which li es on a table that stands on Earth. TIle cantaloupe
interacts with the tabl e- and with Earth (thi s time. there are three bodies whose
interactions we must sort out).
Let's first focus on the forces acting on the C<.1ntaloupe (Fig. 5-l2b). Force FCT is
the normal force on the cantaloupe from the table.and force t eE is the gravitational
force on the cantaloupe due to Earth. Are they a third-law force pair? No.
they are forces on a single body, the C<. '\lltaloupe. and not on two interacting bodies.
To find a third-law pair. we must focus not on the cantaloupe but on the
interaction between the cantaloupe and one other body. In lhe cantaloupe -
Earth interactio n (Fig. 5-1 2c) . Earth pulls on the ca ntaloupe with a gravitational
force FeE and the C<.1. ntaloupe pulls on Earth with a gravitational force F
EC
' Are
these forces a third-law force pair? Yes. because lhey are forces on two interact-
ing bodies. the force on each due to the other. ThUs. by Newton's third law.
FeE = - F
EC
(caJllaloup<l - Earth inlOraetionj.
Next. in the cantaloupe - tabl e interaction. the force on lhe cantaloupe from
the tnble is Fcr <lnd.conversely.the force on the wble from the cantaloupe is FTC
(Fi g. 5-l 2d). TIlese forces are also a third-law force pair. and so
rer = - rTC (canlaloupe-tabl.,mcractioo).
/c H E C K P OI NT 5 Suppose thai the cantaloupe and table of Fig. 5_12 are in an
eientor cab that begin. to accelerate upward. (a) Do the magni tudes of t TC and rer
increase. decrease. or stay the .ame? (b) Are those two force. stiU equal in magnitude
and opposite in dire<1ion? (c) Do the magnitudes of P
CE
and P £c increase. decreas.c:. or
stay the same? (d) Are thO§e two forces .till equal in magnitude and oppooite in direction?
5-9 1 Applying Newton's Laws
TIt e re51 of lhis chapter consists of sample problems. You should pore over
them. learning their procedures for attacking a problem. Especially important is
knowing how to translate a sketch of a situation into a free-lxxIy diagram with
appropriate axes. so Ihal Newton's laws CJn be appli ed.
5-9 I Applying Newton's Laws
(o(
F.., Fe.
;;:,
, c
' 'l
FIG. s..." (a) Book B leans against
craIe C. (b) Forces F"c (t he f OKe on
the book from thecr8te) and Fc8
(the force on thecrDte from the
book) ha\'e the same magnitude and
are opposite in direction.
c.",,,to,, p" c
[ aflh Ii
, oj
,tt(II"''''.' force fro,,,
T i<·a; (gr.>\i,,"iou.J foree )
(0)
[ " "h
( ' j
' 'l
FIG. 5· 12 (a ) A cantaloupe lie. on a
table that ,tands on Earth. (b) The
forces Oil rhe ealUalorrpe are Per and
PcE' (e) The third-Ia ... force pair for
the cantaloupe- Earth interaction.
(<I) The thi rd-Iaw force pair for t he
cantaloupe- table interaction.
Chapter 5 I Force and Motion-l
Problem Build skill
Fi gure 5-13 shows a block S (the sliding block) with
mass M = 3.3 kg. The block is free to move al ong II hOli-
zontal frictionless sUlface Imd connected. by II cord that
wraps over a frictionless pull ey. to a second bl ock H
( the hangillg block ). with mass 111 = 2. 1 kg. TIle cord
and pulley have negligible masses compared to the
blocks (they are ·· massless· ·). The hanging block H fall s
as the sliding bl ock S accelerates to the right. Find (a)
the accelemti on of block S. (b) the accelemtion of block
H. :md (c) Ihe tension in the cord.
Q What is lhis problelll ali abolll ?
You are given IWO bl ock and hang-
ing must al so consider Eartli. which pull s
on both bodies. (Without Eal"lh. nothing would happen
here.) A towl of five forces act on the as shown
in Fig. 5-14:
I. llHlcord pulls to the right on sliding bl ock S with a
force of magnilude T.
1. The cord pulls uf'\"ard on hanging block H with a
force of the same magnitude T. TIli s upward force
keeps block H from falling freely.
3. Earth .£u lls down on bl ock S with the gravitationa l
force F
6S
• which has 11 magnitude equal to Mg.
4. Earth .£ul ls down on bl ock H with the gravitational
force F
EH
• which has a magnitude equal to IIIg.
5. The table pushes up on block S with a normal force F,.,.
There is another thing rou should note. We assume
thm the cord does not stretch. so that if bl ock H fall s
1mm in a cerwin time. bl ock S moves I mm to the right
in that same time. Thi s means that the blocks move
together and their accelerations have the smne magni-
tude a.
Q How do I classify this problem? Should it suggesllI
parlicular law of physics 10 lIIe?
Yes. masses. and accelerations me involved.
and ther.. should su ggest Newton's second law of
moti on. F
o
" = ilia. That is Oll]' starting Key Idea.
Sliding
block S
-
Ftictionk,>,


I
Ihnging
/I
FIG. 5·13 A block S of mas. M is connected 10 a block H of
mass III by a cord Ihat .... ·raps o"e. a pulley.
F,.. Block S
-,
M
,
"
-
T
b
/I
" ..
FI G. 5_14 The forces acting on the 1"'0 blocks of Fig.5-13.
Q If I apply Neft."IOIlS second III \\, 10 this problem. 10
\\'hich body shOl&11 appl)' it?
We focus on two bodi es. the sliding bl ock and the
hanging block.Although they are ex/ended objects (they
are not point s) . we can still treat each block as a p..1rticle
becanse evel)' p..1T1 of it moves in exactly the same war.
A second Key Idea is to appl r Newt on's second law
sep..1rate ly 10 each bl ock.
Q
We <:. 1nnot represent the pulley as a p..1rticle
becanse different part s of it move in differe nt ways.
When we discuss rotation. we shall deal with pnlleys in
detail. Meanwhile. we eliminate the pnller froRI cOll5id-
eration br assuming its mass to be negli gible compared
with the masses of the two blocks. Its onl r functi on is to
change the cord's olientation.
Q OK. Now how do I apply r "" = ma 10 the sliding
block?
Represent block S as a panicl e of mass M and draw
(II/the forces that act 011 it. as in Fig. 5- [Sa. 11li s is the
block's free-body diagram. Next. draw II set of axes. It
makes seme to draw the x a."is para Uelto the wbl e. in
the direction in which the block moves.
Q Thanks. bill ),011 stilt ha"<'Il '1101d lIIe ho\\' 10 apply
p.« = ilia 10 Ihe sliding block. All you" 'e done is
explain hoft." 10 dmw a free-body diagram.
You are right. and here's the third Key Idea: The
expression r." = flora is a vector equati on. so we can
writ e it as three component equations:
(5-16)
in whi ch F
o
" •• ' F""", . and F"", _, are the component s of
the net force along the three Illes. Now we appl r each
component equation to it s corresponding direction.
Because block S does not accelerate veni cally. F"",_ , =
Ma, becomes
F.,' - F.
s
= 0 o j' F.,' = F,s.
Thus in the y direction. the magnitude of the normal force
is equal to the magnitude of the gravitational force.
No force acts in Ihe Z direction. which is perpendic-
ular to the page.
In Ihe .r direction. there is only one force compo-
ne nt. which is T. Thus. F"",.x = fHa,
T = Ma. (5-17)
Thi s equation contains two unknowns. T and a: so we
cannot yet solve it. Recall. however. Ihat we have not
said anything about the h.mging block.
Q f agree. HoI\' do I apply p." = ma to Ihe hanging
block?
We appty it jnst as we did for block S: Draw a free-
body diagram for block H. as in Fig. 5-15b. Then apply
F"", = rna in componenl form. TIlis time. because
the acceleration is atong the y axis., we use the y part of
Eq. 5-1 6 = may) to write

We can now substitute mg for and - (I for a, (nega-
tive because block H accelerates in the negative direc-
tion of tile y a"l:is). We find
T - mg =-ma. (5-18)
Now nOle thai Eq5. 5-17 and 5-18 are simultaneous
equation,.; with the same two unknowns., T and a.
Sublracting these equations eliminates T.lllen solving
forarields
m
/I = g.
M + m
(5-19)
,
1;.
,
-----<>
,
,
'"

"

5lktittg
l>lock S
l'
/Cpr

bloclll
\ ')
,'>
FIG. 5· , 5 (a) A free.body diagram forbtock S of Fig. 5· t3. (b)
A free-body diagram for block H of Fi g. j · [3.
Sample Problem DJ
In Fig. 5-16a. 3 cord pnlls on a box of sea biscuits np
along a frictionl ess plane inclined at (J = 30°. The box
has mass 111 = 5.00 kg. and the force from the cord has
magnitude T = 25.0 N. Whal is the box's acceleration
component a along the inclined plane?
5-9 I Applying Newton's Laws
Subslituting this result int o Eq. 5-17 yields
T
Mill
M + m
g
·
(5-20)
Putting in the numbers gives. for these IWO qnantilies.
:lIld
m
(1 = M + m
g
=
2. 1 kg ')
3.3 kg + 2. 1 kg (9.8 ml,.;·
= 3.8 mls" ( Answer)
T _ Mill g _ (3.3 kg)(2.1 kg) (9.8 m/sl)
- M + m - 33 kg + 2. lkg
= i3 N. (Answer)
Q The problem is /101\' so/red. right?
That's a fair qnestion. bnt the problem is not reaUy
finished until we have examined the result s to see
whether they make sense. (If you mnde these C<1.!cul:ltions
on the job. wouldn't you wanl to se.;> whether they made
sense Ix;fore you turned them in?)
Look first nl Eq. 5-19. Note that it is d imensionally
correct and Ihal the acceleration a will nlways be less
than g. 111i s is as it must be. because the hanging block is
not in free fall. The cord pulls upward on it .
Look now at Eq. 5-20. which we can row1;te in the
form
M
T = mg.
M + m
(5-21)
In this form. il is easier 10 see Ihal this equation is also
dimensionally correct. because both T and mg have di-
mensions of forces. Equation 5-21 al so let<; us see Ihal
tho te nsion in the cord is always less than mg. and thus is
always less than the gravitational fo«:e on Ihe hanging
block. TImt is a comforting Ihoughl because. if T were
greater than mg. the hnnging block would accelerate
npward.
We can also check the resnlt s by slUdring special
C<"lSCs, in which we can gness what the nnswers mn5t be.
A simpl e example is to PUI g = O. as if Ihe experinlenl
were carri ed om in interstellar space. We know thlll in
that case. the blocks would not move from rest. there
would be no forces on the ends of Ihe cord .and so Ihere
would be no tension in the cord. Do the formnla5 pre-
dici Ihi s? Yes., Ihey do. If you put g = 0 in Eqs. 5-19 and
5-20. yon find a = 0 and T = O. Two more special cases
yon might try ar" M = 0 and III __ 00.
The acceleration nlong the plnne is set by
the force componenls along the plane ( not by force
components perpendicular to Ihe plane). as expressed
by Newton's second law (Eq. 5-1 ).
Chapter 5 I Force and Motion-I

.-
_____ F,
,.,
F1G. 5·16
pulled up a plane b)' a
cord. (b) The three
forces acting on the
box: the cord·s forC<" f.
l!Je gravi!tional force
§. and the normal force
F.y.Jc) Thecomponents
of F, along the plane
and pependicular
to it.
.oc: ___ _
Sampl e Problem R'
,OJ
,,'
T
Let"s relurn to the chapler opening question : What
produces the feilr factor in Ihe last car of a lraditional
gravily-dlivcn roller c01l5ter? Let"s consider a coaster
hilving 10 identical cars with total lllaSS M and massless
interconnections. Figure 5-17a shov,. Ihe coaster jnst
after the first car has beglUl its descent along a friction -
less slope wilh an angle f} . Figme S-17b shows the
coaster just before the [asl car begins its descent.
Whilt is the ilcceleration of the coaster in these two
situations? -.:s:=
iij4"IJiJ
(1) 111e net force on an object causes the
object ·s ilcceleration. as relat ed by Newton·s second law
(Eq. 5-1. F,." = mli). (2) When Ihe motion is along a
singl e axis. we write Ih1ll law in component fOl1n (such
115 F"",-. = ma.) 111ld we use only force components
along tll1lt axis. (3) When S<!veral objects move together
at Ihe same velocit y and with the s.1me acceleration.
they can be regarded as a single composite objec1.lllIema/
forces act between Ihe individual objects.. bUI only eXlemll/
forCt'scan cause the composite object to accelerate.
Calculations for Fig. 5-17a: Flgnre S-17c shows free-
bod)' diagrmns associated with Fig. 5-17a. v,ilh conve-
nient axes superimposed. The tilted x' axis has ils posi-
tive direction up the slope. T is the magnitude of the
inlerconnection force betweenlhe car on the slope and
the cars still on the plateau. Because Ihe CO<1sterconsists
of \0 identic.11 cars "ith total mass M. the mass of the
Calculation: For convenience. we draw a coordinate
system and a free-body diagram as shown in Fig. 5-l6b.
The positive direction of the x axis is up the plrule. Force
f from the cord is up the plane and has magnitude
T = 25.0 N. The gravitational force is downward
and has magnitude mg = (S.OO kg)(9.8 mls') = 49.0 N.
More important. it s component along the plane is down
the plane and has magnitude mg sin f} as indicated in Fig.
S-l&. ([0 See why that trig flUlction is involved. com pare
the right triangles in FIgs. 5-[6b and c.) To indicate the
direction. we can write the component as - mg sin (}. The
nOl1nal force r. .. is perpendicular to Ihe plane and Ihns
does not ddemline acceleration along the plane.
We write Newton·s second law (J!"", 1ll1i) for
motion along the x axi s as
T - mgsinf} = ilia.
Substituting data and solving for a. we find
/I = 0.100 mls'.
(S-22)
(Answer)
where Ihe positive result indicates Ihat the box acceler-
ates up the plane.
-
,-,
FtG. 5·17 A roller
coaster with (a) the firs!
caron a slope and (b)
altbUithelaSicar
on the .lope. (c) Free-
body diagrams for the
cars on the plateau and
lhe car on Ihe
slope in (a). (d) Free_
body diagrams for (b) .
,
--0-<> --0
,
--0-<> --0
",
car on Ihe slope is fuM and Ihe mass of the cars on Ihe
platell u is &M. Only a single t'xler/l11/force acts along the
x axis on Ihe nine-c.1r composite - nmnely. the intercon-
nection force with magnitude T. (Ille forces between Ihe
nine cars are inteJ'\lill forces.) l1ms. Newton· s second law
for motion along the x axis (F"" .•
T = TI;Ala. (5-23)
where a is the magnitude of the acceleration a. along
the x axis.
Along Ihe tilt ed x ' axis.. two forces act on Ihe car on
the slope: the interconnection force with magnitude T
( in the positive direct ion of the axi s) and the .f ' compo-
nent of the graviwtiona[ force ( in the negative direction
of the axi s). From Sample Probl em 5-5. we know to
writ e that gravitaliona[ component as - lIIg sin 8. where
III is the mass.. Because we know thai the car acce[erllles
dO"'"lhe slope in the negative .f ' direction wilh magni-
tude a. we Ciln "Tit e the accelerati on as - a. Thus. for
thi s car, with mil5S -fuM we wnte Newton's second law
for motion along the x' axis as
T - fuMg sin /I = -fuMe - a). ( 5-24)
Substitut ing for Tfrom Eq. 5-23 and solving for II. we have
, . "
a = TI'i g
s1n
" .
(Answer)
Calculations for Fig. 5-17b: Fi gure 5-17d shows free-
body diagrams associated wilh Fig. 5-17b. For the car
Figure 5-1&1 shows the general arrangement in which
two forces :He applied to a 4.00 kg block on a friction-
Ie,s fl oor, bllt only force r, is indicated. That force has a
fixed mngnitude but can be applied al angle /I 10 the
positive direction of the x axis.. Force F, is horizontal
and fLxe d in both magnitude and angle. Figure 5-[8b
gives the horizontal acceleration a, of Ihe block for ilny
give n value of 8 from 0° to 90°. What is the value of a.
for 8 = J8001
(1) The hori zontal acceleration a. depends
on the net horizontal force F",,_ •. as given by Newton's
second law. (2) The net horizontal force is the SImI of
the horizontal compone nts of forces r, and r, .
Calculations: The x component of r, is F, because the
vector is horizontal. TIle.f component of FI is FI cos 8.
Using these expressions and a mass III of 4.00 kg. we can
write Newton's second law (F'." = ma) for moti on
al ong th e x axis as
FI cos 8 + F, = 4.00a •. (5-25)
From this equation we see that when 8 = 90°. FI cos 8
is zero imd F, = 4.ooa •. From Ihe graph we see that
the colTesponding acceleration is 0.50 m/s
l
. TIllis,
5-9 I Applying Newton's law,
still on the plateau. we rewrit e Eq. 5-23 as
T = -kMIl.
For the nine cars on the slope. we rewrite Eq. 5-24 as
T - -t"Alg sin /I = TI;Al( - II).
Again solving for a. we now fmd
• . 8
a = 109 Sill . ( Answer)
The fear factor. This last answer is 9 times the first
iUlswer. D 1US, in general. Ihe accelerati on of the cars
greatly increases as more of them go over the edge and
ont o the slope. That increase in acceleration occurs re-
gard[ess of your car choice, bill your interpretation of
the acceleralion depends on the choice. In the first car.
most of the acceleration occurs on the slope and is dll e
to the component of the gravitational force al ong the
slope, whi ch is reru;onabl e. l n the last car, most of the ac-
ce[eration occurs on the plateau and is due to the push
on you from the b.lck of your scat . That push rapidl y
increases as you approach the edge. giving you the
frightening sensati on thm YOll a re about to be hurled off
the plateau and into the air.
F, = 2.00 N and r, must be in the positive direction of
the.l axis.
From Eq. 5-25. we find that when (J = 0".
FI cos 0" + 2.00 = 4.000,. (5-26)
From the graph we see thai the cOJTesponding accel-
erati on is 3.0 mls' . From Eq. 5-26. we then find that
FI = IO N.
Substituting FI = 10 N. F1 = 2. 00 N. a nd 8 = [SO"
ill10 Eq. 5-25 leads 10
a. = - 2.00 111/ 5' . ( Answer)
,

sst.
(0'

,
'" FtO. 5,18 (a) One of the two force, applied loa btock i,
shown. It, (J ea n be varied. (b)The block', acceleration
component {I. versus (J.
Chapter 5 I Force and Motion-l
Problem
In Fig. 5-19fl.a p..1ssenger of mass 11/ = 72.2 kg stands on 1:13111 lJi (
_'" •• ,' _ For :my conswnt velocity zero or other-
a platfonn scale in an elevator Cilb. We are concerned
wise). the acceleration II of the JXIssenger is zero.
with the 5C<11e readings when the cab is stationary and
when it is moving up or down.
(a) Fi nd a general solution for the scale reading. what-
ever the vert iclllmotion of the cab.
(I) TIle Tellding is equal to the magnitude of
the nOlnl1l1 force F. •. on Ihe passenger from Ihe sc1l1e. The
only other force acting on Ihe passenger is the gra\1ta-
tional force FrIIS shown in Ihe free-body diagram of Fig. 5-
19b. (2) Wecan relate the forces onlhe p..1s.senc:er to his ac-
celerlllion a by nsing Newton's second 1111,1,' (f "'" = ilia).
However. recal1lhat we can use this k1W only in an inertial
frame. If the Co.1b accelerates. Ihen it is 1101 an inertia I frame.
So we choose the grolllld to be ollr inertial fmme and make
any measure of the p..1sscllger's acceler;nion rek1tive to it.
Calculations: Because the two forces on the passenger
a lid his llcee leralion are a 11 directed vertica [[y. a long the
)' axis in Fig. 5- 19b. we Clln use Newton's second law
wrinen for y comlxments (F",,_, = IIIll,) to gel
F. •. - FI = ilia
F .• ' = + ilia. (5-27)
111is tells us tll1lt the scale reading. which is eqnal to F .• "
depends on the vertical acceleration. Substiluting mg
for FI gives us
FN = lII(g + il) (Answer) (5-28)
for any choice of accelerationll.
(b) Wllat does lhe scale read if lhe cab is sl1ltionary or
moving upward at a constanl 0.50 m1s?
FtG, S·19 (a)Apas_
senger siands 011 a plal-
form scate Ihm indi -
cales .. ilh .. r his w .. ighl
or his "pparenl weight.
(b) The free-body dia-
gram for Ihe passen)ler.
showing Ihe !lonnal
force I:v on him from
the scale and Ihe gravi-
talional force r..
"
,
,

'"
I n Fig. 5-20a, a constant horizontal force F..PI' of magni-
tude 20 N is llpplied to block A of mass iliA = 4.0 kg.
Calculation: Substituting this and other known values
into Eq. 5-28. we find
F .• ' = (72.2 kg)(9.8 mls
1
+ 0) = 7m N.
(Answer)
TIlis is the weight of the passenger and is eqlml to the
magnitude F8 of the gravitlltional force on him.
(c) What does the sc1l1e relld if lhe cab accelerates
upwllrd at 3.20 mIs' and downwllrd at 3.20 mJs
1
?
Calculations: For a = 3.20 mls
2
• Eq. 5-28 gives
FN = (72.2 kg)(9.8 mJs' + 3.20 m/sl)
= 939 N. (Answer)
llnd for a = - 3.20 m/s'. it gives
F .• ' = (72.2 kg)(9.8 m/s
2
- 3.20 m/s')
= 477 N. (Answer)
For lln upward acceleration (either lhe Co.1b·s upward
speed is increasing or its downward speed is decreas-
ing), the sCllle reading is greater lhan the passenger's
weight. That reading is 11 measnrement of an apparent
weight. because it is made in a non inertial frame. For
11 downward acceleration (either decreasing npward
speed or incre1l5ing downward speed). the scale rellding
is less thlln the p..1ssenger's weight.
(d) During the npwllrd acceleration in p..11'1 (c). what is
the magnitude F"", of the net force on the passenger.
mid what is the magnitude of his llccelerlltion as
measured in the frame of the cab? Does F"" = ilia "CO"?
Calculation: TIle magnitude F, of the graviwtional
force on the p..1ssenger do.."S not depend on lhe motion
of the passenger or lhe cab: so. from p..1rt (b). is 708 N.
From p..111 (c). the magnitude F .•. of the normal force 011 the
passenger dwing the npward mx:elermion is the 939 N
reading on the scale. 11l11s. the net force on the passenger is
F,,, = F .•. - F, = 939 N - 708 N = 231 N.
(Answer)
dnring the upward acceleration. However. his accelera-
tion rellltive to Ihe frame of the cab is zero. Thus. in
the noninertial frllllle of Ihe accelerating cab. F"" is nOI
equlll to ma",. ,. and NeWlon's St.'Cond lmv does not hold.
which pnshes against block B of mass II/B = 6.0 kg. TIle
blocks slide over 11 fl1ctionless surface. along an.r axis.
(a) Whot is the acceleration of Ihe blocks?
Serious Error: Because force r."" is applied directly
to block A. we use Newton's St.'Cond law to relate that
force to the acceleration Ii of block A. Because the mo-
tion is along the.r axis. we use that law for.r components
(F
o
" ,. = ma.).writing it as
F_ = m"a.
However. this is seriously wrong because r,,,,, is not the
only hor izontal force acting on block A . TIlere is also
Ihe force from block B ( Fig. 5-20b).
Dead-End Solution: Let us now include force by
.... Titing. again for the .r a."l:is.
F_ - FAB = mAa.
(We use the minus sign to include the direction of
Because FAn is a second unknown. wecannot solve this
equation for a.
Successful Solution: BecauS<' of the direction in which
force r. rr is applied. Ihe two blocks f0l111 a ligidly con-
,E£J
, x
, ., <0, «,
FtG. 5·20 (a) A constant horizontal force row is applied to
block A. which pus he, against block B. (b) Two horizon1al
force. act on block A . (e) Onty one horizontal force acts on
blockB.
REVIEW & SUMMARY
Newtonian Mechanics The vdocily of an object can
change (the objecl can acce1erale) when the objecl i. acled on
b)' one or more r Of<C' (pushes or pntls) from 01her objects.
Ne ... rOl,"'m ,,,ccha,,ic.r rebtes ao:=lerations and forces.
Force Forces are quantities. Their magnitudes are
defined in lerms of the acceleration the)' would gi'-e the sIan-
dard kilogram. A thaI accelerales Ihat slandard body by
exactly I m/,' is defined to ha,-e a magnilude of I N. The
direelion of a force is the dire<:1ion of Ihe acceleration it
causes. Forces are combined according to the rules of
algebra. The nd fore<' on a body is the vector sum of all the
forces acting on the bod)".
Newton's First Law [flhere is no nel on a body.lhe
body remain, at rest if it is ini1ially at rest or moves in
a straight line at conslant speed ifit is in motion.
Ine rtial Re ference Frames RefNence frames in which
Newtonian mechani<:s holds are called i"erriai refere"u
framc. or i"eniai Reference frames in which
Newtonio n mechanics does not hold are called rtOl1i"erliai ref-
..,croce frames or llO"i",.,riai frames.
Review & Summary
nected system. We can rdate the net force oli/iJesYSlem to
the acceleration of/he sys/em wilh Newton's second law.
Here.once again for Ihe.l axis.we C<.11l write that law as
F_ = (m ... + IIIB)a.
where now we properly apply Fopo to Ihe system wilh
total mass III" + lila. Solving for a and substit1l1ing
known values. we find
20 N
4.0 kg + 6.0 kg
(Answer)
Thns. Ihe acceleration of the sys tem and of each block is
inlhe positive direction oflhex axis and has the magni -
tude2.0 m/s'.
(b) What is the (horizontal) force r
BA
on b lock B from
block A ( Fig.5-2Oc) ?
We can relate the net force on block B to
the block's acceleration wilh Ne .... 'toll·S second law.
Calculation: Here we can write Ihal law. still for com-
ponenls along the x axis. as
FaA = fltgll.
which. wilh known values.gives
FIlA = (6.0 kg)(2.0 m/s1) = 12 N. (Answer)
ThUs. force r
M
is in the posilive direction of thex axis
and has II nl1lgnitude of 12 N.
Mass The "' '''' of a body is the characterisl ic of that body
thaI relales the body's ao:=leration to the nel force
The ao:=leration. Masses are scalar quantiTies.
Newton's Second Law The nel force F .. , on a body wiTh
mass m is relaTed to the body', accelerotion Ii by
r"" = ",Ii.
which may bewril1en in the component Y<'fsions
The second bw indicates ThaI in SI unils
I N = I kg · m!s'. (5_3)
A [,,"{' -hod.,' di" g ..... .., is a stripped-down diagrom in
which only OM body is considered. That body is represenled
by eilher a sketch or a dot.The forces on the bod)" "fe
drawn. and a coordinale .ystem is superimposed. orienTed so
as to,implif)' the SolUTion.
Some Particular Forces A on a
bod)" is a pull by another body. In mmT simalions in 1his book.
Chapter 5 I Force and Motion-I
the other body is Earth or some olher astronomical body. For
Earth. Ihe force is directed down toward th .. ground. which is
assumed to be an in .. rtial frame. Wilh that assumption. the
magnitude of F. is
F, = mg.
where m is the body's rna" and g is Ihe magnitude of Ihe free -
fall acceleration.
The W of a body is the magnitude of the upward
fOTce needed to balance Ihe gravitational force on the body. A
body's weight is relaled to Ihe body's mass by
W = IIIg.
A for" .. I:v is the force on a body from a surface
again't which the body presses. The normal force is alwap
perpendicular to Ihe surface.
QUESTIONS
1 In Fig. 5. 21. forces F, and
1", are applied to a lunchbox as
it slides at constant velocil)'
over a frictionless HOOT. We are
10 decrease angle 8 withoul
changing Ihe magnitude of 1",.
For constant velocit)·. should
we increase. decrease. or main-
lain the magnitude of F, ?
FIG. 5·21 Question l.
2 AI time I = O. conslant F begins 10 act on a rock mO"ing
through deep spac .. in the H direction. (a) For time I> O.
which are po"ible functions X(I) for the rock's position: ( I )
x = 41- J. (2) x =-41' + 6r - 3. (3) .• = 41' + 61 - 31 (b)
For which function is F directed opposite the rock's initial di -
rection of motion?
3 Figure 5-21 shows overhead view. of four situalions in
which forces act on " block that lie. on a friction Ie" floor.
If the force magnitudes are chosen properly. in which situa-
lions is il po"ible thai the block is (n 1 stationary and ( b) mov_
ing with a conslant "elocity?
"\ i'"

, - 7,

"
FIG. 5-22 Question 3.
4 Two horizontal forces.
r, = (3 N)i - (4 N)j and r, = - (I N)i - (2 Nlj
pull a banana ,plit across a frictionless lunch counler. Without
using a calculator. determine which of the "ectors in the free -
body diagram of Fig. 5_23 best represent (a) F, and (b) F,.
A fri .1ion,,1 T is the force on a body when the body
slides or attempts 10 slide along a surface. The force is always
parallel to Ihe surface and direct ed so as to oppose the sliding.
On afrklion/,·ss sIIrfm::e. Ihe frictiona I force is negligibl e.
When a cord is undor each end of the cord pulls
on " body. The pull is directed along the cord. away from the
point of attachment to the body. For a massless cord (3 cord
",;th negligibl e mass). the pulls at both ends of the cord han"
the .ame magnilude T. even if the cord runs around a mass·
less. fricliolliess p"l/t"}" (a pulley with n .. gligible mass and
negligible friction on its axle to oppose ii, rotation).
Newton's Third La w If a force F"c acU on body B due to
body C. then there is a force FeB on body Cdue to body B:
r"c = - rCB'
What i. the net · force compo-
nent along (c) the x His and
(d) the Y Hi.? Into which quad_
rant. do (e) the net-force Yector
and (f) the split's acceleralion
, 'ector point?
5 Figure 5·24 gi"es the free-
body diagram for four situations
in which an object is pulled by
se"eral force. across a friction- 8
les. floor. a. seen from oYer-
head. In which situat ion, does the
object's acceleration Ii ha"e (a)
,
, ,
FIG. 5·23 Queslion 4.
an.T component and (b) a )' component? (c) In earh siluation.
gj,'e ofii b)' naming either a quadrant or adirection
along an axis. (This can be done wilh a few mental cak."\Ilations.)
, ,
ON
"
2N 3 N
, ,
1N
2N
<N
II) (2)
, ,
6N

5 N

"
, ,
5 N
3N
<N
5N
1" 1<)
FIG. 5·24 Que'tion 5.
6 Figure 5-25 gi"es three graphs of component
,'.(1) and three graphs of vdocity component ",(1). The graphs
are noT 10 scale. Which ,'.(1) graph and which V, (I) graph best
correspond 10 each of Ihe four simations in Ques tion 5 and
Fig.5.24?
,ol
'"
'"
<' l
'.l
FIG. S-25 QuesTion 6.
7 Figure 5-26 shCM's a train of four blocks being pulJed
across a frictionless Hoor b)' force F. What Toral nUlS> is accel -
eraTed To the righl by (3) force F. (b) cord 3. and (c) cord 17
(d) Rank Ihe blocks according 10 their accelerations. greaTesl
first. (e) the cords according 10 their ten,ion. grealesl
first.(Warm-up for Problems 5(1 and 51)

,
.rt::f5l
..
FIG. S-21. Question 7.
8 Figure 5-.27 shows the same breadbox in four simations
where horizontal forces are Rank the situations aemrd-
ing 10 the magnitude of the box's acceleration. greateST firsl.
3 N 6N

<>==f3-=<>
• •
"l
'"
t 3 N 15 N

<>==f3-=<>

"l
'" FIG. 5-27 QuesTion 8.
9 A vertical force F is applied 10 a of mas> '" that
lies on a Hoor. Whal happens to Ihe magnimde of the
normal force F.v on the block from the floor as magnitude
Fis from zero ifforce F is (a) downward and (b) up·
ward?
10 Figure 5-.28 shows four choices for Ihe direction of a force of
magnitude Ftobe applied to a block on an inclined plane.Thedi-
Questions
rectio"s me either horizontal or nrticai. (For choices <l and b. lhe
force is nol enough to lifl the off the plane.) Rank Ihe
choices according To the magnitude of Ihe nonnal force on Ihe
fromlhe pbne.greaTesT first.
o
FIG. 5· 28 Question 10.
11 lui)' 17. 1981. Kansas City: The newly opened Hyall
is packed with people listening and dancing To a
band playing favoriles from the 1940.. Many of the people are
crowded onTo The That hang bridges across
Ihe wide atrium. Suddenly 110'0 of Ihe wal kways collapse.
falling onto The merrymakers on the main Aoor.
The •• al kways were suspended one abo"e anolher 011 ver·
tical roo. and held in by nUis threaded onto the rods. In
the original design. only two long roos were 10 be used. each
eUending through all three walkways (Fig. 5-.29,,). If each
wal kwa)' and the merrymakers 011 it have a combined mass of
Af . what is Ihe TOlal mass supported by the Threads and two
nuTS on (a) Ihe lowest wal kwa)' and (b) The highest wal kway?
Threading nuTS on a roo is impossible except at the ends.
so Ihe design was changed: Inslead. six roos were used. each
connecting Iwo wal kways (Fig. 5.29b). What now is the TOlal
mass supported by the Threads and two nuTS on (c) The 10"'est
wal kway. (d) the upper side of the highest wal kway. and
(e) Ihe lower side of the highest wal kwa)'? It was this design
thai failed.
' ol
'" FIG. 5· 29 Questioll 11.
12 Figure 5·30 show. three blocks !!eing pushed ncross
a frictionl ess floor by horizontal force F. What total l11ass is
accelerated to the right by (a) force F. (b) force,<'" on block
2 from block 1. and (c) force F" on block 3 from block 2?
(d) Ra nk the blocks according 10 their acceleralion maglli -
tudes. greatest first. (e) Rank forces F. F". and f" according
to magnitude. greateST first. (Warnl-up for Problem 53)
FIG. 5-30 Question 12.
Chapter 5 I Force and Motion-I
PROBLEMS
5-6 Newton's Second Law
·1 If the I standard body has an acceleration of2.00 111.1,'
at 20.0" to the di r""tion of an axis, what are (3) the x
component and (b) the y compontnt of the net force acting on
Ihe bod)'. and (c) .. hal i. Ihe net foree in unit-vector nOI"tion1
·2 Two horizontal forces aet on a 2.0 chopping block that
can slide o,'er a friclionless kitchen counter. which lies in an_".!'
plane. One force is r
j
= (3.0 N)l + (4.0 N)l. Find the
ation of Ihe chopping block in unit -veclor notalion when the
other force i, (a) r, = ( - 3.0N)i + ( - 4.0N»). (b) r, =
( - 3.0N)l + (4.0 N»).and(c) r, = (3.0N)l + ( - 4.0N)j.
·3 Onl)' two horizontal forre. act on a 3.0 kg bod)' that can
move o,'er a frietionless floor. One force is 9.0 N. aeting due
east. and the other is 8.0 N. aCling 62° nonh of we.t. What is
1 he magn itude of t he body', acceleration?
··4 A 2.00 kg object i, subjecled 10 three force. lhat give
il an acceleration Ii = - (8.00 ml.')l + (6.00 m/,')j. If two of
Ihe three forces are F, = (30.0 N)l + (16.0N)j and r, =
- (12.0 N)l + (&00 N)L find the third forre.
··5 There are two forces on
the 2.00 kg "ox in the o'-er·
head "iew of Fig. 5_31. but
onl), one i, shown. For F
j
=
20.0 N." = 12.0 m/". and (I =
30.00. find the __ --ond fOKe (a)
in unit-vector notation and as
(") a magnitude and (c) an
angle rel"tive to the posiliYe
direction of the x axis. SSM
· · 6 While two forces act on
it. " panicle is to mo,'e al the
,
1;
,I '
FIG. 5· 31 5.
conSlant ... Iocity -,; = (3 ml,)1 - (4 mls)j. One of the force.s
i. F, = (2 N)l + ( - 6 N)) . What is the olher force?
··7 Three astronaut .. pro-
p"lIed by jel "ackpacks, push
and guide a 120 kg a.teroid to-
ward a processing dock. exert-
ing Ihe forces shown in Fig. 5_
32. with F, = 32 N. F, = 55 N.
F, = 41 N. (l j = 30' . and (I, =
60°. What i, Ihe asteroid's ac_
celeration (a) in unit_yector
notalion and as (") a magni-
tude and (c) a direetion rela-
live 10 the po,itive direction of
thex axis? 0
,
FIG. 5· 32 Pro"lem 7.
··8 In a two.dimen,ional lug_of_war. Alex. Bell),. and
Charle. pull horizontally on an auromo"ile tire at Ihe angle.s
,hown in the oycrhead view
of Fig. 5_33. The tire remains
,tationary in spite of the three
pulls. Alex pulls with force FA
of magnitude 220 N. and
Charles pull, with force Fe of
magnitude 170 N. Nott that
the direction of Pc is not
What is the magnitude t37"
of Beny's force r,, ?
··9 A 2.0 kg particle
along an x axis, !x-ing pro-
pelled by a variable force di- FIG. 5.33 Problem 8.
reeled along thaI axis. 11 , posi-
tion is given by x = 3.0 m + (4.0 m/s)1 + CI' - (2.0 m/s')I'.
with x in mClers and r in ,""cond •. The factor C is a At
r = 3.0 s, the force on the particle ha, a magnitude of 36 Nand
i, in the negaliyedirection of the axis. What is c?
··10 A 0.150 kg particle move.s along an axi, according
tox(l) = - 13.00 + 2.00r + HOi' - 3.00r'. withx on melers and
r in ,""cond .. In unit -veclor notation. what i.lhe net force act -
ingon Ihe particle at r = 3.40.1
··11 A 0.340kg particle move, in an xy plane according
to x(1) = - 15.00 + 2.00r - 4.oor' and }'(I) = 25.00 + 7.m -
9.00-". and.v in meters and 1 in seconds. Al r = 0.700 •.
what are (3) the magnitude and (b) the angle (relative to the
positive direction orthe x axi.) of the net forre on the particle.
and (c) what is Ihe angle of the particle', direetion of II,I\-e l?
···12 Two horizontal force.s
r
j
and r, act on a 4.0 kg disk
thm slides over friclionless
ice.on which an xy coordinate
'ystem i. laid oul. Force r, i.
in the positi'-e direclion of the
axis and has a magnitude of
7.0 N. Force F, has a magni-
tude of 9.0 N. Figure 5_34
giye. the x component v. of
the velocity of Ihe di, k a, a
", (m/»
1::--17"--1::----1
1
(.)
t--!
FIG. 5·34 Problem 12.
function of lime Iduring the Wh".! i. the angle between
the constant directions of forces F, and F, ?
sec. S-7 50me Particular Forces
·13 (a) An 11.0 salami is supported by a cord thai runs to
a spring ,cale. which i. supported by a cord hung from the
ing (Fig. 5_35a). What is Ihe reading on the .cale. "hich is
marked in "-eight units? (") In Fig. 5_35b the ,alami is ,up-
ported by" cord that runs around" pulle)" and 10 a ",ale. The
Opposile end of the scale i. auached b)' a cord to a wall. What
i, the reading on the scale? (c) In Fig. 5_35<- the wall ha, been
replaced ",th a 1IC(:0nd 11 .0 kg salam •. and the aSRmbly ,. 5!.D·
Imnary. Whal •• the readingon the scale1 SSM
--.
,.)
")

FIG. SolS Problem 13.
'14 A block with a weight of 3.0 N i. at reSI on D horizontal
.urface. A 1.0 N upward force is applied to the block by means
or an allached ming. Wha, arc Ihe (a) m:lt!lI1tude and
(b) d,rK"on or Ihe force or the block on the honlontal surface?
'.
'15 Figure 5-36 show. an
alTDngenICnl 111 whIch four
d..ks are su.pended by cords.
lbc longer. lop rord loop:'! ", ... r
a f.icllonles. pulley and puLls
wilh II force of mll.gnimde 98 N
on Ihe wllll to ... ·h,eh U IS al·
tached. The In the
shol·ter cords are T, '" 5S.8 N.
TJ '" 49.0 N. and T) '" 9.8 N.
What are the mnne, of(a) disk
A. (b) d,sk B. (cl dis k C. and
(d )d,sk D?
FIG. 5-34 I>roblem 15.
"16 Some 11U«1. ran walk
belo .. a thin rod (such as a
110'1&) by hangIng from It.
Supposoe tb.1I suth an 1II§C<."1 has
n"," III and hangs fmm a hori·
zooml rod as in
Fig. 5-37. "';th angle fJ "'.\0". Its
. ;x are nil under the ""mc FIG. 5-17 Prall!;!m 16.
tens.on. Ihe leg .ec1ions
nearest the body arc hori:wntal. (a) WhDI i. the ratio of Ihe Icn_
sion in each libia (forepart of a leg) to Ihe in'lect's " ... ight? (b) If
the in'lect straIghten, out us leg. some,,·hat. does the lension in
each tibI a dec .... ase, or the same?
S4K. 5-9 Applying Newto n's Laws
'17 A cunonWT JllS in an par\;. ride in which Ihe
comp.1rtmenl is 10 be pulled do"nward m the negalt"e dlrK-
lIon of a y IIXI, wilh an accelerntion magllllude of 1.24g .... ·lIh
g '" 9.80 A 0.567 g coin rC"<l<i 011 Ihe CUStQtu('r's knee.
Problem.
Once Ihe moUon be,m. and In unll·,·ector notation . .,hat ,5
lhe coin's accelernlloo 10 (a) Ih .. ground and (b) the
cunomer? (c) How long dots the coin take to reach lhe
compartmcnt ocliln" 2.20 m above knee? In UntH'ector
notation . .,hal nrc (d) Ihe actual fora: on the coIn and (e) Ihe
npparcnt force acrordmg 10 ti>e nwa.ure of the
coin'sacceleranon?
Tarzan. who weighs 820 N .• wing. from a cliff a1 the
end of a 20.0 111 vine th"' hangs from a high Iree limb and inl-
I iall)' makes an angle of 22.0" ... lth Ihe vertical. As<ume I hat an
x axi, eucnds hori1.onlnlly away from Ihe cliff edge and a y
upward. after Tarzan . tep:'! off the
cliff. the tenSIon '" th .. " 760 N. Just then. what arc (al the
force on him from the "lIIe '" unlt·vector notation and the net
force on him (b) '" u",,·,·eclor notalion and as (e) a maglll-
lude and(d) an angl .. relal,,'e 10 Ihe p<><Jli,·c direction of the X
,n,s? What arc Ihe (e) mDlJlIILKk and (f) angle of Tarzan's 3<:-
celemllon JUst then?
In Fig. 5-J8. 1e1 Ihe
ma .. of the block be 8.5
kg and lhe angle fJ be 30".
Find (a) the lenSlOn in the
cord and (b) the nOl'l11pl
force acting on the block.
(c) If the cord II CUI. lind
the magnitude of the re-
sulting acce!crahon of the
block. ss __
' 20 ll'Iere are t .. 'o hori-
zontal forces 011 the 2.0 k,
box in Ihe o' ... rhead 'lew
of 5_39 buI only one
(of magnitude F, '" 20 N)
is 5ho" ·n. The OOX mo ... cs

AG.. 5-11
FIG. 5·39
Problem 19.
1\

Probiem20.
along thex axis. For each of the follo ... ·ing values for the attcler-
II, oflhe box. find Ihe stcond foroe in unit-"ector nOlall0n:
(a) 10 lOIs'. (b) 20 111/;. (c) O. (d) -10 mi.'. and (e) -20 1111'::.
A cons tant hori.lontal force r, pushes a 2.00 kg FedEx
package "CTOM a fncllOllicss Aoo. on which an xy coordmBle
system has been dra"'n. Fisure 5-40 the package'sx and
y ... elocily cOIIlponcnlS "e<su, lime I. \\'hal are Ihe (a) magnl'
tude and (b) dUe<:tlOn of r,?
v. ( m, . ) v
J
( gl . )
"
"
I (. )

-,
,
_w
"
,
, 1(.)
FIG. 5·.0 Problem21.
'22 In April 1974. John Masm of 8dgiwn managed to
1Il0"'e I10'O pa.senger ra,lroad cars. He did so b)' damp"'g h"
leeth do.·n on a bit that .. as "llached to Ihe ""uh a rope
and Ihen lealllns back"'ard whIle pressing his feet asalnstthe
HliI.,a)· lie!. 'The cars together weIghed 700 kJ"I (about 80
tons). Assume thaI h .. pulled wllh a constant force thaI "''35
2.5 lim .... hisbody ,,'elghl.at an upward angle (J of 30" fron\ti>e
horizonlal. H'J mau was SO kg.. and he moved ,Ile "" .. by
1.0 m. NeS!e<:ltng any relarding force from ,be wheel rotauon.
find ,Ile speed of Ihe tars atlhe end of Ihe pull • .:s;
023 S""jum",mg. A "sun yacht"' iJ a spacenaf, wllh a large
sail Ihal IS pushed by ",nh,hl. Allhough such a pu,h;J ,;ny III
everyday cu·cumJlanCes. II can be large enough 10 ",nd ,he
spac«rah outward from Ihe Sun on a cOSI_free bUI ,low mp_
Suppose Ihal Ihe spacecrafl has a mass of 900 kg and r""ewes
a push of 20 N. (.) What IS Ihe magnitude of Ihe resuh;ng
acceleration? If Ihe trafl SlarlS from resl, (h) ho ... far ,,·dl;1
lra"e11n I day and (e) ho ... fast ... ,11 II then be mo",ng?
024 "fh.e leMoon at ... h",h a fishing hne SMp$ IS commonly
called ,he mtnllflumSlrenglh IS needed for
a hne ,ha, is 10SIOp. S31mon of".."g!tt&'i N In II em ,f 1M fish is
imlially dnftiJli al 2.8 mIs? Auume I conSlanl dett ...... lion.
025 A SOO kl!\ rockel sled can be acceleraled al a conSlanl
ral e from resllo 1600 kmlh 10 1.8 50 Whal's Ihe magnilude of
Ille required nel forcc? ISM
026 A car S3 km/h hilS a bridge abutment.
A passenger in Ihe cM mo'·." forward a diilancc of 65 em
("'ilh respC<:110 Ihe rand) ... 1111" boe,ng brough110 res1 by an in-
flaled "IT bag. Whul magni'ude of force (as,umed con"anl)
on Ihe passenger's ullptr 10rso, "'h'ch has" m" .. of 41 kg'!
027 A firefighler who "'e,ghs 712 N slid.,. down a verTical
pole "'ilh an Boccleral,on of 3.00 Ill/S1. d,rected downward .
What are Ihe (a) magn,l\me and (b) d,reclion (up or do,.n) of
Ihe verlical for« on tile firefighlCT fro," Ihe pole and the (c)
magnilude and (d ) direction of Ille vertICal lorcc of the pole
on Ihe
028 The h,gll-speed Winds around a tornado can drive pro-
ject,les InIO trees, bu,ldIng wall" and e,'en metal lraffic .igns.
In a laboralory a IolBndard wood loolhpick w ....
shot by ,un tnlO an ook branch. The loolhpd:5
maSS waf 0.13 g.. ,to speed before enle"ng Ille branch "'8.'5
220 m150and its penetratiOfl deplh was 15 mm.If;", opeed "'8.'5
decreased al a umform rale. what "'" the magnllude 01 the
force of the br:mch on the loulhpltk? .:s;
029 An electron ,,',Ih a of 1.2 X 10' mIs mo,,," bori -
zontally ,ntO a repon where a constanl veri ... al force of 4..5 x
10-" N acts on ,t. The O1a" of the electron l'I9.11 x IO-
Jl
kg.
Delemune Ih.: "cTl,eal dis lance Ihe dec!ron .. deflected
dUTlng IIIe Ilnle ,I has moved JO",," horlZonlall y. UM
030 A car tllat .. 1.30 X 10' N is millalty moving al
.w kmlh when Ihe brok." Dre applied and Ihe car II broughllo
a stop in IS nt . Assuming Ihe fotce Ihal ltops Ihe car" con-
stanl. find (a) 1he n1agll,tude of tha1 force Dnd (b) Ihe lime
required for Ihe change in sP"<'d. If 1he ,mllal speed i.
doubled. Dud Ihe car the 13me force during Ihe
braking. by whnt (acton nrc (e) 'he stopping distance and
(d) Ihe lime mulliplied? (There could be " lesson
her e about the danger of driving at h'gh .pteds.)
0031 The velocity of a 3.00 kg Ilartide is given by ; =
(8.00r; .. 3.00rj) m/" with lime / in S<:COfIds. At the instant ,he
nel force on Ihe part,cle has a mag,u,ude of 35.0 N. what are
Ihe dlTeCIlOn (relative to the polllive dlrect'on of the x a."is) o f
(a) the nel force and (b) Ihe parlide'ldlTeCllon of !ravel?
0032 In Fit,. 5-l1. a erale of rn9SS III = JOO kg IS pushed al
opeed up a fricllOnless ramp (8= 30.(1') by a honzan·
tal forcc r . Whal [lfe Ille magni·
,ude. 01 (a) r and (b) Ille (orce
on Ihe crate fTOmlhe ramp? 0
0033 A 40 k& prl and an 8,4
k8 sled are on Ihe frlCtlOnle:\S
ice of a frozen lake. 15 In 3p;'lrl
but connected by a rope of nq.:b·
g,ble m ...... The girl CXens a bon ..
zomal 52 N force on tile rope.
Whal are tile """" ...... tion n\ajlru-
tudes 01 (a) tlle.Jed and (b) Ille
gul? (c) How far frorn the prr$
iniTial I""',"on do Ihey meet?
°'34 Figure 5-42 shows an
overbead vic ... of a 0.0250 kg
lemon half and Iwo of tile Ihree
honzonla! forces Ihnl 8CI on
il as il i. on a fTlcli onless lable.
"
fIG. S-41 ProbLnn32.

-
---""£1:2--------
fIG. &·'2 Problem 34.

Force F, has a nlagnilude of6.oo
Nand 15 all/, = 30.0'. ForC<l r; has a ,na&n,tude of 7.00 N and is
al I/, = 30.0'. In unil-ve<:IOf nOlal;on. what .. Ihe I!lord force if
1110. lemon half (a) is slatioM'Y. (b) has oonSlant vdocilY
v = (13.of - 14.0) mls. "nd (c) has vI.tying velocily v =
(13.Ori - 14.Orj)mls
l
. ,,·hcrc/islime1
0035 A is proj"""led up a frktiollicsi uodined plane
""Ih m,"al speed "0 = 3.50 ml" 'Ine angle of ,,,dme is 1/ =
32.0'. (a) How far ulllhe plane doci the block go? (b) How
long doe. il lake 10 get there? (c) What ,5 ,15 5p<'OO wben n
gets back 10 Ihe bottom? ISM_
0036 A 40 kl! sk,er SklS dtreclly do"'l1 a fricllOnle" slope an_
gled al 10" 10 tile honzon!al. Assume Ihe skier ,n tile
negal;'.., direclion of an X axtJ along Ille slope. A w,nd force
",til component 1'. aclS on the sk,er. Wnal '5 1'. ,f Ille magn,_
tude of the .kie ... "e1oc;I)' 's (a) conslant. (h) IncreaSIng at a
rateof 1.0 mI.-l.and (c) ,ncreasing al a rare of2.0 mJsZ?
0037 A o( mass 3.0 x 10-' kg 15 suspended from
a cord. A horizontal breeze pushes tile 'Phere r<) Ihat
Ihe cord makes a oonstanl an,1e of 37" w,th the "eru""L Find
(a) the push mal!nnooeand (b) Ihe tenlton In the cord . ...
°'38 A daled bo:t: of dales, of
v.(m . )
nl'"'' 5.00 kg. l'I "",nt 5ohd,ng up '1
a friclionle.s ramp at nn an&le
of 1/ '0 lhe horizonlal. Figure
,
5-43 8"'cs' as a funcllon of Itnle I. f----i-'" .t-----< / (.)
Ihe componenl ", of IIIe bol'S (I S
-,
"elocily along an x axis 1hal el-
lendsdirec11y up Ille ramp. Whal .....
i, the magnilude of Ihe nonnal
force on Ihe box fTOmllt e mmll?
flO. &·13 Problem 38.
0039 An eleva lor cab and ils load have fl combi ned lllDSS of
1600 kg. Find Ihe 1emiol1 in Ihe sUllpotling when the
cab. originall)' movlllS dO"'n"'ard at 12 tn/50 is brought 10 rest
""Ih constanl accelera1ion on adislance of 42 In.
0040 Holdins on 10 a lowrope mov,ng parnllellO a friclion_
less ski sLope. a 50 kg skier IS pulled up the slopt. whoch to 01 an
angle of 8.0" ",Ih the 1I0TlZOnlaJ. What ,5 Ihe n'a8n'lude F __
01 the force on Ihe Jk>er from lI>e rope ... lIen (a) Ihe magni_
nKle of Ihe . k",". ,s conSlanl at 2.0 mIs and (b) v =
2.0 a. v in<reaoes at a raW: of 0.10 mI.-l7
"41 An elevator cab that .. -eigb. 27.8 kN mO""" upward.
What is the tension ,n lhe cable if the (ab', speed OJ
(a) m(Teas-mgal 11 rale of 1.22 rrJr and (b)decreasmgal 11 rale
of 122 rrJr?
"42 A lamp hang. "ertically from a cord m a
elevalor that d«dcrat .... at 2.4 mfr. (3) If the tenSIon !II the
cord is 89 N, what is the lan,p's rna .. ? (b) What" the cord'.
tension the elevatOf ascend, with an upward accelcra-
tlOn of 2.4 lII.I5
l
7
"43 Using n rope that will snap if the ten"on on ,t
387 N. you to Iow .. r a bundle of old roofing lIIatc"al
,,-eighmg +lQ N fro", a poinl 6.1 m above the ground.
(a) What magnl lude of the bundle', accelerahon ",n put the
rope on the verge of snappIng? (bJ At that aceelerallon. wllb
,,-hat speed would Ihe bu !>dIe hil tbe ground?
._« An elevalor cab .. pulled up .. ",rd by a cable. The .;-ab
and ItS s.mile (l("(Up;lnl ha,-e a combined maSS of 2OClO kg.
When thaI occupant drop< a coin. it, acceleranon relal"'e to
the cab ,s 8.00 "II": downward.
Whal is the lension;n the C"able?
"45 In 5-+1. a chaIn (On,;S! -
ing of five Ii oks. each of ma" 0.100
kg. is lifted "erlkally wilh conslant
a<:<:elernllon of II = 2.50
Ihe nlagn'tuc! .... of (a) the
{Ofce on Imk I from hllk 2. (b) Ihe
force 011 hnk 2 from hllk 3. (c) the
force on Itnk 3 from hllk 4. and (d)
the force ollltnk 4 froon link 5. Theil
fi!>d the nklgnHu.de5 of (e) the foroe
F on the top hnk from the pc-rson
hftllli the and (f) the nel fOKe
aocelerannge:>ch UM
--46 In Fig.5-45.e1evator rnbs A
and IJ are conocctcd by a .hort ca-
ble alld call be I)ull cd upward or
lo .... ered by the cable .oo,·e Cllb A .
Cab A has lIIaSI 1700 kg: cab B has
",aM 1300 kg. A 12.0 kg OOX of cal-
nIp IJC5 on Ihc Roor of cab A. The
len.ion in Ihe cable conn«ling the
cabs IS L91 X 10' N. What" the
maptl1tK1e of lhe normal force on
the box from lhe ROOf?
,
.,
,
,
AG. §..44 Prablen, 45.
,
AG. §..4S 46,
"47 In Fig. 5-46, a blOC"k of ",ass '" = 5.00 kg II pulled
along a horizonlal fnct ,onless floor by a cord that eJeTt.
a force of mallnilllde F = 12.0N at an anye 8=-25D" .
(a) Whm is the mognllude ofthe
block', accclcrnllon? (b) The
force magnitude F i •• Iowly in_
ere.sed, What i. its value just
before the blork IS hfted (cont-
plelely) off the Roor? (c) What
i, the magnItude of the block',
acrcleralion JUSI before it "
hfted (completely) off the
floor?

I} F
AG. 5-46
and 62.
--48 In earltcrda)'" hOl'§CS pulled barges down canals In the
nlllnner sho"'11 in Fig. 5-17, SUPIK"'C the: hOrle pulls on
Problem.
I 111
thc rope "'lib a force of 7900 N at an angle of (I = 18" 10 the
d irC<.'"lIon of mol,on of lhe barge. ",bieb IS headed ,t""ghl
alonllthe POSl1"'" dlTcctlon of an.r &XI .. The mass of the: barr.e
IS Q5IX) kg. and lhe nUI,mtooe of ns accek·rat;on " 0.12 mI.
l
,
What arc the: (a) magnitude and (b) dtrewon (relative to posi-
li,-ex)ofthe forocon Ihe barlle from the "'ater? :il
()
FIG S-<17 Problem 48.
"49 The Zacchln, fantlly was renowned for Iheir human-
cannonball act to whoch a famdy mc",ber "''''' shot from a
cannon using eIther clast'" hands OJ air. In one
"crsion of the act. Emanuel lacch'"l W"" shot o·.-er
Ferris ",-heels to land til a nel at the .an.., helllht as lhe open
end oflhe cannOn and al a range of6Q Ill . He .... s propelled tII-
side the barrel for S.2 III and launched at an angle of 53· . If hI S
mass "'as 85 kg and he ulldcr"'cnt constant acceleration inside
Ihe barrel . .. -hat was the nlagnitude of the force propel"ng
him? (fl im: Treal lhe lnunch a.though it wer .. along a ramp at
53°. NeglecI airdmll·)
• -SO Fillure 5-48 sho",s four penlluin. thaI are beinll play-
fully pulled alollil very shpper)" (froctionleso;) ice by a curator.
The mas.e5 of three penguIn' a!>d the Icn.ion In 1"'0 of the:
cords are "'I = 12 kg. m) = IS kg. "" = 20 kg. T, = III N.
and T, = 222 N. Find Ihe pc-ngu,n m"",m, that is not ",·en.
FIG. §... Problem SO.
"51 In Fi g. 5-49. Ihree connected blocks arc pulled 10
the righl on a hon zonlal fricl;onle .. by a force of
n1agn; lude T, = 65.0 No If "'I = 110 kg. m, = 24.0 kg. and
"'1 = 31.0 kg. calculale (a) the ma .... of Ihe ,)".tem'5
the !ension T"and (c) ten,ion h
G
T,
G
r,
..
T,

Problem 51.
• -52 I n Fill. 5·50.,. a coostUllt horizontal forC<." F. i, applied 10
block A. which pushes nga;ost block B wit h a 2UO N force di-
rected horizonlnlly to Ihe right. III Fill. 5_50b.the same force F.
IS applied to block 8: no'" hlor k A pu.heo on blork B wnh a
"
, ,
,

':W
(.) (t)
fiG. 5-50 52.
o...pt e r 5 I Force and Motion--l
10.0 N fo= dlrecled horizonlally 10 lefl. The bloch ha"e
a combined rna" of 12.0 Whal are Ihe magnlll.ld ... of (a)
lhe,r alX('lCrallOn In 5-5Ou and (b) fo= 1.1
•• 53 Two bloch ar .. in conlact on
a fnCllon"'u lable. A horozontal
force 05 "I)plled 10 Ihe larger bl ock.
al shown In Fig. 5_51. (a) If "'I '" 23
kg. "': = 1.2 kg. and F = 3.2 N. find
Ihe of Ihe force belween
the IWO blocks; (b) Show Ihal if a
"
FlG. S·§1 Problem 53.
force of Ihe lame magnilude F i, applied 10 Ihe sn>aliel' block
bUI in the opposne direclion. the magni lude of Ihe for.,.. be_
t""een Ihe blocks IS 2.1 N. ""h,eh ,J nOl lhe sam .. ""Iue calcu_
laled m (a). (e) Explain Ihe difference. ss. nw_
•• 54 In Fi,.5-52.lhree ballot b.ues areconn«tcd bycoru..one
of wh.octt wral" <I'<'n" a pulley ha'lIIg nqhgible friction on lIS <LUo
and oqItglbLc m ...... lhe Ihree masses at'(! "' .. = 3ODkg.
"" .. k,. and "'e = HlO 1",. ..
When the assembly is released
from resl, (al "hal;" lhe te",ion
,n Ihe rord connecling B and C.
and (b) ho",' far does A move In
Ihe fiDl 0,250. (as'>uming it doe.
nOll'e:l>'h the pulley)?
FIG. S.S2 Problem 54.
•• 55 Figure 5_53 s!>ow, two blockJ
by a cord (of neglIgible
mass) thaI pll$&t:S over a fnelionle"
pulley (also of negligible ma" ). The
arrangement 1$ kno"'n as AIK'ood;
lIIf1ehinr. 0 .... block h",mass ml '" lJO
kg: the olh,"" ILa!; IIl3SIi III, = 2.80 kS-
What arc (a) lhe magnitude of the
blocks' aoxderallon and (b) lhe tensIOn
ID lhecord? 0
.. S6 In , hOI pUlling. many athletes
decllo launch Ihe ShOT al an angle lhat is
1oI11" lIer than the lheorelical one (aoout
FIG. S·S3 Problem,
55 " nd 63.
42") al .. 'hic h tlte dist"""" of a pr<>:l""le<l ball at Ihe ,!",ed
and heogll\ gemest One rew;on h"' \0 do ""lIh the ,peed the
athlete can give Ihe shot during tlte acttleratlOll pha5e of the
thl'O\O\ Assume 1""-1 a 7.260 kg shoI IS ac.:eleralOO ulong a .. mighl
path of lenglh l.6.'iO m by a constanl apploed fOl'n'! of n,agrlllude
3.10.0 N.flarlJng ",th an initial of2.S00mfs(dU(' \0 the alh-
'$ prelu11mary nlOlion). Whal
Illhe shot', allhe end of
Ihe phase if the an-
gie bet"."..n the palh and lhe
hOnroDlal ,,(a) nOO" and (b)
42.00"7 (lblll: Treal Ihe motl""
m Ihough il were along a ramp
al Ihe gi"en angle.) (cl B )'
what percent is Ihe launch
speocd den ea,ed If the alhlele
mcreases Ihe angle from
3O.00" t0 42.00"'?
"57 A 10 1,,1( nlOnke)' climb.
up a rnass ... .ss rope Ilial run.
o"er a frirtionk .... lree hmb
and back d .... n loa 15 kg pack-
age on lhe gr'Ound (Fig. 5-54). FlG. 5.S4 Problem 57.
(a) Whal lS Ihe maJPlllude of Ihe lean acceleral lOn Ihe mon-
ke)' must ,f 1I ,. 10 hft lhe package off lhe yound7 If. af·
I .. r Ihe package has been hfted.lhe monkeyS\01" lIS chmb and
hold. on to lhe rope, ",hal are lhe (b) magnItude and (() d,rec-
toon of the monkey's accelN"tion and (d) the tension m lhe
rope? ISM
"S8 An 85 kg man 10", .... hllnself to Ihe ground from a
heighl of 10.0 nl by hold,ng omo a rope Ihal runS o'·er " fri c-
lionless pull ey 10 a 65 kg sandbag. Wilh what speed doell hc
man hillhe ground ,f he from resl?
"59 A block of mass "', =
3.70 kJl. on a fnct;onkss plnne
mdmed al angle 8 = 30.0" i,
conne<:led by a cord o,· .. r a
ma"icM., frict,ooltn pulley 10 a
5C<:ond block of mass "': = 2.30
kg (Fig. 5-55). Whal are (al lhe
magnitude of the aoxel .. ralion
AG. s.55 Problem 59.
of each block. (b) Ihe dtreelJon of tile acceleranon of the hang·
mg block.and (c) Ihe tenSIon In the cord? RW
"60 Figure 5-56 sho"" a
man " Iling in a bosun's chalT
Ihat dangles from " massless
rope. ,,'hic h runs o"er " mass_
len. fricllonless pulley and back
down 10 Ihe man', hand. The
combined mas.s of man and
chair ... 95.0 k" With what force
magnnude mU51 Ihe man pull
on Ihe rope If he IS 10 n5e
(a) ,,-il h a corosl:mt "elaoly and
(b) "',Ih an upward le.,.. ... ra_
toon of 1.30 misl? (Iii,,,: A free_
body diagram ean really help.)
If lhe rope on Ihe r'ghl cx_
lend, 10 the ground and "
FlG. 5.56 60.
pulled by n co.wor kcr. Wilh whal force magnil uoo muSi Ihe co-
"'orker pull for Ihe 01"" 10 rise (c) Wilh a constant velocilY and
(d ) .... -il h an up"'ard aceeleration of 1.JO m/"? Whal i51 he mag-
nitude of Ihe force on the ceiling from Ihe pulley s)'Stem tn {e)
pan a. (I ) par. It. (g) part e.and (h) part d?
"61 A hot-nIT OOlloon of nl.'lSll M is dcscendin& ,erticaUy ";th
"""'n .... .,.rd of lnagrulude a. H .... , much mass (ballast)
musl be Ih,o-"'I OUI '0 V' ... lhe balloon an up"..,-d aoxclcral1011 of
magrutOOe.t! Assume Ihal I"" up...-ard force frorn I"" aIr (lite hi.)
doe. nol change bccau!;/l of decrease in mass. U"
"62 Figurc 5-46 sho"'s" 5.00 kg block bem!! pulled along 8
friclionles. floor by 8 cord thaI applies a force of constanl
magnilude 20.0 N but Wilh an angle 8(1) Ihal .... ith l"lIe.
When a ngle {/ = 25.0°, al ..... hal rale is the block's acc .. lern-
lion changing ,f (n) {/(I) = (2.00 X 10- ' deys)1 and (b) (/I/) =
- (2.00 X 10-: deg/lj(I (1/"'1: SWilCh to radian .. )
'''63 Figure 5-53 show. A IWOOiI:r machi"r. on "'hieh two
conlame'" are connected by 3 cord (of negligible m",,)
ing ovcr 3 fncllOnlC'ss pulle)' (also of negligible mass). At \lIne
1 = O. <oolatOer 1 h.as1l1lUS lJO kg and conlalner 2 h.lSll1ass 2.80
kg. bul roolanler I .. loSIng mass (Ihrough a leak) allhe con-
slant rate of 0.200 kfIs. AI ...-hal rat .. IS lhe accelerallOn magnl-
lude of the contamel'$ clLnngi"8 al (a) I = 0 and (b) I" 3.00.7
(c) When don lhe l'ICfXicralion reach it. m"-'''"UIl1 , ... Iuc?
"'64 A ,hOI pulte. launches a 7.260 kg shot by pushing il
along a straighl line of lenglh 1.650 m lind al an angle of 34. IO"
from Ihe homonlsl. acceleratiog the shol to the launch .peed
from n,mihal.peed of2.soo m/s (whltll IS due 10 the alhlete',
preIJmmary mOhon). The shot lea''CS the hand al a height of
2.1]0 m and al an angle of 34.10". and It lunds al a horizonla]
dlSiance of 15.<xl m. Whal;. the maglllludco of lhe alhlele', a,'·
erage force on Ihe shot dun Ill. the accek'rnllon phase? (H","
Treallhe mollon dunn, the a.:cek'rallon pha$C as Ihough II
were along a ramp al Ihe ''''en angk'.)
"'65 Figure S-S7 shows
Ihree blocu al1ached by COI'ds
Ihal loop o,'er (nellonle .. pul·
le)"s. Bloc\;. B lies on II friction·
less lable: lhe maS10Cl are rnA -
6.00 k]!.. mw = 8.00 kg. and me '"
10.0 kg. When the blocb are reo
leased. .. hal is the len"OO ,n Ihe
cord 311he righl?
,
FIG. &. S7 I'roblen.65.
• "66 Figure show, R of mass Ill: = 1.0 kg on a fric·
tionless plane indined al IJ = 30°. It i. oonn«led by a
cord of negligibl e
mass to a of •• :"; ' mass "" = 3.0 kg
on a horiwl11al
friclionle.. Sur·
face. The pull ey IS
friclionless and
massles.s. (a) [ f FIG, S.U Problem66.
lhe magnilude of
horiwOIal force j! IJ 2.3 N. whal >llhe tension.n Ihe connecl·
ing cord? (b) \\'hal II Ihe large., value Ihe RlagnLlIKk of r
may ha,.., wnhoullbe cord b«oRlmS slack?
"'67 FlI!ure 5·59 pves,. as a funwon of 11....., f. lhe force
compon<'nl F. Ihal
acU on a 3.00 kg ICe (S)
block lhal can mO\"e 6 ,-__ ,
only akmg Ihe X IXII.
AI 1=0. Ihe block is
In lhe postllve
direction of lhe axil.
"ilb a speed of 3.0 mIs.
Whac are lIS (a) speed
and (b) d>rechon of
tra,,,1 31' = I! 51
'1---<--+--\--+---<7 -<1 (0)
! t2
"'68 FIgure S-6O shows a
.«tion of a cable-cM system.
The maJumum mass
of each car wilh oceupan1S IS
2800 kg. The cats. riding on a
support cable. are pulled by n
second cable 10 lhe
support lOwcr on ench cnr.
Assume th" Ihe cables are laUl
and inclined at angle IJ '"
Whal i. Ihe dIfference to len·
.ion hetween ad/a...,nl sections
of puU cable if Ihe cal'S are at
lbe maxln,um """",ssible malol
and are bemg a«eleraled up
lhe indine al 0.81 mls2?
FIG. "Sf J' roblem 67.
<"Ilk
Pull <abl.
FIG. S-IoO Problem 68.
Problem, I 113
Additional Problems
69 810><'111& off millS. Throughoul your physlts COUIR. your
ill'5lructor will expe<:t you to be CtI.eful w,lb un'u In )"Our
cakulations. Yel son. e lend to neglccl them and JU$t
lI"u.t thai lbey al."')"$ . 'or\;. Out properly. Maybe Ibis uaJ·
world example .·.ll k.,.,p you frum such a sloppy habn.
On July Canada Fligbl 143 was belogreadled
for ,IS long trip from Montreal 10 EdmOntOO wilen Ihe nighl
crew as\;' ed Ihe ground ere .. 10 delemllne how much fU<'1 was
already on board. The Highl ere" \;.oe"" Ihey needed 10 be,ln
Ihe trip " 'ilh 22 300 kg offuel.Tlt.ey knew IhM amounl In ktlo-
grams because Canada had receolly s"'ltehed 10 Ibe metric
syslem: pr .. ,;ously fuel had measured to pounds. The
ground crew could measure the ooboard fUC'1 only In Iilers.
which Ih<"y ",ported a. 7682 L ThUs. 10 delemlln<' how much
fuel was on board and ho,,' much addItional fuel ""s
th .. Highl ere .. a,\;.ed Ihe ground crew for llIe
from Ine .. 10 \;.ilograml of fuel . TIle: response .'as \.n. which
the lIighl crew used ( 1.77 kg correspoods to I L). (a) How
many \;. i]ogram. of fuel did Ihe fl ighl crew Ihink Ihey had? (In
this problem. lake all given dnla a, belOg (b) How
many lilers did Ihey ask 10 be added?
Unfortunalely. the rC'Sponse front Ihe ground crew was
based on pre· metric habit, -I.77 was the conversion f:ICIO'
nol from lit .... to kilograms bUI mther from lil el"o pOlWt/S of
fuel (1.771b corresponds 10 I L). (c) How mnny kIlograms of
fuel "'ere "'-""Iually on board? (Except for Ihe given l.n. Use
four signifi canl figures for olher con'-ers;on (d) How
many lilers 01 additional fuel were (lC\ually n«ded1 (e)
the airplane lefl .• ·hal percenlage of the requited
fuel did il have?
En route to EdnKmlOn. al an ahllude of 7.9 tm. Ihe air·
plane ran out 01 fuel and began 10 fall. Although the airplane
had no power. !he pllol 10 pUI ., mlO a downward
glide. Ihe n .. arm .. orking atrport was lnofar 10 reath
b)' gliding only. lbe pilol angled Ihe BIide to"'ard ao old. non·
wor\;' ing alrport.
Unfonunatel); lhe runway al lhat alrporl had been
con"ened 10 a m",k for""", ears.and a i t«l barrier had been
constructed across 'I. FOr!unalely. as Ihe aIrplane hIt the run·
way. the fronllandtnggear colLapsed.droppmg Ihe now oflhe
a'rplane onlo Ihe runway. n.c s\;.oddtng slowed Ihe lurplane SO
thaI II Slopped Jusl shor! of lhe S1«1 bamer. "Ilh slunn<'d r ......
drive .. and fans looking On. All on board Ihe a.rplane
e merged safel)·.The poim here IS thI S: Takecare of the units.
70 The only t .. o force. acting on a body ha"e magnitudet of
20 N and 35 Nand d,rection, Ihat differ by 800. The resuhmg
acceler.uion has a magnitude of 20 mls2. Whal is Ihe mass of
Ihe bod)"?
71 Figure 5-61 is overhead
VIew of a 12 kg tir .. Ihat is 10 be
pulled by Ihree horizonlal
ropes. One rope', force (P, =
50 N) " indicated. The forces
f\"Om the olher rope. are to be
ori .. nted such thai the lIre's ac·
"",Ieralion magnilude a i'l 11'''"'1.
FIG. S",' Problem 71.
What" that leasl a If (a) P
J
= 30 N. F
J
.. 20 N: (b) F: = 30 N.
F
l
= ]0 N; and (c) F, = P, = 30 N?
72 A bfock of ma .. At i. pulled along a horllonla]
by a ro"" of man m. as sho.·n in Fig. A hori·
Chapter 5 I Force and Motion-I
zontal force r act, on one end
of the rope. (a) Show that the
rope ",,,,I sag. even if on I)' b)' an
impercept ible amounl. Then. as_
suming that the sag is negligible.
find (b) the acceleration of rope
IJ
FIG. 5·62 Problem 72.

and (c) the force on the block from the rope. and (d)
the tension in the rope at it, midpoint.
73 A worker drags a crate across " factory Hoor by pulling
on a rop" tied to thecrate.The worker exerts a force
tude F = 450 N on the rope. which is inclined at an upward
angle 8 = 38° 10 the horizontal.and the Hoor exerts a horizon-
tal force of magnitude f = 125 N that opposes Ihe mOlion.
Calculate Ihe magnitude of Ihe ",celeration of the crate if
(a) iTS mass is JIO kg and (b) iTS weight is 310 N. SSM
74 Three forces act on a parTide that moyes ... ·ith unchang-
ing velocily v = (2 m/s)i - (7 mls)i. Two of the forces
are r, = (2N)1 + (3N)j + ( - 2 N)k and r, = ( - 5N)i +
(8 N)j + ( - 2 N) k. What is Ihe third force?
75 A 52 kg circus performer is 10 slide down a rope thai will
break if Ihe lension exceed, 425 N. (aj What happens if the
perfonner hanl!-' stalionary on the rope? (b) At "'hatmagni -
tude of acceleration does the performer just avoid breaking
the rope?
76 An 80 kg man drops to a concrete palio from a window
0.50 m above the patio. He neglect' to bend his knees on land-
ing. taking 2.0 ern to stop. (a) What is his anrage acceleration
from when his feet first touch the patio to when he stop,? (b)
What is the magnitude of the ayerage stopping force exerted
on him by the patio?
77 In Fig. 5_63. 4.0 kg block A and 6.0 kg block B are con-
nected by a string of negligible mas," Force r,. = (12 N)i acts
on A; force F8 = (24 N)i acts on block B. What is the
tension in the string?
FIG. 5·63 Problem 77.
18 In the overhead view of
Fig. 5-64. five forces pull on a
box of ma .. '" = 4.0 kg. The
force magnitudes are F, = II
N. F, = 17N. FJ = 3.0N. F, =
14 N. and F, = 5.0 N. and angle
8, is 30'. Find the box', acceler-
ation (a) in unit-,·ector nota-
tion and as (b) a magn itude and
(c) a n angle relative to the posi -
tive direction of the x
,

FIG. >'64 Problem 78.
79 A certain force &i"es an object of mass fil l an accelera-
tion of 12.0 ml" and an object of mass m, an acceleration of
3.30 m/,' . What acceleration would the force giYC to an object
of mass (a) "" - "" and (b) m, + III ,? SSM
80 Imagine a landing craft approaching the surface of
Callisto. one of Jupiter', moons. If the engine provides an
upward force (thrust) of 3260 N. the craft at constan t
'peed; if the engine pro,ides only 2200 N. the craft accelerates
do .... nward at 0.39 m/s'. (a) What i, the weight of the landing
craft in the vicinity of Callisto', surface? (b) What i, the mass
of the craft? (c) What i, the magnitude of the free-fall acceler_
ation nearthe surface of Callisto?
81 An object is hung from a spring balance attached to the
ceiling of an elevator cab. The balance read, 65 N whn the
cab is ,tanding still. What is the reading when the cab is mov-
ing upward (a) Wilh a constant ,peed of 7.6 m/, and (b) with a
speed of 7.6 ml, while decel erating at" rate of 2.4 m/"?
82 In Fig. 5.65. a force r of magnitude
a FedEx box of mass m, = 1.0
12 N is applied to
kg. The force is directed up a
plane tilted b)' 8 = 37'. The
box is connected by a cord to
a UPS box of mass "' 1 = 3.0 kg
on the Hoor. The floor. plane.

'"
and pulle)' are friction Ie ... and
the masse, of the pulley and
FIG. 5·65 Problem 82.
cord are negligible. Whal is lhe tension in the cord?
83 A ceria", particle has a weight of 22 N at a point where
g = 9.8 01/". What arc it, (a) weight and (b) mas, at a point
where g = 4.9 mls>"! What are it, (c) weight and (d) ma .. if it
is mO"ed to a point in space where g = 00
84 Compute the weight of a 75 kg space ranger (a) on
Earth. (b) on Mars. where g = 3.7 m/s'.and (c) in interplane-
tary where g = O. (d) What is the ranger, mass at each
location?
85 A 1400 kg jet engine i, fa'lened to the fuselage of a
passenger jet by JUst three bolt, (thi' is the usual practice).
Assume that each bolt supports one-third of the loo.d.
(a) Calculate the force on each bolt as the ph,ne waits in line
for clearance 10 take off. (b) During lIight. the plane encoun-
ters which suddenly imparts an upward vertical
acceleration of 2.6 mi.' to the plane. Calculate the force on
each bolt now.
86 An 00 kg person is parachuting and experiencing a
do .... nward acceleration of 2.5 m/s'. The mass of the parachute
i, 5.0 kg. (a) What is the upward force on the open parachute
from the air? (b) What is the downward force on the PJla_
chute from the person?
87 Suppose that in Fig. 5-13. the ",asses of the blocks are 2.0
kg and 4.0 (a) Which ma,. should the hanging block h""e
if the magnitude of the acceleration is 10 be as large as possi -
ble? What then are (b) the magnitude of the acceleration and
(c) the ten,ion in the cord?
88 You pull a short refrigeralor with a con,tant force F
acro,. a greased (frictionless) floor. either "'ith F horizontal
(case I) or with F tilted upward at an anglc 8 (case 2).
(a) What i, the ratio of the refrig<'lator's speed in case 2 to its
'peed in case I if you pull for a certain 11 (b) What is this
ratio if you pull for a certain distance J?
89 A spaceship lifts off vertically from lhe Moon. where g =
1.6 01/,'. If the ship has"n upward acceleralion of 1.0 m/,' as it
lift, off. what i, the magnilude of the force exerted by the ship
on;15 pilot. who weighs 735 N on Earth?
90 Compute the initial upward acceleration of a rocht of
mass 1.3 X 10' kg if the initial upward force produced by its
engJne (tile thrust) is 2.6 X 10' N. Do not ""gkct the grow ita·
Ilonal on the rockel.
91 Figure 5-660 shows a mobile hangIng from
rnn,lS" of IWO melal
p,ec,"" (Ill, .. 3.5 kg
and III:" 4.5 kg) Ihat
are strung logelher by
cords of negligible
ma.s& is Ih.
lension in (a) the bot·
lon, cord and (b) the
lOp cord? Figure 5.o6b
A.,
X .,
,. .hows a moo,le ron·
SlShnl of three melal
P"'«"$. Two of Ihe
,.,
AG. 5-6lo Problem91.
"
maSSC'$ arc fII) = 4.8 kg and III, = 5.5 kg. The tensIOn on Ihe
lop (ord IS IQ9 N. Whal "Ihe lenslon ,n (f) the 1o""Ht cord
and (d) the mIddle cord? n.
92 If Ihe I kg bod)· is 1>CUleraled by only r, =
(3.0 N)I + (4.0N») and r, = ( - 2.0N); + (-MN)j. Ihe ..
whal is r .. , (3) in un,l·vector notation and as (b) magnllude
and (c) nn angle reial,ve to th .. posi llve.T dlrection7 are
the (d) and (eJ angle of a?
93 A nucleus IhM captures a stray n .. U1ron must bring the ""u·
tron 10 a $lOll ",;th ... lhe diameter of the nudeus by means of the
Mrottg for«. '!bat forne. "hich ··glues" tI.., nudeus tog;!ther. IS ar>-
P""'Iimntcly urOOUts"" the nucleus. thai a may neutrOll
"'l1h an trllhal speed of 1.4 X lOr rn/s ;. jllSt barely """lUred by a
nudeU'S ""th wameter d = In X 10- 1< nL A$WlnU!& tlte Strong
force' on Ihe ,..,Ulroo IS IXInstant. find t .... magnllude ofllial force.
The neutron·snwu.I.67 X 10-" kg.
94 A 15000kg heltrnpter lifts a 4500 kg Iruck w,lh an
upward i>tCelerallO .. of 1.4 mIs' . Calculate (a) Ihe nel u",,·ard
forfe on the helicopter blades from the air and (b) the tension
"I Ihe C1lble b-el .. ·ceo helicopter and truck.
95 A motorcycle and 60.0 kg rider acce lerate at 3.0 m/s
1
up
a rDmp inclined 10' Ihe horizontal. What are the IImll"i·
lude, of (a) 1he nCI force on 1he rider and (b) Ihe force On 1he
rider from the motorcycle? SSM
96 An trltefStellar .hlp has a mas. of 1.20 X 10" kg aod IS 1m·
nally 81 ft'S1 <clal".., \0 a star system. (8) What COmlant
atn'\mI.11OII is needed to bring Ihe ,hip up to D sp«d of 0.10.-
(where' is Ihe speed of light. 3.0 X 10" "") relali,.., to tbe star
.ystem III 3.0 days? (b) Whal is that accdcrauon III S UlIlts? (c)
W1ul1 force I. rC(lutred for the accelerllllOll? (d) If lhe eng'nes are
• hut down when 0.1<k- .. reached (the speed Ihen rcmam. coo·
S18111). how long doe.s Ihe .hlp lake (stan 10 fim. h) 10 JOUrney 5.0
lighl-months. Ihe distance that hght trayek in 5.0 I\lOl1Ih.7
91 For sporl. D 12 kg armadillo runo 01110 n large pond of
levdo f nctionless Ice. The armadillo', Initi.1 ' ·doc,ty is 5.0 10/.
along Ihe positive direction of an x axis. Take ;1. initial posi·
lion on the Ice as being Ihe origin. It .hJ1'6 0\ .... Ihe Ice while
being pushed 11)' I wmd with a force ofl7 N in Ihe poSlll'·e direc_
11011 of the y axi .. ln uml·,"Cctor notallOll .... ·hal arc lhe alllm31".
(a) wloctty and (b) flOilUon '"ector "hen 11 haul'" for 3.0 11
98 A SO kg passenger rides in an ele""tor ClIb that Stan.
from on Ihe ground Hoor of a build,ng all = 0 and niICS 10
Ihe lop Aoor dunng D 10. inlenal. The aecekrallon as D
funeloon of Ihe hme IS ohown in Fi&- 5.67. where pasol"'"
Problem.
uC'S of the acceierahon mean thm ,t i. duectcd up ... -ard. What
are the (a) magnitude and (b) direcl'on (up or down) of Ihe
maximun, force on the passeoger fromille Hoor.the (c) mag_
mtude and (d) d,r«tlon of Ihe mln,mum force on Ihe p3S5en·
ger from Ihe Boor. and Ihe (c) magnllude and (f) dlreeuo!! of
Ihe maximon, force on Ihe Boor from the pas",nger1
....
- -,


FIG. 1>47 ProbLem 9&.
99 Figure 5.68 slIo," a
box of dirty n, oney (mass
"" = 3.0 on a fnc-
tionle .. plane indIlled lit
8:t = JOO. 'll'e is
connected ,",a a cord of
negltgible ma .. 10 8 box of
lllundered mo .... y (mass
m, = 2.0 kg) on a friclion·
FIG. 5·68 Problem 99.

plane i"dmtd at angle tI, = 60". The pulley is fnctlOllle,os and
has negligible m:us. What IS Ihe lension Illlhe cord'! ss.
100 Suppose Ihe I kg standard body """"leralC'S 81 4.00 mI,:
at 160" from the poIlII\"C d,rectlon of an x axis due 10 1""0
force.; one ,s = (2.50 N); + {HiO N)l. Whal IS Ihe olhu
force (a) in 1I 11l1·.·«tor nOlahOO and "" (b) a magllilllde and
(l:)anangle7
101 [ n 5-69. a 1111 of an·
tioxidants ( "'1 = 1.0 kg) 00
friclionless indined surfl' cc is
connected to n 1111 of corned bed
(m, = 2.0 kg). pulley 15
rna .. les. and fnclionless. An
up""ard force of mJ",Ill.lde ,.. =
6.0 N aci. on the corned 1I«f till.
which has a do ... ·n ... lIrcl K«Lera·
lion of 5.5 mlr. Whal are (a) tbe
lension ,n Ihe "",neellng cord
and(b)angle/p. ss •
102 A rocket and its payload
have a tOlal rna.. of 5.0 X
10' kg. How Inrge is the force
FIG. 5-69 Problem 101.
produced by the e "gine (Ihe Ihrust) "·hen the rocket IS (a)
··ho.·cring" over th .. launchpad just after ignilion nnd (b) ao-
cel .. raling upward PI 20 ntls
l
7
103 A mOlorcycie of ""e' ghl 2.0 kN accelerale. from 0 to
88.5 kmfh ,n 6.0 .. WhJ t arc the n.aglllludC'S of (a) the constant
a«ekrallon and (b) Ihe nel force cau""ng Ihe a«eluanon?
104 An IIIl1tally statlOllary electron (rna ... = 9.11 X Io-ll kg)
undergoes 8 ,0nSlanl acceleration through 1.5 mi. re1>Ch'''1!
6.0 x 10° m/s. Whlll are (a) Ihe magnilude of lhe force aa;'t'l.
erating Ihe electron and (b) tbe electron·, weight?
The Great Pyramid, built
about 4500 years ago,
consists of about
2 300 000 stone blocks,
most with a mass of 2000
to 3000 kg. How did the
engineers and workers
manage to lift the stones
into place t o construct this
pyramid, which is over 140
m high? Some researchers
argue that during the con-
struction a large team of
men would pull a block up
a giant earthen ramp that
ran at a modest angle up
one side o f the pyramid.
However, no evidence
(such as rubble or painted
pictures) exists to support
this theory. Other re-
searchers argue that a spi-
ral ramp ran around the
pyramid. However, such a
ramp would have been
highly unstable and, be-
sides, maneuvering a 2000
kg stone around the 90
G
corners along the ramp
would have been daunting,
if not impossible.
116
Force and Motion-II
How did the ancient people move
the blocks up and into position?
The aflSNer is in this chapter.
6-' WHAT IS PHYSICS?
I n this chapter we focus on the physics of three common types of force: frictional
force, drag force. and centripetal force. An e ngineer preparing a car for the
I ndianapolis 500 mUS1 consider all three types. Frictional forces acting Oil the tires
are crucial 10 the car's acceleration Olll of the pit and out of 11 curve (if the car hits
an oil slick. the friction is lOS1 and so is lhe car). Drag forces acting on the car
from lhe passing air must be minimized or else the car will consume too much.
fuel and have to pit too early (even one 14 s pit SlOp can COSI 11 driver the f<lee).
Centripetal force s are crucial in the turns (if there is insufficiell t centripewl force.
the car slides into the wall). We start our discussion wilh. frictional forces.
6·2 I Friction
Friction;!1 forces are un<lvoid<lble in our d<lil)' lives. If we were not able to coun-
teract them. Ihey would stop every moving objeci and bring to a hah eve!)'
rotating shaft. About 20% of the gasoline used in an automobile is needed to
counteraCI friction in Ihe engine and in the drive train. On the other hand. if fric-
tion were totally absent. we could not get an automobile to go anywhere. and we
could not walk or ride <l bicycle. We could not hold a pencil. and. if we could. it
would nOl wrile. Nails ilnd screws would be useless. woven clot h would fall ilp.1rt,
and knols would untie.
Here we deal with Ihe frictional forces that exist between dly solid sUlfaces,
either stationary rebtive to each other or moving across e ach other at slow
speeds. Consider three simple thought experiments:
L Send a book sliding <lcross a long horizonwl counter. As expected, the 1x>ok
slows and then stops. This meilns the book must have an acceleration parallel
to the counter surface. in the direction opposite the book's velocity. From
Newton's second law. then. a force must act on the book par<llleito the counter
sUiface. in the direction opposite its velocity.Th<lt force is a flictional force.
2. Push horizontally on the book to make it travel al conswnt velocity along the
counter. Can the force from you be Ihe only horizont<ll force on the book?
No. because then the book would accelerate. From Newton ' 5 second law. there
must be a second force. directed opposite your force but wi t h the same nwgni-
tude. so that Ihe two forces balance. Thai second force is <l frictional force.
directed parallel to the counter.
J. Push horizontillly on a heavy crate. The crate does nOl From Newton's
second law. a second force must also be acting on the crate to counteract your
force. Moreover. this second force must be directed opposite your force and
IKlve the sa me magnitude as your force. so that the two forces balance. That
second force is a frictional force. Push even harder. The crate still does not
move. Apparently the friction<ll force can change in magnitude so that the two
forces still balance. Now push with all your strength. The crme begins to slide.
Evidently. there is <l maximum magnitude of the frictiona l force. When you
exceed that maxinllun m<lgnitude. the crate slides.
Figure 6·1 shows a similar s ituation. In Fig. 6-111. a block rests on a t<lbletop.
with the gravitational force balanced by a n0l111al force F
N
. In Fig. 6- lb. you
exert a force F on the block . attempting to pull it to the left. In response. a fric·
tional force T. is directed to the right. eX1lctly balancing your force. The force T.
is called the stati,' friftiollll i l'orn', llle block does not move.
Figures 6-1c and 6-ld show Ihilt as you increase the magnilude of your
applied force. the magnitude of the static frictional force 1. also increases and
Ihe block re mains at rest. When the applied force r"aches a certain magnitude.
however. the block "breaks away" from its intimilt" contact wi l h the tabletop and
6-2 I Friction
I"
-

'"

,,'
,
,
No
mo,;on
Accek .. ",ion
eo",,,,,,,
,,,Ioc;I)-'

__ -,'1>-,; .... "" ,'"Iue of /.
A;' .pprox; ,,,,,,,])'
<o"",.n'
FI G. 6-1 (a) The force, on a'ialiona,)'
block. (b - d)An ,, )[Iernal force r.ap-
plied 10 the block. is balanced b)' a sla-
tic frictional force f..As Fis inereased.
f, also increases. until/. reaches a cer_
lain value. (e) The block
then "breaks awa)':' accelerating
suddenl), in the direction of r. (f) If
block is now 10 move "'ilh cons Ian!
,·eiocit)'. Frnust be ,educed from Ihe
maximum "alue it had jusl bo.fore the
block b,okeaway.(g) Some experi_
mental resu Its for Ihe sequence (a)
through (f).
Chapter 6 I Force and Motion-II
(0'
FlG. 6.2 The mechanism of sliding
friction. (a) The upper ,urface is slid-
ing to right over Ihe lower ,ur-
face in thi, enlarged (b)A de·
tail.showing two spots where
cold. welding has occurred. Force is
required to break lhewelds and
maintain lhe mol ion.
accelerates leftw<lrd ( Fig. 6-1<,). The friction<ll force 11mt Ihen opposes Ihe motion
is c<llied the kindie fridiulml furn' 7 •.
Usu<lll)'. the magnitude of the kinetic frictional force. which acts when there
is motion. is less Ihan the maxilllum Illagnitude of Ihe stalic frictional force. which
acts when there is no motion. ThUs. if you wish the block to move across the sm·
face with a constant speed. you must usually decrease the magnitude of Ihe
applied force once Ihe block begins to move. as in Fi g. 6-1f. As an eXilmple.
Fig. 6-lg shows the results of an experimcnt in which Ihe force on a block was
slowly increased until breabw<lY occulTed. Note the reduced force needed to
keep Ihe block moving at constant speed after breakaway.
A friction<ll fo rce is. in esscnce. Ihe ,·eClor SIUlI of many forces acting between
the surface atoms of one body and those of anolher bod)'. If two highly polished
and c<lrefuUy clea ned met<l] surf<lces are brought together in a very good V<lcuum
(to keep them clean). Ihey <'<lnnot be made 10 slide over e<lch other. Because the
surfaces are so smooth. man)' atoms of one surface contact many atoms of the
other surface. and t he surfaces cold· ... e/d together instmtll),. forming a single piece
of metal. If a m<lchinist"s speci<llly polished gage blocks are brought together in
air. there is less atom·to-<ltom contact. but the blocks stick firmly to each other and
can be separ<lted only by means of a wrenching motion. Usulllly. however. this
much <ltom·to·<ltom contact is not possible. Even 11 highly polished metal surfllce
is far from being flat on the atomic sellle. Moreover. the surf<lces of evelyd<l)' ob-
jects have layers of oxides lind other contaminants that reduce cold·welding.
When two ordinary surfllces lire placed together. only the high points touch
each other. (I t is like having the Alps of Switzerland turned over and pbced down
on the Alps of Austtla.) TIle actual microscopic are<l of contact is much less than
Ihe apparent mlK"roseopic contact area. perhaps by a factor of Nonetheless.
many contact points do cold·weld together. These welds produce static fllction
when an applied force allempts to slide the surfllces relative toeach other.
If the applied force is gre<lt cnough to pull one smface across the other. there
is fir5t1l tearing of welds (<It breakaway) and then a continuous re·fomling lind
tem-ing of welds as movement occurs and chance contacts are made (Fig. 6.2).
llle kinetic frictional force h that opposes the motion is the vector sum of the
fOl"<'es a t those many chance contacts.
If the two sunaces are pressed together harder. m<lny more poinls cold·weld.
Now gelling the surfaces to slide to each other requires a greater applied
force: TIl e static frictionlll force !, has a greater maximum value. Once the sur·
f<lces are sliding. there are m<lny more points of momentary cold·welding. so the
kinetic frictiOll<l1 fOlce h also h<ls a greater magnitude.
Often. Ihe sliding motion of one surf<lce over another is Mjerky·· beC<luse the
two surfaces IllieJ"l}<ltci), stick together <lnd then slip. Such repetitive slick·alld·slip
can produce squeaking or squealing. as when tires ski d on dry pavement.
fingernails scratch along a chal kbomd. or <I Illsty hinge is opened. It can also produce
bellutiful sounds.as when a bow is drllwn properly across a violin string.
6·3 I Properties of Friction
Experiment shows that when a dry and unlubricated bod)' presses against <I sur·
face in the same condition and a force f attempts to slide the body along the 5llr·
face. the resulting frictional force hilS three properties:
Property 1. If the b0'!r does not move. then the static frictional force T. and
the component of F th<lt is p..1rallelto the surface b..1lance each other. They
<l Ie equ<ll in magnitude. and 7, is directed opposite that component of f.
Property 2. The tn<lgnitude of 7. h<lsa maximum value!,"""" that is given by
(6.1)
where /-l, is the rodlki ent of fricti oll and F,,' is th;) magnitude of the
normal force on the body from the sUiface. If the magnitude of the compo-
nent of F' that is parallel to the slIlface exceeds /. ....... lhen the body begillS to
slide along the sUlface.
Property 3. If the body begins to slide along the surface. the magnitude of the
frictional force rapidly decreases to a vnlue A given by
(6-2)
where /-l k is the foeffidl'nt of fri ct ion. TIlel'enfter. during the sliding.
a kinetic frictional force h with magnitude given by Eq. 6-2 opposes the
motion.
TIle magnitude F,,' of the normnl force appeal'S in propel1ies 2 and 3 as a
measure of how firmly the body pres;;es against the sUlface. If the body presses
harder. then. by Newton's third law. F.,' is grenter. Properties I and 2 are worded
in terms of a single force r. but they also hold for the net force of several
applied forces acting on the body. Equations 6-1 Hnd 6-2 are /101 vector equations:
the direction of 7. or 7. is always paraUel to the 5111face and opposed to the at-
tempted sliding. and the normal force "f". is perpendicular to the sUlface.
TIle coefficients /J., and /-l. are dimensionless and must be determined experi-
mentally. Their valnes depend on certain properties of both the body and the
sUlface: hence. they are usunlly referred to with the preposition as in
"the value of /-l, beM""" an egg and a Teflon-coated skillet is 0.04. bnt that
bel,,'CCII fock-climbing shoes and rock is as mnch as 1.2:' We assume that
the value of 11-. does not depend on the speed at which the body slides along the
sUlface .
.v; H E C K P OI N T 1 A block lies on a floor. (a) What is magnitude of the
frictional force on it from the floor? (b) If a horizontal force of 5 N is now applied to
the but the block does not move. what is Ihe magnimde of the frictional force on
it? (c) If the maximum value!, .... of the static frictional force on the block is 10 N. will
the block mo,'e if the of the horizontally applied force is g N? (d) If it is 12
N? (e) What is t he magnitude ofthe friCTion. I force in "" rt (c)?
Sample Problem QI
If a cars wheels are "locked" (kept from folling) dnring
emergency braking. the car slides along the road.
Ripped-off bits of tire and slllHIl melted sections of ro..1d
form the Mskid mar ks" thaI reveal that cold-welding
occnrred during the slide. The record for the longest
skid marks on a public road was reportedly set in 1960
by a Jagnnr onlhe Ml highway in England ( Flg.6-311) -
the marks were 290 m long! Assuming that /-l. = 0.60
and the cars acceleration was constant during the brak-
ing. how fast was the car going when the wheels became
locked?
(I) Becat15e the acceleration II is aS5umed
constant. we can use the cOll5tanl-llcceleration equa·
FIG. , ·3 (II) A car sliding to the right and finally "opping afTer
a dispbcement of2oo m.(b)A free-body diagram forThe car.
6-3 I Properties of Friction
, .
,
(0)
,
,'>
_ O.f>O
1

Chapter 6 I Force and Motion- II
tions of Table 2-1 to find the car's initial sp<'ed 1'0' (2) If
we neglect the effects of the air on the car, acceleration
II was due only to a kineti c frictional force 7. on the car
from the l'Oad , directed opposit e the direct ion of the
car's motion, ass umed to be in the positive direction of
an ,l axis (Fig, 6-3b), We can relme thi s fo rce to the
acceleration by writing Newt on's second law for x
components (F""" = ma,) as
-t. = mo. (6-3)
where //I is the car's mass. TIle minus sign indicates the
direction of the kinetic fricti onal force.
Calculations: From Eq. 6-2. the frictional force has the
magnitude I. = iJ-.F,,,. where FN is the magnitude of the
normal force on the car from the road. Because the car
is not accelerating "erticall ),. we know from Fig.6-3b
and Newton's second law that the magnitude of FN is
equal to the magnitude of the gravitational force F:
on the car. which is mg. ThUS.FN = mg.
Sample Problem III
[n Fig. 6-4(1 . a block of mas.<; 11/ = 3.0 kg slides along a
fl oor while a force F of magnitude 12.0 N is applied to it
at an upwa rd angle 0. 111e coeffi cient of kinetic friction
between the block and the fl oor is iJ-. = 0.40. We can
vary 0 from 0 to 90° (the block re mains on the fl oor).
What 0 gives the maxinllUll value of the block's acceler-
ationmagnitude II?
Because the bl ock is moving. a kille/ic fric-
tiona l force acts on it . The magnitude is given b )' Eq. 6-2
(fk = iJ-. F,," where F,,' is the nomml force). The directi on
is opposite the motion (the fricti on opposes the sliding).
Calculating FN: Because we need the magnitude Il of
the flictional force. we first must calculate the magni-
tude F,,' of the normal force. Fi gure 6-4b is a free-body
diagram showing the forces along the vertical y axis. The
,-,
'"
,
-"- ,...-rijf;
' -
• ,
'. • j,

,.
Fl G. 6-4 (a) A forre is applied to a moving block. (b) The ver_
tical force .. (c) The components of the applied force. (tl )The
horizontal for""" a nd accell.'ration.
Now solving Eq. 6- 3 for 0 and substituting I. =
iJ-.F.,. = iJ-.mg for Ik yie ld
I I = _A = - iJ-tl"g = -iJ-. g. (6-4)
III III
where the miuus sign indicmes that the accelerati on is
in the negative directi on of the x axis. opposite the
direction of the velocity. Next.l et·s use Eq. 2-1 6.
1,2 = I'J + la(.l - .l O).
from the constant-acceleration equations of Chapter 2.
We know that the displacement x - .Io was 2SO m and
ass ume that the fmal sp<'ed I' was O. Substituting for a
fl'Om Eq. 6-4 and solving for I'ogive
= ·./2iJ-. g(.l - x
o
) =
= 58 mls = 210 kmfh. (Answer)
We assumed that I' = 0 at the far end of the skid marks.
Act ually. the marks e nded onl y because the Jaguar left
the road aft er 2SO m. So 1'0 was m leas/2 10 kill/h.
nonnal fo rce is upward . the gT1l vitati onal force r; with
magnitude mg is downward. and (note) the vertical
component F, of the applied force is upward. That
component is shown in Fig. 6-4c. where we can see that
Fy = F sin 0. We can \\Tit e Newt on's second law ( F,." =
ma ) for those forces al ong the y axis as
Fs + F sin 0 - mg = m(O) . (6-5)
where we substituted zero for the acceleration along the
y 1l.. '{is (the block does not even move a long that axi s).
Thus.
F,,' = mg - F sin 0. (6-6)
Calculating acceleration a: Fi gure 6-4d is a free-bod),
diagram for motion along the x axi s. TIle horizontal
component F, of the applied force is ri ghtward: from
Fig. 6-4c. we see that F, = F cos 0. 111e frictional force
has rnagnilllde I. (= iJ-.FN) and is leftward. Writing
Newt on's second law for motion along the .l axis gives
'"
F cos () - iJ-kF.,· = IIIll . (6-7)
Substituting for F" . from Eq. 6-6 and solving for a lead to
0 = .£.. coS O- iJ-l(g -£sino). (6-8)
III 11/
Finding a maximum: To fmd the value of o that m1l.. '{i-
mizes 0 . we take the deri vative of a with to (l and
set the result equal to zero:
d"
dO
F F
--sin (I + iJ-l - cos 0 = O.
11/ 11/
Reammging ;md using the identity (sin O)l(cos 0) =
wn o give us
wn 0 = /-4 •.
Soh'ing for 0 and substituting the given /J-. = 0.40. "'e
fInd that the acceleration will be maximum if
0 = tan -
1
/-4.
= 21.8"'" 22°.
Sample Problem II"
(Answer)
Although many ingenious schemes have been attrib-
uted to the building of the Great Pyramid. the stone
blocks were pIOb.1bly lmuled up the side of the pyramid
by men pulling on ropes. Figure 6-5a represents a 2(xx)
kg stone block in the PIONSS of being pulled up the fin-
ished (smooth) side of the Great Pyramid. which forms
a plane inclined at angle 0 = 52°. The block is secured
to a wood sled and is pulled by multiple ropes (only one
is shown). The sled's twck is lubricated with water to
decreaS<' the coefficient of swtic friction to 0.40. Assume
negligible friction at the (lubricmed) point where the
ropes pass over the edge at the top of the side. If each
man on top of the pyramid pulls with a (reasonable)
force of 686 N. how many men are needed to put the
block on the verge of moving?
b,II,!h, ( )
I Because the block is on the I'erge of
moving. the static frictional force mUSI be at its maxi-
mum possible value: thai is. r. = r. ", .. ' (2) Because the
block is on the verge of moving lip the plane. the fric-
tional force must be dO"'1l the plane (to oppose the
]X'nding motion). (3) From Sample Problem 5-5. we
know that the componenl of Ihe gravitational force
down the plane is IIIg sin Oand the component perpen-
dicular to (and inward from) the plane is mg cos fJ
(Flg.6-5b).
Calculations: Fi gure 6-5c is a free-body diagram for the
block. showing the force F applied by the ropes. the sta-
lie frictional force 1:. and the two components of Ihe
gravitational force. We can write Newton's second law
(F "'" = 1110) for forces along Ihe x as
F - IIIgsin 0 - t. = m(O). (6-9)
Because Ihe block is on Ihe verge of sliding and the fric-
tional force is at the maximum possible value t .. """'. we
use Eq. 6-1 to replace /. with /-4,F,,':
t, = t. .... ,,"
= /-4,F
N
· (6-10)
From Figure 6-5c. we see Ihat along the), axis Newton's
6-3 I Properties of Friction
Comment: As we increase 0 from O. more of the
a pplied force F is upward. relieving the normal force.
The decrease in the normal force causes a decrease in
t.he frictional force. which opposes the block's motion .
ThUs. the block's acceiewtion tends to increase. How-
ever. the increase in 0 also decreases the horizonwl
component of F. and so the block's acceleration tends
to decrease. These opposing tendencies produce a
llllUn acceleration at O = 22".
second law becomes
F.,' - mg cos 0 = 11/(0). (6-11)
Solving Eq . 6-11 for F.,' and substituting the result into
Eq.6-IO.we have
[, =/J-, lIIgOOSO. (6-12)
Substituting this expression into Eq. 6-9 and solving for
Flead to
F = /-4/lIg cos fJ + II/g sin O. (6-13)
Substituting 11/ = 2000 kg. 0 = 52°. and /J-, = 0.40. we
find that the force required to put the stone block on
t.he verge of moving is 2.027 X N. Dividing this by
the assumed pulling force of 686 N from each man. we
find thM the requi red number of men is
= 29.5 ,.. 30 men. (Answer)
Comment: Once the stone block began to move. the
fTiction WilS kinetic friction and the coefficienl was
a bout 0.20. You ca n show that the required number of
me n was then 26 or 27. Thus. the huge stone blocks of
the Great Pyramid oould be pulled np into position by
reasonably sma II teams of me n.
'"'
FtG. 6-5 (a) A slone block on lhe ,"erge of bemg pulled up
l he side oflhe Greal Pyramid. (b) Thecomponenl, of the
gra\'italional force. (c) A free-bod)' diagram for lhe block.
Chapter 6 I Force and Motion-II
FIG. 6-6 This skicrcrouches in
an "egg position" so as to minimize
her effective Cfoss·""tional area
and thus minimize the air drag
acting on her. (Karl -losef
Hildcllbrm"UtlpalLa",lov LLC)
(.) ,OJ
I"
FIG. 6-7 The forces that act on
a body falling through air:(a) thc
bodywhcn it has just bcgun to fall
and (b) the free-body diagram a
linle later, after a drag force has
d.,·doped. (c) The drag force has
increascd until it balances the
gravitmional force on the body.
The body nowblls a1 iu constant
terminal speed.
6-4 I The Drag Force and Terminal Speed
A ililid is anything thai can flow- generilily either a gas or a liqnid. Wlten Ihere is
a relative velocity between a fluid and a lxxIy (eilher because the body moves
through the f1nid or because the fluid moves paSI the body). the body e:>.periences
a forn' V that opposes Ihe relative motion and points in the direclion in
which the f1nid flows relative to Ihe body.
Here we examine only cases in which air is fluid. Ihe lxxIr is blunt (li ke
a baseball) rather than slender (like a ja,·elin). and Ihe relative motion is fast
enough so that Ihe air becomes turbulent (breaks up into swirls) behind the body.
In such c.1ses, Ihe 1ll1lgnitude of the drag force D is related to the relative speed Y
by an experimentally determined dmg forllk i('nt C according to
(6-14)
where p is the air density (mass per volume) 111ld A is r £f(·cti H'
ar('a of the body (the area of a cross section taken perpendicul1r to the velocily
TIte drag coefficienl C (typical values range from 0.4 to 1.0) is nOI truly a
constant for a given bod)' because if l' varies significantly. the value of C c.ln vary
as well. Here. we ignore such complications.
Downhill speed skiers know well that drag depends 011 A and , , 1. To reach
high speeds a skier mnst reduce D as much as possible by. for example. riding the
skis in the "egg position" (Fig. 6-6) to minimize A.
When a blnnt bod)' falls from rest through air, the drag force lJ is directed
npward: its magnitnde gradnally increases from zero as the speed of the bod)'
increases. This upward force D opposes the downward gravitational force r.. on
the bod)'. We can relate these forces to the body's acceleration by "Titing
Newton's second k'lw for a verticaly axis (F.« ... = /lilly) as
(6-15)
where III is Ihe mass of the body. As suggested in Fig. 6-7. if the body falls long
enough,D eventually eqnals F" From Eq.6-15. this means thai a = O.and so Ihe
body's speed no longer increases. The lxxIy then f .. lIs at a constant speed. called
Ihe t imll s]l(·(' d I',.
To find v,. we sel a = 0 in Eq. 6-15 and substitute for D from Eq.6-1 4,
obt .. ining
which gives
1', =
(6-16)
Table 6-1 gives values of I',for some common objects.
According to calculations· oosed on Eq. 6-14, a cat mnst fall about six floors
to rellch tenninal speed. Until it does so, F. > D and Ihe cal accelerates down-
wllrd bec.lnse of the nel downward force. Recall from Chapter 2 that yom body is
an accelerometer. nOI a speedometer. Bec .. ustl the cat also senses the accelera-
tion. it is frightened and keeps its feet nndel'1leath its body, its head tucked
in. and its spine bem upwa rd. making A sma II. I', la rge. and injul)' likely.
However. if Ihe cat does reach 1', during a longer fall. the .. cceleration vanishes
and Ihe cat relaxes somewhat, stretching its legs :md neck horizontall), outward and
stmightening its spine (it Ihen resembles a firing sqwrrel). TItestl (lctions increase
3re .. A and thus also. b)' Eq. 6-14. the drag D. TIle cat begins to slow because now
D > F, (the nel force is upward). until a new. smaller Y, is reached. The decrease
·W. 0. and C'. J. "'"hlh.fI, "High-RiSil Sy"dromo in Cal<.·· The /Q"FnO' of 1/" Am,rica"
V,"r,,,ary Mroical A5.focial""" ]987.
"ii,""
Some Terminal Speeds in Air
Object
Shot (from .hot pUl)
Sky diver (typical)
Baseball
T",mi. ball
Basketball
Ping-Pong ball
Raindrop (radius = 1.5 mm)
Parachutist (typical)
Terminal Speed (mi.)
145
60
"
" 20
9
7
5
6-4 I The Drag Force and Terminal Speed
95% Distance" (m)
2500
' 30
210
115
47
10
6
3
"This IS Ih. JiSlan"" th.ough " 'bieh Ihe bod)' muslfall from .,,110 95% of its lemMal ,.-oJ.
So,u'u: Adaplod from Peter J.Braocaz;"'SponSi'i<n« . 19&\,Simon & SeIlus1<' •.
in 1', reduces the possibility of sclious injury on landing. JUSI before the end of Ihe
fall. when it sees it is nearing the gl'Ound. the cal pulls its legs back beneath ils
body to prepare for the landing.
Humans often fall from great heights for Ihe fun of skydiving. However. in
April 1987, during a jump, sky diver Gregory Robertson nOliced Ihat fellow sky
diver Debbie Willi<lms h<ld been knocked unconscious in a collision wilh a third
sky diver 11Ild WaS un<lble to open her parachule. Robertson. who was well above
Williams at the lime and who had not yel opened his parachule for the 4 km
plunge. reorienled his lxxIy head·down so as to minimize A and maximize his
downward speed. Reaching <In estimated 1', of 320 krnlh. he caughl up with
Williams and then went into a horizontal "spread cagle" (as in Fig. 6-8) to
increase D so that he could grab her. He opened her parachute and then. after
releasing her. his own. a scant 10 s before impact. Williams received extensive
internal injuries due 10 her lack of control on klnding but survived.
FIG. 6-8 .. in a horizontal
"spread eagle" maximize air drag.
(Su"e Filchmfli.,xiIGelly 'mages)
Sample Problem D"
If a falling cat reaches a first terminal speed of 97 kmill
while it is lUcked in and then stretches out. doubling A,
how fast is it falling when it reaches a new t.:nllinai speed?
'3;'j,JJ' The terminal speeds of Ihe cal dept'nd on
(among oth.:r things) the effective Cl'Oss·sectional areas
A of the cat. according to Eq. 6-16. ThUs. we can use that
Sample Problem III
A raindrop with radius R = 1.5 nlln faBs fl'ol1\ a cloud
that is at height Ii = 1200 m above the ground. TIle drag
co.:fficienl C for Ihe drop is OliO. Assume til<ll the drop
is spherical throughout its fall. The density of water is
I ()()() kglml . a nd Ihe density of air p. is 1.2 kgim
3
.
(a) What is the t.:rminal speed of the drop?
The drop reaches a terminill speed 1', when
the gravitational force on it is balanced by Ihe air drag
force on it. so its acce1.:ration is Rro. We could then
equation 10 sct up <I ratio of speeds. We let 1' .. and I'm
r.:present the original and neW t.:nllinal speeds. and AD
and the original and neW areas. Then by Eq. 6-16.
v,. = = AD = AD = V03 '" 0.7.
v'" A" 2A.
which means that 1',. ... 0.7v" ,or about 68 km/h.
appl y Newton's second Iilw and th.: drag force equation
to find 1'" but Eq. 6-16 do.:s all that for us.
Calculations: To use Eq. 6-16, we need the drop's effec·
tive cross·s.:ctionalm .... a A and Ihe magnitude F6 of the
gravitational force. Because Ihe drop is spherical. A is
the a rea of a circle ('/1"R' ) tha t has th.: sa \\1': radius as the
sphere. To find F r we use three facts: (I) F6 = mg. where
11/ is the drop's mass: (2) Ihe (spherical) drop's volume is
V = Hnd (3) the density of the water in Ihe drop is
t.he mass per volume.or p. = miV. TIl us, w.: fllld
F6 = Vp.g = fn-RJp.g.
Chapter 6 I Force and Motion-II
We next substirnte this, the expreo.sion for A .and the given
data into Eq. 6.-[6. Being to distinguish between
the air density p.and the water density P. , we obtain
':i4
ii
.jJ i \Vlth no drag force to rednce the drop's
speed dnring Ihe fall. the drop would fall with Ihe
constant free-fall acceleration g. so the conS1<Int-
IICce[eralion equations of Tab[e 2-[ apply.
(8)(\.5 X 10 J m)( lOCO kg/mJ)(9.8 m/s')
(3)(0.60)(1.2 kg/m
l
)
Calculation: Bec..1u5e we know the acceleration is g. Ihe
initial velocity vois O.and the displacement x - Xo is - It.
we nse Eq. 2-16 to f!lld v:
= 7.4 m/s '" 27 km/h. (Answer) v = ';2glt =
Note that the height of the clond does not enter into the
calculation. As Tab[e 6.-1 indicates.. the raindrop reaches
tel1n ina[ speed after falling just a few meters.
= 153 mls ... 550 kmfh. (Answer)
Had he known this.. Shakespeare would scarcely have
\\Titten. "it droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven.
upon the place beneath." In fact. the speed is close to
that of a bullet from a large-caliber handgun!
(b) What won[d 00 the drop's speed just before impact
if there were no drag force?
6· 5 I Uniform Circular Motion
From Section 4-7. recall that when a body moves in a circle (or a circular arc) at
constant speed I' . il is said to be in uniform circn[ar motion. Also rec..1l1that Ihe
body has a centripetal acceleration (directed toward the center of the circle) of
constant magnitnde given by
,. ,

R
where R is the radius of the circle.
(celll"!",I>t a=k-,.Iioll).
let us examine IWO examples of un ifol1n circu [a r mot ion:
(6-17)
I. Rotlnding a Cl l r l 'e in a car. You are sitting in the center of the re:u S<'at of a car
moving at a cons1<lnl high speed along a Hat road. When the driver suddenly
turns [eft. rounding a corner in a circular arc. you slide across Ihe seat toward
the right and then jam againsl the car wall for the rest of the turn. What is
going on?
While the car moves in the circular arc. il is in nnifol1n circular motion:
thm is. it has an acceleration that is direcled toward the center of the circle.
By Newton's second law. a force must c..1use this acceleration. Moreover. Ihe
force mnst also be directed loward the center of the circle. Thns.. it is a n'n-
trilwtOl[ furn', where the adjective indicates the direction. In Ihis example. Ihe
centripetal force is a frictional force on the tires from Ihe road: it ma kes Ihe
tUI'll possible.
[f yon are to move in uniform circular mOlion along with the car. there
mllst also be a centri!"'ta[ force on you. However. apparenl[r the frictional
force on you from the seat was nOI great enough 10 make rou go in a circle
with the car. lllus.. the seat slid beneath rou. unti[ the right wall of the car
jammed into you. Then its pnsh on yon provided the needed centripetal force
on you. and you joined the car's uniform circular motion.
2. Orbilillg Earth. This tinle you are a passenger in the space shuttle Allall/is. As
it and you orbit Earth.you Roat throngh yonrcabin. Whal is going on?
BOlh yon and the shulI[e are in uniform circn[ar motion and have acce[er-
ations directed toward the center of Ihe circle. Again by Newton's second law.
centripetal forces must cause these accelerations, This time the centripetal
forces arc gravitational pulls (the pull on you and the pull on the shuttle) ex-
erted by Earth and directed radially inward. toward the cenler of Earth.
In ooth car and shuttle you are in uniform circular motion . acted on br a cen·
tripetal force - yet your S<lnsations in the two situations are qnite different. In
the car. jammed up against the wall. you are aware of being compressed by the
wall. In the orbiting shuttle. however. you are floating around with no sensation
of any force acting on ron. Why this difference?
The difference is due to the nature of the two centripetal forces. I n the car.
the centripetal force is the push on the pmt of yOll\' oody touching Ihe car wall.
You C1lll sense the compression on thm p.lrl of rOUT body. I n the shuttle. the
cenltipetal force is Earlh's gravilational pull on every alom of yOUI' body. TItus.
there is no compression (or pnll) on anyone part of your body and no S<lnsation
of a force acting on you. (TIle S<lnsation is said to be one of··weightlessness." but
tlmt description is trickr. TIle pull on you by Eanh has certai nlr not dis.lppeared
and. in fllct. is only a little less than it would be with you on the ground.)
Another example of a centripetal force is shown in Fig. 6-9. There a hockey
puck moves around in .1 circle at constant speed l' while tied to a string looped
around a central peg. TIlis time the centripe1.11 force is the radiatty inward pull on
the puck from the string. Wi thout that force. the puck would slide off in a straight
line instead of moving in a circle.
Note again that a centripetal force is nota new kind of foJX:e. The name merely
indicates the direction of the force. II C<ln . in fact. be a frictional force, a gravitational
force, Ihe force from a carwa ll ora siring, or any other force. For any Siluillion:
.-A force accelerates a body by changing the direction of the body's
velocity without changing the body's speed.
From Newton's second law and Eq. 6-17 (0 = v'IR). we can write the magnitude
F of .1 centripetal force (or it net centripetal force) as
"
F = m
R
(magnillloo of forre). (6-18)
Because the speed l' here is conS1.1nt. the magnitudes of the acceleration and the
force are also constant.
Howe\'er. Ihe diri'ctions of the centripetal :lcccleration and forci' arc not con-
S1.1nt: they vm)' continuously so as to always poinl toward the cen te r of the circle.
For this reason, the force and acceleration vectors are sometimes drawn along .1
radial axis r that moves wit lt the body and always extends from Ihe center of the
circle to the body. as in Fig. 6-9. The positive direction of the axis is radially out·
ward. bill the acceleration and force vectors point radially inward .
.y"c H E C K POI N T 2 \\'hen you ride in a Ferris wheel at constant speed, ... hat are
the directions of your acceleration a and the nonnBI force F". on you (from the always
upright seat) as you pass through (a) the highest point and (b) the lowest point of the
ride?
Sample Problem PI
6-5 I Uniform Circular Motion
,

"
,
FIG, 0.9 An view of a
hockey puck moving with constant
speed I ' in a circular path of radius R
011 a horizontal frietionless surface.
The centripetal force on the puck is
T.the pull from the ,tring,directed
inward along the radial axis
ing through the puck.
Igor is a C051110naUl on the Internatiollal Space Station,
in a circular orbit around Earth. at an altitude II of
520 ktn and with .1 constant speed v of 7.6 kntls. Igor's
mass //I is 79 kg.
Calculation: The radius R of Igor's motion is RE + h.
where RE is Earth's radius (6.37 x 10'; m, from Ap-
pendixC).Thus,
(a) What is his acceleration?
Igor is in uniform cirCUlar 1I10tion and tilns
has a centlipe11l1 acceleration of magnitude given by
Eq. 6-17 (0 =
1, 1 I"
1/
R RE + II
(7.6 X 10] m/s)'
6.37 X 10'; 111 + 0.52 X 10
6
111
= 8.38 m/s
1
,., 8.4 lll/sl. (Answer)
Chapter 6 I Force and Motion-II
This is Ihe value of the free-filII acceleration al Igor's
IllTiTUde. If he were lifled to Ihal altitude Ilild released.
instead of being put inlo orbit there. he would fall
toward Earth's center. s11lrting out with IhaT vlllue fOT
his acceleralion. The difference in the IWO situlltions is
thai when he orbits Earth. he always has a "sideways"
mOlion as well: As he falls. he also moves to the side. so
thai he ends up moving along a curved path around
Earlh.
(b) What force does Eanh exeJ1 on Igor?
hi" Ph (I) There must be a centripetal force on 19o1'
if he is 10 be in lmifol'm circuklr motion. (2) TIml force i:s
Sample Problem III
In a 1901 circus performance. Allo " Dare Devil"
Diavolo introduced the STUnt of liding a bicycle in II
loop-the-Ioop (Fig. 6-JOll). Assuming that the loop is II
circle wilh rodius R = 2.7 m. whal is Ihe leasl speed I '
Diavolo could have at the lop of the loop 10 remain ill
oontaclwilh it there? ~
i We can assume Ihal Diavolo and his
bicycle Iravel through the top of the loop as a single
p.lrlicle in uniform circular mOlion. Thus. a t Ihe lOp. the
acceleration Ii of Ihis particle mUSI have Ihe magnitude
a = I,JIR given by Eq. 6-17 and be directed downward.
toward the center oflhe circular loop.
Calculations: TIle forces on Ihe particle when il is at the
top of the loop are shown in the free-1xxIy diagram of
Fig 6-10b. The gravitational force F, is directed down-
ward along a y axis: so is Ihe normal force F'". on the
p.1J'licie from the loop: so also is the centripetal acceler -
ation of the p..1rticle. TIllis, NewlOn's second law for
)' components (F ""'i)' = 111(1,) gives ns
- F,,' - F, = III( - a)
and - F". - lI1g = m( - ~ ) . (6-19)
If Ihe p.1rticle has the leas/ speed I' needed to re-
main in contact. then it is on the I'erge of losillg COil/tIel
wilh Ihe loop (falling away from the loop). which means
thai F,,' = 0 at Ihe top of the loop (Ihe particle and loop
tOllch but wilhout any normal force). SubsliTUting 0 for
F,,' in Eq. 6-19. solving fol' I' . and then substituling
known values give liS
v =,fiR = \1 (9.8mls
1
)(2.7 m)
= 5.1 m/s. (Answer)
the gr;wiTalional force F, on him from Earth.direcled to-
ward his center of rotation (al the center of Eanh).
Calculation: From Newton's second law. wrillen along
the radial axis r. Ihis force has Ihe magniTUde
F, = /Ill! = (79 kg)(8.3S m/s')
= 662 N '" 660 N. (Answer)
If Igor were to s11lnd on a scale placed on the top of a
tower of height II = 520 km. the scale would read 660 N.
In orbit. Ihe scale (if Igor could "stand" on it) wonld
read zero because he and Ihe scale are in free fall
together. and therefore his feel do nOI aCTUally press
againsl it.
' oj
,
''l
,
,
U;ot,-olo
a"d bicyck'
FlG. 6-10 (al Contemporary advertisement for Dia"oloand
(b) fre.,..body diagmm for the performer ntlhe top of the loop.
( Photograph ;11 pan a repro</uced ",';liI pt'rm;ss;oll of Circus
World M"5e"", )
Comments: Diavolo made certain Ihal his speed at Ihe
top of the loop was greater than 5.1 mls so Ihat he did
nOI lose conlaCT wilh the loop and fall away from it.
Note Ihat Ihis speed requirement is independenl of Ihe
mass of Diavolo and his bicycle. Had he feasled on. say.
pierogies jx,fore his performance. he still would have
had 10 e:l:ceed onl)' 5.111115 to maintain COlllaCT as he
passed through the top of Ihe loop.
Problem
Even some roller-coaster riders blanch at the
thought of riding the Rotor. which is e.>senti<llly <l l<lrge.
hollow cylinder tlwt is rowted mpidly around its central
axis (Fi g. 6-11). Before the lide begins.. n rider enters the
cylinder through n door on the side and swnds on n
floor. up ngainst a canvas-covered wall. The door is
closed. and <lS the cylinder begins to turn. the rider. wall.
and floor move in unison. When the rider's speed
re<lches some predetermined value. the floor abruptly
and <ll<lrmingly falls aW<ly.111e rider docs not fall with it
but instelld is pinned to the wall while the cylinder
rotates, as if an unseen (and somewhal wlfriendly)
agent is pressing Ihe body 10 Ihe wall. Lat er. Ihe floor is
eased b.:1Ck 10 Ihe rider's feet. the cylinder slo",s,and the
rider si nks <l few cenlimeters to regain footing on Ihe
floor. (Some riders consider all this to be fun.)
Suppose Ihat the coefficient of swtic friction /-t,
oot"'een the rider's clolhing and Ihe canvas is 0.40 and
tlmt the cylinder's radius R is 2.1 m.
(a) What minimulll speed I' must the cylinder and rider
have if the rider is not to fall when the floor drops?
I. The gravitation<ll force r.. on Ihe rider tends to slide
herdowtl the w<lll. but she does nOI move beC<luse a
frictional force from the w<lll acts upward on her
(Fig. 6-1 I).
2. If she is to be on the '-erge of sliding down. th<lt
upward force mUSI be a SUllie friction<ll force 7.
ill ill; ma.'l:imunJ value /-t,F,," where FN is Ihe
m<lgnitude of the nornlal force f:.,. on her from the
cylinder (Fig. 6-11 ).
3. This normal force is directed horizontally townrd
the central axis of the cylinder and is the centripetal
force Ihat causes the rider to move in a circular
FtG. 6-11 A ROTor in an
amusemenl park.showing
Ihe forces on a rider.The
centripetal force i, the
normal force PNWilh
which Ihe wall pu,he, in-
ward on the rider.
,
I /,
C<"tr.t I
• I

'-
!
7t
6-5 I Uniform Circular Motion
path. "ilh centripetal accelcration of mngnitnde
11 = 1,11R and direcled toward Ihe center of the circle.
We walll speed I ' in that lasl expression. for the condi-
tionlh<lt the rider is onlhe verge of sliding.
Vertical calculations: We first place a vcrtical y axis
through Ihe rider. wilh the positive dil'ection upward.
We can then apply Newton's second law 10 the rider,
writing it for ycomponenls (F"""" = as
t. - IIIg = 1/1(0).
III is Ihe rider's mass <lnd IIIg is the magnitude of
F
6
• Becanse the rider is on the verge of sliding. we sub-
stitllle Ihe maximum v<llue /-t,F
N
for f, in Ihis eqnation.
getting
0'
/-t,F,,' - mg = O.
mg
F
N
=--·
",
(6-20)
Radial calculations: Nexi we place a radial , axis
through the rider. with Ihe positive direction outward.
We C<ln then write Ne\\10n's second law for components
along Ihat <lxis as

(6-21)
Substituting Eq. 6-20 for then solving for ". we lind
(9.81l1Is
1
)(2.l Ill)
0.40
= 7.17 mls '" 7.2 mls. (Answer)
NOle thai the result is indep<:ndent of the rider·s m<lSs: il
holds for anyone riding the Rotor. from 11 child to 8
snmo wrestler.,,·hich is why no one has to ··weigh to
ride the Rotor.
(b) If the rider's mass is 49 kg. wh<lt is the magnitude of
the centripetal force on her?
Calculation: According to Eq. 6-21 .
,,1 (7.17 m/sf
F,,' = m {i = (49 kg) 2.lm
"" 1200 N. (Answer)
Although Ihis force is directed toward the central axis..
the lider has an overwhelming sensmion that the force
pinning her against the wall is directed radially out -
ward. Her sens.1tion stems from the f<lcllh<lt she is in a
noninertial frame (she and it are accelerat i ng). As mea-
snred from such frames. forces can be illusionaly. DIe
illusion is pal1 of the Rotor·s allraction.
Ch.apter 6 I Force and Motion-II
Problem ' 11
Upside-down ,acing: A modern race car is designed so
Ihal the pass ing air pU5hes down on il. aUowing the C<1r 10
uavel much faster through a Hal 111111 in a Grand Pri."
wilhout frict ion failing.111is do",nward push is C<1l1ed lI<'g-
1IIi1'/' lifl. Can a race car have so much negative lifl that it
could be driven upside d<mll on <I long ceiling.as done fi c-
lionally b)' a sedan in the first !Hi'll in Black movie?
FIgure & 12a represent s a Grand Prix race car of
mass 11/ = 600 kg as it travels on a flat lrack in a circular
arc of radius R = 100 m. Because of the shape of Ihe car
and the wings on it. the p.1ssing air exerts a negative lift
FL downward on Ihe car. The coefficient of sWlic
friction belween the tires and the track is 0.75. (Assume
Ihm the forces on Ihe four tires are ide ntical.)
(a) If the c<'11' is on the verge of sliding out of Ihe turn
when its speed is 28. 6 mIs, what i5 1he 111<1gnitude of F'L?
L A centripetal force must act on Ihe car beC<1use the
car is moving <1round a circul<1r arc; th<1t force must
be directed toward the cenler of curvature of Ihe <1rc
(here. th .. t is horizont<1ll y).
2. The only horizont<11 force acting onlhe C<1r is a fric-
tional force on the tires from the road. So the
required centripetal force is <I frictional force.
J. Because lhe car is not sliding. the frictional force
mnSI be <1 Sialic f rictiona I force 7. (Fig. 6-1 20).
4. Becanse the car is on Ihe verge of sliding. the magni·
tude f, is equal to the maximum value f, ...... = /i-,F., ..
where F", is the nwgnitude of the normal force F',v
acting 011 the car from the tr<lck .
Radial calaJ/ations: 111e fiictional force 1. is shown in
Ihe free-body diagram of Fig. 6-12b. 11 is in the negative di-
rection of a I<1di<11 <lxis r thm always extends fromlhe center
of curvature through lhe C<1r as the C<1r 1110ves. 111e force
produces <I cc1l1ripeml accele rmion of 111<1gnirude ,,' IR. We
can rel<1te Ihe force and <lCwler<1tion by wtiting Newton's
second law foroompone nts<1long lhe ra.'lis ( F"", = ma,) as
( "')
- [. = 11/ - If . (6-22)
Su bstitu ting J. ...... = /i,F,,' for J. leads li S to
= 11/ ( ).
(6-23)
Vertical calculations: Next. let's consider the vertic<11
forces on the car.The nornml force F'". is directed up. in
Ihe positive direction of Ihe y axis in Fig. 6-12b. The
gr<1vitmion<11 force F; = /IIg <lnd the negative lifl FL are
directed down. 111e acceleration of the car along the
y uis is zero. 11ll1s we can write Newton's second law
,
,
, ")
''l
"
,
,
FtG. 6-12 (a) A race car moves around a flat curved !rack at
constant speed Y. The frictional 7. pro.ides the nece.,ary
centripetal force along D radial axis r. (b)A diagram
(no! !oscate) for!h car. in the vertical pbne containing r.
for compone nt s a long the y axis (F""". = as
- mg - FL = O.
0'
(6-24)
Combining results: Now we can combine our results
along the two axes by substituting Eq. 6-24 for F,,' in Eq.
6-23. Doing so and lhen solving for FL lead to
-g)
= (600 k ) ( (28.6 mls)'
g (0.75)(100 m)
= 663.7 N ... 660 N.
- 9.8111/5' )
( Answe r)
(b) The magnitude FL of the negative lift on a car
depends on the square of Ihe cars speed I". just as the
drag force does ( Eq.6-14) . Thus.lhe negative lift on the
car he re is greater when the car travels faster.<1s it does
on a str<1ight section of track . What is Ihe magnitnde of
the negative lift for a speed of90 lllls?
'!bliP' F ' . ,
L tS proportIonal to I· ...
Calculations: 11tus we can v,Tite a ratio of the negative
lifl FUlJ at I' = 90 mls to our result for the negalive lifl
FLIlI I' = 28.6111/sas
(90 lll/s)'
(28.6 mls)"
Substituting h = 663.7 N and solving for h.oc>,give us
h,'I(] = 6572 N '" 6600 N. ( Answe r)
Upside-down ,acing: 11le gr<1vitmional force is
F, = mg = (600 I;:g)(9.8 lll/ s')
= 5880 N.
With the car upside down.lhe nega tive lift isallllp"'II,i/
force of 6600 N. which exceeds the downward 5880 N.
ThUs. the car could run on a long ceiling p, oddl'i/ that il
moves at about 90 m/s (= 324 kmlh = 201 mifh).
Sample Problem 1.,It.
Curved ponions of highways are a lways banke d ( tilted)
to prevent cars fro m sliding off the highwa)'. Whe n a
highway is d ry. the frict io nal force between the tires a nd
the road sur face may be e nough to prevent sliding.
When the highway is wet. however. the fri ctio na l force
may be negli gible. and banking is the n essent ial. Fi gure
6- 13a re present s a car of mass 11/ as it moves a t a con-
sta nt speed I' of 20 ml s around a b.. 1.nke d circulilr track
of mdius R = 190 m. ( It is a normal car. rather tha n a
mce car. which mea ns a ny vertical fo rce from the 1'-155-
ing a ir is ne gligible.) If the frictiona l fo rce from the
track is negligible. what bank angle 0 pr events sliding?
'"ii,pi Unlike Sample Proble m 6·9. the track is
banked so a s to tilt the normal fo rce on the car to·
,

, .,

,
,

,
c.,
'.
,
<>-0-

,
,
' 'l
Ft G. '"1 3 (a) A car mo""" around a curved banked road at
constant speed The bank angle is exaggemted for darit}'. (b) A
free. body diagram for the car.",,",uming that friction b..tween tires
and road iszeroand thatt he car locks negati,'e lift.The radiaUy
inward component F.", of tile normal force (along radial axis r)
provides the necessar)' centripetal fOfoe and radial accelorat ion.
REVIEW & SUMMARY
Friction Whn a fo= F tend, to sl ide a body along a surface.
11 fo"",, from the surface acts on the body. The frictionat
force is paratlel to the surface and directed so '" to oppose the
is due to bonding between the bod)' a,ld the surface.
If the body does not slide. the frictional force is 11 , Imi r
frir1ion,,1 7,. If there is slidmg. the frictional force is
a kill r lic (ri,1ion,,1 forn' 7..
I. If a bod)' doe. not mo' ·e. the static frictional force 7, and
the component of r parallel to t he surface are equal in
magnitude. and 1. is directed opposite that component .
If the component increases. !, also increases.
2. The magnit ude of 7. has a maximum val ue!, ..... !i"en b)'
Review & Summary
ward the center of the circle (Ftg. 6-\3b). TIllIS, r. •. now has
a centripetal compone nt of ma gnitude F
N
, . directed in-
ward alo ng a rad ial axis r. We want to find the value of the
bank angle IJ such that this centripeta l component keeps
the car on the circular track withoUineed of frict ion.
Radial calculation: As Fi g. 6· J3b shows (and as you
s ho uld veri fy) . the angle that force F, •. nKlkes with the
verti cal is equal to the b.1nk a ngle 0 of the track. ThUs.
the radial compone nt F,.., is equa l to F ••. sin O. We can
now "'Tit e Ne\\10 n's second law for compone nt s al o ng
the r axi s ( F"", , = ilia,) as
- F, •. sinO = 111(- ) .
(6.25)
We cannot solve thi s equa tio n for the value of 0 because
il a lso contains the unknowns F, •. and III.
Vertical calculations: We ne xt consider the force s and
a ccele ratio n a long the y axis in Fi g. 6-1 3b. TIle ve rtical
compone nl o f the no rmal force is F, •. = F, •. cos 0. the
gravitationa l fo rce F: o n the car has the magnitude mg.
and the accele ra tio n of the car al ong the), axis is zero.
Thus we C<.1lt write Newton's second law for component s
al o ng the y axis = may) as
F,.'cos 0 - mg = 111(0).
fro m whic h
F,.'cos 0 = mg. (6.26)
Combining results: Equa tion 6-26 also contains the un·
knOl'ms F. •. and m. but note tim d ividing Eq. 6-2'i by Eq. 6-
26 nea tly e liminat es both those unkno"'ll s. Doing so. re plac·
ing (sin O)/(C05 f1) with tan O. a nd solving for Othe n yield
" ,
0 = tan- I --
gR
- I (20 1l1Is),
- tan
- (9.8 111/s!)( I90 m)
12". (Answer)
(6-1 )
... h.-re ,.., is tile ro<.f!;";"nt of Malic F",1ion and F.y}s the mag-
nitude of the nonnal force. If the componenl of F parallel to
the surface exceed. !._. the body on the surface.
.\. If the body begins to slide on tile surface. the magnitude of the
frictional force rapidly decreases to a constant value!. gi>'cn by
f. = JL, F.y. (6-2 )
whcre ,... i, the cudfki<'nI of kim'lic Fri.",ion.
Drag Force When there is retative mOlion between air (or
some other Auid) and a body. the bod)' experiences a dr"l!
Jj that oppose. the relative motion and points in the
direction in which t he fluid flows reiati"e to the bod)'. The
Chapter 6 I Force and Motion-II
magnitude of D is rdated 10 Ihe relative speed I' by an .. xperi -
me ntaJly delermined <1"'1: C according 10
D = (6.-1 4)
where p is Ihe fluid density (mass per unil volume) and A is
the """-.",,<l ionol of the body (the area of Il
cross section laken perpendicular 10 Ihe relali'-e velocily v).
Terminal Speed When a blunt objeci h". fallen far
enough Ihrough air, the magnitude. of Ihe drag force l5 and
Ihe gravilalional force Ihe body becomeequaJ. The body
Ihen falls al a conSlant I', gi'-en b)'
(6_1 6)
QUESTIONS
1 [nFig.6-[4,horizontalforce 'i _
r, of magnitude 10 N is applied .==:::-==1= -;:';::===.-
to a box on a floor, bUI the box -
does nol slide. Then, as the
magnitude of vertical force r, is FIG, 6. 14 Question I.
increased from zero, do the
lowing quantities increase, decrease, or sta)' the same: (a) the
magnitude of the frictional force 7, on the box: (b) Ihe nm&ni -
tude of the nom,al force r
H
on the box from the floor: (c) the
maximum value /,.- of the magnitude of Ihe sialic frictional
force on the box? (d) Does Ihe box eventually slide?
2 [n Ihree experiments.. three different horizonlal forces are
applied to Ihe same block lying on the . ame countertop. The
force magmludes are F, = 12 N, F, = 8 N. and F, = 4 N. In
each experiment, Ihe block remains .talionary in 'Pite of Ihe
applied force. Rank the force, according to (a) the magnitude!,
of Ihe static frictional force on the block from Ihe countertop
and (b) the maximum , .. Iue /, .. " oflhat fOfce.grealest first.
l [nFtg.6-15.if theboxi,sta-
lion",), and the angle 8 between
Ihe horizon!'11 alld force F is in-
creased somewhat. do the foUo".--
ing quantities increase. decrease.
FIG. 6·15 Question 3.
or remain the same: (a) F,; (b) f,; (c) F.v: (d) /' _, (e) It instead,
Ihe is sliding and 8 is increased, doe, Ihe magnitude of the
frictional force on Ihe box increa.e.decrease. or remain Ihe same'?
4 Repeat Question 3 for force r angled upward in.tead of
dO"llward a, drawn.
5 [fyou pre .. an apple craie against a wall so hard Ihalthe
craie cannot slide dO"'n Ihe wall. whal is the direction of
(a) the static frictional force 7, on the crate from the wall and
(b) the normal force FH on Ihe crate from the wall? [f you
innease your pu.h. what happens to (c) /" (d) F,v, and
(e)/,,_?
6 [n Fig.6-16 .• block of mass III i,
held stat ionary on a ramp b)' the
friclional force on il from Ihe ramp.
A force F, directed up the ramp, i,
then applied 10 Ihe block and
ally increased in magnitude from
\'
FIG. 6-16 Que,lion 6.
Uniform Circular Motion [f a panicle moves in a circle
or a circular arc of radius R al constant speed v,lhe particle is
said 10 bein unif"rm circular moti on. It Ihen has a cenlrip..ta[
,,,,,'den,tio n a with magnitude given by
.'
a =/f'
(6-17)
Thi. acceleration is due to a nel c"ntripet,, [ force on the parti -
de. o.'ith magnitude given by
(6-18)
where III is the part ide's mas .. The ,-ecIor quantities Ii and r
are directed toward the center of curvature of Ihe particle's
path.
zero. During Ihe innease. whal happen. 10 the direction and
magnilude of the frictional force on the block?
7 Reconsider Question 6 bUI with the force F now direcled
down Ihe ramp.As the magnitude of F is increased from z .. ro.
what happens to the direction and magnitude of Ihe frictional
force on the block?
8 [nFig.6_17,ahorizon_
tal force of lOON i, to be
applied loa 10 kg slab thai
i. initially slationary on a
frictionless floor, 10 accel-
lIIock
51"
FIG. 6-17 Que,tion 8.
tOO N
erale Ihe slab. A 10 kg block lies on lOp of Ihe slab: the coeffi -
cient of friction /i. between the block and Ihe slab i, nol known.
and Ihe block mighl slip. (a) Considering that possibilil)'. what
i, the possible mnge of values for the magnitude of the slab's
acceleration Il,w,? (Him: You don't need wrinen calculations;
just con.ider extreme value, for /i..) (b) What is Ihe possible
for Ihe magnitudell_.of the block's acceleralion?
9 A person riding a Ferri, wheel move, Ihrough positions
al (1) Ihe top, (2) Ihe bottom. and (3) midheighl. lfthe wheel ro_
lates at a constant "'Ie. rank three positions """"rding to
(a) Ihe magnitude of the person', centripetal acceleration, (b)
the magnilude of the net centripetal force on the person. and (c)
the magnitude of the normal force on the pc"""n. grealest first.
10 [n 1987, as a Hallo".-een stun!. two sk)' dive" pa,sed a
pumpkin back and forth bel"'een Ihem while they were in free
fall jU'1 west of o.icago. The slunt was great fun unlillhe [ast
sky diver with the pumpkin opened his parachute. The pump-
kin broke free from his grip. plummeled about 0.5 km. ripped
Ihrough the roof of a house, sJammed into the kitchen floor.
and splallered aJi o,'er Ihe newly remodeled kitchen. From Ihe
.ky dinT. ,-i ewpoint and from Ihe pumpkin's viewpoint. why
did the 'ky diver losccontro[ oflhe pumpkin? -.s:
11 Figure 6- 18 .hows Ih ..
path of a pal'k ride that trayels
al constant speed through fiye
circular arcs of radii Ro. 2R",
and 314 Rank the arcs accord-
ing 10 the magnitude of Ihe
7 .2)
FIG. 6· 18 Questionll.
rentripelal force on a rider traveling in the arc.. greatest firsl.
PROBLEMS
SK. 6·3 Properties of Friction
01 A bedroom with a mass of 45 kg. including
drawers and dothing. on the floor. (a) If the coefficient of
static friction betw""n the bureau and the Hoor is OA5. what is
the magnitude of The minimum horizoll1al for"" thaT a person
must apply to start The bureau mO"ing? (b) If the drawers Hnd
dothing. wiTh 17 kg mass. are remoyed before the bureau is
pushed. what is new minimum magnitude? UM_
02 The ",ysre,iollS slid;"C slones. Along the remote Race·
track Pla)'a in DeaTh Valley. California. stones sometimes
gouge out prominenT Trail, in the de"'rT floor. a, if the stones
had been migrating (Fig. 6- 19). For years curiosity mounted
about why the Slones mo'·ed. One explanaTion wa, thaT strong
wind, during occasional rainSTorms would drag the rough
,tones o,'er ground softened by rain. Whn the desert dried
OUT. The trail. behind The stones were hard-baked in place.
According To measurements. the of kinetic friction
between The STone, and The ... et playa ground is about 0.&1
What horizoll1al force must act on a 20 kg Slone (a typical
mass) To maintain the S1onc', motion once a guST has STarted it
moying? (Story COnTinue. WiTh Problem 39.)
FIG. (,· 19 Problem 2. What moved the ,tone? (Jerry Sch,,,y
Plio/a Researchers)
03 A person pushes horizontally wilh a force of 220N on
a 55 kg crate to move iT ano .. a leye] floor. The coefficient
of kinetic friction is 0.35. What is the magnilude of (a) the fric·
tion.1 force and (b) The crnle', acederaTion? I ... ICW
04 A baseball player wilh mass '" = 79 kg. sliding into sec·
ond base. is retarded by a frictional force of magnilude 470 N.
What is the coefficient of kinetic friction IL' between the
player and the grou nd"l
05 Hoor of a rnilroad HaTe.r is lo.1ded with loo,e crates
haying a coefficient of SIalic fricTion of 0.25 wilh The HooT. If
the Train is initially moving at a speed of 48 knvh. in how short
a distance can the train be Slopped at conSlant ac""leratioll
withouT causing the crates to slide oYer the floor?
Problems
·6 A slide-loving pig slide. do"" a cerTain 35' slide in twice
the lime it would take to slide down a frictionless 35° slide.
What is Ihe coeffi,;ent of kinetic friction between the pig and
the,lide?
·7 A 3.5 kg block is pushed
along a horizontal floor b)' a
force F of nmguitude 15 N at
a n angle e = .j()" WiTh the hori-
zontal (Fig. 6.-20). The coeffi-
cient of kineTic friction be·
Tween the block and the Aoor
FIG. 6-20
Problems 7and24.
is 0.25. Calculale the magniTude. of (a) the frictional force on
the block from the Hoor and (b) the block's acceleration. Ql
·8 In a pickup game of dorm ,hufAeboard. students crazed
by final exams use a broom to propel a calculus book along
The dorm h.II""aY. If The 3.5 kg book is pushed from rest
Through a distance of 0.90 m by the horizontal 25 N force
from the broom and then has a ,peed of 1.60 m/ s. what i, the
coefficient of kineticfrictioll between The book and Hoor?
·9 A 2.5 kg block is iniTially at
rest on • horizontal surface. A
horizontal force r of magnitude
6.0 N and a vertical force "P are
then to the block (Fig.6.-
21). The coefficient' of friction
for th block and .urface are jL,
FIG. 6-21
,
,
Problem 9.
= 0.40 and 1'-. = 0.25. Determine the magnilude oflhe frictional
force acting on the block if magnitude of"Pis (a) 8.0 N.(b) 10
Nand(c)12N. :0
·10 In about 1915. Henry
Sincosky of Philadelphia sus·
pended him,elf from a rafter
by gripping the rafter with The
Thumb of each hand on one
side and The fingers on the
opposite side (Fig. 6_22) .
Sincosky', mass was 79 kg. If
The coefficient of SlaTic friction
between hand and rafter was
0.70. "'hat was the leaS! magni-
tude of the normal for"" on The
rafTer from each thumb or op.-
posiTe fingers? (Afl er suspend-
ing himself. Sincosky chinned
himself on the rafter and Then
along
The rafTer. If )'Oll do not think
Sincosky', grip was remark-
a ble.try to repeal his SlUnT.)

FIG. 6·22 Problom 10.
·11 A worker pushes horizonlally on a 35 kg cr.te wiTh a
forC<" of magnitude 110 N. The coefficienT of static friction
Chapter 6 I Force and Mot ion-II
bet"' een the crate and the Hoor is 0.37. (3) What is the value of
f • .- under circumstances? (b) Doe.. the crate mO"e?
(c) What i. the frictional force on the crate from the HoOf?
(d) Suppose. next. that a second wor ker pull, directly upward
on the crate to help out. What i. the least vertical pull that will
allow the first worker's lID N push to move the crate? (e) It
instead. the second worker pull, horizontally to help out. what
is the least pull that ge"lt he
crate moving? Joi ", "" to ice
'12 Figure 6-23 shows the
cro .. section of a road cut into
the side of a mountain. The
solid line AA' represent, "
weak bedding plane
which sliding is JXl'l,ib1e. Block
B directly the high"a)' is
" ,
FIG. 6·23 Problem 12.
separated from uphill roc k by a large crock (called a jo.m) .• o
that only friction between the block and the bedding plane pre-
vent, sliding. The ma .. of tbe block is 1.8 X 10' kg. the dip angle
e of the bedding plane i. 14". and the coefficient of static friction
between block and plane isO.63.( a) Show that the block will not
slide. (b) Water seeps into The joint and e"P" nd, upon freezing.
e., .nmg on the block a force r- parallel to AA·. What nun,mum
value of force magnitude f will trigger a .Iide down the plane?
·13 A 68 kg crate i. dragged across a Hoor by pulling on
a rope att ached to the crate and inclined 15' aoo'-e the hori-
zontal. (a) lfthe c""fficient of 'tatic friction i. 0.50. what mini-
mum force magnitude is required from the rope to start the
crate moving? (b) If Ii. = 0.35. wh" is the magnitude of the
initial acce1<:'ration of th crate? 55"
'14 Figure 6-24 show. an initially stalionary block of mass
'" on a lloof. A force of ,,,,gnitude O.5(X)mg is then applied at
upward angle e = 20'. What is the magnitude of the
tion of the block aero" the
floor if (a) Ii, = 0.600 and Ii, =
0.500 and (bJ 1'-, = 0.400 and
Ii. = 0.300?
·15 The coefficient of static
Inchon belween TeHon and
FtG. 6·24 Problem 14.
scrambled eggs is about O.o·t What is the smallest angle from
the horizontal that will ca'Jse the egg' to slide across the bot-
tom of a Tellon--co.1t ed skiHel?
· ' 16 You testify a. an ""perl in a case an
accident in which car A sJ.d into the rear of car B. which was
Slopped at a red liFht a road headed down a hill (Fig.
6. 25). You find that the ,lope of the hill is e = 12.0'. that the
cars were "",araled by distance d = 24.0 m when the dri"er of
car A put the car into a ,Iide (it lacked any automatic anti-
brake-lock ,ySTem). and Ihat Ihe speed of car A al the onset of
braking was "0 = 18.0 mls. Wilh what speed did car A hit car B
if th .. coefficient of kinelic friction was (a) 0.60 (dry road sur-
face) and (b) 0.10 (road surface cO"ered with wei leave.)?
FIG. 6·25 Problem 16.
"17 A 12 N horizontal force F y
push.... a block weighing 5.0 N
against a vertical wall (fi g. 6-26).
The coefficient of st81ic friction be-
tween the "'-all and the block is
,

0.60. and the c""lficient of kinelic FIG. 6-26 Problem 17.
friclion i, 0.40. Assume that the
block i. not moving inili ally. (aJ Will the block mO"e? (b) In
unit-vector notation. what is the force on the block from the
wall?
"18 A ·tlO kg block is
pushed along a Hoor by a ron·
stant applied that i. bri-
zontal and has a magnitude of
40.0 N. fi gure 6-27 gi""" the
block's speed I ' versus lime : a-s
the block mo'·e. along an x ,-"is
on the Hoor. The scale of the fig.
ures "{'",,icaJ axis is sel by I', = 5.0
"
o 0.5
' .0
«.)
F1G. 6-27 Problem 18.
mi •. What is the coefficient of kinetic friction between Ihe block
and the II"",?
..10 An in;,;.,lly ,,,, iona.y h", of ,and i, ,,, h., p" l1.,.-l
aero .. a lloor by means of a cable in " 'h,ch the tension should
nol exceed 1100 N. The coefficient of ''"tic friction between
Ihe and the lIoor is 0.35. Ca) What should be the angle
between the cable and Ihe horizontal," order to pull Ihe
greatest possible amount of s.ond. and (b) ,,·hal i, Iheweight of
the sand and box in Ihat ,itu.tion?
"20 A loaded penguin sled
weighing 80 N rests on a
plane inclined at angle e = 20"
to the horizontal (Fig. 6--28).
Between the sled and the
plane. the coefficient of stat:c
friclion i, 0.25. and Ihe coeffi-
cient of kinetic friction is 0.15.
Cal What is the least magni-
,
,
FIG. 6·28
Problems 20and 26.
tude of Ihe force r: parallel to Ihe plane. that will prevent Ihe
,led from ,lipping down the ;>lone7 (b) Who. i, the minimum
magnilude Fthat will start tbe ,led moving up the plane? (c)
What value of Fis required to the sled up the plane at
constant
"21 In Fi g. 6.29. a force P acts
on a block weighing 45 N. The
block is inilially at rest on a
plane inclined at angle e = IS' to
Ihe horizontal. The posili"e di-
F1G. 6-20 Problem 21.
reeTion of the .t axis is up the plane. The coefficients of friction
ben'-een bloct and plane arc IJ., = 0 . .50 and Ii, = 0.34. In unil-
veCTor nOialion. what is the fridional force on the block from the
plane "hen ]I is (a) ( - 5.0 N)i. (b) (- 8.0 N)1. and (c) (- 15 N)i?
"22 In Fig. 6.30. a box of Cheerios (mass me = 1.0 kg) and
a box of Whealies (mass "'w = 3.0 kg) are accelerated acros, a
horizontal surface by a ho,izontal force F applied to t he
o,eerios box. The magnitude
of the frictional force on the __ ""''-- , ---1
o,eerios box is 2.0 N. and lhe r::: F
magnitude of the friction.1 c::::::
••
force on the Wheati ... box i.
4.0 N. If the magnit ude of F i.
FIG. 6-30 Probl .. m 22.
12 N. "'hal is Ihe magnilUde of the force on the Wheatie, box
from the o,eerios box?
··23 Block 8 in Fig. 6-3]
weigh. 7]] N. The coeffici"m of
,tatic friction between block
and tab]" i, 025; angle e i, 30';
a"ume thai Ihe cord belw" .. n
Band Ihe knol is horizonTal.
Find The maximum w .. ighl of
block A for "'hich Ihe 'y'lem
will be Slation8r)'. SSM_
··24 A block is pu'hed
across a floor by a con-
,tant force thai is applied
al downward angle e (Fig.
6_20). Figure 6-32 gives
the acceleration magni-
lude d ,'e"u, a range of
values for Ihe coefficient
of kinetic friction /'-. be_
tween block and floor; '"
= 3.0 mls'. /'-. , = 0.20.and
/'-., = 0.40. What is the
value of If!
··25 When The Ihree blocks
in Fig. 6-33 are released from
reSI. the)' accelerate wiTh a
magnilude of 0.500 mls' . Block
] ha, mass M. block 2 has 2M.
and block 3 ha, 2M. Whal i, Ihe
coeffi cient of kineTic friction
belween block 2 and Ih .. lab]e?
··26 In Fi g. 6_28. a s]ed is
held on an inclined plane
by a cord pulling directly
up the plane. The ,led i, 10
be on The ,'erge of moving
FIG. 6-31 Problem 23.
"
FIG. 6-32 Problem
,
FIG. 6_33 Problem 25
,
up Ihe plane. In Fig.
the magnilude F required
of Ihe cord's force on Ihe
sl ed is ploned versu, a
range of va]ue, for Ihe co.-

FlG. 6·34 Problem 26.
efficienl of slatic friclion /,-, belween ,led and plane; F, = 2.0
N. F, = 5.0 N. and"" = 0.50. AI whaT angle e is Ihe plane in_
clined?
··27 Two blocks.. of weighTS 3.6 Nand 7.2 N. ar e conn"'-""1ed
b)' a massless siring and ,Iide down a 30' inclined plane. The
coeffi cient of kineTic friclion beTween the lighter block and
Ihe plane is O.I(}.That belween Ihe he",'ier block and Ille plane
i, 0.20. A"uming Ihatthe lighter block lead .. find (a) Ihe mag_
nilUde of Ihe acceleration of the blocb and (bl Ihe Tension in
Ihe slfing. SSM
··28 Figure 6_35 ,how, three crates being pushed a
concreTe floor by a horizontal force F of magniTude 440 N.
The masses of the crales are m j
= 30.0 kg. Ill, = 10.0 kg. and
m, = 20.0 kg. The coefficienl of
kinetic friction beTWeen Ihe
floor and each of Ihe crales is
-,
-,
0.700. (al WhaT is Ihe magni- FIG. 6-35 Problem 28.
Problems
lude F" of the force on craie 3 from crate 2? (b) If the crales
lhen ,lide onlo a polished floor. where Ihe coefficient of
kineTic friCTion is less than 0.700. is magnilude F" more
Ihan. ]e ... Ihan. or the same as il was when Ihe coefficient
was 0.7OO? Ql
··29 Body A in Fi g. 6_36
"" eigh, ]02 N. and body 8
weigh, 32 N.The coefficients of
friction beTween A and Ihe in-
cline are /,-, = 0.56 and /'-. =
0.25. e i, 40". Lei Ihe
direcTion of an ;r axis
I>c up Ihe incline. In uniT-vec_
frkt io" Ie ...
", ... ..te" p"lley
Tor notal ion. "'hal is Ihe aa:eI- FIG. 6·36 Problems
e ralion of A if A is iniTially (3) 29 and 30.
at re,t. (b) moving up Ihe in_
cline. and (c) moving down the incline?
··30 In Fig. 6-36. Iwo blocks are conneded over a pulley.
The mass of block A is 10 kg.and The coefficient of kineTic fric·
l ion between A and Ih indin .. is 020. e of The is
30°. Block A slides down the incline aT constant !peed. Whal is
The mass of block 81
··31 In Fig. 6_37. blocks A
and B have weighls of 44 Nand
22 N. re'pecti,·dy. (a) Det er-
mine the minimum weighl of
block C To keep A from sliding
if /,-, .. 'een A and the table is
0.20. (b) Block C suddenly is
lifled off A . Whal is Ihe acce]er-
alion of block A if ".. A
and the table is 0.15?
c
Fric.iont"".
,,,.,,,b,
FIG. 6-37 Problem J J.
··32 A toy chesl and ilscontents have a combined weighT of
[ll) N. The coefficiem of static friClion belween lOY chest and
floor i, 0.42. The child in Fi g. 6-38 allemp" To move Ihe chest
acros, the floor by pulling on an allached rope. (a) If e is 42'.
",'haT is Ihe magnitude of Ihe force F IhaT the child musl exen
on the rope 10 putlhe chest on the "erge of moving? (b) Write
an expression for Ihe magnitude Frequired To pUilhe chest
on the ,'erge of moving as a function of the angle e. DeTermine
(c) Ihe ,'alue of e for "'hich Fis a minimum and (d) Ihat mini-
mum magnitude.
FIG. 6-38 Problem 32.
F
M

··33 The two blocks (m = 16
kg and M = 88 kg) in Fig. 6-39
are nol an ached 10 each other.
The coeffi cient of slaTic friclion
bel"'cen Ihe block> i, /,-, =
038. but Ihe beneaTh
The larger block i, fricTionle, ... FIG. 6-39 Problem 33.
Chlpter 6 I Force and Motion_II
Whal i.lhe minimum magniwde of Ihe f<>rce r re·
qUlred '0 the MIlaner block fr()m shpPlng dm,'n the
la.ge. block? nw
00014 In Fill- 6-40. a ()f
nlaSS "'I = 40 kg resu OIl a
frictlOnu floor. and a block
(){ man "'! = 10 kl rests ()n

FIG . ......, l'r<>b\em 34.
lop of 'he ,lab. Bel""een block and slab. Ihe <'<XfIKienl ()f sla·
IIc fric"OIl IS 0.60. and Ihe <'<XffiClenl ()f klnelic fnel"'" is OAO.
The block IS pulled by a horirontal f()1'C't! F ()f magnitude 100
N. I n U nll· .. eclor nOlallon. what are Ihe 't$uitlnf, accelerations
<>f (a) Ihe block and (b) Iheslab? C
00035 A ICOO kl bont IS tra .. ellllf, al90 km/h Its eny ....
is shul off.The magnitude of lhe fricllOnal foru 7. belWUfl bonl
and "-:lIe, IS proportlOOnllO Ihe sp«d I' of the bonl:/t = i'OI'.
,,-here I' 11 III meters per sc«>nd and f • .. In n.,.,,1() .... Fmd the
time .eqUlred for Ihe kmth. UM
"c. 6-4 The Drall Foret and TermInal Speed
036 The speed of a sky di'-er is 160 kmth In Ihe
spread-eagl e posniol1 nnd 310 kill/h III the nostd"'e posiliml .
AlSunling thai the diver's drt\g coefficient C does nol change
from one posilion 10 Ihe olher. find Ihe ralio ()f Ihe dfective
cron .. ..,clional Men A in the slower position 10 Ihat in
Ihe fasler posi"on.
0037 Calculale Ihe ratIo of Ihe f()ln, on a Jel flying
al HXXl kmfh al an altilude of 10 km to Ihe drag force
On a prop.driven transport flying at half Ihat . peed aoo al Ii·
Iude. The denuly of a" IS 0.38 kill"l at 10 km and 0.67 kg/m'
al 5.0 km. Assume that Ihe aIrplanes hne the 53n", effect;"e
c. on-scctional area and drag codfltlem C.
0038 In downhIll speed . kllng a . !;wlr IS 1»' b«h Ihe
aor drag force on Ihe body and Ihe k'''elic frlCtl()llal force on
lhe skIs.. (a) Suppose Ihe slope anile 1$ II = 40.0". Ihe ""0"· is
dry SllOw wilh a <'<Xffieienl of kmellt frictl()ll 1"."'" o..o.roo. Ihe
mast of 'he sk,er and eqUlpmenl " "" =- 85 ..0 kg. Ihe ctOM·
5ec'lOnal area cA Ihe (lucked) skle. IS A = 1..30 m!. Ihe drn.g
<'<Xfficlem IS C '" 0.150. and lhoe aIr den,")' .. 1..20
(a) Wh.", IS Ihe lermmal speed? (b) If a skier can '''ry C by n
sllghl anloOun I dC by adjuslm" .. Ihe hand p""III()1l$, ,,-hal i,
correspondmg '"nallon m lhe len",nal speed?
0039 CO,,""''''llI(m of ProM .. ", 1. Now auume that Eq.6 .. 14
g,,-es the magnllude of Ihe.rr drag fo.u on Ihe 1)'pK"al20 kg
stone. whIch presents 10 lhe w.nd a "eruca! erOS .... CC1lOna[
area of 0.<Wl m
l
and has a drag rodIKicm C ()fO.80. Tah Ihe
8" denS;I)' to be 1.2! kg/Ill' .. and Ihe «>effic",nl of kineli ....
frictIOn 10 be 0.80. (a) In kilonle,erli per hour. wha, wmd speed
V alon),\ Ihe ground IS needed 10 main'Dln Ihe Slone's motion
onac il has slarted l11ovmg1 " ·Ind. along Ihe ground
are ,.larded by the ground. Ihe wind .peeds r.ported for
slOrm. are of len mensuroo at a height of 10 m. Assume wind
speeds ore 2.00 ,imes Ihole along the ground. (b) For )'our
answer 10 (n). whal "'ind speed would be reponed for ,he
slOrm1 (c) Is Ihal "alue reasonable for a high ... peed wind in 0
sIorm1 (S,oryronlinuCll wllh Problem 61.)
0040 Assume Eq. 6.1-1 8;"t$ Ihe drag force ()n a pilol
plus e}Ccllon 5ea, j u. t after lhoe)' are ejected fmm a plane Tra" ..
eI"'I horizonlally at 1300 kmlh. Assun. e alw Ihal Ihe mass o f
Ihe seal I. equal,o Ihe mass of Ihe pilot aod ,hallhe d.ag eoef·
fie;"n' i. Iha' of a sky d,,·er. Making D reas<)nahle lUUS of Ihe
pilor'. maSS and using Ihe appropnale ", value from Table 6.1.
csumate Ihe magniludt$ of (a) Ihe drag f()rce ()" the pUo. +
S<'tII and (b) Ihei. ho. izontal lin lerms of g). hoth
just. after ejectIOn. (The resuh of should ,ndlC1l'e an eng'"
n .... ring requ"en",n' : The sea, mUSI Indude a proleem-e
harrier 10 deflect 'he In",al WInd blast away fron' pilot's
head.)
sec.6-5 Unifo rm Circul ar Motion
041 Whal II Ihe smallt$' radIUS at an unbankfd (Ral ) lrack
around .,hlCh a blCy.:h!1 can Ira .. .,I,fher spC'ed os 29 klnlh and
Ihe"" bel"-e ... n ",cand lrack is0J21 "w
042 DUrin ... an OI)1nplC bobsled run. Jan'lllcan learn
n'llkes a lurn of ntd,u.1.6 m al a speed of 96.6 kl1" h. Whal ..
Ih ... i. acceleralion III lerms of g?
043 A cal d0ZCC5 on a 5tnllOnary merr),-gOoround .. at 8 radIus
<>f 5A m from the ce"tc, of Ihe rKk Then Ihe operator lurns
on Ihe ride and brlnp i, up to Its propfr ra' e ()f one
complele rotation e"ery 6.0 50 Wha, is the leaS! coefficienl of
static fflction be'w«n the ca, and the merry-go-round ,hal
"'ill allow Ihecat to stoy In place ..... ilhoul shding?
044 Suppo.., the coeffiden, of frklio" belween Ihe
rood and Ihe tires on a car i5 0.60 a"d Ihe car has no
lift. Wh", speed will put the car on Ihe verge of sliding os it
rounds a le .. eI curve of30.5 m rndius?
0045 A circular .. mollon of fIlaS'l 80 "de. a Fem.
"'heel around in a verTIcal ,,,de of rad,us 10 n1 al 8 con"an!
speed of6.1 ml$, (a) Whal is the pC'rlOd oflhe mOllon? Whal ..
the magnilude of Ihe normal force on Ihe addicl from Ihe seal
when holh go Ihrough (b) Ihe hlgheSl po,n, ()f ,he ,ircular
palhand(c)thelo"'t$lpoin, ?
0046 A roller-coasler ca. has a mass of 12(Xl k, when fully
loaded "'nh passengers. As 'he car Ihe lop of a eir ..
l.'1J!ar hill of radtus 18 m. I'S speed tS not changm" At lhe lop
of lhe hill. ,,·hal are,he (a) nl.'Ij!nllude Flfa"" (b) d,,"",()n
(up or down) cA Ihe normal force on Ihe car from Ih ... track if
Ihe car. speed is v = II mls? Whal are (f) F" and (d) lhe
dirccllOnlf"=14m1s?
0047 In F", 6--11. a car OS d., .. en al rollSlanl speed 0'· .... a Clf_
I.'1Jlar hili and then ,nlo a CIrcular ''all ... y wllh Ihe $In", radius..
Allhe lop of the hlll.lhe nomllll force on Ihe dn"cr from lhe
ca.r ..,al .. O. The drwer's mass os 70.0 kg. What .. lhe magnl_
lude of the normal force on the d., ..... r from Ihe ..,at ,,·hen lhe
ca.rpa .. es through the bottom of , he "alley?
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
'"
FIG. 6 •• 1 Problem
0048 A poIiceoffi= in hoi pursundr;ve. h,-rfar Ihl"Qugh acir ..
cubr lum of radlu, 30) m " 'ilh n conSlant s" .... d of ro.O kn"".
Her mass i. 55.0 kg. What are (a) Ihe ma"mlude and (b) Ihe angle
(relali .. e to ven"",l) of Ihe ,It"! fore<! of Ihe offiur 01' Ihe car sea!?
(Him: COffilder booh l>Orizoolal and "ellocal forces.)
0049 A studen' cA " 'eISh, 667 N ridcs P Sle",lIly rotallng
Ferris "'heel (Ihe !luden, illS AI Ihe hlghul poInl.
the magnitude of the normal force rN on the student from the
seat is 556N. (a) DCIC.'l the student feel "Ii€ht" or "heavy"
there? (b) What is the magnitude of r.vat the lowest point?
If the speed is doubled. what i. the magnitude FN at
the (c) high"'t and (d) 10"'est point? ss .. IU.
0050 An amusement park ride ronsists of a car mo,;ng in a
vertical circle on the end of a rigid boom of mas ..
TI,e combined "'eight of the car and riders is 5.0 kN. and the
,;rcle's radius is 10 m. At the top of the circle. what are the (a)
magnitude FB and (b) direction (up or down) of the force on
the car from the boom if the car', speed is I' = 5.0 m',? What
are (c) FB and (d) the direction ifv = 12 m/s?
0051 An old streetcar rounds a Aat corner of radius 9.1 m. at
16 knuh. What angle with the vertical ",ill be made by the
loosely hanging hand sttJps?
0052 In designing ,;rcular rides for par ks.
mechanical enFineers must consider how small variations in
certain parameters can alter the net force on a passenger.
Consider a passenger of mass III riding around a horizontal
circle of radius rat speed v. What is the variation dFin the net
force magnitude for (a) a variation dr in the radius with v
held constant. (b) a variation .I" in the speed with r held
constant. and (c) a variation ,IT in the period with r held
constant?
0053 An airplane is A)'ing in a
horizontal ,;rcle at a speed of
480 kmlh (Fig.6-42). lf its wings
are tilted at 8 = 40' to the
horizontal. what is the radius of
the circle in which the plane is
Aying? Assume that the re-
quired force IS provided
entirdy b)' an "aerodynamic
liff'that is perp<"ndicular to the
wing surface. 50 .. www
FIG. 6-42 53.
0054 An 85.0 kg passenger is made to mo,'e along a circular
path of radius r = 3.50 m in uniform circular motion.
(al Figure 6-43a is a plot of the required magnitude F of the
net centripetal force for a range of possible ,'alues of the
passenger, speed I'. What is the plot's slope at I' = 8.30 nus?
(h) Figure 6·43b is a plot of F for a range of possible values
of T. the period of the motion. What is the plot's slope at
T = 2.50s?
, ,
c---_____ ,
,.)
''l
FIG. 6-43 Problem 54.
0055 A puck of mass '" = 1.50 kg slides in a circle of radius
r = 20.0 em on a frictionless table while attached to a hanging
C)'linder of mass M = 2.50 kg by a cord through a hole in the
table (Fig. 6-44). What
keep' the C)'linder at rest? Ii:il
0056 Brake or at"'? Figure 6-45
depicts an o,'erhead view of a cars
path as the car travels toward a
wall.A>sullle that the dri"er begin'
to brake the car when the distance
to the ... aU " d = 107 m. and take
the car, mas.s as '" = 1400 kg. it.
initial speed as I'G = 35 nus. and the
coefficient of static friction as Ii-, =
0.50. Assume that the car. weight
is distributed evenly on the four
wheels. e,'en during braking. (a)
What magnitude of static friction i,
needed (between tires and ro.1d) to
stop the car just as it reaches the
wall? (b) What is the maximum
pos.sible static fu ... ? (c) If
the coefficie nt of kinetic friction
between the (sliding) tires and the
" "'" = 0.40. at what speed
wiU the car hit the wall? To 3"oid
Proble ms
M
FIG, I>-44 Problem 55.
1--,'
,
,
,
FIG, 6-45 Problem 56.
the crash. " driver could elect 10 turn the car so that it just barely
misses the wall. as sho"" in the figure. (d) What magnitude of
frictional forC<' wouk! be required to keep the car in a CIrcular
path of radius d and at the given ,peed I'O? (el Is Ihe required
force less than so that a circular path" possible?
0057 A bolt i, threaded
onto one end of a thin hori -
zontal rod. and the rod ;, then
rotated horizontally about it,
other end. An engineer moni·
tors the motion by Hashing a
strobe lamp onto the rod and
bolt. adjusting the strobe rate
until the bolt appears to be in
the same eight places during
1"".0011.
FIG, 6-46 Problem 57.
each full rotation of the rod (Fig. 646). The strobe mte is 20c0
flashes per second;the bolt has mass 30 gand i, at radius3.5 cm.
What is the magnitude of the force on the bolt from the rod?
0058 A banked circular high"'ay cur"e i. designed for traffic
moving at 60 kmlh. The radius of the curve is 200 m. Traffic is
moving along the highway at 40 knuh on 8 rainy day. What i.
the minimum coefficient of friction between tires and road
that will allow cars to ta ke the turn without sliding off the
road? (Assume the ca"do not have negative lift.)
00059 In Fig. 6.47. a 1.34 kg
ball is connected by means of
two massless strings. each of
length L = 1.70 m. to a vertical.
rotating rod.The strings are tied
to the rod with separation d =
1.70 m and are taut. The ten,ion
in the upper SIring is 35 N. What
are the (a) tension in the lower
string. (b) magnitude of the net
force on the ball. and (c)
speed of the ball? (d) What"
the direction of F",,? n .. tLW
I
,
I
,.
11
FIG. 6-47 Problem 59.
'","pt. r 6 I FMc. and Motion_II
Additional Problems
60 Fisure 6-48 .ho",. a COI.i·
e"f pmd"/",,,. In which the
bob (the small object at the
lower end of lhe cord) rum..,..
In a honzonlal eirde at con·
Slant speed. (The cord .weep.
OUI a COne as Ihe bob rotates.)
The bob ha, II mass of 0.040
kg, Ihe ming has length L =
0.90 01 and negligible mas ..
and the bob folio"' .. a clIclIlar
of ellcnmf .. ren« 0.9-4 m.
What are (a) the tension in thO'
"nngand (b) the period of thO'
mot.on?
61 COIll.ruUJriOl. of Probf",u
1 1m" 19 Another uplanallon
IS that the Stones move only

)
,.
FIG . ..... l'roblcm60.
when the Water dumped on the playa during a Jlom, freezes
11110 a Inrse. th,n sheet of icc. The 'tones are trapped In pbce in
the ,cc. ThO'n. as air flows acr05.'l the"", dunng n wrnd. the air-
drag forces On the ice and stones mOVe thel11 both. with the
out thO' trail .. The magnitude of ,he air..:lrag
force On ,hl5 hOrizontal "icc .ail" is g"'en by D.,. =
where CD is the drag eodficlent (2.0 X IO-'),p is
the alT denSity (121 kglm').A;,. is the honZOnt31 area of the
i«.and I' ;' the ",ind.peed along Ihe Ite.
Assume the following: l1t.e "'" .heet measures 400 m by
500 111 by 4.0 mm and has a rodficitnt of kinetIC frltllon of
0. 10 with the ground and a denSlly of 917 kl"m'. Abo assume
Ihat 100 slones !demical to Ihe one ,n l'roblem 2 are trapped
In the ICe. To mam,aln the mollon of 'he what are Ihe
reqUITed "'md .peeds (a) near the. sheel and (b) at a height o f
10m? (c) Are Ihe", reasonable values for "ind, in
a Itorm1 -;tt;
62 Engi"""';"g a lrigJrk'IlY If a gocs through
a curve tOO (as!.lhe car tends to slide oul of the. curVe. For ..
banked cur ... ., with friclion. a friclional force aCls on II fast car
to oppose the tendency to . lIde oU! of the curve: the force i.
directed den'm the bank (in the directIon walu would drain) .
ConsKler I arcnlar CII"'" of radIUS R = 200 m and boank angle
9. '""here the coefficient of $IallC frlCllon Nt,",'een IIres and
p""emenl is,.,. A car (. ·ithout neg3u,'C hft) is dri"en around
the curve as In Fig.6-13. (a) Find an npress,on (orlhe
car speed Ihat pUIS the car on 'he "erge o( , .. dIng out.
(b) On the Same graph. plot " ... "NSUS angle 9 fOt' Ihe range
0' to 50". fi .... for", = 0.60 (dry pa"emenl) Bnd Ihen for
,..," 0.050 (wet or icy pa,,,,,,ent). In kilometers per hour.
evalu"te I · .... , for II bank angle of 9 = [0' and for (e),.., = 0.60
and (d) ,.., = 0.050. (Now )'OU CII II "'''' "'hy acrid.,nlS OCcur in
high"'ay curl'." when icy condition. are not obvious to dri"ers,
who lend ,0 drive at normal Ii>"<'<k)
63 In Fig. 649. the coefficient of
kinetIC (nchon NI ... een the block
and indined plane .. 020, and an_
gle 9 IS 60". What arc the (a) mag_
nitude Q and (b) direction (up or
do"l1 lhe plane) of the block's DO.
celernhon If the block i. slidmg
FIG . .... ' Problcru63.
do"' n tl>e plane? What arc (c) a and (d) the dlTectlon If the
block IS ",nt . lIdlllg up t he plane?
64 In Fig. 6-50. block 1 of
ma ... m, = 2.0 kg and block 2
of rna" "'z" 3.0 ks are oon-
nected by a string of neghgible
mass and are Imtinlly held in
pillce. Block 2 i. on II (rictlon-
less surfac., al 9 = 30".
The rocfficient of klllctic friclion

Problem 64.
between b[a<:k I alld the
horizontal surfnce is 0.25. The pulley has negligible mass and
fricllon. Once. tbey arc released. the blocks move. then is
the lenSlOn ,n the Slllng?
65 A block of maS'S til, = 4.0
kg IS pili on top of a block of
nutU m. = 5.0 kg. To cause the
lOp block to shp 011 the OOtOfl)
one wbile lbe bollom one IS
".
held fixw. II homonlal force FIG . • 51 Problem 65.
of 31 lea!! 12 N muSI be ap-
phed to the top block. The assO'mbly of bloch" now pltl-'ed
on a hom:Olltlll. frictionless Illbl. (Fig. 6-51). Find the mugni·
tude< of (a) Ihe horizontal force F Ih" be np-
plied to Ihe lower block so Ihatlhe blocks will mOVe together
and (b) the. I'esul!inlj. accelera, ion of Ihe blocks. JUI
66 A of canned good. slides down a ramp from Slreel
level Into lhe basement of a grocery Slore "'"h
(175 nw directed do""n Ihe ramp. The ramp makes an angle
0140" with Ihe. honzontaL Whal is the. coeffic,ent of kinetIC
frieuon betwcen the box and the ramp?
67 An 8.00 kg block of .,eel IS al resl on a
lbc cndfictCllt of JlatlC fnctlOn bet""ccn Ibe block and Ihe
table A force is to be applied to the block. To three
!ignificl!nt figurcs. "'hat il tile of that aPl)hcd force
if " pu" Ihe block on Ihe of sliding when Ihe force IS
directed (n) hori7.onl3l1y. (h) upward at 60.0' from the hori-
zontnl.Dnd (e) downwMd at 60.0' from the horizontal?
••

68 In Fig. 6-52. a 001 of ant
aunts (total IIlass "'I = 1.65
k,) and a bo.It of an! uncles (to-
tal RU!:I "'z" 3.30 kg)
do .. n an Irrclined plane whIle
attamed by a massless rod par·
allel to lhe plane. The InJ!,le of
indine 1$ 9" 30.0'. The eocffi -
ciem of kmetlC f"cllOn be-
FIG. Io.S2 Problem 68.
I",een 'he aunt box and the ",di ne is '" = 0.226: that Ntween
the uncle box and the indrne IS ,.., = 0.1 1J. Compute (a) the
tension In the rod Dnd (b) Ihe magnitude of the c0ll11110n ac-
ce[eration of the tWO (e) How would the to (a)
and (b) change if Ihe uncles trailed the aunts?
69 In Fig. 6-53. a Cral l' slides down an Indlned
• ------------
FIG. 4-!il Problem 69.
lrough. The of kmelic fncllon bel.'een Ihe craIe
and Ihe trough is /Ao,. What is the acceleralion of the crate '"
lem.sof ,. •. 9.andg1
70 A slUdenl ... anl'l to delennine tIM: rocffiocn1< of statH:
fricHon and ku' (.r" fncuon bet "-een a box and a plank. She
places thc Oil the plall k Bad gradually raIses one end of
the plank . When the angle of iodinalion Wllh Ihe horizOlltal
reaches 30' , the OOXSlar1S 10 slip, and ilthen slides 2.5 !l1 do,,'n
Ihe plank in 4.0 I at constant acceleralion. What are (3)
coeffic.enl of slat k friwon alld (b) Ihc <oeflid enl of klnC\lC
friction bet"'cen the box and Ihe plank?
71 A locomotive accelerates a 25-car train along B kvel
track. Every car has a mass of 5.0 X 10' kg and '-' subjc-ct to a
fnCHonal force f= 250v . ... hNe Ihe speed .. 11 III meters per
Se<Xlnd and the force f is In newtons At Ihe InStanl when the
speed of the lraln is 30 bnIh.the magnitude of its accelerallon
Ii 010 nl/Sl. (a) What .. the ten.ion In the coupli ng bet ... een
the lirst car and tl>e Iocomou,..,? (b) If th .. tension is equal to
the nla:tlmUm force the locomotive can .,,;erl on Ihe traIn.
what .. Ihe steepe$t gram, up ... hieh the locomoti"e can pull
the train at 30 knllh?
72 A house IS built on the top of a hill"'-Ith a slOl)< at
angle (I .. 45
0
(Fig. 6-54). An engineering study indicates thnt
the slope angle sl>ould be reduced because the top layer. of
soil along Ihe slope might slip past the lower layers. If Ihe
coefficient of static friCilon between two such is 0.5.
" 'hat is the least angle '" throllgh ,.'hlCh the present slope
should be reduced to prevent slippage?
FIG. 1o-54 Proble m 72.
73 Wbat lithe ter",mal.peed of a 6.00 kg spllencal ball that
has a radlusof 3.00 cm and a dragrocflic1ent of 1.6O?The den.
"ly of the aIr through wblCh Ibe baU fall. is 1.20 kg/m'.
74 A hlgb-spct'd raIlway car goes around a nal. homont a1
ClTcle of radiUS 47'0 m al a constant speed. The of
the honzontal and ,..,rt'eal components of Ihe force of the (at
on a 51.0 kg pas$Cnger arc 210 N and SOl) N. resp«tL\·dy.
(a) WhallS the magnllude of tl>e nel force (of "lI lhe forces)
on Ihe (b) Whal is the.peed of the car?
75 An 11 kg block of steel is at rest on a hori7.0llt al lable.
The coeffi cient of static friclion between block and lable is
0.52. (a) What i. the magnllude of the hori1.onlal force Ihat
,,'ill put the block on the verge of moving? (b) Whnt IS the
magnitude of D force IlCting IIp.-D,d 60" from Ihe honzontal
thai ",11 put the block on the "erge of movmg? (c) If the force
aclJ downward at fIJ' from the bonzonlal. ho .... large can 11.
m"&IIuude be Wltholll cau.ing the block 10 mO"e1
76 Cakulate the magnitude of II>e drag force on a mISSILe
53 cm III diameter crui.ing at 250 mf. al low altnude'. " '!>cre
the den.ity of air is 1.2 k" m'. Assume C = O.1S.
Problems
n A bicyclisl lra.'els In a clrrle of radius 25.0 m al a con·
slanl speed of 9.00mh. The rna .. IS 85.0 kg.
Calculate Ihe mag"'tudes of (a) tl>e force of frlCllon on the
biC')"<."le from Ihe road and (b) the force on the bicycle from
tIM: road. UM
78 A 110 /I. hochy puck sent slidIng over ice is stopped in
15 m b)' the fnctlonal force on II from Ihe ice. (a) Jfll . imtml
speed is 6.0 "" s. what lS the nlagnllude of the friClional force?
(b) Whal is the of fllction between the pllck and
the ice?
79 [n Fig. 6-55. a 49 kg rock
climber i. cllmbmg a ··chlll". ey:
The coefficlenl of slatK: fflcllon
belween her shoes and the rock
;"12;belween her back and the
rock isO.80.She has reduced her
push the rock unlll her
back and her shoes are on the
verge of slIpping. (a) Draw a
free-body diagram of her. (b)
Whal is the magnItude of her
pllsh against the rock? (c) \\1.M
fraction of her " 'ei ght is . up-
ported b)' Ihe fflclional fo=
on her shoes?
80 A 5.00 kg .tone IS rubbed
<Kross the horizonlal ceiling of
'" ca"e passage" ... y(F",6-S6), lf
the rocfliaelll of kllletlC [rIC'-
non is 0.65 and the force ap-
Probl em 79.
AG.Io-S6 Problem SO.
plied to the slone IS angled al 9 = 70.(1'. what n.u51 lhe magI'lI-
tude of 11M: fo= be for lhe stone to 100\.., al conilanl ,-elocity?
91 Block A In Fig. 6-S7 hIlS ma .. III .. = 4.0 kg. and block B has
ma .. = 20 kg. 'The coefflCienl of kinetic frict ion belween
bloc\: B and the horizontal is 14 = O.50. The inclined
is friClionles. and angl e (I = 30". The pulley serves onl)' to
change the dir« l ion of !he
cord connecting Ihe block ..
The cord has negilgible
n", ... Find (8) the lenSlOn In
the cord and (b) Ihe magnl-
lude of Ihe of
11M: blocks nM
82 A . ki that \I pl aced on
sno'" ,,-III 10 Ihe snow.
However. when Ihe skI ;.
Fric llonl"".
" ,_I"" pull'-,,"

FIG. 6·57 Problem 81.
".
"
moved along the snow. the ruhbing .'arms and partmlly mehs
the snow. reducing the of kinelic friction and pro-
moting sliding. the ski makes it water repellcll1 and Te·
duees friction wit h the res ult ing lnyer of waler. A magazine Te·
pom that a ne ... type of plastIC ski I. especially water repell ent
and that. on,. gentle 200 In slope in the Alps.,. skier reduced
hi. top-Io--boll olll IlInc from 61 s with standard sk .. 10 42s
w;lh the new st,S. the magnitude of his average ac-
celeratlon wllh (a) lhe standard skis and (b) the new ski ..
A .. uming .. 3.0" s.1ope.oompute the mcflic1ent of k",ellc fnc-
tion for (c) lhe standard sklSand(d)lhe new ski ...
8"J near a road construction site. a child falls o,'er a
barrier and down onlO a dlTt slope that is angled d",,-n,,-nrd
Chapter 6 I Force and Motion-II
at 35° To Ihe horizontal. As Ihe child slid.s dow/I Ihe slope. he
has an Ihat has a magnitude of 0.50 mis' and Ihal
is direcTed lip Ihe .lope. Whal is Ihe coefficient of kinelic
friction belw...,n Ihechild and Tho. slope?
84 In Fig. 6-58. a 'TUntman
dri,·e. a car (wilhout
lifT) o,· .. r Ih .. top of a hill, Ihe
cross section of which can be
approximaTed b)' a circle of ra-
dius R = 250 m. What is Ihe
grea1es1 .peed ,1 which he can
,
,
,
,
,
,
FIG. 6- 58 Problem 84.
dri"e WiThoul1he car leaving the road al1he lOp of the hill?
85 A carw .. ighing 10.7 kN and travelinga1 13.4 mI. WilhoU1
negJlive lif1 al1empts 10 round an unbanked cur .. e "'i1h Il
radiu, of 61.0 m. (a) What magni1ude of1he frictional force on
1he 1ire. is required 10 keep 1he car on its cireular palh? (b) If
Ihe coeffi,i .. nt of s1aTic friction be1ween 1he tire, and 1he road
is 0.350. is The allempT a11aking 1he curve.uccessful? SSM
86 A 100 N force, direcTed al an angle 8 alx>Ye a horizonTal
floor, is applied 10 a 25.0 kg chair si11ing on the floor. If 8 = 0".
what are (al the horizontal component F. of Ihe applied force
and (b) the magnitude FNof the normal force of the floor on
Ihe chair? If 8 = 30.0'. ",hat are (cl FA and (d) F.v? If 8 =
60.0", whaT are (e) F. and (f) FN? Now assume thaT the coeffi -
of "aTic friCTion beTween chair and floor is 0.420. Doe.
The chair slide or remain aT resT if 8 i. (g) 0". (h) 30.0". and
(i)60.O"?
87 A student. crazed by final
exams. use. a force P of magni-
tude 80 N and angle 8 = 70" 10
push a 5.0 kg block across the
ceiling of his room (fig. 6.-59). If
Ihe coefficient of kinetic friction
bet"lo'een the block and the ceil-
FIG. 6-59 Problem 87.
ing is 0.40. what is 1 he magniTUde of the block's acceleraTion?

88 A certain STring can wilhSTand a maximum len,ion of
40 N wilhout breaking. A child ties a 0.37 kg Slone 10 one
end and, holding the olher end, whirls Ihe sTone in a vertical cir_
cle of radius 0.91 m, slowl)' increasing Ihe speed until The string
breaks.. (a) Where is The stone on iTS pa1h •• hen the string
break,? (b) WhaT is the speed of Ihe Slone as Ihe 'Tring breaks'!
89 You must pu,h a craIe across a Hoor to a docking bay.
The crnte weigh, 165 N. The coefficient of Sialic friCTion
between craTe and floor is 0.510. and 1he coefficient of kinetic
friction i, 0.32. Your force on The crate is directed horizontally.
(a) What magniTUde of)'our push puts the craie on Ihe verge
of sliding? (b) WiTh what magnitude must you push 10
keep the crate Illo\'ing al a constant velocilY? (c) If. instead ,
you Ihen push with Ihe same magniTUde as The anSWN to (al,
what i. the magniTUde of the crate's acceleraTion?
90 A ,-hild 140N ,ils al resl aTlhe top of a pla)' -
ground slide thai makes an angle of 25° with the horizontal.
The child ke<'p, from sliding by holding onTo the side. of the
slide. Aft er lelling go of the sides. the child has a consTant
acceleration of 0.86 mls' (down the slide, of course). (a ) What
is the coefficient of kinelic friction betw""n the child and the
slide? (b) What maximum and minimum values for The codfi -
cient of sTalic friCTion between Ihe child and Ihe slide are
consistenT wi1h the information here?
91 A filing cabinet weighing 556 N reSTs on the floor. The
COO' ffi cient of STatic friction between it and the Hoor is 0.68,
and the COO'fficient of kinetic friction is 0.56. In four different
allempts to m","e it. it is pushed "'i th horiZOnTal forces of mag-
niludes (a) 222 N, (b) 334 N. (c) 445 N.and (d) 556 N. For each
allempt. calculate The magni1ude of the frictional force on it
frol11 the floor. (The cabinel is initially at reST.) (el In which of
the attempTS does the cabineT move? 15M
92 A sling-thrower pUIS a stone (0.250 kg) in Ihe ,ling's
pouch (0.010 kg) and Ihen bt-gins To make the stone and
pouch in a "ertical circle of radius 0.650 m. The cord
belween the pouch and Ihe person', hand has negligible mass
and will break ",hen the ten,ion in The cord is 33.0 N or more.
Suppose the sling-thro""er could gradualJy increase The speed
of the stone. (a) Will the breaking occur at 1he point of
the circle or at The highesl poinT? (b) Al what speed of Ihe
stone will1hJl breaking occur?
93 A four-person bob,led (total mass = 630 kg) comes
down a .traighlaway al the start of a bob,led run.The straigh1-
away is m long and is inclined al a constant angle of 10.2°
with the horizonTal. Assume that the combined effects of fric_
tion and air drag prooue<" on the bobsled a conSTant fore<" of
62.0 N thaI acts parallel to the incline and up The incline.
An,wer the following question, 10 three significant digiTs..
(a) If the speed of the bobsled at Ihe start of the run is
6.20 m/s. how long does The bobsled Take To come down The
straighlaway? (b) Suppose the crew is able 10 reduce Ihe
effect, of friction and air drag to 42.0 N. For the .ame iniTial
"elociTy, how long does The bob,led now take 10 come do"'n
the sTraighta way?
94 In Fig. 6-&1, force r is ap-
plied to a craTe of mass lIP on a
Hoor where the coefficient of
static friction between crate
and floor is /J-,. Angl e 8 i, ini -
tially O' bU1 is gradualJy in-
creased so that the force \'ector
,
FIG. &-60 Problem 94.
rotates clockwise in tne figure. During Ihe rotalion, the magni -
tude F of the force is conlinuously adjusted so thaI the crate is
alwap on 1he "erge of sliding. For /J-, = 0.70. (a) plot1he ratio
Flmg ,"e,"Sus 8 and (b) determine the angle 8;, .. a1 which the ra-
tio approaches an infinite value. (c) Does lubricating The floor
increase or decrease 8;, .. , or is The value unchanged? (d) What
is 8;, .. for ,,", = 0.6O?
95 In Ihe early afTernoon. a car i, parked on a street that
runs down a ste<'p hill,al an angle of 35.0° relative To the hori -
zontal. JUSl1hen the COO'fficient of ,tatic friCTion be ..... en 1he
tire, and the slreel surface is 0.725. Lat er. afTer nighTfall. a
,Ieel STorm hilS the area. and the coefficient decreases due
to both The ice and a chemical change in Ihe road surface
because of Ihe Temperature decrease. By whal percentage
must Ihe coefficient decrease if Ihe car is to be in danger of
,Iiding do .... n Ihe street?
96 In Fig. 6.-61, block I of mass "" = 2.0 and block 2 of
mass Ill, = 1.0 kg are con-
nected by a 51ring of negligible
mass.. Block 2 is pushed by
force f of magniTude 20 N and
angle 8 = 35'. The coeffi cient
of kineTic friction be1ween
FIG. &.&1 Problem %.
each block and ,he honzontal ,,0,20, Wha, 'S ' he ten_
oi<m m tile slrmg?
97 In Fig. 6-62 a fa,ud,ou,
worker pushes direaly along
the handle of • mop "',th a
F. The handle" at an an·
gle ".'ith tile '-ertltal. and ,..
and ,.. are the coefficients of
statIC and kmeuc frICtIOn b&-
Iweenlile head of the mop and
Ihe Roor. lgnore the nlaSS oflhe
handle and a .. ume ,ha, all the
n><>p's n""", m IS on ,ts head, (a)
. .,
fIG. U2 Probl .. m 97.
If the mop head nlO''eS along the floor ,,;th COlI$lanl ,-.. loc1ty,
then ,,-hal is F"! (b) Silo .... that ,f IJ OJ Ie!<! 'han a «rtalll ""Iu .. 9.:.
then F (.till directed alonllthe handl .. ) ' . unable to move the
nlOp head. Find t'\;).
98 A Circular cu ... ·e of h,ghway is dc,igned for traffic ",o'·;n.'\
at 60 km/h. Assume the troffie ron.ist. of eau wllhom n .. ga_
ti'-e lift. tal If the radius of the eU"'e is ISO III, what i. the
rorrect angle of bMl:.ing of the rood? (b) If the curve ""ere not
banked. what would be the minin\ulll coefficient of friction
belween lires and rOltd that would \:.cep traffic from skidding
out of the 111m when tm\"eling at 60 kmlh7
99 A block slide. with conmnt velo.;i,y down an indined
plane Ihat has angle 8,11\ e blOfk is Ihen prOjeaed up Ihe
.ame plane wnh an ""ual speed "", (a) How far up the plane
will it move before coming to resl? (b) After 'he blOfk comes
to rcst, will n . Iidedo,,·n the plane agaIn? Give an 3rgum .. m to
back your anS"·e.. SSM
100 III Fig. 6-6.3, a block "'e,gh-
ing 22 N is held at rest agamst a
'·enica.l wall by a horizontal force F
F of magnitude 60 N. The coeffi·
ciem d .. al oe f.lChon beIW..en the
,,--all and 1he block OS 0.55. and the
coefficient d kinet..:- frict,oo be-
N-een them OS 038. In SIX uperi-
n .. nt .. a serond force'" IS appl,ed FIG UJ Problenl 100.
to tIM: block and dor<'Cted parallel
to the "",II ""ilh these malln"ud" and dlrea,on" (a) J.I N. up,
(b) 12 N. up. (e).uI N. up.. (d) 6.2 N. up. (e) 10 N. down, and (f)
18 N. do ... n. l n each uperimcnt. what OJ 'he nl3gn,IIIde of Ih ..
frlC!lonal force on tile block? In wh,ch don the hlock mon
(g) up the ,,--all and (h) do .... n the .... aU7 (i) In ""hieh OJ the f • ..:-_
tional for<:<: di . <'Ctcd down the .... aU7
101 When a on",1I2.ogcoin ,s p1i1Oed at a radm, d5.0cm on a
honzontal turomblc Ihnt thr..e full r .. vol"tlQLls;n 3. 1 s.
coin does nOi ,lip. \Vlmt are (a) the co,n's Sj;.cOO,the (b) magni_
tude lind (c) direction (mdially inwa,d or OUIWJnI) of the coin'.
occelcrallon, and the (d) ot1:tj!.11itude nnd (e) (onwanl or
outward) of Ihe frictional on the fo;n? The coin;' on ,he
verge of ,lipping if it ;. pl<lOed at n radius of 10 Cll1. (f) \\ hal is Ihe
coefficient of stalic f,;clion betw..en coin nnd tumtnbl .. ?
102 A child places a pknic basket on 'he out .. r rim of a
merry-go·round that has a rad,,,. of 4,6 en and re .. ol'· ... once
e .. ery 31h, (a) What OS the 'p«'d of a point on that "n.?
(b) What OS the 1(M'est value of the coeffici .. nt of Siauc f"clion
bet"·een basket and merry·go-round that allow, the basket to
. tayon11le nde?
Problem,
103 A I..H:g box OJ ennoally at,;.cst on a ,hon,.ontalsutfooe
" bell at r = 0 a honzontal force f .. (1.81), N ("';111 r In J<'C--
onds) IS to the box. 1'he attelerntlOn ofthe box as a func-
tion of lime r IS p'ell by Ii= 0 for 051:52.8. and
71 = ( 121 - nw forr > 2.8 .. (a)Wlmt lSthecoeffioenlof
slatic friction betw«n the box and the surface? (b) What 1$ the
coefficient of kinetIC friction be",,'«n the box and lhe surf,....,?
104 A trunk "'nh a "etght of 220 N r"ts on the floor. The
coeffic;'m of "aUe frlCt,on bet",'een the trunk and the AOOf IS
0.41. and Ihe coefficient of kmet i<: frictIOn is 0.32. (a) Whal OJ
tile magnitude of Ihe m""mum horIZOntal force Wllh ... ' hlCh a
person must push on Ihe lrunk to sIan ,t mo"ng? (b) Once
lhe trunk is mO""'1!-- "hal n"'gnnude of honzontal force musl
lhe perwn apply to keep ,t mo"ng .... "h ronstant "eIOflly?
(e) If the perSOD conunued to push wllh ,he force used 10
stan lhe motion. what ... ould be magnitude of the trunk',
acccieratlOn1
10S A warehouse "''Orker e"erts a constant horizontal force
of magnnude 85 N on a 40 kg boJ thnt OS imtiaUy a't"5t Oll ,he
horizontal Aoor of the warehouse. When box ha5 moved a
distanc" of 1.4 Ill, it, .peed is 1.0 m/ .. What is the coefficient of
kinelic f.iction bet""een the box and the Hoor? 55M
106 Imagine thai the standard is placed on Enrth',
equator, where it move. in a of radius 6.40 x 10
6
en
( Earth', radius) at a conStan, speed of 465 mis due 10 Earth',
rotation. (a) Wh.1 i, 'he magnilude of the centripetal force on
the standard kilogram during the rotM,on? Imagine thnl the
standard kilogram hangs from a spring balnnce at Ihat IOfa_
tion and a,,"ume that n would '.-e'gh euetly 9,80 N ,f Earth
did nOl . otate. (b) What i.the on the 'prong bala ..... :
thaI;'" ,,-hal " the magnnude of the force on the sprm8
balance fronllhe .tandard k,IOj!TlUn?
107 As a 40 N blOf k slides do.'n a plane that is inchned 8t
25
D
to Ihe horizontal, ,to a<:Cclerallon is 0.80 mW, dlf«ted up
the plane. What is the coeffiCIent of fr .. llOn
the block and the plane?
108 Luaage .. transported from one IOCallOn 10 anoth .. r ,n
an a,rpoI1 by a con'-C)'or belt. A, a (enam Iocallon, the btl!
RIO'-es down an ,nchne that makes an angle of 2's° ""h Ihe
horizontal. Anume thai ,,-nh such a slogh, anile lhere " no
of the luggage. Detemune tile m3l1mtude of ,h ..
frict;onal force by the belt On a hoJ ",·c.,hong 69 N when the
box .. on th .. ;ndilled portIOn of the ho:lt and the bel, ' peed"
(a) Oandconstant.(h)0.65 lIl/und coostan!.(c)0.65 ml, and ,n_
creasing at a rale of 010 111/-.2. (d) OM mls and decreas'ng at a
rate ofl120 mis', and (e) 0.65 "WI a"d ",creasing at a rate of 057
mlS' . (f) For which of these five ."uallont IS the frktional force
directed down Ihe indine1
109 In Fig.6-6-t,a 5.0 kg block
is sent sliding up a plane indined
a, 8 = 37" "'hile a hori7.ontal
force F of magn'lude .so N ",en
on it The coeffiClen, of kmC1ic
friction bkx:k and plane
is 0...10. What arc the (a) magn;" fI
tude and (b) dire<:tion (up Or FIG. "'" Problem 109.
do, ... tile plane) of tile block',
acceleration? The block's ,n;t,al speed is 4,Oml" (e) How far up
the plane does Ihe block go? (d) When ,t reaches ,\5 hi8hcst
point, does il .ernam at rest 0. side bad! dolo ... the plane?
Kinetic Energy
and Work
The driver of a funny car prepares for a timed run along a quarter-
mile track by spinning the wheels, to make the tires and track sticky
so that traction is high. Then the driver waits at the starting line until
the countdown on the Christmas tree lights reaches green. The car's
forward surge is so powerful that the car is effectively launched like a
horizontal rocket. The science and engineering of funny cars is now
so advanced that winning and losing is often determined by elapsed
What property
of a car
determines the
winning time?
times differing by only 1 ms. The aos,.er is in this chapter.
140
7·' WHAT IS PHYSICS?
One of the fundamental goals of physics is to investigate something Ihat every-
one talks about: en<lrgy. TIle topic is obviously important. Indeed. our civili7..ation
is bascd on acquiring and effective!), using energy.
For example. everyone knows Ihm any type of motion requires energy:
Flying across Ihe Pacific Ocean requires it. Lifting material 10 the top floor of 1In
office building or to 1m orbiting sp.lce station requires it. TIlr0wing 11 fastball
requires il. We spend 11 tremendous amount of money to llcquire and use energy.
Wars have been started because of energy resources. Wars have been ended
Ix-cause of 11 sudden. overpowering use of energy by one side. Everyone knows
many examples of e nergy and its use, but what does the term energy really mean?
7· 2 1 What Is Energy?
The 1el111 energy is so broad that a clear defmition is difficult 10 write. Technically.
energy is 1'1 scalar qumnity associated with the stale (or condition) of one or more
objects. However. this definition is too vague to be of help to USllOW.
A looser definition might al least get us started. Energy is 1'1 number Ihill we
associme with 1'1 system of one or more objects. If a force changes one of the
objects by. say. making it move, then the energy numlx>r changes. After countless
experiments. scientists and engineers realized that if the scheme by which we
assign energy numbers is planned carefully. the numbers can be used 10 predict
the outcomes of experiments and. even more important. to build machines. such
as nying machines. llli s success is based on 1'1 wonderful pIOp<'l'Iy of our universe:
Energy can be transformed from on .. I)'p<: 10 another and from one
object to another. but the total amount is always the same (en .. rgy is const'fwd).
No exception to this principle of energy COllsermlioll has ever been found.
TIlink of the many types of energy as being numbers representing money in
many t)'p<:s of bank accounts. Rules have been made about what such mone),
numbers mean and how they can be changed. You can trall5fer mone), numbers
from one aCcOlmt to another or from one system to another. perhaps electroni-
cally with nothing material actually moving. However. the total amount (the total
of all the money numbers) (".1m alwa)"5 be accowl1ed for: It is always conserved.
In this chapter we focus on only one typ<: of energy (kineric energy) and on
only one way in which energy can be transferred ( ... ork). In the next chapter we
examine a few other types of energy and how the principle of energy conserva-
tion can be written as equations to be solved.
7-3 1 Kinetic Energy
Kineii r l'J1l"rg)' K is energy associated with the slate of mOlion of an object. The
faster the object moves. the greater is its kinetic energy. When the object is
stationary. its kinetic energy is zero.
For an object of mass III whose speed l' is well below Ihe speed of light.
(7-1)
For ex..1mple. a 3.0 kg duck flying paSI us ill 2.0 mls has a kinetic energy of
6.0 kg· m1ls': thill is. we associate thai number with the duck"s motion.
The SI unit of kinetic energy (and every other typ<: of energy) is thejulIll' (1).
named for James Prescoll Joule.. an English scientist of the 18005. It is defined
directly from Eq. 7-1 in terms of the nnits for mass and velocity:
I joule = I J = I kg· m
1
1s
1
. (7-2)
Thus. the flying duck has a kinetic energy of 6.0 J.
7-J I Kinetic Energy
Chapter 7 I Kinetic Energy and Work
Sample Problem QI
In 1896 in Waco. Texas, William Crush parked two loco-
motives at opposite ends of a 6.4-km-long track. fired
them up. tied lheir thronles open. and then allowed
them to crash head-on at full speed (Fig. 7-1) in front of
30.000 spectators. Hundreds of people were hurt by
flying debris: several were kill ed. Assuming each loco-
motive weighed 1.2 X 10" N and its acceleration was a
oonstalll 0.26 m/s' . what was the total kinetic energy of
the two locomotives just before the collision?
Ui" IJij (1) We need to find the kinetic energy
of each locomotive with Eq. 7-1. but that means we
need each locomotive's speed jnst before the oollision
and its mass. (2) Because we can a.ssume each locomo-
tive had constant acceleration. we can use the eqnations
in Table 2-1 to find its speed v just before the collision.
Calculations: We choose Eq. 2-16 becaus.: we know
values for all the variables except ,,:
I" = "l + 2a(.l - ' (0)'
With 1'0 = 0 and x - Xu = 3.2 X IO
J
III (half the initia I
separation). this yields
= 0 + 2(0.26 m/s')(3.2 X IO
J
m).
I ' = 40.8 mls
(about 150 km/ h).
We can find the mass of each locomotive by divid -
7-4 1 Work
FtO. 7·1 Tht aftermath of an l896crBsh of lwo locomotiyes.
(Courtesy Libra/)' o{CoIIgmos)
ing its given weight by g:
1.2 X 10" N
1.22 X kg. 111 =
9.8m/s'
Now. using Eq. 7-1. we find the total kinetic energy
of the two locomotives just before the collision as
K = = (1.22 X W kg)(4O.8 m/s)'
= 2.0 X J. (Answer)
l1ti s collision was like an exploding bomb.
If you accelerate an object to a greater speed by applying a force to the object.
you increase lhe kinetic energy K ( = of the object. Similarly. if you decel-
emte the object to a lesser speed by applying a force. you decrease the kinetic
e nergy of the object. We aCOOUIII for these changes in kinetic energy by SHying
that your force has transferred energy 10 the object from yourself or f rom the
object to yourself. III such a transfer of energy via a force. work IV is said to be
dOlleolllire objeci by IiiI' force. More formally. we define work as follows:
.- Work to or from an object by means of a force acling on the
object. Energy l,""sferred to the object is positiye work. and energy lraruferred from
the object is negative wor k.
"Work." then. is transferred energy: "doing work" is the act of transferring the
energy. Work has the same units as energy and is a scalar quantity.
The term trallsfer call be misleading. It does not mean that anything mate1;al
flows into or out of the object; that is. the transfer is not like a flow of water.
Rather. it is like the electronic transfer of money between two b..1nk aCOOUlllS:
The number in one aCOOlUII goes up while the number in the other aCOOlUII goes
down. with nothing material passing between the two accounts.
Note that we are nOl ooncerned here with the common meaning of the word
"wor k." which implies that (/11)' physic.11 or mental labor is work. For example. if
you push hard against 11 wall,you tire becaus.: of the continuously repeated mus-
cle contractions that are required, and you are. in the common sens.:. working.
7-5 I Work and Kinetic Energy
However. such effort doe,<; not cause an energy transfer to or from the wall .md
thus is not wor k done on the wall as defined here.
To avoid confusion in this chapter. we shall use the symbol IV only for work
and shall represent a weight with its equivalent IIIg.
7-5 I Work and Kinetic Energy
Finding an Express/on for Work
Let us find an expression for work by considering a bead that can slide along
a wire that is stretched along a horizontal .l axis (Fig. 7-2). A constant
force F. directed at an angle <b to the wire. accelerates the bead along the wire.
We can relate the force and the acceleration with Newton's second law. "Titten
for components along the l' axis:
(7-3)
where III is the bead's mass. As the bead moves through a displacement a. the
force ch.mges the bead's velocity from an initilll value Vo to some other vlllue V.
Because the force is constant. we know thllt the acceleration is also constant.
Thus. we can use Eq.2-16 to write. for components alon); the.r axis.
vi = + 2a,<I. (7-4)
Solving this equation for a,. substituting into Eq. 7-3.and realTiUlging the n give us
(7-5)
The fll'st tenn on the left side of the equation is the kinetic energy K,of the bead
at the end of the displacement d.and the second term is the kinetic energy K; of
the bead at the start of the displacement. llius. the left side of Eq. 7-5 tells us
the kinetic energy hm; been changed by the force. and the rigllt side tells us the
change is equal to Fxd. TIl erefore. the work IV done on the bead by the force
(the energy transfer due to th" force) is
IV = F.d. (7-6)
If we know values for F,and d. we can use this equation tocaJculate the work IV
done 011 the bead by the force .
.... Tocakulnte the work a force does on an object as Ihe object move. through some
displacement. we use onl)' the force component along the object's displacement. The
force component perpendicular to the displacement does zero wor k.
From Fig. 7-2. we S<.-e that we can write F. as F cos <b. where <b is the angle
between the directions of the displacemenl d and the force r. Thus.
W = Fdcos<b (9io,k do"" 1»' a constant fo,ro). (7-7)
Because the right side of this equation is equivalent to the scalar (dot) product
p. d. we can also write
IV = P·a (w01k done by a cooslanl force). (7-8)
where Fis the magnitude of P. ( You may wish to review the discussion of scalar
products in Section 3-8.) Equation 7-8 is especially U5efuJ for calculating the work
when P and d are given in unit·vector notation.
Cautions: TIlere are two restrictions to usillg Eq5. 7-6 through 7-8 to calculate
wor k done on an object by 11 force. Fi rst. the force must be a CO/lSlall/ force: that
is. it must not change in magnitude or direction as the object moves. ( L.1ter. we
shall discuss what to do with a I'ariable force th<1t changes in magnitude.) Second.
the object must be particle-like. This mea IlS t ha t the object must 00 rigid; all JXlrts
FIG. 7·2 A eonslant force P di ·
reeted at angle tI> to the
d of a bead on a wire aoceleratC5 the
bead along the wire. changing the
yeJocil)' of the bead from Vo to V.
A "kinetic energy gauge" indicates
the resulting change in I he kinetic
energy of the bead. from the value K,
to the yalue K
f
.
Chapter 7 I Kinetic Energy and Work
FI G.7·3 A contestant in a bed race.
can the bed and its
occupant as being a particle for the
purpose of calculating the work done
on them by Ihe force applied b)' Ihe
student.
of it must mOVe together. in the same direction. In this chapter we consider onlr
particle-like objects. such as the bed and its occupant being pushed in Fig. 7-3.
Siglls for ... ork_ TIle work done 011 an object by a fOKe can be either positive
work or neg<ltive work. Forexample. if the angle'" in Eq. 7-7 is le.ss than 90°. then cos
'" is jX)Sit ive and thus so is the wor k. If <b is greater tha n 9a' (up to ISOO). then cos <I> is
negative and thus so is the work. (Can you th"t the work is zero when <I> = 90"?)
These results Ie.ld to a simple rule. To find the sign of the work done br a force. con-
sider the force vector component tlmt is parallel to the displncement:
.- A force docs positi,-e work ",-hen it has a vector component in the samedirection
as the displacement. and it does negative work when il has a Yector component in the
opposite direction. It does zero ... ork when it has nosuch ,·ectorcomponent.
Ullits for ... ork. Work has the SI unit of the joule. the same ns kinetic energy.
However. from Eqs. 7-6 and 7-7 we can see that an equivalent unit is the newton-
met .. r ( N ·m). 11le corresponding unit in the British system IS the foot-pound
(ft ·Ib). EXicnding Eq. 7-2. we have
1 J = I kg'm'fs
1
= I N 'm = O.738ft·lb. (7-9)
Net ,,"ork dOlle by sn'eml f orces. When two or more forces act on an object.
the work done on the object is Ihe sum of Ihe works done by the individual
forces. We C<1I1 calculate the net work in two ways. (I ) We can find the wor k done
by each force and then sum those works. (2) Altematively. We e.1n first find the net
force F,,, of those fOKes. Then we can use Eq. 7-7 the magnitude F.
ot
for Fand also the angle between the directions of F,." and d for <1>. Similarly. We
e.ln use Eq. 7-8 with F,." substitl1led for F.
Work - Kinetic Energy Theorem
Equation 7-5 relnt.es the change in kinetic energy of the bead (from an initial
Ki = to a later K
f
= }/II1") to the work IV ( = Fxd) done on the bead. For
sllch p..ll1icle-li ke objects. We can generalize tlmt equation. Let!!.K be the change
in the kinetic energy of the object. and let IV be the net work done on it.Then
which says that
d K = K
f
- Ki = W
(
ch"nge in the kinetic) ( net work done on)
energy of a p..lrticle the particle .
We can also write
which says that
(
kinetic energy after ) ( kinetic energy ) ( the net )
the net work is done = before the net work + work done .
(7-10)
(7-11)
These statements are known traditionally as the work - kinl,ti ,' theun·tn
for particles. They hold for both positive and negative work: If the net wOJ'k done
on a particle is positive. then the p..lrticle·s kinetic energy increases by the amount
of the work. If the net wor k done is neg"tiv(l. then the p..lrticle·s kinetic energy
decreases by the amount of the work.
For ex.unple. if the kinetic energr of a pat1ide is initinlly 5 J and there is a
nel transfer of 2 J to the particle (positive net work). the final kinetic energy is
7 J. If. instend. there is a net transferof2 J from the particle (negative net wOJ'k).
the final kinetic energy is 3 1.
/c H E C K POI N T 1 A particle moves along anx axis. Doe, the kinetic energ),of
the partide increase. decrease. or remain the same if the partide'8 changes
(a) from - 3 ml, 10 - 2 mI, and (b) from - 2 ml, to 2 mi.? (c) In each situation. is the
... ork done on the-particle positive. negatiye.orzero?
Sample Problem IB
Fi gure 7-4a shows two industrial spies slidin£.;!n initi;!lI)'
swtionary 225 kg 1100r safe a dispbcement" of 1ll'!Slli-
tude 8.50 m.straight tow;!rd their truck. The push F! of
spy 001 is 12.0 N. directed at an angle of 30.0
0
down-
w;!rd from the horizont;!l: the pull F;. of spy 002 is
10.0 N. directed;!t 40.0' above the horiwntal. The mag-
nitudes ;!nd directions of these forces do not change;!s
the S<Jfe moves. and the floor ;!nd safe m;!ke frictionless
contact.
(a) What is the net work done on the safe by forces .,:!
and 1;. during the displacement d?
Ui'j,jJ.lj (1) TIle net work IV done Oil the S<Jfe by the
two forces is the sum of the works they do individually.
(2) Bec;!llSe we can treat the safe as a p..11'1icle ;!nd the
forces are conswnt in ooth magnitude .md direction.
we can use either Eq. 7-7 (IV = Fd cos <1» or Eq. 7-8
(IV = j!. d) to calculate those wor ks. Since We know the
magnitudes and directions of the forces. we choose
Eq.7-7.
Calculations: From Eq. 7-7 and the free-body di;!gram
for the safe in Fi g. 7-4b. the work done by F., is
IV! = F!dcos <I>! = (12.0 N)(8.50 m)(cos 30.0°)
= 88.33 1.
and the work done by":, is
IV, = cos <1>, = (10.0 N)(8.50 m)(cos 40.0°)
= 65.11 1.
. .\),
., F F
, .
(,( {hi
FtG. 7·" (a) Twospies move" HOOT safe through a displace.
men! d.(b) A free_body diagram for the safe.
Sample Problem lflii
During a storm. a crate of crepe is sliding ;!cross;! slick.
oily p.1rking Jot through a dispbcemenl II = (- 3.0 m)1
while a steady wind pushes against the crate with ;!
force F = (2.0 N)1 + (- 6.0 N)j.111e situ;!tion ;!ud coor-
dinate axes are shown in Fig. 7-5.
(a) How much work does this force do on the crate
during the dispbcement?
7-S I Work and Kinetic Energy
ThUs. the net work IV is
IV = IV! + IV
1
= 88.33 J + 65.[[ 1
= [53.4 J '" 1531. (Answer)
During the 8.50 m displacement. therefore. the spies
transfer 153 1 of energy to the kinetic enelgy of the safe.
(b) During the dispbcement. what is t!!e work IV, done
on the s;!fe by the graviwtional force Fsand wh;!t is the
work IV". done on the safe by the nomt;!1 force F". from
lhe floor?
'hi! P' Because these forces are constant in ooth
magnitude and direction we can find the work they do
with Eq. 7-7.
Calculations: Thus. with mg as the magnitude of the
gravitational force, we "Tite
11', = mgd cos 90° = mgd(O) = 0 (Answer)
and IV". = F".d cos 90° = F,,</(O) = O. (Answer)
We should h;!Ve known this result. Bec;!use these forces
are perpendicular to the displacement of the safe. they
do zero work on the safe ;!nd do not Ir;!nsfer any energy
toorfl'Olll it.
(c) The s;!fe is initi;!lIy station;!l)'. What is its speed I'fal
lhe end of the 8.50 m displ;!cement?
'hi! P' The speed of the S<Jfe ch;!nses b..OC;!lISe its
kinetic energy is dl;!nged when energy is transferred
to it by":! and-r,.
Calculations: We relate the speed to the work done by
combining Eqs. 7-10 and 7- [:
II' = K
f
- K; = tlllV} - imV;.
The initi;!J speed v; is zero. and we now know th;!t the
work done is 153.41. Solving for !'/and then snbstituting
known data. we find th;!t
I ' = 211' = _/2(153.41)
f III -V 225 kg
1.17 mls.
,
181 I

,
(Answer)
FlG. 7·5 Force F slo"'sa craIe duringdi,placemcnr d.
Chapter 7 I Kinetic Energy and Work
I Because we can lI'eal the crate as a particle
ThUs. Ihe force does a negative 6.0 J of work on the
crate. tmnsfening 6.0 J of energy from the kinetic
energy of the crate.
and because the wind force is constant (Hstead(') in
both magnitude and direction during the displacement.
we can use either Eq. 7-7 (IV = Fd cos <b) or Eq. 7-8
(IV = j!. d) to calculate the work. Since we know F
and d in unit -vector notal ion. we choose Eq. 7-8.
(b) If the crate has a kinetic energy of 10 1 at the
beginning of displacemenl d. whm is its kinetic energy
at the end of d?
Calculations: We write
I:b" P' Because the force does negative work on
IV = F· d = [(2.0 N)i + (- 6.0 N)J]' [( - 3.0 rn)[].
the crate. it reduces the crate's kinetic energy.
Of the possible unit-vector dot proollcts. only I' i. j. J.
and are nonzero (see Appendix E). Here we obtain
Calculat ion: Using the work -kinetic energy theorem
in the form of Eq. 7-11. we have
w= (2.0N)( - 3.0rn)i·; + (- 6.0 N)( - 3.0rn)j·; K
f
= K, + W = 10 J + ( - 6.01) = 4.0J. (Answer)
= (- 6.01)(1) + 0 =-6.0J. (Answer)
Less kinetic energy rnean.s that the crate h .... been slowed.
FtG. 7·6 Because lhe gravilalional
force on il. a parlide--like
10mal0 of mass m lhrown upward
slows from velocily 1'0 10 velocilY V
during displacement J .A kinelic
energy gauge indicales the resulting
change in the kinelic enerF)' of the
10malO. from K,(= 10
K
f
(=
7·6 I Work Done by the Gravitational Force
We neXI examine Ihe work done on an objecl by the gravitational force acting on
it. Fi gure 7-6 shows a particle-like tom;!to of mass m that is thrown upward wilh
initi;!l speed Vo and thus with initial kinetic energy K; = inll'f,. As the tomato
rises. it is slowed by a gl1lvitational force Ihat is. Ihe tomato's kinetic energy
decreases bec;!nse r. does work on the tomato as it rises. Because we can Ireat
the tomato 115 a Ixuticle. we can use Eq. 7-7 (IV = Fd cos <1» 10 express the work
done during a displacement d. For the force magnitude F. we use mg 115 the mag-
nitude of r,. Thlls. the work W
8
done by the gravitational force r. is
(work done b)' grav;lal;"",t force). (7-12)
For a rising object. force r, is directed opposite the dispbcement 11. as indi-
cated in Fig. 7-6. TIIlls. <b = 180
0
and
IV. = mgd cos 180° = mgd( - 1) = - !IIgi/. (7-13)
The minns sign tells us th;!t during the object's rise. Ihe gravitational force ;!cting
on Ihe object t]';!nsfers energy in the amount mgd from Ihe kinetic energy of the
object.This is consistent wilh the slowing of the object as it rises.
After the object has reached its maximum height and is falling back down.
the angle <b between force F. ;!nd displacement d is zero. TIllIS,
IV. = IIIgd cOS 0° = mgd(+ l) = + mgd. (7-14)
TIle plus sign tells n51hal Ihe gravitational force now transfers energy in the amount
mgt! to the kinetic energy of the object. l his is consistent with the speeding npofthe
object as it falls. (Aclually. as we shall see in 01apter 8. energy transfers associated
with lifting and lowering nn object involve the fuJi object - Earth system.)
Work Done in Lifting and Lowering an Object
Now snppose we lifl ;! particle-like object by applying a venical force r to il.
During Ihe upward displacement. ollr applied force does positive work IV. on the
object while the gravitational force does negative work W. on it. Our applied
force tends to trall5fer energy 10 the objeci while Ihe gravitational force tends to
tr;!usfer energy from it. By Eq. 7-10. the change tJ.K in the kinetic energy of the
object dne to these two energy Iransfers is
(7-15)
7-6 I Work Done by the Gravitational Force
in which Kfis the kinetic energy at the end of the displacement mId K; is that at
the start of the displacement. TItis equation also applies if we lower the object.
bill then the gravitatiomtl force tends to tr1msfer energy 10 the object while our
force tends to transfer energy from it.
In one common sitnation. the object is stationlllY before and after the lift -
for example. when you lift a book from the floor to a shelf. Then K
f
lmd K; are
both zero. and Eq. 7-15 reduces to

W. = - W6. (7-16)
Note thm we get the same resnl1 if K
f
and K, are not zero bnt are still eqnal.
Either way. the resul1 means that the work done by the applied force is the nega-
tive of the wor k done by the gravitational force: that is. the applied force transfers
the same amount of energy to the object as the gravitational force transfers from
the object. Using Eq. 7-12. wecan rewnte Eq. 7-16as
w" = - lIIgdCOSq, l""' k dofIC in Jifllng "nd towering". X, - K,). (7-17)
",ith q, being the angle Ix>tween F8 and d. 1f the displacement is vertically upward
(Fig. 7-70). then q, = 180° and the wor k done by the applied force eqnals mgd.
If the displacement is vertically downward (Fig. 7-7b). then q, = 0° and the work
done by the applied force equals - mgd.
Equations 7-16and 7-17 apply to any situation in which an object is lifted or
lowered. with the object stationary before and after the [ift. TIley are independent
of the magnitnde of the force lI'led. For example. if yon lift a mug from the floor to
over your head. yom force on the mug varies considerably during the lift. Still.
becanse the mug is stationary before and after the lift. the work your force does
on the mug is given b)' Eqs. 7-[6and 7-17. where. in Eq. 7-17 . mg is the weight of
the mug and d is the distance you lift it.
Sample Problem QI
Qne of the lifts of Paul Anderson ( Fi g. 7-8) in the 1950s
remains a record: Anderson stooped beneath a rein-
forced wood platfoml. placed his hands on a short stool
to brace himself. and then pushed uP'o'·ard on the plat-
form with his back. lifting the platform straight up by 1.0
cm. TIle platform held automobile parts and a safe filled
"'lth lead. with a total weight of27 900 N (6270 Ib).
(a) As Anderson lifted the lo..1d. how much wor k WIIS
done on it by the grllvitationlll force ,r:.?
We clln treat the load as a single p..1rtic1e
becanse the components moved rigidly together. TIms
we can use Eq. 7- [2 (IV mgd cos 4» to find the work
W6 done on the lood by J. 6.
,
;
,
,
,.1 ,'I
FlG. 7·7 (a) An applied force F tifTS
an object.The object"s di'plac .. melH
d makes an angle <fJ = 18O"with the
gravitaTional force F; on the objecT.
The applied force does positi'·e work
on the object. (b) An applied force F
lowers an objecT. The di'pbcernelH J
of the object makes an angle..1' = 0'
wi1h The gravitational force F,.The
applied force does work on
the objecT.
Calculation: TIle angle <f, between the directions of the
downward gravitational force and the upward displace-
ment was 180°. Sllbstitll1ing this and the given daw into
Eq. 7-12. we fmd
FtG. 7·8 Usinga harness across his back. Paul Anderson
lifTed a platform and a seoUl Troopoff 1he ground.
(OAPlWideWorld Photos)
1Y6 = mgdcos q, = (27900 N)(O.OIO m)(cos 180°)
= - 280 1. (Answer)
(b) How Illnch work was done by the force Anderson
applied to make the lift ?
Anderson·s force was certllinly not con-
stant. TIlUS. we CUll/WI just substitute a force magnitude
into Eq. 7-7 to find the work done. H""·l.wer. we know
that the 10lld was stmionaI)' both at the start and at the
end of the @. Therefore.weknowthatthework W A done
Chapter 7 I Kinet ic En"'9Y and Work
by Anderson's applied force was Ihe negalive of Ihe
work IV. done by Ihe gravi11llional force
Calculation: Equalion 7-16 gives us
(Answer)
Sample Problem IB
An inilially 5tlltionalY 15.0 kg crate of cheese wheds is
pulled. via. II c.1ble. a distance II = 5.70 1ll up a frictionless
ramp toa height It of2.50 m.where it stops (Fig. 7-9a).
(a) How much work is done on Ihe crate by the
gravitational force during Ihe lift?
! We treat the crate as a particle and use Eq.
7-12 (W, = mgd cos $) to find the work W, done by 1;.
Calculations: We do nOI know the angle $ belween the
directions of ,r.; and displacement d. However. from the
crate's free-body diagram in Fig. 7-9b. we find that $ is
fI + 90°. where (} is the (unknown) angle of the ramp.
Equation 7- 12 Ihen gives us
W, = mgdoos(fI + 90°) = - mgdsin (}. (7-18)
where we have uS<'d a trigonometic identity to simplify
the expression. 111e result seems to be useless because fI
is un known. BUI (continuing wilh physics courage) we
S<'e from Fig. 7-9a Ihm d sin 8 = h. wh.:re II is a known
quantity. With this substitution. Eq. 7-18 gives us
W, = - //Igh (7-19)
= - (15.0 kg)(9.8 m/s1)(2.50 m)
= - 368 1. (Answer)
Note that Eq. 7-19te1l5 us thai the wor k lV, done by the
gravitationa l force depends on the vertical displace-
ment but (surprisingly) not on the horizontal displace-
ment. (We return to this point in ChaplerS.)
(b) How much work Wr is done on the crate by the
force r from the cable during the lift?
! We cannot just substitute the force magni-
tude T for F in Eq. 7-7 (W = Fd cos <1» becauS<' we do
not know the value of T. However. 10 get us going we
can treat the crate as a particle and then apply the
work- kinet ic energy theorem (il K = IV) to it.
ill
An elevator cab of mass //I = 5(X) kg is descending with
speed V; = 4.0 m/s when its suppol'ling cable begins to
slip. :tHowing it to fall with constant acceleration
Ii = g /5 (Fig. 7-10a).
(a) During the fall through :t distance d = 12 m. what
Comments: 11lis is hardly more Ihan Ihe work needed
10 lift a stuffed school backpack from the floor to shoul-
der level. So. why was Anderson's lift so amazing? Work
(energy transfer) and force are differenl quamilies:
although Anderson's lift required an unremarkable
energy tramfer. it required a truly remarka ble force.
Cable

Frktiont""

,.)
T
,

,'I
F
,
FtG. 7·9 (II) A craie is pulled upa frictionless ramp by a force
Tp",alleilo the ramp. (b) A free-bodydiagrnm for the crate.
showing also Ihe displacement d.
Calculations: Because the crate is stational)' before and
after the lift. the change !!. K in its kinetic energy is zero.
For the net work W done on the ernte. we must sum the
works done br all Ihree forces acting on the crate. From
(a). the work 1'1, done by the gravitational fo.!:.ce ,r.; is
- 368 1. The wor k I'IN done by the normal force F". on the
crate frolll the ramp is zero because F;.,. is perpendicular
to Ihe displacement. We want the work IV
r
done by T.
ThUs. the work- kinetic energy theorem gh"es us
and so
il K = I'I
r
+ 1'1, + IV",
0 = l'I
r
- 368 1 + 0.
(Answer)
is the work IV, done on the cab by the gravitational
force
We can treat the cab as a particle and thus
uS<' Eq. 7-12 (W, = mgd cos <1» to find the work IV, .
Calculation: From Fig. 7-1Ob. we see thai the angl"
between the directions of F. and the cab"s di splacement
a is O°.Then. from Eq. 7-12. we fin d
IV. = mgd cos 0° = (500 kg)(9.8 m/s' )( 12 m)( I)
= 5.88 x 10
4
1 "" 59 k1. (Answer)
(b) During the 12 m fa ll. what is Ihe wor k IVrdone on
Ihe cab by Ihe upward pull f of the elevator cable?
( I) We can calculate the work IV
r
with
Eq. 7-7 ( IV = Fd cos <1» if V,ie first find an expression for
the magnitude T of Ihe cable 's pull. (2) We can find that
expr"ssion by writing Newt on's second law for compo-
ne ntsl1long they uis in Fig. 7-lOb (F"",", = may).
Calculations: We get
T - F
6
= mo.
Solving for T. substituting mg for F •. and then substitlll-
ing Ihe result in Eq. 7-7. we obtain
IV
r
= Tdcos <I> = m(a + g)dcos <1>.
Nexi. su bstiluting - g15 for the (downward) l1ccelera-
ti on a and then ISO° for Ihe angle <I> between the direc-
tions of forces f and mg. we find
(
g) 4
IVT = m - j + g d cost/J = jmgdcost/J
= ..! (500 kg)(9.8 mls
1
)(12 m) cos 18a'
5
= - 4.70 X 10
4
1 ... - 47 k1 . (Answer)
Caution: Note thai IV
r
is not simpl y Ihe negative of IV, .
lli e reason is that. becanse Ihe cab accelerates during
the fall. it s speed changes during the fall. and thus its
kinetic e nergy also changes. Therefore. Eq. 7-16 (which
ass umes Ihal the initial and final kinetic energies are
equal) does /w/l1pply here.
(c) What is the nel work W done on the cab during Ihe
fall ?
7-7 1 Work Done by a Spring Force
7-7 I Work Done by a Spring Force
,.)

cable
Cab
,
T
,
,
;
'" FtG. 7"10 An ele"ator cab. descending ... ith speed ";.sud-
denty bt.gins 10 downward. (a) It moves through a
displacemenl"if with constant acceleration a = g15. (b) A
frce-bodydiagram forthe cab. displacement incl uded.
Calculation: TIle net work is the sum of Ihe works done
by the forces acting on the cl1b:
IV = IV, + IV
r
= 5.88 X 10
4
1 - 4.70 X 10
4
1
= 1.1 8 X 10
4
1 "" 12 k1. (Answer)
(d) What is the cab"s kinetic energy at the end of the
12 m fall ?
'h" P'
l1le kinetic energy cha nges beCalm! of Ihe
net work done on the C<\b. l1ccording to Eq. 7-11 (K, =
K, + W).
Calculation: From Eq. 7-1. we can write the kinetic
energy al Ihe st<l11 of the fall as K/ = ;'mv;' We canlhen
write Eq.7- ll a,
K
f
= K/ + W = jmv1 + W
= k500 kg)(4.0 mls)" + 1.18 X 1
= l.5SX 10
4
1 "" 16k1. (Answer)
We next wunlto exmnine the work done on a p.. 1rticle-like object by a particul ar
type of I'llriable !orCf' - nmnely. a spring forn· . the force from a spring. Many
fo rces in nature have Ihe same mathemati cal fOl1n as the spring force. l1111S. by
examini ng thi s one fo rce. you can gain an understanding of many others.
The Spring Force
Figure 7 -1 10 shows a spring in its re hued is. neilher compressed nor
extended. One e nd is fi."l": ed. and a p.. 1rticle-like object - a block. say- is attached
to the other, free end. If we stretch the spring by pulling the block to Ihe right as
in Fi g. 7-ll b. the spring pulls onlhe block toward the left. (Because a spring
Chapter 7 Kinetic Energy and Work
x _ o Blod
a"""h,.,j

b
(0'
x
F" 1"";';'-"
;.... ..... """'-.
(,'
FIG. 7·" (aj Aspringinilsrelaxed
Slate. The origin of an.t axis Itas
placed "I lite end oflhe spring Ihat is
attached 10" block.(b) The block is
displaced by d.and the spring is
stretclted by a posilive amount.t.
Note tlte resloring force '.exerled
by tlte spring. (c)The spring is com-
pressed by a negalive amounlx.
A .... ain. nole Ihe resloring force.
force acts to restore tlte stale. it is sometimes said to a restorillg force.)
If we compress the spring by pushing the block to the lef! as in Fig. 7-1 \c. Ihe
spring now pushes on Ihe block toward the righl.
To a good approximation for many springs.lhe force r. from a spring is pro-
portional to the displacement J of the free end from its position when the spring
is in the relaxed state. The sprillg fora is given by
F = - kd
,
(Hooke·s law). (7-20)
which is known as lI ook(" s after Roben Hooke. an English scientist of Ihe
I<lte 1600s. The minns sigll ill Eq. 7-20 indie<ltes Ihm the direction of Ihe spring
force is always opposite the direction of the dispJ<lcement of the spring·s free end.
The const<lnt k is called the spring (or i'urn' const;l11t j aud is a measure
of the stiffness of the spring. The I<lrger k is. Ihe stiffer the spring: th<lt is. the larger
k is. the stronger the spring·s pull or push for a given displacement. TIle SI unit for
k is Ihe newton per meter.
In Fig. 7-11 an x axis has been placed p..lrallcllo the lenglh oflhe spring,"'ith
the origin (x = 0) a\ the position of the free end when the spring is in its relaxed
st<lte. For this common alTangement. we can write Eq. 7-20 as
F, = - kx (7-21)
where we have changed the subscript. If x is positive (the spring is stretched
toward the right on the x axis). then F, is neg1l1ive (it is a pull toward the left). If
x is negative (the spring is compressed toward the left).lhen Fx is positive (it is <I
push tow<lrd the right). Note thnt n spring force is a I'llriabll' fora beC<lUSC it is a
function of x. the position of the free end. TIms F, can be symbolized as F(x).AIso
nOle Ihal Hooke·s J<lW is a !inl'llr relationship belween and x.
The Work Done by a Spring Force
To find the work don ... by the spring force as the block in Fig. 7- 1111 moves. let lIS
n1<tke two simplifying assumplions about the spring. (I) It is /lwnll'ss: that is. its
mass is negligible relative to th ... block·s m<lSs. (2) It is an ideal spring: that is. it
obeys Hooke·s 1<tw exactly. Let us also assume that the contact between the block
and the Hoor is frictionless <lnd that Ihe block is particle-like.
We give the block a rightward jerk to get it moving and then leave it alone.
As the block moves rightward. the spring force F, does work on the block.
decreasing the kinetic energy and slowing the block. However. we WIlIlOf find
this work by using Eq. 7-7 (IV = Fd cos 01» because thm equation aSSlUnes a con-
st<lnt force. The spring force is a variable force.
To find the work done by the spring. we use c<llculus. Let the block·s initial
position be x; and its later position .If. TIlen divide the distance between those two
positions into nmny segments. each of tiny length fJ..l. Label these segments.start-
ing from x;. as segments J. 2. and so on. As the block moves through 11 segment.
the spring force hardly varies because the segment is so short that x hardly varies.
Thus. we c<ln approxim<lte the force magnitude as being constant within the seg-
menl. Label these magnitudes as Fxl in segment J. F,·, in segment 2. and so on.
With the force now constanl in e<lcl1 segment. we can find the work done
"ithin each segment by using Eq. 7-7. Here 01> = 180°. and 50 cos <J> = - 1. l llo:m
the work done is - Fxl fJ..l in segmenl I. - F" fJ.x in segmenl 2. and so on. The net
wor k W, done by the spring. from X; to xf' is the sum of all these works:
(7-22)
where j 1<tbels the segments. In the limit as goes to zero. Eq. 7-22
f
"
W, = - F,dx .
.,
(7-23)
7-7 I Work Done by a Spring Force
From Eq. 7-21. the force magnitude Fx is kx. ThUs. substitution leads to
f
" f"
11-'; = - kxdx =-k xtlx
A, x,
Multipli ed out this yields
IV
- 'k ' '"
Xi Xf (wort by a 5I''';og lorm).
(7-24)
(7-25)
111i s work IV, done by the spring force can have 11 positive or negative villue.
de pending on whe ther the lie/transfer of energy is to or from the bl ock as Ihe
block moves from Xi to x,. CUllliO'I: The final position x, ilpJl<lars in the secolld
term on the right side of Eq. 7-25. 111erefore. Eq. 7-25 tells us:
.- Wort W, is positive if the block e[d. up closer to the relaxed position (x = 0) than it
wa, initially. It is negati"e if the block ends up farther a ... 'ay from .. = O. It is 7.ero if the
block ends up at The same distance from ,T = O.
If X; = 01111d if we cililihe final position x. then Eq. 7-25 becomes
by a spring lorce). (7-26)
The Work Done by an Applied Force
Now suppose Ihal we displace the block illong the x a.'{is while continuing to
npply 8 force 10 10 it . During the di3place ment. our npplied force does work IV.
on the block while the spling force does work IV,. By Eq. 7-10. the change !J.K in
the kineli c e ne rgy of the block due 10 these two e ne rgy trilnsfers is
!J.K = K
f
- K, = IV. + IV,. (7-27)
in which K
f
is the kine tic ene rgy a t the e nd of the displace me nl ilnd K, is thai at
the start of the displilceme nt. If the block is st1lliOliary before ilnd after the dis-
plnCe me nl.lhe n Kfll nd Kiare both zero Ilnd Eq. 7-27 reduces to
IV. = - W,. (7-28)
.... If a block thaT is aUached 10 a spri]g i. STaTionary b..-fore and afier 11 displacement.
then the work done on it by the applied force displaCing it is the negati"e of the wor k
done on it by the spring force.
CUll/ioll: If the block is nOI stationary before and afte r the displacement. then this
stateme nt is lIo/true.
H E C K PO I N T 2 For three situations. the initial and final positions. respec_
tively. along the x axis for the block in Fig. 7-11 are (a) - 3 em. 2 cm;( b) 2 ern. 3 <1'11; and
(cl - 2cm. 2 em. In each si tuation. i, the work done by the spring force on the block
positive. negative. or zero?
Sample Problem IIJ
A package of spicy Cajun praline5 1ies on a frictionless
floor. attached to the free e nd of a spring in the arrange-
ment of Fi g. 7-lla. A rightward ilpplied force of magni-
tude F. = 4.9 N would be needed to hold the p..1ckage ilt
Xl = 12 mm.
(a) How mllch work docs the spring force do on Ihe
packilge if the package is pulled rightward from Xo = 0

As the package moves from one position to
ilnother. the spring force does work Oll it as give n by
Eq. 7-25 or Eq. 7-26.
Calculations: We know ll1i1t the initial position x, is 0
and the final position xf is 17 nlln. but we do llot know
the spring COllslilnt k. We can prob.1bly find k with Eq.
7-21 (Hooke 's law). but need this fact to use it : Were
Chapter 7 I Kinetic Energy and Work
the p..1ckage held stational), at .f] = \2 mm. the spring
force would have to balance the applied force
(according to Newton·s second law). Thus. the spring
force F, would have to be - 4.9 N (toward the left III
FIg. 7-llb): so Eq. 7-21 (F, = - kx) gives us
- 4.9 N = 408N!m.
.Tl 12xlO]m
Now. with the package at x, = 17 mm. Eq. 7-26 yields
IV, = - thl = N!m)(17 X 10-
3
m)'
- 0.059 1. (Answer)
(b) Next. the package is moved leftward to x] =
- \2 nun. How much work does the spring force do on
Sample Problem IJiI
In Fig. 7-12. a cumin canister of mru;s III = 0.40 kg slides
across a horizontal frictionless cOlmter with speed I' =
0.50 m!s. It then lUns into and compresses a spring of
spring constant k = 750 Nlm. When the canister is
momentarily stopped by the spring. by what distance d
is the spring compressed?
hi" Ph
I. The work IV, done on th" canister by the spring
force is related to the requested distance d by Eq.
7-26 ( W, = with d replacingx.
2. The work IV, is also related to the kinetic energy of
the canister by Eq. 7-10 (K
f
- K, = IV).
J . The canisters kinetic energy has an initial value of
K = til/I" and a value of zero when the cllnister is
momentllrily lit reSI.
Calculations: Putting the firsl two of these ideas
together. we write the work- kinetic energy theorem for
the package during this displacement? Explain the sign
of Ihis work.
Calculation: Now X; = + 17 mm Hnd .Tf = - 12 nlln. and
Eq. 7-25 yields
IV
_ " , _ I, , _ ".1 _ ')
' - I ·T; IX} - Il·T, x f
= Nlm)[(l7 X 10- ] Ill)' - ( - 12 X 10-
3
m)')
= 0.030 1 = 30 m1. (Answer)
This work done on the block by the spring force is
positive because the spring force does more positive
work as the block moves from X; = + 17 mill to the
spring·s relaxed position than it does negative work as
the block mOVes from the spllng·s relaxed position to
xf = - 12mm.
FlG. 7_12 A canister of mass m at ,·elocity vtoward a
spring that has spring constant k.
the canister as
K
f
- K, =
Substituting according to the third idea makes this
expression
0 - iml'" = - jkd'.
Simplifying. solving for d. and substituting known data
then give us
_ r;;; I 0.40 kg
d = I' "'JT = (0.50 ml s) -V 750 N/m
1.2 X 1O- 'm = 1.2 cm. (Answer)
7-8 I Work Done by a General Variable Force
One-Dimensional Analysis
Let us return to the situation of Fig. 7-2 but now consider the force to be in the
positive direction of the X axis and the force magnitude to with position x.
Thus.. as the bead (particle) moves. the magnitude F(.T) of the force doing work on
it changes. Onlr the magnitude of this variable force changes, not its direction.
and the magnitude at an)' position doos not change with time.
Figure 7-\3a shows a plot of such a one-dimensional I'ariabfe foree. We want an
expression for the work dOlle Oil the particle by this force as the particle moves from
an initial point x, to a firl..1l ]Xlint xf. HO'Never. we call1lot use Eq. 7-7 (n' = Fd cos <f,)
because it applies only for a constant force F. Here. again. we shaU use calculus. We
divide the area under the ClUVe of Fi g. 7-\3a into a number of narrow strips of width
Llo x (Fig. 7-13b). We choose Ll..T small enough to pennit us to mke the force F(x) as be-
ing reasonably constalll over that interval. We let Fi ...... 00 the average value of F(x)
within the jtlt interval.Then in Fi g. 7-13b. Fi.,... is the height of the jth strip.
7-8 I Work Done by a General Variable Force
With Fj. •• considered constmll. the increment (small amount) of work ll.lV
j
RA
done by the force in thejth interval is now approximately given by Eq . 7-7 and is
(7-29)
In Fi g. 7-1 3b. ll.lV
j
is then equal to the area of the jtll rectangular.shaded strip.
To approximate the total work W done by the force as the particle moves
from XI to xI" we add the areas of all the strips between XI and .lf in Flg.7-l3b:
(7-30)
Equation 7-30 is an approximation because the broken "skyline'-fonlled by the tops
of the rectanguk1r strips in Fig. 7-13b only approximates the actual cul"e of F(x).
We can make the approximation better by reducing the strip width and
using more strips (Fig. 7-13c). In the limit. we let the strip width approach zero:
the number of strips then becomes infinitely k1rge and we have,as an exact result.
W = lim LfJ .. ", ll.x. (7-31)

11tis limit is exactly what we mean by the integral of the function F(x) between
the limits xl mtd xf' ThUs, Eq. 7-31 becomes
J
"
IV = F(x) dx
"
(work: force). (7-32)
Ifwe know the function F(x). we can snbstitute it into Eq . 7-32. introduce the
proper limits of integration. c:lny out the integration. and thus find the work.
(Appendix E contains a list of common integrals.) Geometrically. the work is
equal to the area between the F(.l ) curve and the x axis. between the limits XI and
x, (shaded in Flg.7- 13t1).
Three-Dimensional Analysis
Consider now a particle that is acted on by a three-dimensional force
F= F,f + Fyi + FJi;. (7-33)
in which the components F,. F,. and F, can depend on the position of the particle:
that is, they can be functions of that position. However. we make three simplifica-
tions: F, may depend on X but not on)' or z , F, may depend on y but not on x or z.
and F, may deJX'nd on z but not on x or y. Now let the p..1rticle move through an
incremental displaceme nt
tI? = lixi + II)'] + IIzk. (7-34)
11te increment of work ilW done on the IXlJ'ticle by F during the displacement Ii?
is. by Eq .7-8.
dW = r'dr = 1'; <I.t· + F;II)' + F"dz. (7-35)
The wor k W done by F while the p..1rticle moves from an initial position r; having
coordinates (x,.y,. z') to a final position rf having coordinates (x")'f' z,) is then
J,
" L" f" f"
w = dlV = F,d.f+ F,dy + ,F,dz.
" " " -,
(7-36)
If r has only an x component then the y and terms in Eq. 7-36 are zero and the
equation reduces to Eq. 7-32.
Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem with a Variable Force
Equation 7-32 gives the work done by a variabl e force oa a particle in a one-
dimensional situation. ut ns now make certain that the C<1lculated work is
0
" "

( .j
,.j


0
"
,
c
"

o.
''l
,.j
(,j
I '----i,.

FtG. 7·13 (a) A one_dimensional
force F(x ) ploned against the dis_
placement xof a panicle on which it
aCls. The particle moyes from Xl to .If'
(b) Same as (a) but with t he area un-
der the curvediyided into narrow
strips. (c) Same as (1)) but with the
area divided into narrow ... strip •. (d)
The limiting case. The work done by
the force is glyen by Eq. 7-32 and is
b)' the shaded area be-
tween the curve and the X axis and
between XI and Xt.
Chapter 7 I Kinetic Energy and Work
Sample Problem '"
indeed equal to the change in kinetic energy of the p.1rticle. as the work -kinetic
e nergy theorem states.
Consider a particl e of mass m. moving along an x axis and acted on by a net
force F(x) tlmt is directed along that axis. TIle work done on the parflcle by this
force as the pal1icle moves from position XI to position.l, is given by Eq. 7-32 as
1\' = (Xl
ma dx
. (7-37)
)" Jx,
in which we use Newt on's second law to repillce F(.l ) with mao We can write the
quantity 11111 dx in Eq. 7-37 as
d,·
ma dx = III Ttd.l . (7-38)
From Ihe chain nile of calculus. we have
and Eq. 7-38 becomes
<II' dv d.r d l'

dl dx <II dx
d,
//Iudx = III - ,- v dx = IIl I'<lV.
<.<
Substituting Eq. 7-40 into Eq. 7- 37 yields
I
" I"
I\' = III V dl' = III V dv
", >,
(7-39)
(7-40)
( 7-41 )
Note 111111 whe n we change the variable from x to ,. we are required to express the
limits on the int egral in terms of the new variabl e. Note also that because the
mass III is Il conMant. we are able to move it out side the int egrlli.
Recognizing the terms on the right side of Eq. 7-411ls kinetic energies allows
us to \\Tit e this equation as
I\' = K, - K, = !J. K.
which is the work- kinetic energy theore m.
In an epidural procedure. as used in childbirth. a sur -
geon or an anestheti st must run Il needle through the
skin on the patie nfs back. through various ti ssue layers
Il nd into Ilnarrow region ca lled the epidural space Ihat
lies within the spinal cll na l surrounding the spinal cord.
The needle is int ended to deliver an anesthetic fluid .
This tricky prOC<l dnre requires much practice so that the
doctor knows whe n the needl e has reached the epidura I
space and not overshot it . a mi stake that could result in
serious complications.
The feel a doctor has for the needle's penell'ati on is
the vari llble force that mnst be appli ed to Ildvance the
needle through the tissues. Figlile 7·14a is a graph of the
force magnitude F versns displacement .1 of the needl e
tip in Il typical epidurll l procedure. (The line segments
have been somewhat from Ihe original
12
m
z
,
m- m-
w w
x (mm)
,.,
12 , __ _
,
,
"
W
,
f' I I
,
1- _ I 1
1 i=l
t
lx;
j j I t I
I I' Gj::$' j j
j of) t I I J
I t I I j I
x (U"")
<0,
,
Ft G.7·14 (a) The foree F\'ersus the displacement x of the needle in an epidurat pr<><.-edu re. (b) Breaking up the region
between the ploned cU"'e and axis to calcut"te the area.
data.) As x incre .. ses from O. lhe skin resists the needle.
but al x = 8.0 llIm the force is finally gre .. t enough to
pierce the skin. and then the reqnired force decreases.
Simil .. rly. the needle finally pierces the interspinons lig-
ament at x = 18 nlln .. nd the relmively tough lig"llIen-
tulll flavlUll at x = 30 nlln. The needle then enters the
epidural sp..1ce (where it is \0 deliver the anesthetic
fluid). and the force drops sharply. A new doctor must
learn this p..1l1ern of force versus displacement to recog-
nize when to stop pushing on the needle. (This is the
pattern to be programmed into a virtual-reality simula-
tion of an epidural procedure.) How much wor k W is
done by the force exerted on the needle to get the nee-
dle 10 the epidural space .. t x = 30 mm?
(I We Ciln cillculme the work W done by a
variable force F(x) by integrating the force versus posi-
tion x. Equiltion 7-32 tells us that
L
"
W = F(.l) dx.
,
Sample Problem nit.
Force F = (1I' N)1 + (4 N)j. with x in meters. acts on a
particle. changing only the kinetic energy of the particle.
How much work is done on the particle as it moves from
coordinates (2 m. 3111) to (3111.0 m)? Does the speed of
the pal1icle increase.decre .... e. orrcmilin the 5..1me?
1'4" pi The forcc is a variable force because its x
component dcpends on the valuc of x. 11111s. we cannot
nse Eqs. 7-7 and 7-8 to find the work done. Instead. we
must use Eq. 7-3610 integrate the force.
7-9 1 Power
7-9 I Power
We want the work done by the force during the dis-
placement from x, = 0 to x
f
= 0.030 1lI. (2) We can eval-
uate the integral by finding the area under the curve on
t.he graph of Fi g. 7-14a.
IV = (area between force curve)
andxaxis.frolll .l;tox, .
Calculations: Because our grilph consists of straight -
line segments. we can find the area by splitting the
region below the curve into rectangular and triangular
regions. as shown in Fig. 7-14b. For example. the area in
tri,mgular region A is
areaA = YO.OOOO m)(12 N) = 0.048 N· m = 0.Q48 1.
Once wc've calcubted the .. reas for all the labeled
regions in Fig. 7-14b. wc find thm the total work is
IV = (sum of the areasofregions A through K)
= 0.048 + 0.024 + 0.012 + 0.036 + 0'(Xl9 + 0.001
+ 0.016 + 0.048 + 0.016 + 0.004 + 0.024
= 0.238 1. (Answer)
Calculation: We setup two integrals. one along each axis:
IV = 1J3xldX + i 04dY = 3 L1X'dX + 4 iOdY
= 3[j.r
1
B + = [3
J
- 2J] + 4[0 - 3]
= 7.0 J. (Answer)
The positive result that energy is transfelTed to
lhe p..1rticle by force F. Thus. the kinetic energy of the
p..1rticle incre .... es and. bec .. use K = 41111". its speed must
al so increase. -
The time ratc at which work is done by a force is said \0 be the po'n'r due to the
force. If a force does an amolUlt of work IV in an amount of time tJ,r. the
po ... due to the force dnring thm time interval is
IV
p . .. = t;/
(.wrage power). (7-42)
llle instant:lncuus P is the iru;1ilntaneous time r .. te of doing work. which
we can write as
dlV

",
(ia'I'"I'"OOU' (7-43)
Suppose we know the wor k W(I) done by a force as a function of time. 11lcn to
get the inst .. ntaneous P at. say. time I = 3.0 s during the work. we would
first take the time derivative of W(I) illld Ihen evaluilte the resu lt for I = 3.0 s.
TIle SI wlit of VO"'er is the joule per 5t.'COnd.Thi'l unit is used so often that it h .... a
special name. the "'an (W). after I1nJes Wan. who greatly inlproved the rate at which
Chapter 7 I Kinetic Energy and Work
FIG. 7·15 Thepowcrduetothe
nuck', applied force on the nailing
lood is the rate at which thal force
does ,. .. ork on the load. (REG LAIN
FR ... u. I" ... )
Sample Problem ."
sleam engines could do work. I n Ihe Briti , h syslem.lhe unil of power is lhe foot-
pound per second. Often the horsepower is used. These nre related by
I wal1 = 1 W = I l Is = 0.738 ft . Ibis
I horsepower = [ hI' = 550 ft· [bls = 746 W.
(7-44)
(7-45)
Inspection of Eq. 7-42 shows that work can be expressed as power multiplied
by time. as in the common unit ki[owall-hour.Thus.
[ kilownll-hour = [ kW· h = (J03 W)(3600 s)
= 3.60 X IQ"i 1 = 3.60 MJ. (7-46)
Perhnps because they nppear on our utilit y bills. the wnll and the kilowntt-hour
have become identified ns electrical unit s. 111ey cnn be used equally well as units
for other examples of power and energy. 11m.>. if you pick up a book from Ihe
floor li nd put it on a tabletop. you are free to report the work that you have done
a5.5<1)'.4 X 10-
6
kW . h (or more convenientir as 4 mW, h).
We ca n also e xpress Ihe rate at which a force does work on a pmticle (or
particle-like object) in terms of thaI force and lhe particle's velocity. For a par-
ticle that is moving along a straight [inc (say. an .r axis) and is acted on by a
constant force r directed at someang[e <!> to that line. Eq. 7-43 becomes
(
d. )
Fcos <!> dr .
dlV

d, d,
P = FI' cos <1>. (7-47)
Reorganizing the right s ide of Eq. 7-47 as the dOl product F· V. we may also write
Ihe equation as
P = J'. V (mSlO"ia""Onspowe'j. (7-48)
Forexample.the truck in Fig. 7-15 exerts a force r on the trail0g [oad.which
has velocity Vat some instanl . The instantaneous power due to F is lhe rate at
which F' does work on the load III thaI instant and is given by Eqs. 7-47 and 7-48.
Saying that this power is "the power of Ihe truck" is oft en acceptable. but keep in
mind Whal is mean t: Power is Ihe mte III which the applied/ora does work.
V'c H E C K P OI N T l A block mo,'CS with uniform circular motion because a
cord tied to the block is anchored at the center of 11 circle. b the power due to the force
on the block from t he cord positive. negative. or zero?
Figure 7-16 shows constant forces r
1
and r, IIcting on a
box as the box slides rightward across a frictionless
floor. Force Fl is horizontal. with magnitude 2.0 N:
force f, is angled upward by 60° to the floor and has
magnitude 4.0 N. The speed I ' of Ihe box at a certain
illStanl is 3.0 mls. What is the power due to each force
acting on tit" box al that instant. and what is the ne t
power? Is lhe net power chilllging at that instant ?
FricDoh[".;,
FIG. 7·" Two r, and r, act on a box that slides right ·
ward aero" 11 frictionless Hoor.The "elocity of the box is v.
We want Illt instantaneous power. not all
average power oVer a time period. Also. We know the
box's velocity (rather than the work done on it).
Calculation: We use Eq. 7-47 for each force. For force
f
1
.atallgle<!>j = 180° to velocity V.we have
P
j
= Fj l' cos <ht = (2.0 N)(3.0 mls) cos [80
0
= - 6.0 W. (Atl.'iwer)
This negative result tells us Ih<ll force FI is Iransferring
energy / rolll the box <II the r<lte of 6.0 l is.
For force r
i
• al angle </>, = 60" to velocity V. "'e
have
Pi = F
2
v cos </>2 = (4.0 N)(3.0 11115) cos 60"
= 6.0 W. (Answer)
111is positive resnit tells us th<lt force Fl is transferring
e nergy 10 the box al the rate of 6.0 l is.
Sample Problem '.'1
Provided <I funny car does nOI lose lJ'action. the time it
wkes to race from rest Ihrough a dismnce D depends
primarily on the engine's power P. Assuming the power
is oonstant. de rive the time in temlS of D <lnd P.
b£ll·!J.t,
(I) The power of <In engine is the rate <It
which il c..1n do work. as expressed by Eq. 7·43 (P -
dWIdI). (2) We c<ln rebte the work done during the [<lCC
to the kine tic energy with Eq. 7·10. the work-kinetic
energytheorern(W= K
f
- K,).
Power and kinetic energy: From the work-kinetic
energy theorem. a small amount of work iIlV results in
a small change dK of kinetic energy: dlV = ilK.
Substituting this into Eq. 7-43 and realTanging give us
dK = Pdt.
l ntegr<lting both s ides <lnd substituting th<lt the kinetic
e nergy is K = 0 when the r<lce SWrts at I = O. we find
i
K
dK = fPdl
K = PI.
After substitutingtmv2 for K. we solve for 1' . the speed
at the end of the mce:
REVIEW & SUMMARY
Kinetic Energy The "nNI:,.'· K associaled Wilh lhe
mOlion of" panicle of mas. no and speed v. where " is well
below lhe speed of lighl. is
(kinelic .""rgy). (7-1)
Work Work IV i, energy lransferred to or from an objecl
via a force aCling on lhe objecl. En .. rgy lfansferred 10 lhe
objecl i, "",ili,'e work. and flOm the objecl. negali,'e work.
Work Done by a Constant Force The work done on a
panicle by a con,lanl force r during di'ptac .. ment d i,
W = Fdco.</> = F'd ("'01k. romtaol (7.7. 7-8)
Review & Summary
The net power is the sum of Ihe individual powers:
P"", = PI + P1
=-6.0W + 6.0W = O. (Answer)
which tells us thatlhe net raIl' of tr<lnsfer of energy to
or from the box is zero. Thus. Ihe kinetic energy
(K = of the box is nOI changing.<lnd so the speed
of the box will renmin at 3.0 mfs. Wilh neilherthe forces
Fl and Fl nor the velocily V changing. we see from Eq.
7·4g th<lt PI and P, are constant and thus 50 is p.".
> ( ""-)'".
'"
(7·49)
Distance and speed: From the definition of velocity in
ampter 2. we know Ihal v = dxldt. Rearranging Ihe
definition and sel1ingup integr<ltion on both sides. we find
i
D
dx = f l' iI/.
Substituting from Eq. 7·49. we have
f" dx d, ( "'-)'" L"'" d,.
Jo 0 111 1110
I ntegraling then yields
D (2P)11l 2
1
l!l.
III 3
Solving for I tells us that a funny car"s elapsed time I
depends on D and P as given by
(Answer)
Comments: In words. the ebpsed time depends on the
inverse cube root of the power. If the racing crew can
C<XL'I: more power OUI of the engine. Ihe elapsed time
decreases because of the im'erse dependence. but only
modestly because of the wbe roo/ dependence.
in which</> is lhe conslant angle bel •• cen lhe directions of r
a nd J. Ont)' the componenl of r Ihal is atong the displace.
men! J can do work on lhe object. When two or more forces aCl
OIl an objecl. lheir uorl i, lhe .um of lhe individuat works
done by lhe forces. which is also equal 10 the work lhal woutd be
done on lhe objec1 by lhe net force r .. ,Oflhose force.s.
Work and Kinetic Energy For a panicle. a change t..K in
lhe kincticencrgy equal, lhe nel work W done on lhe particle:
t..K = K
f
- K; = IV (work-kioollCe""rgy Iheorom). (7-10)
in which K; is lhe inilial kineli c enef/l.Y oflhe particle and Kfi,
Chapter 7 I Kinetic Energy and Work
the kinetic energ), after the ... ork is done. Equation 7-10
gives us
K, = K; + W. (7-11 )
Work Done by the Gravitational Force The work W,
done by the gra,itational force F, on a object of
mass m as the object moves through a displacement J ;'; by
W, = "'Cd cos 4>.
in which <t> is the angle between and d.
(7_12 )
Worle Done in lifting and Lowering an Object The
work W, done by an force as a ;';eithr
lifu,d or lowered is related to the wOl"k W, done by the gra,ita-
tional force and the change aKin the objeci". kinetic energ)' by
aK = Kf - K; = IV, + W ..
If K
f
= K;. then Eq. 7_15 reduces to
IV, = - W ..
(7-15)
(7-16)
which tells us thaI applied force Iransfers as mueh energ}'
10 the object as Ihe gravitalional force transfers from it.
Spring Force The force r, from a spring is
r, = - kJ (Hoot e's law). (7.20)
where Ii is the displacement of Ihe .pring·, free end from
position when Ihe spring is in its rdawd (neither com-
pres..,d nor extended). and k is Ihe spring ,' on,I,,,,t (a measure
of the spring"s stiffness) . If an x axis lies along Ihe spring. wilh
the origin at the location of Ihe spring"s free end when Ihe
spring is in ils relaxed slate. Eq. 7_20,an be writlen as
F, = - lex (Hooke·s Jaw) . (7.21 )
A spring force is thus a variable foree: It "3nes with the
displaeement of the .pring·, free
Work Done by a Spring Force If an objecl is allached
10 Ihe spring', free end. the work IV, done on Ihe object by the
QUESTIONS
1 Is positive or work done by 3 constant force ron
a particle during a straight-line displacement J if (3) Ihe angle
between rand J is 30
0
: (b) the angle is 100": (c) r = 2f - 3j
and tl = - 4:1
2 In three situations. " briefly applied horizontal force
changes the "elocily of a hockey puck Ihat slides over fric-
tionless ice. The o"erhead view, of Fig. 7-17 indicale. for each
,
,


", . mi.
• • •
;,." .6". /.
?'i ·
3m/

fi!..,. 2m/.
,.,
<')
,<)
FIG. 7· 17 Question 2.
spring force when Ihe object is moved from an initial position
" ; 10 a final position x,i,
IV, = tkx1 - ikx}.
Ifx; = 0 and x, = x.lhen Eq. 7·25 becomes
IV, = -th'.
(7-25)
Work Done by a Variable Force When Ihe force F OIl a
object depends on the position of Ihe object. lhe
work done by F on the object while Ihcobject mo"es from an ini-
tial position " "ith coordinates (x;. "1' z;) to a final position ',,,ilh
coordinates (x" Yf' ::'f) must be found by integrating Ihe force. If
we assume Ihat component F.maydepend on .' but nOlan}" or Z.
component F, may depend on y but not on x or z. and compo-
nent F, may depend on ::. but not on XOf , ·.then Ihe work is
n' = L" F, dx + f." F, Ily + L" F, dl . (7_36)
" ,.
If F has only an xcomponent. then Eq. 7·36 reduces to
("
\I' = j .. F(.l ) tlx.
(7_32)
Power The pOl' .... to a force is the ",Ie at which that
force does wor k on an objeet. If Ihe force docs work II' during
a time a l. the m,' cmge pm"'" due to the force over that
time interval is
(7.42)
Instantaneous power is the instantaneous rate of doing work:
(7.43)
For a force F al an angle 4> to the direction of travel of the in-
stantaneous "docity V.lhe instantaneous po .... er i,
P = Fvco,<t> = r·v. (7.47. 7.48)
,ituation. the puck', initial 'peed ";. its final speed • .,. and
the directions of corresponding "elocily vectors. Rank Ihe
,ituallons according to the work done on the puck by Ihe
applied force. most pooiti,·. firsl and
most negalive last .
::I Rank the following velocities ac-
cording to the kinetic e nerg)' a parti -
cle will ha" e with each velocilY.
greatest first: (a) 1'" = 41 + 3j. (b)
I'" = - 41 + 3j. (c) V = - 3: + 4;.
(d)V = 3: - 4j.(e)V = 5i.and(f) v
= 5 mi. al30° to the horizontal.
4 Figure 7- 18a show. t .. ,o horizon-
tal force, thaI aet on a block Ihat is
sliding to the right across a friction-
less Hoor. Figure 7_ISb shows three
plots of the block's kinetic energy K
o
).
,.)
,
'"
FIG. 7·18 Question 4.
"ersus time f. Which of the plots best corresponds to the fol -
lowing three situations: (a) F, = F" (b) F, > F" (c) F, < F,?
5 In Fig. 7- 19, a greased pig h .. a choice of three frictionless
,lides along " .. hich to slide to the ground. Rank the ,lides
according to how mu<,h work the force does on
the pig during the des.cent, greatest first.
FIG. 7·19 Question 5.
6 Figure 7·2Oashows four situalions in which a horizontal force
""IS on the same block. which is initially m rest.The force magni-
tudes are F, = F. = 2F, = 2F,. The horizontal compol\Cnt v, of
the block', "elocity is shown in fig.7.20b for Ihe four sJlumion ...
(a) Which plol in Fig. 7_2Ob be" corresponds 10 which force in
Fig. 7_2Gl1 (b) Which plot in Fig. 7· 2Oc (for kinetic energy K
"ersus lime I) best corresponds to which plot in Fig. 7· 20b?
,
,
"
"
CO,
,
F,
,
,
,.,
,
,
FIG. 7·20 QueSlion 6.
,
,

"
v,
7 fi gure 7_l1 shows four graphs (drawn to the same "'''le)
of Ihe x componenl F, of a variable force (directed along an
x axis) "ersus the p",ilion x of a particle on which the force
act ... Rank the graphs according to Ihe work done by Ihe force
on the particle from x = 0 to x = x" from most posili"e work
first to most negaliy. yoork last.
PROBLEMS
S&C.7·3 Kinetic Energy
., On AuguSl 10. 1972. a large meteorile skipped acTOSS the
atmosphere aboye Ihe we",ern Uniled Slates and western
Canada. much like a Slone skipped aero", waler. The accom-
FIG. 7·21
Question 7.
"
'.
(.-) _F, ___ _
8 Figure 7_22 giye. the x
component F, of a force thOl
can act on a particle. If the par·
tide begin. at rest at x = 0,
""hal is its coordinate when il
has (a) ilS greatest kinetic en-
ergy. (b) its grealeS! speed. and
(c) zero speed? (d) What is the
particle's di rection of Ifa,'el af-
terit reaches x = 6 m1
"
.",
Problems
,

"
"

,
(b) _F,
------
,

"
------

,
>,
(d) _F,
\

FIG. 7·22 Question 8.
9 Spring A is Sliffer than spring B (kA > k8)' The spring force
of which spring doe. more work if the springs me compressed
( a) the samedislance and (b) by the same applied force?
10 A glob of slime is launched or dropped from the edge of
a diff. Which of the graphs in Fig. 7·23 could possibly show
how Ihe kinelicenergy of the glob changes during its Highl?
KKK K
D ,G ,U ,[T
,., ,.,
,,'
KKK K

,.,
V' ,,'
,.,
FIG. 7·23 QueSlion 10.
pan)'ing fireball was so brighl Ihat it could be seen in the
da)'lime sk)' and was brighter than the usual mel eo rile Irail.
11, e meleorile', mass was about 4 X 10" kg; ilS speed was
a bout 15 km/ ... Had it entered the atmosphere ,wtically. it
,,,,,"pter 7 I Kinetic Energy lind Work
would have hll Eanh's surface Wllh about Ihe .ame.peed. (a)
Calculale tbe tmtconte's loss of kinetic energy (in joules) that
would have bl:!cn associatw wIth the verti<:al lmpact. (b) Expn:s.
t,,", as a nlUlhple ol t,,", eJtplos,,-e energy of I IDC'gaton of
TNT. wlllch is 41 X IOU J. (el The er>ergy aHOCl:Ited the
atom;" bomb explot.ion O\"e. 11ltoullma was equi, <LIent to 13
kilotOfl$ ol TNT. To how nlany bombs ."",Id tile
""'teorlle '"'pact have bl:!cn equIvalent? -:::.;:
'2 If a Saturn V rockel .. nth an Apollo spacecraft attached
had a combll1ed mass of 2.9 x 10' k! and reached a ,peed of
] 1.2 kmk. how much );,"etlC energy would It then ha'-e1
• J A proton (maK m" 1.67 X 10-
17
kg) 15 being accele.·
along' $lralghl hne al 3,6 X IOU m/ol;n a machin ... l ! the
proton has an , nltla] IIp<'ed of 2,4 )( ]0' mI. and tra,-d, 3.5 "'n.
wh.1t Ihen 1$ (a) liS 'p<'ed and (b) the ,"crea", ,n ,IS kinelic
energy? ISM
'4 A F. IS app lied 10 II bead
a, the bead 1$ nloved along a
straIght " -'re through S
+5.0 em. The I1lalOnitudc of ;:: is Sel :;.
nt a certaIn value. bUI the angle L ______ "
betw""n f; and Ihe bead's displace· ()
menl can ]).c cho5Cn. Figure 7.24 0
give. the "'ork IV done by ;;: on the FIG. 7.24 Problem 4.
]).cad for a range of VIIllles: =
25 J. How much work is done by ;;, If is (a) 6..\' and (b) 147°,/
"5 A fathe, racing his son has half the kinetic energy of the
son. who has half the mllSs of Ihe father . The falher opeeds up
by \.0 ,n/s and then has lhe same as the son.
What are the otlgmal 5p<'t'dS of (a) Ihe father and (b) the son?
"6 A wllh mass 1.8 X k& i. movlOg along a ,,-ire
,n the posili"e dlTec!lon ol an saXis. BeglOn,"g at time I = O.
w,,",n the !),end passes lhrough s = 0 " -l1h spew ]2 mil. a
constant 110'11 on the bead Figure 7·15 indicates the
bead's at tunes 10 = O. I, = ].0 S. = 2.0 I. and I, =
3.os. The bead lOomenlarily st0p5 all =3.0 .. What II the Iu-
nelic orthe boead at ('"' IOs1
t,
,
c}".
[ ,
I I
, ,
"
"
W
(,g)
FIG. 7. 25 Problem 6.
He.7·5 Work and KInetic ErtlHgy
'7 The only force atloog on a 2.0 kg caniller that .. ....
10 an sy has a mpgnitude of 5.0 N. The canisler ini liell),
has a velocity of 4.0 mls in the positive .. direClion and some
time latcr has a velocity of 6.0 m/s in Ihe po,ilive), direchon.
How much work is done on the canisler by lhe 5.0 N force
dUring Ihis ,"ne7
'8 A roln , lid\l1 OVer a fnC1ionless plane and acros, an xy
coordil)at e s)'Stem front Ihe oflgin 10 a point .. -i th .ty coordi-
nnles (3.0 m. 4.0 111 ) "'hlle a constant acts on it. The force
has magnitude 2.0 N and IS d"ected at a rounterdockwi",
angle of 100" from the pos,t,,"e direction of.he .. axis. How
much .... 01 k " done by Ihe force On Ihe coin during the di.-

'9 A 3.0 kll bod)' is at rest On a frktlOnleK honmntal air
track when a honzontal force F actlOlllO the positive
direction of an " a1<l$ along Ihe track is 3Jl1llled 10 the body.
A stroboscopic graph of Ihe pos,llOn of the body as It slides to
the right is shown in Fig. 7·26. The force F is applied to .he
body at t = 0. and the graph records Ihe pos'tion of the body
at 0.50, ,ntN'·als. How much work 11 done On Ihe body b)- the
fora F I = Oand I" 2.0 s1


o 06
(.n)
AG. 7·26 Problem 9 •
'10 A ICe IS pushed Ihrough a d,sp]acement
<I = (15 m): - ( 12 m)j alonB a malY" embankmen' by rusb·
-;t • •
in", water .... h",h a force f ,. (2]0 N)i - (150 N)J on
the block. How much 'NOrk does lhe force do on the block
during the
"11 A luge and "'Ith II . otal man of 85 kg. emerge
from a downhill Irnck onlO a hO"lonlol stra,!!hl track "-llh
an initial of 37 mls. If a fora ,10"" Ihem 10 II . Iop al
a ron, lan! rate of 2.0 m/sl. (a) what magnitude P;s required
for .he fOfce. (b) Ii do they travol .. -hile slo.-ing..
and (c) what work IV done on Ihem by Iho What are
(d) F. (e) d.and (f) IV if they. al 4.0 m/s2?
"12 An8..0kgobjeetisntov.
ing In the po,ilive dUC<' lIon
of an x axis. When it pa.ses
through x '" O. a conSlnnl
di redw along the
to act on i •. Fogure 7·27 liS
k'r>etlC energy K versus posl·
tion x as it mo,_ from" = 0'0
x = 5.0 m; K. = 30.0 J. The
fOl« 10 acl . What IS I'
the ob)<"<1 mO\'CS back
through" = -3.0 nt1
•• 1] 7·28 shows thre'('
forces apphw 10 a trunk that
moves J..ftward by 3.00 m 0'"('1
a lloor. Th.e fo«,e
magnitudes "'" F, = 5.00 N. F:
= 9.oo N. and F
J
= 3.00 N. and
the mdicated angle 1$ 8 = 60.0".
K(J)
K,
,.L ____ --'",:,_% (01 )
FIG. 1.27 I)roblem 12.
FIG. 1. 2' I'roolem 13.
the di'pIOlCen>C"m. (n) whnt IS the nel work done on the
trunk by .he thr« fo .... s and (b)does Ihe kmetic energy ol tlte
trunk increase or de",ease? C
"14 A can of bolt. and nuts
i. pushed 2.00 m ulong an s
axi, by II broom alonll the
grea,y (frictionless) floor of a
car repair shop in a vnsion of
,hufAeboard. Figure 7·29 ,h'cs
the work IV done on Ihe can by
the const ant horizon •• 1 force
from .he broom. versus the
can', posllion x. The Kale of
11',
" ,
%( p,)
FI G. 1. 29 Problem 14.
the figu re's vN. ical ""i, ,s sel b)' IV, '"' 6.0 J. (a) What is the
n.agnilude of thaI forc-e? (b) If the can had an 100Iiai kinetic
energy of 3.00 J. mo,';", In tbe poslll'"e d"edlon of the x au ••
what is II. klr>etlcenergy at lbe end of the 2.00 m1
"15 A 12.0 N force wnh a hed orienlallon do<-,; work on
a parlide aJ the parhde mon's Ihrough di.placement
Ii = (2.00; - 4.00) + 3.00k) nt. What ,$ tke angle between the
forcc and the d,sph .. :emenl ,f Ihc change In the: pantdc's
kmeticenergy ,5 (a) +3O.0J and Ib) -3O.0J'?
"16 FlJ!ure 7-30 sho", an
o,..,rhead ,',e'" of three hori-
zontal forces. acltng on n cargo
canister that ".,.. mit,ally J1a-
uonary but no ... · moo-es across a
friction Ie ... floor. The force
n13.plltudcs are FI = 3.00 N. F:
= 4.00 N. alld FJ = 10.0 N. and
the Indicated angles are 9:-
50.0" and II, = 3S.0". Whal 11
FIG. 7·]0 [6.
the nel "-ork done on Ihe cs m51er by thc three forCl("O dunng
the lirst 4.00 rn of displa.::ernenl ?
wc. Work Don .. by the Gravitational Force
• 1 7 A heliropter I if IS a 72 kg astronaUt IS In verllcally from
Ihe ocean by meanS of a The a«deration of the 85tro_
naul is g/IO. How IIIuch work is done on Ihe astronaut by
(a) the force frolll Ihe 8nd (b) the gravitational
force on her? JUSt sh.: renches the hclkopt er. what are
her (c) kinelicenergy nnd (d) speed? ... _
'18 (a) [n [975 Ihe roof of Momreal"s Velodrollle ... ·; th
a weighl of 360 kN. wus li fled by 10 cOl w that il rould he:
cenlered. How much "'ork was done on lhe roof by Ihe forces
making lhe lift? (b) [ n 1960 a Tampa. florida. mother report_
edly raised One end of a car thal had fpll en onlO her son when
a jack failed. [f her panic hfl effecllvely raised 4000 N (about
of the car • • ·el&ht ) by 5.0 em. how much .. ork d,d her force
doontheur1
"19 A eord IS used to [o ... an Inl1;ally stDUonary
block of maSS ,II at a oonstnnl down ... ard of " ...
When the block hM fallcn a d,slance d. 6nd (a) thc . ·ork
done by the cord's on the block. (b) the ... ark donc 1»'
the 1J.",,"IIDuonal fot'Ce on t block. (c) t he kInet IC of
the block. and (d) the speed of the block. ".
'·20 In Fig. 7-31.a horlZOn-
lal force 1. of magmlude 20.0
N ;. apphed to a 3.00 kg psy-
chololJ.Y boot. a5 Ihe book
,lides a d'5lance d = 0500 HI
up 8 frod lonless ramp 31 angle
(J = 30.0". (8) During Ihe dis-
placement. " ' hal ,'I Ihe net
work done On Ihe book b)" p ..
the gravil'lional force on Ihe
FIG. 7_31 Problem 20.
book. and Ihe normol force 0 11 Ihe oook? (b) If the book has
zero kinetic encrlJ.Y nl Ihe start of the di!placemenl. wh,t is;1S
.peed Bllheend of Ihe dis[llncemcnl1
"21 [n Fig. 7-32. a oon, '"'U
force F. of nmgnitudc 82.0 N is
applied to a 3.00 kg shoe box "I
angle = 53.if. causing Ihe box
to move up a frictionless ramp "I
constant speed. How mu.:h " 'ork
is done 00 Ihe oox by 1:; "'hen
lhe box has mo>ed through '"CT-
hcal distal"'" II = 0.150 m?
"

FIG. 7_32 Probltm21.
·'22 A block ;s ""nl up a fn.:.
tionless ramp alon[!. which an .r
enends up".,.rd. Figure 7·33
g""cs the kmehc energy of the
block as a functIon of po5l\ton x;
the: scale of the Iigure'J , 'enlCal
is ""I by K. 0= 40.0 J. If the
bIock's m,lial speed IS 4.00rn1s.
what" the normal force On the
block?
·'23 In Fig. 7_34. a block of tce
slides """' n a fridlonless ramp al
an[!.1e (J = SO" "'hile an ICC ""OTker
pull, on the block (na a
,,;th a force f. Ihat has a magni-
tude of 50 N and is directed up
the ramp. A. the block shdes
throllgh distance ,,= 0.50 m
a long the ramp. its kinelic energy
Problem,
K,
o [ '/

FIG. 1·U l'roblem 22.
increa..,. by SOl How much FIG. 7.3" Probk", 23.
would iI, kmelle energy
have been iflhe rope had nOl been BUnched 10 Ihe block?
"24 A cave rescue leam liflS nn injured spelunker dlfectly
lI pward and 0111 of " sinkhole by of a motor-driven
cable. The lift is performed in Ihree sI nges. en<: h requiring
, venkal diSTance of 10.0 m: (a) Ihe Inil;all)" stationary spe-
lunker i. accelerated 10 a opce<I of 5.00m/s: (b) he ' 5 then
lifted at Ihe constanl speed of 5.00 m/s; (c) finally he ;$dccel-
e ral ed to zero speed. Ho .. · much work ,s on the 80.0 kg
rescllee by the force lifting him dunng each Slage?
·"25 [n Fig. 7_35. a 01SOkg block or
cheese lies on the Hoor of a 900 kg eleva-
tor cab that ISbeing plllled up"",rd by a ca·
ble through dtslancc ,I, '" 2AO m and then
through distance d: = 10.5 rn. (a) Throllgh
d ,• if lhe- normal force On the block from
the Hoor has ronstant magnItude F".. FIG. 7.n
3.00 N. how much "'ork is dol>C on lhe cab l' roblCln 25.
by Ihe force from the cable? (b) Through
d:.iflhe " 'ork done on lhe cab by lhe (oonslanl) f««from the
cable ;'92.61 U.what" the magllltudeof ,...,,? =
S<ec. 7· 7 Wortt Oone by a Spring Force
·26 Durmg spring ""mesler al MIT. resIdents or the parallel
build;ngi! of Ihe Eatl Campu1 dorm1 banle one another with
large catapllh. thai are made wllh lurgical h05C mOllnted on
a window frame. A balloon filled wllh water ;$ pia,""" ;n
a polich .. IIached 10 Ihe hose. ,,'h,eh ,. Ihen stretched through
Ihe width of the room. Assllnte Ihat Ihe strelching of the h05C
obeys Hooke'slaw wilh a spring conSln nt of (OO N/m. lf the
hose is stretched by 5.00 TIl and Ihen relensed. how nluch wor k
does Ihe force from Ihe hose do on Hi e balloon in the polich
by Ihe lime the hose reaches its rdued Icnglh?
·27 A 'Pring and block are III Ihe of Fig. 7_11.
When the block is pulled oul lO .r = +4.0cm. we must apply
a foro: of magnilude 360 N to hold il lhere. We block 10
r = I! <:Tn and Ihen reltase II. How mu.:h "'ork does the sprIng
do on the block as the block mo ... es fronIXI - +S.Ocnl tola).< =
+ J.Ocm. (b)x = -3.0 ....... (c) .< = -5.0cm.and(d)x - -9.0c",7
·28 [n Fit/. 7- 1 I. ".., must apply a fom: of magmlude SO N to
hold the block stationary at x = -2.0an. Fronl Ihat PCl&lIIon. we
'","pte, 7 I KineticEnefgyenciWOI'k
then ... ly mOl'" t .... blod.: '" that ourfotUdoes HDJ of",....-k
OIl lhe spnng-blod the block IS then