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2OO6().I]J75

P.inted in tbe United
P,inted Unite<! SIal""
Stat .. of America
Americ.

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3J 2 I
Volume 1 Volume 2

PART 1 PART 3
Chapler 1 Measurement Cnapler 21 Electric Charge
Chapler 2 Motion Along a Straight Line Chapler 22 Electric Fields
Chapler 3 Vectors Chapter 23 Gauss' Law
Chapler 4 Motion in Two and Three Chapler 24 Electric Potential
Dimensions Chapter 2S Capacitance
Chapter S Force and Motion - I Chapter 26 Current and Resistance
Chapter 6 Force and Motion - II Chapler 27 Circuits
Chapter 7 Kinetic Energy and Work Chapter 28 M agnetic Fields
Chapter 8 Potential Energy and Chapter 29 M agnetic Fields Due to Currents
Conservation of Energy
Chapter 30 Induction and Inductance
Chapler 9 Center of M ass and Linear
Chapter 31 Electromagnetic Oscillations and
Momentum
Alternating Current
Chapler 10 Rot ation
Chapler 32 M aX\IVell's Equations; M agnetism
Chapler 11 Rolling, Torque, and Angul ar of M atter
M omentum
PART 4
PART 2
Chapter 33 Electromagnetic Waves
Chapler 12 Equilibrium and El asticity
Chapter 34 Images
Chapler 13 Gravitation Chapter 3S Interference
Chapter 14 Fluids
Chapter 36 Diffraction
Chapter lS Oscillations Chapter 37 Relativit y
Chapler 16 Waves- I
Chapter 17 Waves - II PART 5
Chapter 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Chapter 38 Photons and M atter Waves
Law of Thermodynamics Chapter 39 More About M atter Waves
Chapter 19 The Kinetic Theory of Gases Chapter 40 All About Atoms
Chapter 20 Entropy and the Second Law Chapter 41 Conduction of Electricity in Solids
of Thermodynamics Chapter 42 Nuclear Physics
Chapter 43 Energy from the Nucleus
Chapter 44 Quarks, Leptons, and the Big
Bang

Appendices / Anwers to Checkpoints and Odd-Numbered Questions and Problems / Index
This page il/fellfiol/o/ly
intenTionally left blallk
blank
Meas ureme nt
U Measurement 1 ~. Motion in Two aand
nd Three Dime
Dimensions
nsio ns
How (un the ",o'HId
.. th. gro~.lfld t..come and ,.l1ow
fLid lind
bet;ome fLjJ sallow up 58
buiding.?
b...u-"g,1 wi>«. 10 atdt 1/a hisIh
How do..
doet an outf..sd«
Ill! OlAf. . know
know...h.. fo Nn
run 10
'0 ulm high
, -, wt..tll~1
1·1 'Nhat I. Physics? 2 b.M1?
fly ball?
'1·2
-2 M.,.""nng
'-3 1M
Measunng Thongs 2 .- ,
4-1 What I, Is Physoa?
PhYSICS7 59

..
1-3 The kllemltJOnal
Intematon,1 System of UnlU
S)'$tem 01 Units Z
2
1-4
1-4 Changing Unots
ChI"9W'Sl Units 3
PoWon..d~1
4-2 Position and [);splacem.nt S9
A.....-age V.loclty
4-3 Awrage velocIty and "
Inuanllneout. Velocity
Ind InlUnuneou. v.1oclly 61 .,
1-5
1·5 LAngth
Length 4 Average AcceleratIOn
4-4 AWRgII Accel.olllOfl and Insuntan«>us
Instlntaneoul
1-6 Time 5
1-7 M
1·1 Mass

Problems 8
ProbI.ml
... 7
Ravie .. s...
R• .,.;e" & .......1')' 8
Summary .
4-6
~

'-7
4-7
4-8
.~
AcceleratIOn 63
Ac:celer311Of1
4-5 ProjectIle
Projecti~ MotIOn
ProjectIle
Uniform
Uni#otm
Reiat ....
RelatIVe e
"
MotIon 65
Proj.ctlle Motion
Motion Ana
Cirwllr
Circular
Motion
An.lyHd
MOIlOn
Motion
in O11e
..
lyzed 66
70
Dimension
III Ona D,m.nllOlI 7271
.-, Re~tNe
U.. Motio n Along
It. Al ong a Stra
Straight
ight Line 13
4-9 R.lat ..... Mo
Review & Summary
tion ill
Motion
SlImmll')' 75
in T .... DImensions
TNo
"
Dim.",ion, 73

How (CM... • woodp«Jc., ""vi.,.
woodp«ker ....,viw 1M ••"",. imp.cl~
tl>. ,aw,.. impacts ion. 76 I Probl.ms
Qllesliolls
aue.t Probleml 77
of itl b.lak on .1
its b..1e • tfH
....1
2-1 Whit
2·1 Wha t II pt.,y$ia1 14
lsf't1ysia?
2-2 Mooon 14
2·2 Motion U Fo
Force
rce and Mot ion -
Motion - II 87
2-3 PosltlOfllnd
2·3 Position and D,tp!lcarMnt
Dispillcement 14
i. 1M
Wfwl is
What th. fear f.,_in
fe. factor in ,idi"Sl me LUI a'
riding th.lion all aa roller
urol't
2-4 Aver.gl
Averag. Valoclty
Velocity Ind ,.\....,~ Sp..d
lind Average Spe.d 15
2-5 I",unu
Instantaneous Velocity
......... V.1oc,ty Ind 5pMd 17
lind Speed .,
RI.-I.,1
coaster?
pt.,~o7 88

.
501 What
Whal Is f't1ysics?
2-6 Acceleration
AccoMr;.uon 19
2-7 ConlUnl.l.o;ca"""IIOfIASpKLlIClw
2·1
2-8
Constant ,!,ccelerlltion: A Special Cllse 21
Another LooIc lit Constant Acceleration 24
2·' An~LookIT.ConsUnIAcc~11OII
., N~orNn Mechanic.
5-2 Newtonian
5-3 Newton',
~·.Fntll'
Mtch.Ilic.1 88
First La"".. 88
S-4
H Fon:.
F~ 89 ..
2-9 Ft..-F"I
2·9 Free-Fall Acceleration
Aec<MrallOll 2' 24
.5 Man
5-5 ~II 90
2-10
2·1 0 Grllphll;"lInt~""uon
Gr.lphicallntegration .. in Mouon
Motion A ..... lysis 27
AnliytK
RIIvI. .. & SurnmIIry
Rev.e" Summary 28
QuestIOnS 29 JI ProbIen'll
Qunt--.. Problem. 30
.,
S-6
H Ne-Nlon", s.c:ond Law
Newton', Second
5-7 Some Particular
lIIw 91
Force.
PlftlO.l", Fon:<t. 94 "9'

.,
5-8
~
5-9
Ne-Hton"s Thoi'd UI'N
Ne-I'o'Ion', Thm:lLa-
AppIymg Newton's
Applying
" 99
99
Law, 99
New!on'.lIIw. 99
RevIeW &
Revoew & Summary
s,,1T'IIN1)' 105105
U Vector 38 .....oon. 106 II Problems
QuestIOn.
Q Prob...... lOS
108
How dOfl lin
Howo- ,nt know
an Ill'll koow 1M
tl>. way home with
wily hewna 00 guiding
WIth no guidng
d,,,"on the desert
clue. on 1M plain.?
""..lpla .... 1
3·1 What
3-1 I. f't1~iCi?
.....,...\ II pt.,y$1«1 39 .....
• •'11 Force and Mot ron
fon--IIII 11 6
' -2 Vectors and d Scalars Egypl;'n. mo.,.
3·2
,-, VICto ......
3·3 Ad ding VIC!O" Geometrically
Adding Vectofl "
Seal... 39 How did tl>.
How
p!.ce to bbuild
place
.00.,,' Egyptia",
lhe .rldent
lhe Greilt
... iklln.
mow the
Pyr.,...id?
(ireal Pyrllmid?
... ge blocks
1M hhugoe bloch into
1'"tO

'4
34 Compo!'ents
,-, Comp-Ot1ln!. of Vectors Ve<:!Ofl 40 "
G... metrkally 39
6-1 What I, pt.,~kl? 117
6·' Whatlsf't1ysic.?
3·5 Un VICtor. 44
VII it Vectors 6·2 Friction
6-2 Friclion 117 11 7
'] -6
., Adding
AddIng VectOfiVtetOft by Compo!'enu
Componll1t1 45 45 6-3 Prope"lus of
'·3 Propertie Fric;toon 118
01 Friction 118
'3·'-7 Vectors
VICt ........ andd the Laws Phylic. 4B
Law. of I't.ysic. 48 6-4
64 The Drag Termina Speed 122
Drag F()fl;e ",d TermInall Speed
Force and 122
'3-S
·' VlClors 4B
Muitlply..g Vectors
Multiplying 48 6-5 Uniform Circular
'·5 u"i10flTl MotIOfl 124
Circuli. Motion
RIIvI. .. s..........1')' 52
ReVJe" & Summary S2 RIIV_ && Summa»'
Review SuITllNlI)' 129
QunllOnl 52 IJ Problem. S3
QuestIOns 53 aQuestIOnS P~. 131
... estlons 130 II Problems 131
__ _ Contents

U Kinetic Energy and Work 140 U.IJ Rotation 241
il.IJ
What pro~rty
prop<lrty of a funny car d"t e rmine. the winning tim ..
determine. How un smaN snapping shrimp ."IIP
CIIn II SmIIU snllP it. cL.w so firmly
its claw.o
rac .. ?
in "a drag raclI? hllt th .. sound stun.
t hat stuns it. p",y?
its PMY?
7-1 Wh.tlsPhysics? 141 10-1 What I.
Is Physic.? 242
7-2 What Is Energy? 141 10-2 ne Rotational Variable.
Vanables 242
7·) Kinet ic Energy 141 10-3 AIe
Are Angular Quantities
Quant ities 'lectors?
Vectors? 246
7-4 Work 142 10-4 Rotat ion with Constant Angular Acceleration 247
7-5 Worl: and Kinetic Energy 143
Work 10-5 Relat ing the Linear and Angular Variables 249
7·6 Work Done by the Gravitat ional Force 146 10-6 01 Rotation 252
Kinet ic Energy 0/
7·7 D<>ne by a Spring Force 149
Work emile 10-7 Calculating t he Rotational Inertia 253
7-8
7·8 Work emne
D<lne by a General Variable Force 152 10-8 Torque 256
2S6
7-9 Power 155 10-9 Newton's Seeond
Neilton'. Second Law lor Rotat ion 257
Review
Revi<!w & SummaI)' 157 10-10 Work and Rotat ional Kinet ic Energy 260
Quest ions 158 I Problems 159 Rev;"w & S<Jmmary
Review 5<Jmmary 263
Questions 265 I Problems 266

U Potential Energy and Co
Conservation
nservation lii
lili l Rolling,
Rolling , Torque,
Torq ue, and Angular
of
of Ene
Energy
rgy 166 Momentum
M o mentum 275
Why can a /argelandslide mo"" mow almost 30 Ii".....
Ii"",," as fa,
far
is th .. magic behind th .. ons ..t of II
What i. a baU .. t danc .. r'.
r's
across .. valley a. IIa .mal/landslide?
midair rotation during IIa tour jet .. ?
8·' What Is Physics? 167
11-1
11· 1 What l.Phy.ic.? 276
WhatlsPhysic.?
8·2 Woo and Potential E""rgy
Energy 167
11-2
11·2 Rolling as Translation and Rotation Combined 276
8-3 Path Independence of Conservative Forces 168
11-3
11·3 The Kinet ic Energy of Rolling 277
8-4 Determining Potent ial Energy Valu".
Values 170
11-4
11·4 The Foa:es 01of Rolling 278
8·5 ConsefVat ion 01 Me<:hanical Energy 173
Conservat
11 ·5 TheYo·Yo 281
8·6 Reading a Potential Energy ell"'" 175
11-6
11·6 Torque Revisited 281
8·7 Work Done on a System by an External Force 179
11·7
11-7 ;.v,gula
AIlgula r Momentum 283
8-8
8·8 01 Energy 182
Conservat ion 01
11·8
11-8 Newton's Second Law in Ang ular Form 285
Review & Summa,), 186
11-9
11·9 Angula r Moment um 01
The Angular of a Syst em
Quest ions 187 I Problems 189
01
of Particles 287
11-10
11· 10 The >.ngular
Angular Momentum of a Rigid Body Rotating
U Center of
o f Mass and Linear Momentum
M omentum >.xi. 287
About a Fixed >.xis
201
20 1 11-11
11· of Angular Momentum 290
11 Conservation 0/
How uncan II m;ll sh.ep surviv .. th .....
mal .. bighorn sheep ve", h..lld
.. s .. veM 11·
11-12
12 Precessionol aGyroscope 293
coNision with which it glli"" dominanc .. ?
collision Rev;"w & Summary 295
9-1
9·1 What Is Physic.?
Physics? 202 Questions 296 I Problems 297
9-2
9·2 The Center of Mass 202
Neilton's Second Law for a System of Particles 206 m Equilibrium and Elasticity
Elast icity 305
9·4 Linear Momentum 209 tih of th .. l.. aning towsr
Why i. """" th .. sfight uk tower in
9-5 The Linear Momentum ofa
of a System of Particle.
Particles 210 Pis;! dang .. rous?
PiSil
9-6 Collision and Impulse 210 12-1
12· 1 What Is Physics?
Physic.? 306
9-7
9·7 Conserva tion of Line ar Momentum 214 12-2
12·2 Equilibrium 306
9·8 Moment um and Kinet ic Energy in Collisions
Collisiom 217 12·J
12-3 The Requirements of Equilibrium :>07
9·9 Inelast ic Collisions in Qne Dime<lsion 218 12-4 The
ne Center of Gravity 308
9-10
9·10 Colli.ion.
Elastic Co Dime<l.ion 221
llisions in One Dimension 12·
12-55 Some Examples of Static Equiliooum 310
9-11 Collisions in Two Dimensions 224 12-6
12·6 Indeterminate Structures 314
9·12 Systems with Varying Mass: ), Rocket 224 12-7
12·7 Elasticity 315
Review & Summary 226 Review & Summary 319
Quest ions 228 I Problem. 229 Q uestions 319 I Problems 321
Questions
Contents _

rn Gravitatio n 330 i(.] Waves-l 41 3
Who! ·mon.!.... • !uro
What ·mon.t lurks at th t h.. c.. nt.... of our What cau.e.
cau. e. the .ometimlls oscalations of
.Om<ltim ... dangerous ascalations
MUky
Milky Way Galaxy? footbridg ... lind mash
footbridges mosh pits?
13-1 What I. Is Physics? 331 16-1 What Is Physics? 414
13-2 Ne
Newton's
..... ton·.l.a
Law..... of Gravitation 331 16-2 Type.o/Waves
Typeso/Waves 441414
13-3
13·3 Gravitation and the Principle of Superpos.ition 333 16-3 Transverse and Longitudinal Waves 414
13-4 Gravitation Near Earth·s
Earth's Surface 335 16-4 Wavelength and Frequency 416
13-5 Gravitat ion Inside
Insde Earth 337 16-5 TheSpeedofaTravelingWave 418
13-6 Gravitation Potential Energy 338 16-6 Wave Speed on a Stretched String 412
13-7 Planets and Satellites: Kepler's LaNs
LaNS 342 16-7 Energy and PONer 01
of a Wave Traveling Along a
13-8 Satell
Satellites:
ites: Orbits and Energy
Ene rgy 345 String 423
13-9 Einstein and Gravit ation 347 16-8 The Wave Equ ation 425
RevieN & Summary 349 16-9 The Principle of Superposition
Superpositi"" for Waves 426
Questions 350 II Problems 351
Question. 16-10 Interference a/Waves 427
16-11 Phase ... 429
16-12 Standing Waves 431
16-13 Standing Waves and Resonance 433
U I Fluids 359 Review & Summary 436 43.6
How do ... IIII ""'ri
surf.... "",rf?
surf? Questions 436 I Problems 438
14-1 What Is Physics? 360
14-2 What
Wha t I.
Is a Fluid? 360
14-3 Density and Pressure 360
14-4 Fluids at Rest 362 li~j
Ii~j Waves-1i
Waves-II 445
14-5 Measuring Pressure 365 What th.... musical echo from the stairs
lNhat caus ... th IIt;on
st";rs at an ancien!
ancient
14-6 Pascal'. Princip~ 366
Pascal's Principle Mayan
May.>n pyramid?
14-7 Archimedes' Principle 367 17-1 What Is Physics? 446
14-8 Ideal Fluids in Motion
MotiOf1 370 17·2 Sound Waves 446
14-9 of Cont inuity ]71
The Equat ion 01 17-3 The Speed 01of Sound 446
14-10 BernO<Jlli's Equation 373 174 Traveling Sound Waves 449
RevieN & Summary 377 17-5 Interference 451
Quest ions 378 I Problems 379
Questions 17-6 Inten.ity and Sound Level 45]
Intensity 453
17-7 Sources of Musical Sound 457
17-8 Beats 459
17·9 The Doppk.r Effect 460
1I1-1 0scillations 386 17-10 Supersonic Speeds.
Speeds, Shock Waves 464
How can you .topstop th
the.. natural but annoying asciNation.
osciHation. of Review & Summary 46S
a tall building
II buildw.g in ..
II wind? Quest ions
Ouest iOf1s 466 I Problems 467
15-1 What Is Physic.?
Physics? 387
15-2 Simple Harmonic Motion 387
15-3 The Force Law lor Simple Harmonic
HarmOf1ic Motion
MotiOf1 390
15-4 Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion 392 iM
W Temperature, Heat, and the First Law
15-5 An Angular Simple Harmonic Oscillator 394 of Thermodynamics 476
15-6 Pendulums 395 How can ;> be..tI. d.. tect II.. forest /ire
betltlil detect /i", at a larg
large.. distanc
di.tanc ..
15-7 Harmot1ic Motion and Uniform
Simple Harm""ic Un iform Circular without seeing or srnelSng
srnelNng it?
Motion 399 18-1 What Is Physic.?
Physics? 477
15-8 Damped Simple Harmonic Motion 400 18-2 Temperature 477
15-9 Forced OscillatiOf1s
Oscillations and Re5or\ance
Resonance 402 18-3 The Zeroth Lawai Thermodynamic.
Thermodynamics 477
Revie'
Revie'N
li & Summary 403 18-4 Measuring Temperature 478
Questions 403 I Problems 405 18-5 The Celsius and Fahrenheit Sca
Scales
les 478
xii Contenu
COI1t. nu

118-6
~'
118-7
~7
Therma l ExpanKN'l
Th.'mal
Temperature
Tempe"'t" .. ..-.d
and Hut '"
EJ.pa"sion 482
Heat 484
21·3
21~
21.
CondUCIorslnd
Cooductors IWld Insullll(q
Coulomb's L..'
Coulomb'. Law
Insulatoll 563
,'I 54S
565 '"
18-8
1 ~' The AbsorphOfl
Absorptoon of Solicit lind
Heat by SoIods and lJquods
Liquids 48S
485 21·5
21 -5 Charv-I. Quantized Sl1
Charge Is QUIIflIJ:ed 571
18-9
1~' Look It
Closet look
A CIoN< Heat lind
at Hut and Work 488 21~
21-4 ChIIrge Is Conwrved
Charge I. Conserv.d 57' 572
18-10 The ~
11-10 First lI'"
Law of Thennodynamoa
Th.rmodynamics 490 Revoew
Review & SumrnIIry
Summary 573
18-11
11-11 Some
Serre Special
Sp.c; .. 1 Cases
Cuu 0 1 the First
of FilSt 1I
laN 01
.. of Ouestoons Problems S1S
Questions 573 I I'IobIemt 575
ThermodynamICS 491
Thennodynam..:1
18-12 Heat Tran.fer Mechani1ms 493
1"'12 HUITrln_Mechanosml
J"~"
t-t.. Electric
Ele ctric Fields
Fie lds 580
RevIew
Rw SumrNlry 497
.. w & Summllry
Howdoes a bee
Howden. be.t ..... eI<t<:t"ntata to r:oI/ect
.... electrosr.tic. 11M fh
coIlect.nd men...
QuestIOns 498 I ~
Cluestoonl .98 Problems SOO 500
".,..7
po'''' gra",?
distribute polen
22-1
22·1 w....t Is Physics? 581
Whiitl.PhyslCll
.L.°J The Kine
",'J Kinetic
tic Theory of Gases 507 ZZ·2
22-2 Electnc: F"teId
The EIKtnc Field 581
~I ccalMS
What ..... th.
the fog!h.t 'pp"rJ ~n
fog th.1 IIppHn wnen aII QI(/x>nM.J
arbonatord 22-3
ZZ-3 Electric: Field l'"-
EIKtric Lines 582
drirJr.
drink;' ;,~7
opened? 22-4 The EIect!k Du. 110
Field Due
Electric: Fteld 0 aII POInt
Point
19-1 Ph~ia? Sa!
What II PhY.le.? S08 Charge 583
Chllfge
19-2 A~.dn;l" Numblor
Avogadro's Number 508 22-5 The Electric: Du. to.n
Electric Field Due to an Electric
Eleclric
19·3
19-3 1de,1 Gases 509
Idea l (in., Dipole 585
19-4 Pressure, Tempe
P,.nure, Temperature, RM5 Speed 512
rature, and RMS 22-6 D~. to a
Th. Electric Field Due Lin. of
I line
19-5 Translational Kinetic
T'an,l.tIO".1Kine tie Energy 514 Charge 586
Charg.
19-6 MeanFreePa
Mun F... P. th 515 22·7 Th.
The EIKtnc D~. to.
Electric Field Due to .. Ch.,g.d
Charged
19-7 TheDistributio.-.oIMolec
Th. D,Unb\llion of Molecular ular5peec1.
Speedl 517 Disk S90
Di"" 590
19-8 The
Th. Molar
Molir Specific HU
Heatl of .n
ll ol an idelll
Ideal (ill
Gas 520 22-8 A
A Point
Pomt Charge
Ch.rge in ....an Electric
Eleetnc Field 591
Fi.1d 591
19-9 Degre•• of F...-dom
Degrees Freedom and MoI..
Molar 5p<Kif.::
Specific Heats
Heat. 523 ZZ·9
22-9 Dopole in
A DIpole In ....
an Electnc; F.. 1d 594
Electric Field
19-10 A Hont of Quantum
QUlntum Theory 525 Revoew & Summllf)l
Revie'N Summary 596
19-11
19- 11 The Adla1»tic u;p<lOlion 01 an Ideal
TheAdlab.u;ExpMlloonofllnlde Gas 526
.. IGIII526 QUest;OfIS 597 I Problem.
Quesuons Problems 598
Rw .. w & Summllry
Review Summary 529
~ 531
Cuestions 530 I Problems
Cluestoon.
t.f:':J
J"-itJ Gauss' law
Law 605
How can
How '91It"ing harm
an lightning )0<1."- if jt
h.ot"".1'0".'" " does
do... not
nol $u •• you?
IIT".)'OU7
t ,{IJ Entropy
t.j)) Entro py aand
nd the Second law Law of
23-1 What Is Physoal
WhIt Physics? 606
The rmodynamics 536
Thermodynamics 23-2 Flu.; 606
23·2 Flux
v.-twl ;, the _.~ .... bet_n
What;' tt...:onMC1ion b.r!_n aII fUbb., o.nd'. stretch
n.obb..- band's st.-lOt""
and
11M the dir«tion
wKfion of 01_7time1
23·3
23-3
23~
"..
Flux of
Flu.; of an
In ElectrIC
Electrll; F",1d
Glust' L......
Gauss' Law WI 6t:H
'("
Foeld 607

20-1
20.1 What I. Ph~ia? 537
'NNIIIPhyso?
23·S
2l-S GaulS' L..·
Gauss' Law.. and
1nd Coulomb's
Coulomb', laN L.... 6"
611
20-2
20.2 l~bIe Proc.sses
Irrewr'Slble Prou_llnd and Entropy
Entropoy 537
20-3 Change '" En tropy 538
,3-4
23~ A Cha.ged
ChIIrged Isolated CondIKtOr 612
I.al.ted Conductor
20.3 Ch'nge In Entropy
'~7
23-7 Applying Gauss'
ApplyIng G_,' law: L.. .... , Cylindrial
Cylondnc.1
20-4
20·5
20-5
20-6
20-7
The
Th. Second L-BIH
Entropy
Entropy;n
in
on the
Entropy'" the Rul
The
Th. Efficiencies
of ThermodynamiC$ 542
L.. .. ofThfimodyNmia
Re,l World:
Real World . Engines
Real World:
Eng""" 543
World R"frigeraton
Efficiene... of R.al Engi.....
R.fngera ton. 548
Engln-M 549
2l~
23-8
23-9
Symmetry 6"
Symmeffy 615
Ga" SI' L..w·
Applying (i1W1l' Pl.n... Symmetry 6"
Law: Planar
Ga",,' L..
Applying (iIWII' .... ; Spherical
Law: Sphe,.,nl
...
20-8
20.8
Revie
Revi.ww&
A Statist
SI""t ical
& SummaI)'
it;al View
Sumn'lllry S54
Vi.w of Entropy 550
55 4
Review &
Symmetry 61 B
Summary 620
& SummaI)' '"
Questions
Ouestioo s 620 I Problems
Probl,m, 621
Question
Quution, s 555 I Pn)bleml 555
I Problems

t.fJ l. Electric Charge 561
t.li f'.l:
f'-l: 1Electric
Ele ctr1c Potentia
Pote ntia l 628
How can """nil.... in aII .urgicM
vid.o monitor
c.n a• video .urgiaJ room increase
ina..... wn.r danger
What .unger doe, _Nt.,
doel.a _ _ 61' pot.
~'IO.10. compur.r?
compur.,7
th. riM of
the rilk 01 bact«",'
&..;t.,iIIl contamination?
t;or!tll ....... llon 7 2....1
24-1 What F'hysoa? 629
Whit IsI. Physic,? 629
21
21·-11 Wh.t
What IsI, Physics?
Phy*-'CS? 562 2....2
24-2 EIectne Pot.nt,,1 Ene'9Y 629
Electric Potential Energy 629
21
21 -2
·2 Eleclric Charge 562
E\ec\rll;Charv- 2....3
24-3 EIectnc Potential
Electric Potent ..1 630
Contents xiii
XIII

24-4 Equipot ential Sunaces 632 27-J Energy. and Emf 707
Work, Energy,
24-5 Cakulating the Potential from the Field 633 274 Cakulat
Caku lat ing the CUlTent in a
24-6 Potent ial Due to a Point Charge 635
Potential Single-Loop Circuit 708
24-7 Potential Due to • GrOlJp
GrO<Jp of Point 27-5 OtherSing~-LoopCircuits 710
OtherSingle-LoopCircuits
Charges 636
Charge. 27-6 Potenti.1 Difference Between Two
24-8 Potent ial Due to an Electric Dipole 637 Points 711
24-9 Potential Due to • Cont inu""s Charge 27-7 Mult ilcop
iloop Circuits
Cilt:Uit s 714
Distribution 638 27·8 The Ammeter and the Voltmeter 720
24-10 Calculating
Calculat ing the Field from the Potential 640 27·9 RC Circuits 720
24-11 Electric Potent
Potential 01 a System of Point
ial Energy of Review & SummaI)'
Summary 724
Charges 641 Quest ions 725 I Problems 726
24-12 Potential 0/
of a Charged Isolated Conductor 644
Revie ... & Summary 645
ions 646 I Problems 647
Quest ion. t"l;.I Magnetic
tl;J Mag netic Fields
Fie lds 735
\Nhat
vvnat cau ... an aurora and why i. it so
....
CilUS 00 thin?

28·1 What Is Physics? 736
Jr+1 Capacitance
J'+1 Ca pacit a nce 656
28-2 What Produce.
Produc e. a Magnetic Field? 736
..xplosion in "irborne
How can a spark ... t up an explosion airborne powder?
25-1 What Is Physic.?
Physics? 657
28·J The Definition of
oHiB 736
,>2 28-4 Dis.covel)' of the Electron 740
Crossed Fields: Dis.covery
2>2 Capacit.nce 657
28-5 Crossed Field.:
Fields: The Hall Effect 741
25-3 Calcu lating the Cap.citance 659
Calculating
28·6 A Circulat ing Charged Particie
Particle 743
25-4 Para llel and in Series 662
Capacitors in Parallel
28·7 Cydotrons
Cyclotrons and Synchrotron.
Synchrotrons 748
25-5 Energy Stored in an Electric Field 666
,>6 28·8 Magnet ic Force
Fo.-ce on
Oil a Current·Carrying
2>6 Capacit or ..Nith
itt, •a D",lectric
Dielectric 670
Wire 750
25-7 D",lectrics:
Dielectrics: An Atomic 'I",wView 672
28·9 Totque
TDfque on
Oil a Cu
Current
rrent Loop 752
25-8 Dielectrics
D",lectrics .nd
and Gauss' LaN La .. 672
28·10 The Magnetic Dipole Moment 754
Revie .. & Summary 675
RevieN
Review & Summary 755
Questions 675 I Problems 676
Question.
Questions 756 I Problems 757

Jr.f·1
J'.f'·1 Current and
a nd Resistan
Resista nce
ce 682
What pnte tak.. if caught outdoors
.... tions should you take
precautions J""') Magnetic
Magne t ic Fields Due t o Curre
Currents
nts 764
during .. fightning storm?
during.
e<>n th e.. hum,.., brain produce Ita detectable
How can d .. tectable magnetic
magn .. tic
26-1 Wh.t Is Physic.?
Physics? 683 f",1d
field without any magnetic materian
mat .. rian
2~2
,~,
Electric CUlTent 683 29-1 What Is Physics? 765
2~3
'~3 CUlTent Density 685 29-2 Cakulating the Magnetic Field Due
'~4
2~4 Resistance .nd Resist ivity 688 to a Current 765
'~5
2~5 Ohm's law 692 29·J Force Between T..NO
o Parallel
Pa ra ll el Current
Current.s 771
'~6
2~6 ;!., Microscopic VieN
Vie .. of Ohm's law 693 294 m
Ampere's L.w 772
'~7
2~7 Circuit s 695
Power in Electric Circuits 29·5 Soienoids To.-oids 776
Solenoids and Toroid.
2~8
'~8 Semiconductors 696 29·6 A Current·Carryir.g Coil as a
2~9
'~9 Superconductors 697 Dipole 778
Magnetic Dipoie
RevieN
Revie .. & Summary 698 Summary 780
Review & SummaI)'
Questions 699 I Problems 700
Question. Quest ions 781 I Problems 782
Questions

m Circuits 705
How can ~ pit crew fire wha
cr ..w avoid a~ (ire whae.. fueling ~
~ ItJ lndu cti o n and Indu ctan
ct a nce
ce 791
791
chargttd race
charged rac .. car? mag""tic induction melt metal in It~ foundry?
How can magnetic
27-1 Wh.t I. Is Physics? 706 30·1 What Is Physics? 792
27-2 "Pumping" Charges 706 3~2 Two Experiment.
Expenments 792
xiv Contents
COI'tento
30-3
,~, Faraday's L",w
F"racby'. Law of
01 InciuctOOfl
Induction 793 32-7
32·7 and Electron.
Magne tIsm "nd
MlIgnet,sm Electrons 870
30-4
,~, Law 795
Lenz's L",w
Lenz'. 32-8
32... Magnetic M"t
MlIgnebC Materials 87 4
.. liIl. 874
30-5
,~. Induction
IndllCtlOn..d and EMrgy Tr;onsleu "8
Ene.gy Transfers 798 32-9
32·9 Diamagnetism 874
Do~MtJsrn 874
30-6
,~. Induced Electnc Fields 801
!nd1lC.dEIKtncF.-1dI 32-10
32·10 P.-m"9MMm
Paramagnetism 876

,...
30-7
'~7
30-8
Inductors and Inductal'Ktl
1fld1KtOJ1;..d
SeK-lnducoon acw.
S.If-lnc!lICtoOn
Inductance 805
806
32-11
32·11 Fem:mllgMbtm
Ferromagnetism 877
Revie>N & s..n-.n-y
ReYOe'N Surrrnary 881
Questions 88.2
882 I PIobI.m.
Problems 88J
883
30-9
,~. RL C'IWfU;
Rl.. Circuits 807 Outostoons
30-10
31)..10 en..w
Energy Stor.d
Stored ,nin I• MlIgMlle Field 81.
Magnetic FI4'id 810
30-11 Energy o.n"ty
Enecv1 Density ofd "a MlIgMtK
Magnet;';
Ie):)
1c~1 Electromagnetic Waves 889 BB9
Field 812
F.-lei
30-12 Mutu"llndllCtOOfl
Mutualinductoan 814 Wn-:
What g _ "a'undosI, me brighr,
.undog, the
CoIIUS. . &tip#ot, aH:wfuI'p« m. gil
~brf~.peIf. th. ColIn
~r.loth
appear or righr of
lefr «righf rile S~1
oJ die Sun?
R.........
R"" ,.w & Summ.uy
Sull'"l!T\llry 816
33-1
33-1 What Is Physics?
Wha t 1. PhYSICS? 890
OuntOOfl. 8816
Questions 16 I Probitmt
Problems 818
33-2
33·2 MaxNell'sRainbow
MaullI'. R.lnbow 890
33-3
33·3 The TravelIng
Tr..... I..g EIKuom.gnl!lC
Electromagnetk Wive,Wave,
tive ly 891
Qualita tMliy
Qu"l,tl
lei
tel .l Electromagn etic Oscillations
El ectromagnetic Oscil lations
and Alternating Current 826 B26
33·4 The Trlv.ling
Quantitatl
Quantitatively ...
Traveling Electron'l.gn.tic
Electromagnetic Wive,
....1y 89'
Wave.

How did
grid system
31 -1
31· 1
31 -2
31·2
•• 01.0. e""PllOn
djd .,o/4r

Wha t I.
Wh,t
LC Oscilla
lC
eruption knock 0<1\\'"
Ouebec1
'Ylltem of auebec?
F't1y.lc.? 827
II f't1Ylicl?
OIlt the power-

tions, Qu,litatively
o.cill.IIO!'I., Qualitatively 827
power· 33-5
33·5
33-6
33·6
3.,
3~7
Energy T

Pollination
...
.ansport .r.d
Transport
Radiation P.n.ute
and thl
Pressure 899
Pola.izatioo 90' 901
the Poyn ting Vector 8"
Poynting 897

3]·
33-88 Reflec tlOn.nd
tion and R, I... dOOfl 90S
Refraction 905
31 -3
] 1·3 Thee Electrical-Mechanical
Th Electnc.~M ech,nic:al
33-9
3~' Toullntemal R. ~ ection 91.
Total Internal R,flection 910
An"logy 830
Anabgy 810
33-10
~,. PoI"nation
Polarization by Refl ection 912
ReflectOOfl
31 -4
31·4 LC
lC OscillatIons,
o.c,n"uonl, Quan titat ....
Ou"nt~"t .....1y
ly 831
Review & Su,.,.",..",ry
ReVle'N Surrrnary 91J 913
31-5
31· 5 Damped OSCIllations in an
O",.,ped o.c,II~IIO!'I' In lIn RlC RLC
IOn' 914 I Problem.
Questions
Quest Problems 915
CIrCuit
C~UII 834

"..
31-6
31-7
31·7
AlwI'nIIU"5I Cur
Altemallng
Forc~ OKlbtlOM
Fore..:!
•• nt 835
c..,.otnt 83S
O5clllation5 835 rn
~ Images
lm age5 924
31-8
31 ·' nv..
Three 5mple
Somp!. c...: ...tI 837
CircUIts How c...
Howe .... fj""
fith.__ dNrly
deatfy inboth
in bod..r Ind .....
air ..dw ....If"
31 ·'·9 n..The Senes
5enH RlC CircUIt
Cin::... t 842 """"--.1
si...Ntaneous.ly1
31-10
31· 10 Power
Pow.r ..
III AkematJng-Cu.rent
AIr..n.ung-C.....nt 34-1 What I. Is PhYSICS?
Ph)'I'CI? 925
C.n::ullS
CIrCUM 846 IU6 '"
34-2
34-. Type. of
Two Types Image 925
011"'9'
Tr1On.~ 849 34-, Pla
31·11
J1 · 11 Transformers
R....,ew
R"" .. \III & Suorvnary 853
& Summary ,..
34·3
34-4
PIa". M,fl'OI" 926
ne Mirrors
Spheral MIffOfI
MillO" 928
Ouestoans
Ou.stlOll. 854 I Problems Probieml 855 ass 34-. Images
34·5 10Nge' from Spherical Mom:n 930
Sphen;.l MlrTOI"I
34-6
3U $ph"ne,1 Refracting
SpherICal Surf~ 933
Refl'Ktl"51 s...rfac.s
34-7
34-1 Th,n Len_ 936
Thm Lenses
Ie;""
1cJ--I Maxwell's
Maxwe ll's Equations; Magnetism 34-8
34-. Instruments .41
OptiClllnltl'umentl
Optical 941
of Matter 86
8611 34-' Thl'fl.
34-9 Proof. 944
Three proofs
How Can a 1'00,,1
clln. """ •• 1painting
p .... "ng record the
\". djrKtion
direction Review & & Summary 947
E... th 'l'. m~nelie
of Earth f;.kI?
m.gnetie field? Questio ns 948 I Problems
Question. Probl,ms 949
32-1
32· 1 What I. f't1ysics?
Wh.t Is Physics? 862
32-2 Gauss' Law lor
for Magne tic Fields
F,elds 862

'" '"
32·2 G.uu' Mlgnetic

......
32-3 Induced
IndllCed Magn
MlIQfIeetic
lic Fields
Field, 86 4 ~1-1 lnterference
lnterferen ce 958
32·3
32-4
32·4 OlsplKlmlnt CUl1'IIntt 866
Displacement Cllrren coI_thihillfil inb
How do ~'or--oh;ftjng all P"f"M
i"q on Pflper rorr...cy .hih colors?
CUIT«IC)' ,hjfl co/or.'
32-5
32· 5 M,,_I1', EquatlOfls
Maxwel!'s Equ,,"ons 868 15-1
3501 '~t Is
What Phy.o? 959
I. Physics? 959
]2·6
32-6 M..~ 869
Magnets 8.. 3502
35-2 LoghtlS"
ught Wa.... 959
as a Wave 959
Contents

35-3 Diffraction 963 1e1:1
leI:) Phot ons and Ma tte r Waves 1057
35-4 Young', Interference Experiment 964
Young's
molflCUles be movotd
How can moll>CUles mCNN one by enot
on .. and
35-5 Coherence 968 til""
th.." im.ogotd?
;rrI8gN?
35-6 Intensity in Double-Slit
DoubJe-Sl it Interference
Interfe rence 968 38-1 What Is f'l1ysics?
f'I1ysic.? 1058
35-7
3S-7 rierence from Thin Films 972
Inte rierer>ce 38-2 the Quantum 01 light 1058
Photon,, tne
The Photon
35-8 Miche lf>On's Interie rometer 978
Michelf>On'slnterie 38-3 Photoelectric Effect 1060
The PhotoeJectric
Revie N & Summary 979
RevieN 384 Mome ntum 1063
Photons Have Momentum
Questions 979 I Problems
Prob lems 981 38~ light as a Probability Wave 1066
38-6 Electrons and Matter Waves 1068
38-7 Eq uat ion 1071
SchrOdinger's Equation
~I.1
~I.'1 Diffractio n 990 38-8 Heisenberg's Uncerta inty Principle 1073
What cau
UUSM thot.. a"esting blu. color of the ffacial
.... th .. cial skin 38-9 Barrier Tunneling 1074
Sarrier
of a mlltldral
mandral baboon?
Review && Summary 1077
36-1 What Is Physics? 991
Quest ions 1077 I Problems 1078
36-2 Diffraction and the Wave Theo<y of o f light 991
3~3 Diffraction by a Single
SingJe Slit: LOC<It ing the
Minima 992 ~.·l
~l.·l More About Matte r Wa ves 1083
36-4 Intensity in Single-Slit
Single -Slit Diffract ion, How can you corr ..1an ..otlotctron?
corr.1 Iotctron?
Qualit atively 995 39-1 What Is Physics? 1084
36-5 Intens ity in Single-Slit D;f!ract
Diffract ion, 39-2
39·2 String Waves and MatterWaves 1084
Quant it atively 996 39-3 Energies of a Trapped Electron 1085
3~' D"'raction by a Circular Aperture
D;f!raction Apertu re 998 394 Functions 0/ a Trapped Electron 1089
Wave FUr>ctions
3~7 Diffraction by a Double Slit 1002 39-5
39·5 An Electron in a Finite Well 1092
36-8 Gratir>gs 1004
Diffraction Gratings 39-6
39·6 More Electron Traps 1094
36-9 Grat Ref>Olving Power 1008
ings : Dispersion and Resolving
Gratings 39-7
39·1 Two- arid Three-Oimerlsional
Three-Dimensional Electron
36-10 Diffraction by Organized Layers 1010
DiffractionbyOrganizedLayers Traps 1096
RevieN&Summary 1012 39-8
39·8 The Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom 1097
Questions 1013 I Problems 1014 39-9 SchrOdinger's Equation and the
Hydrogen Atom 1100
Review & Sum maI)' 1106
& Summary
~, .. Re
~r.. Relativity
lativity 1022 Quest ions 1107 I Problems 1108
Questions
Clltl ...... detotrmin
How can det"",,;,,e.. what lu,b
lurla at .. nt .., of th ..
al thot ccotn!er
galaxy M87,
MB7, 50 mimen 5ght-yurs away?
mimon 5ght·yul'S
37-1 Physics? 1023
What Is Physic.? r:r'l
r: r'l AIl Abo ut Atoms 111 2
37-2 Postulates 1023
The Postulate. What is so diH"",nt
lNnat;s about
diff..,.,nt .bout ~ght b ... r?
from IIala
37-3 Me asuring an Event 1024
Measuring 40-1 What Is Physics? 1113
37-4
37·4 ivity 01 SimuJtaneity
The Relat ;"ity 1026
Simultaneity 1026 40-2
40·2 Some Properties of 01 Atoms 1113
37-5
37·5 The Relativity 01 Time 1027
Relat;"ity 01 40-3
40·3 Electron Spin 1115
37-6 The Re lativity 01 lengt
Lengt h 1032 404 Angular Momenta and Magnetic
37-7 The Lorentz Transformation 1034 Moment s 1116
Dipole Moments
37-8 Some Consequences of the lorentz Lorentz 4~5
40·5 The Stern--Gerlach
Stern-Gerlach Experiment 1118
Equations 1036 4~' ne t ic Resonance 1121
Mag net
37-9 The Relat ;"ity 01
Relativity of Ve10cities
Velocities 1038 4~7 The Pauli ExciusiOf1 PrincipJe 1122
Exclusion Principle
37-10 Doppler Effect lor Light 1039 4~' Mult iple Electrons in Rectangular Traps 1123
37-11 Ne", Look at Momentu m 1043
A Ne'NLookat 4~9 Period", Table 1126
Build ing the Periodic
37-12 A NeN Look at Energy 1043 40-10 X Rays and t he Ordering of the
& Summary 1048
RevieN & Elements 1127
Guestions 1049 I ProbJems
Guestion. Probk.ms 1050 40-11 Lasers and Laser light
Light 1131
xvi
xvi Cont..,u
Contents

40-12 HOHlMersWotk
40.12 HONLaserlW()I'\( 1132
1132 4]·5
43-5 AN.rotunol Nuclear Reactor 1205
A Na tural NudNrRNCtor
R......
R ..... iew & SulTll'Nlry
H & Summary 113S1135 4].6
43-6 The!monuo;lea, Fusion: n.
Thermonuclear FullOl'l; The BIIIIC
Basic
Question s 1135 I Problems 11
Q ..."'toonl 113S f ProbI.m. 1137
37 Proc.
Proceu.. 1207
1207
43-7 n-n-.u.: ..... FulOOl'l
Thermonuclear FuSIon '"on Ihe
the Sun.nd
Sun and
Other Stars 1208
Other St.rs
E!U Conduction
[:il Conductio n of Electricity
Ele ctricity 4].1
43-8 Controlled
Controlled TI-monucl
n-monucle..... FullOl'l
Fusion 1211
in Solids 1142 Revie>N & SUlTll'Nlry
Revoew Summary 1213
n>d: guitMisti
'Nhy do n;>d:
Why gvit•• ts shun tr';"''';$!OI".mpff~ fo,
,hun """';st.,,."mpfr..,. old-
lOT old- Question. 1213 I Problem. 1214
auestoon.
f ...hiOMd lube
'IIJhjon«l • ...pWi_?
tub. 1I~;fj.,'?
41 · 1 Wh.lotl.Ph~?
What Is Physics? 1143
41-2
41 ·2 Electric.;ll Prop.rt
Th. ElectnYI
The ... of SoIdi
Propert'eI Solid. 1143 H I Quarks. lLepto ns. and the
eptons.
law",,.,
....
41 ·J

41 ·5
41.
·3

S
Energy Level. ,n
Etwrtgy
.H 1n...u.lotS
Insulaton 1144
M-ul.
M.tals 1145
InaII ~~
~talli ...
... Solid
SoIod 1144

44-1
44· 1
Big Bang
Ba ng
c.. a pftologr."n
How un"
12 18
photog,;oph 01
Whit
Wh. t I,
of dw
PhysICS7 1219
l. Physics?
e./y
the •• /y uni_.. be ~'«I
t.a~ ... 11

41.6
41 ·6 Som.~
Semiconducton 1150 11 SO 44-2
44·2 PanIC . ., PartICle.,
Pa rt icle. PMlocles 1219
Particle. , PartICles
41 ·7 Semiconductor. 1151
Doped s.mocooductotS 44·]
44·3 An Int.,lud.
No I"teo-Iude 1223
p·n Junction 1154
41 ·8
.1
41 ·9
4'
Th,
The p-n
The Junction Rea,I
Th, Junctia!1 ''''
Rectifier 1156
.., 115'
44-4
44·4
44·55
44·
Thel.
The Lepton
T,...
ptonss 1226
The H.dronl
Hadrons 1227
41 · 10 The
4\.10 Th. light·Emitting
Ughl·Emittirog Diode (LED) 1157 44·6 Still Anolher Co nserva tion La"
Another Conservation La'l 1229
41 · 11 Thl
4\.11 T,aro.istor 1159
Th e Transistor 44·7 Th. Eigh tfold WilY Way 1230
R.... "w
..... i.w &
& Summary 1160
11 60 44-8
44·8 Qu~rlo. Mod.I
Th. Quatk
The Model 1231
Question s 1161 I Probleml 1162 ....
44·99 Th. BiOIw; Fon:H M.ssenger
The B. sic Forces and MelS8f>ger
Part
Part"ICle.
. . 1234
44-10 A APIiUMfOfReoflKbon
Pause for Reflectoon 1236
r:"
r: ....~ Nuclear
Nuclea r Physics 11 65
1165 44-11 The Uno ~ndng 1237
....... Is &panding
Universe
~I au_
What m. ,acNtion
CIIU_ the dJInger to
redUlion danger 10 ar ct-. flying
, .. CNWS 44-12 The CosmicCoimIC Background Radiallon
RadoooDOn 1238
m.1ong
th.long ·po/;',",O<JtH?
·po".r ~ rout .. ? 44-13
44· 1J Oatk Matter
Daric M,," 123B
.. 1238
42· '1 What II Phys.a? 1166
WhaIIIPbysoa? 44-14 Bog Bang
The Big BIIng 1239
42·2 D,scovenng the Nucleus 1166
D,tcOY&nnglheNud..... 44-15 ASummirogUp
A Summ,ng Up 1242
42·)
42·J Sonw NuclNr
Some NlIClear Propertin
Properttft 1167 & Sul'T'VNry
ReYMl'N &
Revie-N 1242
SulTll'Nlry 1242
42·4
42-4 RadooKtoveDeaoy
Radooactove Decay 1174 1174 a..-toon. 1243 I Problem. 1243
Question.
42·5
42-5 Alpha Decay
Decay 1177
42-6
42-6 Beta
Botta Dec.ay 1179
o..c..y 1179
42·7 RadioKtIVe
RadooactNl Dating
D.Dng 1182
1182 _ Appe ndices
Appendices
42·8
42.1 MNsuring
MUlUmg RadoaDOn OoSiIge
Radiation Dosage 11831183 A.
A The In ternational System of Unit.
IntlfTlauon.l Unlfl (Sf) A. l
(51) A-1
42·9
42·9 Nuclear Model. 1184
NudurModels 1184 B Scom. Fundament.al
Some Fund"mental Constanta 01 PhYlics
eon.tantl of PhysIQ A_'A·3
R
R..... iew
...... w&& 5ummlry
SumtNll)l l1B71187 C
C s.:.m.Aslronotnocal
Some A-4
Dati A-4
AstlOflomica i Data
Ouestion
au ••loon. 1188 f Problems l1188
s 1188 I Probleml 1B8 o Conv
ConYlf'llOfl Fac;~ M A·S
D .... ion Factors
E Math
E Malhemati<;al FQnT\4Jln
.. matica l Form"l A-fl
.. A-'
F Propenl .. of theElem«l1l
F Propt!rtie s of the Elements A· A·12
12
ru Energy fro
fromm the Nucleus 11 95
1195 Periodic Table
G Periodic
G Table of
of tile Elements A.
Ih, Elements A·1S1S
What ~h)'lics und.rlie.
loVh"t phYlies
world ,ine.
the world
the
und.rliH the
,incI World
World W.o,
"'ag.
th. image that
WoO, In
JI1
hal ho,rifi.d
thai ha. ho,rif..d

43·
41·1' Wha t IIIPh~1
WhaII PI1Ylics? 1196
1196 Answers
Answen ttoo CheckpOints
Checkpoints and
and Odd·Numbered
Odd·N umbered
43-2
43·2 Nucio. Fission:
Nuclear The Basic
Fissoon; The Pnx... 1197
Bllsoc: Proc." 1197 Questions
Quest and Problems
ions and Problems AN·1
AN. 1
43·3
U ·J A Mod.! !Of'
A Model Nucle... Fission
for NlIClear FiM>Qn 11991199
43-4
41-4 The Nuclear Reactor
The Nuclea. RNaor 1201 1201 Index
Index 1-1
1·1
Fun wit h a big cha ll e nge. Th at is how I have regarde d ti o ns. and solve quantitati ve pro bl ems. This process is
ph ysics s ince the da y whe n Sharon . one of the stud ent s not easy for e ith e r stud e nt s or instructors. Indeed. the
in a class I taught as a graduat e stude nt. sudd e nly de - course associa ted with th is book may be o ne of the
manded of me:' What has a ny of this got to do with my most chall engin g of all the cout"ses taken by a student.
life?"" O f course I imm ediat e ly responde d. ··Sha ro n. Ho we ve r. it can a lso be o ne of the most rewarding be-
th is ha s e verything to do with yout" life- th is is cause it re vea ls th e wo rld 's fundame nw l clockwork
phys ics. ,. from whi ch all scie ntific a nd e ngin eering applicati ons
She a,ked me for an e xample. I tho ught and spnng.
thought bill could not come up with a sin gle one. That Ma ny users of the seve nth editi on (bo th instruc-
ni ght I c reat ed The Flying Circlls of Physics fo r Sharon to rs a nd stud e nts) sent in comm ent s a nd sugges tio ns to
but a lso for me ~cause I re alize d her complaint was improve the book. These improveme nts are now incor-
mine. I had spent sL'( years sluggin g my way through porat ed int o the narra tive a nd pro ble ms th roughout
many doze ns of ph ys ics te xtboo ks tha t we re ca refull y the book. 111e pu bli she r Jo hn Wiley & So ns a nd I
writt en with the ~st of pedagogical plans.. but the re rega rd the boo k as an ongoing p roject and e ncoura ge
was some thing mi ss ing. Phys ics is th e mos t inte restin g mo re input fro m lI sers. You can se nd suggesti o ns. cor-
subject in the world ~cause it is abom how th e wo rld rect io ns. and pos iti ve or nega tive comm e nt s to John
wo rks. .. nd ye t the text books ha d bee n tho roughl y Wiley & Sons (http:www.wiley.com/college/hallida y)
wrun g o f any connec tion with the re al wo rld . The fun or Jea rl Wal ke r (mail address: Ph),s ics De partme nt.
was mi ssing. Cleve land State Unive rsit y. O eve land. OH 441 IS USA :
1 hnve pa cke d a lo t of re al-wo rld p hys ics into this fax number: ( USA ) 216 687 2424: o r e mail address:
HRW boo k. co nnecting it with the ne w editi on of 7711': phys ics@wiley.com: or lhe blog site at ,",'WW.flyi ngcircu s-
Flying Circlls of Physics. Much o f the ma te llal comes ofphys ics.com). We may not be able to respo nd to a ll
from the HRW classes I teach. whe re I can judge from sugges tio ns.. but we kee p and study eac h o f the m.
th e faces and blunt comm e nt s what mate ria l an d pre-
se ntati ons work and what do no t. 11le no tes l make on
my su c~sses and failures th ere he lp form th e basis o f
Major Content Changes
th is boo k. My message he re is the smn e as I had with • Flyin g Circus mate ria l has ~e n incorpo rated in to
eve ly stude nt J"ve me t sin ce Sharo n so long ago: ·· Yes.. the text in seve ra l ways: chapter o pen ing Puzzle rs.
you cal! re ason from lxlSic phys ics co nce pts all the way Sample Problems.. te xt ex,1mples. and end -of-cha pter
to valid conclusions about the re al wo rld . and that un- Probl ems. The pu rpose of th is is two-fold: ( 1) ma ke th e
de rstand ing of the t" eal world is wh e re the fun is.·· subject mo re int e res ting a nd e ngaging. (2) show the
I have many goa ls in writing this ,-------~-----, stude nt that the wo rld a round
book bu t the overridin g one is to provide the m ca n ~ exa mine d and un-
instructors with a tool by which they can ders tood using the funda me ntal
te ach stude nts how to effect ive ly read principles of physics.
sc ie nti fic ma teria l. ide nti fy fun dam e ntal
concepts. reason through sc ie nti fic ques-

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leVII
xViii

• Links to The Hying CirCIiS of Ph)'sics are shown The sam ple prob!cms with thi!lnbel-Build )'ou r skill"
th roushout the teXI nUl leriltland enj-Of..dUlple r prob- are Iypically lonser. with more guidunce.
lems with a biplane kon. [n the e l((~l ronic ~ Key I dt.'a_~ in the sample problems fIXus a studml on
~'e rsioll of this book. ~ Iicking on Ihe icon ~
lite basic co nce pts III the root of the so lution to 8
tak es )'ou 10 the corresponding item in F/)'ing CirellS. problem. In effec t. Ihese key idens say. "We stmt our
The bibliogmphy of F/)'/I/g Circlls (o\'er 10 000 refe r- solution by using this basic con~ept. 8 procedure that
e nces 10 scie ntific and enginee ring journals) is located prepares us for soh 'ing 111.111)' o thcr problems. We don't
at _-w.nyingcircusofphysics.com. s ian by grabbing nn equ.1t ioll for n quick plug-and-
• The Newlo nian ga\'itlllional 1.11". Ihe Coulomb law. chug. a prIXedure Ihat prc pnrcs us for nOlhing."
and the Biol-Sa\'8 r1 law arc now introduced in unit- Pruhll·nt -soh-inj.: laclil"" coll taiu he lpful instructions to
,·ector nolation. guide the beginning ph ysics ,ludc UI lIS 10 how 10 solve
• Most nlthe ~haptcr-Opcning pU7..zle~ ( the examples problems an~ avoid common errors.
o f appl ied physics design ed to \"mice a reackr into R l',-i l'W,~ SI"llI n a r~ is a brief o Ullin e nlthe cha pter
each chapter) arc new (uld come straighl from
COlllents that cOll1ains Ihe cssenl iu l COIlC\"pIS but ""bich
research joumals in many differ\" nl fl\"lds. is not a subslitUie for rending Ih e chupter,
• Several Ihousand of Ihc end-of.chapter problems QUl'st iu II~
ate like the checkpoints and require reason-
have ""'-' n rewril1en 10 Sirelllliline both the presenta- inS and understanding rUlher Ihllll Cll lculutioliS.
tion and the (U! swer. Muny new problems of the mod· A,lj'Wr:f 10 litl' odd- liJ/J/l ber<'d </lOeJliQIIJ' are in Ih.' back
craie :md diffi~ull elliegolies hllv e been included. oflhe book.
P ruh l ~ ms are grouped und er see li o ll lilies ~lIId are la-
Chapter Features beled according to difficullY. AI/swers It) Ihe Qdtl.mUlI-
0 ll l' n in~
l)!IaIHs, A c uri o us puuling s ituntion opens bert'd proble'lIs Urt' III lill' back of Ihe book.
ench chnptcl' and is exp illine d so mewhere within the Ico lls ro r a!ldition~ 1 hl'lil. When worked-oul so lutio ns
chllpter. to e ntice a st udent 10 read Ihe chapter. TIlese a rc provided either in print or e lec tronica lly for cer-
features. which arc 11 hnllmark of FWldlll/wnw/j of tain of th e odd-numbered problems. the statem('nts for
Pllpics. are bused on current research as reponed in those p roblems include a trlliling icon to alen both stu-
scientific. ellsinee ring. med ical. and ~g.'l.1 journals. de n t and im lruclor as to where the solut ions are l0-
Wlml is phys iCl!~ The na rrative of eve ry cha pte r now cated. An icon gu ide is provided here alld a t Ihe begin-
begins wilh Ihis questioll.llnd with al answer thlll per- ning o f each sc i of pro ble ms:

__-_ _- -_..
tains 10 thi! subject o f the dl.'l.pt\"r (A plumber once
asked me. "Wh.1t do
you do fo r .1 liv-
mg?" I rephed.- I
leach pllysics.'· He
. ...
~
. _ _.",..._c-of_ .........._ ____
._.,. _ _
- -......... - - - ................. ~ ... _ I
c 4~,=:::z:=::=::;,.::.::II::II

Ihoughl for sc\'eral
minules ll11d Ihen
asked. "'VIlal is pllYSICS?- n le p lumm-r's career was SSM Solulion is in Ihe Sluden t Solutions ~'I(lnua l .
e nlirel), based on pllysics. yel he did nOl even know WWWSolulion is al
whal physics is. Many s ludeulS in introductory physics http:// ....ww.wilcy.oom lco l!cgelhaJliduy
do not know whal physics is but assume that it is irrel· ILW Interaclive LearningW:,rc so luti on is (01
evant 10 Iheir chosen career.) hltp: llw\\'W.wilcy.oom/co llegeihllllidllY
Chl'{kp.. lnt ~ ~re Sloppi ng points that effectively as k Ad!li l io n ~ 1 prohll'IIIS. These problems are /lo t ordered
Ihe student. "C,n you ~Ul5wer Ihis question with some or sorted in ~n)' wily so Ilml II stud e nl must determine
I'.", &o nin g basod On th;) nnc-raliv;) or .a mpl~ probl"", which p.1rts of the chnpler ~pply to nlly given problem.
thlll you just re~d?" If 1I0 t. Ihen Ihe student shou ld go
back over Ihnt prev'lo us malerial before traveling
deeper into Ihe chapl er. For eXll mple. sce Oleckpoint Additional Features
I on page 62 and Che~kpoint 2 on page 2&1. AlJ5wers Rl' ..souing 't: r~ us Jl l u~'\I rHI-dl ll ~. A primary gtllli of
/Q (II/ checkpoilWJ (Ire in rite bllck oflhe book.
this book is to teach stude nt s to reaSOIl through cllRl-
Sa mple IIr"hll'lII' are chosen to demonstra te how lenging si tuations.. from basic prindples to It so lution.
proble ms eml be so lved with reaso ned so lutiolls rather Altho ugh so me plug-and-chug homework problems
thllll quick .1nd simp listic plugging of numbers inlo a n remain in the book (on ptlrposc ). most homewor k
equ.'l.lion with no regllrd for whnt the equ.'l.tioll means. problem~ e n:pllasize r\"asonillg.
Pre/ace xix

C lmpt e r~ tof reaso nabl e I,·n
I,·ngth.
gth. To avoid producing a • \'o
\'" luu1l'
lun1l' Chapters 1- ( ~-Iechanics and
I- 20 (Mechanics
lx>ok
lxx>k thick
thic k enough to stop a bullet (and thus also a Th emlOdynamics). hardcove
hardcover.
r. ISBN 978-0-47004473-5
student). I have mad madee the chapters of reasonable
• \'ollln1l'
\'olun1l' 2 - Chapters 21 21--44
-44 (E&M
(E&M.. Oplics.
Optics. and
length. J explain eenough
nough to getgel a student
studenl going but nOi nOI
Quantum Physics).
Physics). hardcover. ISBN 978-0-47()"04474-2
978-0-470-04474-2
so much Ihm a studenl
student no longer must mu st analyze and
fuse ideas. After all. a student will need th thee skill of an- • P:ut I - Chapters 1-
I- II.
11. paperback. [SBN 978-0-470-
alyzing and fusing ideas long after Ihis this book is read 04475-9
and the course is completed.
• P:ut 2 - Ompters
OJapters 12- 20. paperback. ISBN 978-0-470-
U~
U~ of H"
n" 'l o N" e r,ll r~ llhu
lp a hl ~
r- ~'lp uhu tors.
ors. Whe
Whenn vector calcn-
calcu- 04476-6
lations in a sample problem can Gm be performed direclly
directly
on-screen with a vector-capable calculator. calculator.lhe solution
the so lution • P-drt .\3 - Ompters 21 - 32. paperback. ISBN 978-0-470-
of the sample
sa mple problem indicates that fact faci but still ca
car-
r- 04477-3
ries Ihrough
through Ihe th e traditional component
componenl aualysis. When • P-m
P-Jrl 4 - Chapters 33- 37. paperback. ISBN 978-0-470-
vector calculations cannot be petformed performed directly oonn-- 04478-0
screen. the solution
solulion eexplains
xplilins why.
P:1TI 5 - Chapters 38-44. paperback. ISBN 978-0-470-
• P:m
Graphs 'is pIlUJ,'S. These are problems that Ihat give a 04479-7
graph and ask for a result Ihal thm requires much moremo re
than just reading off a data pointpoinl from the graph.
Rather. the solution requires an understanding of th thee WileyPLUS
Wiley PLUS !ftVs
IfLVs
physica
physicall ammgement
arrilllgement in a problem and the principles Th ere have been seve
several
ral signiflc.lnt ndditions to the
behind the associated
associmed equations.
eq uations. TIles.:;
TIlese probl
problems
e ms are WileyPLUS course th.at accompnnies Fwu/allll'n/a/s
Fwu/alllenia/s
more like Sherlock Holmes puzzles because a student Physia:
of Physics:
must decide what data are important. For examples.
see problem 50 on page SO. problem 12 on page 108. • All of the eend-of-chapter
nd -of-chapter problems have been
and problem 22 on o n page 231. coded and
ilnd are now available for assignment.
Problcllls with appli"d ph)-~ifs.
Prohirms ph)-~i~s. based on published re- • Every problem has
hns an associated Hint that c.1n
search. appear in many places. either as Ihe Ih e opening made available to the students at th
thee instructor·s
puzzler of a chapter. a sampl
samplee problem. or a homewo
homeworkrk discretion.
problem. For example. see Ihe the opening puzzler for • There are approximately 400 additional Sample
Olapter 4 on p.1ge 58. Sample Problem 4-8 on pages Proble ms availnble to the student at th e instnlct
Problems instnlfl or's
69-70, and homework problem
prob[;:m 62 onOil page 302. For an discreti on, 111e
discrctilm, llle Sample Problems are written in
example of homework problems that thai build on a con- the same style and fonnat as those in the text. i.e ..
tinuing story. see problems 2. 39. and 61 61 on p..1ges
pages 131. they
th ey are inte
intended
nded to give the stude
studell1
nt transferable
134.and 136. proble m-solving skills rather than specific recipes.
problem-solving
Pro bl ems with non·1 s~ illmtioll
Prubl itunti oll s. Here is one of seve
several
ral • For every chapter. approximately 6 problems are
hundred such problems:
problems: Problem 69 on JXlge page 113 re- available in 11a tutorial formal
format th.at
that provides ste
step-by-
p-by-
lat
lates
es a lrue
true story of how Air Canada flight 143 ran out OUI step. interactive problem-solving guidance.
guidmlce. Most are
of fuel at an altitude of 7.9 km because th thee crew and
alld marked here in this book with th thee icon Ql
airport personnel did not consider the
.,irport th e units for th thee (,·
(,·Guided
Guided Online··) but more are being added.
added .
fuel (llll
(11ll impol1anl
impol1mll lesson for students
stude nts who tend
te nd to • For evelY
evel)' chapter. approximately
approximate ly 6 problems are
"blow off· units). llvailnble in a version that re
availnble requiles
quires the
th e studenl
student to
eenter
nter an algebraic
nlgebraic answer.
Versions of the Text • There are vector drawing and vector diagram
To accommodate
accommodat e the individual nee needs
ds of instrnctors problems that use "drag·n
"drllg ·n drop·· functionality
fll nct iona lity to as-
and students. the eighth ed ition of FUlldallll'/!Ia/s of
eighlh edition seSl;
ses.<; the students· ability
llbility to draw vectors and vector
Physics is available in a number of differenl
different versions. diagrams.
TIle Ih
Rcggui
ul ar Editi
Edition
on consists of Chapters I • There are simulation problems that require the
through 37 (IS BN 978-0-470-04472-8). student to work with a jllva
java applet.
TIle E ..~h·ndrd
~ t l·nd ~d Editi on contains six additional Th e overall purpose of this new material is to move
chapters on quantum physics and cosmology. Chapters th
thee on-line homework experience beyond simple
1--44 (IS BN 978-0_47 I- 75801-3).
978-0-471-75801-3). Right/Wrong grading and provide meaningful prob-prob.
Both ed editions
itions are availilble
avaibble as single.
s ingle. hard-cover
hard-cove r lem solving guidance and support.
5llpport.
lx>oks.
lxx>ks. or in the following alternative versions:
Preface

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Acknowledgments xxi

Acknowledgments
A great many people have contributed
co ntributed to this book. cover;
book cove Goldstein
r; Lee Goldste in for her p..1ge
page make-up:
make -up:
J. Richard ClJrismwn. of the U.S. U.S. Co..
1st Gnard Academy.
C0<1st Waldenn for her
H elen Walde he r copyediting: Anna Me Melhorn
lhorn for
hass once again created many fine supplements;
ha snppl ement s; his
hi s managing th thee illustration
iliustT11tion program: and Lilian Brady
recommendations
recomme ndations to this
thi s book have been invaluable. for her proofreading. Hilary Newman was inspired inspire d in
Sen-Ben
Sen- Ben L ~10 of La wre nce Li ve vennore
nnore National the search
sea rch for unu unusual interesting
sual and inte resting photographs.
Laboratory. lames WhiteWhitenton
nton of Southem
Southe rn Polytechnic
Polytec hnic Both th e publisher lohn \Vd \Vdey SOIl5. Inc.
ey & Sons.. Inc. and learl
State University. and JetTy je tTY Shi. of Pasadena City Wal ke
kerr would like to thank the following for com-
perfollnedd the Herculean task of working
College. performe wo rk ing oout
ut ments and ideas nbout the 7th edition:
ide as about edition: R ichard
solutions
solutio ns for evely
eVillY one of the hom homework
ework problems in Woodard. University of R orida: Dnvid David Wic
Wick.k. Clarkson
the book. At l ohn Wiley publishers. the book rece received
ive d University:
Univers ity: Patrick Rapp. University
Univers ity of Puerto Rico nt at
support from Stuart lohnson. the editor who oversaw Mayagiiez: Nora TIlornber. Raritan Valley Community
the entire
e ntire project. Torn
Tom Kulesa.
Kulesa . who
wh o coordinated the th e urellce I. Gould. Univers ity of Hartford:
College: L..1urellcc
state-of-the-art package. and Geraldine Osnato.
state-of-th e-art media p..1ckage. 0 5nato. Greg Childers. California State Univers University Fullel1on:
ity at Fulle non:
who managed a super team to create all an impress
impressive
ive Asha
A sha Khakpour of C1lifornia State University at
supplements
suppleme nts p..1ckage.
p•.1Ckage. We than k Elizabeth Swain. th thee F ullerton: loe F. McCullough. Cabrillo College. Fmally.
production editor. for pulling all the pieces togethe togetherr our external reviewers hnve have be.:n
bc.;,n outstanding and we
during the complex production process. We also thank acknowledge
llcknowledge he herere our debt to each e ach member of that
Maddy Lesure.
Lesure . for her
he r design of both th e text and the th e team .

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VllilCd Slate. Nm'ol
Nm'al Amdem)'
AClIdem)' Bruce Arne Sherwood
Sh<"fwood Syracuse Vnl",'rsllV
Vnil','rsilV
James Napolit~l\o
Napolitano Non
Non"" Cllro/ina
Cllrolina Slare
Stare V I/iversl/)'
Vn; versily FI'<>d
Frt>d Wang
Rmsse/aer PolYlahnlc ["'Iinu,'
Rmsse/acr Polytt'Chn;c ["'liwl,· Ross L. Speocer
Roo. Speoc .... Prairie Vie'"
V;"", A &
&. M
Mich.:><IO·Shea
Mich.a<IO·Shea Brig/wm Young
Brig/Ill'" YOllng Vnil'er,il),
Vn;"ersily Robert C. Webb
Kansas SllIle
SUIte Vnl"erslly
Vn;I'crs;ry Pau l Stanley
Stan ley Texa. A &
Texlls &. M Vnil'ersll},
V nil'Cfsil),
Patrick Papin Beloil College \\"olliam M . WhelJn
William W helan
Sail Diego Slate
SOli D;ego Siole Vnl"ersll},
Vn; I'er.;I}' Harold Stoke.
Stokes R),erso" PoIyrcchnlc
R)'erson Polytechnic V",','ersll)'
Vnil'CTsil)'
Kium.1t'S
Kiu m.v s Parvin Brigha", YOllng Vnlversil),
Brig""'" Young Univcrsil), GC<lfge
GC(Jfge Wmiams
W,lIiruns
SOli Jose Stale Vn;I'ers;ly
San Vnll'ersll}' Mir.h:>el G. Strauss VILI,'ersll},
V Vlah
II;I'ersil), of Vtah
P~kuvits
Rob....,.t Pokovits
Robert Vnil-ersily Ok /"llo","
Vnllwsil." of Okillhomll David Wo
D""id Wollfe
fe
Bro,.."
Bm"'n VniI'Cr.ll),
VniI'Crs;l}, Jay D. Strieb
Str"oeb V II;I'crs;l)' of N~
VILII'crsll), ", Mnico
N,'", Mexico
Oren P. QuiS!
Oron Quist
VillmlOw, Vnl,'ersil),
Vii/mill",' Vn;I'en;l)'
SlI1le Vni,·er.ily
Somh Dakota Slille Vltil'crsily
Fundamentals of
Physics
EXTENDED
infellTiono/ly left blallk
This page ilifellTiolio/ly blank
Measurement

Whe" a n earthquake strikes a
populated region, jt can
shake apart buU<ings and
other sl/\lclure. or cause
them to topple over.
However, in some region. it
can cause structure. to .ink
into the g-ound until they are
sjgnjfjcantly submerged, a. if
the .true/u",. were on a
dense fluid in~tead of solid
ground.

How can a
building sink
into the
ground?
lhe . n, 'N ef I, In tills (hapl'er.

1
1-1 WHAT IS PHYSICS?
Sci"""" and engi""",ing am ba",d on mea,u,emenlS and comparison~ 11111~ "'~
need ,ule. aoout how Ihiogs are n"'''''''M an~ rompared . and~. ",.d cxpeo-
n",nts 10 cstab~sh lh" "ui1< for lb""" measuw"",n" and compa,;.ons.. 0,,,, 1'"'-
pose of ph~~ics ("nd enginee,ing) i. 10 design and co"duel lhose "XJX',imOllls.
Fo, exampl~. pbysicists slri", 10 dewlop clocl:s of exl,...tne accu.acy so lhal
auy lime or limo i"letval caD"" 1',"';",1)' dele,mirwd and compared . You m.ay
wonde, " 'hNlli'r "'''h oew,,,,,,)' is >emally "'....4'<1 or worlh 11hl ~fforl. H.'fe is
00. example 01 lIIc wOrlb: \l'lho"1 docks 01 exlro"", .'IIX:lIr"'1'. III" Global
ANiiouing S),;tem (GPS) IIIaI is now ,ilaJ 10 worldwide M\'ig"ion would be "",,,,"~

1-2 I Measuring Things
W. disco"" physics by learuing how 10 ""''''"''' IhO quanlili", invol",J i"
physics. Among IhO.., q uanlili., "e k"gill. limo. m.,s.. lemp",alUre. p,ess",e.
aud ek>C1ric CtIrrenl.
W. ""''''"''' each physirnl qua"lily in;1S 0"'" u"ils.. by compafloon "-;Ib a
,, " ndard. Til<' oni, is a uniq",,- name ..... a'>Sign 10 lII<'a5U'''' ollh" quanlily- for
examph>, mcl", (m) for lh. qua"lil)' i.:lnglh . Th. Slanda,d cor,osJlOnds 10 e:xaclly
1.0 "nil of 100 q"anlily. As )'0" will """ Ibe Slaudard lor lenglh ...-hieh corre-
spond, 10 ~"ac1!)' 1.0 m. is llw diSlan", Ir.",led b)' tighl in a """uum du,ing a
''''lain f,action 01 a ",co"d. We can define a un;1 and ilS 6Iandard in any way w"
~a,,, 10. Ho_v" •. lbe i n1llOrlani lbing is 10 do '" in s"cb a ..-ay Ihal scienliSis
a,ound Ih. wo,ld ,,-ill .groo Ihat ou. definilions a." bolh ",nsibl" an" p,aclical.
On", we h,,·. sci "P a Slanda'''-"y.lo, "'nglh - _ ",usl wo. t oul p,oce·
d"'~5 by " 'hieb any knglh ".-haw,,", .1x! il lhe ,adi", of a byd,ogo" ",om. II",
... he;,lba>e of • sl al,,0O3, d. or the diSlan", 10 a Sla •. can 00 OXI"", ..>d in lern" of
Ib" stanJard. Rulers. " 'bieb al)p,oxim",~ our kngln 5Ianda.d. gi"~ '" 00. sucb
p'o«->du.. for meas",ing lenglh. How~"",. many 01 0"' oompa,;.ons nm" Ix!
indirecl. Vou ca!lllol use a ,"i.:l,. for oHmple. to ",.asum Iho radius of an alom
0' Ibe d;';lanCil to a"" •.
ll!ere a,e so many phys",al quanlilies IhOl;I" a problem 10 o,g.niz. Ih,m.
H:t"unalely. Ibc)' •• 0 ""I all in~eJl"n""nl; for example. 'Jl"'i'd ;.; Ibe ."io 01 a
lcnglb 10 a H",e. Thus.. ",f1al we do IS piLl oUI-b)' ,nietoalional agrec"",nl-
a 5maU numlx>r of pbysical qu,nlitii's_sucb os Io nglh "ud lime. and assigo Slandard:s
10 I"'m alono. Wo IlIi'n defi,,,, aU olt"" physical quanlih,'" in 1o ..", of In"", ba5~
q"amm<J and lhelt SI.nda,~s (ca Ued bau Jli",da~I,). Sp..'<'d 10' e,.1mpie. is "".
r,,,,,d inl~'ms ollb" b.>e qua"lilies "' n&lh and lime and 11k~' base Sl.ndar"~
Ba>e "aDda,do; muS! t>o bolh aoo.'SSible and in'·an,bi.:l. If we dofi"" 100
lenglb 51all""',d as Iiii' <li>l,n", ool",,"n o"e's nose and Ibc indox fingi)' on a"
oUlSltelch.~ a.m. "'e "''' la;nl)' h3\" an acressiblil SIa"<ia.d- bUI ;1 will. 01 00""".
vary lrom re,.on 10 pefSOn. llI<l demand 10' p=ision i" .d "noo .n"<ngi,...",,;ng
pushes us 10 'im firsl fo r inn,iabiJily. W. Ihen ex~r1 gr.al ollorl 10 mal:e d"p~­
~at"" olIn" ba>e st.nda,ds Ihal am ocressibi.:l 10 Ih"", "ho "ood llwm .

1-3 I The International System af Units
U.~<fo r Th... SI B... a •••• i. ...
I" 1971. llhll~ l h Gene,al Conference on W~ighlS aod M~aS"'{,3 picl od ",'"n
Q.onrlty V. it N ""'" V.l,Symboi

--
quanlilics '" base quanlilies.. Ihe,,,by forming Ibe basis of Ibe Inlernalional
Length ...,to, • 5)~wm of Unils.. abbre",alO<l SI from ilS Fro""h nan", and popula,ly l no ..-" as
T_ lhe m~.rk 'YSI<IIt. Tabkl J-I sbo~s Ih. u"ilS for the lh,oo b_ qUJ"li1i~3-
• lenglh . m.ss. and li"lC-lhal .... "se in II", early eh'plers of lh;'; OOot . ]b"",
kilo!,"'"
" un;1S we,,, ""ftnM 10 bil on , "human senl"-"
, •• I Chong;og Uni..

M,ny SI d<n','<d 1m," ,re dofin"d in lerm, "fi b.... OOSi) "nilS. Fo, eUlIlple , j
Ih~ SI unil for I"'~"r, call ed 100 "fltt (W). i, dofi noo i" lerms ,,[ Ihe b,sc unilS
P",f", ... / 0' 51 Uni ..
for ma",longlh, "nd lin"'.Thu" a, y"u ..-;11 s.", in OJ'pler 7.
,~. , .~ S)1DboI
I ",.11 - I W - I ~g. m'Is'.
"R<>'" the 1"1 roll...,i"n of unil "l"mools is read", kilog,am -IIl"ler squared ]X'r
(1 -1)
10" )Qua- ,,
""",nd ruoc'<l.
T" .xp,,,,, Ihe '"Or)' La'ge "nd ,""r)' ,m.1I qua"lili", Wi! " lie" run i"I" i"
,.'
,,,. zett>_
., ,,
pbysocs, Wi! u"" K;''''ific "o""io". "hiLh employs PO""''' of 10.1" Ih" "OI'lion . ,.'
,.' ".
,., ,
'"'
3 :1(£100)00) III - 3.56 X Iff III
0,(0) (0) 4'12 , - ~ .92 X 10- '"
(1 -2)
(1 -3) ,.
or ~i". _
• ..p-
C.

"•
ScienliflC nOla lion "" romp"te" som"limes lal"" on an "'""" b,iefer look. as in
,.'"
W ~iIo _


-
3.56 E9 and .t92 E- 7. ,,·ho,. E st"ndo; fOI "expo""nl of leo." II IS b,ief", slill "n ~.

so,,'" c~ lcuJal""'." helC E is "'placed ,,-;th '" emply space. doh_
,
~
As • IUlI"e, con",,,;"/ICC ",be" d.:>ab"g with ""y
la'g" '" wry ,mall m".- ,~ ,

su'elll ""l'i . ...., usc 100 pwfixes lisloo in Thble 1-2. A, y"u can SN. eactl p,efix 10- ' ".. ti_ ,
"'P,"SC"l'i a ""flain PO""" olIO, 10 00 "scd" a mulliplicalion loclor. Anochiug 10- ' .uDi_
'"
.....-
"prefix to an SI unil has Ih. elf..., 01 Illullipl}'in& by th" ""ociaIOO facto,. Thu"
...., can express a pa'ticular el.'Clric POW"' as
10- ' olicro-

1.17 X 10" ".-atlS - 1.27 gig''''' 'lIs - 1.27 GW
10- '
10- "
,,•
0' J panieular tinl' i"lerva! '"
2.15 X 10-' s - 2.15 "an06ilCOuds - 2.15 u"
Som" p,"fi_'''''' as """d in millilile', "' "li""'I"', ki1ogra m, and ""'gab}'le, ""
p,obably familia, 10 you.
(1 -5)
10-"
Io-LI
lO-"
lO-l<

'"1"11<. _
..""'.
f","to-
.no-
"
I""",.tty ""d ,,,"",, "'"

,•
,a",..,,;. boll 1}..,.

1-4 1Changing Units
We oli"n ",-",d 10 ch,ng" Ih" u"ilS in "'hien a ph)~ieal quanlil)' is o'I',",,,,d. W"
do so b)' a n"'lhod call<'d cl,a,n-I",! COIW<rsion. I" Ihis mClhoo. " ." multiply Ibe
o,iginal "",,,,uron,,,,,1 by a run.-ersion fO<1o. (a "'Iio of unilS thai i, equal 10
unily). Fo, enmp .... because I min aod 60s are idculiea l lune inte rvals, WI' baw
lmin _
00,
1
'"'
Th"" Ihe ra li05 (I min)1(60,) and (60.)1(1 min) c~n be used as oonv.,.,i011
focto ... This is not lhe same as ..-riling-k - I or 60 - I; e arh ml",bu and its "",,
muS! be Ireated l<>gelh.r.
Bi'CiIu,", multiplying any quan tily by Willy I"a'..,. Ih" qua" I!l y uneh.n!l"d ....,
can inlrOOUCi! oo,wetSion faCIO .. "-h.. e~", "'" find Ih~", " ...ful. In chain -buk
ooo'",."on, ...., use Ihe faCIO .. 10 ca"",,1 u""-amoo unil' . For example. to oonv" "
1 n,;n losecoods."'"have

2 min - (2 m,n)( I) - (2 """)( I~) - 120 .. (I-fi)

II you iOlrOOu", a oonve,.,;on faCIO' in surb " way Ih.1 u"w"nted units do nol
can",!. ;"wrt Ihe f.cto, "nd Iry again . In con~"rsi",,~ Ih ' ""ilS Gb<l)' Ibe sam,
,Iget>raic ,ul", as , ... riablo s ,nd numbe, ..
Apf"'ndix D giws conv"";,," foclor, 001",",," SI "n<l otocr system, of unit~
including o011 -Sf units still """d in lb. Uruled SIJ!e" Ho"",'..... 100 0011"""'''''
loclors d' ...yillen in Ihe SI)"10 of "I min - 60 ," rail"", Ihan .. a ralio. The
loI10"-;n8 sa mpl" problem gin,,, au ""amplo of ho"'l0 set "P such ,alios.
When. accmdiJlg
Mar",bon 10 AlIII'll' I;>gcOd;]':"io~"~;,~.~;;.:,,~,:.~"~,ro~m~-!!~~~,~":.~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
(0 in 490 RC. !O tning w01d of lhil
Gw~k ,-k-lOry ove, Ibe Pcrsi'"" h. plOoobl)' Jan al "
, Ii
'.-r,1e
;1
spa>d of abom 23 noos I"" bour (,;dc'Slb ). The ride is an Calculation: Her. " " ..-rite
aocicnl G"'<l l "nil lor h:lnglh, as arc Ih. ,{odium and
tbe plO!bron: I rid ..... s defined 10 "" 4 .tadia. I SI.dium 23ridi>,lh - ( 23 ~ )( \~! )( ~::~':, )
wos d.:lflll.d 10 1xl6 plolhra , and. in Wrms of. nloOO,"
""il . I plillblOn is 30.8 IlL How 1",1 did Ph,,;diPl""'" ."n " ( "'., . )( >em ) ( _ "
I~ )00l", 3tOOs
)
in k,lomewfS p<l' ",rood (kmls)?
- 4.7U7 )( 10- > loll' _ 4.7 )( Hr-' kml...
Sample Problem m (A"s~or)

lbi>.cnn is. Brilisll voIu",,, ""it for f,.sIlly mug/II h<>rrings: cubic """,dos, ...., must cub< Ih. 00""",,100 "lio N -
1 Cfall - 170. 47~ lil.r.; (L) offish. OOoot 7SJ oorrings. Sup- n• • en """limN'" and oov;<!os.
pos.:! {hal. 10 tX' d,c " ..'<llliroug/l CU>lOOlS in Saudi Arab... _"
Calcul.atlon: W~ "yil~ Ill< 10UOI'ing main-out CCOIVCfSion:
shipment of 1255 = m..,;l 00 <led ....! in Ie",... 01
<"Ubic rovi<los. \I ""re Ill.> CO\'ido is an Arabic u!li! d !.>oglb: 1155 nans
I covi<lo - 48.26 em. WIIJI is lhe ""lUII'OO d.">dara!J0fI?
- (m5cnos) (
170.H4 L
,
cr"n
X lOOOcm'
,.
'---
X I OO\1dO ) '
'"~€
~o . _ ucm
From Appendi.\ D ~'e _ Ihal I L isequiv-
a!.>nl 10 lOCO em'. To oonve'l lrom c~bk ",nl;mewrs to - 1.903 x 10'cm·ioo.'.

PROBLEM -SOLVING TACTICS

Tactic 1: Significant FigurllS aoo D..amai PI"an If fi~ure! ... llA and ll .1279 ;, lOUJldtd '0 'hree 'i.!."ilkoot
you c>kul.,ed 11.. ...we, '0 S"",pIe Probl,m I_I ";,lIou' '0
ligure ... 11.3. (The ...,,.'" sample probltm. in 'bio boo ~
you, c.Uculotor ."tom . ,bHy ,o"odin~ i, oft ,n. oumbe, .re wu>ll}' pre .. .,td with ,be . ymbo} _ io".><1 of _ ."". if
4.m 666 666 67 X 10- ' migh' IIJ .. appe • ...t in tI.. di,pI.y. rounding io involved)
The preci!ioo implied by tlili nurnbe, io me:rni.o~",. W. Wb. n , "umbe, ouch .. 3.15 0' :l.15 X 10';' p,ovid.d i.
,ounoded ,b . ...""'''0 U x [0- ' Un/, .., ... ot ' 0 "'ply ,b", • problem. ,n. numb.. ofsignrlioan, fisures;, awareo'. bu,
j, is mor. proci<e 'han 'be given dat .. The ti""o ..,..,d of how abou, 'be "umbe, JX1JI Is i, known '0 only 0'" .iy>ili_
23 ,idWh oomi", of '''-0 digi'" call. d ",".~i<o"' 1i,;I,,,,~ can' tisur. (3 X HI)? 0, i. i, kDOWlJ '0 '"' maoy .. Iou,
Th .... we TOOIIded ,n. aru,.".. '0 'wo siS'ifica.o' fi~u, ... In dli. signifioan, tigu .... (HO I X IO')? I. ,hi< book . ..-e .. sum. ,h.,
1>ooI:.!inal , .. uiu of rolrwatioru art of teo ,ounded ' 0 m.tcb ,u ,n . ..,m in surh Yv .... numbt" as 3000 or. ,isoificao'.
,be Ie"" rrumbel of ,i.!."ilk.,,' figur .. in ,b, gi""n d., .. bu, you hod be" ... not mak< 'h' 1!'umpbOO .I ..... he, ..
(Howeve,. ,om" ..... . . .,,'" 'iylifir"'" figure ;, h pl.) 000" ooof".. sign/fic"", fig"'" ...;,. <kcto,a! plixn.
IVn.n 'be Itf'mOO1 of the digi" '0 be di"" .. ded io 5 or mor •• Coo,,,,,,, ,be leog,h. 35.6 min. 3.56 "J. .. d 0.00356 m. They . U
,be 1:0<' ,em';oin~ digi' ~ """,<led up: othtlwi.. it io re,ained b. ve 'hr" sisnffican' figur .. bu, they b.ve OIIe. '''0, .. d live
• s U. For exampk 11.3516 i. rounded '0 ,hI ... ,'.!."ilk.. , dfcim>l places. , .. ptdiv.ly.

1-5 I Length
I" 1792. Ihe ne,,·oorn R~publir 01 Fran"" e~"b~sh.d a "e~ S)'S1em 01 .'eighls
and meas",es. l IS oornerstone was Ibe me'er . defin...><1 to Dc o ne '"n -millionlh of
Ih . dis Ian"" lrom 100 nonb pol.>. 10 the ~q"a1or . Laler . 101 pnctical rea",,,,, IhlS
Eanb sla"dard ""as 3OOodo ....><1 and IIhl "",lei "alTh' to Dc d<fil1ed as Ine dlSl""",,-
b<1"""n 1"'0 fine ~""s engraved "ear Ill.> euw 01 • plalinum-iridium bar. 100 """_
dart! .."' .. ba,. ".-hion ......, kepi al lbe 1l1leIJlJlio"al Bureau 01 Weights "nd
Me"u, .. ,I(m Paris. Acrural' OOJ''''' 01 the bar ..-ere ",,"I to slandardizing laboralo-
"'" Ihroughoul 100 world . The"" >OCunda,y "and,trd, ..-ere u""d to prod",," o th« .
slill moOro """""hI.>. ~ a","' rd~ so Ihat ulllm"lol}' e~,,)' "",-"suring d..",ioo "",ive<! ,IS
aUlhoril)' from tll.> standard """,,r bar Ihrough "oomplial1ed chat" 01 ro",pari"'n~
Ev" nluaUy. a S1"nd",d mo re precise lb.u Ih . disla"". b,m.."," I11'O fi""
scratch", 00 a ",.,1.1 bat ".-as ""luired. I" 1960. a now standard for 100 "",TO, .
l.o l Timo

b,...,d on 100 lI-"-ek>nglh ollighl."", adopled SpocilkaUy. Ihe ,I,"dard 101 Ib ~ j
",..Ie, "'" ,ed.:lfi""" 10 00 I 650 763.73 ~'"WJ..'1lglhs of a p.arhcub, O1ange-red
Some Appro.im .... l.e"9'h.
~glH e mined by alo"" of hyplo" -86 (. p.anicul., i<;ololX\ 0' I)l"'. of ~ryplOn) in
" go, di<charg~ lube. Thi' ""'.'.'Jfd numlxl, of "'lIv~len!;U" w", ~h""," 50 Ih"1 Leogt. io
Ihe no.. s\anda,d would 00 close 10 Ihe old ""let-ba, slanda,d M" a.. ,em,n' M ..."
By 1983. hOll'ovet. Ibo diomaud f01 higl1c, preci,iou b,d re",hod ,ocb , poi"1
Ih'l OVO" lit. hypwu-86 'I'ndard could nol 01",,1 ;1. and i" Ih'l year a bold 'lep Oi".IlC' to tbe fi,,,
gawie. fofmod 2 x II"
...".s lahn. l1ie ",.let was ,,,<i<fi,,,,d '" lhe disl"n"" \ra w led b)' light in. 'p'c;-
O;,!>"", to tbe
fi.>d Ij",,, inter,""1. I" th" " -01ds of !h . 17th (rio"",al Conlcn'"". 0" Weighl' sud
Amdrornod. golny 2 x 10"
M" "nr ..: 0;',. • .,.. to tbe

r Themete,;' the Ie.gtb 01 tb<-patb t",.. IO<I 0)' liy.t ill • v"'-""u"' durins .1 .....
o ... by"",
Pr,m"" C.nuuri 4 x 111'
.,te",oJ 0111299792 i l l 01 . oecood.
0;',."", to PI.to 6 x 111'
R:odi", 01 E .,.th 6 x HI'
This lime inlo"'al w," ch""n SO th,l !ile 'p".d of light c i:s CI.1cdy
Heigl" 01 Mt_ Ew,e" ~ X 10'
c - 299 791 ~ 58 mr~ llOCkn"" 01 ,b;' pas, I x 10- '
M.asur e"", ,,!s 01 too sp'ed of ligh! h.d Ixoco"", o,uen", ly p,ecise. SO ;1 mad.> Leng'h 01 . t)piocol
..,"'" !o adopl !"".IpilCd olligll! ., a <ieftnod qU'"li!y ~"d W use i! !o ,O<kr.ne
m• I x II}-"
Rodiw 01,
Ihe mele,.
hydro!"n "'''''' 5 x IO- H
Table 1-3 sIIows a w;d.> tango olleng!b,.fro", Iha! 01 !he universe (lop I;",,)
R:odiw 01 , Jlf ot"" I x 10- "
10 !bose 01 so",e very sOIali objoc1s.

PROBLEM-SOLV!NG lIlCTlCS
Tactic 2: Order of Magnjlud~ The ON" <>/ "'~gnN"J< m". tbe "",Ill, 01 • ,.kulatio. '0 ,b. ",ar<>l or"", 01 m.y,;_
of , o.mo., is ,be powe' 01 "n ..·ke. ,b, ."",!>eo- is .xpres>t<l ,»de, FOf OW" " """ple, ,be ne .... ' Ofck, 01 m'gW,IKle ;. 4 fOI
i• .c,ntilio not"iOG. For enrnple. if A _ 2.3 x HI' ..d B _ A ODd 5 for R SIOclr ."i,m'''''';'COII1DIOO wben ""tailed Of
7.8 x 10'. ,ken ,be om,,, 01 m' yU,ode 01 bothA >nd B art 4. prod .. do .. '''i"irO<l ill ,he <>kulatioo are not kn""",,
Oft",,_ 'nsill'''iog >nd .ce"", prole .. ioo:w wiU esti_ or eao.iiy /OIlJId. S, .,pI, Pro blen, 1_3 giv.. an ,x:omple.

The world', I.,gest b,1I 01 ,;I,ing i, aOOUI 2 01 in .. dius. lenglh d - ~ mm.l1ien . wilh a cfOSS-s..'CIiooal area 01 J'
To 'be "ear<':51 01<1.>, 01 magniludio. whal is IIl;o 100al and a lenglh I .. lb. Slring oocupi<':5 " 10,,1 vol u"", 01
leng!b I. of lile Slriog i" ,w ball?
V _ (cfOOS-Si'Clion,1 area )(lo"Blh) - d'l_

This is approximate')' oqu'l to 100 volu"", 01100 b"lI.
We collid 0( CO\Irse.lale IhIl ball aparl and gi",,, by f.-R-' . wbicb is aboll' ~R-' oocau", ". is ,bou, 3.
measu," '00 100al le ng!b I•• bill !ba' lI'oold Ial:o grea! ThUs. we baw
ell011 alld m,t. IhIll>aU's boJil<lo, "IOSI u""appy. I"st~ad. ,I'L _ ~ R'.
b;o~dU'" we wam orIly too ".are51 or"", 0( magoilud..\
....,can oslin,",l' any qlL1rllihOS ,eqni,i'iI i" Ihe calrnialioo. ~R' 4(2 m)'
1· - 7 - (4xlo-'m)'
Ca/cutat/ons: LN u, as"'m~ lit . ball is sphe, ical wi,n
,adius R - 2 m. Th. suing in 'be ball is nol dosd)' - 2 x lOOn, _ IOOm - l(lT t m.
paelod (Iber~ are u"cou""bk gaps txJ1W"OO adja"""1 (A"' .... ')
""'lion, 01 "'ing). To a ll01l' (0' Ihese gaps.IN n, SOml' - (Nole Ilta! you do nOi n""d a ~akula!or 10' such' sim -
..·h"1 ""ereSli",al" ,h.
e,eoss,,",Clion.1 ",ca 011"" ,";n8
by "",ming 'he eross "Clio" is "Iu"," . wilb an edge
p~fi.>d cakula!ioo.) To !"" n"arcsl Older of magni!ude.
'be l>all ronlaim aboul IcnJ ~m 01 string!

1-6 1Time
Tun., h'" 1"0 "'P<'Cti. Fo, <wil "nd som,,- scion,ilk pu'posos. we " 'anI W ~ now
!be hme of day so Iba! ..~ can o rdilr ~h'n!s til "'<Iuo,,,,,,. In ",uch scienlific "wk .
...., "''lin! 10 b lOW ho'" long"" ~'.., n' 1as1S. Thus. any Ii""" standard mll>l be abk>
!o an''''''' ''''0 qlk'slio",: "lI'n<n did ;1 h3Pl"'n1" . nd "Wha!" ilS d"rarkmT
Table 1--1 sbo ..~ so"," lim" inlc,,·.I~
j Any ph<'nomenoo Ihal .o""als itself is a JIOSsibk:> lime slOnd3fd. Earlh's
rotation . ,.-hkll ""wrm;",, , (he length of the day. II" N~" used i" lhis 'CO)' [Of
Som. Appro.; ....... TIme 1"... rY~ "

.-
«,olU""'; Rg. I -I sho"-' one "0,..,1 . xample of ..."Urn ba..,d 011 thai ,malioo.
T,m. A q"JrlZ clod:, io ",hich a q""'lZ ring is m,o" to "ib'"I~ continuonsl)', can be
In'ervalin ~~bbt"l~d agaiR<;l Earth ', ,mJtion ,ia astrooomical obs<,vJtiorrs and u>cd to
M .......... n. "",a",,~ lime ,"Ierval, in Ibe laOOratory, Ho~ev<'1, Ihe ca~b'" tlO" caoool be
~~"i.d oul . 'i lb Ib~ .ccu,aq ~~11..'<l10, by IIIOdom sci""lific and enginee,iog
Lif.tim. of ,h. pr"'""
loclulolog),.
(pr...wn«l) 3 X W"
To 1ll"~1 Ih' "oed 10' a b<!uer tim" 't"od.,d. atomic clod, haw Ih>O" <l.:!.-.'I-
Ag. 01 the unive, .. 5 X JO"
opild. An atom ic clocl: at (ho N.tion.1 I",(ilm" 01 Sta"dard, Dod T"cllllology
Age 01 ,b. pyramid 01
(NIST) in Bould01 , Color.do. is III.> Slandard 101 Coo,dioaloo Univ",sal Tim.>
~~ I X 10" (UTC) in Ibe Uniled Sl.to~ liS lim~ signals aro available by sbo,!~,v~ radio
Humanm ••• pecI><><y 2 X 10'
(sl'lion, WWV and WWV\I ) "nd by leh.."hono (3OJ-49"\1-7111). T'llli! signal:;
u",g,b ol aday 9 X JI)'
(a"d ,,,IJloo inlo,m'lio") ate .1<;0 ,,'ail"ble IfOm tbo Uniloo Slat"" Naval
r""" be".". bum ... O.,...,,,,.lory at .."b"I' hl1p://1y<ho.usno.navv.mil/lim • . hlml. (To >cl • dock
h"""beat. S X IO-L
e XI'''"JeI)' a= .. "ly.1 ~'ou, partirnl" localioo, )'OU .muid baw 10 "eronnl for
Lif.tim. of ,.e moon 1 X 10-' Ihe Iravol lim" req"i.oo f01 I"os.:! ,ignal, 10 reach you.)
Shof .. " hI> liSI" p.1ot. 1 X 10-1< Figuw 1-2 'ko ..~ ",rialioo, in th' "'nglh of 0"" day on Eartk owr" 4-),,",
Lifetime of 'he m",' I"'rioo, as deW,min.'<! by comparison wilh a resi"m (.tomi<"j docl:. Be"""", IW
1LII",bIe panicle I X 10-" varia!io" displ.)'oo by Fig. 1-1 is >ca50nal ,nd repeti!iou~ •••• n'peC! tk~ fOla-
The 1'I>nd rim .. I x 10-4> ling E.1f!k "hen loom is a di/fctenre bet'"""" Earth and >tom as timekeopers.
Too "a,iahon is d"" 10 {id.1 ,/foCls ""u",d by {h e "",oon and 10 larg<'--scal"
'Ih~ ~ tho mlic>, tim, o/t<rt)x til
wjmb .
.... ., .... icb th O"' 01 ...... "' .. ...
•• "" .. "" ... be .."., •. TOO 13th General Conf",e""" on Wciglns and Me"",.", in 1967 ,dopled
>standard scroud b.sed on Ik e ""'"U"' dock:

r OneJ«ODd ,sthe ',me .at,.
by 9 192 631 77000<iII.,io• • 01 ,be ligb' ( 01) 'I""'i-
fi.d wavele0Slh) .mittod by. "",;um _133 .,om.
Alo",ic docks are .I() con,isWnl Ibal. '" principlo, t",o "",iu", docks lIIOuld h"-,,
10 run f01 «OJ ~'~ars before th~ir reading' .,ould dilf'" by ",oro Ib"" I s. Even
,ocb aa","'1' pakls i" comparISon ..,{b (hJ! 01 dod, <>"'''"tty being dcvelop<ld:
Ih." p,eeisio" nlJ)' be 1 part in 10"-tbat is. I "n I X 10", ("biclt is .OO"!
3x I()IOy).

FIG. 1·1 WheD ,b.
metric <y>IeOl
..... propooed in I m.
,h. bour ,n.,
,""'lioN to J'fovkle . W_bow cia)'.
The ide.didnOl catch 0 ... u.. .,"er
01 tim IO-bour "",,,b ";re]y pm _
vid. d .... .n dial 'h" l.,. 000""._
.ioo al Il_holU ,...... Do ,be , .... <Ii ...
indiaotf ,h. >am<- lim.7 (S",-,"
PnktnJ

FIG. '·Z Vari.ti"", in ,Ile I,ns.h 01 ,he <layover a +1"'"' p",iod.Note lh .. ,h. e.tire
.." ....1.co.l. ' lIlOOol>'oO<l ly 3 mo ( _ 0.003 I~
1-7 1 Mass
The Standard Kilogram
The SI Slandard 01 mass is, platinum-lfi diulll qhn<hl' (Fig. 1-3) ~ePt at the
In!Cmation.1 Bu,o,u 01 Woight< aod Mo",",,,,, " .. , Pa,i, ,nd assigned . by
"'t","ational 'g,er"",nt. 0 n",,, 011 kilogram. Accurat~ OOP>'" baw 00<0 ",nt
!O Slandardi",ng 1000rat01;"< in othe, countri"" and the n,",,,,, of other bodi..
can bi! ""(ermined by b.l.ocing the", against a oop~', Table 1-5 sho..., SOal~
masse, oxp""S<'d in kilogram,. ranging 0'..... oout 83 ordor, 01 magllltude.
The u.s. COP)' of the mlldard kilogram i, ho""'" in a ,'ault at NIST, h is
,oalO\'od, no mOfil th.n 0""" a ~'o.r. for tho>. pu"""," 01 cbecking dupli,a t"
copi~' tbal ar" ""'" ol", ... bere. Sin"" 1S89, it has be"n !a k,," to France t...'ice lot
,.romp.rison ..'uh tbe prim'f)' standard

A Second Mass Standa rd
The m"""" of atolll'S ca" 00 oompared ..' th one anotb01 mor" pr"';sdy than
they ~"O 00 oompared witb tbe Sla"dard b]ogr.m, Rlr thIS W"""" ...." b'~e
a second mass standard It i, tbe carOOu-12 atom . " hirh, by ;nt",n"l ",o.1 agr",,- MI, ii.iM
""""t, has 00.:.1l assigoed " m", of 12 . ",mi e m ~'" uni., (uj, Tho ,elation
""tw",," tbe t...., gmt, is So"", App 'o . ....... M.....

I" - 1.66053886 X lO-n kg. (I -7) M . .. in
O bjt<! Kilogram.
..ith an """"naint}' of :!: lO in tho las! t1l'0 ded"", ] pIa""" Sciont "t' can . " 'ith
reasonable prOO,ion. ~xp"rimen taJl )' ""!e,mine tho>. "JaSi'' '
of oU",r alO"" rela- K . ....lllLOi"",... I x to"
ti", to the m.ss of carbon-12 , What ,,,0
pre", ntly tack is a «,[jab'" me.ns of 0", g" "")' 2 x to"
eXI"ndu'8 Ihat p,o>ci,io" 10 mom CO"'"lOn "nits of ",", .. sud! as a kilogram, ~ 2 x to"
M_ 7 x to"
A>\e,oid&", 5 x to"
Density
s...011 OlOun,';n I x to"
As we shall discuss furl ber in Chapler U. Ihe density p 01 a ma{('rial is Ihe mass Ocean 'me, 7 x to'
"'... "oil ,..,tn"",: EJep/l'.' 5 x to'

, --, .
m
(I -3)
Gn,
Sped of du<;,
j X to- J
7 x to-"
Penicillin molo<:ule 5 X to- ll
1A>""li~s arc l)'pirally lisled io kilogram' pe' cubic meter 0' 8rarrtS PC' cubic
ccnl,metor, Tho do""ly 01 .... 'ill (1.00 gram P'" cubir "'"Iimol~r) lS ohon used '"
U ..... ;umalom
' 0 00
4 x 10-"
2 x 10-"
a oomparison, Fr"", SIlO1\' has .OOUI to'l'> 01 Ib.1 d.:>nsil)': plahn" m has a don,ity
tha! i, about 21 !JUlilS Ib.1 of w.{('r, EI""lfOll 9 x to- J1

A be. ,')' ob/,-'C! can 'ink into Ihe ground du,iog ao liqlli'/oclioo can occu, dUflllg ,u e,nbqual:e. What j,
e.. l hqu. ko if the sha king c."ses the ground to unde,go Ihe C01rosponding saoo ""osily p......7 Sotid >iliroo di-
Ilq"<Iac'w" in ., hicb the soil grail!<; eJp"rii-nce linle O1iOO {lhe prim:lf}' oompeo""1 of .. 0<1) bas a """"ty of
(rielioo as they sl "'" owr 000 anolhe', Tho ground ;s p,." - 1.(,00 X 10' kglm', ~
,bell eIfoc!i""ly qurlsaod , Tbe p<>SSlbili!)' olliq lli'fac-
lion " ' sand)' ground call be predicled in term, of tt.:>
,'"Id rali" e for a ""'pIc of too ground: Tho """>il~' 01 Ihe sand p_ in a samp"'lS
v_ ,,;;;;;:;;~< unil ,'OIU
"'" - lbal os.. Ihe ra lio ollh. 10lal
'.-
< - - - -. (1-9)

Here, V..... is lhe !Olal Vo! "flle of the sand sr""' in lbe
sampl<> , 00 V..... is 100 lotal volume ""IWOOO ttl< grains
mass "'-.. 01 the ,,"d gr'''lS 10 Ihe 10lal vol ume
I b~ .. mpt~:

P-o - ~'
m._.
v• •
v", .. of

(1 -10)
(in the ,<>ids), If ~ excililds a cmical n.l u" of 0,80.
Calculatlo ...: Th~ loul volume V.,..of a sampl~i' Sut>sliluling Ihi:! oxpression inlo Eq. 1· 10 and Ihen sub·
sliluliDg for v.. _ f.om Eq. 1· 11 lead 10
V.- _ V..... + V ......
P-J - ~ V..... _ ~
Sut>slol uling for V..... from Eq . 1·9 .nd soh'ing for v.._ V,''" 1 + , 1 + ,'
(1 · 13)
lead 10
SUt>sh IUI,n g PliO, - 2.600 X 10' 19lm' and 100 Cfllical
(l · ll)
val"" of, - O.ilI . .." find Ihal bqU<'faclion OCC"rs "hen
Ihe sand dcnsily exeoods
From Eq. I-&Ihe 10lal mass m ..... 01100 ,",ad g.ains is
Ih. product of Ihe dellSil}' of silicon dioxide and 11K>
10lal volume of lhe sand g.ains: ..,.
2.600 X 10' 19l rn'

(1 · 12) (An' .... e')

REVIEW & SUMMARY
Meaou.amen! In Ph ysl" PbY"'" i. i>......t "" ........ . aDd ,h. "n"'.re m>.Oipul.,«I Iil:. algebnJ< quan'iti.. Wl'~
m..,' of p/I.)'>ical qu",,'i' i... Ct,,.;,, p/l.y.ic.al qu,,,,;,ioes bav. ""If'''' de .. red uni" ",maiD.
t - . , """"" .. too,. qU"~li " (.""h .. Ie'S,b. ,i.,•. and
"''''r... cb h.. bee" defined '" term< 01 • " • ..t. ro .r><! give. Lengt h The "",,'er ~ defuted .. ,he <Ii .. """" tr.".,1ed by
. .. il of .,.as",e (,ueh .. me",. second. and k.i loyam~ ~!It,
dUJi.s • precioely . ptcitiod time in,,,,.. l
O!lle. pbl"iool qllMl1i1ies .re denn.d i.o ","" 01 1he b...
q"",,,lriel ' oo 'heir . undarw .00 uni". nme The JKOD d ~ ""tine<!;" 'e""" 01 ,he oocm .. 01 i"".
~gh' .milled by an .,omk (reoium .l.'J) ","n" . ACCIlr.'e
51 Units lb. nil ,)·"tm empll. s.ized '" 'h~ book ~ ,h. ,ime ,ign.I> are "n' wo,lrIwKloe by ~ ,ignal. <e),.d '0
Intorna,ioo al S)'"'''' of Uni" (SII. The '~ree ph)"""1qu • • 'i . >!omic doc<. in ...Drhrdizin! b borat<>rieJ.
,. " rn.pI. yed i. T. bIe 1· 1 art .>t<i ;" 'be '''1)" cl>.ptor~
S, ... d"w. "hicb mm' be boob """,..,ible and ;.." riable. b. vt M aos The kiloy ... ;. defined in "rm.
of , platirrum _
t-n .. ,.bbr.bed fill 'bese ba.., q. "'u;,ioes by intor"",ioo al iridilUll " ... d:ud m"" kepi lit. . Paris. fur "".... ,"" •• t> on
.SfffmeDL The .. ".oo.rn. art "",d;. all physical .... ... re· 'D . 'omic scale, 'be atomic""", uni" defined in "'m. 01 ,he
lIlen'. fill both ,b. b ... q.,.'ili ... r><! , he qu>rr,;,i .. derived "om = boo!·12.i. ",":illy •• od.
from ,b • .,. Scirntilic not.,ioo .oo ,h. p.. fu .. ofT. bIe 1·2
.re .. ed ' 0 "",plify me" .",,,,,,n' _ation. De nsity lb. de •• i,y p of . """rial io 'he rn . .. I""" WIll
volume:
Cha nging Unlto Coo,..,,;oo 01 uni1. m>f I>t p.,fOlmed

V"' '
by .,;"g d!~In · U"k c"",',-"s in which ,he OIigio. 1data are P- (1.8)
",.hipli«l succ ...... d y by ronv,,""" f><1or. ""illen '" unily

PROBLEMS

=
.... rw
...-.............,
""", _ .......
_ ~'''''''''''-'''»n)
1" ~ ..- t
.-
• _••• _"'_,.,..,. ....... " ' _ .. _
~ WI ......."' ...
.....",',,"...... _ 'w _:::~~:::~:::'=
,ew
"
,.s:;: _ .,"' _ _ ~ ""',,_ c",,"o''''''',''''' ,,-..,....--..«>m

M<. 1..5 Length , Dd (b) <balM' (I furlong _ 201.1108 m, I rod _ 5.02'1"2 .. ,
• 1 lb. macrome1" (1 _) ~ 0I1e. railed ' lte mk"",. , Dd I , hal. _ 20.117 01.) I ........
(. ) How m. oy micron. mat. up 1.0 om? (b) Wbat ITact;OII
., A py io an old Engh,h ""'..Uf. lor IengliI. d,fintd ••
01 • ce.,ime'" .qual. 1.0 "m? «)
H"", many micron. >I. i. lila 01 . I;" •. wher. Un, i...other old Eny~h me.,ure for
1.0yd7 Ie"S,h. detined .. 1112 inch. A oornmOIl "",..ure fo, IenSth i.
•2 Sp .dn~ in 'hio book .. "" ge .... aIIy doDe in units 01 ,he publi<hi.! !Jm;"". i. ' poInl. d.fined as 1m in.cb. " 'b ..
!"'in" . Dd pic..: 11 f>Oin" - I pic .. . Dd 6 pi~ _ I inclt. If • io an art. 01 0.50 ~ in point. "Iuared (poin"')?
6g>l" ..... m;,pI, cM in ,be p . ge proot. by 0.80 <"Ill, .. ha, ,....
,he .,;",1.,,,,,,,,., in (a) pic... and (b) f>Oin" ?
.5 Eanb;, .ppro.imate!), a ",b". 01 ,<>di.,
6.37 X 10' IlL
Wh" ore (. J ;" N<"Ilmfer.""" in t ilo"",,,,,. (b) '" ,uri"",
.3 Her... are '0 r.", over a ren.ur Engli<h "",ad"...I", . . re . in "I""re t ~ ome "" . orrd (e) ;IS volum e ", cubic kilo-
<Ii""""" of 4.0 furl""S' \\ib .... ,he ,are <Ii .. """" in (. ) rod< ",,,,,,7 ...
··4 Ibmnl~. "- coo ..... MIT ..". iu Ira'a.~ .... 1.6 r .....
......
, ... _ _ lIIc Ch>rIr< Ri_. boo
• ""S'.
01' 36'" s...- .10 The W'"' ~ pIMI .. - . l ; " . H"I"""1~«.
pli' _ ~'" 1\~ ... 01' 000' Smoot IS boted . . dIf Ia1Vb 01' "*lpplri 1ha1 ~ .1.7 .. ;., 14 dl)'" .....f»j ""'. . . 8"""'b , _
Oha R~ s..-. I,.. d ... 01' 1Wi2. """ .... oatrieIJ co io ......,...,tenp..- ...,.,..n
""or
dtIM«I 1t"S1b II)' ltDIII' Kr<IOI ,be ~ 00 'hi
pItds< ...... bo .. d dIf u..1>Jo a.. AIpNo f' .... mlly ""'-lId
.... t off (,.;,. poi.,) 1-Smoot"ngtkl"""'5 ,lie btod8O-
....1:0 . ...~ ho<n .. poi."'" bi.umually II)' , ..... ,",'y
pIt<I&..
n.. ,. 20 ~b (dIf won! n.
.11 Aforuuy., is._n-.EItIi_ .......eol ...... equoI
coni,,,,,,;.,.. d - f""rtcftI
n..., II . Die< ""'...." of ''''''' i. p......, company h' pt,-
nw.""
don.a '''''.. of ,... . 1lfII • paioful "'iDsd _ in ........... , - .....1).
,,_ 'lie ",,,101 ...... IIf~ ............ oIIy
COOS"";"" .., Ib .. 'M pol"", ..,.._ .asily inl"f.~
1Ik How 1100)' ~ Of" in • f",'Ris_' ?
(1"r. ",.. oI>ly. ,be pol..,. •••,," ori!inally upsc1 ~" .. 'be . 12 A ...... " p<riod (SO"';n) io <Ii>to ' 0 1 "';""'''"'ury.
Srn_ is _ ... SI base URi,. ba' ,line <la)'l 'hoy ... .. '(I (a) HO'O'lo.S " a ", icr"".nlur~ i" .. inu, .. l (b) VIi" t
MI'O >=P'«l ,he onil .) Figw. 1-4 >II.,.... I ~ '''' ". ... ~<l
in Sm-. (S). Willie. (W). and Z.I<I>I ( Z). ( "'... _1<10.1
01'1'''''''''''"'' ' ) 100.
'b.,. ..io, ..'bew«l"_t,b
"'".UIt 01 50.0 Sm-. In tl) "',UI.. ....:l
p.,ce.",!" dilt.reo« -

find lbe ptn:en1age ditl. . ...,. I,,,," 1110 OI'P'",""I>1ion.
(b) Zekl..?
.bou, 10 yoon of,• • U". F......
'", ,
.13 For 110 ....."""- ...
•, •,,,
, , FRtX:h !"••"nm.,., .",nopoed,o _ _ _ 01 line ""

•, ,,
•,
fIG. I ~ Problem 6-
~

.,,
", ,
W
.... ipln of .. o: OK _ ""'""ltd 0110 <la,.. .... <1:0, COII_
...red 01 10 • .,.... _ ....... _011 01 100 mloulel,.1d
......... te - . d 01100 _~ "'......., <be ,no< 01
(0) , ... Fm><h _ I I week ,,, ........dud .....,t ud
(b) , ... fuocb d •." ..I .. «>OII1 10 I~' ........-d....-r?
'U T.... <WIdards .'" ...... billtd (1ft """"'" _ A

-.'.• ...
··7 Af>1.«l.... n . oo#1y promisiDA >OCODd .. _ d " b..od . . ,.w-.. ......,., are
.... ""' ...1.... ..llh • ,adi .. d roo .. in~ ....,""" "an (hip.ly","",fICl " ... <0...... ,., oaly of
.!Wl~ .. (F\&. I.,';). n.. ..... ~
,~idcn ... (If;lI n W"'" is .lOOO -~.;:.--' " ,""",). Some 'ou... . , . .....
0Ul • ,adio beaooo ,b., .we<:p"
'M' I.
~;SI'll' .. _ ......ti. !
bt,,'y "".,..
Eanh <>DC<- wi,h
m. 110'0' "'any ""bic « n,ime'en
T
flG. ' -' Problem 7. ..en ,01' 0011, lik • • ligb'_ llelKUl. 1'..... PSR 1917 + 21
01 k<> <loot. An,"",ica 00II, . ",1
Itv>ore ,ho<urv .. w. oI Eor,lL)
i.....urnple, il ,01.0<. """" ' ' '1')'
l.S~7 006.us 872 75 :!
J "'" ..-b... ,h. 1r.. ~in8 :!oJ i.di<., •• 'he """,,, .. my in ,h.
•• , yo........,ily """"<I' oomm"" ... ill and m. . ...... I.." decimal pi"". (i' "'"" "'" mean :!oJ mol. (a) How m"r
• 1« " ... icoKy. bII, you "ill oIoollld be able ' 0 _ • «>fIV"."" "" .. ioo, doe> PSR 1937+21 ,. .te in 7.00 d.)"7 (b) How
..bit ...... .., , • . - .. Appe_ D. Table 1.6 io pon 01. con- mod! I.... doc .... pW>ar ,01:.
'0 .oo . .. ~-' I, one "';1Ii""
we ..... ,obi. 'Y"' "
lor • 01 ......,. ...... , ...... <0""""
I. Sf>ao.: • _.,.._ 01 1 fon<!l' it. eq ....... , '0 ~ din'
....... _ «I ....... is lbe -.."d ._.... ,)'1

(ooto< dod .......)_To OOBlJ'I<te ,lie , ......... , .... bo ..
.15 n.-.. dip.. cIo<b A It .Dd C ... .. diH.~_, ......
ud do _ 10:0" ..... I..-ow 'eodinp 01' uro, Fi~ 1.6
(10 ,"'. . . .. - , 6p..) .... ouId be .... red II (I) , ...
<'l1li1 .......... (h) ... luqo .... 1II1>II. (0) ,be ... n a l l _
................,lI<0II. reodi"," on put 01 .... cIocb for
1_~\AI ...... Iieol_.... fOl.:..opl<. B,ndo
_ (d l , ... _ _ - . . ....... witb ,lie IOJ' bll"U
B,O, _ C rndo 92.0~1 1f two .......... (,00. apar1
E lprno l.OC101l10d00 .. (.) ... dioo.(f}..uilleo.aad \&Into< "" dod: A boo..- far apar1 ... ,...,. 01 (0) dod: D .Dd
<.nw...ten (...,). (b) do<t 0 (0) WbendoctA ,ndolOO ....1I.'do.. dod: B
, nod? (d ) "'.... 0 dock C rood. 15.0 ....., doe> dod: B .. od1

-
(Au ""'" ",,~i ... , .odin!' f", po-e"10 6..... )
P...b......

aha f .... ga <:\lor,iII, , Im.d. '"I ,. ."I
,. .01'1
I ,ohi. _ "".0
'"
, ,.,I
'.
~ I')
" '"
" '"",•
I B

1 f...."'_
! <••,,;u.
1.1m,,,. _
_ , ,
9..0

FlCi . , .. l', otoIe.. U.
1 ono;lio _
. 14 u.tiI 111113, ... " ... y on<! ,,,..,. il 111, U...«I St ....
t .pI ill own 1oaoI,Dc. TodoJ. ,,"YoM" , .... ....r_cto..

· .9 U)"h .... ~ . .....,B i. tho U..1Od SUl<. oI',on ...... I
ooIy ...b<D ... tiDe ,,110"8" "'I".
1.0 h, H_ 'M. "" ...
.... , 01 001_..., 01 \Qk~ tbe acr..jooI. drlincd ..... .........
oI....ur 'bo' wiI "'w, 1 ><r~ olllD<! '0 I ckp" d 1 h. A
" _ ' . - 1 " " ".~lll
, ... <--ztMW ro..daries ..
1.0 b ~ (H"",,Ean' rot-. J60' .. _
W_ dove-
01' IOIIS"_ be ..........
)'01' .... <II ..... be
24 11.)
II)' me'
....'" ",.o.de",,,,,,, <bmoped 1.& in. 01 ..I in XI .... 0<1 I
,own d ..... U t il'. Wbat y~ 01..-. ia ..... f.U rn'. _
. 17 Fi .... cIocb..-. be"" IOCtc<I .. o laboral"", EDnly ..
... <10",_11)' ,he WWV I..... "pol. 011 .oocceni ....
01111>01""",1 k_
Chop'"1 1 MQawrQm<>nt

d.l'" oI._ek ,ne dock> ,ea<!.., in the followin~ Rank ,.bIe. atom. :tnd a c,.,bon "''''" .,. 1.0 u, 16 u, and 12 u. respec-
tbe 6", dock> oroJ<din! 1<> their ,elati .. vol ..... good'im. _ tively. (I/jnt: Cat. are """.. im .. krI""",, '0 kill a mole,)
k..".", be.<t '0 ""'">t. Jw 'ify )<>u, cboke. .. ..

-
..27 0 ••• pe.ding SP'" in Mahy .... fOIl buy on ox wi,h
• weigbt 01 2S.9 p;cul. j. ,b. local URi, ol ... igh t ~ I pirul _
""'* ,-, WO>, 11.." 100 gim. 1 gin _ 16 rahil>. I "'hil _ 10 c""'~ md 1 diet _
10 hoon~ The weight of 1 h""" """"poods '0 a ..... 01
A"",,,, ,,"",. tBN' '2:I'>!:rI 'moo.
' '10'' "ft~
"~" 0.3779 g, Wh.n yoo anans. '0 5IIip ,be
ox Ilome '0 fOUl
" It""" ".<nO> "","57 '2<&0'1 It""'" "..,.". . "oni,bed family, bow mIlCh.,.., in kilogram. mo" yo.
C """"" ,,~t... t"HI ""'''' ''''''' ""'''' ""'ll
l1.9>'Jl 11,,""" "5,.,'
ded .. , o. ,b •• hippin~ m... ~... tl (Hmo Ser up mul.jple
,h"'n _ ~nk ronvtJOioru.)
o "'"'''" "-"",, "C!.tl lZ<nJO
E mo,," ,,"',.,. "m", I,,"U' 12.0U'
"'""" "m." •• 28 0,,,,., 01 fi"" Califomi. be",h .and .re
appro,i_
m.lely .pbe,.. ..-no .n ave ...ge ,adi •• of 50 "'" and are ",ade
•• 18 BKau .. E.nb·, 'OI . ,iOll " g..duolly slowing, ,b. oI .iIkoo dioxide. ",lOCh h .. a d.nsity 01 2600 kslm'. Who,
Ie"t,b ol.""b d.y i.cre,....: The <by at t~. ",d 01 l.0 ""._ m,.,. 01 >and gr';". woold bave a 'OI>! ..... f""" ""' . (,h. 1OIa1
tnry " 1.0 ... ""'ge''haa the day., "e
"an ol,ne «"'UIJ' "T" 01 all .h. individual sph .. ,,) «luI '0 ,b •• urf",. ore. 01
In 20 ""'twi ... "b., " the tOl>l 01 the d>ily il>CJ .... , in ,im.? • ""be. 1.00 m "" .. .qe? ~
••• 19 Su""""" 'hat, "hile !}'ing 0<\ • be""h ... .,. 'ke «1.>101 •• 29 Doring b• • vy run.. """j"" 01. <OOlIn' ..... id. ru. o-
.. "chioS the Sun .," <Yfffl • calm """,..)"u .".rt • "op,"",reb
jo>t as ,h. 'op ol,ne Sun d .. ,pp.... You ,be. ,,>nd, .1en. _
"'riog 2.5 kIll horizont>lll' 0.80 kIll up >lOll! tbe .1"""...
2.0 m deep .hl" in.o a vail.y i • • mud . lidoe.A,,,,me tb>l ,be
d

i"~ your .yes by • h'isht 11 _ 1.70 m, .. d >top ,b .....reb mud.nds up uniformly di<tribu,ed ove, •• urface "'.. 01 the
..-b •• the 'op 01 the Sun >g. in di.. pp..'~ JI the .I • .,..d ,im. valley m . . .. ri.! 0.40 kIll X 0.-10 kIll and ,hat mud hOI •
'" _ 11.1 ~ u-hal ;, .b. radius rof E.rth? de."ty of l!lOOkgllll'. ",ba,,, tb. m:o<> oI. he mud "ni.g
.oo.ea 4.0 m' II• • of ,b. v:olleyfloor? -::lG'
..e, ' ·7 MI..
.20 Gold. ",lOCh .'" • <I .... ity 01 19.32 glen>'. ~ th. moo. ..30 11',re,;, poured in,o • co'lainer th .. b:t• • Ie.le
docrUe m,,>1 :tnd c<." be p....!If'<i in1<> • •• in Ie.f or <1m... OIl' The ... .. m 01 'be ,. ...,"' Vve" as. fu"",i"" oC ,ime' by
i.to . '''''E fib... (.) If" .ampl •. 01 gold. witb • m... ol17.6J r, '" _ 5.000'" - _lOOt + 20.00, witb '''' O. m j. gram~ >lid , in
"' pre<oed i"to • Ie.at oI UXX) "m ,hicl:"",~ ""' .. ",be
. rea 01 >«:<>r><k. (' ) AI .. bat ,im."
,he ,. ... , rn ...
y,.'est .• nd (b)
the le ill (b) If. ""If"d. the gold ~ dr ..... oot in,O" 'l'lindric>l w~"" Ihat gr .... " m.,.. 7 In kilogram. pe' minu,,,- u-h • • i.
fibe, 01 r.rnu.l 'iOO "m. ~1.., .. the leoS.n oflne fib.. ~ ,he rare 01 .... "baIl!" " (C) t _ 2.00 ... d (<I), _ 5.oo.?
.21 (.) Aswmi.~ tb .. ",. Ie, II... "".,ity ol.xaclly I !ic.,', •• • 31 A venleal OOIl,.me, witll base >IT" ....",ri.g
lind tb. m . .. 01 <>rI. cubic ... te, 01 w.Ie, in kjl~ 14.0 an by I 7.0 an .. bein~ Iill.d ..-on id.ntic>! pfi.. 01
(b) Suppooe 'bal j, , ..... 10.0 b to ruai" • cootain..- 01 5700 m-' '''''<i}'.•",b wi.h • volum. of 50.0 "",,' .. d • m"" 01 o.O;'OO!-
01 w.",.\\1ut i< ,b ... mar. ftow , ...... i" kilogram. pe' ""'_ As, .... 'hat the volu"" 01 .h •• mp'y'pare! bet"""'" ,be
"""die. i< n.sJiYble. If the b.ish' 01 ,b. caodie> in 'he 000_
ond,ol""t"fromtb,oon,:ti • .,1 ...
''''." inc" .... at th. ",te 01 01..\Ocml.. .. wbat ra'e
.22 lb. record for the '"g''' sr'" bOIli. w .... , in 1'192 (kiloy ..... pe' minute) 00...1Ie m... 01 the candies i. tile
by ....... i. Millville. N.w lersey _ .he)' blew • bOI,', ";th • <oot,;"er in", ... ?
volume 01 19] U.s. fluid gall"". (a) How mIlCh .bon 01
1,0 nLil~OII ",IlK ,""",i",,,.,, i,
,h .. l (b) [f,b. bonle ..... " Add~io...r P,oblom.
filled with wa"," ,h. /ei<w.ly ,at. 011.8 sfmin, bow IonS J2 T.ble 1_7 .b"""' ..... ' old ... ",w •• 01 liquid volume. To
..-ould ,he liIIinS ' .... 1W"'., . ... de ....y oIl00J ks'm'. QI cornplore the tallk •.-bat nwobe" ('0 ,hr ••• i!"ili< .. t ~gur .. )
.23 Eartll b ... m ... 01 5.98 X 10" kS The ave,oge rn . .. 01 5lloold be .... ,ed in (.) ,.e wey column. (b) ,h. chaldron 001-
,he >101ll.! ,h., m,k •• p E""b i. 40u. How mOH Y"OIl>! art lUll". (C),be bag <01"'"0. (d) ,lie pOItlo coIwn •. ",d (.Jlbe siU
tbe,. in Eartb ? <OI1UlUI. "artin8 ";,h tb. top bl>llk? (I) The vol ...... of I bag i,
«10.1 '00.1091 m'. If .. oId>tor)' .... a wi,ch cooki"~ up some
•• U 00. cubic <eD,i .."" 01 • 'yp;caf cumul ... clOOId 000 _ vile liquid in • ""uJdr",, of volume J.'i chaldroru.. ..-h. , ~ the
»ill.! 50 to 'iOO ,...Ie,
drops, ,.-bleb b.v • • • ypioc>l TadiUS 01 volume in ",IlK mer",?
JO!=- For ,Ila,''''s •. y"" the lowe, value >nd 'h' hi~be,
v.lu., ,"'pecti ..!},. for tb . folJowin~ (.) How m.. y ,.1lK
mel", 01 wate, ... in • cyti!>drical <WJIul .. ciOOId 01 beigh'
3.0 km ar>d , .di •• 1.0 k.,? (b) H ow many l _lil" pop botdes
would ,b>< wat., fill1 (c) W'Ie' b .. . de .... y 01 lOCO kYm-'.
M1'ii'"
p,..,bl ~ m 32
How mucb rn . .. does , •• ...,t.. in ,b, doud ha",,1
•• 25 IfOIl bas. den"'y 01 7.87 !i<m' . ",d tb. "''''-' 01 ••
,..,.y <baldr"" baS pOI,1e gill
iron >!om i. 917 X 10- " kS If tb, orom • .,e ",berical and I -r - llW 40fJ 6-10 1102-10
'ishlly pocked. (.) "hal is .h. volume of an i,OIl >10m and (b) I cbaldron _
1><._""
"hat ~.ne di<ta"". the ""01015 oI.di",.nt .,om.1
•• 26 A mole of atoms i< 6.02 X W" "'''''''" To ,b. ,...,."
order 01 m.gn;,u<l •. bow many mol.., 01 atoms "'. in . lar~.
'"' -
I pOIlI. _
I gi.Il _
<lome"", ca.? The .."'... 01 • b)'ru"!!",, . 'om. on o"l'ge.
3l An ok! EnsJioh childr.n', ,byme ""eo,-lillie Mi .. 39 A cord i. > volu." of cuI wood <qu. 1 10 • " ad : 8 II
Muff" . .. OIl > ,uffel, ,,'inS b" ruret. ..,d "h,y, ,.toe.
>long lOll,!. 4 fr wide .... d 4 f' hiSh. How m• • y ,arch :u, i. 1.0 ",' 7
<=I , > 'f'ide' who ", down t.e.ide b ... .. ." The ,pOd" .u
,,, clown .01 bt",,,,,,, of 'h' <Ur<1o ..d ",bey bUI btea"",
.0 0"" molorule ol ... It, (H,O) oon,ains 'wo " om, of
Mi", Muff" had > "aoJr olll !Illf,,, of dri«l Sie, The VO/U"",
"", .. u,e of • ,.ff.. " give. 1»' I luffer _ 2 poet. _ 0.50
by<irog<. ODd one "om of <I<J'E, • . A bydloge. "001 h.. a m...
of 1.0 u.oo .. "001 ol "I)'getr b"". m.., of 16 u"pp,omnar. 1j<
Imp"ial bu>llel "",,, I Impe'i.:rl bwbol _ 36.3687 (0) Wh... ~ the m ... in kilogT:ns of ODe m"",,!lIe ol ",,, .. ? (b)
lire" (L ~ Wh" ..... Mi" Muff,r', ".>11
in (a) poch H""" rn .. y molecule. 01" ....., ..... ., the warld', oc,,..~ "blclI
(bl Irnp<fi >l b",bek:u>d (e) bl"" ? b."" an ... ""',ed ,,,,a! """'"
ol1.4 X 10" kg?
14 An ok! man"",,,po ,,,,,,.Ir
Ih". l>ndo ....,.., i. Ih . lime
41 A 'OIl is • m, ...".
of volu ... f'eq""'1y U><d i. ship-
of King ATth., b.1d 3.(10 >CTe. of plowed 1.00 pm. 0 li,.._
ping. bul Ih .. U>e '"'I";''' oom, calf boc • • " Ihere . . . .,
"ock .... ol !.I.O perche. by HIO pelebt. Wtr ...... lhoe '0101
..... i. (.) lhe old "nil of rood. and (b) <he more ",rxIe..
le",' IhI .. ')'pe' of 10110: A di<ploc,"","' 'oo
is "l • • 110 7 b.. _
unil ol >qUm m.",,? Her .. I ocre ~ an:uta of 40 pereb ..
,e'" bulI:. • frrign""" io eqo. I,o 8 b.."" bulk. and. [ttl""
ton i. equ,1 10 20 bar .. ", bv.lk. A """,/ b"lk ~ "H)<I.,,, .... _
by 4 perrbe~ I ,ood i. an ..... of 40 pe«be' by I percll, aDd ,we ol vol"", ,, I ban.1 butt _ 0.1415"'. Suppoo< yoo 'pol
I pud> ~ 11.. 1.",.,," 16.5 h . • oIt;ppi"8 OIde, fOl -73 10.'· of M&M ,andie~.nd)'OU ...
35 A I"""" !",reh osesa ~ in Eog!.oo and ships i, homero etTIai. Ih .. lbe die", lObo ""'" ,'''' orde, in"nd<d "Ion" '0
'be U";Ied St".. , Th . <:0, ,ricke, adve"io.d 'h" lhe 00'" "fer 10 vol ume (..., . od ol "';glr' or """". " discu, .. d.,
f.el oowWDplioo ....... . , lb. rare ol 40 ",il .. per y.Uoo OIl ,be Cb'pre, 5). U lbe. ,!;eM ",",u,Ur .... anl di",I",.rnen' '''''~
opt" r<»d, The 'owisl 00.. .01 .. . U", 'k" lb. U.K. galloo b"", many exU. us. b",b,', of ,b • ..-...die.! ..iU )'OU 0"0-
diff,,, from Ih. US gall"": ."",oIf "'ip if you ""''P'" lhe oroe, .. (.) 73 f"iEh' 'OR<
1 UK. gallon _ 4.545963 I ~ .. "
:u>d (h) 73rtgiol" ''''''?
(I m' _ 2&378 Us. oo .... Is.) " .
I us.Sollon _ 3.78:'i n Oli",.. 42 SIT""!.I)'. lbe wi • • for • I:uS' .... dding """plio. ~ 10 be
., " _ in • "wIDing ",'_g! ... ,ocepoacle "';Ih lhoe in!e"01
fix .nip of 750 miles (i. ''''' Uni,e;:I St" ... ). b""" m.. y y.~ <Iim.omiorn ol 40 COl X 40 <Dl X 30 <m (b. ish'j. The """pla_
100' ol fu.1 do« (0) lhe mi" . kt. I"""" beli,,,, >lie needs cle is 10 be ini'iall)' filled 10 'be '''1' The win< <:0. be
and (b) 'be car "".all y ,",!uir e~ ... pwch ..ed i. booties of lbe si .. , gi"". i. Ib, foUo...inS labl ••
)6 Two 'Yl"" ol ""","units "",e in"", in ''''' 1910ir in ''''' l'ur,h,.,.,S' I"ge' bol"" .,"ead
of mull",1e ... alltl boorles
U.i"d SI ..... lb. "f'I'Ie b .. rel J.ad a I'Sally .. , volum. of dee'e .... ''''' oYtlaU co,n ol ''''' wine. To minimi .. Ih, oo,n.
7Il56 cubic inch .... lhoe cranbe,ry InneU82li cubic i""h.. If • (a) ...-bich hollie si"" ,b""ld bt purcb:osed:u>d b"... m>JIY of
mereb.", .. U, 20 cranbu ,y ban. ", of Sood!; 10. cu"omu each ,h",,1d be plUeb,e;:I and. 0"" lhe ,,,,. pt,,,1e "filled.
,..ho Iwob "" io rec.iving "1'1'" "'n.Is...-h .. ;" lb . disc"p- how mucb wi"" i. lef! ""er in I",,,,, of (b) ":rnd,,d boo,,,",
"'C)' in the,bipme"' volume in U,,,,7 OlId« ) b .. ,,?
37 The d ..cripooo 101 a cenoin b..."d of h""" painl claim. I "",d.,d boolle
• c"'''''''S' ol 460 f,'/gal. (. ) E'p'e .. Ihio q"",,'ily in "Iu", I lIIagnWD _ 1 """dard """j..,
meren pe' lirer. (b) E.p'''' 'bio quan';I)' in an SI .nil (Jee
Apptndice, A and D ), «) \\'h . , io 'be inve,.. of ''''' o'igin>l
I je,oboam _ 4 ,,:rnd .. d boolles
I "boboam _ 6".n<brdbonl ...
quanl;'~ ond (d) "bal " ii, phrrk>i . iy>i/i""",.?
38 In the U.ired SI. It" . doll b""" bo. lhe ",Ie oll : 12 of I m"" ... lab _ 8 ,,:u>dard bool'"
h
• ,e>! """'" (III" ". ,,,,,b lenglb ol ''''' doll b"" .. i. Ib " of 1 »Inr .... 7.1I _ n """dard """I",
'be ,e" howe) aDd • mini"we II""", (> doll b.,.... 10 iiI I balrllazar _ 16 ,randard bood .. _ I U56 L
"';,bin • doll howe) b. , lhoe seal. of 1 :144 of. ,,>I b"" ...
I ",buch.>dntzz.. _ 2Q .. :rnd>rd bollles
Suppooe. ,,01 boo", (Fig. 1_7) II"" .Iroo' len~'h ol2Om.
• depoh of II m•• beigh' ol6.0 m, and . .. . . d.,d ,loped ,oof 41 A I)'pkil "'ga'
cube b.. on edge jeoglb of I em. If )'011
(""n ....1 '''''''gular f""" 00 , •• endo) of beighl 1.Om . J. bad a cubical box 11.." contained . mol. ol "'gar ",be~ whal
<ubic .,,'er~ ",ha, or. lbe voIu ...... ol lbe <Ofre.pondirl ~ .......Jd in . dge longlh be ? (One _e _ 6.02 X 10" ""il~ j
(a) <loll h"" ... nd (b) mi"hl"" ho",.7
44 UoinS """ven ions :u>d do,. in ''''' chapltl. delenni.o.
,b. numb..- of b)'llr"!l.n >1011" ""Iu~td 10 oo,ain 1.0 kg of
bydrog •• , A h)'<Irog • •• 'om "'" •
m. .. of 1.0 lL
45 An ""rooomicol Wlil (AU) io lbe .,,,,,se di .. """,
bel ..... n Earl" and ,hoe Sun, approxim >lely 1.50 X 10' km.
The ,petd of hSb,;, .boUl 3.0 X 10' mit.. Expoe .. l!roe 'peOO
of Uglr' in ""ro.omkol ""its pe' minul.. .."
B B 41> Wb>1 m"" of ...... , ... feU 00 ''''' 'own in i'rOOl.m 'I? W",o,
B B b"" adeMiry of 1.0 X 10' kg''''.
47 A pe""" <>II . <Ii" mighl Ia>e 23 kg pe' .....,.k. Expre..
,h. m .., I"", '"'-.. in miUigr>nK pe' oecood ... if ,he <Ii"..
fIG. 1 Probl,m.lK could .. ..., lb. 1<00<><1- by ->e«>r>d 10..
.a The mrn _h"!( ",,/0 i. a financial lerm U><d in !be pig mar_ S5 A ... ndard in","" .. .u-.-... b .. 110!" .acb with . ri"
ket .. d l"os"""bIy i, .. latKi to the COlt of 1...a1lS. ' pg uo.~ it (b.igh. ) of 19 ClI1 and • ''''' (borirootal depth) of 23 em.
io 1>rE' ",ough lor """"'". It i. defio.ed .. !be .. rio of the mar_ R... ",b "'Sg"''' tb at the .. ",. "<><lid be .>1" !Of de.,,,", if
ket I"ice 01 • pig \Oit b uo:... of .H (}l .rugs to!be m .. ket I"ice 01 tbe IUD 10.... in....ad. 28 em, fil, • panicul .... air<"1Oe of total
• us. bushel of oom. (Jb< WOfd -.rug.. i. derived from an old beight 4.57 m. how o",ch /anher into tb. room would tbe
a"man...,m th .. m..... ·10 rut", _ b... tb. same me.run~ "airc..., e"end if truochange i. run IOtT. made?
lor -.ru~" ... ve,bio <I1oI>drm EnglidL)A us.bm.belio eq.>I to 56 lb. con"""" Eastelo _ ' •• mammal. t)llically has •
35.2.\8 L If tho oorn- ""E ".,k> io listKl .. 5.7 011 tbe mart".>- m. " of 75 ~ .midi con .. poods to about 7.5 mole. of .. oms.
,bOllS< ... b.t ~ it in !bemettic .';" 01 (A mole of " om, ~ 6.W X 11)'" .. om~) In atooDc m...
\!JIits (D) . .. bat;,.1>0 ~ .. age "',." 01 tb. "om,
i. the com-
mo. E:utem moIe1
57 An ....""'ornkal "oN
(Jlint: S.. !beM,." ,.hle in Appendix D.) (AU) io equ.1 .0.1>0 ""''''g' 1 p< "\
di!.ance f,om Eanb to tb •
•9 y"" ..... orn din.", 101400 poople., . OO<Iv.ntioo 01 Sun •• oo..t '12.9 X 10' mi. A
M" ic ... lood I ..... y"", 'Kipo ~al~ lor 2 jal. pe60 popp<r> P''''''''
(pc) i, ,b.
di!t:"". at
PO' .. ,ving {ODe serving PO' po''''''} How.ve,. y"" bave only ",hich a leogtb 01 I AU FlG..4 Problem 57.
b.bo"",o peppe" 00 bond The 'p;cioe.r. 01 poppe";' me ._ would ",bo.nd "" ",,!,!. 01
"".d in tenn, 01 the "",..Uk h"" wll, (SHU). On . v.nge. "XU)' I """""d 01 "'" (Fig. 1-8). A ligli'-Y'"' (Iy) io.be di>-
0... jalapofto peppe' h .. . ~ of.j(OJ SHU md (I'" tone. tbat tigllt. tr. v.lins tbroIISb > VOl"UWD witb a .peed 01
b,b,.,.,o POI'P" b", •• pici""" of JOOOOJ SHU To get tb. de_ 186 OCQ rniI ~ would oove, in 1,0 ye ... &p"", !l>e E.nb _ Su.
"'KI.pic:in .... bow many h>.l>an<o:o POI'P'" d>ouJd Y"" ... bo.i_ dinanc. in (a) P" """ ""d (b) ~ght _y.ar. .o.
tute foo: !be jabpello popp<r> in th. ,edpo 101 the 400 WIne.. ?
sa 10 p<lI<h..u.! food 100: • poIitic:ll nlIy.)'lU m""""""'y Of_
50 A \mil 01 .... oI.en.oed in m. .. urillg laM "'il! is .b. <It, shocked mediUlll-Oiz. PaciD;: 0)""''' (.._ oome 8 to 12 pel
h«lD". defined as Io'm'. An opeD-pit ooaI mine """su"... us. pin.) inst..d 01 ,hocked mtdiltnr_>ize A Uantic 0)""''' (...flicb
75 b""""" 011.00. d""", to • deptb 0126 m •• acb 1"'ar. Wh ..
volume of .ann. in t"llbi<- lilom"',, ~ io ,tlD""OO io thi! .im.?
com. 2b .0 -"l 1'" us. pint). lb. Iillod <»'>101 C«It:me, ohipped to
you Iw tbe in"ric< n>ea5Ure of 1.0 .. X 12 ,m X 20<111. and ,
51 (.) A unit of tim. """,,.imes ..... d in nri<r"""",ic us. pillt ;, equivalent .0 0.47.12 H,,,,. B)' bow man)' ~' ..m io!be
physic> io tho wt<. On. oJral:, equ." 10-- ' , Are there moo. oo:Ot, ""'t of )"'" an.icipaled 00"",,1
shak .. in . . .000:><1 tb m tl>oo:< are oerondo io • ~,,? 59 1M cubit io "" . Drient unit of leogth b"",d "" tbe
(b) H"",aru h.ave ".;tOO 101 about 1(1 ye",...·b...,. tho di""""" betwe.n the .Ibow.oo tl>e.ip 01 tbe middle fins"
unive,,,, i,.bout 10" Y"" old. 11 the.ge of tbe .oiv,... i. 01 ,I>e m.",,,,,,,
A..!.u"", ,h.at ,1>0 distaD'" "",god from 43 to
d,fioKl .. I -unive, .. day:· wb .... unive .... day coru;... 01 53 em. .Dd , uPI""" that anci,", du"':o!.' iodicate that •
··l1.JIi"" .. fffOIIdo" . . . ... rn.al day 00II<;'15 01 oOfm.1 ""_ ,)'lindrical pillar was to h.v •• I,"!tb 0(9 cobits aDd a di,,",_
ODd!. bow man)' wtiveno >KOo:>ds b.ve hum.:ur, .:w.. d? tff 01 2 ",bi.. fi>r!be "ated ''''ge.",b., ... tb. lowe< .al""
52 A..! . ,," 11, . .. "",'1""" !be old and the IJIOdem ",d .nd tb. uppc' vol .... '''p«tively.loo (.J 'he C)'lind,,·, 1'_S,b
t..t~ the I..-ge .00 tl>o "'nil. ooruid" tb. 10Uooring; I. in ........ (b) .1>0 C)'lin<Ie,·, length in millimet .... m d «) tl>e
old ,ual Eogland I hide (bet ..... " 100 ond 120 """) ,.'" tb • <)'Ii.oder". voIu"" io oubk ....... 1
• re . 01 1.00 ... ded to ,wtain o.e family ..;,b • ".gle 60 An old Engl~h cookbook COf''''' thio ,ecipe foo: « ..m 01

Aoo. I .... pont".. \01' tbe .re .
pI""Sb!Of <IIIe 1"'''. (An ar .. of I acre i,.qual to 41J.17 rn'.)
of land.eeded by 100 ,ocb
familioes. In qu"",um physic>. the """,_""",iOll.1 " .. 01 a "u _
",,,Ie ""'I" ··Boil .. ock of the lollooring """'11.JI1: I bo-.. k_
I:..t<up plw I t"""" plus 6 tabi"pooIK plu, I de""n,pooo:L
U,ing glov ... "'par",. ",,,Ie tops until yoo h.,.. 0.5 qu. n:
,leD' (defined in term. of tb. cbanoe 01 a p.u1ic1e rutting and . dd tbe '<>pi to the boilin! stocle Add I ..1>I.. pooa of cooked
boing nhlorbed by i.) io m''''UJ.d io units of bar",- .. 1>0.. o:U and I ""'J'OO'I of ,al~ Simme, !Of 15 min.- 'Jb< loIIow_
I ~n ;, I X 10-- " m'. (In DUcIe" pbysics j"gon. if • •• cleu. ing table give> ...... 01 tl>e """"",iau >mOOS old (1""''''' _
;, ·1"ge:· theo ,bootio!. p.u1icle at it;' lik . >I!_ing .IJW_ rir) Briti>.b me"""". and an"",! oomJI1OII (>tiU premttrir) us.
let'" a bam door. "tUClr can hardly be oW..,d.) What io tb.
r>tioof21 ,..pe.tal:e< to II ba,,\l 1
m ....."" (Th ......... w,.. ""''''00 !Of metric..ion.) fi>r liquid
" "'''''''- I Britislr ""'I""'" - I u.s. .. "'f'OO'L fi>r..-y me ..
53 A to:adi.ional ""~ oIleogth in J. pan ~ ,b. hn (I l .o _ "".. I Brirub ""'JlO<III _ 1 U.s ''''pooDS aDd I Briti,h qU>t1
1.'17 m). Wb . . .f< tb .... ti", of (.) "I..... hn. to "I"'" _ I us.q">t1. ln us.m .......... bow mud! (.) "oci.{b) ",.Ie
",,,,,,,.00 ( b) <ubic ken. to <ubi<- .........1 Wb .. ~ the vol_ tops. (e) rice.aDd (d) salt of. "'l"ired in th, 'ecipel
""'" of . cyUodrical ....... onk 01 beiy,t 5.50 k eno . nd radius
1.00 km. in (e) rubic ho, . nd(d) ~ubic mel"'? Old Briti>l! Meaowe>
5. y"" ''''.;'''' O<d", to >ail due . ... lor 24.5 mi .<> put
...,pooa _ 2>al"I"""" t.bIe<pooo _ 3""' 1'00'"
y"'" >alv. ge ,hip dio:e<1ly """ a ,unk."pu-. .. >!rip.
de.."t"""", _ 2 ...,pooa. hall,,,,, _ 8 .. bl"poo<K
H~". when your dive" proo. tb. ocean Boo< at tbat
locatioo .00 find.o .>ide""" 01 • ,hip. you ,adio back to .. bl"poon _ 2 de"",n.pooo> ,up _ 1 boll cup.!
Y"'" •.,u"" of informatioo . onl y.o disaw... h .. tbe ,ailing ..",up _ 8 ..1>I"pooB'
di .. """' .......upposed to be 14.5 ,,",,"c~1 mjJ<~ 0'" .. gut" bo-e.kf .."up _ 2 te>cup<
mile>. U .. !be l."sth "bl. in App<ndi. D.
Motion Along
a Straight Line
A woodp<ICkerhammers its
bea k into the limb of a tre" to
sea",/1 for insect. to eat, to
create storage space, or to
audjbly oovertioo for a mate.
rh .. motion toward the limb
may be vel)' rapid, but the
.toppo'ng once the Umb is
reached is extremely rapid
and would be fala l toa
human. Thus, a woodpecker
should seemingly fa ll from
the tree either dead or un·
conscious every time it .Iam.
a. b eak into th .. tlP6. Not
only does it survive, but it
rapidly repeat. the mob"on,
sending out a rn!-tat·tat
signal through the a ir.

Why can
a woodpecker
survive the
severe
impacts with
a tree limb?

13
2-1 WHAT IS PHYSICS?
0". purpose 01 pbysics IS 10 st udy 100 mO!ion of oo,<><:1.-ho,", las1 !he~' n""'~,
101 enrupl~, and how fa. lhey move in a giwn amoun l of lim"- NASCA R
engin""" are fanatical "OOUI !hlS "'l"'CI of physICS" the)" &1",",;oe 1M
Jl"rfo'maoc~ of In";, ""'" befo,~ and "u,ing a rare. G~ologlSls use Ihis ph)~ics to
"",a",,~ lOCIOIIi'-r !:)!"· mOlion a, Ih~y aUi'mpl 10 pn.>dict eartbquak ... "'ooir~1
,~""arc h",s ",00 Ibl< pbysics 10 map Ih. blood flO ... lhrough " pa!;""! \\'bcn diag-
nosing a parlially d=d ane,y. "nd motorisu ..... it 10 dil! e'min~ ho .. they might
slow snlfirionll)' ".. 11;>" Ih ei. radar OOh,do, sound, " warning. Th" .. are oolln ll."
ot oo, "Jampl ... In Ihi' cb"pt~ •. ,,-~ Slud}' Ih. basic ph}',i"" of "1Oliou 1\'II.2,e 111.2
objeel (raro ca., 10000nic pia .. , blood "" U, 0. "ny 01 "", ob;ocl) "'OW3 along • ,io-
gle axis. Such ""01io" i, "aUed QM-d"~~,,,jOl,al ,,"00'011.

2-2 I Motion
Iod,,; h~",ve., a lumbling IUmbl" ... e<l .."",Id "01 .

2-3 I Position and Displacement
To local~ an objfft "",.~s 10 flud ils posilio" relalive 10 so,"" .d",ence poinl , of-
'"0 Ih. "ri~in (0' lNO poinl) of aD axi, such .s Ihe x a.is in Fig. 2 -I. The "",i,i'-e
difl....,ion of Ibe axis is io Ihe dirl'C,;on 01 iOCf"",inS "um""" (roo.d;nol",,), whicb
is 10 Ihe righl in Fig. 2-1. The OI>pO;<i1e is Ihe ""~.ti .-e direction.

-
Fo. eJamplo. " parl id" mighl Ix>. Jocaled "' x - 5 m, ..-hich means il is 5 m ,n
p""",,, <Ii",_ Ihe posillVe dl1<'C1io" lrom 100 origio . If il ..",e "I x - - 5 m, il ""ould be jU-;1 as
la, I,om Ih" o.igin hut in Ihe opposile di.OCIioo. On Ih . . .is, a coo.dioale of
~dln<_
- 5 m is I~ Iha" a roo,d ina" of - J "' , and bolh roo.di o"I "" "" Ie,. Ihan a
roo.dina l" 01 + 5 ".,. A p i"" sign for • roo.dinale "oed 001 Ix>. sho"lI. hUI a minus
~-~-c;--:C--7_7_:,
_" 1 02
' xl'" sign muS! "Iwa}~ bi> sbown.
onp./ A chaoge from pos;l;on x, 1o posilio"~-, "calJed a di"Ia«'"",n, .1x. wh •• "
FIG. Z.1 Poo;!;OIl i",le'eTmin«l
00 .. :ro. ,hat is m.. k.d in URi", .1., - x, - x,. (2 -J)
oIle,,!," (b". mel.n) :tAd ,b>1
.."nd! indelinil<iy in oppoilj1' (Tbil'ymbol .1. Ih. G,,,,, k uppe"a", d"II'. '"pro",n" a .ha"g" in a qua "lily, aod

T""- "-orld, a nd oWr)1bing io il. m""os. Evo" ",.",ingly "a' io"ary Ihings. such "'
• roa""-a)', 010'" ","ilb Eanh's ,otolio", Earlh', o,bila.OII"d 100 Suo . lh" SURS 0'-
bil around lhi' ""Ow. ollhe M,lty Way gala.ty. "ud lb., ga l.l Iy", migfJlion ro[atiw
10 o,her gakaxi<ls llhl da<lsificaliou "od corup.:uison of ",OliORS (caUod kin. ",arics)
i, ofl~n chJu"oging. Whal exactl)' do }'Oll "",asu ... and ho ... do }'OU rompa,~?
B~fo .. w •• " .mpl ~ o '''''''''. we shall examine some g<>"e,al p'operlies of
molioo Ihal is '''''!riClod i" 'h'''''
ways.
1. The mOlio" is aloog a Slraigb' ~"" 01I1y. The ~"" ""'y Ix>. wrlica!. ho,izonl 'l. or
sl,oled, hUI il muS! Ix>. s!r,ighl .
2, Force, (push"" aod p ulk) ,-""use olOli01l bUI wiU nol 00 disctr5.SoNl umil OIapre,
5. I" Ibis chapw, w,
discllSS only Ih. mOlio" ilsdf "nd Ch'"g.3 in Ihe molion.
Doos 100 ""wing obj~ct """,d up. slow do•.-n. Slop. or ,~ve"" di,eClion? If lhil
molio" does .h"ng.. how is Ii"", involved ,n Ih. chang.·/
J. The mo"ing obJOCI;' .ilh .. n panicle (by ..-hid! we mean, pOInl-li t " object
such "' ,n ","eIfO") or an objecl ,bat mo ..... lite a particle (suell ,ho,e",,'Y
pOri ion 0'0'''' ,0 Ilkl sam" di.OCl ioo and al ,hil salllil 'ale). A "iff pig slipping
down a "",'gh' pla},grollnd slido mighl be ""n,.oo.oo 10 be ,no"iog like. po.-
c1ire<1K>n The """ .am., btl • .', il m,,"n, lb. final v.lue of ,hal quanlit}' min"s 100 ,"i1lal val .... ) Whon OHm"""
is always "" 'be "",i.ive .. de of ,he ar" inserled 10. tbe pos i"o" v.lu~s X, and x, i" Eq, 2- 1. a disrl.",,,,,,o' io ,bi>-
0Ii.!,in. posili'''' d .. "Clioo (IO Ih ~ righl'" Fig. 2 -1) al ...a}'s co""'s o ul posil""'. and" dis-
2-4 I "", ... _V<>kxhyO<!dAv.rog.Speed ~

pb"""",nl in Ibo upposiw di.oClinn (Iofl in lb. figure) alway' 00""" oul negali",.
For eLlmple . if Ih. pafliek! moves f.om x, - 5 m 10 x, - 12 m.lben <1.< - (12 m)
- (5 ml - + 7 m. The posit;vo .,.,;"11 indieale' Ihal lb. mOl;on "in 100 posili'·.
direction . If. in",ad. Ih. pa.tick """ 'cs from x, - 5 n, 10 x, - I m. Ihon
<\.>. - (\ m) - (5 ml - - 4 m. The "egalh... result ind>cales Ihal Ibe molloo is in
Ihc nesalive dimelion.
Thc aetual numoo. of n"'I~" cov.,cd for a \rip" irr"lev, nl ; dispLaeemcm in-
volve. onl)' Ib, origin,1 an d final poslliOffl. RI. ~IJmp"'. if Ih' parlide mOV(lS
from x - 5 m oul lox - 200 m and loon bact 1o x - 5 Il•. Ih' displa"""",,n l from
,la,llofinish is<l.x - (5 ml - (5 ml - O.
A plu, ,ign for a d bpla"""",nt noed nol "" sIIo,,-n_ bU I a n,inu, sign muSi
always 00 ,bown. If .." ignore Iho ,ign (and 1hu, Iho dir.Clion) 01 a dispLacom"nt.
.." ar" kfI1.-;lh Ihe m .~ni1Ude (or absolule '-a I"") of 100 displac<m,nl . Fo. exam-
ple. a dispLac.:>menl of <l.x - - 4 01 bas a malVlilu,,", of 4 m.
Displa""m.nl i,"u ",ample of a .-.ctO, qua n,i.); ..-hieh is a quanlily Ihal h ....
oolh a di.OClinn and a magnilude. We.xpJorc vectors more Iully in Orap ler J (in
facl. som. 01 you may h,,-, alwady ,oad Ihal chapl.. ). bill ho," all .." n.~d is Ih"
idea Iha( dispLacemenl h" 1"'0 fealures: (I) Its magm'",d~ " lb. dislaocc (such ....
Ihe numoo. 01 mClers) b'" ..
""'n Ihe o.iginal and final positions. (2) Its diru,i<m.
f.om an orig,nal posilion 1o a final pos,lion. can 00 rcpre""nl.d by • pl"s ,ign o. a
minus sign if 100 mOlion " alon8 a Slngle ax;';' ' ("'1
WII~' fo llow. is ,h~ Jim o! rna,,}, ch«Kpoims )'''''' ~.j/[ sa In ,,,,.. book. Each
COl"''''''! o ut! or ,no,.. q""'jo,,, "'oou an""~" "'/" '" .."M nasOl1i"g or a
m,,,,,,1 c~lculalion, and ,ach gil'" J "" a quiet dl«k of"",I' ,,,,dn",,,,,ding
of" poinr jU3I d'-"""sm/. Th< "IU~"" a" /is",/ jJ, "'~ bock of ,It. book.

0. H 'C I( POI NT 1 Her. are
,;"ly. • Iong •• x ..... Which pain
'hr.~ pail. 01 ;niti. ( ond fin>l (>OII;'iOl1<' ,,,poe-
y.. • n.ey,;ve di'l'I"",,,,,,,n1: (.) - 3 or. + 5 m,
J'
f lG. 2· Z Thoyaphoh(r)lor
(b) - 3 m. - 7 m; (~) 7 01. - 3 m1 aD arm><JiIlo 'M' ;,
""i""",), "
x _ - 2 m.Tho.v>lueoh" - 2 mlor
all,im ....
2-4 1Average Velocity and Average Speed
A compact "-ay 1o """,.ioo pas"ion is ",ilb a graph of pasilioo x ploned os a func-
I;on of lime I- a grapb of xl'). (Tho nOlalioo .1'(,) represen!. a lunctioo x of I. nol
Ihe prod",1 x li!lli!S ,.) A. a 'imple cIampi •. Fig. 2-2 show. 1M position function
..-(,) 10. a .lalionJ1Y a.madillo (" 'bklt we I.eal as • pa,tie"') 0'''' a 7 • lime iow,-
' -al.l1Ie anima!", pasili01t sta}~ Jlx - - 2m.
Fogure 2-.1a is morc u'I •• .:.sting. "",,"use il in,·olve. mo11on. Th;, •• madillo is
appa",nlly firsl nOlic.'<l al , - 0 ~-h.n il " al Ibo posil ioo x - - 5 m. It mov(lS
10,,-al<l x - O. pas"", Ib.ough Ibal poin l al I - 3 So and 11",,, mov •• on 10 increas-
iogly lar~~, posili'-e valu", 01 X . Fig"re 2-Jb depicts Ihe ,Iraiglll -Jin. mOlion of
Ihe a",,,,dillo and is somelhing Ij ~ e .. hal you would ....... TIle g.apb in Fig. 2-M is
mo •• abo\raCl and q"iM "nli~e ..-hOl)'oU ,"ould se~. bUI il is riclte. in inlormalion .
It also te",als ho ... fasllh. armadillo moves.
ACI"all~'. several quanhli..'5 are assoc.ateJ ,,-ilh Iho ph.a", ··ho ... la" ." One 01
Ibem i, Ibe a'...,, ~c ,e],w;,)" ~... _..-hieh is Ibo ,"lin of 1M dlSpLarem'"1 <I.< Ih.1 oc-
curs dUIlng a pa.lieular Ii"", inletval olt 1o Ibal i"t .. '-al :

<!.x x, - x,
(2-2) • , • , ('1
v... - ~ - ~ "

Tha nolahon m,,,n, Ibal Ihe posi!ion i, x, allune I, and Ibon .., al lim • .,. A rom-
flG. Z_J "
(oJTh'gropb olx(,)loO'O
movin! armodillo. (b) Tho pa,h
mon u"illo. I' ... IS 100 n "' (~. per second (mls). You m~y """ other unil' ,0 1M .,,,,..;.,'" "';,h ,h. y.pb.Th. ",alo
p.oblom~ bu! Ihey are always in Ib e fo.m of leoglh!lin"'- below ,ho x .... ,hOI., ,be ,;m .. at
On a grapb of x versus r. I' ... IS Ibe ' lope of Ibe st.aighl lioo Ibal ,onneCls Iwo whicb ,b. armodillo re""b .. voriow
parllcu l.1 f pornls 00 1M x(,) cu,,-e: one is 100 jIOlullhal ro"esponds 10 x, and ',. x v:o!u,~
xl") aod the olhet " lhe poi"1 Illal oorr,·~po"d. lOX, and r,. Like dlSploct'n"'"I. I·... has
bmh magnitu"," aod direcrio" (it is aoolher '"OClm quanlily). lis magOliuJo is 1M
maglliluw of Ibe ~oe·, slope. A posiliv" I·... (and ,lop") 10lk us lhal (h. Ii""
slams upw31d to Ib~ righl; • negalive I·... (and 'lope) ICUS us Ihal Ibo Ii"" slanls
do"",,"31d 10 the righl . Th" aWf"g' ",Iocil)" 1'... aJ.,.y. h" Ihe same sign", lhi!
displaceme"1 <l.x boca"", <I., in Eq . 2·2 i, al ••ays posili'·e.
Figure 2·4 sOOw. OOW 10 find I ·... in Fig. 2·310' 100 Ii"", i"l<'rvaJ , - I .10 I - 4 ~

f' W. d,.w 100 miliglll h"" Ihal oo"""cr, Ihe poi"1 0" Ih~ posilio" cu,,", BI (00 be·
ginning of lb. int,,,·. 1 .lId 1M (lOInl 0" lhe CII"·. al Iho end 01 too IGw,,·aJ. TIJ,on
I j1 ,... find Ih._slop<' <l.x!<l.1 of tlli! siraighllin,," Fo' tlli! gi''''" lime_iOle"u.]. Ih~ a",,-
age wloClly is
"""" .I.I· ''' - H .. I . '," Om
~~~---
3'0 -
~t=± :-&1.•. _ 1•• • ,
I' ... - 2 nlis.

,\>"er .~. ,p.<>t.I ' ... is • difl.wnl wa)' 01 <l=ribi"g ··how fas!"· a "",ud"
F1G. U CaI,u1.ti""oft"'.veras' m"""" Wbo,"", lhe ave'age ,",Iocily involh'S (ho pa,I .c1e·, d'>ploc~""'nl <l.x. 100
velocity bet""",n I · I ...d I _ 4 •
aW_"g" sl""''<1 involves lh. lotal dislanro """e,ed (fol example. Iho numbel of
.. tbe slope of tb, line th.at connect.
""'lets "lOwd).i"depend"01 of di'ee1ioo; lh.1 is,
tlle poin" "" 'he x(t) C\lrve "'p"'.
stntins too.e ,ime~
,~
- 101 al disl'""",
(2 -3)

B",""u", av"rag~ ,!",cd tloos ,,," iocluJo dimcliou.;t l""~s an)' algebraic sign.
Somol; mes ' . .. is lh. "Ill~ (e_.",pl 101 too absrnro of a sign ) a •• '.... Ho"",,,,,. "'
is wmonsuawd ;n Samp'" P,oblem 2-1. Ih" IwoC1l" to. quil" diflo,on!.
Sample Problem m
Yoo dri"~ a to..!-UP pd"p trud along" Slraigh! ,oad Calculations: W. firsl wrile
fOf 8A km al 70 kmlb. al wbi<"h poinl I"" truck runs 0111 ~
01 gooi", and Slops. 0,..,. the n~xt 30 min. you wa!J: an- I' - ~
...... <1.1", ·
Cl her 2.0 l m /a'IIIO, along (be rood 10 a ga<iO~"" SI"i,,".
R.a"angi" g and suboliluling dala Ihcn gi'''' us
<"JWha! is }'OU' "".,all d~I"""O!.nl from lb. b<>gin-
8.4 kO!
nmg 01 you, d"," 10 }'our arrival al (h , 'talio"? - 0.12 h.
70 k mlb
<1.1 - <1.1 .. + <1.1 ...
- 0.11 h + O.50h - 0.61 h. (Answer)
(c) Wbal is )'OIIr a",rag;> velocily I ·... from lhe hegin-
niog of }'OU' drove 10 )'our ."".,1.1 Ihe 'l"io01 Fi"d il
oolh n""""icall)' and gt.plucally.
firsl positioo.
"
ulculation: From Eq. l I. "'0 haw From Eq , 2-2 w~ know Ihall' ... fortn< e"';"
<1..< - ..., - x, - lOA km - 0 - lOA km . "1110 of the di",I:J<>'m<'n( of lOA ~m }Or ,'" m -
Ii", trip 10 100 1;,,-.., inl."u.] of 0.62 hI'" tI~ en';" trip.
ThUs. your ow,.U displ.ce""'"1 i, lOA km io Ih~ rffi-
live di'i'Clion of Ih" -< axis.
Calculation: Here w. find
,... ---
<1.1 - 0.62 b
(b) Whal is Ih ~ lime iOIe,,'al <1.11,,,", 100 Iwginning 01 <U lOA km
you, d",'. 10 }'our .",val al (h. ,talion?
- 16.8 km lb _ 17 kmlh. ( Aos~",)
w~ ,I,.ad)' know lhe walking Ii"", inh),val
<1.1. .. ( - 0.50 b) . bU! ,,-. lock 100 d,i"0g 11"", .m.,,'al To find v... glaphlC,II)'. firsl .." graph lh. IUfICllo" X(I)
<1.1.. . How""et. ,,-~ k"o'" (hal fOf 100 d,i"~ Ib~ displJce. <IS sho .." in Fig. 2-5. ..- hc,~ (he boginn;ng and a ... '-al
"","I ')"-. . is 8.4 l m and lhe average wooly I'~ IS 1"';"150" lh" graph are Ih~ orig>" ,"d Ihe poinl lab;>l,d
70 kmlb . Thu~ IbIS awrag<'- ,'.Iocily is lb. ralio 01 Ih~ dis- '" ··Slalion:· You, ."",age wlocol)' i, Ihe slop< of lhi!
place""'''t for Ihe drive 10 Ih. lime Inti',,,..1 for Ihe drive. suaighl I"", IDn"oC1ing IbOSi' (lOIniS; Ihat IS, v ... i, lhi!
2.,5 I ln". n'''''eo<nV.loc:rry""dSpoed ~
, rabO of !he riu ( ~.( - lOA km) 10 Ih. nm (.1, - 0.62 h).
whicb gives us ",.. - 16.8 hnlb .
" I ".,l••.•
Tru<kHOf"
(d ) SUPIX"" (hal to pump Ih~ gasohu~. (XI)' 101 " . and
'"
, walk had: to IbB Iruek takes }'OU anolb •• 4S "bn . What
i

,, is your ow ..!;" sp<.>OO from (he lK>ginniog of you, drive


I •
•• ~ I- to,,, "'"1
10 you, ,~!U," 10 lhe trurl: "jlh {h. gasoli"~1

, j.L
•• ., ..,"\•••~'I · O

Tlme(b\
..,
FIG. z.li lb. line. marted -Driving" and"Walk;"!!" are ,b. Ca/CU/,otlon: Tha !DIal di,{."", is 8A kill -t 2.0 hn -t
"",oioo _';m. pi"'" for ,he <!riving and ......a:iog "'S".(Tb. 2.0 km - 12.4 kin Tl>.> lOul lime im~.val is 0.12 h -t
plot fortbe waiting ""!' ...""""" • roruun, rat, of "",Iki.s.) O.~ b -t 0.75 h - 1.37 h. Thy,_ Eq . 2-3 give, \IS
lb. slope of 'he '''''gh'U.... joining ,be oriy., and the poi"'
I.beled '"Statio.";' 'he .ver.ll"- v,loci')' lor tbe 'rip,from tho
beginn"'! 10 ,b. st.tion. ' ... - 12A km
U7h
- 9.1 kmlb . (Ans .....,.)

I'ROILE M-SOLVING lIlCTlC5

Tactk 1: Do You Under,!.nd tIKI Prolhm? Th. 000Il _ Tactic 3 : Is YOUI AM"' ...· Rea.onabl<o? Doe. your ail _
moodifliNhr" .imply "'" undo .. tandin& the problem. The be", S,." m. b """, or is i, lor '00 large or lar ,oo.m..n? I. ,b.
, .... ofunde,,'an:liD!;, ,his:e.. Y<'" oxpI>in tbe problem? sign COl''''''? Art tbe uni" ' pp<<>p<i . ,.1 1. pal' « ) of S.mple
Wri1f down the ¢Ven data. wi,b unit~ ""OS the ')'fllbok PTobI.m 2_l.Ior ...mpie"he ""lrl'C1 ""',." i, 17 kmlh, lf fOIl
of the <h.p''', (In S.... pI. Probl"", 2-1. ,h. given dou ..now find 0.00017 kmih, - 11 bru'h. 17 kmi.. or 17 000 kmih, fOO
fou '0 find fOIl' net di>pl",emen' II.< in pan (. ) . nd ,he should ".Iiz, ., <IOCe ,." you kav. done """,.,hlng lOT""!,.
oon..,~ time interval .1t in part (b).) Men'i!)' ,he The m o.- Itla)' lie in you, ",,,,hod, io)'<>U, algcm ,or in)'OllI
lUllno'oIn aod it> 'J'IIIboI. (In the """pie p",blem. the unboI<n "y",otinS ofnumbe" on • e>klll.,or.
in pan (e) is)'OOl' . ""r>.!" ""1ori1)' "...-) The. lind ,h. """"""
,;00 beowe.n ,he ""too.... :ond the d.... (Ihe C<JDH«:Iioa is 1"0-
Tactic ,,: Reading a Graph Fisu, .. 2-1. 2-3., 2-I , . nd
vdedby Eq,l-2, ,II< delinilioa of .""ngevelo<i'~) 2_5 .... graphs )'OIl s.boukl be . bIe '0 "ad •• siI),. lo ....... y . ph,
tbe v:uioble "" ,be bOO"""al an.i, ,h. ,ime " ,.j,b 'be direc_
Tactic 2 : Ate I"" Units 01(1 Be """ 10 US< a """,,"en' '''''' 01 in", .. inE ,ime '0 ,he !ish" 10 .a.cb, ,b ••ari.bl. ""
... 01 unit> .. be. ""I1",! ownh." ",'0 ,he oq.atioru. In Sample tbe unicoi oxi. ~ ,b,
pooi'ioa x of the moving p.nicle wit •
Problem 1-1. the logical oniIs in leTOW of tho give. <h .. Ol' kilo- re'f"'CIlO ,he origin, ..ito the p<»i1iv. dirw;oo of x u~rd
""'"" for dis'''''''''',bour. I", time in' <fVaio,;ni kiIomet." ptr A!wa)~ """ the "Diu ("""",,<10 or min., ..,...".., or b lome_
how lor velorilie. y"" IRa)' >OO>eIim .. Di>Od'oroovm unit~ len) in "'hicll ,II.....iabl'" Of • • xpr .... d

2-5 I Instantaneous Velocity and Speed
You bave now ..,~ o Iwo ways 10 ""-'<:';00 bow 1""- "otJ"'lhing moves: ",..'.ag<>
W(ocil)' and ,vc'"g<l sfl<"'d. bolh 01 "biclt aI<' "",asu,oo ow •• limo interval ~.
Howe""., Ihe pb,.", " how la~" mo." oommonl)' ,efers 10 bow faSI a pJ.liclo"
moving al a giwn inslanl-ils i. ""n, a n"Qn, "elt><i, y (01 simply .-. k>d , y) ".
Th. velocily ~I .uy insl~nl is oblailk.>d ltom 1110> a,""'~ gc velocily by sh.in ~ing
tbe lim. inlo,,-.I t>.1 dose. and dos.>' 100, As ~ d •.-ind(." Ih . awrage velocily oj>-
p.Q,Jeb", a llmilin g value .•,.hich is Ihe wlocily "1 lbal Ur;1"nl:

, t>.., dx
" - • 11m - - - -dl-.
• _ . t>.1
(2-4)

NOle Ih.1 " is Ihc rale al" hid po;silioo x ;s changing "il b lime .1 • giwn insIJ"I:
IhJI i~ " is Ih. de';-"Ii,,, of -' "ilh ''''J'OCl 10 r. AI", nole Ih.1 ,'al any ; tr<lanl is
Iho sl"P" of Ihc posilion-lim" cu,ve al Ihe J'Olnl ''' p .'''''"ting Ibal ,nsIJIlI .
Vclocily is anOlhe, ""Clot quanlily and In", has an .ssocialOO dililClion.
~ Ch.opt ... 2 I Motion Akmg. Strlligtlt (j,..
S, .ed is tbe magnitude 01 ,..,Iocily; lbal is, s!"-'-">d is ~.IOClly Inal ha, Ix..... "
Sl,ipp<'<l of any iod;calictn of diro.1;on, <>il"'" in words Of vj, an algebraIC sign.
(OrUlion: S",,~d and 3W rage spood can b.> qui,e d,ffe,"", .) A , ... Iocny of + 5 fils
and one of - 5 mfs oolh h3ve an """"ialed SJ"l"d 01 ~ mt.. The sp.",oo"",(e, in a
car ",.asu",.. sp....m. nol wl<>city (il cannot d<lerm;oe 100 dirOClion).

/c H 'C K POI N T Z Tho following "Iu"iorn y.. ,he pooilio,u(r) 01 • I'",'i<l,
in four ,jtu.tions (in .",h "'I""tioA. x .. i.......n" is in ..coods. and , > 0): (I ) x _
Jt - 1; (2) x _ - .\I' - 1: (J) z _ :u,~ and (4) z _ - 2. (oj In which ,;,u,1ioD ~ u.. v.loc_
"r v of lb. panicleroru","'? (b) In wbicb" v in , ••• e~ . ';'ex dir«tiOll?

Sample Problem m
Figure 2-6.. is"n ..-(.) plol 101 an ",,""",0. cab lba, is ini- •
lially Slalionary. Ibon moves upward (,,-hien we 13 ~ . !O
00 lb. posiliVi' di'I'C,;on olx). "od Ibo" SlOps. Plot vCr). 2
• . ,... . - ,
We can find {he veloci!y a! an)' !i"", from j ""
, . Urn
,,,
"

,
'I
r
Ike ,lope of lh. x(t) CIHW a! {k .! !une. g
" ,,: ~.
Calculatio ...: The slope of x('j. and so"ko !Il<' "eiocil y. .E .C-:'I _ ,,
,,,.0 "
• .~',~ ~;:... i
is in Ihe inlen'als from 0 10 1 ,and from 9 S 00. so ,
Ihen tOO c~b i, Slalionary. Outing t OO inlerva1 1><-, Ih ~
sl"Pi' is OXIslanl and lIO"",r",5O lhe" lhe cab mo'", "')In
rons!,nl .... locil)'. We cakula!~!he s10Jl" of.«,) {heo .. •• , , • • "
;:x ------

0 0
----~

, • • ,
~ _ ., _ Hm - 4.0", - + 4.0ml,. ,.,
Timol_)

{J., 8.0 , 3.0, ~"
, <>I.I ~

TOO pius ,ign i"dicat" Ihat Ille cab is n,o'1n8 in Ille pos.
T
iliv~ -< di';><lioo. Th""" '01",,""[<; ( .. lIew • _ 0 "od • -
~ m,.j .r" p loUod in Fig.2-61>. In a <ldilion. a, too cab ini- • j • ." 1,
liaUy b.!gin' 10 move aod III "n lat", slow, !o a SlOp. i • /

./...
"va";", a, ,ndi<"~I"" in Ih . inlerval, 1'10 J s "nd S , 10 ••
9 s Thus, Fig. 2-6b is 100 required 1,101 . (Figu,e 2-6c is
coosid<>roo in S<>cti0fl2.6.) !,
Gwen" 1'(') srapb ,ocll as Fig. 2-6b. we could"w01 t ,
b""[:W,,d" 10 prn<loco tOO sIIa"" of lile associaloo x(t)
graph (Fig. 2-6..). Ho~""",. w. would "01 ~"O'" 100 oc_
0
• , , • • • 0 , • • ,
'""'" 1- )
1".1 ,'.I"es for x ,I ,-"io", limes, t...caus.o Ihe .'(t) &faph
ind;c;.I" o nly ~hang,s in x. To find ,ocil "cb,nge in x
during an)' inwrv.l. ~. musl. in Ih. languag<l of cakulu s,
ol,'(~
'"
cairuJal" lhe area "un""r Ibe curv.·· 00 Ine v(t) &f"pb f01
Ih al iOlerval. Ror onmple. during Ihe inl'-'fVal 3 s 10 8 s in i ,,
, .""'.i.r..;O.;

.- •'"
.I
1 j,
L• ,
"'hiell lb. cab ha, a ,-"Iocil)' of ~ .O ,",s, !heebang<l in .• is

fJ..- - (4.0 ,",,)(8.05 - 3.051 - + 20
(This a,". is po<iliv~
m.
I>o<:ause Ihe .~,) curve " aoo"~ lh~
, a'li~) Figure 2--6a show. Ih" x doe5 iooooo i"" ••", by
,U ± ~ =
! ~
~

~
,*",",00 ~~~ ~
20 m in Ihal inlC'v,1. How""",. Fig. l-& <Io.>s nol leU '"
Ihe mlu<s of x allh" b..oginmng and ~nd of 100 iO''-'fVal
For Ib.l . w ~ need additional inf01mahon. sueb ., Ib~
value of -' a! sorue iw;1anl.

FIG . ~" ( ~)Tbex( 1) <IIrvelO£ an . lev"or ""b ,bal move. "pw..-d aloog .. x ""is. (b) Th. 'i') <urYe
lor Ibe<. b. Nore Ib>l il is ,b, d"ivali", of ltoe x(r) curv. (., _ IWdrH<) The ~(') '"'Ye lor ,be cab. I, is
,toe cleriv.live of ,b. Y(r)<urve (. _ d.MI). The ltd figures alOll! ,be bonom 'U~, bow. pa<><0ser".
body migb ' 1,,1 during ,b. acrel""io ...
2-6 I Aca>k>foti.", ~

1M posilioo 01 a p.1.lie'" mo\1ng 00 IUl .< ,,-,is is giV('n b)- - 2. 1 mI,'.Takiog Ibe d",ival;v~ 01 Eq. 2-5. W~ 1... il~
x - 7.8 + 9.21 - 2.11'.
..ilh -< ill ,,,,,lets and ,,0
",",nds. Wbol is iI' ,-.Iocily al
(2-5)
'" " (7.8 + 9.2f - 2.11').
" - T, - d,
I - 3.5 s1 Is Ihe ,-.IOCIly conSlIUlI. ot ts il conlinuousl}' whieh tK><:omes
changing? ,. - 0 + 9.2 - (3)(2.1)r - 9.2 - 6.3f. (2-6)
AII - 3.5s.
i Vcloc,I}' ts I.... firsl "",i' -ali,.. (,.-.Ih m'p.lCI I' - 9.2 - (6.3)(1.5)' - - 68 mls. (An,""')
10 Ii,,,,,) of lhe posilion IU OClion x(,).
All - 3.5 '" Ih e parl id" is mm-lng in Ih. negalive di.ec-
u/culationo: Fot ,implirily. lh. unils have b,.-;eo omil - lioo of x (0010 Ih. min .... sign) wilh a sl"'"" of 68 mls
IN from Eq. 2-5. bU I you can i~'1 lhem if }'OU like Sin"" lhi> quanlily , apl"'''' in Eq. 2-6. Ibe ",Iocil)' •
by cbanging Ih~ COi'foc..nl' 10 7.8 m. 9.2 mls. IUld d"l"'n", on , .nd so is conlinuO\I'Sly ch,ngiog.

2-6 1Acceleration
Wh en a pa'lie"", ",locily <hng"" lhe. p.1l1icK! is said 10 "nd.:!'go """,Ie"nion (or
10 accelerale). Fot mOlion along an .xis. Ih" IW' "" OK'<'(·le, . ,lon a ... 0"" a Ii"",
,""·",al!J.lis

a ... -
I', - I',
-- .
~
(2 -7)
" "
..11<!,,, Ihe par lOd~ bas velocilY ", .11ome I, "nd Ihen ,-"Iocily 1-, alIi"", f,. The
i._,to "",ncou, locele,mi on (ot ,imply "",:.. k:Mion ) "

a ".
- T,' (2 -S)

In ..-otds.lhe. . =""a(lon 01 a p.1 l1ic1e a( any msl.,,1 i, Ihe ",Ie al ..-bieh iI' '-CIOClly
" rnanlOng allhal ;flS1anl . G,aphically. Iho a=letalion aI "ny I>OUlI " 1""- ,Iop<l 01
1""- eu,ve 01 "II) al iIlal point \\e can oomhlM Eq .1-8 ..-il b Eq. 2-4 10 w';IC

" '('") ",
o - T, - d, dI - dr" (2 -9)

In wo,ds. lhe """"' '''",1;00 01. pa,{icle 'l an)' inslalll i, Ik. "","nd denvali", 01
iI' ro"lion xl') "',Ib ">;p<'<I 10 limo.
A common UO;I 01 aerole,"l;on i, 100 ,,,,,Ie, per second pc. S£'rood : mI(,·s)
0' mls'. Olhe. unil' are;n too lorm of "'ngllli(lime'lime) ot 1""Slhllime' .
A="',a liou bas t>olh magnilU"" and dlf.x:1ion (il i, yel anolh", "0<:10' quan-
lily). lis algebraic ,;gn "'p,e""nls ;IS di ,ecl;ou 00 an axis jusl as lot displa", ,,,,,,nl
and wlOClly: Ihal '" "=""" Iion ..-;Ih a posilive ".Iu~ is in Ih. posili", dir oC1ion
of "" axis. and "ocel.' raliou ,,-;Ih a nogali", '-aluo i, in Ib~ negali,.. di'OCIioo.
Figure 2-60: is a plol 01 Ihe 1iOC~lera { ion of I.... d ~ va { ot ~ab diseus""d in
Samp'" Problem 1 -2. Compa,e Ihis a(,) eu,ve " ;Ih lb . "( ,) curw - ~ach flOinl on
{he <1(1) eu,w ,110 ... Ihe de,ival;"~ (~ "P") of lhi! ,-(,) eurvo al Iho rotI'es("J1lding
I;m<>, Whon • is conslaol (al ei lhe, 00' 4 mI').lh~ ""'ivali", " Zi'ro and so atlo;, lho>
ooc.l "'ralio" . When lhi! cab fus1 begin' 10 mo,,". Ihe ,-(I) eu II... ba:s a polili"" deriva-
Ii.. (Ill« ,Iop<l;, (XI'ilive). wblch lThlan<; Ihal 0(,) is pre;I;"", Wbeo lho> cab slows 10"
9-op. l",,- d.:!,;va li"~ IUld slop.:! oIlhe 1'(1) curve a,. ""gal;"~; Ihal is.a(I) is neg'tli'....
NeXi comp"'" lhe. slopo.>s of Ibo "(I) CUf\-e during Ih" 1..'0 acc~kra lion I"'ri-
ods. Th •• lope associa l"d ..ilh lb . cab', slowing do",n (commonly called "de ",~
. ,ahOll ") is 'I'~' "",,"USil Ih ~ cab Slops in hallihe I;me il look 10 gel up 10
'P'-;ed . Tho 'Ieepc' 'lop« """IUlS lhall be magnilude ollhe dOC<'lerahO"" [a.S'"
{bau Ihal 01 {be aoc~k"llOn. as in~ica le d in Rg. 2-&.
FIG. 2·1 CoIOIl,1l P. St' P!' i••
rocket ,led as it;. bfOlly.t up to high n." ""O""oos IOU would 1",,1 .,hilo riding in Ihe cab of FIg. 2.fi .w ",dicalM
ope«! I""",,,,.tiot> OIlt 01 tbe p'!") b). tho slotchoo figuros at the bolton!. Wh"n lhe cab fi.st acede"tes. you fe<>1 as
.Dd th .. Y'"Y J >pidly b"'N (""'" I· Ihougb )"ou 3te p,o",,'<l d01I"1lW •• d: wb,n lale , Ih. cab IS bf"ilhd 10' "op. YOll
'lOtiot> into tbe page). (C.."",y U.S. ",em 10 be stretched " " ward. In ben....". you fe<>1 nothing 'P''CIal. In olbe ,
Ajrf"omo) w01d~ yO"' body .e""ts 10 ooc"k,a{,ons (II is all OC<>:'IOf01ll<'le.) but nol to
velOCIties (il is nol a 'P'",dom"lCr). When }·ou a,e in a car !ravehng al 90 lmlh 01
at, "i'1'l.oo t..,voting at 900 ~OI l b. }·ou have no bod,,}· a"',,,,oo,. of Ih~ moho".
Ho ..""" •. illh" ca, 01 1'1'00 quiel l)· change, velocity. }·ou ma}· "'-'COOl" l""nly
""'are of lb. cbang<'. pe.haps ,,'"Cn I.igb"'ood by it . Part 01 the Ih.dl 01 ,n ann"",·
""'01 p"~ ri"" i, due 10 Ih" q"ie~ ma"Bos of wlocity thai yO" ""<1..... 80 (yO" pa y
10' Ihe acceleration" not fo. th~ spnJ). A mow .xl,eme '''011'1. is sno .... in lhe
pholographs of Fig. 2·7.... bieb .." .. lalen 1.. hil" • mctel sled ,.."' .ap,dl}· _=10.·
aled along a 1ract and Ih"n rapidly bral"" 10 a stop. ~
La,S" a=lo,."ol15 are som.rim"~ exp'<"S5<'d in le.ms 01 g ""ils. ,,-;th
19 - 9.8 mi.' (s "nil ). (2· 10)
(As w. 'haU di'iCUSS ," &>clion 2·9. g is Ih. magnitude 01 Ihe """, ,,,.ation of a
faili"g ob,ect oo.r Earth', ,u,f"",.) On a rollo. roJ.ste,. you may experie nce b.ief
"""""'talio"' up to Jg . .... hich is (3)(9.8 mls'). 0' .00",
29 mls'. mo.~ Ib.n eno"gb
10 justify the cosl 01100 .i""-

~IIOBLEM-50LYING TiI.CI1C5
Tactic 5; An Acce/eracion·s Sign I. commo. l:m- H". then ~ ,he proper ,...y 'oin",I"" 'be ';gn"
guag<. ,he "S' of:m occel".tion It", • "".oc:ie.,ffi< """""i.!' . . . II tbe .;gn. 01 tho yelodty ... d """"",..ti""
of . port;"''''
pooiIive """l,,,tioo ""' .... ,hat ,he .peed 01 an obi .... ~
ioe","".g. and .. ytive """""..,;"" m..... tb., tb •. 'l""'d ~ "etbela/1M.". ,he .ptodof'be panir" iner ...... II tb, .. S..
d.ecr • • ",,! (tbe obj«t is d""l .... ing). In 'his boot. however. "0 oppoo;1e. ,It •• pood <I«" ... ~
,he";gn 0I :tO "",,",.,ioA iodie.,es. dir«tiot> .•", ,.bethe,
""ob;":<"" f'f"d ~ incr.""'! Of dK"aoi.g.. Vc H'CKPOINT 3 A """"bat mo"""oIo.s onx
FOf .xample. if • car witll •• initial yelocit)· I· _ - 15 mi. ...... Wltor i. tb. 'ign of ito """ ... ,,100 if;, .. onovinS (a) in
i, b,lIkod to Ht"!' in 5.0 ~ then _.., _ +5.0 m.'t'.Tho >«,1 .. >- ,be p<>!;'iv. di, .... ;"" wi,b ioc:ro""ng opeN.(b) in th. posi_
,;"" ;. posUi'~. but tb. =., speed It .. d",,..,.,.d. Th. " ...,., ,iv. dir«t;"" wi,b do<re .....s 'f""'d. (e) in 'bo "g";ve
i, tbe ditt,,,.,,,,
in .iyu: tbe di'e<tio. of tb, """,,,,..ti,,,,~ dirKlio. wi,. iocr •• ",,! . pted. ODd (d) in tb, O'!";'"
opposi" tb., 01 the vt100ty. diroctio .... b decr• .,in8 'pt<d"l

.< - ~ - 27t + ".

"·ilb Xln m,",,,, and, in seconds.
(a) Boca"", position.< depends 0" lilllo t. Ih ~ pJrtielo
nlUst b<> moving. Fwd tile pJ,6clo·s wlocily fuoction Co/cWtions: Difkrenliating ,lie. posllioo fUOClion ..." find
,·(1) and a=J.ora1io" I"oct;"" ntl). I· - - 27 + ),'.
wilh,' in mme .. P'" secood . Dlffe,enlialing Ibe velocilY A! I - O.!OO ",,'Ilde ;, a!x(O) - + 4 m and is mO'ing
funclioo !hen giws u,
a - + 61. (An,,,,,,)
"'Ih a velocilY 01 "(0) - - T/ mi,-!hal i:s. in !lie n,ga-

cau,", juS! loon !be ""nic"", veloci!y is 001 rnaoging.
°
li"e dir<'Cl;oo 0( Ibe ..- aJ;~ Jt< .=Ioral;oo is a(O) - be-
"'Ih a in n"Ne" f"" s'''»n~ squa,ed.
Fo, 0 < 1<3" 100 ",,'lid.> siul has a ooga!ive
(b) [, loo,e ow, a !in", ..tlen v - Wlocil~'. so il oonlin",... !o move in Ihe ""gali"c d;,e<:{ion.
°
(f/
Ho .."vef. i!s accel"ralion is no longe, bY! is iflCfeasing
u/culatlon: s"nio& "(1) - 0 ~'l.lds
and (X'Si!ive. B•.-"",u,", !oo sign, 0( too '"Iocily and Ilia .c-
0 - - 27 + 31'. celoralioo are opposi1e. It.. "",!ic'" muSI be sln"-ing.
"b"'" has 100 ,.,Iulion lnd""d . .." al,eady how !bal;1 'lOP' n,omen!anl)'
I - :!o 3s. a!, - 3 s JuS! Iboo !he parlick is os far 1o the lell 01 llIi!
(A llSwe.)
o'igin in Fig. 2 -1 as i! ""II eWI!('1. Subslilllling 1 - 3,
Thu~ Ihe velocl1y is ''''0 oolh J, belore "nd 3 5 afler inlo 100 exP''''''''''"10u(I)."" find Ihal 100 panlde', """-
looclock ,ead,O. "00 )!lS1 Ihen i:s x - - SO m. lis II<n'Ii',alion "51iU (X'SillVe.
Fo, ,> 3 s. Ihe "",Iicle moves 10 Ihe righl on Ih.
(c) Dose,i"" Ih' paniclo', molion 101 ,,, 0.
axis. lis aoce le,alion ,,,main, posihve aud grows p.o-
Rosonlng: We need 10 exam;oo Ihe ~xp,,,,,, ion' 101 gress""I)' lar&", tn mJgI1illlde. Th. wlOCJly " now posi-
x (.). 1'(1). Jnd a(,'. Ii", .• nd tl 100 grows prog,essively larg<" in mag"ilud"

2-7 1Constant Acceleration: A Special Case
10 lIl.ny I}'P'" of n"'lion. ,II. aoc.I""lioo is eil ll", co\l,;lanl 0' apPIOI;ma"ljI so.
FOl oxample. you migbl a=lera" a ca. al an 'pproxim.lIdy con",nl ,"10 ".-hon "
a "'ffie ~ghl lurn, lrom ,od 10 g"eo. Ttk>fl graph' of }'Oll' posilion. wloci'y."M
""""Ie,alion would resembl~ Ib"", in Fig. 2-K (NOlO Ihal a(1) in Fl.!;. 2-& is oon - I
SI.nl. " 'hirn ''''Ill''''' 111.1 1'(1) ,n Fig. 2-& ha~" a conSlnn! slope.) Lal", when }'OU
bla ~ ~ ,00 ~ar 10 a Slop. Ihe acc"",ralioo (01 1k'CCt."lion in oommon language)
mighl .Iso be 'I'ploximal"l)' conSiant.
::t::::::::::..::=-
,.,
Such cases a,e so common IIID! a 'p"cial sN of equD!ioft'l bas ""en do,ivoo
101 de'ling ",illl 100m. On" apPloarnlo Ihe do.,,-alion of Ih<lse "'Iualioft'l i, gi'-on
,
in thi' ""'lion. A second approadJ "givo" in tbe nexl ",.,ioo. ThIOUgbOlll oolh

!•
""<Iiou, and Iale, wll,'n you .. ".t 0/1 Ih. 1I0mo"",k p.obleru~ teepin m,ndillal
rluu ~Ualkms <IT< \'alid only fo' "",,,,,,,, occ"",mum (Q' siom/ions i~ .... hich JO"
call "pP'w:i,"ul~ ,/", ««fcmlloll os b"'''g «"Ula"').
Wh"n lho> """,icral;"" "OJOSl'O'.IOO awrag<'- ..,.:<Iera,ioo and instanialk)()lt; 0<:-
<>.""""""", at. equal aoo ""can "'file Eq ,2-7. wilh ""mecl\ang" in notali"" ...
v - I'.
.
•,' - - - - - - - -
a - a - ---
.... 1- 0 ' '"
~ "j - --.,.".='.::""-
fIG. Z.. (a) Th. positio. xU) of . particle moving wilb oon"',nt acc.lentioa. (b) I"
velocity "").given at .",11 poi.t by the slope of tb. """'" oh(I). (c) It, (ro ....01) >«<1 .. _
>l ion, tqu>l 10 tho (ron>t .. t) .. ope of the curve 01 11/).
'.'-------
~ Ch.opt ... 2 I Motion Akmg. Strlligtlt (j,..

He," ". is the ""loeOl)" at {Il"'" - 0 and v is tbo velocity at any lal", lime I. We can
{his ,,<!uall{ln ""
"-'<"3"iI

,. - ". + a'. (2-11 )

As • cbock, nOie Ihallk ... equ.,ion •• duG'S to ,. - \'0 lor I - 0, as ;1 must As a fu,·
th., ,hod . lake tbe tkrivOIiv. 01 Eq. 2-11. Doing so yii>lds d,M, - a, ..-k"", is I""
di>finili"o 01 a. Figure 2-Sb sho .... " plot of Eq. 2-11.1ho \'(,) fUlKtion , Ih. Illocl;on
is Iia;>Jf "nd thus thc plot is • Slraigbllin".
III • similar maone, . .." can ,.,,·rite Eq. 2-2 ("ilh a low chang"" in oomion) ..
x - x.
v , .. - , 0
and Ih"" as
(2-12)
in •.-bich x. is the rosi!iO" ollbe panic"'., , - 0 and ", .. is 100 avc .. g~ yelocity
""1 .... ~" I - 0 and a law. 1;""" .
For Ih. Ii",,", v.loci! YIll"Clio" in Eq. 2-11.lbe a"Hag' velocity ""C, any Ii"",
interval (,"y. from I - 0 10 a later l;n", ,) is thc aver.go of the velocity.l Ih. 1><>-
ginning of 1M interva] ( - "oJ and 100 velocily al Ibe .nd 01 Ihe in!",,-al ( - ,'). For
Ihe inlorval from, - O!O !b~ la!", !ime 'IOOU. Ihe aw,"g<' ,,,loci!)' i,

"... - 1<'-, + "). (2-13)
SUbsli1U!ing the 'igh! "de of Eq. 2-11 fo, " yields. .h", • li a le f('.rra"ge"",n!,
1'-. - I', + ta'. (2-14)
Fioally,subsliluling Eq, 2-1~ inlo Eq. 2-12 yiold:!

J( - x. - I'.' + iar' (2-15)

As a cbod:, no!e Iha( pu l1ing , - 0 )'iold:! -' - x .. as il lIlust As a fU'I IIe, cllec~ .
laking Ih. <J",j'-ah'-e 01 Eq. l -15 )'ields Eq. 2-11. again as il filUS!. Fig" ,e 2-8a
sllO"s a plol 01 Eq, 1-15: I he fU"'hOn is quad,atic and Ihu, Ihe plot" cu,ved .
Equalioos 2-11 ""d 2-15 are Iho basic eq"alW'" for ccmsralll acalualum:
th~)' can "" used 10 solw any consl,,,( aocele"lio" problom i" Ihis book.
Ho ....,ve', w., ran "",ive olil<>, "'I"al""" Ih.t might p'ov~ useful i" ""Iai"
spox-ifi. Sllualions FItS!. "Ole Ih"l "' mao}' a. five qua"I ,I"" ran possibly""
i"volved i" aoy problofil "bout con"""l a.<n1e .. IKln- "'lIlely.x - x .. I'. ',<I, and
I'". U5uaUy. oo~ of lhi>.se quanlilies io; "ar io'-ol""d in (he proble m. ';,hn- "-' Q gi.'en
o r ru an "nk",,~-~. W'oare Ihen p,e"'"!ed "'Ih !h,ee olille f('mainiog quanti!>..
"lid asked !o find Iho fourlh.
Equations 2-11 ""d 2-15 coc h co"lallllour of the"" qu"ntilie" bU I "01 lhil
"'"'" fou,. I" Eq . 2-11. Ihe "m.-;si"g illgtedi.",., is Ih. disp]"",nwnl -' - x ~ In Eq,
2-15. il is Iho ",Iocil)' " 'Th<!se Iwo "'Iualioos c~n "Iso "" combined in Ih,~~ wa)',
10 )';"Id (h, ,,,, addilio"al eq"'tions. "arn 01 which ,n'-olvos a diffe""1 "mio;sing
v31iabl •." Firsl. we can eh",inal~ 110 oblai"
I" - "j + 2a(x - J(.). (2-16)
Thi' .qual""o is u",lul if ..... do "01 how, and 31e nol ,.qui,.<l1O find it s..'COnd .
"~ran eliminal" Ihe OCCI'Ie,al,on a ""I",en Eqs 2-11 .. d 2- 1~ 10 produce""
eq"'lio" i" " 'boch a doe, nol app"ar.
-' - x. - t(", + I'}I. (2-17)
Final!)'. w~ can eliminale I'o-obl,ining
x - x, - '" - iat'. (2-18)
NOIe 100 ,ubU. difle,~OC<! bill",,"n Ibi, equ"lio" .ud Eq . 2 15. 0",,- iuvolw51hil
i"ilial vekocily I''; 1"" olb .. , in'-oh'es Ihe veJocily I' al lin," ,.
Table 2- llisl5 lhe baSIC co""anl a=1.ralion ~qualiol1'S (E'I"
2- 11 a"d 2-15) a, ..",U as lhe 'p<'Cializod cqualion, ,hal we have
Eq""'iom for Mo.ion wi.h Con ..... Ac"" ....... ion·
deri".d . To sol,.... simpl. ron"",,' ac<l'leralion p,oblem. )'OU ,"~n
usuaUy us.> an equalion frOlll Ibis ~SI Ii/you hove lhe ~Sl " 'ilh Equ.,;"" Mi<"ng
you). ChOOS<' au equalion for" hich Ihe only "n~ no"'n va ,iable is Number Equ.tioo 0."""1
Ihe va,iab"'rcq"",wd in lhe problonLA 'impler pi"" is 10 ",mem-
2_11 '' - ', + 0' < <0
00' onl)' Eq~ i -II aJId 2- 15. aoo lhen so/v~ loom "' simullaJl<'Ous
equ.:llioru ..1I""e"" needed. W x - x, - ''0' + !to.' >
w ,,' - "I + "1Jlx - r,l
.y-;;H 'C I( POI NT. . The loU""';"~ «Iu" ioru give ,be po>i1ioo
x(,) 01 . panicle LO fou, . "u.,ioru; (I) r _ 3r - 4, (2) X _ - 51' + 4.'
W
W
r - "a - if", + VI'
r - "a _ "' _!-"

>,
+ 6; (1) r _ 2},' - ./It, (4) r _ 5t' - 1 To ",hiCJr 01 'b .... "tu:"ioru ""
'he «I." ;"'" 011>010 2-1 apply? '!-"'k . """ thot to. """,boo.,.. u...!<,d..-... b<fo..
..... th, 'qw""",", do ,_~

Sampl. Problem m
lhil h~ad 01 a woodp<'Cl ., is rno'ing f,,",<I,d •• a ~ Dividi"g by g - 9.8 mli- and ,"~ing .be absolu!~ ,·.Iuo.
of 7A9 OIls "'he" .be tx-.l makes fitsI con."", ..; !h • 't.,., "'. find Iha! Ibe magni!uoo of!oo he.d·s aOCek,.llOn"
~mb. Th. ooal SlOps .fle, Jl"r1<!rali"g !h. limb tr,' 1.87 ,, - (1.53 X 1(0)g. (A", ....,.)
mm. Assuming the a<U'lerali"" 10 be OO<ISlanl . find the
a<U'lornhoo m'gnilUoo in !o",,,of g. ~ Co ....... nt: This !)')>ical a=Io .. ,iol\ magnituoo for a
woodpi'd •• is aboll! 70 lim", !ho OOC<'le,alion masni -
IUd;> of Colonel Slap!, in Fig. 1-7 and ceminl)' 1I'0ukl
loVe ca" us.> !he oonSlan1 -ac<l'le.alioo equa - h.ve been le1hallO h,m . T1Ie abili.y of a 1I'()()(]p<'de' 10
.ions; ,0 panicllla., "'~ can use Eq. 2- 16 (,' - Ii + wiltlSland such huS' """,lernhOl! magnilUoos;s!Xl' 1I'('U
2,,(x - xo) ). "'bkh relaieS wlocily and displacem,,"t uOOo:>l'S!ood, but !boom ",e !"'O main argun ... ""s
(1) n...
c..lcwtions: B .... u"" !h o ...oodJKldo.·s ooad Slop'<. ...oodp.'der", molion is ,Imoo alo"g a Slraigb! line.Some
the final velocity is " - O. The inilial v.locity is ", - r.",an:b"fS bel",,,"" !ba! ooocu"'oo can occur III "uIllaos
7.49 mls. ""d .he displac~n\cn! du,iog !h;, coJISI",, ! .nd anima" ..nc" the ooad is rapidly ro1a100 arou"d!he
aocok .. !iOll is x - x. - 1ii7 X 10- ' m. Sul:>s'i!Uli"g neel (o "d b,"in Slem), 00llhal il is "'"s ~k.I)' in SlIaigll! -
.he", v.lue, IIlto Eq. 1-16, "'. bal" lin;> motion. (2) n... "'uodpilcl ds brain is anocbM S()
"'01110 100 "'Ulllha! lhore is linl.:l re,idu,l ",,,,,,men! or
0' - (7A9 m/s)' + 2,,( 1.87 X 10- ' m), osciU .. i"" 01 !he b.ai" jus•• Iu', lhe impact and nocha"",
0. Q - - 1.500 X 10' mis'. for tOO lis,u. oo"U"",ing !h . skulllUld b,ain !olcar.

Figure 2-9 gi'·.s a parlide's ",[ocily " "'1SU' its posilion
"' il m",'", along an x axis ~iilh ",,"slanl .=I~,"hOll.
What " ,IS ",I<lCily al """,ion x - a?

...
loVe can use lb. oonS!a"'-""",)('.alioo equa -
paniclllar, w~ can us.> Eq. 2- 16 (I~ - ,i +
( )
2,,(x - x.j). ,,.hidJ ,ela!es wloci.y and IlOSilron.
FIG. 2~ Velocity""".' positioo.
First try: No.mally wo ... an! 10 """ a" equalion Iba.
includ.s .he ,equ.Sled v3fiabJ~. I" Eq. 2-16...... ~~n variable, Ids","" Eq. 2- 16 " 'ilh !ho ',,"0 pairs of koo"'o
ide"'ily ... as 0 ""d I'. as b..';"S !h•• eque.slild v3fiabli>. data, ,denlif}'ing "0 - 8 m/s and x, - 10 rn as the fitsl
Th.o .." can ide ",ily a second pair of val"~' as beiog pair a"d • - 0 m/s and x - 70 OJ as .he s.."O)lld pai •.
I' and Jr. Fro", the g.aph ..... II...., ''''0 ,uch pai.s: (1) " - Then ".., cau "~Il~
8 n,l. and x - 20 m. and (2) • - 0 and x - 70 "' . Fo. (0 mI,), - (8 OIls)' + 2,,(70 m - XI m),
enmple. wo ~an ..Tile Eq. 2- 16 as
which gi"", "S a - - 0.64 nili- . Sul>Slitu!i"g Ihis val""
(8 n~")' - 1'1 + 2,,(20 m - 0). (2 -19) into Eq. 2-19 .nd solving fo, V. (Ibe ",Iocil)' associated
Ho .... ''''.•.• l "01I' OOilllo, I', "0' a. wi.h !h . posl1ion of, - 0), .... fi"d
S.cond try. In" .ad o f directly invo"'ing lbe .equeSl.d I'. - 9.5 ml~ (A""".... )
~ Ch.opt ... 2 I Motion Akmg. Strlligtlt (j,..
ComllHlnt: Some problem'S ;,,"01,.., an equationlhal in- pnpu. c"ura~ 00<:3""';1 is 50 indlfec1. How.,"", . if
dud., the r"'lU<!Sloo va,;abk A mo," chal!.:>nging p1Ob- you build )'our 5OI\10g s~ms by solving 10[' 01 problems,
10m requires you 10 firstll'" an ~q"al ion lhal doe, no' Ih. proceduro g,.JuaUy mquires loss rourage and "JaY
,,,,,Iu de Ibe roqu"'led va".!>'" but I"" gi"es yOU" eveo "''COme obvious. Soh-ing probleRls of .ny ~jnd ,
value floWed 10 find it Some,;"",. ,"" proc~du,~ I" ~"'" ,..h.lh~ , ph)"iCll or social. req uire. pra<1ice.

2-8 I Another Look at Constant Acceleration*
Tb.:l firs! 100'0 equalio/\<; ill Table 2-1 are {he basir eq "",iol\<; from "'hir h the mhers
ar. """v;,d. Tn.,.,. 1010 ClIn be oblJloed by inleg"I ;"" of lb•• = I,,,. ,ioo wilh
Ih. cood,lion Ihal Q is oouSlant To find Eq. 2-11 . we .. ~,il. lh. "" fin;I;O" 01 .c-
ederalion ( Eq. 2-8) .s
d,' - adl.
W. 0••1 ",.ile 11>0> ,/Od'Jim'" ;""grol ('" II",id,,;mlil'<) of bolh ,ide5:

Sinro a""lotalion a" •COOSlanl, il can bo<> lahn o uts;"" lhe in1eg<alioo. W~ oblain

,' - a' + c. (2-20)
To eva lual~ I"" c"""a Bl of inlegra lion C. w.
101 , - 0, ,I " 'hkh Ii,"" I' - "..
SubslilUhng lh ese values inlo Eq, 2-10 (,,-bkh musl hold fo. all ,·,1",-><; of "
HK"ludmg, - 0) yields
". - (,,)(0) + C - c:
SUbsl;luI;ng Ihi' inlo Eq. 2-20 giws us Eq, 2- 11 .
To "",we Eq.l-15, we 1Cwril~ 100 defi",tion olveooly (Eq. 2 -~ ) as
dx - vd,
.nd lh"" loko Ih. inoofi"ile in legral of bolh 5i"", 10 obl'in

NeXI , wo ,ubSlil"l~ for " ..-ilh Eq. 2 -II :

[,1"' - f("o +"')d'.
Since I', i, a COllSlanl , os i5 Iho a=kralio" a. lbi, can bi? ....·.inon as

1"(~gr'I;on now yie ld,
-< - I ''; + ia,' + C. (2-21)
"ho •• C ;s ,001be. con,I,n( of iUlograli01l . A t lime, - O. wo baw x - xo
SUbsliluhng lho", "3Iu ",,;" Eq, 2-21 yiekk Xo - C . Replacing C "'Ih ... in Eq,
2-11 givos us Eq. 2-15.

2-9 1Free-Fall Acceleration
II }'OII I"",,>d an obI'",1 " 'lh '" up '" down ,nd could ""mehow olinlJilal. 100
effects of ,i. 00 iI' flighl. )'Oll would find lnal Ih . object 3"",loral" do,,-"ward "1
"",nain CO/I'Slan l ,ale. Th.1 rale ;,; calied 100 rr..,.r. Ii IK'WI• •• 'io n. "nd ;1, magn;-
lude;,; "'PfCS"n ted by g. The .""ol.."'l;on i, inlk'P"n"""l of Ihe objc",f, ch,,"c-
leri'lics.surh os mass, densily,O' sha",,: 11 is lh. same for all objoc{"
Two examplos 011,..,-1,11 OOC<'le,a!ion ar~ ,no..-n in Rg. 2-10. wbich i<; a """OS
of mobosoopk photos of a fea!h'" and ao appl ... As !h= object' loll. !lIey
.",ebale 1kJ•.-nward-bO!h a! the san", ra!o g. Thu,. !ooir 'I_d,
in",oa .. a! lb.
saOle raw. and !boy fall !og<>!h.,.
The ""Iuo of g va.;"" !Jigbd)' ..;\h 1'li!Udo and with olenl ion . Al ... a li'Vel in
Earlh', midlali!Ud"" Ih. value is 9.8 m1S' (or J21!/s'j. whim is whal )·ou should
u"" os an ex",,1 ""moo, lor ,hoe problem' in 'his boot unl",s o,h" ...-;"" nOled.
Th~ equalions of mo!ioo 1II Table 2-1 lor conslan, a.cc<'loralioo also awly 10
f,e" lall nea. E~'!h', ,urlace: lbal i~ Ihey awly 10 au objecl io ve'heal llighL
eilbe, up 0' oown." ho" !1Ie effoct5 of the air call "" IK'gkCled H o~over. nole
!hal lor Iree faU: (I) The dire"lions of mOlio" are"".,. along a 'wheal )" ax",
iltSl •• d of Iii.> x axis. wilh Ih. posil,ve di.ectron of y up",,,d. (nu, is imporlanl
for lal'" chaplo" wh~n combin.>d horizonlal and ,-..lical mol ion, ore examiuedj
(2)"J"b.> I •..,-Iall ace"Ii'''lio" i, uegah"e-Ibal is, """-""'~rd on Ih~ y axis. 10-"'ard
Earlh's cenler-a"d so il has In. "alue - g ," Ihe eq"aIlOn~
. - The boe_falt """,ler.,ion .... Bank', .",[ace ;u _ - g _ - 9_8 ",!<'.and tbe
~'"8"Itud< of ,be """,ler. '"", ~! _ 9.8 mI, l. Do _ ,ub>';1Ute - 9.8 mI, ' lor !.

Suppose you loss a 10",:110 di,i'CIly up..-,rd "'lh ao inilial (posil;"') "("\oc;1)" v. F!G. 2·'O AI"'''r . od,"'Ppi.
and Iho" calm ;! "000 il rclUlfl'i !O lbe rdo"", ",,,,I. Du,ing its fru-fall f/lg/II (Irom
freeloll ;. vacuum" ,be =n.
m.gni ,ude 01 """,1e"';011 g. The
jltSl ruw, ils r.lo"", !O jll5l bo.:>fore;1 is ca ug/n).!1Ie eq"aliollS of Table 2-1 apply!O il' occeie",ti"" ;ncr .... , ,be disUIIC.
mOliofL The a.ocolofJtion " al .....ys a - - g - - 9.8 ,n"'. lli'gal;W arid Ihu, """-n- be" .,.,," ,,,,,,,,.,ive irn.8.... In ,b, .1>-
"<lid. The velocil)·. bow~vel. d!~ogt'S. as indiull~ b)' Eq~
2· 11 alld 1·16: ,juring th~ .. oce of .... ,Joe f... her 'M ,pple fall
. scen!. lbe magnilude 01100 posil;", '"locily d<'Cfo",",,, U"hl il nlOO.ICnlarily b.>- 'ose,b ... (Ii", :;"1;II7/0"I>/,lnI(J8")
romos Z\'fO. Bocau", Ihe lomalo h" lhoo SloppOO. i! i, a! i15 maximum hcighl .
During Ihe """"'" I. !110 m agnimdo of 1M (now "" gati''') ,.~ loci 1)" i'lffil as..,,"

-/c H 'C Ie POI N T 5 (.j If y"" ''''.. ball ,,"';yn"p, ,.ha,
i ..", "ED 01 ,be ball".
di.pbcem.n, lor ,h. """"'~ from tbe T.Ie ... po;", '0 , .. hiS"" poin'? (b) Wh" iT i1
lor ,be de.oc.n,. ITom ,b. highe.l poinl bod, to , .. rele_ poin'? (e) \\11 . 1 ;.'0. boll".
""",1e ...,iorI .. ;" kiy.e .. poin,1

Sample Problem m
a.. Scpwmbe. 26. 1993. Dave Munday ",",,"I o",r lbe NO!~ that Munday's displacem,,"t y - J. i<; a neg.I""
Canadian odge of Niagara Falls ," a Slt'<'ll>all "'l"ip[l"<l quanli!y-Munday fcU do"'". in the n<go,j,·< d,rulwn
..-iln "n air bot;, and then rell 48 m !O Ihe waler (and of lh" ). axi, (be did nol fall "I'!)' Also uolO that -1&'4.9
,ocks). Ass"ma /U, milial veloci!)' ..-as zero, and "eglecl has Iwo squam rools: 3.1 and - 1. 1. H em ","~choose!1i.>
Ihe el/"'l of lbe air on Ih. ball during tne fall. ~ posilrve ,oo! b..'C3U"" Munda}" ob'-iousl)' reach"" tli.>
(a) How long d od Munday laU !O roacto Ih. waler surf"",,? wal<'f ""face aft" 00 begins 10 lall al 1 - O.

• •
&'<"~"""
Mu"day', fa U "-as a Ireo lolL lhoe
• ,., • Im/"I";.',
• ,, • '"" "
oon'la"l -o""" Io,"lioo "'l"'lioo, 01 Table 2-1 apply.

"<)
~.
Cakwtions: Lei us place aj-".xi<; along Ihe palh 01 his
lall. wilh y _ 0 al hi' slarling poill! aod !b" posil;'"
di,el.1ion up lh. axIS (Fig. 2 -11). Tlwn Ih" a.creloral,on ~ , - 0. 4.
i:s a - - g along Ih.! alis. ,"d too ..-al,-, Iovel is a!
y - - ./8 m ("'galr,"" b..,<"3USC it IS below y - 0). Lm !oo
falll><"gio al Woo, - O. ",Ih in,lial "'loci I)' "0 - O.
From Table 2-1 Wi'- choose Eq. 2-15 (bm in)" nola -
,,
<),
,,
• _ " .6 _, ... ~ .
lion) beca ..... n oonla,ns lhe r"'lU"'led lime < W" find
fIG. %- " The position. 1,
J - Y. - ,... - !gl'. ""'.I.....
veloc;'y. .....J ioo
- ~8 m - 0 - Ot - j{9.8 mlrjl'. 01 • freel)' laII"",- objed.
,h. ,
,., I' - -1&'4.9.
1 - ).1 5- (An,wer)
bue "eel ball ri<kIon
by D.v. MW><hy ovu
N;. !,n FalI ~
"•, _H .l --29.4

~."
~.

4.'
~ Ch.opt ... 2 I Motion Akmg. Strlligtlt (j,..
(b) MumlJ Yeould oouo! ofllh~ Ih','" ..oond, of r,,,,, (d) What ""as Muoday', v.IociI}' ., "oeh oollnl of ""'"
rail but rould nOl .... how /" be had fallen with each IllU s.>rond? Was he ''''"'" of his incfCasing sJl"'<ld?
count Dil,,,.mio" his pos<lioo alo,ch rull s«:ood
Calculatio ...: To find 100 wIOOl;'" from the o,iginal
CalcWtiorw: W. 'gain"Sil Eq. 2-15 but now we ,"tlsli·
'"I~. In {Um. 100 ,.,tu...." , - 1.0" 2.0 s, and 3.0" and so[",
1I:!!a ~.,thout ",ing tbe pi>Sl!ioll'> lrom (b), w.
lot a - - g
io Eq, 2-11 "nd then substitute. in lum , thi! valu",
101 Mumby', p<>;ilion J.n." ,",uits are silo'"" in Fig. 2-11.
1 - 1.0 .. 2.0 .. and 3.0 ~ isH.," '0
oXllmpl~:
(c) Wh.1 WM Munday', velodly a, "" ,.""h..-..:I Ih. "'.- ' - '. - 81
w. ,".I.",,?
- 0 - (9.8 ml,')(1.0 s) - - 9.8 mls. (An' ..... ')
Calculation: To find 18.> velocity froRlIl\;> "rigi"al data
withool u.ong Ih~ tilTh' of faU from (a), we rc"~;I' Eq . Tlleolhe, ",sul!s ,to Sh~'1I in Fig. 2-11.
2 -16 in J DOlalKm and Ihen ,"t>sli!Ul" ~"OW" d",": Once be was in lree fall , Munday was unawarc of
tho incr"",mg speed b..'C3use the accele,ation du,ing
,.' - \'1 - 2g(y - "0) - 0 - (2)(9.8mls')( - 48 mI. tho laU ~1lS alway,; - 9.8 mis', as nOl.d in the 1",1 col-
so • - - .10.67 mrs _ - 31 nlfs - - IlO ~m lh . umn of Fig. 2-11. He ... as. 01 COU'1O'_sharply aware of
(Ao".-,,) biuing IhO''-alO' herallse Ibon the accelo .. l;oO amupdy
We eb""" 100 negalive 1001 hefC D..'Call'" 100 ,,"iomy ch.nged (Munday sun-iv.>d too laU bU! lhen lao..'<I stiff
"-as in the !I<'g";'-e direction . logal fin", for his d.:i,oo..v~ OClioo.)

Sample Problem m
In Fi[l. 2-11, a pilCh[>f loss.>s a baS<'h,lU up along J y Jlis. lains IhOSi! lou, ~a riabkl& This }'icld<;
""Ih.ninilial'p"odol11 nu..
(a) How loog d"", 100 Nil lah to leacb ilS maximum
heigbT?
~
,- ,. - ,.

. 0 - 12 ntis
9.8 ml,'
1.2.. (Ans ..~r )

(b) Whal;,; Ihe ball'. maximum h.igh! ahove ils reloa",,-
poinl ?
(1) Ooco Ih. balllea",~ the pilCh .. and
before il ,elUlllS 10 his hnd, its occc\i>IOlioo is Iho f,,,,,- Calculation: We c~o lake Ih e ball'. leloase poinl 1o
lal l "",ol<1""lioo ,, - - g. Ikrnuse this is CO"SI,nl, be Y. - O. We can 'hen .~il~ Eq . 2-l6 '" Y nOI.1ion, ""-1
Tabl. 2-1 appties 10 I~e ",olion. (2) TIle '-olocily ,. al lhe y - y. - J and ,. - 0 (.1 too ",ax,mum belgbl), and
maximum ~"ighl must be O. solve fo, y.W. gel
ulculation: Knowing ,', Q, aud lhi! initial velocilY
y _ ,., - "i _ 0 - (12 mls,>' - 7.3 m. (Ans ..~r)
". - 12 mI.. and 1O'.~ing I. we soh'" Eq. 2-11. .·hleb oon-
2a 2( 9.S mig-)
(cl How long does 'he ball t"ke 1o ,.ach. po,"1 ~ .O n,
" 'O"'~ ,
abov~ ils ,,,Io.se "",n11

"'s'-P"'"'
,:'I Calculations: We know,·... - - g. and di'l'lac"n"'''1
" J - J. - 5.0 m, and .." ~ill"1 t, so we ehOOSoi' Eq . 1- IS.
" R• • -nling illo, J and selhng y. - 0 give us
"
:'
......
--.
,' .-
"
""
..
y - , ... - }gl',

..
""""II ""<n< ~ :
-~ "
~

.......
Of 5.0m - (12 m/'ll - (f)(9.8 n,I>')I'.
If we lempo,arUy omil lb. unil' (ba~iog n01ed Ihal Ih<>y

FIG. 2·1 2 Apilcber
'0...... baseball
",aigh' up ;n'o ,h.
The "I"";"'" off, ••
Ur.
'1"-"'" ."' ........ ' :
...d _..
-.,.,.,.""
1""'-
:.

"
"
""
--
''''
:,' on' """"'''
are c!l1lSi'I"nl), .. e can rell~,le Ih;,; as
~ .9t' - ]21 + S.O - O.
Soh'ing Ihis quadralic iiquOlion fOf 'yields
loU .ppIy for ri";ng" 1 - 0.53 , and 1 - 1.9 .. (Answ.r)
"",U .. forfaU"'gob_
je<1.,p"'vi<IKI ... yef_ There atO Iwo such Ii",,,,! Tlus is n01 ,eally '",posing
r"", {,om ,!Ie air carr be b..>ca""" lb. ball passes IWicc 11uougb y - S.O m, once
•• glKl.d on 100 wa)' up and OOC<l on Ihe way down .
I'ROILEM-iOLVINCl1It.CTlCS

Tactic 6: Meanings of Minus Signs In S"'ple eitbe' .... pos;';"" or ..... ""sa'i",,_ Th .. ;' nu. "" "",.. ,
Probl.m, 2_7 ... d 1-1\. "'" .... b/i,b<d • v." .... ] all .. (,be wb".lI.. body "Iocated:ond "" maUo, bow /,." 0';' IOh:o,
Y all,,) ADd we <boot _ 'I""e arbi'""~), _ ,,, up ... ",d di,t<1;011 dir""io. i, .. DlO'-in!o In S..nple Probl.m 2--8. ,be """,Ie' . ';011
'0 be poolti_ W. ,h.n cboot lbe origio 01 'be y .... (,b" io, of ,be baU ~ n'l" '" {dow",..,dl 'b,OII£O"'" ;" !iglr',
'be y _ 0 "",i'ion) '0 .ui, II", pfOblem, I. Sampl. Problem wbtlher ,lie bill ~ ,i,inS or Caning,.
2-1, 'ke Ofiy.. ..... .. ,be ''''' 01 'be loll>. ..,d in Sample
Probl'1ll2_8 it 10.... ,hoe pilei.. ,', h. od A nes" iv. val •• 01 y Tactic 7: Un<!xpeaed Answ.... s M.'''m,, ><> 01,._
,he. m, .., ,b . , ,.e bod)' ;, bel"", ,b. cl>ooen oriSiD. A ""!"- g.A .. .... ..,.,.." ,na,)'OO migh' "'" b. ve ,""ugh'
01., poo_
,iv. veloc;,)' mearu ,bo, ,hoe body i, movin!;. ,hoe ""!"I;ve .;bili';e~ .. ;. Sompl. Probl.m2_8c. 1f)'Oll E" mOfe "" .....,n
direc';"" of ,b. Y ",,;, _ ,~ .. is, oo...w>rd. Th~ ;. Hue no ,b • • yoo expect. do "'" .lj,olll>1k>Hy discord ,b.
on ... tI.., do
Ill. " ..... hoe .. ,b. body;' Ioca,ed, _OI "",m '0 fi" E.,rui •• ,bem car<foUr for pby"",1 me .. iDg
We ,.te d.. """,Ien';oo '0 be DeS,live ( - 9.8 mi.') in all If ti",. ;. your vo,ioble. ,veQ • AeS" iv. val ........ eo. "'.... _
problem. d.oIi'g ..-i1h CallinS bodia A "'g.. i"". "",ele..,;oo ,binS' Dt!"",, ,im, .imp!}' ,ef", 1o lime befof. 1 _ 0. the
"""0", 'bat, »';m, goo. 0., ,b. v,loci')' 01 'be body beoom", {arb;"' ry)'ime at which)'Oll decid<d 10""" your >top""c.b.

2-10 I Graphical Integration in Motion Analysis
Wh o" "" hav~ . graph 01 an obj.."C!'s accek:lralion ",''us lin",, "''' can inlogral~
on Ibe graph 10 filld Ih" Obj..'CI'S WIociI}'"1 '"y
gi'"en lim •. Soc,u", acee",,",io"
a is dofi"'-'<l in 10,"" 01 ",Ioclly as " - d,-/;/,. ,he FuudamO"lal Thl'Or"m 01
Calcu lus lelk \IS Ib.1

", -". -r adl.

The righl ,;00 ollbe <'<luJlion is a <li'finile i"tegral (il gi'"'' a numerical ,",uli
(2-22)

ralbOl Ihall • fUllclion). ", is Iho ",loci')' alliffii' ,.. "nd ", i, Iho velocil)' >I lator
Ii"", I,. The <li'fini,o inlegral ca" be evalua,ed from an 0(') graph, SIldt "in Fig.
2- 130. III par'icular,

f. , ,
,"" -
( area bel""O" .=lo,aI10" cur",)
audl;n",axlS.lrom~lOl, .
[I a "nil of occder.lion IS ) m!s' and a u"il of lim" " ) .. Ih"" Ibc 00...·
(2-23)

spondi"g "nil of area 011 100 gr aph is
(I m/,')(I s) - I mI~
..-hieh " (pror<'rly) a "nil of voloctly. WOO" Ihe """,,"'r31io" ""''''' is at>ovo Ib"
li me "i.. lho area is fX'S,IIvC: ".-he" Ih~ curve" t..IOW lhe ,ime 1lXi~ Ih. ar"a is
""gal;'....
gimilarly. beeallSO vcloctl}' " is defined in I""", of ,h. posi';"" .< as v - dxM"
Ihen

x, - x.- f"dl, (L-U )

..-her" Xo is 100 p""'ilio" .1 I;"", '" 3Ild x, is Ih" pos'ho n "I limo I,. llI<l d~fin;'o
A
, ,., "

iIll~gtal 0" Ihe rigbl ,i<li' of Eq. 1-2 ~ can t.."". lua'ed from a "(I) graph.lil . Ihal
sno.."" ill Fig.l - 13b. r" parlicular. •

r',. JI _
J..
(area heIW""': velool)' curve).
andl ,"", .. ",lrom~lol,
(2-25 ) b::'L
'. '
~
[Ilh e unil 01 velooty is I mls alld Ih. unll olliffie i:s ) .. Ih'" lhe rorr.- '"
flCl. 2·1 J The ... abe,woen.
spond,ng uRi, 01 arca on ,he graph is plOI,ed rurv•• ,.e
00 hOfirorl," lime
(1011, )(1 sJ - In,. aJlio, f,om lime I, '0 I;me I,';. indi_
""t.d fOf (0) al"''''' of ""","',a'K>A
..-hien " (pro]lo'lly) a U";I of pos,lion and drsplOC<!nlCnl . Whelhe, Ihrs ",c. is po,~ o v.",... I . OO{b) , !""pb 01 veloc;Iy
live or "'-'1:al"" i, ddernrillod as described lor Ih. 0(1) Cll' '''' 01 Fig. 2-13.>. ,'ve,,,,'"
"Whipl:lsh injUf}'" commonly occurs in a " • ...,nd col~· From 100 ms 10 110 ms. ,egio" C bas Ih e sll'pilof . ,,,,,.
,iou ,.·ho ,e a lroul ca, is lIil I,om b<hiud by a ",coud {aaglo...'i{h a,~a
ca,. I" Ih~ ]97Os. ,,,,,,a,,ho,, coociu(i<><l tbat tOO injury
a,,,a c - (0.010.)(50 mls') - 0.50 \l\Is.
"ill' du~ to Ib~ occupalll', tIoad being ~ 1Iipp."'II bad 0,",,'
too lop d Ih. ",.1 as lile car 11-,., siamll1<'<l 10..... 'dAs a SubshtuhGg ll1c5o "olue, and I', - 0 iOlo Eq , 2·26 givo:; us
,,,"ult oflhis findioLt- tIo.d ',,"I,ainlS 11"" buill into cars.
)"CI n«:l inju,ies in 1\)aHnd colhsioo, continued (0 occu,.
", - 0 - 0 + 1.5 mi. + 0.50 ",Is.,
1" • "",,"1 (<lSI !O oIIooy """" injury u\ ro3H"d OJlli· I', - 2.0 mi. - 7.1 k mlh. (An' .... e')
sions:. a l"Olunt"", .....s SIIapp"d 10 " ",a! Ih.t wa, Ih,,"
moved abruptly 1o "mu].le • coIlisioo b)' , ,~a, ca, mov· Com""",tI: When 100 h~,d ;. just Slarl'l\g to mov~
ing al IUS tmlh . Figure 2· ]4" giv,," Ih~ aoceliJratKJos of (o ...·,'d, Ihe 101S0 .I,,,ad)' bas a sr-<! 01 7.2 ~mlb .
!~ volunl""", 10rs0 and he,d dU'lfig Ih~ collIsioo, "hJCb R"",archo " 31&Ue Ibal ;1 is {bi, diff... nce in """,<Is
Ix';!:an 01 lime f - 0. The IOfiiO acc<·le,a uo" "'as doia)·.d by du,i"g Ih . early stage of a ,,,a,",,,"d col~sion {b.1 i"iu,",
.j() ms bi'cau"" during Ihal lim~ ,ot<'1\"31 tb" se" bact bad (h. ""rI:. Th. b,rI:"'31d .... hipping 01 Ih. head h3pp"ns
to romp''''' againsl th~ volunl'w.llhl h"ad aocek"1"alioo law, and eould. "periall)' if Ih~ .. i. "0 oo.d ,~S!,ai"!.
was dd.yed by 3" .ddillOflJl 70 ms Whal was 100 10rs0 ;oc,e,"" Ihe injury.
spoc'<lwhe" Ib~ bead tl<>gan 1o aroelofJle? ~
' 00

W~ can Ine lorso ,!",w al aoy
lorso at') gtaph .
Calculations: W. loo,", ll1at Ibe i";tial torso spe~d is
"0 - 0 al lime 10 - 0. al lb . slall of 100 "colli,ion:' W~
w.nt Ih~ to,.., ' I""d ", al time " - 110 ms. .,hicb is .,l..------.:f,,'=±:oo!;±:±:~,;"._----c,'o,o 'j
\\ he" 1110 h.ad begins to ""co]o,ate. """I
Co"wini"g Eqs. 2·22 .nd 2·23. ~. can '.-rile
• '0'
,. _ I' _ (area b,,{~ .. o a.e <:ele,"!iO"CU"").
'0

,~giOffl
a,~a :
""dhm • • xrs,lrom"to' L
Fo, co"wn;.""", lei u, "'pa'''.
(1.26)
too a,,,a into th''''
(Fig. 2·Ub). F,om 0 to.j() "IS. regioa II h.. no

",ea. - O.
1;:--2 '1 , '" \00 n"
From .j() m, {o 100 ms, ''-'!lion B ha, tOO sbap" of , 1';"0' '"
fIG . 2·" (~) n.. 0(11 <UlV. 01 th. tor", >ALl •• adof ovo/u.o·
glo ...'ith ",~a ",' i. a ,imul>tioo of . " ..·end ooIli<iOlL (b) B, ...ling up lhe
"'gioo 1><,,,,,,,.
tbe. pIot,Nl curve ond tb. ,im.
axi,'O calru·
'fea . - kO.cI60 .)(50 mfs') - 1.5 mi•. late Ihe ar ••.

REVIEW & SUMMARY
Position The p<!slrwn.< 01 a panicle 011 .. ., a:JI" Ionl ... he b., M<>v.d '" .h. positive direclioo of Ihex """ ""d •• saliv,
p... jd. with fe~' '0 tbe. ..... i,; •. Of "'TO point. of tb. oxi. if tbe. particle II .. lIlOV,di. tbe. ""!iui"" dir«liOIL
n.. position i. rid"" posili"" Of ""9ti"", ocrording '0 "hicb
• id. 01 .b. or igin Ih. p... iocle " OIl , or :reTO if th. paniocl, i. at Average Velocity \\0." a p.njde h., m<>v.d I",m pooi .
.b. or;gin. lb. po>itj,., dir<<1io. 00 all oxi. ;.lhe dj' ..... ;011 of tiOA x, '0 poo.;tioo.<, d.ri"g a. im.e ",".. ai d' _ ', - I" ito
incIe., ,,,! poo.;ti'" ""mhe", ,b. "I'poo.;l' direction ~ tb • • • ~ • ",'<fog' 1.t<><1ty dllfiog Ih, l iot'TVa! i<

, • --.1,.I.t -
• ~ .. d~'<1k>n.
~
(2.2)
~ ~ - ~.
Displacement Th. fwp/<><'mtnr .I., of • p.. tioc{. is lb.
<h""se in;1< "",ilioo: n.. algeb",ioc 'ig. 01 I'~. indk<i'e< th. dir«tion of mo,ion

(2. J) (I'..," a vec.or quan'ity). Avenge velocity cIoe. 001 ""p..d
01\ .he actu,l dirt.. ce . p>rtid. '"<>v ... oot io".ad d.pe"""
Di<pI>C'em.nt i. a """'Of quan.ity.1t iT pooit; .., ~ tb. p.,.tiocle OIl it. original .1Id tin' p<>Jition<.
0. a gnoph o(x v ....... I.the .YenS' velocity for • time in_ i1)' .'( t) . 00 the"""""; time clerivat iv. of pooitioo x( I~
t, ,,,01 .1r i. tbe . Iope 0( tb. ",oisht tine """",,",ins the poin"
on the <Utv. tb>t " P'''''"t tbe 'WO end! 0( the lo,.tvol.
"'""rag. Spud Th. "\~'"g' ' pu d '.~ 01 a p.,ticl. dur_
.-- --- dv
.,
d'x
dt' . (2_8.2 _9)

i.S' time intorv>.l b., cleptodo 0<1 tb. total di>t""'" tb. parti_ 0 • • IlJaph 0(" ."''''' '. , • • occe"IlI1ioo u at ""y time r i. 'be
, .. Dl""" i. th .. time int<rv. l: .Iope oI,he<ur"" . t ,be poi.t ,10" rep ...... "',

,~ , - tOlat di .. :u>ce
(l-3) Constant Ace. l. ration The five "'Iu. 'ioru in Table 1-1

Instanta n<K>US V.loclty The " ""'''''''''''0''' I'rlodl}' (or
de><Jibe the mOliOll 0(, p.,ticJe with OOIlmot """,",,, i,,,,,
v _ .\) + .r. (l -Il)
,imply .. lOOt}) o'of > moving 1=''''' ..
_ _ 11111 x - "o - Vd + ~". (l -15)
. _.1.< _ _dx •
.H ' .1r dr ", - vi + 2a(.• - x,). (l-16)

wh"e <h ..d :O' m de~n «l by Eq.1_2. The i.""""., ,,,,, ",,_ x - x, _ !<., + o}l. (l-17)
locit}· (.t a particul ., time) ...,). he fOU.lld os tb . sl"""
("t ,hat
x -.'o _ "' _ ~I'. (l -IS)
panicul. , , .... ) 01 'he graph 01 x ve ..... I. Sp"~ ~ the m'Y'~
,ud •. 01 lo .... WIt-OU> veloci'), The.., are "or ""lid ",,1> •• 'be ocreler"iOll;' .'" OOIK1>n'.
Av. rag. Ace.l. r a tion AI'"oK< 0"':</""_ .. tbe ...tio
0( • chan! . in v.l<>city b.v to the ti .... in .. rvol :0, in ,.,1licb the F.... Fa ll Ae.-I...."'lon A. important exomple 0(
cbmS' "",ws: Itroiy.t_1ine mOlioa witb 00II<".'occe .... tioo .. that 0( ...
(l -7)
object ,;'log or fallin! f,,,,1y ."OJ
E arth·, ,wi""" The COII_
" . n' . ere" "'tioo "'Iu"i"". d.lCJibe ,~ .. DlO1iOOl. 00' we
Th • • Igeb",ioc >.is'' indic., .. 'be diroctioo of"....
mak. ".0 chang .. in nor.,ioo: (I) we ,.f..
the 1110<io. '0 tbe
,.."tioclll y axil witll +y ""nically "I" (2) we .eploco . ..ito - g.
In.tant.ln<K>us Ace. l. .ation /,.,'0","""""' «<rl",nion wh ... g " ,!Ie ""'110,1\1<1. of tb. fre .. faU ><c.l.ntiOil. N.ar
(or , imply K""lo.. ~.n )." the /i""im. dtTiv,ti .. 0( ",Ioe- E. n~· . ... ,face.! _ 9, ~ mi.' ( _ 32 ftj,' ).

QUESTIONS
, I I
1 Figlll' 2-15 oil".., foo, patn. I , .. F'Ilute 2_18 gi... tbe occe ....tioo 0(1) 0( , Chihuahu... it
aIong..ruck objeru move fTO'" • ch:o" " • German , b.pIoe<d """'S an aD.. i • ..-trieb 01 tbe ,ime
" . rting poin' '0 , final point. aU
in II" ....... time lottrvill. Th.
, pe<io<k indicat«l does tile Chihuahua """'" . , 00001a," , pe-ed?

path> I"'" ""., a grid 0( "'Iually • •
,paced "'aitlh' lines. RaAk ,h.
path> ><oording to (.) ,h • • ve,_ I I ,, ,,
age wloc;,y 0( tho 00je<" ood FIG. I ·1§ Q u .... io.1.
, , ,,
, ,, , ,, ,,
(b) ,b, .....S" >j><'«I 0( tile oil-
;.n~ SI.at .... fi"•.

2 Fig.« 2_16 .. . gnopll 01 •
l=''''Ie·. """,tion '!oos an .• -ot,f-t-1,,- '('1
AIBI c
'"' , 1,1 c I
flG . 2-11 Qu,,'ion .j.
"
axil ,..,,"'!tim •. (.) At time , _
O. wh>1 ;. ,be , iY' of ,he " L ' 5 Figwe 2_19 give. tb . v.loc_ •
pa""' .... poo.iIi",,?], ,he p .. t~ i1)" 0( • porticle movi.g atOll! an
, .... velocity pooi'i ... neg. tiv •. ..w. Poi., I ~ at ,b. hiSlk-lt
orO>1(b)' _ 1 ,,(e) t _ 1o.and poi.' o. tb. rurv" poin' .j i, >1
(d) , _ 3.1 (e) How m.oy fIG. Z·" Q .... tioo 2. ,b. knoe .. poi." .. d point< 2
,im.. doe. tb. panic.. ~
'"'''''Y. ,be poi.' x _ O?
... d ~ art . , 'be ,am. "igllt.
II'h., ;. tbe di'e<1ioo 0( tr . vel ..
,
f1G . 2-19 Qu,,",'iOll~ .
1 Fig"" 2_17 giv .. tho v.1o<:- (a) time t _ 0 and (b) poi.,.j1
i1)' 01 , partide moving on .. oX (e) A, ,.rueb 01 tile six numbered points dotS the pank .. ,._
..... Wh"t are (0) tile i.itial ood ve"", its dire<1ioo 0( "'o",l ? (d) Rank the .iI point> according
(b) the fi.1lI dir.cti"", o(tr.,..,17 ,<> tb. magnitude of tb. acrel..,.io •. !'• • ,..., fin"
(e) Doe. ,b. 1='",1e """ mOo 6 The loU""ing '"'Iu " ioru give "'" velocity .'(1) 0( a
"",n'oril y1 (d) Is 'he oo:e""" pank .. in fow ';'u.uio .. , (oJ I' _ 3; (b) v _ .j,' + 2J - 6:
,ioo pooiti ve or .'g.'i",,' (.) Is (e) 0 _ 3r - .j, (d) .' _ 51' - J. To .,.iclo
oI'he .. ,i,uations 00
it OOI1<t.., orv"'Yin!? fiG 2-17 Qu."ion 3. ,b. "'I">1ioru O(T. blel_1 apply"!
_ _ Ch.opt_ 2 I Mation Along. Strlligtlt (j,..

7 I. Vi&- 2_20.• cream '>n_ Xo _ - 2011L The ,,;gao 01 ,h. partide', i.in. 1 velocity v, (>1
E,ri.e .. Ib,,,,". diJocUy time ',) ,nd ro...""" ocale .. ,ioo a .. e. r''P''<1;".,Iy. for fOIl,
"p ...... ,d (WI 'hr"", evenly ",.",low, (l) +. +; (2) +. - , 0) - . +,
(4) - , - . 1. ,.,1>kb
",.,,,d windows of e<ju>l
•• igb" Rank tbe windows >c_
cording t" (.J ,h.
speed of 'be "eam '''''gerin.
.. hile p... i" ~ Ibem. (h) th.
''''''age

time 'be cr."", ''-''germ. , ....
cD ,
,
";,",,ion> ,.;]) ,b. partie" (0)
.. op """",,",.. ~y_ (b) pa..
through Ihe origi., and
II."'" pas. Ihrougb the origi.?
9 H""gi.g ""or tbe railing of

«)

• brkJ,o; •• YO" drop an.~ (.0
10 p... them. (0) 'he magni_
tude 01 ,b. occele ..,ioo oI ,b.
initio! velocity) • • l"'" ,b,ow. 0 r;CC7<';----
..,oo.d e~ do ..... ward, lib ;". ~,
rr.am tans,nn. while p ,."in ~ <tl,Ye'5 io Fig. 1·21 Siv. ,be",_ '~'., ',
thorn, and (d) ,he cJ...Jlg< 4v in [<>city 1'(') 1m (.) ,toe
dropp"d ,- , '. "', ', c
,b. 'f""l"d ol, •• cre . m '''''gel-
i •• dmiog ,b. p .... age.y ..""
6, ...
• 'U 'heB 'h,,,,,,,,
ond A(b). nd
(Cw",,", 'U7
at. pa,aUe"
.., at. C. D • • nd E, '0 ' r< F
','<..,",""'. :.',.',
'. ' ~

• A" _ 0 . • parti<l. moving IUId G_) 'G 'F 'c
. Ioog • .11 x ,xi,
~ a1 pooiIiOll FIG . z.20 Qu."ioo7. F1G. l-Z1 Q ... ,ioo 9,

PROBLEMS

._. . _oI_"'""". . .
SSM
~ oI_ ._
'N .......... """"'" "'..".. ~ . . . -, ,,,",,,,,,,,,,,,,,, _

u.w
'N """"",,,, ",""""

..."""'. ...."" . "
~ "

Me. Z·' " .... '"9. V.l o<~y . nd " v.'"9_Sp.. d You ,.alk fO< LOOmin., • ..,...d 01 L21 mI, aDd ,h.n run fo,
.1 An ,u ,omobile t..vek 011 • " ..ight ,o.><! lor -10 km ., 1.00 min at 3.(l'i mI, along . ""ight tract_ (e) G-tapltx verso, I
-"0 kmlh, It thenrontin".. in ,toe =n,
diactioo lor another-lO for boob "'.... d indicate ho.. t" ."""ge velocit), i, lound
km at 60 kmlh_ (.) "''b., ;, the average velocity 01 tb. cor du,_ on tb. sraph.
ing 'his SO tm nip? (A".m. ,b .. i, """'.. in ' be prui'ive .T di_ •• 7 III I k .. r-.ce-s. 'WIDtI I OIl "",k I ("';tk time 2 min.17.9'i

.... -
'«1iOll.) (h) What ~ ''''' ''''' ''B' 'l""'dl
. nd i.We.,e bOlO' ,he ."'''so
«)
Graph x "",... I
velocity i, lound 00 the graph.

• 2 A car tr 'v.~ up , hill " • oorutan' 'p"ed 01 -10 k rnlb ,nd
re'.ntO dowD the hiU at • COlIS" ", ~ 0160 kmlh. Caku.l."
.) appear, '0 be I"'te, ,h ... 'WlDtI 2 00 track 2 (2 min.2K15 . ~
Howeve,.l<oS,h L, 01 track 1 migh' be '~sII tly yea'tI ,h.n
t,ng,h L , oInack t. How largo <= I" - L, be fO< u, still to
c:onclude tll" ruDner I ;, I"'ter? ....
• • 8 To .. , • "",ed ,t<:On! in • .,.",wed (""ight_line)
the . ... age.p<ffi 10' the 'OIUId trip. di<t""'" d .• rxe eo, mu!t be driven Ii",in 0'" dirwioo (in
.3 During a hard "'''''.)'011'
ey .. migh' 51\.,
IOf 0.50 ~ II
l inoe ,,, ODd ,boen in tb. _ i t o di,ecti"" (i. ti ..... I,), (.) To
eHmi . .,. ,toe .1Ie<!' of ,be wind >J>d obrain 'he car', "",.d v,
y"" , re drivin! • car at '10 krJ.1I du,ing ,uch "noez .. how far
00.. th. car move during tll .. ,im.7 in" wind) .... ,i,u>tioo. .hould w.
fiod ,toe
overag' of Jit, ",d
dil, (method I) Of .bould we divide d by tb. ,v""Ee 01 and 't
., Th. 199'2 """Id .p<ffi 'O<OId lor a bK-ycle (b uman pow_ "l (h) Wha, is 'be l,actio...1 diff.rt"", in 'he 'wo
metbod.
ered vehicle) ....,...'" by Chri> H.be,. H~ """ through tho
me"wed 200 m .. retch ,. .. . ",:din! &.sw '. at ....ttich h.
wb,n • ".ody wiod blow> alons th. c,,', ,oute >J>d the "';0
01
co""""ntod. "Cogito "go zoom!" (I think. ,herelore r ~o
' h, "';ll(h~ ". ,,,,toe<at 1 '1"'f<I ", ;, o.024o.? ~
•• 9 You >te '0 dri"" '0 OIl intervie .. in LU>O,htl to_ oat • eli ..
fo .. !). In lOOt. S... WhiltinBhm b.. t Huber. 'e«JId by
19_0 km!h. Wh at was Whittingham', time 'hrough ,he 200 ml ' ''''''' of JOO kin on aD exp''''....
y. Th. in"rvi.w ~ >t 1L 15
....... You pi.., to drive at 100 kmlh. 50)'011 I.... " 8, 00 ...... to
. 5 Th. posiIiOll 01 >It objtct moYin3 alon~ >II x ..is is given
by x _ .lr - 4P + ,,_u-h"ox;, in mot." >J>dl in >oooodri. Fiod
aU"" I00I ....,. 'ime. You drive " thM 'pe<d fO< ,h. 100{i",
kill. bu, ,h.o con""",i"" ...... k fO<reS YOO '0,1.,.. to 40 kmlb
the po>i'iOil 01 'he object" 'he loU"",ing vol." 01 t. (a) I .. for -10 km. What would be the Ie ..,.p<ffi needed lor 'be ,ell
(b) 2 ~ «) 3 .. ODd (d) 4 ~ (.) "''bar ;, tb. obj.<I'. of 'he trip to anive in time lor th. inte"';'-./!
eIi'l'l.xe .... , be""" •• , _ 0. ""d 1_ 4 .1 (I) What is its ave,_
,im. •• 10 p",,", ''''''p<o Figure 2_22
.ge velocity fOf 'he interval lro., , _ 2. to , _ 4 .7
IV GTapll x vm". I lor 0,.,,. 4, >lid indic~te how the
,bow, D Bene,a1 situ"i"" in
.,1Ikb • ","'''' 01 _ " ,,_
. ..,." lor (I) <"<i. be I""ndon the S.. Ph. .o. " mpt to """I" through aD . . i,
.6 CornP"" Y"'" avenge ",lociIy in ,b. followin! ,....., door ,hat 'urll< 0"' '0 be locked.
, ....q.) You ,.alk 73.2"," "p"edol L22 ml, >nod tb<n ,un 'The _ " ""''''' 'oward tbe
731 III at " ,p«'d of 3.0:5 mi. alOllS . .. raig.t """k. (b) door at .p«'d v, _ 350 mrs. . rt
FIG. Z.U Problem 10..
.1<11 <I _ QlS IJI •• ""pilL >lid ar. . . pan."d t>y L _ 1." ... , ..!Mr' whor:r ,he ... loaIy ......,1 If 00. "". ,be ..... " if ....
n ...I'M.....'" iII"& 2.-.U 0CCIIn" 'net -o.tl) 1.1_ 11.-' ..... (I) b ,10<.., • 'n" .,.... , _
3. whe. ,he por'- ;.
""'f'I8t I'll''''''' 'M by" of p"opI< .. Ibo _
A' "hoi bnoc _
iKR_1 tb)
tloo loyn' <l<ptIo rndo 5.0 ..1 (TM ....
...... "8 irr Iht ...." ... dir«llOOl "'Xl II
_ .........r_ ~
10."..
,he .... /; if

............ ~ ~.rlly ....... a .. "'...... 11«.. _ dq". _16 A.rr tltclrOD .."...,. olen! .... .r axio ' - • pooiIioo
-I .e "".. t>y .- - 1!>or' D ......... , • io _ Ho. "" io ...
" 11 T_ "".... nch • • vin!. ~ of .lO tmJb. or. I><lId<d .!«or.,.I...,.. lhc "'iv........ ~ .......... "",1 ..,ly ..
. . . ."" ..... 0<> lhc iH>O ......9' ,net, A \lord Ih.. <lolly .. '7 TH politi ... of • I"'''id. """;'! - , 110 . .. oxitr
(,I) koMI ftieo off ,100 Iroo, of .,... lraill ...... ',,", .'" 60 ttn i. si-fn in eo"''''''..n t>y.r _ ~,75 + 1.50" ....... '" , io ;"
~ 0<Id h'",* dir«'ly {Of the "'h'r " .. n. On "oclIJO! , ... """""" CakW ... (0) 'boo ue"!' ~ Io<i" do.'iD! ,1>0 ,ime
"'her lrai •• , ... tlird iii.. directly bact '0 'he fir" '''';0. and.., i."",011 _ 1.00. '0 I _ J,OO 0: (b) '100 i"" .....,,"'. v.lo<ity
{Mh, (We h .... 0 ide. ~'hy • bird WO\II.:!
dr.,,,,,,,,,
....'h .. io Ille ",,01
.,.h,.. i. 'h~ ... ~)
d,•. bird .. ,v.1< t.,f"re tI>< ""'., """
" , - 2,00 0: (e) ,h •. i."..,.,...,,,, .. Io<ily .t , _ 3.00"
(d) ,1>0 m"an'....,,,,,,, ""I"';.y.' ,_1.50" and (.) ,h.
lid.?
i...."""',,,.., ",lociIy ...... , ... I"'n;"10 iI ........ y be'W"'A
" , ,2 r'affit shock ~·Q'~. A. alnpo <1_00.-. UI <00<.... II, pooi.loru . , , ~ 2.00. """ , _ 3.00 ~ I I) G ~h % V" ....
" ..«I , .. tIi<:.,." ,,,,,,,,1as I puhe.. ' .. mrd a Joad ~'.W. IIIonS , 0<Id ir><b<... )'<lOI' ....... n V"f'tOoallJ<
,,.. lao '" ........ ,be. "",""",..am (i. ,I>< 'rati< dlr."'ionl ..
_ . 2.6 Ac ' - .tion
ups"......... " <WI be .... ioo.>..,:~. 2.13.-.. • ... ~
1.....1y 'f*'Od 1_ of an '"""""8 .. IP«4 •. _ 2:5.0 M Ie.. ." (0) If 'M PJOu"", of . po.nido • r'"
t>y s _ lOt - yr.
..... ore s io io _.ro and I ...... _ ... ,.. • • ~ e ... , ... ...
ward I ..... I...... ly opoccd b. of...,., c.-. '"""""S" spo«l
porlio:l......1ociIy urn1 ( h) Wbt. ia i.. .""Ie,Oj"", 0 ..... !
", - 5.00 ...'>.A>s..... ,bale><:b bilt<car _ ..""" L _ 12.0
,,,,bo .... (e) Far ....... timo ""lII (pow"" '" "","",., io 0 "soU.. ?
.. (<I, .. ,,,. plus buffe..-z"".)
~ ,lit ~ .... and ___ iI_obnpoly" , ..... inola!>!.
of ""'" <WJ ""'., it
(d) _""'?(.) GupU(I).I{l).ond":l).
(a) FOf lOtI» ..pauo<> diu:uu d btllWtll I'" IU'H Qn -19 All ctl"Utia ILIIc. patUd. ~ 1 1pm! of 18m!.;"
'Iou , •• """"'..,,~ , ....iII ....ion .. )'! II 'hI "p""'lion io ,10< potiIin .. oil"",..,.. llId U • ..... ... ~ ..... lJDfs
I....;". IM1 """""'~ ....... or. ,be (b) .p«d - ' Ie) lIi,ect, ... irr ,100 """"", .. dir .. oon. WII .. io H....."!' """"Ie . .. _ d
(lIpm..... "dowmu..",)of'b. ohock ....! ~ ,110 I"'nklo durin~ Lbio 2.4 • i.,..
"",? •• _
_ZO 1be pori'''''' of • p.v1l<1o "'''''''''! ""'"' orr % .xi, io
tw •• by .• - 12.' - 2". "btl•• is I...., ... and , io ;"
se<:oo<k Delermine (') ,~ . pooi';OII. (b) 11>0 ""Iocily, .nd

( ~-'~
(e) ,b. "",1e... iOll of ,h. p,,"kle .. , _ J.O. (d) Wb .. ;, ,b •
• Car """..
.... imunr pooi'iY. OOOfdin",O ,....,_ br the panicle . 00
RCi. J.zJ I'robI<m!2.
(e)"' ....... 'i .... io i , ,..<1>,,11 (f ) ....'h .. is ,be max". . m p<JOi.
Uve v,lod,)· .. _ br , ... porlido """ (&I"""'" ti..., io
' ''13 y"" dr, ... "" lD"~ 10 Iron Su. AnlOnio ,,, " ,_bed? (.) "'!haI .. ,b ........... ion '" llot ..... 'ido .. ,10.<
11-,_ IIaII ,be ,11M .. 55 tnrIo -.:f 'he OIlIer •• If ..
((I t ...~ 0. 'M OQ)' b...:k _ ......1 half ,,.. 1##4.,,, '"
i"!Mr' LIr. porUdr .. _ ........, (OIlIer ,1Ian .. 1 _ OJ!
(i) 0. .. , ..... tbt ........
O..dl · h.
loa""' ..... partido be' .... n. _
55 t ...'11 -.:f ,he "'.......... \Q UrIIo. Wha ia .,... ......
.... «1 (0) Ito .. s.... A.l<Jajg I" ~-. (h) f""" II.,..", __ t1 TH p<&ioot of. po.I,dt """'''& ...... lhc .- oxitr
bact '0 Sao ""'OOIO.-.:f «) I", 1bt •• ,,,. trip1 (d) ...."., ia ""p"- 01 ,,.. '''''' arnonIIoS .0 ,bt .qor ...... ..- _ cr' ~ bt'.
.,... ..... ~Ioco:, ""
110 ••1Ili", ,rip? (0) St .1dI ~ ...... ........ .- ;. ill .... " .. >lid ". se<:oo<k ",,,., "'" ,10< ...... of (.)
,'" ('),""'iD! ... rn<>tion;'.a i. 'h, p<..."~ ~ iii,..,. """ ....., < ODd (b) romla!>! b? Lt. ,heir nu ... ricol.,,1ues be
",,,,"""ly.
Ii.,.. rodio:o,.
how ,10.< ......!" ..1Dri1y ClIII boo l oud Of! ,boo 3.0 .ad 2.0, (e) A' ..... , .; ... don ,b ...... tido
......... . oo ,.",b '" m"nUl poo";.. .r pooiIi.,.t Ft""" _!lO, '0' _
Me. 2·5 1.. _ _ ... V.lo<ity_ Sp.. d
~.O .. Id) ... b.. <fu"... "" don I~' partido ...... l ad (.) ,,1IaI io

0,....u ;, x _
~
Tho pooilioDf ..... i... XI') d. ponkle """;08 'k>na on
~ .O - 6.Or', .,ilh x in ...It" IIIld, in ~
it! d"f'l"' . ..."'1 Find ill .. lo<lIy a, 'im.. (I) 1.0 .. fA) 2.0 ..
(h) 3.0 .. """ (i ) 4.0 .. Fwl ii, O«'<Io •• ,i...., .im.. 6) 1.0 ,,(k)

(.) A' IO hOi ,i_ ud (b) u1I< .. d"", ,b. pankle ("' ..... n' ...
1.0 .. (1) 3.0 .. and (01) ~ ,o.
.. U From' _ 0 ,,,' _ 5.00 "" •.• <nan " ...... " iU, ud 1,001
ilyl "",,7 A, "'h' (e) ",!"iY. ,i..., .00 (~) pooi""" Ii... <10<0
,.e """kle pan 'hrough ,he .,.;p.1 (OJ G. """ ... ,n., lot , - 5.00 min ,,, t _ mo """.1>< wolle . """t ly il 0 "my.,
li.o,
.. I ..,,"', ... , optt<I of 2_'0 mil ....'Iu< or" (0) bio ......!"
'0
, .......!" -So + 5 L(I) To >itif, Iht <1><. . "3i>lword ... ,be
"_y ".. and (b) •• .... na. _'"""'".... ,he , ....
,,"P'.'- _ iod..... ,10.< ..... +JJtor 'loc ..... -JJt i.
•......of 2.00 "'nlO 8.00 ....7 W.... , ...., (eJ v_ """ td). io
.«,)1 W 0 - lh.. ...t..... ioat..., '" <It=- 'he .. hot of " . • -0 ..
,_ , ........ .....! 3.00 ...... 10 9.00 .... ' Ie) Sb,cIo s _ ,
~II ""'i<1I ,10< I"'rtick ...... "'ariIy .. ""'!
_ ,•....... t. and ondicat _Ibo ......... to (0) lloralp (d)
01 5 (1)lflpwudt'p<JOitioo.P"br.r_ ~ _I2r+3t' """ be obIoi.<! frOID tbt g..p...
("here, .. ill _ .. _.- .. I I .......). wtoat: iJ .. ... Ioco:,
OJ
,- 1 11 (b) II i, -,;.S II ,100 p<JOiti .. ot "'V'''' iIi~ .... of M<. 2·7 eo...... A<.-.u...:ASp.doIea...
,bo.?
.r j ... Il... ? Ie) ....... ;. ,.. sp<ed j .." (d) ,•• be 1f><<<1 _n A.o.Iortrort ...... ronot ... """'....,"'" of +3.2 ..,.,. A,
i........., '" <Iea.aIi., ja.. 'IItn? (Try .......,;.! "'" .....,
I_"",.. i..., ..,,_, 1.... 100, cakW.non. ) (0) I, Ibe"' .... ..
loci" (.)
• <a .... ;" ... . " . . . . Io<toy i. +9.' ....... 1'.'11 .. ;, iut ..
2..S •• .,Ii..-:and (b)2..S .I.... ?
~ Ch.opt ... 2 I Motion Akmg. Strlligtlt (j,..

• U A muO<l ( .... lem,n''''Y particl.) e."", reg;'" ";,h. . n A cor , ... velillg 56.0 kmJh .. 24.0 m from. ban;", ...-be •
spe«l of 5.(0)( 10' mi. and ,b.n .. dow..t ., 'he ... ,. 01 , ... driver,!.un,o. ,he bo-ak ... Th. "'" hi" ,be bani" 2.00 ,
l.2'i X 10" ",,'s'. (.) How far 00.. .b. mooo lake 1<> "01'7 later. (. ) Wha' ~ tbt m.Y';'"''''
of ,b. c.r". roo""'"
occel_
(b) Gr.>pbx """u.,.nd ,. 'm ... , for !be muoo. .r>,iOD before imp. <1 7 (bJ How f"" ~ the ... r ,,,"v.liIl! at
.25 Suppose , rock .. oIlip in....,p'pace 1IlOVe<.,.j1b 000 _ imp:or1 7 ... KW
"'., """,Ie",ti"" O'I"al .o 9.8 ""o'. "Ilkb giv.. tho iUU"OII 01 ••:u A "or move. ol",,! ... x .... '",,,,,,gh • di<,..,:o
01
.0.....1 gr.vity durin~ the ilight. (a) If it "art! Irom how ,,,to \100 m. •,. nin~ ., ,," (ot x _ 0) . nd endin~ 11 re" (ot x _ '100
loo~ wiU iI .. t . ,,, acqllire • speed oDe_'en,h ,bo,
01 ligbt , t
mI. ThrOllSb ,1>0 6", of 'bat <Ii"""", its >CCtltoa,ion
,.-hick ,,..v,l> ..
1.0 X HI' . .,1 <b,How 111 ",II ;, IIu, l in 110 ?
.. + 1.25 mis'. Through the .. xt of tiw <Ii".DC'. iu >«'<'Ier_
<loinS? .... .g"" .. - 0.750 .. I". What or. (.) it< ' .....1 ,ime 'hrough ,he.
\100m ""d (hI i" m",imum .pt't<I'I (C) G .... pb posi'ion .T,
.26 0.. . <Iry road. , nr " i ,b !""'I lire. may be oble to
blak. wi." •conNan' d«. I,ulioa 01 4.92 l1li,'.
(a) How 1008 veloci'y ". "" d """,ler.'lor!" .to .... time 'lor 'be ,rip.
• • 35 Figure 2-25 "'piru ,Joe
<100. ,u,h , car, inili.Uy " . ""Un! at 24.6 m! ~ .. ko 10 " op1 (b) o(m)
H ~ far 00... iI n,vel in ,hi.,im.? (eJ Groph x v",... , 0JId ,- lOO,iOD of . 1""'..... moviD! .1oo!
v ...... <lor ,be clecrleratioo.. • • x >xi> with • oorutan, acctl .. ..
,ion. Th. tigur,', venk al ",aliog '.
.27 An .len roo ",th aD ini_ Nooo .. « . ... dng A<<< .... d"!!
,~ ,,~
.. se' by .T, _ 6.0 m.\\ba' >t. ,be
tial velocity '0 _ 1.50 X 10'
(.) magnitude . nd (bJ dir.rooo
mi. ,.,,,,, "yo., oIleogth I.
_ 1.00 em .. be" it is <loctri_
<aUf :occele,."d (Fig 2-24)_ It
emtrge> "';,h ,. _ S.70 X 11)'
mf~ lI'hal ;, it> """)tT"ion , II<-
1-'--1
Z:.:rT -1
01 ,he. portid. " """,ler>! iort?
•• )6 (a)]f'belltaltimwnaocel_
e.. ';ott ,b .. i. ,oIer.ble for p .. _
"".ge.. ill .... bway ' n ill is U 4
" - -1\-- , - ,(.,
,

oumod 000>1>nt 7 .... mi" and ,ubway ".ti".,. or, lo- flG . Z.ZS l'robl ... 3.'i.
'Med SO; m .pm. "'~M is ,Joe
.28 C.."puJ,",~ ","g,r""nu. F1G. :la l'robl.m17. mmnuun .peed • •ubw.y tr.o. COIl an >in be ',...,0 .... 10m 7 (b)
On. in IIl",hroom. I. WlCh ,1m.
Wbat i. lite , ... ,.,j be'ween " . ';00>1 (e) If .... bway 1r:li.
,he ~ .pore. by • <"'Pult mecb""m. A ... >ter 00Dd0e ......
from tb. >ir ""to . 'f'Of' 'h>< ;, .,t,.,b.d '0 tb. mu,hroom .•
""I'" for 20. at . ",b ,,.lion. ,..hat i, th. m:OOmwu ._"@"
>peed 01 ,he ,rnn.f,om """ .... ,_up '0 tbt l1ext? (d) a ..pb x. ".
dr"" grow, 011 ()[I' .ide of ,n. 'pm' and • film !'''''''' on tb.
"' ... >ide. Th, .pm. ;, bent""'" 1»' tb. dr",,', weigh'. bIl,
ond .""".. ,,'" the iIlt"">!
• • 37 Con A and B """" ill
_<me . an_up '0 ,h. next.

... 11 •• tbe film "ache. the drop. the drop', water .ucklenly tbt ...". dirtclioo in ~,
'l".odo into the film .. d ,he 'f'Of' ' poi_S' upw. ,d ", .. pidJy
!>rI.. Th. p<>OiOOo x of n, A.. !

.L""";-••, ,Ci.;-i,1
th., it .. >llmS oIf iIl,o the air. Typically. the .pm...""b. . . givffi ill Fig. 2_26.trom time, _ 0
>peed 01 1.6 mi, ill a 5.0 pm I,uncb: its .peed it ,he. re dwo.d
'0 , _ 7.0. The figun'" ",nn!

to "'to in LOrn", 1»' ,be .... u ... s th., d.,a and "'UmiD!
co",ta"' occtl .. .,iOlU. lind the """,Ieration ill, .."" of g dur_ ocaIint .. •," by x, - .11.0 m. A' ,
_ 0. car B is atx _ 0. with , ve_ 0("
ins (.) the 1.lUICh and (b) the >peed reducti"". ~
locity 01 12 ..~ >Ad •• 'g>'i", FIG. Z_Z6 ProblemJ7.
.29 An . I«"k .. hid. "am fTOm ... , and """"Ie .."" ., • COD'"' ' """... .,ioo '" (.)
r.le 0I 1.0mJs' in . "raigh' Ii"" uMil i, "oclte •• >peed 01 \\b., mmt _. be sud! """ Ib..c"", or.
(""""".,.,ily) "'" by side
20 mr.. The v.hide ,b ... >low. >< a "",.""It .."oi l ,0 mi.' UD _ (""""".wi!)'" the ...... voIue of x) '" ,_ ,t o.? (b) JU """
,il i, stop< (a) How moch ,1m •• I. poe' f,ol[l "OI' '0 "op7 (b) val"" of _.. 00... ..,.,)' tim .. ore the can.ide by side? «) s.t,etch
H"... f .. 00.. ,b. vellkle " .",1from .tar,
'0"'",,7 the p<>Oitioo .T of cor B"' ..... time , txt R~ 1r2b. H".. """')' times
• 30 A world', land 'I""'d ,,<Old ..-•• se' by CoIon.1 JoII" will ,he " ... be side by side if th. ""!niIade 01 """,I" ",ioo _. ..
P. Stapp lObe. in MOIcII 1954 lie """' . rocket _proptlled sled (dJ ma-. ,hl1 .. d (.) "'" til .. th. """"'''-'''port
(.)1
'b ot moved .1oog. t.-.d:., 1020 kin/h. H••od the sl.d wert • • 38 you .... drivillg '<>word a "affio .ignal ,.,1teo i, "" ••
b..,ugh' '0 . .'"" i. ]A ~ (St. Fig,2 _7.) In '''' ... of g. wh" >C _ yello .... Your.peed i. ,b. Ie!>! 'p'.d limit of ''0 _ 55 kmlh,
celerati"" did b. ,_i.oce -.hile """pin!7 ~ YOllr be" do<:elor.,i"" r.te b.. 'be m' gni'u"" _ _ 5.18 mI".
.3 1 A «n>in .Iev"", <all b .. . ,,,,.1 IUD of 190m and . Yom be" ", ,,,,lor! ,ime '0 begill Inkin~ .. T _ 0.75 ~ To
m>XiOlwo .pot<! 01 !OS mllIli.o. and i, >ecelerat" fTOm , .., . void b.";"~ ,he f,,,,,' 01 )'OIIr ' '''' enter ,be into",e","'. af'er
.nd ,b •• back '0 ,," ., 1.22 mi.'. (.) H""" for do., cob,h. ,he ~gh' 'urn. " d, obou ld you Ink"o. stop or con,in .. '0
move at 55 balh if ,h. di>,,,,,,,,,
'0 ,h. iIl ..".roon and 'he du_
",ov< ...-kile ,,,,,,,lfIa'ins 'olull 'p'edf,om .. ,,? (h) How lon~
00.. i, take '0 m:a. ,h. """,,"" 190 m ,un,,,ani.~ and .nd_ ... tiort 01 ,he. y. 11ow ligh' are I') .w m .. d2.8 ~ and (bl 32 m
inpt , ..,7 • • .nd 1.8 , ? Oi .. OIl .... lOtI of bnke,roo,il1u, . • ither (if .i,b..
. 32 Th. bo-ake< on )'Our ,,ar can sl".. you ., • "''' 01 """'Sf 100<"'). or nei,her (~ • • i,he, "'.,,~ ..ork. ",d ,he.
5.2 OIi". (.) If)'Ou . re SoinS 1J7 bnlb and "-_Iy >t • • yellow du"";011 .. i. ' PI"""ri-
.tt). ~
... " "OOP<"""'' i. the minimum time in wlliorh you caD set
yottr cor undor ,he 90 balb >peed limit? (The ......." ,ev.>!, • • 39 A" ..o' ....... movealoog
,he fu'ility of bo-akin! '0 kNep )'O"r bigh >peed flOlIl be;nS • "",t. their C<Clducton IUd-
d<1«1ed wi, . . ..d", or I... r gun,) (b) araph x"", .... ,
ond " "'nly _ ire 'b>! they "'. beadtd
v,.....'for .""h , sJo..-i0So toward eaclo ",btl. Figw, 2 _27 flG . Z.Z7 Probl.m39.
ProbHlm. _ _

give. their velocit;"" " .. fuoctkru 01: time t .. 'be C<Ddt>cton drop< bo m<>vins when !bey "ruck th. ground? (b) Woold it
, low the ,rains The fiEure' lV,nkal ocalins io .. t by ", _ 40.0 miS. be oafe to ... >ik outside duri.! •• oinsto..,,?
u.. _ ...s 1"""""'''' btVn..b.e. the tctin< "'" 200 m opan. •• 5 At, corutn><1iOll,;Ie, pil'" "",ndt SlnKk ,he grO"nd
What io th,ir "'F'''''tioo ..
1ten both train< """ •.stopped? ,.,i,". '1"'''' 0124 mI, . (.) fr... ""' .. bfiSb'W1! i, inadv,,·
··40 .. Rs.2.28. , red car """. Y"'" "",.id,n'ical ' !Hpt III ... tI)' dropped? (b) How 1003"'" i, f.Ilirl ~? (C) Skt,clt ~ r:op hs
,b. roIor. mo", towMd ea<h ott... ... odj>eent I.... .. d ~ of y. v... d. "'''.ISI
for the ,"""och. .IM
'o,,"x :m..A, ,ime t _ o.the rodcor" it x, _ O:u>dthe gr".'"'" .t6 A hoodlum thr""" • " 011 . .. rtiocally doMt .... d wi,b
~ . , x, _ Dl m. If ,be red C'>I Iw • """".. t vekxity 0110 kmlh.
on initi. 1 """" 01 120 ml. Irom tb. roof 01: • bu"ding.
,b. can p....odr ott... . , x _ 445 m.... d ~ it ... . """"an' ve·
"ba, 30.0 m . !Jove 'he grourtd. (0) How 'OrtE dot. it the """e ,ok.
Iocity 0I-W kmlb. ,k,y P"" e.dt ott... " x _ 76.6 .... are
(0) the initial ",loci!), and (b) the 1t<'C<'I"",ioo 01 the!JN'" car?
'0 ",.,h ,b. ground? (b) lIb .. is , ... 'pe<d 01 tbe at "()(I'
, impact?
••7 ( ' j II',," ... hat sptM must. baU be ,br<>Wlt v,rtioc>i!y
lrom !!Iootnd level to rioe to , moxirnum h.is/lt 01 50 m 1
(b) How lOA! ";U it be i. tlte >ir7 «) St.,," grnplu 01 y. v.• nd
• ve"us <for the boll. On tbe ~'" two graplts. indk-.l< th. time
flG . z.n I'robl. m.40 ond41. " "'biocb50m i,reocltod. ... _
•••1 Figure 2·18 .ko,., . rod .41 w""" " . nlt<!..n """odilJo willle. p up ... :mI. Suppooe
""' .nd . E"". cor ,nat ,"<we
it ri ... 051 ~ m in tlr. fir .. 0.200. (a) Wh., .. it. initi.r.p«d
'OIOntd . ocb OIber. Figure 1.29 ~ .. it Ie , ,,,,. the ground? (b) What ;' it, ."""d., the height 01:
i• • graplt 01 tb. ;r mooioo. • 05 14 011 (c) How "'\loCh rugher <lot. i,.';01
.bo...mS , ... p<>'litiOllS X,o - 270
m andx", _ _ 35.0 m at time o,b~
.. ~ "
.49 A bOl·air barloon is aorer><lins .. tlte tate 0I 1l ",I• • nd
i.80 m aoove the grourxl wbrn , p""bge .. dropp«love, ,b.
,=O. Tho E..... car Il:ti. 00.· 'I')
flG . Z.Z'1 Probl,m 41.
,ide. (. j H"", k>rIg doH Ik. ",'kag. 1>1:. lo,",,,,b lb. goo""?
""'" . p«d 01 W.O mi. ond ,he (b) With wh., 'I"', d dot. i'M tb. grourxl? ...
red car bt!i'" I",,,, r.. t. Wb>t
•• 50 A bolt is dropped from , bri<!s' u.der oon>lnlCli"".
,i""
is tlte """,Ie .. m' y>itude oI:,b. led cat1
l.nin~ 90 m '0 , ... volley be.". , ... bridB" (. ) [0 b~ much
••• 42 W..... bigh-"",ed P" "'"E" ,,..in
II .""I ~ at ,im. does i! paM throoglr ,.e la" 10% 01: i,. lam Wb .. i. its
161 tmlh .ourtd • • ber>d. ,he •• gino •• i. ,boded '0 .... ,nat a '1"'''''
(b) "'beo it begins tint I.. t 10% of it< fall ond (C) 'OIhe.
looomOl;'. bas improp<rly en'tIed 00'0 tlte 'rock fr"", a it ceacbe.,h. vall,y beoe"" the bridge?
,idi.rtg • • d ~ • eli"."". D _ 6 76 m ab .. d (Fig. 1.JO). 1bo
•• 51 A key fall! f.om • bfid!le ,hat .. 45 In obove the ...,.ttl.
looomOl;' . .. m<wing at 19.0 1",1b. u.. '.gin'" 01 tlte higlr. It lall. di.oetl), ;"to • mod,1 boa, . Dl()Yio! orith """" .. t
'1"'''' II>i. imm,di " .ly ' ppl;"" the bu ••• (.) What mUlt
.. k>city.'Jr.at ;, 11 "' from ,he point 01 impact wh. " tb. key ;,
be ,be ""'En.i,ude 01 tlte "",ubing oorutant """'Ie,..,i"" if a
" Ie"""d. Wb >1 istb . spud 01 tbe boat1 ......
ooIlioiorr io '0 be ju .. avoidtd? (b) A .... me '.at ,he eng;oee."
• n _ Owhe •. " I _ O. he fir .. spoo the Iocomoti .... Ske'ch .. 52 At time I _ O. • ppI. I .. dropped /r"", , bridge 011'0 •
.• (1) ",rve. III the looomOliv. ond high-"",ed train fo< rooclw.y be.t >t h the bfidB'; """""'hot b'tT.• ppIe 2 ;,
'be <a><1I i. "bidt • ooI];.ioo ~ j .., .void. d and is .ot 'hrown doMt 110m th . ...... bfiSh'. Figure 2·31 gives 'be
q"ite .void. d. ~ wniocai po>itio .. y 01 tb. apple< "'mi,'
durin! tb. falling. un·
,il both apple. nave ru' tb. roadw,y. ",tb opproxirn , "l y ... nat
'1"''''' ~ .pple 2 thI","" <101m?
III 1111

~- - '0,
,,
]" , o
,,
fIG . lol O Probl.m 42

••• .0 Y"" are "&Wn! ov..- • ",U phone ... nile tnilin! on
o
, o 1,.,
Ul1JIUIked police c .. by 2'i m: both your "'"" .. d the police car
or. tr. velin! >t 110 kmilL Your "gum,", e1i",r" your . ",ruioo " 0(, )
110m the pobc< cat Ie< 20, (Jong rnooglr for yoo to look .. the fIG . Z· ll Problem 52
phme and )" U. - [ "",,'t do that!-). A! tbe beginning oI:!Iu, 2.0 ~
,h. police oIiX" begir>; bntinB,uddonly" 5.0 mI,'.(., Wb>t ~
•• 51 A. 0 .un , ,,,,,y "';.n'ific o
,b... ~'ion bet"""'" the ''''''cat.when )'OW ."",tion finally
boUOOIl """nru .. 19.& ml~ 011 .
r<1u..., l StIpp""" ,h., )'OIl,ake """,b ... 0.4 0,'0 reoJi", your 01: it, inmum •• ' p><.tage.
cbnget and begin braking. (b) If you ' 00 b..ke " 5.0 mJs', wh>t br . . .. f... of . b.m,,, .. d
Ir",.fall, FiSllIe 2-32 give> tb.
0r-, 1C-'l,-;- T'"
10
~ )'OIlr ' f'l'tdwhen)'Oll bit the poIic< car?
",,,kal .. Ioci'y 01 the packa~.
-=- 2·9 Fr..·FoIl k <.I• •• • ion .."." 'ime. from belore i,
.« Roindrop btl 1700 lit f,om a <loud '0 u.. ground. (.) If br. rn fr .. '0 wh,. it reaclt ..
'be)' were .01 slowed by . ir ",;,,"""'. bow f,., """Id ,be 'be ground. (. ) Wh.u """,imum fIG . Z·J2 Problem 53.
_ _ Ch.opt ... 2 I Motion Akmg. Strlligtlt (j,..

bdgh' ,bow. ,b. bf.ak_lroe poin' doe. i, ri .. ? (h) How rugh i.
,be bI •• k_f, .. point , ..."" the YOWld?
wbere y ;, 'he b.iSh, 01 II" baU .boo.i" " .. ting poin' ond ,
_ 0 at ,b. ill" ... , ,1>0 ball ~ ,boo. The figu,," vertical O<:ali.og"
•• 54 Fi!,," 2 _33 ,h"", ,h • • peed \' ve" ••
height y 01 , baH .," by y, _ 30.0 m. "Iibat ... the m.sni'."" of (.) , he 1,... _foU
,oo .. d directly up,. .. d. oIoog • Y Hi<. Di<,,,,,,,,
d is o..w."Th. occele",tioo 00 ,be pi .." and (b) 'be initial v.'oci'y d ,he
~,
spe«l ., heigh. y. ~ ".t_The . peed al boiS'" Yo is 1'-.<. \I'h . , i.
.p.«Iv.? • •• 61 A "..,1 boll ~ dropped lro", • building', ,001 and

• p..... a "'.dow. 'aking 0.115, '0 fall hom ,be top '0 tbe
bot,,,,,, d ,b. ",.00..-. a disronre d 1.20 IlL It ,be.lall. '0 .
sidE-wolk .00 boo""tl bad !W' ,be wmoo..-. lIIovieg lrom
. ,
,
bot,,,,,, '0 'op ill 0. 125 ~ As'UJIlO 'hot ,he "P'"",d ftigh' ~ ••
. DC' reve,.. of the lall. The ,im . ,Ir.
=
boll 'I"'odo hel.,... ,he
bot,,,,,, d ,be ",in<!.,.,. ~ 2.00. H ow ,all is ,he building?
,
------ r ------ ••• M A b .. ke,boll pl')"" Y"bbinS . . . bound jump"
.,~ _________+'----------+'c.

fIG. Z-3l
..
~,~

Problem 54.
. 76.0 cm ""rtically. H"", much 'OIai time (. "","t .. d d.JCeDt)
does ,he pl.ye' "",00 (' 1 in 'he top 15_0 crn d th~ jump and
(b) in ,b. bot'om 15.0 em? Do y"'" multo "plai...-b)' ,"cb
pI.y", .... m '0 banE in ,b. oi, . , ,be ,op of • jwnp1 ~
M e. Z·1 0 G ,~phi"" ll nt . g,ation in Motion Analysi •
•• 55 A boll 01 moo' d ay fan. 15.0 .. to ,b. ground. It i.
.65 In Sampl. Problem 1-9. at nwrimum bead acceleration.
in 000'><1 with 'he ground to. 20.0 ... 1><101 . .. opping.
(.J \\'hal;, ,be m~tud< oI lb. ave,,!, a<releratioo 01 lb. ball ",-h .. ;, ,1>0 'I"'tdo{ (a) tb. h. ad .. d (b) ,b. ' Of "'~ ~
durin! ,b. time it;' in 0001><1 with 'be V""nd? {Tr .... tbe ball as .66 A .aIam.OOe, of tbe
• JW1ic\t. ) (b) 1..... av.",!" """",1"..,;00 upor """.. ? .." gffiU. lIyJ"'''''./II'' ca pture. "
•• 5&
above
A " """ is dropped into, ,iver {rom, briodg. 43.9 m
,h.water. AnoIber " """ io ,blOwn .ellicott}, <Iowo 1.00
prr)' by l' UDChin! iu 'OIl!"" ..
a proje<tilt: The stele ..1 part
,.01
1
• after tbe fin' i. dropped. The " ""." stril e tbe ","er . t Ih.
>am< lim • . (.) n.", i. 'he i"~ i .1 speed of ,toe """"'" "one ?
d the 'ongue ~
u.foldiDg ,b.
for .... rd .
res' d tlr.e • ·~L""7"f-"~,.:'-.!.-
(b) Plot oeloot)' v ...... ,ime 00 • yap!> to. . ,.,h " one. 'akinS '''''sue, "",il tb. ""te,J'Of'ioo '1 "'1
zero time .. tho in" • ., ,b. firs' "OIIe;, released. lands on ,b. prey. "kDrig to i,. FlG.z.n Problem66.
Fisure 1_35 .now. ,•• """,Ie.. _
•• 57 To ,.., tb. q.>Ii,y of. to.o;' 00ll, fOIl drop ;, 00'0
,be floor f,om a heiEh' of 4.00 m. It ,ebooodo to. h' igh' d 2.00
tioo magnitude. ",nw ,ime , fOf tb. """,Ie,ati"" ph"" d
,he laundr ill • 'HOcai si,u.,ioo. The indicattd >e«lo,>tioo. :ore
m. 1f ,b. ball ;, ill oo,,, :oct ",til ,i>;, 1I0OI to. 12 .0 ..... (.) lObo, i. ., _ -100 ..'.' and . j _ 100 m.... '. Wh., ;, !be ,"",....,d opetd d
,he .... sni'ude d it< """.g. "",.1 . .. ,,,,,, dwill8 .h>1 rootact the tongu. at the .Dd d ,Ir.e
. Dd (b) io the "" .. "!!. """I".,,,,,, "pOf_1 """I.""ioo p/laoe1 ~
"
•• 58 A 'OC. ~ ,hro..... vtItic. lly upward Irom grounod 1e".,1 ,
>! ,ime , _ o. At' _ l.5, i, !W'" ,he ,opol > tall tow" . • Dd
•• 67 H.... lardoesthenll"'..
wbo.. velocity_'ime gnoph ~
1.0. I.,,, i, , ..ebe. iu maximum heigh', lIb., ;, ,he h.igh' d -I,
"""'" ill "OE- 2_J6 Tr.",,1ill 16 .1
,he t"....,.. 1 •
The figur e , v..-tkaI ocaIillg is set ,
•• 59 W" ., drip f,om ,he ""zzI.
01 a showe, onto tile tloor b)"\". _ !lOrnl~ ".
. '-'-,;---,. -" ,\,--"".
lOO cm below. The drop< 1000.t resub, ("1" 01) in'ervak d
time. ,he /int drop .. rikillg tbe ftoor at the ;""ant .b.
lourth
drop begi .. to loll. wtr...,he fi", drop ",ik ... the ft OOf. bow
••n
k.,..".
In a !Of,..,d puncll ill
the fist beY.' at ,," at
, I')
Probl.m 67.
,he woj" and io brougllt
far below tb. i>OzzI. are ,b. (. ) .. ooad .. d (b) 'hird drop<1 .. pidly !Ofw..-d UII,il tb. u rn ;, fuU )' ex<.odtd. lb. ' I"' td \',,)
•• 60 A. obje<1 I. Us • dis'orrre~ Irom , .. ,. If • ,,,"v.I. 0.';(Y; d ,h. fis, is givrrr ill Fig. 2_37 for '0">00' " r..tilltd in karat ..
in the I.. t 1.00 ,. Iind (. ) ,h. time and (b) 'he heigh' d it> fall Ho.,.l., h .. ,h./ist m""td at (.) ,ime , _ 50 "" .. d (b) wbe.
(e) E,pI.iIl ,Ir. physkolly w\>OCepl . bIe soIu,ion d the GU'- ,he opetd d,be /is'ism:oximum7 ~
dratic "Iu>tioo in ,til" you obtain .
•• 61 A dr"",y "', >pOt! •
_rpot thai ,oils fir" up
ond,hen doom pail ... ope-rr 'Olin.-

<100< The pol ~ .. __ for a ,0l0I
d 0.'i0 ~ IDl ,b. '<>p-'o-boot<>m
ir.eiEh' of tho wD;low io 2.00 m.
, =,oo
How bi~ .rove the ....;,.oo...'op
, (moj
'"'"
<lots the ft""", poI ~?
flO. Z.J7 Problem 6&
••• 62 A ball ~ shot ,..rtically
"pw>Id I,om ,b • • urlace of :u>- "0 "fI _1 " •• 69 "b •• a 5OCC" ball is kicked 'oward • play .. and
OIIr<-r pi.." . A plot d Y "" ..... , ,be p l. )",' do!loct. 'he WI by ··heading"· •. lb. acceleratio.
10< tl>o ball ~ ,bOWD ill Fig. 2_34. ..... Z.J4 Problem 62. d ' he h.ad durillg ,be ooI.Iisio. call be .igoifi e=t. Figure 2_.\8
ProbHlm. ~
give.< ,h. me.,wed >CCe1e"uion a{') 01, o<><c< ' pl. )' ..... b. ad ~ •• or .i,b., x _ Oor .• _ 15.0 em. I i. ,."" '0 0 and ,h •• poI
for . b ... b.od.oo, belmet.d ".od. ",,'ing f,om ,.". A, . u n. moving lIE';. oocoo-di.g '0 X(I). (a) A, .. ·.at
time ofrer
,im. I _ 7.0 m, ...-b" i. ,b.
di!J".nco in ,he '1"«1 ocqui,od by ".ning i. the ' PO' i."••,.. eouoly .. ",, 1 (b) A, ,,"", val",
,h. bar. heod :ond ,b, speed ""Iuirod 0)' ,h. b, 'mtlod boodl of x does ,hi. occurl (e) Wbar is ,h. 'pol"
""". I"atioo (i._
cludinS sign) ..-he. ,his oocw.? td) Is ir movi.g 'ighl or left
jR" prior '0 coming '0 ,.,,1 (e, Jusr >I, .. ? (I) A, "M' ,im.
I > 0 does i, fir .. re >eb .. ~ e of ,h. ",,,,,.1
7~ A I.ad boll;' dropped in • lak. f,om -" divin~ !>o:r.rd
5.20 m , hov. ,he """,. It hi .. ,he waro, ..-irb • "nain veloc-
ity ond Ibe. ,ink< '0 ,b. borrom with ,hi.
>am. <001"'"
""'1
• velocir~ II "",ne. ,h. bon"," 4.1.0 I ai, .. i, ~ dropped.
(0) How d"p" ,he Iak.? ""',b.h.,
or. ,he (hI ""gni'''''''
and (eJ
FIG. Z.JI Problem 69, direc'io. (up or cIoron) of Dve ..!"- v. loci'y of ,b. ball for
,h •• c,ire foll l Suppose ,"", all ,he ",ate, i. dr.in. d fr om ,h •
••• 70 Two pan iod .. m<>v, along." x >xi. Th. poo>'ion of I. ... Th. ball ~ no..- rb,o..-n from ,h. diYirlg !>o:r.rd so ,na. i,
pankle I ~ Yv'" by x _ 6.00r' + lOOt + 200 ('" mele" """ . gain reaches ,b. bonom i. 4,80. Wb" ar. the (d) m. gni_
.. «>D<lo): ,he aocele,,, iOll of p."iod. 2 i. give. by Q _ - 8.m ,ud • • nd (e) dir<fliOll of ,b. ini,iol veloci, Yof ,he ball?
(in "" " ... 1'" ..ooncls "I"ared . nd >e<XlI>d>J .00. " , _ O. i" 75 1be single cabl. , uppon inS . D UIIoccup;ed ","'''lI<1i""
velocily ~ 20 111'. When r •• v.lociti .. of ,h.
pan"' .... m.",1I,
.1, .. '01 t,..ili ..-b•• ,he , leValor i." , ... , .. ,he ''''' of . 120-
wbar .. ,~.,;, ve'od'yl
m_higlr building. ( . , """b ,.,t" 'I"t<! does ,h. ,lev,,", .. ,ile
Addition. ' Prob'. m. 'Oe E,ound1 (bJ How Ion! i . i, follin(.' te, Wbal i. i1> ' f>«'d
71 A, ,h . ... ,.", ,lie ,'-'/fi< U~h' ' u,., y ota an .u'omobile wh •• i, pa>oe> ,b, halfw.y poin' 00 ,h. '''ydown' (d) How
"an • ..-ith a co.,"" acc.'"arioo. 01 2 2 mii-. A, 'h ....... lOllS b.. it """" falling wh •• i, ""... ,lie h:rlfw:oy poin'?
in" •• ' • rrud. " . "..,l",! whb • 000<".' opeed 01 9.5 ml~ 76 TwodiamOllw begin . fr"", fall fr om ,<0'
from ,he ..m.
o,",nal... nd p"""" d"" • • ,omobile. (. ) Ho .... far be)'OIId ,he b,igh' _1.0. >pan. How loo.!; of,,, ,b. fir .. diamond beEiru '0
uail>< , ign.1 wi~ ,b • • u'ornobileov".. ke ,b. u""kl (bJ How fall Mil ,h. ' ..0 di:tIllollOd. be 10 m . """
fa" willtb. au,omobil. be ,,,-,,,,I"'g" 'h " '''''''-',?
::lI 77 If , b_ alI pilcOe' ' hrow> • f ..,ball .. a horizon'a1
7Z Fi! ure 2-19 .b""" pan of • ","", "her. ">lIi<l.o.... ;, '0 ' 1"«101160 kin/h. bow IonS dou ,h. ball,ake10 "aclr born.
be OOIl"oUed '0 allow • plo"x,," of can '0 mo,", """"'hI)' pi ... 1M m . w:oy?
>Ions ,h. ",oe1. SuJlP<lO< 'kat 'h, pb ,oo. Ie"",,, have jlU'
,,:.:b.d in' ..""'io. 2. ,.,""'Te,he E""' • • w",red _ . ,hey 71 A proroo., ..... aloog ,h. x..;, >OCO<ding ' 0 ,ho oqua_
w.". di< ..."" d f,om ,b. icle'_io• . Th .y """,i.u. '0 tr""eI
" . ""rt,;n speed ", (,he ,petd limi') '0 " >eb i.Ie,_ion 3.
,ion x _ 50< + 101'. "b... .. .. in m,".. and,;, i. """"""
Cakula.. (.) ,he , v"IIE' .. lociIy of ,he proroo durins ,h.
S'''. 5", 3.0 . of in rnori"". (b) ,h. "'!tan' .."""voloci')' 01 'be
wh." , he appear, wb,. ,h.y M. di .. """, d f,om it. 1be
inle'_io •• •re "'p>Jared by di<,,,,,,,, Du and D". (.) Vi"", p'OIOO " , _ 1 0 ~ ""d (e) ,b . i.".. ,,,,,,,,,,,.
""",Ie, . ,i""
of ,b. 1"0100 .. , _ lO ~ (d) G"pIr x ve, ... , r .oo Ondi" ..
,Ioould be ,b. ,ime <le l. y 01 ,h. """" of y . tH " in .."""ion 3
"I"i"" '0 ,1Lu " in,,,,,cooo 2 '0 k..,p 'Oe ph''''''' moving
bow ,he ""we, '0 (a) carr be "bloi.ed f,om ,lie pk>!. (e )
,mOOlhlyl lndic. " ,h ....."'. " '0 (h) o. the y . ph. (I) 1'101 Yv",... t>M
indica .. 00 i, ,he .... ,.," '0 (' ).
SuI'P""'. "'"ad. ,b" pia'''''''
,be hod """0 .. oppod by ,
79 A rnorOl<)TIe ~ .,,,,,i.!., 30 mi. _ . ,h. ri<le, .pplielr
red tiEh' "inlen«1i"" I. \\ibe. ,h. Vot. rom • • o. ,b" •• lI..
lea<le" "quire oem"," ,ime " '0 '0
,e'f><'l'd ,be ,h-,,~e and 'be bo"h• . p.in~ ,he moror')'cle a coos ... , """"Ie'al iOll.
on addjrio ... ,ime '0 """,lor". ar some ,," Q ' 0 ,b. Cluising Doring ,be 10, i."rval immodi." i)' af.. , i>nting begi"" ,h.
'I"t<! v,. (b) If ,b. y ..... inte,_ion 2 ~ '0 appear wh •• . pt «l docre .... '0 15 mi. "''hal di,,= does , he moror,),,1e
'.e leado" ar. di .. anco d f,om ,k., i.,,,_io., 100... l oo ~ u,"v,l f,om ,he .... "'" boiliDg begi., "",il
the moror,),,1e
afre, ,h. bY.' ar in" .."",ioo I 'ww V". should ,b. bY.' at """,,?
i.1e,_io. 2,ur. ~"",-,, 1 --:s; 10 A pilor flies horlz""..Uy at 1300 kmib. " hei!h' h _
35 ra , hove ini'ialiy Itvel yound. H"""ve, ... ,im . , _ O. 'he
pilo< begirt< '0 ft y 0 .. ' Vound lI"" ing upward .. . . ~Ie

-
-'--- , ,
~ _ 4.J· ( Fig. 2-.\0). If ,he pilOl doe. 001 ,h.~. ,he oilp!> ... ..
h.ading." .. Iu, ,ime,

do.. ,he pi ... strike ,he groundl

r---l\,--+o,,"" - I
FIG. Z.J9 Probl.m 72.
AG. Z..o Probl.m 80.
73 I• ." mad. vidoo ......... . 'f'OI is prosramrned '0 rnov.
ocr"", the >creeD oocoo-ding '0 x _ 9.00t - 0.750<'. where x i, 1 1 A ,bulft.!>o:r.rd di<k ;, """,Ie,.,od" , corn""" , . ro f,om
di< ..""e in ",.,i"''''1"11
.,."""ed f,om the left edge 01 ,b. " .. '0 a ,pt.d of 6.0 mi, ow, a 1.8., dir,,,,,,,,,
by • pI.yer
Ja.., • • nd, i.,im.
i. """"""'" Wh<n the 'I"" , ,,.che. ' lICJetD usi.! . cue. A, ,his poin' ,b. disk lose! 00II10<1 II.. cu.wi,.
~ Ch.opt ... 2 I Motion Akmg. Strlligtlt (j,..
.Dd ,10 ... at • COlI" . " ,..,. 01 lJ lIIi.' U"'~ ~ "OP< (. J How 91 A boo rod con """Ie.." fro., 0." W kmIh in 504 ~
muciJ tim •• I. p>« from ..11<" ,b. di<k bt!iIU 10 """"I,,,,,,, (.J Wb .. ;, ill . ...."'" "",,1e..,iOll. i. mi.'.
durin£ thi> lim.?
until il .. op1 (b) W"a' 'ou. w.u",,, cIoes th. dist n.ven (b) H"", far..;u It ",,,,,I during ,be H ~ ""umi.! it, ><=Ier_
12 Th. t.ead of . ",,,Ie.,,ok. "". ""reI,,,",
al 50 .. /1' i. ' 0"" i. cornt.,,,? <el From ,.,,_ how muc.b lim. would II
"rilin~ , vicl ..... If. COl rocld do as well, now loog would il
""'Iulre 10 go 0 disI"""" of 0.25 kill ~ II> IOCcele.-.,Ioo ,,,,,ld be
talre !oTeach • speed 01100 lmib f,om ,.,, 1
moi.,olnedat,b.valoeirr (a)1 ...

Il A jumbo jet mw' ,."b. speed of 360 kmlh "" ,b. "'. _ 92 A roclet--driven sI.d rwuoinS "" 0 ",.Ig,h, . Ie..,1 , . - i.
u«<l to investi!,," .Ir• • ffects 01 largo :occel."'tions on
" ' y lor ,>ked( Wb>t is !be I.....", oo.""nt
""",J"..;oo
bum .. ~ On. 50Cb sled <an . naio . speed of UiOOkmib In
• ...t..d!of takeoff/rom, 1.80 km .. oway?
1.8 I, "arlmg from r..... Find (oJ ,be """Ie ... ,i""
(.S>UIDed
U An automobil. driVel iocr."",. ,.,. speed .. . const ... , <oo>""'t) in t"m. of g and ( bJ the <futance tr. ""Ied. -::IG'
r.t, f,om 25 kmlb 10 55 kmlb in 0.50 mlo. A bkycle rider
"",ods up " • 000>1..,' "',. f,om ,," 10 .lO l mlb in 05() mi • .
93 Fi!w. 2_,(\ >how< • si"'ple device for rne ..urins your
\\nat ... , ... m>gll;tu"". of (0) ,h. drivd. """,,10..,;00 . nd ,,,,,,;0. time. lr ooru;,ts of • ,,,,dboard "rip ,. .rkNf with 0
(b) ,b. rid,,-, "",.lfIatioo? ",ale ... d ,,..., I"'g' dOI ~ A h;'od boIdr 'he "rip ""''''ally.
,.;.b .humb and for,IinS" .. 'he dOl on the 'isht m Fig. 2-12.
85 To st"l' • <:al. ti", Y"" require a "wain re.ctioo tim. 10 You .hefl poori.ior:> y""r 'humb and foreti.ger ,t th e <>Ih" dol
b<gin tnki,!' ,.en tho car ,)ow, ... """'".. , r.' .. Suppose ("" .he Iefl mFig. l-ll). !>om! <ar.ful "'" to toud! the "rip.
tb .. ,he 'oul di""""" !DOve<! by you, cal <lllri"~ these lwo Your fri.nd rele,..., ,be "rip. and you !lylopiocb i1 ao soon ..
p/>a><'< is 56.1 m .. ben j" i.itial 5f><ed ~ 80.5 kmIh. and 24.4 m poo.<i b\e.r", you .... it begin to foil. The mork ., ,be pl>«
.,ben it> i.iti. I'peed is 48.] un!h. What art (oj )<><l' ,..ctioo ..-bere yoo pinch 'Ir< '!lip yve, )'00' re>eti"" ,ito., (a) H"",
lim .... d (b) 'be ""yIi,ud. 01 ,he """,ler .. i"..? f.. from ,b. low" dol >llould you pIace.be 50.0 .... m"k?
16 A r.d "aio t" ..ling" 72 k",lh and, gree. train ".",,1_ H""" moch hiy.er ,book! you pi""" oil. m:uks !of (b) 100,
ingot 144 kmlh are b.oded toward . oclr otb .. oI""g " ''''igllt , (eJ ISO. (d) 200.... d (.) 2,';(j ""? (For eumple. >lloold ,Ire
1e",,1,,,,,,Ie.
\\!h," tbey.re 950 m . pari .• ocb .ngineer ..", the (00 m. ffi>rk.r be 2 om .. . . far from tho dol '" In.. ~O m.
OIber', Iraio .. d . ppIi.s the br.t.. The b..k", ,I""" ncb .... l" l U '" y"" ." an"." 01 2 'ime~ 0", you fi.d >my p.'_
trun >t rhe,." 01 1.0 mI,'.I. lbe", ooIIisioolU '" ."'~"" 'un", ,be ..,we,,?)
y... ond yve 'he speed of the rod "ain .. d ,be sp<od of tb . 1""1
Sr<1m .",in ,t I",pan. r<.<p"<ovely. If 001 . .,..we,
no .nd !iv'
"",,,,,,," ,ime

tbe "'p"""I<>IlI><'"""n tbe "ai • • wben tb,y ""I'-
17 Atnm., _ O,.rcd
.)
climb< r . <ridentally :oIlow>
• pOOII'O f:ill froely from 0 i
FtG . ~.Q Problem 93.
hig,hpoiDlooth.rock,.:ill "
to the valley 1>.""" rum.
The ... after 0 !:bon deLa)". 9' Figur. 2- ~ 3 glveo ,b. >c_
his climbing porrnor. ,.00 eole ..""" • ""IS'" 'I .... , for •
is 10m higher on ,h. wail,
• , , porticl. moYing ol",,! aD X :ru..
The . _axi. scaie i . .. t by ~. _
throw! • plOD downward , I-I
The pooilioos Y of the. 12.0m/. ' .A" _ - 2.0 ~tlre par_
pit"'" ,..,."" , during ,be
f lG. Ul l'robl.m87.
tid" velocity i, 7.0 mls. "''h.,
is iI. velocilyatl _ 6.0.1
- ,
falling • • givetl m Fig. 2-11. \\\th ,.h>l speed is lhe ~ pit""

II A rock ;' >1101 ""nically op·. ,.rd from ,be edg< 01 'be lop
95 A mining cart I. pull.d up
a hill >I 20 kmlb and ,ben FIG. ~, u Problem 9-1.
01 0 I. Ubuilding. Th. ro<k reach" ;u l1IaJ1imwn heigb'
tbe top of 'be bu~ding L.60, 0/", beinS .bOl. Th.n, afte,
.bov. I"'UNf baok down ,b. hill . , 35
k",lh 'hrough lIS origin] Ie",l (The ,ime required for ,Ire
b .... 1y m;.,mg tbe edge of tbe bu~di.g .. It fails dowJIw.r<1. <an', r ..,,'" ., the 'OP of ill ,limb;' rrogligibl.,) What ;, tbe
the rock Slrih. tb. ground 6.00 1 .r,,, ;, is l>"ncbed 10 SI OVtr'!" speed of ,Ire cart !of ilS round ,rip. from lIS OI'ginal
1lIIi. ~_ (.) wi,h ..-h,t .,.,..-:od vttocity is tbe rock , i>oL (b) ..t •• level back '0 ii, originol Lev.n
maximum bel£llt .brrv• • 'op 01b. ,b. buildi.g;' ,,,,,,tied by 96 00 ,ve",!,." '1'" bIi.k I.....bour 100 mr. H"", f..
tbe ,ock... d (~) bow tall ;, Ihe buildi.g? <100 • • MiG_l5 'Fox,,"I " fis/lter In",,1during, paOl', blink if
19 A panicle', ooceler. ,IOII oI""g"'u ' :D' • _
~ 5.0l,\,i!h , tbe ph".', .""'go velocily;, 3400 kIru1t1
in..-ooods and. in .,,'er, per second "l"",ed. A, , _ 2.0 " Its 97 Wh"" ,be L.!ol speed IimiI !Of ,b. N<-w York Th ..".-.y
vtloclty i , +17 mi. \\il",' I. Its ",Iociry •• , _ 4.0 .7 .... was I"" .... d from 55 mifh 10 65 milb. bow moch lime Yo.",
90 A ITaio " ... ltd from , .. t . nd """,. d wi.h ooru... t """,1 _ .. ved by , mOlori>l ..-bo dr"". ,he 100km !>O,,,,,,,,,
tbe
... ,ioo.At one tim. It ..-.. u,,,,,U,S 30 mls, ond 160 m fanh" Buffolo ."lran« ond tbe N.", York Cily .. it ., the legal
"" II 10., ".ve~.g SOm/~ C.kulate (., tbe """.I •.-atloo, (b) speedlimil? ....
tire 11m. ""'IuiTed to tr.",1 ,be 160 m mentioned, «)
tbe lim . 91 A " OIor'YoIKt wbo i. moving >I",,~ on x aJlis directed to-
rtquire<!.o ." ... tbe speed 01 JOn's, ... d (d) 'be w.t.",,, .... d 'Ir< .... n:.. >II ><ttlen ,Ion giv •• 1»' ~ _ (6.1 - 1.21)
moved from rut to tb. I""" tlr . trai. hod .'pe<d 01 JO rn!~ mi.' for 0 '" , '" 6.0 • A, , _ O. 'be .. lociry . nd """ilioo of ,be
(.) a.-.pb xv ...... , ..,d \' "'''w
'for tb. traio.from r..' . ,)'d;'t ... 2.7 mI, ond 7.3 OL (.J IVh .. ;, .be lIlaJIimum speed
ochi.1'KI by 'h, <yd~'1 (b) Wh" '0,01 <Ii""""" <Ioes ,be
eycli.;, ,ra .. l bel"""m! _ 0 and6.0.1
juw" 'os."
., "
99 A <en.in
,.,t"
usu:dly boll. v."icoll}' '0. heigl"
",.oed ~ ,b,y.re '0 "",nd
"
II. To heigh' OlU" ,hey be
,......, • • s mocb ,im. i. ,he .iT? .... ~ • "
100 A <ar ",<>"i0! ",i,b ooru'an' ace.'en,io. rove"",, , ...
",
dk .. ,,,,, bo'_en two poin" 60.0 m "Pa1t in 6.00 ~ II. 'p..d ..
" " , " ,
i, p:u.ed ,be .. 000<1 poin' w.. 15.0ml~ (.) 1\0" In. , ...
'I"'od., tb. fir" poio' ? (b) Wh .. "'., ..... magni'u<le. 01 ,he ><-
<1-) "
flG. z.e Problem 107.
""Ien.'ioo? (cJ A, ·.,tn, prior <Ii"m<e f,<XII d.e fin' poin' "'..
,h. COl ., "",? (dJ ataptt x'.."" •• , and .' """w , to. ,b . <>I.
10& A baU i. ,broom ."'icalty dowD .... rd from 'be 'OP of
I""",,<t(, - OJ.
• .J6.6-m-,alJ building. The ball pas.oe> , ... 'OP of . wi_,na,
1 01 A rock .. dropped /r"", • lOO-m_high clif( How long i. 122 o, .OOv. ,b. gTOIUId2.00 • • h" beinS 'hrown. Wh" io
'0
00... it ,>to loll {'J 'be fir" 'iO m .nd {hj ,h . >eoood 'iO m1 'he . f'<'edof 'he boll :u i, pa .... ,ho 'opol ,b. window?
102 Two ",bw'ptol" or, "p.n,ed by 1100 rD. If a subw.y 109 n.. ,peed 01 a bulle,;" ",e... ,od '0 be &10 mil .. 'he
Irain """"Ie,. , . . ., +1.2 fIll,' /rom , ." ,hrOllY. ,be ~ h.1f bulle, .merge> 1,00l • b:m.1 olleng,b 1.20 IlL A".mi.! <OIl _
of ,be dio,= . nd doe,le,," . . ., - I.l ",i.' 'hrough 'he ""'_ " , ., "",<1 ..... ;00. find ,b,,im. ,k .. ,b. bulle, 'p"Dds in 'he
ODd hol[ "h. , or. ('j ;IS , ... ",,1 ,...., >lid (b) ;" maximum
'I"'odl (c) Oraph x. '" and. """u. "or ,b. ,rip.
ban.1 "'," i," m.d.
110 A p.. ac b"'~' b",,,, OIl' and lre.ty 1.1l< 'iOm . n..o ,k.
1 01 A cen>io '1"""" h.. . 'op sp«d 01 11.0 mil. If , ... parachute optns...,d !h...",,,, ,0. <leeele .. , .... l.Oml,'.
'I"int., "Ol" I,om "'" .. d """,'er"'" .. a """".,>1 ,.... he Sb. ",.d". , ... Y""0d wi,b • • peed 01 >'0 rn!~ (.J How I",,!
is .b l. '0 "'>ch hio 'op ,,,,,,,d in • di .. """" of 12.0 rn. He .. i, ,b. p"ocb"'~' in ,he >it? (b) A, wh., beigb' doe. 'be fall
,b •• able '0 maio'",n ,hi.'OP 'p".dlor ,h. ,emainder 01 • 100 beEin?
'" ,oce. (.) II'h.,;. hi> ,ime lor ,he 100 m ,acel (h) I. or<i<, '0 111 n.. z...o Gravily ReOf .., b FacUl,y .. ,h. NASA
improve hi> 'ime. ,b. '0
' I"in'er ,ri" <lea .... ,be dj .. """" , ,_
Ol,"n Rue ..,h Conlt, i""ludes. 145 m d,op 'ower. Thi< io
qui,od for him '0 ,. .ch h~ 'OP """,d. Wh, m",' thi. di"""""
." e""", .. ed ,..,nical ,.,..", 'hrougb ... bich.. .nH'.S oth" poo_
be ifbe;, '0 oclDeve . ,ime of 10.0, for ,h. race?
. ;bdi1ie~. I m <Ii ..... ", .pbero ooo'>ining ... expelimenu l
10. A panicle "am from ,he
"
p,kag. =0 be dropped. (.J How long i ...... pIleTe i. f,ee
onEin." _ 0 and rD""" aloat foil? (bJ WIu, is i.. 'I"',d j"" ar i, """he.. ",,,h,,,! devie...
'ke poo;,;ve x >:I;" A yapb 01 "
'he velo<;'y of ,b. p:ortici, .., . ]:
,h. bot'om 01 ,b. ,,,,,,,,,t? (,) When c. ugh'. ,he 'l'h"e
expeli.."" '" . ve.,8" d".I" .. ioo 01 1'ig .. i.. "",od ;"
fu<>c,ioo of , ... ,....,;, .hown in > reduced '0 ",ro. Thr""gh w!la1 diou"", 00...;, , ..,..,1 during
FiS- 2-44: ,b. Ie",,;' >Cal. i ••," ,b. doc.Ie, .. iOll?
by I', _ 4.0 rni~ (.) WIt .. io ,he
roordi.o." ,h.
01 p."id • • , , _
, '-,-;,- ,",." ,-1, 112 A b.all ;" 'hrown .w..'n v,,,icall)' ",!h .., ini,ial ~,J ol
(.) I,lrom , heigh' 01 h. (.J WIt" ;, it! "",od ju>1 belore i, >trikes
5.0 , ? (b) Wlut ;, , ... veloci'y 01 flG. :u. 1'robl,,,,I04.
'he g,ound? (b) How lOllS doe. ,he b,,1 ,ak. '0 Ie""h 'he
'ke par'iel • • , 1 _ 5.0 . 1 (,) YOWldl lib., ,...,.,kl
be ,he .,.""'''.'0
(c) pan • and (d)
por'
"'b.,;, ,b. """,I . ""ioo ol,b, p.,.,ide" 1 _ 5.0,? (d) I\ih.,
b ~ ,he baU "'.,,' ,hrowa "P~~,J fr"'" 'be ...... heigh'.""
i. the .v.r.ge ""I",;,y 01 ,he partid, I><'""",n 1 _ l.0 . and wilh the same ini,iol "",ed? Befor. ,.,Iving any «[ ... ,ion<, de_
1 _ 5.0 ,1 (e) l\b., i> ,be ' VeT.ge. ~o .. ,ioo of 'be pan;,,1e
be'weeD I _ 1.0 ...d, _ ~ .O.? cid, "h"he' ,he "",'.',n '0 (c) and (d) .houkl be Y' .'"
'bOD.Ie .. ,b.•. or 'be .. m. '"
i. (. ) ."" (b) ,
105 A " """ i> ,b,.,...n "",ti<.UJy upwllJd. O. i...... y up i, 113 A car "'. be brak.d '0 a "OP from ,b ••u,obah._b'e
.,..... poin' A wi,h 'p"od I' • .00 poin' B. 3.00 m higheT 'h"" ' p",,:lof 200 km!h in 170 m.A .. wning ,he acce'tT.,ioo io roIl _
A. wi,b """,d iv.
C.kIllm. (. ) the 'p".d I' """ (bJ 'be m",,;_ . Un'. ii"" i" m.g.~ud. in (.) SI uoiu """ (h) in "n", 01 t,
mum heigh' "'>cbod by ,be .H,... ' OOvo point B. (cJ H"", mllCb ,ime T. ;" ""Inired for ,h. b ... king1 Your
106 A ,ock i. dropped (from re., ,) f,,,,,, ,he 'OP 01 • W-m- ' ....... Ion ,j"... T, ~ ,b. ,...., you ,«[ui", '0 I"'",.iv. an ... ,,_
,011 buikli.S- Ho..-far . bove the !loud;' ,berod: 1.2. belor. 1l""'Y. ,"""e )'OIU" f_ '0 ,h. brak •. and begin ,b. brak;nf. If
i, r..,hes 'he YOllnd? T, _ -100 m ~ ,b.n (d) wh., ;" T. in 'orDl' 01 T" and (eJ ~ moot
107 AD iceboa' •••• "",,, . nI voloci'y 'oward ,I>< ... , of 'be full ,...., required '0 >lop 'perl' in """in! 0' b ... king?
" •• n • sudd,n gu" of wind ,~".., the iceboa' '0 b •••• """_ D:ork 'Wlgl ...... del.y ,b. vi",al .is"''' ..,,,, I,om ,h. e)'" '0
"aD' """,Ie, .. i"" 'oward ,he .... lor. p",iod 0110 ~A plo< 'he v;,ua! ron", i. 'he blain. incr,,",in ~ Te (f) I. ,he ,,"eme
c... in wttich T, ~ incr.aood by lOOms. how .,,,,h "nher
ol x ven", ,~ 011""", in FiS- 245, wher" _ 0;' lak.n '0 be ,he
in,"n' ,be wind " .. " '0 blow """'be pooi';" x >:Iio i. ,,,,,,,,rd """"h.,.. ".vel duringyowTea<\iOD'ime? ~
'be .,.". (aJ Wh., io ,he occel" .. ioo 01 ,be iceboa' d\lIinS , ... 11 4 n.. ,pot' wi,b the I.. It" moving ball;' joi . Iai. where
10, in,,,,,. I? (b) lIRa, ~ ,he veloci1y 01 the iceboa' .. ,he .....\lCed '''''''''' b.ve """hed 303 krnih. U • 1"01.... "". 1 j>i
.nd 01 !h. 3.0. i.,.,,,,,)1
(c) If ,be o=le, .. iOll Itn.';", 000- oJ", pl.)," face • • ball .. ,bo, speed and invoiunt>rily bIi.h
"an' for IllI oddj' ;OIIoJ 3.0~ how fOT doe. tb. iceboa' Ir""el h. black> out the ICeD. !Of 100 ..... H.,... for ""'" ,h. ba.II
durm3'hiooeoond3,O .in"rval? .... "'<>I" during ,h. black"", ?
Vectors

,
, ,
,~"'"
,

-
,, ,"
,

,i cC
,

;/
,,
,
,,
,,
,,

"

The desert an! Cataglyphis forti. lives in the plains
of th .. Sahara desert. Whe" on" of the ant. forages How does the ant
for food, jt travel. from it. home nest along a
haphazard search path Uk .. the one shown here. The
know the way home
ant may travel more than 500 m along sud! a com_ with no guiding clues
p/jcated path over flat, featureless sand that con· on the desert plain?
lain. no landmari< •. Yet, ....nen the an! dedd ... to reo
tum home, it turns and the" run. directly home. The answer is In t hls chapt ....

38
}'3 I Add;"gVKlorsGoomCIt,ic:.lty ~

3-1 WHAT IS PHYSICS?
Ph)',;c,; deals with. gre.1 many quantilWs Ihal h"... bolh sire and di.ection, aOO
il """ds • ""..... '1 fIlJlhomalicallanguage-lhe langu'ge of veclors - Io <ksnihe
those quanlil;"... This language is also used ,n "nginee.ing, Ih" olhe. SCiellC~', ,00
.ven in con,nlOO .p..oecb. If you ha"" • ...,. gi"OIl dj'oction5 sum a, "Go ti,'e blocks
do""n tbis SIf""t arid loon hang a I<fl : )'OU ha"" used In .. langu'ge 01 vi'CIou, In
fOCI , navigalion of an)' so" is NlSi'd on veelO." 001 ph)'sics ,nd .ngin ••• ing also

I
nood vectors in sp..>ciaJ "'"y' 10 explain poonom"n" involving IOtation .nd m.1g. ~'
nOloclorees. , .. biclJ ,.... gel 10 in la"' , mapte ... In thi' .baple •. , ..~ focll'S on 100 ba·
sic languago 01 wetOf'<

3-2 I Vectors and Scalars
"
A partie'" moving along. straiglliline can mo'... in ont).' lwo di''''lion •. \Ve ean
take its mOlion 10 be posiliv. in one of IIhlse diroclion, "lid Ili'salivc in lbe olbi> •.
r'ill a pa."e'" mO'o'ing in II.. ",," dimen,io"" ho .."""., a plu, sign 0< minu, .ign is no
/ ,., / '
,
Ionge. clKlugh 10 indical" a dimClion . Illstead, we mUSl u,,". ,',,"IO,
'w.
A ,·... has magullude as ".. ell "" di.;>CIion, and v.Clo,.. lollow ""flain
(\'I)cto<) ,uk>s 01 combinatioo , "'him ,.., ".,mine in Ibis chapl"' , A ,..,ClO.
4"amil)"" a qu,nlily Ihat ha, bolh a m'gnilude and a direCl,on and Ihus can ""
.. p.,,,,,,ted "'ilh • '"('Clm . Some physical quanlili .. Ihat me v;>CIo. qu,nlilies arc
d;,;pla«'n..,nl. velocily. and a<U'k""lion. YO" will ... many mote Ih:roughoul Ihis
book, so loaming lhe .uIe.s of WClo< combination "OW wiU bi>lp you greatly in
laler cbaplOf'S.
NO! aU ph}'sical quanllties involve a direclioo. Tem(X!"lu,~. p."SSUte. ~ne'gy.
mass, and lime, fot examp le, do nol "poi01" in Ih' 'l'alial "'"""" We call sudl '"
FIG. JoI (a) A11I~,.., .......~h.",
,b. """" mognj,ude .. d dire<1j""
quanlilie.s ..." l ... >. and",,,, doal wilh Ib~01 by Ih' .ulo. 01 Ofdinary algobta.A sin-
""d Ihu, ,epresent ,be =no di>.
g\< \·aluo. ",Ib a sign (as;n a wmp<'ralU,a of - WF). s~if"'s a scala •.
pI. cem"". (b) Alllh,te path,,,,,,,"
Tho simplest vo<lo. quantily is di'pl"",",.nl, 0 ' chango of rosilioo. A '"OClo< nectios !be two points oon.spood 10
Ihat '"plesenlS a d;,;pla""""'"1 is called, ",asonabl~', a <li spl"",,,,en, 'ecta ,. !h. >ame di,pI"",,,,,,,,' vO<1or.
(Simil .. ly, we hal'" \'I)1oc;1~' VeCIOfS and a<CI'leralion v<'C\ors.) If a p"rlicl~
dl,nge5 its posilion by mOl"!ng lrom A to B in Fig. 3· 1n. we >a)' that il "nd".gnes "
d"pl"",,,,,,nl from A 10 B, ..'bicb w" ''1''osenl "'11b an ...0\0' poin ling from A 10 B .
lb.> arrow ",,'Ci/ie, Iho '>'CI0. g.. phkaUy.To dislinguish ,",'<1ot symlxll' f,om olbe,
~ind, 01 atro ..~ in lhis 0001: .11'" use lb. oUl~ne 01 a lriangle. as Ibe .. rowb~ad.
In Fig. 3· la, 100 a,,",,~ hom A 10 B. lrom A' 10 B' . and f.om A" 10 B" h,,·.
Ib~ "'''''' magnilude and di,;>CIion. ThUs. Ihey s""cify ioomical di'pJ""""",nl we·
lOIS and '"pfOscnl Ibe 5aJl1C chang<' of position for lhe particle. A v<'Clo. can 00
sbjft~d WilDOUI changing ,ts value ifits lenglh and direction atO nOi cb,nged
The di'fllacomcnl"oClo, wit. u, nOlhing aDoullhe aClual path Ibat tho part~
d~ ta ~ "", In fig. 3· lb. fot example, aJllh .. , palh<; connecling (>Oi"1S A and B cor·
re'JIOod to Ihe .. "'" displacement welot . Ihat 01 fig . .1- I Q . D;,;placomcnl '"OClors
"p..",nl onl)' lhe OW,.U "ffect of Ihe mol ion. nOlllla molion i""lt.

3-3 1Adding Vectors Geometrically
,.,
SUPJlOSl' Ih.l. as III Ibe '·<'Clo. diagram of Fig. 3·20,' 1'.,1;';10 m""", from , I 10 B
and Ihen law. from 810 C. W, can ,ol,,,,,,,nl its ",,",.11 displacen",nl (00 mall",
"'hal its aclual path) wilb Iwo SIte"''"'''. .
displa""m.nl '·<'ClotS. AB and Be.
The 11<1 displaromenl oIlh.", Iwo d"placements " • single dispL:tcome"1 from A
10 e. We eaU A e lhe , ..,.." •• "" '" (0. "" "kant) of Ihe "eClors AB and Be. This
sum is DOilhe u,ual ,lg<bfaK: sun
In Fig. 3-21>, we ,00,,"'100 ,·octors 01 Fig. J·la and fCiaoollhcm in the way
'"
FIG. }.! (oIACi"bovo<;'OI'umoi
the """'01. AB .. d BC (b) Th ......
Ihal ...... shall u'" ltom no ... on . namely. " 'ilb an .. to"" OVef an italic symool. as vtClo,,,.L:tt..led.
..
flQ.'" Th. 'luee veCl"" 3. b. ond i' <">.11 be youped" OIl)' way .. Ihey are addN,_
Eq,J-J.

FIG. J..J Tbe"mveClonifon.db i" 'ii. If w~ w,""o indiea . e 0"1}' , .... m,soitude Ollhe Voct01 (a quantity that lad.
<an 1>0 addod i.o .;'ber Ofder. >t. a 'igo ot dircClioo). we • hall "'" t .... italk symbol. as in a. h. and •. (YO" can "S<)
Eq.J.1. j~ a ha"d"Til1"n symbol.) A S}m!JoI wilh a" ove,head ."ow .Iways implies
both P'''P''rti.:l.s of a vo<.m. magoit""" "od di,octioo.
Wo can ropre",nt Ih. rol'lio" amo"g 100 tb,,,,, wC'ors in Fig. 3-21> "ith 1!Ii>
""'"'0/" 'qro""',,,,
7 - li + b. (3-1)

a
,,-hien ,")', th't Ih. vecto, 7 i, Ih" vOOo, ,urn 01 vOOors aod b.Th~ .ymool + ,"
Eq. 3-1 and II><> wo,d, "sum " and "add" have diffe'''"t meanings fot VOCtors than
the)' do i" too usual algebra OOcall'iol Ihey involvu !Jolh magniluc:l;> and diroclion.
Figu,e 3-1 suggests a prOCi'du," fot adding Iwo-di"IC",io",i wClots Ii and b
goo""'1rk-~lly. (l ) 0. pap"'. s~Nctt ,-octot --.; to some COIIve"K-"' "",10 and al Ihe
P'''P''' "ngkl. (2) S~,,'ch .-000' b 10 Ih ... me seal ....lIh its 1ail allh. ""ad of v.c-
101 --.;. again at the P'''P''' angle. (J) The wetor ,un, 7 i<; tb. ''''to' Ihal eXI""w
lrom lhe lail 01--'; 1o Ih. hoad of b.
FIG. J.5 The veClon b . ad - b h. v. V~ClO' addiliOll. tIofi ""d in Ihi<; wa}'. has tWO important pr"P"rlK-s. Firsl. Ih.
,be ...... m. gnitude ..d opposite di· 0'00' 01 addition does n01 mailer. Adding Ii to b givos Ih. ,am<- rosult"' adding
rocUo... btO --';(Fig. 3-3); Ihal is.

(3-2)

Serond. whe" lhere at. mo,e than '"'' v.cto .... ...., can groul' 1h.m in a"}' otdet
as ~N add toom. ThUs. if ~"walll 10 add ""Clots if. E. and 7 . ....., cao add if and r;
first and loon add their wClo, sum (0" . W. can also add band 7 6rsl and thcn
a.
add IIw, ,um to W. g~1 Ih~ ,ame re,ull eitoo, "")'. •• ,no,,-o in Rg. 34. Tha1 is,

(ii + b) +"- a + (b + <') (....... ~ .. I. ..~ (3-3)
The veelot - b i" ,,-,,,tot ..-ilb lhe .. me ma[(llllutlo 0' b bUI 100 OPPO;SIl~
direction ("'" FIg. 3-5).Adding Ih~ tWO ',-",1015 i" FIg. 3-5 ,,-ould yiold

,., b + (- b) - o.
Thu •. adding - b has th~ 0110<1 01 SUblrOC1illg b. We use lhi< prop"'")' 10 d.fi"~
the dilfere"", bel"""" 1"-0 vO<1o,.: leld - 'ii - b.Then

J - 'ii - b - a + (- b) (m."..ul",&<ti",,~ (3-4)

Ihal is. ". find Ih. difl.,,,n,,,, VoctO' J bJ-' adding lb. "'etot - b 10 Itt. wClo, Ii.
~,gure 3-6 sho ..~ how this is dOBe get>",clricall)'.
A. in Ihe tlSUal algo,bra ...~ can "'0'''' a letm Ihal ;nduWs a \'OClot ')'",001
I,om on" side 01 a vo<1m equation '0 th~ 01lK" . but w. w.
",usl chang. ,IS sign.

fIG. " '"
(a,I V.C1onif.b.ond - b.
(~) To,.blr"" _ 'Of b from veClOf
RI, ... mpl;>. if WI! are giwn Eq . J -~ and "oed to soh" fota.
equation as
can ,~ar"'ng. Ih.

3. addVO<'Of - b 'oveClor 3. (] + E - ii 0' 'ii - (] + b.
3·. I Com"""""" of Voctor. ~

Rem~mbi>, thaLalibougb"" h,,'e uS<'d di>pla",n",m veClo," he"' . lhe ,ulos
f01 addition ,nd ,ublraClioo hold 10' "OClors of all bllds ••,helhe, the~' '''P,eS<'ol
,,,Ioolies. acroie,alions. 01 an~ o lh., ' "OCI01 qua"'i'Y. Howeve, . ••., can add
o nly vOClors of the sa me kind. Fo, example, we can ,dd '1"0
d;';JlI""~mO"Is. or Iwo
""Iooli~.. but adding a displa"" mollt and a wlocity ma kes no ""nS<'. In the a,ilh·
""'Iicof sca lars.'hat would 00 l;k~ If)'ing 10 add 21 ,a nd 12 nL

~ H 'C Ie POI N T 1 ~
lb. mogru'''''''' of <Ii",l.:ocem.o" if ond b are 1 m >nod .. ,
"",,<"lively. >nod ? _ iI + 5. Coo,iderinS""'ious Of;' . " ' _ of iI .oo S. "b.r ..
fA) lhoe maJIimum """sible magoirude for? and (b) the mioilllUlD poosible m'Y'i,1Ode7

Sample Problem m
10 ao ori~ nl""'ing class. ~'ou h,,'e Ib~ goal o f mo",ng a.
far (Sirughl· Lne d .'l1a"",,) 1'001 baS<' camp"" possible
by ma king Ib,,,,, '1r",gh' ·lin~ mov ... You m.y II'><! 100

~
• .
.--....--,
" -,
,
following displ"""m",," in 'ny or""" (a) 3.1.0 km d""
east (direct ly to"'ard ,he .,st), (b) b. 2.0 km .lO" nor,h
of eaS! (a! an angie 01 30" lo ••ard ,he oorln from d""
oa,,); (e) 7 . 1.0 km due " osl. Allerna'iwly. you ma)'
,ubs,;,u,. either - b 10' b or - 7 lor 7 . WnJi i, ,ho>
gr~aI"" diSl'OC<' you can be from b aS<' camp a! ,be ~nd ,.,
01 Ih . Ihird d~l""eme"11
lbJ!soni~ U"ng a co,,"en ", o, "",Ie. \IIC dra ... vOClors
"
fiG . J·7 (~) Di!pl:.:emen , v«tOf'S". rh..,., Ole ro be u .. d, (b)
y"", di""""" f,om base C>Ill P i< y eat." if yoo wwle,.o:o di.·
"J. b. 7 . - b. and - 7 as;o Fig . .1 ·711. We Iho. mco .. lly pI.« ...." iI. b,.nd - ?, io "Y Ofd".
sbdi' Ih. vOClors 0"01 IIle page. con noo;n g Ihree 01 a"ang~monl 01 ' ''''Iors"if. b. and - ... Th~y call t>c in an}'
Ihem a1 • lime in h",,<l-Io-Iail an"l,ng.>fl",n1S 10 find Ihei, 0''''''_ becau,., 100;, vecto, sun, is Ihe sa 'ni' for an}'
"",or sum 11.The tail of Ihe fits! vOClo, ,ePfl'S"nts b""" 0''''''. Tlhl 0''''' ' sho ..n in FIg. J-7b " 10' Ille vecto, sum
camp. Th ~ head 01 Ille ,bird ~oo01 '''p,,,,,,,n'' 'h ~ point
al which you stop. Th e """lor ,um II eXI"nds from Ille d - b + a + (- 7 ).
lail olin" fiN ~OClo, 10 Iho hea d Ollh" Ihird WctO'. 11, U~ng Ih~ scal. giwn in Fig. 3·7". w~ "'0""'" Ibe kon gl h
m'gnilude d i<; )'ou , disrance lrom ba,., ca mp. d of Ihrs voClo, sum. find,ng
We find ,hal disrance d is g,oaleS! lor a bead ·lo·tail d - a m. (An ...... ')

3·4 I Components of Vectors

Adding ' "OClors ge<I'Thl"icatty can N Iedious. A neJ!~' a nd e."., lochniq ue
,nvol,,"s alg<'bra bUI requi'''' Ina! Ihu vectors bi> plac.-.,j "n a 'OCIangular coo,di ·
nale ')~tem. 1"I1il.< and , axes aro usuall)" drawn ,n 'he pia ne of Ih . pag<' .... sho"'"
in Fig. 3--&. The , ..i, com"" di, ocll}' oul ol In. pag.> at Ih o O1;g;n' .... ignore il fo,
no... . nd deal on ly ..';In ,o.'O-<l; """n"ooal WClors.
A compo . on, of a WClor is th~ p'o,OC1,on of Ibe "000' 0 " "" 3J;" In Fig.
a
3-&. 101 . xampl<>. Q, IS lbe componeul "I veclor on (",- aloog) Ihe x axis ,nd a,
IS Ih~ compoooni aloog 11le , axis. To find Ihe p'¥llOn "f" veClo, along an ni:s .
...., draw J"''P''"diruIJr liBes from Ibe Iwo e nds of Ih . voclO, 10 'he .11is.", shown .
The proj.>clion of a '"'ctO' 00 an.< oxis is ,1S x co""pmum . and sin,;I.,I)' Ihe p,o ·
jeclio n 0" Ihe, ..is i<; Ibc J COlt'PO"'''''' Th . P'"""" o f findUl g Ih e compon~n!S 01
• ' >'C101 i, called """ h- ;n~ rhe ""('10',
A compon" nl "I , wClo, b"" Ihe sa "", d;'OClion (a lo~ g an ..is) as Ille voClo,.
a
lu ~'g. 3-8 . a, "nd a, Jre bolh POS; I;v~ because Hlends in Ihe posiliv~ di,oel;on
FIG. J.. (o)The"""'p"""nt5 . , >lid.,
of v«ta' if. (b) lb, """1""""1' >Ie un-
01 ooth ax"", (Nole Ihe small "wOo-heads "n lhoe comllOnMts. 10 indica .. Ihoir di · dwI,ged ~ ,hoe """"" io _od... 1oot '"
a.
rection.) If ... ~ "",e to , ew ,,., vOClo, Ih en bolh componon" "ould 00 negal;ve ,he ....gnitude aad orien, .. ;.., >re m ... ·
a nd tho;>i, arrowheads would poinl low,"d negat;'-o x and y. Rosoh'; ng "CClor b;n tain<d. {cl lb.~1S fOfIll the Ie!!
Fig. ] ·9 }'idlk a pusi"ve compoaonl b, and a ""gal;ve compon~nt by. of UiEh"<i." g.Ie 'I1oose b)'1lOOen""' ;,
In g~noral. a voclo, h:rs Ib'N compon e nl s.. all ho ugh 10' Ih ~ case o f Fig. 3-& rhe magnitude of ,hoe ""'Of.
Ihe oomroOOOI ,long Ih~ : His i, ';Om.A, Figs. 3-& and b sIIow. if IOU 'hift , we·
lot ",lhoUI cbanging i" di,ooion. ils romro""nl' do 1101 rn,ngo.
W~ ClIn fiod Ih~ oomponeniS of Ii in Fig. Cl-& geon1<lf>C<IlIy from IIle "Sill I,,·
'ngle II1.:>,e:
" . - aoosB ,nd a, - a.i0 8. (J.5)
wb.,. 8 i< l/Ie anglillhallh. ,,,,,,ot;; mak., ...ilh Ih. posil,,"" dir"",io" of lbe
.< uis. ,nd Q i, lb. magnilude of a. Figure 3-& sbow, Ibot a "nd its.< and )' .om·
pon"nlS form a nglll Iri,ngle. II also sho,"" bow .... ~~n ,coon,lIuel • '·i'Clor from
FlG. J.9 The ""'"porIen! db 011 Ih.
x axis i. po>iti"".and th.a, on ,b. Y
ilS oomronents: w~ a"~ng. tbose compo""n" Mr.,/ 'ail. Thon " .• oomplo le a '0
righl triangle ""h tb. \\.'<"1or forming Ih" b)·pol""""'. from Ih. lOil of on" com·
u "is "'S"ivo.
I"'"cnl 10 IIle b.ad of In" mOOr oompon"nt.
Once" \"OClor has ooon r.sol,,,d into ilS ooml"'nents along a ""I of ""'.Ihe
con,l"'o""" 10001",1\"0' can 00 u",d ,n plaro of lb. ''''''ot. For example. Ii in
Fig. J.g.,. is given (compl ~ ldy <l;>1.rminoo) by Q and 8. h can a<so 00 giwn by i,s
co"'rone"" G, and ar BOlh pallS of ,·alues oontain Ih. san", inform. Iron. If
know a veclor in compcmm, nmar'<m (a, and a,) and wanl" in ",agni",de ·G"gl~
w.
no/arkm (a and 8). w~ can "'" Ihe equations

a - ..Ja', + a' , and I3n 8 - -", (J.6)
"
10 II,n,/orm il .
In 100 more g"n"ral Uue.·di"",n,ionJI ca",. "" "eed a magnitude. and ' ' "0
"ngl..., (sa)·. a. 6. "nd ~) or Ih",. 00011"'0""" (a , .a,.. ,nd a,) 10 'p<>ci/y a \"i.'Clor.

~ HECKPOINT
,i>< iAcIka«d
I. rh.
Z

figur •• "hkb
foI """,bini'8 the x
and y rompoo>""" 01
~
metltods
01

ve<1or it 0" prop.. t o .
"
J

"
.
~
..
".".
r

.,.,
p{- ..
,

d""mine 'b>t YKtor1
,., ,
'" , ",
~. pt' " •
" -• "
"
" " '"
A small airplane leav,,", ,n airport on "n ",,",cas, day
,
and is I,wr ,igilioo 215 km ""Jy. in a diroclioo m,king
an .ngle of 22" caS! of du~ north. How far .as! ,od ~

nOrlh is Ih. airplane from Ihc airpo<l wb"" ,ig/lled? ,,
,,
W...e giv.n 100 magnilUdil (215 In,) ,,,d
~
i "•• '", , ,,,
,
Ih. angle (21' ea->! of due norlh) of" vi'Clor and .......'<110
find Ih~ oomro,,"nl5 of Ih" '"Clor.
,• ,,,
,

Ca/cul~tions: We draw an .ry coordinat. 'yslem wilh FiG. J.l0 A pI . ... t .... oIl
, ,,
Ille posi!l\·e direclion of x du" east .nd Ihal of y dthl
nortll (Rg. J.IO~ For oonvcu,onro.lhe oflgin i, pl,rod aI
I,om .. :oirpor,.t the lIfi!iA
""d io I.ter l ight"" or P. 'i"IIi...... '''''I'00

3·. I Com""" """ . f Voctor, ~

Ihe ,irpo1l . Th' ai'plane', d;.pl"""m~ol d POl/II' f,om d. - d COS e-
(215 ~m)(cos (,8' )
Ihe o,,&>" !O ,,·hil .. Ihe 'irpLa"" " ,igillild. - 81 km (An' .....')
To find Ibe componenls of 11 ..." ~se Eq. J.S wilb ,1, - dsin e-
(215 ~m)(sin 68')
e- 68" ( - 90" - 22"):
- 199 ~rn _ 2.0 X 10' ~m. (An' .....')
Thu .. lh. ai'plan, is 81 lm east aod2.0 X 10' lm nor1b
ollb~ ai rport .

F01 tWO &cad"" sp<'lnnling lealll'S sought' connooion m'gnilude ,1. " giv,n by the Py!hago,ean theorem:
""Iwcen tbe Flinl Ridge ca,'e "}~Iem and Mammolh
1/. - ¥(2.6tm), + (3.9 km )' - ~.69 ~m.
C~W. "'b;ch are ,n Kentocly. WIk:>n th. coooocho" was
finally disco,,",ild. Ih. combioed S}~I'1Il ...as decla,ed Also lrom Ib~ ho,izon!al 1riangie 'u Fig. 3- lla. ,,-~ .......
Ihe wo,ld', long.,t ca'... (mo,e th'" 2((J bn long). The Iba! this horizontal displ ..... m.nl IS dlfoo,d SOUlh of
learn th.t found tbe conneC!ion had to cr,,,·I. climb. and e.
due "-OS!. by au angkl given by
squi,m Ihrough oounU"" pa'>Sag ... !raveling a ,,~t
3 .9 ~m
26 ~ ", ,... "'I .... 'd. 3.9 hn soulhward .• nd 25 m upwar d.
1an 8. - 2.6 ~'" .
Whal w'" Il><i' displact'me.nt from 'Iarl 10 fini,h7
_I 3.9 ~m 56"
8.-lan 26 ~m - . (Ans ...... )
We have Ihe compone"t' of a Ibree-di""'n -
sioo.1 vector . and ..'e n,ed to find 100 vector', masoi- wh;ch is one oI1b~ !""O .ng\<>s w~ "",">dlo sp..>cil~' Uti!
tud.:! and t~o .nglo, 10 spc'Cify Ihe 1',,<:1or', directiOfi . d iwCliOfi of too o'1!r~U displar'HOOfll.
Overal D/sp/aaollNlnt: To indude Ih. wrlical comp<>-
Hom:ontal Compon..,tI: We flfs! draw 100 <»IIll)Q- n"n! (25 m - 0.025 l ml. we now tale a ,id.;> "iew of Fig.
""n!, as in Fig. 3-1111. The ho'i"'ntal component' 3 - lla.loo~ing north",.,!. We got Fig. 3-1Ib ... ho .. !he
(2.6 lm "",! "nd 1.9 km south) fo'm the I.. gs of a ve'tical compo""nl and tOO hOOm"!al displacen",nt d.
bOO"'''I.1 ,ighl triangle. Th. leam', hOO1.Ont.1 d~pl ..... - lorm Ih" legs 01 anO!hor right Ir;auglc. No'" !ho Ic.m·,
"",nl lo,m, lhe hypo,"n"se of tOO triangle. and ils o\'('rall di'!'l"""rnon! fo,,,,, Ihe h)'pot"nu,", Ol lha! tri -
Bngl ., wilh " magtlltud.:l ,/ ginn by
J - ¥(~.69 ~m)' + (0.025 ~m )' - H9 ~m
_ 4.7 ~m . (An,,,,,,)
Thi' displact'm"n! i, olf(lC!ed upwa,d lrom Ibe ho,izon -
lal displ"""m"n! by Ib" an&L.>
_ I 0.025 knt 0]"
8, - !ao 4.69 ~ m - .. (Ans ....,,)

FIG. J." (~)The
-'",., ThUs. !bo team', d;.pl,,,,n,,,nl vector had a magnitude
compo"""iS of the of ~ .7 ~m ,ud w'",t au .nglo:'- of 56' ,,"nth 01 ....,! "nd "!
'p"lllIIuo! """,', I '-," ~h an angle 01 0.3' upward. Th. ",,1 ,-,.,ic"rll ",otion "'as.
o ..nIl di<plocem'nt
, c,
.. d !b.ir borizoo!aI
dkpl..,.,IIl,nt d~ (b)
1);" ,c 9,
of course, insignificanl compared wilh IhI> hori7.0nlal
mO!ioo. Ho"-ovor . !h,( I"", would haw oo"n 01 no
comforl !O Ihe team. which had 10 climb "P Dod d own
T '. I
-
A side vie .. >.bowing
d• • Ddlbeteam·, 0= ... OOUOIJ.o.ss hm., to gel Ihrougb Ih . cave, The roulo IhilI
o ..nIl di<plocem'nt "C!u,lly covered was qui!~ diff,,"ul from Ihe di",la",, -
iI. ""'nl vocto,.
V«1or
'"
PWOIlLEM-SOLVING 1II.CTlCS
Tactic 1; Angles--D"9"'''' at>d Radjans Angle> tnal A_g)" m. y be .,e.,wed", doy ... or.-.di>n> (00), To
",I.,iv. 10 lb. posil;"" dir"",;oo 01 Ih. x aID ...
OJ . . . . ..aoured rotal' Ih, two m' .. w. ~ recall that. luU ,ircle ~ 360" .Dd 2..
"",itiv. if the~ art .... ,"'e<! in Ib, COOllI1trdocl""" dire<:- ",d, Tocon,"', .. ~ 4CI' 10 r.d;'.." wrile

-
tjOll ond negative if ..... "'0<1 d ockwi ... For .xompl.,21(),
..d - 150" >I. ,no =ne >ZIg\<. -II)' 2,,,00 _ o.70rad.
w , . '" "
I , I
f
i /,
/
1 ' f'..
- i =
,

I I
,.,
Tactic 2: Trig Functions You ... '0'''''''' ,h. defini _
0<1
,ion< 01 ,h. 00""""" 'rig<><><>... fW>C'iOlU _ , .... «>lin •.
• 0<1 ' .. ge.' _ M .... ,b.y are
,rk
Iaogu.g.
!W' of the of IIC~
.""" .. d •• gine"in~.They art give. i. Fig.l-tl in • lorm ,b.,
<10<. DOl deptoo 00 how ,he "ianEIe i.lal><led.
You .hould , 1oo oo . bIe '0 "'etcb 0010 ,b. 'riS /unci"'.'
vary wi'h >lisle. "" in Fig. .\-13. in Ofd", '0 I>< . bIe '0 jIodg.
",b.,he, • cokul>lOf re.ult ~ ,,,,,,,,,,.bIe.
Eve. k.oo..iog ,b .
sign< 01 the IUncli"". iD ,he .",iom quadran" can I>< 01 help.
Tactic 3 : Inverse Trig Functions "'be" 'he inve'''1r~
f""CIiow sin- '. 000- ' . and , • • - , >I. . . ken"" , calrul>1Of. fOIl
",
cow""" ,b, ...""",bI"""" 01 ,he ""''''''' )'00 set. ~
,
II
-
m ... '
btc."" ,he .. i...... Uy . oo<her po><ible ...._r ,.." ,b.
., ,
<,akuh,,,,, <10< •• 0< yo •. The ,,,go 01 ope",'i"" "" a c. ku!>_
'Of in 'akin! . >cb inve ... trig {u"<Ii",, ~ indic.,tdi. Fig. 3_11
A . an .:umple. ,in - ' 0.5 h .. .,<OCi.,td anye.< 01 !O' (which is
diSfllaytd b)' ,be calr:u1"Of .• iDee!lJ' f>lk wi,bin its ""go 01
./
ope'.'''''') and IS(I'. To ... booh v >lu ... du'O{. bOfiron,,,, ~ •• ,
'hroogb o.S in Fig. 3-1.10 ... d "Ole whe re i, ",u ,h •• in. c",,,,-
i l. ~
= - I
How <10 yoo di<'ingui<h. oon",,' ", ...... I? It i. ,he "".
,h ., ><em. more ,.:.sooabIe lor 1lIe giv,n .i .... i"" , A• • •
''''"ple. 'KO.""'" ,be calr:ul"ion of I/r, in Sample Probl.m
3_3. ",b." , ... I/r, _ 1911.~ _ 1.5.Takio!'an- ' [ j ()[I y<>UJ c"'_
CUla,Of "U. ) 'ou ,k .. I/r, _ 56°. bu, I/r, _ 236· (_ 180" + 56°)
t. r
i-

,.,
. 100 bas a "'''gm' of U. Wbicb i. COlI""? F,om 'be plrysicol
si,u"ioo (Fig. 3-lla). 56· .. ,,,••o,uble and 236· i. cle .. ly DOl. FIG . 1-1l ThI .. =Cut curv."o rememl><'.A cokul.,,,,,·,
r.i.llse 01 ol"" >1iOll lor 'aking !",~m trig fu""io •• ~ indica,td
Tactic 4: MeasUlmg Yecto, Angles The "iU,tiOfU lor by ,he d",ke, I""'io ... of 'be ooI.oredcurv ....
cos t and ,i" t in Eq. 3_5 and lor tan ~in Eq . .l-<i Ole volid ooIy
if 'be "Osl' i. "", ..",td f, .... ,he pooi'i ... dir",,,,,, of ,be % ",,10 in Eq. 3-6 m, y b . .. '0 be i.",,,,d. A oaf" me,hod .. '0
n" 11 i, ......."',d "I"iv. '0 ",me o<h" dir.<1i"". ,be. ,b .
'riS fu""i""" in Eq, 3-S Ol. y h,ve '0 I>< in'"ch>ngod and ,h.
cooven 'be ... g.te '0 0IIe me.,ul<'dl,om 'he positive dire<,ion
01 ,he % "" ...

3-5 I Unit Vectors
A uni, "ecr,,, is " '"OC101 that bas a magn,tude of ~xaclly 1 "od po,nt' in a particu-
la, di''''''ioo. It I,ds bot b ~im.n"on "nd uru1. 11, .ok> P"'p<IS<! is to poin'-that
, is. to .IpilCtly " di,,,,,,ion . The "n ,t ".'<'t01S in tbe posiliw direction, oltbe x . y. and
z ""'" ,re 1'001.'<11. j. and k. wh~re tbe bat' " """d instead 01 ,n ov~,be"d '"0W
, as 101 otbe, WctOIS (Fig. ] -U ). The arrango"","t 01 axe, '" Fig. 1- U ",aid to be ,
,_"Hn.t.
" n,~- . ri~ br. h .. d<<I ' l ,w l1 . The system ,emaios ,ight -handed if it" rotated
rigidly. W~ u"" sueh roo,di"al~ ')'S1~mS udu,iwly in tbi<; book.
Unit ''OCt01S ate wry u,dul 101 eXfl,""';ing oth;>, .... ctors; 101 oHn'pl . . .." can

F1G. 3-U UDi,,,,,,,,o,,i.j >nd kde_
eXfl'''''' a .nd b 01 Fig~ 3-£ ,nd 3-9 ""
.
il - " .. + a)
. (3 -7)
line ,he direc'ion< of . IiYI1_b...ood
""",din". '),",01. ,." E - b) + b,j. (3 -S )
Th .... lwo eq u'hons a:re illuslralod in Fig. 3-15. Tb~ quanlili", ..J "nd oyi a,. we· ,
IOrs. mUoo lhe ' '''''0' ru n' ponenj, of "if. Tb~ quatlliliils a, "nd "y a,,, ",. I"rs. caJ.,d
Ih • ..,.. ~., rom pone",,· 01 a (or.a, before. Stmpl)" ils <""'ponen",).
A, an .xampt..l.:>1 '" W';I~ Ih. dispLac.:lmenl J of Ih e sl"lun king leam of
Samplo Ptobl.:>m}'3 ill I"mrs of "nil wclors. Firsl. "'P",impos<llhe coo!,!i"""
~·".m of Fig. 3·14 00 lb. 0"" sltown in Fig. 3· lla. Th~n Ih. dir.ction, 01 ;. j. "od
k are lo..·"d Ih. ""I. up. "nd loo;"d lhe soulb. respe<:li wI)·. ThUs. d;.pla",n",nl
d from Slar110 finish is neal I)· 'XP'M5i'd in "n,l ·vecto, nomion as
(} - - (2.6 kn,); '" (0.025 kmll + (3 .9 kn')~. (J.9)
"1
_-0
,,"_ 1'-;-,..."-.
".'
Here - (2.6 t m); is Ih. \"Octo, compon"nl
Ihe ... compon'nld~
<I; along lhe .. axis. and - (2.6 t Oll is ,"
3-6 I Adding Vectors by Components
,'-.;,---'---""'" ,- .
Using a skelm. we can add vectors geomc11icall)·. On a vooo'<apabl~ C"IcuIaIOf .
.... can add Ih"m di.ilCIly on Ih" scr.,n . A Ihi.d ..·a)· 10 ,dd vectors" to comb:ill~
th"ir compon"nls axi, by iX"'.
""hirh is lhe " 11)" we ~xami"", """.
To 51'rt.con,ide. Ih~ slale",",,1
7 - iI + b.
•.-turn says Ihal Ih . wctOf 7 is lhe sam" ,.. til<' weto, (<i + b). ThUs. eacb
(J- to)
,"
flG. J ·15 (a)Thev.Cloroompo-
compo""nl of 7 m",1 he. Ihe san", " Ihe corr"'POnding romllOn"nl 01 (Ii + h): .e"" of vet10r iT.(bJ Th. voctor
oomp""'"" 01 VKlOI b.
., - a, + b, (3-11)
'y-a, + by (3-12)
r, - a, + b,. (3-13)
In nln~, wo,ds. I~"o wetors mu,l De eq u"1 if Ihoi' ror"'JlOnding compon~n!s .."
oq U"t. Equation, 3-10 10 3-13 lell u, Ih'110 add '""Iors a "nd ri. W~ musl (I) '"-
solw Ihe vectors illlo Itl<';, scal. . compoo,nlS: (2) comt>ine tin.""" scal" comro-
""nls. ax;, by axis. 10 g<'1 the compo""n" 01 I"" 'UOI 7: .nd (3) comb:ill~
,be componCllI. 01 7to gel 7;'",tt We h,,'e a choice m Slep J . We ca ll exp'ess 7
in unit-vector notat;on (as in Eq. 3-9) or in OIagnitu""-angk> nota,ion (as in ,oo
'"''''0' to Sample P,oblem 3-3).
This p,ooodure for .dd,ng vOClors b)' comIXl"elll' also .ppl;'.., to ,,,,,tor
,uhtr.ction~ R<'<:alilbat ,subtraction sueh .. If - Q - Jj call 00 .a,,~in,'n as ,n
.dd;t;oo d - ;; + (- b). To,ubtran.~. add Ii and - bbycompon~n".to g"'
d, - a, - b, . dy - ay - by. ,nd d,-a, - b,.
11- II) + d) + d,i:.

/c H~CKPOtNT 1 (' J [Dtbefig",oh"e.•,b .. 1
Ol' 'he . i3'" 01 ,hex ooml"""'n" 011, .Dd'!i.1 (bJ Wh ..
or. ,n. .igo. of 'be )' romPOOODU oi l, .Dd 0,1 (cJ Wbal
Ol' ,h •• i!'" 01 !hex atld y component! 011, + 1,1

- f - - - -.
Sample Problem m
Figu .. 3-16.. sltows the lollo ..;n& th,e~ '""tOf" What i, lhei, vce10r ,um 7 ... h;dt is abo slto,.-n?
. .
<i - (4.2 m); - (1.5 m)j.
We can add lhil th .. e ,""elors by compo-
b- (- 1.601)1 + (2 .901)]. ,0
7 - (- 3.7m)j.
'"" "',ite Ihe vOClo, sum 7 .
~ Chap_l I Vectou
Calculation., For tho ..- n;~ .." add lb. x oomroni'ms 01
ii. b , aoo C, 10 gel Ih~ ..- oomponi'nl 01100 "eclor SlIm r:

'. - G, -+ b, -+ c. •
- ~.2 m - 1.6m + 0 - 2.6m .
Sunila,I)',lor the)' axis.
', - 0, + 1>, + <,
- - 1.5m -t 29m - J.7", - - 23m.
w. ,bon combine Ih .... oomllO""" (' of -; to w.jl~ I""
"octo. in "";1 -\"0.' <:10' oomion:
. .
-; - (2.6 m)i - (2 .3 m)j .
,,-here (2.6 m). IS tho ",'Cl0l rom",,""1\1 01 -; ,lo"S 1""-
..- axis and - (2 .3 m)j;, lbal alO"g th. y axi .. Figure 3-16b
sho ..~ one "-ay to """Il"
th ese veclor ro",!X'nent' to
form T. (Can you stNch tbe O!he' way?)
W. "'"0 also an,"w tbe qoostioo 1»' gi',ng too "Jag-
mtud" and ao "ogle 1m T. From Eq. 3-6, lhil maguiloo" i5
, - ~(2.6 m)' -+ ( 1.3 m)' _ 3.5 m (A"s"",)
and Ih. anglo ("",,,,,,,ed from th o He di,ooion) i,

e- ,""_'(-:,2.1m) _-~ l ·.
_.6m
(An,",,)
'"
FIG . J.16 V""or 1';' ,I>< vodor sum of'h. orbe, ,h,..,
who", lhe mllm, .ign m~"R<; ~Iocb>-"" . '\'teto. .

I Problem

Aerording 10 .'rerim""'<- Ih. &;;en an! sIlow" in lhe 6.0 rnl "och on ,n xy coordin.l. 'y'lem , in Ibe dire""
ebapIC. opening pbolograpn l .",1" Ir''''
of ;1, ,00"" lioll<; shm<lI in Fig. 3-17... ' l"ling f,onl bOIll• . AI Ilh>
"",nl. ,long a mculal coonhn.lC S)'SWIIl. When;1 ..-anls "nd olin. fillh run. ,,·b.1 arc lb. ma~nilud.> "nd angkl
10 ,<'l"m 1o its hom~ ne'I , il .lfeel;,... I)' 'UOI' i" dlS- ollhe "nf' 001 displ"""""'''' """lor :1_ .• nd whal ar~
pl""""",nls along Ih. ue, oIlhe s)~1em 10 ~a kulale" IDO"" ol lh. bom ...,rd ''\'Clor 11_ thai "-,,Iem/<; from
vector Ihal poiols directly bome. As an .xa'"pJ.> of Ih~ tne anl"'final posil"," back 10 home? ~
~akul.lion. IN's consid", an ,01 m.ling fi,'.
run, 01
(I) To find Ilh> nel displOC>lm'"1 11_. we
10 .u mln.. fiv. ,"d,,"du.1 di<;pl.","",nl ve<1oro:

II~ - 11, +", +11, + 11, + J,.
- fZ- --+-P-">-' (2) We e,'"I""e In;'; sum lor the x compo"","I' "Ion".
(3-14)
Ii .... - db + d" + d" + <I" + <I""
,., and for Ibe y components alone.
d-., - <l", + d" + d,. + J., + d,,. (3- 15 )
• • (3) We ronslroc1 11_ lrom i15x and y compon""Is.
Calculatiolll: To ",-a]ual' Eq. 3-U .... appl)'11hl x pa'l
'". '''' 01 Eq , 3-5 1o .arn run :
' '--' - --"T' ti" - (6.0cm)=0'" - +6.0rnl
<I" - (6.0 em) = 150" - - 5.2 em
,., d,. - (6.0cm)= I&l" - - 6.0rnl
FIG. ,."
'"
~h p.. b of!ive run> (b) Thu and Y compo-
(o)A
d., - (6.0cm)oos( - 120') - - 3.0cm
n,"" of".... (e) Vector " __ poiD" ,t.. -..y '0 tho hom...... ti" - (6.0em)=9O" - O.
Equ,,1OfI 3-1 ~ Ih~" gi''''' u, Ihe dirl'Clion of J_ is io
d_. - + 6.0em + ( - 5.2 em) + (- 6.0em) Ihe fou rlh quad""1 of ou,
xy COOf<!in"" 'I,wm. Run d.(rnt) d,(<m)
+ (- 3.0"",) + 0
Ho .... "" •. ",-lie" " .. C011 - + ~_O 0
- - 8.2em.
,1r 0C! Ibe '-.eIOf f,om its 2 - 51 + 3.0
SUllliarly. we evalual. lilil indindual y compooool' of compooonlS (Fig. ]-171», 3 - 6.0 0
Ihe five rull<; using Ih. J' par' of Eq. 3-5. Tho r",ullS ar~ w~ ... ~ Ihalln. di,oo,oll of
--, 4 - 3.0 - 5.1
.how" in Table :J.-l. SubslIIUli"g Ih. r.,ulls inlo Eq. 3-15 ,,_ is In Ih" SI'COud quad-
,,"I. ThUs. .... must " fix" ";;:=~"i,==:·~·~·i":
Ihon g>w, us
d-", - + 3.8 an. Ihe ClllallalOr', ans..-" b}'~'
82 + 3.8
.ddi" g 1.'0':
V.ctor d _ "nd ilsx "nd )' componenl' are ,how" ," Fig.
:J.-17b. To find Ihe magnilud. and '"glo of J ... from ;1, 8 - - U .86' + 180" - 155.1 4' _ 155'.
oompo""nl', w~ \ISO Eq. 3-fi. Th . magoilude ;,
ThUs. Ih. ani', d i",laCl'me"1 d_ hos magnllude and
d_ - ~d;" .• + d!..., '"glo
- ~{ 8.2 em)' + O.8<m)' - 9.0cm.
d... - 9.0cm'1155'.
To findlhe a"g le (measured f.om Ih. posil;ve di'OC1;on V'ctOf d dirl'Cloo hom Ina a"1 10;15 ho"'" has
of x ), we la ~ o an ;o'·c'''' la"!\<nl : Ihe san", magJuiudo as d_ bUl loo oflllO'il" d"ooioo
(Fig. 3-17c). We al , ~ad)' h,ve 100 angle (- 24.86' _
8 _ lan- L( ' - ' ) ~~:~I~~ ~h"ed ~:;;ioll Opposile 1 .... Thus, d-. hos
d_, ..

- Ian _,( 3.8&2cm
~"') - - ""
4.au.
,1_ - 9.0<""al - 15'. (A "",,,,)
A d""," an i traveling mo,~ Ih'" 50) m from ill bo"",
Ca~';Ql~ Ri'C3U from Prob li'm-Solving TOCl ic 3 Ibal ",ll ""lu,lIy ma ~ e 11I<lusaod, of individual ,un,. Yel. il
lakin g.n i","",,,, la"genl on a cakulalOf may nol gi'" oomehow l """,~ bolO' 10 calculale iT --. (wil1l<lm 'llldy-
Ihc oorrOCl ,,,,w.,.The all"'''' - 24.86° i"dical'" Ihal 109 lhis chaple,).

fk .. i, a problem invol'lng vi'<"1{)f oddilio" IMI amnol "" en""", Ibal a_. is ."0 ",iIO
001....:1 du,'CIiy 00 a Vi'CIO.-.eapabloo calallalor, """g 100 C. - A, + B ..
vOOor IlOtalioo of 100 calcul3lOf. A f"EIo ..· cam .... ' is 10
.." II; awa)' from )'Ou i" a ""ighl ~n~ (Vi'CIO' A). Ill ... wa l~ We ""xl "Ipross ead! x oomiX'"e"1 in 1M form of 1M
iII a ..cooJ .II",;ghlliu~ (vi'<"1or 11) .nd 100" slOp. How fa, -' pari of Eq. J.5 and ",b;l;IUIC l "",,-" data. Wo In.,, M""
musl )\)u "" I~ in a S!roighllioo (W<"1Of C) lO .. am h..> (/ C cos 0" - n.OCC<l( - 47.0") + 17.0cos d>. {3- J 7)
Tbc Ih"-"", '.'<."1ors (show" i" Fig. J -18) at. ,<'Ialoo by
Ho ..""",. Ihi' hardl}' sw"rs 10 help. b;o",us<> wo still
~ - 1i + 1l (3 -16) can"ol 00]"" fo, C .."boul ~"owing d>.
A h"" a magnilude of 22.0 01 and is di,oood al"n angli' UI us now "pr.5s Eq . 3-16 i" Ii""rs of OOO1PO" ""1S
of - 47.0" (dockwise) from 100 pos;liv~ dirOClio" o f ao ,Ioog Ihe ya m :
x axi~ 11 bau magnllud. of 17.0 m and;'; d irected COllll - C, - A, + Br
1".clock,,-i50 from Ihe posl li ve di,ooion of Ibe -" al;'; b)' We 11,.-,0 caS! Ih"'" y compo"""1S i" Ihe fo,m of 100
a"glo. Cis in lb. posil;'''' di,celiou of Ih. x . xis. Wbat y pall 01 Eq, 3-5 ."d SUbslillllO l no,,-n data. 10 "Tile
is Ih~ magniluooofb
C s", 0" - 21.0 si"( -47.0") + 17.0 SuI d>,
,
Wo can"ol a","", lIIe queshoo byadd,"g
~~:::~':~::"~;i" a voclOf-capablo cakul, IO'. say. io
I magniludi! A. L angk> A I + Imasnilulk> B L a" gl~ BI
C
,-i<,--'---<i'--- ,
..-
<.... 1'..

bo;>.r~u ... w. do nOl l """, Ihe valu~ fo, Ihe angle d> of 11.
HoI'''''''', we call exp ' e..s Eq, 3-16 in I"",, of compo-
00"1S fo, ei lh ~, llie -" alis 0' 100 Y alis.

Calclht#ono: Since (: is d lf('CI"d along Ihe ..- ax's. 1L"
~ Chap_l I Vectou
wbich y;"I'" SUllslllUliog Ihis ."",11 i"10 Eq. 3-17 lead, us 10
o - no sin( - H .IY') + 17.0 sin 01>. C - 20.5111 . (AfI'>"Y.w)
Solving for d> Ih." give, us Nme Ih.l",bniqu~ 01 ""Iu~ o,, : When wo gOI 'luck wilh
compo"ents on lb. x uis. wI! ...."ked ",jib compo""""
22.0 sin( - ~ 7.(l! on Ihe J axis, 10 .v. loal" 01>. W~ noxt mowd t>ac~ 10 Ih.
- 71.17·,
17.0 A' uis. 10 ~valual~ C

, 3-7 I Vectors and the laws of Physics
So for, i" eV"f)' figure Ihal welu"", " coordioate 5j'S1"m. Ih. x ood)' aXilS ar~ par·
aUd !O tile edgos of Ih. boo~ pag.!. ThUs. ".-h." • ,-octo. Q " ,ndu""d . lts compo-
",,"IS ", .nd a, ar. al"" p" •• liollo lb. odg"" (as in FIg. 3-19.» . The only reason f"r
Ih.1 "",,",",ion of Ih~ u.s IS Iha, il looks "Propil' "; 'b.:>re is no d""p'" r•• son .
Wecould.lIlS1e.d. to!>,. Ihe axe. (bul nOlloo vOClor II) Ihrougb ,n 'nglo Ibas in
a:
,., Rg. J.19b. ", "'h ir h case tbe compo"o"t. would ba ve new ' -alues. call1''em and
a;" Si""e them arc an illfinit~ "umber of Cboir<>5 of <1>. Ih...'" are an infinit. number
, of djff.. ~"t pairs of compo"""'S fo, II.
Whirh toon is Ibe ··rig"'·· pair of compon~nts"l The an'WIlr is Ihal tooy are aU
"'IuaUy v,l,d becallSi' each p,i. (~jlh it' u.s) just g>'"eS u. a diff..ent way 01 ~ ­
" scribing too same ve<101 ii: all P'oou", tOO sa"" ",'gn, 'u~ aod direction f01 too
vi'CIor. In Fig. 3-19 ...., ha~·.
" a - ~d'< + a', - ~a"' + a", (3 -18)

\~=-. and
6 - 6' + 1b. (3 -19)

"
FIG . ... '9 (a)Thev!'CIorih.. d;"
The poi"1 " that we h,v" gr~al f, ....>dom in choosing a eoordinal. 'y'tern. be-
cau", tOO rel"iolls among vOClors do ROt do]X'"d 00 Ih~ loc",io" of 100 origin or
rom..,...,nl<.(b) The .. me _"II, 0" the ori~lltatjon of too a ..... "This i. also lru" ollb" rolalions 01 ph)',ics: Ihe}' arc
..-ith the >xes of ,b. OOOIdinat ••ys_ all inoop..'1Idellt 01 the ch <lic. of coordinate .}~tOlll . Add 10 thai Ibe simpljol}' and
'em rolated 'hroogb aD aIlgle 60. ricbn". of Ih~ language of ,..,ctOts and you caJl "'" ..-hy too I.,,~ of pb)~i<:s ore al-
mo.t al".-ay. pre",nl.d ill Ihal language: one equation. liko Eq . 3.10. can "'P'"-
"'nl Ihr,,,, (0' .... n mor~) ,ohliolls.!iko Eqs.) -I l. 3-12. and .J.-13.

3-8 I Multiplying Vectors·
There ar. tbr"" way. in "'hkll v'-'<:tors can hi< nlUlliplied. bUI "one i, exactly like
Ihe usual algebraic multiplicatIOn . As }'OU , oad th" section. k""p III mllld thll a
"i'CIor-<:3pable ca]cu!.:lIo. ~-ill bolp you mult'pl)' vOOors only 'f }'OU u"dorstand
Ihe bask rulos of th'l mu Itiplicalio" .

Multiplying a VectOl'" by a Scalar
If ..,.. multiply a '"OCt01 --,; by a "",I., '. ,,-~ gN a",,"· '-i'CIor. lis magnitude"
Ihe proouct of Ih~ ","gnit"d~ of a ""d 100 a!>solul. '-alu~of •. Its di .. ctio" i<: too
dirooioo of "iI , i<: posItive blllihe op(>O'il~ di'e<:1ioo if. i. oogal;vo. To di,-idi! 'it
b)' •. w.multlJll}' 71 b}' II..

Multiplying a VectOl'" by a Vector
ThOle are Iwo ..-.ys to 1Il"I"pl}', \\.'<:t01 by. ,,-,,,tor: "". w'y p,oou"," , seal"
(call"d Ibe .rola, p,od"".). and Ihe o ther prod"""" a "" ... veet01 (""lied too ,..,c/o,
prod"c'). (StuOO"" commoutj' confuse Ihe Iwo way •.)

· Th~ .... m ol _~I ..,. be ,m"",,«1 "",iI ..", (CIooj>'" 7I""...,.w ",<oJ"", on" u.",,, II Io,.w-
'''" ",<oJ"", \, .. " '" ""', .. _ ",,",0' . . ., ,.-;,.0 '~ po_",,'" .............' of ,h,O ...no..
The Scalar Product
.d., p,!>duct of 100 '-oclotS Ii and F in Fig. .\.2& ~ ..-nne" a, -;;. Ii aod
The . ...
dofl,,,,dmoo
(3':10) ,.,
... hoe'il" is Ibe mag'"iude of It. b" lh. magni!Udo of b. and d> is lb. anglo 001"",,"
7! and Jj (or. mom p'OJl",ly. oolw,,"" Ihe d"""hOIlS of;J and b).The," .r"
a<1uaUy
lwo ,urn "ngle.s, d> and J6O' - lb. Eil"'" can be "",d in Eq. 3-20. I'oecaIlSo' lbcir
=in" a,~ the sam •.
N o{~ lhal {he," a,~ only "",lars 00 Ihe rigbt ~ j"" of Eq. 3-20 (ineiuding Ibe
valu" of cos 011). Thus a· b on Ibe l"f1 ,ide "'P''''''''{'
a ,cala, quantity. B.."'CJu"" of
the oOlalion, II· b is .110 ~nOl'.. n as Ih~ dot prvda,'1 "nd" .poh" as ". dOl b: '
A dol p.od"e! can N "'g.1.d.."'<l as Iho produe! of ,.0 qu""",ics; (I) lhe ",ago
niluoo of one of Iho voe!or.; "nd (2) Ihe seal.. OOnlpon~nl of Ihe second '"{'Clor
,long Ih~ di.eelion of Ihe firsl VoctOl. For exampk , in Fig. 3·20b, II has" scalar
compo""nl a ros dr .Iong Ihe direclion of b: nolc ,h., • '"
p<l,pcoJicul., d'OJlpod FIG. J.zo fa) Two •• <lor.;; and S.
f.om lhe hoad of -a 0",0 b oolerm,n" Ihal oompon"nl. Sin,il.,ly, b hos a scalar wj,h aD . ngl. oil be,,.,,.," ,h'HL
rompo""nl b 00< oil alon g Ih~ di.oe!'oo of II. (bl E,.,b VK1", has • comp""enl
olong 1/", dire"'ioo 01 ,b. OIn.,
. - If lhe IUIsie oil bollO". I""" _Ion is 0', lbe componeOI 01 one VK10r alomg.n.
OIb", is ",..imllll1. aad.., also is Ihe dOIprOOucI oflbe _1", .. lt i."..d,dr ;,110', \be
"" .... 0 • •

""",,,,,,,enl 01 OfIO VK10r aIong.n. <>Ih,,;, .. ro... d 50 i"b. dol prod .......

Equal;on ] ·20 ~a" be ... wrin,," as folio., lo~",pha"ze Ih~ ro",ponents:
"iI. b - (a COS dr)(b) - (a)(b ros oil ~ (3 ·l1)
lbe rommu,"I;'''' law appi,e, 10 a scalar prod"e!. so " .• ean w.ilo
a·b - b·-a.
When ''''0 wetors a.e ;n unil ,vOCIOf nOlalion, "''' ,,'.,10 Ih.it dol p.odUCI as
lI·b - (a,; + oj + a,k)'(b,; + bj ... b,I:), (3 ·22)
"hich w~ call ~,p.nd aCOOfding to lhe distributh... law: Each welo. comp<ln~n l
of Ihe fitsl vOClo. is 10 be dOl,.d wilh .""h veelOf compon"nt 01 lhe .. oond vee·
10 •. By d,,;og so, "'... ~a" ,how Iha!
-a.Ii - a.h, + a,b, + a,b,. (3 ·23)

/c H Eel( POI NT. VecI"',
.esp"<tivoly. WII'" ~ I•• 1lllsJ.
t .Dd I) • • •• m. sru,ucle. of j unitt . Dd 4 URi,.,
bel",.,..,be dire<l;"'" of t:u>d I) if t·I) equrn
(.) zo:ro,(bJ 12 nAilS, >nd «) - 12 unitt?

I Problem

Wh" IS lb~ aogl~ d> bo;>lW""";'~-:;';,ili;
- 2.oi + 3.ot? (C",,,,o~:
' ~-:-;',;";l:.:";'~';-:-:-------:":_::';";'0;,:.;,:-;';,0;);':_::',:00:'-,--:,~,-,;,;)
Althougll many of Ihe foUow-
iJlg slep' can 00 bypassed ..itb a wClof-<:apablo cJlcula - and I> is lh. magn;luoo of Ii ,or
101 , you \liIIl,am mo," aboU1 ",alar products i/. .1 I<'asl
h'-'fc, you use In""" S1eps.) • - " 2.0)' + 3.0' - 3.61. (3 ·26)
w••an separalely cvalual~ Ihe 1"11 sid. of Eq. ] ·24 by
Ih. dilcclions of I~'o ,... ihng Ibc veelor, in uni! ·'"OCI01 nomio" ,nd using ,''''
of Ind, scalar p.od· d isl.;buI;v. law:
ucl(Eq. 3.20): a·Ii - (3.01. - 4.0j) .. ( - 2.01 .+ 3.0l ).
0 ·24)
- (J.Oi)· ( - 2.Oi) + (3.0i )· (3.0k)
Calcwtiono: In Eq . 3·24,a is lhe m"gnnude of"il. 01 + (- 4.0])·( - 2.01) + (- ~.oj) ·(J.Ol).
~ Chap_l I Vectou
W,· "exl apply Eq. 3-20 10 ",1m !eml io Ibis last .xpros- Subsliluling Ib" ,,,",ui! and Ih~ ,"sui,. of E",. 3-15 and
sjoo .Th~ angle bel"''''''' lb~ unil wClor, in lh~ firsl1enn (1 ) ·26 uno Eq. J-U yiolds
and I) is 11'\ and in t h~O!h", WmlS ,1 is 90'. We lOOn h.:I,-,'
- 6.0- (5.00)(3.61)cos~,
iJ'b - - (6.0}(1) + (9.0)(0) + (8.0)(0) - (12)(0) - CO
- - 6.0. so '" - COIl -I (S.tXl)(3.61) - 109" _ 110". (An' ..... ')

The Vector Product
Tho. ""••tor prvdlK"f of a and b, .....;(10" 7i )( b, pmduro.< a Ihird '"i'Clo." o.'h05Ol
m'g"im"" is
(3-27)

whore d> is Ih~ ",,,,lla of 1he 1'''-0 angle, b<!l ...." ;; and b . (You RlI/'iI use lhe
smalle. of Ih" '.-0 .Ilg!;" bel""'''" 1"" veelors l><>cause 'in d> and sin(:l6O' - o j
differ in algcbrak sign .) &""' .... oltbe o01>1ion. Ii " b;,; abo ~ n~'n as th. rf" "
'0' prod" .... and in 'f"l"Cb it ,,"a rf"" b:

. - If if ond"liOl. p.",IIe! Of ""'; por.tllel if ,,"Ii _ o. The mogni'udoe of if x b. ,.Ilkb
can be .... in .... ji1 " lil ;, """;"' um ",n.n if . Ad li are l""l"'ndicul .. ,o.arn "'her.

a
-- -
, '•• x •
The d'r"",ion 017' i,; Jl<rpendicular to ,n. plane tnat con,a;", and h. Hguw
3-11a sho...~ how to ""termine tbe di,e<1ion of 7' - Ii " 1i ... ith ,,-hat is known .s
a ri~h,. h .. d ,,~e. PI"", tOO vectors a and b tail!O lail "-;lhoUI altering th";. ori-
""lalio"", and '"l.1&!n, a lin" that i:s Jl<'p'nd>cular to th<i. plane ,,-ooro thlly
n",et . P"'t~nd to plaro }'om riglll band around Ihal I,n, in soch • way that you.

F1G. NI '"
IU.... ratioool' ..
fing<'rs would sweep --,; in to 1i Ihrough tlhl smallet "ngle b", ..",," Ihem. Your out -
strctrhe<l tbumb pomts in the diroction of7'.
risb,·b>r>d,oJ. eo. VEflor produ"~ The Old". of the mclor mulltpl k alion i<; ,mpo"""t . In Fig. 3-1Ib. we are
(0) s,."P """or <1into vec(Of b determming the di ..'Ction 01 C' - b >< 3.,., 100 fingers am pl,ced 10 s~-""p b ,"to
with lb. fio!€" of yow ,;y.,
bood.
Ii Ihrough the smal!.:!r anglo>. Th. thunm "nds up in Ih. oppo>ite directioo from
Your OIl "",,,<hOO tb umb 0II0Wl! tb.
dif«1io. of .. <1or" _ if ~ t .(b) p.evlOusl}'. and so it must "" th"?' - - .... Ihat i~
Showin! thai "Ii " if io ,bor.veu" 01 F"a - - (Ii ><b). (3 -28)
i1~b.
In other ....,.d" Ih. rumll1"t"ive la ... does uot a"ply 10 a w<1or product.
In unit-veel'" notation . ...., w.ite
a" b - (a) + o,j + Q, ~ ) >< (b,l + b,j + b,h (3 .19)
" 'hk h CJn "" expand.>d n ccof<l;ng 10 the disl1ibulive law: Ih.t is. earb compo"~nl
of Ihe firsl V",-",,,, is 10 "" CfOSS<'d ,,-;Ih each ",n'pontOI of the ...'COod v"<1or.TOO
CfOSS prodocts o f uu;t vectors are giveu 'u Appendix E (see "P,odocts of
V",-",OJ'S··j. Rtr """",plo . in Ih" expansion o f Eq. 3-29. havew"
., .,
a,i " b,1 - u,b,(i ",) - o.
"'-'CaUSi' the two unit '-octors 1 aod 1 are parallel .nd thus h.w. ",rorross prod-
oct . Similarl}'. w~ haw

In the last st~p w~ useU Eq. 3-27 to ev.luat~ Ihe magn;lII"" 01 r"
j '" unity.
(The", ,,,,,tors i ""d j urn
have a masnilu J e of uoity. and (00 a"gt. betw.. n
th~m is 90".) Also. ,,-~ u",d lb. righi -hand .ulo to gel th~ diwetion 011 >< j as
being in 100 posih.e d".<1ioo ollb~ ~ ax" (Ibu, in 100 d"ectioo of k).
Continuing to oxpand Eq. 3-29. }'OU can ,ho"' lh"
-;;" 1i - (o,p. - b,..,,~ + (a,!>, - b,u, ); + (a» , - b.a,)k . (3-.lO)
A dote.minanl (APP"odi x E) or a vector-capable calculator cau a!:so he used
Todlecl: "'tlNh'" ao)' xJ: rootdiIL:lIe ')'>tem is. right -h.:uJded wonlin,t •.• ):sIem.
usc too.tight-band .ok< for the "'oss (>!oooo ; " j - b';lh trut s)'>1Om. If your fingers
"'''''p i (p<'llit;'" difOC1;oo 01. xl into j (pasil;" d;'OCll00 01. yl ";lh tlK> ootstrotebcd
thumb po;nling ill too pasilive difOC1;oo 01.:, t!l<n lbe sy,,,,m is right-baod<'<l.

/c H 'C K POI NT 5 Ve<1or. C and D h, ,,,, magnitude.! of 3 units .nd 4
''"'f'«ti""l~ Vi."" is ,be "Ele be,-.,. the dj"""lo • • of ODd r n
u,,;,~
if ,be m:ogoi'ucle 01
the "",",or proo"", C ~ Dis (. J zero .. d (b) 12 units?

Sample Problem m
In Fig . .l--22. ",Clor 0 I,., ill th o -<y plane. bas a ""gni-
moo of 18 ""i15 and point' in a dirOClion 29J' f.om thoe
+x diroct;on . AI~, veC10f Ti has" magnitu"" of]2 ""i(,
and poillts in tho +< dlfoctlon. What" the vector prootlCt
7 - 0"b'l
FM;. J;lZ V."or
? (i. tho xy pi ....)
When ~-. have t"o ,,,,,tors in m,gnituOO. iotbnectOl (01
"ngle notation , .... find the magoituoo of their ",os, <f<,.,) p,oducr 01
P'OOtlCt with Eq. 3-27 and the di'''''tioo 01 t .... i. etOSS
proooct \lilh Ihe righl- hall~ rule of Fig. 3-2] .
v«tor.iJ .. dS. ,
c..lcul.ation.: Fo, too magnitude we ..nte
strctehe<l thumb then giw' th. di'oction 017. ThuS-. as
c - ~b 'in ~ - ( 18 )( 12 X,i" 90") - 2]6. (Answe,) shown ill the figure,? lies in too x )' p]ao" EJ....."use ill d, -
'Mian IS P"'P"od;cular to too dir.><:tioo ola. it is at"n
To ""te,mill. too directio n in Fig. 3-22, illlagine placing
angl. of
tbe finS"rs 01 you, right haod afOund , lioo p""p"ndk" -
la, to the plane 01 "i1 aud b (tho line o n ".-hieh 7 i, 2SO" - \U' - 160" (An,""')
sbo,,,,,) such that you, fingers , .."ep 0 into b. You, O"t - from the positive di,ooio" 01 tbex axis.

Sample Problem m
We neXl evaluate oach t<fm ,ntb Eq . 3--27. finding too
di"",on with the ,ight-band ,ul" Fo, the ftrSt t01m
"",., too angle ~ oot"eon the two ,,,,,tors heing crossed
When t",o vedo" are ,n "nil -v,ClO' rIOta- is O. Fo, tbe othe, terms, ~,,90' . W. find
tion , .." ClIn find thelf eross prodOCl by "sill g the distri!>.
7 - - 6(O) + 9( - j) + 8( - k) - 12i
utive law. . . .
- - 12i - 9j - 8k . (An",,,,)
c..lcul.ation.: He... ~e "'nle
This VOC1or 7 IS p"'tx'nd,euiar to botb r1 ""d b, a f"'"
7 - (31 - 4j) " (- 21 + 3k) you can chcd: by showing (hat 7· 0 _ 0 "nd 7· b _ 0-, that
- 31" (- 2;) + .1 ; " 3k + ( - ~h " (- 21) is, !here i, no compooont of 7 along the direction of
+ (- 4)) "3k. eithe, if o, E.

PROBLEM-SOLVtNG 1II.CTlCS
Tactic 5: Common ["rrOls with C,oss Products Sov_ of tb, prod"" ioto ,be ~ "",tor cm OOCIU ..ne. ,be on,n-
ual ",on or. com.,,,,, in fi.ding a "1M' p,oduct. (I J F..h". t>tions 01 tho l'Nt0l. ''''IuiJ.:m • ..t,.=I'wi"ing 01 yow hand
to . mu'ge """or. t:ill to toil i. ''''''plinE 'OIhe. Ill> m"'tn,i"" to opp/}' the riy.,_hand ,uk Sometime.t ,.,t b,W"", ..'he. yOll
P""'Dt> ,b"", bead '0 toil: yoo mu" ... n'>I1y .hif, (0' be" ... try tom,l" tb ....... p m•• ,ally ,,,bu tna. """ oily ">iriS your
,.<1<"",) one vWo, '0 ,he 1"01"" ...... gem'"' ..-ithoo' cb .. g_ bmd. (4) Roih".,o wOIk wi,h , ri!,h'-1wlded OOOIdio"e .y..
iog it. or;'o" ,oo. (2) Roiling to we ,he rigbt bond i. applyin~ t.m , .. un. lObe. you illlge' how '0 d",,. •...,b a 'l"""" . Se.
tho ,ign'_bmd ..... is e .. y~. the 'igb' ~.nd i. r>«:upitd Fig, 3_14 iIII ooe l""l""'ive. Pr:rC1ko dn"';"g ",he, p..-spe<'-
wi'b • cok •.!>tor or I"'ncil (1) Foilu,. '0 .weep the fi",
VectOl t"""",rn '" tb. loon«, one.) .bOWl! in VI!!.3_2'i ""pageS3.
REVIEW & SUMMARY
Scalar. a nd Vectors Sca/"" , ucb os I<mpt,.t.", b,v. ill oompoo.", form, w,.'" ,h. ,ul",
m, gnitude only. They art 'f"'Cilied by, numbe, with. unit
', _ a, + b, r, _ ., + b, r, _ o, + b< (J-llt03_1l)
(I(),C) and ob<y tb, rule< 01 ",itbm"'", and ordi... ry olg.n
I;'ct"" ,ucb :u di>pl"",,,,,,ot. b. v, both m. gnitude ... <1 He .. it and b are the ...."" to be odded,and 7 .. tb. _101 <UID.
directk>. (5 m .• Oftb) and ob<y thoe ,uI .. oI vOClOf >\!ebn.

Adding ~to .. Geometrically T...,,,,,,,Of' it and. m. y
Product of a Scalar and a Vooctor The p,oduct <>1" .
scol.rs and a VOClor " .. a,,,,., ve,"Of ,.,11".. m.gnitude ;",.
be ><Uedgrometricall}' by <1r>wi.! lb • ., to AC<m1OOlll seal. and .nd "bose dire<tioll .. tb, """ . .. ,na. of Vif, ~ positive. and
pl:oa'n! tbem h.od to tail. The """Of e<m>e<ting!be tail <>I" Ib, "I'!""i1e to>1 <>1"" ~ • is ",!"ive, To divi.d. "by •. mul';ply V
Ii", ", !be beod <>l" the >eoo<>d .. the vtctOf ""'" Y. To ... I<~ • by II~
from it, ,eve".,b. dir<'<tioll of. to!<1 -."b•• odd - . to it.
Ve<1or :ddi,ioII .. rommu,",ive and oo.ys !be .,,,,,,ialive 1,10. The Scalar Product The . ....... (or do.>t) product of ,...,
V«tOf' it and 5 is ""it... it· . .. d ~ tbe u al., qU,,"'ity gi"".
Compone nts of a Ve ctor The ( scal"" ''''''poom'' .,
. nd '" 01 .ny tw<>-<lim ...."".1 vtctor it olOll~ the ooo,dim "
..... aI.lound by dropping perpendi cul:lJ line, /'0IIl tb. ends
" (J-20)

01 it ooto tb. OOO<di •• te >xe<. The com""""." Ol' y... by ill which oj.;' ,hoe ""90- bot,.....,. the dire<1j"", <>I" it and S.
A ",.al.,. prodoc1 .. ,he produ<l 01 !be m. g,.oitude of OD. vector
... _ "<OO~ and a, _ asin~, (J-5) .nd tbe ....1ar """po."'t 01 ,., oerond vectOf atOllS the di_
rect;"" <>I" t be fin' VOCl or. In Wlit _""'or ""..,;"" .
.. b, .. ~ .. ,ho ... gIe be,,..,.," tb . pooi'ive direction 01 ,he .'
.... and ,be directi"" 01 it. Th. >lS.brak siS. or:. compoo'.' {J-22J
indica, ... i" diroc'ioII """'g,be """"""ed JIll;" Oiven iu <001 _
I'0'''n ' ~ .... can fin<! ,ii,
magnitude and Of;"n, .. ;"" <>I" 'be vee_ wbicb m. y bt ..p..dtd """"dinS to tb. di>triblt,iw I. w,
N",. ,." it· b _ •. "it.
' Of it";,b

" - ,''; + 0) ..d The Ve ctor Product The ' ·reto. (or """".) pn",dll'" 01
'wo .,<lon " ...d b is writ ... " ~ b . Dd ~ a "'<t~, C ,.... .,..
m.gni tude < ;, give. by
Unit_Vector Notation Unit ""10" i.], ...d ~ b.v. m,gni _ (J-17)
,ude, 01 u.ity and . re directtd in tb . po>;tive dir,"';o", 01 ,b .
x. }: and , """~ "'pt<bvely. ill a ';gh'_haded oooHlin, ,. ill "'hicl! oj. j>1he ""aller 01 U..... gl •• bet .." . ,b. dire<1K>n'
')'I"m. We caJI ,.,me. ",",",or itm le,m. oIWli, vtctor, .. 01 it md S. Th. dire<1k>n 0I ? ~ perpeDdicul:u to thoe pi"""
defi_1w it and b and is given by • 'ioht_hand mk all ,00,.."
(3-7) ill Fig. 3:2 1. Nor. that it ~ b _ - (Ii ~ Jt). I. urut_ve<lO,
in whicb aJ.D,J. and ",~ .re ,hoe ""'0' rom""n,." of it ...d Dor.Oon.
a, ..... and 0, :u. ;",<111., "'"'P""'-'''~ it ~ b _ (a; + ",i + a, k) ~ (b,1 + b,) + b,~). (3-29)
Adding Vector. In Compone nt Form To add V""',, wbicb we m, y .xp>nd ,.,it. tbt di,"ibu,ive law.

QUESTIONS
, B<iog p'" <>I" the -Oato..: tI,e ,
URi"....,,), of Florida gollins te ...
m"" play 00 . P",\inSye<n will> >II aI_
~gatOf plt. Figur. J-2J .... OM ... over_
bead view 01 011. p"ttmg ,b.n.nge 01
.- fmod to Fbida St ... URiv. .." )'. the .. , b rival. Wh. , oequ."",
of dioplacem ... t< s.bould • te:un member uoe ", ..<*I tbe plt?
Z Eq."ioo.l-2 ,hoM "'" the addition 01 two ""'or.
it IIlId 5
.. commut,,;v._ Do.. tb" "" "'" .ubtr:o<tioll is oomnlUt>1;ve.
", tbatit - b _ b - itl
the team; ODX)'<oc<din:ole.y"em ~ ,.-
P"rimpooed. Te.., .... mbof. m.... pUlt 1 em the . um of ,be masni-
,
from tb. oriy.. to !be 1'IoIe.lI"hich ~:u L----,---_ _ , ,ude. of '''-0 ve<tOf' eu, bo
"'l 0.J to tb. m.a.gninrde of ,b.
xy roordin .. ", (811l, 11 mJ. bitt thO)' FIG. J-2J Q .... ' ioII I.
<"" f"'n tb. golf bali"';n! omly ODe Of •um 01 ,b, >ame two VOClon? If
.0. ,.1Iy .or1 If ye~ wbe.?

more <>I" the 100"'*inS di>pla<em<n ... """ or more times:
, Th. 'wovWor, r.bown '" fig.
-f-+-- '
if, - (SIII)1 + (6111)). if, - (6 DI)i. if, - (Smjl. J-24 lie in Ill! .• y plane. \\'h >1 are
,be ,;gr.. 01 tbe x and y compo-
lbe pi' .. >1 ooordinat .. (8 Ill. 6 m). 11 • 'e.., membtr I"'t" ,h. aentue.<pectivel}'. of (a) it, + if,.
ball into Of through ,be pt, tb. mernbtr is . utomatically t...... _ (b)l, - if"H1d (c) if, - l,? FIG. J-2~ Que";OII',
PTobIom. ~
5 1f1 _ ;r + . + (- i'). d.oes (a) i1+ ( - It) _ i" + ( - b\ I. beled -,igll,.bando<looonlin." .ystem"" A. usual,each all;"
(b) iJ _ (- b) + II + ",.•• d(e)" + ( - 1) _ it + -';1 I.bel indica, .. ,be """iliv. ,,<Ie
01 ,n.. :ro..
6 D<>cribe 'wo V''':!Of' jf . . d"li ,uch ,na, • Figwe 3-26 ,how, """or
(a)iI' + b _ i' ... d o + b _ C",
A and 10111 "'her vWon
'bat h. ",!be ,ame magni,.d.
(b) J' + Jj _ if _ b : but dill.. in on •• ,arion.
«j il' + b _ ? :u>d <T + b' _ " . (A) Which 01 ,no... OIbe, (OIl'
"",",or, ha"" ,be ...... dol

7 Whicb 01 ,be ar ..... geme ... 01 >Xe'S in Fig. 3-15 <an be prodU<1 with A1 lb) Whicb
have a negot;", dol produn

',~ 't- .t -
wilhA1
FIG. J.z6 Que";"" 3.
9 If r _q{"~"9) ... dVi.
perpeodirnl" 10 11. ,b,n wha' ;, !be dirO<1K>n of]j i. 'be throe
, ;,u1IiOll' 5IIown in Fig. J _27 ~I>e. <00<".'
q ~ (a) I""i';ve
ud (b) ·'S· ,lv.1

1_) ihl ,,)

, , 1'1 III j'l
.' flG . ... Z7 Q.",,;oo9.
(') j' l if)
fiG . J.ZS Qu..,'i0ll7. 10 [lif·. _ if·7,mu,,5 "Iuol n

PROBLEMS

Me. 3,,( Compo n. nt. of V.don " . nin! poim . (aJ How laI .00 (bJ ;. ,
. . I,.' '0
L-.Y
., The x comp<lII.n, of ""nor A i, - 21.0 m aDd tbe y rom_ eIi,...,i"" mu" ;, <>OW . .il
pone.'" +4QOm. (0) W"", ~ ,he ""gni'ude of A7 (hl \\ih"t roach i" oriSin .. d.."ma'ion ?
i, ,he angle be,,...
n the dir«1K>D 01 A and ,h. pool';" .6 A cli<placem •• , _ 'or .., in ,b. ""
- c"'--c-C-'
direct;oa 01 x? .. M xy pl . .... is 15 m long IlIld direnNl >1 FIG. J-29 Problem 6.
·2 &pre.. 'he loUo..-i" ~ ""gIe< in ~ : (. J lQ,lJ', ... gle ~ _ 30' i. Fig. J-..?<j, D<ltImin,
(h) 'j()'o:r, (oJ 100". C"" .... " ... loIk>...mg aogl<.1 '0 dey""" (0) ,~ , x com""",", ... d (b) ,b, y <Om"",,"" of ,be vector.
(d) 0.3)1 rod. (e) 2.10 oo,(t) 7.70 rod. •• 7 A room b .. dim .....,.., 3.0 0 OJ t heish') X 3.70 m X
.3 Wh . , aIe (oJ ,h. x 00111 """,,"' an d (h) ,be Y compO","' 4.30 m, A II}" " ""ing .. ODe. <orntI !i.. """""" '1I<Iins "p at
01, ",.. or it .. ,h. xy pl .... ~;15 dir.<1iOll is 2'j()" oou.ler_ 'he di>g<llLllly <>ppOIIito <orn«, (0) 1',,">1 ~ ,b.
m.gnitud. of
,lock....... lrom ,be pool';" direc';"" of ,h' .T"is HId;" m.!_ i" displaceme.,? (b) CollI.! ,be Ie.S,h 01 its p.. h be I... 'bon
ni'odeis7Jml ... 'his magni,ude? (oJ G",,,.r? (d) Equ. tI (e) Cb"""" • ,Wt.bIe
• .( In fig. 3-28, a heavy p"'" OOOfeli. at. I)'".m ""'" ' XJ"<'" ,be oompooe"" of ,h. di'l'la<:e_
me.' "'«Of in ,nat ,y",m in uni' _vector .ota,ion. (I) If ,.., IIy
of machinery ;, r..t.ed by oIidioS
"a di<;talloe d _ 12_1 m:olont 0 ....Ib. ,.'ha,
~ ,b, Ie.gth 01 , ... ,hon." pa,b? (Hblt can1"b"
be ..._.d ,..j,h"", ealruI .... Th, room is like a boL Unfold
plaat oo.."'ed aI aogle ~ _
3l()" '0 ,be horiro.llo1, H .... far "" ,..,.n"oA, ".n1hernin'o,pI ..... ) ..M _
;. " """,td (.) v,,'io<oIIy ""'" He. 3.0 Add ing v.ctOrl by Compon. ntl
(h) hori"""aJ]y? .1 A car;' miv, • ..., lor ow,u rx:e of 'j() km,'ben oonbfa- 30
.5 A ,hip .. " ou, '0 , :oi) '0 • ..... J-21 Problem • . t lrl, ..d ,ben to adirectialJYea>' of oonh lor 25 km, Sketch ....
poi., 120 km due .onh.A. Ull_ vector di 'l!'>JII .00 de"""in. (.) ,be m'f!'litude ond (b) ,b. an_
'xpe<,NI "orm bI""" ,be >.h;p '0 . poin' 100 km due . ... 01;" gie 01 ,be car', lOt" dispI""''''''"'
from i" " ",ti.! point.
~ Chap_ l I Vectou

.9 (a) In ".i,_vector ."' '' '''''_ "bat il tb .... m it + ri (0) . the. (b, 1UId - 70). th •• (- 20 ""d e, ). tbe. (_60 >nod
if ii _ (4.0 111)1 + 13.0 111)] and -,; _ ( - lJ.OlDji + (1.0 m}j ? - :ro). \I'h" are (. ) OOnlpo!><ot b, >nod (b) component e,?
W,.." ne ,., ( b! m. yllrud. and (e) directioo 0171 + bl .... Wbat are (e) th. rn~n"oo . , nd (d) ,b. >fly.. l rel"i"" to tbe
posit;"" dir«,ion of ,be x .. ill) of ,be overoll dkplocem. OI?
.10 A 1"''''''' ",ill.. i. the following 1'"""'"
J.l km .orth.
tbe. VI Om "'"". and 6n>lIy 51 'm ""'tb. (.) Sketch tb. vec_ .19 Th, .. V",'Of. if.•. >nd i" .:ocb have. magni'ude 01
tor di . g.nrn ,b.,
rtpruenl.! ,hi< mOl;OIL ( b) How for and (e) i. 50 IJI . .d tie in ... .T)' pl ..... Th.~ diroctioru ",I., ... '0 ,be
..-bat dir«1ioa would a bird fty i•• "'aigb, line from the .... . '''pee-
posi'i", dir...,iOll ot ,be .T >xi. are 30'. 195' .... d ll~ · .
" ",ting point 1<> 'be .. m. final point? 'ively. Wb .. or, la) ,b. maE.i,od. and (b ) ,be , ogle 01 '''''
t." ;, v«''''" if + b + 7 ... d «) ,h. m.gni'ude and (d) ,be msJe 01
.11 A person <!<sir", to " ""b , point lAO ko> 'rom
htl 1"'''''''' ""'atioa and in. dir.Clioo that ;' 35.(]' nonb 01
iI - • + n \>''h .. at. ,h. (.) m:ogoi'ode >nod (I) any. ot •
e. " , Howev". sb. m.... ,,,,,,I oI 011~ >1",...
to .. Ol' OIi. nted
I"""b """or d.uclJ ,na, (il + b) - (7 + d) _ fJI ....
,itb" nonb _",uth or .... _ "'.... Wha, ;,. ,he minimum .20 (a) Wh" is 'he , um 01 ,be foliowinE lou, """or. i. uni,_
cIi ...""" ,b. could Iravello ",.,h her """irI..
io.1 vee'"," nou,i",, 1 For tb. , '1UIl. wha' at. (b) ,be ...yti,.de. (e)
.12 IU ,b. vWon it _ (l.0 m)1 + (4.0 m~ .. d b _ ,be >llgIe in d.y.. ~ ""d (d) 'be angle in radi.",?
(5.0 m}i + (- l .Om )l. ~ive it + ri in (.J unit·vonor .", .. ioo . -c: 6.(IOm., + O.\lOO ,.<I 1", 5.00 m at - 75 .rr
. 1Id "" {bJ • ""S";''''''' ..
d (e) an OIly.. (re1>ti"" to I).
Now give b - ;J i. (d) ".it _veclor ""''';011. and .. Ie) • mag_ ~: 4.00 m at + 120 r>d R , 600m ot-ZW'
.irude and (f) an :m~e. .21 In . !=. ot 1, "'11 ch .. ~ wbere piKe. Ol. mCll'ed
•n Twovtc!or .. regiv •• by be' .... n ,be cen'm ot squ ..... ,b .. at • • arb 1.00 m o. edge . •
knigll1 ~ moved;n 'he foUowi.! w.y: (I) '..-osquart> fo,wrnl.
it _ (4.0 .,)1 - (1.0 .. >1 + (1.0m)t.
OIl' squ"e Ti!h,..-. rd, (2) 'wo squ. "" l.f,wOld. 011 . square
.Dd b _ (- 1.0m)] + (1.0m)) + (4.0m)k. lon.-.rd: (3) 'wosquat .. 1000Old. on. square l,f,,..,rd \\11.,
. re (') lb. magnitude :iIId (b) ,h. angle ("I" ... to "Ior_
In uni'_v.nor nOl,,"'" find (.J if + b. (b) if - b. >nod (e) • w>rd-) 01 , ... bUg/I1·. overoll dkpl" ",,,,,nt!Of 'he ""'. " 01
,hird vector i" ouch ,h.a,
if - • + i" _ O. ,hr.. mov .. ?
.14 Find the (.) x. (b) y • ... d (e) , """'poIIe.'" 01 'he >lim 7 •• 22 A. explort< is <,ufll' in • """'.ou' (in .,hicb '''''
01 ,b, displ:oc ..... n'" i" . nd d whOSf compoll.nts in met." ... owfall ill so 'hid ,h., ,h. ground <"""'"
be di<'i.guislled
. Iong ,be ,hr...." or. " _ 1.4" , _ - 1& " _ - 6.1; d, _ from ,be .ky) ,.hil, "'WDing '0 ~ camp. H, ,..... upposed
4.4. d, _ - 2.0. J, _ 13. '0 tr-.vel duoe """b for 5.6 km. bu, ,.heD ,be 10"'" clear,. he
disro",,, 'hat be ""u>lly tr,veled 7.8 km ., ~ . north of doe
.15 An "'. crazed O}' ''''' Sun "" a 00' T• ..., of"... ooa. ..n. (0) How lar aod (b) in ",nat dire,,1on mu" h. now ,,,,vel
d . n. OVtr >J1 xy pi"". II<U"bed in ''''' din. Th, x >nod y ,ore:ocbb,..""",p? ~
rompooenu of fOIl, oon"""';ve dan. or. ,b. foliowinE.
, U in cen,imtl ... ' (.\0.0 . .1(>-0). (b,. - 70.0). ( - 20.0. c,J. ..23 0 .... B iII ]'j tm due .." 01 =<is A. S,,,'ing from
( - &0. - 70.0). Th. over>ll di>pf>e<men' of ''''' fOl" d"" b.. oasill A • • c ..... l...-.JkJ 24 krn in a dil'<flioo IS' """b 01 • • "
,be xy compolle." (- 140. - W.O). Wh>t ar. (0) b, >nod (b) e,? . nd '''''' ",oIt, 8.0 km du. """ h. H~ f:or is ,be c .... l ,he.
Wh" Ole ,h. (e) m' g""oo, and (d) .. gIe ("la'ive '0 ,he po<i _
,ive dire<11on of ,be x ""ill) 01 ,h. over>ll di>pf>ee ... n, 1
.16 I. ,be.urn A + 'A _ ~. v.n,.. A h .. , magni'ude of 11.0
= f,om.".,~B? ~

•• U Two be011 ... 'WI across!lat ...... ",,'ing" ,he >arne
poi.,. Bud, I run. 0.50 m d ... ' '''. , .... O.!IO m .. JO" ""nb
., and i> ",,0.1«1 -lO,O" """.t<rdod< ...... frOllT ,b. +x dire<lion . 01 due ."" . B""l. 2 >150 mok ... ,wo run ~.'h,fi",is U; m oJ
• 1Id vee'''' I:' .... a "'agDi1>o, 01 IS.o m .. d ill OIlgled 20.0" 40"."" 01 due nort" \>''h" mu!! be (. ) ,be maY'i'ude . nd (bl
,be dil'<flion ot its .. <Of>d rw> ~ i1 is '0 end up " the ...... 10<0-
<OUll'ercloctwi<e fTOm the - x direc'ioo. II'll .. ar. (.) ,b. mag_
""ode :md (bl ''''' >ngl. (relo- ,ioo 01 bee,le 17
'''fto+xl ollf? , •• 25 If If ill a<Ued '0 (; _ J.ol + 4.o;. ,he .. oul, is. vec10r
.17 Thftwo verto.. if >nod b in tb. positive direc'ion of 'he )' :ro., -.i,. ,
m.a.goirude .qual
in Fig. J-JO have "lu>l ""gIll- '0 ,hal ot~. \>,11 .. ill 'he m.gni'ud. 0I1f?
'udes of 10.0 m and ,be mgl .. •• 2& V.nor A. "hiClJ is dire<led oIOIIg an .T ""ill. is '0 be
• re ~ _ lO" .nd t>. _ 105'. . cUed '0 vector 11.wh.icll b", • magni'ude 017.0 m. The , um i•
Find the (0) x and (bl y """'PO- > ,hird """'or '"" i. dire".d . long ,be y ..iII. wi,h. m'gIll-
n •• " ot ,b. ir vector ... '" 7. (e) ,ude ,b .. is 3.0 tim .. ,na, of A. I\'h .. i. 'hot m'gni'ude 01 A?
,be m. gni'od. 0I7. • 11d (dl ,be
•• 27 T)'pical backyard """ oflen cr •• " , ""work ot chemi-
, ogl. 7 ",ok.. wi,b ,toe po<~
0'4' - - - - - · cal ,,,ikC"," guidonce. Ext,ndin~ "",,.rnI from ,be n.". >
............
,ive dir,<lion of ,be x a=.

.1. Yo. art '0 m.al<. four
fIG. )oJD l'",blem 17.
,nil braD<"", lb,,.,,,·,.,,) r<p<>"tdJy. ..-i1h In be,w«. '''''
br"""beo.lf . roamins , n! ,b:u>ce. upoo > ".U. i, <>II tell tbe
....y '0 ,be """ at . . y braocb poirn: If i, i> moving ,,,,ay frOID
"r';!,hl -lin. move. OVtl a fl .. de .... ftoor. ",,'ing " 'he Ofi_ ,be n." . i, h" '\00 choice. 01 patb r"lw,ing' om.all turn in
gin 01 .. xy OOOfdin>te .)~'cm and ,nding .. ,b, xy roordi_ ito ",,,,I dir'<1ion. ei,h .. !O' ltf' ..... rd or .l(I' rightwm"d. If
n.' .. (- 140 m. JO m). The x "'mpooen' ."d y """'poll'.' 01 i, i. movi.~ ,,,,,,,rd ,b. """. ~ b.. ooly OIIe ,,,,b <hoi«.
y""r move> are ,h . following. r..,pectivel~ in met ... , (2tl . od fig"" l _ll ,hOW! • typic>l "'" ,r.oi). wi,h l,"eroo ,tt oigh' ><c-
PTobIom. ~
• •
..i,b r.opec' '0 ,h. fi""
Wbat ... ,be componenu «) a; . Dd
(d) .; in 'hi< primtd coordinat •• y"em1
oK. 3.. Multiplying V.cto..
• 33 Two v.cton. l' and 7. (;" in u.. xY pi....
lbeir maeru".d .. ore 450 and 7JO unit!. r'spe<1ively... d th.u
direct.,.., <OWI'' _
are 1..'>0" and &'iXf'. re>peeltvfty. as ""'''''''00

L. clock ...... from the pooiIive x ali!. \\'h.a, ... ,be val ... , of (a)
1"l'md(b)1'~TI
.3. If JL _ 31 _ 2; + 4~ .. d J, _ _ 5' + 2j _ \, ,heo
FIG. J _11
Probl.m27. ..iI., .. (it, + J,). (it, ~ 4it,)1
· 35 Thr .. "",",or. are giv." by it _ 3.01 + 3.<8 - l.ot
';011. of 2.0{'ll1 ),"!tb """ .ymmetric bifIlICa1k>D of UJ'. \\ilu1 b _ - Lol - -I .~ + 2.(»:.
and ? _ 101 + 2.0; + ui, Find
Ol' the (0) ""'!"irudoe """ (b) onSIe (rei";", I" ,he posit;"" (a) it· (6 ~ 7).(b) J1. (6 + ?), and (e) J1 ~ (6 + 7).
diroctioo of It.. "'ptrimpooedx ..is) 01 an ..,t'.di.plocemont
by J1 _ 3.ol + 5.~ . nd
flOm ,h. ""'" (tiod i. in ,h. figure) if ,he aD'enl ... tbe !roil at . 3& Two "",",or. .... P""
Jj _ 101 +-1,0; . Fiod (0) J1~ b. (b) iT'b, (e) (if + b)·b.
PO;"' A7 What or. th . (e) m"!'lilude ODd (d) ""£Ie if " , .....
., poiot B? ~ and (d) ,boo component 01 J1 """S ,be dir«,ion of b . (111)1"
For (d).ooruider Eq. 3_20.Dd Fig. 3-10.)
•• 2& H...... two_to.. ,
. 37 For ,h. ",,:tor, in Fig.
Jf _ (4.0m)i _ (J.Om)] """ b_(6..0m)1 + (&Om~. 3_-'1. with • _ 4. b _ 3. ... d,
- 5. ..-h>t are (.) 'h, masni- ,
Wh. , ar. (aj ,b. magnitude .. d (b) the ••V. (rel. ,;.. to i) of ,ude .. d (b) the din>ctioo of
if? What aIe (e) tb. m. !)lilud. aad (d) ,he .. ole of"61 What
J1 ~ E, «) !he ",agni1udoe
t
Ol' (e) ,he m'glIim<le.M (f) It.. ..,gII! on + (!l Ib, m.!_ ond (d) ,b. di""tion of

";Iud< . Dd (h) !be :ongle 01 F - if: aDd (i) ,he .. . gnitude it x ?, and (e) the masni-
.. dW ,h. angleolif - 01(1::)Wb" is !beany. ... , ....... the ,ude and (I) the direclioo of
dirKlIOlKofJj _ iTandif - 'Ii? -';~n(The, ...... "",
•• 29 If J, + J , _ 5<1,.I1,_ J, _ 3J,_:md J, _ 21 + 4). .h<l'l'lL) ..... J..J4 Problelru 17 and50.
tbe. wnat ", •. in unit_•• aor ."'",iO<l.(') dt """ (h) J,1 • • 31 Diopl""''''''n' J, is
• • JO \\iha1 i. tb. sum of ,he followiDs fom \'eClor< in (.J in ,n. y. pi... HO" from ,b. posi';ve dir«,;oo 01 ,be y ..is.
unil_VWOf 00''';011. and or (h) • m"llllilud .... d Ie) OIl .. gle l bas . posi';"" ~ oompoo,n'. >lid b .. a m"ll"iHod, 014.50[0.
D~l'l:ocem..,' J, i, in ,h. x. plao. 3(1.0' flOm ,he positive <Ii_
A _ (2.00 m~ + (HIO m)] 11: 4.00 m. • ' +65.0' rec,ioo of ,n. x >Xi<. bas • posi';'". <OOlponen'. and na. mag_
L _ ( - 4.00 m)1 + (- 6.oom)) D, 5.00 Ill. at - 235' o;,.de 1.40 m. Wha' ore (a) J, . J " (b) J, x it,. and (e) 'be .. _
••• 3 1 In Fig, 3_31 . • ,ube of
y' he,,....,.,
dL:uod d,?
tdge " ns,h a si" "';,b 00. <Ofn" •• 39 U .. ,n. drnlLl,iOll of ",alOl p.-oduc,. if· 6 _ .b roo ,.
.n
., u .. origin of xY' OOOf<li • .,., and ,b.
be' ,ha,
it· Jj _ .,b. + a,b, + .,b, '0
ealcul.te ,h•
')''''1IL A boJy JI<JK"".I i •• Ii"" "'$" be,,."," ,he '100 _ 'or. giv.n by J1 _ 3.01 +
'hat .xteo<lo from or" cor ... r '0
..",ber ,hr""sh ,he o",ltor. I n "
,1.;;::1,.1----,

3.(Ij + J.ok .Dd b _ 2.ci + Lo; + 3.ok. ....... _

uni,_vt<tor ""'a'ioo .... h., .. ,be • ··40 For'befollowin£'breeve<'or~ w • .:" .. >l'·(2A ~ lIJ?
body di>gorl:d 'bot .xt"net. from RG. J-32 Pr"Nem 31. A _ 2.00 + 3.(Kij - ud
'he corner" (0) ooordin., .. (0.0. 0). (b) coordinate. (a. 0. 0). 11 _ - 3.001 + 4.ocij + l.oct. (; _ 7.00 - 8.~
(C) <OOfdin.,.,. (0.•, 0). and (d) coordina'e> (•.•. 0)7 (~)
De,.rmi ... ,be o.gI .. ,ha, ,n. body di. goo'" m.ke ";,h ,boo •••1 Venor A b"" magni'ude oI 6.oo»oiI,.v«lOf 11 bas a
><lj"""" edS"'" (I) D""min. ,h. kns1b of ,n. body di agon al< magni'ude 01 7.00 utL;'~ .. d ;r ·11 bas • v:U"' of 1-1.0. Wba' is
io 'erms of a. ,b. IULgle be,...... " ,b. dir«1;OIL. 01 A and 81

Me. 3_7 V.doro . nd
..4 2 In ,be prodlOCl r_qV x 11.,.ke ~ _ 1.
tho Law. of Phyoia ,. _ 1 .~ + 4.0; + 6.l1o ond 1" _ -I.~ - lOj + 121.
.n In Fig. 3-J3• • vee-
'or iT";,b a m. gnitod. of 1I'h>! 'heo j, 11 in uru1-Yenor ,
17.0 m i. dir«,OO", >lisle o"'>!iooifB, - B,1 C
~ _ 56.!)" oouot.....cloct_ ••• 3 The ,br ... vector, in Fog.
wi<e from ,be H . .is. 3_l'i have JIla!IIirud" • _ 3.00
"''hot are n", rornponenu Ill. b _ -I.m m. and , _ lO.O m
(a) ", and (b) ., of ",d >ogl' ~ _ JO.O'. lib>! ...
,b. """,or ? A OOCOIld c0-
ordinate 'y>lem ..... _ • ( ' j ,he x rom"""e", and (b)
'be y """pone.' of if: (e) ,boo x
-~- . ,
dined b)' .. ~ .. r _ 18.0' ..... JoJJ Probl"m J2. com""""" and (d) the Y com_ fiG . J-35 Problem 4J.
~ Chap_l I Vectou

pont"' of O, ... d (.) ,be Xoompoo,n' >lid (f) ,b. Y componen, 01 the p. nide lor 'be rh,ee """",i"" w.pI:ocem'"t~ Wb,

.....
01 n If i" _ pil + qt. ,.h, m the values of (g) P .Dd (h) q1

•• 44 In. """,tio ~ 01 ~. mim.' I goes 'hroug/l a di._
. re (l) tbe x""",,,,,,,e.,. (h) tbe y""",,,,,,,e". (i) tb. magni_
tude ... d (j) ,.e dire<1ion of tbe Del di'pl><em.nt1lf tb. ""' _
ticlt i. to "tI". dire<1ly to tb. "",tin~ ""in,. (1::) bow f ... ""d
plaoem,n' ilL_ (4.0m)i + (5.0 1D)j .Dd mime 2 soe. (I) in ..-hat dir«tiorr >hoold it mov,1
through. di,pI:=menl "il, _ ( - 3.0 m); + (4.0 .. ,). Wh., 50 Fo, the ve<1on in Fig, l-3-1 , with 0 _ 4, b _ 3, and < _ 5.
.re (0) ;I, ~;. (b) at' J,. (e) (aL + !I,), II,. ,lid (d) ,b. <alrul... (a) iI· Ii, (b) iI·? ..d «)Ii·?
oompone"' of J, .Ioog ,h. dir«.;oo 01 J,7 (H."" fur (d), >t. 51 A >ailboat .." <JOlt from , ... US,"<Ie of Lote & io f.. .
Eq. 3-20 .Dd Fig .!-20.) point 00 the C ... odi.., .ide, 90.0. km duoe . .. tb. The ,ailor,
"dd~ional Probl.m. how.""" ends up 5o.0 km due .... 01 the Jlarring poi ...
45 Rock faullS or. "'pow.. al oo~ '"toeh """",i'. foee.. 01 (. ) H.,... far ud (b) in 10",,' di, .... i... mint the .. ilor now ..il
rook ••v, slid pa« .orn ",h... I. FIg. 3--"6, poi... A and B to "''''h 'be origin>l de.nination? 11M
ooiDcided ""for. tbe Joct in--ilie for.you"" ,lid down to tb. 52 F\nd 'he ' IUD 01 tho following low ve<1or. in (a) URir_
lith,.The "" di5f>lacem.", AS ~ aloo~ ,be pi.... 01 ,he f.1lIt vo<t .. "",atio.,:md • • (b) • matnitude ,Dd (e) .. angle ",1 0-
The oo..izoolal-S"'P""""' 01 Ajj i> ,b. strib..up AC The ,i",roH.
"""'po.,,", 01 AB 10>1 i. dir,('!fd dowo tbe plaD.e of the f, uh
.. the Jjp->IiJi.flD. (. j YOb., .. the "",£ni,.<Ie of ,b, net dio_ -PO. 10.0 DL at 2..1.1)" ooun,,,dockwioe f,om H
pi"",,,,,,", AB ~ ,he .. ,ike_slip io 22.0m and ,he dip->hp i.
(t. 12.0"'.>1 10.fJ' ''''''.'erdock ..... f'''''' +y
17.0 m l (b) If the plaDe of ,h.
bull i. ilOdimd "' angl. i.-
52.11' '0 d•• hocizOll'al. wb .. to ,b.
vertical com""" ... ' of AB 1 :R: 8,OO m ,>12o.O' do<kwioefrom - y

,!, 9.00 DL at -10.0' oounte'dock....... f,om - y
53 Ve<1o.. A ... d» Ii. in . n xY pl •• t.. A h • • m'3-Ditu<le
8.00 .. d ' .Sl. DO", It b .. rompoD<'" B, _ - 7.n .nd
B, _ - 9.20. Wha' .re ,.e OIly ... be,w"n ,Ir.e .. ~.tiVf­
&"<1ioo of'~ y >xi. and (a) tho di,enion of ;to (b) the di_
'«lion of ,h . P'OOU<1 A ~ », and «) ,he dir.ction <>1
A ~ (» + 3.00k)1
5( Her. "'. 'hree di>pl.«"".t~ each in m"er~
it, _ 4.<X + 5.0; - 6.0'- J, _ - l.~ + 2,~ + J1i .• Dd d, _
fiuh pLm< -I.<X + 3.~ + 2..ok. (a) Wh.t ,,7 _ J, - J, + J,1 (b) Wh>1 i.
FIG. J . JIo f'roillem 45. tbe angle bet"""'. -r ""d tbe p<lIli'iv., ""is1 (0) \I'h ot ;, tbe
COfD""""nt 01 J, . ioog ,he directio. 01 it,? (d) Wh>t i. tbe
"","""""ot of J, that ;' p< rp<.diNlar ro tbe dire<1ion of a,
" Two Y<flon iJ ..d -,; hav. 'he compo....... i....'e,.. .Dd i. ,be pi""" of J, . Dd 11, 1 (1IIn~ Fo, (c). oom;o. •
• , _ 31. ~, _ l.6. b, _ 0.50. b, _ 4.5. (.) Fud , ... . ngle Eq. 3_W ,Dd Fig. l-20, lor (d), COrL .. <Ie, Eq, l-27.)
be' ..... n rh. dire<1ion. of II.Dd -,;, Th". are r"", v,,"ors i. 55 VeetOf.;{ and It I;"
,lie xy plln. ,b>l . .. perpe.di<uJor to if and h.ve • magnirud.
in orr xy pt .... A b,.,
01 5)) DL 00 •. V«tOf? ha. a pooiliv. X"""""""., .Dd th o m>yIi,udeHO:md .. gIe
orhe" v«tor J , a .es.tiv. z romponen\. Wh ot Ole (b) tile x
rom""",,", amd «) tbe y com_or of?, ... d (d) tile .• rom _
IJW-. »has """ponen"
B, _ - 7.72 ""d B, _
pO"'"t ond (e) ,be y """'pone.r 01 vectOf J1 - 910. (. ) What i, £Of ·It1
(7 A "",",Of if 01 m. snirud. 10units . Dd .. orhe, "":l0f
S 01 Wbat ~ 4A ~ 3» in (b)
m',gJli1ude 6.0 .ni" dill" i. dire<1i .... by 60". FlDd (. ) th e u.ir_"""t.. ""'ation nod •
0Cil.. p,odurt 01 th, two '''':l0f'
ood (b) tbe m . gnitu<le 01 the (0) m'gni,ude_""gIe 00<0-
AG . J.J 7 rrobl<",55.
voctOf p,odoct if ~ S. u t i tiorr with "' .... icaI co-
. . Vo<tOf iI na. a magnitude 01 5.o., .. d i. dir. cted ..... ordnate. (.... Fig, 3-J7)?
Veet .. S h• •• m>toitu<le of 4.0 m :md .. dire<1ed 35" """,t 01 (d) What is ,be angle be,,......
the direnio •• of A and
duoe .onh. "'bat or. (.) tbe magnitude , Dd (b) rbe dir«ti,," -I;{ ~ 3It? (iii"', Think. b" belor. you ",on '0 . ",leul . _
01 if + S?Whot . re «)
the maBnitude and (d) the dir«tion 01 tio .. ) Wb., i, A + 3.00k i. (e) .nit_.«t.. ""tab"" :md (f)
Ii - ill (e) Draw , v«t .. di ' g<"'" ro. ..cb """,binat""" m.gnitude_an Y' "or "ion ..i, b splre,;"o! coordinate.1
(9 A parricle W>doefgoe.r thr ....ue...,,"v. d~pI""men .. in, 56 VeetOf i, i. in tbe ""9ti"" dir«1ioo 01 a y "" ..... d I'<C-
pi ..... .. foU""", Ill. 4.00 m ..,.,tnwe", tb," J,. 5.00 m .... , t.. J,,, i. tile pooiti •• di'e<1i ... of an x >XU. Wbat ar, tile
.Dd fin>lly d,,6.00 D1 in • dire<1io. IDfJ' DOftb of , .. t. Ch""", dire<1ioru of (.) J,I4 and (b) J, I( -4)1 \I.at.re ,.e m. gni_
• coordinate , y",m with rb. y uk poi"'in! ... tn .. d 'he x tude. 01 1"00""" «) i, . it, :md (d) J, . (it, I-I) 1 Wha, i, tbe
.... pointins e .. t. W",,, or. (.) the ,<OlD"""".'
aDd (b) the dir«1ioo 01 tb. Vf<1or re.ulting f,om (e) a, ~ J, ond (t)
y compon,nt of il,? ""nat .... (C) 'be x com_n, and (d) d, ~ J ,1 lib .. ~ ,b. m>gnitude 01 the vector prodU<1 i. (8)
tbe y oomponeO! of J I1 Wb., >te (e) ,b. x component ond p>It (.) . ad (b) parr (m Wb>t >t. 'he (i) m>gni'udoe ond
(I) rhe y com"""e", 01 d,? Ne ... ooruideo- tbe"'tdi>p""" ... n' (j) dir«1iono/J, ~ (d,l4)1
57 He" are tb:r.., ",<1on in mtter~ (,.( A whed wil"' r>diuo of
45.0"", ,oil, withoU' oIjpp"'S
1, _ - 3.01 + 3.0; + 2.!XO . IonE • bOO""'tal ftoor (Fig.
1, _ - 1.01 - H~ + 2.!XO 3.39). At lime ',. ,be dot P
1, _ 2.01 + 3.0; + l.ok palo"d on .be ,im 01 ,Ire
,.1",,1;' " tb. point of <"OII,,,,,t
Wh., , .. ut" from (.J 1, · (1, + 1,). (b) 1,· (1, x 11,). aDd be,,....,. ,h. "heel and ,Ire A, 'roo "
(eJ 1 , " (1, + 1,)1 ftoor. A • • hteT ,ime ~. ,Ire F1G. J.JII Problem64.
51 A golf.. t.... tb:r.., p'"'' '0 get th. boll into ,Ire bolo. wh",I""" roIlod througll """.
llr. lir .. 1"'" diopl0C<"5 'be ball 3.M m ""'tlr . tbe .. ooa.d half 01 . ftvol Ulion. Wh., .re (.j tbe m.goilude and (b) th.
I.SJ m """tb . .... and tire tbird 0.91 <II JOu ,",..,,,, Wh" ' " (.) IUISIo (rt l>tiv, to the !loo,) of 'he displ. "".... , of P?
,b. m. gnitude ,lid (0) ,b. di,ecti"" of ,Ire di<pb cem.nt &5 A """ tire IlUgnit"'" 11.0 m .00 is ..sJed &0" OOWI' ..·
t>eeded to get ,Ire ball ,oto tire hole on tho fir .. prr"~ ckxklrise from the posi'iv. eM"""", 01 !Ire x .... 01 lUI X}'
59 C"",,<ler it in ,h. """iii.. dir.ctioo 01 x. ]j '" tire poo~i .. coon1ioale ')'>Iem. Ako. !! _ (11.0 mp + (8,0) '")1OIl tb"
elirect'oa of y. ""d. x:al .. d. "'lr,t Or ,b.
dirKti"" of "lild if • ..... ~"e 'Y"om. We .""""'a" tire 'l"'om oountercloct·
....... boo. the orig.. by 2OJ)",0Iorm ""x'y' ,y5t ..... O.thi .....
d Or (.J pooi'ive and ( b) n'g";""? Wb" i. ,Ire m' grritud. of
. )'Stem. wb .. ore(. ) A .oo(b) 11.b<Job in uni'·vector ""'>lioo?
r
(ej it· ""d (d) if· tid? What i, tb. dim:';"" of .h. V",,'Of
T.>Illt"'g ITO'" (.) it " "Ii and (t)"Ii ~ iT!~) Wh .. is .Ire m ag· 1M> A '"""""" woJ'. 25() "' '" ,Ire diroctio. 30" ... t 01 .onh.
nitu"" 01 ,he. ve<1or p'odU<1 in (.)7 ( h) Wh" is tbe .. 'S"ilude 'be. 17~ m <lli<nly e .. t. Ymd (') ,b. m. gni.ude . nd (b) tb.
of tire V.<1Of prod.... '" (I)? IllIat or. (iJ tire m.gnit..& aDd ooSIo 01 Jr.,,, Iioal displ",. "", • • Irom tbe " .n"'S point. (e)
lJ! tire direc,ioa 01 it " tid if d i> "",,;tiv.? Firod the eli""""" .h, ....Jh (d) Whicb i. gre" oT. ,bo, di"""""
&0 A ve<1or J ..... m' gni'ude of 1.5 m , od point> .orth. or .b.m. gnit.de oIlre , dispi><em.nt?
"'b>l .r< (a) th. m".!."i,ude .nd (0) ,h. diroctioa of ~.011 &7 (' ) I. unil ·ve<1or _atioo . ,.ha, ~ ., _ if - t + ? if
"'b>l are (eJ tire Mog.o"ude .. d (d) tlr. dir.<ti"" of - 3.011 it _ 5.01 + ~.O; - 6.ot. ,; _ - 1.0; + 2.0] + 3.Oi:. ""d ? _
&1 Le. i be diT<fled to ,h. " ". i b< dire<:tro.o ,Ire .orth. 4.01 + 3.0; + 2.!X01 (b) Calcul." t be ""sle bel"""n ., and tb.
.. d kb< di,ectfd up"'ord. What or. ,b. val." 01 prod ..... ('j "",,'tiv. , ..Us. (e) "'lr., ;, tbe oompon.n, of it oJ""! 'he
1· k. (bJ (- k)· ( -iJ. ond (e) i· ( -I)~ "'b " or. th. direct'''''' dir«tio. of b1 (d) II'h.t ~ the <O<I)pon,nl of iT perpeo dicul or
(ouclr. ....., Of ""- ) of productJr (dJ k " ;. (e) (- 1) " ( - i). 10 !Ire diT<flioo of r; bIIt in ,be pl . .... 01 it and t1 (HIIr': FOf
.. d{f) (- k) ,, ( - jJ? (eJ. _ Eq.3.20 >lid Fig. 3-10: fof (d) .... Eq, 3.27.)
" lfit - ]j _ 1? it + t _ 4? and? _ .Ii + .\j.,h •• ,.hal
&2 COII"""r 1'"0 <fuplacemen'" 0'" of m. gnitude 3 m aDd
..",Ire, 01 m'gnitude 4 m. So.,... h"", tire displ""' ..... , vec- or. (. ) iT .. d (b) b1
lor, m. y b< oombin.<d '0 Eet • ">Ill.",,, di<;plocem,n' 01 m,! · &9 A 1""' .... , "arri.. his 'igo 01 1"0"". " " ting from the
nitude (.)7 Ill.. (bj I m. ""d (e) 5 m. oriE'" of aD xY' 00<J<di."•• )" "m. wi,h 'he xy pl,ne noriz",,·
&3 A IwIk i. ""-t"",.. Booton i. rOObed (see tire m. p in 'aJ. H. move-s 40 m in tire .'g"i", diT<fli"" of .lrex "'; ~ ,be.
Fig. 3. .l8~ To .I ud, pobc• . tb. JObber> u""""by lrelioopl ... 20 m >lOftS ' perptndicular path ' 0 hi. lell. aDd tire. 25 Ol up a
".""'S thrt. SUNe.!.ive digll" "" ...... ibed by tire lollowi.E eli,·
pi"" .....": 32 km. 45· "",tlr 01 ..." 53 km. U · nonh 01 ,..."
...tOf to...",. (.) I. uni,·ve<1or .",arioo. ,.Jut ;, tire <fupl"",.
meat of ,Ire 'igo lrom ."rI
to erodl (b) The "En ,b,n bU, to
1f, lm. 18· • .., of JOUth. At 'be end 01 ,lit ,bird ~,gI" 'hey ... 'be loot of the 1<,._eT. Wha. is tb. magni'ude of ,Ire di>pl"".
<aptw«l. I. ,.h"
10\011 ... th.~ ' pprebended'! men' 01 ,lit "E. f,om " .. , 10 'hOr new eod'l
70 A ve<1or dn,"" m. gnil_ 3.0m and is wrected "",tb.

-.
IIb.t are (.J tire m. gnitude ... d (bJ ,Ire dir",.ioo 01 d" vWor
~05J'ON
"
..... ' '"' ' 'l"
, '"~
+
,-
5.od? Wb" art (e) tho m. gnilude . nd (d) lire directi"" 01 the
ve<1or - 2.011
71 If!! is rrdded '0 A. •be. r..uIt is wi + ul If !! "
L<n..p : • Lt"" .ubt~ttd I,om A. 'be ,,>Ill, i, - 4.01 + 7.0;. Wh., i• •h. mag.
oitudeo! A? .. ..
•~- 7Z A Iir. "'t . .. orching !Of b", >au,,",;. a pkok ... a. EO<:<
tbr""gII .b:r ... dirplaceme." oJon! le vel t'owrd: 1 , lor 0.40 m
""" h"" .. (that K." 45° lrom dirt<U~ '''"t b and !TOID dittod)"
_ .. ).I, !Of 0.50 m en.. ...,.1, 1010.60 OJ ,, 60' nonb of . .. t
~.

.,
" " " " ' . 0><0 •
Let tire. posit .... x <lliectioo be ..., mel ,be posit''''' Y di""";",,
be """h. \IlIa. are (a) tire x com""",", . nd (b) tire }' compo-

-- •

o.nt of 1,~ "'b.t or. (e) ,b. x <Om""",", arid (d) the y com·
ponen' of II,? "'lIat . re (.) ,Ire x rompotI"'" .nd (f) ,h •
Y oompooenl 0I 1,?
What ore (g) tb. x com!"""'.' . (b) tire Y <OII1pone.t. (i)
tb. magni.ude. and 0) !be. dir.ct'on of the an", oet di>p!oce.
"""" ? If ,Ire •• t i. '0 ,"urn directly to tire " . ning poi.t . (k)
h"",l .. ""d (I) in ,.,hot d~'<1;on sI>ouldj, """,.1
Motion in Two and
Three Dimensions

Whe" a high fly ball is hit 10 the outfield, how does the outfielder;" the
area know where to be in order to catch it? Often the outfielder will jog What clue is
or "m at a measured pace to the catch site, amO
ving just as the ball
does. Playing experience surely help., but some other factor seems to
hidden in the
b .. j"vo/ved. bali's motion?
The .nswe, is In !hl,chapter.

58
4-1 WHAT IS PHYSICS?
In Ih ... cbapl'" w~ oonl1nu. looking al Ih~ aspecl 01 ph}"ks Ihal analJ'l"" nl0lion,
bUI oow the mollOO can 00 in '''-0 '" Ih,,,~ di"",o,io" •. Fo, ~J!Jmplo, medical
,eb",..,
le .... and ""wnalll ic~1 engi""",.., "ughl conco"'m" on lhi! phy."" of Ib~
'''-0- and Ihlee.-ilin",o,ioo"llllm, lak~o by fighw, p~ol.5 in dogIighlS bec~ose a
modtm higb-perlO1l11ance ;'1 can la k~ • lighl Illm so quickly lhal Ih. pilol
imm"diawl}' loses co"sciou'n"'~ A ;polIS ,ngi".'" migh I 10ClI'i on Ihe ph}',ic.s 01
ba"',,'baU. Fot exampl., in a /'u </,,,,,"' ("'b,,,o a pia)"" ge" aou"oo"w,1ed .hol
"' Ih. b,,1oil1 110m aboul L1 m) . " play., mighl employ Ibe ol'ernnlll/ p",h Jhot.
i" whicb 100 ball i, pu,bed away lrom abool shoulde. heigbl and Ih"n .okased.
Or the play .. mighl use an ,mdul",nd loop .1101. ;0 .. hieh Ih~ ball is broughl
up"'Md from aboul 100 b<oh-lioo 10",1 ""d relea",d. The firs! lochniqllo " lbo
ove.,,'hrlming choke among plOlossio",1 pia)"' ... bUI I"" lego"da,y Ricl Barry
...,lltie '<XXl.d 1o. /''''' -Ibww ,hooling "-;Ih Iha und..."h."d lochniqoo. ~
MOlioo In Ihre. di"",n,io",,;, 001 easy 10 unders1a n~ . Fo. oxamplil, )'OU ar~
p.obably 8000 al driving' car alon& a froc"'a)' (o",,-<I;mon,;;on,' molion) bUI
..'Ould p.obably have" d,locu ll lin", in landing an ai'pbno on a ' un .... y (lh.",,-
d,"",,,,;o"al mOI>on) ~-i l houl J 101 ollraini"g.
In 0"' Sludy ollwo- and Ih,.p-<li"",n,ional ",oli09 , "'. star! "-lih posil;oo
and d'SfIIac..">flli'm .

4-2 I Position and Displacement
000 8" "".al way of iocahllg a parlide (0. parlickl.Jjt e objocl) i, "'Ih " po> ilioi
>"<'0". --;,1.-bkb is a voclo. lha ! eXI~nds I.om a ,d=n~ poi'" (u,ually Ihe "'~
gio) 10 Ihe parliclo. I n Ihe uoil -vO<"1o. "O!al;On of S.'Clion 3-5,7 can be ..-.in~o

--; - xi + yj + zk. ( ~. ] )

..-oo.~ x l ,yj. and z ~ are Ihe ""Clo. OO"'POO'"IS of 7 and Ih~ roc/lkienls x . y, and
z a1e i!, sealar compon"nls.
The roc/fieieols x, y, and z gi'-e Ih~ pafliclo', loc~lion along Ihe ooo.dinale
n .. ~"d ,~lalive 10 Ihe o'igin ; IhOi ;.,; lhi! par1 icl~ has Iho teCiangu]:.. ooo.di"",,,,
(-<, y. z). F", lostance. Fig. 4- 1 sbow, a p""ide ",ilh posilion wClo.
7 - ( - 3m)l + (2m)j + (5 m)k
"nd .oclangular ooo,dina"" ( - ] 01,2 Ill, S m). Alo"g 100 x axi, 1M pan ic lil is 3 m
from .Ih' origin, in Ihe - i di,eclioo. Along 1110 y .xis il is 2 m I.om . 100 "';g>". in
Ibe +j diteC1ion .Alo"g Itie z ..i, il is S m from Ih. origin_ in Ihe + k direclion .
A,. parll("1;>. n","e .. ;1S posihon veCio. ch.nge, in ,uch ..... )' Ih.! 1110 '-ocl",
always eXlond, 10 100 pa.!iclo 110m lhe .eI","""" poi'" (the origin). lillie pos~
lion v"""o, changos-sa)'. 1.001 7 , 10 7, dlUing " ""flain Ii",,, i"I""'"I- tbon Ibe
par uc],,', d;; p ~......,m.. ' fJ.7 during Ihat lime inw,,·.1 is
,
fJ.--; - 7, - --;,. (~-2)

Using Itie UID1 -verl'" nolaloon 01 Eq, 4- 1. ".~ can " ..-.ilO this displace"'""l as
fJ.--; - (x,; + y,j + z,k) - (x,; + y,j + z,k)
(4-3)

"'00" OOO1<1in3l" (.-,. ,.,. z,) oo'''''llO"d 10 posilioll voclo. --;, ,"d ooo.dinal""
(x" )'" z,) oo.u~pood 10 posilion v<'CIo. 7,. W~ cao also ",,,,rilo lh. diSflI . ceflK'ol
hY'UDslilulingfJ.<fo. (x, - x,), fJ.,.I", ()" - y,).and fJ.z lor (z, - z,): FIG. '" The "",,;'ion .." .. u ...
panicle ;. ,b. v«, .. . WJj 01;" ",,<lor
compo.""'"
~ Chop .... I Mo'''''' in Tw<>_ Th , ... Oim<il!1slon.

Sample Problem m
,
I" Rg. ~-2 .• he posit,on voelo. tOf " particlo iRili.Ups
7, - (- 3.0m); + (2.0m)j + (S.Om)k
and .hon I"o,i.
r, - (9.001)1 + (2.0 m)j + (8.0 m)k .
Whal is 100 jIIInirk', d;.;pl.","",o' <I. 71rom 7, HI 7,1

The dispLacemeot fJ.7" oblainoo by suI>-
tr>e,ing lb. initia'-;, from ,h. law, -;,.
FIG . .w lhedispl"""""'D' 4-' _ 7 , - -', ."'rock/rom the
Calculation: Th. subtra<1;o" giv .. us beodoltbe iniIi>l pooltioo -'Of 7, to !be be:odoltl.. la' ....
fJ.7 - 7, - 7,
, .
- (9.0 - ( - 3.0)Ji + 12 .0 - 2.0)) + 18.0 - S.OJ~
'
I""itioo "",'or 7,.

Th' d"plac<m"n, '"0001 is "",aUd 10 Ih. x, pl.M
-(12m)! + (3.0m)L (A "s~~ ,) ~ "se il laeb a y compo """l .

Sample Problem m
A "t>bil run, 0C10,", • parking 1m oil whirh a ... , 01 1im;
coo.din"o axe, ha~ SIr.ngi'ly "Rough. """0 drawo. Tbi!
coo.dioal", ("lillers) of Ih. rabt>it's posilion as func·
';011' of li""" (So'rond.) are gi'"'" b)'
.., .< -- O.Jlt' + 7.1, + 28
Y - 0.22,' - 9.1, + 30.
(aJ AI , - 15 So what is t"" rabbi!", position '·eClor 7 in
( ~·5)
(H)
o '"
"" " "' ,
(
tim'

"nit ·vectOf nOlalion "od in magnillloo·angje oot.Hon?
-~ ; t~j
The ... and y cootdi".h.... 01 the rat>bil"s
position. as given by Eq~ 4· 5 and 4.0. are Ihe scalar
compon"nlS oIlh. rabbll·, posilion VOClOl 7 . ,., :~-------~~
ulculalions: We ""n ,,,,il0
"('l - .«r~ + J('Jl. (~ . 7)
1im)
(W~ ,,·.ile 7(/) .alh., Ihan " b..'C:l"SI' Ih" ronl(Xln""iS
a •• f"OClion, 01 I."nd Ihll"S 7 is also.) •
AI I - 15 •. Ihe "".Ia, coOJ(Xln~"1S are
x - (- O.3I){IS)' + (7.2)(15) + 18 - 66 OJ
and J- (0.22)(15)' - (9.1)(15) + :JO - - 57 OJ.

" - (66 m~ - (57 m)j. (A n' ..... ) "
"hien i. dra ..... in Fig. 4·:\'. To g<'1 Ih. m'II.11iu"" and
"ng).ofr ...... u ... Eq. 3-6:
, - ~x' + J ' - ~C("
"'m')C.C.C(iC')",Cm;V)'

.., - 87 nl .
8 _ la,, - '.L _

tan-'(-5701)
"m
_
(Ao, ..·",)
- 41 °.

(All".... )
""al..
'"
FIG . 4-3 la) A ",!>bit", ",,"ilion _ tOf 7 .. time t _ t5 • The
comP"""." of7Ole ,bow. oIoog tbe un (b) The.-.b.
tm ·, p"b arid its positioo ., fiv. vol ... of ,
" ·l t Avo'''9''VoIo<ity. r!d In"on'."""u.Vok>city ~
C".cI<: Allhough 8 - 139" has 1M san", langeol as Graphing' We cao Io'p"" pall (a) 101 ",.-etal '·.I ....'S 01 ,
- 41 ' , lhe COfI1tXln""1'> 01, i"d"'~le Ihal 100 desi,e<! an- ,nd 1000 1'101 lhe ,esullS. Figure 4- 31> silo"",, Ihe pkJls 101
gffii, 139" - IIlO" _ _ 41 ". five "alu", 01 ,and lhe pain coooochng Ihem . w~ c,n
,Iso plol Eqs. ~ - 5 aod ~ - 6 00 ,calcul"or.
(b) G,aph 100 rabbi!"s palh 1011 - 010 I - 25 ~

4-3 1Average Velocity and Instantaneous Velocity
If. p'rlide ",oves hom 0 00 poinllo a"Olnor .... " mig/ll n."d 10 know bO~' I,SI;1
",ov~~ JuSi "' in o.apl'" 2, we can Ikfioe 1"0'0 quanlilies Ih al d<>al .-jlh "ho...
r",I" , <1"''''8< , .. Ioci'y ,nd i"..,allla",·o." ,·<Iod,y. H~"ve" he,. "" m",,1 coo-
sid<>. Ih • .., quanlih~s "' '"CCIms ,nd "'" ' -eClm nOlalion .
[I " parlide mo,"", Ib'Ollg/l • displ"""",,,nl !J.' in . time iOlO,val !J.I. Ih"" ilS
• .-e,.~" ,-. Io<ity 1'... is
. displ"""m""1
av",ag" velocily - _ . ,
hme ,nl",va

I'... - ~.
" (4-8)

ThIS 1,,11s us Ihat Ihc di,eclion of 1',.. (Ih • .-..<:10' Oil Ihe I ell si"" of Eq. 4-8) muS!
he I h~ SJIll" irS Ihat of th~ dispIOCl'm.-'nt !J.r (the vector OIl thc right ,ilk). Using
Eq.4-4, we C.l0 ..--.il" Eq.4- 8 io veelm compo"ents ""

17... -
!J.x; + !J.)'l + !J.z ~
!J.,
<I. .. ,
- -- ,
<1.1
,--~
, ,--
<I.)' . <l.z ,:
~
.. (H)
Fot enmpl., if Ihe pan icle in Samrlo Probl.:lm 4- 1 moves 1'001 ,IS inllial posihOO
10;ts l'lc, pos;l ;"n in 2.0 " Ih,n its .'""agll VelocilY duri08 Ih" move is
v _ <I., _ (12 m); + (3.0m)t. _ (60m/s)i + (1.5 m l.)(
... <I.t 1.0, ' .
Thai iS,lhe a,""rage ,""Iocil~' (a ''l'Clo, qu"nlil~') bos a component 01 6.0 nll' aloog
Ihe x axi, and, componem 011.5 01 /' aloog Ihe : axi,.
W .... n ~-e 'p"a1: of !h. ' -('[ocity of a p.rtielo, we usua lly mean Ih. partielo's in·
v
..ant""'"'''' ""I"dty -,: aI so"", lIIstanl. This i, 100 "al"~ Ibal app,oaehos in v,..
Ih. ~mil as we shrink Ih. lim. inlerval <I.t to 0 'OOlll Iha l iffilaOI. Using lhe lan-

_ d,
guage 01 catcu]"" we ma~' wril" , as lb. ""ri'-al,,""

" - d,' (4- 10)

Rg",~ ~- ~ shows Ih" palb of a parlicl~ Ihal i, tcstricted 10 Ih. xy pl.oo. As
,
lb. panic",- Itawl, to Ihe righl along Ih. cu,.... its posil;o1\ ""clor ,woel" to Ihe Tmij'.'
,igbl . During I,n"" inl"",al !J.t. lhe posilioo "OC1or eh'"gm from" to" and Ihe
pat1ielil', disptaremen1 is <1.7.
To find lb. ,oSlanl,"""u, .-olocil)' ollh. particle"" 53)" inSlalll ("h~" Ihe 'J

~
pat1 iele i, at po:sil;oo I), we ,brink inlerval <I., to 0 '00ll! " . Th ... Ihings bal""'"
.. " "I! do so. (I) Posilion "OC1n, 7, in Fig. ~- 4 mO'.-os low3,d 7, so Ihal <1.7 sh'inks
to"O'at~ zero. (2) Th. direclioo 01 <1.71<1.1 (and Ihu, 01 v".) app'ooctt", Ihe

f IG."U
dlfeClioo Ollbe I"", langll"1 10 Ibe parlide', palh al pos;I;OO J. (3) Th" "",rag"
velocily I'... awroorb.~ Ihe il1'Slanl.noous " clodl~' v all, . The lIi'!'I"" ......' .17 0(
In lhe limil as <I.t ~ 0, .... bave ~ v... v
"od, mO>! imporlanl her •. • p>rticJ. during. time in1trvai .!.t,
v, .. ta h ", 00 Ibe di'ection of lhe ,"ngenl tine. Thu~ " has Ibal di'ection a, ..,..U, Irom """tioo I ,.-itb """tioo vector
I , aI time I, to """tioo 2 witb
~ To. dire<tioo ofthe ias" .tm. ouoY.locity I' of. , panicl. ;. """»'I tangent to the "'" il"'. """ or -r, .. ,ime ,,_Tho
... gffit totlle panicle', patb at
partlcle'!"'t" at the p:u-tkle i "",it"' •.
"",it",. I .. slJown.
~ Chop.... I Mo'''''' in Tw<>_ Th, ... Oim<il!1slon.

11k' result is the "'''''' in lh'.~ <liln<nsiOflS' ,;' al ...,.)~ 1:1"8""110 the patlick's path.
To w,jl~ Eq. ~ - IO in unil -vcct01lorm. "'. ,ubstitu,. lor -; from Eq.4-1:
d . • • dx . !fL , d- ·
" - - (x i + yj + :: k) - - , + ) +-- ,_
d, ill d, dl

-" - I','.+
This "'IuahO" ~a" "" simplifiil<l somewhat by "'fI,ing il "'
,
v,J + v,k.
- (4-1] )

"00'" Ih. scalar componen15 of vara
, ,"
'" ", ---1,-.
,', - d/' and ", - d,' (4- 12 )

T"'~"' \
For example.dddt is Iho ...~Iar compo""'" of"" alons Ihe x a,i~ ThUs. we can find
, - -0.- - - -
tile ..~I", compo"e,," of, b)' diff.",o' i.:Hing III.> ,..~Iar oompo",n,s 017.
Figu,,, 4-5 sho ..~ a ,-docil)' '"<'clor " and it, .... 13' x and)' oon'ponen's. NOlo
Ih3l"" ""gent 10 1M partid "'s palh., 100 partid ,,'s pooilioll. Cawi",,, W","" a
posilioo vocto< is drawn. as in Fig •. 4-1 tbrough ~ -4. il is an ano"lbal •• toow
(rom""" point (a "here") 10 anOlher poin, (3 "Ih.,."). HOlli.ver ...-00" a ..... loci!)'
o ~----- ·
vi'fiO. is d,a"". as in Fig. ~ -5. 01 does '10' '.'I~nd f.01I1 01IC poinl to aJ\Olh ••.
FIG . .... ~ lhe velocity -v 010 panicl •. R'lher. il slJo .. ~ Ihe ioslanl,noou, direction of u",,1 of a (XI'lie'" " I Ihe I,il. and
:oloog wilh !he oc:il>r OOiIlp<XIeJlU tilt its k>ngth (r"Jlr~senhng [he ,... Ioci[~ magnitu~) om tli! dra~" to aoy !Cola

/cH~CKPOINT 1 lb. fig",e .bow,.drcul., ,
p>th tak." by. particle. If tho irut""t..."'" v.locity 01
tilt particle ;, ,, _ (2 m "~ - (2 mi.)). tlu-oogb. ",bkb
quadrant ;" the pankle Olovi"g >1 ,bat in.... t if it;' t"'v_
• ling (.J clock",i....d (b) """" terdockwi", around the
cio-clt1 For boob ""' ... dnwl' "" the tiS"'''
--++-1- .

I Problem

F01 III< .. Dbil in S,ml''" P,OOlom ~ -1 find IIhl .... krily v , ("'I
- -
aI"nli'-l - 15~

w~ <"An find" b)' laking d.:>ri,--.Ii,·., of Ih,
COOljlOn,nl' olin •• abbi!" position v.Clm. " .f-" ,\ I-
• I'X
xl .. )
u/culations: Appl)'in& 100 ,', p.,1 01 Eq.
Eq. ~- 5. we find Ihex oompoooni of v'o ""
~ - 12 to •
~

v. - ~~ - ~, (- 0.311' + 7.2, + 28)

- - 0.621 + 7.1. (~ - 13)

AI I - 15 " Ihi, giws ", - - 2.1 m l~ Simiia.ly. "I,pl}'in&
Ih. Vy pari of Eq. ~- 12 10 Eq. ~-6, ". fUld
d)' d
\ 'y - Tr - dI (0.22t' - 9.11 + 30)

- 0.4~, - 9.1. (4- 14) ,, - ( - 2.1 mls)1 + ( - 2.5 "",)j. (An,we,)
AI t - 15 '.Ibis gi"" \'y - - 2~ m/" Equ,lion 4- 11 Ihen which is ,bo.,n in Fig. 4-6, laug,n, 10 '00 rabbit's (XIlh
y;" lds and in 'he direction I"" ral>b.' is .unning 8' t - 15"
To gN ,he magllltu oo and angle of v .ci'he, we usc a
\'OC!o,-capablc calculator or 'c.
foUo" Eq. 3-6!O wri,e '"" 6- '.
ta" - ' ~ -
I',
tan - ' (-105ml')
2.1 ml'
" - ~"; + "; - ~( 1.1 mk)' + ( 2.5m /s ), - tan - ' 1.19 - - 130'. (An """,)
- 3.3 ml' (An,we'l 0I1Idr: Is too angle. - I J(f Of - 1.lO" + 180" - SO"?

4-4 IAverage Acceleration and Instantaneous
Acceleration
When" ",'l ic"" wlocily changes from v ,!O V, in a t;m e inwrval fJ.1. its ~wr:,~.
"""",Ier.llion Q, .. du,ing fJ.1is
awrage change in "clocity
_ccele",ion tinw in,orval

~, .. - v, -
~
"j
- ~-. (4-15)

If we sh,in ~.lt ' 0 zero ,00"' SO"'" insun'. ,hen in
" 'h" lim;, Q,.. app'oacoos 'he
."",n,o..."., ... ", I",.,iol (0' ...wier. ,i un) g a! 'h" ;nSl,", ; Ihal is.
(4-16)

II ,be wlocil)' ch,nge, i" eilhu magn"udc Of" direction (0' oo!h). 'he parlicle
m"<;I have au QCCI' ie ,alioo.
We can write Eq. 4- 16 io U";I -WctO' fo'm by subslitu,ing Eq. 4-11 for" 1o
ob,ain

We can .. ",ite thi' os

(4- 17)

and ", -
",d," (4-18)

To find !he sea,,, components of «. we diflemnlia ,c lhi! seab, componen" of v.
FiguIC ~- 7 sltows on 3="" "ion ... ClO'« and its scalar comp""en" for a
particle movin g in Iwo d ,m "nslOn~ C"",ion' Wben an aro:ie", ion voclo, i,
dra"·n. as in Fig. 4-7. il dOi's "0' exwnd from 0"'" posItion 10 anOI""'. Ratn« . il
,
,ho ..~ ,n., direction of occek>",ion for a ",rt",1e located at ;IS lail. and its "'ngln
(rrp,o:seoling 1M &<nl le ,a(ion m.lg:lll,udi!) can t>e d",1I." 10 any seale.

/c H E C K POt N T 2
pi"""
• plOd "" it 1ll<>Ve. in . oxy
He .. ue fOOl """'riph"'" of the pooi1k>o (Ill ","en) of

(l)x _ _ .ll' + 4' _ 2 IU>d , _ 61' _ 4, (3) 7 _ 21 ' 1 _ (4r + 3)j " L _ _ _ _~ .
(l)x _ _ .ll' _ 4' >nd y _ _ 51' ... 6 (4) 7 _ (41' _ 2,)1 + 3j ..... 4-7 The """,Ie'>liOll • 010
Are 'be x ond y >OCeIe,.,,,,. oompoo'o" <OIl""'? Is ><=lentiOll. oorutar,, 1 par'ide ",d !he ""aI.. OOOIpooe."
of • .
~ Chop.... I Mo'''''' in Tw<>_ Th , ... Oim<il!1slon.

Sample Problem m
Fo. tb~ "bbil in Sample Problem, 4-2 and 4-3, find lb~
ocrel.13hon Ii "'lim~, - 15 s.

w~ can find Ii by to l ing derivaliws of Ihe

Ca/cu"'tIoM: Appl}'ing Ih~ a, 1'""
01 Eq. ~- 18 10 Eq .
FIG. ' " The"""l·
~- 13 . .." find lb. x component of" to ""
.TII""" ;; oI'he
<I,'. d ... bbi1 ." _ 15 L
a. - J, - d, ( - O.62, -+ 7.2) - - 0.62 mls' . The .. bb;, b""""...
'obo.. this .,"'"
S"nilarl)',appl)'in& the ", part of Eq. ~- 18 to Eq . 4-14 oocele,,"io11 >I .u
)'io\ds 1he J comllOnenl as point! on i1s pa,lL

d,' d FOf 100 ,ug!;> .." h.v~
., - ~. - --:;- (O.,w, - 9. 1) - OA~ m is',
d, ur
8 _ lao - ' 5:. _ 1"0- '( 0.4~ mI,' ) _ - 35•.
We see thai lb. 3<nlkfJl;OO doo.'S not vary ..;th tim. (il
is a ronS(aol) becall>'il tb. lime '-anable, does nO! ap-
". 0.62 mis'

1"'"' tU tbe expwssion for e;llIe. ooc~"',"lio" rompo- HO."~V~I , Ihis angioJ, IllOCh is 100 Ofl~ di~pla}'.d OIl a cal·
""", . Equation 4-17 .oon yields cuI3l0., indio.les Ihal "ii " dir<'CIM 10 Ib~ nghl and
downward i" Fig. ~ .g . Vel. we ~ "ow from Ih~ rompo-
{j - ( - 0.61 tn!s'; -t (OA~ III !")i. (ARS.....) nenlS Ihal "ii nnt;! b" di.oooo 10 Ille lefl and up"'ard. To
" 'bidl " ,u"".imp0Si'd on Ihe rabbil". palh in Fig. ~-K fi"d I"" olb" •• ngl. Ih.1 has Ih. sami! ""genl as _ }50
To gel tbc magnimoo and angle 01 a.ei1be, .." "'" a bUI is "01 displa)'oo on " ca k:uJ.,Of. W~ add 180":
wClor-capablo calculalO1 or we follow Eq . J-fi. F01 tbe - 35 ' + 180" - U S". (An'~ •• )
""agoit,,"" we h,,-. Thi' u ro""slenl wilh Ih~ rompo"""I' of"ii. Now Ihal a
a - ~,,; + "; - ~( 0.62 mls')' + (O.4-lm li)' ba, I....... ".e m,agnil OOe and diroc1io" I~rougboul Ihe
- 0.76 ml". (A"'.....,,) rabbi!" rim oocau .. Ib~ """,,1<,"liOll is rooslanl .

Sample Problem m
A 1".liolo "'ilh .... Iocily 1', - - 2.0; + 4.oj (i n molors ", - a COS 6 - (3.0 01 1",)(= 1.10") - - 1.93 01/",
IX" """"nd) "' , - 0 U"&lgo<!S a rouSiaul ..",lo18tioo ;;
of nlago" ude a - 3.0 m'" al ao .ngl< 8 - 130" from Ih~
a, - "si" 8 - (3.0 mli)(si" 130') - + 2. .10 mls'.
pl>'ilive di.octioo of Ibe .< axis. Whal is Ihe p311id.'s When In ... ,·.Iu,," are in"'l1ed ,,110 lhe equ"iOlls fOf I'.

velocily"al, - .'i .O,? and v"we fi"d Ihat, '11ilTh" - 5.0 "
I', - - 2.0 OI l' + ( - 1.93 mli)( 5.0 , ) - - 11.65 mis,
I', - ~ .O on /s + (2.30 ml")(5.0s) - 15.SJ onl..
Beeall5C Ib~ .=I~.alion
is con't.nl, Eq. 2·
11 (,' - I'e + a') ,pp~i.'S.
but ~.• musl u.. it S<'1" •• 'ely ThUs. ,I, - S.OS. ~. ha'.... aft'" lOu"dlll&.
for motioo p","Uollo 11Ie ... axis "nd mOI;oo ra.al1.:l11O -;: - (- 120,1,); + ( 16m ls)j. (Ans"'.,)
Ih. y ..is.
Eithel using a voclo.·capabk cak:ulJlor 0. following
ulculalions: W~ fiod Ih. Wlocil), con'ponenls I', ,nd I', Eq. 3-6, "" fiod Ihal Ihe magn,IUJe and angk of I' are
from Iboequ'lio" ,
.' - -Iv'; + I'; - 19A _ 19 OIls (Answer)
". - I·.. + a,' aod ", - I'.,. + a,"
In Ih"'" equalio"~ I'", ( - - 2.0 on Is) aud I'.,. ( - 4.0 on /s)

8 - lan -' .2.. - 127" _ 1.l0·. (Aosw.,)
oro Ille x a"d)' rompo1l.ms of l'.. and a, .nd a, a.e lhi! '.
... and y rolllpo1le"" of"ii. To find D. and "" we .esolw Check: D",,~ 127' aplX'a. on ~'O\l' ",1eu!,lor's disp lay.
"" e;I"" ...,In a vooo.-eap.b1.:l caku!ato. or "'Ih o. 00.., - ~3' aW"a.' Now sketch Ih~ v~C1o. ",,-jlh Its
Eq. J..'i: rompon"nts 10 SI"il "'bien '"glo is ro''Klnabk.
4-5 I Projectile Motion
We "",x! conside. a 'p«:ial ~a", of !.."O-dimensional molion: A p"'licIil moves in a
,,,,!ical plaoe "'lh some inilial vtlloci!y 1'. bUI ill orccl.:>,"lio" i:s al"ays lhi! /r",,-
faU >erel"al;oo If, wbicll is do"-ol.-a.d Such a pamr1> h c.:lUod • p.uj ..... ilc (n",an -
ing Ih.1 il i. p'ojc'<1od o. lauoched). olld ilS mol oon IS calloo p.uj<'<1 iic mu,iun , A
p'o;ocliic miglll 00 a 1O"oi, ball (Fig. 4-Q) m ba",baU In f1igll!. but il is 00! an .,, -
pi, .. Of a dock in flIght Maoy spo'!S (from golf and foo t baU!o OOC\l.Sil "nd rac-
qUNbaU) in"olw lh~ proj<>cllic motion of a ball . • nd nloc h 0110.1 i. Sl"'"! In Irying
10 ooouolibol motion fo. '" a<lvamage. For examp"'- Ihe "eqUil!ball plaF' who
di>oowrod !h. Z-shot In lb. 1970s "asil)' ..'On hi. gam., OOcau,,- !be ball's Jl"culi:l.
Highl 10 Ih. m •• of Ih. court atways Jl"rplexed bi. OpPOO" nlS. ~
au. goal b" •• " 1o analyze proj;>Clilo mo'ioo U'1Og 100 lools 1m 10.-0-
d,mefrSioo.1 mol ion oose.;t>.-.J in Se<:1,ons 4-2 Ihrough 4-4 and ma king Ihe
3SSUntphOll Ih'l .If has no elf<'<1 011 Ih' p,o;i'C1ile. Figu." 4- 10...-hieh is " nalyzed
in 100 O<Il ..cr:ion, sIIows Ih. pa lh fol[O,,-oo by a projectile ,,-bon 100 ai, has no FlG. "9 A"r~pbotoyapll
olll>d . Th' p,o;."C1ile i, launched wilb ,n inilial wloc,ly 1'. Ihal ~ao "" w"'11on as of a y.Uow ICO";. ball b<,,"><Lo,g off .
b.. d 'lUface. Between imp>Ct~ ,b.
1'. - I'",i + "o,j . (4-1 9)
ball b .. proje<1ile Il>0l;011.5,,,,,,,,.,
Th. oomponenlS I'", .nd 1'0, ~~ " Ih,n 00 found if we l no ..' lh. angle !Iv oolwoon 1'. Rd ord M, ....'F..,""""'.. ,
and 100 posi!i'" x di.""lioo: P!.olOV"p""

(4-21)
Du.ing ils l..-o--di",en-;ion.1 motion.ll1e p.ojC<1ile·s po,ilio" wc!m 7 .nd veloc,ly
a
wc!m I' chang< conhnuously, bUI ilS """"Ieralion "octo. i, oou,lan l and al~'a_,"
di.",,10d vortically OOwn,,'a.lI. The 1",*",1;1> has "" ho.uonlal a=lo .. !;OII .
Projoclile nlOtion.like lital in Figs. ~ -9 and 4-10, look. complicated, bUI .."
haw Ihe follo"'n8 "mplilying f"lu.e (loo"·,, from eXp",;",,,nl):

. - : In P'o;.<tile II>OIioa. the borizoa,aJ "01ion and tbe V<I1ica1 m01io. or. iod'p".""n'
of ,oc.b 010tT: th., ;~ ""i,h .. moIioa affect> ,ile 01he<.

This f..1Ute oUows u, 10 b.ea L UI' a p.oblem i"voh,"g lwo-di",,,nsioual mOli"n
inlo Iwo "'parale aod cas;". "oo-di"",o,ion.1 p1ooloms, ooe fu. 100 lIo.OOnl,,1
mOliOll ("'ib 0'''' acc<{ua,oon) and ooe fm Ih. wnical ",olion ("'Ih cotlS"''''
JO~·I\ ..y",J acal.ro"·,,~) . H... are Iwo oXp",im.nls Ihal sbow Ihallhe ho.izootal
motion and lbil ""lieal mol ion are indi>JI"ndent

,
FIG. "'0 lb. p>1b oc.
projec'iIe 'h" ~ l,oDChod"
.<0 - O .. d Yo _ 0, ";Ib an
ini,ioJ ""Io<i')' I'~ The ioi,Lo]
veloci'y md ,ile ""Iociti.. >1
variow poin" oloo.g it! palh
or. 511""",,- >lorl~ w;,h tbeir
rornpooenlS.N01e 'h>1 11",
boo-izoll1aJ veloriryoompo-
.,
- ---1, '
i",,-- ·
... Ill " .. aio, """',.. , bu,
Ihev..-,i;:aJ velocityrompo-
""., clwlge> <OO1"00ll'i}'. "
The rang< R;" 11",
boo-izoo,ol di"anre , .. pm_
j,"'~e h .. t ... velod ~''''n ~
"
,"',ms" I.. ia"och Nighs.
~ Chop ... . I Mo'''''' in Tw<>_ Th , ... Oim<il!1slon.
Two Golf Balls
Rgu,~ 4-11 is a suoboscopic phologtapb of '''''0 golf b,lk. 000 s;mply ,ole""d
aod lb. 0Ih", shO! borizo""II)' by a spring. Th~ golf balls h,,-.
the ",me venical
mOltOn. ooth lalLng ,hrougll the """" "'r1ir~1 dis,ao", in ,be same in'.rval of
limo. Tlu fac' ,hoI o~, ball i. mot-ing lto,i,o"",II, ~ I,j/. i, is failing I,,,,, "0 _/fur ",n
,'" "<T,kal mol<O,,: 'h" is.lhc hntu,,",.1 "oJ v,.,ical "lOlIon, are ;"'''',)i)"ocn, of
eoch ot oo,.

A Great Student Rouser
Figure ~ - 11 shows. ""monmo"o" Iha, has .nLV{'noo m,")' a ph)"iCll lecture. It
in'-ol,,,,, a blowgun G. using a rull os a p1'O)ooil"- The ,a'gel is a can su'pended
from a n"'gR"1 M , and Ih" lUbe of Ih" "Iowgun;,; allned di'''''11y allh" can , Th.:l
experim"ol is a"ang"d so Ihal Ibe magllel rel<ase.s Ih o can jnsl a, Ih" ball leaw,
Ihe blo,,'gulI,
II g (11Ii! magnilude 01100 f'N-fall accek-.alion) Wi'f" ze.o. Ihe ball wonld
10Jlo,,' lh . S1.aighl - ~nc palh sIIow1l in Fig. ~ - 12 and Ib" "'," "ouid flool in pi",,,
AG. _·" o..eb al lis"l< ... dlrom
,fl~' Ih" magool '''i<>awd it The ball "-ould {wlJinly hil lb. call,
Ie" at 'be ..... j",un' ,h., ••otber HOl'''ew" g is no< u'o. bUI 100 ball s,,11 hil' the ean! As Fig. ~·12 sho"",
baU is ,hOI "'iroot>!!}, 10.1>0 light.
The~ "",ical mOl;"". are identic>!. du.ing Ih. Ii"", 01 nigh! 01 1"" Nil, bolh ball and can faU Ih. sail'" di'lao", h
s"",,,. Rd u,,d M.p»! n-w",.". lrolll Ih"" zrfO-g \ocalions. Th.:l bard'" Ih. ""mon,l.alo. "lows.lh. g••• le, is 1M
PII"'Ofl"I~M ball', inilial sp..-.ed,lhe sho,w Ih~ ftiglllllloo, and Ih~ s",all~r Ih~ vaJoo of h,

Vi H 'C I( POI N T 3 A, • ce:r,aio io,"o', • By boll h. v,loci'y " _ 251 - 4.9;
(.he _f "",,;, borizoo'aI. 'h, y >xi,,, up"'>rd, ODd" is i. mOl", pe>' ><'OOI>d~ H .. the
ball paosed ju high.., poin.?

4-6 I Projectile Motion Analyzed
No", "".re ••ady 10 ana 1)7" p.ojoclihl ".olion. ho.izon,"lIy and ...,1!;eally,
The Horizontal Motion
Be""u se 1h"." is 110 QC<'d~ro/jO" in Ih. bori",",,1 d"""ion. lhe ho.izonlal
rompo,",nl I', of lhe p,oJoclilc's vdoc\!y mm",", "n,banged lrom ilS ,,,ihal val""
I'.. l"ronghoUl Ih. mOlion. as domo",I13led in Fig. ~- I3 , AI any Ii .." /. Ih. proJ"'-
Ii"", horizonlal d~Ia"'"",llI x - -", f,om an innial posihO" x,;,; g"',,n by Eq,
2-15 "-;Ih " - 0. ,,-h.ell " " ,,-.i1" a,
" - X, - I'...
Bo""n ", "", - I', cos /l,.lhi' Ixlco"""
,, - -<0 - (".= 60)1, (4-21)
The Vertical Motion
The \'Onical 0101ioo " IhoO mOliOfl we disrul.s.:>d in s"aio" 2-9 for a ".,!id" in f'''''
fall MOSl ,mporlall! " !hallb~ a<n'", •• lron IS COllstan! , Thus.. Ibe equailOn, of
Tabl. 2-1 aPl'I)·. p.oviOOd "'e ,ubsl;lnle - g fo, Q "nd ,,,.,Im !o J OOl.lioo, Then.
1o. example. Eq, 2- IS t>c'COn""
J - )< - I'o,J - W'
- (''ostn 60)1 - ~'. (~-22)

. 'bore Ih~ in llial vollical volOClly compo""n l I'",;' .epl...,d ..'ilh Ihe ~qniva "",,!
FIG. ' ·12 The pr*,",~.1»1I >1 ... )"1 I'.sin 60, Simlla,ly. Eqs. 2- 11 and 2-16 t>c"COm<!
hi" 'he falli.g ran. Each lalls • dis- ", - I'.sin 60 - 8/ ( ~-23)
':u><e h from .. here it would be we"
'bere Do/roe·hll """, .. , .. ion. ."d I'; - (I',Sin 60)' - 2g(y - Yo) , (4 -2~)
W I ~i"Mot;o"Anolyzod ~

A§ 15 111",1",<><1 In Fi~ ~- 1O &00 Eq. 4·2J. lhf ,·e.llcal , ... locIly OO'"polk'nl b;>.
""\'6 JII'SI ... for a ball Ibro ..·• Wri""'l/y upward , II 11 d Ifea~d upward ""hally,
aooll$ magnltlKic ~Ieadtty docr~:aSH 10 UfO. "'/fJdt _rlu ,bt- .......-''''~m MJgh' of
'M "..,It. The 'O!f\~ WIooIJ componenl Ihen re'l'fSi!S ""00100. and ill. mago"
lUo.t. oo.oo.ne.la.IlI'" ..,Ill hlDi!.

TIl. Equation ofth. Path
w~ can fil>ll Ihe equalion of III<! PfO!l'(1il~', palh (II'! n " .I<'<1"I}') ~' oli1ll1Ral,ng
limn, OOlwccn Eqs.4-2] "nd 4- 22. Solving Eq 4·2] for, nnd SUbslllUhng iom Eq.
4 ·22. \II. obl"n .•it•• " liule •• ",ange"",n!.
(4-25)

Th,s ,5 100 <,</"nIlOO of Ih~ p;tlb ,"",.-n In Fl$. 4·10. In llc.h,ng 11 . 10' .ilqllicily ....,
lei .... - 0 al>ll,. - 0;" Eqs. 4-21 and 4·22. '.,~,,'ety Iw.:.. .... ,. II". I nd I. gr.
constants. Eq 4·25 .. ollh~ lorm, _ ..... + Iu', ,n " 'hoch Q and h a •• COOSIaott. flG . .a.U Tbe .. """"",,,",p<~.."
TbIS IS tile equ31 ..... of a p.rnbola_'" lbe Pllh .. panol>olic, d Ib;"-"bool<k, ....lociIy;'
<:t.o.opSbuI "Of 1M l>on<ooIoi
TN Horizontal Rang. _"l_"-"bc
Jot... -.J', ..Io""y. As • . - . "'"
The Ioonwnl<ll "'~ R ofille pr~"I;:. IS I:;" 4-10 sl\oOl..... Ibf 1KN,:onuJ Jot"'_~a)'"''''''rnc''' bUD,
diliaoct lite Jlfo,tlCllk! hilS IflIwli'tl "hen II relUrns 10 liS Inlllil (llIuDCb) hi'lghl.
aIJoo,o,.os lIIno tn lond DO • •s...."
_ . 1Io.....1.o-'G.r" ,-£... ID<.
To find "1\80 R. 1<:1 '" pul ... ~ ... - R ,n Eq, 4-21 and :t - :to - 0 ,n Eq. 4·22.
oblalmng

R- (.'. ros 'oJot
0 - (I'.,u'60)r - tI,'.
'"'
El,nun.hng ,00111'""0 19..'Si'- I"" oquo"0<15 yi.kis

M
,
,
- - - St" 8ocos 90.

USI"glhe ldentlly.", 280 - 2 ",n a. cos a. (_ Append,. E). "'e obta'" flG . .a.U (I)Thof'"'bohlyball
cU:ui>IN by lKloS"" ruutaK<
.' 2...
R • ..:i.,,,, (+-26)
;''''"",,"Ol { IIJ n.. pm. II>< ball

C........... Tho. equallOO doos _ 8''''' lbo' "o("rontal disla""" tra",t;,d by a Pf'OIo'C'
'"'""" 101.,.. .................... i>IN
by I..... tl>odo 01' dlioobopon-. Sec
TobI... , for "",wI"""'">! <Iou.
l,kl .. l\ca tho ~nal b.,."g111 isnOlIl\;> launcb b~>8hl . (A~ It ..... "'TIoo TtojeaorJ of
NOIe Ihl 11. ,n Eq 4-26 " ... its mu,mum VIIlu~ ...lI~n .on 16" - I. ~blrll a Fly Ral: by 1'... , ! B",ocmo. 11ot:
rofr~,;ponds 10 260 _ 90' or ,. _ J 5' . 1'ft,1k> T_Jr ...., n..u.. y 19@5.)

. . . The Il00,,,,,,,01 'lIII80 R .. m>JIimlUll fOJ • "'~lICb "'ste 01' 45' .

Ilowe'·cr...·hen tbe la"ncb and land log beiShlS diIIC'. ". '" . hol put, h.m""".
throw.ud b.l,kclbaU,a laun"" nngle ol 45' d<.Ies nol yocld Iho m.. unum ooriron, It'II''+
tnl dl51ance . ~

..
Two> Fly B.U..

""
..... .,.
Th. Effects of the Air Palh II
(Air) (V..,..,,,,)
w~ ha,'e ..... ""'" Ihal Ib~ alf th.ough .. hlrll tI'" r''''''CI~ .. t11OI'''' has 00 ~If.x-t on
lIS mOhon U ...... ,..,.. 1(1 maDJ s:itualooos. tile dlSig.~'t""'nl 1>;,1....,"0 our calnrla· m•
llOllS looille actual mo"o. of I"" fIfOIoK'Id;> can 00 Ia.go Ilea .... "'" arr ,~s:i§.t<
1<:JPJ"CI$U) Ihe motlOO_Figu.e t-U. lor tJglOlploo>. sit ..." I_palbs lor a II}' baU lhal .,.
MuiJDo.,
~'" .Am
lc3''es lhe 1)<" al aD angle of flJ' .."h Ibe bomonl.1 and aa ,m".] ~ of.\.l.7
mls.Palh I (''''' ba ... ball play~rs fty baU) IS. calnrlalild palh Ihal appro';malo>S
"-o I'fbpl ", 7.9.
normal 0000"""'. of pI.y, til alf Path" (the physocs r rofessor. fty roD) '" Ihe "St. r.......Th. _ _ ok "6O'.d
palh Ihe ball " -ould lollow io a ""mum. th. _ _ 'P'«I" "'.1 -..
~ Chop.... I Mo'''''' in Tw<>_ Th, ... Oim<ilnslon.

/c. H Ii C K POI NT. A fly ball " IriI to ,be outfield During ito Iligbl (igIKI' ,b •
• If..,.. 01 th . air), what haW.... 'oiu (0) horizon!al and (b) ""nkai oompooeDt, 01 "".
J""ity? Wb.a, ... lb. (e) horizontal and (<I) vertical rom""""",, 01 iu acc, l""ioa d.,_
ins ."".nt. <luring <Je.sce.',and ."b • •"""'''"' poi"'01 ito ruglnl

'" FIg. 4-15 .• fCSC"" plano fl"" al 19S hnlh (- 55.0 m/s)
and ronst"". beigh,l, - 500 III lOW"," a JIOln' directly
0\-'"a victim. whote " , ~sc"" C~PSUhl1S 10 land.
(a) What should 00 Ilhlangloo d> of .be pllo!'s Ii"" of 5igh,
"
10 the ')clim ,,-lion the capsulo r"'~.se madi'?

Onoo ,"",.sed. the c'1"ul. is. projecti!;,.
so ;10 ho,i:molal ""d venkal mO!iollS can "" oon,i<lo .. <1 , ,
<""'.,.... :
s<paralely (we ni'<.'d not con,ide, Ih. ac,u,' ru,,,,d path
ollho capsule). FIG. ""S A pi .... drop> .......... nil. m<ning.t
"""",.., .,'IDly in I"", I ~j ghl, Wbile t.1~nB. I b. C"I"uli!
Calculations: In Fig. 4- 15. w . ...... Ihal d> "given by "maiD' Wldeo- the pi ....

(4-27) Th'n Eq. 4-27 giv,"" '"

.,-h",. x i:s !b" ho,izon'" coo,din'le of!hil vid,m ("nd ,- (Answo,)
of llIi! capsuk> ,..hen i! hi" lh" ....He') and I, - SOC! m. W"
,hould 00 abk> 1o find x ..i! n Eq. 4-21 : (b) A, 1M C3"",h:! reacM' Ille waw, .•,h.1 is iT'; ",,'ocily V
in uoil -'"ilC1o, "OIalioo ,nd io m,gOlluoo-angk nOla!ion?
X - .... - (I'.=6,). (4-28)
Here ,..~ ~now !hal x. - 0 t>.>c.ause the o,igin" pl'Ci!d
al Ih~ pOlO! of '"'~'s.> . B.causc the capsule IS ",1.G..d
and nO! snO! f,om Ih. plane. its ,",!i.1 "eIOCl!)' 1'. IS
" "
1',<lo<>,OO!
equal 10 Ih" plane', wlocny. ThUs. .... ~ "0 ..· .1so !ba! "
the inilial ,..,looly has mag""uM I '. - 55.0 01/' "nd
.ogl~ 80 - (I" ("",asur.'d ,el'h"~ 10 tho po<i!ive I" n ,
!be,,,", a ",,!ical """eleta!io".
dir.C!io" 01 !b" .< , xi,) . How .... ' ....., do no! ~"O W
the lim~' the ""psule !a~",!o mov~ f,om lbil plan o!O Ca/cu""tlons: Wh,m !h. caps"'. ,~acbe, lhe ,,·alO'.
!ho vidiOl.
To find I. w. ,,,,xl oon,i<k, Ih . lu.k,,1 "lOlion "nd
'perificall)' Eq . 4-22:
I'. - I',COS /10 - (55.000')(0050") - 55.0 005.
U""g Eq. 4-23 and !he ca"",""s lime of fall I - /0.1 s,
(4-29) "" also lind Iha! ~'hen Ih~ capsu'" IOaeh", !h" .!"e,.

He,e Ihe v,,!nl displace"","1 y - ". of 100 capsuh:!",
I, - I',sin6, - g' (4-30)
- 500 m (!M n"8a1iv" val"" indkall'S !ha! !h~ capsule - (55.0 mis)(,in 11') - (9.~ m/s')(I0.1 s)
mm'os do~' ",,.,,,(1) . So. - - 99.0 mls
- 500 m - (55 .0 mls)(sin!1')l - i (9.8 01/")1' . ThUs, >! !be "'a!e,
Sot.-iog fo, I. ".., find, - 10.1 5. Using Ihal value in Eq . I' - (55.0 mts)i - (99.0 m/,)j. (Answe,)
4-28 yio/d'
U,ing Eq, ]-6"-, • gu"", ...'" find !h'l lhe Ol"gni!"d~ and
x - 0 - (55.0 mls)(cos 0')(10.1 5). !ho aogle of I' are
... - ~55.5 m. v - 113m i. and e- - 60.9"'. (Answer)
4-6 I P rojectil. Mot'" AnotyzO>d ~

Figure 4-16 ,h~~ a pirale sbip 560 m from a lorl de-
lo"mng a harbor ""Uanc;o. A ddens.> CaU"OD. Iocaled al
Si" le-vel,fir'" baH... 1inilial s!",oo I'. - 82 ml~

(a) AI "hal a"gle a, f",m lile ~OrilOl\lal must a baU be
firM lohil Ih. ship?

(I) A fired «Inno"ball is a projoc1U,,- W~
'.-aul 0" equalio" Ihal r"L:H~s Ib~ lau"m anglo a, '" lile
ball's horiT,OIliol displ""",,","1 os il m"".s 1'001 "",,"on
10 shIP. (2) B.«Ius.> Ihe ",,"non and 100 ship a,e al 100
same heigh!.lh. horizoolal di'l'I"""",,,nl is 100 range. FIG. ' ·16 A pin'. s.II;p ui>der file.

Cakcations: We can ",Iale III<. launch anglo 60 10 lile
fa"ge R wilh Eq. 4·26 (R - (I"i!g) ,io 260). "hieh. afler
(b) Wbal is Ihe """,imum range of Ine cannonballs?
.. arrange""'"I. givru
ulculations: We bave "'." Ihal maximum ,ang. cone-
Il" _ J.. "n-' .f!!:... _ J.. sio- ' (9.8 mls')(S60 on) sponrn !O . u " le-valio" anglo a, 01 45 '. TIt""
2
, I't
- 2 Sln - 'O.816.
2 (82 misT

(4-31)
'- -
,j "
S
Sln_lI", -
(8:' OIls)'
9.8 onls'
. (1
!IO\"X .~ )
,_,

-686m _ 690m . (Answer)
000 ",IUlio" 01 sin - ' (54.7' ) is displayM by a caleula -
As Ibo pira!~ ship sail<; , .... y. Ih~ lwo " le-va!ioo aoglo...,. at
lot: w" sublrOC1 il lrom l&l" 10 g"l Ihc olher sol Ulion
(125.3"j. ThUs. Eq .4- 31 gi\'Cs us wbid! lile ship can "" hit drn .. l"I"'I!1i". ew" maUy merging
aI/io - 45' whoc'" lho ship is 690 01 away. B.:>yco,d Ihal dis-
a, - 63". (An,,,,,r) taIloCe Ill<! sh,p is safe.
""'

Suppose a oos.>balJ ban"r B hils a high Oy ball 10!1Ie
oUlfield. di,ecUy 10ward au ou!field..'1 F and "';Ib a
lau"eb spM<! of I'. - 40 onls and a bunch angle 01
a, - 35'. Durin g Ih. Oigili. a Ii"" lrom Ibe oUlfielderlo
Ihe NU ma~", an a"gJ~ oil "'Ih Ibe gtou"d. Plol cl",.,.-
lion a"gli'- d> vcrs\/'; I,n", ,.assuming Ihal 100 oUlf",ld", is
alre"dy posilio"M '" calch Ihe ball. is 6.0 01 100 cloSi' 10

Ibe bailor. and is 6.0 01 100 far aw.y. .""..,

, • , ,
, ('1
."
ball i, ""ugh! al approximawly
..,,,w
'"
FlG. '-17 n.. .l.va'ioo lingle .. for a ball hi, lo..... d • • ""'_
hotizonial diSianro !f1I,'CI.d by I. ,"'" fielder i. (oj ""fined and Ib) pI",,.d time t.
C
given by Eq. 4-26 (R - (Iilg ) sin 28,).

Calculations: ll>e OOU can 00 caugbl If the oulfielde'. Figure 4-17" show, a ",apsbol ollhe Nl! i" High! whco
Iho b.,U is al Iklighl y and horil.oOlal di<;1ance -" from tile
dislance Irom Ih~ baner is equal to Ihe range R 01 lile
ball. Using Eq. 4-26 ...." find ban.. ( ..-ho is al 1M origin) .llIc horiro"lal dislaoro of
Iho baU from the oUlfio ld" is R - x . and Ib ~ .levalion
R -
..1. ,
S ""·60 -
(4Oo1(s)' . ,_, ,".,
91l mIS' SIn (u - "" .~_ m.
'"gl. d> of Ihe ball in Ih. oUlfiolde,', ,·i.w is give" b)'
Ian d> - y/(R - x ). r", the he.ghl .", "-e us.> Eq . 4-12
( ~ - 32) (y - )'. - (I'. sin 00)< - ~gr'), seni"g y. - 0. For 1M
~ Chop .... I Mo'''''' in Tw<>_ Th , ... Oim<il!1slon.

bmizon,aJ dlSt.n", x, we S"!>sI ,IU!O ""n Eq. 4-21 153.42 m - 6.0", - lHA2 m. Regr.ph,ng Ih . [UllCtion
(x - -'0 - (I'G cos 80)/). Sl'nin8 ... - O. Thus, uSlIIg gi"" th. "Too dOSi''' plot in Fig. 4-17/>. No ... lb •• "" -a-
I', - -10"li, and /10 - 35 ' . w~ ""'. lio" ""S'" of the ball "pidly iocr~aS<'~ lo •.-ard Ih ~ ,nd
Oll ho Hight as Ih . baU soars 0"'" 100 o u,fi.:.kle, 's head.
, (-10 sin 3Yj, - 4.9,'
<1> - 1"0- 153.42 (4000.35°,, " (4-33) If Ih. outlk:lld<'1 is 6.0 III too far aw.)' from Ih~ ["Hie,.
..... repla«> Ih~ di'{JUCIl of 153.42 m in Eq. 4-33 ,,-jIb
Graphing Ih" function V"tsU' I gin', !be middl" 159.42 m. Thi! ""ulling plot i, laN-l.d "Too fa,- in th o
plol in Fig. 4-17b. W~ """ Ibal 100 ball'. 'ngl~ in III~ fig"r~: Tho angkl fim ilK""•..",
anJ Ihoo rap><lly
oU lfield .. ·, ,·io ... iOC1c","" a! .n ,101051 steady rale d""",,,,,,,,- ThUs, if a baU is hit dirocUy loward an
!itroughoulloo ftiglll. o Ulfielde •. th. play., COl" 1011 from Ih~ change in Ih .
]{ 100 oUlfidrlor i, 6.001 100 doso. 10 Iho ball .. , balf, d",,,,ion 109\<' d> "holl\i>r to ,lOy p"LfIln toward
we I~place lhi>. di'l.n"" of 15:JA1 m in Eq. 4-33 "';111 ,II<> bane •. or bad: 'W")' from In" b.II",.

,;- •",-,
AI IUnc I - O. a golf boU is ;/JOI from ground levd jnw
lhi>. air. as indicaled in Fig. 4- 1&,. Th •• nglo 6 Nlw""n
lhi>. boll's dir""1Ioo of lra",,1 and Ih. posi!i'" dir.Clion
ollh • .<.xi, is given in Hg. ~- I8b as a IUnClio" 01 lim" I.
". 01--", - \:- ,
Tho balllanJs al I - 6.00 s Wh,l is Ihe magnilUrlo "0 01
lhi>. b.Ws laullch "'loci I}". al .. h.1 h.,ghl (y - )'.) aoo",
1hi>.launch lowl doos Ih. ltaU land. and "'hal is 100 b,U',
d
, ('1
dileelion of Ifavd jusl as ill,ods?
101 (' )
FIG .'"1' (0) P:ub 01" .goIf balhhOl ""'0. pI.",u. (b) The
...gIe ~,b., give. 'h, b:ill', di, .... i"" of mOlioo durin~ ,be
(I) Th" b,ll is • [l1oj<.'Clilo. .nd so ilS hori - Big'" i. pio".d ..,nu, ,im. ,.
lOnla! and ,""niral mohon, cao t>e consid".. d sep" -
ralely. (1) The hor;lOnl.1 compon" nl v, ( - ",000; /1,) 01
Ihe ball', "olocily doe, nol cbang~ du""g Ihe flighl . \', - 39.&1 _ .jQ mis. (Answer)
(3) Th~ v""ic. 1 componenl v, 01 ,Is ,ulocily d"". Th~ baU I,nds", I - 6.oo~ Using Eq. 4-12 (). - ,", -
ch,ngo .nd is uro "hon lile ball ro",,1Ies ma,,,num
(", sin /I,)t - }gt') wilh I - 6.00 s ....., oblain
Il<>Ighl. (4) l1Ie baW, dir.Clion 01 lfawl.1 aoy lime dur -
ing Ibe Highl is al lite anglo of i1S vclocil)' wclor juS! v Y - )'o - ~·nm - 59ru. (Answer)
11k'1l .Tbal "ngie is given by Ian 6 - ,·,/'·. ...-;Ih Ih~ veloc- JuS! a, lb. ball lao"'- iIS horizonlal , ... locily ,', is slill
ily compo""nl' ev. lua",d "' litOi lime.
",005 A,; sub.sliluling for ,', and I\, gives '" ,', - 6.9 11 mls
W~ find ilS wr1ir~1 velocil~ jusl Ibon by using Eq. 4-23
Ca/cu"'tions: Whi'n Iii<> ball reach"" ilS maximum h"iglll ,
( ':' - ". sin 60 - gl) "',Ib 1 - 6.00 ... "hirh yiekls
., - 0. So.lh~ dir<'ffion of lhi' ""locil}''';' I>orllDnla!. aI
':' - - 19.60 ",Is. Thuslile aogkl of lite ltaU', di,,,,,tion of
"ngle 6 - 0". From Ibe graplt. " .. SN. Iha! IbIS coooitioo Itavol ,I landing i,
O«"\IIS ~II - ~.O .. We .Iso..,.Ihal Ih. launcb angle /I, (al
, - 0) is 80". Using Eq. ~-13 (vy - ",sio It - gIl, ..ilb 1 -
4.0"'8 - 9.8 """.It - 80' . • nd "y - O. we find
,
6 - Ian - ' - ' - I.n - '
",
'-'i','C"'"m," _
6.911 mls
- 71 '. (An,"'''' )

4-7 I Uniform Circular Motion
A pal1K"li'" in un iform ri m .. ," , motion il it lfa,'ol, 31ound, ri,de or a circular
arc al const.nl (u."pm) sp"od . Allhouglliho sp<lM doe, nol '''ry. ,It. pdrric/. i.
QCu/"",;"g ixl<"~use Ibe velocily .hangos ,n direC1ion.
Hgu,~ 4- 19 sho .... 100 .. Ialionship b<11l'OOO Ihe V"IociI)' and "CCdOralion
vOClors al various siagill during unilorm circular mol ion . BOlh veelors h,w
con Slanl magnjlurlo. bUl Ih'" diwclions chang<> conliouousl)·. l1Ie velocily i<
al"'a)" dllOClOd ,""gonl lo Ihe ci,cle in Ihe direC1ion 01 mOlion. llw acceleralion
i, al,..a}~ di''''I~d radially ",~-arJ. Because of liti,. Ibo a<XI'leralion assoaalOd
",jib umforn, cir<:ula , mOlion is .aUed" c.. "i p<'fo l (moaruog "CO"lOr ..."' ~ing")
O<'<.I<>,., io o, As we p,ove n~x(, (be n"'[(IIim"" of (hi:! = I,, ,a1lon Ii"

• - - ", (""tri""'&l ............ ~~ (4-34)

.,h<>,e, is (he ,.dius of (he cucl~ and "is (b~ speed of (h~ par!icl<>.
In .ddi(ion, du,ing (It" ,=Ier.(;on aI rooS!,n( "",,'{l, (b~ parlicle ("wls (he
circumfcre""c of (he circle (, di:!l,n"" of 2",.) in ""'"

(4-35)
FIG. 4-19 V.loci'y and >«.1e"";011
Ti, caUoo lite puioJ of "I'OJurion. or simply!he pu W. of!he 010(10". h is. u, """'or. lor uniform cir-cular IDOtioD.
general. !bo (ime for a p,nicle W go awund ,ci(l5Od pat h .xacdy ooc ...

Proof of Eq. 4-34
To find (h. magnitude and diro<:hon of (he .cede,"!ion for uniform circular
,
rno""",,"~ ronsi""r Fig. 4-20. In Fig. 4-2fu, p.rI>c1e p 910\""-' a( ronS!.,,( 'peed
" around. drc1:l of "dill'S ' .A( !h~ in",", slto"·".1' bos coorJin,,", x, and Yr
Recall from s"crion 4- ) !ha! (00 velocny, of " fll(lvillg pa:r !kl" " ,I"'a)', !an·
Il"'" (0 the pa" .. Ie·, pal" al (he panic"", posi(i"", . In Fig. 4-2Oa, (h., "",,",I' is
l"'fJ"'nd,cul" w . rad.us, drawn (0 ("~ panic""s position. Then (h e "nglo 6 !b.!
e
, mab~ "'~(h a vUlical a! I' equals lite angkl (hal radius , ma~as willt (be x axi:!. ---1~:c-
, - .
Tho scalar compooo"15 of " ore ,ho,,'1l ,n Fig. 4-2Ob. With !tIcm, "" ean write
(he ,,,Ioo!y, as
, - ,) + '''; - (- Y5in 8); + (.,= 6)i.
Now, ""ng !he right (riaogie in Fig. 4-2fu, .... can r'1'laoo sin 6 wilh y,/' .nd
(06)
,.,
oos 6 with x, l, to '.-ril.

, -(-','} +;-} (' ''l
~"
To find (he OCO''''ralion Ii of par!icle p. " ... muS! ,.~e (be lime <lcriV.,;v~ of
(hi, "'llla!ion. NOIing (ha! spNd " and radius ,do nOl ehange ""h linw, " ... oou;"
"
Q _ J, _(_.>: .
d, ,d,
dr, ) ; + (.>::..!!2)i.
,d,
( ~ - 3!Jj --+--.
Now nOl. !ha! !be rat" dy/ d, a! "hicn )j. changes i. equal to !hi! "oloci!y
rompo""n! ",. Similarly.dx, ld, - "" .nd. again from Fig. 4-2(11,. we "'" (ha( ,', -
- " si" 6 and " - ''cos 6. M, t ing (he ... subs!;!u(i"", in Eq. 4-3S. "-e find (' )

0 - ( - ';OO5e): + ( - ':5in6);'

This '"<'C!or ,nd ,IS comrooonlS are shOl'.n io Fig. ~ - 2Oc . Following Eq . .>--6, ...., find

"' "" wanted !o prm-•. To orWn( 0, ••" fi"d the angle d> ,hown U\ Fig. 4-2Oc:
a - (," I'j,;n8
!an d> - - ' - - !an 8.
d, ("'1, ) = 8
Th"'" d> - 8 ... h",h means !hal --0 is di"_ ,,,(.<1 .Iong (he radiu, , 01 Fig. 4-2fu.
((IwarJ lb~ circle's """tor, as we wa"!.<1 !o pro'....
"
FIG. 4-20 p,.,;de r """''' i. COWI_
../cH ' C K P O I NT 5 A. oIIjed mOVK "",,.... , .., 'p""d along a cir","" I"' ,b in
• bOljron,alxy pi ..... wi,h ,II< ",,",Of" ,o. or;tiJo. Wbe. ,be obj<ct is " x _ - 2 m.iI.
.. <clock...... unilonn rim.tar mo-
';OIL (oj h. ",,";,;00 and ••1001)''' "
",Iocily is - (4 mi.»). Giv. ,h. objocl', (aj ",,10<;1)' .. d (b) """,Ie,..,;""
at y _ 2 m. a<",aio Wlan'. (b) V,loci'y ".
«jAce,!.,..';"" -;,
~ Chop.... I Mo'''''' in Tw<>_ Th , ... Oim<il!1slon.

"Top guo"pilot. b",-~ long "",rriod .boUII'~iog. lu," ''''lui,.d 10 romp"'l. a lull cird~ i, Ibe p"riod 8i'·~u by
100 lightt)'. As " pilol', llod)' "ndorg"., ""n,rip<'tal E4. ~·3S (T - 2"RN).
"""" Ie •• ,ion_ ..."h Ih" be.d ,,,,,-aId lhe CEn,er of cur.... -
'U,", Ihe blood P'~~'u,c in Ih" brain d.rt~a"",'.ading Calculations: Because "'... do 001 lnow ,adiu, R. I.fs
to Joss of bmlll '"OC1;00 . sol,... Eq. ~· J5 101 R 3nd 5ubsl,IUIO into Eq. 4 · 3~ . W~ find
llw •• aro ... "" •• 1 " -.mjog siglt'l. Wh ,," Ih~ «'0-
tripe'" a<n!loraiion is 2g Of 38, '00 pUnt 1""" he.vy. AI
.""u, ~ g. lhe pilot ', vision ,wileoo, 10 black and whit"
·-T ·""'.
and "anOY>~ 10 "Ill"""[ visioo." If Ibal """,,'orn.;o" IS SI"'oo v bow i, Ihe (ron,!anl) magnitude 01 lhe velocuy
s~ai""d or incre.sed. ' -;sioo CE.s.>, "nd.soon aflor.lhe du,in8 I.... m,ning. L:1f, 'UbsliIUI' !b. rompo"enl' 01
pliO! is ullcof5ciou, -a condition "nown os g-LOC (Of Iho inili,1 WOOl}· i"IO Eq. J.6:
.. g- in<lucoo loss of conscWu," ",,:"
\Vhal is the magnilUoc of the OOC<'1.,ahon. ,n ,. - ~(-IOO mls)' + (500 ml,)'. - 640.31 m/s.
g ""i,s, ol. pilot ..-hose '''Nall colOrs a horizontal cir- To find lb. p""od T of lhe "IOIion. firs! nOl~ Ihal Iho fi·
culor IUrn with. ""locil)' of V, - (41))\ + 500j) mls nal volOClty " th o ww,,,,, of lhe in,li.1 velocity. This
and 2~.O • "Her 10."" the lum .."n" vclocity 01 means Ih~ aire,afl kaves on lhe o('pOSi!e sid ~ of 1M d,·
", - (- -IOOi - 500j).".? ~ d" from 100 ,"ilial poUlI ,nd musl b.,·e complNc>d balf
a ej,dc in Ihe gi",n 2~.0 s. Thu," lull WCN. would Ita'""
ta~M T - .t8.o s. SUt>s!ilUhng Ib~..., val .... , iOl0 ou ,
\\'c "",umo ,he lUrn IS made wilh un,fmm
(l(juJliou lor D. we fWd
mOlioo. Tlhln Ib ~ plIo!", accele,alion is
"onu;peml and has magnitude a gi'''" by Eq. 4·3~
(a - "'R). ,,·bore R" too ci,,"'·.
"di""Also. Ih. hlThl .-= 0""" - 83.81 mis' - S.6g. (Ans"',, )

4-8 I Rela tive Mo tion in One Dimens ion
Suppo"" )"ou ... " a duc~ tlying fIOrth at :JO l mlh. To anoth", doc~ fl)·ing ,Io"g,id •.
Ih~ first dud; ""en" 10 b.:! stalionary. f" Olher ..·mill. lh o ,·d only 01 a pa'licle de·
Jl"nds on Ih. ",F".. """ Ihnle 01 whoo ... , is observing 01 moasuring Ihe velocil)·.
RI, OU, pU'I>OSOS.' refe,e""o f,.me" Ihe ph)~JCaI objocllo whicb ",. attach ou,
coo,dina !e 'ysl~m . In "".ryday ble. Iba! obi"'" is Ih . ground . For example. lhe
SfX"<"l1~od on. sJl"c>ding lickel is .I,... ys me ..... roo rolaliv" 10 100 ground. The
SfX'Od relalive 10 Ih. po"'" oflk~, ,"ould!l<' diU,·,,'n! if tbe olfiror .....r. moving
,,·hile m.tinS lhe 'p"ed o",.suren",nl .
Suppose Ihal Alex (al 100 origin of Ir."", A in Fig. ~ -21) is pa,l"" by the ,ide
of" hig/l..-a)'...-atohing ca, I' (Ib~ ··p"'I ich> .. ) spc.d paS! . Barb.ra (at I.... migin 01
Irame 8 ) is driv;og along Ih~ higllway al conslanl s1""'d and i, also "atching ca,
1'. Suppose Ihal Ibq bolh n1i'",ur~ lho> ]lO'ilKm of I"" ca, al • give" u"""","t
, f ...m ••t
,
f <ID< B
From Fig. ~ -21 .." .... Iha !
(4-.j()
The equalioo i, road: ··TIhl coor~in",".<", of I' is ",.a,",ed by A i. 'q"a/ '0 lhe
coordin. !. x"" 01 f' a, mo",ured by B p/~, Ihe coordinat~x ... 01 8 a, ",oa,u"d
L___"'~~;'1·~~~:;;~r.
F1G . ~I
'" .""."",
AI.x(f,..,.A)and
.... b)' 04:· NOle bOll· Ihis read,ng i, ,upporloo by 100 ""lUe""~ oIlh. subscripls.
Taking lb. lime dori~·'Iiv. of Eq. ~-40. "'" 001","
,/ II d
B:ubata(fr.... 8) ...rcb car P... dr (X' A) - dr (x, .) + dI (XM ).
both 8 aDd Pmove ., dil'l".", Thus.lho ""Iocily compon~nt' ar. reL:,,"'] by
veloci!ies oI"'1!l ,be commonx ""is of
!be ',.ol... .,.~ A, ,be i"""",
shown. ,.... - ,',.. + " .....
x&< i. tbe coordina'e of B in ,be A
hmo, Abo, P is at coordi .... x.. ill This "'lualion is r• • d: ··The velocil)" ' .", 01 I' a, measured by A i.J 'q!lul ,,, lho>
,be 8 f ........d OOOIm •• !e.<, .. _ velocit)" "n 01 ('"' m~a<ured bj-' Bpi .., Ihe "'OOI)' "M of B as "",asu,..d by A :·
x,. + x ... in ,b, A I,,,,,,,," Tbe l.,m '.&0\ IS Ih. ""Joci!)" of f,ame B relali,·. 10 lrame A.
..9 I Ro!.>t"'. MOf""'inT_Di""""ion' _ _

He,. "~conside, only f.. mes Ibal mO\-~ aI con,laol ",Ioclly ,.lall'-~ 10 eocb
ol tler. In 0"' "lample. IhlS "",.n, Ibal B.mara (frame B) d,'w" an--ars aI cou-
.lOal wlocily ,-&< ,ebb'" 10 AKl-x (f.,me A). eM P (Ib~ mO\'iag par1icl~). ho ..·-
evo,.cau ehange 5p<l0il and diroellon (Ihal is, II can """"Ii> ,al~).
To relale"" 3CCi'[;"allon o f P '" "",",urod by B"ba.,a and by AIi>l . w ~ I" ~ ~
Ih~ lime do,'valive of Eq . ~- ~ I:

B<'C3use "s< ;,; coRslanl Itle lasl lC,m IS 7-"'0 and we ha\-~

(H 2)
In olh", ,"o,m .

. - Oboerve .. on diff"eD' f........ of ref"e""" Ib .. """"'., 00 ..".' •• Jocl,y ,ela';" ,<>
eocb <>lbe,..-ill mfa.",e ,be .."", """,I".,.., f<>r , "",.u.S pankle.

Sample Problem C'"
I" Rg. 4-21, suppose !hal Barna,,', veIOCII)' ,~Ialiv. 10 Eq, 2- 11 (,' - '-, + a/) 10 '01.110 Ibe "cook,,,ion 10 Itle
AI", is a rod,!an! '-u - 52 ..nih and car I';'; moving in inil;"1 and fi"al WOO!;"'; of 1'.
!hu "'-'1:al;"" dlrec!;on 01 !be x axk
Calc"latlon: Ttl.> inl!lal WOO!)" of P ,d.:Hi,,, 10 Alox i,
(a) If Alox nJ.""""" a rod>!an! "", - - 78 l mlh f01 ca. " .... - - 78 " mlh a"d the final velocity is O. ThUs.
p, ..-h.! ",loCHy "n w,U Barna" r""",ll1el
-~
y - " - '"~-'-'(~-~"O" m","" ,~'~m~k~
, 10, 3.6 "milt
We ~~n aBaeh a f,ame of ,olo,eno> A 10 - 2.2 m/';. (An ' ...... ')
AIoJ and a I"me 01 ,deron~ B 10 B.,ba,a . Boca"",
tile fran",s """'" a! rons!anl '"locil)' ,.lal;'-~ !o~ocb mile, (e) What " Itle acr-ele,a!ion an 01 ca. I' re!alive 10
along 0"" axi~ "" can u,," Eq. 4-~ I ("", - "", + yaJ 10 Barbara du,ing 100 brallngl
,.Ial~ "n 10 "",- and "&<.

ulculation: We fw~ To ~akulal. lhil <>ccokora!io" 01 "'" P "Ia-
- 78 ~mlb - "n + 52 kmlh. Ii,,, 10 Barbaro. we musl .... Itle ca,', veloci!ies ",Imj".
10 Barbara.
,',.,. - - 130 tmlh. (An,wer)
Calclllatlon: W~ ~now!IJ;> Willal WOO!)' of P ,dalive to
Comment: II car P "W~ con"'-'C!c<! '0 Barbam', car by Barbara I.om parI (a) (,'''"' - - 130 bnlh ~ The final ""loc-
• co,d ~ou"d 00 . spool. !be co,d ,",ould be unwinding i!y 0( P ",Iall", 10 Barlxtra is - 52 l mllt (Ihis is !he ",locily
01 • spil<ld 01130 ~mlh as Iho !"ocars sepa,a!ed. 0(100 Slopp..-.J ca, ,d:H;,,, 10 tho moving Ba,bara). Th""
(b) If car P bra ~e, to a .!COp relali'-e 10 AI"x (and Ihu,
.. Iallw 10 Ib~ ground) in hme, - 10, a! cooslaO! ",. 0", -
y -
,
'-, _ _ -",
'" .,.m""'-i10. ,,'im
;i(,-""""-,,.m"'",cc3.6~mlh
,',',
eel.,alion .•dlal is ilS .ccohlrahon a", rolaliw 10 AIox? - 22 mi.'. (An, ..",)
Comment: We should h.." 10""""" this .. sull :
To calrolal. Ibo acceNralio" 01 ~~, /' rda- &-..c",use Alex "ad Barb.ra hJ\" • "",,!ant ,dative
';'" '"Akx. we m",!""" Ihe ca,', velocities rdalr\'~ ,,, v"Ioci!)', Ibey musl measu.e !tIe "", .... acr-elera!iorl 10.
Akx. Because Ihe a=lora!ion is rod,!"nl, wo can """ lb. car.

4-9 I Relative Motion in Two Dimensions
Our 1" ·0 obS<'r,..rs are agaiu "alchi"S a moving pa'lir'" I' lrom Ihe onglrrs 01 ref~,­
eno> Iranles A Dod B, whikl B """,es a! a oon~arH ",locil}' "!fA
,,,lalive 10 A. (Jb.:l
cor,esponding axes of !h..,., lwo f,ames romain pataUd.) Rgum ~ - 22 ,ho~,. 0>,-
!aln iIr>lanl dUflllg !be nlOlio" .AI !hal in<!anl,!oo posllion ,-octo, ollile origin of B
~ Chop.... I Mo'''''' in Two_ Th , ... Oim<il!1slon.

, rcla,;vu 10 ,ho> orig>o of Ais'".... AIso, Ine post!!OU voctors 01 ",,'he" Pale -; p~ «>!-
3,i,,, 10 lhi> origin 01 A and,.."" .. lal;'" 10 100 o"~n of B. From Ih •• ft.ngm"'"t 01
, bc,ds 000 ,ail:! of too... Ih'''' posilioo veClor" "'" can ,d.:u~ tOO veClors with

(4-4])

'. By ta ~ing th. Ii"", d"';V"li~~ of this equalioo. "-,, can ,elate lh~ ",k"",I<" " PA

~ ~.
and \'n! 01 ra'hel. p ,dal"''' 10 our observe",:
',-.B
(4-44)
rr...... •
FIG . ~2 Frame B h .. tb, oon.""' By ta ~,ug 100 lime """'·mi.... oflhis rdahon, ... ~a" rulaw Ihe """" ""'Iioo, -;; M
"""-4"",,.,,0"'.1 .. Iocity " ... r.I._ .nd (in of Ih. panicle f' .. Ialive to our observer" Ho"'."", noW lhal ll<'cau,""

01 B ",I.,iv. to A i."
ti .. to f~, A. Th. position vector
~.1be posil;OII
vWon 01 p..,id. P or. 7 .. ,.'"ive
" ..... is cOO5lanL ". HOle di'riv3liv. is zero. ThUs, we get
(4-45)
to A ... d 1'.. rel.,iv. to B.
As lO1 onc-din"'lUsional mol ion . .... have Ibc loUowing rule: Ot>s<-''""ts on differ·
ent h,m"" of ref'>fe"oo I hal mow al ooos,""1 volocily ,,,Iali,,, 10 eocb olb~, ",II
""""""0 100 "'m~ »CCo:lJ.:>1alio" 10' a moving pa'lido.

I" Fig. ""2 3<>. a plane n'OW5 due casl whilo Ih. pUOI
POUIiS Iho pIa .... """"",,hi ""ulb 01 e<r<l. 10,,-.,<1 a
sl~ady ..;od Ihal hlo." 10 lit.:> OOflOOa,1. TIl<' plaoo b",
,",roly 1'.... ,elalive 10 In~ "'nd. "ilb all ",,,p<><'d
(speed rel'live 10 lbe "';"d) of 215 tm lb. di'o<:loo al
angio 6 soulb of ea<;! . Th~ ..ind bas velocily -V.-" ,elalive
10 lne grouod ~-ilh 'P""d 65.0 ~",Ih. duoClod 20.0" ~",l
01 "o'ih . Whal is 100 magnilurl;! 011 00 wlOOly 1'", 01
Ib" plan. ,cial,,"" 10 100 ground. and " 'hal is 81
,.,

il
Ihe """- in Fig. 4·22-
Ibe plan •. Iran"" A is al·
,I OJ. and f,am" B is
wi. We ."00 a vecto, dia· '" L.
flG. 4-ZJ A pI .... llyi.g iA • ..-ind.

Ca/a<lat!OM: Firsl _ oonSltucl a ",,,W,,ce Ibal ,.Ial'"
lb. Ihree VOClors sbow" ;n Fog. ~ ·23b:
Solving f", 6 gives us
veloci1y of pi""" ""OO'Y of pl • .., ""loci1y of"-;OO
r.I.,ive '0 ground - ",b,iv. '0 wiOO + ",I.,iv. 10 ground. - 16S. (An,w.,)
(PG) (PW) (WO)
This ,,,(al;on is ,,--';UO" io ,'oCl", "Clal;O" as Simila,ly. fo, Ibex oomronenl' we find
1',., - 1'.- + 1'",," (4·46) """. - "-~ + ".,...-
W< "oed 10 '''''''h'.
lb. veel"" inl" oo"'l"'0oniS 00 Ib" Hew. "",,"use ",., is parallel I" 100 .. axis, lhe rompo-
coordi"al" 'ystom 01 Fog. ~ ·23b "ndlben sol,·c Eq. 4·46 oenl "",~ is oqual 10 Ihe magnilude l'",. SU"'lilllling
ali< by axis. Fot Ihe y 00"'1"' .... 015, .co fin d IbIS OOlali,," andlhe '-aluo 6 - 16.5°, ,,,, find
"",-, - v-., + """,--, l'", - (215 k"'lb )(cos 16.5') + (65.0 ~ mlb)(S!" 20.0")
'" 0 - - (215 trn lb) sin 6 + (65.0 ~",Ib )(000; 20'<1'). - 228 kmlh. ( Ao,~ .. )
REVIEW & SUMMARY
Position Vector TIle 1"C01iOll of • par' icl. ,elative ,,, ,ho. Projectile Motion Pro",~1< mOlO>/l i. ,b,e
mo,ioo of •
oriSin of . coordinate ' y... m is give. by .p<>>ltl<m 1''''''1 7. panicl. ,II " i. I,o.,h«l with >II inilW .. lociIy ,,~ Du'ing i"
wbicb in uni,_• • cto, .00.U"" .. fligh" It.. panicle. horizontal """"I,.. ,ioo i. zt<o .... d i"
"""ical """"1,, .. iOl> ~ the free _bU acede"";011 - E. (Up">rd
7 _ xi + y) + ,i. (4_1)
i. ,aken I" be • poo~I"" dirertiOll.) If,,;' exp, .... d '"' ,
yi.
HeTe xi. OJId ,i: are !be Vec'Of rompoo"" 01 posi'ion ve<:- m.gni,ude (,t..'f"""d y,) and aD aog.le", (....... "d fTOm the
bOfizootol ). 'he par'icle', "Iu>1l"", "fIJlOl;oo oI011S ,b.
'or 7. and x, y,.Dd , ar. its "",lac cornpone"" ( .. "",U a. ,n. bori_
<OOrdin,,,, of 'be p..,kle), A "",.iOll ",,<tOf i. describ«l . 011'" X aID .Dd .",ic<ll Y u" or.
.it,.." by • '''9'i'udc .Dd on. '" ,,.0 0Il9o' for Of;",,';on. X - XO- (I'O<Ol/\,)/· (4 _11)
or by i" vector Of ",o!ac """'pooe.'~
Y- )b - (.,.in (0)/ - W'. (4_12)
Displace"",nt If a .,."icle m""", .0 'hat i" p<IOi'iOll ..ee-
lor cII"S" f,om 7 , '0 7,. ,b,e .,."ide·,
dl>plarm"nr 1>.7 i, I', - I" "' I/o - g<. (4_23)

:'7_7, _ 7,. (4-21 'i - ("o.in 10)' - 2gIY - nil. (4_14 )

Th . cfuplacern •• , can ako be ... itt .... The I ..j.<t.", (.,.,bl 01 • .,.nicle in F""ie<:tile Il10l100 ..
par,boIic and;' gWeII by
:.7 _ (.l', - x,)i + (y, - nil + (z' - 'uk (0 1
- :.,i + :.y; + :..:i. (4-4) y - ('''' 8;,)T - "cp~'=
2(...,,= ~"
(4_2.\)

Average Velocity and Insbnb"""u. Ve locity If, if Xo ",d Yo 01 Eq< 4-11 10 4-2-1 or. . . to. The panicle:.
panicle ooo.,!o." • diopl>«me., 1>.7 i. ,ime in"rv.1 1>.,. i1S h<>ri lO "toi "'"iii" R, ",1tlcb" Ih. bofizont>l di<",,:t
I,om ,b.
"'~r"gt 1',lo<ily " ... for ,b .. ,ime intervol is I, unch point t" ,h. poin' " .mieh tbe panicle Ttt""" 10

.-.---
_ 1>.7
:., . (4-11)
,b. launcb !>eigh'. is

,
, _ _.6 ... 2(1,- (4_26)
A, :., in Eq.4_8 is d .. u.l 100,1'_. ,.",,1Ies . Iim.. c.Ued ,i,b.,
,b. 1~Io<'ty or ,h. '''''''''''.IIr0u5
1~locfty V:
Uniform Circu lar Motion If, particle , .. ",Is >lOlLS ' cir_
_ dr cle or circular ore oI...mu, r .. ro'''''''''f''''''d 1'.1. ;, ,aid be '0
y - T<' (4_10) i. u"I/<>Im dmJ., mol",11 and b"" >II """"1,, ..100 of ""'_ a
.. ,., .,.gnitucle
which can be , . ..Titt.n in o''' _vector """,,ioo ..

1' - y,1 + I.,l + Y,k. (4_1l) ' - -.', . (4_.4 )

...htl. I', _ • .Tid,. ", _ dyid, ..d I', _ d,Id, The i."..
ta- The di'f<1iOll 01 a;. ,,,,,,,,,d ,h. c.n't< of ,n.
<irel. or cimIl"
... "'" veloci'y ,of, .,."icle ;, ~')" dir<"cted 01",,& ,he
""s"'" ,,,,b,e panicle', pa,h . , ,b. p.. 'icle·, position.
arc. ",d a ;, ..id ,,, be ,",,"'rlp<wI. The tim. fOI tb. panicle '0
OODlpl'" , circle i.

Average Accele ration and In.tantaneo", Acul.· T _ 2", . (4_.\5)
ration If • par'icl". v.loci'y ,b" g'" f,om 1', ,,, 1', in ,ime •
;."rvoll>.',;u . ' ~r"g< ""<I"",,,,,, duri.gl>., " Tio caII«I ,h . p,n oJ offrl'olul",,, or ,imply the p<'Wd, of ,b.
if _ I', - 1', _ :."
... !JI !JI .
(4_15 ) ""-
A. :',;n Eq. 4_15 ~ >.brunt ,,,0. if... Ttarh .. . limi'ing v"'"
R. lative Motion "'he.
',"0 f,ames 01 "f.""",
A and B
ore moving reiatlv. ,,, . acb OIber at ron,""" velo<ity. ,b.
<ailed .i,ber !be .«<1,,,,,,,,"
or ,b • .,"''''',"",,).... 0<"<<1_ velocity 01 • p. "ick P .. m ..... ,od by aD <>bo""", in I....... A
<"""'"a: ooually dilf,,.. from ,ba,
m ..... 'ed I,om f,ame B. The ''''0
",.".oured v.loci,;'. are Ttl"ed by
(4-161
(441 )
In uni' _vedor 1>01,,100 .
-..'her. 1'... i. ,b. . .Ioci'y 01 B ,..j,b '"1''''' ,,, A . B01h
if - o) + oJ + a,k. (4_17) oo.erv", ",e.. ute ,bo urn. >«<Ie,,"ioo fOI ,b,e panicle,
"ber ••, _ JI',ld" 0, _ Jy,ItA and a, _ ,w,ldi. (4-41 )
~ Chop ... ' I Mo'''''' in Tw<>_ Th, ... Oim<il!1slon.

QUESTIONS
1 Figure 4_24 oIIows .be in;'b.! posit;"" I ond 'be fin>! "",i _ ve:r'ica.ll)'. Rank .hooe 'hr", window, according '0 (a) ,b. ,ime
,ion f 01 • p,,'icle. What OJ. ,lie (. J ioi,i:il """ilion ",,",or 7, ,he cr.am ,,,,,!,,m. , .... 10 p"" 'hem :u>d (b) tho . v,,,age
• Dd (b) fino! """i'iOll ""'or If. both in "";1 _""'<>< ."",jOll? speed of ,h. cr.am 'anS"i.oe dwing ,be pa>!ag<.Y'" '''' finI .
«) Wb" i. ,b. x rompon'"' of eIi,p!>"""""' .:. n The cre ... '''''SOli.e ,hen m""" dow. J"1>' windows 4.5 ,
, Dd 6. ,.Ilie •• re id'"''''01 in ,ize and inegularly 'l'aced bOli_
o zo"'all~ Rank . b~ ,hr..,windo ... ocro,ding '0 (0) ,b. ,ime
,he cr.am '''''!,Tm. , .... 10 p"" 'hem :u>d (d) <be . "",age
....,r'
0-
•• speed of ,h. cream 'anS"i.oe dwing ,be pa>!ag<.Y"''''' finI .

, ",l
'm •
, "-
• '\

FIG. 4-Z.
2 Figure . _25 .h""", ,h. path
!>un by • • tun ~ longi.g
fox n":'lcod,from initi. 1po;". I.
QUe!'iO<lI.

flG. 4-27 Ooe""",6.
'1
The . kunk took ,h. >am<- time T
10 to 110m eodllabtled point t"
7 Figw • • _1.8 >I>oIn '''eo
pa,h.la- a football tickod I,om
,he ""XI olo,S j .. path. Rank yomid level, I~ 'he .1_
poi." D. b, ond c acoording to ,be
10(," of air. nnt 'be p"h>
m:osni'ode of ,h • • ,.,togo ",\oc- """",ding '0 (a) rime of Aigh ••
jty of tI>e >.I:1lIIk t" IOocb .b.m F1G . ~ QU",Ijoa2. (b) ini,ial ve:rtical v,loci')' <001 _
from initial poiO! I. y'''''' lim. _",. (eJ initial .a-""",,.I ""_ fiG. (.211 Q .... ioo 7.
1 Yoo art to I.uoch. ,od". I,,,,,, illS' abo"" th. grOll.d, Wry comPOI"O!, :u>d (dJ ;ru_
with one of.be following ini.i>i velocity YKlon: (I) 1', _ ,,,.. >peod.!",aI"" Ii.... o
201 t 7(ij,j'2) 1', - -m + ~. (3) 1', - 201 - ~. (4) <'0 - I Th. ooly good .... of ,
- 2Qi - 7Oj . ln)'<lOlf OOOfdinaoeoysl.m,x runs ~ level yoomd lruitc . .. ~ in c.up"l, puc_
ond Y incr..... upward. (.) JUnI: !be """on:ocrolW!t t" 'h, ,ice.. Curv. I in f\!. 4-29 gi"'"
bundl spetd d the pcojt<1ile. gr'"''''
IiI... (b) R>nt the ve<1CJ1'11 ,b. beigl.. Y of • catapul'ed
""",,"ding 10.be ,De 01 ruy" 01.1>0 prC;KIile. ye""" fiI>I. lruitcat. ve"w ,h. ""Y' ~
, NgU,. 4_26 sk"", thr .. situ.,,,,,,. in ",hkb ide"'",,,!,,"_
je<1~, .... la.""tlofd (.t II....... level) .t id,ntical m;,ial
be'ween it> velocity """or :u>d
i.. """," ,a'io. """or during
LL.l.----:.i -.
speods :u>d >Jlgle~ Th. proj<ctile. do motl.DdOll ,b ••• m. to,_ !liSI... (0) \>''bicb of ,Ite Ie" .. ed
,>in. h"""", ... R ..... ,be "'na'ion< OOCOIding '0 ,b. fin al poi"" 011 . hal co",. rone_
speods of,b. proj«1~ ... ju" before they 1>Dd £l'"'''' fir ... sp<>a<1s '0 ,be 1>n<1i.g of ,be ".;,cU,
()[I ,be £IOUJ1d? (b)

Cwv. 2 ....imilar plot 10' ,be ...... laUJIrn 'p",d bu, for .
dill" ••, bw>ch ""!Ie. Do.. ,be IruitcH. now l:md I. nb"
alO'y or dooe, '0 ,n. launch poi.,?
9 An airplan. ~yiq; .... izoo'ally " • "",,'a,... peed of

,.. ..
FIG. 4-U Oo."io. 4.
-'50 t~ ove, level S'ouDd "'......... bwidl. of lood ",ppl""-
Ignore <be dfO<'! of.be air 011 ,be bundle. Wha, are <be bu.dle·,
init ia.l (aJ ven ",at .. d (b J horiroo,,. com J>ODI'0" of ""W'yl «)
\\il.. , to it! borizOll,al oorupoo,n' of velOO1)' j"" bolore hitting
5 Wh •• P........ sIl,1led from 100 km aw. y wi,h ,lie WWI do. YOII.d? (dJ 11 th. airplan",
loog_... g...'ilIery F'e<:< "B iS B,nb. :· ,h •• I><U. ,.,.. fired ope«! ... ro. i.., • .ad. 45(1 b.lk. 11
., on . ngle y .,"T ,Iwt 45° '0 give ,hem a£lea1e' , ange, po<- ,,-ould ,be time of/all be Iooge:r .
..Illy <V"" ,wioc.' sIoog .. ., 45"'. Do.s 'hat , ... 1, """'" . h >1 .oon<'-octbe .....1
.1Ie ai, d.nsi,y a. bigh .h;'oo" incr'.... ' wi,h abitude 0' 10 A b:ill i• • bot from
d<cre"",1 ~ ground level oYeT level ground
6 J. fig, . _17, . cre ... ''''SOlin ... ,hr ...... tIp pa>' ,..-in,do,., " • <en .... ini.ial .pee<!.
I. 2. and 3, ,..-hidt are iden,ical in .in :md TeguJarly ,paced Figw. 4-30 gives.be ""'s. R flG. 4-JO o.."iooIO.
of ,be ball .. nu. i" LaWlob ...gIe , • of 'h, p..-tid.. """.....,ioo
flo. R .. k the 'hr'" ..",,«I poinu
"" ,b. pi'" ocoording '0 (.),be
Y'"'''' in m,gnlloo.e1 ,
1! (.j k i, pooolble '0 be """In_
,,,,.1 Bigh' ,i",. 01 'he b.1l and / ;) .<intI u1We m.veting " ~,
,
, ,

, N.
(b) ,b, ball', spe«l" m..im"",
, . p«d? b it po1,;!>Ie '0 ro<md a curve
heigh,.y • • '",'finL wit. (h) "ro oocd",,'" and (e) . ,
11 10 Fig. 4-31. p.. 'icJe P ~ in
unifofm cirO\ll., """iOll. cen_ '- cx:mt . ., m>gDitude of "",,*rntioo1
13 Fi!we 4_11 ,bow> low ,rac.t. ,,
ter«lOll ,h. oligin 01 atI.<y 0001_ (.i,btl haII_ or q"""ol-circle.!)
din ... ').....". (.) A, ..-b at valu..
of ~i.!be """icaI romp""en' r, 01
FIG . ... J,
Q .... 'ioo II. ,h.tean be "ken by • tr:oj • •wh"h I
"'''''.. " • 00II'''11'' """,d. Rank
,h. positioo """01 !"'"'' in ~ud,? (b) A, 10'" v.rue. of 'be ".cis """"",ding '0 ,be rn . gni_ FIG . ....n Qu,,,;oo lJ.
~;, !be ,..,.tiral componen' ", of !be par'"'''' velocity Y"""" ,ud. 01 • tr:oj ... """,Io,,,i,,,, 011
in m'gni,ucle1 (e) A, ,..." I'1Iues 01 I;' ,h. "en""l "Im_n, ,b. CIITved portiOll. Y""" fin'.

PROBLEMS

"
".
• _ ••• .......- of do"""",,, ....... "' _ _ ..".
.
"
N C. ( · 1 Position . nd Di'P"c.m.nt ,b ....... , lor ,;(Wmin. Wh.a., .re ,b. (.J
m.gnitude . nd
,1 . A I"}';"oo uncle,goe' • di>plac,,,,,,,, .:.7._ 2.!Ii;- (b) ... gIe 01;" ave..ge velocity during ,hi< trip? ...
10; + HIk. e"din! ..-ito !be posi'ioo YOC'OI -; _ J.Oj - 4.ot. .., A pl."" flies -183 btl ..., f,om city A '0 d,)· B in
i•• ,,1f,. Wh" was ,h. positron', ini,iaI posi';011 YKlor1 45.0 mi. and ,b<.'166 km """,b I,om ci')' B '0 city Ci. l.,;() h.
.2 A ,.." orm.IOII Off<! has 'he loD~g <OOrdio..", x _ Fo< ,he '01al trip, .,h.,
- 5.0 m.y _ 8.0 O1 ... d , _ 0 .... Find;" posit;OII V«'OI (.) in . re ,he (.) Dng";,ude
uni'_Y'''o< .o..,ion and .. (h) . m.gn;tude and (e) .. >OSlo ODd (b) direc,iOll 01 ,b.
pi""., displ""""","'.
"I,,;,.., '0 'he """itiv. direc'ioo 01 ,.e x:OOo. (d) Sbtcb ,...,
"""or 00 • rigb,_b.ndtd coordinat. ')'''TTII_ If ,he ...,d ;,
m<>v«I '0 ,I\< xY' COOIdin"es p.OO m. 0 m. 0 mi. wb" ;, i"
,b. «) m'gni'ud, and
(d) dire"i"" 01 it • • ve r_
"
,.J::::.j..
1
eIi.pl"""."., (e) in ".i'_""" 01 n",,,ion.ad as (I) • rn.!";_ .ge veloc;,)·. and (.) ;" t±:t
'0
t.d. aDd (V an ang" .. I.,iv. 'h, """;,;",, .<directio.1
.J The posi'ioo """0< 10< an .I«!JOII ~ 7 _ (5.0m)l -
.,..,rag. spud~
•• 9 FigOJ' 4_33 gives
"I--T',:·=',.1·>:::;;1-1~'1.. 1

(3.0 m)l + (2.0 m)1e. (.J F!od ,b. mogm".de of .,. (b) Ske,cb
,b. vedor 00 'riSb'-ban.ded roordina .. Iy"em. m<>Ving .boo,
'be p.,h of • oquiI ..1
011 lev,1 - "
Jj:l"-sr-I::i:
'-
Voond. from poin' A
••• The mi.u,. "."d of. wall clock me ..u, .. [Oem I,om
(ot ,ime , - 0). ,,, ---W
i" ';P ,,, 'h, >xi • • boo,which i, ,ola'et. The m'gni'ude and poi.", B (., • _ 5.00
"!Ie of ,..., displ....,m.n' YKlor 01 ,h. 'ip or. '0
be det,,_ min). C (>t • _ lO.O FIG. '.JJ Problem 9.
mined for ,hr •• ,im. in"",,,,,. Wha' .re !be (I) m"!'l;'ucle min). and fi •• Uy D rot'
.. d (b) .. gle from • q".ner afte, 'be boo, '0 b.1f paoI_'""
(e) _ 150min). Coosider!be average ",loci,;... 01 !be "IDirrtl
mogni'oo.e and (d) angle lor ,be "u' hall boo, .• ad ,b. (.) ITO.. poin' A '0 .",b of ,he O1her ,hr •• poin' ~ 01 ,ben •• wh.a.'
m' gni'ude ODd (I) .. gIe lor ,I>< bow ..,., ,bat7 . re ,b. (. ) "'''VI;'Dde and (h) . ogle of, •• one "';'h 'he I... ,
N<. (03 Av. ,ag. V.locity.nd 1... ,.nt8noolll V. locity m. lI,nitoo.e and ,Ile (e) m>g.;'ucle , ad (d) angle of !be ""e
.5 An io... po1;'iOl> V«'OI ~ in~i:ojly -; _ 5_!Ii - + 6.01 with ,he gr""" Dlagoitude1
2.ot.an.d 10.1" " i, i• ., _ - 2.oi + 84 - 2ot.all i. m""~ ••• 10 111< posit"'" _'or
In un" _YKlor ""'a'ioo . ,.h.a., i.;" v ... duri.!!be 10 I? ., _ 5.(0 '; + (t< + .Ii')] loca'es
• (, An ' '''''011'' pooi'ioo i. gi"'" by ., _ J.(X); - ' I""icl. ... 11ID<tion 01 ,im ••.
~.Illf'i + 2.coi:. "';,b, i. """""cb aDd -; in me",~ (.)
I. D';'_ Vtctor" is in m"tT~';, in OK_
onds. aDd bc'"" , .nd f Ill.
vedor .",,,ion • ..-b" ~ ,b . electr",,', ""Iocity '" 'I? A, , _
oon.",,"'. R!ure 4_3-1 @"'"
200 ~ ,.h" " " (b) in uoit _YKlor .",,,ion >lid .. (e) • m' gni_ ,be . ogle ~of,be p. nic,,·, di_
,ud. and (d) .. >ogle ",I"iv. '0 ,b. """i'iv. directioo 01 'bex
~,
rection of ".v.1 .. a luncti""
of , (~ i. '"':.lured lrom tht
.7 A traiD ot • COlI".'" 60.0 tOllh move> .a>1 fOI -10.0 min.. 'i_)
"""i'iv. x dirtctioo). Wh at Oft
,b •• in, diT<"<1ioo 50.0' ... , 01 due north lor 20.0 mi •. and (a) , ""d (b) ,. includinS ",;,,1 flG . 4-)'! Probl.m [0.
14C. . . 4 "_'''9. ........'<II lon ...:l ",.tw>UII._
...,,,,.I.r.tion
' 0 II•• x ..... A, the .... ,.", panicl.1I poo ... the, IlIOo. porlid. 8
Ita... tb.~ ";'h,rro ioir, ... ,po«I .......... _f3IiOa
·1 ' A ponidc .. ~'" , ..... ;0, pool!"'" ti!' ....1• .,' .. ".yU,.<It.
-; 01 O..()...t". Wb., ...y. ,1><, __ 7.1Hl tilt
Ii"", (;" - . ) iI -; _ i .. ~j .. It . IVri ..
• fIm<IiDn of po>i"" dU«!iooo 0( ,Ioo, niIII .....1d , ... ~ i•• 1>OI~.oo.1
nprnoioM lot (0' il> ........ , _ (b) ill """lor",.,., .. 10.,. OK.. U Projooctilo _ . ",*pod
"-of ...... ...
• 1) A p<t>IOII ;"i'; ... '.l'
,. '~ .- 2.~
y,
4D .....r b.. l' _ -!.Oi - HIj .. Mt r. _ oj. .Hi....t lhrD
po'_~
.2' A p<Of<CIil< ;, !ired boriwDloly tr_ • SUo '~It ..
4.s.0 II .00., B.. gtJUod, ''''''!'lios f"' ...... sun .." •• opHd
of250 ""~ {al H".. D!don tho proje<.1ik .."'..... ,boo ... ?
IU t.Io .. 4.0 .. ""'"' •• (0) lbe P''''''''-''--S<
"",,"D!o. (II)"" 'II'bat IIorWDtal dBlOI><C!rom ........ """" do.. ~
_.. ia _ •• ..,.'" t<l4:ltiooo. (bl III< . . . . """ 01 i'... -.t (e) I1ri k ~ .... g<lUDd! (.) W\II io the _itude 0( ,Ioo ...
nioal
IX ..p toct-.......... die """"M <IIr«1.,. cI 1IIt.r ...T .. I "" of ill ~ .. it >trib.."" sroond!
·n The ~ioIo l' of. l*.1idc """"at .. ""-1 pbD< .. . 22 10 tho 19'1l World. TJXt _ f"1rid o.-pictIo'"p'"
JIli... by 7 - (2.OCf' - liIOr)l .. (6.00 - 7m·~. wil' ., III Tokyo. Miu _ . juIIIptd &~ ... brnbn8 by I full 5.,.
_ .... oDd. ill _ 10 ... , .••m. 1oOI..""""bol2le tal til. 21-_ 1oaf!.-i1mp recood .., by Bob _ . .........
7,(b) i'...d te) i I'ot, _ 2.00 .. (d) Wlu, .. lIIt"&I< t><~. tlllI !\Ior,.·" ptedOil toked£ _ 9.5 roIoI.bool «[ ..110 ,,,",
tbc """"~ dlr«lIOII ct ,II< < u'" ond I~'" '''.8''"' I. lbt 01 a ipf1.~'1 _ tbo', _ 9.1ll raJ.' in Td;y.>. H".. "'..,.. ....
pand... I"'" .. I _ 2.00.1 :- _ !\lor•• ',."".!" _ tlot ...1Ii..... ~bIe ~8" fOf I
.'4 AI on<- ;",WIt • bo<')'dioI io ;1(1.0 .. do>< •• t of a po.<k', par'><Ioluocbodal''''' ..... .,......n ~
1l,!1'0Io-l"""' _ _ I' wi •• I or«<! ct 10.0 0010. Th<n )0.1"
I...,., •• ~"" .. 010.0 ....... I«lb ct 'ho .~It. ,.,..! duo< · 23 n.. """""' ....nl-r«<lfd DlO<IftJ'<Ie JIIII1fI;' 1UJ ......
by ..... R.,.i"................ boo lei, the toke-dfru>pac 12JJ'1O
eooI ... 111 •• fWd at Ino ....... Fo! 'lie <)'dill .. I•• )Illh
tI1r b.oriz,;mt>l _ ... , ,100 .... -<if...& bndiOS boo.vl< .... ,100
iat.f'OII. no, ..c II>< (0' nu,pi,\Odo """ (b) (Ii ..",;.. cl
1M dOof1b<'<n •• t, 11>t IC) onayUllKlo II>d (d ) <Ii_ion of 1M >am<.. N.g.!e<tin! .. <In!. <1<,........ boo 1Ote-df """"" ~
""'. . ",my.11Id 1M (., ml.,Vlil~oo W (f) dire<:tJon of . 2t A .... Ub2.l1 folk ~"'izonl"'ly ofUI>e q. of I .IIIlJIIOJ'I
tbe ove..&< o«cIe .. ,lon1 ,b.,;, 1.20,. hi~1L It "'ikes ,he floor" .
pa;n' Ul .. bOfj ..
.. 15 A <IU'Iio prop:U«I OYer .. "-1 pI.M witb """,It .. ,ion roonlly f.om ,I>< ,able edge. (.) H ow I"", i.,boo ball i. Ih •
oomp<>II<"" ., _ ~ .O .,10' .IId ., _ -2.0.,10'. Ito ;'",io.l air? (b) Wh' il it> opHd at ,b, u. ....., i, ... "'" ,he 100l.?
velo<i'y ~ .. """'''''''"." 't. _ 8.0 mi. a.d ''10 _ 12 ,. iL In .25 A dar, io thro. ... bOf izOll,olly"';'h ." Wliallf'«<l 0(
",",· vector 00 •.,'001 •..ho. iO'M "'o";'y 01 'h,. un "h,.
iI ]0 mlo tow.,d pa;n' p. ,he bulr ••ey' 011 • d.n boord. It hi" .,
" ""bes iI. p . . .... y coordi.".1 poin' Q on ,I>< rim. ven K-ally bel"", P. O.l~ • I..... (. ) Wb .. i,
•• ,. A mod",~,. wind "",," ,o'es 0 I"'bbl, 0 .. ' • bOfizp<>. ,h. disI """, PQ? (b) H ow fa. ""f I""" . h. don board ~ Ih •
,al Xl plaooo ";!h • ""nllan' """.I"a,i ..
i _ (S.oomJ"" oj- d. n ....... dl
(7.00 ""~ . A'
, be (.) ... ~' .d<
"""and,_(b)0. .ht".!Io
vcIo<ily io (~.oo ,.Iop.Wh. , "'.
0( iIJ .. lo<>Iy .,""n i. """
. 26 I. Fi!- 4.. ..\6, a .. on. iI 1"0;.<1«1 II • dJf 0( hri!b' A
with on irli,w If"'od 0( 41.0...t, di ,«.od " .nyt 80 • 60.0'
1><,. "'f'l..:.d by IH I ., potOl ..1' 0 !I.u ..is? abo .. the borlroo'o.l. Th. 1100' ",ik. . . t II . ~.!<O. of•• ,
•• 17. A """",10 Io~ .... ,b. 0'"". "'uk"" inilial .<loci.)' \! _ l>llDl"hi.Da- " I.Od I'] tho hei9l' ~ of ,bt. clilt (b) ,h....... .h.
d 0(
(3.00;) ... IO'Id • """" ..... KCOIero.ion i_ (- 1.00;- "OIl. iw' bef... , impKI AI A. _Ic) ,b< ........... ""!) , 1/
.,ui.,,,,,,
0,.500;) ............" •• ;, .. ""I><. ill x coordI .... . "b., .. am.d abo.. the 11'''''0<1.
aI' ill I') ..I"",'y 0I'Id (b) pooitioto .... or? ...... .
.. , . lb...Iocity;; 01. p'ulid. --.'"! i. ","Xl pi... ;.
!'liYOo "" "II _ IGJlo - 4,cr~ .. ~. ,,~) l! i. _ .... pt.
1«<*1 IO'Id I (> 01" ........wlI. (II ...."11 .. 'h. _ ....... ,""
....,1<""""" ...
.. booo I _ .l.O o1(b) ........... (ll ..... 1'ul>< ro? (.)
.,I ib ... (iI' 'YO'I 10."" Y<Ioaoy .... 01 (d) ....".n lif ..... ) don
,I>< opeed oq •• IIO "".?
•.. '9 no. _ _ 1*,....
of • _8""'Y "" • bori..
.... ,alKJ'~ .. p.... by7 _ l<i .. ..,j ....... ~7;,;" .......
pt'''~''I_IIIdI;' ;"""'-"",.G.UI< _ _
-'or ., _ (20.0 .. )I .. (oIO.Olllj _ .. Ill< portdr. "kdl .n ... <fttIi.oair ....... b• •
tbe. _ tbe . ........ 'Y .~
;: - ('.oo ....Ii .. {2.00 .....11.
, opted 01 290.11 k ......1Id ;.
di""SAI'" uslt-of f _ JUO'
.... ,_ U Kh. _ ... (I) ioopo- ~-"_ _ _ __ bo_ ,I>< .oo"""tal .....
"""" _ ....... •.... Of """" A . ,t.. pilot .... _ a ..dar do-
,.,.. _ (b) tbe...p be ........
ito ~ of ,nr"<i and 1100
.....,,,,,,,tal
""I' ( Fia- .... J1~ lloe
WUl><e bo ..." . ,boo .......
1"""'" dftdiOD of ,100 x ....?
··· 20 I. Fia- ....15. .... ><10 II
...,.... 'Ions ,I>< ~ ... 1 - )0 II
""""'ilrit..
poio' . od ,toe pa;., ........ ,toe
,~ yowodill d _
700 n (.) Ho.d<lll ~ is ,boo do-
";,b • .,.,.,."0' ...1o<i'1 ;: of ~-. ""I' in ,I>< air? (1)) How bigb
""11"",<1< l.O ","" ond p.uo.II,l ..-.. ,he "' .. _ poi"'? ,.. FICi. 4~J l'rOOIem 27.
_za A .. on. oa.,ed., ,.... , _
is 11 "",b .. inI, ...... lot. ..s .. oi 45" ..."hkb maOot.iz...... r""SC!IIi P<ofo<1ile _i"".
i.y 0( "'osni,udt 2011 "'" .rod., ... ..go 0( .lQO" l!><w. ,I>< don _ ...:tim'" ,II< too iz"." . 1 "',."" . ..·hoa ' M I>unob
...,;t!>Ddin! ar ... diU<r • • 'looiy"~ ~
tooiz"." ... ........ , ... ,ho ... ag>II""'" 0( " . (.) I>o<iz"."" _
(b) wcnioal """'rono"" "Ii.. dioploc .... n' I,,,,,, ,ho ""'ap"~ .. J7 A baII.1Ioot frog .... ~ in,o tlto oi, A,. Mip'
,ile IU _ 1.10,1 Rtpt .. 100 ,~. ( e) IoooW><ol" ODd (dl .. rua.I of 9.1 ... lU ..loci". is V _ (7.6... 6.lj) """ ...lIb i toollO""
coq>o ........ ,_ 1.80 L ODd 100 ,''' (,' ~""".>I ODd (f) 0IId j .",.,..d (.) To ...... """'u> beis.' doc. ,be baD , ... 1
""nioal ~IO "" _ S.oo L (h) Ilib'" ,,,,,,1_,,,,..1 diruoo<o don Ih< boll " ...11 .........
__ 29 A I.,...". '-P di... puoloeo ofl""""""'''y'';'h. 'Pod ore,'" (e) ... ~odo .. d (d ) ..p (1)< ........ ~1lOott ..1 of
of 2.00 .... ftedl"" pIa1lO1I1 ooJao 10.0 .. _ _ ,II< nrlxc ... bolO ",,_, jOi' bd>R" ~j .. IM!""Iad? " ...
of doc .... ...-. ('1 A, ... ~ .. bon..., .. olin-, I...... , ••• d~ .. __It Yooalhrooo.boIl_
,ke d,_ OJOJ. ,f... puoN,,! "'" (bl Al ...... ""11<.>1 diJ.- • _ >l1J>ft"d 15..0 ..... ODd ...
, ..... '"""~ ......I""" of II.. "lei is ,•• "'.. , I'" ' .....1 (e) ..~" _ .tIlO" ........ ......
AI ................... dioI""", f..- II. . . . . don .... do ... , ZOIIIoI (1'1& 4.38). The wall ..
nrikc ........ot'I .... _ diot ..... of _ 220 Of froo:> ....
__ )0 A ,rc _ _ • ~.~"" -",.. "~, '"
IU""" ,I>< . - polo' of • boL
....... of ....... ..dot, Mao. A Iarp • .,. "",,1<1 be burltd (a) H_ far .bo", .... .......
.............1 to ...... t OJ'II' ,lit W>ll Tho...m... __ poiDI doeo the boll kit the .....1 AG._ ~ .. 38.
Wh.. are tile (h) boritiontoIODd
plxcd ..... ,lit wall _ .. , .... anow<""""' .. """ " from
,ke _tie .... L lnsIud,;1 ..,. po.uioootd 00 , ... 'be ot.-
,ke _ <kIr1ll& ,ke .. 0>0<1.,11 of ••
¥~ s._ ....... ..
.tt (e) v.ui<ol compon<."
When it .it<.1ua i,
of It" ~Ioaty .. " ~iro ,t.. ...aU (d)
1"'- .... hi!h<>' pou1I "" ito ,...jK1ory?
4U{I'. "'ho'
.<pHd"'' '_
.....clKd ",tit 28.0 ......<1 . . . . . of",,_
is , ... 'fWd of II.....,... if i' hoi, lioo ..... , (I) ju.11
..19 A ril< that >It_. I>olle .... -1611 .... io to be . ""ed ..
• 'US" 45.7 m a.... y. H , ... omt.. nf 1M W ! <I is 1<..1";,)
'Oft
• it r.a< .... , ... of ," puobolk patb 0<Id (bl ...... ;, ...
doo.>md.od '0 hoI! ,bl be,p!? (t) AI ~ pt.oenu,g:'. how mU<!l
.Ile ,ille. ""'" kiy. abo .. , Ile ""&e' ""'t 'M rille batrd be
poi",ed so ,bit tbe bullet hi.. dndo..,,,07 •••
I ..,or. i, meM"!;" par' (bl ,b •• III par' ,")? ~
__«I A bas<hall 1.. _ • "t<be,', IIaod bori""",aIly 41
.. i 1 A pi .... d,";"! ",Ib coo",., 'f'Ud at on ,ns" of. • If'«d ,h.
SJ.1l" witb .... ",,"ioal . .. I...... p,*<1~'" "" .1,,,_ of.
01 161 kmlh. The <Ii"..... 10 bo,,,, i. 18.1 ....
( a) H"... 1ons <10<, tb. boU 10k. '0 .",,,,,1 .... Iiro, Mllol 'MI
7.lO III T... proj«tile bill Ih. SrouAd 5.00, oft ........... dio,,,,,,,,? (h) The .. <ODd bolfl «) How for d"", ,t.. bol l IoU
(.) Wb .. lr ,b. If'«d!lli 'he pl .....1 (hJ How fill <10<. ,t.. f,eely durin! .... Ii.., holl? (dl DurinS th. """"'" ~.!f1
pro; .... ile " ...1borizootoUy ""ri03 ito I\;gh, l Wh .. Ole ,be (e) (e) Wh y .re,,·' 'be q...otitioe, i. (el ,.d (d) .quoI1
too iz"..... ,nd (d) •• " ...1com""",."!IIi i,. •• Iocity ju.. .,..
I",... ritins 'h. !"'Un.l? ...
·_ n Oor;.I' , • • •• ", .. <II • • pl. )'I" .. r.., ,h. ball ..
.. 41 In Fi!,- 4·.!I • • ball ~
,h,....... lel... ",d Ir"'" ,h. 101,
).
T
""0~"'
ODOU
"~O
21.& ""0, w;, h .... ccn .. , of tho .....11e.vi.8 'b. '''''l~'' boo~
eodse of ,b. rool... beitb' h
. _ ,t.. yootnd. The b<LlI ~
'001, ..!,l.l1 ... , _ 'M """"lwl.... Th ..... ~ 12 fa :OW")" 'begOUDd 1.50 . I....... <Ii>-
.. d 119(1 fa hip. v,'ben 'M ban ","""e, tit. "". (.) don ,I>< ,,""" d _ !5.U ", I,,,,,, 'M
b.:o!l ,Ie., it 0IId (b) w.... io .... diot .... bt, ...... tboo . .... , of b<tiIdUt~ 0IId >I ...p , _ 60.11"
,lot b.:o!l....a 1M lOp of ,b •• ,,7 5. _ , ......... n<!. ,•• baD
,.;,) ,he _ " " ' ... (.) F.dft. ( Him: Ono ~ it ' 0 , ....... lilt
it ...--I .. bel",o ""'now illn... '1>< '''''I''''' HUboi"""
,ke Iooruonl.t ....'ben I•• b.n""""'I'''' ..... (e) don , ... ball
_ or if ooa ridoobp<. ) Wh .. or. ,lot (h) NpIi,udo ODd (e)
of,1oo _ _ y" " "",,,he boll
dn, iI....a (d ) t.,,,, _ ~ ,lot Ili....... be'''~. "'" ...Ift of
..~ ~todt. _
it: _ 7 (d) I, .... ""p abo .. CO" beIa-.. .... ~"""","'1
... bol ..<lt'" 'Of'ofllot ... !
__ 42 A!<JI" boll • """" >I
.. n ,.,;u..p orit....cIlt,.,.a pIo)'l" _ ,... bolJ froa
gOUDd ...... Dc IJ>ft"d of , ...
0 _ 0IId , ....... d ,... ~It 100<. c-rolq Ih< ."tIe
pi ball . . . I.."tim of 'M
of tlot >pit. iodif""''' Suppoor. tool "1J'iI:«l I ....... bop of
Lll Of ....... "'~ ... tp«d of 20.0 ....... dcwm_d oqlc of
...... .......,iof18.~ .....'" "
t _ 0 .. tIoe ...... t ,be boll ..
1&00". H_ _ lot"",,,, 'M ~It""'......a.t ~ b,o.,..,
lMdoedithedcwm_ . . . .r......o:l.8.00'7 ~
otnod.(.) H.... fo,don .... pi
ball , ...... ~ boI"""
• 2
••
, , I

__ 14 A _ bol .. tidoed from the~ ""'-.h • • , ...... r......... ,,, pouo:d ....11 (b)
'l"'od of 19.5 . ' ... ." upward...p of~. A pI~r S.'i fa Wit .. it ,lie .. Hint ... "'1#1'

·~'11
..... y .. the di"",,_ 0( ,~. tiel: ...... ""'"111& to ....,. ,II< .bo", U - ....1.. _ bJ
boll .. tit ........... . " 'hal .... , be "" '",",' 'I"'d if ioo ... <> .Ioot boII?
....... , ... bd jao bolo .. ~ .... the srouod?
..u ht fi B- 4-11. , ball ..
'_JS A p.':;'""Ie·, 1... 00II 'fWd io fiv. II...... it, op<ed .. 1000000d .... 'k a ~Io<tl)" of ' .--1
IDui",.m t..i!bL F"u>d lo.adllI1p. "'- ...ptude lo.U""~ Of . . artpc
.. 36 Sup""",, ' hOI "''''''' PU"" not put • IlL'" " the """Id. of SQ{I' ." .he ho"'..... l The
d .... ' f'<'<d ", - 15.oo ...~ ,04" •
beipl of 2.160 ... \Iib... 11W>C. poi.' ;, .. 1M _ of , ...... p oi .... izootolle.!'b d, _
boo"".t" diI'..... loOt>ld II>< Ib", ,,,... eI ifllot IauJ>dt anpe "" '-Ill II """ t..igllt d, _ J.6U ... A pl .... u • Io<:atod " 'M 'O!'
i, (.) 45.00' ond (b) U OO"? Tho .......... mdicate 'hOI ,t.. oi .... ramp. (a) Doeo ,be boU ""'" <HI tile "'mp 00
~ Chop.... I Mo'''''' in Tw<>_ Th, ... Oim<il!1slon.

tb. pb te . u? \\'be. il l...w. w h.at ar • • he (b l mag.ilud • .00 pl.1).... navels in ,h. "pptl part of ,tie jump ,ban in ,b. lower
(0) angle of; .. di<pI"",m,.' fr om ,he laWlck poiJ111 por,. If . pl' )"'1 jump> ""'b aD initi>l "",«I of '., _ 7.00 0>1. "
an .ogle 01 80 _ .15.0" . ... b., p",ce", 01 ,be jllIDp·, nIlS' doe •
•• 44 1. 1939 Of 19-10. Em .DI"'] z..cchini 'ook b;, bum ... _
<... ""baU "'" to an 'Xlreme: Afitr being slloo f,om , <~.
,b. play" spend in ,he upper half 01 ,b.
jump (be,,."," m:ro·
h. soored ove, ohre< Fer";' ...reek aDd inlo • • f1 (fig. 4-11). (. ) mWll heig/ll "'" b>lf maJIimuM l>eigh')? -:::.:
Treatin! him "" • p:utide, ",Irub,. his clearance """ the fin. ••• 49 A ,k.illed , ki" bI ....... '0 jump up,.....-d befol. Ie,.,h·
w\>e,l (b) Ifhe ,eaohNlrn:oximum h.iy., <JVe' the midJI, .. _ . ing a doIo-n....-.rd..tope. Con,ide, . jlUllp in wbich 'he buncb
by _![loch <tid be de ... i,7 (0) Howf.. {rem <h. """""" sboold _
. peed i. ' ., _ 10 ml~ ,n. I, """h an!ie i.~, 9.!J'. ,he ini,i . 1
",,'e:r
the .... .. have bee. pooiliooed (neyt<1 >ir draV? ~ cow .. ;, :oppro>:im,tely fta' . and !be ""I''''
track b:.. a
.Iope of 11.3'. Figu .. 4--150 .bow, a p"f"mp 'bat oll .....
,h •• kin '0 1.00 0fI the ' '''' poniOrl of ,b. ""'per u ,.,k.
Figwt 4·45b .bow, a jump " ,h. tdfle 01 the ""I''''
u ",k. In
Fig. 4·450. ,110 ,b., lands" _o,;.,,, . ly the lauocb I. v.l.
(. j I" !be I:UldioS. u1\a, is , 110 ... y.." h<'""",n 'be .ki,". P""
and ,II< o.Iope7 In Fi~ 4· 45b. (bj b.... faJ below 'be I.. nch
1e,..1 does the , kier land.oo (e) "hat ~ .,,?(The g"'"
l:ill and
ge~''''''= re.mh .. los< 01 000,,01 in ,lie 10DdiDg.) ~

,.,
-.
FIG . .... ! ProbI , m-l4,
(0'
•• 45 Upon 'P"""'! on .. _ fIG. 4-4S Probkm-t'l.
00 ol"';g """ nangiog .....er. an , /"" ..;g
archef lish "I""" ....", <icopo
.. ,he m..rt to k.oodr. iI inlO the
</ ••• 50 A InII '''0 be .hot lrom level grOll.lld 'oward . _I "
-' di>lan« x ( Fi~ 4-46.T). Fi ....... e 4-46b >IIows ,he Y oompon"'" '.,
"",,'e, (fig. 4-1 3~ AlthoOIy. the ,\f ol!he hair. v.locity just .. it wooid "acb ,b. .... D. .. . 1m",·
fuh ..." the iM<ct aloog • ,ioo 01 ' bat <Ii<,,,,,,,",x. Wha' ~ the 1.lUICh an!ie?
.. r.liy.,_line JXiI,b "' >rlgle. and
di .. """" d. • ci"op In....
111lIKbed at a <liff...., ""90 80
be \!&""'"."'...
. k~L
~
flG. ""'l l'robl.m45 .
~ its p .... boIic path;, 10 jot.,._
SKI ,he in>trt If .; _ .l6.O".J _
o.!OI m.. and th. !au""" "",0<1
iI 356 m l~ wnat tIo ;, ,.quire<! " ~ -"
101 lb. drop 10 be .t ,b. top 01
tho lWaboIi<: ""til when " i i' r* ; '"
qn(oc"o' " ,,.
r.",he"""- i."",,1 .,,;
•• 4iI I. Fig. 4_+1. • ball iI
.. Og OD
""---- - - - - - -- fiG ..... 1'robI< .. 50.
",
lb,,,,,,",, up 0"0 • roo( , ... ding
4.00. low " n..;sh' h _ 20.0 1 I ••• 51 A lootball kick" can glv. 'be boll ... ioi'i .J .f><"d 01
m . bove the ,.Ie... Ie""l The flG . 4-4~ Probl.m46.
15 m f~ \\11" ore 'be (0) Ie... ..d (h) ye. ,." elevatio.
bat!". pM. jU>1 befol. I. oding OIly.. "' ...l1kh he <a" kick ,he b.u '0 >ror • • fi.k!!;<>al
~ ..,gIo-d " _ ..-i,"
~ 60.0" ,b. root: (.) Roo 'he hOfiroru.J dis· from a p<Jin' 50 m in 11011' of gooIpo>1. wh""" oo. izOll,>I bar
tance d i, tr"",1I. (So. ,he hin, '0 Problom 41.) W.O! lIle 'he is H·I til above ,be ,",ouncl? .o.
( b) m' gni'ude and « ) .. y. (rel.,i ... '0 ,he borizo.'aI) 01 ,b. • •• 52 A boll i, '0 be . bot
"",b •
I
baWl initi>l ""loci! y?

,•
from level growd <tI· ~
•• 47 A b. u., hi" • pitched ball ... b,. 'be ""nte, 01 ,be boll , .... peed R ........ 4--17 . h"""
~ 122 m abov. 'be !found. Th, ball I•• """ !be b., a' an ""!ie !be range R i, will hav. ve .....
of 45 0 wi'b ,h. ground. With 'hat l.1uncb. 'be b>ll ,book! have the i>WMi> aoy. tI, Th. vallie )00

'0
• bori"""al .... se (r<turnins ,he Im<nch level) of 107 Ill. (a) 01 80 do'e:rmme. th. fii£.b' time: J
Do .. ,II< b>ll d "," • 7.32.m.higb I,ll<, 'h", i. 97.5 m oo.iro.· Ie, ,~ "P'''''''' ,be IIlaJIimum
tally IrOOl 'be lou""b poLo,1 (b) A, ,b . fene •. what;' 'be dis· Iligb' tim~ Wbat is ,be I... , •
tarKe be" . .. . ,h. leo"" ' '''' and ,h. baH Cf "' er1 .... __
•• 48 10 ba>.l<otboll. hong;" • • iIl.. io. in ...11kb • pl . ye'
..,.«1 tho boll will hove dori.og
its 1I<£.b' if It;" cbooe. "",b tha,
the ftigllt ,ime is 0.5Ill1_1
flG . 4-47 l'robk .. 52

. . em< '0 "",>1: • • ,he yavi'atioo :d acceltra'ioo wbile in
.,;wir. The illusion depe nds mocb 00 • • kilkd pl.)"," .biIi'y ••• ~ A ball roll. horiroo,olly 011 ,b. ''''' of. stoinoay "';,b
'0 .. pidly ohif, 'be b.u be,,,,,,,,o b,od> during the ftish, .... , i, • "",ed of U1 miL The st."" are 20.3 em higb .00 20.3 em
migh' .1>0 be "'pp<lftod by 'be Iooger hOOIXlll,aI di>t""", 'be wide.l\"hicb "'P doe" • • ba!I bi, lim? ....
• •• !i4 ""0 _ ' " 01, .. l>eill! p<oj"".d I,.,.. pOOlId Ie ..!. (IJ TIlrouy,....t. .. ofu ...", doeo ,b. tip "'_"' _ •• """ ...
• p. o;.c.il. io dioploced 40 m I>oci!O'II.II, ond SJ .... no<o~, tion~ 11" " or. (h) .b. 'ip', oprcd _ «)
,he "'P'~u"" 01 n,
.boo. -.Ientioo? (d) ...."" io ,w period 01,,,,, "04"",1
ill 10.0<' poonI . ....'b ...... \he iO) bori_,>1 0<Id
i1» •• nocol """"pooI"'1O 01 life i..lI,oI odoei" 01, ••
,ile! i<' A, ,100 ioOj"" ,1M projK1,1o odu.... ill ............
""*'" •• 6l A purs< '" DdNo 2.00 at • .,;1 • wall<1 ., rodi., ),00 ..
.....1 i. oif",.. ci ....... tao<"'" "" , •••..,. 01 ..... ry-
_.p, ...,.. l""''''' Ic'od.'ow I.. it i, di.opbnd 1>o<U:""",., BO-ro • .d a, .... rid< ,,.u n..y ar. OIl ''''' _ .odiltIl....
hOlllItloI •• ld>poinIl : A, one .... _ ..... occelo",tioa 01 ItIo ""... ;1(200 ".,0>)1 +
...55 I. Fis..us.. 1>u.toal1 it l1li ... lit"", It _ 1.00 to (~.OO m/r)j. A, ,bat .. " .., ODd .............. ~ioot. ""..
• .d '''''a~p. .. ,.. _1It1&lM , II " ...10 oIooIgIid< ...... ;, 1he ..,.,.10 ••""" 01 ""~?
...,,'os .... p... ,lit 'OP of.1It ..0111.00 ..... ,... b~ onol ......
_~ ' ... opof'''"waII'''OO.Iao ..... dio<'''''''' D _30.0
..... A portido ........ aIoto,.
1DnI.Ol JY <XltIOdiu1<.,.....•• """',...,
a"",1ar pooh ..... I ......
'reod.A, ,,_ 1,_
!oat,
.. brtlM< ""-t ,.......1. (.) W.., iIofm.'oI1It.o1MK'eiluooc
clod by ,.., boll II ... III, '0 coIdl1 ........ .... '1Ie ib) ",""".1Ido
• .d i<) "s" i<flal,.. 10 ,lit bonloo .... ) of'he boI'• ..!oci.y
1"'" ohe. beons
",.1 i d) lIow IIISh If III< ....u
ODd~ .. tiott., "" _u. . . .
~_OO .. it ill .. point (5.00 to. 6.00 at) WI" .. 0.00 "".)j
"""-.A' """'_ 10.0 ..
it ... v.lociry (- J.oorols)l_ ...,.Ior.ioo.., , •• pooIu"
J <litKtioL W" ........ (.) -< _ (b) J _ ..... of 11M
. . .1<. oItlleci""' .. pot. if" - I, " .... t..... "... ponod"l
.. (,5 AIt, _ 1.00 Llhe ....,.10.","", of. panidt io _11ft"·
doctwioo cin-uIa. mot..,. • (6.00 ....r), ..
i".OO "!")j. II
"''''en' """'.... t , peed. A, tim<., _ s.00 .. i .. ...,..Ior .. ioo ;,
(HlU M')i .. ( - 6.00 ..!,,)j. ........ io ''''' .-.. 01 ,he pom
Loku by t~. ponide if', - " 10 ... ,~ •• """ pttiod'l :
•• 6(, A pan.do. """'eJ borizmtoUy in ""if..... amrl ...
MOl'''''.'''''' ' hoIiz_tal '1 pi ..... At"... , ........ it "'.....
t!u",,~b ,I>< poi.' .. ooordinat .. (1.00 ... ~.OOm) ";Ih •
M< . ... 7 Uniform art.... Motio"
v<locit~ 01 - s.oo1 mi. and III __ Ioroti"" of +1 25) """ .
• 5(, A .. n"ipe'oI.""","',..''''' odd'" rido. on ""if"" ",ir"",
Jar mol"", "';,h period T _ 2.0. """ ,,",,w , _ ]. ~ 111. A, I,
Wbat are the (.) -< :tAd (1)) Y ooordinot .. 01 tho ""n .. , 011""
cj.ruIar pa,b1
h i> """,lera,IOI'I io if _ i6.00 ",,")i + i -H"Q ",,")j. At .ha'
",".n', " hOI or"-."" v.I .... 01 i.) l' ·11.<><1 i1>J ., ~ 111 ...(,7 A bo-f whirl< a "on. i. a hOfit.on•• 1 ,ir,1o 01 rOiliw
' S7 A """,,"0 ,i""•• corni.oI For". "h..)., ,ao:.Ii ... IS m. l.'l m and ., be,£ht 2.0 CD .bo""
1e",,1 9"",,<1 T"" """'
«ompl,!!i"1 6.. ,.m••.",." n, bOfW>olO' lUi, ..... ~ mi ••,o. br..t~ and "" "ODefti ... 011 bOO""".lIy ... d .. ,it .. lbe
Wb'" a.. (.) ,b. po,iod oIlb. molion. ''''' i1>J "''P'i'u'''' ond
grOlUld of,,,
"a""Un~ • hoI iz"" ..1 <Ii" ..... 0110 ro. 1I'b., "
"'" .,agnitud.e 01 tbe cooIJipe'ol """,10 •• ,;"., of ,be II"... dw·
i<J <Ii,..",,,,,01 her .... "ipe'oI ...,."' .... i"., .. ,he hi.!JI." "'8
poi.l. _ Ih. (d) mayUl ..... .0<1 (0) <Ii,,,,,,,,,,
01 .........
,be circular mot""'? ... .....
'ripe.oI ........... ,"" " tho lowrOj poio' ? .w • •• 101 A co,ride< ...... 'Y.~od '''''.8 ";,b "nil"""
rim,.... tao< .... A, lime I, _ 1.00~ ,1\0 ",,', .doci . ~ io', _
.SI ....'b .. ;, lilt .. ~'udt 01 ".. ....,."' . .. "'" of • sprin ... {J.OO ..... " .. (4.00""'))"........ ,o.l "". 'onzonlolx, ~
f1"mi.! .. 10w, "k.n .ou<lin, .'WII 01. rodi .. ~ ..1
. ....Y' ...., A, " - ~.oo~ i...<10"'1 is " - (-3.00 mfo~ ..
•5. ....bell.I•• " •• _0"",,,,,,,,,,, "'0000 ..ayt.. (-4.00""'Ji. "'..... ~ (.J II•• _~ ..... 01 ,lit co ........
1XOp<.... d ... tiJb,1y ,hal it - . . . 0 ~ ...."'" "Q,.
ontb I Do lripolOl _""'"., ud (1)) ItIo <00"• • ~• ..,.,.1".."",
diu. 01 about 2() ht '"""'" 11..... 01''''' SolI Fnaci>m ..... ). duria! Ib< ,ime "'orn! " - .,. "" .... " Jeooo , ... "... ptriotl?
If a " .. uoo " ... ot.1a "••
:0 . . . " SoOCOod. (.) ....... ,w
- . . . . RoIoti". Motion in 0... DItn. ... ion
opoed 01 11*1icIe 00 1lIe OJ .... 'qu"''''ond (hi ...... " tw
mopitvdt 01,.., I*"elo'. ",,,,,,'01 ...,......,..,,,,,1
(c) 1/ tw
06' A eu><nr:o . . 011 • podc .... uu<t io t"...,,,, _ _ d
.. 20 knI1I .....10 lit _opn' """'"" tIoat .. """"Itt ......
,,_<I.. __,oil
... t"'"". rot_ 10_. do ,b .......... to (I) 01>1 (h) ,..
. . . _docJ._.ot ,.,..... '......1 "'"'" )II k ..'It I...... tbao "'" uu<t. Suddenly. ItIo
, , _ " _ ud Ibm IUD .. 4S kn'lt .. ......,
. 6CI A. Ear, ••• tII ... """' •• ;., • nmdo, oet>ot 6.MJ "'"
• boo_ Eon.a> ..If..,. WI" I ponod 0I9lU1 ....... wa .. are'" by • _o/y "',..""....,.,.. _mbc.
10100"- ~ , ..
......... polL l10t " " _ ..... _ _ • ..noc..y _ 2.0 ..
(.) oprcd and ib) Npi""x of ,lie
,., .... 1~ ..1
"""poIoi
...,..It""ioo. 01 Wbt or< the (a) cup~odo and (1)) dir«:t_
ao:cftt ....... a«IO<diD, '0
III< .......... _ !he I~) .......
01,.., """',
." A "..;...1 ..."'.... - rot .....""", . . . rtJnI .... tude _(d) <Ii""";"" ...... dIr"
'0 "" ..... _ .......... tnber'l
.. •a.m., .ote. A om/! 01"""",&'" 'he «\s' h... COM .... '
.70 A boot .. tnvtlin! ..... t"'..... ,he ",,","" eli""""", of
opoed 01 l.66 "'" lid I «1"'POIO! """''''''''_ ;; 01 ~ ." zan. .. 14 tmIb ..,th .eop«1 to ,I>< ....... of • n.... TIle
.""'" 1-83 ...... Pu".,.,w.ctoo" ., loa ....... ",..ive to ""'cr io ~. 9.0 bo!Io with .eop«1 ' 0 ,he p<IUtId. Will,
,be. .01>1.,., .... (0) Wblt 10 ,lot "'&'~""" 01 11 ....,. .... ,he ore ,he (0) _;,1Ide _ i1» dar.",,,,,, 01 'k """,', ..I"""y
. - -..... at 1 """"" 1 it dirKttd (b) d\Io ..... ot>d ie) d\Io ";'h ""pe<1 to ,he groooD<l"l A dtild on ,he """, ... Ito I,...
""".1 hoo' t" " ,.. .. 6.0 balb ";t~ "'1"''''
,,,,he """l "''b.1t ... 1""
' 62 A .ot .... , WI """,plett, 1200 .00000;ortf e",'Y (e) ",a~.<1< ud (d) <Ii.-iott 01 tb. child ', •• Ioal~ ";,b re.
tni.ut .. Considoo. II>< tip 01 • blod •• or 0 .O<LUO 01 !lIS nL 1p«I ,,,,ke
V'"".dl
~ Chop.... I Mo'''''' in Two _ Th, ... Oim<il!1slon.

•• 71 A ... >pici "" .~ooking m ... run. as ("" os h. =
• moving ,k\ew:ill: frOID ""0 tnd to ,be otber, toking 2.5Q ~
along can? to) If ,bee"" m.;.,.in their volociti.~ do ,b. on.""'" to
(a) and (b) chong< .. ,he can move ...... ,b. inle""",iOll?
The. . . <limy . g •• " "PP'''. ond 'he ma. run. '" r.. , .. b.
<aD back oIo.~ ,b. , ;dewal' to his "ani.! poi.'. !>king 10.0 ~
Wb,t is ,be "";0 of .... m . ... runnin! '1"'00 10 d.e , idewalk",
'l"'oo?

Me. 4-9 Roolativ. Motion in Two Dim. nNon •
• 72 A ,ugby player '.0. ";,h tbe ball dire<11y toward hi.
oppooent". goal "OIl! .b. positive dif<'C1K>n of.., x:ro.. H .
''''' 1e!'illY PO" d.. baU to. ' • • mm", ,., Ions as d.e balr.
velocit), ",I.,,,,. 10 ,be 60id doe. not bav. , pooi';"" x rornpo-
"'nt, Suppooe .be pIa)'.r ruru ., .pe«l 4.0 mi. "'>1iv. to ,b.
bold "hl]. b. pa<'" the ball ",it" velocity".. ,,1>1iv, 10 him_

.. ~. If"", .... lIl"@ljlude6.0mls.wh., i.lI.. ... :ill.....gIo it
' '''' b,v. ro. 'be pa .. to be ].gan
.. n 1\o0!.llipJ. A . nd B, I••", por1 at ,h. <am. tim<-. Ship A
".""Is FIG. ' ..9 Problem 79.
,,,-,,,,Is oonbw... , at 24 kno...... d .hip B
• dir"",ioo -10" .."" 01 """n. (I hOI _ I .a",.,..
,, 28 11>01, i •

how: .... App<oc\i. D.) ""nat are d,., (a) magnitude .nd
mile per •• 80 In the """,bc, d
view of Fig. 4-50. Ie.p' P
(b) &""";011 of tb. Vfloci'y 01 5IIip A relative '0 8? (c) After . ad B rare alons "'oiS)"
wbat ,im... ill 'h, .lUps I>< 160 MU'icoi mile. "Pan? (J) ",h" lin..., """"" h' .. "oin •
..iU be ,b. bearing of B (,Joe dir«iioo of B'. "",,'io. ) rel>!iv, .nd p'" .",100",), bol_
' oA at,battime1 .."". der 3u.ro A. R.la,iv. '0
•• 74 A Ugh, pl •• e .1tai.o. an aiT>pe«l 01 500 kmlh. 1be pilOl ,be guard.. B traveb '" •
.. " ou' for • de"i."ioo 800 k", _ . 00,b bu, diKXJV'" ,b .. coruUll' ,.,..d of 2IJ.0
mI~ ., ,b. "Y' !I, -
,be pi..,. mu" be beoded 20D' " . " of du, .onn '0 fly ,b."
dir«ily.1be plan, .. rive.! in 2.00 h. II'b, were ,!Ie ('1 m.gni _ .lO.<Y'. Rel.,i"" '0 ,I>e
,ude .od (b) dirtcli"" of ,b. "lind v,loci'y1 Eu",d. P b .. acreler>tod FIG. "SO ProlJlem80.
from rt" ., • ron","'
•• 75 Snow i. falli.g venK-ally ... ooru'",,' .J'ffd of 8.0 tn!~ ... Ie 01 0.400 mls' at ,be angl' ~ _ 6(J.()'. A, • <",ain ,ime
A, "b.. ansIe from ,b. vertical do ,h ••• owIIake-s . ppeor '0 dllring ,I>e ace,I«",;oo . P b.. . >peed of 4o.0mio. A, ,b .,
I>< falling,., viewed 1»' ,Joe driver 01 a c>r '''''''lint ""
a 'ime . ..1Iat.Ie ,be (a) =yUtude ""d (b) directi"" of lbe v._
."aigh,.I,,,,1 rood ,.,i,b • ,pe«lof 50 kmlb? .... locity of P rel. ,iv, '0 B aid ,b.
(e) rnaeni'ud. and (d) direc-
•• 76 Alter fiyio~ 101 15 mi. i • • IOiM bl""';'g 42 kmlb ., • • ,100 oftbe a<rele ..,ioo of P rel>live to B?
•'Y' of2(l· """b of ' '''. >II oirpl:me piio' ;, over a '''''" 'h>1 ••••1 Ship A .. Iocated ·1.O kIll oonh .nd 2 5 km e"" of.hip
;" 55 km _ DOI,h 01 ,b. " .. ,inS poin" Wh>l i. ,b. >peed 01 B. Ship A b••• velocity 01 22 km!It tow",d ,he .""'h. and .hip
,be oirpl .... ,.la,i"" 'o,be air? B b., a veloci')' of -10 krnIh io • direct100 5]. " OI,h of .." . (.)
.. n A , ... in !Javel> _ JOO ,h ", J(I", /s Irt]>'iv, '0 ,b. Wbat ;, ,b. v,loci'y 01 A "lativ. to B in uni,_v«toJ DOI.,ion
ground) i. a r';n ,Ila, ~ blown ,,,,,,, .. d the ..,."b by ,be wind. willi l'OIO..-d ,h ..... 1 (h) Writ. ,n <Xp"",1oo (io tern" 01;
Th. pa,h of " "b ... iodrop m>k .. or> ongle 01 70' wilb ,be .. r_ aM j) 101 lhe """i'1oo 01 A "lati"" ,<> B .. " fUlK'li"" of '.
tical ......"""ed by ... observes "ationaryoa ,b. younod.A. "'be .. 1 _ 0 wh,n the 5IIip> ",. in lhe positi"". de.ocribed
. bovo. (e) A, .. hat time i. the oepano,1oo be,..".," ,b. sII;p.
oo..rver 00 ,b. mio. bowev ....."''' the drops fall .,.,-f«ily
veni<-.lly. o.'"mm, ,b. speed oI,b. roill<lrop;< rel>1iv. to ,h . Ie",, ? (d) Wh>1 ;" 'hat Ie ... .."",.'i",,1
ground . .... • •• 82 A 200-m_IOicie Jive, ba • • uniform low >peed 01
•• 78 A 2OO-m-IOid, rivtr IIowI due ... , ., • uniform >peed 1.1 ml, 'hrough • jungle aDd toward 'be ."". An .. pIorer
01 20 ml~ A boo, ";!h •• J'ffd 01 800 mi. rel. ,iv, '0 ,h.
w.ter wi,b .. '0 I.."" • omall clearin! "" the >OU1" book and
<ro<. ,Joe ri""r io • ""...... boal Ib>1 moves .t a oorutao, >peed
Ie."". ,h. """b bank poinled io • direction],()' _ ." 01 ' OIth.
WIla, ar.tbe (.) .» goitucle aid (b) dirwioo 01 the boo,', v. _ 0I 4.0ml. wi,b r .. pea '0 ,b , ~' e:r . Th,,,;' . clearing o.
'0
locily rtl"iv. tbe'pound? 1<) H"", I""S 00... ,be boa, tok , ,be .on. bank!Q lit up."eam from a point dir«dy oppmite
,I>e d ... ing 00 ,h. JOg ,h ba.Ak. (a) In .. ha, directi"" m ... ' ,be
to<[oostbe riv,,1 QlI
boa, be poi",«l in Old .. to ,rav.1 i. . .u';gllt lio . . .d lonod i•
•• 79 Two high ...),. in,."""t ... hO\Oll i. Rg. 4-19.A ' ,b. ,I>e clearing OIl tb. non. bank? tb) How lonS IOiU ,be boo,
io""", .ho.,n . • poIire c u P ~ <Ii<'anoe d, _ OOJ m fIOOI ,b, 'ake 'ocr"", ,Joe river .. d land i. ,be rle ";"!?
i."r"",,1oo ODd moving at .peod I', _ !!O kIll/h. MotOl;'" M
;, dis'>nre J" _ 600 m fu,.. tl>e in'mect1oo ODd movi.g Add~ional Problom.
" 'pe.d" .. _ 60 kmlb. (0) In 1lIIi'_v«tOl DOtalioo. " b., ~ ,b. IJ You ... kidn.pped by poIi'icol-.<ci<nre m. jOl' ( .. bo are
'0
v.loci,y oI 'be mOlOl;,t ,.;,n r .. p" " ,he pobe< cor' (b) For gPS<' because you ,old ,hem poIi'icai ",",nee ;, .OI • real
1><,-."
,be inst .., 011""", in Fig,. 4-19 .... bat i. ,b. angle the ><i.DC.). Altbough bliodlold,d. yoo can leU ,Joe >pe«l of ,h.ir
velocity founod in (.) and ,b. 'iDO of 'igh' be,....,. ,b. ''''''' "'" (by tbe .. tun. of ,be <fIyae). lb. ,im,
oI lf. v.1 (by men_
lolly OOIUllin~ oIf ...oonds), """ lb. di'l'CIi"" of 1r... 1 (by YOIlnd ";,b • """,,,.,lI sp<e<l of
,""" oIong lb. ""an.<lul", 51,.."
')'Ilem). F, om 'b".<Iuoe~ 1,, _ 100 .... Wb .. muimwn
yOll b>O\O thai you ar. lokerr oIong lb. foUowing 0001''', b";gh' does <be ball ,,:ocb ",l:>-
50 0",1I! for W min. "un 90" '0 lb. ri~'. 20 omlb for 4.0 min.
lurn 90" '0 ,b. right. 20 0mlll for 60,. ,"," 90' '0 lhe lefl.
Ii"" '0 (oJ the [O!"ound ond ( b)
lb. c. b Iloo<1 AI "lral ",Ie does
'.
50 om!h l1li 60 ~ tOlD 90' '0 11.. Tigh,.l0 .IIIII! for 2.0 mi •. lurn th •• peed oI ,be ball mange Ie ~
510' '0 lb. ItI,. 50 kmlb for ,(h. AI ,II " poi.,. (. ) trow f..... "i"" to (e) Ih. ground and (d) AG. ' ..53 ProbleDl87.
you from yow "arling poinl. OJId (b) in wb>1 dire<1io. ,.Ia,i.. th. ",b ftoOI1
'0 yow ,niti.1 diIec,ion oI'nvel .re ),<>u? II In Fi,,4-5-1o. a >led move> in 'be neg. ';" x directiOll at
114 [\"'oin ~f <k.dr. A !argo mel>Uk .. ,.,old "rike. Eanlr 00.""" speed I', .. hile • boll 01 ice ~ .bot I,om Ibe .ted u-i'b
ODd 'l"ickly diS' n en", ",to the TOCty ", ... ,ial helow y ouoo • ""I<>cily Vo _ ,.,I + I~ "I"ive '0 the.ted. V"b"n '"" ball
levtlby lawoching ,oct.. upw>rd >Ad OIl lw:om The loIlo win~ lond, iI. blllizorolol diopl:ocem.n, <1<.... Ia,i"" '0 ,b.
grouOO
!a ble giv.. five p>in of 1.1UIC1r . peed! ond angle> (/,om ,he (from ii, launcb pooiliOll '0 ilS la.ding "",ilio.) is m . ..urtd
lrorizOll'oI) fill m"b ,od~ bao<d on • model 01 eral" fonna- Figure 4-.'i4b giv.. <1<.... . IWK1io. of I'e A"um. tb. ball
liOll. (O,h" roc .... ";,b i ..."""di. 1e .f"'<"d> ond :mgle~ ... lond ••, approxim".ly il>launc.b beighl . Wb. , "'. ,be v.h...
oIro lau,dled.) Suppose that )'ou ... at x _ 20km ",he. lhe 01 (0) v" . 00 (b) 1'0,1 lb. ball', displ"",menl .1.<.. relative '0
"""old "rike. lb. you.d .. ,ime , _ O."d pooil'OII x _ 0 Ibe .t.d = 01><> he me .. wtd AMwne Ib>1 lhe .ttd·, v.Io";,y
(Fig. 4_51 ~ (. ) At , _ 20 ~ ",lr.at .... lIex .00 y roordinat .. of ,. "'" cb .. ged ..·b •• ,h. boll io .bot. W." is <1<.... ben I', is (c)
,b. ,oct.. b •• de<! '" yOW' dir«,iorr f,om lawoch .. A 'brough 5.0 mi. ODd (d) 15 mi. ?
E'1 (b) Plot ttoe.. <:<><>r<:Iin . .., . 00 lhen . u 'clr • <"IIIVe 1.'OUgh
lb. poinl> '0 illd.d. roch willi i.. ".,odi ... launcb ~
ond angle. The ewve ,b",,1d iodie . ...,b" fOIl ..oold ..., '"
you look up i.,o ,b. 'pp,oachi'B Iocb •• d wh .. din"",...
mu" b'''''''''D <!wing .... ,old ",ik e> Ioo! .go. ~

Lauocb Spud(mI.) Angl. (doey ... ) '"
,,
, ""
.~
14.0
16.0 '. '''''''1
'"
D
, ".'"
,~
""
n"
89 A ..om.n ,.,bo <all
f lG. " S'
'ow .
Probl,m 88.

boa, ., 604 km!h i...m waler
"" lac ... 'oros."njsb' ,ive, ";,h • wid,b of 6.4 to> .. d. a <w"",
of 11 tml1o. Le, i poin' di~ly OcrOM ,b. ,i"",
and i poinl di_
,«tly do ....1I0:urr. If she TOWS i •• "'oi~ t lin. '0 • poin' di_
,ectly opp<>rile ber "ar1ing "",i'ion, ('.1 " "'b,, angle '0 1
mu" ,b. poin' lbe boa, ODd (b) kow Ion! will she 'ako? (cJ
How !oro! ..-ill.b. uk. ~. in"ead she ",... !o2 Om 00..'" 'he
,ive, .00 ,b .. bock 10 her ".ning poin'? (d) H ow loog if sIo.
FIG . "S' ProbIom 84, '''''''' 32 kIn"r ,b . riveT ... d then bock '0 her .. .. ,inS point?
(0) AI .. tr>1 orrgle '0 i .bouId.be point lhe boa, if .h . ...." '0
85 l. ng. 4-52. • lump ol_ ClOSII ,lie ,ive, in ,b. ,bor .... !"",ible lime? (I) How 1003;'
pUlly m ..... in llOiform ern:u_ Ib>1 .lIones"ime?
I.. 11>0';00 .. i, ridH " H . di ... 90 In Fig 4_5.5 .• n<br ,,,,,ion <Ie,""," "" airpl.", .pproacll_
of 2(lOcm 011 ,h. Tim of • in! directly from ,h. ea>1. A I Ii", observation.,he oirplane is at
..-b.. 1 I"'''inA """.,e,clock_ dis1= J, _ Jt<I m from lb ••",iorr .00 at "Sloe 110 _ 40'
,.;.., u-ith • p"ioo 01 5.00 m~
Th. lomp ,b •• tr"PP"ru '0 Oy

RG. 'SZ Problem 85.
.bove ,ho Iroriror:>. The airplane is "",otd Ih'OIlgh arr ",sol"
clrange U _ In· in tb . . . n icol ...., _ """" ptar..: il> dio'>n<e
off the rim " tlr. 5 o'dock ~ ,boD II, _ 7'X) IlL Fiod tb. (0) "'"goi«,"'"
and (b) dirtclion of
p<>llilioA (:or if o •• cloct lace). II lea"", lhe ,im at a h";~bl of Ibe airpl ...., dispi""men' durin! ,hi, period
h _ 110 m f,om ,b, floor ond " • dio .. nc. II _ 2.50 m f,om
• ..-aiI.At .,b" height on ,be .. 011 does 'be Jump hi,?
116 A panic .. i. i. llJIiflll m cl,mh , mOIi"" .00..,
,h. lIIigill
of an xY NOfdin"e , y" .m, mov",! doc..ri .. ..-i1b • perioo
of 7.00 ~A' 011. im, ..,. iu pooi'ioo """ III (flom lbe origin) is
7 _ (2.00 m); - (3.00 m)j. AI th>l iDS" 01. ","",' i. il> veloc-
ity i, omi,_vocto, .",,,i001
87 I. F'E- 4_53.• "U i. 010", directly upward ITom lhe
yound "i1h .. i.iI,.1 'pe,d of '" _ 7.00 mi. Simul .. oe"",'~
• oorutru<1ioo .I •• "or cab hegi."o move upward f,om ,he RG. ' .&5 Probl.", 90.
~ Chop.... I Mo'''''' in Tw<>_ Th, ... Oim<il!1slon.

9 1 A ,tile ;, aim"; I". izoaully at , tar!". JO m away. Th. p..,.n!", 'hrough a lOllS corridor. Larry does.OI ... ,he
bull" h.j" 'be urge' 1.9 <DI below ,., aimin~ poi""
Ull" art meNin! sidewalk". b. , .... 1';0 , '0 ,..."lk 'brough ,be <OIridor.
(oJ th. wile,., lime oI l1iy., and (b) jl< 'p""d '" it em"se' Curly. "ho "mp~ It.odir 00 ,b. moving .ide.. >.Ik. roven ,be
from ,b.rift.? .... """. dr>1:" 1re in 71h Mre board> ,be oideI<alk .ad walk.
92 lb. fa>! Frt""h ""ill
t."",... ,be TOY (T, "" • G, .. d. """! il How long doe. Moe , ... '0 move ,broogh 'be coni_
\"t,. ...) bas • ",h. dul«l . ve'''S' .p«<I 01 216 kmiIL (a) If ,h . <lor? A .. wne 'h at Lorry.ad Moe walk '" ,be Jam. ,po«!.
, ..... ~ >louO<! • ">r'">1 ,hat .J>f'I'd IlIId ,b. masnitud. 01 1 01 A fOOlba.li pl,y.r pUJI,,,befOOlbail so ,n,,, i, will nave •
,be ><e<lentioo .xperienced ~ , •• passengers is ,obe .milO<! -hallg ,ime" ('ime of ftig!r' ) 01 4 . ~ • :md Iafld.j6 m , w' )'. If ,be
'0 O. ~. ,,-b>t ~ ,he ,m.all .. , ralli ... of "',,-.,.,. lor ,h. ball Ie , ...,h. pia)'" '' fOOl 1';O,m , boY< ,be ground. """.,
'roct to>! caJI be t",,,,,ed? (h) At "'h>t .pt«! row' 'be ,mi. mu .. be ,b. (0) m~"~ude :md(h) " ngl. (rela'ive '0 ,be bOli_
z"",,oI) 01 ,1>< 1Wl', iIli1i >.! velo<ity l
go ",ound a CIIrve "';,b • 1.00 km r..aim '0 be '" 'be """,lera-
tioo 1imi1? 102 FOI .. om.n·, volleyball ,b. 'OP of the"" i, 2.24 ..
93 A lila!!",'''' field can ro.oe • ohar!"" particle to """'. • boY< ,b. Ooor and tI.. oow' ..... ure. 9.0 m by 9.0 m "" e.cb
in • circular path. SUP!""" ,h., aD .1 ..... ,011 movi.og i. , ide of ,be ""'. U,i"!. jump .. rv • .• p1>)"'r " rike> ,h. bon a' •
• cilcle ",p,,,ie,,,,,,, • rodi.al """"ler"iOll of m. srutod. poi"' ,h .. io3.0 m .bov. 'be moor . Dd. horiz"""l di .. ... " 01
1.0 X LO" mi.' in a p..,icular m"V'.'ic field. (" Wh ., is ,b. 8.0 111 Irom ,1>< ""' . If ,be in"ial v.locity 01 ,be ball is borirorr_
opeed olll", ,1«trOll if ,b. ,adi., 01 il> cirrular "",. is IS <J11 1 '111.(. ) u-hal minirrlUln m.agoi'ude m .. ' i, h.:ive if,bo ban i, '0
(h) What is 'be peliod of tbe .. orioo? de .. the "," and (b) ..-h., maximum mayrnud. """;, h.:i .. if
94 Th. pooitioo ",<lor lor • PIOIOO ;, iojtj oll), -; _ , ... baU is 'o"rike ,be fIoOI irr<id. ,h. ba<k line 00 ,he oober
'i.Q - 6.01 + 2.1i >nd ,be" I,,,, is'" _ - 2.01 + ~.O; + 2.ok , ,ideof,b.n,,1
aU in """" .. ,(.) Whal ;, ,h. prOlOO', di,plooement vOClor . ... d 101 Fisure 4_57 011""" tilt malgh' path of .
(b) '0 ,.hot pi .... " ,h.:i, """or palaU.!1 pankle ocr"", an xy roonIi •• te ')"ltm ., ,b.
95 A panicle P , ... vek wi,h
CODS'..,' ,p<"<"d 00 • circl. 01
, par,kle i< """"ler.,ed from ,..., ~ 0"'" in_
"IVai .1r,. Th, oocele ....'ioo is """"m'. The xy
r.m., r _ 3.00 m (Fig.. 4.';/;) OOOfdin.'es for poin' A "'. (4.00 m. 6.00 m):

~
.ad oompi"" one ,evoru,ioo ,booe fill poin' B >I. (12.0 "'. 1M m} (.J Wha, fIG. 4-17
in 20.0 . Th. p.nicl. passe, ~ the ....'io .,10, of ,b. aocel".,iorr <:OII1jK>- Problem lOJ.
'hrough 0", ,i",. , _ 0. Sta" ""n"~ ( b) Wh", ..-. ,b. OOOIclna' .. 01 lb. pu_

~
,be folio"",! vWoor in n,.~ · ,id,if tile moIioo i< oootinuedflll ",<><ber llu,rvol oqual 'o.it, ~
oitude ... gIe """"ioo (,oV'
"b,iv. to 'be posi'i ... direc·
"spec'
) 104 An , "ro... u' i, ,oo . ..d in , bori",.,01 cen"ifu!" " •
,adio< of ~ .O m. (. ) Wbal i< ,be ,,"on.ut".
>p<ed il ,b. ce. _
,ion 01 x ~ \>'"b
lind , .. panicle', pooi'ion ""'.
'0 O.
- --"'ol--- -. uipe,aI """"leralio ••",. "'>gn;,ude 0I 7J~1 (bJ H"", lIIany
revol.,ion! p<r minu " are ""I.~.d '0 I"oduce ,hi< >«"<'Ie.-.-
' 01 >< , ... ,iI.... , of (. ) 5.00 ,. flG. 4-54o Problem 95. ,i",,? «)Whal is , •• "",00 of ,b. mooion?
(b) 7.';O . . . d «) 10.0 ~
105 (. j What ~ ,lie m. grrnud. 01 'he "'"'ripe,aI """,Ie.-.-
(dJ For ,b. 5.00 . iolervai f,om ,h• • nd 01 'he tif,' .. ro<>d
'0 ,•• end of ,h. " .. b semnd. lind ,be panicle , d;,pl"". _
,i"" of on objt<! OIl Eanll', "I">oor due '0 ,••
rOl .. i"" 01
Eanb? (bJ IVh .. would E Ol,b', ,oo . ,ion I"'riod h.:i .. '0 bo for
"' ...,. fix !h>1 in' ... oI. tiad (.) iu , v"'ge veloci'y :md it, v. _ obj"'" 00 'he "'1""'01 '0 b, ve • ","'ripe,aI """"l ..... ,ion 01
loci'y >! ,b. (f) be~nin! .ad W . 0<1. Nexl . lind ,b. m, gnitu de 9.8 1111" 1
>CCe1 . ... ,ion., lb. <hJ begi.ning :md (iJ •• d 01 ,ba' i..... oI.
106 A pe""'" ",>lks up , ",ll..-..I 15_m_long ....,... ,or in '10 ~
96 An irebo>! >ail! ocr"", ,be ... rfoc. 01 a fTO:Z •• Iak. wi,b
Wh,n .... di.g 00 ,h. "ill"
""",Ia,or. r>OW OleNins.'.e pe"O"
co ....'" oocel . ... 'ion p.-oduced by ,b. lO"i",,"- A, " cerui.
i ....n',b. boo,., veloci'y i, (6.3Oi - 8.41]) .. Is Thr'" II«OOOdo
i, e.mod op i. 60 L Ho .. mucb ,ime ,...",Id i, uke ,hal po"".
'0 walk up ,be moving escal >1or? Doe! , • • • n,,,,,, depe.d o.
I". r. bo",u.. of, wind ,hiI,. ,•• boa, i. in." ."neou,1}' " 'bel,ng,b 01 ,b • • ocaI>1or?
res'. \\!b" i, ito , ver.ge """"Ie."i"" for ,bi, 3, i,,,,,,,...ll
107 A b...,b>.ll i, bit >< grOWld level Th, baU " ",be> its
97 10 3.10 b• • ballooo drift, 11.1 km nonb. 9. ro kIn '''' .
m"-Umum b.igh' above ground level .1.0 , aft..- being h" .The •
• ad 1.1\8 kIn up",,,,d frOll1 i,. rei .... poin' 00 the yOUJId. F",d
(oJ lb ••"gni'.& of i11 .,.."g. v.!ocity oDd (b) ,b. ongle ito
25 , after re.rnin3 it! maximum .eigh'. 'he balllw.l)' de, ,, ,
f . "", ,ha' i, 97.~ m Irom w"'re i, 10"" hi,. 1\5,.""
,b. grow>d
' VO"te ..,loci1y ",.t.. wi,h ,be hOO"""aI. i, level. (.) WIr., rnaJlimum heigh' above yound level i,
91 A ball ;, ,brOlO"1l bOO:zootaUy from > bciS" 01 20., . nd ,,,.<b.d by ,h. 1Wl? (b) How hish ~ ,b. feoce ? (e) How I..
hit! ,be sround wi,h , ' p..d ,h.:i1 i, th,oe 'tmes it> ini,i ol be)'""d ,h. ler.." doe"b. b>.ll "rike the ground? ...
"",«I. Wh" is , •• ini,iol , peed"!
108 n.. ,all.'" of , projeclile depend> 001 only "" II, ""d II;,
99 A proj<"CIile is lau ""bed wi,h on initial ' !""'i 01 JO.,Is .,
, n..,gIe of In' .bov.,be bOlizon, " . Wb., ... ,h. (.)
m. gni _
bu1 . bo 0<1 , b, val ... g 01 ,he f,ee-fall "",le" ,iO<l. IO"tlkb
VOl;'" Irom pIac< '0 pl>re. 10 19.16. .!ewe Ow.II> ." , bIj,b,d •
,ude :md (h) ' .sle of it! veloci'y 2.0. or"r l,u""II. and (e) i , """ld', '\IJl.OinS broad jump ,.oont018.0'1 m.' tb. Olympic
,be alIV' obove 01 bolo..-!he bOlizon,0I1 W"" Ol' ,bo (d) Gome, >1 Bo,lin ("' ... " g _ 9.8118 mi.'). A .. umirrg ,h. oame
. ,.gni'ude :md (.) ."gIe 01 ito veloci'y ~ .O . , Ittr 1.=b. 1U\d
(f) i, d.. >ogle.Ixw. 01 belolo- tho hOO"""aI ?
v.rue. 01 'b and ~ 0)' bo..- mocb ..-ould his record b, ,, diI_
f"ed if b. b>d compe,ed in".ad in 19'i6 at M.lbown. (..-b.re
100 An ai,poc' 'ermin. l h., • moviDg , ide..-. tk '0 opeed g _ 9.7'I9911l1,' )7 .:s:;:
109 Dwing volc .. ic .ruptions. <hunks of ><>lid rock can be 115 Suppoo.e ,bat • • pac. probe can ..;,ho,aad ,he ""'".,.
bI .. ,ed "'" of ,b. volc. nO". ,b..., projwilH are called ,'ok""", of. 20g """,Ie"ilion. (.J Wh at ~ ,b. minimum ,urning radiI&<
bomb. Hsur. 4-58 .how.
a "'00' Jfi'1ion of M,. Fuji, in Japan. of , uclr • ,,>I,moving at •• f"""d 01 O<I. _ttntb ,be .p«d of
tal A, ,.,1", initi. 1.f"""d would . bomb b.", '0 be .joct.d. at liglr' ? ( b ) How 10f\! ..-ouId i, uke '0 oorupl" • • 'lO' 'UI'II at
>ogle 80 _ 35" ,o'too borizOllt>Urorn ,too v.n' . , A i. orderro 'his.pe<d'I
Iall at ,too loot of 'b.volcano at B. at venkal eli"." ,,,
h _ 3.30
11& A, 'O/b" initial
om .. d bor'lOrlta! d"u nceJ _ 9,wtlll? [yror •. ["" ,too mo- .pet<! Ill"" 'he b...... _
ment. ,be .11....... of >iI "" ,be bomb', tr.vel. (b) Wha, woWd ball pl.ye' in Hg. 4-59
be ,he ,im< 01 !liS.'? (cj Would ,be .lIed 01 ,h. air incr . . .. Of ,b,O\O' ,he ball., "'Sle
<leer • .,., yow .".wer in (a)1 ~ _ 55· abo... ,be bori_

zoora!. '0 make ,h •. foul
.bot ? Th. boo-izon,a] dis_
'ance. art Ii, _ tOft
",d J, _ 14 f, . • IIod ,b.
b.ighu are h, _ 7.0 ft
0J>d h, _ 10 fr.
"
fIG. ~ Problem ll~.

117 A wooden bo.car ~ moving a!IIIIB ' "T!lith' ",ilr""'"
• • , ,,,ck at .f"""d v,.A .n""" fir .. a bulle, (in;'ial speed v,J ., i,
from • high_powtJed rill •. The bull" IW"'" 'hrough boob
fIG. ~ Problem liP. I"'g,bwi .. ..-, U. of ,h . car. it! .nuance.oo exi, bole. being
exaclly oppr>!ir •• ach ",he, ...... ,.. d f,om ..-i!hin ,h. cor.
110 loog ftigh" " midla.,itu<le, in !be Non •• ", F,,,,,, ..-h, direc'ion. ,elative ,,, , hoe IT,d. is 'be bullet fi,t<!l
Hornispbere ."""".'eT 'he jer "ream. all .a>I,.."rd airflow A""",. ,h., ,h. bull" i, not d.fteeted upoo .n'tTing ,he car.
'bat COIl alf"" . pi.,.. .• 'l"'ed rel.,iv. '0 Earth ·, .wf.,..,. If a
bul Ih.1 il • • pi'O'd <leo.""" by 10% . Tal:. 0, = Il.'i ~"~b :lfId 0,
pilo! m. in,ain., ce"aln speed ",Iativ. '0 !be air (,be plaD'" _ 650 mi. (Why r!or:>', yOll ""'" ,0t1>OW 'be width 01 ,ho bo._
~r¥,J ) . ,b . 'f"'ed r.Ia,; .. ,o!be ... doc. (!be pi"",,', WJ<lnd
car ?)
spud ) ;, mort ..."hen ,b. ftigh' i. in ,he dif«1K>n of !be je'
"r""" .00 Ie", wh.n ,he High' .. oppo>ire ,h.
je' "ream. 11. YOII are,o,ruow . ball
"';,h. 'f"'ed of 12 .0ml•• , • •••....
'I!u~_"\
1
Suppose • row>d_'rip Kigh' ~ ",_cl.d be'we<n 'wo <i,i..
.. parated by 4000 km. wi,h 'be ""'gomS ftigh' in ,he
of ,he je'
COIIIJl'l'"
"'''.1Il
aad ,hoe ","urn fligh' opposir . i,. airline
odvio ... "" aU'f"'ed of lIXXHmIb. lor u1licb ,be dif_
lb.
<Ii,,,,,i,,,, 'arSe! , b" ;, heigh' h _ 5.00
m . bove 'he 1,,..,1 at...rucb yoo
" Ie ... ,h.
ball (Hg. ~ .(;O) . You
A-".--
-------------
,I
feTene. in fligh' '''''to
for 'he OII'gomS :md ,"urn I\igIIts;, ,.."n' ,he baU ', velocity '0
70.0 min. Wha, i" "'f<
' ''''pe< d i. d.".
00IIl Pili" g? ""n be b""izOD,aI " ,be in""", ;,
" ach .. 'h, , arg.L (. ) A, 'O/b " FIG. 4-60 Problem llS.
111 A panicle ...... from the origin ., , _ 0 wi'b a veloci'y angle ' . bove ,be bori"""al
of 8.0; mi, .. d moves in ,he xy pi"" wi,b COlI" .. ' ace.I" ... mu .. you ,hrow!be baD? (b J \\'b., is ,be horiZOfl,al di ..... '"
,i"" (~.01 + 2.01) lIIis'. Wbeo ,b.
pankle', x ooonIin.1e ;, from !be " Ie ... poin' '0 ,b.
'ar!" ? (C) Wha, ;, ,hoe , peed of
29 rn. ,"",>1 .re
its ('J y OOOf<li." .... d (h) .1'f'I'dI ... ,h. baU jw' ., i, r.:r.ch .. ,b. ' arS,,1
112 A 'printe, running OIl • ci,cu.l .. track b" , ..,Io::i,)' of 119 Hgme 4_61 .... .,.... !be
COfI".rlt lIl' gni'Ude 9.2 ",i•• IIod a cenu;pe,. 1 acce]tJatioo of path ,ahn by a drWL ~ .kunt
m'gni'U<Ie 3.!! mfr. Wbat art (.J ,b. 'flOCk radi u• • IIod ( bJ ,hoe ove, level youod. f,om initi. 1
periodof ,he circular motion? poi., /'0 tool poin' J The :in-
113 An .ledrllll b:ovinS initi.1 b""izontai ""Io<i'y of
>II V'" are" - 30.0'. '" _ 50.0'.
m'gni'U<Ie 1.00 X 10' em.'. tr.\'Ok in'o ,be ,epOll be,wttn
,...., b""izon ..1 m"a! pi" .. ,b>l . . . . Ie<,rkallr charg.d.
0J>d ,, _ SUO'. ",d ,be <Ii<_
,ance . . ... d, _ SIDra d, _
"
lD ,ha, region. ,b . el""'JOn ""v.l, • bOfizon,a! of eli"."",. 8.00 m. "'" d, _ 12.0 m. 1'.'1"
2.00 em .00 b• • , COlI"""
dowmo-ard """"len,i ... of m, !";_ ore !be (. j "",&"inrde 0J>d (b)
,ud. t OO X 10" cmJs' due '0 'be cb " S.d pi"'" Fmd ( aJ 11.. angle of !be ,hint. dispi""'"
,im. ,b •• leet,OIl 'H • • '0 "avel ,be 2.00cIII. (h) !be venir->! "",n,f,om / ,ofT
dis ...... i, ' ravek dwing ,hat ,im. ,.IIod ,b. m' gni'ude> 01 ill 120 A projec'iIe ;, fir.d..-ith
(CJ hori"""al and (dJ v.nical velocity oompo",n" .. ;, an ini,i.a] 'f"'.d " _ 30.0 mi. flG. Ul Probl. mll9.
''''''''SO>from ,h.rogior:>. fT"'" level !loullod" , u 'ge'
11.. A • • Iev.,or wi,b"", • ceilin~ i, ascendin~ wi,b • COII_ 'hat .. OIl !be. youod. at <lio-
""", .pe<"d of IOm l~ A boy 011 ,be .I.va,or >hoot. , ball ,""'" R _ 20.0 ra as ,boo.-" ill
Fi .... ~ ../i:l . Wbat . re ,h. (oj
dirKrl y uP""">'d. f,om a beWU 01 2.0 m . bove ,hoe . levat""
floor. iu<' .. ,b •• le vat"" HOOf' i. 28 m abo .. 'be Y'""od. The Ie,,' .. d (h) Y' ''''' I• • ncb
io"i. 1'pe<d of ,be ball "';,h '''peer '0 'be .1 •• " "" is 20 mil. "'Sle. ,h .. will , U.,.... ,hoe pro-
(aJ Wha, mnirn"", hoeiglr' .bove ,b. g,ound doe> 'be ball jectile ,,, h~ ,he ,arget ?
Teach? (b) How long do.. ,b. ball 'H. to re!wn '0 ,ho .leva_
'or ftoo,?
121 aa.is A ;, \10 l., du.
""'" of ...... B. A <Ie",n c....1 flG. U!
"
Probl. m 120.
~ Chapt ... ( I Mo,;"" in Two ond TIll'" 0;........,. •
..~ .... A _ ,01: .. SO b 10 wlIIk 7'i bP. .. 11' ...... 0( ..... ~aI

.-t.
NUl ~!lta)S. "' ....Ik t.'i bI Wt ..... th. TOttI il ra .. fOf
1011. \In.. _ ,be (I)~.d< - ' ( b) duowo. of I••
"'<pi .......... ~lativ< 10 A .. tW _LoS """,,7 """"
,.... h... I~ ...... 10._ A uti! tho ..d 01 ti,..... p<nod.
...... or. ,ho (e) ""P.lId< :and rd) dir<Clloll 01 It_ "'''!'O ...
• •


loa!)' _ i....... opeed'!lbo <211><1,1 ... <!riot
(.) w.,. to
A; ~ ,.." ... to B 11<> ...... IUD 120 h hi ... f ... ito ..... drilot. If
~ iI to ,nell Bjail in Iimo,...u IU" be , .... If) "",,"I~1Io 0IId • •
IV """""00 01 ill ...."!I...lociIy after Ib, 'u, p<riod? ....
112 A ~'"JMI"8 .."p, .... AI limo , _ 0" bwrilO ~ b.uro<b«l
f<¢n\ lev.1 !>,,,,,.d. with .. initial 5f><od 01: 16.0 .. to ond I."""h 129 Th. New Hampohioe S"'e I'die. u.. li ..:uft '" ,nf",,,,,
".V' ~ Imogine • pooi1iOll v.CIor 7 ooo''''"''''''y "...Clod h;y.,..y opeed limi'~ Sol'!""'< 'h. ' OM of ,b. oi, ........ b...
Iron> ,1>0 I."""bin! poin. 10 tho burnt<> d.,;08 n.. ftighl. opted 01 U5 ",i/h ill "in li,. It .. flyi., ."li!ltt ootlb '" tb .. i,
Gnrb 'M ""'t"iludoo , ot II>< poIilion V<dOf roo il) " .. io ... Utira .. <liro"ly """'" • nortb_IOU'" .i!ltwoy.A yound
40.0" -.I (bl ., _ 80.0". fur .. _ ·..ur. (e) "lor. does ,.ncb _ ,,,,,,.Il. tbe pilot by radio tb" , XlO ..i/h wir>d .. bloor·
'IJ .... ,"'"'" ....... (d ) ....... tbO! vol ......d '"""' far (e) bOO'.
iront"y .. d (t) .... ,lCIIIIy io til< bur.dO f,_ !he I:IIJndI
ina bot "'!it<t> '''!I'''' ,i.e ",ad <lir«oioa n.. ",lor _rva
tht .. >pi .. ol 'br.nod ,be p.... no , ...-.I In la, aiooIB
pouo'1 Fu .. _InO", tAl .... don , rndt ,.. onu..... tbe ~ip...y;" LOll 10. In otIIe< wordo,''''gcood'f>O<d .. lIIt
....... (.),,~ io,I.. , ..... _ _ f.. (ij _i<onIoly_ ....... if lIItrc ..... "'" ",od (I) F""" ....... d i _ .. lilt
til ..""".,.;, ,II< buoT.o from . . buDdo p<U.1 """'~? (b) Wb.... lIIt ...ado'Boflll< pI __,thl iLia
123 I. s..pIa ProbImo "-7b. • bioi! .. _ dlrooop I 1Iori_ "'.. dHctior> does i, P''''?
_,01 dl>1MaI of 686 .. .". • """_ k><",od ..... 10<<1 ud r
110 l'bt poo~ of • poll .... "'?"I"! ,. ,,,uypl . .. ..
•-'JI«I aj 45" frMIlho boriwol:al. HOIlI IIIIdI.,.u~r wookl B'''' by r- ]Ji -4- 2 ....[(.14 rod'.)tj j, ""'_re .. Ii in ....Ion
,lit !tori""".... di"..." b •• been ...:1 ,lie ...".,., been )(I '" .adl "il...,.,... (. ) CoI",b", d.u MIl, """Jl<'Oo<'"
III ,be
1'&1>«1 ,,"nid ... "",,'ion" I _ 0. l A 2.0.lO, ... d4.0 •• *hb"t ,i.e
12. (0) Jf ... 10<1,"" io !'<.;.cted !tori"""alIy wu~ 0 '!'«'l J'Orliocl", I"'tb iD ,lie xy pw.. f", ,be int.rv.1 0" I "4.(10. (b)
of .1.0 X 10' .. ,., b.... lar wiJI ~ {all i. ,.... "'~ 1.0 .. of ""'i. Cok:lI l.t. tbe """,,,,,,,e.,, ol'he 1'""';';1.', '''''''.y "
I _ LO.
",.W dUl."",,1 (II) 000. ,b ........ , incre ... .,. <1«1 .... if 2.0. and .1.0. Shoo< ,b. ,.1\< .. Iocily i. ,..!"M to ,b. path III
,1>0 itU,W If'«'l io i."o ... d? .11< pon;"1e MIl in tho dir«tion 'he I'""'ido ;, OIOviog at .""b
125 Th. ""Pi,,,,,, III ,he ,..Iocity ol • prcj«lilo ,,""n il i. 'ime by dr.winS ,II< velocity""",,,,. on lb. pi'" of ,h. p.. t~
"""'1"''''''''
.t it........"'" boigl" .bo,., ~.d 1tv.1 ill 10 ...... (II 'I'll", 0.. ·• path i. pari (o} Ie) Cakul""'be of.1\< por·
"'lie ......i'''''' d tl>o ....oci1yol ,lie pr.;.<tile 1.0. btl.,.. il ,"",'. ac<>< .. , .. ioa '" k tA2.0. ondJ..O.
ocbieYt. i...... ilnu .. lIt\!llt? (II) \\'bot io , ......t",1Ude of 111 A 8'JIk' tff'< oI! f,on til< lOp of. n .... 'Yi'" tM solf
,lit yftoal)' of tM proje<:tile 1.0. of.... Idu,,,,,, ii, IOU;;. boa In . . itial ... Iority of 4).,!, at ... "&Ie of lO' ""',., ti.e
..... lI<tt!lrllf _ tot ... k 0 _ y k 0 10 lie .. ,i.e point of totillODlal. l'be boll nrikrl ,i.e f .. I\OI.Y. II«llOOIaldlotanoo d
...... _ ... tt!lt on<! fI<lOiti ..... 10 br ;" lilt Wr«Uoo of ". ISO .. I""" lilt .... AB .... til< I...... Y...... l (I) H.". biop
Y,lo<IIy I... re. ......... ,i.e (c)."""ordio _ _ (d )y......,...;. io tbe rioe abo ... til. I....... y? (b) Wh, ;, 11It.p<C<l of ..... boll
. _ of tM po--oj<ailc 1.0. btl.... " . - ,,. .......... .. it "rib. tile f.....-.y?
• 'O&IM ..<I lilt (., .. . " . , . _ on<! (f) yDOordl..~ 1.0 ",lit.
i' ......... ~, ..." ...., boipl1
1U ",TXt ...... " ... 1<1 OIl, pIIwI<l , •• diot .......... 'Y'-
'''''. A oboo. putlt, ,,,",,,, • _ at • ~, 2.0 .. . -
124 A lrip .... d rabbit ...,... ~ ot 6.0..r. "'" '.'IU.' p"".d I....J. A .. robooropoc pi", of Ib" porotlOll of 'M ... '" ..
",",,, 0 I.". ..... 1Il1o..1 i<e III Dl"J!tiyt>le f,,,,.,.,. At " , ,ab- ... _ i. f"'.!- 4--6-1. "bt.. 'b. , ...lia.p ." O!(l, 1If*' _ tilt
"" .ridot ><fOSS tile iu.. ,h. force III the wind <a ..... ~ 10 h ••• ...'" i, ..10_ at time t w 6. (0) 11').01 is ,~. inoial ,d",,;'y III
o CON,.. I """'.... 'i"" IIlIA ",Is',.me .""h, CtOOH • root. ,!Ie .b", i•• ait·,O<101 "",. ,ioo7 (~) What i. I~' "'Y'~u<le III
(Ii.". 'Y"." with tho origiD .. ,he ,.bbi.-. ,""i>l
pooi'ion 00
'he icc """ tbe paolli .. x ""io directed to","ud 'be ."'. III """ •
tbe h ... ·!OU "",,1e ..,iOll 00 tho pI .... " (0) II .... t",,&
io "d... 0<1 ""'" ,he """ ,.odI
.b. pOWld1 (d) If on i<lent;"'"
i,0/,.,
••t:t", IIOIa'ioo. "'., or. ,he ",bbit'. (.) ,..Ioc"y .. d (b) pooi. Ih, ..... ol'b< .b", ;, mod. "" tI>e ",rl ... of Eor'II ....... 1""& af·
'ion .. b •• i, "'" oIid 10, .l.O.T , .. it ....I<aoed cIoe. i, .. IIdI'he """ad?

127 1M ""'" of ....«nI. Sit • .me e>.!' "''''"... 10 'b.
aro\llld itt . ........ bI<rWins 10 k_ ,,,,",d II." """". II 'be
'!'«'l of, ... ...-a--of, .. tbe ...."", oforiod. 10 k..!h....., is
lilt '!'«'l of ,i.e ."""" rel:oti ... ,,, .... g<lUllod1 • •

.. •
",1dI.,.,. oIaw_pO:dI _all _ ........ ,,_ •
12. Tho !• •
bali .. I P"''' Jil It """"'good ....... " .robooo:>poc pIoI of
,lit _,ion of til< booIl Ii _ ""re ,.ad.
ia Fit. UJ. 'M , •
ios> or. Q.25. lpon ood tbe bol .... Io_d 01' k 0. (II \\'hat
iI,'" i.. ,ol."._d III ,lit bolI1 fb) Wb>t .. ,be >poe<! of I... bol • • " N
• • the inso .., ~ ,."'.... it...Him... ll<ip•• """. !,,,,,od
10 ..11 (e) ....... '" io ,l\:M .. axirrru .. beight~
"
• ,ro) "
~~ 1'roI>i< .. Ill.
Force and Motion I

Many roller_coaster enthusi_
asts prefer riding in the filSt
car becauoo they ..njoy being
the rrst to go over an "edge ·
and onto a downward slope.
However. many other ..nthu_
siast5 prefer the rnarcar_
they claim that goin9 over
th .. edge is far rn<:O'"e frighten.
ing th ..",. The roller coaster
is certainly moving faster
when the last caris dragged
overthe edge by!he rest o f
th .. roller coaster. But there
seems to be some other.
more subtle element that
brings out th .. fear as that last
careom" . to the edge.

What is the
subtle fear
factor in riding
the last car
in a roller
coaster?
l
j The a n ~N"'- rs In mi. chapter.


,•f
87
Chapter 5 I Force and Motion-I

5-' WHAT IS PHYSICS?
We have seen that part of physics is a study of motion. including accelerations..
which are changes in velocities. Physics is also a study of what can caliS .. an object
to accelerate. 111at cause is a forn', which is.. loosely spea king. a pnsh or pnll on
the object. Th e force is said to act on the object to change its velocity. For exam-
ple. when a dragster accelerates. a force from the track acts on the rear tires to
canse the dragster's acceleration. When a defensive guard knocks down a'lnar-
terback . a force from the guard acts on the quarterb..1ck to canse the quarter-
back's backwmd acceleration. When a car slmns into a telephone pole. a force on
the car from the pole causes the car to stop. Science. engineering. legal. and med-
ical journals are filled with articles about forces on objects. including people.

5-2 1Newtonian Mechanics
The relation between a force and the acceleration it causes was first lUlderstood
by Isaac Newton (1642 - 1727) and is the subject of this c hapter. The study of that
relation. as Newton presented it. is called NeWlOllitlll lIIt'ciWlliC5. We shall focus
on its three primary laws of motion.
Newtonian mechnnics does not apply to all situations. If the speeds of the in-
teracting bodies are very large - an appreciable fraction of the speed of light -
we must replace Newtonian mechanics with E instein's special theory of relativity.
which holds at any speed. including those near the speed of light. If the inter-
acting Ix>dies are on the scale of atomic structure (for example. they might be
electrons in anatol11). we must replace Newtonian mechanics with quantum me-
chanics. Physicists now view Newtonian mechanics as a special case of these two
more eomprehensi"'e theories. Still. it is a ve ly important special case because it
applies to the motion of objects ranging in size from the very small (almost on the
scale of atomic structure) to astronomical (galaxies and clusters of galaxies).

5-3 1Newton's First Law
Before Newton formulated his mechanics. it was thought that some influence,
a "force." was needed to keep a body moving ill const;ant velocity. Similarly. a
body was thought to be in its "natural state" when it w;as at rest. For a lxxIy to
move with consta n t velocity. it seemingly had to be propelled in some way. by
a push or a pull. Ot herwise. it would "naturally" stop moving.
These ideas were reasonable. If you send a puck sliding across a wooden
floor. it does indeed slow ;md then stop. If you want to ma ke it move across the
floor with constant velocity, you have to continuously pull or push it.
Send a puck snding over the ice of a skating rin k. however. and it goes a lot
farther. You can imagine longer and more slippery sUlfaces. over which the puck
would slide farther and farther. In the limit you can th ink of a long. extremely
slippery sUlfaee (s.1id to be a rri t·tio nlt·~s surfan·). over which the puck would
hardly slow. (We ca n in fact come close to this situation by sending a puck sliding
over a horizontnl air table. across which it moves on a film of air.)
From these observations. we can conclude thm a lxxIy will keep moving ",ith
constant velocity if no force acts on it. Th at leads us to the first of Newton's three
laws of motion:

. . . N(·.... ton·s Fin;t L~,,·: If no force acts on a body. the bodi_ velocity cannot change:
that is. the body cannot accelerate.

In othu words. if the body is at fest . it stays (l\ rest. If it is moving. it continues to
move with the sa me velocity (same magnitude (lfld sa me direction).
5-4 I Force

5·4 1Force
We now wish to define the unit of force. We know th<lt <I force can cause the
acceleration of a body. ThUs. we shall define the unit of force in temlS of Ihe
acceleration thai <I force gives to <I swndard reference body. which we t<l ke to
be the swndard kilogwm of Fig. [·3. TIlis body hru; been assigned. exactly <lnd ,
by definition.<I mllss of I kg.
We pntlhe swnd<lrd body on <I horizonwl frictionless wble <lnd pull Ihe body FtG. S·' A forc" F on Ih" standard
kilo~ram give, lhal body an accelera-
to the right (Fig. 5-1) so thllt. by trial nnd error. it eventually experiences n mea-
lion a.
sured acceler<ltion of I m/s'. We then dednre. <IS a m<lUer of definition. that the
force we <Ire exerting on the st<lndard body has <I m<lgnitude of I newton
(abbreviated N).
We c<ln exert <I 2 N force on our standard body by pulling it so th<lt its
nle<lsllred <lcce[er<ltion is 2 m/5 ' . and so on. TIIUS in general. if our standard body
of I kg mass has an <lcce[er<ltion ofm<lg