Name: T.L.V.Peiris Student Number: GS/Msc/Food/3630/08 University of Sri Jayawardenapura

Dairy products

4.0. Introduction Milk is the secreted fluid of the mammary glands of female mammals. It contains nearly all the nutrients necessary to sustain life. Since the earliest times, mankind has used the milk of goats, sheep and cows as food. Today the term ³milk´ is synonymous with cow¶s milk. The milk of other animals is spelled out, e. g., sheep milk or goat milk, when supplied commercially. All sour milk products have undergone fermentation, which can involve not only lactic acid bacteria, but also other microorganisms, e. g., yeasts.To the lactic acid bacteria count the genera Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, and Pediococcus Yoghurt Yoghurt cultures consist of thermophilic lactic acid bacteria that live together symbiotically (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus). Incubation is conducted on addition of 1.5±3% of the operating culture at 42±45 C for about 3 h. The final product has a pH value of about 4±4.2 and contains 0.7±1.1% of lactic acid. 4.1. Manufacture of yoghurt using milk powder 4.1.1. Materials Fresh milk Sugar Gelatin Culture Coloring Essence

1700 mL 200 g 14 g 30 g

4.1.2. Method 1. Gelatin and hot water were mixed in 1:2 ratios and kept in an oven for 30 min at 70ºC. 2. Milk and sugar were mixed boiled to 930C, 1-2 min. 3. Mixture was stirred well. 4. Gelatin was added to milk at 60 ºC and cooled to 45 ºC 5. 30 g of culture was added and mixed well. 6. Mixture was strained and put in to cups & incubated at 45 ºC for 4 hrs. 7. Prepared yogurt was kept in the refrigerator for 2 hrs. Discussion Functional foods include yoghurts which have been incubated with probiotics. Probiotics are defined, cultured strains of lactic acid bacteria, which have been isolated from human intestinal flora, e. g., certain lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. On consumption, they are supposed to reach the large intestine and contribute to the formation of an optimal intestinal flora. The variety of products is increased by the addition of fruits and fruit pastes to yoghurt. The addition of fruit or fruit pastes and sugar yields special products (fruit yoghurts).An essential part of the specific yoghurt aroma comes from carbonyl compounds, predominantly acetaldehyde and 2

Dairy products
diacetyl. In addition to 1-octen3-one, 1-nonen-3-one has also been detected as an important odorant, which has an exceptionally low odor threshold . An autoxidation product of linoleic acid, (E)-2-nonenal (Formula10.13), is thought to be the precursor.

3. Yoghurt culture was introduced to media by adding 30 g of previously prepared yoghurt. 4. Curdling was taken place after filling into yoghurt cups at 45Co temperature [in the incubator].

4.2 Flavored milk 4.2.1. Ingredients Milk powder Sugar Cocoa powder 4.2.2. Method 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Sugar and milk were mixed well. Cocoa powder was also added and mixed well. Above mixture was filled in to sterilized bottles, while the mixture was hot. Bottles were kept in a water bath for 30 minutes for degassing. Bottles were capped and kept in autoclave at 121Co for 25min. Sterilized bottles were allowed to cool and washed before storing.

01 L 150 g 5g

4.2.3. Discussion Empty bottles were sterilized in the boiling water before filling to avoid introduction of microorganisms and cross contamination. Flavored milk was filled in to bottles; while it was hot, to avoid recontamination. Further sterilization was done by autoclaving at 121 Co for 25 min. This destroys all vegetative cells and spores. Due this keeping quality and time is enhanced. 4.3. Determination of milk protein 4.3.1. Materials Conical flask 3

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Glass rod 0.1N NaOH Phenolphthalein HCHO [40% v/v] Milk sample 4.3.2. Method 1. 2. 3. 4. 10 g of the milk sample was taken in to the conical flask. 3 mL of phenolphthalein was added to the sample. Sample was titrated with 0.1N NaOH until a faint pink color appeared. Then 3 mL of HCHO was added and mixed with a glass rod and titrated with 0.1N NaOH. 5. Titration was repeated. 6. Blank titration was also carried out. 4.3.3. Results With 0.1N NaOH With HCHO Sample 1 1.5 ml 4.5 ml Sample 2 1.5 ml 4.5 ml Blank 0 ml

4.3.4. Calculation Volume of 0.1N NaOH (ml) used for the milk sample = V1 = (4.5 ± 1.5) = 3.0 ml Volume of 0.1N NaOH (ml) used for the blank = V2 = 0 ml Protein percentage by mass = 1.7 X (V1 ± V2) = 1.7x (3 ± 0) ml = 5.1 % 4.3.5. Discussion 1. Before the titration milk is neutralized by using NaOH.this done to neutralize the lactic acid which might be present. 2. Formaldehyde is added titration to block amine groups because it can interfere in titration.


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