JAM AND PRESERVES

Name: T.L.V.Peiris Student Number: GS/Msc/Food/3630/08

Jam and Preserves

University of Sri Jayawardenapura

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Jam and Preserves Jam Production 5.1.1. Introduction Historically, jams and jellies may have originated as an early effort to preserve fruit for consumption in the off-season. As sugar for their manufacture became more affordable, the popularity and availability of these fruit products increased (Anon., 1983). Jellies, jams, preserves, and marmalades are primarily distinguished by the form in which their fruit component is incorporated. In jellies, only strained fruit juice is used, while jams are made with crushed or ground fruit material. Regardless of their form, all are sugar–acid–pectin gels or low-methoxyl pectin–calcium gels. Their structure, appearance, and mouthfeel result from a complex interaction between pectin level and functionality, PH, sugar type and content, setting temperature, and, in the case of low-methoxyl pectin gels, calcium content. 5.1.2. Materials Basins SS Knifes Chopping board SS Pans Blender Heating source E Scale Sterilized empty bottles and lids Refracto meter [50-80 brix] PH meter Thermo meter 5.1.3. Ingredients Pineapple pulp Papaya pulp Sugar Pectin Citric acid Water 5.1.4. Procedure Fruits were washed, peeled off, cut in to pieces and blended to make a pulp. Half the portion of sugar was put in to 100 mL of water. Then pectin was added to the above mixture and mixed well using a blender. Remaining portion of sugar was added to the fruit pulp and boiled. 3 400g 400 g 1286 g 2g 2.5g 100 mL

Jam and Preserves Sugar, water and pectin mixture was then added to the pulp and boiled till the bricks level was 68.5. Then mixture was removed from the fire and mixed with citric acid solution [2.5g acid + 2.5g water]. Then the product was filled in to a bottle while hot and capped allowed cooling. 5.1.5. Discussion Originally, jam or jelly production relied on the native pectins of incorporated fruit for gel formation. Fruit was cooked with sugar, extracted acids, and pectins, and if the proper balance of sugar level, pH, and pectin content were achieved, a satisfactory jelly was obtained; however, modern manufacturing requirements for uniform gel strength and appearance preclude reliance on fruit component pectins, which may vary in content and quality, depending on fruit maturity andvariety. In spite of the current availability of other gelling agents, pectin remains the universal choice for jams and jellies, in part because of its presence as a natural fruit ingredient and also because of the characteristic consistency that pectin imparts to a gel. Pectins of known quality and gelling capacity (usually derived from citrus or apple by-products) are added to jelly and jam formulations to achieve a desired gel strength. It is estimated that 80 to 90% of commercial pectinproduction, which totals 6 to 7 million kg, is used in the production of jellies and jams. The fruit content of the jam should be 40% and out of these fruits, and there should be at least 50% of particular fruit to name the jam. The bricks level should not be less than 68.5. Citric acid must be very gentle and it should not break the pectin net work. Pectin, sugar and acids are very important factors in gel formation. These three should be balanced to form a good jam. If pectin is high, jam becomes dense. Acid increases toughness of the jam. If sugar is high, amount of water will be less to form the structure. If acidity is low cannot hold the sugar and form slack jam. 5.2.1. Fruit cordial Introduction Juice and juice products represent a very important segment of the total processed fruit industry. U.S. retail sales of fruit juice products in the year 2000 accounted for $15 billion and were projected to reach $18 billion by 2005. The per capita consumption in the U.S. of fruit juices (as single strength equivalent) was 36 l in 2000, whereas the average European consumption was 23.4 l/person.The most popular juices were orange and apple. Total sales in Europe for the same year were reported as 9100 million liters, representing a 10% increase over the 1995 levels (The Food Institute,2002; Anon., 2001). Juice products are being marketed as refrigerated, shelf-stable, and frozen, in a variety of packages with increased emphasis on functionality, health attributes, new flavors or blends, and in some cases fortified with vitamins and minerals. Cordials are made out of clarified fruit juices. General specification for cordials is as follows. Total soluble solid 40% 4

Jam and Preserves Fruit content Acidity Benzoic acid 5.2.2. Ingredients Pineapple pulp Papaya pulp Sugar Water S.M.S C.M.C Citric acid 5.2.3. Procedure C.M.C and sugar were mixed well. Then water was added to it. Mixture was boiled for 5 min and removed from the fire. Then the pulp and citric acid were added. Mixture was strained and boiled up to 85 -950C for about 20 min to reach 42 bricks level. Mixture was removed from fire and S.M.S was added. Then the product was filled in to sterilized bottles while hot and sealed immediately. 5.2.4. Discussion FRUIT QUALITY AND QUALITY PRODUCTS • High-quality juice operations are dependent upon a source of high-quality raw material.No matter how good the process is, starting with poor-quality fruit for juice production will lead to a poor-quality product. Often, the quality of the fruit is dependent upon the stage of maturity or the level of ripening. Typical assessments of fruit ripening include sugar concentration, acidity, starch content, color, flavor, and firmness (Hulme, 1971). • As is often the case in unit operations, efficiency drives the harvesting process, and in terms of harvester operations, this usually means some form of mechanical harvesting. Quality can be preserved with mechanical harvesting; however, extra care needs to be exercised in the design and use of harvesters. • In general, all handling of the fruit should be done with sensitivity to the potential of bruising and contamination of the fruit. Special care must be made in transport of the fruit through the plant so that large drops or other impacts are avoided. • Storage facilities must be optimized for the type and maturity of the fruit. Although general cooling of fruit at controlled relative humidity is standard for extending storage life of the fruit, controlled atmosphere can be used to maximize shelf life of fruits such as apples. • Starting with good quality, sound fruit is important but so, too, is the cleanliness of the process operations. In all phases of the juice production, design and assurance of clean and safe operations are important. Daily cleaning and sanitation of the plant with 5 150g 150g 600g 625 mL 0.035% 0.5% 0.05-0.1% 2.5% 1.25% 600 ppm [sulphur dioxide 350ppm]

Jam and Preserves routine shutdowns will assure maintenance of a clean operation and prevent buildup of trouble spots.

Fruit Drinks, Juices, and Nectars CMC is used at approximately 0.5% to thicken fruit juices and to prevent floating or settling of fruit during preparation, as well as impart a clearer, brighter appearance, produce a desirable gel texture, and reduce syneresis. Citric Acid Citric acid is the most versatile and widely used food acidulant. It has been used in foods for more than 100 years (Gardner, 1980). As a result, it is often employed as the standard for comparison in evaluating the effects of other acidulants. Beverages are the major food use for citric acid, accounting for an estimated 65% of citric acid’s total food acidulant consumption. Citric acid and its sodium salt are used extensively in carbonated beverages. It is also used as a flavor enhancer and preservative. Sodium citrate often is used in carbonated beverages as a buffer to regulate tartness if the acid level is high. Aseptically packaged or canned fruit drinks (fruit-juice-added drinks and sodas) are large markets for citric acid. Citric acid is also used in fruits Juices to: • Lower pH, thereby reducing heat-processing requirements • Optimize flavor in canned fruits such as prunes and grapefruit • Enhance activity of antioxidants to prevent color and flavor degradation (by chelating trace metal ions that might otherwise catalyze enzymatic oxidation S.M.S was added to preserve the cordial and enhance its shelf life. SMS should be prepared just prior to the addition since SO 2 can be released to the environment and reduce its activity. 5.3 Determination of SO2 content of a food sample 5.3.1. Introduction

Sulfites
Sulfur dioxide, sodium sulfite, sodium bisulfite, potassium bisulfite, sodium metabisulfite, and potassium metabisulfite are very effective to retard the browning of fruits in which the enzymes have not been inactivated by sufficiently high heat (Sapers, 1993). In addition to preventing enzymatic browning, sulfur compounds will reduce destruction of carotene and ascorbic acid, which are the important nutrients of fruits. Sulphur dioxide is used as a food preservative. This can be used in the form of a gas, a solution like Sulphurus acid or a Sulphite of sodium, Potassium or calcium. SO2 amount present is calculated for regulatory purpose. Sulphurus acid inhibits the growth of Yeast, Mould and 6

Jam and Preserves aerobic bacteria and enzymatic browning. Furthermore this conserves vitamin C but inactive vitamin B. Objective of this titration is to quantify the S.M.S level in fruit cordial. 5.3.1. Materials Round bottom flask [250 mL] Condenser Receiving adopter Beaker [500 mL] Pipette [10 mL] Heating mantle 5.3.2. Chemicals Conc.HCL 0.05N iodine solution Starch solution Pumice stone 5.3.3. Method 50.13 g of cordial was measured in to the round bottom flask and added water up to the volume of 200 ml. Little amounts of pumice stones and CaCO3 were added Distil head; condenser and receiver were connected to the flask. 200 mL of distilled water was added into the beaker and few drop of starch indicator was added. 20 mL of HCL was added to the round bottom flask and heated by direct heating to release SO2 in to the distil water [after adding 0.2 mL of iodine solution to the beaker]. After adding 0.2 mL of iodine, the water starch solution became blue color but this blue color was lost with time due to the action of SO2 Then again 2 drops of iodine were added and waited for discoloration. Titration was continued for 10 min. 5.3.4. Results Sample wt Amount of iodine added 5.3.5. Calculation 1.0ml of 0.05 N iodine solution If the amount of sample is Xml, The amount of SO2 in ppm Sample volume = Titre x 0.0016 x 106 / X = 50.05 g 7 = 0.0016g of SO2 50.13 g 5.8 mL

Jam and Preserves Titration volume The amount of SO2 in ppm = 6 ml = 6 ml x 0.0016 x 106 / 50 = 160 ppm 5.3.6. Discussion Treatment of fruits with sulfites is the most effective means available today to control browning; however, because sulfites have been banned in certain categories of products and their regulatory status for other categories is in question, the food industry is looking for alternative means of controlling browning. For years, people in fruit processing sector prevented the browning of fresh produce by the use of sulfites. But because of allergic reactions of some consumers (especially asthmatics) to sulfites, regulations were issued and alternatives sought (Taylor and Bush, 1986). One of the most promising antioxidant/preservative alternatives is a blend of erythorbic and citric acids. The ascorbic acid derivatives, ascorbic acid 2-phosphate and ascorbic acid-6-fatty acid esters, are also reportedly effective. Another suggested substitute (which functions in water but not with fats and oils) is the sequesterant and chelating agent ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), which has been widely used in processed potatoes, salad dressings, sauces, and beverages. Cyclodextrin is another sulfite alternative that can be used to prevent browning. Finding a complete substitute for sulfites, however, has not yet been realized. This is because the sulfites not only acted as antioxidants to prevent browning, but also performed preservative functions in preventing microbial spoilage. In this reaction Iodine was converted to I- by SO2 released from S.M.S This means sulphur dioxide is neutralized by the Iodine. Titration is to be conducted for 10 min time period to extract all the SO2 IN the cordial.

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