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Chemical Reaction of HC

Chemical Reaction of HC

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10/25/2012

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Physical properties Chemical properties of Alkanes Chemical properties of Alkenes and Alkynes

Physical properties

Table of physical properties of Alkanes

Molecular Formulas CH4 C 2H 6 C 3H 8 C4H10 C5H12

Mr 16 30 44 58 72

Molecular Structure CH4 CH3-CH3 CH3-CH2-CH3 CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3 CH3-CH2-CH2- CH2 -CH3

Bp ÛC - 162 -89 -42 -0,5 36

Phase (T=25Û) Gas Gas Gas Gas Liquid

CONCLUSION : Mr >>, Bp >> Mr <<, Bp <<

Graphic of boiling point of Alkanes

CONCLUSION : boiling point of linear chain is bigger than boiling point of branch chain with similar molecular formula

Table of Physical properties of Alkenes

Molecular Formula
C2H4 C3H6 C4H8 C5H10

Mr
28 42 56 70

BpÛc
-104 -4 -6,2 30

Phase
(T=25Ûc)

Gas Gas Gas Liquid

CONCLUSION : Mr >>, Bp >> Mr <<, Bp <<

Molecular Mr Formulas
C2H2 C3H4 C4H6 C5H8 26 40 54 68

Bp Ûc
-104 -48 -6,2 -6,9 30

Phase
(T=25Ûc)

Gas Gas Gas Liquid

CONCLUSION : Mr >>, Bp >> Mr <<, Bp <<

1. If relative molecular mass of HC is bigger or the chain is longer, it¶s boiling point is bigger 2. HC with linear chain has bigger boiling point than branched one (same molecular formula) 3. Phase of HC with lower boiling point are gas (C1 ± C4) 4. Phase of HC (C5 ± C18) are liquid 5. Phase of HC ( > C18) are solid

HC aren¶t soluble in water or other polar solvents but soluble in non polar solvents

CHEMICAL REACTION OF HC

Oxidation Substitution
Alkanes Alkenes Alkynes

Polimerization Elimination Addition
Alkanes Alkanes Alkenes Alkynes

Alkenes Alkynes

CHEMICAL REACTION OF ALKANES

1. OXIDATION REACTION/ COMBUTION REACTION Imperfect oxidation CH3 - CH3 + 3/2 O2 2CH3 - CH3 + 3 O2 2C + 3H2O 4C + 6H2O Perfect oxidation CH3 - CH3 + 7/2 O2 2CH3 - CH3 + 7O2 2CO2 + 3H2O 4CO2 + 6H2O

CH3 - CH3 + 5/2 O2 2CH3 - CH3 + 5 O2

2CO + 3H2O 4CO + 6H2O
What is the mole of oxygen that required to oxidize butane

2. SUBSTITUTION REACTION (HALOGENATION)

CH3-CH3 Ethane

+

Cl2 ,hv Chlorine

CH3-CH2Cl Chloroethane

+ HCl Hydrochloric acid

CH3-CH3 Ethane

+

Br2 ,hv Bromine

CH3-CH2Br Bromoethanae

+ HBr Hydrobromic acid

CnH2n+2 + X2 ,hv

CnH2n+1X + HX

3. ELIMINATION REACTION

CH3 - CH2 - CH ± CH3 Br

KOH

CH3 - CH = CH ± CH3 + HBr

CHEMICAL REACTION OF ALKENES AND ALKYNES

1. OXIDATION REACTION/ COMBUTION REACTION Imperfect combution CH2 = CH2 + 2 O2 CH2 = CH2 + 3 O2 CH CH + 1/2 O2 2CH CH + O2 CH CH + 3/2 O2 2CH CH + 3O2 2C + 2H2O

2CO + 2H2O 2C + H2O 4C + 2H2O 2CO + H2O 4CO + 2H2O

2. ADDITION REACTION a. Hidrogenation

CH2=CH-CH3 + H2 =CHCH CH + H2
Ni/Pt

Ni/Pt

CH3-CH2-CH3 CH2=CH2

CH CH + 2H2

Ni/Pt 200Üc 200Üc

CH3-CH3

b. Halogenation

CH2=CH2 + Br2 ethene

CH2Br-CH2Br dibromoethane

CH C-CH3 + 2Br2 propyne

CHBr2-CBr2-CH3 1,2-tetrabromopropane

c. Addition using Halide acid

CH2=CH2 + HCl etena CH3-CH=CH-CH3 + HCl 2-butena

CH2-CH2Cl kloroetana CH3-CH2-CHCl-CH3 2-klorobutana

CH CH + 2HCl etuna

CH3 -CH2Cl kloroetana

CH3-C C-CH3 + HCl 2-butuna CH3-C C-CH3 + 2HCl 2-butuna

CH3-CH=CCl-CH3 CH=CCl2-kloro-2-butena 2-kloroCH3-CH2-CCl2-CH3 2-klorobutana

CH3-CH=CH2 +

HCl

CH3-CHCl-CH3 CHCl-

CH3-CH= CH-CH2 - CH3 CH-

+ HCl

CH3-CHCl-CH2-CH2-CH3 CHCl-

CH2 = CH2 + CH2 = CH2 + CH2 = CH2 + etena

...........

- CH2 - CH2 - CH2 - CH2 - CH2 - CH2 polietena

CH2 = CHCl + CH2 = CHCl + CH2 = CHCl + kloroetena ( vinilklorida) vinilklorida)

..........

- CH2 ² CHCl - CH2 ² CHCl - CH2 ² CHCl polivinilklorida

monomer + monomer + monomer + monomer

....

polymer

Polymerization

Solve the reaction below!!!

Addition of HCl in 2-methyl-1-butene

Addition of HCl in 4-ethyl-2-hexsene 4-ethyl-

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