1.

Define and Describe Product Lifecycles and their Management
Product lifecycle management (PLM) is the process of managing the entire lifecycle of a product from its conception, through design and manufacture, to service and disposal. PLM integrates people, data, processes and business systems and provides a product information backbone for companies and their extended enterprise. Product lifecycle management is one of the four cornerstones of a corporation's information technology structure. All companies need to manage communications and information with their customers (CRM), their suppliers (SCM), their resources within the enterprise (ERP-) and their planning (SDLC-) In addition, manufacturing engineering companies must also develop, describe, manage and communicate information about their products.

Benefits
Documented benefits of product lifecycle management include • • • • • • •

Reduced time to market Improved product quality Reduced prototyping costs Savings through the re-use of original data A framework for product optimization Reduced waste Savings through the complete integration of engineering workflows

Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) is more to do with managing descriptions and properties of a product through its development and useful life, mainly from a business/engineering point of view; whereas Product life cycle management (PLCM) is to do with the life of a product in the market with respect to business/commercial costs and sales measures. Areas of PLM Within PLM there are four primary areas;

1. Product and Portfolio Management (PPM)

2. Product Design (CAx) 3. Manufacturing Process Management (MPM) 4. Product Data Management (PDM)

2.Define and Describe Project Lifecycles and their Management
The Project Life Cycle refers to a logical sequence of activities to accomplish the project’s goals or objectives. Regardless of scope or complexity, any project goes through a series of stages during its life. There is first an Initiation or Birth phase, in which the outputs and critical success factors are defined, followed by a Planning phase, characterized by breaking down the project into smaller parts/tasks, an Execution phase, in which the project plan is executed, and lastly a Closure or Exit phase, that marks the completion of the project. Project activities must be grouped into phases because by doing so, the project manager and the core team can efficiently plan and organize resources for each activity, and also objectively measure achievement of goals and justify their decisions to move ahead, correct, or terminate. It is of great importance to organize project phases into industry-specific project cycles. Why? Not only because each industry sector involves specific requirements, tasks, and procedures when it comes to projects, but also because different industry sectors have different needs for life cycle management methodology. And paying close attention to such details is the difference between doing things well and excelling as project managers. Diverse project management tools and methodologies prevail in the different project cycle phases. Let’s take a closer look at what’s important in each one of these stages:

1) Initiation In this first stage, the scope of the project is defined along with the approach to be taken to deliver the desired outputs. The project manager is appointed and in turn, he selects the team members based on their skills and experience. The most common tools or methodologies used in the initiation stage are Project Charter, Business Plan, Project Framework (or Overview), Business Case Justification, and Milestones Reviews.

2) Planning The second phase should include a detailed identification and assignment of each task until the end of the project. It should also include a risk analysis and a definition of a criteria for the successful completion of each deliverable. The governance process is defined, stake holders identified and reporting frequency and channels agreed. The most common tools or methodologies used in the planning stage are Business Plan and Milestones Reviews.

3) Execution and controlling The most important issue in this phase is to ensure project activities are properly executed and controlled. During the execution phase, the planned solution is implemented to solve the problem specified in the project's requirements. In product and system development, a design

purchasing. Product life cycle The product life cycle goes through many phases. releasing project resources.competitive manufacturers watch for acceptance/segment growth losses IV:* demand has to be created V:* customers have to be prompted to try the product VI: makes no money at this stage 2. involves many professional disciplines. 3. and 4) products require different marketing. each posing different challenges.Growth stage . This convergence is measured by prototypes. Product life cycle (PLC) has to do with the life of a product in the market with respect to business/commercial costs and sales measures. and support.resulting in a specific set of product requirements is created. The most common tools or methodologies used in the execution phase are an update of Risk Analysis and Score Cards. 2) product sales pass through distinct stages. and a formal project closure notification to higher management. manufacturing. Weighted Critical Measurements (matching the initial requirements specified by the client with the final delivered product). testing. in addition to Business Plan and Milestones Reviews.Describe the Stages of Product Lifecycle Management Product Life Cycle Management is the succession of strategies used by management as a product goes through its product life cycle. financial. opportunities. the project manager must ensure that the project is brought to its proper completion. The different stages in a product life cycle are: 1. production. groups across the organization become more deeply involved in planning for the final testing. a list of lessons learned. mainly from a business/engineering point of view. The conditions in which a product is sold changes over time and must be managed as it moves through its succession of stages. and problems to the seller. whereas product lifecycle management (PLM) has more to do with managing descriptions and properties of a product through its development and useful life. To say that a product has a life cycle is to assert four things: 1) that products have a limited life. and requires many skills. tools and processes. and human resource strategies in each life cycle stage.Market introduction stage I:* costs are high II:* slow sales volumes to start III:* little or no competition . As the execution phase progresses. rewarding the team. and reviews. 3) profits rise and fall at different stages of product life cycle. 4)Closure In this last stage. No special tool or methodology is needed during the closure phase. The closure phase is characterized by a written formal project review report containing the following components: a formal acceptance of the final product by the client.

rather than data authoring. .Mature stage I:* Costs are lowered as a result of production volumes increasing and experience curve effects II:* sales volume peaks and market saturation is reached III:* increase in competitors entering the market IV:* prices tend to drop due to the proliferation of competing products V:* brand differentiation and feature diversification is emphasized to maintain or increase market share VI: Industrial profits go down 4. Describe the three main Elements of Product Lifecycle Management PLM can be thought of as both (a) a repository for all information that affects a product.I:* costs reduced due to economies of scale II:* sales volume increases significantly III:* profitability begins to rise IV:* public awareness increases V:* competition begins to increase with a few new players in establishing market VI:* increased competition leads to price decreases 3. and therefore are primarily focused on data management. profitability diminish IV profit becomes more a challenge of production/distribution efficiency than increased sales 4. and where it leaves in a form suitable for production and support. manufacturing and field service. and (b) a communication process between product stakeholders: principally marketing. on the other hand. A few analysts use "PLM" as an umbrella term that includes engineering CAD (for "information authoring"). are necessarily broad to encompass the entire reach of a product lifecycle. PLM systems. But product-related authoring tools can include word processors. spreadsheet and graphics programs. and even requirements analysis and market assessment tools. engineering. The PLM system is the first place where all product information from marketing and design comes together.Saturation and decline stage I costs become counter-optimal II sales volume decline or stabilize III prices.Describe the main Characteristics of Product Lifecycle Management 5.

2. Organizations: Organizations throughout an enterprise or extended enterprise with different rules. processes and objectives. Specific to product data With product data an important addition is the handling of high volumes of geometry and metadata. Specific to PLM and CAx Collaboration Collaboration using PLM and CAx tools requires technology to support the needs of: 1. and supplier sourcing software. It is generally accepted as not including CAD geometry authoring tools. Technologies and methods used Clearly general collaborative software such as email and chat (instant messaging) is used within the CPD process. Personnel of different disciplines and skill levels. One important technology is application and desktop sharing. Another common application is Data sharing via Web based portals.The essential elements of PLM are: • • • • • • • • • Management of design and process documents Product structure (bill of material) management Central data vault (electronic file repository) Part and document classification and metadata ("attribute") management Materials content identification for environmental compliance Product-focused project task assignment Workflow and process management for approving changes Multi-user secured access. People. For CAD and product visualization applications an ‘appshare’ product that supports OpenGL graphics is required. Introduction Exactly what technology comes under this title does vary depending on who you ask. Data: Data from different sources in different formats. Exactly what techniques and technology is required depends on the level of collaboration being carried out and the commonality (or lack of) the partner sites’ systems. it usually consists of the PLM areas of: Product Data Management (PDM). including "electronic signature" Data export for loading downstream ERP systems 6. Product visualization. team collaboration and conferencing tools. however. allowing one person to view what another person is doing on a remote machine. Appropriate technologies are required to support collaboration across these boundaries . 3. It is also known as collaborative Product Definition Management (cPDM). Describe Collaborative Product Development using PLM Collaborative Product Development (Collaborative Product Design) (CPD) is a business strategy. but does include data translation technology. work process and collection of software applications that facilitates different organizations to work together on the development of a product.

Describe how PLM systems work even after delivery of products from factory . For the management server and metadata there are a number of options. For the translation process Product Data Quality (PDQ) checkers are often employed to reduce problems in transferring the work. file may be copied between sites.. There could be a single server that is accessed from all locations or multiple PDM servers that communicate with one another. With different CAD systems the approach varies slightly depending on whether the ownership.Describe the concept of a Digital Factory The digital factory concept offers an integrated approach to enhance the product and production engineering processes and simulation is a key technology within this concept. markup (redlining) or multicad digital mock-up (DMU).JT) can be used for tasks such as viewing. SCM and CRM 10.Describe how PLM works with other Enterprise systems like ERP. 8. In both cases the PDM software controls access for groups defining what data they can see and edit. If the ownership of a particular file is being transfer then full data translation is required using some form of CAD data exchange technology. If geometry only has to be viewed then a Product visualization neutral file format (e. Different types of simulation. This requires transfer of geometry from one format to another by means of a visualization format or full data translation. The focus and key factor is the integration of the various planning and simulation processes.. 11..Describe how a product is prototyped to mass manufactured using Digital Manufacturing 9. In an advanced stage simulation technology can be applied in the digital factory concept to enhance the operative production planning and control as an integrated process from the top level to the factory floor control. If different PDM/EDM systems are in use then either data structures or metadata can be transferred using STEP or communication between databases can be achieved with tools based around XML data transfer 7.If the collaborating parties have the same PDM and CAD systems the task usually involves the direct access and transfer of data between sites. and therefore authorship of components changes or not.What are the issues to be considered by CxOs when implementing PLM systems? 12. It maybe that authorship does not change but components from one group needs to be placed in the assembly of another group so that they can construct their parts.Describe some market-leader systems in the PLM arena. The PDM system will have data storage at more than one site for the large graphics files.. how they are synchronized being controlled by the server(s). so called work in context. such as discrete event or 3D-motion simulation can be applied in virtual models on various planning levels and stages to improve the product and process planning on all levels. Between some systems there is the possibility of ‘data interoperability’ were geometry from one format can be associatively copied to another.g..

Companies typically see new product development as the first stage in generating and commercializing new products within the overall strategic process of product life cycle management used to maintain or grow their market share. gap analysis. running the right number of projects. ensuring a good balance between different types of products/projects. employees. Idea Generation is often called the "fuzzy front end" of the NPD process o Ideas for new products can be obtained from basic research using a SWOT analysis (OPPORTUNITY ANALYSIS).a. new product development (NPD) is the term used to describe the complete process of bringing a new product or service to market. Strong Product or IT Portfolio Management assures a good balance of products or projects and optimal resource allocation to align development decisions with your overall business strategy. risk and net present value • Enforce your own process for evaluation and selection of projects. products. or features • Evaluate projects according to criteria such as strategic value. products. and markets • Understand how projects. competitor analysis. salespeople. There are two parallel paths involved in the NPD process: one involves the idea generation. Product Management and Portfolio Management enables you to: • Analyze the cost and value of your projects. NPD New product development / New product introduction In business and engineering. corporate spies. features. requirements management and release planning. The process 1. and gaps are related to each other • Continually monitor progress and allocate and reallocate resources to projects • Integrate portfolio management with market analysis. Product Portfolio Management Do you find you are often faced with the challenge to do more with less? Would a feature decision support system help maximize the value of your product or project portfolio? The demand to deliver more features with fewer resources in a shorter lead time makes doing the right thing essential. Market and consumer trends. risks. cost. b. and detail engineering. markets. or Ethnographic discovery . customers. focus groups. customer benefit. the other involves market research and marketing analysis. The goals with successful Portfolio Management include maximizing the value of the portfolio. product design. and aligning development decisions with the overall strategy. allocating and reallocating resources. products. trade shows. competitors. company's R&D department.

what-if planning 7. Technical Implementation o New program initiation o Resource estimation o Requirement publication o Engineering operations planning o Department scheduling o Supplier collaboration o Logistics plan o Resource plan publication o Program review and monitoring o Contingencies . Commercialization (often considered post-NPD) o Launch the product o Produce and place advertisements and other promotions .2. 3. methods (searching for user patterns and habits) may also be used to get an insight into new product lines or product features. 5. o The screeners must ask at least three questions:  Will the customer in the target market benefit from the product?  What is the size and growth forecasts of the market segment/target market? Concept Development and Testing o Develop the marketing and engineering details  Who is the target market and who is the decision maker in the purchasing process?  What product features must the product incorporate?  What benefits will the product provide?  How will consumers react to the product? Business Analysis o Estimate likely selling price based upon competition and customer feedback Beta Testing and Market Testing o Produce a physical prototype or mock-up o Test the product (and its packaging) in typical usage situations 6. 4. Idea Screening o The object is to eliminate unsound concepts prior to devoting resources to them.

It often involves taking something (e.. or otherwise unavailable documentation. whether from the same manufacturer (a replacement part or a newer model). Therefore the company can use the least expensive components that satisfy product lifetime projections. incomplete.g. Estimates of planned obsolescence can influence a company's decisions about product engineering. d. from buildings to software. and charge a higher price than they would otherwise be willing to pay (or would be unwilling to spend all at once). such consumers might turn to a producer (if any exists) that offers a more durable alternative. planned obsolescence stimulates demand by encouraging purchasers to buy again sooner if they still want a functioning product. . The purpose of planned obsolescence is to hide the real cost per use from the consumer. function and operation. a mechanical device. from vehicles to light bulbs. For an industry. The purpose is to deduce design decisions from end products with little or no additional knowledge about the procedures involved in the original production. but rather to replace incorrect. Such decisions are part of a broader discipline known as value engineering. The use of planned obsolescence is not always easy to pinpoint. such as competing technologies or creeping featurism which expands functionality in newer product versions. and it is complicated by related problems. the potential backlash of consumers who learn that the manufacturer invested money to make the product obsolete faster. The same techniques are currently being researched for application to legacy software systems. not for industrial or defense ends. Planned obsolescence Planned obsolescence or built-in obsolescence is the process of a product becoming obsolete and/or non-functional after a certain period or amount of use in a way that is planned or designed by the manufacturer Planned obsolescence has potential benefits for a producer because the product fails and the consumer is under pressure to purchase again. electronic component. or to try to make a new device or program that does the same thing without copying anything from the original. or from a competitor which might also rely on planned obsolescence. or software program) apart and analyzing its workings in detail to be used in maintenance. Reverse Engineering Reverse engineering (RE) is the process of discovering the technological principles of a device. Reverse engineering has its origins in the analysis of hardware for commercial or military advantage. however. object or system through analysis of its structure. Built-in obsolescence is in many different products. Planned obsolescence was first developed in the 1920s and 1930s when mass production had opened every minute aspect of the production process to exacting analysis. There is.c.

CAE systems will be major providers of information to help support design teams in decision making.. for example. Contrast between a defect and the bulk is always an important consideration. systems engineering. The term encompasses simulation. and medicine. and is a commonly-used tool in forensic engineering. manufacture. and research. NDT can be used with any isolated input / output system. In regard to information networks. Thus glancing light on a fracture surface will reveal details not immediately obvious to sight. Initially. and radiographic testing. Reference architecture is the basis from which information model. CAE systems can provide support to businesses. and repair. Overview Software tools that have been developed to support these activities are considered CAE tools. Because NDT does not require the disabling or sacrifice of the system of interest. CAE systems are individually considered a single node on a total information network and each node may interact with other nodes on the network. to analyze the robustness and performance of components and assemblies. mechanical engineering. and optimization of products and manufacturing tools. without the use of invasive approaches like disassembly or failure testing. This is achieved by the use of reference architectures and their ability to place information views on the business process. simulation. The examination is often reasonably obvious especially when different light sources are used. and may be enhanced by using liquids for example to penetrate fatigue cracks. it is a highly-valuable technique that saves both money and time in product evaluation. especially product and manufacturing models. diagnosis. In the future. Methods NDT methods usually rely on use of electromagnetic radiation to examine samples. such as X-rays or ultrasound. design. Computer-aided engineering (often referred to as CAE) is the use of information technology to support engineers in tasks such as analysis. liquid penetrant testing. validation.CAD/CAM/CAI: Computer-aided engineering / design/mfgr . The inner parts of a product can be examined using other kinds of radiation which can penetrate the material. civil engineering.e. electrical engineering. NDT: Nondestructive testing Non-destructive testing (NDT) is an analysis technique used in scientific fields to determine the state or function of a system by comparing a known input with a measured output. CAE tools are being used. planning. troubleshooting. . Common NDT methods include acoustic testing. provided that the liquid has absolutely no effect on the sample being examined. this includes most kinds of microscopy to examine external surfaces in detail. F.

Thermal and fluid flow analysis Computational fluid dynamics (CFD). in fact. CAM creates real life versions of components designed within a software package. Analysis tools for process simulation for operations such as casting. CAM does not eliminate the need for skilled professionals such as Manufacturing Engineers and NC Programmers. founder of SDRC in the late 70's. Overview Traditionally. voxel and thin sheet methods are also used) Analysis solver (usually performed on high powered computers) Post-processing of results (using visualization tools) Computer-aided manufacturing Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) is the use of computer-based software tools that assist engineers and machinists in manufacturing or prototyping product components. CAM. Optimization of the product or process. CAE fields and phases CAE areas covered include: • • • • • • Stress analysis on components and assemblies using FEA (Finite Element Analysis). As with other “Computer-Aided” technologies. and die press forming. Mechanical event simulation (MES). Kinematics. Although this remains the most common CAM function. This definition is however better known today by the terms CAx and PLM. CAM has been considered as a numerical control (NC) programming tool wherein three-dimensional (3D) models of components generated in CAD software are used to generate CNC code to drive numerically controlled machine tools. CAM functions have expanded to integrate CAM more fully with CAD/CAM/CAE PLM solutions. both leverages the value of the most skilled manufacturing professionals . It was in this context that the term was coined by Dr. (typically a finite element model.The term CAE has also been used by some in the past to describe the use of computer technology within engineering in a broader sense than just engineering analysis. Pre-processing – defining the model and environmental factors to be applied to it. Jason Lemon. molding. there are three phases in any computer-aided engineering task: • • • . but facet. CAM is a programming tool that makes it possible to manufacture physical models using computer-aided design (CAD) programs. In general. CAM was first used in 1971 for car body design and tooling.

[ G. The design of geometric models for object shapes.through advanced productivity tools.PLC: Programmable Logic Controllers A programmable logic controller (PLC) or programmable controller is a digital computer used for automation of electromechanical processes. extended temperature ranges. immunity to electrical noise. computer graphics (both hardware and software). advertising. industrial and architectural design. real or virtual. the PLC is designed for multiple inputs and output arrangements. shipbuilding. or lighting fixtures. [1] CAD is an important industrial art extensively used in many applications. such as control of machinery on factory assembly lines. PLCs are used in many industries and machines. These early servomechanisms were rapidly augmented with analog and digital computers. and resistance to vibration and impact. according to application-specific conventions. such as packaging and semiconductor machines. otherwise unintended operation will result. dimensions. based on existing tools that were modified with motors that moved the controls to follow points fed into the system on paper tape. the output of CAD often must convey also symbolic information such as materials. prostethics. while building the skills of new professionals through visualization. CAD has been a major driving force for research in computational geometry. However CAD often involves more than just shapes. Computer-aided design Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of computer technology for the design of objects. amusement rides. and aerospace industries. is often called computer-aided geometric design (CAGD). As in the manual drafting of technical and engineering drawings. A PLC is an example of a real time system since output results must be produced in response to input conditions within a bounded time. including automotive. creating the modern computer . simulation and optimization tools. CAD may be used to design curves and figures in two-dimensional ("2D") space.. and discrete differential geometry. technical manuals. Unlike general-purpose computers. H…NC: Numerical(ly) Control(led Machines) Numerical control (NC) refers to the automation of machine tools that are operated by abstractly programmed commands encoded on a storage medium. The modern ubiquity and power of computers means that even perfume bottles and shampoo dispensers are designed using techniques unheard of by shipbuilders of 1960s. Programs to control machine operation are typically stored in battery-backed or non-volatile memory. surfaces. CAD is also widely used to produce computer animation for special effects in movies. as opposed to manually controlled via handwheels or levers or mechanically automated via cams alone. and tolerances. or curves. and many more. The first NC machines were built in the 1940s and 50s. or solids in three-dimensional ("3D") objects. processes. in particular. Because of its enormous economic importance.

The programs produce a computer file that is interpreted to extract the commands needed to operate a particular machine. In either case the complex series of steps needed to produce any part is highly automated and produces a part that closely matches the original CAD design. In solving partial differential equations.Concurrent Engineering Workflow Concurrent Engineering is a work methodology based on the parallelization of tasks (ie.modern machines often combine multiple tools into a single "cell". The solution approach is based either on eliminating the differential equation completely (steady state problems). the primary challenge is to create an equation that approximates the equation to be studied. organizations and universities. For instance. etc. Since any particular component might require the use of a number of different tools . but has had the opportunity to mature in recent years to become a welldefined systems approach towards optimizing engineering design cycles. most notably in the aerospace industry. Another example would be the simulation of the weather pattern on Earth. meaning that errors in the input data and intermediate calculations do not accumulate and cause the resulting output to be meaningless. in a frontal crash simulation it is possible to increase prediction accuracy in "important" areas like the front of the car and reduce it in its rear (thus reducing cost of the simulation). In modern CNC systems. . I…. a number of different machines are used with an external controller and human or robotic operators that move the component from machine to machine. .FEM/ FEA: Finite Element Modelling and Analysis The finite element method (FEM) (sometimes referred to as finite element analysis) is a numerical technique for finding approximate solutions of partial differential equations (PDE) as well as of integral equations.drills. or when the solution lacks smoothness. when the desired precision varies over the entire domain. concurrent engineering has garnered much attention from industry and has been implemented in a multitude of companies. In other cases. J…. saws. concurrently) Introduction The concurrent engineering method is still a relatively new design management system. The Finite Element Method is a good choice for solving partial differential equations over complex domains (like cars and oil pipelines). Runge-Kutta. or rendering the PDE into an approximating system of ordinary differential equations. where it is more important to have accurate predictions over land than over the wide-open sea. all with advantages and disadvantages. which are then numerically integrated using standard techniques such as Euler's method. when the domain changes (as during a solid state reaction with a moving boundary). etc. Because of this. and then loaded into the CNC machines for production. but is numerically stable.numerical controlled (CNC) machine tools that have revolutionized the design process. There are many ways of doing this. end-to-end component design is highly automated using CAD/CAM programs.

testability. maintenance issues. The second concept is that the preceding design activities should all be occurring at the same time. The first is the idea that all elements of a product’s life-cycle. . Even with high-speed supercomputers only approximate solutions can be achieved in many cases.The basic premise for concurrent engineering revolves around two concepts. The overall goal being that the concurrent nature of these processes significantly increases productivity and product quality. Computers are used to perform the millions of calculations required to simulate the interaction of liquids and gases with surfaces defined by boundary conditions. Ongoing research. should be taken into careful consideration in the early design phases [2] . K…CFD: Computational fluid dynamics Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is one of the branches of fluid mechanics that uses numerical methods and algorithms to solve and analyze problems that involve fluid flows. By locating and fixing these issues early. L…MRO: Maintenance. The difference between these 2 methods is that the ‘Waterfall’ method moves in a completely linear fashion by starting with user requirements and sequentially moving forward to design. from functionality. sometimes called the ‘Waterfall Model’. This was a structure based on a sequential design flow. or concurrently. however. Repair and Operations Management Maintenance. as mentioned before. producibility. The problem here is that the design system does not look backwards or forwards from the step it is on to fix possible problems. On the other hand. repair and operations is fixing any sort of mechanical or electrical device should it become out of order or broken (known as repair or unscheduled maintenance) as well as performing the routine actions which keep the device in working order (known as scheduled maintenance) or prevent trouble from arising . allowing for a more evolutionary approach to design. may yield software that improves the accuracy and speed of complex simulation scenarios such as transonic or turbulent flows. Concurrent engineering significantly modifies this outdated method and instead opts to use what has been termed an iterative or integrated development method. the design usually must be scrapped or heavily altered. The difference between the two design processes can be seen graphically in Figure 1. assembly. all aspects of the life cycle of the product are taken into account. implementation and additional steps until you have a finished product. the iterative design process is more cyclic in that. the design team can avoid what often become costly errors as the project moves to more complicated computational models and eventually into the physical realm. In the case that something does go wrong. environmental impact and finally disposal and recycling. One of the most important reasons for the huge success of concurrent engineering is that by definition it redefines the basic design process structure that was common place for decades. Initial validation of such software is often performed using a wind tunnel with the final validation coming in flight test. aspects that are obviously important in today's fast-paced market. This philosophy is key to the success of concurrent engineering because it allows for errors and redesigns to be discovered early in the design process when the project is still in a more abstract and possibly digital realm.

Manufacturers and Industrial Supply Companies often refer to MRO as opposed to Original Equipment Manufacture (OEM). The data tracked usually involves the technical specifications of the product. building. For material — all supply and repair action taken to keep a force in condition to carry out its mission 4. Product data management (PDM) The use of software or other tools to track and control data related to a particular product. management and publication of product data. and reclamation. where MRO refers to any maintenance and repair activity to keep a manufacturing plant running. Industrial supply companies can generally be sorted into two types: • • the ones who cater to the MRO market generally carry a broad range of items such as fasteners. selling materials that will be regularly consumed in the manufacturing process to create the finished item. and engineering in general. ground facility. 2. replacements. OEM includes any activity related to the direct manufacture of goods. and tools to keep a plant running. repair. managerial. "All actions which have the in or to a state in which it can perform its the combination of all technical and and supervision actions. adjustments and repairs — intended to retain or restore a functional unit in or to a specified state in which the unit can perform its required functions. the term maintenance has the following meanings: 1. The actions include corresponding administrative.(preventive maintenance)." In telecommunication. It includes inspection. For material — all action taken to retain material in a serviceable condition or to restore it to serviceability. utility system. conveyors. 3. and the types of materials that will be required to produce the good. servicing. OEM supply companies generally provide a smaller range of goods in much larger quantities with much lower prices. or other real property) in such condition that it may be continuously used. M…PDM: Product Data Management Product data management (PDM) is the business function within product lifecycle management that is responsible for the creation. defined as. at its original or designed capacity and efficiency for its intended purpose. MRO may be objective of retaining or restoring an item required function. specifications for manufacture and development. cleaning goods. structure. plumbing. For material — the routine recurring work required to keep a facility (plant. Any activity – such as tests. rebuilding. testing. measurements. The use of product data management allows a company to track the various costs . classification as to serviceability.

The package will: control check-in and check-out of the product data to multi-user. engineers. etc. Product data management is part of product life cycle management. Improve productivity through reuse of product design data. and promotes integration and data exchange among all business users who interact with products — including project managers. Spend less time organizing and tracking design data. The information being stored and managed (on one or more file servers) will include engineering data such as Computer-aided design (CAD) models. The central database will also manage metadata such as owner of a file and release status of the components. and quality assurance teams. Within PDM the focus is on managing and tracking the creation. drawings and their associated documents. change and archive of all information related to a product. carry out engineering change management and release control on all versions/issues of components in a product. Furthermore. build and manipulate the product structure bill of materials (BOM) for assemblies. PDM enables companies producing complex products to spread product data into the entire PLM launch-process.. and assist in configurations management of product variants. N. Product data management (PDM) serves as a central knowledge repository for process and product history. This significantly enhances the effectiveness of the launch process. sales people.associated with the creation and launch of a product. Enhance collaboration. Product data management is focused on capturing and maintaining information on products and/or services through its development and useful life. buyers. This enables automatic reports on product costs. Typical information managed in the PDM module include • • • • • • • • Part number Part description Supplier/vendor Vendor part number and description Unit of measure Cost/price Schematic or CAD drawing Material data sheets PDM Advantages: • • • • • Track and manage all changes to product related data Accelerate return on investment with easy setup. and is primarily used by engineers.CPD: Collaborative Product Development .

Michael Heim identifies seven different concepts of Virtual Reality: simulation.Collaborative Product Development (Collaborative Product Design) (CPD) is a business strategy. Product visualization.. Virtual Reality is often used to describe a wide variety of applications. highly visual. Q…VR: Virtual Reality Virtual reality (VR) is a technology which allows a user to interact with a computersimulated environment. generally known as force feedback. imaging and data communication technologies become more powerful and cost-effective over time.Product visualization Visualization of how a car deforms in an asymmetrical crash using finite element analysis. fullbody immersion. such as sound through speakers or headphones. Some advanced. However. head mounted displays. commonly associated with its immersive. Users can interact with a virtual environment or a virtual artifact (VA) either through the use of standard input devices such as a keyboard and mouse. People often identify VR with Head Mounted Displays and Data Suits. In the book The Metaphysics of Virtual Reality. and omnidirectional treadmill. immersion. It is generally accepted as not including CAD geometry authoring tools. however. it usually consists of the PLM areas of: Product Data Management (PDM). The simulated environment can be similar to the real world. image resolution and communication bandwidth. and supplier sourcing software. the Polhemus boom arm. whether that environment is a simulation of the real world or an imaginary world. but some simulations include additional sensory information. telepresence. 3D environments. or it can differ significantly from reality. work process and collection of software applications that facilitates different organizations to work together on the development of a product. R. or through multimodal devices such as a wired glove. Exactly what technology comes under this title does vary depending on who you ask. database gloves and miniaturization have helped popularize the notion. artificiality. . due largely to technical limitations on processing power. simulations for pilot or combat training. graphics hardware acceleration. It is also known as collaborative Product Definition Management (cPDM). The definition still has a certain futuristic romanticism attached. for example. those limitations are expected to eventually be overcome as processor. interaction. as in VR games. in medical and gaming applications. displayed either on a computer screen or through special or stereoscopic displays. Most current virtual reality environments are primarily visual experiences. it is currently very difficult to create a high-fidelity virtual reality experience. and network communication. In practice. but does include data translation technology. haptic systems now include tactile information. The development of CAD software. team collaboration and conferencing tools.

S. etc. The term is widely used to describe immersive virtual reality. You feel as if it is very real but know it is not... education. the manufacturing engineers. This full-body. and effortless action. These two specific definitions refer to the production of a physical prototype. interactive multimedia. but they are part of the DMU concept.Digital Mock-Up Digital MockUp or DMU is a concept that allows the description of a product. product visualization). intense focus.Visualization is any technique for creating images. Krueger also coined the term artificial reality. Digital Mockup is enriched by all the activities that contribute to describing the product. The term is also cited as a frequently-used buzzword. telecommunication computer experience was the first of its kind.. engineering (e. using 3D computer graphics techniques.g. The invention of computer graphics may be the most important development in visualization since the invention of central perspective in the Renaissance period. interact with other participants of both human and creature form. . Visualization today has ever-expanding applications in science. The development of animation also helped advance visualization. usually in 3D. installation art and video games. medicine . T.. Visitors could enter a computer-generated graphic world. Visualization through visual imagery has been an effective way to communicate both abstract and concrete ideas since the dawn of man. DMU . in which case its meaning is intentionally vague. often artificial This state is frequently accompanied by spatial excess. The product design engineers. As an extension it is also frequently referred to as Digital Prototyping or Virtual Prototyping. but it is not clear if people are using the same word consistently. a distorted sense of time. for its entire life cycle. Greek geometry." Interactive computer art first became a compositional art medium when Myron Krueger made videoplace (1970). but any kind of experience. but carries the connotation of being particularly engrossing. The sensation of total immersion in virtual reality (VR) can be so described: "You lose your critical distance to the experience and get emotionally involved. Egyptian hieroglyphs. Typical of a visualization application is the field of computer graphics. One of the objectives is to have an important knowledge of the future or the supported product to replace any physical prototypes with virtual ones. It could be not only a game you are a part of.Immersive Virtual Digital Prototyping Immersion is the state of consciousness where an immersant's awareness of physical self is diminished or lost by being surrounded in an engrossing total environment. and the support engineers work together to create and manage the DMU. or animations to communicate a message. diagrams. Examples from history include cave paintings. and Leonardo da Vinci's revolutionary methods of technical drawing for engineering and scientific purposes.

allows engineers to design and configure complex products and validate their designs without ever needing to build a physical model. HCI is also sometimes referred to as man–machine interaction (MMI) or computer–human interaction (CHI). The role of an Industrial Designer is to create and execute design solutions towards problems of . evaluation and implementation of interactive computing systems for human use and with the study of major phenomena surrounding them. Interaction between users and computers occurs at the user interface (or simply interface). design and several other fields of study. direct interface to between Digital Mockups and PDM systems. for example. such as aircraft and power plants. design and redesign. On the machine side. it draws from supporting knowledge on both the machine and the human side. and interact with large amounts of product data in real-time on standard desktop computers. Due to the multidisciplinary nature of HCI. analyze. general-purpose computer peripherals and large-scale mechanical systems. graphic and industrial design disciplines. cognitive psychology. operating systems. people with different backgrounds contribute to its success. It is often regarded as the intersection of computer science. programming languages. behavioral sciences." Because human-computer interaction studies a human and a machine in conjunction. Among the techniques and technologies that make this possible are: • • • the use of light-weight 3D models with multiple levels of detail using lightweight data structures such as JT XVL and PDF allow engineers to visualize. V…………Industrial Design Industrial design is an applied art whereby the aesthetics and usability of massproduced products may be improved for marketability and production. analyze. linguistics. and human performance are relevant. which includes both software and hardware. and development environments are relevant. active digital mockup technology that unites the ability to visualize the assembly mockup with the ability to measure. The following definition is given by the Association for Computing Machinery "Human-computer interaction is a discipline concerned with the design. U……HCI: Human Computer Interface Human–computer interaction (HCI) is the study of interaction between people (users) and computers. communication theory. social sciences. Engineering and design methods are also relevant. techniques in computer graphics. On the human side. simulate.

founded in 1907 and a precursor to the Bauhaus. which then in turn are linked. user ergonomics. A topdown model is often specified with the assistance of "black boxes" that make it easier to manipulate. sometimes in many additional subsystem levels. The term "industrial design" is often attributed to the designer Joseph Claude Sinel in 1919 (although he himself denied it in later interviews) but the discipline predates that by at least a decade. "organic strategies" may result in a tangle of elements and subsystems. until the entire specification is reduced to base elements. and exclusion. . sometimes in many levels. In a top-down approach an overview of the system is first formulated. railroad signaling systems. X……. W….. black boxes may fail to elucidate elementary mechanisms or be detailed enough to realistically validate the model. to put Germany on a competitive footing with England and the United States. brand development and sales. developed in isolation and subject to local optimization as opposed to meeting a global purpose. usability. computers and high rise buildings. telephone exchanges. engineering. whereby the beginnings are small but eventually grow in complexity and completeness. pipe organs and electric power distribution systems. For instance the Deutscher Werkbund. This strategy often resembles a "seed" model. However. and less learning time). thus making the original systems sub-systems of the emergent system. In many cases top-down is used as a synonym of analysis or decomposition. Top-down and bottom-up design Top-down and bottom-up are strategies of information processing and knowledge ordering. specifying but not detailing any first-level subsystems. they can be seen as a style of thinking and teaching. A bottom-up approach is piecing together systems to give rise to grander systems. Computers use modularity to overcome changing customer demands and to make the manufacturing process more adaptive to change (see modular programming). marketing. Each subsystem is then refined in yet greater detail. Modular design is an attempt to .Modular design In systems engineering. Its origins lay in the industrialization of consumer products. A top-down approach is essentially breaking down a system to gain insight into its compositional sub-systems. Besides reduction in cost (due to lesser customization. Examples of modular systems are cars. and flexibility in design. These elements are then linked together to form larger subsystems. mostly involving software. was a state-sponsored effort to integrate traditional crafts and industrial mass-production techniques. However. but also other humanistic and scientific theories (see systemics). Earlier examples include looms. until a complete top-level system is formed. modularity offers other benefits such as augmentation (adding new solution by merely plugging in a new module).. In a bottomup approach the individual base elements of the system are first specified in great detail. In practice. modular design — or "modularity in design" — is an approach that subdivides a system into smaller parts (modules) that can be independently created and then used in different systems to drive multiple functionalities. and bottom-up of synthesis.form.

especially in the context of unprecedented system development. The . On the other hand. make use of industry standards for key interfaces. "Characterized by: (1) Functional partitioning into discrete scalable. DFSS is relevant to the complex system/product synthesis phase. Define – Measure – Analyze – Design – Verify. including object-oriented descriptions of module functionality. However. It is process generation in contrast with process improvement. or where an existing process is deemed to be inadequate and in need of replacement. is sometimes synonymously referred to as DFSS. This is usually due to the cost of putting up interfaces between modules. DFSS (or DMADV) strives to generate a new process where none existed. traditional Six Sigma seeks for continuous improvement after a process already exists Z…………DTP: Desktop Publishing Desktop publishing (also known as DTP) combines a personal computer and WYSIWYG page layout software to create publication documents on a computer for either large scale publishing or small scale local multifunction peripheral output and distribution. reusable modules consisting of isolated. The term "desktop publishing" is commonly used to describe page layout skills. as it is usually practiced. these do not require any change to other units of the car such as the chassis. DMAIC Six Sigma as practiced is usually consumed with solving existing manufacturing or service process problems and removal of the defects and variation associated with defects. DFSS aims to create a process with the end in mind of optimally building the efficiencies of Six Sigma methodology into the process before implementation. (2) Rigorous use of well-defined modular interfaces. DMADV. which is focused on evolutionary and continuous improvement manufacturing or service process development. and driving those needs into the product solution so created. While the tools and order used in Six Sigma require a process to be in place and functioning.combine the advantages of standardization (high volume normally equals low manufacturing costs) with those of customization. The traditional DMAIC (Define – Measure – Analyze – Improve – Control) Six Sigma process. usually occurs after initial system or product design and development have been largely completed. A simple example of modular design in cars is the fact that. DFSS has the objective of determining the needs of customers and the business. the skills and software are not limited to paper and book publishing. Y…………DFSS: Design for Six Sigma Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) is a separate and emerging business-process management methodology related to traditional Six Sigma. steering or exhaust systems. paying extra will allow for "snap in" upgrades such as a more powerful engine or seasonal tyres. A downside to modularity (and this depends on the extent of modularity) is that modular systems are not optimized for performance. (3) Ease of change to achieve technology transparency and. self-contained functional elements. to the extent possible. while many cars come as a basic model.

which shows the current steps.FMS: Flexible Manufacturing Systems A flexible manufacturing system (FMS) is a manufacturing system in which there is some amount of flexibility that allows the system to react in the case of changes. and ability to change the order of operations executed on a part. machine flexibility. This flexibility is generally considered to fall into two categories. delays. There are 'standard' symbols for representing supply chain entities. or capability. capacity. whether predicted or unpredicted. or service. 3. such as in volume. Draw a future state value stream map. The second category is called routing flexibility. The work machines which are often automated CNC machines are connected by a material handling system to optimize parts flow and the central control computer which controls material movements and machine flow. 2. This may be a production flow (raw materials to consumer) or a design flow (concept to launch). trade show exhibits. The main advantages of an FMS is its high flexibility in managing manufacturing resources like time and effort in order to manufacture a new product.same skills and software are often used to create graphics for point of sale displays. 5. Draw a current state value stream map. Implement the future . promotional items. Most FMS systems comprise of three main systems. 4. Identify the target product. and information flows required to deliver the target product or service. it is known as "Material and Information Flow Mapping" Implementation 1. which both contain numerous subcategories. covers the system's ability to be changed to produce new product types. The best application of an FMS is found in the production of small sets of products like those from a mass production BB………. retail package designs and outdoor signs AA……. product family. where the technique originated. which consists of the ability to use multiple machines to perform the same operation on a part. Assess the current state value stream map in terms of creating flow by eliminating waste. as well as the system's ability to absorb large-scale changes. At Toyota.VSM: Value Stream Mapping Value stream mapping is a Lean technique used to analyze the flow of materials and information currently required to bring a product or service to a consumer. The first category.

Although value stream mapping is often associated with manufacturing. service related industries. supply chain. The thinking here is that the non-value adding steps are often preparatory or tidying up to the value-adding step and are closely associated with the person or machine/workstation that executes that value adding step. healthcare. Thus the activities become easily separated into the value stream which is the focus of one type of attention and the 'waste' steps another type. software development. In a build to the standard form Shigeo Shingo suggests that the value adding steps be drawn across the centre of the map and the non-value adding steps be represented in vertical lines at right angles to the value stream.Where is it used? Value stream mapping is commonly used in Lean environments to identify opportunities for improvement in lead time. He calls the value stream the process and the non-value streams the operations. and product development. it is also used in logistics. Therefore each vertical line is the 'story' of a person or workstation whilst the horizontal line represents the 'story' of the product being created .

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