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&ky0wÎKydi; qdi&m wd;wufvmjcif;onf vlom;wd@k . aysm&irtwGuf ta=umif;&if;wpf&yfjzpfjyD; f kf kf k f Gf _ wpfcgwpf&H vlom;. pdw0OmOfuvnf; emusiaponf? a&&Snwif vlom;wd@k udk 'kut}uD;tus,a&muf f d kd f f G Q f apedkifonf? aps;uGufpD;yGm;a&;onf zGH@jzdK;qJedkifiHrsm;udk vrf;yGifhapjyD; pD;yGm;a&;jyKjyifajymif;vJr_udkom vlom;wd@k . vdtyfcsuf wpfcjk zpfonf[k todtrSwjf yKaom abmifwpfcxtwGi;Y vkyaqmifaponf? k k J f f aps;uGufrsm;onf vlom;wdk@tay: 0efaqmifr_rsm;ay;oifhonf? vlom;wdk@u aps;uGuf. vufatmufcHjzpfraeoifhay[k 1993 vlom;zGH@jzdK;wdk;wufr_tpD&ifcHpm (The Human Development Report) wG i f axmuf j yxm;onf ? quf v uf j yD ; ed k i f i H a wmf e S i f h a ps;uG u f e S p f c k pvH k ; ud k vl a wG u om vrf;n$efr_ay;oifhonf[k qdkxm;onf? edkifiHeSifhaps;uGufonf wpfckeSifhwpfckaygif;pyfvkyfae&rnf? ,if;eSpfckpvHk;udk xdxda&mufa&muf xdef;csKyfedkif&eff vHkavmufaom tcGifhta&;udk vlom;awGudk ay;tyfxm;&rnf? tcGifhtm%may;jcif; (Empowerment) odk@wzef jyefa&mufoGm;onf? ,if;onf ,Ofaus;r_eSifh zG H @ jzd K ; wd k ; wuf r _ acgif ; pOf atmuf r S m tusd K ;aus;Zl ; b,f a vmuf u s,f u s,f jyef h j yef h j zpf o nf u d k qH k ; jzwf a y;onf ? tjyef t vS e f t m;jzif h ppf r S e f a om jid r f ; csrf ; a&; eS i f h wnf j id r f r _ u d k vk y f e d k i f a om yg0ifaqmif&Gufedkifr_ twdkif;twmudkvnf; qHk;jzwfay;vdrfhrnf? 'Drdkua&pD uJhodk@aom jynfolkudk tcGifhta&;ay;tyfzdk@ &nf&G,faom edkifiHa&;pepfonf r&Sdrjzpf vdktyfonf? ‚if;onf jynfoltwGuf jynfoawGu vkyaqmifvuaom jynfo@l zG@H jzdK;wd;wufr_ (Development of the People for the People kl f kd f k by the People) jzpfonf? ediiawmftpd;&awG[m ol@jynfoawG tpd;&tzG@J rSm ydryg0ifaqmif&uei&ef eSihf olw@kd . b0udk kfH k l k k kd G f kd f oufa&mufr_&Sdaom qHk;jzwfcsuf rsm;wGif ydkrdkyg0ifaqmif&Gufedkifrnfhenf;vrf;opfrsm;udk &SmazGay;&rnf? tJhvdkrvkyf&ifjzpfap/ tcsdefrD rvkyfaqmif edkif&ifjzpfap/ rcsKyfwnf; edkifawmhaom jynfolwdk@. tHkjuGjcif; 'Da&[m raysmhajymif;aompepfeSifhrvGJraoG xdyfwdkuf awG h=uvdrfhrnf jzpfonf? tJh'g[m rif;rJhtajct ae (Anarchy) eSifh uaomif;ueif;jzpfr_ (Chaos) qD OD;wnfoGm;vdrfhrnf? v#ifjrefaom 'Drdkua&pDazmf aqmifa&; eSihf vlrtzG@J tpnf;rsm; (Civil Society) udk awmifwif;atmif aqmif&ujf cif; rsm;[m toifh _ h G awmfqHk;aom wkef@jyefr_jzpfonf? 'Drdkua&pDtpdk;&awG yxrqHk;jzpfxGef;ay:aygufcJhwJh taemufedkifiHawGrSmqdk&ifvnf; 'Drdkua& pDjzpfxGef; zdk@tcsdefumv tawmf=umatmif judk;pm;cJh=u&wmbJvdk@ 'Drdkua&pDjyKjyifajymif;vJa&;udk wkef@qdkif;aeaom tmz&du eSifh tm&Swdkuf edkifiHrsm;. qifajconf tajctjrpfrcdkifvHkay? zGH@jzdK;wdk;wuf a&; qdk&mrSm vlawGeJ@vlr_tzGJ@tpnf;awGtwGuf judkwif owfrSwfxm;aom tqifhrsm; r&Sdajumif;udk urBmordi; awGuoufaojyaeonf? xd@k tjyif aemufaygueiirsm; (Latecomers) onf a&S;OD;ediirsm;. h kf f kd f H kfH tawG@tjuHktrsm;udk toHk;csedkifonf? trSm;awGeSifhtwm;tqD;rsm; a&Smifedkifonf? “ tjrefvkyf taeS;jzpf ” (Making Haste ªowly) onf wpfcgwpf&H wdk;wufzdk@vkyf&if;uae aemufjyef a&mufoGm;onfh obm0udk qdkonf? odk@aomf wdk;wufaewJh edkifiHawGrSmawmh aeSmifhaeS;jcif; 6 -o*kwfv twGJ 10 trSwf 1

7

udk tvGeftrif; tav;ay;aejcif;onf ab;tE W&m,f twGuf aq;n$ef; wpfck (Recipe) vdk jzpfoGm;edkifonf? 'Drua&pD tpd;& yHpukd vufcusio;aeaom ediirsm; twGi;rSmyif 'Drua&pDukd yHptrsKd ;rsKd ;jzifh kd k k H H hf kH kfH f kd k H usio;ae=uonf? taemufwi; 'Drua&pD (Western Democracy) yHpwpfrsKd ;wnf; &yfwnfaejcif;r[kwf hf kH kd f kd k H ovdk tar&duef/ jAdwdef/ jyifopf/ qGpfZmvef uJhodk@aom vufwpfqkyfpmedkifiHrsm;twGufom 'Drdkua& pDudk uefhowfay;xm;wmvnf; r[kwfay? 'Drdkua&pDonf ta&S@Oa&my (Eastern Europe) odk@ysH@eSH@vm onfeitr# tpd;&. 'Drua&pDyprsm;onfvnf; uGjJ ym;r_ wd;vm=uonf? 'Drua&pDeiiH rsm;wGif olw@kd . S hf k kd kH H k kd kd f ud,yif p&duvuQ%mrsm;&Svm=uonf? tvm;wlpmbJ tm&S'rua&pD (Asian Democracy) onfvnf; k f kd k f d G D kd yHpwpfcwnf;rjzpfeiay? ediiwpfccsi; tvduf olw@kd . vlra&;/ ,Ofaus;r_ eSihf pD;yGm;a&; vdtyfcsursm;eSihf k H k kd f kfH k f k _ k f udkufnDaom oD;jcm;vuQ%mwpfckudk 'Drdkua&pDpepfu jzpfxGef; apvdrfhrnf? ,if;onf ppfrSefaom 'Drdkua&pD tajccHvdktyfcsufvnf;jzpfonf? odk@aomf jynfolwdk@onf olwdk@wdkif;jynf. tpdk;&xHwGif txl;wvnf yg0ifeia&; twGuf vHavmufaom tcGitm%mrsm;udk jynfotm;ay;tyf xm;oifonf? kd f k hf l h tjynfjynfqi&m vl@tcGita&; a=unmpmwrf; (The Universal Declaration of Human Rights) kd f hf . tyd'f 30 pvH;onf jynfoxtcGita&;ay;tyfz@kd om &nf&,aeonf? ,if;vl@tcGita&;rsm;r&Sv#if k k l H hf G f hf d 'Drdkua&pD"avhp&dkufonfvnf; tcGHcsnf;om jzpfayvdrfhrnf? xdktcg jynfolvlxk. qENudk xif[yf aprnfr[kwfay? tm%mydkifrsm;. usL;ausmfazgufzsufr_ udkvnf; ckcHedkifrnf r[kwfay? 'Drua&pD jzpfpOfonf t=urf;rzufbJ ediia&;eSivra&;jyKjyifajymif;vJrukd azmfaqmifay;onf? kd kfH hf l _ _ 'Drdkua&pD. vGwfvyfpGm aqG;aEG;edkifjcif; eSifh jiif;cHkjcif;"avhonf vufeufudkifyÉdyuQrsm; vkyfp&mrvdk bJ rwluGJjym;r_awGudk ajz&Sif;edkifaponf? 'Drdkua&pD eSifhvl@tcGifhta&;,Ofaus;r_onf uGJjym;jcm;em;r_r &SapbJ nDnnwnw/f tifwutm;wduf aqmif&uvpwukd azmfaqmifay;onf? tJ'g[m jidr;csr;a&; d D G f G kd f k G f kd d f h f f ,Ofaus;r_ eSihf zG@H jzdK;wd;wufr,Ofaus;r_w@kd udk cGjJ cm;xm;I r&a=umif; oufao jyjcif; jzpfonf? 'Drua&pD k _ kd enf;vrf;rsm; rSwqifh jynfolvlxkudk tcGifhtm%may;tyfzdk@&SmazG&rnf? odk@rSom ukvor*~eSifh ‚if;. tzG@J tpnf;tm;vH;onf jidr;csr;a&; ,Ofaus;r_eihf zG@H +zdK;wd;wufr,Ofaus;r_ jrSiwifay; edirnf jzpfonf? k f f S k _ hf kf urBmvH;qdi&m vl@todi;t0di;qDodk@(Toward Global Community) k kf kf kf usr&Jhwifjycsufudk ed*Hk;csKyfyg&ap? vlom;wdk@. zGH@jzdK;wdk;wufr_onf pD;yGm;a&;qdkif&mwdk;wufr_ (Economic Growth) jzpf&HkeJ@wif rjynfhpHkedkifyg? ‚if;. A[dkcsufrSm tcGifh tm%m ay;tyfjcif; eSifh pdwyi;qdi&m tvdjk ynf0r_ (Inner Fulfillment) wd@k jzpfonf? tjrif usO;ajrmif;aom tDvpfrsm;/ w&m;vuf f kd f k f h f vGwfqefqefjykr_usifh}uHae=uaom edkifiHa&;ODaqmifr_awG&SdwJh urBmh wpfck &Sdaeonf? ,if;urBmwpfckwGif vlom;eSifh ,Ofaus;r_wefzdk;rsm; tvGefta&;ygap&ef tcGifhtm%may;tyfjcif; eSifh pdwfydkif; qdkif&m tvdkjynfh0r_ tcsufrsm;uomv#if azmfaqmif ay;onf? edkifiHa&; eSifh vlr_a&; toGiful;ajymif;a&;wGif jynfolvlxk. yg0ifaqmif&Gufjcif;onf u|ekfyfwdk@acwfumv. t"duus aom udpPwpf&yfjzpfonf? xdkrSom vGwfajrmufjcif; (Liberation) onf xdef;csKyfjcif; txufu &Sdaom/ vlom;wefzdk; (Human Worth) onf tm%myg0gtxuf u &S d a eaom vl @ tzG J @ tpnf ; rsm; wnf a qmif e d k i f rnf j zpf o nf ? 'DyHkpHt&qdkv#if zGH@jzdK;wdk;wufr_ (Development) onf ppfrSefaom vl@tcGifhta&; rsm;&Sdaom 'Drdkua&pDudkom vdktyfaeonf? 'Drdkua&pD&v#if ,Ofaus;r_eSifh zGH@jzdK;wdk;wufr_onf ol@tvdkvdkwpfaygif;wpfpnf;wnf;jzpfoGm;jyD; ywf0ef;usifwpfckudk zefwD;vdkufonf? ,if;ywf0ef;usifwGif vlom;tm;vHk;onf wefzdk;&Sd=ujyD; vlwpfOD; 7 -o*kwfv twGJ 10 trSwf 1
(ªowly)

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tarpk ar#mfrSef;aom 'Drdkua&pD eSifh vlhtcGifhta&; jrefrmedkifiHwGif tjrefqHk; ay:ayguf ygap? rav;&Sm; tjynfjynfqdkif&m vGwfjidrf; csrf;omcGifh (Amnesty International) tzGJ@}uD;u jyKvkyfusif;yaom 'Drdkua&pD acgif;aqmif a':atmifqef;pk=unf. 65 eSpfajrmuf arG;ae@r*FvmyGJ wGif jzefha0&ef jrefrm'kuQonfrsm; tpnf;t&kH; (BRO) rS bmomjyefay;&ef tultnDawmif; ojzifh u|efawmf bavmhcf*g tvif;quf rS judk;pm;jyD; qDav#mfatmif bmomjyef vdkuf&ygonf? u|efawmf tart&if; wpfa,mufvdk tvGef av;pm; cspfcif&aom a':atmifqef;pk=unf. tvGef aumif;aom okawoe pmwrf;wpfckudk tarh arG;ae@twGuf trSwft& azmfjycGifh&I 0rf;om*k%f,lrdygw,f? txl;ojzifh rdrdtenf;i,f em;vnf wwfajrmuf xm;aom todynm jzifh edkifiHeSifh vlrsdk;twGuf tenf;i,f yg0ifvkyfudkifcGifh&vdk@vnf; auseyfygrdygw,f? tarpk tygt0if trSefwu,f ay;qyf aeol tm;vHk;udk &ifxJuae av;pm;*g&0jyKvdkufygw,f? trSm;t,Gif;&Sdygu u|efawmf. bmomjyef nhHzsif;r_a=umifhom jzpfa=umif; 0efcHyg&ap?

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um;vrf;twdkif; qGJwifEdkifw,f/ ,if;vGifjyif wckvHk;udkvnf; vTrf;rdk;Edkifí xdwwd,csOf;uyfvrf;rS rdrdwdkUxdk;ppfqifEGJ&ef a&G;cs,fw,f/ um;vrf;aygufEdkifojzihf qufoG,f a&; vrf ; aMumif ; zG i f h u m ta&S U ud k xd k ; ppf r sm; qufvufqifEGJEdkifw,f/ pwkwÉcsOf;urf;vrf;rSm &efolUtaejzihf olwdkU&JU vHkjcHKa&; pdk;&drfzG,fjzpf aeí4if ; vrf ; ud k toH k ; cs ppf u pm; Ed k i f y gu rdrdtwGuf tjrwfxGufEdkifygwmudk awGU&ygw,f/ xdvrf;tm; [efjy xd;k ppfjzifh vSnppfupm; Edivsif k hf k f &ef o l U wyf r I ; onf ol U &J U t&ef w yf u d k t"d u ppfrsufESmodkU rydkU&JawmhbJ xdk[efjyxdk;ppfudkom tav;ay;umuG,frIjyKayrnf/ t"du jzpfcsifwm uawmh &efolUwyfrI;tm; ppfw*FeysL[m oHk;oyf wGufcsufrI vTJrSm;um t&efwyftm; tusdK;&Sd&Sd toHk;rjyKEdkifap&ef ppfupm;vSnfh uGufzefwD; ay;jcif; jzpfygw,f/ tcef; (26) [ef j yxd k ; ppf / ppf a =umif ; wck zefwD;vSnfhpm;/ ppfupm;r_jyKjcif;jzihf aemufxyf&&Sd Ed k i f r nf h tusd K ;/ tjrwf w ck rS m t"d u xd k ; ppf jyKvkyfrnfh rdkif;wHk&Sd&efolrsm;taejzihf/ ‚ifwdk@tm; aemufydk;odyf 0kdif;ydwfacsr_ef;awmhrnf/ odk@r[kwf ‚if w d k @ .XmecsKyf u d k OD ; wnf w d k u f a wmh r nf [ k +cdrf;ajcmuf&ma&mufojzihf ‚ifwdk@tawG@t}uHKt& ,if;odk@ 0dkif;ywf jzwfawmuf/ ydwfqdk@ acsr_ef;jcif; enf;AsL[mudk ta=umufq;jzpf&um/ ,if;odk aom kH h enf;AsL[mjzihf usifhoHk;acs r_ef;onf[k ,lqum a=umuf&GH@wkefv_yfjcif;jzpfum/ pdwf"gwf ysufjym; oGm;apEdijf cif; yifjzpfygw,f? xdo@kd enf;jzifh t"du k k xdk;ppftuef@rdkif;wHkppfrsufESmwGif rdrdwdk@. ta&; omr_udk rsm;pGm &&SdapEdkifygw,f? tu,f I &ef o l u ol . aoe*F A sL[m wpdwfwydkif;udk rdkif;wHkppfrsufESmodk@ydk@+yD;/ a&&Snf uwkwfcHppfjzihf ckcHvsifvnf;/ [efjyppfa=umif;u rdkif;wHkeJ@rdkif;[eft=um; 0efrJcifudk 0ifodrf;um/
-o*kwfv twGJ 10 trSwf 1

&efo. qufo,a&;vrf; a=umif;udk jzwf awmuf l G f +yD;/ awmifbufraeI rdi;wHukd jcdr;ajcmufEionf? S kf k f kd f 'grS r [k w f &ef o l @ XmecsKyf u d k y if quf v uf + cd r f ; ajcmuf E d k i f y g ao;onf ? &ef o l @ wyf r S L ;taejzih f ol@&J@t&Hwyftiftm;udk ta0;odk@ppfulrv$wf&JyJ/ teD;u&efouom &ifqici;bd@k rsm;onf/ Tenf; l kd kd f kd f jzifh &efol@t&Hwyfudk xdrf;csKyfxm; EdkifcGifh& &SdEdkif onf? xdo@kd bufaygi;pHu pDppfo;oyfum/ rdrw@kd k f k kH d taeeJ@ ta&;ygaomqH;jzwfcsuEpcukd aumufcsuf k f S fk csEd k i f c J h y gw,f ? t"d u xd k ; ppf / ppf a =umif ; ud k wwd,csO;uyfvrf;/ 0rf;qvm;rS rdi;wHk od@k cswuf f kf D wdkufcdkufap+yD;/ pwkwˆ vrf; a=umif; wa=umif;udk c&D ; wd k x d k ; azguf c sD w uf j cif ; ( S R P ) jzih f xdk;oGif;+cdrf;ajcmufapum/ t"du tm;jzihf &efol. aoe*F A sL[m t&H w yf u d k xd r f ; csKyf x m;&ef qH k ; jzwf c J h = uygw,f ? 'gh t jyif w jcm; ppf a =umif ; / ppfrsufESmrS &efolrsm;uk enf;rsdK;pHkoHk;I qGJxm; Edkif&ef/ [efjy+cdrf;ajcmufr_rsm; xdxdrdrd vkyf&efyg pDrHcJh=uygonf? [efjyxdk;ppfpDrHcsufrsm;uawmh/ rdkif;qyf odk@csDwufrJh[efjzihf/ rdkif;ykatmifwGif av,mOfuGif; i,fwck wnf aqmufjcif;/ rdi;ykvukd xd;rnf[efjzifh k f kH k h oHviu;wd@k qdyom;&m/ taemufbufum;vrf;udk Gf l f G jyifqifjcif;/ ul;wdk@ qdyfudk xdk;rnfh[efjzifh (25) aygif'gtajr‡muf (2)vufudk qGJoGm;+yD;/ taemuf bufurf;rS wdkif;xGma&; rD;cdk;AHk;rsm; eJ@ ypfcwfprf; oyf j cif ; / xd k ; enf ; AsL[mt& xd k a 'o w0d k u f & S d &efol@t&Hwyfrsm;udk v_yf&Sm;r_ rjyKEdkif&efqGJxm;Edkif cJ h o nf ? wmcsD v d y f p pf r suf E S m &S d &ef o l r sm;ud k xdrf;csKyfxm;&eftwGuf rdkif;jzwfwGif/ =um;jzwf axmuf y H h a &;pcef ; i,f y H k p H w J r sm;ud k xd k ; apjcif ; / wmcsvybufukd xd;ppfqifrnf[I 0g'jzef@owif; D d f k l jzef @ ay;jcif ; / rd k i f ; yk a tmif r S rd k i f ; qwf ud k csDwufxdk;ESufrnfh[efeJ@ csDwufaeaom ppfa=umif; rsm;odk@ av,OfrS &duQmcsay;aeonfhyHk/ ay:ap&ef/ 13

14

&dum twkrsm;/ av,mOfrS csay;jcif; ponfw@kd udk pepfwus pDrcsursm;csum vSnpm;/ ppfupm;cJygonf? Q H f hf h t"du xd;ppf/ ppfa=umif;/ 0rfqvm;/ rdi;wHvrf;a=umif;. tv,fwif &Saeaom ay (5000)jrif/h k kf k G d awmif*rl (3)vHk;rS/ zdkcaemifhqdkif/ cHppfae&mrsdK;udk tvm;wlcJhppfqifum ckcHEdkifaom ae&mrsm;wjcm;wGif &ef o l u jyKvk y f E d k i f & ef & S d I / xd k o d k @ &ef o l v k y f a qmif r _ e nf ; yg;oG m ;ap&ef 0rf q vm;wd k u f y G J w G i f / (25)aygif ' gtajrmuf ( 8)vuf / (3)vuR pd w f a jymif ; }uD ; (8)vuf w d k @ ud k [ef c suf n D n D aygif ; pyf u m/ jrpftaemufbufurf;/ rsufESmcsif;qdkif awmifwef;rsm;ay:rS/ 'vpyftm;oGefzdypfapjcif;jzihf &efolrsm;udk wkefv_yfajcmufjcm;oGm;apum tqifhqifh aom t&HcHppfa=umif; wnfaqmufr_ysufjym; oGm;ap&ef zefwD;jcif;? ppf q vm;awmif b uf / &ef o l . t"d u cH p pf p nf ; od k @ xd k ; 0if E d k i f w J h urf ; yg;apmif ; ae&mrS (6)aygif ' gtajr‡ m uf (2)vuf / 3-vuR p d w f a jymif ; (2)vuf j zih f / &ef o l & J @ umuif ; / umwyf r sm;ud k jyif;jyif;xefxefypfulay;ap&ef/ &efol@ &ef t"ducHppfae&mudk xdk;rnfh ( , š 2 ) ae@usrS oHvGifodk@ ul ; vmrJ h / vuf e uf } uD ; rsm;eJ @ aygif ; pyf u d k 'k w d , qif h taejzih f xd k ; &ef } uH & G , f x m;ygonf ? ava=umif;ypfuludkyg xyfydk;aygif;pyfum/ jyif;jyif;xefxef ypfulay;&efvnf; }udKwifpDrHxm;ygonf? yxrtqifh (11)&ufwi/f ava=umif;ypfuukd rdi;wHe@J rdi;[eft=um;&S/d &efo@l t&Hwyf rsm; v_y&m;r_ukd G l kf k kf f S wae@vHk;/ w}udrfvsif/ av,Of (2§3)pD;ypftm;eJ@ uef howfxdrf;csKyfxm;apygonf? [efjyxdk;ppfpkzGJ@r_twGuf/ rdkif;[ef-yGefygusif/ &efol@XmecsKyfodk@ OD;wnfwdk;0ifrnf/ c&D;wdkcsDwuf/ xdk;ESuf a&;twGuf/ rdrdwyftiftm;udk wyf&if;w&if;oHk;&ef vsmxm;onf? yxrtqifh rdkif;wHkbufwGif wd k u f y G J j yif ; xef ygu/ ul n D E d k i f & ef y g/ oif h a vsmf a om ae&m/ rd k i f ; [ef t aemuf a jrmuf / rd k i f ; wH k rdi;[eft=um;vrf;tv,f&/dS 0rfrcif&mpcef;taemufawmifbuf&dS awmif;uH;wckukd xd;azgua&;wyfu kf J G k k f ajcukwf,lwyfpGJxm;&ef/ xdkajcukwf ae&mudk t"du ppfa=umif;0rfqvmudk pwifwdkufwJhae@ (,)&uf/ eHeufydkif;wGif wufodrf;+yD;/ wyf&if;udk wyf r[mwcktiftm;tjzpfodk@ vSnfhpm;&ef/ (,)&ufeHeufydkif; ESif;uGJcsdefrSpI avwyfrS 'gudk 'grsm;/ iSm;&rf;vdk@&wJh t&yfbufava=umif;vdkif;rs 'gudk'g&Edkifor#eJ@ tajcjyKawmifuHk;ay:rS wyf&if;qDodk@/ &duQm/ ppfvufeufypPnf;/ cJ,rf;rD;ausmuf/ usif;wl; ud&d,mrsm; tygt0if u d k tacguf a cguf t cgcg/ av,Of a y:rs csay;oG m ;&ef xd k v S n f h pm;r_ @ t& t&H w yf r sm;ud k a&S@wef;wdkufyGJae&modk@ rydk@awmhyJ/ XmecsKyfumuG,fa&;twGuf OD;pm;ay;t&Hxm;&Sdayvdrfhrnf? xdkvSnfhpm;r_ y&d,m,ftoG,foG,fjzifh/ &efol@. t&Hwyfv_yf&Sm;r_@udk xdrf;csKyfapEdkif&Hkru/ 0rf q vm;-rd k i f ; wH k p pf r suf E S m &S d a&S w ef ; &ef o l @ wyf o m;rsm; pd w f 0 ,f / rd r d w yf r sm;u ol w d k @ tm; aemuf y d k i f ; uae+yD ; 0d k i f ; ywf y d w f q d k @ jzwf a wmuf w d k u f c d k u f a eonf [ k txif & S d u m/ pd w f " gwf ajcmufjcm;wkefv_yfvmapEdkifonf? 0rfqvm;eJ@ rdkif;wHkt=um;ay (5000)awmifoHk;vHk;ay:&Sd &efol@t"du cHppfae&mrS &eforsm;tbd@k / jyif;jyif;xefxef wH@k jyefcctm;usqif;ap&eftwGu/f t&Hwyftiftm; (3000)eJ@ l kH enf ; yd & d , m,f t &H w yf tif t m;rsm;ud k t"d u cH p pf a e&mod k @ ppf u l r yd k @ Ed k i f a p&ef enf ; rsd K ;pH k o H k ; I xdrf;jcKwfxm;apjcif;/ ypfulpDrHcsufrsm;t& ava=umif;ypful/ tajr‡muf/ pdwfajymif;ypfulrsm;udk/ pepfwusa&$@ajymif;aygif;pyfum t"du cHppfae&mrsm;odk@ jyif;jyif;xefxef/ xdxdrdrd/ 'vpyfypfcwf OD;ESrxm;apjcif;/ 0rfqvm;ul;wd@k qdyf wduytwGi;/ ypfuypftm;rsm; jzihf jyif;jyif;xefxefypfuay;aepOfrm/ d f k f JG f l l S &efo. t"ducHppfae&mod@k xd;ppfqifrnfwyf&if;u awmif(3)vH;teuf/ tcsutjcmusaomawmifu;. l k h k f kH atmuf a jcwG i f / yk e f o #d K ;aeum 0rf q vm;rS ajy;vmaom &ef o l r sm;t"d u cH p pf p nf ; awmif 14
-o*kwfv twGJ 10 trSwf 1

15

ay:od k @ ajy;wuf v mygu/ vuf e uf } uD ; ypf u l e J @ [efcsufnDnD tumtuG,f,lum tcsuftjcm awmifu;ay:od@k vSpyx;wufa&muf wducuor; kH H G f kd k f kd f d f ydkuf&rnf? 0rf q vm;rS ajy;vmaom &ef o l w d k @ &J @ a=umuf p d w f e J @ tquf r jywf ol w d k @ acgif ; ay:od k @ usa&muf aygufuGJ vsuf&SdwJh rdrdypfulrsm;a=umif; z&d k z &J + yd K uG J u m/ cH p pf p nf ; usd K ;ayguf o G m ;Ed k i f v d k @ / tcuftcJ/ ckcHr_tenf;i,feJ@ cHppfae&m tcsuf tjcm awmifuHk;udk odrf;Edkifayrnf/ wu,f wGuf xm;wJ h t wd k i f ; jzpf r vmygu 0rf q vm;wd k u f + yD ; aemuf ( , š 2 )&ufwGif 25 aygif'gtajr‡muf (2)vuf / 76-rr tajr‡ m uf ( 2)vuf / oH c syf u m b*rf; (4)vuf/ 3-vuRpwajymif;rsm;udk pkpnf;I/ d f av,Of (9)pD;. ypfuleJ@yg aygif;pyfum/ ypftm;eJ@ tEd k i f , l w d k u f c d k u f & ef (WIN THE FIRE FIGHT) enf;yd&d,m,foHk;&ef? xdkenf;AsL[mudk toHk;jyKI ppfqif&mwGif/ &efolw&kwfjzLwdk@&J@ckcHwGef;vSefr_/ cdkifrmaeaoygu/ xd k ; ppf enf ; AsL[m/ wwd , enf ; vrf ; tjzpf / 0rfqvm;wdkufyGJ +yD;vsif+yD;jcif;/ um;vrf;azguf+yD; 2-&uf / 3-&uf t wG i f ; (25)aygif ' gtajr‡ m uf }uD ; rsm;ud k qG J , l v mum/ urf ; yg;ae&maumif ; (3§4)rdituGmta0;rS jyif;jyif;xefxefypful ay;I kf ava=umif ; ypf u l r sm;eJ @ yg/ [ef c suf n D n D a ygif ; pyfypftm;oHk;vdk@ tydkifwdkuf&ef pDrHcif;usif;xm; cJ h w mawG @ &ygw,f ? 'ga=umif h 0rf q vm; wdkufyGJ+yD;vsif+yD;jcif;/ 0rfqvm;-rdkif;wHkbufum; vrf;udk csufcsif;azguf&efESifh/ rdkif;yef rS 0rfqvm; ul;wdk@qdyftxd um;vrf;udk (,-1)&ufae@rSpI oHvGifjrpfurf;bm;txd tjrefazgufvkyf&ef pDr H xm;cJh=uygonf? ppf q if a &;&J @ yxrtqif h / tyd k i f ; (1)0rfqvm;ESitydi;(2)awmifo;vH;udk &+yD;aomf/ hf k f kH k &ef o l u d k touf &S L ayguf r ay;yJ / rd k i f ; wH k t xd / vd k u f p pf q if / zd t m;ay;wd k u f c d k u f a csr_ e f ; um/
-o*kwfv twGJ 10 trSwf 1

od r f ; yd k u f & ef / wcsd e f w nf ; / w+yd K if w nf ; rS m yif / 0rf q vm;-rd k i f ; wH k v rf ; ud k ay:wmtvk y f o rm; (3000)tif t m;oH k ; I tjref a zguf & ef / rd k i f ; wef ppfe,f0ef;rS c&D;wdwuazguwucua&; (SRP) k kd f f kd f kd f ppf a =umif ; u 0rf r J c if p pOf ; &G m tm; trd t & wdkufcdkufodrf;ydkuf&ef wdk@jzpf ygonf? ppf q if a &;&J @ 'k w d , tqif h rd k i f ; wH k u d k wdkufcdkufodrf;ydkuf&ef/ rdkif;wHkt0if/ ppfAsL[mt& ta&;}uD ; aom awmif u H k ; rsm;rS aeI &ef o l u ck c H w G e f ; vsef c J h a omf / oH v G i f t a&S @ buf u rf ; od k @ aygif;ul;ajcukwf&,l+yD;wJh/ vufeuf }uD;ypfulrsm; tjyif/ ava=umif;ypfue@J aygi;pyfum/ wduppfqifEJG l f k f oGm;&ef/ &efol&J@ ckcHrSKpGrf;tm;qufvufaumif; aecJhygvsif rdkif;wHkrS (4§5)rdkiftuGmta7;txd/ um;vrf;tjrefazguum/ (25)aygi'g tajr‡muf}uD; f f rsm; tm; qGJ,la&$@ajymif;I jyif;jyif;xefxefypful ay;acs r_e;wducu&ef rdi;wHukd vuf&odr;ydu+f yD; f k f kd f kf k f k vrf;yGifhoGm;ygu/ ppfqifa&;&nfrSef;csuf/ w0uf atmifjrif+yD;ajrmufwJhtaetxm;udk a&muf&SdoGm; Edkifygw,f? rdkif;wHk/ rdkif;[ef/ yGefygusifvGifjyifudk pd;rd;cGi&+yD;/ ( S R P ) c&D;wdx;azguppfa=umif;eJ@ k k hf k kd f 0rfrJcifwGif/ aygif;pyfpkzGJ@&ef pDrHxm;cJhygonf?

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qufvufazmfjyygrnf// 15

16

“AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; twÎKy`wœdeSifh atmiffqef;vufa&G;pifusrf;rsm;”
jyKpka&; tqdjk yKcsuf
rdwÎDvm-jrifhjrifhat; (19 Zlvdkif/ 2010) usrwdk@ rdwÎDvmjrdK@e,f trskd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyfu tmZmenfacgif;aqmifjuD;rsm; usqHk;wJh tmZm enfae@tcrf;tem;udk b,fv[ef@wm;aeSmuf,urawG &Saeygap 0wfrysuf usi;ycJ=h uwm jzpfyg kd S f _ d f w,f? tmZmenfacgif;aqmif}uD;rsm;[m trdedkifiHawmf&Jh aus;Zl;&Sif}uD;rsm; jzpf=uygw,f? usrwdk@ Ediioeif iHom; jynfovx}k uD;u aus;Zl;&Sif tmZmenfacgi;aqmif}uD;rsm;udk b,fawmhrS rarhravsmh k f H l kd l l f *k%fjyK us;Zl;qyf&r,fqdkwJh todcH,lcsufeJ@ 'Dvdk0wfrysuf usif;ycJhwmjzpfygw,f? aemufwa=umif;u usrwd@k &Jh vli,fawG[m tmZmenfacgi;aqmif}uD;rsm;&Jh aumif;jrwfwhJ wdi; f kf jynftusdK;jyKr_eJ@tavhtxrsm;udk twk,la&;eJh trdedkifiHawmfrSm tmZmenfacgif;aqmif}uD;rsm;uJhodkh edkifiHhacgif;aqmif}uD;rsm; ay:xGef;a&;wdk@twGuf &nf&G,fusif;yjcif;jzpfygw,f? 2010 ckeSpf Zlvdkif (19) &uf (63) }udrfajrmuf tmZmenfae@tcrf;tem;rSm usrwdk@trsdK;om;acgif;aqmif}uD; zcifAdkvfcsKyf atmifqef;ta=umif;udk wifjyvdkygw,f? usrwd@k wawG AdvcsKyfta=umif; od&=dS unfnav;pm;ae=uwm[m ud,usKd ;r&Sm tvGe&;om;wJh k f kd k f f kd =unfndkzG,f acgif;aqmif}uD;tjzpf wifpm;aewmom rsm;ygw,f? rSeygw,f? AdvcsKyf[m &d;om;ajzmifrwfol ud,usKd ;r&Sm ediitusKd ;twGuf ud,usKd ;pGe@f v$wwhJ f k f k h k f kfH k f f =unfnz,f acgi;aqmif}uD;yg? ediia&;qdwmu ediitwGi;&Sd vltaygi;wd@k &Jh ta&;yg? ud,usKd ;rvkybJ kd G f kfH k kfH f f k f f ediitwGi;&Sd vltaygi;wd@k &Jta&; ediita&;vkywhJ yk*Kd~ vfukd ediia&;orm;vd@k ac: =uwmyg? AdkvfcsKyf[m kfH f f h k f hH f kfH edkifiHa&;orm;ppfppf jzpfygw,f? edkifiHa&;orm;wdkif; pHerlem,l=u&rSmjzpfygw,f? 'gayr,fh AdkvfcsKyfudk tJ'gavmufuav;wifpm;=unfnaewmeJ@ rvHavmufygb;? AdvcsKyf[m usrwd@k jrefrm ediiwrsKd ;om;vH;&Jh kd k l k f kfH k trsKd ;om;acgi;aqmif}uD;jzpfygw,f? jrefrmediirm b,fwe;urS ray:aygub; ao;wJh tvGevrmyg;eyfwhJ f kfH S k f f l f d R edkifiHa&;okcrdef}uD;jzpfw,fqdkwm usrwdk@ em;vnf=unfndk=u&rSm jzpfyg w,f? 'grS jynfhpHkvHkavmuf r,fxifygw,f? tJ'vkd vdrmyg;eyfwhJ ediia&;acgi;aqmif}uD;jzpfv@kd AdvcsKyf[m eSpaygi;&mausmf qH;&_;u|ejf zpfaecJ& D R kfH f k f f f k H h wJh edkifiHawmfudk vGwfajrmufatmif vGwfvyfa&; &,lay;edkifcJhwJh vGwfvyfa&;Adokum}uD; jzpfygw,f? u|eb0twGi;rSm (6) vuRausmf "m;vufeufuicir&wJh txJu 'Dae@vdk acwfrD Armhwyfrawmf }uD; f f kd f G hf wnfaqmufxaxmifay;edicwhJ wyfrawmf&hJ zcif}uD;vnf; jzpfygw,f?trdeiitwGi; rSwif;aexdi=f uwJh l k f hJ kd f H f D k vlrsKd ;aygi;pHjk ynfoawG[m ya'o&mZfpepfehJ e,fcs@J &JaoG;cJra=umifh nDnwa&;jydKuJaewmudk wrsKd ;om;vH; f l h G _ G f G k aoG;pnf;nDnGwfa&;twGuf pnf;&Hk;ay;edkifcJhwJh r[m trsKd;om;pnf;&Hk;a&;rª;}uD;/ trsdK;om;acgif; aqmif}uD;vnf;jzpfygw,f? zG@J pnf;yHtajccHOya'w&yfe@J jynfaxmifporRwjrefrmediiawmf&,fv@kd 'Drua&pDeiiawmf wnf k k kfH kd kd f H aqmufedkifcJhwJh 'Drdkua&pDacgif;aqmif}uD;vnf;jzpfygw,f?'Dvdk trdedkifiHawmf&Jh }uD;av;wJh wm0efawGudk jyD;ajrmufatmif xrf;aqmifedkifcJhwm[m tvGefvdrRm yg;eyfuGsrf;usif tajrmftjrif}uD;wJh edkifiHa&; okcrdef}uD;jzpfvdkhom xrf;aqmifedkifwmjzpfygw,fvdkh usr ajymvdkwmyg? 16
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acwfjydKiftifwmeufrS ul;,lygonf// ol[m udveacwfu awme,fav;wckrm k kd D S arG;zGm; juD;jyif;vmcJhjyD; t*Fvdyfacwf (7) wef; atmifw,fv@kd qdygw,f? 'gayr,fh tdE,ediiH uv k Nd k f uwœm; udkoGm; t*FvdyfpmoifcJhjyD;aemuf touf (27) eSpfrSm atmuf wef;a&Shaepmar;yGJ0ifajzwm atmifv2 a&S@aevkycyg w,f? tifrwef &Jwif;jyD; kd f hJ &nfrSef;csuf}uD;vSwJh 'Dvl [m wbufu a&Shae vky&if; ekiia&;e,f rD',m e,fawGxJ xd;azmufajc f dfH D k ukyf,lcJhygw,f? ol&d,o wif;pmwkduf &S,f,m awGudk 0,f,lcJhygw,f? ol[m tJ'Dumvu t"dutwdkuftcH trsdK;om;a&; tzGJ@}uD;jzpfwJh *sDpDbDat 0Homek tzG@J }uD;xJ 0ifygcjhJ yD; 1922 ckrm *spbat uGawmh S D D D J (21) OD;tzGJ@buf ygcJhygw,f? 1925 yxrt}udrf 'dkiftmcDa&G;aumufyGJ rSm 0ifjydKifcJhayr,fh ta&G; rcH&yg? ol@touf (27) eSpft&G,f 1927 ckeSpf 'k w d , t}ud r f 'd k i f t mcD a &G ; aumuf y G J r S m awmh om,m0wD awmifydkif; rJqENe,fuae Oya'jyK v$wfawmftrwftjzpf ta&G;cH&yg w,f? 1929 ckrSmvnf; wwd,t}udrf 'dkiftmcDa&G;aumufyGJrSm xyfeicygw,f? om,m0wDjrdK@r 0Homek aumifprm kd f hJ D S vnf ; twG i f ; a&;rª ; tjzpf e J h e,f c sJ q ef h u sif a &; ed k i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ a wG vk y f c J h y gw,f ? 1936 a&G ; aumufyrmawmh [oFmwajrmufyi; trwf tjzpf JG S kd f ta&G;cHcJh&ygw,f? 24 1931 =o*kwfvrSm v,form;olykefacgif; aqmif q&mpHudk t*FvdyfawG zrf;rdwJhtcg ol[m q&mpH bufu a&S@aevdkufay;cJhygw,f? t*Fvdyf e,fcsJ@ tpdk;&t&m&SdawG/ ppfwyfawG/ yefcsmyDykvdyf awG [ m yk e f u ef o l a wG u d k &uf & uf p uf p uf eS d y f u G y f c J h w ,f v d k h t*F v d y f t pd k ; &qD td w f z G i f h a y; pmwapmif a&;cJ h y gw,f ? “1930-31 ck e S p f jref r mjynf t a&;” qd k w J h e mrnf e J h t*F v d y f v d k pmtkywtkya&;jyD; ediijH cm;yd@k wJt cg t*Fvytpd; f f kf h d f k &u ydwfypfwm cH&ygw,f? 'g[m yk'fr 124 (u) eJ@ jidpe;aew,fv@kd vnf; owday;cH& ygw,f? ol[m G f Oya'jyKv$wfawmfxJrSmvnf; q&mpH olykefxr_eJ@ ywfoufjyD; t*Fvdyftpdk;&&Jh ta&; ,ludkifwG,fr_ awG u d k jyif ; jyif ; xef x ef a0zef c J h v d k @ jynf x J a &; twGi;0ef rpPwm bko*a&hAvDu “armif rif; *VKef f f jzpfvmjyD” vdk@a0zefcJhygw,f? 1935 arvrSmawmh ol[m rD'D,mudk,f pm;vS,f tjzpf *syefeiiuom;jyD; tqm[d&ibe; kd f H kd G Sf G f owif ; pm wd k u f r S m rD ' D , mvk y f i ef ; eJ h ed k i f i H a &; vkyfief;awG avhvmcJhygw,f? tjyefrSm udk;&D;,m;/ w&kwf/ xdkif;/ rav;&Sm;edkifiH awG0ifjyD; edkifiHa&; avhvmcJhygao;w,f? Armjynfjyefa&mufjyD;awmh ol&d,owif;pm wkduf &S,f,mawG xyf0,fjyD; 1936 ckrSm ol&d,wdkuf 'g&dkufwmbkwftzGJ@0if jzpfvmygw,f? aemuf (2) eSptjumrSm t,f'wm f D csKyf jzpfvmjyD; owif;pmrl0g'udk jud;udieicygw,f? k k f kd f hJ
-o*kwfv twGJ 10 trSwf 1

25

ol [ m q&mpH o l y k e f b uf u &yf w nf v d k h emrnf x if & S m ;vmwJ h a emuf 1936 ck r S m *VKefppfo}l uD;bGJ c,l jyD; 0g;&if;wkwuif *VKefwyf&hJ hH f kd AdkvfcsKyf&mxl; ,lcJhygw,f? 1936 ckrSmyJ udkatmif qef;/ udkekwdkh acgif; aqmifwJh 'kwd, ausmif;om; oyd w f jzpf w J h t cg ausmif ; om;awG e J h &if ; eS D ; r_ &atmif v nf ; jud k ; pm;cJ h y g w,f ? wuU o d k v f or*~taqmuftOD;rSm t*Fvdyfpm u|rf;usifvSwJh pd e f a ygausmif ; xG u f wuU o d k v f bG J @ & bd v yf j yef a'guf w mbarmf e J h ausmif ; om;awG a &S @ arS m uf t*Fvdyfvdk pum;&nfvkyGJ vkyfcJh&mrSm (7) wef;yJ atmif w J h ol @ ud k ausmif ; om;awG u axmuf c H tm;ay; cJhygw,f? 'D a emuf r S m ol [ m 1938 ck rwf v rS m rsKd ;cspygwukd wnfaxmifcygw,f? 1938 =o*kwv f D hJ f atmuf v$wawmf tpnf;ta0;rSm a'guwmAarmf f f tpd k ; &ud k t,H k t =unf r &S d t qd k wif o G i f ; cJ h w m ratmifjrif cJyg? a&eHajrtvkyorm;oydw/f wwd, h f ausmif;om;oydwfawG jzpfcJhwJh 1300 jynfhta&; awmf y H k u m v 1938 'D Z if b mvxJ r S m rsKd ; cspf ygw0ifawG/ *VKefwyfz@JG 0ifawGe@J a&$w*b&m; ajc&if; D d kH k rSm ausmif;om; tvkyorm; axmufca&; tm%m f H zDqefrvyv@kd t*Fvytpd;&&J@acwœzrf;qD; xde;odr; _ k f d f k f f r_cH&ygw,f? 1939 azazmf0g&D v$wfawmf tpnf; ta0;rS m awmh ausmif ; om;/ tvk y f o rm;/ v,form;awGukd zdeyf wJh a'guwmbarmftpd;&udk dS f k ol OD;aqmifjyD; t,Hkt=unfr&SdtqdkoGif; jzKwfcs edkifcJhygw,f? ol [ m 1940 puf w if b mvrS m 0ef } uD ; csKyf j zpf v mjyD ; aemuf Armjynf u k d owif ; pm q&myHkpHeJh vm axmufvSrf;wJh ume,fqlZl;uD; (Ad k v f r k d ; jud k ; ) ud k ac:awG @ jyD ; Armh v G w f v yf a &; wdkufyGJtwGuf *syefedkifiH qDu vufeuf cJ,rf; ypPnf; aiGa=u; tygt0if ppful&edkifrvm; ar;cJhyg w,f? 1941 atmufwbmvrSm ol[m t*Fvef kd
-o*kwfv twGJ 10 trSwf 1

ed k i f i H u d k o G m ;/ 0ef j uD ; csKyf csmcsD e J h awG @ qH k j yD ; 'kwd,urBmppfjyD; &if Armjynfudk vGwfvyfa&; ('dkrDeD,H udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfa&;) ay;zdk@t"du aqG;aEG; awmif; qdcayr,fh csmcsu y,fcscygw,f? 'ga=umifh k hJ D hJ t*Fvefutjyef ay:wl*DedkifiH vpPbGef;jrdK@rSm *syef aumifppf0efeJh v#dK@0SufqufoG,fjyD; Armjynf vGwf vyfa&; &r,fqdk&if *syef&Jhppfa&;v_yf&Sm;r_udk ulnD r,fvdkh urf;vSrf;cJhygw,f? 'Dvdk qufoG,f aqmif &Gucwmudk t*Fvyu odom;vd@k 1941 'DZifbmv f hJ d f G rSm ygvufp wdi;ediiH (tck tpPa&;ekii) [dizmjrdK@ kf kf dfH kf rSm tzrf;cHcJh&jyD; 'kwd,urBmppfumv wav#muf vHk; tmz&duwdkuf ,l*ef"medkifiHrSm tus,fcsKyf aecJh&ygw,f? ppfjuD;jyD;vdk@1946 Zefe0g&DvusrS t*Fvdyftpdk;& jyef vG$wfay;vdkufygw,f? tck a zmf j ycJ h w J h ud k , f a &;rS w f w rf ; ud k junf h v d k u f & if 'D v l [ m jref r mjynf v G w f v yf a &; twGuf awmuf av#muf tm;jud;rmefwuf ZGeyJehJ k J vkyfcJhwJh rsKd;cspfedkifiHa&;orm; awmfvSefa&;orm;vdkh xifp&mygyJ? 'g ayr,fh 'Dvl[m *VKefOD;apm jzpfyg w,f? tay:,Ha&$reawGukd z,f=unfvu&if ol[m _ hf h kd f tm%m/ pnf ; pd r f c srf ; omeJ h ausmf = um;xif & S m ; r_udkom woufvHk; tmomirf;irf;wuf vdkufpm; cJhwm jrifedkifygw,f? olvkyfor#awG[m rskd;cspf yk * ~ d K vf t jzpf jynf o l v l x k u txif } uD ; atmif / rJ&atmif edkifiHa&;pwefhxGif vSnfhpm;jyaecJhwm jzpfygw,f? aemufqHk;rSm trsdK;om;acgif;aqmif vG w f v yf a &;zcif } uD ; Ad k v f c sKyf atmif q ef ; ud k e,fcsJ@tvdkus vkyf}uHowfjzwfcJhvdk@ judk;pifwuf b0qHk;oGm;cJhwm tm;vHk;todjzpfyg w,f? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;udk vkyf}uHr_eJh w&m;&Hk; xk w f w J h t cg ol [ m (5) wef ; yJ a tmif w ,f v k d h w&m;ol}uD; a&S@rSm 0efccygw,f? 0Homek*spbatxJ H hJ D D D 0ifvkyfcJhayr,fh uGJ=ujyJ=uwJhtcg (21) OD;qdkwJh t*Fvye,f cs@J eJ@aphpyf tay;t,lvycsiwhJ &mxl; d f k f f tm%m irf;irf;wuftypbuf ygcygw,f? t*Fvyf k f k hJ d udk jywf jywfom;om; qef@usijf yD; ‘bl;’ toif;awG 25

26

wnfaxmif tm%mzDqefcJhwJh OD;pdk;odrf; *sDpDbDat bufudk rygcJhygbl;? Armvl x k & J @ tonf ; eS v H k ; ud k q&mpH u odr;usK; ,leiwtcgusawmh OD;apm[m *VKefoyef f H kd f hJ l k awGbuf u tmabmiftm&if;oefoefehJ ygcygw,f? hJ 'gayr,fh vufeufuiawmfvea&; tm;oefovdvkd kd f S f k t a,mifjyjyD; olwnfaxmifcJhwJh *VKefwyf[m odyfr=umcifrSm 'dk@Armtpnf;t&Hk;0if ocifawGudk 0g;&if; wkwehJ &duwmawGyJ vkycygw,f? 'Drua&pD f k f f hJ kd udk ,H=k unfvygw,fqwhJ 'Dy*Kd~ vf}uD;[m a'guwm S kd k f barmf/ OD;bOD;/ OD;baz (OD;apm&Jh q&m/ 21 OD;*spbD D D at acgif;aqmif) wdkhudk zrf;qD;axmifcscJhygw,f? ocifawG ausmif;om;awG axmifuswm ol tm %m&csdefrSm trsm;qHk;jzpfygw,f? rsdK;cspfpdwfxuf oef v S y gw,f q d k w J h OD ; apm[m “v,f o rm; zd k ; a&$ v H k ; nnf ; csif ; ” “ocif É D u m” pmtk y f a wG xkwfjyD; 'dk@Arm tpnf;t&Hk;udk oduQmcscJhygw,f? 'ga=umifh OD;apm 0efjuD;csKyfjzpfcsdefrSm ausmif;om; awGu v$wawmf tjyifuae oHy;wD; awmxkwchJ f kH f ygw,f? 1946 pufwifbmrSm AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; OD;aqmifwJh tpdk;&wufvmcsdefrSm AdkvfcsKyfu ol@udk 0ef}uD;&m xl;ay;cJhygw,f? 'gayr,fh rskKd;cspfpdwf jyif;xef vSygw,f/ vGwfvyfa&;twGuf pdwftm; xuf o ef v S y g w,f q d k w J h *VKef O D ; apm[m atmifqef;-tufwvDpmcsKyf csKyfwtcg vufrwr hJ S f xd;bJ 1935 tufOy a' (91 XmetkycsKyfa&;) udyJ k f k vdkvm;w,fvdk@e,fcsJ@t*Fvdyftjudkuf vdkufajymjyef ygw,f? 'DvehJ 1947 azazmf0g&rm 0efjuD;&mxl;u kd D S xGufjyD; AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;eJh tm%m& zqyv tzGJ@csKyfudk twd tvif; qef@usifvmcJhygw,f? vl r _ a &;yd k i f ; ud k = unf h & if *VKef O D ; apm[m rdef;rudpPbufrSm r,m;}uD;&Sdaeayr,fh orD;udk pmoifay;wJh q&mreJh &_yfcJhwm/ ,l*ef"mekdifiHrSm tus,fcsKyfusaewkef; *smrefrwa,mufeJh nm; cJhwm/ Armjynfjyef a&mufjyD;awmh (10 eSpforD; 26

uwnf ; u td r f r S m ac:xm;cJ h w J h ) 19 eS p f t &G , f awmif w G i f ; }uD ; ol td r f a zmf rav;eJ h uav; wa,muf&wJhtxd aomif;usef;cJhwmawG &SdcJhyg w,f ? 'D (3) a,muf u awmh rD ' D , m awG x J [dk;av;wausmf jzpfvmcJhayr,fh olzsufqD;cJhwJh wjcm;rdef;uav;i,fawG trsm;}uD;&Sdygao;w,f? 'D t csuf a wG u d k ord k i f ; vS e f a e&wmu 'Duae@rSm vnf; *VKefO;apmvdk vljrifaumif;atmif D [dwf[ef xkwf nm0g;vSnfhzsm;jyD; &mxl;tm%m csrf;ompnf;pdrf *k%f&Sdefausmf=um;r_ oHk;rsdK;pvHk; udjk zpfap/ wrsKd ; od@k r[kwf eSprsKd ;udjk zpfap oJ}uD;rJ}uD; f vduaeolawG jynfwi;jynfy awmfvea&; t0ef; k f Gf S f t0dkif; t wdkuftcHt0ef;t0dkif;xJ &SdaewJhtwGuf tm;vHk;udk wyfvSefhwJhtaeeJh *VKefOD;apmta=umif; azmfjy vdkufwmjzpfygw,f? *VKef O D ; apmacwf w k e f ; u ol b ,f v d k y J [efaqmif vkyjf ycJayr,fh tifrwef&;om;ajzmifrwf h kd h tepfemcH jyD; wdkif;jynftwGuf wu,fpGefhv$wf pGepm; wJh AdvcsKyfatmifqef;u &Saeawmh b,fvrS hf k f d kd ,SOr& ae &mr&cJygb;? tckacwfrmvnf; jynfwi; f h l S Gf rSmawmh a':atmifqef;pk=unfudk ta,mifaqmif awmfvSef a&;orm;awG/ ta,mifaqmif twdkuf tcH awGu ,SOfvdk@r&edkifayr,fh a':atmifqef; pk=unfeJ@ a0;wJh jynfytwdkuftcHe,fy,frSmawmh *VKefOD;apmvdk ta,mifaqmif awmfvSefa&;orm; awG/ ta&jcHK'Drua&pDorm;awG/ tm%m&l; wdi;&if; kd kf om; acgi;aqmifawG vlwius,vyf jzD;jzef;vkypm; f Gf f k f aeed k i f y gw,f ? b,f v d k y J j zpf j zpf jynf y rS m a&m jynfwGif;twkduftcHe,fy,frSmyg “'if;vdkvlpm; owdxm;=uzd@k ” tusKd ;ar#mI e_;aqmfvu&ygw,f? f d kd f (rnfo@l udr# r&nf&,yg? wduqir&v#if k G f k f kd f _ dS vnf; cGifhv$wf&efrvdk?)

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“usri,fi,fwkef;u oifcJh&wJh uAsmav;wyk'f &S d y gw,f ? 'D u Asmuawmh t*F v d y f b momu jyefxm;wJhuAsmyJ? vli,frsm;eJhvnf; tifrwefrS pyf[yfw,fvdk@usrxifygw,f” “u|eyudk ,Haomolrsm;a=umifh ajzmifrwf fk f k h rnf? *&kpuaomolrsm;a=umifh oef&i;rnf?aqmif dk f h Sf &Guf&efrsm;aoma=umifh cGeftm;eSifhjynfhrnf?yifyef;cH &rsm;aoma=umifh &J&ifrnf?rdwaqGroeihf &efoukd h f hJ l S l rdwfzGJhrnf?ay;urf;a=umif;arhvsuf pGefh}uJay;urf; rnf?cGeftm;enf;a=umif;odvsuf pdwfeSdrfhcsrnf?&$if vef; cspfcifarmf=unfhvsuf xl;yifhrnf” wJh// “ajymwJhudpPtm;vHk;[m rSefrSefuefuef ajzmifhajzmifhrwfrwf jzpf&r,f? 'DvdkvkyfrSyJ udk,fh tay:rSm ,H=k unfwhJ olawG&hJ ,H=k unfcsu[m rysuf f oGm;bl;” vl@abmifopf 'Dru&ufwpf ygw0if &Jabmf kd D rsm;eSifh aqG;aEG;jyD;aemuf vlhabmifopf 'Drkd u&uf wpf ygwD&kH;ay:rSyif &kH;a&ShY pk&kH;a&muf&Sdae=uonfh vlxk}uD;tm; a':atmifqef;pk=unfu e_wfcGef; qufpum;ajym.? “'Dvdk usrwd@k udk vmjyD;judqwm trsm;}uD; k kd aus;Zl;wifygw,f? usrwk@d vlxehJ awGq&w,fq&if k h kH dk tjrJyJ 0rf;omw,f? 'ga=umifrvhkd vlxehJ rawGqcsif h hdk k h kH wJh tpkd;&rsm;udk usrwdkh em;rvnfekdifbl;? vlxkudk tm;rudk;wm[m tifrwefrS ^m%fenf;wJh tpdk;& yJvhdk usr xifw,f? 'Dvkd jynfovxukd tm;ud;rS l l k k usrwk d h wd k ; wuf e k d i f r S m yg? usrjynf o l v l x k u d k twefwef rSmcsiwmuawmh nDnw=f uyg/ nDnwf f $ $ =uyg? ZGJowœdeJh udk,fvkdcsifwmudk &atmif,l=uyg? 'D r k d u a&pD & rvm;/ &rvm;vk d h ar;aer,f h t pm; &wJhtxd tm;vHk; 0dkif;jyD;awmh ulnDr,fqdkwJh ZGJeJh usrwdkhudk ulnD=uyg? usrwdkhtaeeJhvnf; jynfol vlxk taemufuaejyD;awmh axmufyhHedkifwJh tcg us&if axmufcHoifhwJhae&mrSm axmufcH ay;r,f? yHhydk;ay;r,f? ta&ShuaejyD;awmh umuG,foifhwJh ae&mrSm ta&ShuaejyD;awmh umuG,fay;yghr,f? 28

jynfovxk tiftm;r&Sbeawmh usrwdhk b,fvrS l l d J hJ dk ratmifjrifekdifygbl;? tJh'Dawmh usrwdkh tzGJhcskyf&Jh vkyfief;/ 'Drkdua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_}uD;udk atmifjrifap csiw,f qdv&&if jynfovxtm;vH;uaejyD;awmh f k hkd dS l l k k axmufcHjuyg? tm;ay;juyg? usrwdkhu tm;udk; ae&wJh olawGygv” hdk aomif;eSifhcsDaom vlxkjuD;u/ a':atmif qef;pk=unftm; =obmay;=u.? “a':atmifqef;pk=unfusef;rmygap²²” vlxkjuD;u a':atmifqef;pk=unf trnf tm; [pfajuG;&if; v_uvuvvJS axmufcaumif; d f d_ f JS H jyoae=u.? tcsdefur&// a&Shquf&rnfh waehwm tpD tpOfrsm;u &Sao;.? wdweiyif vlxtm; e_wce; d k dk S hf k fG f quf a[majym&if ; tqH k ; owf v d k u f . ? a':atmifqef;pk=unfwkdhtzGJh vl@abmifopf 'Drdku &uf w pf y gwD & k H ; rS jyef I xG u f c J h = uonf ? tzG J @ csKyf &yfuGuf&kH;w&kH;. qkdif;bkwfwifyGJodkh oGm;=u.? a':atmifqef;pk=unf ud,wiyif qki;bkwwifay; k f dk f df f &onf?NLDqkdif;bkwfwifyGJjyD;onfhaemuf armfv jrd k i f j rd k h e ,f & k H ; od k h csD w uf = ujyef o nf ? armf v jrd k i f jrd k h e ,f NLD&k H ; uarmf v jrd k i f j rd k h atmuf v rf ; r}uD ; ay:wGif &Sonf? tcseu nae 4 em&D ausmpjykjyD? d d f f waeuk e f r &yf r em; v_ y f & S m ;oG m ;vmaecJ h & .? armfvjrdkifjrdkhe,fNLD&kH;Y tzGJh0ifrsm;/ pnf;&kH;a&;rª; rsm;eSiawG@I wyfrawmfeihf ywfoufjyD; a':atmif hf S qef;pk=unf aqG;aeG;.? “wyfrawmfqwm jynfovx&hJ tapcHjzpf kd l l k zd k h q k d w m azaz ajymcJ h y gw,f ? jynf o l v l x k [ m wyfrawmf&Jh tapcHrjzpfap&bl;? wyfrawmf[m jynfovx&hJ tapcHjzpf&r,fqjdk yD;awmh 'Dv&nfre; l l k kd S f csuehJ wnfaxmifcwhJ wyfrawmfjzpfygw,f? azazh f hJ &nf&G,fcsuftwkdif; jynfolvlxkwdkh tm;udk;&m/ vJavsmif;&m/ ud;uG,&m wyfrawmfjuD; jzpfapcsif k f w,f?'geywfoufvhkd vGecwhJ wywfavmufwe;u hJ f hJ k f rskd;cspf&Jabmfa[mif;rsm;tzGJh qdkif;bkwfwifyGJwckrSm
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ajymcJhygw,f” “ppfenf;AsL[m/ b,fvkdomvnf; pGJudkifvufeuf/ b,fvkdxufvnf; jynfolheSvHk;/ rodrf;juHk;v#if jynfolhcGeftm; / rukd;pm;v#if "m;oGm;vnf;ajuG/ vSHvnf;acGtHh”wJh? “t"d y ` m ,f u awmh wyf r awmf w ck [ m b,favmufyJ vufeuftiftm; aumif;aumif;/ jynfovx&hJ axmufcrr&S&if *k%oum&SwhJ wyfr l l k H _ d f d Q d awmfwck rjzpfeib;? olw&hJ "m;oGm;rsm;[mvnf; dk f l hkd xufoifhoavmuf rxufekdifbl;? vHSrsm;[mvnf; pG r f ; oif h o avmuf rpG r f ; ek d i f b l ; ? wyf r awmf & J h tif t m;[m pG r f ; &nf & S d z d k h q k d & if jynf o l v l x k & J h axmuf c H r _ vd k y gw,f ? usrwd k h u vnf ; 'D v k d wyfrawmfjuD; jzpfapcsifygw,f? tckqdkvdkh&Sd&if b,fyJoGm;oGm; aqmifyk'fuav;awG jrif&w,f? b,foccJG 'druGJ tjrJpnf;vk;rnfw? usruvnf; l JG hk H hJ ar;vk d u f c sif y gw,f ? b,f o l a wG u cG J a evk d h v J ? usrwkdhawmh uGJapcsifwJhpdwf vHk;vHk; r&Sdygbl;” aqG;aeG;yGJu aendkrSyif jyD;jywfawmh.? &k;ay:rS=unfv#if oHvijf rpfjyiftm; jrif&.? oHvif H h G G u eD n d k n d k n d k n pf n pf ? oH v G i f o nf rd k i f a xmif c sD c&D;tm; eSifav&if; h h h rkwœryifv,f0odkh qkduf a&muf.? jrpfwkd@u tqHk;Y yifv,ftwGif;odk@om 0if=uav.? tcsdefawmh ay;&rnf? jyD;v#if“tm;” vdk.? “ZGJrmef” wkdh vdk.? jrpfv,frS acgif;aq; u|ef ; i,f o nf arS m if & nf , S u f o ef ; r_ a tmuf Y wjznf;jznf; 0g;I0g;I tjrifwif uG,aysmufvv? G f k k jyef=um;a&;tzGJh0ifwOD;u a':atmifqef; pk=unftm; 'Daehxwf vkyom;jynfohl aehpOfowif; k f pm tm; jy.? a&SrsuemzH;wGiu pmvH;rnf;}uD;eSihf h f S k f k raehu &efueohdk tvnftywfa&mufconfh xki; k f hJ df umuG,fa&; OD;pD;csKyf AdkvfcsKyf}uD; csmAvpfa,mif csm,Gwf. owif;tm; azmfjyxm;.? csmAvpf u tm%mod r f ; ppf t k y f p k e S i f h yxrOD ; qH k ; vmjyD ; vuf q G J e _ w f q uf o nf h ed k i f i H
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wumrS acgif;aqmifwOD;? AdkvfcsKyf}uD; csmAvpfu Ad k v f c sk y f r ª ; }uD ; apmarmif t m; tav;jyKaeonf h "mwfyukd a&SrsuemzH;wGiyif ajcmufaumfvtjynfh kH h f S k f H azmfjyxm;.? AdkvfcsKyf}uD; csmAvpftm; tm%modrf; ppftkyfpku umuG,fa&;0efjuD;Xme/ '*kH&dyfomwGif {nfcI awGqjHk uonf? AdvcsKyf}uD; csmAvpfu h h ²h hH h k f “av;pm;tyfaom tudk}uD;cifAsm; yxqHk;taeeJh ekdifiHawmforRw}uD;/ edkifiHawmf 0ef}uD;csKyfvdk@ ac:& rvm;/ 'grSr[kwf ekdifiHjcm;a&;0ef}uD;/ umuG,fa&; 0ef}uD;vdkh ac:qdk&rvm;qkdwm usaemf rodygbl;? 'gayrJh usaemfhudk &if;eSD;wJhtaeeJh nDi,fvdkh ac:ap csifygw,f? tukd}uD;eSifhwuG jrefrmnDtudkrsm; tm;vHk;[m jynfaxmifpk jrefrmekdifiHawmf jidrf;csrf; a&;eSifh wdk;wufzGHhjzdk;a&;twGuf tpGrf;ukef tvkyf vkyfae=uygw,f? usaemfwkdhudk tckvdk v_dufv_duf vSJvSJ judkqdkjyD; ysLysLiSmiSm {nfh0wfjykwJhtwGuf tudk}uD;eJh nDtudkrsm;udk aus;Zl;wifcGifhjykygcifAsm? xkdif;-jrefrme,fpyfrSm ausmif;om;rsm; &SdaewJh twG u f usaemf w d k @ rsm;pG m pd k ; &d r f y l y ef r d y gw,f ? ausmif ; om; tm;vH k ; jyef v mjyD ; tem*wf jref r med k i f i H t wG u f ynmquf v uf o if = um; zkd@qkdwmudk usaemfwkd@ axmufcHygw,f? 'gha=umifh ausmif ; om;rsm; jyef v ma&;twG u f usaemf w d k h tpGr;uke}f ud;pm;ay;ygr,f? av;pm;tyfwhJ tudjk uD; f k twGuf qkrGefaumif; awmif;ay;zkd@nDt ukdrsm; rdwfaqGrsm; vl}uD;vlaumif;rsm;udk zdwfac:ygw,f? AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmif oufawmf&mausmf &Snfygap/ udk,fpdwfeSpfjzm usef;rmcsrf;omygap” Ad k v f c sk y f j uD ; csmAvpf . bef a umuf j yef c&D;wGifrl u|ef;opfwefcsdef wodef;ajcmufaomif;/ opf r mwef c sd e f ig;od e f ; ck w f v S J x k w f , l c G i f h e S i f h jrefrmha&ydkifeuftwGif; eSpfpOf ig;wefcsdef eSpfodef;cGJ zrf;,lcGifhwdk@ &&SdoGm;cJh.? (50) 1988 ckeSpf 'DZifbmv 16 &ufaeh eHeuf 29

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apmapmrSmyif ':atmifqef;pkjunfwkdh armfvjrdkifrS rk'Hkodk@pnf;&kH;a&;c&D; quf=u.? 16 &ufaeh c&D;pOfY zm;atmuf/ urm0uf/ rk'/kH oHjzLZ&yf/ usKH u'uf/ usKd ufcrDwY aqG;aEG;yGrsm; jykvyrnf? vlxk a[majym hdk J k f yG J r sm; usif ; yrnf ? armf v jrd K if r S p I xG u f u wnf ; u a':atmif q ef ; pk = unf o nf &$ i f j yIaeonf ? pdwftm;xufoefaer_u a':atmifqef;pk=unf. rsuf0ef;Y ay: Iaeonf? a':atmifqef;pk=unf rsuf0ef;eSpfpHku =u,fpifrsm;tvm; ta&mifwzsufzsufeSifh v#yfjywfawmufyIaeonf? Tae@/ Tc&D;Y rGefvlrskd;rsm;. ,Ofaus;r_e,fy,fodk@ 0if&rnf? rGefpmay/ rGefbmompum;/ rGef,Ofaus;r_wdk@eSifh xJxJ0if0if awG@xdqufqHcGifh&rnf? TtwGufyif jzpfrnf? a':atmifqef;pk=unf. rsuf0ef;u &$ef;vJhawmufyIaejcif;? zm;atmufodk@vGefaomf ,dk;udk;bk&m;odk@0ifI a':atmifqef;pk=unf zl ; ar#mf = unf n d k . ? rG e f v l x k u ,d k ; ud k ; bk & m;&if j yif Y jynf h j ynf h o d y f o d y f ? a':atmif q ef ; pk = unf u ,dk;udk;bk&m;&ifjyifrSmyif pum;ajym.? “rGefvdk tckrajymekdifwmudkvnf; awmif;yefygw,f? rGefvdkajymekdif&ifawmh ydkjyD;awmh aumif;rSm aygav? 'gayrJh tckawmh ArmvdyJ ajymyg&ap? usrwdhk pnf;&k;a&;c&D; xGuw,fqwm wwki;jynfv;u h k H f kd df kH jynfolvlxku axmufcHrS 'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_[m atmifjrifekdifr,fqkdwm ,Hkjunfvkdh/ jynfolvlxk taygif;u 'Dv_yf&Sm;r_}uD;udk axmufcHapcsifvdk@usrwdk@ pnf;&kH;a&;c&D; xGufcJhwmyJ? awmfawmfrsm;rsm;u 'Drua&pDukd vdcsi=f uw,f? 'gayrJh 'Drua&pD&atmifvhkd b,fvvy&r,f qkwmudk rod=ubl;? wu,fawmh dk k dk dk k f d 'Drua&pD&atmif b,fvvy&rvJqwm &Si;&Si;av;yg? tm;vH;uae nDnnwnwe@J r&raevkyr,f? dk dk k f kd f f k D $ f $ f f txl;ojzifh aus;vufawm&Gm jynfovxu a=umufae=uw,f? 'Drua&pDvy&m;r_ukd axmufcv&&if l l k dk _ f S H hkd dS olwdkhtwGuf tE W&m,f&Sdrvm; qdkjyD;awmh a=umufae=uw,fqkdwm usr em;vnfygw,f? tckcsdefrSm usrwdkh[m a=umufzdkh rvkdawmhygbl;? usr t+rJyJ owday;w,f? owœd&Sdw,f qkdwm[m a=umufpdwf r&Sdbl;vkdh ajymvdkwm r[kwfygbl;? a=umufpdwf&SdvsufeJh rSefwmudk vkyf&Jwm[m owœdygyJ? tJh'Dawmh a=umufa=umufeJhyJ trsm;tusdK;twGuf vkyfoifhwJh udpPrsm;udk vkyfoGm;=uyg” ,dk;udk;&ifjyifrS eHeuf 9 em&DausmfausmfavmufwGif c&D;pOftm; qufIxGufju.? rk'HkjrdK@tm; jzwfueJ jzwfIoGm;.? OD;wnfcsufu oHjzLZ&yf/ usdKuQrD jyD;rS jyefvSnfhI rk'Hkodkh 0ifrnf? urm0uf&Gm q&mawmftm; ouFe;/ xD;/ zdeyf tp&Sonfh vªz,tpkpw@dk tm; vªrnf? zl;ar#mrnf? f d G f k f rk'HkeSifh oHjzLZ&yft=um; um;vrf;u =uufaygifap;jcHrsm;. tv,frSjzwfI azmufxm;.? =uufaygiap;yifrsm;u eSi;wk@d eSihf pdpvivif ? yifpnf. t&if;txufem;rS yifpnftm; 0duI &pfxm;aom f f k dk G f G k f t&meSifh &mbmap;cHonfh pOfhcGufi,fav;rsm;tm; awG@&.? &mbmap;jcpfonfh vkyfom;wkdh um;vrf; ab;odkhxGufI a':atmifqef;pk=unfwkd@tm; vufrsm;a0S@,rf;I e_wfquf=uonf? =uufaygifap;jcHrsm;u yif&if;wGif &Si;Iajymifaeonf? jcHKEG,ywaygi; r&Sd ? jrufcif; pdr;pdr;yg;yg; eSi?tyifrsm;u tpdwtusJ f f d f f f f hf f tuGmta0;nDjyD; tyifwef;wdkhu ajzmifhwef;I nDonf? tjrif&_axmifhtoGif ajymif;aomfvnf; =uufaygif;ap;yifwkdhu ajzmifhajzmifhwef;wef; pDpD&D&DeSifhyif awG@&.? oHjzlZ&yfjrdK@t0ifY [oFmt&kyf}uD;eSifh jrdK@t0ifqdkif;bkwftm; awGh&.? oHjzlZ&yfvlxku a':atmifqef;pk=unfw@dk tm; vrf;ab;0J,mrS judq=kd u./ e_wce;quf=u.? a':atmifqef;pk=unfw@dk u k fG f ,mOfwef;tm; ajz;ajz;armif;eSifum um;ay:rSyif vlxktm; a':atmifqef;pk=unfu e_wfquf.? “pdwfcsrf;om udkf,fusef;rmapajumif;” qkawmif;ay;.? tpDtpOfu usdKuQrDodk@ t&ifoGm;rnf? usdKuQrDu tjyefwGifrSoHjzLZ&yftzGJ@csKyf&kH;odk@0if=urnf? 30
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a':atmifqef;pk=unfw@dk . armfawmf,mOfwef;u oHjzLZ&yfppfocsKdF if;. ta&SruyfI jzwfarmif;oGm;onf? h S oHjzLZ&yfppfocsFdKif;u aorif;wref rD;&xm;vrf; azmufvkyf&mwGif uG,fvGefcJhonfh olrsm;tm; jrKyfeSH&mocsdFKif;? zufqpfwkd@. jywkduf//&ufpufr_/ vlom;csif; pmemr_uif;rJh&mwkdh. edrdwfyHk? usdKuQrDodk@ eHeuf 11 em&Drxdk;rDwGif a&muf.? usdKuQrD a&v,fbk&m;odkh OD;pGmoGm;a&mufI &Sdcdk;ylaZmfrnf? jyD;v#if usdKuQrDtzGJ@cskyf&kH;odkh oGm;rnf? xkdrS usHKu'uf&Gmodkh qufrnf? usdKuQrDa&v,fbk&m;odkh a':atmifqef;pk=unfwkdh oGm;a&mufI zl;ajrmf.? a&v,fbk&m;wGif a':atmifqef;pk=unfu wnf=unfav;eufpmeSihf opPmqk.?“rdrw@kd . tcGita&;rsm; acsmacsmarmarmeSihf G d d hf atmifjrifygapa=umif;/ wynfhawmfr rSefuefaom opPmpum;a=umifh wynfhawmfr aqmif&Gufaeaom 'Drua&pDtcGita&; atmifjrifygapa=umif;/ wynfawmfr opPmjyKonftwdi; wynfawmfr aqmif&uf kd hf h h kf h G aeaom 'Drkdua&pDtcGifhta&; atmifjrifygapom;” (51) rGejf ynfe,f pnf;&k;a&;c&D;u 'DZifbmv 18 &ufaehwif jyD;qH;cJ.? a':atmifqef;pk=unfw@dk tzGhJ H G k h 'DZifbmv 18 &ufaehn 7 em&DcefhwGif &efukefokdh jyefa&mufcJh=u.? 5 &uf=um c&D;pOfu acsmacsm armarmeSifh atmifjrifpGm jyD;qHk;cJhonf[k qkd&rnf? 18 &ufaehtjyefc&D;Y oxHeihf bD;vif;t=um; “urmpdi” &Gmav;tm; a':atmifqef;pk=unfw. k S kf hdk ,mOfwef;jzwf&mwGifvrf;vkHjcHka&;,lxm;onfh ajcvsifwyfcGJ&kH;rS a':atmifqef;pk=unfwkdh. ,mOfwef; tjzwfwGif rkd;ay:odk@axmifI aoewfypfazmufonfawmh &Sd.? xm;awmh? Tr#aom aeSmifh,Sufr_udkrl ppftkyfpk. tkyfcsKyfr_atmufwGifu aeSmifh,Sufr_[k ,lqIr&? TtwGufyif a':atmifqef;pk=unf. rGefjynfe,fc&D;pOftm; atmifjrifacsmarG@pGmeSifh jyD;qHk;cJhonf[k qk&jcif;jzpfonf? od@k aomf h h h d odkhaomfu h h h a':atmifqef;pk=unf. rGef;c&D;pOfjyD;qkH;rS ponf? a':atmifqef;pk=unf. c&D;pOftwGif; wm0ef,laqmif&Gufay;cJh=uonfh a'ocHtzGJ@csKyf pnf;&kH;a&;rª;rsm;tm; ppftkyfpku c&D;pOfjyD;onfeSifh zrf;awmh.?2§88 tm; azmufzsufusL;vGefonf[lI zrf;jcif; jzpfonf? ppftkyfpk. 2§88 u “qlylv_H@aqmfvkdaom &nf&G,fcsufjzifhjzpfap/ vl 5 a,mufeSifhtxufydkI vrf;rsm;ay:wGif pka0;jcif;/ vrf;av#mufjcif;/ pDwef;vSnfhvnfjcif;/ atmf[pfajuG;a=umfjcif;/ vH_@aqmfjcif;/ &kef;&if; qefcwfjykjcif;/ rjyKvky& ” [lI jzpfonf? a':atmifqef;pk=unf. c&D;pOfrsm;wGiu vlxonf axmifeihf f f f k S aomif;eSicsI vrf;ay:od@k xGuI a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; judq=kd u.? 5 a,mufxufawmh yd.? od@k aomf hf D f k k ql y l v _ H @ aqmf v d k a om &nf & G , f c suf e S i f h r[k w f ? &k e f ; &if ; qef c wf j zpf j cif ; rsd K ;vnf ; r&S d ? pnf ; urf ; &S d & S d aoao0yf0yfeSifhyif jzpf.? atmf[pfajuG;a=umfjcif;awmh &Sd.? “ a':atmifqef;pk=unf usef;rmygap” Tr#yif? od@k aomf ppftypu r&// 2§88 tm; usL;vGeygonf[I pGypjJG yD; zrf;awmh.? k f k f l f usdKufxkd/ bD;vif;/ oxHk/ aygifjrdK@e,frsm;rS &yfaus;eSifh jrdK@e,ftqifh&Sd tzGJ hcsKyf. pnf;&kH;a&;rª; rsm;tm; zrf;jcif;jzpfonf? usdKufxkdrS a'gufwm at;ZH (,ck uskdufxkdjrdK@e,ftrSwf 2 - NLD jynfolh v$wfawmf udk,fpm;vS,f)/ OD;wkd;ausmf (usL&Sifq&m)/ bD;vif;rS OD;wifat; (A[dkw&m;&kH;a&Shae)/ ud&vif;xGe; (vli,f)/ OD;pd; (qefpufyi&i)/ OD;}uD;rif; (,cif rqvacwf bD;vif;jrdK@e,f vkyief;ppfaq;a&; k J f k kd f S f f OuUÏa[mif;) wd@k tygt0if pkpaygi; 13 a,muf tzrf;cH=u&.? oxHjk rdK@axmif}uD;csKyfY csKyfaeSmifxm;jyD; k f oxHkc&kdif w&m;&kH;Y w&m;pGJqdk.? tzG@J csKyf. rGejf ynfe,fpnf;&k;a&; c&D;pOfwif tzGJ csKyf. wm0eft&Sq;jzpfonfh A[dacgi; aqmifrsm;/ H G h d kH k f 31 -o*kwfv twGJ 10 trSwf 1

32

jynf e ,f a cgif ; aqmif r sm;tm; zrf ; qD ; jcif ; rjyKbJ jrdK@e,feSifh &yfaus;tqifh tzGJ hcsKyfpnf;&kH;a&;rª; rsm;tm; a&G ; cs,f I zrf ; jcif ; u ppf t k y f p k . aoe*FAsL[monf “aus;vufukd tajccH jrdK@awmfukd odr;” [lI jzpfonf[k qd&rnf? f k (52) rGejf ynfe,f pnf;&k;a&;c&D;rS jyefa&mufonfeihf H S a':atmifqef;pkjunfonf rdcifjzpfol a':cif=unf vJavsmif;aeonfh tdycef;qDohkd OD;pGmoGm;I rdcif}uD; f . a0'emtajctaetm; =unfh.? qD;csdK/ aoG;wkd;/ ausmufuyfeSifh avoif wk e f ; jzwf x m;onf h '%f & m'%f c suf w d k h a =umif h a':cif=unf. udk,fvuft*F gtcsdK@u v_yf&Sm;I r&awmh ? tdy,mxufwiyif vJavsmif;Iae&.? f Gf 1988 ckepf {jyDvtpwGif ta&;ay:aq;&kohkd wifc& S H hJ jyD;onfrSpI a':cif=unf. usef;rma&;u jyefI raumif; awmh ? tdrfeSifh aq;&kH ul;csDoef;csDeSifhyif &SifoefaecJh&.? &efukefaqmif;. tat;'%fa=umifhvm; rod²² a':cif=unf. usef;rma&;onf ydkIqdk;0g; vm.? rdom;pkq&m0efrsm;eSihf a':atmifqef;pk=unf awG@jyD; rdcif. tajctaetm; ar;jref;.? wdiyif.? kf tajctaeu r&ekdifawmh? orm;awmf}uD;rsm;u a': cif = unf t m; nif o mpG m eS i f h b0ul ; ajymif ; ekdifa&;twGufudkyif tm&kHpdkufI jykpkukoay;=u.? a':atmifqef;pkjunfu &or# tcsersm;wGif rdcif. d f tem;YaeI rdcif}uD;tm; jyKpk.? ae @ h h h ae²? n h h h h n? wuUov&yom vrf;bufqrS c&pfprwf dk f d f D "rRaw;oHtm;oJo=hJ um;&.?nonf wap>waumif h tvm; at;pufpufeihf nOfO;,Htm; jzwfausmc.? S hD f hJ a':atmifqef;pk=unfu a':cif=unf. tcef;&Sd cef;pD;vduumrsm;tm; aphaph csvu.? rdcifjuD;u k f dk f tdyf,mxufY rdef;armIae.? jidrfjidrfoufouf? wdwqwaomn? at;pufaomn? a':atmifqef; f d f pk=unf u rdciftm; =unf&apmifa&Smuf&if; a':cif h _ h 32

=unf. tcef;twGif;Yyif uAsmwyk'ftm; a&;.? rdcifvlrrm.tem;wGif a&;zGJ@aom uAsm? uAsmu rdcifjzpfotm; wkiwnfI opPm l df jyKaom uAsm[k qk d & rnf ? yxrOD ; pG m uAsm. yxrtydk'ftm; a':atmifqef;pk=unf cskIa&;.? acgif;pOfudkrl ray;&ao;? “rdcif. aeSmifjudk;udk ajzygtHh/ onf;pGmaom temtm; ukygtHh/ orD;. vH@k v 0D&,jzifh d emvefxlygaptHh” pum;vHk;rsm;ua&Sma&Sm&ª&ªvspfvspfeSifhyif uavmifzsm;rS tHusvm.? a':atmifqef;pk=unfrS a&;I jyD;oGm;aom uAsmyk'tm; jyefI zwfjunf.? d f h jyifp&mr&S? a0g[m&rS tp wdxp&mrvd? wacguf d hk d k jyef zwfjyD;'kwd,tykd'ftm; qufI a&;jyefonf? “arG;aus;Zl;udk rodwwfaom bxdkxdkaom olwdktm; odem;vnfatmif qGJaqmifekdifpGrf;udk orD;tm; ay;ygavmh” “awG@&aom ab;&efw@dk udk orD;xDrnfr[kwf” wuUov&yom vrf;rqDrS armfawmfum; kd f d f oH =um;&.? jynfvrf;rbufqohkd armif;oGm;;onfh D um;oH j zpf r nf ? toH u TE 11 . toH 8 8? ppfom;wkd@uif;vSnfhaejcif; jzpfrnf? nrxGu&trdea=umif&efue. nrsm;wGif f hf h k f vrf;rsm;ay: Yu ppfom;wdkhonfom rif;rl/ pdk;rkd;I ae=u.? “w b0 wcg ao&onfjzpfI tb,fenf;eSifh ao&rnfjzpfap orD;Y rxl;jcm;” “orD;. pdwful;onf tu,ftjzpfodk@a&mufaomtcsdefwGif toifwdk@onfvnf; aysmfjrL;=u&rnf” rdcif}uD;qDrS vl;vGefhoHjum;&ojzifh a&;
-o*kwfv twGJ 10 trSwf 1

33

vufp uAsmtm; &yfI rdcif. ukwif&Sd&mqDokdh a':atmifqef;pk=unf xIoGm;onf? ajyavsmhus aeonfh apmiftm; &ifbwfay:odkh jyefI qGJwif ay;.? apmiftwGif;&Sd rdcifjuD; ajczsm;rsm;tm; a':atmif q ef ; pk = unf prf ; =unh f . ?at;puf p uf tawG@tm; cHpm;&.? rdcif. ajczsm; rsm; at;puf aeonfudk a':atmifqef;pk=unf oabm rus? aeG ; aeG ; axG ; axG ; jzpf v map&ef bmvk y f a y;&if aumif;rnfenf;? pOf;pm;&jyD? yxr ajcpGyftm; ,lI rdcif. ajcaxmuf eSpzuftm; ajcpGyf pGyay;=unf.?csucsi; aEG;axG;I f f h f f rvmao;? a&aEG ; td y f u yf a y;v#if aumif ; rnf ? a&aEG;tdwuyfay;&ef a':atmifqef;pk=unf jyif.? f a&aEG;tdwfeSifhajcpGyfeSifh xm;vdkufawmh ajczsm;rsm; jyefaEG;vmonf? a': cif=unfu tdyf,mxufY yufvuftaetxm;eSifh jidrfoufpGm vJavsmif; aeonf ? touf & ª o nf r S m nS i f ; nS i f ; oG J @ oG J @ eS i f h nifomvGef;vS.? tcef;onf wdwfqdwfaeonf? tkyfjuGyfrdk;ay:odk@ eSif;aygufrsm; usoHudkyif tcef; wGif;rS =um;ae&.? a&;vufpuAsmtm;qufIa&;&efa':atmif qef;pk=unf pma&;pm;yGJwGif jyefxkdifonf? a&;jyD; onfh uAsmyk'rsm;tm; jyefzwf.? jyD;v#if qufa&; f jyefonf? “tjcm;/ tjcm;aom olwkdh. &_wfcsjcif;/ uJh&Jhjcif; rkef;wD;&HG&Smjcif;/ emrnfzsufjcif;udk orD;tvsOf;*&krjyK” “rdcifxHrS 'grS ighorD; [laom usL;&ifhoHudkom awmifhwyg” “avmuwGif rdcif. aus;Zl;udk tod&qH; jzpf&ygv.” k dk a':atmifqef;pk=unfu uAsmtm; tqH; k owf vdu.? tptqH; wyd'csi; jyefI zwf=unfh k f k k f f .? rjuduonfh pum;vH;tm; jyefIjyif.? wacguf k f k
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(53) 1988 ckeSpf 'DZifbmv 27 &ufaehwGif a':cif=unf uG,fvGef.? trSwf 54 wuUodkvf &dyfomvrf; aetdrfYyif uG,fvGefcJh.? csufcsif;yif a':atmifqef;pk=unf. rdcif a':cif=unf uG,vef f G onfh owif;um; &efukefjrdK@twGif; ysHheSHhoGm;onf? awmrD ; yrm?jynf o l c spf a om Ad k v f c sKyf . ZeD ; ? jynfolcspfaom a':atmifqef;pk=unf. rdcif? ema&;owif;a=umifh &efukefvlxkonf trSwf 54 wuUodkvf&dyfomvrf; aetdrf. tjyif bufwip&;vm=uonf? vlxeihf wuUov&yom G f k Hk k S dk f d f vrf ; wck v H k ; jynf h I oG m ;onf ? a':atmif q ef ; pk=unftaejzifh yxrOD;pGm pOf;pm;&onfu rdcif. &kyfuvmyftm; rnfonfhae&mwGif *loGif;oj*FdK[f rnfenf;? wkdifyifoifhonfholrsm;eSifh Tta&;tm; aqG;aEG;wkdifyif.? jyD;v#iftm%modrf; ppftkyfpkeSifh vnf; ndSe_dif;&rnf? aemufqHk; tm;vHk;u a&$wd*Hk apwDawmfjrwf}uD;. ajcawmf&if;&Sd urBmuvor*~ h k taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª; OD;oefh. tkwf*lteD;wGif a':cif = unf . &k y f u vmyf t m; *l A d r mef j yKvk y f I *loGif;oj*FdK[f&ef oabmwl=u.? udpPwpf&yfawmhjyD;jyD? 'kwd,jy\emu rdcifjuD;. psmyetm; &ufrnfr#xm;rnfenf;? a':cif=unfeihf ywfoufI S om;orD ; [l I om;}uD ; OD ; atmif q ef ; OD ; u tar&duef jynfaxmifpk u,fv;zk;eD;,m;wGif &S.? D d d OD;atmifqef;OD; vmekirnf&uftm; ar;jref;&onf? df h jyD;v#if AdvcsKyfuawmf. psmyetm; vlxuvnf; k f k wwfa&mufI *g0&jyKvkd=urnf? TtwGuf tcsdef ay;&efvonf? tzufzufu pOf;pm;jyD;onfaemuf kd h rdcif}uD;. psmyetm; trSwf 54 wuUov&yom kd f d f 33

34

vrf; aetdrfwGifyif jynfolvlxkjuD;rS vma&mufI tokb&_ *g0&jyKedi&ef 7 &ufxm;rnf[k a':atmif kf qef;pk=unf qHk;jzwfvdkufonf? yxrOD ; pG m ppf t k y f p k . jynf x J a &;eS i f h omoema&;0ef j uD ; Ad k v f c sKyf z k e f ; jrif h trS w f 54 wuU o d k v f & d y f o mvrf ; aetd r f o d k h vma&muf j yD ; a':atmifqef;pk=unfeihf awG@.? a':cif=unf psmye S acsmacsmarmarm jzpfa&;twGuf ndei;wkiyif=u.? S d_ f d f tultnDrsm;vnf; ay;onf? wyfrawmft&m&Sjd uD; rsm;/ wyfrawmfom;rsm;tm; v$wfjyD; psmyewGif ulnap.? a':atmifqef;pk=unf. pdwwi;Yvnf; D f Gf “'Dta&;[m tm;vHk; vufwGJjyD; vkyf&r,fhudpP/ e0weJh/wyfrawmfeJh/ tzGJ@csKyfeJh tjcm; 'Drdkua&pD tiftm;pkawGeJh jynfolvlxkeJh tm;vHk; pkaygif;jyD; tqifajyatmif vkyf&r,fhudpP jzpfw,f” [lI oabmayguf em;vnfxm;.? tcsdK@tiftm;pkrsm;u OD;oefhpsmyeuJhodk@ tavmif;xrf;I qENjycsif=u.? Tonfudkvnf; a':atmifqef;pk=unfuyif azsmif;azsmif;zszseSifh xde;xm;cJ&onf? 1989 ckepf Zefe0g&v 1 &ufaeh f h S D wGif trSwf 54 wuUodkvf&dyfomvrf; aetdrfokdh Ad k v f c sKyf r ª ; juD ; apmarmif / Ad k v f r ª ; csKyf c if n G e f h e S i f h AdvcsKyfze;jrifw@kd 3 OD; vma&muf=u.? a':cif=unf k f k f h . &k y f u vmyf t m; *g0&jyK.? 0rf ; enf ; a=umif ; rSwfwrf;wGif vufrSwfa&;xkd;=u.? a':atmif q ef ; pk = unf u tm%mod r f ; ppfacgif;aqmif 3 OD;tm; vufzuf&nfyGJeSifh wnf; cif;{nfhcH.? Adkvfcskyfrª;juD;apmarmif/ Adkvfrª;csKyf cif n G e f h e S i f h a':atmif q ef ; pk = unf w d k @ yxrqH k ; qHawG@r_ jzpfonf? k vuf z uf & nf oH k ; aqmif & if ; a':atmif qef;pk=unf wkd@ pum;pjrnfajym=u.? a':atmif qef;pk=unfu AdkvfcsKyfrª;}uD;apmarmiftm; vGwf vyfI w&m;r#waom a&G;aumufyGJrsm; usif;y&ef eSifh 'Drdkua&pDpepf jyefvnfazmfaqmif&eftwGuf ppfwyfrS uwday;xm;onfw@dk tm; wkuwe; owd d f G f ay;cJh.? 34

(54) 1989 ckepf Zefe0g&v 2 &ufae@? S D a': cif = unf . psmyetcrf ; tem;tm; pwif . ? a':cif=unf. &kyfuvmyftm; trSwf 54 wuU od k v f & d y f omvrf ; rS p I o,f a qmif = uonf ? *loGif;jr_yfeSHrnfh a&$wd*Hkajcawmf&if;qDodk@? vGrf;olh yef;acGrsm;/ qdkif;bkwfrsm;eSifh? tzGJ@csKyftvHawmf/ oHk;a&mifjc,ftvH/ wkdufyGJ0if cGyfa'gif;tvHwdkhu avwGif ,drf;,drf;EGJEGJ@/ jrifhjrifhrm;rm;eSifh v$ifhxl&if; csDwufju.? vlxku 5 odef;cef@&Sdrnf? tm;vHk;u pnf;urf;pepfuspGmeSifh csDwufae=u.? vHkjcHKa&;eSifh pnf;urf;xde;odr;a&;tm; tzG@J csKyfryifwm0ef,.? f f S l ppfom;rsm;u ta0;rS aoewfrsm; udiaqmif &if; kf apmifhae=u.? “urB m ra=ubl ; ” oD c sif ; ud k csD w uf & if ; oDq=kd u.?oDcsi;oHu h h &efuejf rdK@. ajr0oketm; f h k f v_yfcgI wkef[D;ap.? awmfvJonfhtvm;? “urBmra=ubl; igwdk@aoG;eJ@ a&;cJh=uwJh armfuGef;awG” “awmfvSefa&; 'Drdkua&pDwdkufyGJtwGif;rSm usq;aom ” Hk “ol&Jaumif;wkdha& tmZmenfawG aewJh wki;jynf ” df “&J&Jawmuf wkd@ArmawG” “ocifatmifqef; &mZ0ifawGvnf; &dkif;cJh&jyD tz a&” rif ; [ef

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