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Sanitary Sewerage System

Sanitary Sewerage System

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Deals with the sanitary sewerage and its design. Design of simplified sewerage has also been included here.
Deals with the sanitary sewerage and its design. Design of simplified sewerage has also been included here.

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Published by: Dr. Akepati Sivarami Reddy on Aug 02, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Sewerage system

Dr. Akepati S. Reddy Associate Professor, Thapar University Patiala (PUNJAB) 147 004

Sewerage system
Sewage sewer sewerage ‡ Sewage: municipal wastewater (domestic sewage, storm water and infiltrated ground water) ‡ Sewerage: system for the collection and conveyance of municipal wastewater to the STP or the point of disposal ‡ Sewer: conduit carrying the sewage
± Sanitary sewers, storm sewers and combined sewers ± Sanitary sewers carry sewage
‡ Residential, commercial and institutional sewage ‡ Industrial wastewater ‡ Infiltration water and some storm water

Sewerage system
‡ Conduit carrying the sewage mostly by gravity ‡ Asbestos cement, ductile iron, reinforced concrete, prestressed concrete, PVC, vitrified clay material are used in sewer manufacturing ‡ Sewerage is converging network of sewers (building connections, lateral sewers, main sewers, trunk sewers and intercepting sewers)
± Building sewers/building connections begins beyond a building foundation conveying sewage from the building to (lateral) sewer ± Lateral/branch sewer first element of the sewerage system receives sewage from buildings and conveys to main sewers ± Main sewer receives sewage from lateral sewers and conveys to trunk sewers or intercepting sewers ± Trunk sewers large sewers conveying sewage from main sewers to STP or disposal facilities or to large intercepting sewers ± Intercepting sewers large sewers used to intercept a number of main or trunk sewers and convey sewage to STP/disposal facilities

Sewerage system
‡ Lateral sewers are sized larger than the building sewers
± Building sewers are either 100 or 150 mm size and 150 mm is the recommended minimum size for a gravity sewer

‡ Flow in sewers is considered as steady and uniform ‡ A functioning sewer has to
± carry peak flow ± Transport suspended solids with minimum of deposition in sewers

‡ Curved sewers are not usually preferred
± Can be used if compatible cleaning equipment is available ± Curved sewers do not allow use of laser type survey equipment during construction to maintain sewer slope

Sewerage system
Manholes ‡ Precast manholes are used ‡ Interconnect two or more sewers ‡ Provide entry and access to sewers for cleaning (and maintenance!) ‡ Located at changes in size, slope and direction
± for sewers of >1200 mm size changes in size, slope and direction can be made without providing a manhole

Drop manholes ‡ Provided when difference in elevation between incoming and outgoing sewers is >0.5 m ‡ Flow from the incoming sewer is dropped to the elevation of the outgoing sewer by a drop inlet ‡ The drop inlet is provided inside the manhole for <600 mm sewers and for larger sewers an outside drop is provided Junction chambers (manholes constructed onsite) ‡ Provided when sewer diameters are large and precast manholes can not be used

Design of sewers
‡ Design involves finding slope and diameter of the sewer
± Slope for ensuring self-cleaning velocity for present peak flows ± Diameter to run partially full (d/D=0.8!) at the design peak flow

‡ Manning s formula used in the design of sewers ‡ Nomographs for the use of manning s equation are available for the sewer design
± These relate discharge (Q) and flow velocity (V) with the sewer diameter (D) and slope for different Manning s n values when circular sewer is flowing full

‡ Hydraulic elements curves developed from Manning s equation for circular sewers are used for obtaining the following when the sewer is not flowing full for the known flow (q)
± velocity (v), depth of flow (d), hydraulic radius (R), flow cross sectional area (a) and even the Manning s n value

Peak factor, and present & design peak flows
‡ Flow in sewers vary from hour to hour and also seasonally ‡ Peak factor is defined as the ratio of maximum hourly flow to average hourly flow
‡ Peak factors depend on population density, topography of the site and hours of water supply ‡ Peaking factor is taken as
<20000 20000-50000 50000-750000 >750000 3.00 2.50 2.25 2.00

‡ Peak factor for commercial, institutional and industrial areas are taken as 1.8, 4.0 and 2.1 respectively

‡ Minimum flow may be 1/3rd to ½ of average flow ‡ Sewers are designed for the peak flows
‡ Slope of sewers is based on the present peak flow ‡ Diameter of the sewer is based on the design peak flow

Present and design peak flows
‡ Sanitary sewage generation can be assessed by using the water supply information
‡ Population and per capita water supply (135 or 200 LPCD!) ‡ Return factor of the sewage (typically taken as 0.8)
For arid regions as it may be as low as 0.4, and for well developed area it may be 0.9 Use of other than municipal water supply (industries, commercial buildings, etc.!) can upset the return factorForcasting sewage generation at the end of the design period may require

‡ Sewers are desinged for a minimum of 100 LPCD sewage

‡ Land use pattern (contained in the master plan) and zoning regulations
‡ Land of a typical city may be
56% - residential area 20% - roads, 15% - gardens 5% - institutions (schools) 2% - hospitals and dispensaries, 2 % - markets Industrial area - ?

Present and design peak flows
‡ Ultimate (saturation) population densities are often used for anticipating the population
‡ Floor Space Index (ratio of total floor area to plot area) can be used in finding out the ultimate population densities basis ‡ Per capita floor area is also needed in the assessment (9 m2 per capita !) ‡ Population densities depend on the size of the town/city
<5000 5000-20000 20000-50000 50000-100000 >100000 75-150/ha. 150-250/ha. 250-300/ha. 300-350/ha. 350-1000/ha.

‡ Design period
± Length of time upto which the sewerage system will prove adequate ± Depends on the life of the structures and equipment to be used, anticipated rate of population growth and economic justification ± Recommended design period is 30 years

Infiltration of ground water
‡ Ground water infiltrates through sewer joints
± Depends on the workmanship in laying the sewers and the level of ground water table ± For sewers laid above the ground water table sewage may lost from the sewers ± Sewers require hydraulic testing after laying

‡ Suggested infiltration rates for sewers laid below the groundwater table
± 5-50 m3/ha/day or ± 0.5-5 m3/km.day or ± 0.25 to 0.5 m3/manhole/day

Manning s Equation
V! R

S n

1/ 2

« n.v » D ! 4¬ 1 ¼ ­S 2 ½







1/ 2



V = velocity (m/sec) Q = flow rate (m3/sec.) R = hydraulic radius (m) S = slope of the energy grade line n = Manning s roughness coefficient D = Diameter of the pipe

« 4 3 .n.Q » ¼ !¬ 1 ¬ T .S 2 ¼ ­ ½



‡ n is reported to reduce with increasing pipe diameter and also vary with the depth flow
‡ Manning s n of 0.013 is used for new and existing well constructed sewers, and for older sewers it is taken as 0.015

‡ Typically applied for open-channel flow conditions ‡ Design of sewers involves finding slope and diameter of the sewer with peak design flow capacity
‡ Flow velocity should be 0.6 to 3.0 m/sec. during (present and design) peak flow

Properties of circular sewer section
Flow through sewer is open channel flow Parameters of interest are
‡ Breadth of flow (b) ‡ Depth of flow (d) ‡ Diameter of the sewer (D)

Angle of flow !


N 2T 360

Breadth of flow is needed for the
‡ Calculation of the risk of H2S generation ‡ Escritt s definition of hydraulic radius

d¸ ¨ U ! 2 cos 1 ©1  2 ¹ Dº ª

¨U ¸ b ! D sin © ¹ ª2º
¨ U  sin U ¸ a!D © ¹ 8 ª º

Derived parameters
‡ Angle of flow (U) ‡ Area of flow (a) ‡ Wetted perimeter (P)

P !U D


Properties of circular sewer section
Hydraulic radius (r) = area of flow / wetted perimeter d/D for simplified sewerage is 0.2-0.8
<0.2 do not ensure sufficient velocity for preventing solids deposition in the sewer >0.8 do not allow sufficient ventilation

!U D


D ¨ SinU ¸ r ! ©1  ¹ 4ª U º
a ! Ka D2

For any known d/D, angle of flow can be found From angle of low, area of flow, hydraulic radius and breadth of flow can be found For d/D=0.2, Ka and Kr values are 0.1118 and 0.1206 respectively For d/D=0.8, Ka and Kr values are 0.6736 and 0.3042 respectively

r ! Kr D
1 K a !  SinU U 8

1 ¨ SinU ¸ K r ! ©1  ¹ 4ª U º

Gauckler-Manning Equation
1 2 3 12 v! r i n
‡ V is flow velocity (m/sec.)

1 2 3 12 q ! va ! ar i n

2 1 1 2 ‡ N is roughness coefficient, taken as 0.013 q ! K D ( K D ) 3 i 2 a r for PVC, vitrified clay and even for n

concrete sewers

‡ The bacterial slime layer makes the roughness almost same for all the materials ‡ ‡

i is sewer slope or gradient q is sewage flow rate (m3/sec.)

¨ q ¸ 8 D ! n 8 Ka 8 Kr 4 © 1 ¹ © 2¹ ªi º 1 2 a ! K a D !  SinU D 2 U . 8
3 3 1


d¸ ¨ U ! 2 cos ©1  2 ¹ Dº ª 

1 ¨ SinU ¸ r ! K r D ! ©1  ¹.D 4ª U º

Tractive Tension (boundary shear stress)
Tangential force exerted by the flowing sewage per unit wetted boundary area Denoted by X and units are N/m2 or Pascals, Pa Obtained by dividing weight component of the flowing sewage in the flow direction by the wetted boundary area of the sewer
W is weight of sewage L is sewer length V is density of sewage a is area of flow J is sewer inclination angle since J is very small sin J=tan J tan J is the sewer slope (i)

W .SinJ VgaL.SinJ X! ! P.L P.L X ! VgrSinJ ! VgK r Di
¨ X ¸ 1 D!© © Vg ¹ K i ¹ ª º r
3 13 1 2 ¨ X ¸ ¹ i 6 q ! Ka Kr © © Vg ¹ n ª º 6 13 8

¨1 ¸ i ! © K a K r 2 ¹ ªn º

¨ X ¸ © © Vg ¹ ¹ ª º






2 1 1 2 3 q ! K a D ( K r D) i 2 n

Design of the sewer
Find initial and final (at the start and at the end of the design period) peak sewage flow rates

q ! k1k 2 PW
If the flow is <1.5 L/Sec., then use 1.5 L/Sec. as peak flow

Using the initial peak sewage flow rate, for the minimum tractive tension required, find minimum slope required

¨1 2 ¸ i ! © Ka Kr ¹ ªn º



¨ X ¸ © © Vg ¹ ¹ ª º






Ka and Kr should correspond to d/D = 0.2 at which tractive tension is minimum Required tractive tension for simplified sewers is 1 Pa For sanitary sewers it is 1-2 Pa and for storm sewers and combined sewers it is 3-4 Pa

Design of the sewer
Find sewer diameter using the Gauckler-Manning equation

Here final peak sewage flow rate is taken as q Ka and Kr values corresponding to d/D=0.8 are considered The sewer diameters calculated may not be always commercially available then chose the next larger diameter sewer commercially available Minimum sewer diameter considered in simplified sewerage is 100 mm

¨ q ¸ 8 8 4© D ! n Ka Kr © 1 ¹ ¹ 2 ªi º
3 3 1



Surface Material Asbestos cement Asphalt Brass Brickwork Cast-iron, new Clay tile Concrete - steel forms Concrete ± finished Concrete - wooden forms Concrete - centrifugally spun Galvanized iron Glass Gravel Masonry Metal ± corrugated Plastic Polyethylene PE - Corrugated with smooth inner walls Polyethylene PE - Corrugated with corrugated inner walls Polyvinyl Chloride PVC - with smooth inner walls Steel - Coal-tar enamel Steel - smooth

Manning's - n 0.011 0.016 0.011 0.015 0.012 0.014 0.011 0.012 0.015 0.013 0.016 0.010 0.029 0.025 0.022 0.009 0.009 - 0.015 0.018 - 0.025 0.009 - 0.011 0.010 0.012

Manning s Equation
‡ Also can use nomographs to get solution.

From: Metcalf and Eddy, Inc. and George Tchobanoglous. Wastewater Engineering: Collection and Pumping of Wastewater. McGraw-Hill, Inc. 1981.

Self cleansing velocity
‡ In a sewer sufficient velocity (self cleansing velocity) should be developed on a regular basis ensuring self cleansing ‡ Self-cleansing velocity can be found by Camp s formula 1 1 16 V ! R K S SG  1 d p 2 n ‡ SG is specific gravity of the particle ‡ dp is particle size ‡ Ks is constant and its value is taken as 0.8 ‡ Recommended selfcleansing velocity is 0.6 m/sec. ‡ Ensures transport of sand particles of 0.09 mm size and 2.65 specific gravity without allowing settling ‡ For preventing deposition of sand and gravel 0.75 m/sec. velocity is recommended ‡ Self-cleansing velocity of 0.8 m/sec. at design peak flow and 0.6 m/sec. at present peak flow are often suggested ‡ Velocity in the sewer is recommended not to exceed 3 m/sec. for avoiding damage to sewers from erosion ‡ Flow velocity for the present peak flow should be >0.6 m/sec. and for the design peak flow it should be <3.0 m/sec.



Slope and diameter of sewers
‡ For sewers running partially full for a given flow and slope, flow velocity is little influenced by pipe diameter ‡ Slope of sewer is first fixed for the present peak flow, then pipe diameter is decided on the basis of design peak flow and permissible depth of flow ‡ For ensuring a minimum velocity of 0.6 m/sec., slope of the sewer can be
S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Present peak flow (LPS) Slope 2 3 5 10 15 20 30 6 in 1000 4 in 1000 3.1 in 1000 2 in 1000 1.3 in 1000 1.2 in 1000 1.0in 1000

‡ Minimum practical slope considered for construction is 1 in 1250

Sewer ventilation
‡ Sewers are preferably run partially full (d/D <0.8) for facilitating ventilation ‡ Sewer ventilation is needed to avoid
± Dangers of asphyxiation of maintenance personnel ± Buildup of odorous gases ± Development of explosive mixture of sewer gases (methane and oxygen)

‡ Hydrogen sulfide can be generated in the sewer specially when laid at minimum slope
± H2S can cause odour problems, precipitates trace metals as sulfides, and deteriorates cement containing materials

Design computations
‡ Accurate and detailed map of the area to be covered by the sewerage system
± Scale of the map can be 25 m = 1 cm (maps of 5 m = 1 cm are also often needed ± Location of streets, alleys, highways, railroads, public buildings, parks, streams/drains, ditches, etc., features should be identified on the map ± Accurate elevations of street center lines at every 15 m distance and elevation at all locations of abrupt surface slope changes

‡ Decide on the layout of the sewer line
± Draw the sewer map ± Identify, locate and number the manholes on the sewer map and code the sewers
‡ Locations of change of direction, sewer junctions, and upper ends of the sewers can have manholes ‡ Manholes can be provided at regular distnaces (30 m -120 m)

Design computations
± Find surface elevation of the upstream and downstream ends of each of the sewer ± Identify the local tributary area for each of the sewer ± Find the present and the design population equivalents of the local tributary areas ± Find present and design average and peak sewage flow for the local tributary area ‡ Collect additional information for the right of the way of the sewer line ± Profiles of all existing and proposed streets, alleys and potential right-of-ways ± Location of surface and subsurface utilities like water mains, electrical conduits, communication lines, and other underground structures ± Soil data upto 1.5 m below the bottom of proposed sewer ‡ Prepare sewer design computation table

Sewer design computation table
‡ This can be an excel worksheet and include ‡ Columns identifying the sewers and summerizing basic data
± Sewer code and upstream and downstream manhole numbers ± Sewer length ± Local (tributary) area, its present and design population, and its present and design average and peak sewage flow ± Present and design average and peak flows from commercial, institutional and industrial activities of the local (tributary) area ± Infiltration allowance for the sewer length ± Surface elevation at the upstream and downstream sewer ends

‡ Columns showing cumulative present average flow and peak flow and average and peak flow at the end of design period ‡ Columns showing computed slope and diameter of the sewer and Qfull

Sewer design computation table
‡ Columns showing hydraulic elements for the present and the design peak flows when Manning s n is variable
± d/D corresponding to the qPFP and to the qPFD ± Flow velocity at qPFP and at qPFD

‡ Columns showing sewer layout data (invert elevations at the upstream and at the downstream ends of the sewer) ‡ Corrected invert elevations of the sewer on the basis of
± Sewer pipe thickness and crown cover required ± In case of a sewer junction, invert elevation of the outlet sewer is fixed by the lowest inlet sewer s invert elevation ± If sewer size increases crowns of the sewer in question should be matched with that of the upstream sewer at the manhole

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