To To Our Readers

Dear Readers,

Year 4

Issue 47

May 2010

It is with a sense of great pleasure and satisfaction that we are presenting to you the May issue of your favourite magazine ‘Pratiyogita Darpan’. The plan of preparing this issue is slightly, but meaning fully, different from our previous plans. This time we have focussed our efforts on changing patterns of examinations and the requirements of our readers. While going through the pages of this issue you yourself will feel the difference. The process of preparing this issue is totally new pattern examination-oriented and is dependent on requirements of readers. We keep ourselves constantly in touch with the changing patterns of competitive examinations and the requirements of our readers and model our issues accordingly. A number of core articles on important world events are given in this issue. Some of the representative articles are—Indo-US Relations : Ups and Downs, Palestinian Conflict : No Sign of Hope, Indian Ocean and India’s Evolving Maritime Strategy etc.

EDITOR Mahendra Jain

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The most useful section of the Magazine contains a number of question papers selected from various competitive examinations. These are fully solved with relevant hints and short explanations. We make all efforts to give their error free solutions. This is a unique speciality of the magazine which makes it unparalleled in its field and our readers are fully aware of it. In addition, our column ‘Compendium’ is a powerful tool to help readers to remember clear cut facts. For being successful and leading a successful life, hardwork and perseverance have no alternative. This is specially true for student life which lays the foundation of your future life. Those of you will properly understand the significance of it and accordingly will lead a trouble free, purposeful and useful life. If you are prepared for this, we convince you that P.D. gives and continue to give all that you want for success in any competitive examination. Read Pratiyogita Darpan regularly and intelligently. It gives you the power to master your career and shape your destiny. With best wishes for your success and bright future.

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Year 4 Issue 47 May 2010

International Relations Article Regulars
1902 To Our Readers 1905 Editorial 1979 Indo-U.S. Relations in the Changing Global Scenario

Career Article
1983 SSB : For Three Wings of the Armed Forces What ? How ? and Why ?

News & Events
1907 Nation this Month 1918 World this Month 1926 Regional News 1930 National and International Updates

1989 Compendium

Countries of the World : At a Glance
1992 Brazil

Annual Report : 2008-09
1994 Achievements and New Initiatives in Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises : Highlights

Career News
1941 Employment and Career News 1944 Forthcoming Competitive Examinations

International Event
1997 The Millennium Development Goals

Current Affairs
1945 Economic Scenario 1953 Sports World 1958 Science and Technology 1960 Memorable Points

Profile : International Organisation
1998 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) 2000 Current Questionnaire 2002 Trade and Industry

World Panorama
1962 (i) Indo-U.S. Relations : Ups and Downs 1965 (ii) Palestinian Conflict : No Sign of Hope 1967 (iii) Yemen : In the Clutches of Imperialism 1968 (iv) Ukraine : ‘Orange Revolution’ Fizzles Out

Question Papers Optional Papers
2004 U.P. PCS (Pre.) Exam., 2009 : Political Science 2011 U.P. Trained Graduate Teachers Selection Test, 2009 : Commerce

Other Papers
2018 U.P. PCS (Mains) Exam., 2007 : General Studies 2032 S.S.C. Tax Assistant Exam., 2009 : General Awareness 2037 Bank of India P.O. Exam., 2010 : General Awareness on Current Developments 2040 Corporation Bank P.O. Exam., 2009 : Reasoning Ability 2050 IDBI Executive Exam., 2009 : Quantitative Aptitude 2055 Common Law Admission Test, 2009

Personality Development
1969 Empty Life Early Death

Inspiring Youth : Interview
1971 Vipra Pandey Topper—Indian Forest Services 2009 (2nd Rank)

Articles Defence Article
1973 Indian Ocean and India’s Evolving Maritime Strategy

Your Pages
2067 2068 2071 2072 2075 Essay Contest Debate Contest Results Concentric Quiz Test Your Knowledge

Sociological Article
1976 Empowerment of Tribal Women in India

Legal Article
1978 Declaration of Assets by Judges of Supreme Court and High Courts


Life is a journey through a series of incarnations. We have come a long way. We have got to go a long way. The word journey brings to one’s mind a goal to be reached and a path to be traversed. The trio of destination, road and movement, ever go together, and each has a significance in relation to the other two. In any case, a journey cannot be undertaken in the absence of knowledge of the goal or the route or the path leading thereto. We generally begin believing in the goal and the route told by different teachers and preachers. We have developed the notion of separateness, forgetting that there is one force flowing in everything from the biggest planet to the tiniest particle. In such a universe there is no sharp division between the animate and the inanimate, the living and the dead. The great philosopher American author Emerson has written that God reappears with all his parts in every moss and cobweb. Therefore, when we use energy, we are using the one energy, which all have in common, the energy of the immanent. In this context, these words of the great scientist Albert Einstein are of very great importances A human being is a part of the whole, called by us the universe. A part limited in time, experiences himself, his thoughts and feelings as separated from the rest. A kind of optical delusion of consciousness. This delusion is a kind of prison for us, restricting us to our personal desires and affections for a few persons nearest to us. Our task must be to free ourselves from this prison

by widening our circle of compassion, to embrace all living creatures and the whole of nature in its beauty. Nobody is able to achieve this completely but the striving for this achievement is itself a part of this liberation and a function for inner security. The time for breaking up the shell must come in everybody’s life, the personality with all its spikes must be shattered; we must be prepared or willing to undergo that process just as the chestnut does. We can tread on the path until we have, in some measure, rid ourselves of personal idiosyncrasies. For such experience and its impact requisite sensitivity is required, so, one such goal, as referred to above, could be the gaining of sensitivity at all levels, the physical, the astral, the mental. We can see for ourselves how increased sensitivity, even at the physical level, leads an artist to the treasures hidden in nature, denied to the common man. To grow in sensitivity is to grow in perception. Right perception alone can lead us to right living. For this, we need refinement and sensitivity of our astral and mental bodies, which are our vehicles for our emotions and thoughts. The free flow of life brings us face to face with the truth, which is wisdom. Truth has to do with relationship in the universe, which comes with wider vision and perception of wholeness. One such route, leading to the goal may be the worship of omnipresent God. But then, what is meant by God ? God was invented to designate the unknown cause of those

effects, which man either admired or dreaded without understanding them. As mentioned in ‘Iris unveiled’ a man can have no God that is not bounded by his own human conception. The wider the sweep of one’s spiritual vision, the mightier will be his deity or God. The concept of personal God has often led to many a distortion and fulfilment of self interest. This aspect of deity has been defined as ‘Ignorance created God and cunning took advantage of it’. But in place of personal God, if we try to perceive impersonal God, the whole aspect may change. There is one indivisible and absolute omniscience and intelligence in the universe and this throbs throughout cosmos, every atom, and infinitesimal point of the whole finite cosmos which has no bounds. Those, who worship before it, ought to do so in silence and in the sanctified solitude of their souls, making their good actions the only priests, and their sinful inventions the only sacrificial victims. This would give the worshipper the requisite sensitivity, susceptibility to grow in vision perception. It is in this feeling of belonging to a larger ‘we’ which is the essence in the social life. The mature individual is one, who finds that in his service to a larger ‘we’ lies his own success and development. This is to materialise not in a vague heavenly world or in a distant golden age, but here and now within the priceless heritage of a human form.

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India, Bangladesh Talks on Teesta
India and Bangladesh made a significant movement forward during their two-day talks in March on sharing of Teesta river waters, with an understanding that they would finalise an agreement within a year. It may be recalled that bilateral discussions over sharing of Teesta river waters have been held quite often, but no solution acceptable to both sides could be hammered out. This time things are set to move significantly forward. Both sides exchanged draft documents during the ministerial-level 37th Joint River Commission (JRC) talk that concluded on March 19, 2010 in New Delhi. The meeting held after a gap of five years, came after both the countries agreed, during Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina’s visit to India in January this year, to conclude the Teesta sharing talks at the earliest. During the talks, Bangladesh proposed a draft interim agreement, while India suggested a ‘statement of principles,’ including on modalities and methodology of sharing waters during the dry season. Now the two documents will be reconciled at official level talks.

water supply and minor lift irrigation schemes on the Feni and Muhuri rivers and implementation of the 1996 Ganga Water Sharing Treaty, the statement said. The talks covered protection of banks and repairs to embankments, and cooperation in flood forecasting and warning arrangements, flood management measures, including dredging of the Ichhamati river, the Tipaimukh dam project and India’s river-linking project. According to official sources, India has agreed to share flood projection data on a continuous basis and enhance the lead time to more than 57 hours for flood warnings. India also agreed to convene a trilateral meeting with Bangladesh and Nepal on the Farakka barrage. Both sides expressed satisfaction over bank protection and embankment repairs being undertaken by a mutual agreement at several sites in India and Bangladesh. They finalised 22 new sites in Bangladesh and 12 in India for the purpose. Bangladesh agreed to India drawing 1·82 cusecs from the Feni for drinking water supply schemes, the statement said. Bangladesh appreciated India’s assurance on the Tipaimukh project and the proposed river-linking project that might affect Bangladesh.

The JRC is headed by Bangladesh Water Resources Minister Ramesh Chandra Sen and his Indian counterpart, Pawan Kumar Bansal. West Bengal Water Resources Minister Subhash Narkar participated in the talks. Tripura was represented by its Chief Engineer J.K. Lodh. Four rivers that were discussed—The Manu, the Muhuri, the Khowai and the Gomti, flow through Tripura. The Dharla and the Dudkmar flow through West Bengal. Mr. Sen described the exchange of drafts as a ‘step forward’ and said both sides decided on how to go about cooperating on the issue. According to Mr. Bansal, India and Bangladesh have mandated that the Water Resources Secretaries “take up the issue from here.” The next JRC would be held at the earliest. The Water Resources Secretaries would examine drafts “towards an expeditious conclusion of an interim agrement on the Teesta,” an official statement said. An official level meeting would probably be held as early as May, Water Resources Secretary, Umesh Narayan Panjiar told the journalists.

Unilateral No Fire Declaration
Meanwhile, in a sign that reflects the growing bonhomie between India and Bangladesh, the Indian government is working on a plan to declare a unilateral ‘no-fire’ along its border with Bangladesh for a year. Union Home Secretary G.K. Pillai said on March 19, 2010 that this was being done to avoid deaths of civilians in cross-firing. “We are considering unilateral no firing on the border for one year. The modalities are being worked out,” Mr. Pillai said at the India–Bangladesh Security Dialogue organised on the Observer Research Foundation. Saying that confidence building measures should continue from both sides, Mr. Pillai said that India was of the view that killing of civilians in border cross-firing was a very sensitive issue in Bangladesh. Mr. Pillai also hinted that there could be massive visa relaxation for Bangladesh is who held multiple-entry visas and had travelled to India earlier. “We are also considering removing Bangladesh from the list of six to eight countries where prior clearance from the government is needed to give visas,” he said.

Sheikh Hasina’s Visit as an Inspiration
The warm camaraderie that is being witnessed between the two countries is the result of Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina’s visit to India in January.

Trilateral Meet
The discussions were comprehensive and included issues relating to other common rivers also, drinking


“Anger and intolerance are the enemies of correct understanding.”

The accommodative spirit which her visit generated seems to be working as an inspiration behind all positive developments that appear to materialise. Terming Sheikh Hasina’s recent visit to India as a milestone, Mr. Pillai stressed that the gains would remain on paper only unless quickly translated on the ground. “We need to move very fast. I don’t think this window of opportunity will last forever. The next nine months are going to be critical. If we miss the bus in nine months we may find ourselves climbing the mountain again.” Mr. Pillai also disclosed that boundary dispute related to only 6·1 km of the 4,095 km border between the two countries, but there had been no progress in the last 10 years to solve the problem. He, however, suggested the creation of a task force with a mandate to solve the boundary dispute by the end of this year or early next year.

The Kandahar Hijack
● The Kandahar Hijack : On December 24, 1999, Pakistanbased terrorists hijacked Indian Airlines Flight IC-814 to Kandahar and secured the release of three top militants, including Maulana Masood Azhar (right), from Indian jails.

Lok Sabha Adopts Bill to Protect Monuments
The Lok Sabha on March 15, 2010 adopted by voice vote an ordinance replacement Bill to amend the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, 1958, and thus provide stringent punishment for desecration of archaeological monuments and creation of a separate authority to classify heritage structures and approve large scale public projects in regulated areas. Law and Justice Minister M. Veerappa Moily, seeking the House’s approval for the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains (Amendment and validation) Bill, 2010, said that the amendment would enable the Centre to set up a National Monuments Authority (NMA) consisting of archaeological and heritage experts. The NMA would work without any interference from judiciary or bureaucracy and it would have only archaeological/ heritage experts. Justifying the promulgation of the ordinance in January this year, Mr. Moily said that the government had to do this as the orders of different High Courts would have brought to a halt several important projects, including those associated with the Commonwealth Games in Delhi and metro rails in Delhi and Bangalore. The Bill restricts construction activity in the regulated area, which will be 200 meters in radius from the prohibited area surrounding the protected monuments. Besides, the NMA would have powers to approve largescale development projects to be set up in regulated areas.

● The Sentencing : On February 5, 2008, a designated court in Patiala sentenced three persons to life in jail, holding them guilty of murder and conspiracy with the IC-814 hijackers. ● The Cabinet Decision : The proposal seeks amendments to Section 3 and 4 of the Anti-Hijacking Act, 1982, which Maulana deal with the definition of hijack and Masood Azhar punishment for hijacking, to include death penalty. Currently, the law provides for life imprisonment and a fine as punishment for hijacking.

The Union Cabinet approved a proposal of the civil aviation ministry to amend the Anti-hijacking Act of 1982, said Information and Broadcasting Minister Ms. Ambika Soni after the meeting. The Minister said that the UPA-I had constituted a Group of Ministers (GoM) on the issue. After UPA-II took over, a new GoM; headed by Home Minister P. Chidambaram, gave the final shape to the proposals. The GoM included M. Veerappa Moily (Law), Kapil Sibal (Human Resource Development) and Civil Aviation Minister Praful Patel.

Proposed Changes
● Aircraft can be shot down if hijack is established and that hijackers intend to use it like a missile as in 9/11 attacks. ● Aircraft can be immobilized and disallowed from taking off if hijack occurs on Indian soil. ● No negotiation with hijackers on demands. ● IAF fighters to be scrambled if hijacked plane remains in Indian airspace.

Cabinet Nod for Death Penalty for Hijackers
[Surge in terror threat, Anti-hijacking Act of 1982 to be amended] With rising terror threat in the skies, the Central government on March 19, 2010 cleared proposals to make the anti-hijacking law more stringent by including death sentence as a punishment.

Section 3 and 4 of the present Act, which deal with the definition of hijack and punishment for the offence are proposed to be amended to include the death penalty. Currently, the law provides for life imprisonment and a fine. The provisions are aimed at countering situations like the Kandhar hijack of December, 1999, when 178 passengers and 11 crew members were exchanged for four dreaded terrorists. One of the passengers was killed by the hijackers. At that time the security forces had failed to immobilise the plane when it landed at Amritsar airport.


“Understanding is a two-way street.”

Offshore Patrol Vessel ‘Vishwast’ Inducted into Coast Guards
[ICGS ‘Vishwast’ is primarily designed for patrolling and policing maritime zones] The maritime security of the country’s west coast got a boost on March 17, 2010 with the induction of a state-ofthe-art new generation Offshore Patrol Vessel (OPV)— ICGS ‘Vishwast’—into the Indian Coast Guard. ‘Vishwast’, which means ‘trustworthy’, is an OPV indigenously designed in-house and built by the Goa Shipyard Limited (GSL), the South Goa-based Defence shipyard, and was formally commissioned into the Indian Coast Guard (ICG) by Defence Minister A.K. Antony at the GSL on March 17, 2010. This OPV is the only vessel of this class in the world with the sophistication, large range of facilities for pollution control, fire fighting, search and rescue and patroll- In this handout picture released by the ing provided in a 90- Ministry of Defence, Defence Minister metre vessel. The A.K. Antony inspects a guard of honour ship is primarily of naval troops during a ceremony to designed for patroll- formally commission naval warship ing and policing ICGS ‘Vishwast’ into the Indian Coast maritime zones, Guard at the Goa Shipyard on March search and rescue 17, 2010. operations, maritime surveillance, anti-smuggling operations, pollution response against oil spillages and external fire fighting. Reiterating the Central Government’s thrust on coastal security, the Defence Minister said that the government had approved all that the Coast Guard had asked for in terms of assets and manpower so that their capabilities were enhanced. “In all, 14 new Coast Guard stations have been approved recently, and fast track procurement of ships, boats and aircraft has been permitted,” Mr. Antony said. “The delineation of the continental shelf and the resulting increase in the Exclusive Economic Zone mean that the Indian Coast Guard will have greater sea area to monitor.” Mr. Antony called up on the Coast Guard to rise to the occassion and ensure that response time to emergency situations was further reduced. He lauded GSL’s efficiency and asked it to reduce delivery period. According to Rear Admiral Bakshi, the GSL was on a modernisation drive that included the installation of a ship-lift and the creation of GRP ship production infrastructure. ICGS ‘Vishwast’ is a first of its class offshore patrol vessel which has a speed of 26 knots and has an endurance of 4,500 nautical miles. It can stay in sea for 17 days without replenishment and has an integrated bridge system, integrated machine control system, high power

external fire fighting system and an indigenously built gun mount.

Cabinet Clears Education Reform Bills
[Stricter penal action against institutions indulging in unfair practices] The Union Cabinet on March 19, 2010 cleared the Prohibition of Unfair Practices in Technical, Medical Educational Institutions and Universities Bill 2010, that seeks to make capitation fee a cognizable offence.

Against False Promises
● As per the Prohibition of Unfair Practices Bill charging of capitation fee or failure to keep promises of quality education could attract a prison term of up to three years or fine up to Rs. 50 lakh for the institute.

● The Cabinet also cleared two other education reforms Bills. ● One bill is for setting up of Education Tribunals to adjudicate disputes in campuses and another on setting up a National Accreditation Agency to give accreditation to institutions.

The Bill recommends a maximum of three years’ imprisonment and a fine of Rs. 50 lakh for charging capitation fee and putting out misleading advertisements or wilully giving wrong information in the prospectus. All other offences are non-cognizable and will be tried by the educational tribunals to be set up for the purpose. “Capitation fee is destroying the cause of education in the country and needs to be curbed,” Union Human Resource Development Minister Kapil Sibal told the reporters. The Bill seeks to consider such practices as criminal or civil offences depending on the nature of the crime. According to the Bill, if an institution makes certain promises in its prospectus, but does not deliver or charges capitation fee from a number of students, then such practices should be considered criminal offences. However, in case of an isolated instance of malpractice involving just one or two students, the offences could be considered civil offences. In such cases, the institutions could be slapped fines.

The Education Tribunal Bill
The Education Tribunal Bill provides for setting up of tribunals in the States and UTs to settle all types of disputes including any type of malpractice or harassment of students. The Third Bill is on setting up of an accreditation agency, which assesses and accredits institutions of higher education to ensure higher standards. The proposed National Accreditation Authority will evaluate the quality of institutes.


“Truth will always be truth, regardless of lack of understanding, disbelief or ignorance.”

Cabinet Nod for Foreign Universities Bill
The Union Cabinet on March 15, 2010 cleared the Foreign Educational Institutions (Regulation of Entry and Operation) Bill, 2010, for introduction in Parliament. It seeks to allow foreign education providers to set up campuses in the country and offer degrees. Human Resource Development Minister Kapil Sibal said : “This is a milestone which will enhance choices, increase competition and benchmark quality. A larger revolution than ever in the telecom sector awaits us.” The Foreign Universities Bill had been pending for the last four years owing to opposition from various quarters, including the left parties, over certain provisions. Last year it was referred to a Committee of Secretaries which brought modifications to certain provisions.

The proposed law will facilitate the globally renowned institutes to participate in the higher education sector. It will bring in foreign education providers for vocational education training also. The measure is laudable in as much as it opens new educational vistas to those who didn’t have access to quality education abroad. Now those standard institutes will open their gates at our very doorstep. More than anything else, these institutions will create competitive environment in which domestic institutions will mobilize their resources to come to the desired standard. In all, the measure is expected to revolutionize higher education in India.

What is the Bill about ?
The Bill was approved by the Cabinet, presided over by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh without any change. The Bill prescribes an eight-month time-bound format for granting approval to foreign educational institutions to set up campuses. They will go through different levels of registration process during this period. Finally, they will be registered with the University Grants Commission or any other regulatory body to be put in place that will scrutinize the proposals of the aspiring institution as per India’s priorities and advise the government whether to allow it to operate in India.

The 98th Indian Science Congress will be held at SRM University Kattankulathur, between January 3 and 7. It will be inaugurated by Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh.
● ● ● ● The Congress seeks to promote science and scientific research Space summit will also be organised Children’s Science Congress also planned Comprehensive coverage of topics

The Congress was being organised in Chennai after 12 years. The theme of the edition would be ‘Quality education and excellence in scientific research.’ K.C. Pandey, general president-elect, Indian Science Congress Association said that the Congress sought to promote science in an environment in which quality of teaching has gone down tremendously and fewer students are attracted to scientific research. The topics to be covered and discussed through research papers would cover areas such as new power and renewable energy, climate change and food security, water resources management, genetic engineering and

Reservation Policy
As for the reservation policy in the higher educational institutions, the law of the land will prevail. Though 100 per cent foreign direct investment (FDI) through the automatic route is permitted in the education sector since 2000, the present legal structure does not allow granting of degrees by foreign educational institution in India.


bio-technology, maternal and child health care, frontiers in new biology, emerging trends in biomedical research, nano-technology, information technology for rural development and e-education for national growth. As many as 14 sessions would be held simultaneously, in addition to special lectures. A space summit will be organised in collaboration with organisations such as the Indian Space Research Organisation, National Aeronautics and Space Administration and space research agencies in other countries. A Children’s Science Congress is also being planned. Ashok K. Saxena, general secretary, ISCA, said they were also considering student exchange programmes as part of the Children’s Science Congress. Organisers said they were exploring the possibilty of making registration free. They would approach the industry and government agencies for sponsorship of the event, whose estimated budget is Rs. 12 crore.

Mr. Pillai called BrahMos a formidable weapon, which had no equivalent. It had a successful track record. The missile is nine metres long and weighs three tonnes. It can fly at almost three times the speed of sound and can reach targets 290 km away. It is essentially an anti-ship missile.

From April 1, 2010, Education becomes a Fundamental Right
[About one crore children will benefit from the Right to Education Act]
On April 1, 2010 India joined a group of a few countries in the world, with a historic law making education a fundamental right of every child coming into force.

India Carries out Successful Vertical Launch of BrahMos
[It smashed into Navy’s decommissioned vessel, 290 km away, in the Bay of Bengal] BrahMos, the supersonic cruise missile, was successfully launched vertically from Naval destroyer INS Ranvir of March 21, 2010. It punched a hole in a decommissioned vessel 290 km away in the Bay of Bengal off the Orissa Coast. The missile climbed 200 metres vertically, then monoeuvred at supersonic speeds to cruise horizontally before smashing into the vessel INS Meen. This was the 22nd launch of BrahMos, which has already been inducted into the Army and the Navy. It has been jointly developed by India and BrahMos missile Russia. According to A Sivathanu Pillai, Chief Executive Officer and Managing Director, BrahMos Aerospace Private Lt., it was a ‘perfect mission’ with the missile hitting the target precisely. This vertical launch was uniquely designed.
National Endeavour : Union Minister for Human Resource Development Kapil Sibal addresses journalists on the Right to Education Bill, in New Delhi on March 31, 2010. Making elementary education an entitlement for children in the 6–14 age group, the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009 will directly benefit close to one crore children who do not go to school at present. As per the Act, private educational institutions should reserve 25 per cent seats for children from the weaker sections of society. The Centre and the States have agreed to share the financial burden in the ratio of 55 : 45, while the Finance Commission has given Rs. 25,000 crore to the States for implementing the Act. The Centre has approved an outlay of Rs. 15,000 crore for 2010-11.

Advanced Technology Vehicle Successfully Flight-tested
● ● ● It is the heaviest sounding rocket developed by ISRO Step ahead in air breathing propulsion It successfully flew at a velocity of more than Mach 6

● The test-firing was part of the pre-induction tests by the Navy as moves are afoot to deploy the vertical-launch version of the missile in ships. ● The missile has been designed and developed by the IndoRussian joint venture company. ● The navy had earlier carried out several tests of the BrahMos but most of them had been done from inclined launchers abroad INS Rajput. ● 290 km : Range of vertical launch version of the BrahMos missile. ● Elite Club : India has become the only country to have a manoeuvrable supersonic cruise missile in its inventory.

The Indian Space Research Organisation in the second week of March 2010 successfully flight-tested its new generation high-performance sounding rocket at the space port in Sriharikota. The Advanced Technology Vehicle (ATV–DO1), weighing three tonnes at lift-off, is the heaviest sounding rocket developed by the ISRO. It carries a passive scramjet (supersonic combustion ramjet) engine combustor module as a test-bed for a demonstration of the air breathing propulsion technology. According to an ISRO release, the rocket successfully flew at a velocity of more than Mach 6 (six times the speed of sound) for seven seconds. These conditions were required for a stable ignition of active


“The power of intuitive understanding will protect you from harm until the end of your days.”

scramjet engine combustor module planned in the next ATV flight. “The successful flight-testing is a step ahead towards the advanced technology initiative from the ISRO in the area of air-breathing propulsion,” the release said. The air-breathing rocket systems use the atmospheric oxygen from their surroundings and burn it with the onboard fuel to produce the forward thrust. This is in contrast to the conventional chemical rocket systems, which carried both oxygen and fuel on board, a rocket technologist said. The air-breathing rockets are, therefore, much lighter and more efficient than the conventional rockets, leading to reduction in the cost of space transportation. It means that the cost incurred to put a satellite in orbit will be much lower. The development of scramjet engine was complex and it involved a number of technological challenges. They included mixing of very high speed air (velocity around 1·5 km a second) with fuel, achieving stable ignition and holding the flame in addition to ensure efficient combustion within the length of the combustor, the rocket technologist said.

The Bill was introduced in the Rajya Sabha on March 8, which happens to be the International Day for Women.

Key Features and Implications of the Bill
Assuming that the Women’s Reservation Bill gets signed into law, how will it work on the ground ? If women gain control of a third of the seats in the Lok Sabha and the State legislative Assemblies, what will be its effect on their male counterparts ? How will rotation of seats work in practice ? Who decides which seats go to women ? And what happens to pocket-borough constituencies such as Amethi, Rae Bareli and Chhindwara ? First, the key features of the Bill : One-third of all seats in the Lok Sabha and the Assemblies (inlcuding Delhi) will be reserved for women. In the case of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, the reservation will work as a quota within quota—a third of the seats currently reserved for the two categories will be sub-reserved for SC/ST women. Reservation of seats for women will be in rotation and will cease 15 years after the commencement of the Act. Seat allocation will be done in a manner determined by Parliament through enactment of a law. Now the implications of the legislation : Since a third of the seats will be reserved during each general election, each seat in the Lok Sabha and each seat in each of the Assemblies will have one reserved term and two free terms in the course of three elections. In a 15-year time limit, this will translate as each seat getting reserved for women just once—provided, of course, that governments complete their terms and elections are held once every five years. If there are six instead of three elections in this period, each seat will get reserved twice. After 15 years, each seat will have been reserved at least once, the idea being that women representatives should have reach and spread across the country.

The Rajya Sabha on March 9, 2010 took a ‘historic and giant step’ by voting (191 for and 1 against) to amend the Constitution, providing one third reservation of seats in Parliament and State Assemblies for women. The Bill has to be passed by the Lok Sabha and ratified by 50 per cent of the States before it comes into effect. Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh who was present through the stormy debate said that “landmark legislation was a living proof that the heart of India is democratically sound and in the right place.” He described the current development as “momentous in the long journey in the empowerment of women that would allow the country realise the full potential of social and economic development.” Praising the role of women’s organisations behind the Bill, Ms. Brinda Karat (CPI-M) said that experience of panchayats and local bodies showed that women had worked A Dream Come True : (From left) : The for the uplift of the former Rajya Sabha Chairman, Najma village and commu- Heptullah, Leader of the Opposition in nity. The tendency the Lok Sabha Sushma Swaraj and of proxy politics was CPI(M) MP Brinda Karat, celebrate a reflection of the after the Women’s Reservation Bill was male-domination in passed in the Rajya Sabha on March 9, society. The measure 2010. was the beginning as women were still toiling and fighting for their rights everyday. It would also allow women to break the stereo-type image in society.

Indo-Russian friendship further got a shot in the arm with Russian Prime Minister Vladimir paying a visit to India in the second week of March. It was Vladimir Putin’s fifth visit to India, perhaps the maximum by a top Kremlin leader.
● ● ● India and Russia identify new areas for partnership Agreements sealed in defence and strategic spheres including civil nuclear sphere This is Putin’s fifth visit to India, perhaps the maximum ever by a top Kremlin leader

Giving a boost to their ties India and Russia on March 12, 2010 signed 19 pacts, including three in civil nuclear field and one for purchase of 29 MiG 29 fighters besides inking the revised agreement on Gorshkov aircraft carrier. The two countries plan to set up a joint venture to produce GLONASS (Global Navigation Satellite System), enable equipment


“Faith must trample under foot all reason, sense, and understanding.”

and sign a contract for construction of two reactors at the Kudankulam nuclear power plant. Under the agreements in civil nuclear field, Russia will build 12 atomic plants—six in Kundankulam and six in Haripur in West Bengal. Indian Prime Minister and the Russian Prime Mini- Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and ster also discussed his Russian counterpart, Vladimir regional issues, Putin, exchanging notes after the including Afghani- conclusion of delegation-level talks stan and Pakistan, in in New Delhi on March 12, 2010. the context of Terrorism and agreed to intensify their consultations on Afghanistan, the challenges posed by terrorism and extremism in the region. The pacts in civil nuclear field are Agreement on Cooperation in the use of Atomic Energy for Peaceful Purposes and Agreement on Road Map for the Serial Construction of Russian Designed Nuclear Power Plants. An MoU was also signed on Nuclear Power between NPCIL and Atomstory Export for construction of Third and Fourth atomic plant in Kudankulam in Tamil Nadu.

Russia wants to boost trade with India to 20 billion dollars by 2015 from the current 8 billion dollars. Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh said that India and Russia had agreed to intensify cooperation on Afghanistan and terrorism. Prime Putin expressed concern over terror groups operating from within Afghanistan and Pakistan, saying it was a threat to the entire world. Putin said Russia understood well the concerns of India regarding banned terror outfits operating against it from within Pakistan’s soil. He added in equal measure that Islamabad had in the recent months initiated action against those groups. Participating in a video conference with businessmen from Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Bangalore, Putin said : “As far as terror groups in Afghanistan and Pakistan are concerned, it is a matter of worry for the entire region and in fact, the whole world.” He said due to the proximity of India and Russia to Afghanistan border, the situation in the troubled Asian country ‘did impact the security’ of both the two countries. “Parts of Afghanistan’s soil continues to be used by terror groups. We understand the concerns of India regarding the activities of banned outfits in Pakistan,” he said. However, “let us be realistic… Pakistan has taken action against those outfits in the last few months,” he added. “We hope addressing the problem (of terror groups) will be in the best interest of Pakistan. We need to support those efforts,” he said. Putin said India and Russia were concerned over terror activities and were strategic partners in the fight against terror. Ending years of stagnation in their economic ties, the two sides decided to take their ties beyond defence purchase by signing pacts on oil exploration, trade in diamonds and import of fertilizers. Vladimir’s present visit to India further cemented ties between the two countries. India sets much store by its relationship with Russia which has always stood by its side. At a joint press conference with Putin, Dr. Manmohan singh said : “I convey to Prime Minister Putin that relations with Russia are a key pillar of our foreign policy and we regard Russia as a trusted and reliable strategic partner.”

The revised agreement on Gorshkov aircraft carrier deal was also signed during Mr. Putin’s visit to India. The deal had initially been signed in 2004 at the cost of USD 1·5 billion, along with 16 MiG-29 Ks. However, the Russians later demanded USD 2·9 billion, citing escalation of costs. After protracted negotiations, the two sides settled at USD 2·34 billion. It is slated for delivery in 2012.

Nuclear Cooperation will Cover all Areas : Putin
India-Russia cooperation in civil nuclear energy will be wide ranging and cover areas such as nuclear waste and safety of reactors as well, Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin said, during a video conference with businessmen from the country’s main metros. Indian officials have already described the civil nuclear cooperation between the two countries as “beyond the Indo– U.S. 123 agreement” since the India-Russian pact has ‘forward looking’ language on enrichment and reprocessing, technology transfer and fuel supply assurances. “Our cooperation is in construction and building of nuclear reactors, supply of nuclear fuel and India has expressed interest for help in disposal of nuclear waste,” Mr. Putin said. In the area of safety, Russia had put the Chernobyl mishap behind it and was committing to sharing the best practices with India. In fact, he assured that Russia would provide the latest safety features while constructing the reactors in India. Russia had 30 operating reactors and was planning to put up another 28. All of them had the latest safety features which would be incorporated in the reactors to be set up in India. He indicated that Moscow was hoping for orders of up to a dozen reactors from New Delhi which would enable their supply at affordable rates. Mr. Putin also drew attention to the partnership being built upon in space research which was also indicative of the growing Indo–Russia strategic partnership.

Supreme Court Upholds 4 per cent Muslim Quota in Andhra Pradesh
[But it refers the matter to a Constitution Bench] In a significant judgement, the Supreme Court on March 25, 2010 permitted Andhra Pradesh to provide 4 per cent reservation in jobs and education for backward members of the Muslim Community, but referred to special bench the issue of its constitutional validity. Lifting the stay on the State government ’s decision, a three-judge bench of Chief Justice K. G. Balakrishnan and Justices J. M. Panchal and B. S. Chauhan said : “since it involves important questions of Constitution, we are referring the matter to a Constitution bench,” for hearing in August second week.


“Life is the first gift, love is the second, and understanding the third.”

As many as 14 Muslim groups, identified as socially and educationally backward sections by the State Backward Commission, will now be eligible for the benefit. While passing the order, the Bench observed : “The government is of the view that certain sections of the Muslim community are socially and educationally backward. What is wrong in it ? It is only a question as to how you identify them. It is not a question whether they are Hindus or Muslims but the question is social and educational backwardness. Merely because they are Muslims they cannot be denied… the socially and educationally backward classes are identified.”

Will take all Legal Steps to Implement Quota : CM
Andhra Pradesh Chief Minister K. Rosaiah promised that his government would take ‘all required legal steps’ for implementing 4 per cent reservation in jobs and education for backward class Muslims. “With all seriousness and sincerity, we shall take all required legal steps… Our ultimate goal is to protect the reservation for backward class Muslims,” Rosaiah told the assembly.

Special Leave Petition
The decision came on a special leave petition filed by the State government, challenging the ruling of a sevenjudge bench of the Andhra Pradesh High Court, which had quashed the impugned policy as being unconstitutional on the ground that reservation cannot be extended on the basis of religion. Attorney General G. E. Vahanvati argued that the High Court did not properly apply its mind while passing the judgement as it failed to consider the fact that identification of the most backward groups among the Muslims was done by the State Backward Commission. Appearing on behalf of some of the pro-reservationists, Senior Counsel K. Parasaran argued that while barbers, dhobis and those working in cremation grounds in the Hindu community were extended reservation benefits under the backward class, similarly placed groups in the Muslim community were deprived of the benefits. However, senior counsel Harish Salve, appearing on behalf of Muralidhar Rao and other anti-reservationists, cautioned that extending ‘religion-centric’ reservation posed a grave “danger of fissiparous tendencies developing in the country.” The High Court, while setting aside the state Act, had also quashed a subsequent 2007 Government Order allocating 4 per cent reservation to Muslim groups in educational institutions and jobs.

While Dhanush, a naval variant of Prithvi, was launched first from INS Subhadhra, anchored near Balasore, off the coast of Orissa at 5·30 a.m., Prithvi-II was fired a few minutes later from Launch Complex-III at the Integrated Test Range, Chandipur. Each missile achieved its full range (Dhanush 350 km and Prithvi-II 290 km) and splashed down within a few metres of the target in the Bay of Bengal after a flight of about 500 seconds. According to DRDO officials, an indigenously developed advanced navigation and guidance system, Perfect Lift-off : Prithvi-II taking off which was tested in from Launch Complex-III at the the two launches, Integrated Test Range, Chandipur provided a very high off the Orissa coast, on March 27, 2010. degree of accuracy. Both missiles met all mission objectives and followed the predicted path with text book precision. The trajectories of both missiles were monitored by a wide tracking network consisting of radars, telemetry and electro-optical system spread over land and sea. While the 8·5 metre-tall Prithvi-II is a surface-tosurface missile, the 11-metre long Dhanush is a ship-tosurface and ship-to-ship system. Both are single stage, liquid propelled missiles and each of them is capable of carrying a 500 kg payload. The two missiles are under production after the successful completion of development trials, and have been inducted into the Army, the Air Force and the Navy.

Agni-I Test-fired; Hattrick for Missilemen in Two Days
In a hattrick for missile technologists and the armed forces in quick succession, Agni-I, which can carry nuclear weapons and has a range of 700 km, was flight-tested successfully from the Wheeler’s Island, off the Orissa coast on March 28, 2010.

The Missile Triumphs
The DRDO has added fresh feathers to its bonnet by clinching three successful launches of its different missiles within a period of about a weak : ● On March 22, the supersonic cruise missile BrahMos, jointly developed by India and Russia, was successfully test-launched from INS Ranvir off the Orissa coast. ● India successfully test-fired 2 nuclear-capable mediumrange ballistic missiles Prithvi-II and Dhanush from the Orissa coast on march 27, 2010. ● Prithvi-II has a range of 295 km while Dhanush, the naval version of Prithvi, can cruise up to 350 km. ● On March 28, came the latest launch triumph with Agni-I being successfully flight-tested. With the highly successful test flights of three different categories of missiles the DRDO has credited itself with a glorious feat in defence endeavour imparting teeth to its armed power further.

Dhanush, Prithvi-II Test-fired Successfully Agni-I follows Suit on the Following Day
[All the three flights were eminently successful] Nuclear-capable, ship-based Dhanush and surface-tosurface Prithvi-II missiles were successfully flight-tested in quick succession on March 27, 2010 with both systems hitting the pre-designated targets with a high degree of accuracy.


“There is no love without forgiveness, and there is no forgiveness without love.”

General V. K. Singh takes over as Army Chief
Gen. V. K. Singh took charge as the 26th Chief of the 1·13 million strong Indian Army from General Deepak Kapoor on March 31, 2010. Singh, 59, will hold the post for the next two years. Singh, who was GOC-in-C of Eastern Command, has vast experience in counter-insurgency operations. He will be the first trained commando to take over as the Army Chief. He was commissioned into the Rajput Regiment, and is a graduate of the Wellington-based Defence Services Staff College as well as the US Army War College at Carlisle. He did a Rangers Singh : First trained commando to take Course at Fort Benning in the US. over as Army Chief He was commissioned in June 1970.

The medium range surface-to-surface Agni-I fired at 1·07 hrs from a mobile launcher, homed in on the target within a few metres of accuracy as it splashed down in the Bay of Bengal. The launch was carried out by Army personnel as part of a training exercise. Describing it as one of the best-ever launches, Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) officials said that the specialised navigation and guidance system enabled the missile to reach the target with a high degree of accuracy after a 500-second flight duration. During the course of the flight, it reached an altitude of 300 km and re-entered the atmosphere, withstanding high temperatures of more than 2,000 degree Celsius, as specially-developed heat shields provided protection to the electronic components and the payload. The radars and electro-optical tracking system along the coast monitored the missile’s path and trajectoryrelated parameters in real time. Two down-range naval ships, about 700 km from the Wheeler’s Island, tracked the missile reaching the target. The 14-metre tall Agni-I is a single stage, solid-propelled weapon system. It can carry a payload of 1,000 kg. It is equipped with features to defeat the enemy’s antiballistic missile system. The Agni series of missiles form the mainstay of India’s nuclear deterrence programme. The launch operations were monitored by Scientific Adviser to the Defence Minister and DRDO Director General V.K. Saraswat, Programme Director (Agni) and Director of the Advanced Systems Laboratory Avinash Chander, Director of the Research Centre (Imarat) S.K. Ray, and Director of the Defence Research and Defence Laboratory P. Venugopalan.

The agreement with India also allows Singapore to permanently base some of its equipment including artillery guns and vehiBOLD KURUKSHETRA cles, at the Indian firing ranges, making it the only country with which New Delhi has such an arrangement. Singapore has stored armoured vehicles and artillery at the Deolali and Babina The Singapore Army, which has an ranges. While the Singa- agreement with India to use military pore Armed Forces ranges for training, takes part in a joint (SAF) are allowed to war game, ‘Bold Kurukshetra’, with the exercise upto eight Indian Army at the Babina range near weeks annually, a Jhansi on March 28, 2010. small detachment of eight personnel from SAF permanently stay in India. Another deal allows Singapore to use the Kalaikunda airbase and nearby firing ranges to train its pilots.

Sonia Gandhi Appointed Chairperson of NAC
● She will enjoy the rank of Cabinet Minister ● Entitled to salary and other facilities as members of the Union Council of Ministers Congress President Sonia Gandhi was on March 29, 2010 appointed Chairperson of the National Advisory Council (NAC), four years after she quit the post in the wake of the office-of-profit controversy. Chairperson of the ruling United Progressive Alliance, Ms. Gandhi will enjoy the rank of Cabinet Minister. The Chairperson of the NAC shall be entitled to the same salary, allowances and other facilities to which a member of the Union Council of Ministers is entitled. Members of the NAC shall draw such salary and allowances as the Central government may by order determine from time-totime. Following the controversy over the office of profit, ParliaCabinet minister rank ment passed the Office of Profit Bill, 2006, which exempted 55 posts, including the chairperson of NAC from being considered for the office of profit. The law has been upheld by the Supreme Court. The NAC was set up after the UPA came to power in 2004 as an interface with civil society with regard to the implementation of the government’s National Common Minimum Programme (NCMP), including the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act and the Forests Right Act. The term of the first NAC ended on March 21, 2008, and it was not reconstituted as the general elections were scheduled early in 2009. Ms. Gandhi had resigned as NAC Chairperson and her Lok Sabha seat on March 23, 2006, after the opposition charged her with holding the office of profit. She was re-elected to the Lok Sabha from her Rai Bareli constituency on May 15 the same year with a record majority.

India, Singapore Hold Joint Military Exercise
India and Singapore held joint military exercise in India in March 2010. The name given to the joint war games was ‘Bold Kurukshetra’ which were held at the Babina range near Jhansi. Over 500 soldiers from the city state of Singapore which has no space within its territory for training its troops took part in the exercise. The Singapore armed forces also brought close to 40 vehicles for the training exercise.


“The moment you think you understand a great work of art, it’s dead for you.”

India, US Finalise Reprocessing Agreement
[Decks cleared for India to set up dedicated facility where spent US original fuel can be reprocessed under IAEA norms] India on March 29, 2010 announced that it had completed negotiations on the reprocessing arrangement with the US, taking one of the last steps towards implementing the civil nuclear cooperation agreement.
● ● ● An important step towards implementing the civil nuclear cooperation agreement. Pact will allow reprocessing at two facilities, with India allowed to make additions and modifications Arrangements will help open the door for US firms in India’s energy sector : Timothy Roemer

Exam. Date 25 April, 2010

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“India and the United States have taken an important step towards implementing the civil nuclear cooperation agreement by completing negotiations on arrangements and procedures for reprocessing US obligated spent nuclear fuel,” a statement by the Ministry of External Affairs said. The two sides sorted out differences on the reprocessing of spent fuel during a final round of negotiations earlier in March 2010. This has paved the way for India to set up a dedicated reprocessing facility under IAEA safeguards where spent US-origin nuclear fuel can be reprocessed. Welcoming the move, US Ambassador to India, Timothy J. Roemer said that with these arrangements, the two countries are close to completing a ‘historic partnership’ on civil nuclear cooperation. “This important step is part of the great, win-win narrative of the US, India global partnership, affirming the commitment of our two countries to realise the full potential of our landmark civil nuclear agreement,” he said. In a statement issued in Washington, the US State Department said that the completion of the arrangements will “facilitate participation by US firms in India’s rapidly expanding civil nuclear energy sector.” “The arrangements will help open the door for US firms in India’s rapidly expanding energy sector, creating thousands of jobs for the citizens of both our countries. The United States and India are one step closer to ensuring greater access to clean and affordable energy and electricity for all Indians, particularly those most in need,” Roemer said. He said the US recognises Prime Minister Manmohan Singh’s vision of a nuclear weapons free world and acknowledged India’s non-proliferation record. “We applaud India’s outstanding track record on non-proliferation issues, and we look forward to our continuing cooperation in this area,” he said. After finalisation of the arrangements, India now needs to put through the civil nuclear liability law and give an assurance on non-proliferation to finally activate P.Darpan the civil nuclear cooperation pact.

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Obama Signs Jobs Bill into Law
In a bid to undo the crisis in the job market by the global downturn, the US government came to the Congress with an employment Bill, which was passed by both Houses of the Congress cutting across party lines in some cases. The President Obama thanked those Republicans who supported the Bill saying that the provisions of the Bill were about the people who were out of work and look up for a job. The President on March 18, 2010 signed into law the $ 17·5 billion Hiring Incentive to Restore Employment Act (The ‘Hire Act’) comprising a payroll tax holiday for businesses that hire unemployed workers, an income-tax credit of $ 1,000 for businesses that retain these employees and an extension of highways project financing. Speaking before signing the Bill, Mr. Obama struck a cautious note saying, “I am signing it mindful that the solution to our economic problems will not come from government alone. Government can’t create all the jobs we need or can repair all the damage” that has been done by the recession.

model that we’ve called Build America Bonds—one of the most successful programme in the Recovery Act.” Commending a minority of Republicans in Congress who supported the Bill Mr. Obama said, “The jobs Bill I’m signing today—and our broader efforts to achieve a recovery—aren’t about politics. They’re not about Democrat versus Republican. This isn’t a game that we’re playing here. They’re about the people in this country who are out of work and looking for a job.”

Nepal’s Ex-PM G. P. Koirala Passes Away
Girija Prasad Koirala, Nepal’s freedom fighter and political hero who played a major role in ending the Maoists’ decadelong People’s war and restoring peace in the country passed away in Kathmandu on March 20, 2010. He was 86. The Nepali Congress President, who served as Prime Minister four times and as Head of State once, had been suffering from chronic asthma and Common obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Girija Prasad Koirala, popularly known as Girija Babu was considered a national guardian. He had stood against King GyanenGirija Prasad dra’s coup in 2005 and participated in the Koirala April uprising of 2006. He then signed the historic agreement, the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), with the then rebellious party, the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist), after Gyanendra Shah restored the House of Representatives. Koirala was a close friend of India and considered close to the Indian leadership across the political spectrum. Born in Bihar, Koirala became Prime Minister for the first time in 1991 after his Nepali Congress party secured majority in the 205-member House of Representatives. He began his political career as a trade unionist when he joined the Nepal Mazdoor Congress in 1948 and played an active role in the first labour movement of Nepal the same year. Girija Prasad Koirala’s death marks the end of an era not only in Nepal but also in the sub-continental politics. As a warrior for democracy for six decades and a Prime Minister a number of times he was an integral part of Nepal’s modern political history. But he has passed away at a time when the task of institutionalising the democracy he fought for remains incomplete.

Private Sector a True Engine of Job Creation
In a clear indication that jobs may dominate the administration’s agenda in 2010, Mr. Obama said, “There is a lot more that we are going to or need to do to spur hiring in the private sector and bring about full economic recovery”. However, he said, that the government could promote a strong, dynamic private sector as the “true engine of job creation,” and nurture the conditions that allow companies to grow and start hiring again. Unemployment levels in the US stabilised in February, 2010 at 9·7 per cent. While the economy has technically emerged out of recession, over 8 million Americans lost their jobs through the global economic downturn and new hiring is sluggish

Infrastructure Project Financing Support
Apart from its focus on hiring in businesses, the Hire Act stands out for its focus on job creation through infrastructure project financing support. Touching upon this aspect of the Bill. The President said that it reformed the framework of municipal bonds to encourage job creation by expanding investment in schools and clean energy projects. “Say a town wants to put people to work rebuilding a crumbling elementary school or putting up wind turbines. With this law, we’ll make it easier for them to raise the money they need to do what they want to do by using a

Iran, Pakistan Sign Gas Pipeline Deal
[Provision has been made for India’s participation] After a lot of discussions and deliberations Iran and Pakistan signed on March 16, 2010, the final agreement to launch the Iran-Pakistan gas pipeline with a provision for India’s possible participation in the project at a later date.


“Promise little and do much.”

According to the Islamic Republic News Agency, Iran and Pakistan signed two provisions in Istanbul, Turkey, that would set in motion the broader Gas Sales Purchase Agreement (GSPA). The news agency pointed out that the two countries signed the Operational Agreement (OA) and the Heads of Agreement (HOA), which deals with details regarding the transportation of gas to India “if and when India decides to join the project.” Under the provisions of the HOA, Pakistan will have the right to charge the transit fee for the transportation of gas to India. The transportation fee will be calculated in accordance with international practices, the news agency said. Iran, in line with the provisions of the deal, will provide Pakistan 750 million cubic feet of gas per day for the next 25 years to generate 4000 MW of electricity, the agency said. It cited the Pakistan analysts as saying that the project could have a far reaching impact if India and China decided to participate in it. The 900 km pipeline is being built between Asalouyeh in southern Iran and Iranshahar near the border with Pakistan and will carry the gas from Iran’s South Pars field.

guzzlers that even the country’s flag carrier, Aeroflot, has switched to a mostly Western fleet. But Russians could always point with pride to the fearsome reputation of their weapons—the Kalashnikov rifle and the MiG and Sukhoi fighter jets. As per reports, once legendary Russian weapons are suffering embarrassing quality control problems. Algeria, for example, recently returned a shipment of MiG jets because of defects. An aircraft carrier, Admiral Gorshkov refurbishment for India is four years late and hundreds of millions of dollars over budget. According to the report, in perhaps the most poignant side of trouble, Russia’s own military is now voting with its rubles : Moscow is in talks with France to buy four French amphibious assault ships. If a deal is struck, it would be Russia’s most significant acquisition of foreign weapons since World War II. The purchase of Mistral class ships would be “the most salient example of the deficiencies in the Russian defence industry,” said Dmitri Trenin, a military analyst at the Carnegie Moscow Centre, a policy research organisation. Even as military manufacturing Shrank to 4·28 per cent of gross domestic product last year, down from 20 per cent under communism, Russia’s armed forces relied on domestic producers for nearly every screw and bullet in the arsenal. Self-sufficiency in military manufacturing was a ‘sacred cow’ of national security, Trenin said.

A Historic Agreement
Pakistani Petroleum Minister Naveed Qamar said that the agreement was a “historic achievement and a milestone towards meeting the energy needs of the country.” In a statement he expressed the hope that physical work will start soon enabling the gas into the system by the timeline. The Project, when initially mooted in 1994, proposed to carry gas from Iran to Pakistan and India. But India withdrew last year from the talks over repeated disputes on prices and transit fees. Another reason, of course, was the United States’ displeasure if India entered into the deal with Iran in the backdrop of the uranium enrichment row between the two countries. It is common knowledge now that New Delhi came under pressure from the United States not to do business with Iran, viewed in Washington as a state sponsor of terrorism that is bent on acquiring nuclear weapons.

The Onset of Decline : Experts’ Views
Many experts say that the decline began with the collapse of the Soviet Union. When Russia became capitalist, they say, so did its military industry. Like much of Russian industry, it was privatised haphazardly. For example, factories and the engineering departments that designed what these factories made were sold separately. Over time, this had a deleterious effect on quality. Big companies that inherited export contracts with China, India and the Middle East made profits on older designs and legacy parts but did little to upgrade. The end of generous Soviet military budgets, too, caused assembly lines to creak to a halt at tank and airplane factories.

Declining Russia Imports Arms
Russia which until recently was well known for military exports second in volume only to the United States, is facing a withering of its military industry. As per New York Times reports, in today’s Russia, the $ 40 billion military equipment industry is withering alongside civilian manufacturing. Russian made A Russian seaman directs a French cars may be rickety, Mistral warship on the Neva River in and its passenger St. Petersburg. Russia is in talks to buy airplanes such fuel- four such vessels from France.

The Fact of the Matter
There may be truth in these reports but there isn’t the whole truth. It is true that Russia is not what the Soviet Union used to be. The dismemberment of the Soviet Union led to the weakening of Russia as it starved for resources to restore itself to its former position. For certain period of time since the collapse of the Red giant, Russia did find itself at the bottom, depressed, degenerated and down. But of late it has emerged. Its space successes are still the envy of many nations including the United States. Its Sukhoi fighters jets are still much in demand. Its MiGs still hold the sway. Its nuclear arsenal is still stuffed with destructive weapons. Russia’s diplomacy is on the upswing and the US leaders can’t afford to ignore its existence as the most powerful nation after the United States. Its victories in Georgian war in August 2008 sent shudders down the spine of US allies in the region and


“Promise only what you can deliver. Then deliver more than you promise.”

the US itself could do nothing. The concept of unipolarity erected by the senior Bush was exploded to pieces by the resurgent Russia. It is true that resource crunch has certainly slowed its earlier rapid march, but the time is on its side, with future beckoning it to a glory far more scintillating than the one in communist times.

Accord to Cancel Afghan Debt
The United States and other countries belonging to the Paris Club of creditors on March 17, 2010 agreed to cancel Afghanistan’s debt. “Today’s decision represents a great achievement for Afghanistan and reflects the international community’s acknowledgement of the great strides the country has made in strengthening its economy,” said the US State Department. While the US said that lifting the debt burden inherited by the Afghan government marked a crucial step in Afghanistan’s road to economic sustainability, the Paris Club added that Afghanistan had committed to allocating resources freed by the debt relief to priority areas identified in the country’s poverty reduction strategy and to achieve Millennium Development Goals. With the accord signed, Afghanistan, a member of the enhanced Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiatives, would see the implementation of ‘completion point treatment,’ said the State Department. This implies the cancellation of an estimated $ 1·6 billion in debt from the Paris Club, as well as the IMF, World Bank and other creditors. As per the debt relief plan, this process will ultimately result in a 96 per cent reduction of the debt inherited by the Afghan government which was estimated at $ 11·6 billion in 2006. Afghanistan earned eulogy from the Paris Club for its performance under an International Monetary Fund programme and its progress on implementing economic reforms in a tremendously challenging environment.

How China Secures its Nuclear Weapons
Manufacturing nuclear weapons is a massive venture on the part of a nation, but keeping them safe in its arsenals is a mighty task. How China ensures security of its nuclear weapons was a subject of study by a US Mark Stokes.

Tunnels have been dug deep into the Taibai mountain, one of the highest peaks in China, to store nuclear weapons. The study was published in the second week of March in Washington Post. Mark Stokes’ study of Beijing’s nuclear weapons for the Project 2049 Institute describes where the Chinese are storing their warheads and how they are protecting them. Stokes writes that “under its declaratory no-first-use policy, the People’s Republic of China’s nuclear deterrent has relied upon quantitative and geographic ambiguity,” While the Chinese Communist Party’s Central Military Commission “maintains strict control over China’s operational nuclear warheads.” In peace time its warheads’ stock is managed through a system that is separate and distinct, from the People’s Liberation Army’s Second Artillery missile bases. This includes warheads for use by the airforce and the navy but separate from China’s civilian-controlled fissile materials. Stokes has identified an independent organisation called 22 Base as the prime group responsible for storing and managing most of the Second Artillery’s warheads stock pile.

The Breakthrough
The breakthrough for Afghanistan comes after years of careful debt and macro-economic management—since 2002 technical advisors have been working with the Afghan Ministry of Finance to streamline the budget process, improve the payment system for government employees, restructive Afghanistan’s debt, and establish a Debt Management Unit within the Ministry of Finance. The Paris Club was formed in 1956 as an informal group of industrialised countries.

The Storage Complex
The storage complex is in central China near Taibai Mountain, one of the highest peaks in the country. Tunnels have been dug into the mountain, and rail lines enable constant movement of nuclear weapons in and out of the 22 Base complex. Mr. Stokes writes that China’s warheads and handling system are designed to survive a first strike and retain sufficient operational capability for retaliation. Stokes concludes that 22 Base’s physical protection system appears to be founded upon more than ‘guns, gates and guards,’ which often mark the US system. While a dedicated security battalion and a cavalry company patrol the 400-square kilometer security zone, a technical support battalion works on safekeeping warhead components. The report points out, however, that China’s warheads are most vulnerable during their constant transport between storage and launch sites—the movement that Beijing counts on to make itself less vulnerable to a first strike. Securing other countries’ nuclear warheads and materials is a focus of US President Barack Obama’s fiscal 2011 budget, with a $ 2·7 billion request for nuclear non-proliferation efforts, up 26 per cent from the current year’s spending.

A Welcome Relief
The agreement to cancel Afghanistan’s debt is a great welcome relief to the present Afghan government which is pitted against a hostel environment of violence and terrorism and the foreign forces engaged in the daunting task of finishing off the Taliban military. In such a scenario development has taken a back seat in Afghanistan and the citizenry finds itself. in utter economic and social disarray. The first priority of the international community should be to extricate Afghanistan from the present state of disorder, violence and turbulence. Peace is the prime necessity for this troubled land.

U.N. Recognises Russia-led Bloc
A Russia-led defence alliance of ex-Soviet States signed a cooperation pact with the United Nations that is


“Life didn’t promise to be wonderful.”

likely to pave the way for the alliance’s greater involvement in Afghanistan.
● CSTO now on a par with NATO on International Security. ● Russia stresses on threat from Afghan drug trade.

Key Reforms
● ● ● Cost : $ 940 bn over 10 years; would reduce deficit by $ 143 bn Coverage : Expanded to 32 m currently uninsured Americans Medicare : Prescription drug coverage gap closed; affected over-65 s receive rebate and discount on brand name drugs. Medicaid : Expanded to include families under 65 with gross income of up to 133 per cent of federal poverty level and childless adults Insurance reforms : Insurers can no longer deny coverage to those with pre-existing conditions Insurance exchanges : Uninsured and self-employed able to purchase insurance through state-based exchanges Subsidies : Low-income individuals and families wanting to purchase own health insurance eligible for subsidies.

U.N. Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon signed the document in Moscow on March 18, 2010 along with General Nikolai Bordyuzha, head of the Collective Security Treaty Organisation (CSTO). The CSTO includes Russia, Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyztan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. The agreement amounts to a recognition of the CSTO as a full-fledged international security organization. Two years ago the US signed a similar pact with NATO. The Atlantic Alliance has consistently refused to s i g n a coopera-tion agreement with the CSTO, which is often described as a counter balance to NATO in Central Asia. Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrod said that he hoped that the agreement would lead to practical cooperation between the U.N. and CSTO in Afghanistan. “We are interested in closer cooperation between the U.N. and CSTO on the burning problem of Afghanistan in view of the threats emanating from its territory.” said Mr. Lavrov at the signing ceremony. “Drug trafficking from Afghanistan has emerged as a threat to peace and security, not only in the region, but throughout the world.” General Bordyuzha said CSTO could make available its rapid-reaction forces for U.N. peacekeeping operations outside the former Soviet Union.

● ● ●

Further, children may remain on their parent’s insurance policies until the age of 26 and insurance companies would no longer be able to impose lifetime limits on policies. The cost of obtaining insurance cover would also fall for older people and those with pre-existing con-

What the Measure Means to Obama
● How big a victory is that ? : The health passage was a huge victory after year of intense effort in which Obama put his own reputation on the line, often against the counsel of close advisers and members of his own party who wanted healthcare to take a back seat to efforts to improve the economy. The bill’s failure would have left the Democrats weakened and divided. Will it help Obama with his other agenda items ? : May be, Experts had said failure would cripple Obama’s presidency, and some Democrats said they were swayed by concern that its failure could leave Obama unable to push through any major legislation. The healthcare victory provides a resounding denunciation to critics who had termed him a ditherer with little to show for 14 months in office. Will Obama’s plan keep healthcare costs from destroying US economy ? : Some economists, al least, say yes. The $ 2·5 trillion US healthcare industry accounts for onesixth of the country’s gross domestic product, and a centerpiece of Obama’s argument for his overhaul was that rising costs must be controlled because they risked destroying the economy. Republicans contended that Obama’s plan was too broad and expensive. The Democrats’ case for the overhaul was boosted when the Congressional Budget Office estimated that it would cost $ 940 billion over 10 years but cut the deficit by $ 138 billion over the same period. Many economists say the plan is at least an important step in the right direction toward controlling costs. Will it help Democrats in the midterm elections in November ? : Heathcare’s influence on the election in November will depend on whether it works and how quickly voters start to feel an impact. If Americans feel they are benefiting by Election Day, when more than a third of the Senate and every seat in the House will be up for grabs, it will be hard for Republicans to convince the public to vote against those who backed it. If voters do not feel benefits, the Democrats will have a harder time, especially if joblessness is still near 10 per cent.

The United States House of Representatives made history on March 21, 2010 by passing with a majority of 219-212 the Senate version of the healthcare reform Bill. Speaking after the vote, President Obama said that it was a victory for commonsense than for any political party. Every Republican voted against the Bill. The Bill passed on March 21, would lead Making History : U.S. President to additional insurance Barack Obama delivers a state-ment coverage for almost 32 about the House of Representatives’ million more Ameri- final passage of healthcare legislation, as Vice-President Joe Biden cans, bringing the listens, in the East Room of the healthcare system White House in Washington on closer than ever to the March 21, 2010. goal of universal coverage. It will also weaken the grip of health insurance companies over the market by preventing them from denying coverage based on pre-existing conditions and restrict their ability to raise premiums or drop coverage.


“Breach of promise is a base surrender of truth.”

ditions through their participation in ‘high-risk pools.’ Small business would also derive such benefits by participating in state-level exchanges and some businesses would face penalties for not providing their employees with insurance. The Bill to be known as the Patient Protection and Affordable Act after being signed into Law by the President will also bring down the deficit of the country by $ 143 billion over 10 years and by over a trillion dollars within the following 10 years, according to the Congress Budget Office (CBO), the non-partisan scorekeeper on such debates. It will cost the American Tax payer $ 940 billion, according to the CBO. It may be recalled that the Bill had earlier been passed by the Senate on the Christmas Eve. The Democrats hailed the votes as a historic advance in social justice, comparable to the establishment of Medicare and Social Security. “This is the Civil Rights Act of the 21st century,” said Representative James E Clyburn of South Carolina. Speaker Nancy Pelosi said : After a year of debate and hearing the calls of millions of Americans, we have come to this historic moment. Today we have the opportunity to complete the great unfinished business of our society and pass health insurance reform for all Americans that is a right and not a privilege. An observer says that with the passage of the Bill many Americans who really want or need health insurance will also be able to get it at a reasonable price, regardless of their health and financial situation.

back led his limousine across the Alexandre III bridge, named for the second-to-last Tzar.

Message to Washington
The message to Washington was clear—Paris is a major player on the international scene and France is determined to carve out a foreign policy niche for itself with or without the active co-operation of Washington France decided to go ahead with the sale of warships despite opposition openly expressed by U.S. President and Congress as well as by the Baltic States. A senior French Official during a deep background briefly tried to play down fears by comparing the Mistrals, which are to be delivered shorn of equipment, to ‘ferryboats.’ They are infact amphibious combat tank and helicopter carriers. Such an arms sale would be the biggest ever by a NATO country to Russia. The purchase, each ship can carry upto 16 attack helicopters, would enable Russia to land hundreds of troops quickly on foreign soil. The possibility has alarmed Georgia as well as the three Baltic States in NATO—Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia. The sale would amount to a ‘symbol of trust between our countries,’ President Medvedev said and Mr. Sarkozy too sought to defuse any controversy over the sale. In return a key business deal signed during the visit will give France’s GDF Suez a 9-per cent stake in the Nord Stream gas pipeline project run by Russia’s Gazprom. Once again, this runs counter to efforts by the US and other European countries to lessen Europe’s dependence on Russian pipelines and gas.

Russia Agrees t o Cooperate on Sanctions Against Iran
Russia, which has been a vehement opponent of tough sanctions against Iran over the nuclear issue which has become a prestige point for the west, seems to be capitulating to the French. Now the French are in a better position to bargain with Russia, a permanent member of the U.N. Security Council. France would like fresh sanctions imposed on Iran and Russia now capitulates to toe the French line. From Moscow’s point of view it would be giving nothing away by agreeing to fresh sanctions against Iran. With western impatience growing over Tehran’s nuclear ambitions, Mr. Medvedev said his country is ready to consider targeted new sanctions against the Islamic Republic. “Russia is ready, with other partners, to consider sanctions,” he said.

Franco-Russian Relationship Acquires New Dimensions
Of late, the relations between France and Russia have acquired new dimensions, one of understanding and rapprochement. French President Nicolas Sarkozy has clearly decided to forget his earlier strident and principled declaration about Russia, Chechnya and human rights and cosy up to Russia.
● ● ● Paris to open exclusive negotiations for the sale of four French Mistral warships to Russia. West and Baltic States irked by French decision. Moscow to agree to be more cooperative on sanctions against Iran.

During Russian President Dmitry Medvedev’s visit to Paris in the first week of March, the two countries took their relationship to a new level of understanding, with Paris opening exclusive negotiations for the sale of four French Mistral warships to Russia and Moscow agreeing to be more cooperative on sanctions against Iran. The Russian President was accorded a warm welcome by French leaders. Mr. Medvedev arrived in the French capital by helicopter, landing on the vast esplanade in front of the Invalides museum, where Napoleon is buried. Scores of golden-helmeted Republican Guards on horse-

US-Russia Reach Nuke Arms Reduction Deal : The New START Pact
The United States and Russia have reached a deal on their most extensive nuclear-arms-control agreement in nearly two decades. It was announced by the Kremlin on March 24, 2010. The Pact appeared to represent President Barack Obama’s first victory in his ambitious agenda to move towards a nuclear-free world. The new Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) would replace a 1991 pact that expired in December.


“Those that are most slow in making a promise are the most faithful in the performance of it.”

Experts called the new agreement the most significant arms-control accord since the 1993 signing of START-II, which the Russians never ratified. Officials in both countries have yet declined to discuss details of the new accord, but the general outlines have emerged during the year-long negotiations. According to the agreement, each side will reduce its most dangerous nuclear weapons—those deployed for long-range missions—from a ceiling of 2,200 to between 1,500 and 1,675. And the two militaries will make relatively small cuts in the number of jets and land or submarine based missiles that carry nuclear warheads and bombs. As per Kremlin sources, the two countries’ President will decide when to sign the pact. It was however confirmed that all major obstacles to the pact have been cleared. Reliable sources, disclosed that the US administration hoped to have the signing ceremony on April 8 in Prague, capital of the Czech Republic. Prague is significant in the backdrop of the fact that it was here where Obama first laid out the arms-control agenda that helped him win the Nobel Peace Prize 2009. While Americans may think of countries such as Iran or North Korea as more dire threats, Russia is still the only nation with the nuclear capability to obliterate the United States. The former Cold war enemies own nearly 95 per cent of the world’s nuclear weapons, even after extensive reduction in recent years. Perhaps more important for Obama, the accord comes shortly before a crucial meeting of the signatories of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, the global pact that contained the speed of nuclear weapons for decades. The administration hopes to persuade treaty members to impose stiffer punishment on nations that are accused of violating the pact. Though there is jubilation among the arms-control activists in the USA, the New START, as it is known, will face a fight in the Senate, where it will need 67 votes to be ratified. Some Republican Senators have warned that they will not approve a treaty that would curb a planned US missile defense system for Europe. In recent weeks, Russian negotiator pressed for tougher language in the treaty on the US missile shield. U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon hailed the agreement as an ‘important milestone.‘

logical cooperation, more favourable tariffs for Afghan exports and training programmes. But seeking greater Chinese investment in Afghanistan’s development and regional security issues were at the top of the agenda during Mr. Karzai’s talks with Mr. Hu. China has begun to emerge as an increasingly important player in Afghanistan, giving the country financial assistance and also helping in rebuilding its infrastructure. Since 2002, China has Scope for Expansion : Afghanistan given more than $ 200 President Hamid Karzai (left) with million in financial his Chinese counterpart Hu Jintao in assistance. China is Beijing on March 24, 2010. also looking to increase its investment in the country’s mineral deposits. In 2007, the state-owned China Metallurgical Group signed a record $ 3 billion deal to develop a copper mine at Aynak. Security issues were another focus of KarzaiJintao talks. However, Chinese officials have expressed concern over the safety of their investments in the backdrop of violence running riot in Afghanistan, owing to which they have slowed down in recent months. China is also worried about unrest spreading from Afghanistan into its border. Afghanistan shares a border with China’s Muslimmajority Xinjiang region which was the scene of rebellion a few months back. India, Russia, China and Pakistan, which all are immediate neighbours of Afghanistan have a stake in peace in Afghanistan. India is also extending generous help to Afghanistan for development and rehabilitation at the cost of precious lives of its nationals who were targetted there by the Taliban/Al Qaeda terrorists. The situation continues to be very sensitive and grim in this region, thanks to failure of the international community in flushing out the militants and establishing peace. The region is so violence-ridden that it would be futile to talk of a meaningful reconstruction programme in Afghanistan to take shape for an unknown period of time. However, it is good that Afghanistan’s President Hamid Karzai is doing his best to seek the assistance of its neighbours. His visit to China and asking it for greater assistance is a part of this venture.

Europeans Reach Deal on Rescue Plan for Greece
● ● ● Karzai for more Chinese support Development, regional security at the centre of the agenda Signing of three documents on economic and technological cooperation

Afghanistan President Hamid Karzai on March 24, 2010 called on China to increase its economic support towards his country’s rebuilding efforts, in meetings with Chinese President Hu Jintao. The two countries on March 24, 2010 signed three documents on economic and techno-

Enmeshed in grave financial crisis, Greece on March 26, 2010 got considerable relief when, after months of fractious debate, the 16 countries that use the euro agreed on a financial safety net for Greece, combining bilateral loans from those European nations with cash from the International Monetary Fund. The proposal, brokered by France and Germany and then approved by European leaders on March 25, 2010 would take effect if the Greek government were unable to borrow in the commercial markets. Under the deal, loans


“Go for it now. The future is promised to no one.”

would be provided at market rates and offered only with the agreement of all the nations that use the euro currency. “All member states of the euro zone declared that they are prepared to participate,” said Herman Van Rompuy, President of the European Council at a news conference on March 25. French President Nicolas Sarkozy described the decision as a “success for the countries of the euro zone.” Greek Prime Minister Georgios The accord actually Papandreou attends an interview represents a partial as he arrives at an EU leaders summit in Brussels on March 25, retreat for several coun- 2010. tries including France, as well as the European Central Bank which had initially rejected the idea of the IMF’s taking part in any bailout in the euro zone. Still, the agreement represents a breakthrough because Germany has been resisting pressure to give details on how Greece could be rescued if necessary. Greece had been desperate for a statement, backed by Germany, that explained how a default would be avoided; it hopes the accord will reduce the high interest rates Athens is being forced to pay as it faces deadlines this year on 54 billion euros ($ 72 billion) of debt. Greece’s Prime Minister, George Papandreou, described the deal as ‘very satisfactory.’ No rescue is imminent, the document said, and the intervention would only be a last resort. Jean-Claude Trichet, President of the European Central Bank, told reporters that “the mechanism decided today will not normally need to be activated.” Jose Socrates, the Prime Minister of Portugal, confirmed that his country would participate. Portugal faces acute financial difficulties of its own.

respective countries to facilitate comprehensive analysis of food security and coordinate formation of national grain reserves. Second, the four countries will jointly draw up a BRIC food security strategy for vulnerable sections of the population and share experience in providing food for the poor. Third, BRIC will pull their efforts to mitigate the impact of climate change on food security and adapt farming to the changing climate. The four farm Ministers have called on the developed countries to extend technological and financial assistance to developing nations to promote sustainable growth and counter climate change. Fourth, the BRIC countries will promote cooperation and exchanges in farm technology and innovation. To implement the agreed programme the four countries will set up an expert level working group that will meet and interact through video conferences on a regular basis.

Joint Endeavour
In his address at the meeting Indian Agriculture Minister Sharad Pawar urged the BRIC nations to put in the joint endeavour in tackling the problem of increasing productivity in foodgrains. He proposed the setting up of a separate working group of experts in farm research. The four Ministers discussed ways of creating synergy between India and China, which have the world’s largest populations, on the one hand, and Russia and Brazil, which have the world’s largest unused land masses, on the other. Russia’s Agriculture Minister Yolena Skrynnik said that it was ‘quite possible’ for Russia to use the manpower, financial and technological resources of the other BRIC nations to bring back into cultivation tens of millions acres of Russian farmland going fallow after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The meeting was held in the run-up to the Second BRIC Summit in Brazil in April 2010.

BRIC to Promote Global Food Security
[Agriculture Ministers of BRIC countries adopt Moscow Declaration] The BRIC nations—Brazil, Russia, India and China— have agreed to extend cooperation to agriculture to promote global food security. At their first meeting in Moscow on March 26, 2010 Agriculture Ministers of the BRIC countries adopted a Moscow Declaration where they identified four areas for quadripartite cooperation.

Terror Strikes Moscow Metro
Thirty eight people were killed and 65 injured in suicide bombings at two Metro stations in Moscow on March 29, 2010. The first bomb ripped through a carriage when a train stopped at the Lubyanka station, killing 26 passengers. Within 45 minutes, a less powerful bomb went off in a train as it pulled up at the Park Kultury station, just three stations away from Lubyanka, killing 12 people.

A wheat field near Allahabad

Subway Havoc : Victims of a suicide bombing lie in a mangled coach of a train at the Lubyanka Metro Station in Moscow on March 29, 2010.

First, they decided to set up a common database of production and consumption of farm products in their


“God’s promises are like the stars; the darker the night the brighter they shine.”

Head of Russia’s Federal Security Service Alexander Bortnikov said that the available evidence pointed to terrorists operating in North Caucasus, which includes the restive Chechnya. President Dmitry Medvedev ordered stepped up security on transport across the country and vowed to fight terrorism “without hesitation to the end.” After a lull of several years, the spectre of militant attacks has returned to haunt Moscow and fuelled fears of a holy war in the heart of Russia by Islamist rebels from its Northern Caucasus region. The bombings came after warnings published on militant websites by Islamist leader Doku Umarov from the Caucasus region of Chechnya the Moscow would be the rebels’ next target. Andrei Malashenko, an expert at the Carnegie Centre, said the bombings could signal the beginning of a jihad, or holy war in the heart of Russia. “I would not rule out that they have started the jihad that they have been announcing recently quite regularly since the end of December,” Malashenko said. The US Intel Center organisation also pointed to Umarov’s hand. “The most likely group behind the suicide bombings is the Caucasus Emirate led by Doku Umarov,” the agency said in a statement. The terror attacks on Moscow metro were condemned by world leaders including US President Obama and Indian External Affairs Minister S.M. Krishna. From the first available evidence it is clear that it is all the handiwork of Chechen militants who have killed hundreds of people in attacks in Moscow and other Russian cities. In 2004, one such attack in the Moscow metro claimed 41 lives. The Hindu writes : “Ripples from the Moscow blasts may extend beyond Russia and provide a moral boost to terrorists around the world. It is therefore imperative that the international community steps up cooperation in the war against terrorism on all fronts.”

China Tests Heavy-lift Helicopter
State-owned Aviation Industry Corporation of China has staged a successful maiden test flight of its selfdeveloped heavy-lift helicopter, the latest advance for the country’s ambitious aerospace industry. The 13·8-tonne AC313 can carry 27 passengers or 15 injured on stretchers, and has a maximum range of 900 km, according to the website of the official People’s Daily New Heights : The AC313 flies in newspaper. It was Jingdezhen City on March 18. successfully test flown on March 18, 2010 morning in Jiangxi province, it said. The aircraft appears to be larger version of the 7tonnes Zhi-8 medium transport helicopter, itself a close copy of the French SA 321 Super Frelon. China bought 13 of the French helicopters in the 70s and at least one was reportedly disassembled for study and reverse-engineering. China’s aerospace spans military jets, commercial airliners, and even a manned space flight programme. The corporation is a central driver of that effort, having already built latest-generation fighter jets and P.Darpan midrange commercial airliners.

News in a Nutshell
North Korea has 1,000 missiles, South says
North Korea has increased its missile arsenal by 25 per cent in the past two years to about 1,000, expanding the threat the state poses to the region, the South’s defence chief said on March 17, 2010. Pyongyang’s arsenal includes intermediate-range missiles that can hit targets at up to 3,000 km away, Yonhap news agency quoted Kim Tae-young as telling a forum of business leaders. The missiles could hit all of Japan and put US military bases in Guam at risk.

Taiwan Launches $ 30,000 Slogan Search to Boost Birth Rate
Taiwan is offering $ 30,000 to anyone who can come up with a slogan which persuades Taiwanese women to have more babies. Apart from the publicity campaign, other initiatives being considered include “holding singles’ parties” aimed at encouraging Taiwanese to get married and start a family, interior Minister Jiang Yi-huah said.


“Unless commitment is made, there are only promises and hopes; but no plans.”

Supreme Court Upholds 4 per cent Quota for Backward Muslims
The Supreme Court of India, in a very significant judgement upheld Andhra Pradesh government decision to provide 4 per cent reservation in jobs and education for backward members of Muslim community in the state. A bench of Chief Justice K. G. Balakrishnan, Justice J. M. Panchal and B. S. Chauhan however referred the issue to a Constitution bench to examine the validity of the impugned Act passed by Andhra Pradesh Assembly in this regard. The Court passed this interim judgement dealing with a special leave petition filed by the Andhra Pradesh Government against the Andhra Pradesh High Court which had quashed the provision of reservation. After Supreme Court judgement, as many as 14 Muslim groups identified as socially and educationally backward sections by the State Backward Commission would be eligible for the quota benefits. It may be noted here that before the row broke over the reservation, the Andhra Pradesh government had passed a bill in the Assembly on the basis of a report submitted to it by Andhra Pradesh Commission for Backward Classes calling for adequate representation of Muslims in the State government jobs and educational institutions.

Following are some of the highlights of the Delhi Budget 2010-11 : ● Allocation of Rs. 4,224 crore for improving transport including Rs. 2,019 crore to modernise the existing Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) fleet with the addition of 3,775 low floor buses. DTC will introduce a special non-stop service on 50 important routes. Investment on urban development projects will be Rs. 1,471 crore for road constructions, construction of foot-over bridges and street scaping and lighting to be completed ahead of Commonwealth Games in October. A sum of Rs. 749 crore has been proposed for providing services in unauthorized colonies. Proposed expenditure on education in Rs. 1,122 crore which will include construction of new municipal schools, provision of uniforms, scholarships. Expenditure on health to the tune of Rs. 1,243 crore for constructing new hospitals, increasing beds in existing ones and developing speciality care. Proposal to spend Rs. 807 crore on social welfare projects including old age pension schemes, making two new homes for disabled people, ‘Ladli’ scheme for the girl child. Delhi will also spend a whopping Rs. 1,500 crore on water and sanitation projects as per this budget. The gross state domestic product (GSDP) of Delhi at current prices increased from Rs. 144,303 crore in 2007-08 to Rs. 165,948 crore in 2008-09, up by 15 per cent and the per capita income rose from Rs. 78,790 in 2007-08 to Rs. 88,421 in 2008-09.

● ●

Neelmani Appointed New Bihar DGP
Neelmani on February 28, 2010 took over as the 47th Director-General of Bihar Police. He took over the charge from the outgoing DGP Anand Shanker. An IPS Officer of 1975 batch, Mr. Neelmani will have a tenure of 18 months. He said, after taking charge, that bringing Bihar Police at par with their counterparts in other States would be his top most priority.

Haryana Budget 2010-11 Presented in the Assembly
Haryana Finance Minister Ajay Singh Yadav presented the Budget 2010-11 in the Legislative Assembly on March 10, 2010 in Chandigarh. The budget contained proposal of surcharge on Value Added Tax (VAT) to generate additional funds for urban local bodies and village Panchayats. He said the surcharge on VAT, ranging from 0·25 per cent to 0·70 per cent, would be imposed and 80 per cent of the collections would be given to urban local bodies and 20 per cent to village panchayats. The composite Plan outlay has been pegged at Rs. 11,863 crore and revenue deficit at Rs. 3,941 crore.

Delhi Budget 2010-11 Presented in the Assembly
Delhi Finance Minister A.K. Walia presented the Delhi Budget 2010-11 in the Assembly on March 22, 2010. Total budget estimate for fiscal 2010-11 is Rs. 26,000 crore which includes Rs. 11,200 crore for plan expenditure, Rs. 140 crore for expenditure on centrally sponsored schemes and Rs. 14,660 crore for non-plan expenditure.


“Promises may fit the friends, but non-performance will turn them into enemies.”

The Finance Minister also proposed to launch the Rs. 2,500 crore Rajiv Gandhi Urban Development Mission for affordable urban housing, slum development, water supply, drainage sewerage and solid waste management and a pension scheme for members of dairy cooperatives and cane growers coHaryana Finance Minister Ajay Singh operatives. He said Yadav presenting the Budget in the govt. had alloChandigarh on March 10, 2010. cated Rs. 10,500 crore for the Annual Plan 2010-11, about five times higher than the Plan size of Rs. 2,306 crore in 2004-05. An outlay of Rs. 1,363·58 crore for the Centrally Sponsored Schemes and other development schemes has been included on the Plan side boosting the composite Plan outlay in the Budget Estimates 2010-11 at Rs. 11,863·59 crore. The Budget estimates project a fiscal deficit of Rs. 8,815·64 crore and a revenue deficit of Rs. 3,941·81 crore. The growth in gross state domestic product at current prices is expected to be 18·4 per cent in 2008-09. Per capita income is likely to grow by 13 per cent to Rs. 77,878 at current prices. It may be noted here that Haryana has the highest per capita income among major States in India, second only to Goa.

Rs. 2,798·77 crore and the total capital expenditure, including loan repayments, Rs. 2,985·50 crore. The fiscal deficit for 2010-11 is expected to be 5·08 per cent of the Gross State Domestic Product, he said.

Jammu & Kashmir Budget 2010-11 Presented in the Assembly
Jammu & Kashmir Finance Minister, Abdul Rahim Rather presented the Budget 2010-11 in the Assembly on March 12, 2010. The budget lays thrust on agriculture and allied sectors. For the first time in the Budget, the initiative of introducing gender budgeting has been introduced. The Women’s Development Corporation has been provided a grant of Rs. 10 crore at a very low interest rates for helping the deserving women. As per the budget provision 300 more Anganwari Centres would be opened and Rs. 300 monthly raise in their salaries have been suggested. Rs. 113 crore have been earmarked for Sher-iKashmir Employment Policy in the Budget. Among the other highlights of the budget 2010-11 are—highest ever share in Central Taxes, Annual Plan 2010-11 pegged at Rs. 6000 crore, Rural Development share has been raised by 82 per cent; Road Sector has got 51 per cent hike and Social Services have received 45 per cent enhancement; Agriculture outlay has been hiked by 28 per cent Estimates of Total Receipts (TR)—Rs. 25,984 crore as against Rs. 2,285 crore in 2009-10 have been estimated. For the first time highest ever share in Central Taxes—Rs. 2,911 crore under 13th Finance Commission Award as against Rs. 1,880 crore in 2009-10 have been realised. Revenue Receipts contributed Rs. 22,849 crore while Capital Receipts were pegged at Rs. 3,135 crore. Revenue Expenditure (RE) including Security Related Expenditure (SRE) has been pegged at Rs. 17,698 crore, Capital Expenditure is pegged at Rs. 8,286 crore. Annual Plan 2010-11 is pegged at Rs. 7,206 crore of which Rs. 1,206 crore will be under Prime Ministers’ Reconstruction Plan (PP). Rs. 7·62 crore has been allocated for strengthening Regional Rural Banks in the budget 2010-11.

Himachal Pradesh Budget 2010-11 Presented in the Assembly
Chief Minister Prem Kumar Dhumal who also holds the Finance Ministry presented the State Budget for 201011 on March 12, 2010 with a proposed outlay of Rs. 15,078·92 crore. Mr. Dhumal also proposed to raise VAT rate from 4 per cent to 5 per cent but exempted edible oils and foodgrains from it. The Chief Minister said 2010-11 is expected to open with a surplus of Rs. 630·14 crore. As per Budget estimates, the total revenue receipts are estimated at Rs. 11,588·55 crore & revenue expenditure at Rs. 12,093·42 crore, leaving a deficit of Rs. 504·87 crore on the revenue account. On the capital account, the total Chief Minister Prem Kumar Dhumal expected receipts are arrives to present the State Budget.

Kerala Budget 2010-11 Presented in the Assembly
Kerala Finance Minister T. M. Thomas Isaac presented the Budget 2010-11 in the State Assembly in Thiruvananthapuram on March 5, 2010. The budget envisages a revenue expenditure of Rs. 34,810·37 crore against revenue receipts expected at Rs. 31,180·81 crore, leaving a revenue deficit of Rs. 3,629·55 crore. The capital expenditure is estimated to come to Rs. 4,135·88 crore in the year. It aims at an additional resource mobilisation of Rs. 874·14 crore to support the new programmes. A slew of welfare schemes have been proposed in the Budget such as—rice at Rs. 2 kg to 35 lakhs people, increase in pension to Rs. 300 from the present level of


“Politicians are the same all over. They promise to build bridges even when there are no rivers.”

Rs. 250 month. The Budget also proposes to set up Rs. 1000 crore fund over the next five years for programmes intended to expand green cover over the land.

by cinema halls has been reduced from 125 per cent to 25 per cent.

Manipur Annual Plan Finalised; Pegged at Rs. 2,600 crore
The Annual Plan outlay for Manipur for 2010-11 was on March 17, 2010 finalised at Rs. 2,600 crore at a meeting between Planning Commission Deputy Chairman Montek Singh Ahluwalia and Chief Minister of Manipur Okram Ibobi Singh. The Planning Commission has agreed to focus attention to sectors such as road, power, education and health services while funds are also Manipur Chief Minister Okram Ibobi being provided to Singh with Deputy Chairperson of improve employ- the Planning Commission Montek ment opportunities. Singh Ahluwalia in New Delhi on The Commission March 17, 2010. also lauded the Manipur Government for stepping up the pace of development.

Amrita Devi Bishnoi Prizes Announced
The Rajasthan Government on March 23, 2010 announced State-level Amrita Devi Bishnoi prizes in different categories for 2009 for distinguished work in forest and wildlife conservation and forestation. Forest guard Asha Ram Meena and Anil Kumar Bishnoi are among the prize winners. Asha Ram Meena who is posted in Chaksu region got the prize for individuals in recognition of his contribution to forest protection. The award in the category of wildlife protection and conservation has been given to Anil Kumar Bishnoi of Lakhesar village in Pilibanga Tehsil of Hanumangarh district. It may be noted here that these prizes are given every year to commemorate the legendary Amrita Devi who sacrificed her life at Khejarli village for saving trees 280 years ago.

Tamil Nadu Budget 2010-11 Presented in the Assembly
Tamil Nadu Budget 2010-11 was presented in the State Legislative Assembly on March 19, 2010. The Budget sought to retain thrust on social justice and inclusive growth. There is an all time high outlay of Rs. 17,858 crore for social safety net and Rs. 12,285 crore for capital expenditure. As part of the Rs. 11th plan (2007-12) outlay of Rs. 85,344 crore, it is proposed to enhance the annual plan size to Rs. 20,000 for 2010-11 against Rs. 17,500 crore approved by the Centre for the current year. The cooperative loan target for the farm sector for next year has been increased to Rs. 2,500 crore. In view of the declining prices of pulses and sugar, the food subsidy has been reduced to Rs. 3,750 crore for next year from Rs. 4,000 crore this year. While the State Electricity board has issued a public notice for revising the tariff, the Budget has provided a subsidy of Rs. 1,716 crore. The other major provisions in the Budget are : Rs. 1,800 crore for the new concrete housing scheme, Rs. 1002 crore for old-age pension, Rs. 924 crore for noon meal scheme at schools, Rs. 891 crore for integrated children development scheme, Rs. 750 crore for Kalaignar insurance scheme, Rs. 500 crore for free colour TV sets, Rs. 250 crore for purchasing 3000 new buses. The Budget said utilising the resources of CMDA, grade separators will be constructed at a cost of Rs. 500 crore to reduce traffic congestion at intersections on Anna salai. A provision of Rs. 600 crore as the State’s share has been made in the Budget for the metro rail project. On the industrial front, an industrial park will be set up in Viluppuram district by the State owned Sipcot. The Government is encouraging dispersal of new industries with additional incentives. As a result, Videocon group,

First Open Jail for Women Opened
Maharashtra’s Home Minister R.R. Patil opened India’s first open jail for women at the Yerawada Central Prison in Pune in March 2010. Initially 50 out of the 500 women prisoners lodged in the Byculla (in Mumbai) and Yerawada (in Pune) jails would be selected for the open jail. Inspector-General (Prisons) Uddhav Kamble said women in the open jail would be made to do agricultural work on the 17 acres of land adjoining prison.

Punjab Budget 2010-11 in the Assembly
Punjab Finance Minister Manpreet Singh presented the State Budget for 2010-11 on March 16, 2010 in State Assembly Chandigarh. In the budget, the electricity duty is proposed to be raised from 5 per cent to 8 per cent for funding the green initiatives of the government. This comprises a three point programme focusing on agriculture energy and water. The three per cent hike in electricity proposed in the Budget is expected to fetch the State Rs. 270 crore annually. No other tax proposals have been mooted as Punjab would get additional revenue of Rs. 1,930 crore in 2010-11 due to the resource mobilisation measures. An award scheme for those getting admission to the Indian Military Academy and NDA has also been proposed in the Budget. The entertainment duty payable


“The most incomprehensible thing about the world is that is at all comprehensible.”

Sundareshwar alloys from Hong Kong are setting up projects in Madurai and Sivaganga districts. Chettinad Cement in setting up a Rs. 680 crore project in Dindigul district. Coastal Energen is establishing a 1200 mw thermal power plant with an investment of Rs. 5000 crore in Tuticorin district. The Budget also seeks to address the long pending effluent treatment problem of hosiery units at Tirupur. With the Union Budget providing Rs. 200 crore assistance, the State will provide Rs. 120 crore. Total Rs. 320 crore provided in the State budget will help the units to adjust against the loans they had borrowed for setting up the treatment plants. For small scale industries department, the Budget has a provision of Rs. 98 crore. On the IT front, the state wide area network which connects headquarters of various departments with offices at district, divisional and block levels through internet, will be expanded at a cost of Rs. 22 crore. To give a fillip to tourism, various tourist destinations have been developed at a cost of Rs. 219 crore in the last four years. An eco park will be established at Tirupaparankundram in Madurai district at a cost of Rs. 4 crore.

West Bengal Budget 2010-11 Presented in the Assembly
West Bengal Finance Minister Asim Kumar Dasgupta unveiled a financial statement on March 22, 2010 in the Assembly that laid priority on minority affairs and madarsa education backward classes and women’s development. Besides, the budget lays emphasis on job creation. In the budget 2010-11, the finance minister proposed to introduce for the Urban areas a West Bengal Urban Employment Scheme from next fiscal on the lines of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme. With additional revenue mobilisation of Rs. 110 crore, Finance Minister Dr. Asim Dasgupta was able to hem in the deficit at Rs. 6 crore while targeting a nine per cent State Domestic Product in 2010-11, when he said nine lakh additional jobs could be created. The outlay for self-help groups and self-employment has been doubled to Rs. 200 crore. The Budget announced a doubling of the financial benefit given to workers of closed units to Rs. 1,500. This move aims at benefiting 34,527 workers. The Labour Department’s Plan outlay would be increased from Rs. 90 crore to 120 crore with the government expanding the scope of the scheme for giving pension to the unorganised sector workers. In the nearly 150 per cent hike in Plan outlay for minority affairs and madrasa education, the budget has laid emphasis on upgradation of junior high madrasas, vocational training in high and higher madrasas and a proposal for a Centre-State programme on pre-matric scholarships. In this Budget Plan outlays for backward classes, women and child development, health and higher education have been significantly increased. The additional resource mobilisation is proposed through increased taxation—on mobile phones costing above Rs. 3,000, foreign liquor, by bringing DTH under tax net and an increase in luxury tax on hotels with tariff above Rs. 3,000. The total Plan outlay is Rs. 14,069·57 crore.

Uttarakhand Budget 2010-11 Presented in the Assembly
Uttarakhand Chief Minister Ramesh Pokhriyal Nishank presented a Rs. 15,451·95 crore Budget in the State Assembly on March 17, 2010. No new taxes have been introduced in the Budget. Among the other proposals reduction of VAT on cottage industries items and kerosene, sops for the business community introduction of tax reforms and innovative projects to benefit most sections of society are contained in the Budget. The Budget, this year, aims at providing relief to economically weaker Uttarakhand Chief Minister Ramesh class by reducing the Pokhriyal Nishank (right) entering the rate of VAT from Assembly in Dehradun on March 17, 12·5 per cent to 4 per 2010 to present the Budget. cent on kerosene. The Budget proposes to remove VAT from matches, candles handmade paper etc. Reduction of VAT from 12·5 per cent to 4 per cent on cotton and textile waste have also been proposed in Budget. Entertainment tax on domestic Cable TV has been halved to Rs. 20 per month. Arrangements for schools and residential schools will be made for children of rag pickers, homeless and poor families with an annual income of less than Rs. 32,000. The Budget also lays emphasis on identifying and developing tourism circuit. A sum of Rs. 16·5 crore has been allocated for scholarships from minority communites.

West Bengal to Set up Counter–Insurgency Force
In face of grave threat to law and order situation in West Bengal from Maoists the state government has decided to raise a counter-insurgency force to combat Naxal–Maoists menace in the state. The newly raised force will be trained by the Elite Greyhounds force based in Andhra Pradesh for specialising counter guerrilla activities of the Maoists. This matter was discussed threadbare in a special meeting attended by the Inspector General of the Greyhound Force Anjani Kumar and States Director General of Police Bhupinder Singh. As per the sources, personnel selected from the State Armed Police will receive training at the Greyhounds Academy in Andhra Pradesh which specialises in preparing special commandos in tackling anti-naxal activities. It is to be noted here that Greyhounds force is an elite anti-naxal force specialising in conducting jungle warfare by applying guerrilla tactics to counter those of the Naxalite– P.Darpan Maoists.


“All truths are easy to understand once they are discovered; the point is to discover them.”

HIPC—Heavily Indebted Poor Countries. ISCA—Indian Science Congress Association. It is going to organise its 98th meet in Chennai in January, with the theme ‘Quality Education and Excellence in Scientific Research in Indian Universities’. NPCIL—Nuclear Limited. Power Corporation of India

Though the Commission was re-constituted in September last, the chairperson and members were not appointed. A non-statutory body, it was first constituted in 1955 and has been re-constituted every three years. The tenure of the last panel ended on August 31. It was headed by Justice A. R. Lakshman. In the past 54 years, the Commission submitted 234 reports and 225 of them were laid before Parliament. Apart from the chairperson, the Commission consists of three full-time members, a member secretary and three or more part-time members depending upon the nature of the topics referred to it for study.

It has recently come into the news following reports that it is finalising contracts for two 1650 MWe-European Pressured Reactor plants at Jaitpur, Maharashtra with Areva, one of the biggest reactor manufacturing agencies of France. NMA—National Monuments Authority. NBWL—National Board for WildLife.

Sheikh Ahmed Mohammed Ahmed al-Tayeb
Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak on March 19, 2010 appointed Sheikh Ahmed Mohammed Ahmed alTayeb as a new head of Al-Azhar, Sunni Islam’s most prestigious institution, after the death of its top cleric about a week before. Mubarak issued a presidential decree appointing Sheikh Ahmed Mohammed Ahmed alTayeb to the Al-Azhar. Mr. Tayeb, the President of AlAzhar University since 2003, succeeds Grand Imam Mohammed Sayed Tautawu who died of a heart attack in Saudi Arabia on March 10.

Four More Women on Muslim Law Board
The All India Muslim Personal Law Board has ventured to give adequate representation to women with four new female members elected to the 51-member executive committee of the top representative body of the Muslims in the country. This brings the total number of women members in the executive panel to five. The elections were conducted on March 20, 2010, the second day of the 21st general session of the Muslim Law Board in Lucknow. The four new female members are : Rukhsana Lari, Safia Naseem (both from Lucknow), Noorjehan Shakeel (Kolkata) and Asma Zehra (Hyderabad). Spokesperson Naseem Iqtidar Ali Khan was so far the Jafaryaab Jilani lone woman member in the executive addressing a press committee. She continues to be on the conference in panel. Lucknow on Maulana Rabey Hasni Nadwi was March 20, 2010 . unanimously elected President of the Law Board for the third successive term.

Three New High Court Judges for Bihar
Three new judges of the Patna High Court—Akhilesh Chandra, Gopal Prasad and Mungeshwar Sahu-were sworn in at a simple ceremony in Marble Hall at Patna. Patna High Court Chief Justice Dipak Misra administered the oath. With this, the number of judges in the High Court rose to 29, still 14 short of the sanctioned strength.

Supreme Court to have a Woman Judge
The Supreme Court is going to have a woman judge after more than three years. The Supreme Court collegium headed by Chief Justice K.G. Balakrishnan, has recommended the elevation of Chief Justice of the Jharkhand High Court Ms. Gyan Sudha Mishra as a Supreme Court Judge. Justice Mishra will be the fourth woman judge of the Supreme Court, after Fatima Beevi, Sujata Manohar and Ruma Paul who retired in June 2006.
Gyan Sudha Mishra

Justice Reddy Appointed Law Commission Chairperson
The Centre has appointed Justice P. Venkatarama Reddy, a retired judge of the Supreme Court as chairperson of the 19th Law Commission, which will have a tenure upto August 31, 2012.

The Collegium has also recommended the elevation of Madras High Court Chief Justice H. L. Gokhale as a Supreme Court Judge.


“Man maintains his balance, poise, and sense of security only as he is moving forward.”

With these elevations, the strength of judges in the Apex court will go up to 29, as against the sanctioned strength of 31. While Justice Mishra, who hails from Bihar, is the senior-most among women judges, Justice Gokhale, who hails from Maharashtra is the senior-most among male judges.

He also wrote critical essays on literature and translated works into Marathi, Aristotle’s Poetics being one of them.

Koneru Ranga Rao
Andhra Pradesh’s former Deputy Chief Minister and veteran dalit leader Koneru Ranga Rao died in Hyderabad on March 15, 2010 after prolonged illness. He was 74. Mr. Rao, from Gudavalli in Krishna district, entered the Andhra Pradesh political scene in 1978 when he became a Minister for the first time in Channa Reddy Cabinet. He held various portfolios in the Congress governments that were in power from 1978-83 and 1989-94 and went on to become Deputy Chief Minister in the Kotla Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy Cabinet. Mr. Rao was the voice of Dalit and agrarian cause inside and outside the Assembly. He scripted the landmark recommendations made by the high-power committee on land reforms which he headed.

Rajya Sabha Nominations
Javed Akhtar, Mani Shankar Aiyar Nominated to Rajya Sabha
Lyricist and poet Javed Akhtar and the former Union Minister, Mani Shankar Aiyar, were among five persons who have been nominated to the Rajya Sabha. Ram Dayal Munda, former Vice-Chancellor of Ranchi University, who is also a tribal welfare activist and a regional music exponent; Bhalchandra Mungekar, an economist of repute and former Vice-Chancellor of Mumbai University and a former Planning Commission member; and B. Jayashree, an eminent theatre person from Karnataka, are the three other eminent persons who have been nominated to the Council of States.

Kanu Sanyal : An Architect of Naxalite Movement
Kanu Sanyal, one of the architects of the naxalite movement and, who, in more recent times, was critical of the Maoists was found dead on March 23, 2010 at his residence in the Naxalbari area of West Bengal’s Darjeeling district—the same area from where an armed peasant uprising in May 1967 led by him, among others had catapulted him into political Kanu Sanyal reckoning. He was 78.

Arif Mohammed Khan
India’s ambassador to Italy, Arif Mohammed Khan passed away in Rome on March 16, 2010. He was 58. The first head of the Public Diplomacy Division in the Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) he also served as MEA spokesperson and as India’s ambassador to Syria. His other major postings were in Paris and New York. Born in Cuttack, Arif studied at St. Stephen’s College in Delhi and taught Economics for a year before joining the 1974 batch of the Indian Foreign Service.

Pravinchandra Gandhi
Pravinchandra V. Gandhi, former Chairman of Dena Bank and a leading figure in the print media industry passed away in Mumbai on March 9, 2010 after prolonged illness. He was 87. Mr. Gandhi was Chairman emeritus of the Saurashtra Trust, which publishes the Janmaboomi group of newspapers and magazines, and was also a former Chairman of the Press Pravinchandra Trust of India. Gandhi He was awarded the Padma Bhushan in 2002 for his contribution to social service.

Vinda Karandikar
Noted Marathi poet and Jnanpith award winner Vinda Karandikar passed away in Mumbai on March 14, 2010. He was 91. A towering figure in Marathi literature, Govind Vinayak Karandikar—known by his literary name Vinda, in his lifetime of writing produced a rich oeuvre comprising poems primarily in Marathi and some in English. Shwetaganga (1949), Mrudgandha (1954), Dhrupad (1959), Jatak and Vrupika are his poetical works. He was awarded 39th Jnanpith award in 2003, the highest literary honour in India, for his collection of poems titled Ashtadarshane. He was also awarded the Sahitya Akademi Fellowship in 1996. His other awards comprise the Keshavasut Prize, the Soviet Land Nehru Literary Award and the Kabir Samman. Mr. Karandikar was also known for his delightful Children’s poetry.

G. P. Birla
Eminent industrialist G. P. Birla passed away in Kolkata on March 5, 2010. He was 87'. The group, which is now looked after by C. K. Birla, spans automobiles, engineering, cement and paper, among other sectors. Son of B. M. Birla, G. P. Birla had helped to set up large industrial units such as Orient Paper and Industries, B. K. Birla and Kumarmangalam Birla Hyderabad Indus- along with other family members at tries and Nigeria the Keoratala cremation ghat in Engineering Works. Kolkata on March 6, 2010.


“For attractive lips, speak words of kindness.”

The other companies of the group are Hindustan Motors, BirlaSoft, Avtec and Indian Smelting. G. P. Birla was also involved in the setting up of landmark educational institutions and scientific museum such as the Modern High School for Girls, the Birla Institute of Technology in Ranchi, the Birla Archaeological and Cultural Research Institute and the Birla Science and Technological Museum in Kolkata. “One of his guiding philosophies was that the role of industry was not just a means of wealth creation but, in fact, a way to improve the lives of the community,” an official communication said. At least, two of the top city hospitals—the B. M. Birla Heart Research Centre and the Calcutta Medical Research Institute, one of the first speciality hospitals of the city— were set up at his initiative. Associated with the name of G. P. Birla are some magnificent temples in Hyderabad, Jaipur and Bhopal. The group has liberally supported the renovation of places of historical, architectural and religious importance to preserve the country’s cultural heritage. He was honoured with the Padma Bhushan in 2006.

committee which in August 2009 made certain recommendations for ratio-nalisation of the existing criteria for selecting sportspersons and coaches for the awards. The Ministry has decided to accept major amendments to be made in the schemes for National Sports Awards. They are— (i) Only one Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna award in a year will be given to an individual sportsperson subject to relaxation in exceptional circumstances such as winning of an Olympic medal.


In the case of Arjun Award, three years’ limitation for conferment of Arjun Award posthumously has been abolished. Besides, one award per discipline has been removed for team sports and across gender. (iii) As for Dronacharya Award, out of five awards, two have been earmarked for lifetime contribution in coaching. Now the current restrictive clause for the Coach of coaching the athlete during the immediate two years preceding the performance has been removed.

John Torrence Tate Wins Abel Prize
This year, the prestigious Abel Prize in Mathematics has been given to American mathematician John Torrence Tate (aged 85). John Torrence Tate is one of the most outstanding number theorists in recent times. He has been recognized for his vast and lasting impact on the theory of numbers. This announcement was made in Oslo on March 24, 2010 by the President of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters, Nils Christian Stenseth. The prize administered by the Academy will be awarded in May John Torrence Tate 2010. It may be recalled here that the Abel Prize is given for outstanding lifetime achievement in mathematics and is named after Norwegian mathematician Niels Henrik Abel (1802-29), sometimes compared to India’s mathematical wizard Srinivas Ramanujan.

Michael Foot
British labour politician Michael Foot passed away in the first week of March. He was 96. In a long career, Michael Foot, served the Labour party as its Leader in Opposition from 1980 to 1983, Deputy Leader, and as a Cabinet Minister under Harold Wilson and James Callaghan. He graced the Commons as a n independent-minded backbencher, and was widely acclaimed as one of the most principled British politicians of his era. Michael Foot A distinguished journalist and author, he devoted his life not only to the rights and traditions of Parliament, but to freedom in all its aspects.

Biswanath Patnaik
Eminent Bhoodan leader and social worker Biswanath Patnaik passed away at Baliguda in Orissa’s Kandhamal district on March 29, 2010. He was 94. A close associate of Vinoba Bhave, Patnaik was popularly known as the ‘Koraputia Gandhi’ for his outstanding socio-economic work in Southern Orissa during the last 50 years. Recipient of the prestigious Jamunalal Bajaj Award for 2008, he was actively associated with a number of organisations including Utkal Jiban Mandal. He was also the President of Utkal Khadi Mandal.

55th Filmfare Awards Conferred
55th Filmfare Awards for 2009 were given away on February 27, 2010 in Mumbai. Bollywood stars Amitabh Bachchan and Vidya Balan were adjudged the best actor and best actress respectively. Bachchan won the award for his role in ‘Paa’ while Vidya Balan bagged the trophy for Best Actress for her role in the same movie. Amir Khan starrer ‘3 Idiots’ was declared the best film while Rajkumar Hirani claimed the best director award for the same movie. The list of the awardees is as follows—

List of 55th Filmfare Awards Winners
Best Actor in a Leading Role (Male) : Amitabh Bachchan—Paa Best Actor in a Leading Role (Female) : Vidya Balan—Paa Best Film : 3 Idiots Best Director : Rajkumar Hirani—3 Idiots Best Actor in a Supporting Role (Male) : Boman Irani—3 Idiots

Criteria for Selection of Sports Awards Amended
The Union Sports Ministry which selects sportspersons and coaches every year for the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna, Arjuna and Dronacharya Awards had constituted


“For lovely eyes, seek out the good in people.”

Best Actor in a Supporting Role (Female) : Kalki Koechlin—Dev D Best Actor (Male) Critics : Ranbir Kapoor Best Actor (Female) Critics : Mahie Gill—Dev D Best Film (Critics) : Firaaq Best Debut Director (Male) : Ayan Mukherjee—Wake Up Sid Best Debut Director (Female) : Zoya Akhtar—Luck By Chance Best Music : A. R. Rahman—Delhi-6 Best Playback Singer (Male) : Mohit Chauhan : Masakalli—Delhi-6 Best Playback Singer (Female) : Rekha Bharadwaj : Genda Phool (Delhi-6), Kavita Seth—Iktara (Wake Up Sid) Best Lyrics : Irshad Kamil—Aaj Din Chadiya—Love Aaj Kal Best Story : Abhijat Joshi, Rajkumar Hirani—3 Idiots Best Screenplay : Rajkumar Hirani, Vidhu Vinod Chopra, Abhijat Joshi—3 Idiots Best Dialogue : Rajkumar Hirani, Vidhu Vinod Chopra—3 idiots Best Editing : Sreekar Prasad—Firaaq Best Choreography : Bosco-Caesar—Chor Bazaari— Love Aaj Kal Best Visual Effect Award : Kaminey Best Sound Design : Manas Chaudhury—Firaaq Best Production Design : Helen & Sukant—Dev D Best Cinematography : Rajeev Rai—Dev D Best Action : Vijayan Master—Wanted Best Costume : Vaishali Menon—Firaaq Best Background Score : Amit Trivedi—Dev D Special Award : Nandita Das—Firaaq Lifetime Achievement Award : Shashi Kapoor— Khayyam R. D. Burman Music Award : Amit Trivedi

Honour for Tendulkar and Modi
Sachin Tendulkar has been named the most influential person in Indian sports in the annual Sports Illustrated (SI) Power List. Among the fifty Indians, he has been rated No. 1 influencer in India followed by the IPL Chairman, Lalit Modi, (at second spot) and Vijay Mallya (at third spot). It may be mentioned here that the Union Agriculture Minister and President elect o f the ICC Sharad Pawar, Indian cricket team skipSachin Tendulkar per Mahendra Singh Dhoni, Shashank Manohar have been placed at fourth, fifth and sixth position respectively. Some of the other names in the list include Sania Mirza (50th) and Abhinav Bindra (41st).

82nd Oscar Academy Awards : ‘The Hurt Locker’ Dominates
The 82nd Oscar Academy awards were given away on March 7, 2010 in Los Angeles. ‘The Hurt Locker’ swept

Best Actor Jeff Bridges (Crazy Heart), Best Actress Sandra Bullock (The Blind Side)

Vyas Samman for Amar Kant’s Novel
Noted Hindi writer Amar Kant’s novel ‘Inhin Hathiyaron Se’ has been selected for the Vyas Samman-2009. Amar Kant has published 13 short story collections 10 novels, 6 volumes for children, two memoirs and a compilation of all his stories in two volumes. Vyas Samman is the next only to Saraswati Samman given by the K. K. Birla Foundation. The award carrying Rs. 2·5 lakh is awarded to an outstanding literary work.

Shoma Chaudhury and Monalisa Get Chameli Devi Award
Tehalka Executive Editor Shoma Chaudhury and Nagaland Page Editor Monalisa Changkija have jointly been honoured with the Chameli Devi Jain Award for Outstanding Woman Media Persons for 2009. It is noteworthy that the award is given annually by the Media Foundation for excellence, impact, social concern, innovation, style and originality of work in the print or broadcast media.

the coveted Prize of Best Picture and Kathryn Bigelow who directed this movie became the first woman to be awarded Best Director Award. In total The Hurt Locker— an Iraq war drama– won six awards. Sandra Bullock won Best Actress Award for her performance in the Blind Side. While Jeff Bridges won Best Actor Screen Writer Mark Boal, director Award for his gritty Kathryn Bigelow and producer Greg portrayal of a broken Shapire with their Oscar Trophies for down country singer the Hurt Locker. in ‘Crazy Heart’. The list of the awardees at the 82nd Oscar Awards is given below :

The Best
Picture—The Hurt Locker Director—Kathryn Bigelow (The Hurt Locker) Actor—Jeff Bridges (Crazy Heart) Actress—Sandra Bullock (The Blind Side) Foreign Language Film—The Secret in Their Eyes (El Secreto de Sus Ojos) : Argentina


“Within Maya, the poise of intuitive balance is not produced. Maya leads to the love of duality.”

Supporting Basterds



Moily Gets Moortidevi Award
President Pratibha Patil on March 18, 2010 conferred the Moortidevi Award of the Bharatiya Jnanpith to Union Law and Justice Minister Veerappa Moily for his work ‘Sree Ramayana Mahanveshanam ’ (great exploration and examination of the Ramayana). President Patil admired Moily’s personality for his exceptional distinction of being a prolific writer and a person actively involved in public life. By the conferment of this award he has been recognized for his enormous contribution to Indian literature.

Supporting Actress—Mo’ Nique : Precious : Based on the Novel ‘Push’ by Sapphire. Original Screenplay—Mark Boal : The Hurt Locker Adapted Screenplay—Geoffrey Fletcher : Precious : Based on the Novel ‘Push’ by Sapphire Animated Feature—Up Art Direction—Rick Carter and Robert Stromberg and Kim Sinclair : Avatar Costume Design—Sandy Powell-The Young Victoria Make-up—Barney Burman, Mindy Hall & Joel Harlow for Star Trek Cinematography—Mauro Fiore : Avatar, Documentary Feature : The Cove Visual Effects—Joe Letteri, Stephen Rosenbaum, Richard Baneham & Andrew R Jones : Avatar Sound Editing—Paul NJ Ottosson : The Hurt Locker Sound Mixing—Paul NJ Ottosson & Ray Beckett : The Hurt Locker Film Editing—Bob Murawski & Chris Innis : The Hurt Locker Original Score—Michael Giacchino : Up Original Song—The Weary Kind : Crazy Heart

Amit Rai Wins Gollapudi Srinivas Award for 2009
Amit Rai won the Gollapudi Srinivas National Award for 2009 instituted by the Gollapudi Srinivas Memorial Foundation. Amit Rai has been given this award for his film ‘Road to Sangam’. This film was selected from 15 other nominations from all over India in Malyalam, English, Marathi, Tamil, Hindi, Telgu and Bengali. The awards carries a cash prize of Rs. 1·5 lakh and a memento.

Japanese Architects Bag Pritzker Prize 2010
The Japanese duo Kazuyo Sejima and Ryue Nishizawa have bagged the highest honour in architecture the Pritzker Prize 2010. They are the partners in acrhitecture firm SANAA. These two architects have been working together for more than 15 years and are known to have designed many critically acclaimed buildings across several cities of the world. The Pritzker Prize carries Pritzker prize winners Ryue $ 100,000 in grant Nishizawa (left) and Kazuyo Sejima. and bronze medallions. The important buildings for the construction of which the duo is responsible are the 21st century Museum of Contemporary Art at Kanazawa in Japan, De Kunstlinie theatre, Almere in Netherlands, Rolex Learning Center Lusanne in Switzerland and the New Museum of Contemporary Art New York.

Surjit Patar Gets Saraswati Samman 2009
Punjabi poet Surjit Patar has been selected for the Saraswati Samman 2009 for his poetry collection ‘Lafzan Di Dargarh’ The award constituted by K.K. Birla Foundation carries a cash prize of Rs. 5 lakh, a citation and a plaque. Lafzan Ki Dargah, a Punjabi poetry collection was published in 2003. Saraswati Samman is given to an outstanding literary work written in any Indian language and published in the Surjit Patar last ten years. The first recipient of the award was Harivansh Rai Bachchan in 1991 for his autobiography.

Jaya Bachchan given Lifetime Achievement Award
Actress Jaya Bachchan has been honoured with a Lifetime Achievement Award in London for her contribution to Indian Cinema. The actress described the award as a very significant one as it was given to her outside India.

Award for Russian Mathematician
The Clay Mathematics Institute (CMI) announced on March 2010 the award of its Millennium Prize to Russian mathematician Dr. Grigoriy Grisha Perelman of St. Petersburg. He has been recognized for resolving the 106 year old Poincare Conjecture. It may be noted here that Poincare Conjecture was posed by the French mathematician Henri Poincare in 1904. The problem was regarded as such an important one Grigoriy Perelman in Mathematics that it was identified as one of the seven Millennium Prize Problems by the CMI in 2000. The CMI award carries a cash prize of $ 1 million for the solution of each problem.

Quality Award for Mukesh Ambani
Reliance Industries CMD Mukesh Ambani received the IMC Juran Quality Medal Reading of Citation from Rajya Sabha Member Ashok S. Ganguly in Mumbai on March 19, 2010. This award has been given to Mukesh in recognition of his managerial and entrepreneurial skill and taking the Reliance Industries to the pinnacle of success.


“Love is the condition in which the happiness of another person is essential to your own.”

Corporation Bank Gets Award
Corporation Bank has bagged SKOCH Challenger Award 2010 for ‘Inclusion Champion of the Year,’ instituted by SKOCH Consultancy Services Private Limited. It may be noted here that SKOCH Challenger Award is the most respected independently instituted civilian honour in India that accords recognition to people, projects and institutions for their extraordinary achievements in contributing to inclusive growth of the nation.

If such efforts for reconciliation failed, it shall be construed that there had been a ‘reasonable cause’ for such divorce. The reasonableness of such substantive cause for divorce could not be justifiable by a court. The court made this ruling while dealing with a Muslim divorce case. The court observed that it was assumed that a Muslim man could unilaterally end his marriage by pronouncing talaq without the intervention of a court.

Scientist Honoured
Chennai-born scientist Shankar Balasubramaniam of Cambridge University has been named Innovator of the year by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) which is a Britain’s leading agency for academic research and training in non-clinical life sciences. Shankar Balasubramaniam has been awarded £ 10,000 in recognition of his work on Solexa sequencing that is, the high genome sequencing technology. It is to be noted here that the award recognises research that has practical impact on quality of life.

India Speak : English is our 2nd Language
More Indians speak English than any other language, with the sole exception of Hindi. What is more, English speakers in India outnumber those in all of the Western Europe minus the United Kingdom. And Indian English speakers are more than twice the UK’s population. These facts emerge from the recently released census 2001 data on bilingualism and trilingualism in India. Indian’s linguistic prowess stood revealed with as many as 255 million speaking at least two languages and 87·5 million speaking three or more. In other words, about a quarter of the population speaks more than one language.

Vigyan Ratna Award for Professor Yashpal
Union Finance Pranab Mukherjee presented the Vigyan Ratna Award to former UGC Chairman Professor Yashpal during the 59th Convocation of Punjab University in Chandigarh on March 24, 2010.

Mother Tongue
Top 5 English-speaking countries
US India Nigeria UK Russia 263 125 79 60 60

Younus Bags Pakistan Award
Former Pakistan Cricket Captain Younus Khan received a presidential pride of performance award on March 23, 2010 in Islamabad. He was given this honour for leading Pakistan to victory in the World Twenty-20 in England in June 2009.

Top 5 Languages spoken in India
Hindi English Bengali Telugu Marathi 551·4 125·3 91·1 85 84·2

Divorced Muslim Women Entitled to Maintenance
A Division Bench of the Kerala High Court on March 17, 2010 ruled that a divorced Muslim woman’s right to claim maintenance under section 125 of the Criminal Procedure Code did not stand ‘extinguished’ if payment under section 3 of the Muslim women (Protection of Rights) Act 1986 had not been made by her former husband. The Bench made it clear that a divorced Muslim woman would be entitled to claim maintenance from her former husband till she remained a divorcee. However, her remarriage or actual payment of maintenance or fair provision under section 3 of the Act shall ‘extinguish’ her right to claim maintenance under Section 125 of the Criminal Procedure Code.

Source : Estimates for Nigeria & census reports for rest.

English was the primary language for barely 2·3 lakh Indians at the time of the census, more than 86 million listed it as their second language and another 39 million as their third language. This puts the number of English speakers in India at the time to more than 125 million. The only language that had a larger number of speakers was Hindi with 551·4 million. This includes 422 million, who list it as their primary language, 98·2 million for whom it was a second language and 31·2 million who listed it as their third. The rise of English puts Bengali, once India’s second largest language in terms of primary speakers, in distant third place. Those who spoke Bengali as their first, second or third language add up-to 91·1 million, far behind English. Telugu with 85 million speakers in all and Marathi with 84·2 million retain their position behind Bengali as does Tamil with 66·7 million and Urdu with 59 million. Gujarati now falls behind Kannada though it has a sizeable number of primary speakers—6·1 million— compared to Kannada’s 37·9 million. Karnataka’s linguistic diversity means that many list other languages as their

Pronouncement of Talaq
The court ruled that a pronouncement of talaq remained valid only if attempts for reconcilliation by two arbitrators in terms of Islamic laws were made before such pronouncement.


“Our attitude towards life determines life’s attitude towards us.”

first and Kannada as a second language. This adds 11·5 million to the ranks of Kannada speakers and another 1·4 million use it as a third language. In total, Kannada had 50·8 million speakers in 2001 compared to Gujarati’s 50·3 million. Oriya overtakes Malayalam thanks to the 3·3 million people who listed it as their second language and 3·2 lakh who said it was their third language. The total number of Oriya speakers was 36·6 million against 33·8 million who spoke Malayalam. Punjabi, with 31·4 million speakers, and Assamese with 18·9 million are among India’s most spoken languages. Unfortunately, the census asked people to list a maximum of three languages, so it is not known how many speak more languages. The data covers only those over five because the census assumed that younger children would only know their mother tongue. As expected, urban Indians are more likely to be multi-lingual but as many as 136·7 million rural Indians speak at least two languages and 40·4 million speak at least three, meaning about one-fifth speak more than one language. In urban India, 118·4 million speak at least two languages and 47·1 million speak at least three.

Government Boost for Wildlife
[Wildlife department to be distinct from environment ministry] To give sharper focus to wildlife-related issues, Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh has given approval for the setting up of a separate department dedicated to wildlife and forests that will be distinct from the environment ministry. The decision was taken at a meeting of the National Board for Wildlife (NBWL) chaired by Dr. Singh on March 18, 2010. “The objective is to strengthen field formation at the state level as the department will not be Delhi-based set up of bureaucrats, as three field officers Manmohan Singh will soon be posted in Nagpur, Kolkata and Bangalore”, Environment Minister Jairam Ramesh said. Wildlife experts see the move as a landmark decision that would go a long way in protecting the endangered wildlife of the country. Mr. Ramesh said that the setting up of the new department would not only ensure focussed funding for wildlife issues but strengthen monitoring machinery so that “we should know how the relevant laws are being implemented across the states.”

China Replaces Diabetic : Study

India as



China tops the world in diabetic with an estimated people with diabetes to 92·4 million. India has 50·8 million people with diabetes, with an adult prevalence of 7·1 per cent. A national study from China published in the New England Journal of Medicine on March 25, 2010 more than doubled the diabetes estimates from 43·2 million in 2009 saying that more than half of China’s diabetics had not been diagnosed. The increase in numbers in China will push up the global diabetes estimates from the current 285 million to 334·2 million.

Rhino Project
The Prime Minister expressed the hope that Assam would soon come forward with a long-term rhino conservation project. Mr. Singh expressed concern over more species being listed in the endangered species’ list and called upon states to strengthen their structure to enhance wildlife conservation.

Rising Numbers
Countries with highest number of diabetics : China—92·4 million India—50·8 million US—26·8 million Russian Federation—9·6 million Brazil—7·6 million Sources : China figure from recent study, rest from Diabetes Atlas 2009

T-20 Stresses Role of Tourism in Economic Development
Recognising that the travel and tourism sector plays an important role in employment in all countries, providing 75 million jobs worldwide and has the capacity to accelerate job creation and offer fast entry of youth and women into the workforce, Tourism Ministers from 20 countries under the T-20 grouping, have pledged to intensify collaboration to position tourism as a key driver of sustainable economic and social development. At a recent meeting in Johannesburg, T-20, a member-driven initiative with the support of the United National World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO), stressed that the sector should be recognised as a significant economic and development driver nationally on multilateral economic platforms. The grouping includes India, the U.S. and the U.K.

“The ageing of the population, urbanisation, nutritional changes and decreasing levels of physical activity have probably contributed to the rapid increase,” wrote Yang Wenying, head of endocrinology at the China-Japan Friendship Hospital in Beijing, who did the study between June 2007 and May 2008. Diabetes was almost 1·4 times more common among urban residents than rural ones, found the study. “Diabetes is also under-reported in India and we need a similar study to get the numbers right,” said Dr. Anoop Mishra, director, diabetes and metabolic diseases, Fortis Hospitals and the Diabetes Foundation of India.


“Nothing can cure the soul but the senses, just as nothing can cure the senses but the soul.”

Considering that the sector represents a direct contribution of between 6 to 7 per cent of the global gross domestic product, T-20 Ministers said that tourism contributed 30 per cent of the world’s services exports, amounting to $ 1 trillion a year, and 45 per cent of the total services exports in the developing countries. The Ministers wanted increased cooperation between countries, working closely with stakeholders, with a view to facilitating international movement of tourists, addressing travel barriers, and fostering mutual under-standing and collaboration.

allocation of money in a fair way, it has also decided to launch a campaign for poor women farmers across the world. Oxfam in-charge of climate Charlie Powell pointed out that while the rich countries had committed at Copenhagen to pledge $10 billion as urgent funding every year in 2010, 2011 and 2012 and $100 billion from 2020 onward, the developing countries need $200 billion each year from this year. Half the money should be spent on adaptation and half on low carbon development, he said.

Understanding Climate Change
[Oxfam International’s crucial role across the globe] Representatives of the popular mobilization group of Oxfam International from 16 countries including South Africa, Germany, Mexico, Britain and the U.S. visited halfa-dozen villages near Jaipur in March 2010 in an attempt to understand climate change at the grass roots, which is affecting the poorest communities with special focus on women. Oxfam International has been actively involved in climate change campaigns around the world and it uses popular mobilisation as a technique to engage people worldwide on eco- Expressing Concern : Oxfam Internomic justice issues. national representatives interacting It held a series of with farmers at a village near Jaipur in climate change hear- March 2010. ings in 30 countries, mobilising 16 lakh people as a way of putting pressure on world leaders before the Copenhagen Summit on Climate Change held in December 2009. To sustain the momentum generated by the hearings and to plan ahead, it conducted a three-day planning meeting in New Delhi earlier. Oxfam in-charge of economic justice issues Natalie Brook said that the global body was deliberating on the next level of climate change campaign strategy in order to come up with concrete proposals for influencing the dialogue at the Mexico Climate Summit scheduled for November this year. Ms. Brook said at the headquarters of the Centre for Community Economics and Development Consultants’ Society, the local organiser of the visit, that though Copenhagen was a unique opportunity to demand a fair, ambitious and binding deal, its outcome was “very disappointing”. In order to push for establishing a “Green Climate Fund” to help poor communities adapt to climate change, Oxfam International has decided to place climate finance on top of its campaign agenda this year. Besides seeking

$ 75 million Project to Clean up Four Polluted Sites
The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs on March 19, 2010 approved a $ 75 million project to help clean up four polluted sites in preparation to developing a National Plan for Rehabilitation of Pollution Sites. The ‘Capacity Building for Industrial Pollution Management’ project, which is being sponsored by the World Bank, will work on four sites in Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal over the next five years. Ultimately, though, it will support the development of an institutional framework to clean up and rehabilitate such sites, many of them abandoned by the Industries which initially polluted the place. Crafting a national policy on the issue would help sustain benefits beyond the project period. The policy could include the creation of a dedicated fund to be created by State pollution control boards to facilitate the clean-up of such abandoned sites, if the government accepts the recommendations of the Committee to Evolve Road Map on Management of Waste in India. In its recent report, the Committee outlines what could be one of the key principles of such a National policy. “Remediation strategy needs to focus on the polluter pays principle’ with the polluter being asked to pay penalty as well as costs of cleaning up the pollution. Industries causing pollution repeatedly should be blacklisted. Where polluters are not traceable, a dedicated fund needs to be created by SPCB/PCC for remediation,” says the report. The project aims to build human resources and develop technical capacity within State government bodies to carry out similar projects and protect nearby populations from the risk of contamination. It includes public awareness and community education programmes. Apart from the environmental benefits such as an improvement in water and air quality, the improved hygienic conditions would also result in health benefits such as reduction in water borne, vector borne diseases.

US to hold 17-Country Meet on Climate in April 2010
Though the US climate bill is enmeshed in parliamentary labrynth, the Obama administration is going to organise the 17-country Major Economies Forum (MEF) meeting in April 2010 to spur debate with the key players, such as India and China.
The MEF is the new avtar created by the Obama administration by morphing the Major Economies Meeting that the Bush administration had earlier backed.


“Character may be manifested in the great moments, but it is made in the small ones.”

The MEF is the new incarnation created by the Obama administration by morphing the Major Economies Meeting that the Bush administration had earlier backed. While the Bush administration had steadfastly refused to engage in an international deal, the MEF meet is now seen as a US attempt to push other countries towards a deal more congenial to its interests. The meeting is expected to be held in London though earlier discussions were being held on organising it in an Asian country. The meeting would be one of a series of UN and other meetings being planned for the year. The first formal UN meet on climate to be held in Bonn in April before the MEF meeting is expected to be purely procedural in character but, as a reflection of the wide chasm that continues to separate developed countries from the rest, is bound to see friction. With the US having made it clear that it would not sign on an international deal until its domestic legislation on the subject is enacted, several key players are now looking at the 2011 end meet in South Africa at the earliest that a long term deal to contain global warming could be thrashed out. While the Copenhagen Accord was seen to have achieved a semblance of consensus, even though grudgingly, the differences between the US and the developing countries have also widened since the beginning of 2010. The US has suggested in its latest submission to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that while it doesn’t see the formal talks move forward it is keen to operationalise the six key elements of the Copenhagen Accord by the year end. In contrast, India and China have demanded that the Copenhagen Accord be merely a guiding document and that progress be made in resolving differences that remain embedded in the UN talks with the accord text as a backdrop at best.

and semi -precious stones of fine quality in large numbers from Pattanam indicated that beads manufacturing units existed in that area. Rajan Chedambath, Secretary of the Centre for Heritage Environment and Development of the Kochi Corporation, who was presenting a paper on the archaeology of the lower Periyar basin, said that habitational deposits in the lower Periyar basin indicated the existence of many significant archaeological sites there.

Many other sites in the area
Pattanam was one of the many such sites in the region. In areas such as Mathilakam, few kilometers north of the Periyar river, pottery of fine quality was found.

India Gets Russian N-sub for 10 years
India will soon have a nuclear-powered attack submarine prowling deep under the seas. Away from the spotlight on nuclear power reactors, aircraft carrier Admiral Goshkov and MiG-29Ks, India and Russia quietly firmed up the 10-year lease of the K-152 Nerpa sub– marine during Russian PM Vladimir Putin’s visit to India in the second week of March 2010. The lease flows from a secretive agreement inked between India and Russia in January 2004, with India funding part of Nerpa’s construction at Komsomolsk on Amur shipyard in Russia with an initial amount of $ 650 million. Nerpa was to be inducted in Indian Navy as INS Chakra by mid-2008 but technical glitches delayed the process. Then, just as it began its sea trials in November 2008, 20 sailors were killed on it due to a toxic gas leak. After repairs, Nerpa is fully operational now. India had also leased a ‘Charlie-I’ class Russian nuclear submarine from 1988 to 1991. That submarine, too, had been named INS Chakra but the expertise gained was steadily lost since India did not operate any other nuclear submarine thereafter. The over 12,000-tonne Nerpa in itself will, of course, not fulfil India’s long-cherished aim to have a credible nuclear weapon triad—the ability to fire nukes from land, air and sea. While Nerpa is nuclear-propelled, it will not come armed with its long-range nuclear-tipped missiles due to international treaties like the Missile Technology Control Regime. But it will contribute in other ways. For one, it will train Indian sailors in the fine art of operating nuclear submarines.

Pattanam, First Habitat Site Excavated in Kerala
Pattanam was the first habitat site excavated in Kerala. It was pointed out by P. J. Cherian, director of the Kerala Council for Historical Research. Mr. Cherian made this observation when he was speaking at a seminar on ‘Indian Ocean exchanges and significance of Pattanam archaeological research,’ organised by the Department of History of Maharaja’s College, Ernakuman on March 16, 2010. It was at Arrikkamedu, near Pondicherry that the remains of a habitat were found earlier. Pattanam means a town or a port city in at least a dozen Indian languages. Researchers are yet to locate the sites of the ancient ports of South India, including the ones in Kerala, Mr. Cherian said. The archaeological finds from Pattanam indicated 3,000 years of continuous history. The finding of beads

Katie Spotz, the Youngest to Cross Atlantic Alone
A 22 year-old American rower, Katie Spotz, completed a solo journey across the Atlantic Ocean on March


“Shoot for the moon. Even if you miss, you’ll land among the stars.”

14, 2010, touching a pier in the coffee-brown waters of Guyana to claim a record as the youngest person toaccomplish the feat. She spent more than two months alone at the sea. She set out from Dakar, Senegal on January 3, and endured rough seas during the 4,533 kilometre crossing. She was the first American to row a boat without help from mainland to mainland.

porary and modern artists such as Anjolie Ela Menon, Manjit Bawa and Arpana Kaur. The exhibition was inaugurated by Indian ambassador Ashok Sajjanhar along with Aidar Niyazov, Director of the Department of Culture of South Kazakhstan and Walikhan Bishimbayev, Rector of the South Kazakhstan University. As per records, this historical and civilizational links between India and Kazakhstan date back to 500 B.C. when members of the Saka tribes travelled to the north-east of India to establish powerful empires. In the contemporary period, India was one of the first countries to recognise Kazakhstan as an independent nation and its President Nursultan Nazarbayev chose India as the first foreign country to visit outside the CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States) region.

The Youngest to Cross Atlantic Alone

Katie Spotz, 22, in the harbou at Mentor Harbor Yachting Club, Ohio. Spotz completed a solo journey across the Atlantic on March 14 to claim a record as the youngest person to accomplish such a feat. ● ● After 70 days 5 hours 22 minutes in the Atlantic, Spotz, 22, arrived in Georgetown, Guyana, in South American. Her 2,817-mile journey raised more than $70,000 for the Blue Planet Run Foundation, which finances drinking water projects around the world. Spotz had packed enough food to last 110 days: half a million calories’ worth of mostly freeze-dried meals, granola and dried fruit. Her 19-foot yellow wooden rowboat was broadsided by 20-foot waves as she approached South America.

Exhibition of Contemporary Tribal Art from India Opens in Paris
‘Other Masters From India—Contemporary creations of the Adivasis,’ a stunning exhibition of contemporary tribal art from India opened on March 29, 2010 at the Quai Branly Museum in Paris, France. Conceived and curated by Jyotindra Jai, the former director of the Crafts Museum in New Delhi and one of India’s foremost historians and chroniclers of tribal art, this exhibition is not just a visual and aesthetic treat; it has been put together State Power Bared : A Snathal scroll, diligently and intel- depicting God of death Yama as wearing a policeman’s uniform, on ligently, taking the display at the exhibition of Indian viewer down the tribal art in the Quai Branly Museum, years, from the time Paris, on March 29, 2010. when tribal art was ritualistic and iconographical, confined to the walls of Adivasi homes, to the present when art has enabled contemporary artists to give voice to their existential predicaments, thus transforming their artistic space. The exhibition opened for public on March 30, 2010.

IGNOU Decentralizes Evaluation System
Indira Gandhi National Open University has decentralised evaluation of answer scripts of students at the five zonal centres in Chennai, Patna, Pune, Lucknow and Guwahati in addition to Delhi, according to Vice-Chancellor Prof. V. N. Rajasekharan Pillai. It was earlier centralised at IGNOU headquarters in New Delhi since its inception in 1985. Consequent to decentralisation, revaluation of answer scripts, photocopy of answer scripts and early declaration of results of term end examination would be handled at the respective evaluation centres.

Indian Paintings’ Exhibition in Kazakhstan
As part of its outreach effort in Central Asia India recently hosted an exhibition in Shymkent city of Kazakhstan of 29 digitally produced prints of well-known works of Indian artists representing human figure forms created over a span of more than a century. Starting with Jamini Roy, the exhibition also included the works of Amrita Shergil, M. F. Hussain, F. N. Souza and Krishen Khanna as well as some the more contem-

Marungur—17 km from Vadalur in Cuddalore district recently came into news when three potsherds with Tamil Brahmi inscriptions were discovered in an urn burial site there.

Curico is a town in Chile. Curico—the town—was founded in 1743 and is situated in a picturesque and wine producing areas. But recently this historic town was


“He that would have the fruit must climb the tree.”

flattened by powerful earthquake which hit Chile in last week of February 2010, shocking historians and ancient heritage lovers.

Dholi Dungri Village
Dholi Dungri Village is situated about 30 kilometre from Ahmedabad It recently came into news when the remains of a snake and dinosaur fossil and dinasaur eggs found there provided conclusive evidence that a particular species of snakes that lived above 67 million years ago, devoured sauropods.

Recently in Pune India’s first Open jail for women was inaugurated at the Yerawada Central Prison by Maharashtra Home Minister R. R. Patil.

1. Victoria and Abdul : The True Story of the Queen’s Close Confidant —By Shrabani Basu 2. The Maruti Story : How a Public Sector Company put India on Wheels —By R. C. Bhargava & Seetha, Harper Collins 3. Decolonisation of Legal Knowledge —Edited by Amita Dhanda, New Delhi 4. Agricultural Growth in India : Role of Technology Incentives and Institutions —By A. Vaidyanathan, Oxford University Press, New Delhi 5. Dominion from Sea to Sea : Pacific Ascendancy and American Power —By Bruce Cumings, Yale University Press U.S.A. 6. A Tale of Two Revolts—India 1857 and the American Civil War —By Rajmohan Gandhi, Penguin Books India, New Delhi 7. Into the Frame : The Four Loves of Ford Madox Brown —By Angela Thirlwell

National Days
May 11 National Technology Day

International Days
May May May 1 3 8 International Labour Day World Press Freedom Day World Red Cross Day World Telecommunication Day World Day for Cultural Diversity for Dialogue and Development International Day of United Nations Peace P.Darpan Keepers “We must become the change we want to see.”

May 17 May 21 May 29


Agricultural Scientists Recruitment Board; Agricultural Research Service and National Eligibility Exam 2010
Last Date (Receipt of Application Forms)—April 20, 2010. Prelim Exam Date—September 19, 2010. Main Exam Date—November 28, 2010. Educational Qualifications—A candidate must possess a Master’s degree or equivalent in the concerned subject with specialization. Age Limit—21 to 32 years. Selection Procedure—Prelim exam will have objective type questions consisting of General Knowledge derived from the relevant broad seven main groups of Agriculture and Allied Sciences as given in the syllabus. In Mains the test will be descriptive followed by Viva-Voce. How to Apply—The application should be filled as per the format given on the website of Indian Council of Agricultural Research—www. or on the website Agricultural Scientist Recruitment Board–www. See Employment News March 20–26, 2010 for more details. See Employment News March 20–26, 2010 for more details.

Recruitment in the Indian Navy
Last Date (Receipt of Application Forms)—April 19, 2010. Age Limit—20 to 26 years. Educational Qualifications— Matriculation Examination. Selection Procedure—The candidates will have to undergo the selection procedure as per the laid down norms and rules. How to Apply—As per the format given Employment News March 20–26, 2010. See Employment News March 20–26, 2010 for more details.

Recruitment in Indian Navy as Sailors (Sports Quota Entry 2/2010 Batch)
Last Date (Receipt of Application Forms)—April 23, 2010. Educational Qualifications— 10 + 2 qualified or equivalent examination. Age Limit—17 to 22 years. Selection Procedure—Deserving candidates would be called to appear for trials at designated naval centres. How to Apply—The Application is to be submitted on A-4 size paper as per the given format in Employment News March 20–26, 2010. See Employment News March 20–26, 2010 for more details.

Recruitment in Director of Audit Post and Telecommunications
Last Date (Receipt of Application Forms)—April 19, 2010. Total Vacancies—98. Educational Qualifications— 10th class pass. Age Limit—18 to 27 years. How to Apply—The candidate should use the format published in the Employment News March 20 to 26, 2010. See Employment News March 20–26, 2010 for more details.

UPSC–National Defence Academy and Naval Academy Examination 2010
Last Date (Receipt of Application Forms)—April 19, 2010. Total Vacancies—335 (195 for the Army, 39 for Navy, 66 for the Air Force and 35 for the Executive Branch of Naval Academy). Educational Qualifications— 12th class pass of the 10 + 2 pattern of School Education. Age Limit—21 to 28 years. Scheme and Syllabus of Exam— The exam will consist of Mathematics, General Ability. The papers in all the subjects will consist of Objective type questions only. The papers will be bilingual. How to Apply—The UPSC have developed an application form which can be obtained from the designated post offices throughout the country. See Employment News March 20–26, 2010 for more details.

Recruitment in Damodar Valley Corporation for Medical Officers
Last Date (Receipt of Application Forms)—April 19, 2010. Total Vacancies—12. Educational Qualifications— MBBS degree recognized by the Medical Council of India. Selection Procedure—Eligible candidates will undergo a selection if so required followed by Personal Interview. How to Apply—Candidates will have to apply as per the format given in DVC website

Recruitment in the Indian Navy as Pilots
Last Date (Receipt of Application Forms)—April 13, 2010. Educational Qualifications—A graduate degree in any discipline with minimum 65 per cent marks. Age Limit—19 to 23 years. How to Apply—Application Forms in accordance with the prescribed format as given in Employment March 20–26, 2010. Selection Procedure—Five days SSB interviews will be held. Stage I test consist of Intelligence Tests, Pic-


“A politician is known by the promises he keeps.”

ture Perception and Group Discussion, Test Stage II consists of Psychological Test, Group Task Tests and Interview Successful candidates, thereafter will undergo PABT (Pilot Aptitude Battery Test) followed by Aviation Medical Examination. See Employment News March 20–26, 2010 for more details.

How to Apply—As per the prescribed format given at the end of the advertisement.

Recruitment in High Court of Madhya Pradesh : Jabalpur Higher Judicial Service (Entry Level)
Last Date (Receipt of Application Forms)—April 26, 2010. Date of (Pre.) Exam—July 4, 2010. Date of (Mains) Exam—October 5, 2010. Total Vacancies—20. Eligibilit Conditions—He must have practised as an Advocate for not less than seven years as on 1-1-2010. Selection Procedure—The questions in the Pre. Examination will be on Law, English and General Knowledge while the Main Exam will have two papers. First paper shall relate to Constitution of India, Civil Procedure Code, Criminal Procedure Code, Indian Penal Code, Hindu Marriage Act, Hindu Succession Act, Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act, Transfer of Property Act, Contract Act, Specific Relief Act, M.P. Accommodation Control Act, Limitation Act, Evidence Act, M.P. Land Revenue Code etc. Second paper will be in two parts, the first part will contain factual data of a Civil Case and a Criminal Case. The Second part will contain a passage in Hindi to be translated into English and a passage in English to be translated into Hindi. Log onto the website of Madhya Pradesh High Court for more details.

Recruitment in Bank of Baroda for Clerical Staff
Last Date (Receipt of Application Forms)—April 17, 2010. Total Vacancies—2000. Educational Qualifications— 10 + 2 pass with 55 per cent marks of 10 + 2 + 3 pattern. Age Limit—18 to 28 years. How to Apply—Candidates are required to apply online through website No other means/mode of application will be accepted. Fee—Rs. 200. Selection Procedure—All eligible candidates will be called for a written test which will be of objective type, The objective test will consists of (i) Reasoning Ability (ii) Numerical Ability (iii) Clerical Aptitude (iv) English (v) Socio Economic Banking Awareness and Computer Awareness. Log onto www.bankofbaroda. com for more details.

Selection Procedure—The test for Probationary Officer will consist of Test of Reasoning, Quantitative Aptitude, General Awareness and English while for Probationary Clerks, the test will consist of Test of Reasoning, Numerical Ability, Clerical Aptitude and English. How to Apply—The eligible candidates are required to apply online through bank’s website www. Log onto for more details.

Recruitment in Life Insurance Corporation (LIC) of India for Apprentice Development Officers
Last Date (Receipt of Application Forms)—April 17, 2010. Total Vacancies—5578. Educational Qualifications— Bachelor’s degree of a university. Age Limit—21 to 30 years. Selection Procedure—Written Test will be of objective type consisting of test of Reasoning and Numerical Ability, General Knowledge, Current Affairs and English Language with special emphasis on Grammar and Vocabulary. Successful candidates in written test will be called for interview. How to Apply—Candidates are necessarily required to apply online through LIC’s website under the heading careers http://www.licindia. in/careers.html. No other means/ mode of applications will be accepted. Log onto http://www.licindia. in/careers.html. for more details.

Recruitment in Jharkhand Gramin Bank for Clerkcum-Cashier
Last Date (Receipt of Application Forms)—April 12, 2010. Total Vacancies—77. Educational Qualifications— A degree from any recognized university in any discipline or its equivalent. Age Limit—18 to 26 years. Selection Procedure—The written test will be objective type consisting of—Reasoning Ability, Quantitative Aptitude, General Awareness /Current Development and Test of English Language. The candidates who qualify in the written test will have to undergo interview.

Recruitment of Probationary Officers and Probationary Clerks in Canara Bank
Last Date (Receipt of Application Forms)—April 24, 2010. Total Vacancies—1500 (500 posts for Probationary Officers, 1000 for Probationary Clerks). Educational Qualifications— Graduation with First class for Probationary Officer while 10 + 2 with 60 per cent for Probationary Clerks.

Recruitment Corporation Bank for Probationary Officers
Last Date (Receipt of Application Forms)—April 15, 2010. Total Vacancies—13. Educational Qualifications— Graduation for Security Officer and graduation in Law for Law Officer. Age Limit—21 to 45 years for Security Officer and 21 to 30 years for Law Officer.


“Those who promise us paradise on earth never produced anything but a hell.”

Selection Procedure—The selection will be made on the basis of interview. How to Apply—Candidates are required to apply online through website No other means/mode of applications will be accepted. Log onto for more details.

How to Apply—As per the format given in Employment News March 13–19, 2010. See Employment News March 13–19, 2010 for more details.

Madhya Pradesh Lok Seva Aayog Recruitment of Taxation Assistants
Last Date (Receipt of Application Forms)—May 2, 2010. Total Vacancies—175. Educational Qualifications— Bachelor’s degree in Commerce. Age Limit—21 to 30 years. Selection Procedure—The selection will be made on the basis of written test followed by Interview. The written test will consist of two papers. First paper will have two parts—General Knowledge, Madhya Pradesh General Awareness and the second paper will be of Commerce. How to Apply—The application form can be filled through the website or www. mpsc.nic. in and Log onto or for more details.

Recruitment in Railway Recruitment Boards of India, Ministry of Railways
Last Date (Receipt of Application Forms)—April 26, 2010. Total Vacancies—160. Educational Qualifications— Degree in Engineering. How to Apply—Candidates may fill up application online as per the format as given in Employment News March 27 to April 2, 2010. Selection Procedure—The selection will be made on the basis of written examination. The questions will be of objective type with multiple answers pertaining to General Knowledge, General English/General Hindi, General Arithmetic/Analytical and Quantitative Skills. See Employment News March 27 to April 2, 2010 for more details.

Selection Procedure—All eligible candidates shall be invited for personal interview. Upper Age Limit—36 years for Dy Manager, 39 years for Managers. See Employment News March 27 to April 2, 2010 for more details.

Recruitment in Paravatiya Gramin Bank for Clerks and Cashiers
Last Date (Receipt of Application Forms)—April 17, 2010. Total Vacancies—27. Educational Qualifications— Bachelor’s Degree of a recognised university. Age Limit—18 to 26 years. Selection Procedure—The written test will be objective consisting of Reasoning, Quantitative Aptitude General Awareness for Officers Scale I and Reasoning Ability, Numerical Ability and Clerical Aptitude and English Language. How to Apply—As per the format given in Employment News March 27 to April 2, 2010. See Employment News March 27 to April 2, 2010 for more details.

Recruitment in Indian Ordnance Factories for Various Posts
Last Date (Receipt of Application Forms)—April 23, 2010. Total Vacancies—196. Age Limit—18 to 32 years. Educational 10th passed. Qualifications— Last Date (Receipt of Application Forms)—May 10, 2010. Total Vacancies—180. Educational Qualifications— Master’s Degree in concerned category. See Employment News March 27 to April 2, 2010 for more details.

Recruitment in Railway Recruitment Boards, Government of India, Ministry of Railways for Various Posts
Last Date (Receipt of Application Forms)—April 13, 2010. Total Vacancies—1200 approximately. Educational Qualifications— As per the requirement of the posts. Selection Procedure—The syllabus for the written examination will be generally in conformity with educational standards prescribed for the posts. The questions will be of objective type with multiple answers and likely to include questions pertaining to General Awareness, English/ General Hindi, General Arithmetic, Analytic and Quantitative Skills. The questions will be in English, Hindi and Urdu. There shall be negative marking in written examination.

Selection Procedure—Candidates where applications are found complete will be called for a trade test in the trade in which a candidate has obtained NCTVT or ITI or equivalent Diploma Certificate. See Employment News March 27 to April 2, 2010 for more details.

Recruitment of Male Constables in Indian Reserve Battalion
Last Date (Receipt of Application Forms)—April 21, 2010. Total Vacancies—675. Selection Procedure—There will be Physical Fitness Test and I.Q. Test (Consisting of General Knowledge, Current Events, Reasoning and Aptitude) followed by Interview. How to Apply—All eligible candidates may submit their application forms as per the prescribed format.

Recruitment in Engineering Professionals in BHEL
Last Date (Receipt of Application Forms)—April 22, 2010. Total Vacancies—146. Educational Qualifications— B.E./B.Tech. or equivalent qualification.


“Peace cannot be kept by force; it can only be achieved by understanding.”

Recruitment in the Office of the Deputy Inspector General of Police
Last Date (Receipt of Application Forms)—May 18, 2010. Total Vacancies—1200. Educational Qualifications— 10 + 2. Age Limit—18 to 23 years. Selection Procedure—There will be Physical Efficiency Test (PET), Physical Measurement Test (PMT) and Written Test.

How to Apply—Only online applications will be accepted. See Employment News April 3–9, 2010 for more details.

Recruitment in United India Insurance Company Limited for Administrative Officers
Last Date (Receipt of Application Forms)—April 19, 2010. Date of Written Exam—June 6, 2010.

Selection Procedure—Objective type Test will consist of—Test of Reasoning, English Language, General Awareness and Professional Knowledge and Numerical Ability/ Data Interpretation. Descriptive test in English shall be Descriptive paper comprising Essay, Precis, Comprehension etc. How to Apply—Application should be sent in the prescribed format only. Log onto for P.Darpan more details.

I.I.T. Joint Entrance Exam., 2010 (April 11) U.P. State Entrance Test, 2010 for Engg. (April 17–18) Rajasthan M. Ed. Entrance Exam. (April 18) State Bank of India Probationary Officers and Probationary Officers (Rural Business) Exam. (April 18) U.P.S.C. National Defence Academy Exam. (I), 2010 (April 18) All India Engineering Entrance Exam., 2010 (April 24) Bihar Para Medical-Dental and Para Medical (Intermediate) Exam. (April 24) M.P. General Nursing Selection Test and PreNursing Selection Test, 2010 (April 25) (Online Closing Date : 10 April, 2010) Delhi Subordinate Services Selection Board TGT Exam. (For English, Hindi and Sanskrit) (April 25) Bihar Polytechnic Combined Entrance Exam. (April 25) Rajasthan Pre-Teacher Education Test (PTET), 2010 (April 25) PNB Housing Finance Limited Management Trainees Exam. (April 25) Uttar Pradesh P.C.S. (Pre.) Exam., 2010 (May 2) A.F.M.C. Pune M.B.B.S. Courses Entrance Exam. (May 2) Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test, 2010 (By the M.S. University of Baroda) (May 2) Rajasthan B.S.T.C. (General)/B.S.T.C. (Sanskrit) Entrance Exam., 2010 (May 2) Chhattisgarh Pre-Polytechnic Test (May 2) Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya Entrance Exam., 2010-11 (For IX Class) (May 2) (Closing Date : 15 April, 2010) M.P. P.E. P.T./P.A.T. (Engineering, Pharmacy, Agriculture Courses) Exam., 2010. (May 2-3) U.P. Polytechnic Joint Entrance Test, 2010 (May 2-4) Uttar Pradesh B.Ed. Joint Entrance Test, 2010 (May 5) All India Pre-Veterinary Test, 2010 (May 8) Delhi Subordinate Services Selection Board TGT Exam. (For Maths, Natural Science, Social Science, Drawing Teacher & Physical Education Teacher) (May 9) Madhya Pradesh PSC State Services Exam., 2009 (May 9) Common Law Admission Test (CLAT), 2010 (May 9) Oriental Insurance Company Scale-I Administrative Officers Exam. (May 9) Corporation Bank P.O. Exam. (May 9) Chhattisgarh Pre-Medical Test (May 9) Chhattisgarh Pre-Engineering Test (May 12) Delhi Transport Corporation Driver Recruitment Exam. (May 14 & 21) Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan Pre-Shikshashastri (B. Ed. Entrance) Test (May 15) C.B.S.E. Pre-Medical and Pre-Dental (Mains) Exam., 2010 (May 16) Punjab and Sindh Bank P.O. Exam., 2010 (May 16) SSC Combined Graduate Level Exam., 2010 (Tier-I) (May 16) Delhi Subordinate Services Selection Board Primary Teacher, Asstt. Teacher (Primary) Exam. (May 16&23) Sarva U.P. Gramin Bank Officers Scale-I Exam. (May 16) Chhattisgarh Pre-B. Ed. & D. Ed. Exam. (May 20) U.P. Combined Pre-Medical Test, 2010 (May 21) M.P. P.M.T., 2010 (May 23) UPSC Civil Services Pre. Exam., 2010 (May 23) Punjab and Sindh Bank Clerical Cadre Exam., 2010 (May 23) Sarva U.P. Gramin Bank Clerk-cum-Cashier/Office Assistant Exam. (May 23) Syndicate Bank Specialist Officers 2010–11 Exam. (May 23) (Closing Date : 10 April, 2010) Common Pre-Medical Entrance Exam., 2010 for Private Medical & Dental Colleges of Uttarakhand (May 29) Bank of Baroda P.O. Exam. (May 30) (Online Closing Date : 10 April, 2010) Uttarakhand Joint Entrance Exam. Polytechnics, 2010 (May 30-31 & June 1) Raj. PSC Accountant, Junior Accountant & TRA (Direct Recruitment) Exam., 2008 (May 31) Orissa PSC Civil Judge Preliminary Exam. (May) Bank of Baroda Clerical Cadre Exam. (June 6) (Online Closing Date : 17 April, 2010) LIC Apprentice Development Officers Exam. (June 13) (Online Closing Date : 17 April, 2010) Jharkhand Gramin Bank Officers Scale-I Exam. (June 13) (Closing Date : 12 April, 2010) Common Proficiency Test (CPT) June-2010 for C.A. Entrance (June 20) Joint CSIR-UGC Test for JRF and Eligibility for Lectureship, June-2010 (June 20) Jharkhand Gramin Bank Clerk-cum-Cashier Exam. (June 20) (Closing Date : 12 April, 2010) M.P. Higher Judicial Service Preliminary Exam. (July 4) (Closing Date : 26 April, 2010) Canara Bank Probationary Officers Exam. (July 4) (Online Closing Date : 24 April, 2010) Rajasthan PSC School-Lecturer (School Education) Exam. 2008 (Hindi & Sanskrit) (July 11) Canara Bank Probationary Clerks Recruitment Exam. (July 18) (Online Closing Date : 24 April, 2010) U.P.S.C. National Defence Academy Exam. (II), 2010 (Aug. 22) (Closing Date : 19 April, 2010)


RBI Suddenly Raises Repo and Reverse Repo Rates
Due to continuous rise in inflation rate it was expected that RBI will raise key rates in its Annual Policy Review due in April 2010. But Reserve Bank of India in its surprised move all of sudden raised repo rate and reverse repo rate each by 25 basis points marking a reversal of its easy monetary policy regime to put a check on ever-rising wholesale price-based inflation. RBI in its announcement of March 19, 2010 says that the repo rate (i.e. the rate at which banks borrow from RBI for the short period) is being increased 25 basis points to 5·0 per cent and the reverse repo rate (i.e. the rate at which surplus cash of banks is parked with the central bank) has also been increased to 3·5 per cent from 3·25 per cent with immediate effect.

touched 9·89 per cent in February 2010 and is projected to touch double digits next month. This move is expected to put a check on inflationary pressure in the economy. RBI while announcing the increase in repo and reverse repo, also extended the view of continuing the process to monitor macro economic conditions, particularly the price situation and take further action as warranted.

Inflation becomes 9·89 per cent in February ’10
The inflation rate in February 2010 has been estimated at 9·89 per cent which is about two-digit mark. This is the highest rate in last 16 months which has been driven mainly by rising prices of essential food items and the increase in excise duty on fuel announced in the Budget 2010-11. The wholesale price based inflation shot up 1·34 percentage points in February over 8·56 per cent the previous month. According to the Chief Statistician Pronab Sen, the inflation rate has already surpassed the RBI’s year-end projection of 8·5 per cent in January 2010 and ‘could cross the double-digit

mark in March 2010.’ The inflation rate for food items was at 17·70 per cent in February 2010 while for manufacturing it was at 7·42 per cent. It is also worthnoting that among food items, prices of sugar, pulses and potatoes increased by 55 per cent, 36 per cent and 30 per cent respectively during the year. The fuel price index shot up by over 10 per cent, mainly on account of higher prices of petrol and diesel. With inflation slowly spreading from food items to other areas, Reserve Bank of India all of sudden raised repo rate and reverse repo rate each by 25 basis points and extended a signal of the reversal of its easy monetary policy regime to anchor inflation and inflationary expectations. RBI’s Annual Policy for 201011 is due in April 2010 which again may raise key rates to tighten money supply for arresting the continuously rising inflation rate.

RBI’s Rates : At a Glance
(Status as Announced on March 19, 2010)
● Bank Rate 6·0 per cent (w.e.f. April 30, 2003) ● Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) 5·75 per cent (w.e.f. February 27, 2010) ● Repo Rate 5·0 per cent (w.e.f. March 19, 2010) ● Reverse Repo Rate 3·5 per cent (w.e.f. March 19, 2010) ● Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR) 24 per cent (w.e.f. November 3, 2008)

Mukesh Ambani, Chief of Reliance Industries, has retained the title of being the world’s richest

This is the second action since January 2010 when RBI announced a 75-basis points rise in cash reserve ratio (CRR) to 5·75 per cent. But unlike CRR, which is used to manage liquidity in the system, the increase in the repo and reverse repo rates is aimed at signalling an increase in interest rates. The latest move of raising repo and reverse repo rates comes against the backdrop of rising inflation which


“Maturity is achieved when a person accepts life as full of tension.”

It can be recalled that following the collapse of the US-based investment bank Lehmann Brothers in October 2008, investors across the world field debt markets on the back of default fears. This resulted in FII investment in Indian debt falling to $ 480 million from $ 3·14 billion in 2007-08. Regarding FII’s investment, it is worthnoting that FIIs can invest in equities without any approval but they have to seek permission from the regulator every time they buy government or corporate bonds. Besides, the government has set a ceiling of $ 5 billion for investment in government securities and treasury bills, while the limit for corporate bonds is capped at $ 15 billion. Indian for the second consecutive year with a net worth of $ 29 billion in the Forbes’ list of wealthiest people on the earth. Mukesh has been ranked fourth in the global list while the Forbes’ list has been topped by Mexican billionaire Carlos Slim ($ 53·5 billion), up from the seventh spot in 2009. Mukesh is followed by steel king Lakshmi Mittal, who ranks fifth on the global list with a fortune of $ 28·7 billion. Wipro Chairman Azim Premji, the next Indian on the list, is far below at the 28th place with a networth of $ 17 billion. Anil Ambani, who was ranked at the 34th position in 2009, slipped two positions below to the 36th spot despite an increase of $ 3·6 billion in his networth at $ 13·7 billion. Shashi and Ravi Ruia, the promoters of the Essar Group, were ranked at the 40th position, up from 86th last year, with a net worth of $ 13 billion. The cumulative wealth of Indian billionaires has jumped by $ 118·9 billion and now stands at about $ 227·9 billion. 50 Indian billionaires find place in Forbes’ list of world billionaires. Forbes’ list 2010 include 1011 billionaires as against 793 of 2009 list. The league of 10 richest persons in the world now includes just two Indians—Mukesh Ambani and Lakshmi Mittal. Nine positions among top 100 from across the world are occupied by Indians, which include Mukesh Ambani (4th; $ 29 billion), Lakshmi Mittal (5th; $ 28·7 billion), Azim Premji (28th; $ 17 billion), Anil Ambani (36th; $ 13·7 billion); Shashi and Ravi Ruia (40th; $ 13 billion), Savitri Jindal (44th; $ 12·2 billion), K.P. Singh (74th; $ 9 billion), Kumar Birla (86th; $ 7·9 billion) and Sunil Mittal (87th; $ 7·8 billion). The list is dominated by Americans, two of whom have been ranked at the second and third positions— Bill Gates and legendary investor Warren Buffett.

Centre to Reserve 20 per cent Govt. Purchases for MSME Sector
The union government has come forward to support Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs). In a major attempt to boost to the domestic MSMEs, the centre has decided to reserve 20 per cent of all government purchases for the sector. In a meeting with MSME chamber Indian Industries Association (IIA) on the development of Khadi and village industry and the MSME Sector, an official authority disclosed this decision of 20 per cent purchase reservation for MSME Sector. It is worthnoting that the MSME Task Force was constituted by the Prime Minister in August 2009 for the growth of MSME Sector, especially in the backdrop of economic slowdown. The reservation of 20 per cent government purchases for MSMEs was one of the major recommendation of the Task Force. The several pro-MSME recommendations of the Task Force, if implemented, would be rolled out providing easy credit and market support to the beleaguered sector recovering from the aftermath of the slowdown. The Centre is supposed to constitute a high-level council to monitor the implementation of the recommendations of the task force and agenda for action. Besides, the government has raised the allocation for the sector from Rs. 1,794 crore to Rs. 2,400 crore for 2010-11.

FII’s Debt Investments Grow 12 Fold in 2009-10
According to the data released by Securities and Exchange Board (SEBI), foreign institutional investors (FIIs) have pumped in a record $ 6·04 billion (Rs. 27784 crore) in corporate and government papers in the financial year 2009-10 (till March 10, 2010). This is a 12-fold rise over their investment of $ 480 million (Rs. 2208 crore) in 2008-09. SEBI data show that FIIs have cumulatively invested $ 11·24 billion in Indian debt market since November 1992. This includes investment in both government and corporate bonds. Besides, from November 1992, FIIs have invested $ 76·1 billion in equities upto March 10, 2010.


“Maturity is achieved when a person postpones immediate pleasures for long-term values.”

Besides, the central government has signed a loan agreement for $ 150 million with the Asian Development Bank (ADB) for implementing the comprehensive Khadi Reforms Programme to cover 300 Khadi institutions. The corpus of Micro Finance Development and Equity Fund has also been doubled to Rs. 400 crore in 2010-11. It is also worthnoting that MSMEs contribute 8 per cent to India’s GDP, 45 per cent of manufactured output and 40 per cent of exports. They also provide employment to about 60 million people through 26 million enterprises.

around Rs. 23,500 crore in upgrading their refineries to meet the demand for cleaner fuel. The price hike has been proposed to help them partly recoup their costs.

Two Indian Women on Forbes’ List of World’s Billionaires
Two Indian women including Savitri Jindal and Indu Jain have been named among the list of world’s top billionaires compiled by the US magazine Forbes. Jindal with a net worth of $ 12·2 billion has been ranked 44th in the global list, while Bennett, Coleman & Co’s Chairperson Indu Jain with $ 2·8 billion comes at 354th rank in the Forbes’ list. Jindal, the non-executive chairperson of, steel and power conglomerate O. P. Jindal Group, is the fifth richest woman in the world. Retail chain major Wal-Mart’s Christy Walton is world’s richest woman with a net worth of $ 22·5 billion, placed 12th in the overall list. Walmart’s Alice Walton follows as the second richest women in the list with a networth of $ 20·6 billion at the 16th place. Walton is followed by L’Oreal heiress Liliane Bettencourt (with networth of $ 20 billion), Swedish packaging giant Tetra Laval’s Birgit Rausing & family ($ 13 billion), and Savitri Jindal ($ 12·2 billion).

10000 km State Highways to Turn National Highway
The EGoM (Empowered Group of Ministers) has given an in-principal approval to convert 10000 kms of state highways into national highways. With this approval, around 10000 km of more roads across the country will come under the jurisdiction of the central government. The existing national highways (NH) are only 2 per cent of 3·3 million km of roads in the country. The conversion of state highways will increase the length of the national highways by around 15 per cent to 80548 km from 70548 km. The country’s existing national highways network includes 200 km of expressways, 10000 km of four lane highways and the rest two-lane highways. About 27 per cent of the total length of national highways is single lane/intermediate lane, about 54 per cent is two-lane standard and the balance 19 per cent is four-lane standard or more. In 2009-10, as against the stipulated target of developing about 3165 km length of national highways under various phases of NHDP (National Highways Development Projects). The achievement upto November 2009 has been about 1490 km. Against the target of awarding projects for a total length of about 9800 km under various phases of the NHDP during 2009-10, projects have been awarded for a total length of about 1285 km upto November 2009.

13 Big Cities Switch to Euro-IV Fuel
Petrol and diesel prices in 13 major cities have been set to go up with the petroleum ministry has permitted oil companies to charge a marginal higher price for Euro-IV compliant fuels. This has resulted a second price hike in fuels for consumers in less than two months. The prices of petrol and diesel have gone up by Rs. 0·50 and Rs. 0·26 per litre respectively, w.e.f. April 1, 2010 in 13 big cities that switch to Euro-IV grade fuel. Petroleum retailers in Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata, Bangalore, Hyderabad and Ahmedabad, among other cities have started supplying Euro-IV auto fuel from April 1, 2010. The rest of the country will switch from Euro-II specification fuel to Euro-III in phases beginning with Goa from tomorrow. Sale of Euro-III grade will be phased over the next 5-6 months. Euro-III petrol will cost Rs. 0·26 a litre more and same grade diesel Rs. 0·21 a litre. Euro-IV and Euro-III petrol and diesel are superior fuels and the oil refineries have made huge capital investments, besides incurring higher operating costs, in production of these fuels. The introduction of cleaner auto fuel is aimed at reducing environmentally harmful emission of pollutants like sulphur and benzene. State-owned oil retailers like Indian Oil Corporation, Bharat Petroleum Corporation and Hindustan Petroleum Corporation are investing

Of the 70 blocks offered in NELP– VIII, only 36 attracted bids, with ONGC and partners bidding for a maximum of 25. State owned ONGC and its partners won 17 areas. Among the 24 deep-water blocks that the government had put on offer, only eight received bids, all of which were single bids. ONGC and partners bagged seven, while Cairn Energy Plc of UK was the winner of the other such block. Of the 28 shallow-water blocks on offer, 13 received bids. BHP Billiton Petroleum won three, while ONGC got five of these as the lead partner and one where Oil India was the operator. Cairn Energy got a K-G basin offshore block. As regards 18 onland blocks offered, bids were received for 15, four of which went to ONGC. Other winners include Jubilant, Oil India, NTPC and Esveegee Steel. CCEA, acting on the recommendation of an Empowered Committee of Secretaries (ECS) that screened the bids, rejected Deep Energy’s offer for onland blocks in view of ‘very low percentage share of profit to the government.’

ONGC and Partners Bag 17 Blocks Under NELP–VIII
Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) and its partners have captured more than half of the oil and gas blocks awarded to successful bidders of the eighth round of anction under the New Exploration Licensing Policy (NELP–VIII). The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) approved the award of 33 out of the 36 exploration areas that were bid in NELP–VIII which closed on October 12, 2009.


“Maturity is the ability to reap without apology and not complain when things don’t go well.”

sector was only $ 217 billion. At the beginning of the 11th plan, the investment in infrastructure was targeted and projected at $ 514 billion. The initial scenario of infrastructure investment was felt far behind the target of $ 514 billion and the actual investment was estimated not to exceed $ 300–350 billion. But for the last two years the allocation for infrastructure sector put the rail well on the track which make confident of achieving the target. The infrastructure investment covers 10 infrastructure sectors, including telecom, railways, irrigation, water supply ports, electricity, airports, roads, storage and gas. As per official sources of the Planning Commission, the shortfall in infrastructure, investment if any, during the 11th plan would not be more than 10 per cent and the actual investment is expected to remain between $ 450 billion and $ 500 billion.

Consolidated FDI Policy Framework Released
The Government on March 31, 2010 released the consolidated FDI policy framework for making country’s Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) norms investor-friendly. While releasing the final document—‘Press Note 2010’, the Commerce Ministry expressed the view that the new consolidated FDI policy framework seeks to subsume all the existing 177 Press Notes and will be reviewed after every six month. The draft FDI policy was released on December 24, 2009 for stakeholder’s consultations. As per official announcement, this consolidated Press Note would be superseded by the Press Note scheduled to be issued on September 30, 2010. On consolidated FDI framework issue, Commerce Ministry also opened the view that there were a number of issues related to the FDI policy that are currently under discussion in the government, such as foreign investment in Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs), policy on issuance of partly paid shares, rescinding Schedule IV of FEMA, clarifications on issues related to Press Notes 2, 3 and 4 of 2009 and on Press Note 2 of 2005. Government is supposed to take earlier decision on these issues which will subsequently be incorporated into the consolidated Press Note.

Infrastructure Investment may Meet 11th Plan Target
During the Tenth Plan (2002-07), the total investment in infrastructure

It is a satisfactory stage because even at $ 450 billion, this investment would be double the $ 217 billion invested in infrastructure in the 10th plan.

Infrastructuring Investment
(Projected investment in $ billion)

Break up of 11th Plan Infrastructure Investment Target of $ 514 billion


“Age is a very high price to pay for maturity.”

Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw and Anu Aga of Thermex got the leading place in the list. The Essar Group has finalised the dealing to buy Trinity Coal, one of the top 10 coal producers in the US, in a deal worth $ 550– 600 million (Rs. 2,500–2,735 crore). Trinity is owned by private equity investment firm Denham Capital Management. This is Essar’s first major coal mine acquisition abroad which would provide coking coal and thermal coal linkages for its steel mills in the US and for a power project under construction in India. Trinity has mines in Kentucky and West Virginia in the US, with reserves of 200 million tonne and an annual output of about 7 million tonne. Essar has a steel plant at Algoma in Canada, which was acquired in 2007 for $ 1·63 billion. It also has a steel mill in Minnesota in the US. Essar is expanding capacity at Minnesota Steel in two phases, with a 4·1 million tonnes per annum (mtpa) pellet plant and another 1 · 5 mtpa steel plant, which is expected to the completed by 2012 and 2015 respectively. As per official sources, Essar is also planning to expand capacity of Algoma Steel to 5 mtpa from 4 mtpa. Essar Power, which is implementing close to 4,650 Mw of power projects, has a 1200 Mw power project coming up in Gujarat which is dependent on imported coal. It is setting up a Rs. 4,800 crore power project at Salaya near Jamnagar in Gujarat and the imported coal based project is slated for completion by 2011. It is worthnoting that major power producers (Total Power Reliance Power, GMR Energy) are scouting for power plants abroad, mainly in Indonesia, South Africa, Australia and even in the distant US market. The two others making it to the business magazine’s ‘48 Heroes of Philanthropy’ list are Kiran Nadar, collector of contemporary Indian arts

(ONGC), has made two significant oil discoveries with a combined potential of 185 million barrels in a block in north eastern Syria. As per official sources of ONGC, OVL and its partner IPR Mediterranean Exploration Ltd discovered the Rashid and Abu Khashab oilfields in Block-24, Rashid-1 well, has been drilled upto 1,739 metres and tested oil at the rate of 1,343 barrels per day (bpd). The second discovery well Abu Khashab-1 penetrated Jeribe formation of Miocene age at 950 metre and tested oil with a rate of 900 bpd. The third well Abu Khashab-2 was drilled to deeper horizons Dibbane and Chilou, where oil was found. The two discoveries made by ONGC and its partner are expected to hold about 185 million barrels of oil in place. Plan for development has been submitted for both Rashid and Abu Khashab fields. Block-24, for which a concession agreement was signed in 2004, is spread over 1,927 sq km. OVL holds 60 per cent interest in it, while the remaining 40 per cent is with IPR. It is worthnoting that OVL has several producing and exploration assets in hydrocarbon-rich Africa and is looking at more acquisitions in the continent. OVL currently has 11 oil and gas projects in African nations like Sudan, Nigeria and Egypt.

Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw

Anu Aga

and wife of HCL Technologies Cofounder Shiv Nadar, and Rohini Nilekani—wife of IT major Infosys’ Co-founder Nandan Nilekani. Nilekani, who supports many NGO activities, has featured in the list for the second consecutive year. The names in the Forbes’ list are selected on the basis of their contribution to causes like disaster relief, education, health, culture and sciences. Last year, the list included telecom czar Sunil Mittal, NRI businessman Anil Agarwal and HCL Technologies Chairman Shiv Nadar. The list features 48 individuals, four each from India, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, Australia and Japan. Forbes said one of the high-profile givers this year are Andrew Forrest of Australia. Besides, Hollywood actor Jackie Chan has donated $ 730,000 to the United Nations and the families of eight Chinese peace-makers who died in Haiti earthquake. Among others on the list are Rupert Murdoch’s mother Dame Elisabeth Murdoch, Chen Shu-Chu, a vegetable vendor from Taiwan, Peter Gautschi of Hong Kong, Ruby Khong of Malaysia, and Japan’s Soichiro Fukutake.

46 per cent Plan Allocation for Infrastructure in Budget 2010-11
UPA’s government has adopted ‘Rural Development’ and ‘Infrastructure’ as its thrust areas. The steep rise in allocations for infrastructure in recent years confirms the UPA government’s viewpoint of making Indian infrastructure stronger. There has been a record increase of Rs. 0·87 lakh crore for infra sector from Rs. 0·86 lakh crore in 2007-08 (the first and beginning year of 11th plan) to Rs. 1·73 lakh crore in 2010-11 budget. The total size of Union Budget 201011 is Rs. 11·09 lakh crore. The infrastructure allocation is thus 16 per cent of the Union Budget.

Forbes’ Top Philanthropists from India are all Women
In the list of Forbes’, containing Asia Pacific’s Philanthropists, four Indians have been included and all these four Indian Philanthropists are women. Biotech major Biocon’s CEO

OVL Makes Two Oil Discoveries in Syria
ONGC Videsh Ltd. (OVL), the overseas arm of state-owned explorer Oil and Natural Gas Corporation


“I don’t know whether it’s age or maturity, but I certainly find myself.”

Allocations for Infra in Union Budget
Year 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 Infrastructure allocations (Rs. lakh crore) 0·34 0·36 0·54 0·60 0·70 0·81 0·86 0·97 1·55 1·73 As per cent of Plan allocation 33·9 31·8 44·9 41·5 48·6 46·9 41·9 39·8 47·7 46·5

puts annual requirement at Rs. 4·5 lakh crore. Union Budget 2010-11 subscribe Rs. 1·73 lakh crore or roughly 38 per cent of the annual requirement. This allocation seems to complete the target as 30 per cent will come from Public-Private Partnership (PPP) and the remaining 32 per cent from states and off-budget resources.

interest will have an impact on 47·1 million depositors. Despite the demand of unions for raising PF interest rate to 9·5 per cent, FIC has firmed up its view to maintain 8·5 per cent interest rate on deposits for 2010-11. As per EPFO’s official sources, this decision will leave a surplus of Rs. 15·26 crore. It is also important to recall here that the retirement fund manager maintained an interest rate of 9·5 per cent for three consecutive financial years, during 2002-05. Prior to that, EPFO provided a return of 11·25 per cent for 2001-02. EPFO maintained the highest rate of return of 12 per cent for more than a decade during 1989-90 to 1999-2000.

8·5 per cent Interest on PF Deposits for 2010-11
The Finance and Investment Committee (FIC) which is the key advisory body of the retirement fund manager Employee’s Provident Fund Organisation (EPFO), has recommended an 8·5 per cent interest on provident fund (PF) deposits for the year 2010-11. It is worthnoting that this 8·5 per cent interest on PF deposits is being given to the subscribes for the last five years. This recommendation of FIC will now be placed before the Central Board of Trustees (CBT), the apex body of EPFO, for the final approval. As FIC recommendations are usually accepted by CBT, it is implied that 8·5 per cent provident fund deposit

In Union Budget size Rs. 3·73 lakh crore and Rs. 7·36 lakh crore have been allocated for plan expenditure and non-plan expenditure respectively. Infrastructure development falls into the plan expenditure category. Of Rs. 3·73 lakh crore of plan expenditure, the infrastructure allocation is Rs. 1·73 lakh crore which is the 46 per cent of the total plan allocation. It is worthnoting that for 11th plan, nation needs Rs. 22·5 lakh crore (i.e. $ 500 billion) which on an average

India Possesses Demographic Advantage Among BRIC Nations
A German research agency, DB Research in its study reveals that India is likely to see a much favourable demographic trend in the next three decades among BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) nations. According to the study, a growing young population and the resultant changes in the savings and investment patterns would be advantageous for the country’s economy growing forward. Study says that Brazil and India are demographically in a substantially more favourable position than China and Russia. India by contrast will enjoy a very favourable demographic momentum for another three decades. This demographic advantage will impact not only India’s economic growth prospects but also savings and investment behaviour. Report quoted UN projections and presents the view that in terms of the demographic transition model, India is at the beginning of three stages (declining fertility and population growth), Brazil and China are at stage four (low mortality and fertility and population trending towards stability) while Russia is already at stage fire (sub-replaced-rate fertility and declining population). The working age group population in India is expected to rise by 240 million over the next two decades in India.

Outlays for Infra under Plans Expenditure
(Rs. crore) 2007-08 Central Plan Outlay (Budget Support) on Infrastructure (including others) Ministry of Civil Aviation Ministry of Communication and IT Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation Ministry of Power Ministry of Road Transport and Highways Department of Rural Development Department of Drinking Water Supply Ministry of Urban Development Railways Central Assistance for States and UTs on Infrastructure (including others) MPs Local Area Development Scheme Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme and other water source programmes Roads and Bridges Backward Region Grant Fund JNNURM Annual capital allowance for other projects Total spending on infrastructure 66,991 200 2,115 500 5,483 12,499 27,500 7,560 2,300 6,886 19,010 1,580 2008-09 74,760 190 2,655 850 6,000 13,450 31,500 8,500 2,500 7,100 22,084 1,580 2009-10 1,20,946 190 3,581 850 9,230 15,450 62,670 9,200 3,060 14,600 34,187 1,580 2010-11 1,37,485 2,000 5,320 1,000 10,630 18,000 66,100 10,580 5,400 15,875 36,069 1,580

3,580 1,512 5,800 4,988 0 86,000

5,550 1,606 5,800 6,248 0 96,844

9,700 1,989 5,800 11,619 1,550 1,55,133

11,500 1,819 7,300 11,619 1,000 1,73,554


“I live in that so litude which is painful in youth, but delicious in the years of maturity.”

core sectors have a weight of 26·68 per cent in the country’s industrial output. It is also worthnoting that six core infrastructure industries grew by a healthy 4·5% in Feb. 2010 against a meagre 1·9% in the same period a year ago. ● Export credit shows declining trend—Economic Survey 2009-10 shows that due to the global financial crisis, India’s export credit as a percentage of net banking credit has shown a declining trend which in turn has impacted the country’s trade. Export credit as a percentage of net banking credit fell from 5·5 per cent as on March 28, 2008 to 4·6 per cent as on March 27, 2009 and further to 4·1 per cent as on January 15, 2010. The outstanding export credit as on March 28, 2008 was Rs. 129983 crore, showing a growth of 23·9 per cent over the previous year but on March 27, 2009 it fell down to Rs. 128940 crore with a fall of 0·8 per cent from the previous year. On January 15, 2010 it again declined to Rs. 124360 crore showing a decline of 73·6 per cent as compared to March 2009 figure. ● Food inflation touches 4-month low of 16·2 per cent—After a long wait, due to cheaper vegetables and pulses, food inflation has been pulled down to fourmonth low of 16·2 per cent in the week ended on March 13, 2009 primarily due to fall in prices of cereals and onions. The rate of food inflation stood at 16·3% for the previous week and at 7·46% during the corresponding period of 2009. It is important to recall that yearon-year inflation in the composite food index (with a weight of 25·4 per cent) at 19·8 per cent in December 2009 was significantly higher than 8·6 per cent last year. In respect of food articles, inflation on year-on-year basis in December 2010 was 19·2 per cent. In December 2009 nearly 67 per cent of the overall WPI inflation could be attributed to food items, followed by 12 per cent in the fuel

Report suggests that policy encouraging urbanisation or greater labour participation would help in reducing the negative demographic impact on per capita growth in the economy.

News in a Nutshell
● Coal India to divest 10 per cent stake by August 2010—The government is considering the proposal to divest its 10 per cent stake in the country’s largest coal producer Coal India Ltd. by August 2010. This fact was revealed by Coal India Ltd. Chairman Partha S. Bhattacharya. At present, the government holds 100 per cent stake in this Public Sector Undertaking (PSU) and plans to off load 10 per cent equity through the IPO which will offer 631·6 million shares. The draft red herring prospectus (DRHP) for the issue is likely to be filed with the SEBI (i.e. Securities and Exchange Board of India) by June 2010. It is also worthnoting that the Coal Ministry had also given an indication that the process of divesting upto 15 per cent stake ●

in CIL was already on and the initial public offer (IPO) was likely to appear in the market within six months. Taking forward the proposed disinvestment plan, capital market regulator SEBI has already allowed Coal India Ltd. to offer shares to its 400000 employees, including that of its seven subsidiaries. Core industries show better performance—Six core industries— coal, electricity, finished steel, cement, crude oil and petroleum refining products have registed 5·3% growth during AprilFebruary 2009-10 against 2·9% in the same period of 2008-09. These

Performance of Core Industries
(Base year 1993-94)
Industry Coal Electricity Finished steel Cement Crude oil Petroleum Product Refining Feb. 2009 6·0 0·6 2·4 8·3 – 6·2 0·5 1·9 Feb. 2010 6·8 7·3 0·9 5·8 4·0 0·8 4·5

All Core Industries


“Maturity of mind is the capacity to endure uncertainty.”

and power commodity group and the remaining 21 per cent in manufactured non-food and primary non-food articles. Among food items, the major contributors to inflation were milk (20 per cent), eggs, meat and fish (over 20 per cent), rice (about 10 per cent), wheat (6 per cent), pulses (about 9 per cent), potatoes (9 per cent) and tomatoes (6 per cent).

Implicit Deflator
The implicit deflator for GDP at market prices (defined as the ratio of GDP at current prices to GDP at constant prices) is the most comprehensive measure of inflation on annual basis. Unlike the wholesale price index (WPI), the GDP deflator also covers prices in the services sector which now accounts over 55 per cent of the GDP. Overall inflation, as measured by the aggregate deflator for GDP MP, increased from 4·7 per cent in 2005-06 to 5·6 per cent in 2006-07 and then declined to 5·3 per cent in 2007-08, before rising again to 7·2 per cent in 2008-09. It has been estimated at 3·6 per cent in 2009-10 as per the advance estimates.

state, stands third after Uttar Pradesh and Bihar in terms of people Below the Poverty Line (BPL). The Economic Survey released by the State government, highlighting poverty figures released by Planning Commission, reveals poverty ratio in the state at 30·7 per cent which is 3·2 per cent higher than the all-India figure of 27·5 per cent. According to the survey, Maharashtra has 31·7 million people below the poverty line after Uttar Pradesh (59 million) and Bihar (36·9 million) in 2004-05. It is also worthnoting that Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal had the same level of poverty figure during 1993-94 but in 2004-05, poverty ratio in these states stand much less than that of Maharashtra. During the period between 1993-94 and 2004-05, in absolute terms, the BPL population in Maharashtra has increased by 1·22 million. ● Fertiliser Companies asked to reserve 20 per cent for uncovered rural areas—After the government’s decision to decontrol fertiliser prices, the Ministry of chemicals and Fertilisers has asked companies to reserve at least 20 per cent of their production for supplying in rural areas ●

Maharashtra third among BPL states after U.P. and Bihar—The poverty estimates provided by the Planning Commission reveal that Maharashtra which was earlier ranked as progressive

A Brief News Capsule
● SBI to open, 1000 Branches in 2010-11—State Bank of India (SBI) plans to open 1,000 more branches in the next financial year, taking its total branch network to over 13,000. As per official statistics, SBI has opened 1,000 branches during this year and plans to open more than 1,000 branches next year. At present, the public sector lender has 12,448 branches and over 21,000 ATMs. By the end of March, it aims to scale up the number of ATMs to 25,000. ● Rs. 2325 crore FDI proposals approved—The government has approved 23 Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) proposals worth over 2325·21 crore, including that of broadband service provider Tikona Digital Network and auto components maker Bharat Forge. The highest FDI of Rs. 1142·21 crore is likely to come into Tikona Digital Network from convertible debenture and share sale, followed by Kalyani group company Bharat Forge proposal to raise Rs. 576 crore by issuing warrants to overseas investors and medical device maker upto circuits Rs. 376·27 crore proposal. ● Yes Bank to raise $ 80 million—Private sector lender Yes bank is likely to raise $ 80 million in the first round of fund raising for its private equity fund focussed on clean technology. As per official declaration of bank $ 80 million will be raised in the first phase. The first closure of the cleantech fund is expected with the next two to three months. ● FII inflows exceed Rs. 15,000 crore—Overseas investors have infused a net Rs. 14,732 crore ($ 3·2 billion) in the Indian stock markets in March 2010, taking their total inflow so far in 2010 to nearly Rs. 15,500 crore. According to the data available with this renewed shopping in local market, the total net inflow by foreign institutional investors (FIIs) has crossed the Rs. 15,000 crore ($ 3·4 billion) level so far this year.

which are currently not covered. Even though per hectare consumption of fertilisers in nutrients has increased to 128·6 kg in 2008-09 from 105·5 kg in 2005-06, some of the remote villages are not receiving the required quantum of fertiliser due to lack of retail stores and poor infrastructure leading to minimal or no supply at all. The Budget 2010-11 had announced that subsidy worth Rs. 49,981 crore would be paid out in form of cash and not bonds. Higher agricultural credit and interest subvention on farm loans in expected to push up the demand for fertilisers all over the country, according to a report by Crisil Research. It also said that in 2010-11, demand for fertilisers is exepected to be around 50·7 million tonne (mt) compared to a production amount of 36·9 mt, thus resulting in large quantities of import to bridge the shortfall. RBI to buy IMF notes worth $ 10 billion—The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has signed an agreement with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to purchase notes up to $ 10 billion to improve the ability of the international lender to provide timely and effective balance-of-payment assistance to member countries. As per the official information of RBI, IMF will issue notes in the special drawing rights (SDR)denominated form. The pact was a temporary bilateral arrangement for one year, which might be extended up to two years. The pact is a part of the international effort to support IMF’s lending capacity, following the decision of the Group of 20 nations at its London Summit (held in April 2009) to treble IMF resources to $ 750 billion. Rajeev Gandhi Gramin LPG Vitrak Yojana (RGGLVY)—The Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas has formulated a vision for, the year 2015 ‘Customers Satisfaction and Beyond’ wherein it is targeted to cover 75 per cent of the population with LPG by 2015. The LPG customer

Continued on Page 2076


“The key to winning is poise under stress.”

England Claims Series
England beat India to win the final match of the Twenty-20 series and clinched the series as such on

final match on March 9, 2010 in Vadodara. North Zone made 267 runs in 50 overs for nine wickets while West Zone, in reply could only make 218 runs in 38 overs. Thus North Zone defeated West Zone by 49 runs. Yusuf Pathan’s performance was brilliant as he cracked nine sixes and three fours for West Zone but all in vain. The players Mukesh Sharma and Rahul Dewan shared nine wickets to enormously help North Zone to emerge victorious.

Indies won the series 4–1. West Indies only lost the first match. It was Chris Gayle’s 63 runs off 41 balls which powered West Indies to win the match in the final.

Tamil Nadu Clinches Vijay Hazare Trophy
Tamil Nadu beat Bengal by 29 runs to lift the Vijay Hazare Trophy

Kapil Dev Inducted into Hall of Fame
Kapil Dev on March 9, 2010 was inducted into the International Cricket Council (ICC) Cricket Hall of Fame at a ceremony in Dubai. As per ICC communication, a commemorative cap was presented to Kapil Dev by the ICC President David

The England women’s cricket team poses with the trophy.

Tamil Nadu Team with Vijay Hazare Trophy.

March 8, 2010 in Mumbai. England made light of a 126 runs target set by India in the third match of the series. Laura Marsh made unbeaten 46 off 53 balls. India made 125 runs for four wickets in 20 overs while in England, in reply, made 126 runs for 5 wickets in 19·2 over and thus emerged winner.

England Registers Victory over Bangladesh
England beat Bangladesh by nine wickets in the second and final cricket Test in Dhaka on March 24, 2010. England which won the first Test by 181 runs in Chittagong also won the second match by the contribution made by Alastair Cook and Kevin Pietersen. Alastair Cook hit a second successive century while Kevin Pietersen made an unbeaten 74 runs thereby helping England to achieve a 209 run target on the fifth day. It is important to note here that England, before winning the test series, had already clinched the One Day series against Bangladesh.

ICC President David Morgan (right) presents Kapil Dev with his commemorative cap during his induction into the ICC Cricket Hall of Fame at the ICC headquarters in Dubai.

on March 2, 2010 in Ahmedabad. Though former Indian Captain Saurav Ganguly contributed a scintillating half century for Bengal but in vain. Tamil Nadu opted to bat first and gave 379/6 with Murali Vijay hitting a sterling 102 ball 103 and Karthik (88), Abhinav Mukund (75) and Srikkanth Anirudh (56). Though Bengal made a spirited chase before halting at 350 for eight wicket with Saurav Ganguly (74 off 66 balls) Srivats Goswami (81 off 84 balls) and Anustup Majumdar (66 off 44 balls). Tamil Nadu was led by Dinesh Karthik and was a lucky winner under his leadership.

Morgan. It may be noted here that the Hall of fame runs in association with the Federation of International Cricketers Association (FICA) and recognises some of the legends of the game from its long and illustrious history.

Australia Retains the Chappell-Hadlee Trophy
Australia won the ChappellHadlee Trophy after beating New Zealand and thus an unassailable 3-1 lead on March 11, 2010 in Auckland. Australia could only finish at 202 for four in 31·1 overs after chasing New Zealand’s 238. Australia’s Cameron White was declared Man of the Match.

North Zone Clinches Deodhar Trophy
North Zone defeated West Zone to clinch the Deodhar Trophy in the

West Indies Clinches Series
West Indies registered a four wicket victory over Zimbabwe in the fifth and final ODI in Kingston (St. Vincent) on March 14, 2010. West “Nothing weights lighter than a promise.”


IPL-III Begins with Grand Opening Ceremony
The third edition of the Indian Premier League began with a grand ceremony at the D. Y. Patil Stadium on March 12, 2010 in Mumbai. The ceremony was started with Campbell’s hit song ‘Can’t Help Falling in Love’ and ended with pop veteran Richie’s hit song ‘Dancing on the Ceiling’ : The first match of IPL-III was played between Kolkata Knight Riders and Deccan Chargers in which Kolkata Knight Riders emerged winner. Kolkata Knight Riders made 161 runs for four in 20 overs in reply of which Deccan Chargers could only make 150 in 20 overs for seven wickets and was the loser. The final match of the IPL-III will be played on April 25, 2010 in Navi Mumbai.

number one hockey team followed by Germany (Second Position) and the Netherlands with third position in world ranking. Top ten in latest world hockey ranking : 1. Australia (2605 points), 2. Germany (2388), 3. Nether-lands (2215), 4. Spain (2053), 5. Korea (2005), 6. England (1930), 7. New Zealand (1560), 8. Pakistan (1523), India (1360) and Argentina (1349).

Australia Champion Hockey World Cup


award for the best goalkeeper; the list of the awardees in the Hockey World Cup is as follows : Man of the match of the final— Luke Doerner (Aus). Fair play trophy—New Zealand Goalkeeper of the tournament— Guus Vogels Top scorer of the tournament— Luke Doerner (Aus) and Taeke Taekema (The Netherlands), eight goals each. Player of the tournament—Guus Vogels.

Australia beat Germany 2-1 to clinch the field Hockey World Cup for the first time in 24 years on March 13, 2010 in New Delhi. Germany, a two time defending Champion lost to Australia after Luke Doerner scored

Indian Team Holds Japan to a Draw
India held Japan to a 2-2 draw in the final game of the four match women’s hockey Test Series in Kakamigahara on March 24, 2010. Thanks to a double strike from Saundarya Yendala some pride for the Indian women team was salvaged. In this four match tournament. India lost the series 0-3.

Pune and Kochi Join the IPL
Pune and Kochi are the new teams in the Indian Premier League (IPL). They formally joined the IPL on March 21, 2010 with Sahara Group winning the bid for Pune, Ahmedabad and Nagpur while Rendezvous Sports World (a consortium of five companies) won Kochi. Sahara Group won the bidding for Pune, Ahmedabad and Nagpur for $ 370 million for a period of ten years while Rendezvous Sports World won Kochi with a whopping bid of $ 333·3 million. With the additions of Pune and Kochi, the IPL will feature 10 sides from 2011.

the winner in the 59th minute through a penalty corner for Australia. Australians, it may be noted, were beaten by top-ranked Germany in the previous two World Cup finals. It was Germany’s fourth straight major final starting in 2008 with the Beijing Olympics which they won for

Didier Drogba Name African Player of the Year
Chelsea striker Didier Drogba was in March 2010 named the African Footballer of the year for 2009. Drogba, a national from the Ivory Coast won this award for the second. Drogba beat Inter Milan Didier Drogba and Cameroon skipper Samuel Eto’s to second place in the vote amongst national team coaches from Confederation of African Football (CAF) member nations. Ghan and Chelsea midfielder Michael Essien was third while Mazembe skipper Tresor Mputu Mabi picked up the award for best African player based on the continent. Sellas Tetteh was voted best coach after he led Ghana to the FIFA Under-20 World Cup in September, while Ghana striker Dominic Adiyiah was African Young Footballer of the Year following his goals in the tournament in Egypt.


Australian Hockey Team with World Cup Trophy

India Ranked at 9th Position in World Hockey
After finishing eighth in the recently held World Cup. India has been placed at number ninth position in World hockey ranking. Before recently concluded hockey World Cup Championship India possessed number 12 position. Thus India gained three places above the previous position. Australia-winner of hockey World Cup has been ranked

a third time. Australia had not beaten Germany in the World Cup since 1994. It may also be added here that world number two Australia started as tournament favourites after winning a record 10th champions in December when they beat Olympic Champions Germany 5-3 in the final. Earlier, the Netherlands beat European champions England 4-3 to clinch the bronze in the tournament. Dutch hockey player Guus Vogels who gave a terrific performance in the tournament was adjudged player of the tournament. Guus also won the


“An acre of performance is worth a whole world of promise.”

Algeria were adjudged the best national team after they upset African champions and bitter rivals Egypt to qualify for the World Cup. It may be added here that Drogba also won African Footballer of the Year Award in 2006.

start and lost to Thompson though Roy convincingly won the first set yet failed in continuing with the momentum towards achieving victory. In the end Thompson clinched victory.

Aronian (Arm, 2782), 6. Shakhriyar Mamedyarov (Aze, 2760), 7. Alexander Grischuk (Rus, 2756), 8-9. Peter Svidler (Rus. 2750), Boris Gelfand (Isr, 2750), 10. Wang Yue (Chn, 2749).

Grandmaster Norms for Deep and Arghyadip Djokovic Defends Dubai Open
Novak Djokovic retained his Dubai Open title on February 28, 2010 in Dubai. He beat Mikhail Youzhny of Russia 7-5, 5-7, 6-3 in the rainaffected final match. Djokovic collected $ 383,000 and 500 ranking points for his victory. Second seeded Leander Paes of India and his Czech republic partner Lukas Dloughy were defeated in the men’s double summit clash of Dubai Open by the Swedish Australian pair of Simon Aspelin and Paul Honley 6-2, 6-3 in just 57 minutes. International Masters Deep Sengupta and Arghyadip Das collected Grandmaster norms from the Cannes Open Chess Tournament at Cannes on March 7, 2010 Deep’s third GM norm was realised when he drew with France’s Christian Bauer in the ninth and final round to tally seven points thereby becoming the part of the three way tie for the title. Besides, Arghyadip finished in a remarkable manner after scoring much needed win over top seed Kazakh Murtas Kazhgaleyev to reach six points. It may be mentioned here that Tigran Gharamian (France) clinched the title and Vadim Malakhato (Belgium) finished runner up in the tournament.

Harika Claims Grandmaster Norm
International Master D. Harika claimed a Grandmaster norm in the Reykjavik Open Chess Tournament after drawing the ninth and final round with Latavia’s Normunds Miezes in 26 moves at Reykjavik (Island) on March 3, 2010. Harika tallied six points and finished 10th in the strong field. She was rated 2,473. As for the title, it was bagged by Ivan Sokolov while India’s Abhijeet Gupta was placed third in the tournament.

Saina Nehwal among Top Five World Badminton Women Players
India’s ace badminton player Saina Nehwal reached number five spot in the world ranking among women’s singles title holders on March 18, 2010. She reached her career best after her stupendous performance in the All Saina Nehwal England badminton championship in early March 2010. It may be recalled here that Saina was the first Indian to reach the semi-finals of the prestigious All England Super-Series Championships, and succeeded in securing 58516·7646 points in the latest list. Yihan Wang of China has topped the list among women players. Malaysia’s Chong Wei Lee has been ranked No. 1 World badminton player among men’s singles title holders followed by China’s Dan Lin (second spot) and Taufik Hidayat of Indonesia (third spot). As for other Indians, Chetan Anand dropped a rung to 10th while on the other hand P. Kashyap climbed a rung up to be 29th in the latest ranking. Arvind Bhat’s position remained static at 36

Kleybanova Wins her First WTA Title
Russia’s Alisa Kleybanova won her first WTA title at the Malaysian Open on February 28, 2010 after beating top seeded Elena Dementieva 6-3, 6-2 in the final in Kuala Lumpur

Khherdekar Clinches Title
FIDE Master Sourav Khherdekar of Maharashtra clinched the Purbachal Shakti Sangh FIDE rated Chess Tournament on March 24, 2010 in Kolkata. He finished the 10 round meet with 8·5 points and received Rs. 30,000 as first prize. R. S. Krishnan was placed second in the tournament.

Nathan Thompson Bags Title
Eighth seeded American Nathan Thompson won the title in the $ 10,000 ITF Futures Tournament in Kolkata on March 20, 2010. India’s Rupesh Roy could not cash on a good

Anand now at Fourth Position in World Ranking
In the latest World Chess ranking released on March 1, 2010 World Champion Viswanathan Anand dropped to fourth position. Thus he slipped one rung after trading places with Vladimir. On the brighter side, India is placed at fourth spot in the latest ranking with its players having a whopping 2641 behind Russia, Ukraine, China and France. The ranking lists : World (Top10)—1. Magnus Carlsen (Nor, 2813), 2. Veselin Topalov (Bul, 2805), 3. Vladimir Kramnik (Rus, 2790), 4. Viswanathan Anand (2787), 5. Levon

Nathan Thompson


“We must not promise what we ought not, lest we be called on to perform what we cannot.”

Current World Badminton Top Ten Players’ Ranking
Men’s Singles (More)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Malaysia China Indonesia China Denmark China Vietnam Thailand Denmark China

Chong Wei LEE Dan LIN Taufik HIDAYAT Jin CHEN Peter Hoeg Gade Chunlai Bao Tien Minh NGUYEN Boonsak PONSANA Jan O Jorgensen Long CHEN

84571·06 67184·58 65831·7 65220 63435·18 60520 56304·794 55291·75 54314·5072 53190

15 8 14 12 13 13 16 14 16 15

tour leading total to $ 691,000. Ronnie Black finished second while Tom Lehman and Chien Soon Lu tied for third.

Alonso Clinches Bahrain Formula One Grand Prix
Fernando Alonso won the season’s opening Bahrain Formula One Grand Prix on March 14, 2010 in Manama. It was the 22nd career victory for the Spaniard. Brazilian Felipe Mass was overtaken by Alonso and finished runner Fernando Alonso up while Britain’s Lewis Hamilton finished third in the race.


Women’s Singles (More)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

China China China China India France China Hong Kong China Denmark

Yihan Wang Wang Lin Xin Wang Jiang Yanjiao Saina NEHWAL Hongyan PI Lu Lan Mi ZHOU Shixian WANG Tine RASMUSSEN

76811·43 66662·2 65860 59600 58516·7646 58072·32 57490 56672·16 54400 52340·0982

15 15 11 11 17 15 10 15 11 11

Nicol David and Ong Beng Hee Clinch Titles
Nicol David and Ong Beng Hee won the WISPA and PSA titles at the Chennai Open Squash Championship on March 7, 2010. Ong Beng Hee

but Anup Sridhar is at a loss of one position by being slipped to 40th. India’s pair Jwala Gutta and V. Diju slipped a rung to 10th position in the latest mixed double ranking.

frame went up 4-1 and 5-2. A brilliant safety behind the green helped Advani enormously to emerge winner in the end. Kamal Chawla of Railways thrashed Manan Chanra’s Challenge to clinch the third position in the play off match at 4-3.

Pankaj Advani Bags National Championship
Pankaj Advani won the inaugural O. B. Agarwal Memorial 6 red Snooker National Championship title after defeating West Bengal’s Brijesh Damani in the final on March 15, 2010. Advani after dropping the first

Meenal Thakur Bags Snooker Title
Meenal Thakur lifted Women’s National Snooker Title on March 14, 2010 in Bangalore after beating Vidya Pillai of Tamil Nadu. Thus Meenal Thakur added another feather to her cap by emerging Champion in the tournament.

Nicol David (left) and Ong Beng Hee, with the WISPA and PSA titles.

Fred Couples Toshiba Classic Clinches

(Malaysia) beat Jonathan Kemp (England) 14-12, 11-9, 11-9 to emerge winner while Nicol David (Malaysia) beat Jenny Duncalf of England 11-16, 11-4, 11-6 to be winner. It may be noted here that Nicol David is World’s number 1 squash player.

Pankaj Advani poses with the trophy.

Fred couples won his second straight champions tour title after shooting a 6-under 65 for a four stroke victory on March 7, 2010 in the Toshiba Classic in Newport Beach Couples earned $ 2555,000 to push his

2010 Laureus Sports Awards : Usain Bolt Named Sportsman of the Year
Jamaica’s genius Usain Bolt has been named Laureus World Sports-


“For every promise, there is price to pay.”

man of the Year for the second straight time. The 2010 Laureus World Sports Awards were announced on March 10, 2010 at the awards ceremony in Abu Dhabi. U.S. Tennis star Serena William has been named Laureus Sports woman of the Year. It was her third Laureus Award

Laureus Sports Award 2010 Winners : At a Glance
Laureus World Sportsman of the Year Usain Bolt Athletics—Jamaica Laureus World Sportswoman of the Year Serena Williams Tennis–United States Laureus World Team of the Year Brawn GP Formula One Formula One United Kingdom Laureus World Breakthrough of the Year Jenson Button Formula One United Kingdom Laureus World Comeback of the Year Kim Clijsters Tennis—Belgium Laureus World Sportsperson of the Year with a Disability Natalie Du Toit Swimming South Africa Laureus World Action Sportsperson of the Year Stephanie Gilmore Surfing—Australia Laureus Sport for Good Award Dikembe Mutombo Basketball United States Laureus Lifetime Achievement Award Nawal El Moutawakel Athletics—Morocco

in total. Formula One was a big winner in Abu Dhabi as Britain’s Jenson Button won the Laureus Breakthrough of the Year Award following his first World Driver’s Championship and the Brawn GP Formula One Team for whom Button drove in 2009 has been named Laureus World Team of the Year. Belgium’s Kim Clijsters won the World Comeback of the Year Award, after her remarkable return to tennis in 2009. South Africa’s swimmer Natalie du Toit received the Laureus Disability Award while Australia’s three times World Surfing Champion Stephanie Gilmore was named Laureus World Action Sportsperson of the Year. Laureus Academy member Nawal El Moutawakel received the Laureus Lifetime Achievement Award for her work for women. The Laureus Sport for Good Award went to American basketball legend Dikembe Mutombo for his charitable work. It is important to note that the Laureus World Sports Awards for 2010 recognised sporting achievement during the period January 1— December 31, 2009 and are the premier honour on the International Sporting calendar.

medalists. Each boxer was also awarded Rs. 25,000 along with a Sujaram’s suit. The results (finals) : 49-kg : Amandeep (Ind) beat Peter Mungai (Ken) 3-0; 52-kg : Suranjoy Singh (Ind) beat Oliver Lavigi (Mri) RSCOC (R1); 56-kg : Ian Weaver (Eng) beat M.D.K. Wanniarachchi (SL) 7-1; 60-kg : Jai Bhagwan (Ind) beat Valention Knowles (Bah) 6-2. 64-kg : Scott Cardle (Eng) w.o. Chris Jenkins (Wal); 69-kg : Fred Evans (Wal) beat Moabi Mothiba (Bot) 5-2; 75-kg : Vijender Singh (Ind) beat Frank Buglioni (Eng) 13-3; 81-kg: Dinesh Kumar (Ind) w.o. Callum Johnson (Sco). 91-kg : Simon Vallily (Eng) beat Elly Ajowi (Ken) RSC-H (R1); +91 kg : Paramjeet Samota (Ind) beat Joseph Parker (NZ) 7-3.

Manavjit Bags Trap Gold in ISSF World Cup
World Champion marksman Manavjit Singh Sandhu clinched the

India Clinches Team Championship in Boxing
India emerged winner in the XXX Energy Drink Commonwealth boxing Championship on March 17, 2010 in New Delhi. India bagged the team Championship with a tally of six gold medals. The six Indians who grabbed gold medals are Amandeep

Manavjit Singh

the trap gold in the ISSF World Cup at Acapulco (Mexico) in first week of March 2010. Manavjit qualified for the final after shooting 122 with a series of 25, 24, 24, 25 and 24 and was a point below the qualification round leader Daniele Resca (123) of Italy. Manavjit missed two birds in the final but hit the remaining 16 targets to bag the gold with a point’s margin. His total final score was 145 (122 + 23). It may recalled here that Manavjit had already won gold in the Commonwealth Shooting Champion-ship in Delhi with a score of 146 (124 + 22). Another Indian Anirudh Singh also impressed by registering his entry in his first world Cup final with a score of 122.

The Indian boxers after winning the overall title in the Commonwealth Championship in New Delhi on March 17, 2010.

(49 kg category) Jai Bhagwan (60 kg category), Vijender Singh (75 kg category), Dinesh Kumar (81 kg category), Suranjay Singh (52 kg category) and Paramjeet Samota (91 kg category). Hero Honda presented a motorcycle to all the six gold

Continued on Page 1970


“The promises of yesterday are the taxes of today.”

DRDO–Invented Kit which can Detect H1N1 Virus in an Hour
The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has invented a diagnostic kit which can detect H1N1 virus in an hour. The kit costing just Rs. 1,500 uses a simple technique called real-time loop amplification methodology (RTLAMP) to detect H1N1 Virus. Developed by DRDO laboratory called the Defence Research and Development Establishment (DRDE it situated at Gwalior) does not need a sophisticated instrument and can be used in villages where electricity is not available. As many as 400 blood samples were tested by the WHO developed kit and DRDO developed kit, and the positive results from both the kits tallied. Not only that, it was also found that the DRDO kit diagnosed some cases missed out by the WHO approved kit. Thus DRDO kit is more specific and sensitive in detecting the case. Furthermore, the advantage with DRDO kit is that it takes just one hour to detect H1N1 virus while WHO kit takes a day to find out whether an individual tested positive or not for the virus by using a methodology called real-time polymerised chain reaction (RTPCR) which needed a sophisticated instrument named flourescent detector to detect the virus. The kit by WHO also costs between Rs. 8,000 and Rs. 10,000. On the other hand, the DRDO kit did not need flourescent detector. The kit developed by DRDO is very useful with Swine flue (caused by H1N1) emerging as a global pandemic whose quick diagnosis is critical to early medical intervention. It may be recalled here that DRDO had already developed kits for detecting dengue, Chikungunya and the Japanese encephalitis. bone. The study has made human history a lot more complex and interesting than previously thought for the present generation.

Modified Mosquitoes may Prevent Malaria
Scientists recently have succeeded in developing a genetically modified mosquito as a natural flying vaccinator to spread vaccine against malaria instead of the disease. A research team of Jichi Medical University of Japan, has disclosed that mosquito genetic engineering may turn the blood sucking transmitter into a flying vaccinator and thus provide a new strategy for biological control over malaria. As per the research, the saliva gland of the Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes which is the main vectors of human was worked upon and targeted. It may be added here that blood sucking arthropode including mosquitoes, sand flies and ticks transmit numerous infectious agents during blood feeding. This includes malaria which kills 1-2 million people, mostly children from Africa. As one of the scientists revealed—“Following bites protective immune responses are induced just like a conventional vaccination but with no pain and no cost. What is more, continuous exposure to bites will maintain high levels of protective immunity through natural boosting for a lifetime. So the insect shifts from being a pest to being beneficial agent.”

Windpipe Rebuilt through Stem Cells
British and Italian doctors recently carried out a ground-breaking surgery to rebuild the windpipe of a 10 year old British boy after using stem cells developed within the body of the boy. The operation was carried out in March 2010 and lasted nearly nine hours. The doctors implanted the boy with a donor trachea, or a windpipe that had been stripped of its cells and injected with his own. The doctors hope over the next month boy’s marrow stem cells start transforming themselves within his body into tracheal cells. If the process is successful, it is hoped that it will lead to a revolution in regenerative medicine. Since the cells are derived from the boy’s own body, the new organ transplanted should not be rejected by the boy’s immune system—a risk found in traditional transplants. It is to be noted here that the surgery was first conducted two years ago on 30 year old person Claudi Castillo who was the first person to receive a transplant organ. This British boy is the second patient to receive a stem cell transplant and the first child to go through this surgical procedure.

Study Suggests X Woman could be Mother of Modern Man
A new research suggests that an unknown type of human (nicknamed as X Woman) could be mother of modern man as she coexisted with Neanderthals and our own species between 30,000 to 50,000 years ago. The report released by Discovery News says that the as-of-yetunnamed new human species represents the first time that a hominid has been described not from the structure of its fossilised bones, but from the sequence of DNA. Researchers concentrated on mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA) genes passed down from mothers to their children and hence she is nicknamed as the X woman. The mitochondrial DNA of the X woman shows that she shared a common ancestor with Neanderthals and modern humans one million years ago so X-woman and her species migrated out of Africa 500,000 years before the ancestors of Neaderthals left Africa, the study discloses. The study team made the discovery after extracting and sequencing mitochondrial DNA from a single pinky finger

Researchers Say Water on Moon in Three Flavours
Recently the scientists announced that the water found on the surface of Moon—the earths’ rocky neigh-


“Promises are like the full moon, if they are not kept at once they diminish day by day.”

bour is in three flavours. According to Discovery News, this latest find came from an instrument that was carried aboard the Chandrayaan-1 lunar orbiter before it was lost in August 2009. NASA’s Mini–SAR team found these 40 craters each containing water ice at least 2 metres deep. In the words of Paul Spudis of the Lunar and Planetary Institute. “If you convert those craters’ water into rocket fuel, you would have enough fuel to launch to equivalent of one space shuttle per day for more than 2000 years.” As per the information given by the scientists some pure water seems to have been deposited on the lunar surface (perhaps by passing comets). Some water seems to have formed under the surface mixing with lunar material. And the rest of the water, it appears, has been formed on the surface through interaction with the solar wind. The finding also suggests some kind of water cycle as there was also found a migration of water from equatorial regions to the lunar poles.

According to the scientists the star spins through the galaxy, its gravitational pull drags icy bodies out of the Oort cloud—a vast sphere of rock and dust twice as far away as Nemesis. These snowballs are thrown towards the Earth as Comets thereby causing devastation similar to the asteroid that wiped out the dinosaurs 65 million years ago. It may be recalled here that the Wide–Field Infrared Survey Explorer–expected to find a thousand brown dwarf stars within 25 light years of the sun–has already sent back a photo of a comet possibly dislodged from the Oort Cloud. The first clue, the scientists got about the existence of Nemesis from the bizarre orbit of a dwarf planet called Sedna. NASA scientist believe that they will be able to find Nemesis by using a new heat seeking telescope that began the scanning of the skies in January 2010.

Jupiter may have a New Ring : NASA’s Spacecraft Suggests
NASA’s New Horizon’s spacecraft recently took an image of NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft which indicates that Jupiter may have a new ring that was created by a smash between its moons. The possible ring appears as a faint streak near Jupiter’s moon Himalia in the image. The telescopic camera aboard the Pluto-bound probe snapped the ring in September 2006 as the craft was closing in on Jupiter in the lead-up to a close encounter with the planet the following February. It is unclear if the new ring reaches all the way around the planet. But the scientists suggest the structure appears so close to Himalia, it may be the result that blasted off material off 170 kilometre wide moon. It is also suggested that one of Jupiter’s moons, the diminutive 4 kilometre-wide S/2000 J11 which went missing after its discovery in 2000 could have crashed into Himalia and thus destroyed itself in the process.

Big Bang Machine Creates Collision Record at CERN
Scientists smashed sub-atomic particles into each other with record energy on March 30, 2010 in Geneva. The Experiment conducted at the European Centre for Nuclear Research (CERN) aimed to recreate conditions which existed just after the B i g Bang that gave rise to the Universe 13·7 billion A graphic of a collission at full power years ago. The is pictured at the Compact Muon World’s biggest Solenoid experience control room of physics machine— the Large Hadron Collider at the the Large Hadron European Organisation for Nuclear Collider collided Research in Meyrin, near Geneva on atomic particles. The March 30, 2010. collisions would continue for years and could be seen as a giant leap for mankind. CERN’s Large Hadron Collider (LHC) slammed beams of particles together at record collision energy of 7 tera-electron volts (TeV) or seven billion electron volts—3·5 times faster than previously achieved in particle accelerator. It may be added here that scientists, over the coming years, will analyse thousands of scientists around the world linked by a computer network known as the Grid and will try to have insights into the nature of matter and the origin of stars and planets. During 2010-11 data will be compiled. The experiment would only find the theoretical particle known as the Higgs boson after 2013 when the Collider is boosted to collision energy of 14 TeV. The Higgs boson named after the scottish physicist who proposed it three decades ago to explain the origin of mass in the universe is considered to have made possible the emergence of stars, planets and eventually life from the matter that came out of the Big Bang. It is also important to note that this Large Hadron Collider Experiment has P.Darpan cost the 10 billion Swiss franc ($ 9·4 billion).

An Invisible Star may Shoot Comets at Earth
Scientists have recently claimed that an invisible star (five times the size of Jupiter) might be moving near our solar system and may shoot deadly comets at earth. The scientists say the brown dwarf star is up to five times the size of Jupiter. The star could be responsible for the mass extinction that occur on Earth every 26 million years. The star nicknamed Nemesis or the Death Star could be hidden beyond the edge of our solar system and only emits infrared light. The scientists believe that the star orbitted our solar system at 25000 times the distance of the Earth to the Sun.


“One must have a good memory to be able to keep the promises that one makes.”

● Recently India test-fired ➟ Agni-I missile ☞ Agni-I which can carry nuclear weapons and has a range of 700 km was flight-tested from the Wheeler Island off the Orissa Coast on March 28, 2010. The two nuclear reactor sites as approved by the Union Government recently are ➟ Kumharia and Bargi ☞ The Union Government has recently approved the building up of two nuclear power reactor sites of 700 Megawatt capacity each at two new inland sites—at Kumharia in Haryana and Bargi in Madhya Pradesh. In last week of March 2010 the two missiles which were test-fired by India were ➟ Dhanush and Prithvi II ☞ Nuclear capable ship-based Dhanush and surface-to-surface Prithvi II were successfully flight-tested in quick succession on March 27, 2010 from the Integrated Test Range Chandipur off the Orissa Coast. The Indian who has recently been named Innovator of the year is ➟ Shankar Balasubramaniam ☞ Chennai-born Shankar Balasubramaniam of Cambridge University has been named Innovator of the Year by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) which is Britain’s leading agency for academic research and training in non-clinical life sciences. Recently Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs approved ➟ Integrated Coastal Zone Management Project ☞ For the first time, the Survey of India is going to map the country’s vast 7,500 kilometre long coastline under a mammoth Integrated Coastal Zone Management Project approved recently by the Union Cabinet’s Committee on Economic Affairs. Vigyan Ratna Award has been presented to ➟ Professor Yashpal ☞ Union Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee presented the Vigyan Ratna Award to former UGC Chairman Professor Yashpal during the 59th Convocation of Punjab University on March 24, 2010 in Chandigarh. The first Indian automobile company to join the million (10 lakh) club is ➟ Maruti Suzuki ☞ India’s largest car maker Maruti Suzuki India (MSIL) on March 23, 2010 created a record of sorts by producing 10 lakh cars in a year and thus became the first Indian automobile company to join the million (10 lakh) club. India recently made a successful vertical launch of ➟ BrahMos ☞ India’s supersonic cruise missile BrahMos recently lifted off vertically from Naval destroyer INS Ranvir and punched a hole in a decommissioned vessel 290 kilometre away in the Bay of Bengal off the Orissa Coast. India will get huge supply of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) from ➟ Qatar ☞ Qatar on March 21, 2010 agreed to supply India with 4 million tonnes of additional Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) beginning with one million tonnes in 2011 and increasing supply to four million tonnes by 2014. Recently the Moortidevi Award has been conferred on ➟ Veerappa Moily ☞ President Pratibha Patil on March 18, 2010 gave the Moortidevi award of the Bharatiya Jnanpith to Union Law and Justice Minister M. Veerappa Moily for his work ‘Sree Ramayana Maharveshanam.’ The richest Indian for the second consecutive year is ➟ Mukesh Ambani ☞ Indian industrialist Mukesh Ambani—Chief of Reliance Industries has emerged as the richest in India and fourth richest in World with $ 29 billion in US magazine Forbes’ annual list of the worlds’ top billionaires. Tamil Brahmi potsherds have been found at ➟ Marungur ☞ Three potsherds with Tamil Brahmi inscriptions have been discovered in an urn burial site at Marungur—17 km from Vadalur in Cuddalore district. The Indian who has been ranked among top five badminton players is ➟ Saina Nehwal ☞ Ace Indian badminton player Saina Nehwal recently entered the top five of the world rankings at a careerbest fifth spot following her stupendous performance in All-England badminton Championship in early March 2010. The heaviest sounding rocket developed by ISRO is ➟ ATV–DO1 ☞ The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) on March 3, 2010 successfully flight-tested its new generation high performance sounding rocket at the spaceport in Sriharikota. It is the heaviest sounding rocket developed by ISRO. Sports Illustrated’s Most Influential Indian is ➟ Sachin Tendulkar ☞ Sachin Tendulkar has been named as the most influential person in Indian sports in the annual Sports Illustrated (SI) Power List. The winner of Deodhar Trophy is ➟ North Zone ☞ North Zone beat West Zone by 49 runs to clinch the Deodhar Trophy on March 9, 2010 in Vodadara. “Better break your word than do worse in keeping it.”


On March 9, 2010 Rajya Sabha passed ➟ Women’s Reservation Bill ☞ After days of bitter wrangling, Rajya Sabha finally passed Women’s Reservation Bill providing 33 per cent reservation to women in Parliament and State Assemblies on March 9, 2010. The Bill is also known as the Constitution (108th Amendment) Bill. The Vijay Hazare Trophy winner is ➟ Tamil Nadu ☞ Tamil Nadu beat West Bengal to clinch the Vijay Hazare Trophy (Cricket) in the final match on March 2, 2010 in Ahmedabad.

● Russia and United States of America recently concluded ➟ START Pact ☞ The United States of America and Russia have recently concluded the most comprehensive arms control agreement in nearly two decades. The agreement—Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) aims at nuclear free world in near future. The prestigious Abel Prize has been won by ➟ John Torrence Tate ☞ The prestigious Abel Prize in Mathematics for 2010 has been awarded to 85 year old American mathematician John Torrence Tate in recognition for his vast and lasting impact on the theory of numbers. The winner of the BNP Paribas Open is ➟ Ivan Ljubicic ☞ Ivan Ljubicic beat Andy Roddick to win the BNP Paribas Open on March 21, 2010 and thus claimed his first ATP Masters 1000 title in Indian Wells. Recently USA Congress approved ➟ Historic Healthcare Bill ☞ The United States House of Representatives made history on March 21, 2010 when it passed the Senate Version of crucial and historic healthcare bill by a narrow margin of 219-212. As per UN report, the people lifted out of slum conditions in 2010 over the past ten years is ➟ 227 million ☞ As per recently released UN–HABITAT Report on the ‘State of World cities 2010/2011; Bridging the Urban Divide’ Government across the world have done well collectively to lift 227 million people out of slum conditions surpassing Millennium Development target by 2·2 times. March 20 has been declared as ➟ World House Sparrows Day ☞ In order to draw the attention of government agencies and the scientific community for more conservation measures and research on common species and urban biodiversity March 20 has been declared as World House Sparrows by numerous national and international organisations recently. The richest person of the world is ➟ Carlos Slim ☞ Mexican Billionaire Carlos Slim has emerged the richest person in the world with $ 53·5 billion in assets in the recently released Forbes’ list of the World’s top billionaires. CSTO which recently came into news stands for ➟ The Collective Security Treaty Organisation ☞ A Russia-led defence bloc of ex-Soviet states consisting of Russia, Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan signed a pact with United Nations Organization with UN Secretary General Ban KiMoon signing the document in Moscow on March 18, 2010. The agreement amounts to a recognition of the CSTO as a full-fledged international security organization. The two countries which recently clinched a big gas pipeline deal is ➟ Iran and Pakistan ☞ Iran and Pakistan recently signed in Turkey’s capital Istanbul, the final agreement launching Iran-Pakistan gas pipeline. The Operational Agreement (OA) and Heads of Agreement (HoA) would set in motion the broader Gas Sales Purchase Agreement (GSPA) by which Iran would provide Pakistan 750 million cubic feet of gas per day for next 25 years. The Oscar Award for Best Director Award has been bagged by ➟ Kathryn Bigelow ☞ Kathryn Bigelow became the first woman to receive the Oscar for Best Director for The Hurt Locker at the 82nd Academy Awards in Los Angeles on March 7, 2010. The Best Actor and Best Actress Awards at the 82nd Oscar Academy Awards have respectively been bagged by ➟ Jeff Bridges and Sandra Bullock ☞ Jeff Bridges got the Best Actor Award for his brilliant performance in ‘Crazy Heart’ While Sandra Bullock was given the Best Actress Award for her splendid performance in ‘The Blind Side‘ at the 82nd Oscar Academy Awards in Los Angeles on March 7, 2010. The winner of World Hockey Cup this year is ➟ Australia ☞ Australia beat Germany in the final of World Hockey Cup to emerge champion on March 13, 2010 in New Delhi after a hiatus of 24 years. The winner of Bahrain Grand Prix is ➟ Fernando Alonso ☞ Spain’s Fernando Alonso emerged triumphant in the season’s opening Bahrain Formula One Grand Prix on P.Darpan March 14, 2010 in Manama by leading teammate Felipe Massa in resounding two-one victory. “Let God’s promises shine on your problems.”


Indo-U.S. Relations : Ups and Downs
—Arunoday Bajpai India and United States are the two large democracies of the world. Both have displayed respect for democratic set-up, pluralism, rule of law and human rights and fundamental freedoms. Inspite of this the relationships between the two countries have seen may ups and downs during 60 years’ history of independent India. These relations were, by and large, shaped by the prevailing global and regional strategic environment and domestic compulsons and orientations. Broadly, the relationships between the two countries can be analysed under two eras—cold war era and post cold war era, beginning since early 1990s. By and large, the relations during cold war era were unduly influenced by the cold war strategic parameters. However, there appears to be a new impetus to improve the relations between the two countries after the end of cold war. The post-cold war era is marked by a new beginning in strategic, economic and technological exchanges between the two countries. In 1950s, India followed a policy of Non-alignment distancing itself from the two military blocs led by the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. The basic assumptions behind the Indian policy of non-alignment were to maintain peaceful environment, necessary for development, ensure independence of Indian foreign policy and to seek economic and technological assistance from both the blocs for rapid socio-economic development. However, the U.S. did not like the neutrality of India and its policymakers termed Indian policy of nonalignment as ‘immoral’. Inspite of this basic difference, the U.S. extended economic and technological assistance to India, particularly PL-480 food assistance programme. The U.S. was sympathetic to India during Indo-China conflict. This was the logical corrolary of cold war strategy because China was a communist country under the influence of the USSR. The U.S. was apprehensive of the increasing communist influence in South-Asia through Chinese hegemony. Another factor which caused hurdles in the close Indo-U.S. relations was Pakistan which has been an active member of U.S. led military pacts. The U.S. wanted to prop Pakistan through military and economic assistance to counterbalance Indian influence in South Asia. In fact in 1970s and 1980s, Pakistan was promoted and supported by the U.S. as a chief instrument to realise its interests in South-AsiaMatters came to a head on during 1971 Indo-Pak war when the U.S. tried to threaten India by sending its 7th navel fleet in the Indian ocean. On the other hand, India, in order to ensure its security, signed treaty of friendship and cooperation with the USSR in 1971. Critics alleged that this treaty goes against the tenets of nonalignment as it tilted India towards Russian bloc. These developments were very important as they shaped the course of Indo-U.S. relations for next two decades. As the U.S. propped Pakistan through its liberal economic and military aid, India and USSR also developed close defence, economic and diplomatic relations. When the armed forces of the USSR entered Afghanistan in Dec. 1979, Pakistan assumed highest importance in US foreign policy in South Asia. India did not openly criticise the USSR armed presence in Afghanistan. The growth of Taliban in 1980s against the then government of Afghanistan, was largely supported

by the U.S. and Pakistan. These developments led to further deterioration of bilateral relations between the U.S. and India during the cold war era.

New Beginning
The last decade of 20th century witnessed fundamental changes in the global strategic equations. With the demise of the USSR and the dismantling of the communist bloc in the Eastern Europe in 1991, the cold war came to an end. The communist military grouping, the WARSAW PACT was also disbanded in 1992. Gradually the world strategic scene moved towards a unipolar world led by the USA which promised to establish a new world order. In economic field also, it was a resounding victory of capitalism anchored on the neo-liberal political ideology. It is in this background that India has to redesign its relations with the orly Super power of the world. In a sense, the policy of non-alignedment was put on back-burner and the foreign policy was given the pragmatic touch in the changing globalised economic and political environment. India had already initiated liberalised economic and trade policies in 1991 to face the challenges of globalised world. The objectives of India’s foreign policy involved both economic and security related dimensions which were dictated by India’s ongoing transformation into a globalised economy, balanced and inclusive development in the country and security environment in the region. One of the main goals of India’s foreign policy is to create an external environment that promotes the fulfilment of our economic growth targets and ambitions. These include the three dimensionscapital inflows, access to technology and innovation, as well as promotion of free, fair and open trading system. The security related challenges to our foreign policy include addressing


“Promises are like babies : easy to make, hard to deliver.”

danger of terrorism and religious extremism from across our borders, illegal immigration, smuggling of arms and fake currency, and feeling of in-security from unsettled boundaries particularly with China. The above changing international context provided opportunity and necessity for India to develop close strategic and economic relations with the U.S. On the other hand, with the dimise of the Soviet Union, the U.S. was free from the hangover of cold war equation and displayed signs of fresh thinking as far as India and South Asia are concerned. During the presidency of Bill Clinton and George Bush the foundation of close relationship between the two countries was laid down. During this period both countries moved closer and expressed common concerns about Islamic extremism, energy security and climate change. India conducted second nuclear tests at Pokhran in May 1998 to which the U.S. reacted strongly by imposing sanctions against India. However, both countries continued to exchange views on different issues. In March 2000, the U.S. President Bill Clinton visited India and had discussion with Indian leaders on economic matters and other bilateral issues. India has agreed to allow close international monitoring of her nuclear weapons development, while refusing to give up its current nuclear arsenal. The non-proliferation dialogue initiated between the two countries after 1998 tests has helped in bridging differences between the two countries on this issues. Consequently, the U.S. President George Bush lifted sanctions against India, in September 2001, which were imposed by the U.S. under its Nuclear proliferation prevention Act, 1994. As the U.S. faced worst challenge to its security in the wake of terrorist attacks on Sept. 11, 2001, it preferred India as a country to control and police the Indian Ocean Sea-lanes from Suez Canal to Singapore. The naval forces of two countries cooperated with each other during the Tsunami crisis of December 1994. Both countries signed open skies agreement in April 2005, which helped to enhance trade, tourism and business due to the increased number of flights. India

also purchased 68 U.S. Boeing Aircraft at the cost of $ 8 billion. India extended generous help of relief material to the tune of $ 5 million to U.S., when it faced the crisis of hurricane Katrina. The U.S. President George Bush visited India in March 2006, which helped to strengthen relations between the two countries. The ongoing present phase of close relationship between the two countries can be described under the following heads : 1. Defence Ties—Incidently, the beginning of new close ties between the two countries is more pronounced in defence and strategic areas. In a meeting between the American President G. Bush and Indian Prime Minister A. B. Bajpai in Nov. 2001, both countries expressed a strong interest in strengthening Indo-U.S. bilateral relationship. During next two years high level exchanges of ideas and proposal between the two led to the signing of NSSP. Next step in strategic partnership in January 2004. The NSSP may be considered a milestone in the transformation of bilateral relations between the two countries. Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh visited the U.S. and both countries announced successful completion of NSSP and signed other agreements for enhancing cooperation in other areas of civil nuclear energy, civil space and high technology commerce. As a consequence of developing closer ties in defence field both countries have conducted joint military exercises in the Indian Ocean. Both countries have a common interest in the free flow of commerce and resources through the vital sea lanes of the Indian Ocean. They also have a common interest in fighting terrorism and establishing a stable South Asia. However, India has been apprehensive in the past of the U.S. presence in the Indian Ocean through Diego Garcia the sole U.S. military base in the Indian Ocean, as a potential escalation point in a future war specially in view of the military intervention in Iraq and Afghanistan. Inspite of minor reservations, both countries have developed closer ties in military and strategic fields. The U.S. Chairman of the joint chiefs of the staff, Mike Mullen encouraged

stronger ties between the two countries and remarked that India had emerged as an increasingly important strategic partner of the U.S. In March 2009, the U.S. administration consented the U.S. $ 2·1 billion sale of P-8 poseidons to India, which is the largest military deal between the two countries. 2. Civil Nuclear Agreement— However, the most important dimension of cooperation between the two countries is Civil Nuclear Cooperation Agreement signed officially between the foreign ministers of two countries on Oct. 10, 2008; after protracted negotiations and discussion. The foundation of this agreement was laid down in 2005 when the top leaders of the two countries signed historic NSSP. In Dec. 2006, the U.S. Congress passed the Henry J. Hyde United States-India Peaceful Atomic Cooperation Act which allows direct nuclear commerce between the two countries after a gap of 30 years. The legislation entitles India to purchase US nuclear material and reactors for peaceful use. The negotiations for this deal also known as 123 agreement were concluded in July 2007. In Sept. 2007, the Nuclear Supplier Group (NSG) allowed waiver to peaceful nuclear activities of India with the condition that India would allow the inspection of its civil nuclear facilities by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Another implied condition is that if India conducted nuclear weapon test in future, the U.S. might take appropriate action to terminate this agreement. The significance of the agreement lies in the fact that it ended 30 years’ international isolation of India in the field of nuclear cooperation. The world community isolated India after the 1974 nuclear test and due to the fact that India did not sign Nonproliferation Treaty, 1968. However, the Obama administration is alleged to have developed cold feet in transferring reprocessing technology of the spent nuclear fuel. The transfer of such technology is the future step in the full implementation of this agreement. But after the NSG waiver in Sept. 2008, other countries particularly France and Russia have signed separate agreements for full nuclear cooperation with India.


“Half the promises people say were never kept, were never made.”

3. Economic Cooperation—The U.S. has traditionally been the largest trading partner of India. However, at the end of 2009 China has become the largest trading partner of India. Inspite of this fact India and U.S. have developed close economic relationship particularly in the field of bilateral trade and investment. The U.S. is the largest foreign investment partner in India with total investment to the tune of $ 9 billion till 2009, which is 9% of the total foreign investment in India. Between 1991 and 2004, the annual American investment in India rose by 57·5% annually. The U.S. investment in India plays an important role in the field of power generation, telecommunications, ports, roads, petroleum exploration and mining. Trade between the two countries has also been increasing substantially. In 2007, India imported goods worth $ 17·24 billion from the U.S. and exported goods worth $ 24·02 billion to the that country. The major items imported by India from the U.S. include aircraft, fertilisers, computer hardware, medical equipment and scrap metal. On the other hand, the major items of Indian export to the U.S. include information technology services, textile, machinery, gems and diamonds, chemicals, iron and steel products etc. The trade policy forum, created jointly in 2005, is a mechanism to promote bilateral trade which is a two way trade deal and the flow of investments. Both countries have also decided to promote small business initiatives in both countries by allowing trade between them. It should be noted that India has expressed apprehension on account of Obama administration’s putting curbs on outsourcing of which Indians have been major beneficiaries.

The bipartisan support to durable and close relationship was clearly visible in the U.S. Congress. Both leaders held discussion on regional situation, the threat of terrorism in the region, the Af-Pak strategy of the U.S. and the global financial situation. Mr. Obama declared that “India is indispensible to a future, we want to build.” The Indian PM added that the two countries are bound by the common values of democracy, humanism, rule of law, and respect for fundamental human freedoms. He further wished that both countries should cooperate in addressing global challenges of combating terrorism, making the global environment cleaner, and moving towards a world free of nuclear weapons. One significant achievement of this visit was the launching of IndoU.S. counter Terrorism Initiatives on Nov. 25, 2009. This initiative intends to expand collaboration on counterterrorism, information sharing and capacity building for counterterrorism. Both leaders agreed to take resolute and firm measures to eliminate the safe havens of terrorists. On nuclear matters, Obama accepted that India is a nuclear power and desired Indian cooperation in the signing of Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty. The U.S. also agreed to the full implementation of the Indo-U.S. civil nuclear cooperation agreement. However, Indian policy-makers remain apprehensive as far as the transfer of reprocessing technology is concerned. Both countries also launched a new framework called ‘Obama— Singh 21st century knowledge initiative’ which would enhance university linkages and exchange of faculty members. They also signed two Memorandums of Understanding (MoU), one related to enhancing cooperation on energy security, energy efficiency, clean energy and climate change, while another related to expand cooperation in agriculture and food security. The obserbers termed the visit of the Indian PM as the harbinger of the second wave of strategic partnership between the two countries.

Points of Dissonance
Inspite of many areas of mutual interest and close cooperation, the two countries have also many areas of differences of policies and perspective. The first is the signing of Non-proliferation treaty by India as demanded by the U.S. India considers this treaty as discriminatory. Though India and the U.S. have signed End Use Monitoring Agreement (EUMA) in July 2009 during the Indian visit of Hillary Clinton, yet critics say it would lead to intrusive inspection of Indian nuclear facilities by the U.S. Similarly, the agreement with respect to the transfer of reprocessing technology to India has points of dissonance. Another area of dissonance is the new Af-Pak strategy launched by the U.S., in which Pakistan has been assigned major role with enhanced economic assistance. India is apprehensive that Pakistan would use U.S. financial assistance to launch terror activities against India and would get an influential position in Afghanistan. On climate change issue, India is pressing for fulfilment of carbon reduction commitment by developed countries under the Kyoto protocol. But the developed countries led by the U.S. are avoiding binding commitment and the principle of common but differentiated responsibility. Similarly, both countries have different perceptions on agriculture subsidy as far as global trade negotiations are concerned. On Iran, though India has gone along with the U.S. to vote against the nuclear commitment of Iran under IAEA regime, yet unlike the U.S., India is opposed to imposing fresh sanctions or launching military action against Iran. It is also alleged that the present Obama administration has given prominent position to Pakistan and China in comparison to India as far as regional problems are concerned. Inspite of these differences, the relations between the two countries have been considerably strengthened in last 20 years or so. This demonstrates the pragmatic aspect of India’s new foreign policy. Its major achievement is that India has become a centre of focus in U.S. foreign policy in South Asia, the status which was denied to India for a long time.

Indian PM’s U.S. Visit, Nov. 2009
The Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh visited the U.S. on a state visit in November 2009. In fact, Manmohan Singh was the first state guest of the Obama administration. During the three days’ visit commencing on November 24 both leaders agreed to provide added meaning and thrust to bilateral relationship.


“We promise according to our hopes, and perform according to our fears.”

Palestinian Conflict : No Sign of Hope
Palestinian problem is perhaps one of the oldest problems of international conflict which defies solution. There have been numerous attempts to find an amicable solution acceptable to both the Palestinians and Israel, but they were in vain. At present, the fundamental issue involved in this problem is the establishment of independent state of Palestine in the territories namely West Bank and Gaza-Strip, substantially controlled by Israel, but inhabitated by Palestinians. Another dimension of this problem is the recognition of Israel by Arab States. This problem which was originally a religious problem between the jews and muslims under Ottaman Empire before the world war I took the shape of the problem of religious nationality for each community and subsequently turned to a problem of establishment of statehood for Palestinians and jews. The problem aroused intense religious sentiments as the city of Jerusalem and other surrounding areas are the sacred places for muslims, jews and christians. Originally both jews and Arab Palestinians used to live in the territories presently occupied and controlled by state of Israel as part of the Ottoman Empire. However, after the dismemberment of Ottoman Empire in the world war I, these territories were given to Britain under the mandate system of League of Nations. The mandate remained with Great Britain even after the establishment of the United Nations. Between two world wars, Jewish nationalism was consolidated and jews from other parts of the world migrated to these territories. This became more pronounced due to anti-sematic policies of Hitler in Germany. With the connivance of western powers including the U.K. and the U.S.A., the former terminated its mandate in these territories in 1948 and the Jews proclaimed the State of Israel as their homeland in the same areas. After the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948, the conflict between the Arabs and Israel started. So far both sides have fought three major wars in 1948, 1967 and 1973 besides Lebanon war in 1982, IInd Lebanon war in May 2006 between Israel and Hezbollah and invasion of Gaza by Israel in Dec. 2008. However, the most significant was the war of 1967 between Arabs and Israel, in which latter supported by western powers captured Palestinian territories of West Bank and Gaza, Sinai peninsula from Egypt and Golan Heights from Syria. The Sinai area has been given back to Egypt under the Camp David accord of 1979 mediated by the U.S. The Golan Heights are still under the control of Israel as Syria and Israel are yet to sign a peace agreement. The limited autonomy has been given to Palestinians in West Bank and GazaStrip under various peace measures but external control is still exercised by Israel. Also, Israel has constructed various settlement areas in West Bank and East Jerusalem in which jews have been settled, compounding the inter-community relation to a great extent.

U.S. and other western countries extended tacit and open political and military support to Israel, the Soviet bloc including India were sympathetic to the cause of Palestinians. With the end of cold war, the U.S., European Union, Russia and the U.N. together made serious efforts to find peaceful solution of this problem. By early 1990s, the PLO also renounced the means of violence to achieve its objective of Palestine state. Its leader Yasser Arafat also recognised the State of Israel. This paved the way for finding solution to the problem. The first major step in this direction was Oslo Accord, 1993, mediated by the U.S. and signed by Israeli P.M. Yitzhak Robin and Yasser Arafat. The crux of this agreement was that Israel would gradually handover control of West Bank and Gaza-Strip to Palestinians in exchange for peace. That is why this accord is also known as ‘land for peace accord’. But the Oslo accord could not go ahead due to the assassination of Robin and lack of agreement on East Jerusalem, which was claimed by both parties. Yet the accord was successful to the extent that it led to the establishment of autonomous state of Palestine in the West Bank and later in Gaza-Strip. In July 2000, the U.S. President Bill Clinton convened a summit meeting of PLO and Israeli leaders at Camp David (U.S.) but no lasting understanding was evolved. The PLO leaders did not agree to the proposal of Israel that jewish settlement areas in the West Bank and East Jerusalem ceded to Israel. Similarly Taba (Egypt) summit between the leaders of two sides broke up without any agreement. Another milestone in the peace efforts was the Road Map for peace proposal advanced by the Quartet (the U.S., U.N., European Union and Russia) on Sept. 17, 2002, which did not intend to resolve the difficult issues of Israeli settlement or the Status of East Jerusalem, but left these issues to be negotiated in phases during the peace process. Israel put forward 14 conditions to accept this proposal. In fact this programme did not move beyond the first phase as neither Israeli settlement plan was stalled not Palestinian violence was stopped.

Palestinian Struggle Peace Efforts


As Palestinians were deprived of their land and Arabs could not score military victory against Israel in various wars, Palestinians became refugees in different Arab countries. In 1960s they organised themselves under the banner of Palestinian Liberation Organisation (PLO) led by Yasser Arafat and waged violent struggle against Israel to claim their homeland in occupied territories. But the PLO did not succeed to score political or military victory against Israel. As far as peace efforts are concerned, the major beginning points have been the November 1967 U.N. Resolution 242, which among other things emphasised on the inadmisability of the acquisition of Arab territories by Israel in 1967 war. It calls for liberation of these territories and establishment of State of Israel in West Bank and Gaza-Strip. The Palestine problem was further complicated due to cold war politics of Super Powers. While the


“The best way to keep one’s word is not to give it.”

Arab countries organised under the banner of Arab League have also proposed some peace initiatives to solve this problem. The peace initiative was for the first time announced for discussion in March 2002 at its Beirut summit. It was finalised in 2007 and succeeded in achieving the consent of both Al-Fateh and Hamas factions of Palestinians. This proposal envisages complete normalisation of relations with Israel in exchange for the establishment of independent state of Palestine in West Bank and Gaza-Strip with East Jerusalem as its capital and just solution of Palestinian refugees. The proposal was outright rejected by Israel as it did not want to cede East Jerusalem to Palestine.

large scale destruction of property and life in Gaza. Though fighting has stopped limited blockade of Gaza by Israel continues. It is alleged that Iran has tacitly supported Hamas against Israel. Though Hamas has softened its attitude towards the two-state solution, Israel is not willing to sign agreement with Hamas. The dilemma of the peacemakers is that without

Hamas, there cannot be any viable solution to Palestine problem and Hamas itself is the biggest obstacle in the way of peace process. For the rigid ideological reasons Hamas may not openly recognise the state of Israel, though it may tacitly accept the same. Thus, rift in the unity of Palestinians has further complicated this problem.

Six Core Issues of Palestine Problem
There are 6 core issues involved in finding viable and lasting solution of Palestine problem. These issues have been identified by the main stakeholders involved in the peace process. 1. Control of Jerusalem—At present the there are about 7·2 lakh people living in Jerusalem, out of which 4·6 lakh are jews mostly conventrated in West Jerusalem and the remaining are muslims mostly living in East Jerusalem. Palestinians want East Jerusalem as their capital, which Israel is not willing to concede. On the contrary Israel has been constructing jewish settlement colonies in East Jerusalem to change the composition of the population. Thus control of Jerusalem is a contentions issue between the two parties. It has religious significance for both also. 2. Status of Palestinian Refugees of the 1948 War—At present there are 4·6 million Palestinians who became refugees as a consequence of 1948 war and are living in different Arab countries. Palestinians are demanding a just solution of refugees in the form of their right to return to the territories presently occupied by Israel. But Israel is adamant not to concede this demand. Without the just solution of the problem of these refugees, the Palestine problem cannot be solved. 3. Israeli Settlements in the West Bank—Israel captured West Bank in 1967 war and since then it has been constructing jewish settlement colonies in West Bank. The construction of these settlement was intensified in 1990s during the peace process itself. At present these jewish settlements are the home to about 3·5 lakh Israeli people. Most of the settlements are in the western part of the West Bank and others are inside the territory, at present, under the control of Palestine authority. In the name of security of her citizens, Israel is habituated to use force against Palestinian Authority. It should be noted that the future state of Palestine is to be established in West Bank and Gaza-Strip itself. Though Israel has destroyed its settlement in Gaza under 2005 diengagement plan, yet it wants to retain her settlement in West Bank as a buffer in case of future aggression. 4. Israeli Security Concern—Due to physical proximity of people of both sides, Palestinians particularly radical elements like Hamas have been indulging in violent activities against people of Israel. The settlement of colonies of Israel amidst Palestine territories has further complicated the security problem. The western countries have termed the political violence of Palestinians as terrorism. This gives ample excuse to Israel to launch military aggression against Palestinians from time to time. At present, Israel finds Hamas as the main security concern against its people. 5. Issue of Contiguous Territory—The proposed Palestine state faces another problem as the territories it is to be given are not contiguous. If they are brought together, it would rupture the contiguous territory of Israel. Israel has already demanded control over border crossing between the Palestine territories and Jordan and Egypt and the right to set the import and export control, asserting that Israel and Palestinian territories are a single economic space. According to Palestinians, the separated areas under its control make it impossible to create a viable nation and fails to address Palestinian security needs. 6. Sharing of Water Resources—Palestinians have demanded sufficient land and water resources for its survival as an independent state. At present, Israel receives much of its water from two large underground aquifers, which continue under the Green line and hence it has been a contentious issue between the two parties. Since some of the wells used for drawing this water lie in the territories controlled by Palestine Authority, the use of water from such wells for Israeli needs has been challenged. In fact, the Palestine authority is largely dependent on Israel for its water needs. Thus, there is a problem of equitable sharing of water resources between the Palestine Authority and Israel. In brief, only lasting and viable solution of Palestine problem is not possible without the amicable and satisfactory solution of the above six core issues.

Rise of Hamas and Rift in Palestinian Unity
Rift and factionalism among Palestinians, more pronounced since the demise of Arafat has further weakened the cause of Palestinians. At present there are two factions of Palestinians—Al-Fateh and Hamas. Al-Fateh is the original moderate group of Yasser Arafat which is serious about peace process and recognises the existence of Israel as a jewish state. On the other hand, there is Hamas group which follows a radical religious ideology, uses violence, does not recognise Israel and is opposed to two nations formula of Palestine and Israel states. Hamas came into being in 1987 during the first ‘Intifada’ (uprising) of Palestinians against Israel. Hamas issued its charter in 1988 which, inter alia, called for the destruction of Israel by rejecting all agreements that PLO had signed with Israel including Oslo accord to exchange land for peace. It has been declared as terrorist organisation by the western countries as it has not renounced the use of violence. The violent activities launched by Hamas against Israel give her excuse to go back on its promises and launch counter attack against Palestinians. Hamas scored a landslide victory in the elections of Palestine Authority in 2006 and captured Gaza-Strip in June 2007. Israel imposed blockade against Hamas rule in Gaza-Strip, which led to fighting between Hamas and Israeli forces in Dec. 2008. It caused


“Never take a solemn oath. People think you mean it.”

Present Status
Presently, the main actors involved in the peace process are the members of Quartet namely the U.S., U.N., Russia and European Union besides the contending parties. The Arab League is also making peace initiative but Israel is apprehensive of its peace efforts. The new U.S. President Obama has signalled a paradigm shift with active and serious engagement to resolve this conflict. Within three days of assuming office as the President he appointed George Mitchel, a seasoned diplomate, as his special envoy on January 23, 2009 to find ways to mediate in the conflict. On May 19, 2009, Obama held two hours’ discussion with Israeli P.M. Benjamin Netanyahu and wanted him to embrace the two nations solution and stopping the settlements to move forward towards peace process. However, Israeli P.M. was noncommittal on stopping settlements in West Bank. Israeli Prime Minister wanted to convince the U.S. President about launching military action against Iran as it was a grave threat to its security. Further, on June 4, 2009, in his Cairo speech, Obama claimed that he had come here to seek a new beginning between the U.S. and Muslims around the world. This hited towards an unbiased. The U.S. special envoy Mitchel held another round of talks with Israeli Defence Minister on July 4, 2009 regarding the freeze on settlement, but nothing concrete emerged. In March 2010, the U.S. Vice-President Joe Biden and special envoy Mitchel visited Jerusalem to take forward plans for indirect talks between Israel and Palestinian leaders. However, Israeli Interior Minister announced that the permission has been granted for the construction of new 1600 housing units in Jerusalem. This reversed the peace process. The American Vice-President reacted sharply and said, I condemn the decision by the government of Israel to advance planning for new housing units in East Jerusalem. On March 22, 2010, the U.S. Secretary of state Hillary Clinton cautioned that the status quo in this problem is unsustainable to all sides. She also warned Israel that staying on this course means continuing a conflict that carries tragic human cost in

terms of more violence and unrealistic aspirations. Though, Hamas has been ignored in the new peace initiatives, yet Israel does not appear serious to find a viable solution to this problem. Inspite of the pressure of the U.S. administration, why is Israel not coming to negotiation table and announcing the freeze on settlement plan ? The reasons are not far to seek. First, Israel is sure that the powerful jewish lobby inside the U.S. Congress would force the U.S. administration not to work against the vital interests of Israel. Second, the dominance of conservative and radical elements in the policy making of Israel would not allow it to give concessions to Palestinians beyond a point. Third, the rift between the

moderate Fateh and hardliner Hamas has given Israel the time to delay the peace process. Further, Iran has openly come for the support of Hamas, thus complicating the strategic scene in the region. The U.S. is contemplating military action against Iran on nuclear weapon issue and for that it needs the support of Israel. The Arab League or other western powers are not in a position to force Israel for agreement. In view of the rising Islamic terrorism, the activities of Hamas have created apprehension in the minds of U.S. policy makers. In view of the above factors, the lasting solution of Palestine conflict is not visible in near future. At present, the independent Palestine state is a half way house, that too deeply divided.

Yemen : In the Clutches of Imperialism
—Dr. S. P. Kashyap Yemen is a small nation state in Arab-Peninsula. It is situated in the neighbourhood of Saudi Arabia. At present the tiny state is plagued with a number of inner-contradictions and conflicts. Yemen is one of the poorest states of the Arab-World. Its economy is based to a great extent on its oil resources. Even these oil resources are not going to last long. These resources are not going to last for more than a decade. It means that the condition of the people in near future is likely to be worse than what it has been so far. If these fears come to pass then conflicts and contradictions of Yemen society and polity will become more sharp. At present Yemen is ruled by President Ali Abdullah Saleh. He has been ruling the country for last three decades. Saleh is authoritarian and corrupt administrator who does not care for his people. Therefore, there is wide spread discontent against his regime. The voices of discontent are emerging from different corners for different reasons. But the cumulative effect of them is the same to weaken the state authority and integrity of the nation. The North-South conflict has put the unity of Yemen in danger. This unity and national integration was achieved in 1990. Before that North Yemen and South Yemen were two separate states. Upto 1967 South Yemen was occupied by Britain. After a prolonged war of independence, it became free. It was ruled by progressive forces of socialist leanings. It was the initiative and effort of South Yemeni leadership that resulted in a United Yemen. When working for Yemen unity South was expecting that it would get a fair deal in United Country enjoying equal rights and opportunities. But to their dismay they found that they were being discriminated against and treated as second class citizens. This gave birth to ‘South Movement’ It is a separatist movement which resulted in a civil war in 1994. It is a strange twist of fate that the man who played a keyrole in uniting Yemen is now leading the separatist movement. The man is the Marxist leader of the South Ali Salem Al Bidh. The ‘South Movement’ is not the only challenge to Yemen’s unity. Zaidis are also carrying on a guerilla war against state since 2004. Zaidis are 54 lakh in a population of 220 lakh. They reside, at least most of them, near border of Saudi Arabia. They are followers of Shia-sect. Hence they are dubbed pro-Iran and their loyality to orthodox Sunni rule is always in doubt. Discredited and discriminated they followed the path of insurgency. They would have


“He loses his thanks who promises and delays.”

succeeded in overthrowing Saleh regime but for the help and intervention of Saudi and U.S. forces in favour of Saleh government. After five years of struggle a ceasefire agreement was reached by two parties but the agreement proved illusory and within two months of January 2010 ceasefire agreement both sides are accusing the other side of not observing the ceasefire conditions. The land of Yemen is overflowing with Jehadi fanatics and arms and ammunitions. According to a rough estimate there are more guns than people in Yemen. There are three to four guns per individual in Yemen. The presence of fanatic Jehadis and easy access to arms has made Yemen a happy hunting ground for terrorists. The presence of terrorists provide imperialist U.S.A. with a pretense to grab Yemen in clutches. In 2000 A.D. U.S. war ship USS Cole was attacked by terrorists. It was a telling proof that Al Qaeda is present and active in Yemen. The very next they year struck the U.S.A. in its home which led to the declaration of ‘war against terror’ by the U.S.A. The U.S. declaration put Yemen in a quandary. It became apprehensive that U.S. forces may target it as a main centre of war. To escape this fate Saleh followed a policy of cooperating with U.S. imperialism. When U.S.A. attacked Iraq, Yemen gave whole hearted support. But this policy of submission did not help Yemen for long. On December 25 a Nigerian Youth made an unsuccessful bid to blow a U.S. plane in Detriot. He informed U.S. intelligence that he received training at Al Qaeda centre in Yemen. The U.S. reaction to this information was quick and sharp. Yemen was declared new epi centre of global terrorism. This declaration was made at a time when even U.S. intelligence agencies were saying that only 100 to 200 cadre of Al Qaeda were present in Yemen. Thus, the threat from this quarter was being exaggerated to serve imperialist design. The U.S. policy was to take advantage of this new development to tighten the noose. The U.S. Foreign

Secretary Hillary Clinton declared, “It was time for the international community to make it clear to Yemen that there are expectations and conditions for our continuing support for the government.” Now U.S. government is putting pressure on Yemen govt. to play more active role in operations against Al Qaeda. U.S.

government asked President Saleh to agree for joint military operation against Al Qaeda and threatened that refusal will result in military intervention by the U.S.A. Thus in the name of fight against terror Yemen is coming under the lengthening shadow of imperialism.

Ukraine : ‘Orange Revolution’ Fizzles Out
2010 Election for the office of President in Ukraine proved a turning point in the history of that nation. The election result clearly indicates that ‘Orange Revolution’ carried out in 2004 on behest of the U.S.A. has flopped and has been rejected by the people. The first round of 2010 election took place on January 17. There were 18 candidates including the incumbent President Victor Andriyovich Yushchenko. The Prime Minister Ms. Yulia Volodimiriuna Timoshenko and the ultimate winner Victor Fedorovich Yanukovich who emerged winner in the second round poll by 2004 election too, but was deprived of fruit by a third round poll and the orange revolution. None of the 18 candidates got required 50% of votes polled in the first round poll. The incumbent President Yushchenko received just 5% votes. Yanukovich and Thinoshenko emerged as the front runner. The second round poll was held on February 7. In this round Yanukovich received 48·95 per cent of votes to Timoshenko’s 45·47%. Ms. Timoshenko could not digest her defeat. She refused to accept the outcome and threatened to move the Supreme Court. In 2004 it was the intervention of Supreme Court which helped in bringing ‘Orange Revolution’. But 2010 was not 2004 and it was not possible to repeat the history. As Kuchma pointed out, “During the election campaign in 2004 the decision about holding the third round was political and it will not be repeated.” It was not and could not be repeated because leaders of “the Orange Revolution were defeated in a free and fair contest which left no room for manoeuvering. The free and fair nature of poll was certified by more than three thousand observers of U.N.O., Eu and others stationed in Ukraine to keep watch on election. The U.S.A. has played, of course behind the scene, a keyrole in 2004 poll reversal. Now Obama had to congratulate the voters of Ukraine ‘On the conduct of vote’ and the President of France N. Sarcozy admitted, “The Ukrainian people have expressed their choice in the course of free, pluralist and democratic elections.” The outcome is all the more significant because more than 2/3 of voters exercised their franchise that too braving bad weather. As the correspondent of The ‘Dawn’ aptly puts it, “the winter weather reflected the bleak mood of voters five years after the orange revolution.” Before searching answer to question why, ‘Orange Revolution’ fizzled out and what is the political significance of election verdict, it will be better if one looks into why and how orange revolution took place. Ukraine was an important state of the U.S.S.R. It was the ‘granary’ of Soviet Union and being situated near black sea it has strategic importance. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the U. S. government followed the policy of getting a foothold in the former states of the Soviet Union. The aim was to expand its zone of political and military influence, to exploit natural resources of these regions and encircle and weaken Russia. To achieve these goals the U.S.A. engineered colour revolutions in a number of Central Asian States. Because of its strategic and economic importance Ukraine was in the top list of states where colour revolutions were planned. The 2004 election

Continued on Page 2071


“Promise is most given when the least is said.”

Personality Development Article

Empty Life Early Death
“The value of life lies not in the length of days, but in the use we make of them, a man may live long yet live very little. Dost thou have life then do not squander time for that’s the stuff life is made of.” The earlier we appreciate and imbibe what this priceless abovequoted saying conveys so plainly, the better it shall be for all of us and enable us to stand on a very strong wicket by fully utilising time for our own best advantage. It has also been duly emphasized by the great leaders and all eminent, successful personalities who have earned laurels and what not that, “Fear not that thy life shall come to an end but rather fear that will it ever have a beginning ?” Yes ! This is exactly the question which deserves to be given its due credit and merits immediate attention by all of us. After doing so, if we feel that we are lacking somewhere, we must initiate promptly the necessary corrective measures to catalyse our empty life to meaningful life. Needless to say, we must thoroughly introspect our ownself and seriously ponder as to whether we are leading our life in a useful, constructive manner or not. If the answer is in the affirmative, then it is well and good because we have nothing to worry about on this score. If the reply, however, is in the negative, then it is really a cause of gravest concern and we have got to do something concrete. But the moot question here is what to do ? We got to immediately wake up from our deep slumber, shake up our ideas vigorously for our own betterment, swing into relentless action with firm steely resolve and unflinching faith in the omnipotent famous saying endorsed always unfailingly by every successful person endowed with what we label ‘dynamic personality’ that, “Hard work conquers everything in life.” Now as far as the question of ‘when does our life becomes empty’ is concerned, it is certainly not so easy to attempt an answer for it but we will still try hard to the best of our ability to give an honest reply. Before delving deep to find an answer to this moot question, let us first examine what Donald C Peattie opined regarding this. He was unambiguous in strongly advocating that, “Life is adventure in experience and when you are no longer greedy for the last drop of it, it means no more than that you have set your face to the day when you shall depart.” We must never forget that God’s biggest gift to us is our life and if we fail in utilising it properly to our own best advantage, nobody else is to blame but we ourselves are responsible for it. Therefore, it is our bounden duty to utilise it properly by always doing good deeds and putting our best foot forward in whatever we do. Also, then we will have nothing to regret in life as our life under no circumstances will ever become empty mainly because our positive thoughts will never become empty. Although very few of us will ever dare to publicly disagree with the age old saying known to all of us that, “Life is not a bed of roses, but a bed of thorns.” But what very often, we tend to mostly ignore is that even flowers thrive amidst thorns and look beautiful. Similarly, if we are optimistic, hard working and efficient, we can turn the adverse tides in our own favour and convert even an empty, useless life into a lively, active and purposeful one having all that we require to render it relevant. Moreover, our life never becomes empty at any stage. It is only and only our thinking which becomes empty or devoid of good, encouraging ideas. We should also not forget the oft repeated saying that, “There is nothing good or bad in this world, it is just the thinking which makes it so.” Therefore, it has also been said that, “As a man thinks, so shall he become.” Here it would be apt to quote the famous saying that, “An optimist sees an opportunity in every calamity, a pessimist sees a calamity in every opportunity.” All the great leaders and saints have been unanimous in believing that, “One who conquers the mind conquers the world.” We must always bear in mind that, “Every revolution was first a thought in one man’s mind.” So, it requires no mention that to make our life relevant and successful, we must have a very strong will power to do what we want to do in our life. Life becomes empty only when we cease act, forget our duties and responsibilities, don’t take due initiatives in seizing the opportunities that arise or in creating them where we can and waste time in such a manner which is unpardonable and, most important of all, when we take life as a burden and not as a challenge. Albert Einstein, the famous scientist whose name everybody remembers by heart was also of this view and stated very categorically that, “The man who regards life as meaningless is not merely unfortunate but almost disqualified for life.” Our life also becomes empty when our thinking is pessimistic, we tamely surrender ourselves to fate succumbing in front of difficulties, obstacles, problems, resign from facing the hardships of life and say in a defeatist tune that, “Whatever has to happen, will happen. Nobody can stop it and whatever God does is for our good only and no one can change it.” A man of principles will never compromise in this way with his ideals and priorities in life by blaming fate and God for everything. For all the failures and setbacks which we face in life, we must ourselves take the moral responsibility and work very hard again to transform them into stupendous success as many eminent personalities like Amitabh Bachhan, Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam and many others have demonstrated time and again by their exemplary brave acts which the whole world recognises now. Although all of us are familiar with the famous saying across which


we come regularly that, “Heaven helps those who help themselves” yet we normally prefer to ignore it. If we say to ourselves repeatedly that we are born in this world to lead and not to follow the beaten track, we will never have the inferiority complex that our life is empty which is lacking in all fronts. It goes without saying that, “Leaders don’t fall from heaven, they are born in this very world but what differentiates them from others is their level of self-confidence, courage, positive attitude, indomitable faith, presence of mind, always taking initiatives in whatever they do, having the iron will power to fight incessantly inspite of facing repeated failures, utmost dedication, sincerity, total involvement in any work which they take in their hands and most important of all having the thirst and curiosity to learn and know more about different things and all these qualities enhance their personality and infuse in them power and strength to emerge as a dynamic leader.” Every person in this world has got the potential of doing anything which he dreams provided he is determined and hard working. Nobody is born intelligent but some people right from their childhood days start utilising and exploiting each and every opportunity that comes their way, avoid all such distractions which obstruct them like stumbling blocks from achieving their goal and this is the single most important factor that makes them unrivalled, dynamic personalities and differentiates them from the rest of the crowd. To quote Samuel Butler : “Is life worth living ? This is a question for an embryo not for a man.” Whenever, God forbid, if anyone of us starts feeling our life to be empty, we must remember the above stated views of Samuel. Moreover, if we have loads and loads of enthusiasm and a good purpose in front of us by which not only we benefit but the entire humanity gains, our life can never become empty nor will we ever entertain such absurd thoughts in our mind ever in our life. Still if some doubt is left in the mind of someone then we would like to attract his attention to the following striking words penned by Longfellow :

“His brow is wet with honest sweat He earns what he can And looks the whole world in the face For he owes not to any man.” Our life can never become empty as long as we honestly work hard always and keep an optimistic frame of mind and banish all negative thoughts permanently in wilderness by achieving success which changes everything and breeds supreme confidence in the person who achieves it which is possible again only by our relentless, hard work in the right direction. In the irrevocable words Matthew : “The man who by his labour gets His bread, in independent state Who never begs and seldom eats Himself can fix or change his fate.” In our country, there has been an age old general tradition since the days of Lord Rama to indulge in blind heroworship by the common people. Majority of us have a blind faith on our leaders but lack of confidence in our own ability to achieve anything and have a general tendency of underestimating our own infinite capabilities. This is the prime reason why many times most of us feel our life is empty and we are just useless creatures. Here is where we are totally wrong or off the mark. It will not amount to an exaggeration if we say that, “The great are only great simply because people like us are always on our knees.” The time has certainly come for us to rise up and everything hinges on us alone in making our life empty or relevant. If we don’t consider ourselves to be less than any of the so–called ‘great leaders’ and instead see in ourself a ‘leader in the making’, life will never appear empty to us. Our motto should always and every time be what my best friend in life Sageer Khan once said that, “We are the best, the very best in this world, second to none in anyway but first and always the very first in all walks of life. No matter how many setbacks we face in our life, we will overcome them by our relentless hard work and unflinching faith in our own capabilities.” If we inculcate such winning temperament in our mind and heart, always think of success, dream of success and accordingly labour hard, there is no reason why our result will not be just positive.

In the wise and sagacious words of Leonardo Da Vinci, “As a well spent day brings happy sleep, so also life well used brings happy death.” How wise of the great thinker Pubilius Syrus to have said that, “Everyday should be passed as if it were to be our last.” We are born on this earth not to lead an empty life literally making no sense synonymous with early death but to do something constructive by working hard incessantly which will enable us to lead our life in a dignified manner and also in shaping our destiny according to our own fullest satisfaction. Whenever someone feels that his/her life is empty serving no purpose at all, he/she must repeat the following invaluable words in his her own mind that, “Life is real ! Life is earnest ! And the grave is not its goal. Goal is to struggle, struggle, struggle, For benefit of entire humanity.”

Continued from Page 1957

Saurav and Dipika Claim Title
India’s Saurav Ghosal and Dipika Pallikal bagged the Chennai Open Squash mixed doubles championship with an 11-8, 11-4 victory over Mohd. Ali Anwar Reda and Rochael Grinham in Chennai on March 11, 2010.

Meseret Defar Wins 3000 m Title
Ethiopia’s Meseret Defar clinched a record fourth consecutive women’s world indoor 3,000 m title on March 13, 2010 in Doha. It may be noted here that Defar won the 5000 m gold at the 2004 Athens Olympics and a bronze in 2008 Beijing Olympics. In this competition she clocked 8 minutes 51·17 second.

West Indies Wins Series
West Indies clinched a four wickets victory over Zimbabwe in a low-scoring four One Day International cricket match on March 12, 2010 in Kingstown (St. Vincent). Zimbabwe’s total was 141 in 48·2 overs which West Indies easily achieved in 34·3 overs for six wickets and emerged triumphant in the P.Darpan series.


⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ Inspiring Youth ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯

“Focussed working on preparing the optionals is the secret of my success.”
—Vipra Pandey Topper of Indian Forest Services, 2009 (2nd Rank)
‘Pratiyogita Darpan’ arranged an exclusive interview with Vipra Pandey who has been selected in Indian Forest Services 2009 and has achieved 2nd rank. He deserves all admiration and our heartiest congratulations on his splendid success. This important, thought provoking and highly inspiring interview is being presented here in its original form.
PD—Fantastic performance in the IFS exam., accept our heartiest congratulations on your splendid success. Vipra—Thanks. PD—To whom would you like to give the credit for your success ? Vipra—To all who involved themselves in my preparations-especially Mr. Vimal Singh of Photons IAS Academy–an invaluable and affectionate guide who reposed enormous confidence in me. My father has been the inspiration behind my success. PD—Did you read Civil Services toppers’ interviews in magazines ? Were you inspired by any of the toppers ? What was your perception about toppers ? Vipra—Yes. Toppers have to be extremely focussed, persevering and disciplined in their preparation and execution. PD— Describe the exact moment when you came to know about the importance of Civil Services ? Vipra—My father is a civil servant. The Civil Services provide diverse ways of serving the public. I was inspired by my father’s way of improving delivery systems and impacting society very positively. Hence, it was always of importance to me. PD—At what point of time did you make up your mind to choose these services as career option, particularly Forest Services ? Vipra—After completing post graduation in Mathematics I decided to make the Civil Services a career option. The IFS, being a premier service was a natural choice, particularly because of my optionals—Maths and Physics. PD— What was your first step when you were really serious about making a career in civil services ?

“I rate Pratiyogita Darpan magazine as the ‘BEST’. In PD Extra Issues Series on General Studies material is collated and well analysed, every aspirant must read it to get a good grasp on the exhaustive course. The Economics Issue of PD is very comprehensive. It is very useful for economics portion of the syllabus.” —Vipra Pandey
Vipra—I began to concentrate on Current Affairs and General Studies. I began to intensively read newspapers. PD—Were you confident of your success this time and how did you react to this special news ? Vipra—I hoped to do well. However, when the results were declared, I felt elated. PD— Was CSE a planned thing for you ? Had you thought of some time frame for this examination ? Vipra—I had just concentrated on preparing the full course for which the time never seemed enough. The course is very extensive so I had to work very systematically to ensure that I could cover the syllabus comprehensively. PD—Civil Services was this your ultimate goal or were you preparing for other career opportunities as well simultaneously ? Vipra—I am completing my Ph.D. in Mathematics, I have the option of going into academics. Joining the Civil Service is my present goal. PD— While the changing economic environment offers immense lucrative career opportunities across various sectors, still what kept you motivated towards Civil Services ? Vipra—The opportunity and ability to serve the people and make a positive difference to their lives. It is the Civil Services only where one can still work honestly and independently and deliver meaningfully. Lucrative career opportunities offer monetary incentives and the ‘good life’ for those who desire the same. PD—While making final choice for optional subject(s), what’s important and what’s not ? Share your thoughts and opinions. And what were your optional subjects ? Give the basis of selecting these. Vipra—While making the final choice—it is vital one has an in depth knowledge of one’s optionals. I selected Maths because I have specialized in it and have a special affinity and passion for it. Physics was my second optional because it is the closest to maths. Confidence, while appearing for the exams, comes only from knowing the subject and being sure that one will be able to answer any question asked and the type of paper set becomes inconsequential. PD—In how many attempts have you achieved this success ? How do you visualize your preparation/ previous attempts ? Did you keep the same optional subjects in all your attempts ? Vipra—This was my second attempt. My optional papers were the same. I had not prepared General Studies at all previously and natu-


rally scored abysmally. This time I gave equal weightage to General Studies also. PD— Can you list a few things which your preparation involved on a day-to-day basis ? Vipra—Observing a strict schedule. Reading—the newspaper daily—Ensuring that all the notes I had prepared were concise. Ensuring that the answers could be completed in the allotted time. PD—What was your strategy for optional subjects ? Vipra—I had no special strategy for the optional subjects. My aim was just to prepare the whole syllabus so as to enable me to answers questions of a reasonable level of difficulty. I didn’t study from the guides available in the market but used only the classical texts for both the subjects. For e.g., in Physics I extensively read the Feynman Lectures.

Humanities also competing, number of aspirants is also much larger. PD—Does the educational, financial and demographic status of the family of an aspirant have any impact on the preparation ? Vipra—No. Any good student can succeed. PD—In your opinion what role do these Competition Magazines play when you are preparing for an examination like Civil Services ? Vipra—They play a very important role. One can prepare the General Studies and current affairs better. They help in more holistic preparation for the exam. PD—If given to ask as to what should be the qualities of a standard magazine for Competitive Examinations, what would be your answer ? Vipra—A standard magazine should discuss current affairs and political matters in a neutral, objective manner. It should eschew jargon and concisely update an aspirants knowledge. PD does it well-that’s why it is a popular choice. PD—As per a reputed survey report out recently, Pratiyogita Darpan (Hindi) is the largest read and the only Career and Competition magazine in top 4 magazines in India. How do you rate Pratiyogita Darpan ? Vipra—As the best. PD—Please give your comments on the PD Extra Issues Series on ‘General Studies’ and a few optional subjects ? Vipra—Material is collated and well analysed and every aspirant must read it to get a good grasp on the exhaustive course. The Economics issue of PD is very comprehensive, it

Name—Vipra Pandey Father’s Name—Shri Vijay Shanker Pandey Mother’s Pandey Name—Smt. Smita

is very useful for economics portion of the syllabus. PD—Did you refer to Pratiyogita Darpan–Year Book ? What is your opinion about the contents, size and the time of publishing ? Vipra—No. PD—How would you rate Pratiyogita Darpan on the scale of quality from 1-10 ? What more do you expect from Pratiyogita Darpan. (Kindly specify separately for : Regular Issues, Extra Issues, and Year Book.) Vipra—Pratiyogita Darpan– Extra Issues the Economics Issue is especially useful. PD—Your favourite magazine is in English is completing 4 years of publication. Tell us, how did you find PD English ? Vipra—It is very good. PD—What is the secret of your success ? Vipra—Focussed working on preparing the whole course for the optionals. Did not neglect General Studies.

Personal Qualities
Strong Point—Mathematics Weak Point—Obstinate Hobbies—Watching Television Sport on

Date of Birth—23-12-1982 Educational Qualifications— M.A./M. Sc.—2003-05 B.A./B.Sc.—2000-03 (82·3%) 12th—(2000) ISC, M.H.S., Kanpur (88%) 10th—(1998) ICSE, M.H.S., Kanpur (93%).

PD—List some of the Magazines, Newspapers, Books etc. which you read for ‘General Knowledge’ preparation. Vipra—Newspapers : The Hindu, Magazine : P.D. PD—In your opinion at which Educational Level should one start preparing for Civil Services and what should be the minimum period of time required to prepare for Civil Services Examinations. Vipra—After completing post graduation, one year is more than adequate. PD—Are you preparing for IAS as well ? If yes, in your opinion how different is it from Indian Forest Service exam ? Vipra—Yes. The paper is slightly tougher. With students from the

PD—Any suggestions/advice you would like to give to future aspirants. Vipra—Make proper planning and do hardwork to complete your syllabus. Do proper practice before entering the examination hall. Thank you very much and wishing you all the best for your future endeavours.

By going over my optional. I kept reading current affairs and concentrated on issues relating to the environment and forestry. I got the board of Mr. I.M.G. Khan. My interview lasted for half an hour. The interview was like a friendly conversation and didn’t feel like an interview at all. The questions were mainly to do with my academic background, why I was choosing govt. service over academics. There were very a few questions on mathematics, its relevance to forestry. Questions were mainly opinion based like how do you rate our country’s performance over the last 60 years.

Time Management
I could not complete my Physics paper. Hence, I began to ruthlessly cut my answers according to the time limit. But Physics is very good subject for Indian Forest as well as P.Darpan Civil Services Examination.


Defence Article

Indian Ocean and India’s Evolving Maritime Strategy
—Sourabh Jyoti Sharma
“The Indian Ocean is the key to the Seven Seas. In the 21st Century, the destiny of the world will be decided up on its waters.” —Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan in his famous work The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660-1783 (1890) The famous US Navy Admiral A. T. Mahan is best known as the proponent of ‘Sea Power’ as the ultimate key to the transformation of any country as the Great Power on the world stage. His vision has guided the triumphant saga of US Navy in many wars and its subsequent emergence as the Great Power. Today US holds well its hard earned Superpowerdom safely in spite of many ‘declinist’ doomsayers, thanks to its capability of naval power projections through the strategic US commands across the globe; which no other powers on earth can ever dream of or achieve. Therefore, his observation with regard to the strategic importance of the Indian Ocean holds equally true for India if it wants to become a Great Power with Blue Water Naval capability. It is worthy to be mentioned here that Indian Ocean is the only ocean in the world which is named after a Nation i.e. India. In the wake of China’s statement that “Indian Ocean is not necessarily India’s Ocean”, it augurs well for India’s strategic community to augment not only India’s ongoing naval capabilities but also evolve a futuristic Maritime Policy for securing our legitimate predominance over it to protect our vital strategic and economic interests. This is also because of China’s well laid out ‘Strings of Pearls’ strategy which solely aimed at ‘encirclement of India’ and curtailing India’s strategic influence in the Indian Ocean Region (IOR) and its littoral states. After the WW-II and the collapse of the Soviet Union, the centre of gravity has shifted to the Indian Ocean with predominant USA, resurgent Russia, normalizing Japan, rising China and emerging India–all interacting in this strategic arena. In view of the globalization and the expansion of industries, energy and sea transportation are required to link the Indian Ocean with the Gulf region


where 60% of the oil reserves are located. Hence, 65,000 merchants and 380 oil tankers traverse through the well defined choke points of Hormuz, Babel, Mandeb, Malacca and the Cape of Good Hope. It is estimated that $ 200 billion worth of oil passes Hormuz and 9·8 million barrels sail through the Malacca Straits, primarily to Japan and China. Moreover, from 36 million containers in the 80s, the container traffic has increased to 300 million. Hence, nations need to preserve and protect the sea lanes of communication (SLOC) as it is also their vital interests in space and environment (climate change) with 25,000 Indian crew serving in Flags of Convenience which are owned, registered, crewed and insured from different countries.

Indian Ocean and the Rising Great Power Game
The increased ocean activity in the Indian Ocean which has well defined choke points has attracted the free flow of lethal arms and sophisticated communication systems for use by pirates as well as terrorists, particularly in the Horn of Africa near the Gulf of Aden where the collapsed state of Somalian state has led to increase of poverty, unemployment etc. that has led to the Somalis to dabble in this easy and lucrative game to earn quick bucks as ransom pay-offs. It has become a breeding ground for Islamic terrorism and robbery and has witnessed the forced detention of many cargo and oil tankers of many nations. The Indian Navy with the help of its MARCOS (Marine Commandos) has busted several such Somali pirate gangs but even such hot pursuit approach has failed to deter the frequent occurrences of their activities taking the advantage of the lawless situation back home and the freedom given on movements over the high seas by the 3rd UN Law of the Sea Convention (1982). Taking the excuse of fighting sea piracy, now Chinese Navy (PLAN) has also sent its naval vessels near the Gulf of Aden. This is perhaps the prelude to their vocal and aggressive designs across IOR and challenging the hitherto preponderance of Indian Navy. India, therefore, must be cautious over such developments which if not properly addressed may lead to shrinking of India’s strategic influence across the IOR and losing of

its ‘strategic space’ to its arch rival China. There appears to be an influx of sophisticated weapons with the terrorist group of Al-Qaeda, Abu Sayyaf, Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaish-eMohammad operating mostly from Pakistan and utilizing the piracy infrastructure to attain their terrorist objectives. It seems that they too are becoming aware of Mahan’s ‘Sea Power’ doctrine as more and more terrorist activities and attacks become sea-borne as ably illustrated by the infamous 26/11 attack on India’s Mumbai. In addition, sea transport has been utilized by China and North Korea for sending missiles and WMDs to Pakistan, Libya and other countries as was revealed when ships were searched in Indian Ocean ports. The security environment of this strategic arena reflects the country’s political, economic and security concerns ranging from the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea to the Cape of Good Hope and right across the Indian Ocean to the Malacca Straits. The strategic significance of the Malacca Strait which has emerged as world’s busiest sea trade route (over more than 70% of world’s sea trade transactions) finds its due consonance in India’s Look East Policy (LEP, since 1992 onwards), whose security is vital to India’s vital economic and military interests in the vast Indian Ocean Region (IOR) area. A leading Indian strategic thinker K. M. Panikkar in his book “India and the Indian Ocean : An Essay on the Influence of Sea Power on Indian History”, beautifully underlines this, thus: “Gulf of Malacca is like the mouth of a crocodile, the Peninsula of Malaya (now Malaysia) being the upper and the jutting end of Sumatra the lower jaw. The entry to the Gulf can be controlled by the Nicobars and the narrow end is dominated by the islands of Singapore.” It, therefore, holds tremendous importance for India to safeguard its varied shades of interests in India’s vast Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), so that Indian Ocean remains India’s Ocean in future too.

at the Ministry of External Affairs and Defence Ministry as well as India’s core strategic think tank have risen to the occasion for evolving a robust, comprehensive and futuristic Maritime/Naval Strategy to thwart China’s ambitious containment of India game plan via its nefarious String of Pearls strategy. China is highly vulnerable at the sea and if India developed naval capacity to be able to block China’s energy supplies that traverses through the Malacca Straits, it can easily tackle the imminent security threat posed by the Chinese naval capacity. China understands this fatal weakness of it at sea, therefore it is building various ports and dockyards as ‘pearls’ at Gwadar (Pakistan), Hambantota (Sri Lanka), Sittwe and Coco Island (Myanmar), Chittagong (Bangladesh) etc. India has also responded by strengthening its Tri-Services Strategic Command at the Andaman and Nicobar Island with deployment of Sukhois and building several airstrips across the Island. It has also built several listening posts in Maldives and Mauritius as well as sharpening its charm offensives via defence aid to the various littoral states of the IOR region in a bid to scuttle growing Chinese clout in this highly volatile and strategically important region.

India’s Bold Initiatives to Secure its Strategic Space in the Indian Ocean Region
● Guided by PM Nehru’s observation, “To be secure on land, we have to be supreme at sea”; India since 1990s has been steadily augmenting its naval capacities from a moribund state to a resilient and resurgent navy in the world. Both quantitatively and qualitatively, Indian Navy has undergone changes via rapid modernization and additions of force multipliers like aircraft carriers (the only power in South Asia to have it China does not have one but will be building it by 2015), stealth frigates (Project 17-A), destroyers, Sukhois (naval version), MiG-29K, BrahMos Cruise Missiles, Sagarika (K-15), Arihant nuclear powered submarine, oil refueling tankers etc. Unveiled its first Blue Water Naval Doctrine in 2004 and

Evolving India’s Maritime Strategy
It is heartening to note that after years of deep slumber the mandarins ●


building strategically located Karwar naval facility that talks of Indian Navy’s transition from a territorial or Brown Water Navy to an oceanic or Blue Water Navy. The latest Naval Doctrine (2009) talks about strengthening coastal security post 26/11 and building operational synergy with Coast Guard that has been now placed under Indian Navy’s command. To this effect a Joint Operation Centre (JOC) has been worked out at INS Angre near Navi Mumbai with Aerostat radars which will keep a hawk eye in the entire stretch of India’s western coast to thwart any seaborne terror attacks on India’s vital oil and nuclear assets in future. ● Indian Navy since 2007 has been organizing Indian Ocean Naval Symposium (IONS) with friendly countries to brainstorm over various security issues. It has also established Indian Maritime Foundation as its exclusive strategic think tank to provide it with important inputs and strategic vision with action plan for the future. Indian Navy has undertaken joint operations and mock drills with other friendly navies and since 1997 undertaken the multination Milan sea exercises that include navies of US, Japan, Australia, Singapore, Malaysia etc. To fight the ever growing threat of sea piracy, it has established Task Force 150 with cooperation of navies of 15 countries that will work with coordination and support of Task Force 151 of the US Central Command (US CENTCOM) at Diego Gracia Island. The Naval bases and shipyards are being modernized at Mumbai, Karwar, Goa and Cochin on the West Coast and Visakhapatnam, Chennai and Kolkata on the East Coast. India is building Scorpion submarine with French company DNES at Visakhapatnam and that recently the port facility has been handed over to the Ministry of Defence (MOD) from the Ministry of Shipping. In future the Cochin shipyard (India’s largest shipyard) may also be handed over to the MOD too. It has signaled India’s ambitious

indigenization programme of building naval vessels on its own commensurate with its selfreliance in core defence technologies across the board. ● India has planned to expand her fleet to 140 warships in the near future of which the majority will be designated ocean-going for power projection and humanitarian missions. The two fleets will be built around two carriers based task groups after the commissioning of the 55,000 ton carriers INS Vikramaditya (former Groshkov) and the indigenous designed 37,500 ton Air Defence Ship (ADS) being constructed at the Cochin Shipyard which will be commissioned between 2012 and 2014. India has also been modernizing its submarine arm to face China’s undersea submarine facility near Hainan Island in South China Sea with Russian Akula and Amur class lethal submarine and also building Arihant class indigenous potent nuclear submarines.

Evaluation and Conclusion
A. T. Mahan’s prediction that destiny of the World in the 21st Century would be decided on the waters of the Indian Ocean has been slowly but steadily coming true. Whilst we should always remain nonaligned, this cannot alter the fact that the Indian Ocean will remain India’s lifeline, not merely for foreign trade, but also for good relations with all the countries around this ocean. Today, our Navy has matured and grown in stature to levels, where we can now rate ourselves amongst the world’s best, with the capacity to undertake all tasks assigned by the Indian Government and even internationally with the UN. Our roles in building bridges with neighbouring countries and the many other Navies operating in the Indian Ocean have brought about many changes in our outlook and thought process. An important component of our foreign policy has remained that we shall never be the aggressor or the first to attack and use force, but use our military force only to defend our territorial integrity and vital economic and security interests in the vast oceanic region by protecting our vital and pivotal SLOC and other enlightened national interests elsewhere.

India’s economic stature has grown tremendously and with new emerging frontiers and deep sea mining coming to fore within our EEZ, we have to ensure a balanced navy with a judicious mix of operational platforms. This includes aircraft carriers which are ideal to project seapower in our area of operations and have a mobility of over 600 nautical miles in one day. Their fighter aircraft provide air defence and shore-attack capability and their helicopters and those of the accompanying fleet ships the Air-borne Early Warning (AEW) and anti-submarine capability. The growing strategic importance of Indian Ocean to changing global and economic development and sustainability has been highlighted, because of the inadequate international architecture to deal with more complex security environment at global and regional levels in this strategic arena of the 21st century so that it can be translated into India’s century. If we want peace, we have to be preparing for war. As Thucydides, early Realist thinker and author of the famous ‘Peloponnesian War’ between Athens and Sparta that lasted for 18 years with the victory of militarily strong Sparta had beautifully observed “The strong will do what they can and the weak will suffer what they must”. There is no alternative to hard power combined with soft power and being a Hard State (as opposed to present parasitic, disastrous and self defeating posture of being a Soft State) in an anarchical world power structure (as observed by Neo or Structural Realist Kenneth Waltz) where might is still the right. We must not forget that the world and its resources belong to the strong and mighty with world’s high podiums belonging to the meek and weak for giving their futile running moralistic commentary and do the dishes while others relish their plateful of foods. What, then, India wants to do for herself is as crystal clear as a white pearl underneath India’s Indian Ocean and its picturesque maritime water front where Mahan’s prophetic prophecy has made a pearl white deja vu. Are we ready for the next Great Game in the Indian Ocean? NB : (With authentic factual inputs from Indian Express’s Indian Navy Special Supplements on Navy P.Darpan Day on Dec. 4, 2009)


Sociological Article

Empowerment of Tribal Women in India
—Dr. Ram Naresh Thakur
The man has basic cultural and psychological tendency inherited in him to dominate the woman. This is almost common for majority of the men. The same tendency is seen in the tribal men towards the women. The tribal women are the victims of obscurantist traditions, customs, prejudices and superstitions. Although the level of awareness of women and thus tribal women also vary from person to person, regionto-region, class-to-class and community-to-community. It becomes very important to study about the degree of equality and freedom enjoyed by tribal women in shaping and sharing of power and in the value given by society to this role to these women. Recognition of women’s equality in the Indian constitution (on the basis of sex, race, caste, colour etc.) is the radical departure from the inherited norms of traditional Indian society but also from the political norms of most advanced countries of that time. Empowerment actually is a process that addresses all sources and structures of power. It is not enough to provide only education to women but they require access to the labour market and employment also. It will however not transform any gender and caste relations. The process has to work on an individual as well as on a collective level. Women have to be organized and acknowledged as a political force also. The process has to challenge both gender and social power relations. It is a process that is much about education, but does not come out of school books. It is a knowledge which has to be expanded. More importantly people should start thinking critically and questioning it. It generates new notions about power itself. Otherwise when women enter the public structures, given the existing ideology to operate with the so called male notions about power which is presented as domination, patronage etc. Education is a milestone for women empowerment because it enables them to respond to opportunities to challenge their traditional roles and to change their lives. Similar ideas were expressed and supported in a International conference in 1994. It was said that education is one of the most important means empowering women with the knowledge, skills and self confidence necessary to participate fully in the development process. Educationing women benefits the whole society. It has a more significant impact on poverty and development than man’s education. It is also one of the most influential factors in importing child health, reducing infant mortality, availing malnutrition in children, providing good education to them. The schedule tribe population forms 9 per cent of the country’s population, but the proportion among those displaced by development projects is as high as 40 per cent. This reflects on the engineering bias of planning to have a dam first with little concern for human being, his society, his economy and his environment. There is disaggrevative data of tribal women on life expectancy at birth, adult literacy rate, gross enrolment ratio (primary, secondary, tertiary) and earned income share from which we can calculate the gender development index of tribal women. Moreover, we also require disaggregative data of tribal women on percentage seats in Parliament and other local bodies, number of posts held as administrators and managers, in professional and technical workers and earned income share and thereby, we may be able to calculate gender empowerment measure index of tribal women. Generally, higher the GDI value, higher is the standard of living of tribal women. In the similar jargon, the higher is the GEM value, the higher is the social and political empowerment of tribal women. The above methodology is needed a separate data centre exclusively for tribals. The centre will analyse and build a model for development and empowerment with the help of data on GDI and GEM for the country as a whole and for the states for comparative analysis. Also, they will forecast the impact of the model, Present social empowerment status of tribal women is as follows : low health care access, high rate of MMR, IMR, diseases in the health. Gross enrolment ratio of ST girls is 92·25 in primary level, 40·78 at middle level, and 48·7 is the drop out of ST girls in primary level, 81·2 in secondary level. They achieved BA level at 1·38 percent and 1·1 per cent in professional field and 1·4 per cent in B. Ed. courses respectively in 2003-04. The political empowerment of tribal women through panchayati raj institution is the best way but a survey stated that the factors of motivation of incentives for tribal women in filling up nomination are amazing in the sense that the influencing agencies such as family members, kinsmen, tribal community, panchayat officials, party workers, NGOs and candidates’ own desire constitute 18 per cent, 19 per cent, 17 per cent 8 per cent 24 per cent, 10 per cent and 4 per cent respectively to nominate them in panchayats. Hence, the motivation of tribal women in political empowerment is barely minimum at panchayat level and also in other higher bodies. The betterment or empowerment of tribal women needs some institutional mechanism which require to form commission, board, councils, cooperatives, women’s resource centre, mahila mandal, and so on. The tribal women’s relativity better position is reflected, not just in the sex ratio but in their greater mobility, relatively greater freedom to decide whether or whom to marry, whether to take employment and greater access to divorce and to remarriage as windows and divorcees. These women are much more assertive and able to make the best options available to them than most non-tribal women, rural or even urban.


A tribal family is quite distinct from a rural family or urban family. There is absence of modernization in tribal society. Traditionalism is the quintessence of a tribal family, there is a traditional division of labour in a tribal with distinct fields of activities for members of the family. The tribal community has its own traditional history of migration and settlement. They are very much sensitive towards their culture. In this community, men and women share the social life on equal footings. Though, educationally backward, tribals exhibit a remarkable advanced attitude towards individual in the society. Tribal women belonging to age group of 20 years and above are illiterate. The young girls below 15 years have gone to school for 1-4 years depending upon the monetary strength of their parents. The married and senior women (more than 20 years of age) are not educated due to one or more of the different reasons. There was no school in their villages. There was lack of awareness about the need for education. Parents had financial constraints or their education was not considered important. Girls are married young; hence, their education is also discontinued. Those who go to far off schools discontinue their education at about 13-14 years of age because parents feel it is not safe for the girls to walk such long distances. Education facility in village, there is facility near by. The nearest school is a government primary school. However, the villagers are not satisfied with the running and the education level of the school. Hence, they send their children to St. Jones Mission School, Dakaita, Mother Teresa’s school, Lalmatia and Latmatia high school. Male and female children are considered equal. Both are educated as per the economic strength of their parents. The tribal community has its own background of migration and settlement. They are much sensitive towards their language and culture. As a result, they try to retain it in an original form even in the complexities of modernization. It is a queer thing to investigate anything like status and dignity in the tribal community. Because such idea is virtually absent

in the society. The characteristic feature of tribal community is that no body seeks one’s status in the society, but keep’s an eye on any anti social activity aimed against social solidarity. Here men and women share the social life on equal footings. Though educationally backward, tribal exhibit a remarkable advanced attitude towards individual in the society. It is an age role convention for men and women to have equal status in the society. This can be understood from the popular tribe saying—“If you understand women (here wife) you will be able to keep the balance between nature and power in your march of life.” Another tribe saying—“left hand is equally powerful as the right one.” The term legate stands for women in tribal society. A very large majority of the tribal (almost 90 per cent) are engaged in agriculture, their other economic activities are gathering postural, handicraft, trade and commerce. So we must provide them some innovative work force for developmental programme. There is a great exploitation of tribal women, so the acts like ‘Rural Land Ceiling Act’, ‘Tribal Land Transfer Act’ should be followed well and some extra acts need to be formed. In the working force, 55 per cent are tribal men and 37 per cent are tribal women. Generally, tribal women work in entrepreneur, unpaid family worker, regular salaried worker, public works and as casual labour which constitute 9·2 per cent, 39·2 per cent, 2·6 per cent, 0·3 per cent and 48·7 per cent respectively. In agriculture, the tribal women are engaged in raising bees, production of honey or silk, farming rabbits, hunting, growing timber processing, conserving forests, operating tree nurseries, logging of producing wood in the rough, gathering leaves and other forest materials, forestry and services. In manufacturing, the tribal women are producing oils, vanaspati, animal fats, oil cakes, bidi, textiles, tapes, coir, ropes of fibre, tanning leather works, sawing wood, products of bamboo, pulp, paper, newsprint, chemicals and pharmaceuticals and botanical

products. They are engaged in trade in hides, skin, wood a n d wood products. In tourism, they work in restaurants, cafe, travel agencies, tour operators etc. Even, they work in indigenous practicing activities in Ayurveda and Unani etc. According to percentage of activities of tribal women, agriculture and forestry constitute 1·0 per cent of women earning 40 per cent of gender share. In manufacturing, they constitute 2 per cent and earn 46 per cent, in tourism they are 0·1 per cent and earn 24 per cent share and in medicine they are 0·7 per cent earning 84 per cent of gender share. In addition to that, the percentages of work force of tribal women in forest related activities are as follows : 1·70 per cent in agriculture, 2·3 per cent in manufacturing, 0·10 pe rcent in tourism and 0·60 per cent in medicine respectively. The migrant women and girls work in towns as domestic servant, daily labour, industrial worker, and in private services and earn only Rs. 1239 and Rs. 936 monthly respectively. Their housing, water and healthcare are poor and off and on. They are sexually exploited by employees, supervisors, contractors, shopkeepers, moneylenders, and neighbours. Only 0·8 per cent tribal women migrate for education. They face volatility of employment, change in the nature of work, increase in unpaid work, crisis in livelihood in agriculture, massive increase in women’s migration of work. Thus by all means it is evident that the tribal women are neglected by both the government and the society. The government has to deal with their problems and agonies. Many acts and laws safeguarding their rights and facilities are needed to be framed. Only then the democratic responsibility of the government becomes fulfilled. The society also has a high regard for them and to care for their dignity and status in the society. They have to be granted proper education, health care, social regard, employment, opportunity to gain income and political empowerP.Darpan ment.


Legal Article

Declaration of Assets by Judges of Supreme Court (SC) and High Courts (HCs)
—Sanjeev Sirohi
Titled “The Judges (Declaration of Assets and Liabilities) Act, 2009”, the bill will guarantee that the assets of SC and HC judges are kept confidential, except when the CJI thinks otherwise. If this bill goes through, it will be a very big record that SC and HC judges will be the only people exempted from public scrutiny of their assets, a privilege which has not been given even to the President and the P.M. When the people are entitled to know as to what the President of India owns in his/her personal capacity, then why should they grope in dark about assets of judges ? When district judges declare assets then why exemption for higher judiciary who should be rather more transparent ? There should be a uniform law for all judges because this will certainly not send the right signal among the common people and this is more so true because in last few decades, very serious instances of corruption cases involving higher judiciary have come to the fore especially in recent times which we all know. The Declaration of Judges Assets Bill, 2009 is likely to be presented in Parliament. It is for the first time in 60 years that judges, assets declaration will become mandatory. The Union Cabinet has collectively approved the Judges Assets Bill mandating CJI as well as other judges of the SC and HCs to declare their assets and those of their dependants each year. CJI KG Balakrishnan said that, “Under the proposed Judges Assets Bill, judges of the higher judiciary failing to declare their assets or providing a false declaration would be deemed to be a misconduct. Misconduct is a ground to remove a judge. The assets of not only judges but also their dependants would be declared.” The Campaign for Judicial Accountability and Reform has called for effective consultation before the proposed Bill making it mandatory for HC and SC judges to declare their assets was finalised. The statement endorsed by Justice Rajinder Sachar, senior lawyers Fali Nariman, Shanti Bhushan and many others said that because of the widespread outcry against the refusal of the SC and the CJI to provide information on judges’ assets (pursuant to a Full Court Resolution and Code of Conduct), the government announced that it was preparing a Bill. The statement said, “Experience with the existing Code of Conduct (which, though nonstatutory, was unanimously adopted by the Chief Justices’ Conference in 1997) has shown that declaration of assets to the Chief Justice alone is unsatisfactory. Most Chief Justices have not looked into them critically, and it is virtually impossible for any Chief Justice to do so, given their preoccupation with judicial and administrative matters.” Referring to the reasons cited by judges for withholding public disclosure such as its misuse by disgruntled litigants to indulge in mudslinging, inability to defend themselves unlike politicians, and absence of clear rules and format for disclosure, the statement said : “None of these reasons seem strong enough to justify the proposed secrecy. The only positive feature is that non-declaration of assets by judges has been made a violation of the Code of Conduct, which is proposed to be made actionable under the Judges (Inquiry) Bill, 2006, through an in-house judges’ committee.” Here it would be pertinent to quote TU Mehta, former Chief Justice of Himachal Pradesh : “The importance of judicial accountability is essential to a democratic polity. It will help preserve the judiciary’s honour and popular respect for it. However, that draft law on judges’ assets allows for the disclosure of such assets to only the chief justice and the government. In my opinion, that condition would militate against the very notion of judicial independence, since SC and HC judges are accountable to neither the government of the day nor to the chief justice. They derive their authority from the Constitution and are responsible only to that selfsame general public in whose interest they work, who will be kept out of the loop by the draft law. Now, the question may arise as to how to guard against unscrupulous or dissatisfied litigants trying to malign a judge if such transparency is legislated. I believe there will be no problem if that transparency is limited by law to only the official tenure of every judge.” The eminent jurist Fali S. Nariman who had earlier turned down the request of Delhi HC to be its amicus curiae to assist it in deciding the SC appeal against the Central Information Commission’s order asking it to furnish information on whether judges were disclosing assets details to the CJI lamented that, “For judges of the highest court to litigate as to whether or not they should disclose their assets is as bad as judges going to the court on whether it was lawful for income tax to be deducted from the salaries they get! We have good judges, but we need more judicial wisdom. The former CJI, Justice J. S. Verma in whose tenure the Full Court of the SC passed a historic resolution on May 7, 1997 asking judges to declare their assets stated : “The resolution was not meant to achieve some kind of private satisfaction. Infact, after the resolution was passed, I even wrote to the PM, recommending that the Government bring in some kind of legislation to ensure that the SC resolution was given the effect of law. And, why not ? A judge’s life should be an open book. It

Continued on Page 1982


● ● ●

India agrees to allow inspectors from the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA), the United Nations’ nuclear watchdog group, access to its civilian nuclear program. Till March 2006, India promised to place fourteen of its twenty-two power reactors under IAEA safeguards permanently. These include domestically built plants, which India has not been willing to safeguard before now. India has promised that all future civilian thermal and breeder reactors shall be placed under IAEA safeguards permanently. However, the Indian Prime Minister said that New Delhi “retains the sole right to determine such reactors as civilian. This means that India will not be constrained in any way in building future nuclear facilities, whether civilian or military, as per our national requirements.” Military facilities and stockpiles of nuclear fuel that India has produced up to now will be exempted from inspections or safeguards. India commits to signing an Additional Protocol (PDF)–which allows more intrusive IAEA inspections–of its civilian facilities. India agrees to continue its moratorium on nuclear weapons testing. India commits to strengthening the security of its nuclear arsenals. India works toward negotiating a Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty (FMCT) with the United States banning the production of fissile material for weapons purposes. India agrees to prevent the spread of enrichment and reprocessing technologies to states that don’t possess them and to support international non-proliferation efforts. US companies will be allowed to build nuclear reactors in India and provide nuclear fuel for its civilian energy program. [An approval by the Nuclear Suppliers Group lifting the ban on India has also cleared the way for other countries to make nuclear fuel and technology sales to India.]

Issue of Kashmir
United States’s interest in South Asia focuses on ongoing tensions between India and Pakistan rooted in unfinished business from the 1947 partition, competing claims to the Kashmir region, and, in more recent years, ‘cross-border terrorism’ in both Kashmir and major Indian cities and more recently on Mumbai on 26/11. In the interests of regional stability, the United States strongly encourages an ongoing India-Pakistan peace initiative and remains concerned about the potential for conflict over Kashmiri sovereignty to cause open hostilities between these two nucleararmed countries. The United States seeks to curtail the proliferation of nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles in South Asia. Both India and Pakistan have resisted external pressure to sign the major non-proliferation treaties. In 1998, the two countries conducted nuclear tests that evoked international condemnation. Proliferation-related restrictions on US aid were triggered, and then later lifted through congressional-executive cooperation from 1998 to 2000. Remaining sanctions on India (and also on Pakistan) were removed in late 2001.

mendations on how the public and private sectors can work together to strengthen economic and commercial ties between the two countries, stimulate innovation, spur job creation, and promote sustainable inclusive growth. ● Launch of a new Agriculture Dialogue and agreed on a Memorandum of Understanding on Agricultural Cooperation and Food Security that will set a path-way to robust cooperation between the governments in crop forecasting, management and market information; regional and global food security through the L’Aquila Food Security Initiative; science, technology, and education; nutrition; and expanding private sector investment in agriculture. The United States and India expect cooperation under the agreement to expand access to knowledge to improve productivity, safety, and nutritional quality of food crops; to strengthen market institutions and foster growth of agribusiness investment and improve food security and access to adequate quantities and quality of food, particularly for women and young children. Renewed bilateral cooperation in the field of intellectual property through a Memorandum of Understanding between the Department of Commerce’s United States Patent and Trademark Office and Indian Ministry of Commerce and Industry. The memorandum and action plan will focus on human resource development, capacity building and public awareness programs in intellectual property protection and enforcement.

Economic Ties
India is in the midst of major and rapid economic expansion. Many US business interests view India as a lucrative market and candidate for foreign investment. The United States supports India’s efforts to transform its once quasi-socialist economy through fiscal reform and market opening. Since 1991, India has taken major steps in this direction and coalition governments have kept the country on a general path of reform, yet there is US concern that such movement is slow, sluggish and inconsistent. However, recently they have agreed to move on many important issues. ● Meeting of the United States— India CEO Forum brought together leaders of the US and Indian business communities— approximately ten from each side across various industry sectors—with senior government officials [on November 23]. Forum members conveyed their interest in working on recom●

India’s economic leverage with the US is important in some respects, because of the size and growth trajectory of our economy. However, our influence may be constrained by the fact that sovereign funds based in the Middle East and China have large shareholdings in American corporations in strategic sectors including the financial segment. The US is likely to go slow on outsourcing, international free trade and economic integration


● ● ●

India agrees to allow inspectors from the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA), the United Nations’ nuclear watchdog group, access to its civilian nuclear program. Till March 2006, India promised to place fourteen of its twenty-two power reactors under IAEA safeguards permanently. These include domestically built plants, which India has not been willing to safeguard before now. India has promised that all future civilian thermal and breeder reactors shall be placed under IAEA safeguards permanently. However, the Indian Prime Minister said that New Delhi “retains the sole right to determine such reactors as civilian.” This means that India will not be constrained in any way in building future nuclear facilities, whether civilian or military, as per our national requirements.” Military facilities and stockpiles of nuclear fuel that India has produced up to now will be exempted from inspections or safeguards. India commits to signing an Additional Protocol (PDF)–which allows more intrusive IAEA inspections–of its civilian facilities. India agrees to continue its moratorium on nuclear weapons testing. India commits to strengthening the security of its nuclear arsenals. India works toward negotiating a Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty (FMCT) with the United States banning the production of fissile material for weapons purposes. India agrees to prevent the spread of enrichment and reprocessing technologies to states that don’t possess them and to support international non-proliferation efforts. US companies will be allowed to build nuclear reactors in India and provide nuclear fuel for its civilian energy program. [An approval by the Nuclear Suppliers Group lifting the ban on India has also cleared the way for other countries to make nuclear fuel and technology sales to India.]

Issue of Kashmir
United States’s interest in South Asia focuses on ongoing tensions between India and Pakistan rooted in unfinished business from the 1947 partition, competing claims to the Kashmir region, and, in more recent years, ‘cross-border terrorism’ in both Kashmir and major Indian cities and more recently on Mumbai on 26/11. In the interests of regional stability, the United States strongly encourages an ongoing India-Pakistan peace initiative and remains concerned about the potential for conflict over Kashmiri sovereignty to cause open hostilities between these two nucleararmed countries. The United States seeks to curtail the proliferation of nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles in South Asia. Both India and Pakistan have resisted external pressure to sign the major non-proliferation treaties. In 1998, the two countries conducted nuclear tests that evoked international condemnation. Proliferation-related restrictions on US aid were triggered, and then later lifted through congressional-executive cooperation from 1998 to 2000. Remaining sanctions on India (and also on Pakistan) were removed in late 2001.

mendations on how the public and private sectors can work together to strengthen economic and commercial ties between the two countries, stimulate innovation, spur job creation, and promote sustainable inclusive growth. ● Launch of a new Agriculture Dialogue and agreed on a Memorandum of Understanding on Agricultural Cooperation and Food Security that will set a path-way to robust cooperation between the governments in crop forecasting, management and market information; regional and global food security through the L’Aquila Food Security Initiative; science, technology, and education; nutrition; and expanding private sector investment in agriculture. The United States and India expect cooperation under the agreement to expand access to knowledge to improve productivity, safety, and nutritional quality of food crops; to strengthen market institutions and foster growth of agribusiness investment and improve food security and access to adequate quantities and quality of food, particularly for women and young children. Renewed bilateral cooperation in the field of intellectual property through a Memorandum of Understanding between the Department of Commerce’s United States Patent and Trademark Office and Indian Ministry of Commerce and Industry. The memorandum and action plan will focus on human resource development, capacity building and public awareness programs in intellectual property protection and enforcement.

Economic Ties
India is in the midst of major and rapid economic expansion. Many US business interests view India as a lucrative market and candidate for foreign investment. The United States supports India’s efforts to transform its once quasi-socialist economy through fiscal reform and market opening. Since 1991, India has taken major steps in this direction and coalition governments have kept the country on a general path of reform, yet there is US concern that such movement is slow, sluggish and inconsistent. However, recently they have agreed to move on many important issues. ● Meeting of the United States— India CEO Forum brought together leaders of the US and Indian business communities— approximately ten from each side across various industry sectors—with senior government officials [on November 23]. Forum members conveyed their interest in working on recom●

India’s economic leverage with the US is important in some respects, because of the size and growth trajectory of our economy. However, our influence may be constrained by the fact that sovereign funds based in the Middle East and China have large shareholdings in American corporations in strategic sectors including the financial segment. The US is likely to go slow on outsourcing, international free trade and economic integration


with the World. We can significantly contribute to the core programmes outlined by the Obama Administration to include energy, health care reforms and education. We have a number of leverages in this sector which can be effectively utilized.

Defence Cooperation
India’s defence establishment is undergoing an unprecedented transformation as it seeks to (1) modernize its military, (2) obtain ‘strategic partnerships’ with the United States and other nations, and (3) expand its influence in the Indian Ocean and beyond. This advance cooperation is bolstering confidence and capability of both the countries. The US-India defence relationship derives from a common belief in freedom, democracy, and the rule of law, and seeks to advance shared security interests. These interests include maintaining security and stability, defeating terrorism and violent religious extremism, preventing the spread of weapons of mass destruction and associated materials, data, and technologies and protecting the free flow of commerce via land, air and sea lanes. In recent years India has conducted joint military exercises with the US in the Indian Ocean. With the signing of the civil nuclear deal there will be qualitative and quantitative upgradation in the defence cooperation. Despite this, the Indian government sees the sole US base in the Indian Ocean, Diego Garcia, and the permanent presence of the US military there, as a potential escalation point in a future war, especially because of the current US operations in Iraq and Afghanistan and its covert ambition in other parts of the world particularly in the region.

Launched the Obama-Singh 21st Century Knowledge Initiative which will provide $ 10 million in combined funding to increase university linkages and support junior faculty development between US and Indian universities. Formation of the Women’s Empowerment Dialogue (WED) to further the full participation of women in all aspects of society in order for the global community to address the complex challenges we face in this new century. During the initial meeting of the Women’s Empowerment Dialogue in New Delhi, both sides agreed to explore the creation of a ‘Women’s Empowerment Fund,’ that would be able to support WED initiatives such as women’s social and economic empowerment, female literacy, political participation of women, and healthcare.

dwelling in slums, by building the local capacity, improving program implementation and increasing resource allocation for urban health through policy analysis. The program will work in close collaboration with urban local bodies and Indian national and state governments.

Countering Terrorism Global Security


Cooperation in the Health Sector
● Creation of a seventh Regional Global Disease Detection Center in India as a part of the Global Disease Detection (GDD) network. This GDD collaboration will include a range of activities, such as emerging disease detection and response, pandemic influenza preparedness and response, laboratory systems, and biosafety, field epidemiology training, health communications, and zoonotic disease investigation and control. Launch of the Health Dialogue : The first meeting of the US-India Health Dialogue is planned for early 2010 in Washington. Secretary of Health and Human Services Sebelius is the US lead and Minister of Health and Family Welfare Gulam Nabi Azad will lead for India. Cooperation on Urban Health through US Agency for International Development is soon to be launched, new Health of the Urban Poor Program, which aims to improve reproductive and child health in urban poor populations, especially for those

Enhancing Cooperation on Education and Development
● Expansion of the bi-national Fulbright-Nehru Scholarship Program through a 45 per cent increase in funding by each government to support increased exchanges of students and scholars in priority fields, bringing total support for these scholarships to $ 6·7 million this year. ●

Expansion of the US-India Counterterrorism Cooperation Initiative, Prime Minister Singh and President Obama committed to redouble their collective efforts to deal effectively with terrorism, while protecting their countries’ common ideals and shared values, and committed themselves to strengthening global consensus and legal regimes against terrorism. Support for an early start of negotiations on a multilateral, non-discriminatory and internationally verifiable Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty. The two leaders also look forward to the April 2010 Nuclear Security Summit and agreed to consult each other regularly. They affirmed their commitment to work together to prevent the spread of Weapons of Mass Destruction and missile-related technology and to realize their shared vision of a world free of nuclear weapons. Given President Obama’s interest in non-proliferation, greater impetus to issues as Fissile Material Cut off Treaty [FMCT] and Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty [CTBT] could be expected. India has to examine the proposals on FMCT and CTBT carefully to ensure that these are universal and nondiscriminatory. China will also have to stop the support being provided to Pakistan in the nuclear field to facilitate progress on non-proliferation. Launch of a ‘Green Partnership’ to strengthen US/India cooperation on clean energy, climate change, and food security. This reflects our two countries’ commitment to taking vigorous

Green Partnerships


action to combat climate change, ensuring mutual energy security, working towards global food security, and building a clean energy economy that will drive investment, job creation, and economic growth throughout the 21st century. ● Launch of an Indo-US Clean Energy Research and Deployment Initiative, supported by US and Indian government funding and private sector contributions. This new Initiative will include a Joint Research Center operating in both the United States and India to foster innovation and joint efforts to accelerate deployment of clean energy technologies. The Initiative will facilitate joint research, scientific exchanges, and sharing of proven innovation and deployment policies. Support for an Indian EPA that will focus on creating a more effective system of environmental governance, regulation and enforcement. Working with the India’s Ministry of Environment and Forests, the US Environmental Protection Agency will provide technical support to help establish an Indian National Environmental Protection Authority.

values and areas of cooperation in the spheres of defence, foreign policy, economy, energy, Human Resource Development, environment, existing geo-political realities and diplomatic practices. Further it would be based on mutual trust and respect of each others’ sovereignty, territorial integrity, strengthening strategic challenges to realize regional potential, pursuing an expanded nuclear agenda. The tactical need to coordinate strategies with India would be based on the demands of the War on Terror, and the American administration’s belief that India could play a role in the long run as a strategic partner of the United States. The concluding comments of the Summit Meet [between Barack Obama and Dr. Manmohan Singh], two leaders resolved to harness these shared strengths and to expand the US–India global partnership for the benefit of their countries, for peace, stability and prosperity in Asia, and for the betterment of the world. To this end, they committed to build upon the India–US Strategic Dialogue announced in July 2009. President Obama stated that the United States looks forward to a stable and prosperous India playing an increasingly important role in world affairs. However Indo-US relationship has to go a long way to prove its credibility and sustainability to match anywhere near Indo-Soviet ties which almost P.Darpan touched zenith of idealism.

closed house.” In the US and Canada, judges declare any gifts received by them but in India the declaration of assets has become so big a issue. The Judges Assets Bill provides that the CJI should declare his assets to the President, the remaining judges of the SC as well as CJs of various HCs would submit such details to the CJI. In the case of HCs judges, they will submit their details to their respective CJs. It also provides for adverse consequences a judge would attract if he did not declare assets owned by him and his dependants or when he makes an inadequate or false declaration. He would be obliged to give an explanation to the CJI. If the CJI finds the explanation unsatisfactory, then he could take action against him as per law, says the Bill which possibly could include drastic constitutional steps. Also, while the information on assets made to the CJI is not to be put in the public domain, the Bill specifically provides, freedom to individual judges of HCs and SC to go public with their assets if they so desired. The assets so declared by the judges will not be amenable to queries under the RTI Act. When judges of higher judiciary who should be more transparent in everything are allowed to wrap themselves in a veil of secrecy, it is the corrupt judges who stand to gain the most. Why do we forget that transparency is not served by a semiP.Darpan opaque lens ?

Concluding Assessment
Throughout the twentieth century, the list of the world’s great powers was predictably short : the United States, the Soviet Union, Japan, and northwestern Europe. The twenty-first century will be different. China and India are emerging as economic and political heavyweights : China holds over a trillion dollars in hard currency reserves, India’s hightech sector is growing by leaps and bounds, and both countries, already recognized nuclear powers, are developing blue-water navies. The National Intelligence Council, a US government think tank, projects that by 2025, China and India will have the world’s second and fourth-largest economies, respectively. Such growth is opening the way for a multipolar era in world politics. This emerging multipolarity in the world would strengthen the bilateral relationship of India and US on account of shared

Continued from Page 1978
was never the intention of the SC Full Court to keep the list of assets secret or away from public glare. The purpose behind passing the resolution was to make judiciary more transparent. Why do we need statutes or laws to make our assets public ? The assets of the lower judiciary are anyway open to public scrutiny. Why should the higher judiciary be any different ? Since as judges we want bureaucrats and politicians to be transparent about their assets and wealth, how can we shy away from following what we preach? Also, more than politicians, it is the judiciary which needs to be more open to public scrutiny. It makes little sense for the court to demand accountability from others, but itself keep a


Career Article

SSB : For Three Wings of the Armed Forces What ? How ? and Why ?
—J. B. Mall, Psychologist

Situation Reaction Test
Therefore The function of imagination is : → (1) Creativity, (2) Foresight → (3) Solution → (4) Multiply the resources. Meaning thereby a new stroke to unknown. You can opt any route for solution. You can plunge into variety of solutions whatever actually it amounts to be. Solution itself comes with the application of your intellectual imagination which inturn becomes the product and part of your personality’s behavioural pattern that too in totality. Speed should be good/efficient and your approach should be practical. Nobody is right or wrong. Write the reaction as you have been practically on the spot where situation is created. SRT is the test of your reaction in your day to day life. It may be social, intellectual, dynamic and leadership but not mathematical Situation should be responded in third person. He, she or it.

The test is designed that if a candidate does an appropriate disposal, he cannot complete 60 SRT’s. Personality comes out within 40 to 45 SRTs.
Controversy, dispute and the conflict should be solved amicably.

SRT is the fabrication of solution to a practical problem. A key differrence between the past attempts with their outcome and evolving a solution to a present situation is the conflict resolution process with the foresight of your intellectual imagination, power of observation and multiplying the resources. Under the pressure and the competitive situational crisis, SSB aspirants should not overstep their limits so that the ideas and values may remain with their living reality and in turn should not become an intrusion or an illusion. Imagination is the ability to explore beyond the obvious or the situation. Therefore, a hero is an individual who is faced with a desirable solution to a situation and is able to nullify or negate it.

lem in a scene or in a given situation. System gives liberty to find out the problem and solve it. By this way your problem solving behaviour comes and that becomes the material for our evaluation.
The actual test of an officer—The actual test of an officer is when he faces the problem and how these problems are solved. That is by certain qualities and by certain psychological tools like pictures, words and situations.

Problem solving behaviour is an aptitude. System requires a crisis leader who challenges the problem and solves it. For technical problem, you may refer to an expert. Problem solving is a behaviour of hierarchy depending on the position you are ‘holding’. You have to solve the prob-

and WAT (Word Association Test) SRT has also been bifurcated among four factors. Each factor will consist of 15 SRT’s. In totality these four factors will consist of 15 × 4 = 60 SRT’s. 15 SRTs will relate to each factor. I will exemplify them as here under— The first situation will relate to Factor Ist, that is Factor Intelligence. The second situation will be given from Factor IInd, that is Social Adjustment. The third SRT will be from Factor IIIrd, that is Leadership

Just like TAT (Thematic Apperception Test or Picture Story Writing)


and similarly the fourth SRT will be given from Factor IV, that is Factor Dynamic. I will exemplify the SRTs and their related factors with the SRTs, their disposal with acceptibility and non-acceptibility as hereunder— SRT No. 1—He is in communication department and a very important message is being communicated and the system fails, he would ? Disposal—1. He will get the system repaired and start the communication. 2. Find the fault, repaire it and start the communication. 3. He will ask the technician to repair it and start the communication.

do not have any liberty to add anything and further every thing is controlled by the psychologist. Explanation—Since every thing is controlled by the psychologist hence whatever answer you will project, the same will be accepted. Please take my words no overstepping, no saucing, no defence mechanism, no cooked answers should be given as good response is never taken as actual face value. Interpretation of the situation and their answers—The assessors of the SSB’s are looking for 15 OLQs (Officers Like Qualities). These qualities are bifurcated among four factors. To find out the suitability of the personality, all the 12 TAT’s, 60 WATS are also bifurcated among these four factors as I have described in above para, under the interpretation of the situation and their answers. Interpretation of the first SRT— This situation is related with communication department where system fails. The work of communication department has to be done intelligently as it relates with receiving/ sending the data, interpretings, compiling the data which requires grasp, memory and application of basic and effective intelligence. Therefore, this SRT is related to first factor that is factor intelligence. Since intelligence is related with the Head therefore, this factor has its concern with ‘Head’. All the four qualities of this Factor Intelligence are namely :
1 2

working on the system knows the technical-know-how of the system. This is an acceptable response. The second response is—Find the fault, repair it and start the communication. It would mean that the man does not know where the fault is lying. In the first response the man knew the fault and he got the system repaired. In the second response he does not know the fault. He will find out the fault and will get it repaired. This may also be an acceptable response. In the third response he will ask the technician to repair it to start the communication. This response may be a workable but may and may not be acceptable.

Another Example of an Intellectual Situation
Situation No. 2—He was weak and even not doing well in Physics in intermediate at his college. Therefore, he……….

Interpretation—Before plunging with interpretation, we will give following description to make you understand the actuality of SRT. Gentlemen, I would like to make you understand that in this test there is no liberty because nothing is hidden, even you can’t use your imagination to find out the different ideas like TAT and WAT. Here in this test every thing is given therefore you
Nature of Test TAT WAT SRT Projection Meaning is given by the candidate Meaning is given by the psychologist Everything is given. Problem is same for everybody.

Planning and organisation

Logical reasoning

Effective Intelligence

Power of expression are controlled by the ‘Head’

Interpretation of the responses— The response is : he will get the system repaired and will start the communication, would mean that the person
Nature of Controlling Candidate is given full liberty, being the test of imagination. Candidate is given partly liberty, again this is the test of your imagination. No liberty and this is not the test of your imagination. Only imagination is applied in solving the situation. In this test every thing is controlled by the psychologist.

Definition of the intellectual situations—These situations are those which could be solved by knowledge, application of talent, various information. I will again make you understand to testify and how the action demanded by a situation is completed. Demand of the situation— Situation demands action. Situation also demands reaction. Action and reaction both reflect your responses for the acceptability of the system. Both, action and reaction should be displayed according to the capacity of your personality. Then another question is : Can action and reaction be enhanced ? Yes, if you are a motivational person, the interpretation of the motivated person is one who is


self motivated and at the same time can motivate others.

These situations are practical and are drawn from various walks of life. The requirement is how you think, feel and act in these kind of situations.

Contrary to this, if you do not happen to be a motivated personality then there is strict No-No. Interpretation of the situation— There may be so many reasons/ problems for not doing good in Physics. Pragmatically, there may be so many causes for not performing well in Physics. For example—When a candidate does not take interest or the layers of his brain are not activated or he may not be able to concentrate or he is a weak candidate or he may not work hard or his basic intelligence or his OIR (Officer Intelligence Rating) or Overall Ratio is on lower side. How to react on solution—Being an aspirant, why don’t you challenge the situation. For challenging the situation, you have to enter into the situation, then you are to bail out the situation and you have to draw the solution. First, you retrospect how you can do well in Physics ? Now the practical condition comes like this, first you will approach Saurabh who has obtained 98%, then Devesh who has obtained 96%. Thereafter, so many, who are above 70% and you will seek their resultant responses. Someone says, I took help from my seniors and did well. Some said I took tips from my father. Some candidate told, I practised and commanded the formulas and did put hard work for 5 to 6 hours and did well. Now please think, what can you do ? Which aspect do you choose ? What your personality will opt ? Which means or method your aptitude and approach will accept ? Gentlemen, you know the problem and solutions are around you. The problem is to improve Physics. The expected and desirable reactions are as under :

Interpretation—I have instanced 5 reactions and responses, they may be more than the above. Now it is you to decide which response will suit your attitude, aptitude, approach, adjustment and judgement, your nature, behavioural pattern, intelligence, your efficiency. If you display your responses keeping above in your mind then it will project your natural personality and natural reactions and responses. Social Situations—Social situations are drawn from the social aspects of life. Areas of these situations are unlimited. These social situations include clash of interests and to cope with the struggles wherever human beings interact formally or casually. Life in the family, schools, offices, cinema halls, picnics, railway stations often gets choked due to lack of adjustment, mutual understanding, lack of cooperation or the lack of responsible attitude of some persons. ‘‘With your interaction, adjustment and judgement, when you meet the social expectations which provide you the satisfaction, then it can be

called as ‘healthy personality’. People with the healthy personalities or those who are judged to be well adjusted. The core of healthy personality is an image of the self that the individual can accept and live with or without feeling too guilty, anxious, self-defeated or destructive of others. People with healthy personalities are judged to be well adjusted because they can gratify their needs, interests and aspirations through behaviour that conform to social expectations. Satisfaction depends largely upon the person’s life pattern, fulfillment of his needs, interests and aspirations.” This passage has been derived from SCE journal, Selection Centre East, Allahabad. Vol. 4, Nov. 4 , from ‘Develop Your Personality’ page 48 first paragraph. Life in the Armed forces is essentially a group life. You will enjoy it only when you have your social factor straight and that too without any kinks. It is for this purpose that your social factor is deeply examined by the psychologist. Now, I will exemplify the social situations here under— Situation No. 3—He is fond of mangoes which are only available with his uncle’s garden, his parents are not in talking terms. He…….

2 4 He will work hard, and He will take the guidance Consult the high performers He He of the class. Mutually will ask his neighfrom the Physics will will bours for tips and workhard on decide what to do ? teacher and will How to do ? take help will do well in formulas dedido well in and work from his Physics. Phyics cating and work accordfather and will hard for 4 to 5 hours ingly. do well in Physics. and will do well in Physics. 1 3 5

Demand of the situation— Action demanded by the situation is; ‘he’ means the candidate and the candidate means you. There is a dispute, conflict and disagreement between his parents and his uncle. Now, he is the bridge of understanding between the two families. The disagreement


and dispute may please be solved amicably, so the candidate may enjoy the mangoes. What candidates generally answer—Some candidates write to buy mangoes from the market. Some one reacts not to eat the mangoes. Some one respond to eat other fruits. Some one chooses to pluck mangoes when uncle is not in the house. These are not the required responses, rather it reveals escaping tendencies. What may be the desirable solution—The solution is, amicable settlement. Solutions—(1) Be humble and submissive to the uncle and enjoy with mangoes. (2) Will say sorry on behalf of his parents and humbly request for mangoes. (3) Humbly assure that nothing will happen in future and be familiar with uncle and eat the mangoes. (4) Discuss amicably with parents, remove the misunderstanding and eat the mangoes. Interpretations—The solution of this situation demands the action of your amicable social adjustment. Therefore, any of the above answer is acceptable. Situation No. 4—He found his step mother was unduly harsh with him after his father’s death. He……. Demand of the situation—The demand of the social situations are : you being an aspirant, have to take the first initiative or you have to forward your first hand to establish the mutual settlment, adjustment and understanding. For this there should not be any ego, superiority complex or any complex. It is always possible to be done by a transparent personality. Here your step mother may be wrong on her part as she has lost her husband and harassed by the circumstances. Even you have also lost your father but even though the demand of the situation is you have to negotiate and compromise. What may be the desirable solutions—(1) Realise mother’s position, behave amicably with complete obedience. (2) Start following her as she wants and promise for ever, not to become unpleasant.

(3) Find the fault once again, remove it and reside happily. (4) Promise her to follow, obey and serve obediently for further happiness. (5) Listen in detail, and do it whatever she wants. (6) Start displaying every moment of obedience. (7) Reside happily with every moment of obedient commitment. Interpretation of the situation (In a case father is alive)—Even SSB aspirants who are being trained by me, are posing different questions about the situations. Someone says to talk to his father, someone speaks to have the mutual discussion between father and mother, someone tells to justify himself and someone spells to point out various complaining behaviour of his mother. Gentlemen, no; there is strict No-No. In TAT meaning is given by the candidate in the form of stories and there is full liberty on the part of the candidate. In WAT the meaning is supplied by the Psychologist and it has partly liberty. In SRT everything is given by the psychologist and there is no liberty. Meaning thereby situation has been already created, you have to react or respond according to the situation considering its demand. Gentlemen, you can’t escape; you can’t overstep and finally you can fabricate the solutions but not the situation because you have no liberty. If solution or action required by the situation has demanded relations with the problem, then it will definitely suit your behavioural pattern and that will become the convenient outcome of your Officer’s Like behaviour. Interpretation of the solution— Let me come back to all the aforesaid ‘7’ responses. In answer No. 1, candidate is realising the mother’s position, it would mean that earlier he was not realising the mother’s position. It is an acceptable one but not the first graded response. Answer No. 2, candidate starts following her as she wants and further promised not to remain unpleasant. It means that earlier he was not and now he is. It is again acceptable but not first graded.

Solution No. ‘3’ indicates finding the fault, removal of the same and residing happily. Again it reveals different position between the past and present. Acceptable but not the first graded. Solution No. 4, indicates promise her to follow, obey and serve obediently for further happiness, means earlier it was lacking. Again acceptable but second graded response. Solution No. 5, spells that the candidate is listening and doing whatever mother wants. Now here is no gap and everything is being done according to his mother. Therefore, it is most acceptable response and can be put in the first degree. In response No. 6 and 7 candidate is displaying 100% obedience and commitment, hence solution 6 and 7 are most acceptable responses. The Moral Edifice of Social Situations—These social situations pertain to your adjustment and judgement, your social interaction/interrelation. The basic demand of the social situations are; how you adjust with your family, neighbours, relatives, friends, teachers and authorities. Finally, your adjustment, judgement with seniors, juniors and colleagues. Explanation—The demands of the social situations are your conflict settlement, conflict adjustment. You will always find conflict for your adjustment and judgement with your father, teachers, brothers, sisters, girl friends, colleagues, authorities, neighbours, step mother etc. The answer with conflict oriented situations are the ‘amicable settlement’ only. Situations of Leadership— Leadership and leader both are the parameters for the selection of a defence officer. To work itself does not lay down any difficulty but to take work from others need something. This something includes your presence, supervision, guidance, convincing ability, motivation, sensitivity, coordination, ability to command and control, courage, determination, planning, reasoning, confidence, speed of decision. These qualities are known as the qualities of leadership. In absence of these qualities, a man can never be successful.
Situations are created in such a way that group has got no alternate except to throw its leader up.


I will exemplify the following situations to spell the leadership qualities— Situation No. 5—He is the captain of his college cricket team and was managing the cricket match in his college play ground. An hour before the commencement of the second match, he came to know that his father had been hospitalised due to severe road accident. He…….

Interpretation of the situation—The types of problem invovled—
He is the captain of his college cricket team

An hour before the commencement of the match, he came to know. 4

2 He was managing the cricket match.

3 The same was being played in his college ground.

5 His father has been hospitalised due to severe road accident.

Demand of the situation—The situation demands three things, the first is he has to handover the responsibility to next of his kin on whom he has full confidence. The transfer of responsibility and deployment of work carries three components—
Is the man reliable to whom responsibility is being given. And whether he can give 1 100% as captain can ? To attend the father immediately as he has met with severe accident.

(3) Will request the sports teacher to overtake, supervise and will rush to hospital. (4) Constitute the committee of three members with vice captain and rush to the hospital. (5) Ask the vice captain to constitute the committee and rush to hospital to care and to do every thing for the father. (6) Having asked the vice captain to look after, rush to the hospital, keep on managing every thing and at the same time keep the track record to make the match successful. Interpretation of the solution— No leader or authority can lay complaint about the cooperation of his staff, subordinates. People generally resist any order that calls for any change from the established practices. Even the best of strategically successful decision have been greeted with resentments and lack of cooperations. How a leader can keep his subordinates happy and motivated, is a great concern of behavioural scientists. Leader only emerges through or under the problematic conditions, therefore, situations are created and solutions are required. Gentlemen, all the above mentioned are acceptable but solution No. 6 is most acceptable. Situation No. 6—He came late from his college and found his father dead and mother abducted and there is a threat for the life of his family. He…… Interpretation of Situation
1 He came late from his college. 3 Further there is a threat for the life of his family. 2 Found his father dead and mother aducted.


2 In what way the man is accepting, undertaking and performing the responsibility. Whether he is providing equal to him or more than him.

Explanation—In TAT the hero is designated with different names. In SRT hero is designated with he, she and it. In both the cases hero or leader means ‘you’. Psychologist always assumes that you are directly operating the situation. In both the tests, if your hero fails, the Psychologist will assume that you have failed. Therefore, in both the tests you are directly performing in the name of someone

else. Gentlemen, please take my words, you are only required to perform whatever you are expected to perform. Disposal of the situation (as solution)—(1) Handover the responsibility to vice captain and rush to the father, stay till he recovers. (2) Ask the vice captain to undertake, rush to hospital and monitor the work while interacting with the every course of action.

Explanation—Sometime two or three problems are compounded together. In these things, decide the priority and dispose of every situation adequately as disposal is expected. Demand of the situation—The situation demands three things—
1 Cremation of father 2

Rescue mother

To assure family 3 from threat


Interpretation—Nothing will happen if cremation is delayed but remaining two problems are to be prioritised and solved. Now the problem of rescuing the mother and assuring/managing/executing protection to the family, neither can be delayed nor postponed. Solution—Rush and manage police protection, plunge for rescue operation with police, cremate father at night with all the related people at cremation place and continue the rescue till mother is recovered. Explanation of the solution— Every situation demands a particular action or reaction and that is the only demand of the situation which should be fulfilled. In this particular situation, the candidate himself is shouldering all the challenges. Apart from it, some candidates c a n approach his relatives, some may take help of neighbours and someone can knock the principal but the demand of the situation will remain the same. Repercussions of social and leadership situations—Factor Ist, that is Factor Intelligence and the Factor IV that is Factor Dynamic, both are the individual factors with their individual qualities, therefore, these two factors are separated and never clubbed together. But the Factor IInd Social Adjustment and the Factor IIIrd that is leadership are the group factors having its group qualities. Therefore, these factors are clubbed together. In the individual factors and in their associated qualities you will incure the individual benefit and individual losses, whereas in social and leadership factors you will loose social and as well as group strength.
In social situations, you will find that there is difference of opinion miscommitment, insincerity, irresponsibility, conflict and disagreement which includes your family, neighbours, relatives, friends etc. The consequences are, it may cost the loss of your personal, social relationship which may further strike your reputation, integrity, status, faith, discipline, obedience and finally it will create an impression that you are not a reliable person. A person of this kind may not be suitable match in the toe of a company commander.

Under the leadership situations, you will control a lot of problems, in case of failure it will cost too much on execution of your leadership qualities and social effectivity. Because, there is a direct stroke, challenge, boycott, refusal, problem of adjustment and judgment, conflict, threat, strike etc. These are created with a view that either you attack, withdraw or compromise. By this way your leadership qualities are projected and that becomes the material for our evaluation. Situations of leadership are created in such a way that when you plunge into the situation and solve it, you will definitely emerge as a leader. Contrary to that if you do not bail out the situation then someone will take the credit and emerge. Therefore, the leadership qualities in a situation should be applied effectively, judicially and adequately. Dynamic situations—Dynamic situation test your ability to work hard consistently. It includes ability to take risk, moral courage, commitment to your goal inspite of failures and fall.

one may write to climb over the tree, someone will say to light the shirt to create the fire, someone may say to lie on the ground and stop the breathing. These solutions may be accceptable but may not be appropriate or desirable. Situation No. 8—When he opened the bathroom, he found a snake. He……… Solutions—
(1) will kill the ↔ (2) will throw the snake by danda towel and kill the snake by bucket. (3) will throw the ↔ (4) will throw acid and kill the the water and snake flush the snake into toilet. (5) will make a ↔ (6) will call a noise by danda and sapera to catch allow the snake to the snake. go.

Explanation—The system applies three things to check the dynamism.

Chaku (Knife)

Daku (Dacoit)

Cobra (Snake)

Situation No. 7—He is hunting in the forest, suddenly lion comes. He…….

Dynamism is related with factor IV (Factor Dynamic). The qualities of this factor are related with leg. Interpretation of solution— Answers are neither right nor wrong. They are evaluated on their degrees which spell whether they are desirable or not. Gentlemen selection is never made on the basis of right or wrong answers. A person giving 80 to 90% right answers may not be taken. Contrary to it another one giving 40 to 45% right answers and 55 to 60% wrong answers may be taken (if wrong answers are not harmful). Therefore, good response is never taken as actual face value, bears the testimony of the above fact. In the above ‘6’ solutions consider the answers from 1 to 4 and further 5 to 6. You yourself will not appreciate the answer no. 5 and 6. In both the answers snake is alive and snake is P.Darpan the enemy of mankind.

Solution—Kill the lion or He will kill the lion. Interpretation—He has gone into forest for hunting that too knowingly. Knowingly hunting means carrying weapon. Sudden confrontation of lion will leave no alternative except to kill. This is the only solution. Apart from it, there may be other solutions. Some-


Indian Polity and Constitution
★ How many Committees were
appointed by the Constituent Assembly to deal with different tasks of Constitution-making ? —22 Committees The Constituent Assembly adopted National Anthem on : —January 24, 1950 The Chairman of Committee appointed by the Constituent Assembly on Fundamental Rights and Minorities was : —Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel Which scholar has described the Constitution of India Quasifederal ? —K. C. Wheare The reservation of seats for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes in the Lok Sabha has been laid down in : —Article 330 The features of federation with a strong centre, vesting of residuary powers in the centre, appointment of state governors by the centre, and advisory jurisdiction of the Supreme Court are borrowed from : —Canadian Constitution The Tenth schedule to the Constitution of India laying down the disqualification of members of Parliament and state legislatures on the ground of defection was added by : —52nd Constitution (Amendment) Act 1985 The disqualification of members of the Parliament or a state legislature for indulging in corrupt practice, (that is, soliciting votes on the ground of religion or promoting enmity between different sections of people on the basis of race, caste and religion) has been provided by : —The Representation of People Act (1951)

★ The positions of the President of
India and the Prime Minister of India are respectively as : —Head of State and Head of the Government The number of Ministries/ Departments of the Government of India in present is : —55

History and Culture of India
★ Which Sultan of Delhi was a
contemporary of the Mongol leader Chengiz Khan ? —Iltutmish During the Rig Vedic period Niska was an ornament of : —Neck The musical instrument mastered by Aurangazeb was : —Veena The first Trade Union was founded in India in the year 1918 by : —B. P. Wadia Who were responsible for the creation of Ratha monuments at Mamallapuram ? —Pallavas Who said, “God intended me to look upon all religions with one eye, that is why he took away the light from the other” ? —Maharaja Ranjit Singh The Maratha King became a nonentity and the Peshwa the virtual ruler from the time of : —Baji Rao I Ruins of which places/cities represent the old capital of Vijayanagar ? —Hampi Which Delhi Sultan laid down the theory of Kingship asserting that the King was the shadow of God (Zilillah) and his vice regent (Niyabati-Khudai) on earth ? —Ghiyasuddin Balban The earliest evidence of agriculture in Indian sub-continent is found at : —Mehargarh Who started Indian Home Rule Society in London ? —Shyamji Krishna Varma

★ ★ ★ ★ ★

Indian National Movement
★ The Hos tribal uprising took ★
place against the British in : —Chhottanagpur in 1831 The state of Jhansi was annexed by Lord Dalhousie to the British empire under his Doctrine of Lapse in : —1853 The President of Surat Session of Indian National Congress 1907 was : —Ras Bihari Ghosh the membership of the Viceroy’s Executive Council as a protest against : —Jallianwala Bagh Massacre on April 13, 1919 Who called the movements of Gandhiji as ‘political blackmail’ ? —Lord Linlithgow The Organization formed by Surendranath Banerjee which merged with the Indian National Congress in 1886 was : —Indian National Association Who formed the Radical Democratic Party in 1940 ? —M. N. Roy The leader of the revolution of 1857 in Assam was : —Diwan Maniram Dutta The paper ‘Indian Mirror’ was published during 1861 from : —Calcutta (now Kolkata) The first issue of the Journal ‘Ghadar’ was published in 1913 in : —Urdu Who called the Government of India Act 1935 “a car which has brake but no engine” : —Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru

★ Shankaran Nair resigned from ★

★ ★

★ ★ ★ ★ ★

★ ★

Economic Affairs of India
★ Platinum Jubilee Year of the ★
Reserve Bank of India is : —2009-10 Index ‘Residex’ is associated with : —Property and Housing


★ Who suggested to establish an
‘Insurance Regulation Authority’ ? —Malhotra Committee The thickest layer of coal is found at— —Singrauli Amochu Hydro Power Project is being set up by NTPC in : —Bhutan The apex organisation of industrial finance in India is : —The Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI) Rolling Plan was made for the period : —1978 to 1983 CONCORD of 8 states of Northern region is a scheme of : —CII IRBI (Industrial Reconstruction Bank of India) was established in : —1985 Consumer Protection Act (COPRA) was enacted in : —1986

★ Nagoya, Osaka and Kobe are the
major industrial cities of Japan located on the lowland plains of : —Eastern Honshu island The old name of Tanzania is : —Tanganyika Lushais tribes are found in : —Mizoram

★ The place of origin of red gram ★ Kissan Call Centres scheme was
launched on : is : —South Africa

★ ★ ★

★ ★

★ A cropping system where crops
are grown in the inter spaces between rows of planted trees is called : —Alley Cropping Heroin is obtained from :

— January 21, 2004

★ Kaimur Wildlife Sanctuary is ★
located in : —Bihar Kukadi Irrigation Project is situated in : —Maharashtra

—Opium Poppy

★ Nitrogen fixing bacteria present
in the modules on the roots of leguminous plants are : —Symbiotic The third largest producer of fertiliser in the world is : —India (after China and USA) Presently the only fertilizer which is under Statutory Price Control is : —Urea

★ ★ ★ ★

Science & Technology
★ Where is the National Institute of
Ocean Technology located ? —Chennai Who invented Optical fibre ? —Narinder Kapany

★ The Atomic Energy Commission
of India was constituted in : —1948 Scurvy is a disease which is caused due to the deficiency of : —Vitamin C of the size of : —10–9 m (one billionth of a metre)

Sports and Games
★ The
only cricketer to make double century in One Day International is : —Sachin Tendulkar The West Zone recently won : —The Duleep Trophy (Cricket)

(India and the World)
★ Iguazu Falls are situated in : ★ ★
—Argentina The stream which captures the headwaters of other stream is called : —Captor Stream The five states of India which recorded lowest density of population (persons per square kilometre) in ascending order are : —Arunanchal Pradesh, Mizoram, Sikkim, Jammu & Kashmir and Meghalaya Sir Creek forms the boundary between Gujarat state of India and : —Sind Province of Pakistan Which west flowing river is known as the twin or handmaid of the Narmada ? —Tapti River Koyna, Ghatprabha, Malprabha, Bhima, Tungabhadra, Musi and Muneru are the important tributaries of : —Krishna River The city of ‘Tula’ lying to the South of Moscow is known as : —Metallurgical and machine building centre

★ Nanotechnology uses structures

★ What is the reason for twinkling
of stars ? —Atmospheric Reflection Sour Taste of Coca Cola is due to : —Phosphoric Acid —Sublimation Aluminium can be purified by : —Electrolysis Fibre Optics is based on the principle of : —Total Internal Reflection

★ Ian Poulter-the famous golf
player is a citizen of : —Britain The 71st recently concluded National and Inter-State Table Tennis Championship was held in : —Guwahati The top medal winner in 11th South Asian Games was : —India Roger Federer won the French Open Tennis Championship in : —2009 The Asian Tour Rookie of the year 2009 is : —C. Muniyappa (India) The Frank Worrell Trophy is associated with : —Cricket The top three teams in International test cricket in descending order are : —India, S. Africa and Australia The winner of Asia Cup Hockey Tournament 2009 was : —South Korea

★ Impure Camphor is purified by : ★ ★

★ ★ ★

★ Farming of cloves is done in :

★ ★

★ Varuna is a variety of : ★ ★
—Mustard The leading producer of Groundnut in India is : —Gujarat The University of Horticulture and Forestry is located at : —Solan (Himachal Pradesh)


★ Planning in India derives its
objective and social premises from : —Directive Principles of State Policy

★ The provision that the Union
Government and State Government can be sued, subject to provisions of the law made by the Parliament and State legislatures respectively is mentioned in : —Article 300 of the Constitution of India

★ The density of population of
Uttar Pradesh according to 2001 Census is : —690 persons per sq km The author of the book ‘My Truth’ is : —Indira Gandhi Rourkela Steel Plant is located at the confluence of : —Sankya and Koel rivers The Pong Dam has been constructed on : —The Beas river Central Institute of Subtropical Horticulture is located at : —Lucknow In the Constitution of India, the budget has been mentioned as : —Financial Statement

★ ★ ★ ★

★ The Fifth Five Year Plan (1974-79)
targeted an annual growth rate of : —5·5 per cent in national income

★ Who opined that Directive Principles of State Policy lay down the goal that ‘Indian Polity is Economic Democracy as distinguished from Political Democracy’ ? —Dr. B. R. Ambedkar In which year was the Indian Forest Service created as the third All-India Service ? —In the year 1966 Article 312 of the Constitution authorises the Parliament to create new All India Service on the basis of : —A Rajya Sabha resolution to that effect The salaries and allowances of the Judges of High Court are charged to the : —Consolidated Fund of India The Indian music composer who recently got two grammy awards is : —A. R. Rahman The Pantaloons Femina Miss India (PFMI) 2010 is : —Unnati Davara The biggest port in India is : —Mumbai sea port

★ The actual growth rate of Eighth
Plan (1992-97) was : —6·68 per cent The ascending order of the political structure of Rig Vedic India was : —Kula (the Family), grama (the Village), vis (the Clan) jana (the People), rashtra (the Country) “Death only is the end of man; and enjoyments of pleasures are the only objects in life. There is no life beyond death, no heaven or hell, no law of Karma and no rebirth” which system/philosophy believes in this just mentioned doctrine : —Charvaka System/Philosophy nises the Vedas as the final authority of man, and the Vedantists in gaining true knowledge about Man and the Universe ? —The Mimansa System of Philosophy

New Release

★ Which system/philosophy recog-

★ ★ ★

Mathematical Formulae
(Useful for Various Competitive Examinations)
Compiled by : Dr. N. K. Singh Code No. 1642

★ Christianity in India was introduced by the traders from the west in : —First Century AD

★ The headquarters of World Trade
Organization are at :

★ Ayurveda, the name of Indian
medical sciences, literally means : —Science of longevity In ancient times, the modern state of Assam was called : —Kamarupa and Pragjotish The greatest achievement of Adi Sankaracharya (born in Kerala around A.D. 788) is that he organised : —The ten branches of Adivaita School of Saivism The writ/order issued by the court asking a person to do a thing or refrain from doing it is called : —Injunction

★ Obra Thermal Power Plant was


★ ★

established with the help of : —Soviet Russia Which bank became the first bank to open its branch in China ? —State Bank of India The countries which participated in Malabar–2009 exercises were : —India, Japan and U.S.A. In India, the largest area under rice cultivation lies in the state of : —Uttar Pradesh In which year was Kaiga Nuclear Power Plant commissioned ? —In the year 1999

Rs. 65/-


Code Code 248 Rs. 76/Upkar Prakashan, AGRA-2
O E-mail : O Website :



: Federative Republic of Brazil (Republic Federative do Brasil) : Brasilia : Portuguese : 85,14,877 sq km : 1,69,80,917 (As per 2000 census) : 198·98 million : Federative Republic : September 7, 1822 : Luiz Inacio Lula Da Silva (Both Chief of Government and Head of State) : Real : 88·6% (as per 2004 data) : 88·4% (2004 estimate) : 88·8% (2004 estimate) : Order and Progress (Ordem e-Progresso) : Ouviram do Ipiranga as mergens placedas de um povo heroico O brado retumbante (The Peace of the Ipiranga heard the resounding cry of an heroic people).

Legislature Upper House Lower House

: National Congress : Federal Senate : Chamber of Deputies

Capital Official Language Total Area Population UN Projection of Population for 2010 Government Type Independence President

The Present Constitution (Came into force) : On October 5, 1988 Important Cities : Sao Paulo (largest), Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, Brasilia, Fortaleza, Belo Horizonte, Curitiba Manaus, Recife Porto Alegre, Campinas, Campo Grande, Teresina, Natal and Osasco. GDP Growth Rate : 5·4% (Brazil is South (based on IMF statistics) America’s largest economy) GDP Per Capita (2005) : (PPP $) 8, 402 HDI World Rank : 0·800/70 Judiciary : Supreme Federal Court of Justice (at Brasilia)

Currency Literacy Rate Male Literacy Rate Female Literacy Rate Motto of Brazil National Anthem

Brief History
The history of human habitation in Brazil dates back to 9000 BC. There was a large population inhabiting the area before the Portuguese discovered Brazil. It was Portuguese explorer Pedro Alvares who reached Brazil in 1500 AD. He reached Brazil after travelling along the cape of Good Hope route discovered by Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama in 1497-98. Portuguese named the newly found place Terra da Vera Cruz Brazil’s President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva (Land of the True Cross) and later renamed Terra do Brasil (Land of Brazil). The Portuguese established a working government in 1533 after dividing the land into 15 captaincies, subdivided into leagues and ruled by selected governors (donatories). It was Jose Joaquim da Silva Xavier (popularly known as Tiradentes) who led the first rebellion against the Portuguese in 1789. The rebellion was suppressed. In 1807 Nepoleon invaded Portugal and the Portuguese prince Dome Joao took shelter in Brazil. In 1815, he granted Brazil equal status with Portugal. On his return to Portugal Joao’s son Pedro became Brazil regent. It was at this point of time that the Portuguese Parliamentary body (the Cortes) also asked him to return to Portugal. In 1822 Dom


Pedro (Joao’s son) declared independence and was crowned emperor of Brazil. But in 1889 the monarchy rule was overthrown and a new Federal Rupublic was established in Brazil. In 1960, Brasilia was made the capital of Brazil. It is important to note here that Brazil officially became a Federal Republic in February 1891 with General Manuel Deodoro do Fonseca elected as its first President. It was Fonseco who led revolt against Joao’s son Pedro compelling him to abdicate the throne in 1889. Fonseca was also responsible for many of the reforms in Brazil.

were estimated at 12·2 billion bbls in 2006. The Tupi field is the largest oil field discovered since Kazakhstan’s Kashagan in 2000.

Agriculture and Industry
Brazil is the leading producer of sugarcane, coffee and oranges in the world. It is also the second largest consumer of coffee after the USA. This country accounts for more than a quarter of coffee production all over the world on an annual basis. The principal coffee growing areas include Minas Gerais, Espirito Santo, Sao Paulo and Parana. The Livestock population (2005) is cattle 207·2 million sheep 15·6 million, goats 10·3 million and horses 5·8 million among others. It may be noted here that in Brazil forest lands cover 47,76,98,000 hactare (only Russia has a larger forests lands). The major industries of Brazil include textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, steel, aircraft and machinery equipment. Brazil’s company Companhia Vale do Rio Doce is the world’s largest iron ore producing company.

Geography and Location
The Republic of Brazil is situated in Eastern South America bordering the Atlantic Ocean. It is bounded in the east by the Atlantic and on its northern western and southern borders by all the South American countries except Chile and Ecuador. The terrain of Brazil is mostly flat with rolling lowlands in the north, a narrow coastal belt, some plains, hills and mountains.

Constitution and Government
The present Constitution of Brazil came into force on October 5, 1988. It is the eighth Constitution since Brazil got independence in 1822. As per the Constitutional provisions, the President and the Vice-President are elected for four years term. The legislature, that is, National Congress consists of an 81 member Senate (three Senators per federal unit plus three from the Federal District of Brasilia) and a 513 member Chamber of Deputies. The Senate is directly elected and the half of its members are elected for eight years in rotation. The Chamber of Deputies (lower house) is elected by Universal Franchise for four years. A Council of Republic also exists which is convened only in national emergencies. In Brazil, voting is compulsory for men and women between the ages of 18 and 70. For a candidate to be elected as President it is a must to secure 50% plus votes of all the valid votes, otherwise, a second round of voting is held between the two most voted candidates to elect President.

Tourism and Famous Tourist Sites
The famous tourists and worth seeing sites which have also entered on the UNESCO World Heritage List are—the Historic Town of Ouro Preto, the Historic Centre of Olinda, the Centre of Salvador de Bahia (Brazil’s first capital) Sanctuary of Bom Jesus do Congonhas, the Iguacu National Park, Brasilia (Brazil’s purpose built capital), Serra da Capivara National Park, the Historic Centre of Sao Luis, the Historic Centre of Diamantina, the Discovery Coast Atlantic Forest Reserves, the Atlantic Forest South-East Reserves, the Pantanal Conservation and Cerrado Protected Areas Comprising Amazon Conservation Complex and Emas National Parks which is home to P.Darpan various tropical eco-system.

The Climate of Brazil is predominantly tropical with winters being dry and summers wet in tropical parts while in Amazonia Warm and humid conditions are found.

Minerals and Energy Resources
Brazil is the second largest producer of ethanol after the USA and is its second exporter. Produced from sugarcane, it accounts for half of all the transported fuel used. The chief minerals of Brazil are bauxite, iron ore, gold, manganese, nickel, phosphates, platinum, tin and uranium. Iron is found in Minas Gerais notably the Caue Peak at Itabira. Gold is chiefly found from Para, Mato Grosso and Minas Gerais. There are 13 oil refineries out of which 11 oil refineries are state owned. Proven oil reserves


Annual Report 2008-09

Achievements and New Initiatives in Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises : Highlights
The Ministry of Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises (Government of India–GOI) has two Departments under its charge viz., the Department of Heavy Industries and the Department of Public Enterprises functions. The Ministry focuses on promoting the development and growth of capital goods, auto, power equipment manufacturing and engineering industry in the country, framing of policy guidelines for Central Public Sector Enterprises (CPSEs) and administration of CPSEs. The Government of India (GOI) has enhanced the powers delegated to Navratna, Miniratna and other profit making PSEs (Public Sector Enterprises) and more CPSEs (Central Public Sector Enterprises) too. The efforts made by the CPSEs are quite encouraging through rendering time to time help to promote the welfare of person with disabilities. In future, there is a need for close interaction between the process know-how, designers and equipment manufacturers, through training programmes, seminars, workshops etc. at the national level in the Ministry of Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises (GOI). Based on the Annual Report (2008-09) of the Ministry of Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises– MHI&PEs (GOI), following significant achievements made and new initiatives have been taken by the Ministry of HI&PEs (GOI) and these can be highlighted as under : (i)

Department of Heavy Industries–DHI : This Department is headed by a Secretary to the GOI, who is supported by an Additional Secretary, two Joint Secretaries, Directors/Deputy Secretaries, an Economic Adviser, a Technical Wing and an Integrated Finance Wing etc. This Deptt. of H.I. is concerned with the development of the engineering industry viz., machine tools, auto industry, heavy electrical, industrial machinery and administers 32 operating CPSEs, caters to meet the requirement of equipment for basic industries like—sugar, cement, paper, shipping, petrochemical, fertilizers, refineries etc. The Deptt.–H.I. also administers : Fluid Control Research Institute (FCRI) Palakkad (Kerala), ARAI (Automotive Research Association of India), Research and Development Infrastructure Projects say NATRIP Implementation Society (est. in July 2005) FIRI (Forging Industry Research Institute of India, Pune Maharashtra).

Under the functions, this D P E coordinates the matters relating to memorandum of understanding and mechanism of improving, policy matters, coordination of matters of general policy of non-financial nature related to PSEs (Public Sector Enterprises), Publi-cations etc. Website—Ministry of HI&PEs; Hq., New Delhi.

Achievements and New Initiatives Under Department of Heavy Industry (DHI) ● During 2007-08, the industrial sector registered the growth of 8·5%, where as it remained down (↓) with 2·4% in the year 2008-09, because of several factors like; inter-alia, global financial meltdown and recessionary condition in many countries resulting there by slow-down of the export oriented industries. The overall picture on industrial growth indicators i.e., growth rate in per cent remained during last 3 years as :

Industrial Growth Indicators
(growth rate in %)
Item Mining and Quarrying Manufacturing Electricity Overall ● 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 5·4 12·5 7·2 11·6 5·1 9·0 6·4 8·5 2·3 2·3 2·8 2·4

Major Achievements/Activities
Organisational set-up/Infrastructure and Functions of the Ministry of Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises–GOI

The Ministry of HI&PE (GOI) has two Departments viz., (i) Department of Heavy Industry and (ii) Department of Public Enterprises, under its jurisdiction.

(ii) Department of Public Enterprises (DPE) : ● The supreme post is of a Secretary, followed by AS&FA (Additional Secretary and Finance Adviser); Joint Secretary; Dy. Secretary, Directors, etc. In May 1990, the Bureau of Public Enterprises (BPE)—set-up in 1965 in Finance Ministry was made a full-fledged Department and now known-as the Deptt. of Public Enterprises (DPE), which is now, as a part of the Ministry of Heavy Industries & Public Enterprises.

The growth in Capital Goods Sector has registered of 7·0% during 2008-09 (April-Oct.), as against 18·0% growth in 2007-08. The growth in Capital Goods Sector was observed w.e.f., 200405 to 2008-09 (April-Oct.) as—

Growth in Capital Goods Sector (%)
Year Growth (%) 2004-05 13·3 2005-06 15·5 2006-07 18·2 2007-08 18·0 2008-09 (Apr.-Oct.) 7·0


Progressive Work in BHEL (Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd.)— (i) During 2008-09, BHEL achieved a growth of 31%, with a turn over of Rs. 28,033 crore over the production of Rs. 21,401 crore in 2007-08 and also made substantial additions to its cumulative order booked during the current financial year (2009-10) for order of worth Rs. 1,17,000 crore. (ii) BHEL signed a memorandum of understanding with APGENCO for setting-up the Nation’s Biggest Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) Power Plant of 125 MW at Vijayawada (Andhra Pradesh).

first time, an emerging economy like India will be hosting EFV Conference, while last three Conferences were held in U.K., Japan and Germany, respectively.

National Seminar on “Emerging and Existing Opportunities in the Capital Goods Industry” was organized by the DHI in association with CLL–Cement Corporation of India Ltd. at New Delhi on Feb. 27, 2009. The workshop on Results Related Performance Management was organised by the DHI in association with Cabinet Secretariat on March 26, 2009.

Dairy Machinery Industry—At present, 20 units (around) are working as an organised sector both in private and public sector, manufacturing Dairy Machinery equipments such as, evaporators, milk refrigerators and storage tanks, milk and cream deodorizers, clarifires, agitators, homo genisers, heat exchangers etc. The level of imports/and exports (Rs. crore) remained for worth Rs. 76·19 crore of import and Rs. 24·25 crore of export, respectively during 2007-08. Oil Field Equipments—The petroleum industry in India is undergoing a major change. The major producers of these equipments are : BHEL, Hindustan Shipyard; Larsen and Toubro and Mazagon Doct. The level of import/export during 2007-08 remained of Rs. 4141·76 crore of import and of Rs. 185·11 crore of export, respectively.

(iii) Foundation stone of an Industrial Training Centre (ITC) at Bolpur (West Bengal) was laid on Oct. 26, 2008, being set-up at a cost of Rs. 23 crore with assistance from BHEL, Coal India Ltd., Central Electricity Authority and Damodar Valley Corporation. (iv) BHEL was awarded the DSIJ Most Investor Friendly PSU Award 2009, for the year 2009 as a record of earning profits, that is an unmatched track record for over three decades without a break. (v) BHEL was conferred the maximum number of ICWAI National Awards in the year 2008 for excellence in Cost Management amongst the public and private sector companies at a function organised on March 13, 2009. (vi) BHEL and NTPC Ltd. have incorporated a Joint Venture Company (JVC) to be called ‘NTPC-BHEL Power Projects Pvt. Ltd. to execute Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) contracts for Power Plants and other Infrastructure Projects as well as supply of equipments/tool in India and abroad. National Organised

Central Public Sector Enterprises (CPSEs) Under DHI

Currently, the DHI (Deptt. of Heavy Industry) has 48 CPSEs under its administrative control, out of which, 13 CPSEs are now not in operation. Several Ltd. sectors are under the DHI viz., BHEL—a largest Engineering and Manufacturing enterprise of its kind in India; HEC (Heavy Engineering Corporation Ltd., Ranchi, Bihar) w.e.f, Dec. 1958); HMT (International) Ltd.–est. in Dec. 1974; HMTs (Ltd.) Machine Tools/ Watches / Bearings / Chinar Watches Ltd.); HNL (Hindustan Newsprint Ltd.); Hindustan Salts Ltd.–set-up in 1959, Scootters India Ltd.–est. in 1972 etc.

Technology Upgradation and Research and Development (R&D)

Heavy Electrical, Heavy Engineering and Machine Tool Industries

Seminars / Workshops

DHI (Deptt. of Heavy Industry) participated in the 146th session of WP-29 (Union Organisation) on Sept. 12, 2008 in Geneva regarding India hosting the 4th Environmental Friendly Vehicle (EFV) Conference in New Delhi on Nov. 23 and 24, 2009. For the

Sugar Machinery Industry— Domestic manufacturers occupy predominant position in the global scenario and are capable of manufacturing from concept to commissioning stage sugar plants, having a capacity upto 10,000 TCD (tons crushing per day). Presently, 27 units in organised sector for the manufacture of complete sugar plants and components with an installed capacity of around Rs. 200 crore per annum. During 200708, the import of Rs. 2050 lakh and export of Rs. 2211 lakh remained.

PCRI (Pollution Control Research Institute), Hardwar (Uttarakhand)—PCRI was set-up by Deptt. HI with BHEL—a lead agency under United Nations Development Programme. The Institute has undertaken a number of R&D projects to develop industrial pollution control technologies like; preparation of action plan for pollution control in Dehradun city. This institute is playing a vital role in performing year long comprehensive Environmental Impact Assessment Studies and also nominated as State Referral Laboratory by SWAJAL by the Government of Uttarakhand for drinking water, quality testing and its surveillance. Navratna (CPSEs) : mon Minimum Programme), for full managerial and commercial autonomy, the pledge made and to develop successful profit making companies the Government has reviewed the powers delegated to the Board of Directors of Navratna, Miniratna and other making CPSEs.

➠ Under NCMP (National Com-


➠ During the year 2008, the Navratna status has been granted to 6 more CPSEs and presently, there are 18 Navratna CPSEs like; BHEL, Coal India Ltd., NTPC, Bharat Electronics Ltd., Oil and Natural Corporation Ltd., Steel Authority of India, Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd., G A I L (India) Ltd. etc.

➠ Miniratna Scheme was started
by the Government of India (GOI) in October 1997, to enhance autonomy and delegation of financial powers to some other profit making companies, categorizing in two categories viz., category-I and category-II.

Official Language Policy— Hindi Cell of the Deptt. of PEs is functioning well to promote Hindi language in the Offices under Rule 10(4) of the Official Language Rules, 1976. Hindi Fortnight was organised by the Deptt. from Sept. 15-26, 2008, with the competitions namely; Hindi Essay Writing, Hindi Shrutilekh and Hindi Elocution for officers and employed and also prizes were distributed to the winners. Welfare of Women—The Deptt. has also set-up a welfare and complaint committee to ensure fair, safe and healthy environment at work place for women.

(A) May 1990 (B) May 1995 (C) May 1997 (D) May 1998 2. The Capital Goods Sector, registered the growth (during 200708) of 18·0%, which was felt down during 2008-09 to the extent of— (A) 10·0% (B) 8·5% (C) 7·0% (D) 5·0% 3. BHEL (Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd.)–achieved a growth of…… per cent, with a turnover of Rs. 28,033 crore in its production during the year 2008-09. (A) 20 (B) 31 (C) 25 (D) None of these 4. HEC (Heavy Engineering Corporation Ltd.) located at Hq. Ranchi (Jharkhand, earlier in Bihar) came into existence w.e.f.—

➠ MoU (Memorandum of Understanding) system in CPSEs has been created for the performance improvement through this MoU system–a mutually negotiated agreement between Management of the CPSEs and the GOI Task force on MoU has been constituted and now grouped into different 14 groups called Syndicates, Petroleum I and II, EnergyI and II, Industrial Sector I, II and III etc. During 2007-08, performance of the MoUs signed for 55-Excellent, 34 very good, 15 good, 8 Fair and zero Poor Total 112 rating secured.

Based on the above achievements and new initiatives taken in the field of heavy industries and public enterprises (Ministry of HI and PEs, GOI), it can very well be concluded in a nutshell that during the year 2008-09 following growth rates (%) were noted in various fields of industries viz. :

Per Cent Growth (%) Achieved in Various Sectors during 2008-09
Basic Goods and Intermediate Goods 2·5 and (–) 128 respectively Consumer Goods 4·4 Capital Goods 7·0 Industrial Sector 2·4 (8·5% in 2007-08) Manufacturing Sector 2·3 (9·0% in 2007-08) Mining Sector 2·3 Electricity Sector 2·8

➠ Several Training Programmes
were executed during the year 2008-09 under the Ministry of HI and PEs, besides awarded various awards.

Other Activities and Initiatives by DHI and DPEs
Both the Departments i.e., DHI (Deptt. of Heavy Industries) and DPE (Deptt. of Public Enterprises)–GOI are engaged in several activities, related to welfare/empowerment/ vigilance activities, those are mentioned below :

Welfare of SC/ST/OBC/PWDs/ Minorities—The Department of HI and Deptt. of PE (both) have an SC/ST Cell for promoting the welfare of such societies. Every year, Quami Ekta/Sadbhavana Diwas is organized by the DHI for stimulating the sprit of women and children come in all sections of the society.

To improve the growth rates in various sectors under Deptt. of Heavy Industries and Deptt. of PEs, several initiatives were taken during the year (2008-09) in the Ministry of HI and PSEs, like; Workshops/Seminars/Training Programmes etc. were also organised and by welfare of women scheme, Official Language– Hindi Cell etc.

(A) (B) (C) (D)

Dec. 1958 Dec. 1970 Dec. 2005 Dec. 2006

Objective Questions
1. When Department of Public Enterprises (DPE) came into existence, as a part of the Ministry of Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises (GOI), that was earlier BPE (Bureau of Public Enterprises) set-up in 1965 ?

5. Navratna status, delegated to enhance powers to CPSEs (Central Public Sector Enterprises), under which Companies/Ltd. has/have been granted Navratna— (A) BHEL (B) NTPC Ltd. (C) Coal India Ltd. (D) All these Ltds./Companies



International Event

The Millennium Development Goals
—Sanjeev Sirohi
Before we start dwelling and elaborating on “The Millennium Development Goals” it is imperative that first we give the background which resulted in its declaration. It was at the UN Millennium Summit held at New York, UN Headquarters from 6 to 8 September, 2000 that all the world leaders who gathered here laid down very clear cut directions for the UN in the new century. Mention must also be made here of the fact that in this UN Millennium Summit, the Heads of State and all the world leaders who assembled here adopted the United Nations ‘Millennium Declaration’ including eight Millennium Development Goals. It may also be pointed out here that “The Millennium Report, we the peoples : The Role of the United Nations in the 21st Century” was the heading under which it was issued while in initial stages for the Millennium Summit. There can be no two opinions about the indisputable fact that the adoption of the Millennium Development Goals drawn from the United Nations Millennium Declaration was a watershed episode with long ranging potential consequences which ever occurred in the history of the United Nations. Now we will spell out one by one the eight Millennium Development Goals which were adopted at the historic UN Millennium Summit held in New York in 2000. Target 3 : Ensure that by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling. Goal 3 —Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women. Target 4 : Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005 and at all levels of education not later than 2015. Goal 4—Reduce Child Mortality. Target 5 : Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate. Goal 5—Improve Maternal Health. Target 6 : Reduce by quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio. Goal 6—Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Other Diseases. Target 7 : Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS. Target 8 : Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases. Goal 7—Ensure Environmental Sustainability. Target 9 : Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources. Target 10 : Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. Target 11 : Achieve, by 2020 a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum-dwellers. Goal 8—Develop A Global Partnership for Development. Target 12 : Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system (includes a commitment to good governance, development and poverty reduction—both nationally and internationally). Target 13 : Address the special needs of the least developed countries (includes tariff and quota-free access for least developed countries exports; enhanced programme of debt relief for heavily indebted poor countries and cancellation of official bilateral debt and more generous ODA for countries committed to poverty reduction). Target 14 : Address the special needs of landlocked countries and small island developing States (through the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and the outcome of the twentysecond special session of the General Assembly). Target 15 : Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long-term. Target 16 : In cooperation with developing countries, develop and implement strategies for decent and productive work for youth. Target 17 : In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable, essential drugs in developing countries. Target 18 : n cooperation with the I private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and commuP.Darpan nications.

The Millennium Development Goals
Goal 1—Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger. Target 1 : Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day. Target 2 : Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger. Goal 2—Achieve Universal Primary Education.



International Organisation
Established in Headquarters — 1972 — Nairobi (Kenya) 2997 (XXVII) of December 15, 1972 and subsequent amendments adopted at UNCED in 1992, the Nairobi Declaration on the Role and Mandate of UNEP, adopted at the Nineteenth Session of the UNEP Governing Council, and the Malmo Declaration of May 31, 2000. Responsibilities of — UNEP’s responsibilities include– promoting international cooperUNEP ation in the field of the environment and recommending appropriate policies; catalysing action to address major environmental threats; monitoring the status of the global environment and gathering and disseminating environmental information; facilitating the coordination of United Nations activities on matters concerned with the environment and ensuring through cooperation, liaison and participation, that their activities take environmental considerations into account; helping upon Achim Steiner request environment ministries UNEP Executive and other environmental authoDirector rities in particular in developing countries and countries with economies in transition to formulate and implement environmental policies; helping to develop international environmental law; providing expert advice on the development and use of environmental concepts and instruments; developing regional programmes for the environment among others. UNEP Activities — The major results of UNEP activities should include : international arrangements to enhance environmental protection and policy advice to governments multilateral organisations and others to strengthen environmental protection and incorporate the environment into the sustainable development process; periodic assessments and

Type of Organisa-— United Nations Environment tion Programme is the voice for the environment within the United Nations system. UNEP acts as a catalyst, advocate, educator and facilitator to promote the wise and sustainable development of the global environment. To accomplish this, UNEP works with a wide range of partners, including United Nations entities international organisations, national governments, nongovernmental organizations, the private sector and the civil society. UNEP Work — UNEP work encompasses Assessing global, regional and national environmental conditions and trends; developing international and national environmental instruments strengthening institutions for the wise management of the environment facilitating the transfer of knowledge and technology for sustainable development; encouraging new partnership and mind sets within civil society and the private sector.

Mandate of UNEP — UNEP is the designated authority of the United Nations system in environmental issues at the global and regional level. Its mandate is to coordinate the development of environmental policy consensus by keeping the global environment under review and bringing emerging issues to the attention of governments and the international community for action. The mandate and objectives of UNEP emanate from United Nations General Assembly resolution


scientifically sound forecasts to support decision making and international consensus on the main environmental threats and responses to them; more effective coordination of environmental matters within the United Nations System; greater public awareness and capacity for environmental management and effective national and international responses to environmental threats. UNEP Structure — The Governing Council was (The Governing established in accordance with Council) General Assembly resolution 2997 (XXVII) of December 15, 1972. Governing Council reports to the General Assembly for four year terms taking into the principle of equitable regional representation. Besides, pursuant to General Assembly resolution 53/242 of July 28, 1999, the Global Ministerial Environment Forum is convened annually to review important and emerging policy issues in the field of the environment, with the Governing Council constituting the forum either in its regular sessions or special sessions. Secretariat of — The Secretariat of the Governing Governing Bodies Bodies is responsible for supporting the Governing Council/Global Ministerial Environment Forum (GC/GMEF) and its subsidiary organs, including the Committee of Permanent Representative (CPR) in its work and functions. The Governing Council/Global Ministerial Environment Forum meets annually either as a regular session held in Nairobi or as a special session held normally elsewhere. The CPR consists of approximately 100 Permanent Representatives to UNEP. The Kyoto Proto- — The Kyoto Protocol adopted on col 1997 December 11, 1997 and entered into force February 16, 2005, is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The major feature of the Kyoto Protocol is that it sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European community for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG)

emissions. These amount to an average of five per cent against 1990 levels over the five years period 2008-2012. 184 Parties of the Convention have ratified its Protocol to date; the detailed rules for the implementation of the Protocol were adopted at COP 7 in Marrakesh in 2001, and are called ‘Marrakesh Accords’. UNFCCC COP 15 — The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 15th Conference of the Parties (COP 15) meeting in Copenhagen in December 2009 was the culmination of months of negotiations complemented by community; industry and private sector led events aimed at promoting urgent decision-making and action to combat climate change. It resulted in the Copenhagen Accord under which several developing and developed countries outlined intentions and commitments on carbon emissions, pledged support for technology transfer and acknowledged the importance of forest systems in combating climate change. Milestones in — 1972-UNEP created by UN UNEP History General Assembly 1979-Bonn Convention on Migratory Species 1985-Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer 1987-Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer 1988-Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 1992-Convention on Biological Diversity 2000-Millennium Declaration (environmental sustainability included as one of eight Millennium Development Goals) 2002-World Summit on Sustainable Development The Green Eco- — The Green Economy Initiative nomy Initiative (GEI) is designed to assist (GEI) governments in greening their economies by reshaping and refocusing policies investments and spending towards a range of sectors, such as clean technologies, renewable energies, water services, green transportation,

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Multiple Choice Questions

Current Questionnaire
1. The abbreviated term CCIT recently came into news. What does it stand for— (A) Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism (B) Comprehensive Commitment on India-Turkey Cooperation (C) Comprehensive Cooperation on Fighting International Terrorism (D) None of the above 2. India offered Nepal recently a line of credit worth— (A) $ 200 million (B) $ 300 million (C) $ 250 million (D) $ 150 million 3. Which of the following Indian judges has recently been nominated to a Global Tribunal ? (A) Justice M. M. Punchi (B) Justice B. N. Srikrishna (C) Justice Aftab Alam (D) Justice Panachand Jain 4. Recently constituted Justice B. N. Srikrishna Committee is related to— (A) High food prices (B) Telangana issue (C) Petroleum Prices (D) Women Reservation 5. India has recently signed Text on Civil Nuclear Cooperation Deal with— (A) Australia (B) United Kingdom (C) Myanmar (D) Thailand 6. Agni III–the missile with the longest range in India’s arsenal– was launched on— (A) February 7, 2010 (B) February 8, 2010 (C) February 9, 2010 (D) February 10, 2010 7. Women’s Reservation Bill seeking to reserve 33 per cent seats for woman in the Lok Sabha and State Assemblies has been passed by— (A) Rajya Sabha (B) Lok Sabha (C) Both of the above (D) None of the above 8. India-Pakistan resumed recently after— (A) 15 months (B) 14 months (C) 20 months (D) 16 months talks 14. Recently a landmark deal was signed in Northern Irelands’. The deal was signed between Sinn Fein and— (A) Ireland’s nationalist party (B) The Democratic Unionist Party (C) The Democratic Republican Party (D) The Irish Republican Army 15. Between which two of the following countries has a $ 60 billion coal deal been signed ? (A) Australia and Japan (B) China and North Korea (C) Australia and China (D) China and USA 16. India–European Free Trade Agreement is likely to be signed in— (A) May 2010 (B) December 2010 (C) September 2010 (D) November 2010 17. The first fully electrified district in India is— (A) Palakkad (B) Hyderabad (C) Kochi (D) Mangalore 18. Which of the following has recently unveiled Semiconductor Policy ? (A) Karnataka (B) Andhra Pradesh (C) Tamil Nadu (D) Bihar 19. Which of the following Indian states has recently approved its First Forest Policy ? (A) Rajasthan (B) Andhra Pradesh (C) Karnataka (D) Himachal Pradesh 20. Hun Kim is the new Country Director of—

9. The 13th National Conference on e-Governance was recently held in— (A) Hyderabad (B) Jaipur (C) Mysore (D) New Delhi 10. Victor Yanukovych is the newly elected President of— (A) Moldova (B) Ukraine (C) Uzbekistan (D) Belarus 11. Japan and Australia recently laid down 3S as the basis for maintaining the international nuclear non-proliferation regime. Which of the following is not included in 3S ? (A) Sanction (B) Safeguards (C) Safety (D) Security 12. Laura Chinchilla has been elected as the first woman President of— (A) Costa Rica (B) Argentina (C) Poland (D) None of the above 13. On February 1, 2010, US President Barack Obama unveiled a budget for USA amounting— (A) $ 3·83 trillion (B) $ 2·5 trillion (C) $ 5 trillion (D) $ 1·5 trillion


(A) International Monetary Fund (B) Asian Development Fund (C) World Bank (D) None of the above 21. Recently Myanmar’s Army released a Pro-democracy leader named— (A) Aung San Suu Kyi (B) Tin Oo (C) Both of the above (D) None of the above 22. Recently India’s celebrated artist M. F. Husain has got the nationality of— (A) Saudi Arabia (B) Qatar (C) Yemen (D) Oman 23. Pantaloons Femina Miss India East 2010 is— (A) Unnati Davara (B) Eram Karim (C) Rohini Mukherjee (D) None of the above 24. The BAFTA Awards were swept by— (A) Avatar (B) The Hurt Locker (C) Inglorious Bastards (D) ‘Moon’ 25. Who has been named the Ernst and Young Entrepreneur for the year 2009 ? (A) Mukesh Ambani (B) Ratan Tata (C) Anand Mahindra (D) Sunil Bharti Mittal 26. Recently tension broke out between England and Argentina over the oil exploration around— (A) Falklands (B) Trista de Cunha Island (C) Shetland Islands (D) None of the above 27. Who is the author of the book ‘India’s Foreign Policy : The Democracy Dimension’ ? (A) S. D. Muni (B) Radha Burnier (C) Mushirul Hasan (D) Orhan Pamuk

28. World Health Day is observed on— (A) April 9 (B) April 7 (C) April 18 (D) April 22 29. In India Panchayat Day observed on— (A) April 21 (B) April 24 (C) April 23 (D) April 29 is

37. As per the budget 2010-11, the fiscal deficit is pegged at— (A) 6·6 per cent (B) 5·5 per cent (C) 7·5 per cent (D) 4·9 per cent 38. As per the Economic Survey 2009-10, the Indian Economy is expected to grow at— (A) 7·2 per cent (B) 7·5 per cent (C) 8·5 per cent (D) 9·5 per cent 39. The Per Capita Income at 2004-05 prices registered during the financial year 2009-10 was— (A) 40,745 per annum (B) 32,855 per annum (C) 35,742 per annum (D) 29,355 per annum 40. As per Economic Survey 2009-10 the Manufacturing sector registered a growth rate of— (A) 10·30 per cent (B) 9·3 per cent (C) 8·9 per cent (D) 10·5 per cent

30. Which of the following clinched Duleep Trophy ? (A) South Zone (B) North Zone (C) West Zone (D) None of the above 31. The Avantha Masters Golf Championship has been bagged by— (A) Gaganjeet Bhullar (B) Ian Poulter (C) Andrew Dodt (D) Tetsuji Hiratsuka 32. The Chennai Open (Chess) Championship winner is— (A) R. Siddharth (B) Maxim Turov (C) Lalith Babu (D) Ziaur Rahman 33. The 2010 South Asian Games were held in— (A) New Delhi (B) Guwahati (C) Dhaka (D) None of the above 34. Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary has been declared as— (A) 38th Tiger Reserve of India (B) 37th Tiger Reserve of India (C) 30th Tiger Reserve of India (D) 35th Tiger Reserve of India 35. The first cricketer to make double century in One Day International is— (A) Saeed Anwar (B) Charles Coventry (C) Sanath Jayasuriya (D) Sachin Tendulkar 36. The total expenditure proposed in the 2010-11 budget is— (A) Rs. 10,08,749 crore (B) Rs. 11,07,359 crore (C) Rs. 11,08,749 crore (D) Rs. 19,08,522 crore

Answers with Hints

Continued on Page 2003


Current Objective Questions

Trade and Industry
1. During 2008-09, the saving percentage of household sector in private sector stands at— (A) 22·6% (B) 23·3% (C) 26·3% (D) 31·1% 2. As per CSO’s estimates, per capita income (Advance Estimates) at 2004-05 prices at factor cost for the year 2009-10 stands at— (A) Rs. 31821 (B) Rs. 33540 (C) Rs. 33830 (D) Rs. 34215 3. Which of the following sector has shown a decreased growth rate in 2009-10 as compared to 200809 at 2004-05 prices at factor cost as per advance estimates of CSO ? (A) Agriculture, forestry and Fisheries (B) Mining (C) Construction (D) Manufacturing 4. Per capita income growth at 2004-05 prices for 2008-09 was 3·7% which for the year 2009-10 became— (A) 3·2% (B) 4·2% (C) 5·3% (D) 6·7% 5. Per capita consumption growth at 2004-05 prices for the year 2008-09 was 5·4%. This growth rate for the year 2009-10 has been estimated at— (A) 6·3% (B) 2·7% (C) 7·3% (D) 8·3% 6. Manufacturing sector growth was estimated at 3·2% only for the year 2008-09 but for 2009-10, it got improved to— (A) 6·2% (B) 7·2% (C) 8·1% (D) 8·9% 7. The share of public sector investment in agriculture and allied sectors was 20·9% in 2007-08 which for the year 2008-09 became— (A) 22·3% (B) 21·8% (C) 17·6% (D) 16·9% 8. According to Economic Survey 2009-10, the investment-deposit ratio in the country has been registered at— (A) 32·5% (B) 34·3% (C) 35·2% (D) 36·6% 9. Committee on decontrolling the prices of petrol and diesel was headed by— (A) Kelkar Vijai (B) Kirit S. Parekh (C) Abhijit Sen (D) C. Rangrajan 10. How many commodity exchanges (as on Feb. 28, 2010) are working in India ? (A) Three (B) Four (C) Five (D) Six 11. The recommendations of the 13th Finance Commission has become/will be operational during the period— (A) 2009-14 (B) 2010-15 (C) 2011-16 (D) None of the above 12. For fiscal consolidation, 13th Finance Commission in its suggested roadmap kept the ceiling of debt burden of the union government at— (A) 35% of GDP (B) 40% of GDP (C) 45% of GDP (D) 50% of GDP 13. Agriculture Ministry in its second advance estimates for the year 2009-10, puts Rabi foodgrain production at— (A) 109·83 MT (B) 116·33 MT (C) 117·0 MT (D) 119·0 MT 14. Committee on Economic Affairs of Union Cabinet has decided to raise share capital of NACIL (National Aviation Company of India Ltd.) by— (A) Rs. 500 crore (B) Rs. 600 crore (C) Rs. 700 crore (D) Rs. 800 crore 15. The new President of FICCI who has taken charge on February 27, 2010 is— (A) H. P. Singhania (B) Jagdish Kapoor (C) Rajan Bharti Mittal (D) P. K. Basu 16. Business Standard Banker of the Year Award 2009 has been given to— (A) O. P. Bhatt (B) P. J. Nayak (C) Chanda Kochar (D) Bhasker Sen 17. As per Budget document 201011, MSME (Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises) Sector’s contribution in GDP is— (A) 5% (B) 8% (C) 10% (D) 12% 18. RBI on March 19, 2010 raised repo rate by 25 basis points which made repo rate— (A) 4·75% (B) 5·0% (C) 5·25% (D) 5·5% 19. After the announcement of RBI for the hike in repo rate and reverse repo rate on March 19, 2010, which of the following rate stands at the maximum ? (A) Bank Rate (B) Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) (C) Repo Rate (D) Reverse Repo Rate 20. According to Forbes’ List of richest persons on the earth, which Indian becomes the richest billionaire ? (A) Laxmi L. Mittal (B) Mukesh Ambani (C) Azim Premji (D) Anil Ambani 21. How many Indian women got the place in the list of world’s top billionaires compiled by the US magazine Forbes ? (A) Two (B) Three (C) Four (D) Five 22. Which segment of infrastructure sector got the maximum share in 11th plan’s infrastructure allocations ? (A) Irrigation (B) Telecom (C) Electricity (D) Roads and Bridges


23. Trinity Coal group of US is being purchased by— (A) Essar Group (B) Tata Group (C) Jindal Group (D) Laxmi N. Mittal Group 24. Government has introduced SBI (Amendment) Bill 2010 in the Parliament which has the provision to reduce government’s share in SBI’s capital— (A) from 61% to 55% (B) from 58% to 55% (C) from 55% to 51% (D) from 55% to 49% 25. Union government has changed the base year for estimating country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP)— (A) from 2000-01 to 2004-05 (B) from 1999-2000 to 2004-05 (C) from 1993-94 to 2004-05 (D) from 1999-2000 to 2003-04


Continued from Page 2001



Solved Paper

(Held on 13-12-2009)

Political Science
01. Who is the propounder of the juristic view of sovereignty ? (A) Hobbes (B) Bodin (C) Grotius (D) Austin 02. “The State is both Child and Father of Law.” Who said it ? (A) Aristotle (B) Plato (C) MacIver (D) Laski 03. “State is prior to Individual.” Who said it ? (A) Plato (B) Aristotle (C) Hobbes (D) Hegel 04. Who propounded the Theory of Natural Rights ? (A) T. H. Green (B) John Locke (C) H. J. Laski (D) Mahatma Gandhi 05. Given below are two statements, one labelled as Assertion (A) and the other labelled as Reason (R). Assertion (A) : Liberal thinkers want to limit the sphere of State action. Reason (R) : Liberal thinkers emphasise freedom of individuals. In the context of the above two statements, which of the following is correct ? (A) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A) (B) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not a correct explanation of (A) (C) (A) is true, but (R) is false (D) (A) is false, but (R) is true 06. Who is the author of the book ‘Public Opinion’ ? (A) Bentham (B) Rousseau (C) Locke (D) Lipman 07. Provincial Autonomy was a feature of which Act ? (A) The Government of India Act of 1909 (B) The Government of India Act of 1919 (C) The Government of India Act of 1935 (D) The Indian Independence Act of 1947 08. Which one of the following Commissions examined the CentreState relations in India ? (A) Thakkar Commission (B) Sarkaria Commission (C) Lingdoh Commission (D) Mandal Commission 09. Whose name is associated with the concept of ‘Justice as Fairness’ ? (A) Rawls (B) Berlin (C) Hayek (D) Nozick 10. Which one of the following attributes explains the Marxist approach about formation of State ? (A) Private Property (B) Capitalism (C) Privileged Officials (D) Contracting Public Debt 11. Which one of the following is not related to the Theory of Justice of Rawls ? (A) Procedural Justice (B) Moral Worth (C) Dignity of Individual (D) Greatest Happiness to the Greatest Number 12. Which one of the following views of Politics is concerned with the Theory of Liberalism ? (A) Competing Groups (B) Dependent Class (C) Class Struggle (D) Classless Society 13. Which one of the following is a system of representation ? (A) Electoral College (B) Coalition Government (C) Common Minimum Programme (D) Direct and Indirect Election 14. Which one of the following statements is correct ? (A) A socialist State favours status quo (B) A socialist State wants nationalization of lands and mines (C) A socialist State is by nature anti-democratic (D) A socialist State is in favour of free trade 15. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer by using the codes given below— List-I (a) (b) (c) (d) 1. 2. 3. 4. Schumpeter Rawls Habermas Popper List-II Open Society Enemies. and its

Between Facts and Norms. Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. Political Liberalism. (b) 2 3 4 1 (c) 1 4 2 3 (d) 3 2 1 4

Codes : (a) (A) 4 (B) 1 (C) 3 (D) 2

16. Which one of the following is not included in Directive Principles of State Policy ? (A) Free profession, practice and propagation of religion. (B) Equal justice and free legal aid. (C) Living wages for workers. (D) Safeguarding forests and wild life.


17. The electoral college for the election of the Vice-President consists of— (A) Members of Rajya Sabha (B) Members of Lok Sabha (C) Members of both Houses of Parliament (D) Members of both Houses of Parliament and Legislative Assemblies of all the States 18. Nineteenth Century liberal thinkers considered the State as a— (A) Necessary evil (B) Positive good (C) Divine institution (D) Welfare institution 19. Which one of the following combinations is wrong ? (A) Austin —Monist (B) A. D. Lindsay —Pluralist (C) Gramsci —Marxist (D) Hobbes —Pluralist 20. “Every State is known by the rights it maintains.” Who said it ? (A) Locke (B) J. S. Mill (C) Laski (D) Lord Bruce 21. Who of the following is an advocate of natural liberty ? (A) Herbert Spencer (B) Rousseau (C) T.H. Green (D) Laski 22. The decision of Mahatma Gandhi to suspend Non-Cooperation Movement was strongly supported by— (A) Chitranjan Das (B) Lala Lajpat Rai (C) Jawahar Lal Nehru (D) None of the above 23. Which one of the following rights has been described by Dr. Ambedkar as ‘The heart and soul of the Constitution’ ? (A) Right to Equality (B) Right to Freedom (C) Right to Property (D) Right to Constitutional Remedies 24. The Presidential System operates on the principle of— (A) Division of Powers (B) Separation of Powers

(C) Fusion of Powers (D) Balance of Powers 25. Who declared in 1936 that ‘there is no such thing as Gandhism’ ? (A) Jawahar Lal Nehru (B) Maulana Azad (C) Ravindranath Tagore (D) Mahatma Gandhi 26. Select the correct statement in the following— (A) The Nehru Report of 1928 had advocated the inclusion of Fundamental Rights in the Constitution of India. (B) The Government of India Act of 1935 provided for Fundamental Rights. (C) The August Offer 1940 included Fundamental Rights. (D) The Cripps Mission 1942 referred to Fundamental Rights. 27. Who defined rights as “Rights are, in fact, those conditions of social life without which no man can seek, in general, to be himself at his best” ? (A) T. H. Green (B) Edmund Burke (C) John Locke (D) Harold J. Laski 28. By which Act Federation was introduced in India ? (A) Indian Councils Act, 1861 (B) Indian Councils Act, 1892 (C) Indian Councils Act, 1909 (D) Government of India Act 1935 29. Who advocated the concept of partyless democracy in India ? (A) (B) (C) (D) K.M. Munshi Jaiprakash Narayan Ram Manohar Lohia B.R. Ambedkar

31. Rajya Sabha has exclusive powers in the matter of— (A) Confirmation of proclamation of emergency (B) Creation of new States (C) Election of the VicePresident. (D) Authorising the Parliament to make laws on the subjects provided in the State list 32. Who decides whether a Bill is a Finance Bill or not ? (A) President of India (B) Finance Minister of India (C) Speaker of Lok Sabha (D) Chairman of Rajya Sabha 33. In which of the following countries the Government is a mixture of Parliamentary Presidential System ? (A) France (B) Switzerland (C) United States of America (D) Britain 34. Who said that “Human consciousness postulates liberty, liberty involves rights and rights demand the State” ? (A) J. S. Mill (B) John Locke (C) T.H. Green (D) Rousseau 35. Which statement about the General Will of Rousseau is not correct ? (A) It is the source of law in the State (B) It is always in people’s interest (C) It is the will of all (D) It is always right 36. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer by using the codes given below— (a) (b) (c) (d) 1. 2. 3. 4. List-I Gramsci Montesquieu Hobbes Bentham List-II Utilitarianism Social Contract Separation of Powers Marxism

30. Who does not take part in the election of the President ? (A) Elected members of Rajya Sabha (B) Elected members of Lok Sabha (C) Elected members of Legislative Assemblies (D) Elected members of Legislative Councils


Codes : (a) (A) 3 (B) 4 (C) 1 (D) 2

(b) 4 3 2 4

(c) 1 2 3 1

(d) 2 1 4 3

(B) Sajjan Singh Vs. State of Rajasthan (C) Keshavanand Kerala State Bharti Vs.

(A) (B) (C) (D)

Press Judiciary Political Parties Private Organisation

(D) Shankari Prasad Vs. Union of India 43. The Anti-thesis of Liberalism is— (A) Neo-Liberalism (B) Gandhism (C) Socialism (D) Idealism 44. Who first propounded the philosophy of popular sovereignty ? (A) Locke (B) Hobbes (C) Rousseau (D) Mill 45. Who of the following has advocated the concept of ‘NightmareState’ ? (A) John Rawls (B) Robert Nozick (C) Mackpherson (D) May Stephen 46. Which one of the following is not provided for by the Constitution of India ? (A) Election Commission (B) Finance Commission (C) Public Service Commission (D) Planning Commission 47. Which of the following is not correctly matched ? (A) Karl Marx —Man on the Horse Back (B) Laski —Grammar of Politics (C) Plato —Statesman (D) Popper —Open Society and Its Enemies 48. Who among the following is not the supporter of Pluralist Theory of Sovereignty ? (A) (B) (C) (D) G.D.H. Cole Maitland Bodin Lindsay

37. Which of the following statements is not related to pluralism ? (A) State is the march of God on earth. (B) Group is real in the same sense that the State is real. (C) Since society is federal, authority should also be federal. (D) The only State to which I owe allegiance is the State in which I discover moral adequacy. 38. Which of the following correctly explains the origin of State ? (A) Divine Theory of State (B) Contract Theory (C) Evolutionary Theory (D) All of the above in their limited ways. 39. Who appoints the Secretary General of Lok Sabha ? (A) President of India (B) Speaker of Lok Sabha (C) Minister for Parliamentary Affairs (D) A Parliamentary Committee constituted for this purpose. 40. Which one of the following is not true about public opinion ? (A) Legislature forms the public opinion (B) Judiciary forms the public opinion (C) Radio and cinema form the public opinion (D) Political parties form the public opinion 41. The basic element of Liberalism is— (A) Individual Freedom (B) Mixed Economy (C) Secularism (D) Equality 42. In which of the following case, the Supreme Court of India propounded the Theory of ‘basic structure of the Constitution’ ? (A) Golaknath Vs. State of Punjab

51. Which one of the following thinkers suggets that Right to Property is the basis of life and liberties ? (A) Rousseau (B) Locke (C) Mill (D) Laski 52. According to Socialists, which one of the following is not the function of the State ? (A) Maintenance of Law and Order (B) Control and Management of means of production (C) Promotion of education (D) Eradication of social evils 53. Which one of the following thinkers has considered the State as ‘March of God on Earth’ ? (A) Plato (B) Hegel (C) Bentham (D) Green 54. Why was 26th January selected for the declaration of India as sovereign, democratic, republic with a new Constitution ? (A) On the same day in 1885, Indian National Congress was founded (B) On the same day in 1919, the Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy took place (C) On the same day in 1930, Congress observed Independence Day in the country (D) On the same day in 1942, Mahatma Gandhi started Quit India Movement 55. The title of the autobiography of Gandhiji is— (A) Sermon on the Mount (B) Hind Swaraj (C) My Experiements with Truth (D) Discovery of India 56. Which one of the following statements correctly explains the fundamental assumptions of Marxist theory ? (A) State is a class institution (B) The nature of State is dependent on the nature of economic relations

49. Which Article of Indian Constitution is related with the protection of the interest of the Minorities ? (A) Article 17 (B) Article 29 (C) Article 30 (D) Article 31 50. Which one of the following is not an agency of Public Opinion ?


(C) The change in the exploitative nature of State is possible through revolution (D) All of the above 57. Which one of the following books explains Austin’s concept of Sovereignty ? (A) Two Treatises on Government (B) Early History of Institutions (C) Lectures on Jurisprudence (D) Modern State 58. The power of Supreme Court to review any judgement pronounced or order made by it previously is provided in— (A) Article 126 (B) Article 137 (C) Article 138 (D) Article 139 59. A Bill referred to a joint sitting of the two Houses of Parliament is to be passed by— (A) Simple majority (B) Two-third majority (C) Three-fourth majority (D) Absolute majority of the total membership 60. Which Schedule of Indian Constitution is related to Panchayati Raj ? (A) II Schedule (B) VIII Schedule (C) X Schedule (D) XI Schedule 61. The tenure of Estimate Committee is of— (A) One month (B) Two months (C) One year (D) Two years 62. The term City-State is generally associated with — (A) Ancient Egypt (B) Ancient Greece (C) Ancient China (D) Ancient India 63. Locke’s ‘State of Nature’ was— (A) Socialistic (B) Pre-social (C) Pre-Political (D) Historical 64. In the development of State, Feudal State succeeds which one of the following ?

(A) (B) (C) (D)

Oriental Kingdoms City States Roman Empire Nation-State

65. Who said that ‘Liberty is the absence of all restraints’ ? (A) Seeley (B) Kant (C) Hegel (D) Laski 66. Who said that ‘Political liberty without economic liberty is a myth’ ? (A) T.H. Green (B) G.D.H. Cole (C) Harold J. Laski (D) Karl Marx 67. Which aspect of justice was emphasized by Greeks ? (A) Social (B) Moral (C) Legal (D) Political 68. The phrase ‘equality before law’ used in Article 14 of Indian Constitution has been borrowed from the Constitution of— (A) Britain (B) United States of America (C) France (D) Canada 69. The main objective of the ‘Rule of law’ is to ensure— (A) Freedom of Press (B) Liberty of Citizens (C) Independence of Judiciary (D) All of the above 70. Call for ‘Purna Swaraj’ was given by Congress in 1929 at its Session held at— (A) Lahore (B) Bombay (C) Karachi (D) Madras 71. Which term is not used in the Preamble of the Indian Constitution ? (A) Republic (B) Integrity (C) Federal (D) Socialist 72. Who among the following is associated with Neo-liberal Theory of Revolution ? (A) Laski (B) Green (C) Weber (D) Marx 73. Who advanced the concept of ‘Tyranny of majority in democracy’ ? (A) Green (B) J. S. Mill (C) Thomas Paine (D) De Tocqueville

74. Who said that “the mode of production in material life determines the general character of social, political and spiritual process of life” ? (A) Karl Marx (B) Lenin (C) Stalin (D) Robert Owen 75. Who among the following opposed Mahatma Gandhi’s association with Khilafat Movement ? (A) Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan (B) Fazlul Haque (C) Mohammed Ali Jinnah (D) Abul Kalam Azad 76. Put the following in correct chronological order— (1) Ghadar Party (2) Khilafat Movement (3) Dandi March (4) Champaran Satyagrah (A) 4, 1, 2, 3 (B) 1, 4, 3, 2 (C) 4, 1, 3, 2 (D) 1, 4, 2, 3 77. In political field, liberalism pleaded for— (A) Social reforms (B) Free medical aid (C) Free education (D) Freedom of thought, expression, speech, writing and publishing 78. Who is the author of the book ‘State and Revolution’ ? (A) Hitler (B) Mussolini (C) Lenin (D) Ram Monohar Lohia 79. Which one of the following political thinkers enunciates the concept of the negative functions of State ? (A) Karl Marx (B) Herbert Spencer (C) T.H. Green (D) J. S. Mill 80. Which one of the following political theorists is associated with the application of psychology to politics ? (A) Grahamwallas (B) Reobert Dahl (C) David Easton (D) Lipset


81. The first General Election for the Union Parliament in India was held in the year— (A) 1952 (B) 1953 (C) 1954 (D) None of the above 82. Who said that “Bodin ceased to be medieval without becoming modern” ? (A) Dunning (B) Barker (C) Sabine (D) Gettell 83. Which of the following bodies in India makes recommendations to the President about the distribution of financial resources between the Centre and the States ? (A) Planning Commission (B) National Development Council (C) Finance Commission (D) None of the above 84. Which one of the following countries was the first ever to incorporate the Directive Principles of State Policy as part of her Constitution ? (A) India (B) Spain (C) Ireland (D) England 85. “Justice is quality of human soul and habit of mind.”—Who said it ? (A) Plato (B) Aristotle (C) Laski (D) Hobbes 86. A basic feature of pluralist concept of sovereignty is— (A) Divisibility (B) Exclusiveness (C) Inalienability (D) Absoluteness 87. Which one of the following is not the feature of General Will ? (A) Temporary (B) Infalliable (C) Undivisive (D) Just 88. Who has given the concept of social justice in broader perspective ? (A) Plato (B) Mill (C) Rawls (D) Barker 89. The aim of social justice is— (A) National interest (B) Social interest

(C) Interest of the poor (D) Interest of the caste 90. Which of the following languages is behind the origin of the term sovereignty ? (A) Greek (B) Roman (C) Chinese (D) Latin 91. Sovereignty is the characteristic of the— (A) People (B) State (C) Government (D) Parliament

98. Who was the President of the historical Congress Session of 1916 at Lucknow ? (A) Purushottam Das Tandon (B) R. N. Mudohkar (C) Madan Mohan Malaviya (D) Ambika Charan Majumdar 99. Who has not been the Governor of Uttar Pradesh ? (A) V. Gopala Reddy (B) M. Chenna Reddy (C) Brahmananda Reddy (D) V. Satyanaranyan Reddy

92. How many seats have been 100. Who among the following served as the President of Indian reservd for Scheduled Castes in National Congress for six conLok Sabha ? secutive years ? (A) 69 (B) 73 (A) Jawahar Lal Nehru (C) 79 (D) 81 (B) Abul Kalam Azad 93. Hobbes repudiated the theory (C) Dada Bhai Naoroji of— (D) Gopal Krishna Gokhale (A) Reason 101. The alternative of Socialism in (B) Divine Rights Gandhian Philosophy is— (C) Motion (A) Sarvodaya (D) Absolutism (B) Trusteeship 94. Which among the following is (C) Panchayat Raj not a natural right, according to (D) Truth and Non-violence Locke ? 102. Which of the following Sessions (A) Life (B) Property of Congress was presided by (C) Liberty (D) Equality Mahatma Gandhi for the first and last time ? 95. Who propounded the concept of (A) Madras (B) Lahore Trusteeship ? (C) Karachi (D) Belgaum (A) Mahatma Gandhi 103. Who offered the ethical justification for Individualism ? (C) M. N. Roy (A) Grotius (D) Jawahar Lal Nehru (B) Herbert Spencer 96. Which of the following Schedules (C) Adam Smith of Indian Constitution is related (D) Laski with the allotment of seats in 104. The Idealist Theory of Rights Rajya Sabha ? gives more importance to— (A) Third Schedule (A) Social Progress (B) Fourth Schedule (B) Inner Development (C) Fifth Schedule (C) Material Progress (D) Sixth Schedule (D) Physical Development (B) Aurobindo Ghosh 97. Who of the following was a 105. Who of the following thinkers considers property as natural ? Member of Rajya Sabha while (A) Laski (B) Rousseau being appointed Indian Prime Minister ? (C) Marx (D) Aristotle (A) Lalbahadur Shastri 106. Who said that ‘all property is (B) Chandrashekhar (C) Indira Gandhi (D) Morarji Desai theft’ ? (A) Grotius (C) Prudhon (B) Rousseau (D) Adam Smith


107. The view that ‘Law and Liberty (A) Article 168 are opposed to each other’ is (B) Article 174 supported by— (C) Article 197 (A) Individualists (D) Article 153 (B) Anarchists 116. Fundamental Duties enshrined (C) Marxists in the Indian Constitution do not (D) Liberalists have any— 108. Who among the following cham(A) Legal Sanction pioned the cause of direct demo(B) Political Sanction cracy ? (C) Social Sanction (A) Adam Smith (D) Moral Sanction (B) Marx 117. The idea of organization of (C) Hegel Panchayats as a duty of State is (D) Rousseau mentioned in which part of 109. Who among the following hold Indian Constitution ? the view that property is neces(A) Chapter I sary for the realisation of one’s (B) Chapter II will ? (C) Chapter III (A) Laski (D) Chapter IV (B) Macpherson 118. The number of members in (C) Mill Interim Government proposed (D) Kant by Cabinet Mission was— 110. Who among the following is not (A) 14 (B) 15 a Marxist thinker ? (C) 16 (D) 25 (A) Gramsci (B) Lenin 119. Who organised the Indian Home (C) Mao (D) Nozik Rule Society in London ? 111. Fascism gives more importance (A) Madan Lal Dhingra to— (B) Sardar Patel (A) Party (B) Army (C) Shyamji Krishna Verma (C) Nation (D) Leader (D) Lala Lajpat Rai 112. The President under the presi120. Who among the following was dential system is— not the Vice-President of India ? (A) The Head of State as well as (A) Zakir Hussain Government (B) Gopal Swaroop Pathak (B) The Head of Government (C) Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy (C) The Head of State (D) M. Hidaytullah (D) None of the above 113. Who described bureaucracy as ‘a new form of despotism’ ? (A) Laski (B) Dicey (C) Finer (D) Hewart 114. The chief function of Zonal Council is— (A) to help inter-State development (B) to settle inter-State disputes (C) to provide inter-State cooperation (D) All of the above 115. The Provision for Constitution of Legislatures in States is enshrined in which Article of the Indian Constitution ?

Answers with Explanations


Continued from Page 1999
green buildings and sustainable agriculture and forests. Greening the economy refers to the process of reconfiguring business and infrastructure to deliver better returns on natural, human and economic capital investments while at the same time reducing greenhouse emissions, extracting and using less natural resources thereby reducing social disparities. UNEP Report 2009 — Taking the theme ‘Seizing the Green Opportunity’ UNEP Report 2009 provides an overview of UNEP’s activities in 2009 through the green economy lens. Its highlights include the emergence of green growth initiatives around the world, the innovative approaches to address climate change and ecosystem loss, and the renewed efforts to strengthen international environP.Darpan mental governance.



Solved Paper

(Held on 13-9-2009)

1. The assets which are purchased to improve profitability in the business not for the purpose of resale, are called— (A) Intangible assets (B) Current assets (C) Fixed assets (D) Wasting assets 2. As per the rule of Garner versus Murray, any loss that arises due to being insolvent of any partner should be divided among other partners in their— (A) Profit and loss sharing ratio (B) Capital ratio (C) Average of both ratios (D) None of these 3. Match List-I with List-II and select your answer from the code given below— List-I (a) (b) (c) (d) 1. 2. 3. 4. (A) (B) (C) (D) Prepaid rent Bank overdraft Goodwill Profit & Loss A/c (Dr.) List-II Current liability Current asset Fictitious asset Intangible asset (a) 1 3 2 4 (b) 2 4 1 1 (c) 3 1 4 3 (d) 4 2 3 2 5. Which method is legally accepted for redemption of preference shares ? (A) Issue of equity shares (B) Issue of debentures (C) Sale of fixed assets of the company (D) Public deposits 6. A and B are partners in a firm. They admit C into partnership by giving him fourth share in future profits. The new profit sharing ratio of all the partners will be— (A) 3 : 2 : 1 (B) 3 : 1 : 2 (C) 3 : 3 : 2 (D) 3 : 3 : 3 7. Which of the following statements is not correct ? (A) The amount received from the sale of goods and services are called revenue (B) Amount invested by the proprietor in the business is called capital (C) Recording is the process of grouping transactions of one nature at one place (D) Assets – Outside liabilities = Capital 8. The balance of which of the following items may have credit balance too ? (A) Cash (B) Bank (C) Investment (D) Stock 9. Which of the following is not an intangible asset ? (A) Goodwill (B) Debtors (C) Copyright (D) Patent 10. Which of the following statements indicates the essence of Robbins definition ? (A) “Economics is a subject concerned with an enquiry into the nature and causes of Wealth of Nations.” (B) “Economics is the study of mankind in the ordinary business of life.” (C) “Economics is the science of scarcity.” (D) “Economics is the study of allocation of scarce resources and of the determinants of employment, income and economic growth.” 11. Cross elasticity of demand is— Proportional change in price of X commodity (A) Proportional change in demand of Y commodity Proportional change in demand of X commodity (B) Proportional change in demand of Y commodity Proportional change in demand of X commodity (C) Proportional change in price of Y commodity (D) All of these statements are correct 12. A demand curve, parallel to Xaxis, shows the elasticity— (A) Infinite (B) Less than 1 (C) Zero (D) Inelastic demand 13. According to the Malthusian theory of population which one of the following statements is not correct ? (A) Population tends to outrun the resources of subsistence (B) There is a direct relationship between standard of living and population (C) Increasing population can be checked through only positive checks (D) Positive checks are those checks which are applied by the nature to stop population growth 14. When total utility is maximum, then marginal utility is— (A) Zero (B) Less than average utility (C) Equal to average utility (D) More than average utility

4. Securities premium cannot be applied— (A) For paying dividend to members (B) For issuing bonus shares to members (C) For writing off preliminary expenses of company (D) For writing off discount on issue of debentures


15. Which of the following statements is correct ? (A) Perfectly elastic demand curve is parallel to X-axis (B) Perfectly elastic demand curve is downward falling (C) Perfectly inelastic demand curve is parallel to X-axis (D) Generally highly elastic demand curve is a horizontal line 16. If 50% increase in the price of a commodity leads to only 10% reduction in demand, then such demand will be— (A) Inelastic demand (B) Perfectly elastic demand (C) Perfectly inelastic demand (D) Highly elastic demand 17. The equilibrium firm concept has been given by— (A) Pigou (B) Marshall (C) Robinson (D) J. K. Mehta 18. For ordinary business the maximum number of partners in a firm is— (A) 7 (B) 10 (C) 20 (D) 50 19. By limited partnership is meant— (A) Limited number of partners (B) Unlimited liability of all partners (C) Limited scope of partnership (D) Limited liability of some partners 20. The voting right of the members of cooperative organisation is— (A) In the proportion of the shares purchased by them (B) In the proportion of capital employed by them (C) Equal voting right (D) In the proportion of the total amount supplied by them 21. Line and staff organisation is most suitable for— (A) Small enterprises (B) Medium sized enterprises (C) Large sized enterprises (D) Cottage enterprises 22. In sampling investigation, to arrive at valid conclusions, we may study— (A) Only a very small unit of a population

(B) All the units of the population (C) Representative units of the population (D) None of these 23. ‘Law of Inertia of Large Numbers’ concludes— (A) Smaller numbers are more stable than large ones (B) Large numbers are more stable than small ones (C) All of these (D) None of these 24. Problem : 5 students secure less than 3 marks 12 students secure less than 6 marks 25 students secure less than 9 marks 33 students secure less than 12 marks In the above problem, the number of students secure between 6 to 12 marks will be— (A) 12 (B) 21 (C) 25 (D) 13 25. Statistical errors mean— (A) Errors committed while collecting data (B) Errors committed while calculating (C) Difference between the observed value and the true value (D) Difference between old data and current data 26. A shopkeeper wants to stock shoes. The best suitable average for him will be— (A) Arithmetic mean (B) Median (C) Mode (D) Geometric mean 27. The mean marks of 100 students were found to be 40. Later on it was discovered that a score of 53 was misread as 83. The correct mean will be— (A) 39·5 (B) 39·7 (C) 39·8 (D) 39·9 28. In which sequence are the following steps of communication taken ? (a) Getting participation in developing a solution to the problem

(b) Transmitting ideas or decisions (c) Clarify the idea or problem (d) Measuring the effectiveness of communication Select your answer from the following codes— (A) (a), (b), (c) and (d) (B) (d), (c), (a) and (b) (C) (d), (b), (a) and (c) (D) (c), (a), (b) and (d) 29. Deficiency of capital, excessive dependency on agriculture and inequalities of income and wealth are some of the important features of a— (A) Capitalistic economy (B) Socialistic economy (C) Developing economy (D) Developed economy 30. Population census is made in India in every— (A) 7 years (B) 10 years (C) 15 years (D) 20 years 31. Which of the following banks stimulates the agricultural and rural development ? (A) EXIM Bank (B) Exchange Bank (C) HDFC Bank (D) NABARD 32. Which bank’s old name was ‘Imperial Bank’ ? (A) Reserve Bank of India (B) Punjab National Bank (C) State Bank of India (D) Union Bank of India 33. Repo rate is the rate at which— (A) The RBI takes money from banks (B) Banks take money from the RBI (C) One bank takes money from another bank (D) The Government money from RBI takes

34. SIDBI is an apex financial institution for— (A) Agricultural sector (B) Cottage industries (C) Small and medium enterprises (D) Large scale enterprises


35. The face value of a company’s share is Rs. 100 p.s. The company issued it at Rs. 150 p.s. The present market price of that share is Rs. 200. The company declares a dividend of 20% on these shares. The amount of dividend on per share will be— (A) Rs. 40 (B) Rs. 30 (C) Rs. 20 (D) Rs. 10 36. If own debenture of Rs. 1,000 is purchased for Rs. 975 from the market by the company, the difference of Rs. 25 will be assumed— (A) Profit on redemption of debenture (B) Loss on redemption of debenture (C) Goodwill (D) None of these 37. Advance payment of tax is in the nature of— (A) Asset (B) Liability (C) Prepaid Expenses (D) Revenue expenses 38. Which of the following statements are true ? (a) Unclaimed dividend is an asset of a company. (b) Dividend declared between two annual general meetings is called final dividend. (c) A company can distribute interim dividend and final dividend in the same financial year. Select your answer from the following codes— (A) (b) and (c) (B) (a), (b) and (c) (C) (a) and (c) (D) (a) and (b) 39. If debentures of Rs. 3,25,000 are issued for the consideration of net assets of Rs. 3,50,000, balance of Rs. 25,000 will be credited to— (A) Capital Reserve A/c (B) General Reserve A/c (C) Profit & Loss A/c (D) Goodwill A/c 40. Capital employed Normal rate of return × = 100

(A) (B) (C) (D)

Average Profit Super Profit Normal Profit Adjusted Average Profit

41. Decrease in current liabilities is— (A) Source of cash (B) Use of cash (C) None of (A) and (B) (D) Both of (A) and (B) 42. Current liabilities are equal to— (A) Working Capital ÷ Current Assets (B) Working Capital – Current Assets (C) Current Assets + Working Capital (D) Current Assets – Working Capital 43. In internal reconstruction— (A) No company liquidation goes into

fall on Sunday the average of the week was increased to 6 cm. The rainfall on Sunday will be— (A) 17 cm (B) 18 cm (C) 19 cm (D) 20 cm 48. If Median = 27 and Mean = 30, Mode will be— (A) 20 (B) 21 (C) 22 (D) 23 49. If the coefficient of correlation is + 0·9, it indicates— (A) Perfect correlation (B) Absence of correlation (C) Limited degree of correlation (D) High degree of correlation 50. The original cost of an asset is Rs. 4,15,000. The useful life of the asset is 20 years and net scrap value is estimated to be Rs. 65,000. The amount of depreciation to be charged every year will be— (A) Rs. 17,000 (B) Rs. 17,500 (C) Rs. 18,000 (D) Rs. 18,500 51. Which of the following is not undistributed profit ? (A) General Reserve A/c (B) Workmen Compensation Fund A/c (C) Securities Premium A/c (D) Dividend Equalisation Reserve A/c 52. Who is the Chairman of the Planning Commission ? (A) Prime Minister (B) President (C) Governor of Reserve Bank of India (D) Finance Secretary 53. The debit balance in nominal account shows— (A) Expenses (B) Gains (C) Assets (D) Liabilities 54. The cost of goods sold on hirepurchase system is transferred to— (A) Sales Account (B) Purchase Account (C) Hire-Purchase Trading Account (D) Profit and Loss Account 55. Shortworking is equal to— (A) Minimum rent—Royalty (B) Royalty—Minimum Rent

(B) Only one company goes into liquidation (C) One or more companies go into liquidation (D) Two or more companies go into liquidation 44. Intrinsic value of share can be determined by— (A) Yield method (B) Fair value method (C) Net assets method (D) Stock exchange quotation 45. In perfect competition the demand curve of a firm is— (A) Horizontal (B) Vertical (C) Negative slope (D) Positive slope 46. A rational consumer attains maximum satisfaction at the point where— MU X P (A) < X MU Y PY MUX P (B) > X MU Y PY MU X P (C) = X MU Y PY MU X P (D) ≠ X MU Y PY 47. In a place the average rainfall was 4 centimetre during Monday to Saturday. Due to heavy rain-


(C) Royalty—Amount paid to landlord (D) Shortworking—Surplus 56. Which of the following errors will not affect the Trial Balance ? (A) Goods for Rs. 5,000 purchased on cash, expenses account was debited instead of purchases account (B) Purchase Returns Book for December was overcast by Rs. 500 (C) Sales Book carried forward Rs. 2,200 instead of Rs. 2,000 (D) None of these 57. X and Y are partners sharing profits in the firm in the ratio of 2 : 3. Goodwill appears in the books of the firm at Rs. 10,000. Z joins the firm as new partner for 1 share of profits. His share of 5 Goodwill is estimated to be Rs. 15,000. The old partners’ account will be credited with Goodwill by— (A) Rs. 50,000 (B) Rs. 40,000 (C) Rs. 75,000 (D) Rs. 65,000 58. In case of opening stock Rs. 5,000, purchases Rs. 15,000, direct expenses Rs. 2,000 and closing stock Rs. 2,500, the cost of goods sold had been— (A) Rs. 20,000 (B) Rs. 19,500 (C) Rs. 21,500 (D) Rs. 22,000 59. Which of the following statements is ‘True’ ? (A) Building Account is a nominal account (B) Outstanding rent account is a non-personal account (C) Every debit has a corresponding credit (D) Income is debited 60. Which one of the following is not a kind of statistical series ? (A) Individual (B) Discrete (C) Classified (D) Signed 61. The formula for coefficient of variation is— Standard Deviation (A) Mean Mean (B) Standard Deviation Mean – Mode (C) Standard Deviation Standard Deviation (D) Mean – Mode

62. The value of mean, median and mode coincides in case of— (A) Positively skewed distribution (B) Negatively skewed distribution (C) Symmetrical distribution (D) All of these 63. Classification of the students of a college in two categories ‘rural’ and ‘urban’ is— (A) Qualitative (B) Quantitative (C) Geographical (D) None of these 64. Which of the following statements is ‘True’ ? (A) Henry Fayol was the resident of America (B) Elton Mayo is the father of scientific management (C) Henry Fayol was the founder of human relation approach (D) The credit of behavioural approach in management goes to Ford Foundation 65. X and Y Motivation Theory has been propounded by— (A) Maslow (B) Ouchi (C) Herzberg (D) McGregor 66. Study the following statements and mark your answer according to the answer code given below— I. Planning is the first function of management. II. Planning provides a basis for organisation. III. Planning does not involve decision-making. IV. Planning is a static function. Codes : (A) I and III are correct (B) I and II are correct (C) I and IV are correct (D) II and IV are correct 67. Motivational process is basically— (A) Emotional process (B) Psychological process (C) Physiological process (D) Intellectual process

68. The main objective of controlling is to— (A) Punish the guilty person (B) Ensure that performance is as per planning (C) Maintain discipline (D) Fix responsibility of subordinates 69. Indian Banking Regulation Act was passed in the year— (A) 1971 (B) 1969 (C) 1949 (D) 1947 70. Which one of the following will not act as an incentive for exports ? (A) Raising the internal value of money (B) Lowering the prices of goods within the country (C) Internal devaluation of money (D) Granting low interest loans for exports. 71. Received Rs. 5,000 from Ram but credited his account by Rs. 50,000 is— (A) Error of Omission (B) Error of Principles (C) Compensation Error (D) None of these 72. The subsidiary voucher produced in the absence of primary voucher is called— (A) General voucher (B) Note-book voucher (C) Counterfoil (D) Collateral voucher 73. In how many days from the registration, the first Auditor of the company be appointed ? (A) 10 (B) 20 (C) 30 (D) 60 74. The main objective of Auditing is— (A) To detect errors and fraud (B) To prevent errors and fraud (C) To find out accuracy, completeness and validity of accounts and documents (D) All of these 75. Internal Auditor can be removed by the— (A) Management (B) Shareholders (C) Statutory Auditor (D) Government


76. In his report the Auditor gives his— (A) Judgement (B) Opinion (C) Guarantee to correctness of accounts (D) All of these 77. According to Section 227(1) of the Companies Act, 1956, the Auditor does not have the right— (A) To sign the Audit Report (B) To see the books, accounts and vouchers of the company (C) To obtain information and explanation (D) To correct any wrong statement 78. Consider the following documents— (a) Audit Report (b) Audit Note-book (c) Audit Programme (d) Audit Files The correct sequence in which the Auditor prepares these documents is— (A) (c) (b) (d) (a) (B) (d) (c) (a) (b) (C) (c) (a) (d) (b) (D) (a) (b) (c) (d) 79. Consider the following elements— I. Scope of audit II. Validity of appointment III. Knowledge about business IV. Instruction to client V. Division of work among audit clerks. The correct sequence of these elements for the commencement of a new audit will be— (A) (B) (C) (D) II, I, III, IV and V I, II, III, IV and V V, I, IV, III and II IV, I, III, II and V

(A) (B) (C) (D)

Section 224(2) Section 224(8) Section 225 Section 231

⎯ (A) X =

⎯ G.M. × H.M. √⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯
⎯ X + H.M. 2

(B) G.M. = (C) G.M. =

82. Which one of the following is the Fisher’s equation of Quantity Theory of Money ? (A) P = MV + M′V′ T M (B) P = kT M (C) P = kR n (D) P = k + rk′

X ⎯ ⎯ . H.M. √⎯⎯⎯ X (D) H.M. = ⎯⎯⎯⎯ √ ⎯ . G.M. 90. For open-end classes, the most appropriate measure of dispersion is— (A) Range (B) Quartile deviation (C) Mean deviation (D) Standard deviation 91. When the Cross Price Elasticity of demand between two goods is zero then those goods are called— (A) Independent goods (B) Luxury goods (C) Substitute goods (D) Complementary goods 92. The feature of monopolistic competition that drives a firm’s profit to zero in the long run is— (A) Product differentiation (B) Price leadership (C) Market power (D) Free entry 93. As a result of increase in the price of tea from Rs. 40 to Rs. 50 per pound, the demand for coffee increases from 500 pounds to 600 pounds. The cross elasticity of demand is— 1 2 (A) (B) 2 3 3 4 (C) (D) 4 5 94. Which of the following prevents National Income from falling to zero when Gross Investment falls to zero ? (A) Consumption (B) Multiplier (C) Accelerator (D) None of these 95. In an Economy, where capital output ratio is 5·2, what should be the saving income ratio to bring about a growth rate of 6·2% in the National Income ? (A) 1·00% (B) 32·24% (C) 11·4% (D) 1·19%

83. Marginal cost curve cuts the average cost curve— (A) At the left of its lowest point (B) At the lowest point (C) At the right of its lowest point (D) At its highest point 84. In short term production function which of the following changes in factors ? (A) Ratio (B) Scale (C) Both of these (D) None of these 85. Which one of the following is not a method of depreciation ? (A) Insurance Policy Method (B) Diminishing Return Method (C) The Sum of the Year Digits Method (D) Replacement Cost Method 86. Which one of the following is not an accounting convention ? (A) Consistency (B) Full disclosure (C) Materiality (D) Secrecy 87. Domestic use of office telephone is— (A) Embezzlement of Labour (B) Embezzlement of Property (C) Embezzlement of Facility (D) None of these 88. The Geometric Mean of two numbers 8 and 18 shall be— (A) 12 (C) 15 (B) 13 (D) 11·09

80. Working papers which contain a record of the audit work done, are the property of— (A) The company (B) The auditor (C) The company and the auditor both (D) The Company Law Board 81. Under which Section of Companies Act, has the remuneration of the Auditor been discussed ?

89. Which of the following relationships is true ?


96. Which of the following will happen when statutory liquidity ratio of banks is reduced by the central banks ? (A) Government can borrow more funds from the banks than before (B) Government can sell more securities to the banks than before (C) Private sector will be able to get less credit from banks than before (D) Government will be able to sell less securities to banks than before 97. Which of the following growth models includes the population growth function ? (a) Classical Model (b) Harrod-Domar Model (c) New Classical Model (d) Schumpeter’s Model Codes : (A) (a) and (c) (B) (a), (b) and (c) (C) (a) and (d) (D) (b) and (d) 98. Longer the period of time, elasticity of supply will be— (A) Perfectly elastic (B) Inelastic (C) More elastic (D) Constant 99. The production function expresses the relationship between— (A) Cost and benefit (B) Stock and flow variables (C) Demand and supply (D) Input and output 100. Which among the following is not the liability of a Commercial Bank ? (A) Share capital (B) Reserve fund (C) Bills, which are to be paid (D) Balance with central bank and other banks 101. Which one of the following is not a method of credit control ? (A) Bank rate policy (B) Open market operations (C) Credit deposit ratio (D) Cash reserve ratio

102. Economic development can be best measured by— (A) Increase in Gross National Income (B) Poverty ratios (C) Growth in real per capita in GNP (D) Faster capital formation 103. In calculating a country’s GNP at market prices, which one of the following is not included ? (A) Indirect taxes (B) Subsidies (C) Wages and salaries before tax (D) Retirement pension 104. As against revenue deficit, gross fiscal deficit will always be— (A) Lower (B) Higher (C) Similar (D) Some times higher and sometimes lower 105. Consider the following statements— (a) Money is a stock whereas spending is a flow. (b) Wealth is a stock while income is a flow. (c) The government debt is a stock but interest payment is a flow. (d) The lending by bank is a flow and its outstanding loan is a stock. Which of the statements given above are correct ? (A) Only (a) and (b) (B) (a), (b) and (c) (C) (a), (c) and (d) (D) All of these 106. Unclaimed dividends should be shown in the Balance Sheet of a company under the heading of— (A) Reserve and Surplus (B) Provisions (C) Current liabilities (D) Miscellaneous items 107. The term, ‘imprest system’ is used in relation to— (A) Purchases Book (B) Sales Book (C) Cash Book (D) Petty Cash Book

108. On 31st December, 2007 the assets and liabilities of a firm were Rs. 40,000 and Rs. 30,000 respectively. The firm was dissolved and a sum of 60 paise per rupee was paid to the creditors. Loss on realisation was— (A) Rs. 10,000 (B) Rs. 12,000 (C) Rs. 18,000 (D) Rs. 22,000 109. The rate of commission payable on the issue of shares should not be more than— (A) 2% (B) 3% (C) 4% (D) 5% 110. If sales are Rs. 18,000, Gross Profit Rs. 5,000, Net Loss Rs. 1,000, the operating expenses will be— (A) Rs. 4,000 (B) Rs. 6,000 (C) Rs. 13,000 (D) Rs. 17,000 111. Match List-I with List-II and select your answer using the codes given below— List-I (a) (b) (c) (d) 1. 2. 3. 4. Surrender value Insanity of shareholder Share warrant Fully paid shares List-II Stock Insurance Policy Transmission of shares Negotiable Instrument (a) 1 4 2 4 (b) 2 2 3 2 (c) 3 3 4 1 (d) 4 1 1 3

Codes : (A) (B) (C) (D)

112. At what price is the stock valued under conventional method ? (A) At cost price (B) At market price (C) At cost price or market price whichever is lower (D) At cost price or market price whichever is higher


113. Cumulative Preference shareholders can claim unpaid dividend of earlier years as a matter of right only when— (A) There are sufficient profits (B) Company goes into winding up (C) There are sufficient liquid funds (D) Directors propose to distribute dividend to equity shareholders before giving dividends to them 114. A firm had a capital balance of Rs. 1,00,000 at the beginning of a year. At the end of the year, the firm has total assets of Rs. 1,50,000 and total liabilities of Rs. 70,000. If the total withdrawals during the period were Rs. 30,000, what was the amount of Net Profit/Net Loss for the year ? (A) Rs. 10,000 profit (B) Rs. 20,000 loss (C) Rs. 50,000 loss (D) Rs. 10,000 loss 115. You are given the following items— (a) Bills Receivables (b) Short-term Investments (c) Debtors (d) Accrued but not received Interest. Which of the following arrangements in the order of liquidity is correct ? (A) (a), (b), (c) and (d) (B) (b), (a), (d) and (c) (C) (b), (c), (a) and (d) (D) (c), (a), (d) and (b) 116. A private company does not— (A) Restrict the right to transfer the shares (B) Limit the number of its members (C) Appoint auditor (D) Publicity invite subscription to shares 117. Match List-I with List-II and select your answer using the codes given below— List-I (a) Cash (b) Profit

(c) Discount on Issue of Shares (d) Machinery and Plant List-II 1. Equity Share Capital 2. Fixed Assets 3. Fictitious Assets 4. Current Assets Codes : (a) (b) (c) (A) 1 3 4 (B) 4 1 3 (C) 4 3 2 (D) 2 3 1

(A) 25% (C) 20%

(B) 15% (D) 10%

(d) 2 2 1 4

123. Changing of capital expenditure to revenue expenditure results in— (A) Secret reserve (B) Revenue reserve (C) Capital reserve (D) None of these 124. X Ltd. has current ratio of 2 : 1 and quick ratio of 1·5 : 1. If the current liabilities are Rs. 80,000 then the value of stock would be— (A) Rs. 1,60,000 (B) Rs. 1,20,000 (C) Rs. 40,000 (D) Rs. 80,000 125. Profit prior to incorporation of a company— (A) Can be paid as dividend (B) Cannot be paid as dividend (C) Can be used for revenue expenses (D) None of these

118. Opening Stock Rs. 15,000 Purchases Rs. 95,000 Closing Stock Rs. 29,000 Gross Profit 10% of sales The amount of sales will be— (A) Rs. 60,000 (B) Rs. 72,000 (C) Rs. 80,000 (D) Rs. 90,000 119. In case of retirement of a partner, the total amount of goodwill is credited to the account of— (A) The retiring partner only (B) The remaining partners only (C) All the partners (D) None of these 120. If the rate of Gross Profit is 25% of sales and the total cost of goods sold is Rs. 1,00,000, the amount of gross profit will be— (A) Rs. 25,000 (B) Rs. 20,000 (C) Rs. 30,000 (D) Rs. 33,333 121. The installation expenses for a new machine will be debited to— (A) Installation Expense account (B) Cash account (C) Profit and Loss account (D) Machinery account 122. A machine was purchased for Rs. 10,000 and its life was estimated to be 3 years, and at the end of its life, its book value was Rs. 5,120. If depreciation is calculated according to Diminishing Balance Method, the rate of depreciation would be—

Answers with Hints

Continued on Page 2036


Solved Paper

UTTAR PRADESH P.C.S. (Mains) EXAM., 2007
(Held on 1-8-2009)

General Studies
1. After delimitation, the largest Lok Sabha Constituency in terms of number of voters in U.P. is— (A) Amethi (B) Unnao (C) Lucknow (D) Baghpat 2. With reference to the Constitution of India, which one of the following pairs is not correctly matched ? (A) Forest —Concurrent list (B) Stock Exchange —Concurrent list (C) Post Office Saving Bank —Union list (D) Public Health —State list 3. According to the National Human Right Commission Act, 1993, who amongst the following can be its Chairman ? (A) Any Serving Judge of the Supreme Court (B) Any Serving Judge of the High Court (C) Only a retired Chief Justice of India (D) Only a retired Chief Justice of a High Court 4. Which one of the following Bills must be passed by each House of the Indian Parliament separately by special majority ? (A) (B) (C) (D) Bill Ordinary Bill Money Bill Finance Bill Constitution Amendment (A) (B) (C) (D) Lok Sabha Rajya Sabha State Legislative Assemblies State Legislative Councils 10. The minimum age limit for casting vote in Lok Sabha and State Vidhan Sabha elections was lowered down from 21 years to 18 years by— (A) 44th Amendment of the Constitution (B) 52nd Amendment of the Constitution (C) 61st Amendment of the Constitution (D) 72nd Amendment of the Constitution 11. “He represents the nation but does not lead the nation”, This dictum applies on whom of the following ? (A) Speaker of the Lok Sabha (B) President (C) Prime Minister (D) Chief Justice of India 12. How much time the Constituent Assembly took to frame the Constitution of India ? (A) (B) (C) (D) 2 years 11 months 18 days 2 years 7 months 23 days 3 years 4 months 14 days 3 years 11 months 5 days

7. The nomenclature of the Executive Head of the Government of Jammu and Kashmir was changed from Sadar-i-Riyasat to Governor in 1965 by— (A) a Lok Sabha Resolution (B) the Executive Order of the President (C) the 6th Amendment in the State Constitution of J & K (D) the State Government under Article 371 8. Match the following : List-I (a) Fundamental Duties (b) Parliament can amend Fundamental Rights (c) Doctrine of Basic Features (d) Prohibition of traffic in Human beings List-II 1. 2. 3. Minerva Mills Case Article 23 of the Constitution 42nd Amendment of the Constitution

5. What could be the maximum time limit of ‘Zero Hour’ in the Lok Sabha ? (A) 30 minutes (B) One hour (C) Indefinite period (D) Two hours 6. Which one of the following cannot be dissolved but can be abolished ?

4. Keshvanand Bharti case Codes : (a) (b) (c) (d) (A) 3 4 1 2 (B) 4 3 2 1 (C) 2 1 4 3 (D) 1 2 3 4 9. Which of the following High Courts has the largest number of Benches ? (A) Kolkata High Court (B) Madhya Pradesh High Court (C) Bombay High Court (D) Guwahati High Court

13. Procedure for creation of Legislative Council in States has been described in which Article of the Constitution ? (A) Article 368 (B) Article 69 (C) Article 269 (D) Article 169 14. The proposal relating to dismissal of the Vice President can be presented in— (A) Any House of the Parliament (B) Rajya Sabha (C) The Lok Sabha (D) None of the above 15. ‘The Directive Principles of State Policy is a cheque which is paid


on Bank’s Convenience.’ Who told it ? (A) B. R. Ambedkar (B) K. M. Munshi (C) Dr. Rajendra Prasad (D) K. T. Seth 16. When the Supreme Court issues a writ to a person or to an institution to perform its duty, it is called— (A) Certiorari (B) Mandamus (C) Quo Warranto (D) Habeas Corpus 17. Which one of the following has the power to initiate the Motion of Impeachment of the President of India ? (A) Both the Houses of the Parliament (B) Lok Sabha (C) Rajya Sabha (D) Speaker of the Lok Sabha 18. Lok Ayukta of Uttar Pradesh submits his reports to the— (A) Chief Minister (B) Chief Justice of the High Court (C) Governor (D) Speaker of the Legislative Assembly 19. The Constitution authorises the President to make provisions for discharge of duties of Governor in extraordinary circumstances under the— (A) Article 160 (B) Article 162 (C) Article 165 (D) Article 310 20. Who of the following moved the ‘Objective Resolution’ in the Constituent Assembly ? (A) Dr. B. R. Ambedkar (B) Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru (C) Dr. Rajendra Prasad (D) Dr. C. D. Deshmukh 21. Which one of the following is not the main jurisdiction of the High Court of a State ? (A) Advisory jurisdiction (B) Original jurisdiction (C) Supervisory jurisdiction (D) Appellate jurisdiction

22. Which of the following is correctly matched ? (A) Part-II of the Constitution —Fundamental Rights (B) Part-III of the Constitution —Citizenship (C) Part-IVA of the Constitution —Fundamental duties (D) Part-V of the Constitution —Principle of the State Policy 23. Which of the Constitutional Provision lays down that taxes can neither be levied nor collected without the authority of law ? (A) Article 265 (B) Article 266 (C) Article 300 (D) Article 368 24. Which one of the following is not a constitutional prerogative of the President of India ? (A) Returning an ordinary bill for reconsideration (B) Returning a financial bill for reconsideration (C) Dissolving the Lok Sabha (D) Appointing the Prime Minister 25. Which one of the following is not a constitutional body ? (A) The Human Rights Commission (B) Finance Commission of a State (C) The Lok Sabha Secretariat (D) Finance Commission at the Centre 26. In the General Election 2009, election for 543 Lok Sabha Constituencies were held. Out of these, how many Lok Sabha Constituencies are from the States ? (A) 525 (B) 528 (C) 530 (D) 532 27. Under which of the following circumstances, can the President declare an emergency ? 1. 2. 3. 4. External aggression Internal disturbances Failure of the constitutional machinery in States Financial crisis

(A) 1, 2 and 3 (B) 1, 3 and 4 (C) 2, 3 and 4 (D) 1, 2 and 4 28. Which one of the following is not a Fundamental Duty ? (A) To respect the National Anthem (B) To safeguard public property (C) To protect monuments and places of public importance (D) To protect and improve the natural environment 29. Given below are two statements : Assertion (A) : The President is the part of the Parliament. Reason (R) : A Bill passed by the two Houses of Parliament cannot become law without the assent of the President. In the context of the above, which one of the following is correct ? (A) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A) (B) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A) (C) (A) is true but (R) is false (D) (A) is false but (R) is true 30. Which of the following are the Financial Committees of Parliament in India ? 1. Public Account Committee 2. Estimate Committee 3. Committee on Public Undertakings Select the correct answer from the code given below : (A) 1 only (B) 1 and 2 (C) 1 and 3 (D) 1, 2 and 3 31. Which among the following is an asset for a Commercial Bank ? (A) Credit to farmers (B) Deposits of public (C) Borrowings from R.B.I. (D) Demand deposits of Industries 32. What is the theme of the Eleventh Five Year Plan for education sector ? (A) Education for all (B) Education with Sports (C) Compulsory elementary education (D) Vocationalisation of education

Choose the correct answer from the code given below :


33. ‘Ecology is permanent economy’ is the slogan of which movement ? (A) Appiko Movement (B) Narmada Bachao Andolan (C) Chipko Movement (D) None of the above 34. The licensing policy for the industries drew strength from— (A) Industrial Policy Resolution 1948 (B) Industrial Policy Resolution 1956 (C) Congress Party Resolution of establishing socialistic pattern of society (D) Industries Act 1951 35. Consider the following sources of Revenue of the Panchayats— 1. Local Authority Grant by Finance Commission 2. Assistance by Central Cooperative Banks 3. Allocations for centrally sponsored schemes 4. NABARD 5. Allocation from State Finance Commission Of the above, the correct sources of Finance for Panchayats would be : (A) 1, 2, 3 and 5 (B) only 1 and 2 (C) 1, 2 and 5 (D) 1, 2, 4 and 5 36. Who wrote a book describing the theory of economic drain of India during British rule ? (A) Lala Lajpat Rai (B) Mahatma Gandhi (C) Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru (D) Dadabhai Naoroji 37. The extent of money transfer to the States out of sharable pool of Tax Collection according to the 12th Finance Commission has been fixed at— (A) (B) (C) (D) 29·0 percent 29·5 percent 30·5 percent 32·0 percent

(C) Ministry of Commerce (D) Ministry of Finance 39. In India, between 2001 to 2005, growth rate of which sector has consistently increased ? (A) Agriculture (B) Industry (C) Services (D) None of the above 40. Name the Indian Economist who won the Leontif Award 2009. Earlier this award had been won by persons such as J. K. Galbraith, Amartya Sen and others— (A) Dr. Manmohan Singh (B) Shanta Sinha (C) Shankar Acharya (D) Bina Agarwal 41. With what subject is Raghuram Rajan Committee connected ? (A) Austerity in Government Expenditure (B) Financial Sector Reforms (C) Export-Import Balance (D) Rising Prices 42. In the year 2006-2007, the share of nuclear energy generated in India in the total energy generated was— (A) Less than 3 percent (B) Between 3 and 4 percent (C) Between 4 and 6 percent (D) Between 6 and 8 percent 43. In which Five Year Plan, Economic Development rate was maximum ? (A) First Five Year Plan (B) Sixth Five Year Plan (C) Tenth Five Year Plan (D) Fourth Five Year Plan 44. A commercial deal christened ‘Peace Pipeline’ has been signed recently in the first half of 2009. Identify the pipeline from the following list— (A) Russia to Europe (B) Azerbaijan to Turkey (C) Myanmar to China (D) None of the above 45. In which one of the year ‘Rolling Plan’ was in operation in India ? (A) 1968-69 (B) 1978-79 (C) 1988-89 (D) 1990-91

46. In relation to the previous year growth rate in exports from the functioning of Special Economic Zones was highest in which year? (A) 2004-05 (B) 2005-06 (C) 2006-07 (D) 2007-08 47. The targetted annual growth rate of agricultural production in India in the 11th Plan is— (A) 5 per cent (B) 4 per cent (C) 2 per cent (D) 3 per cent 48. Which State is the largest producer of ‘Tobacco’ in India ? (A) Karnataka (B) Maharashtra (C) Uttar Pradesh (D) Tamil Nadu 49. The Government of India has recently acquired the RBI’s stake in— (A) NABARD (B) State Bank of India (C) Housing Finance Corporation (D) IDBI 50. Free trade zone is one— (A) Where trade is done without restriction (B) Where any entrepreneur is free to start industries (C) Where infrastructural facilities are provided free to entrepreneurs by the government (D) Where industries are free from excise duties and produce for exports 51. Match the List-I with List-II and select the correct answer by using the codes given below— List-I (Finance Commission) (a) 9th (c) 11th (b) 10th (d) 12th

38. In India, Foreign Investment Promotion Board now works under— (A) Reserve Bank of India (B) Ministry of External Affairs

List-II (Chairman) 1. N. P. K. Salve 2. C. Rangarajan 3. K. C. Pant 4. A. M. Khusro Codes : (a) (b) (c) (A) 1 3 4 (B) 1 2 4 (C) 2 3 4 (D) 1 2 3

(d) 2 3 1 4


52. The Government of India has replaced FERA by— (A) The Competition Act (B) The FEMA (C) The Monopolies Act (D) The MRTP Act 53. The objective of the new Foreign Trade Policy is to increase India’s share in the World Trade by 2009 to— (A) 1·00% (B) 1·25% (C) 1·50% (D) 2·00% 54. The Forex Reserves in India have been witnessin continuous growth due to following reasons— 1. Rise in FDI inflows 2. Gifts from Foreign Countries 3. High interest regime in the country 4. Huge inflows of FIIs funds 5. Remittances from Indians working abroad

List-I (Abbreviations) (a) (b) (c) (d) OGL, FOB SJRY, TRYSEM WPI, CPI CRR, SLR List-II (Areas) 1. Employment 2. External trade 3. Banking 4. Index numbers Codes : (a) (b) (c) (A) 2 1 4 (B) 2 4 3 (C) 4 3 2 (D) 3 2 1

to enhance pulse production. Which is that substance ? (A) An insecticide called TIVA (B) A fertilizer called TIVA (C) A nutrient mixture called TIVA (D) A growth hormone called TIVA 64. The street ‘Kalaiwala’ gives shining appearance by rubbing a shining silvery material. What is this material made up of ? (A) Zinc (B) Tin (C) Lead (D) Aluminium 65. What is the pH level of blood of a normal person ? (A) 8·25–8·35 (B) 4·5–4·6 (C) 6·45–6·55 (D) 7·35–7·45 66. Consider the following statements in respect of a jet engine and a rocket— 1. A jet engine uses the surrounding air for its oxygen supply and so is unsuitable for motion in space 2. A rocket carries its own supply of oxygen in the gas form as fuel. Which of the above statements are correct ? (A) 1 only (B) 2 only (C) Both 1 and 2 (D) Neither 1 nor 2 67. Acid rain is due to air pollution by— (A) Carbon dioxide (B) Carbon monoxide (C) Methane (D) Nitrous oxide and sulphur dioxide 68. The percentage of water in an adult human body is around— (A) 10% (B) 30% (C) 65% (D) 75% 69. Which of the following produces more severe burns ? (A) (B) (C) (D) Boiling water Steam Hot air Sun rays

(d) 3 1 1 4

Select the correct answer from the given codes : Codes : (A) 1, 3, 4, 5 (C) 1, 2, 4, 5 (B) 1, 2, 3, 4 (D) 2, 3, 4, 5

55. The Apex Organisation for Marketing Cooperatives at the national level is— (A) FCI (B) NAFED (C) National Cooperative Union (D) National Agricultural Marketing Board 56. ‘Golden Hand Shake Scheme’ in India is related with— (A) Voluntary Retirement (B) Indian Gold Dealers (C) Foreign Gold Dealers in India (D) Promoting Trade in Gold 57. Which of the following systems of Note-issue is followed by RBI? (A) Proportional Reserve System (B) Minimum Reserve System (C) Fixed Fiduciary System (D) None of the above 58. Given below are a few abbreviations and the areas with which they are associated. Match them properly using the given codes—

59. The World Bank has recently sanctioned a loan of 944 million dollars to India. For which of the following sectors, the loan is not meant for ? (A) Rural Finance System (B) Vocational Training Programmes (C) Community-based water Management Projects (D) Rural Roads and Sanitation 60. The Banks are required to maintain a certain ratio between their cash in hand and total assets. This is called— (A) SLR (B) SBR (C) CBR (D) CLR 61. The gas used for artificial ripening of green fruits is— (A) Ethane (B) Carbon-dioxide (C) Acetylene (D) Ethylene 62. The ‘Pace Maker’ is also known as— (A) S. A. Nodes (B) A. V. Nodes (C) Bundle of His (D) Chordae tendinal 63. Scientists of the Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology have developed a substance that can reduce the percentage of flower droppings in pulses so as


70. Plants absorb most part of water needed by them through their— (A) Embryonic zone (B) Growing point (C) Zone of elongation (D) Root hairs 71. The heritable disease is— (A) Diphtheria (B) Jaundice (C) Haemophilia (D) Whooping Cough 72. The walls of the hall built for music concerts should— (A) Amplify sound (B) Transmit sound (C) Reflect sound (D) Absorb sound 73. Heavy water (nuclear science)— (A) Contains more dissolved air (B) Contains deuterium in place of hydrogen (C) Contains more dissolved minerals and salts (D) Contains organic impurities 74. In India, water desalination plant is located in— (A) Lakshadweep (B) Goa (C) Cuttack (D) Chennai 75. A device which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy is— (A) Dynamo (B) Generator (C) Induction coil (D) Motor 76. A device by which data are transferred by telephone with the help of binary signals, is— (A) Modem (B) Analog (C) Monitor (D) O.C.R. 77. The technique used to transmit audio signals in television broadcasts is— (A) Amplitude Modulation (B) Pulse Code Modulation (C) Frequency Modulation (D) Time Division Multiflexing 78. Teflon is a polymer containing— (A) Chlorine (B) Carbon (C) Sodium (D) Fluorine

79. BOD is used as a standard measure for— (A) Oxygen level in a forest system (B) Oxygen level in animals (C) Oxygen level in a water system (D) Oxygen level in blend 80. The ‘blue moon’ phenomenon occurs when— (A) Two full moons occur in the same month (B) Four full moons appear in two consecutive months of the same calendar year (C) Two full moons appear in the same month thrice in a calendar year (D) None of the above 81. Which is not the Green house gas among the following ? (A) Carbon dioxide (B) Sulphur dioxide (C) Methane (D) All of the above 82. Which one of the following is another name of RDX ? (A) Cyanohydrin (B) Dextran (C) Cyclonite (D) Cyclohexane 83. The whistle frequency of sound of an approaching train increases whereas that of a receding train decreases. This phenomenon is an example of— (A) Raman effect (B) Joule-Thomson effect (C) Compton effect (D) Doppler effect 84. Astronauts in space cannot stand erect. This is because in space— (A) There is no gravity (B) Viscous forces of the atmosphere are very strong (C) Solar wind exert an upward force (D) Atmospheric pressure is very low 85. To hear a clear echo, the minimum distance between the reflecting surface and the observer should be— (A) 165 feet (B) 165 metre (C) 16·5 feet (D) 16·5 metre

86. Bull semen for the purpose of artificial insemination is stored in— (A) Ice (B) Liquid oxygen (C) Liquid nitrogen (D) Liquid carbon dioxide 87. Sleeping sickness happens due to— (A) Deficiency of Vitamin-A (B) Deficiency of calcium in body (C) Rising of Blood Pressure (D) Mono cell animal named Trypanosoma 88. Which Indian scientist is recognised by ‘UNEP’ as Father of Economic Ecology ? (A) B. P. Pal (B) Yash Pal (C) M. S. Swaminathan (D) R. Mishra 89. Iodine is administered to patients suffering from— (A) Rheumatism (B) Night blindness (C) Rickets (D) Goitre 90. The element not fertilisers is— (A) Nitrogen (B) Hydrogen (C) Chlorine (D) Phosphorus present in

91. The gas used in the manufacture of Vanaspati from vegetable oil is— (A) Oxygen (B) Nitrogen (C) Hydrogen (D) Carbon dioxide 92. The perimeter of a circular and a square field are equal. If the area of the square field is 484 sq. metre, then the area (in sq. metre) of the circular field will 22 be— π= 7



(A) (B) (C) (D)

616 608 576 None of the above

93. A train covers a distance between two stations A and B in 45







continues to run without stopminutes. If the speed of the train ping. The two cars cross each is reduced by 5 km/hour, then it other at— covers the distance in 48 minutes. The distance between (A) 2:40 p.m. (B) 3:20 p.m. the stations A and B is— (C) 4:10 p.m. (D) 4:20 p.m. (A) 55 km (B) 60 km 100. A person stands at a middle (C) 64 km (D) 80 km point of a wooden ladder which starts slipping between a vertical A student was asked to divide wall and a floor of a room, while the half of a certain number by 6 continuing to remain in a vertical and the other half by 4 and then plane. The path traced by the to add the two quantities so person standing at the middle obtained. Instead of doing so the point of the slipping ladder is— student divided the number by 5 and the result fell short by 4. The (A) A straight line given number was— (B) An elliptical path (A) 240 (B) 288 (C) A circular path (C) 384 (D) 480 (D) A parabolic path The length of a rectangle is 101. A sum of money, at simple increased by 60%. To maintain interest is doubled in 20 years. the same area the width of the How many years will it take to rectangle should be decreased treble ? by— (A) 30 years (B) 38 years (A) 60% (B) 45% (C) 41 years (D) 40 years (C) 40% (D) 37·5% 102. The smallest 4 digit number The length of a rectangle is exactly divisible by 7 is— increased by 10% and its width is (A) 1101 (B) 1108 decreased by 10%. The area of a (C) 1001 (D) 1007 new rectangle is— 103. Find the missing number replac(A) Increased by 1% ing the question-mark (?) in the (B) Decreased by 1% following series— (C) Neither increased nor de4, 8, 9, 27, 16, 64, ?, 125 creased (A) 100 (B) 25 (D) None of the above (C) 35 (D) 32 Two trains of 200 metres and 150 104. A sum of money put at commetre long are running on pound interest amounts in 2 parallel rails in the same direcyears to Rs. 672 and in 3 years to tion at a speed of 40 km/hour Rs. 714. The rate of interest per and 45 km/hour respectively. annum is— Time taken by the faster train to (A) 6·25% (B) 6·75% cross the slower train will be— (C) 6·0% (D) 5·5% (A) 72 second 105. A 50 metres long train passes (B) 132 second over a bridge at the speed of 30 (C) 192 second kms per hour. If it takes 36 (D) 252 second seconds to cross the bridge, what is the length of the bridge ? Let a shopkeeper use a code OLISPAH = 28 where O = Re 1, (A) 200 metres L = Rs. 2, I = Rs. 3 and so on. (B) 250 metres What price does SOAP denote ? (C) 300 metres (A) Rs. 9 (B) Rs. 12 (D) 350 metres (C) Rs. 16 (D) Rs. 18 106. Two sides of a rectangle are

(A) 15% (C) 4·5%

(B) 7·56% (D) 5%

107. Introducing a girl, Vipin said, “Her mother is the only daughter of my mother in-law.” How is Vipin related to the girl ? (A) Uncle (B) Father (C) Husband (D) Brother 108. A can complete a certain work in 4 minutes, B in 5 minutes; C in 6 minutes; D in 10 minutes; and E in 12 minutes. The average number of units of work completed by them per minute will be— (A) 0·16 (B) 0·40 (C) 0·80 (D) None of these 109. In an examination, 42% candidates failed in Mathematics and 52% failed in English, 17% failed in both the subjects. If 46 candidates passed in both subjects, the total number of candidates is— (A) 100 (B) 200 (C) 300 (D) 350 110. Akash ranks 7th from the top and 28th from the bottom in a class. How many students are there in that class ? (A) 34 (B) 35 (C) 36 (D) 37 111. Find a number such that the difference between nine times the number and 4 times the number is 65— (A) 10 (B) 13 (C) 11 (D) 12 112. In what proportion must a grocer mix tea priced respectively at Rs. 320 per kg and Rs. 560 per kg to make a mixture worth Rs. 480 per kg ? (A) 0·33 (B) 0·66 (C) 0·75 (D) 0·50

99. The two cars X and Y start from places A and B respectively which are 700 km apart at 9 a. m. Both the cars run at an average speed of 60 km/hour. Car X stops at 10 a.m. and again starts at 11 a.m. while the other car Y

113. When 24 is added to 40% of a number, the result is the number itself. The number is— (A) 64 (B) 40 measured. One of the sides (C) 24 (D) 16 (length) was measured 10% more than its actual length and the 114. If ‘PRINT’ is coded as ‘RUMSZ’ then the code for ‘DRINK will other side (width) was measured be— 5% less than its actual length. (A) FVMSQ (B) FUSMQ The % error in measure obtained (C) FUMSQ (D) FUNQS for the area of the rectangle is—


and the mean of 15 observations 115. A train travelling with constant 122. Find out that number whose is 20, the mean of all the 30 square and square root are both speed crosses 90 metre long platobservations is— even numbers but the square form in 12 second and 120 metre does not exceed 3 digits— (A) 40 (B) 30 long platform in 15 second. The (C) 25 (D) 20 length of the train and its speed (A) 8 (B) 16 are— 130. We wish to present the data (C) 36 (D) 64 (A) 30 metre, 36 km/hr through graph or diagram, rela123. Radha is younger to Sunita but (B) 45 metre, 36 km/hr ted to number of unemployed elder to Rita. Rita is elder to persons according to specified (C) 45 metre, 54 km/hr Geeta. Shyam is elder to Rita but age group and sex. The best way (D) 60 metre, 54 km/hr younger to Radha. Who is the of representation will be by a— youngest ? 116. The following five three-digit (A) Line diagram (A) Geeta (B) Rita number are given as— (B) Pie chart (C) Sunita (D) Shyam 234, 452, 346, 762, 893 (C) Multiple bar chart If the positions of the first and 124. The missing numbers and letters (D) Divide bar chart the second digits in each of the in— 131. The graphs and diagrams— above numbers are interchanged, D 4 W – G – T 20 I – R 18 – 10 (A) Can represent unlimited which of the following will be Q – are respectively given by one data the difference between the of the alternatives : (B) Give a quick picture of the middle digits of the highest and Alternatives : situation the lowest of the five numbers ? (C) Show exact value (A) 26, 8, 9, P, 18 (A) 3 (B) 5 (D) Take less time to prepare (B) 22, 7, 9, K, 17 (C) 6 (D) 7 132. If the average of five numbers is (C) 23, 7, 9, J, 17 117. A fruit seller professes to sell his 10, the number, which should be (D) 20, 6, 5, P, 18 fruits at cost price, but still gains added to make the average 12 25% on his outlay. What weight 125. A solid cube just gets completely is— does he substitute for a kiloimmersed in water when a 0·2 kg (A) 12 (B) 18 gram ? mass is placed on it. If the mass (C) 22 (D) 24 is removed, the cube is 2 cm (A) 800 gm (B) 850 gm 118. above the water level. What is 133. In an area, of the total people the length of each side of the 40% were women and 45% coffee If 2028 is the product of two cube ? drinkers. One-third of the males natural numbers having two are coffee drinkers. Suppose the (A) 12 cm (B) 10 cm digits each and 13 is their highest total number of persons in the (C) 8 cm (D) 6 cm common factor, then the numarea is 100, then the number of 126. Four years ago, the average age bers are— female non-coffee drinkers is— of a family of four persons was (A) 15 (A) 26, 78 (B) 13, 156 18 years. During this period, a (B) 20 (C) 36, 68 (D) 39, 52 baby was born. Today if the (C) 25 average age of the family is still Find the wrong number in the (D) None of the above 18 years, the age of the baby is— series— 134. The probability of getting a sum (A) 3·0 years (B) 2·5 years 3, 8, 15, 24, 34, 48, 63 of 10 in the throw of two dice (C) 2·0 years (D) 1·2 years (A) 15 (B) 24 is— 127. Five digit numbers are formed 1 1 (C) 34 (D) 48 (A) (B) using the digits 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 2 5 (no digit repeated). The number In a certain code MAIN is written 1 1 (C) (D) of numbers divisible by 4 will 12 7 as IMNA and REAL is written as be— ARLE. How is LION written in 135. An aeroplane files from place A (A) 24 (B) 20 that code ? to place B at the speed of 500 (C) 16 (D) 12 km/hour. On the return journey, (A) ILON (B) NIOL its speed is 700 km per hour. The 128. If A’s income is 10% more than (C) OLNI (D) OINL average speed of the aeroplane B’s. How much percentage is B’s for the entire journey is— There are 4 poles in a row A, B, C income less than A’s ? 2 and D. A is longer than C, B is 1 (A) 566 km/hour (A) 10% (B) 9 % 3 smaller than D and C is longer 2 2 than D. Which is the smallest 1 (B) 583 km/hour 3 (C) 9 % (D) 9% pole ? 11 (C) 600 km/hour (A) B (B) A 129. The mean of 5 observations is 60, 1 (D) 583 km/hour (C) D (D) C the mean of 10 observations is 30, 3 (C) 890 gm (D) 900 gm





136. Pie chart is drawn for the following data : Source of Revenue Custom Excise Income Tax Corporate tax Misc. Revenue (million Rs.) 80 190 160 75 35

(A) (B) (C) (D)

Frequencies of the classes Class intervals Frequency densities None of the above

149. Consider the following diagram :

49% D

11% 39·5% 143. The average marks of eleven C B students is 31·0 and that of the first six students is 31·5 while that of the last six students is Given further that the total value 30·5. The mark of the sixth in all the sectors is Rs. 128·3 lac, student is— then the present amount for D The approximate difference bet(A) 30·5 (B) 31·5 is— ween the angles of the biggest (C) 31·0 (D) 30·0 (A) 1·5% (B) 0·05% and the smallest segments is— 144. For a moderately skewed dis(C) 0·5% (D) 5·0% (A) 101 ° (B) 104 ° tribution, the true relationship 150. The Arithmetic Mean of 15 (C) 107 ° (D) 127 °⋅ is— numbers is 41·4. Then the sum of 137. A Histogram is drawn for a (A) Mode – Mean = 3 these numbers is— frequency distribution where the (Mean – Median) (A) 414 (B) 420 class interval is unequal. The (B) Mean – Mode = 3 (C) 621 (D) 620 length of the rectangles will be (Mean – Median) proportional to—
(C) Median – Mean = 3 (A) Frequencies of the classes (Mode – Mean) (B) Frequency density of the class (D) None of the above (C) Class interval of the class 145. If two observations are 10 and (D) None of these – 10, then their HM is— 138. The Arithmetic Mean of first (A) 0 eleven natural numbers is— (B) 10 (A) 5·0 (B) 5·5 (C) ∞ (infinite) (C) 6·0 (D) 6·5 (D) None of the above 139. In a certain factory there are five 146. The area of a frequency polygon is equal to— workers A, B, C, D and E. A can (A) The area of the histogram complete a work in 4 minutes, B in 5 minutes, C in 6 minutes, D in (B) The area between the cumulative frequency polygon (more 10 minutes and E in 12 minutes. than) and the axis of X The average number of units of (C) The area bounded by the work completed per worker per cumulative frequency polygon minute will be— (less than) axis of X and ordinate (A) 0·1625 (B) 0·16 corresponding to the upper limit (C) 0·18 (D) 0·20 of the last class 140. The median of 3, X, 10 and 4 is 5. (D) All of these The value of X will be— 147. A fair coin is tossed a number of (A) 6 times. If head appears on all the (B) 7 five tosses, what is the probabi(C) 8 lity that a tail appears on the (D) None of these sixth toss ?
6 141. With the help of histogram, one 2 1 (A) (B) can draw— 5 2 (A) Frequency polygon 1 1 (C) (D) 2 4 (B) Frequency curve (C) None of (A) or (B) 148. The range and quartile deviation of the following observations : (D) Both (A) and (B) 29, 20, 30, 25, 39, 35, 48, 41, 60, 51, 142. A histogram can be drawn for 70 are— the distribution with unequal (A) 50, 11 (B) 41, 22 classes by considering bar height proportional to— (C) 50, 22 (D) 41, 11

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(Held on 13-12-2009)

General Awareness
1. Which Indian filmstars was recently conferred Honorary Doctorate by Bedfordshire University, (U.K.) ? (A) (B) (C) (D) Amitabh Bachhan Shah Rukh Khan Om Puri Amir Khan 7. Which one of the following industrialists was declared ‘The Business Person of the year 2008’ by the Times of India Survey ? (A) Anil Ambani (B) Rahul Bajaj (C) Ratan Tata (D) Gautam Adani 8. Naina Devi peak forms a part of— (A) Himalayan range Sikkim (B) Himalayan range Kumaon region (C) Himalayan range Nepal (D) Himalayan range Jammu & Kashmir located in located in located in located in (C) Girth of its trunk (D) Number of its annual rings 13. Which one of the statements below explains the external economies of scale ? (A) Starting a computer firm in a Techno Park to avail the expertise (B) Expanding firms employing specialist accountants, lawyers and managers (C) A manufacturer spreading the research and development cost over the output (D) A major supermarket gaining bulk discounts on direct purchase 14. Which one of the following types of unemployment is common in Indian agriculture ? (A) Frictional (B) Structural (C) Disguised (D) Seasonal 15. A rolling plan refers to a plan which— (A) Does not change its targets every year (B) Changes its allocations every year (C) Changes its allocations and targets every year (D) Changes only its targets every year 16. An instrument of qualitative credit control in India is— (A) Open market operations (B) Credit rationing (C) Change in reserve ratio (D) Bank rate policy 17. Laissez-faire is a feature of— (A) Socialism (B) Communism (C) Capitalism (D) Mixed Economy

2. Williams Sisters won the U.S. Open Women’s Doubles Title 2009 after defeating in the final— (A) Leizal Herber Blank (B) Kim Clijsters Kournikova (C) Coroline Dinara Safina and Cara

and Anna and


(D) Nathalie Deshy and Sania Mirza 3. Which one of the following is a military alliance ? (A) ASEAN (B) SAARC (C) NATO (D) NAFTA 4. The recipient of the 42nd Jnan Peeth Award is— (A) Manohar Shastri (B) Harish Pandya (C) Satya Vrat Shastri (D) K. Kamal Kumar 5. World Development Report is an annual publication of— (A) UNICEF (B) UNDP (C) WTO (D) World Bank 6. Which one of the following is correct ? Player Sport (A) Jeev Milkha Singh —Tennis (B) Jhulan Goswami —Cricket (C) Baichung Bhutia —Hockey (D) Pankaj Advani —Badminton

9. The aim of the ISRO’s OCEANSAT-2 satellite is— (A) To provide ocean scientists knowledge about mineral resources under the sea (B) To aid fishermen in identifying fishing zones (C) To aid weathermen to forecast cyclones and weather conditions (D) All the above 10. Who amongst the following is not the recipient of the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award ? (A) Vijendra Singh (B) Sushil Kumar (C) M. C. Marykom (D) Abhinav Bindra 11. Nilgiri, Himgiri and ‘Beas’ are— (A) Aircraft Carrier ships (B) Frigates (C) Nuclear submarines (D) Oil tankers of ONGC 12. The age of a tree can be calculated by— (A) Number of branches (B) Its height


18. Which one of the following is not a source of the tax revenue in Indian States ? (A) Land Revenue (B) Motor Vehicle Tax (C) Entertainment Tax (D) Corporate Tax 19. CSO has changed its base year for National Income estimation. The new base year is— (A) 1990-91 (B) 1993-94 (C) 1994-95 (D) 1995-96 20. Which is the biggest enterprise of the Government of India ? (A) Postal and Telegraph (B) Railways (C) Banking (D) Shipping 21. In which type of competition does Marginal Revenue Curve coincide with Average Revenue Curve ? (A) Monopoly (B) Imperfect Competition (C) Perfect Competition (D) Monopolistic Competition 22. According to J. A. Schumpeter, entrepreneurs are entitled to enjoy the profit for their……… activities. (A) Innovative (B) Risk taking (C) Risk averting (D) Hard work 23. Demonstration effect means— (A) Effect of advertisement (B) Imitating effect of consumption (C) Effect of entertainment (D) Effect of an experiment 24. Homogeneous product feature of— (A) Imperfect market (B) Monopoly (C) Oligopoly (D) Perfect market is a

26. Who said, “Parliamentary System provides a daily as well as a periodic assessment of the Government” ? (A) Dr. B. R. Ambedkar (B) Shri B. N. Rao (C) Shri Jawahar Lal Nehru (D) Dr. Rajendra Prasad 27. The legal advisor to the State Government is known as— (A) Advocate-General (B) Attorney-General (C) Solicitor-General (D) State Public Prosecutor 28. The maximum duration of Zero Hour in Lok Sabha is— (A) 30 minutes (B) One hour (C) Two hours (D) Unspecified 29. Which agency acts as co-ordinator between Union Government, Planning Commission and State Governments ? (A) National Integration Council (B) Finance Commission (C) National Development Council (D) Inter-State Council 30. When will demand become a grant ? (A) When a demand is proposed (B) After the discussion on demand is over (C) After the demand is granted (D) When the Budget Session is closed 31. What makes the Judiciary the guardian of the Constitution ? (A) Independence (B) Service Conditions (C) Salary (D) Judicial Review 32. What is the name of Judicial organ of UNO ? (A) Supreme Court (B) Court of International Justice (C) Judicial Forum (D) International Court of Justice 33. The Election disputes regarding the Election of President and Vice-President can be heard by—

(A) Parliament (B) Central Election Commission (C) Supreme Court (D) Attorney-General of India 34. Balwant Rai Mehta Committee suggested that the structure of Panchayati Raj should consist of— (A) The village, the block and the district levels (B) The mandal and the district levels (C) The village, the district and the State levels (D) The village, the mandal, the district and the State levels 35. Which of the following has banned ‘floor crossing’ by the members elected on a party ticket to the legislature ? (A) 52nd Constitution Amendment (B) Representation of People Act (C) National Security Act (D) Maintenance of Internal Security Act 36. The expression ‘Creamy Layer’ used in the judgement of the Supreme Court relating to the case regarding reservations refers to— (A) Those sections of society which pay Income-tax (B) Those sections of socially and educationally backward classes of the society that are economically advanced (C) Those sections of the society that are considered advanced according to Karpuri Thakur formula (D) All sections of upper castes of the society 37. When was the Panchtantra written ? (A) Maurya Period (B) Kanishka Period (C) Gupta Period (D) Harsha Period 38. Which one among the following is regarded as the ‘Magna Carta’ of Indian education ? (A) Wood’s Despatch (B) Hunter’s Commission (C) Sadler Commission (D) Wardha Scheme

25. Which part of the Indian Constitution declares the Ideals of Welfare State ? (A) Fundamental Rights (B) Fundamental Duties (C) Preamble (D) Directive Principles of State Policy


39. The battle of Mahabharata is believed to have been fought at Kurukshetra for— (A) 14 days (B) 16 days (C) 18 days (D) 20 days 40. The Mukteswara located at— (A) Puri (B) Belur (C) Konark (D) Bhubaneswar Temple is

(A) (B) (C) (D)

Pandit Ramabai Gopal Krishna Gokhale M. G. Ranade Gopal Hari Deshmukh

46. ‘Din-e-Ilahi’ of Akbar was not a success because— (A) After Akbar, it was not patronized (B) The Muslims did not accept other religious practices (C) It was not suitably projected to the masses (D) All the above 47. Who was the author of the book ‘My Experiments with Truth’ ? (A) Aurobindo Ghosh (B) Bal Gangadhar Tilak (C) M. K. Gandhi (D) Vinoba Bhave 48. Give the correct chronological order of the following events— 1. Formation of Muslim League 2. Formation of All India Untouchability League 3. Formation of All India Trade Union Congress 4. Formation of Indian National Congress (A) 2, 4, 1, 3 (B) 3, 4, 1, 2 (C) 4, 3, 1, 2 (D) 4, 1, 3, 2 49. 80% of the coal in India comes from— (A) (B) (C) (D) Jharia and Raniganj Kantapalli and Singareni Singrauli and Korba Neyveli

53. Photogrammetry is— (A) Portraying gradient (B) Movement of setlines (C) A method of solving geometrical problems (D) Use of photography in surveying and mapping 54. The spice State of India is— (A) Tamil Nadu (B) Bihar (C) Gujarat (D) Kerala 55. Jog Falls is found across the river— (A) Cauvery (B) Kabini (C) Krishna (D) Sharavati 56. Which of the following sea ports of India is the main outlet for export of Tea ? (A) Mumbai (B) Kolkata (C) Kandla (D) Chennai 57. The International Date Line passes through the— (A) Pacific Ocean (B) Atlantic Ocean (C) Indian Ocean (D) Arctic Ocean 58. Which of the following is not a form of precipitation ? (A) Rainfall (B) Snowfall (C) Fog (D) Hail 59. Which of the following is a Great Circle ? (A) The Tropic of Cancer (B) The Arctic Circle (C) The Equator (D) The Tropic of Capricorn 60. Tides in the sea have stored in them— (A) Hydraulic energy (B) Kinetic energy (C) Gravitational potential energy (D) A combination of all the above 61. Which component of blood is considered as the guard cell of our body ? (A) R.B.C. (B) Platelets (C) Plasma (D) W.B.C. 62. Camel can walk easily in the desert, because— (A) It has thick skin (B) It can maintain water level in the body

41. Which king of the Gupta Dynasty was called the ‘Napoleon of India’ ? (A) Samudragupta (B) Chandragupta Vikramaditya (C) Sri Gupta (D) Chandragupta-I 42. Between which two rulers was the First Battle of Panipat fought ? (A) Akbar and Bahlol Lodi (B) Babur and Ibrahim Lodi (C) Bairam Khan and Sikandar Lodi (D) Shah Jahan and Daulat Khan Lodi 43. Who is the author of Ain-iAkbari ? (A) Abul Fazal (B) Abdus Samad (C) Bairam Khan (D) Raja Todarmal 44. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer by using the codes given below the lists— List-I List-II (a) Peshwas 1. Nagpur (b) Gaekwads 2. Pune (c) Bhonsles 3. Indore (d) Holkers 4. Baroda Codes : (a) (A) (B) (C) (D) 2 1 2 4 (b) 4 3 4 3 (c) 1 2 3 2 (d) 3 4 1 1

50. Dry zone agriculture in India contributes nearly 40% of the total— (A) Commercial crops (B) Fodder crops (C) Food crops (D) Plantation products 51. The precipitation consisting of a mixture of snow and rain is— (A) Sleet (B) Smog (C) Snow-line (D) Fog 52. ‘Operation Flood’ was launched in 1970 to— (A) Control floods (B) Increase milk production (C) Improve water sources (D) Construct more dams

45. Which reformer from Maharashtra was known as Lokhitavadi ?


(C) It has a layer of fat under the skin to combat heat (D) It has long legs with padded paws 63. The function of arteries in our body is to— (A) Carry blood away from the heart (B) Purify the blood (C) Manufacture White Blood Corpuscles (D) Carry blood back to the heart 64. Plants climb by means of— (A) Tendrils (B) Roots (C) Pistil (D) Branches 65. This term is associated with the Biology of silkworms. (A) Apiculture (B) Sericulture (C) Sylviculture (D) Pisciculture 66. Pick out the correct sequence of a simple land food chain : 1. Deer 2. Grass 3. Tiger (A) 1–2–3 (B) 3–2–1 (C) 1–3–2 (D) 2–1–3 67. Sex in human beings is determined by— (A) Vitamins (B) Chromosomes (C) Hormones (D) Nutrients 68. Deficiency of fluorine in drinking water causes— (A) Dental caries (cavity) (B) Dental fluorosis (C) Skeletal fluorosis (D) Goiter 69. In man,urea is formed in— (A) Kidney (B) Liver (C) Nephron (D) Urinary Bladder 70. The most important function of perspiration is— (A) Get rid of the body wastes (B) Regulate body temperature (C) Regulate body wastes (D) Lubricate the skin

71. ECG is the instrument that records— (A) Potential different of cardiac muscles (B) Rate of respiration (C) Rate of glomerular filtration (D) Volume of blood pumped 72. Hot spot is an area having— (A) Wide variety of species (B) Wealth of endemic species (C) Rich variety of flora and fauna (D) Conserving species in natural habitat 73. Electromagnet is used in a— (A) Calling bell (B) Computer (C) Motor (D) Washing machine 74. Kilo Watt Hour represents the unit for— (A) Force (B) Power (C) Time (D) Energy 75. A transformer is used to— (A) Convert mechanical energy into electrical energy (B) Convert alternating current into direct current (C) Convert direct current to alternating current (D) Transform alternating current voltage 76. Clear nights are colder than cloudy nights because of— (A) Conduction (B) Condensation (C) Radiation (D) Insolation 77. A stick partly dipped in water appears broken due to— (A) Reflection (B) Refraction (C) Total internal reflection (D) Diffraction 78. What is condensation ? (A) Change of gas into solid (B) Change of solid into liquid (C) Change of vapour into liquid (D) Change of heat energy into cooling energy 79. Kinetic energy is converted into electrical energy in—

(A) (B) (C) (D)

Electric Motor Dynamo Electromagnet Ammeter

80. Floppy disk is an example of— (A) Read Only Memory (B) Random Access Memory (C) Cache Memory (D) Secondary Storage Memory 81. Which of the following compounds are sprayed over clouds to cause artificial rain ? (A) Ice (B) NaOH (C) AgI (D) NH4 Cl 82. Iodine deficiency in diet is known to cause— (A) Rickets (B) Obesity (C) Scurvy (D) Goiter 83. The refrigeration of the food articles keeps them fresh, because— (A) Water forms crystals (B) Chemical reaction is slowed down (C) Chemical reaction take place faster (D) Bacteria are killed 84. Which substance is called the ‘liquid gold’ ? (A) Gold as a liquid form (B) Sodium as a liquid form (C) Mustard oil (D) Petroleum oil 85. Percentage of silver in German silver is— (A) 25% (B) 0% (C) 75% (D) 80% 86. Which type of compounds are sugar and common salt ? (A) Both are organic compounds (B) Both are inorganic compounds (C) Sugar is an organic compound and common salt is an inorganic compound (D) Sugar is inorganic compound and common salt is an organic compound 87. The chemical name of Vitamin ‘E’ is— (A) Ascorbic acid (B) Retinol (C) Tocopherol (D) Thiamine


88. Which of the following gases has bleaching property ? (A) Carbon dioxide (B) Carbon Monoxide (C) Chlorine (D) Hydrogen 89. The heaviest body of our Solar system is— (A) Sun (B) Uranus (C) Jupiter (D) Saturn 90. From amongst the following; name the famous Indian ornithologist— (A) Dr. Salim Ali (B) Dr. Gopalasamudram N. Ramachandran (C) Dr. J. B. S. Haldane (D) Dr. H. G. Khorana 91. Who performed the longest space journey in the year 2007 ? (A) Venus Williams (B) Serena Williams (C) Sunita William (D) Sir John William 92. ‘The Lost Child’ was written by— (A) Nirad C. Chowdhury (B) Mulk Raj Anand (C) Khushwant Singh (D) Annie Besant 93. Dr. M. S. Swaminathan has distinguished himself in which of the following fields ? (A) Nuclear Physics (B) Agriculture (C) Astrophysics (D) Medicine 94. The Headquarters of UNESCO is at— (A) Rome (C) Paris (A) Army Day (B) Martyr’s Day (C) Independence Day (D) Ugadhi 96. Bijapur is known for its— (A) Heavy rainfall (B) Rock Temple (C) Gol Gumbaj (D) Statue of Gomateshwara (B) Geneva (D) New York

97. The Americans are also known as— (A) Kiwis (B) Yankees (C) Tories (D) None of the above 98. India lifted the ONGC Nehru Cup, 2009 after defeating in the final— (A) Syria (B) Pakistan (C) Sri Lanka (D) Bangladesh 99. An element which does not react with oxygen is— (A) Chlorine (B) Iodine (C) Helium (D) Nitrogen 100. During sleep, pressure— (A) (B) (C) (D) man’s blood


Continued from Page 2017

Increases Decreases Fluctuates Remains constant

Answers with Hints

95. January 15 is celebrated as the—



Solved Paper

(Held on 24-1-2010)

General Awareness on Current Developments
(Based on Memory)
01. The President of the Palestine recently emphasized that his country will not resume peace talks until Israel fully halts settlement building in the— (A) West Bank (B) Haifa (C) Gaza (D) Tel-Aviv-Yafo (E) Jerusalem 02. All the major world leaders gathered in Berlin in Nov. 2009 to mark the 20th anniversary of — (A) European Union (B) NATO (C) Fall of Berlin Wall (D) G-20 (E) None of these 03. Now almost all major newspapers/journals and magazines are printing research reports giving the analysis and/or the causes of the sub-prime crisis which gripped America and the world a few months back. Which of the following was/were amongst the common cause(s) of the same ? (They were present in almost all the economies) (1) The problem was that investors erroneously believed property prices were quite predictable and built a whole edifice of financial planning on the back of the American housing market. (2) Credit rating agencies all over the world were not equipped to forecast the effect of sub-prime crisis on world economy. Agencies were over-confident and did not react in time. (3) Neither USA nor other countries took a note of the crisis in time. In fact they ignored it for quite some time. (A) Only 1 (B) Only 2 (C) Only 3 (D) All 1, 2 and 3 (E) Only 1 and 2 04. If you see a big hoarding at a prominent public place, the punch line of which says ‘We All Were Born Free’; ‘We All Have Equal Rights’, in all probability, the hoarding is put up by— (A) National Commission for Farmers (B) National Human Rights Commission (C) Directorate of Income Tax (D) Ministry of Foreign Affairs (E) Union Public Service Commission 05. Nowadays we frequently read news items about ‘Derivatives’ as used in the world of finance and money market. Which of the following statement(s) correctly describes what a derivative is and how it affects money/ finance markets ? (1) Derivatives enable individuals and companies to insure themselves against financial risk. (2) Derivatives are like fixed deposits in a bank and are the safest way to invest one’s idle money lying in a bank. (3) Derivatives are the financial instruments which were used in India even during the British Raj. (A) Only 3 (B) Only 2 (C) Only 1 (D) All 1, 2 and 3 (E) None of these 06. Many a time we read in the newspapers that RBI has changed or revised a particular ratio/rate by a few basis points. What is basis point ? (A) Ten per cent of one hundredth point (B) One hundredth of 1% (C) One hundredth of 10% (D) Ten per cent of 1000 (E) None of these 07. Which of the following issues cannot come under the purview of the functioning of the Human Rights Commission of a country ? (A) Racial Discrimination (B) Treatment to Prisoners of War (C) Human Trafficking (D) Child Abuse (E) Climate Migration 08. A prominent international weekly sometime ago printed a caption on its cover page which read ‘Brazil Takes Off’. Other major newspapers/magazines also printed similar stories/ articles in their publications at that time. Why have magazines/ newspapers decided to talk about Brazil these days ? (1) All major economies of the world have been taking time to recover from the recession but Brazil was one of those which was ‘Last in and First out’. (2) Brazil is a member of BRIC but unlike China it is a democracy, unlike India, it has no hostile neighbours, no insurgents and unlike Russia it exports more oil and arms and treats foreign investors with more respect. (3) Brazil is the world’s second largest booming economy. (A) Only 1 (B) Only 2 (C) Only 3 (D) All 1, 2 and 3 (E) Only 1 and 2 09. Which of the following countries has conferred the honour of ‘Legion d’ honneur’ on Bharat Ratna Lata Mangeshkar ? (A) Germany (B) Norway (C) Japan (D) U.K. (E) France 10. Expand the term NREGA— (A) National Rural Employment Guarantee Agency


(B) National Rural Electrification Governing Agency (C) National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (D) New Rural Employment Guarantee Agency (E) None of these 11. The Rajya Sabha has recently cleared the new poll bill. Which one of the following amendment(s) is/are made in this bill ? It has proposed— (A) Increasing the security deposits to more than double (B) Restricting the publication of exit polls (C) Ensuring speedy disposal of electoral disputes (D) Only (A) and (B) (E) All (A), (B) and (C) 12. The market in which long term securities such as stocks and bonds are bought and sold is commonly known as— (A) Commodities Exchange (B) Capital Market (C) Bull Market (D) Bullion Market (E) None of these 13. Which one of the following was India’s top destination for exports during 2009 ? (A) UAE (B) USA (C) Russia (D) China (E) Bangladesh 14. Which one of the following will be the first High Court in India, to implement the concept of ‘ecourts’ ? (A) Delhi (B) A.P. (C) Chennai (D) Kolkata (E) None of these 15. Amongst the following, which one of the following sectors provides the highest contribution in Industrial Production Index ? (A) Crude Oil (B) Petro Refinery Products (C) Electricity (D) Coal (E) None of these 16. Amongst the following sectors, which sector/segment has shown the highest per cent growth in the current fiscal ?

(A) Mining (B) Manufacturing (C) Electricity, gas and water supply (D) Banking and Finance (E) None of these 17. As per the reports published in newspapers, India purchased around 200 tonnes of gold (almost half the quantity of gold put up for sale) in Sept. 2009. India purchased this gold from which of the following organizations ? (A) World Bank (B) Asian Development Bank (C) International Monetary Fund (D) International Gold Council (E) None of these 18. World Trade Organisation (WTO)’s ministerial meeting was organized in which of the following cities recently ? (A) Geneva (B) Washington (C) Paris (D) Port of Spain (E) None of these 19. In which one of the following countries, was the recent Commonwealth Meet (CHOGAM) held ? (A) Trinidad (B) Canada (C) Australia (D) Jamaica (E) U.K. 20. Which of the following decisions taken by the RBI will promote the concept of financial inclusion in the country ? (A) To appoint some additional entities as business correspondents (B) To collect reasonable service charges from the customer in a transparent manner for providing the services. (C) To ask the banks to open at least 50 new accounts daily in non serviced areas. (D) Only (A) and (B) (E) None of these 21. For recapitalization of Public Sector Banks, the World Bank has decided to provide funds to India. These funds will be made available in the form of—

(A) (B) (C) (D) (E)

Soft Loan Term Loan Emergency aid Grants None of these

22. Citizens of which one of he following age-groups (in years) are covered under the New Pension System (NPS) ? (A) 18–50 (B) 21–55 (C) 25–55 (D) 18–60 (E) None of these 23. Which one of the following is the objective of the flagship scheme ‘Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana’ (RSBY) ? (A) To provide life insurance cover to rural households (B) To provide health insurance cover to rural households (C) To provide both life and health insurance cover to rural household (D) To provide life and health insurance covers only to people living below poverty line (E) None of these 24. Which one of the following had set up the N. R. Narayana Murthy Committee on issues relating to Corporate Governance ? (A) SEBI (B) RBI (C) CII (D) Ministry of Finance, GOI (E) None of these 25. The proceeds of the disinvestment of profitable public sector units will be used for which of the following purposes ? (A) Expansion of existing capacity of PSEs (B) Modernisation of PSEs (C) Opening of new PSEs (D) Meeting the expenditure for various social sector schemes (E) None of these 26. Which one of the following is the target fixed for fiscal deficit in the year 2010-2011 ? (A) 3·5% (B) 4·0% (C) 5·5% (D) 5·0% (E) None of these 27. Which one of the following companies is the largest producer of natural gas in the country ?


(A) ONGC (B) OIL (C) Cairn India (D) RIL (E) None of these 28. Which one of the following states has sought a package of Rs. 500 crores ($ 100 million) for its Rural Poverty Reduction Programme ? (A) M.P. (B) Tamil Nadu (C) A.P. (D) Karnataka (E) None of these 29. Chinese objections have stalled the road work at the village of Demchok, on the Indian side of the line of control. In which one of the following states is this village located ? (A) Arunachal Pradesh (B) Assam (C) Himachal Pradesh (D) Rajasthan (E) None of these 30. Constitutionally, which one of the following can levy Service Tax ? (A) Union Govt. only (B) State Govt. only (C) Union Territory Govt. only (D) All of these (E) None of these 31. In the proposed low cost pension scheme, which one of the following has been made responsible for maintaining of the records of pension account of an individual ? (A) SIDBI (B) National Securities Depositories Ltd. (NSDL) (C) Stock Holding Corporation of India (D) RBI (E) None of these 32. Which one of the following is/ are implication(s) of large inflow of foreign exchange into the country ? 1. It makes monetary management difficult for RBI. 2. It creates money supply, asset bubbles and inflation. 3. It weakens the competitiveness of Indian exports. (A) Only 1 (B) Only 2 (C) Only 3 (D) Only 1 and 3 (E) All 1, 2 and 3

33. The Central Banks of which one of the following countries has offered $ 115 billion emergency credit to support its economy hit by falling prices and also to strengthen its currency ? (A) South Korea (B) Japan (C) U.K. (D) USA (E) None of these 34. Which of the following books is written by Chetan Bhagat ? (A) The Golden Gate (B) A House for Mr. Biswas (C) 2 States (D) White Tiger (E) None of these 35. NTPC Ltd. is in the process of exploring opportunities to source coal from overseas. In which one of the following countries has the NTPC identified two new coal mines ? (A) Bhutan (B) Australia (C) South Korea (D) Indonesia (E) None of these 36. Which of the following organizations has raised its loan amount to India to make it US $ 7 billion in 2009-10 fiscal ? (A) Asian Development Bank (B) International Monetary Fund (C) World Bank (D) European Union (E) None of these 37. Who amongst the following cricket players became the first to score 17000 runs in One Day Internationals ? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Rahul Dravid Stephen Fleming Ricky Ponting Sachin Tendulkar None of these

39. Famous Dada Saheb Phalke Award is given for exemplary work in the field of— (A) Sports (B) Literature (C) Science & Technology (D) Social Service (E) None of these 40. The Reverse Mortgage Scheme was launched by some organizations a few years back. This was done to help which of the following sections of society ? (A) Beneficiaries of the NREGA (B) People living Below Poverty Line (C) Youngsters (D) Senior Citizens (E) None of these 41. The organization of the South East Asian countries is known as— (A) OPEC (B) ASEAN (C) NATO (D) UNCTAD (E) SAARC 42. ‘Miss Earth 2009’ title has been conferred upon— (A) Alejandra Pedrajas (B) Sandra Saifert (C) Jessica Barboza (D) Larissa Ramos (E) None of these 43. Which of the following countries became the third largest producer of Steel in the world in 2009 ? (A) China (B) India (C) USA (D) Japan (E) None of these 44. The Foreign Trade policy is announced recently by the Govt. of India. Which of the following ministries/agencies announce the same ? (A) Reserve Bank of India (B) Export Import Bank of India (EXIM Bank) (C) Ministry of Foreign Affairs (D) Ministry of Commerce & Industry (E) None of these 45. Irina Bokova has taken over as the Chief of the— (A) ILO (B) UNICEF (C) OPEC (D) UNO (E) UNESCO

38. The Govt. of India has decided to use the Core Banking System of banks to ensure proper usage of funds provided for which of its following programmes ? (A) Literacy Mission (B) Pradhanmantri Gram Sadak Yojana (C) National Health Mission (D) All of these (E) None of these

Continued on Page 2054


Solved Paper

(Held on 22-11-2009)

Reasoning Ability
(Based on Memory)
1. Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which is the one that does not belong to that group ? (A) 215 (B) 143 (C) 247 (D) 91 (E) 65 2. In a certain code CROWNED is written as PSDVEFO. How is STREAMS written in that code ? (A) SUTDBNT (B) TUSDTNB (C) SUTFTNB (D) QSRDTNB (E) None of these 3. ‘DEAN’ is related to ‘NDAE’ and ‘ROAD’ is related to ‘DRAO’ in the same way as ‘SOME’ is related to ……… ? (A) ESMO (B) EOMS (C) EMOS (D) MSEO (E) None of these 4. In a row of thirty five children, M is fifteenth from the right end and there are ten children between M and R. What is R’s position from the left end of the row ? (A) 15th (B) 5th (C) 30th (D) Data inadequate (E) None of these 5. Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which is the one that does not belong to that group ? (A) Gold (B) Nickel (C) Platinum (D) Tungsten (E) Diamond 6. Among P, Q, T, A and B each having a different height, T is taller than P and B but shorter than A and Q. P is not the shortest. Who among them is the tallest ? (A) A (B) Q (C) P (D) P or B (E) Data inadequate 7. How many meaningful English words can be made with the letters RBAE using each letter only once in each word ? (A) None (B) One (C) Two (D) Three (E) More than three 8. In a certain code TRAIN is written as ‘39★7%’ and MEAL is written as ‘4$★@’. How is ITEM written in that code ? (A) 7$34 (B) 73$4 (C) 79$4 (D) 73★4 (E) None of these 9. How many such pairs of letters are there in the word OBJECTIVE each of which has as many letters between them in the word as in the English alphabet ? (A) None (B) One (C) Two (D) Three (E) More than three 10. If each consonant in the word TOLERANT is replaced by the previous letter in the English alphabet and each vowel in the word is replaced by the next letter in the English alphabet and the new set of letters are arranged alphabetically, which of the following will be the fourth from the right end after the replacement ? (A) M (B) P (C) Q (D) K (E) None of these 11. How many such pairs of digits are there in the number 8429516 each of which has as many digits between them in the number as when the digits are arranged in ascending order within the number ? (A) None (B) One (C) Two (D) Three (E) More than three 12. The positions of the first and the second digits in the number 85341279 are interchanged. Similarly, the positions of the third and the fourth digits are interchanged and so on till the positions of the seventh and the eighth digits. Which of the following will be the third to the right of 3 after the rearrangement ? (A) 9 (B) 7 (C) 8 (D) 2 (E) None of these 13. In a certain code language ‘over and above’ is written as ‘da pa ta’ and ‘old and beautiful’ is written as ‘sa na pa’. How is ‘over’ written in that code language ? (A) da (B) ta (C) na (D) da or ta (E) None of these 14. What should come next in the following letter series ? HGFEDCBAGFEDCBA GFEDCB (A) E (B) G (C) F (D) B (E) None of these 15. Mohan correctly remembers that his father’s birthday is before twentieth January but after sixteenth January whereas his sister correctly remembers that their father’s birthday is after eighteenth January but before twenty-third January. On which date in January is definitely their father’s birthday ? (A) Eighteenth (B) Nineteenth (C) Twentieth (D) Data inadequate (E) None of these


16. If ‘P’ denotes ‘×’; ‘R’ denotes ‘÷’; ‘M’ denotes ‘–’ and ‘W’ denotes ‘+’, then— 20 R 5 W 12 M 3 P 4 = ? (A) 4 (B) 16 (C) 28 (D) 52 (E) None of these Directions—(Q. 17–20) Following questions are based on the five threedigit numbers given below— 832 719 654 967 481 17. If the positions of the second and the third digits within each number are interchanged, which of the following will be the sum of the first and the second digits of the third highest number ? (A) 16 (B) 10 (C) 9 (D) 15 (E) None of these 18. Which of the following is the sum of the first and the third digits of the second lowest number ? (A) 16 (B) 10 (C) 18 (D) 5 (E) None of these 19. If the positions of the first and the second digits within each number are interchanged, which of the following will be the difference between the highest and the second highest number ? (A) 203 (B) 133 (C) 385 (D) 182 (E) 144 20. If the positions of the first and the third digits within each number are interchanged, which of the following will be the sum of the second and third digits of the lowest number ? (A) 8 (B) 11 (C) 15 (D) 12 (E) None of these Directions—(Q. 21–27) In each of the questions below are given four statements followed by three conclusions numbered I, II & III. You have to take the given statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. Read all the conclusions and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the given statements disregarding commonly known facts.

21. Statements : All chairs are keys. All keys are balloons. Some balloons are mirrors. Some mirrors are desks. Conclusions : I. Some desks are keys. II. Some balloons are chairs. III. Some mirrors are balloons. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Only I follows Only II follows Only III follows Only II and III follow All I, II and III follow

(A) (B) (C) (D) (E)

Only I follows Only II follows Only III follows Only II and III follow None of these

22. Statements : Some drums are posters. All posters are windows. Some windows are tablets. All tablets are books. Conclusions : I. Some windows are drums. II. Some books are posters. III. Some tablets are drums. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) None follows Only I follows Only II follows Only III follow Only I and II follow

25. Statements : All rivers are walls. All walls are stones. All stones are clothes. All clothes are trees. Conclusions : I. Some trees are stones. II. Some clothes are rivers. III. All walls are clothes. (A) Only I and II follow (B) Only I and III follow (C) Only II and III follow (D) All I, II and III follow (E) None of these 26. Statements : Some letters are glasses. Some glasses are plates. All plates are buses. All buses are cars. Conclusions : I. Some cars are letters. II. Some cars are glasses. III. Some buses are glasses. (A) Only I and II follow (B) Only I and III follow (C) Olny II follows (D) Only III follows (E) Only II and III follow 27. Statements : All books are pens. Some pens are ropes. All ropes are discs. Some discs are bricks. Conclusions : I. Some bricks are ropes. II. Some discs are books. III. Some bricks are pens. (A) None follows (B) Only I follows (C) Only II follows (D) Only III follows (E) Only II and III follow Directions—(Q. 28–34) Study the following arrangement carefully and answer the questions given below— B4@DA©79F%2R5H6E ★N$1UW3PT8δ V#YI

23. Statements : Some boxes are toys. Some toys are nails. Some nails are stores. Some stores are shops. Conclusions : I. Some shops are toys. II. Some nails are boxes. III. No shop is toy. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Only I follows Only III follows Only either I or III follows Only II follows None of these

24. Statements : All doors are windows. No window is house. Some houses are buildings. All buildings are skies. Conclusions : I. Some skies are doors. II. Some skies are houses. III. Some buildings are doors.


28. Which of the following is the twelfth to the left of the twentyfirst from the left end of the above arrangement ? (A) R (B) 1 (C) 5 (D) $ (E) None of these 29. If all the numbers from the above arrangement are dropped, which of the following will be the fifteenth from the right end ? (A) W (B) 6 (C) ★ (D) R (E) None of these 30. How many such consonants are there in the above arrangement, each of which is immediately preceded by a symbol and immediately followed by a vowel ? (A) None (B) One (C) Two (D) Three (E) Four 31. In which of the following combinations the first element is in between the second and the third elements in the above arrangement ? (A) 2 % F (B) 9 © 7 (C) 5 H 6 (D) T P 3 (E) ★ E N 32. Four of the following five are alike in a certain way based on their positions in the above arrangement and so form a group. Which is the one that does not belong to that group ? (A) 5 6 2 (B) W P U (C) © 9 D (D) δ # T (E) U 3 $ 33. How many such symbols are there in the above arrangement, each of which is immediately preceded by a consonant and immediately followed by a number ? (A) None (B) One (C) Two (D) Three (E) More than three 34. How many such numbers are there in the above arrangement, each of which is immediately preceded by a letter and immediately followed by a symbol ? (A) None (B) One (C) Two (D) Three (E) More than three

Directions—(Q. 35–41) In each question below is given a letter group followed by four combinations of digits/symbols lettered (A), (B), (C) and (D). Y ou have to find out which of the combinations correctly represents the group of letters based on the following coding system and the conditions that follow and mark the letter of that combination as your answer. If none of the combinations correctly represents the group of letters, mark (E) i.e. ‘None of these’ as your answer. Letter : PMADEJITQUOFHWB Digit/Symbol : 6$ 7 1%2 δ 83© 4 @ 95 ★ Conditions : (i) If the first letter is a consonant and the last letter is a vowel, their codes are to be interchanged. (ii) If the first letter is a vowel and the last letter is a consonant, both are to be coded as the code for the last letter. (iii) If both the first and the last letters are consonants, both are to be coded as ‘#’. 35. OHBWDFT (A) 89★51@4 (B) 49★51@8 (C) 89★51@8 (D) 49★51@4 (E) None of these 36. AHBWMPE (A) 79★5$6% (B) 79★5$67 (C) #9★5$6# (D) %9★5$67 (E) None of these 37. FEPWBUH (B) @%65★©9 (B) #%65★©# (C) 9%65★©@ (D) 9%65★©9 (E) None of these 38. HOPDAMI (A) 94617$9 (C) 94617$δ (B) δ4617$δ (D) δ4671$9

41. DEJATMI (A) 1%278$δ (C) δ%278$δ (B) 1%278$1 (D) δ%278$1

(E) None of these Directions—(Q. 42–48) Study the following information carefully and answer the given questions— A word and number arrangement machine when given an input line of words and numbers rearranges them following a particular rule in each step. The following is an illustration of input and rearrangement. Input : joy far 35 27 16 96 height star Step I : 96 joy far 35 27 16 height star Step II : 96 far joy 35 27 16 height star Step III : 96 far 35 joy 27 16 height star Step IV : 96 far 35 height joy 27 16 star Step V : 96 far 35 height 27 joy 16 star and Step V is the last step of the rearrangement. As per the rules followed in the above steps, find out in each of the following questions the appropriate step for the given input. 42. Input : organize 19 12 stable room 35 72 hosue How many steps will be required to complete the arrangement ? (A) Five (B) Six (C) Seven (D) Four (E) None of these 43. Input : bake never store 51 26 33 age 49 Which of the following will be step V ? (A) 51 age 49 bake 33 never 26 store (B) 51 age 49 bake never store 26 33 (C) 51 age bake never store 26 33 49 (D) 51 bake never store 26 33 age 49 (E) There will be no such step 44. Input : always go there 39 62 47 time 24 Which of the following steps will be the last but one ?

(E) None of these 39. UAQFJPE (A) ©73@26% (B) %73@26© (C) %73@26% (D) ©73@26© (E) None of these 40. ITJQFMP (A) δ823@$6 (B) 6823@$δ (C) 6823@$6 (D) δ823@$δ (E) None of these


(A) VI (B) VII (C) VIII (D) IX (E) None of these 45. Step II of an input is : 67 ask 34 12 46 for my date Which of the following is definitely the input ? (A) 34 12 46 for my date ask 67 (B) 34 12 46 for my date 67 ask (C) 12 34 67 ask 46 for my date (D) Cannot be determined (E) None of these 46. Step III of an input is : 84 for 56 29 17 won loss game Which of the following steps will be the last ? (A) VIII (B) IX (C) VII (D) V (E) None of these 47. Step III of an input is : 86 box 63 18 gear card 51 new How many more steps will be required to complete the arrangement ? (A) Three (B) Two (C) Four (D) Five (E) None of these 48. Step IV of an input is : 59 bend 46 card 14 27 win now Which of the following will be step VII ? (A) 59 bend 46 card now 27 win 14 (B) 59 bend 46 card 27 now win 14 (C) 59 bend 46 card 27 now 14 win (D) 59 bend 46 card 27 14 win now (E) There will be no such step Directions—(Q. 49–55) In the following questions, the symbols $, %, @, © and ★ are used with the following meaning as illustrated below— ‘P % Q’means ‘P is neither greater than nor smaller than Q’. ‘P $ Q’ means ‘P is neither smaller than nor equal to Q’. ‘P © Q’ means ‘P is neither greater than nor equal to Q’. ‘P ★ Q’ means ‘P is not greater than Q’. ‘P @ Q’ means ‘P is not smaller than Q’.

Now in each of the following questions assuming the given statements to be true, find which of the three conclusions I, II and III given below them is/are definitely true and give your answer accordingly.

(A) (B) (C) (D) (E)

Only I and III are true Only I and II are true Only II and III are true All I, II and III are true None of these B ★ K, K © F, F % R

49. Statements :
V © K, K @ B, B $ M Conclusions : I. V © B II. M © K III. M © V (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) None is true Only I is true Only II is true Only III is true Only II and III are true D ★ R, R % F, F $ T Conclusions : I. F % D II. F $ D III. T © C (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) true Only I is true Only II is true Only III is true Only either I or II is true Only either I or II and III are

54. Statements :
Conclusions : I. R $ K II. R $ B III. F $ B (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Only I and II are true Only I and III are true Only II and III are true All I, II and III are true None of these

50. Statements :

55. Statements :
H $ M, M % D, D @ K Conclusions : I. H $ D II. K ★ M III. K © H (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Only II is true Only II and III are true Only I and III are true Only I and II are true All I, II and III are true

51. Statements :
N @ D, D ★ K, Conclusions : I. II. III. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) K$A K@N A©D N$A

Directions—(Q. 56–60) Study the following information carefully and answer the questions given below— A, M, D, P, R, T, B and H are sitting around a circle facing at the center. M is third to the left of A who is second to the left of T. D is second to the right of H who is second to the right of T. R is second to the right of B who is not an immediate neighbour of T. 56. Which of the following combinations represents the first and the second to the left of B respectively ? (A) MD (B) DH (C) AM (D) AR (E) DM 57. Who is third to the right of T ? (A) D (B) B (C) H (D) M (E) None of these 58. Who is to the immediate left of H? (A) P (B) M (C) T (D) R (E) Data inadequate

None is true Only I is true Only II is true Only III is true Only II and III are true

52. Statements :
K @ T, T $ N, N © R Conclusions : I. R $ K II. N ★ K III. K $ N (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) None is true Only I is true Only II is true Only III is true Only II and III are true

53. Statements :
W % K, K © F, D $ F Conclusions : I. D $ K II. D $ W III. F @ W


59. Who is second to the left of B ? (A) D (B) H (C) M (D) Data inadequate (E) None of these 60. In which of the following combinations the third person is second to the left of the second person ? (A) BAR (B) DBM (C) TPH (D) PMH (E) None of these Directions—(Q. 61–70) Study the following informatin carefully and answer the questions given below— Following are the conditions for selecting Manger-Finance in an organization— The candidate must— (i) be at least 30 years and not more than 35 years as on 1.11.2009. (ii) be a graduate in any discipline with at least 55 per cent marks. (iii) be a post graduate degree / diploma holder in Management with Finance specialization with at least 60 per cent marks. (iv) have post qualification work experience of at least six years in the Finance department of an organisation. (v) have secured at least 50 per cent marks in the preliminary interview. (vi) have secured at least 40 per cent marks in the final interview. In the case of a candidate who satisfies all the above conditions except— (a) at (iv) above, but has post qualification work experience of at least three years as Deputy Finance Manager in an oganisation, his/her case is to be referred to VPFinance. (b) at (vi) above, but has obtained at least 60 per cent marks in the preliminary interview, his/her candidature is to be considered under ‘wait list’.

In each question below, details of one candidate are given. You have to take one of the following courses of actions based on the information provided and the conditions and subconditions given above and mark the number of that course of action as your answer. You are not to assume anything else other than the information provided in each question. All these cases are given to you as on 1.11.2009. Mark answer : (A) If the candidate is to be selected. (B) If the candidate is not to be selected. (C) If the candidate is to be kept on waiting list. (D) If the cse is to be referred to VP-Finance. (E) If the data provided are not adequate to take a decision. 61. Neelam Johri has secured 38 per cent marks in the final interview. She has also secured 65 per cent marks in both B. Com. and post-graduate degree in Finance Management. She has been working in the finance department of an organisation for the past six years after completing her post-graduate degree. She was born on 16th August, 1978. She has secured 63 per cent marks in the preliminary interviews. 62. Anirban Chowdhury was born on 8th March 1978. He has secured 65 per cent marks in B.Sc. and 62 per cent marks in post-graduate degree in Finance Management. He has been working in the finance department of a company for the past seven years after completing his post graduation. He has secured 50 percent marks in the final interview and 40 per cent marks in the preliminary interview. 63. Vaibhav Joshi has secured 60 per cent marks in both graduation and post-graduate diploma in finance management. He has been working as deputy finance manager in an organisation for the past four years after completing his post-graduate diploma. He has secured 53 per cent marks in the preliminary inter-

view and 43 per cent marks in the final interview He was born on 3rd July 1977. 64. Sudha Motwani was born on 24th March 1977. She has secured 58 per cent marks in B.A. and 68 per cent marks in post-graudate diploma in Finance Management. She has been working in the finance department of an organisation for the past eight years after completing her post graduation. She has secured 50 per cent marks in both preliminary and final interviews. 65. Ashok Chandra has been working in the finance department of an organization for the past seven years after completing his post-graduate diploma in management with finance specialization with 65 per cent marks. He has secured 55 per cent marks in the preliminary interview and 45 per cent marks in the final interview. He was born on 12th April, 1976. 66. Suparna Desai has secured 58 per cent marks in graduation and 68 per cent marks in postgraduate diploma in finance management. She has been working as deputy finance manager in an organization for the past four years after completing her post-graduate diploma. She has secured 50 per cent marks in preliminary interview and 45 per cent marks in the final interview. She was born on 26th August 1977. 67. Balwant Singh was born on 18th November 1979. He has secured 60 per cent marks in B. Com. and 55 per cent marks in postgraduate degree in Finance Management. He has been working as deputy finance manager in an organisation for the past five years after completing his post-graduate degree. He has secured 54 per cent marks in preliminary interview and 44 pe rcent marks in final interview. 68. Abhishek Saha was born on 8th October 1978. He has been working in the finance department of an organisation for the past six years after completing his postgraduate diploma in manage-


ment with 68 per cent marks. He has secured 63 per cent marks in B. Sc. He has also secured 60 per cent marks in both preliminary and final interviews. 69. Shikha Rastogi was born on 11th April 1976. She has secured 68 per cent marks in graduation and 62 per cent marks in postgraduate degree in Finance Management. She has secured 65 per cent marks in preliminary interview and 35 per cent marks in final interview. She has been working in the finance department of an organisation for the past seven years after completing her post graduate degree. 70. Navin Shukla has secured 60 per cent marks in graduation and 64 per cent marks in post graduate diploma in finance management. He has been working in the finance department of a company for the past six years after completing his post-gaduate diploma. He has secured 56 per cent marks in the preliminary interview and 45 percent marks in the final interview. He was born on 28th May 1976. Directions—(Q. 71–75) Below is given a passage followed by several possible inferences which can be drawn from the facts stated in the passage. You have to examine each inference separately in the context of the passage and decide upon its degree of truth or falsity. Mark answer— (A) If the inference is ‘definitely true’, i.e. it properly follows from the statement of facts given. (B) If the inference is ‘probably true’ though not ‘definitely true’ in the light of the facts given. (C) If the ‘data are inadequate’, i.e. from the facts given you cannot say whether the inference is likely to be true or false. (D) If the inference is ‘probably false’, though not ‘definitely false’ in the light of the facts given. (E) If the inference is ‘definitely false’, i.e. it cannot possibly be drawn from the facts

given or it contradicts the given facts. In its most ambitious bid ever to house 6-crore slum dwellers and realize the vision of a slumfree India, the government is rolling out a massive plan to build 50 lakh dwelling units in five years across 400 towns and cities. The program could free up thousands of acres of valuable government land across the country and generate crores worth of business for real estate developers. Proliferation of slums has had an adverse impact on the GDP growth for years. Slum dwellers are characterized by low productivity and susceptible to poor health conditions. The government believes that better housing facilities will address social issues and also have a multiplier effect and serve as an economic stimulus. 71. Health and sanitary conditions in slums are far below the acceptable norm of human habitat in Indian cities and towns. 72. Cities and towns of developed countries are free from slums. 73. Per capita income of slum dwellers is significantly lower than those living in better housing facilities. 74. Majority of the slums in cities and towns in India are on prime private properties. 75. Development of land occupied by slums in cities of India will not have any effect on the common public. Directions—(Q. 76–80) In each question below is given a statement followed by two courses of action numbered I and II. A course of action is a step or administrative decision to be taken for improvement, follow-up or further action in regard to the problem policy, etc. On the basis of the information given in the statement, you have to assume everything in the statement to be true, then decide which of the suggested courses of action logically follow(s) for pursuing. Give answer— (A) If only I follows. (B) If only II follows. (C) If either I or II follows. (D) If neither I nor II follows. (E) If both I and II follow.

76. Statement : A very large number of people gathered outside the local police station to submit a memorandum on behalf of the residents highlighting police in action in curbing incidents of theft and burglary in the neighbourhood for the past few months. Courses of action : I. The police authority should form a team of officers to talk to the representatives of the residents and assure them that proper steps will be taken to stop the menace. II. The police authority should advise the people gathered outside the police station to disburse and promise them quick action. 77. Statement : At least five students were killed due to a stampede in one city school as the students tried to leave the school building fearing short circuit. Courses of action : I. The principal of the school should immediately be arrested. II. The Govt. should immediately order closure of the school permanently. 78. Statement : Two local passenger trains collided while running in opposite directions on the same track as the signalling system failed for a brief period. Courses of action : I. The services of the motormen of the trains should immediately be terminated. II. The Govt. should immediately constitute a task force to review the functioning of the signalling system. 79. Statement : Almost ninety per cent of the flights of one of the private airline companies were cancelled for the fourth consecutive day as the pilots refused to join their duties in protest against sacking of two of their colleagues by the airline management. Courses of action : I. The management of the airline company should be ordered by the Govt. to immediately reinstate the sacked pilots to end the crisis.


II. The Govt. should immediately take steps to end the impasse between the management and the pilots to help the hapless passengers. 80. Statement : A major part of the local market in the city was gutted due to a short circuit causing extensive damage to goods and property. Courses of action : I. The Govt. should issue strict guidelines for all establishments regarding installation and maintenance of electrical fittings. II. The Government should relocate all the markets to the outskirts of the city. 81. Statement : The Govt. has decided to construct an eight-lane super highway across the state to facilitate fast movement of vehicles. Which of the following can be an assumption which is implicit in the above statement ? (A) The Govt. has adequate resources to consturct the proposed super highway (B) The people of the state may protest against the Govt.’s decision as their farm land will be taken over by the Govt. for constructing the highway (C) The Govt. may find it difficult to enrol a suitable contractor for constructing the highway (D) There is no other highway which can be used for transportation of goods across the state (E) None of these 82. Statement : It has been reported in a recent research report that taller people are found to be happier than those who are relatively shorter. Which of the following contradicts the above finding ? (A) People are generally truthful when they respond to the questions of such research studies (B) Those people who have a comfortable lifestyle are found to be happier than those who lead a strenuous lifestyle irrespective of their height 86.

(C) Shorter people suffer from inferiority complex throughout their life. (D) Taller people are found to be more positive in approach to daily chores of lives (E) None of these 83. Statement : There was a slow decline in number of patients with flu like symptoms visiting various health facilities in the city during the last fortnight. Which of the following substantiates the facts mentioned in the above statement ? (A) Majority of the people suffering from flu visit the health facilities in the city (B) There has been a continuous increase in the sale of medicines for curing flu in the city limits (C) People have started visiting the crowded places like malls & cinema halls during the last fortnight after a cautioned gap of one month (D) There is a sudden increase in the number of deaths caused by flu like symptoms followed by respiratory complications (E) None of these 84. Cause : A severe cyclonic storm swept away most part of the state during the last two days. Which of the following cannot be a possible effect of the above cause ?

(A) Heavy rainfall was reported in most part of the state during the last two days (B) Many people were rendered homeless as their houses were flown away (C) The communication system of the state was severely affected and continues to be out of gear (D) Govt. has ordered that all the offices and schools should be kept open (E) All are possible effects 85. Effect : The prices of petroleum products have increased by about twenty per cent in the past two months. Which of the following can be a probable cause of the above effect ? (A) The prices of foodgrains and vegetables have shot up by more than thirty per cent (B) The truck owners’ association has decided to increase their rent by about 20 per cent with immediate effect (C) The prices of crude oil in the international market have increased considerably during the past few weeks (D) People have decided to demonstrate against the Govt.’s apathy towards rise in prices of essential commodities (E) None of these

Directions—(Q. 86–100) In each of the questions given below which one of the five answer figures on the right should come after the problem figures on the left, if the sequence were continued ? Problem Figures Answer Figures

(A) 87. (A) 88. (A) 89. (A)


















90. (A) 91. (A) 92. (A) 93. (A) 94. (A) 95. (A) 96. (A) 97. (A) 98. (A) 99. (A) 100. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (B) (C) (D) (E) (B) (C) (D) (E) (B) (C) (D) (E) (B) (C) (D) (E) (B) (C) (D) (E) (B) (C) (D) (E) (B) (C) (D) (E) (B) (C) (D) (E) (B) (C) (D) (E) (B) (C) (D) (E)

Answers with Hints


Solved Paper

(Held on 13-12-2009)

Quantitative Aptitude
(Based on Memory)
Directions—(Q. 1–5) What should come in place of questionmark (?) in the following questions ? 01. 12% of 450 + ?% 200 = 83 (A) 13·5 (B) 16 (C) 14·5 (D) 15 (E) None of these 02. 4854 ÷ ? ÷ 4 = 48·54 (A) 25 (B) 16 (C) 32 (D) 15 (E) None of these 03. 14·4 × 16·5 × 8 = ? (A) 1908·0 (B) 1900·8 (C) 1912·4 (D) 1924·8 (E) None of these 04. 726·34 + 888·12 – ? = 1001·88 (A) 621·58 (B) 602·64 (C) 654·54 (D) 618·78 (E) None of these 5. √⎯⎯⎯ = ? ⎯ 2809 (A) 43 (B) 47 (C) 57 (D) 53 (E) None of these Directions—(Q. 6–10) What approximate value should come in place of the question-mark (?) in the following questions ? (Note : You are not expected to calculate the exact value) 06. (37·001)2 = ? (A) 1560 (B) 1030 (C) 1240 (D) 1480 (E) 1370 07. 1011·11 + 110·1 + 111·01 = ? (A) 1230 (B) 1300 (C) 1150 (D) 1070 (E) 1390 08. 12·005% of 624·999 = ? (A) 91 (B) 58 (C) 62 (D) 87 (E) 75 09. 16·007 × 14·995 × 6·080 = ? (A) 1510 (B) 1440 (C) 1200 (D) 1350 (E) 1250 10. 7000·001 ÷ 699·983 × 4·020 = ? (A) 58 (C) 60 (E) 25 (B) 32 (D) 40 18. If the perimeter of a square is equal to the radius of a circle whose area is 39424 sq cm, what is the area of the square ? (A) 1225 sq cm (B) 441 sq cm (C) 784 sq cm (D) Cannot be determined (E) None of these Directions—(Q. 19 and 20) Study the following information carefully to answer the questions that follow— A committee of five members is to be formed out of 5 Professors, 6 Teachers and 3 Readers. In how many different ways can it be done if— 19. The committee should consist of 2 Professors, 2 Teachers and 1 Reader ? (A) 450 (B) 225 (C) 55 (D) 90 (E) None of these 20. The committee should include all the 3 Readers ? (A) 90 (B) 180 (C) 21 (D) 55 (E) None of these 21. Twelve men complete a piece of work in 24 days. In how many days can eight men complete the same piece of work ? (A) 28 (B) 36 (C) 48 (D) 52 (E) None of these 22. Rahul spends 50% of his monthly income on household items, 20% of his monthly income on buying clothes, 5% of his monthly income on medicines and the remaining amount of Rs. 11,250 he saves. What is Rahul’s monthly income ? (A) Rs. 38,200 (C) Rs. 41,600 (B) Rs. 34,000 (D) Rs. 45,000

Directions—(Q. 11–15) What should come in place of the question mark (?) in the following number series ? 11. 9, 62, ?, 1854, 7415, 22244 (A) 433 (B) 309 (C) 406 (D) 371 (E) None of these 12. 4, 8, 24, 60, ?, 224 (A) 178 (B) 96 (C) 109 (D) 141 (E) None of these 13. 8000, 1600, 320, 64, 12·8, ? (A) 2·56 (B) 3·5 (C) 3·2 (D) 2·98 (E) None of these 14. 6, 9, 15, 27, 51, ? (A) 84 (B) 99 (C) 123 (D) 75 (E) None of these 15. 7, 8, 18, ?, 232, 1165 (A) 84 (B) 42 (C) 57 (D) 36 (E) None of these 16. If the compound interest accrued on an amount of Rs. 14,500 in two years is Rs. 4676·25, what is the rate of interest p.c.p.a. ? (A) 11 (B) 9 (C) 15 (D) 18 (E) None of these 17. Three friends A, B and C start running around a circular stadium and complete a single round in 24, 36 and 30 seconds respectively. After how many minutes will they meet again at the starting point ? (A) 12 (B) 6 (C) 8 (D) 15 (E) 18

(E) None of these


23. The number obtained by interchanging the two digits of a two digit number is lesser than the original number by 54. If the sum of the two digits of the number is 12, then what is the original number ? (A) 28 (B) 39 (C) 82 (D) Cannot be determined (E) None of these 24. At present Meena is eight times her daughter’s age. Eight years from now, the ratio of the ages of Meena and her daughter will be 10 : 3 respectively. What is Meena’s present age ? (A) 32 years (B) 40 years (C) 36 years (D) Cannot be determined (E) None of these 25. In how many different ways can 4 boys and 3 girls be arranged in a row such that all the boys stand together and all the girls stand together ? (A) 75 (B) 576 (C) 288 (D) 24 (E) None of these Directions—(Q. 26–30) Study the following graph carefully to answer the questions—

27. The number of products sold by the company in the year 2004 is what per cent of the number of products manufactured by it in that year ? (Rounded off to two digits after decimal) (A) 71·43 (C) 81·67 (B) 67·51 (D) 56·29

31. Number of men working in the Marketing department forms what per cent of the total number of employees in the organization ? (A) 22·5 (B) 34·5 (C) 19·5 (D) 38·5 (E) None of these 32. What is the respective ratio of the number of men working in the HR department to t h e women working in the same ? (A) 1 : 5 (B) 2 : 3 (C) 4 : 7 (D) 9 : 11 (E) None of these 33. What is the number of women working in the Marketing-department ? (A) 41 (B) 34 (C) 46 (D) 39 (E) None of these 34. Total number of employees working in the Production department forms approximately what per cent of the total number of employees working in the organization ? (A) 12 (B) 17 (C) 21 (D) 26 (E) 38 35. What is the total number of employees working in the IT department ? (A) 130 (B) 124 (C) 143 (D) 101 (E) None of these Directions—(Q. 36–40) Study the following table carefully to answer the questions that follow—

(E) None of these 28. What is the per cent increase in the number of products sold by the company in the year 2006 from the previous year ? (Rounded off to two digits after decimal) (A) 19·25 (C) 10·45 (B) 33·33 (D) 42·66

(E) None of these 29. What is the respective ratio of the number of products not sold by the company in the year 2007 to those not sold in the year 2005 ? (A) 3 : 1 (C) 1 : 3 (B) 6 : 5 (D) 5 : 6

(E) None of these 30. What is the approximate average number of products manufactured by the company over all the years together ? (A) 36550 (C) 41220 (E) 34420 Directions—(Q. 31–35) Study the following information carefully and answer the questions that follow— An office consists of 520 employees working in different departments, viz., HR, IT, Production and Marketing. The ratio of men to women in the organization is 5 : 3 respectively. 20 per cent of the men work in the IT department. 40 per cent of the women work in the HR department. The total number of employees in the Production department is 135. Two-fifth of the women work in the IT department and the remaining work in the Marketing department. 40 per cent of the men work in the Production department. Four per cent of the men work in the HR department and the remaining work in the Marketing department. (B) 39480 (D) 43330

Number (in thousands) of Products Manufactured and Sold by a Company over the Years
55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009


Number of Products

Number of Executives Recruited by Six Different Organizations Over the Years
Year P 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 458 522 480 506 427 492 Q 512 536 495 505 485 488 Organization R 418 472 464 428 422 444 S 502 500 508 444 512 499 T 476 482 488 490 510 512 U 492 523 518 534 498 510


26. What is the difference in the number of products manufactured by the Company in the year 2009 and 2008 ? (A) 4000 (B) 5500 (C) 3500 (D) 4500 (E) None of these

36. What is the total number of Executives recruited by all the organizations together in the year 2006 ? (A) 2927 (B) 3042 (C) 2864 (D) 3143 (E) None of these


37. What i s the respective ratio of total number of Executives recruited by organization U in the years 2007 and 2009 together to the total number of Executives recruited by organization P from the same years ? (A) 436 : 517 (B) 499 : 522 (C) 517 : 436 (D) 522 : 499 (E) None of these 38. What is the average number of Executives recruited by organization S over all the years together ? (Rounded off to the nearest integer) (A) 494 (B) 482 (C) 514 (D) 506 (E) 478 39. What is the per cent increase in the number of Executives recruited by organization R in 2005 from the previous year ? (Rounded off to two digits after decimal) (A) 18·67 (B) 12·92 (C) 16·48 (D) 13·21 (E) None of these 40. Number of Executives recruited by organization T in the year 2008 forms approximately what per cent of the total number of Executives recruited by all the organizations together in that year ? (A) 11 (B) 31 (C) 18 (D) 26 (E) 23 Directions— (Q. 41–45) Study the following graph carefully to answer the questions that follow—

41. What is the respective ratio of the distance travelled by Truck A to the distance travelled by Truck D? (A) 17 : 19 (B) 11 : 15 (C) 19 : 17 (D) 15 : 11 (E) None of these 42. What is the average distance travelled by all the Trucks together ? (A) 510 km (B) 515 km (C) 425 km (D) 475 km (E) None of these 43. If Truck A covered the given distance at the average speed of 47·5 km/hr, what was the time taken by it to cover this distance? (A) 12 hours (B) 10 hours (C) 8 hours (D) 6 hours (E) None of these 44. The distance travelled by Truck E is approximately what per cent of the total distance travelled by Truck B and C together ? (A) 58 (B) 60 (C) 52 (D) 62 (E) 55 45. If the time taken by Truck C to cover the given distance was 8 hours, what was the average speed of the truck ? (A) 54·75 km/hr (B) 65·25 km/hr (C) 52·25 km/hr (D) 68·75 km/hr (E) None of these

46. Which village has the least number of children ? (A) L (B) N (C) Q (D) O (E) None of these 47. What is the respective ratio of the number of women in Villages L and P together to the number of men in the same villages together ? (A) 617 : 664 (B) 629 : 691 (C) 664 : 617 (D) 691 : 629 (E) None of these 48. What is the total number of women and children together in Village Q ? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 995 1184 1086 988 None of these

49. The total number of people from Village O is approximately what per cent of the total number of people from all the Villages together ? (A) 16 (B) 21 (C) 11 (D) 25 (E) 9 50. What is the total number of children from Villages M and N together ? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 785 825 855 795 None of these

Distance (in km) Travelled by Five Different Trucks in a Day
600 550 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 A B C D E

Directions—(Q. 46–50) Study the following table carefully to answer the questions that follow—

Total Number of People in Different Villages and (of these) Percentage of Men, Women and Children
Village L M N O P Q Total No. of People 1240 2140 1450 1680 2060 1990 Percentage of Men 35 45 50 65 40 40 Percentage of Women 45 30 30 20 40 50 Percentage of Children 20 25 20 15 20 10

Distance (In km)



Continued from Page 2039
46. Dorjee Khandu has taken over as the Chief Minister of— (A) Meghalaya (B) Uttarakhand (C) Arunachal Pradesh (D) Assam (E) None of these 47. Which of the following terms is used in the game of Football ? (A) Caddy (B) Cutback (C) Mid-on (D) Love (E) None of these 48. Which of the following is considered a Non Food Crop ? (A) Wheat (B) Maize (C) Bajra (D) Rice (E) Jute 49. Who amongst the following was the Prime Minister of Nepal immediately prior to Madhav Kumar Nepal ? (A) Ram Baran Yadav (B) Pushpakamal Dahal (C) Girija Prasad Koirala (D) Mahendra Kumar Suryavanshi (E) None of these 50. The 10th India-European Summit was held in New Delhi in November 2009. Who amongst the following represented India and also chaired the same ? (A) S. M. Krishna (B) Pratibha Patil (C) Pranab Mukherjee (D) Manmohan Singh (E) None of these

Continued from Page 2049






Solved Paper

(Held on 31-5-2009)
(Based on Memory) SECTION–I
reduction in the temperature of the liquid. As a result of the continual escape of molecules from the surface of a liquid, the gas above it will contain a certain number of molecules of the liquid. This number will depend on the temperature and the chemical composition of the liquid. However, for a particular liquid at a particular temperature, the average number of molecules escaping from the surface will always be the same, and the pressure these molecules exert, is called the vapour pressure of the liquid. (A) If the idea is stated in the passage; (B) If the idea contradicts the contents of the passage; (C) If the idea is not explicitly stated in the passage, but can be deduced from its contents; (D) If the idea cannot be deduced from its content. 1. As the fast-moving molecules of a gas are released into a liquid, evaporation takes place. 2. Irrespective of the chemical composition of the gas, equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure always contain the same number of molecules. 3. Vapour pressure is the total pressure exerted by the molecules of a gas on the surface of a liquid below it. 4. Evaporation increases as the surface area of a liquid increases. 5. There is no relation between the reduction of temperature of a gas and the attraction between its molecules. 6. The vapour pressure of a liquid is dependent on the number of molecules escaped from it during evaporation. 7. If evaporation can be checked totally, the temperature of a liquid will remain constant. Instructions—(Q. 8–24) Each question below, some portion of which is bold, has four alternatives marked (A), (B), (C) and (D). If the bold part is incorrect in grammar, usage or sentence construction as required in standard written English, choose the alternative which better replaces it. If correct and no change is required, then write the letter (D) in the appropriate place on the answer sheet. 8. I request your favour of granting me three days leave— (A) Yours favour of (B) The favour of your (C) The favour of yours (D) No change 9. I have to look to the word in the dictionary— (A) Look over (B) Look about (C) Look up (D) No change 10. Over-exercise is injurious to health— (A) Injurious for health (B) Injurious in health (C) Injurious to health (D) No change 11. Life is as like, a dream— (A) Like (B) As it were (C) As if (D) No change 12. Nobody trusts a man addicted in drinking— (A) To drinking (B) Drinking (C) To drink (D) No change 13. Generally, the well-to-do person does not realize the misery of the poor— (A) An well-to-do (B) Well-to-do (C) A well-to-do (D) No change 14. I congratulated him on his success in the examination—

English, Including Comprehension
Instructions—(Q. 1–7) The following questions are based on the passage. Read each statement and shade the appropriate answer in the space provided for it on the answer sheet. Marks : Each question carries 1 (one) mark. (Total 40 marks) If the temperature of a gas is decreased sufficiently, a stage will be reached when the speed of movement of the molecules is so reduced that it becomes close enough to exert attractive forces on each other. These forces differ from the forces that hold the atoms together in a molecule, but they are also electrical. In fact, they result from the attraction between the positively charged nucleus of one atom and the negatively charged orbital electrons of atom in neighbouring molecules such forces are called molecular forces (or Van der Waals forces, after the discoverer.). At that point in the process of reducing the temperature of a gas when the attractive forces between the molecules are sufficient to make the gas is said to have become a liquid. In contrast to solids, however, the molecules of a liquid are still able to slide over one another, so that the bulk is able to adopt the shape of its container. Some of the more rapid molecules at the surface of a liquid are able to overcome the molecular forces of their neighbouring molecules and escape from the liquid into the gas above it; this process is called evaporation. As it is the fastest moving molecules that escape, that is the molecules with the greatest energy, the average energy of the remaining molecules will be reduced, and hence the effect of evaporation is to cause a


(A) For his (C) In his

(B) At his (D) No change

15. He could not fulfill the task during his time— (A) Fullfil (B) Fulfil (C) Fullfill (D) No change 16. My colleague is senior to me with respect to service— (A) In respect of (B) In respect to (C) Regarding to (D) No change 17. Hardly a hundred people were present at the meeting— (A) Hundred people were (B) A hundred people was (C) Hundred peoples were (D) No change 18. Dr. Bose was not at home when I called at him— (A) Called upon (B) Called on (C) Called for (D) No change 19. Last night the burglars broke through his shop— (A) Broke into (B) Broke up (C) Broke (D) No change 20. Many a one-year-course is run by the institute— (A) An one-year course is (B) An one-year course are (C) An one-year courses are (D) No change 21. Like the works of many authors, the literary work of James Joyce has been both condemned as trash and praised as great literature— (A) Like that of many other novelists (B) Unlike other novelists (C) Like many other novelists (D) No change 22. Seeing the headmaster entering the class-room, the football was quickly hidden by the students— (A) The headmaster entering the class-room being seen by the students, they quickly hid the football

(B) When the students saw the headmaster, they quickly hid the football (C) Having seen the headmaster entering the class-room, the football was quickly hidden by the students. (D) After the headmaster was being seen entering the classroom, the students quickly hid the football 23. No sooner was the meeting started when the members announced that they will leave the meeting— (A) Had the meeting started when the members had announced that they would (B) Than the meeting had started that the members announced that they will (C) Had the meeting started than the members announced that they would (D) No change 24. She would have been much more impressive compared to any one speaker instead of dull subject she had chosen— (A) Impressed than any speaker except for the dull subject of her choice (B) Impressive than any other speaker, but for the dull subject she had chosen (C) Impressive among all other speakers, had it not been for the dull subject she chose (D) No change Instructions—(Q. 25–29) Read the passage carefully and answer in the space provided for it on the Answer Sheet. He was a deeply subtle man, I know by now. With such natures it is usually a waste of efforts to fence : the only way to speak face-to-face is to be direct. I said that I had been waiting for news of the Nobel Prize and that I was very sorry. He stared at me, and nodded. He didn’t pretend not to mind. He said something to the effect that it would be good to have. Then, quite suddenly, he had a grim chuckle and launched into an anecdote, possible apocryphal and certainly slanderous, about another unsuccessful candidate – not English

speaking – who had been ‘bucking for’ the prize for years and years. He had left nothing to change. He had known all the rights boys (in Frost’s demonology, this probably meant some of the ‘enemies’). He had been told that it was in the bag. The day of the election, he had champagne out on the table. He was waiting for the telephone to ring. There was a long wait. A longer wait. At last the telephone did ring. He hadn’t got it. He was told the name of the winner. It is impossible, he cried. It is impossible. It is impossible. That was all he could think of, Frost said, cheering himself up with malice. But it had happened. After that, he was quite gay. He talked about England. He was sensitive to his audience. So that I was left under the impression that he had been a lifelong Anglophile. When I read his letters and his remarks about ‘the British’ (a term he wouldn’t have used to me) I wasn’t surprised about something, but I was by those. May be, as I have suggested, he had some to think better of us. He was enthusiastic about the common language that was essential thing. Then he spoke about what he called the locative in art. Art which meant anything to him was locative, rooted in a place, in the singularities of a place. We had a bit of an argument. Temperamentally, I said, I was on his side. But locative art needs knowledge and patience to understand : that was why cosmopolitan art < abstract art < travelled further and gagster. One didn’t have to know or anything to read, say, Kafka or Hemingway. They had travelled round the world to an extent that Jane Austen or forester never would Frost would have it. The greatest locative art transcended everything. It was organic, and no other art could be. He still had immense stamina for argument, or rather for his oblique interpretation of ideas. He would have gone on talking long after our hosts returned. 25. The author was very sorry that— (A) The news of the Nobel Prize never reached Frost (B) Frost rejected the Nobel Prize (C) Frost did not get the Nobel Prize (D) None of the above


26. “He didn’t pretend not to mind”, this means— (A) He did mind (B) He did not mind (C) He had mixed feelings (D) He showed no feeling 27. “That was all he could think of, Frost said, cheering up with malice”. Here ‘he’ refers to— (A) Frost (B) The author (C) The unsuccessful (D) None of these 28. The author was left under the impression that Frost had been— (A) A great admirer of English (B) Detested English (C) An avid reader of English works (D) Collecting English works 29. “The greatest locative art transcended everything.” We can infer from the passage that— (A) Kafka’s or Hemingway’s was locative art (B) Jane Austen’s was locative art (C) Frost’s was locative art (D) Frost believed that none of these was locative art Instructions—(Q. 30–34) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions give it on the Answer Sheet. A blanket ban on defection will weaken, rather than strengthen democracy, in whose nimieties being sought to de-imposed. Granted political defiance is increasingly less an act of ideological defiance than one of the pure opportunism. Granted also that it is illogical to allow one third of the party to split but not a lesser number. Yet, for all its flaws, the current law recognizes and respects one fundamental principle : The right to dissent. Democracy is about showing the door to one who dares to disagree. Democracy is about granting her the right to dissent from within the fold. In a household context, it would be akin to a father throwing out his rebellious. How would a democratic father deal with this situation ? He would allow the daughter to roister her protest, knowing fully well that not to do so would stifle the young-

ster's intellectual growth and turn her into a malcontent. The need to foster a democratic spirit is all the more in a political party which derives its legitimacy from participation in democratic elections. Indeed like charity, democracy must begin at home. A political party that is intolerant to internal dissent can hardly be expected to be liberal and democratic in its external conduct. To tell a legislator that he owes to his party, which has facilitated his election, never to disagree with it, is the equivalent of asking that he remain forever in bondage. To do so is to journey back to the feudal age, when a servant who rebelled against the master, would be called a ‘namak haram’. Take the case of a party that asks for votes on one ideological platform but switches course once it forms a government. What is the sanctity of the party’s whip issued in such a situation ? Should the conscientious MP vote as ordered or should she defy the whip ? It has to be the latter and there can be no two views on this. Now is it valid to argue that differences can be aired in private but must not translate into a vote. For voting is the ultimate expression of a person’s conscience. 30. According to the passage, a political party which does not tolerate any internal dissent— (A) Is doomed to disintegrate in the long run (B) Maintains strict discipline and survives in the long run (C) Is a boon to the democratic traditions and principles (D) Is unlikely to be liberal and democratic in its external conduct 31. Which of the following is expressed as a characteristic of the feudal age in the passage ? (A) Extending the family values to the political arena (B) Changing the ideological platform once in government (C) Any disobedience of the people in power is to be treated as treachery (D) Telling the legislator that he got elected because of the party 32. In which of the following matters does the author appreciate the

existing law with regard to defection ? (A) Individual member’s freedom to express opinion different from the party line (B) A total prohibition on joining another party for personal party (C) Entering election fray without affiliation to any political party (D) A political party to be liberal and democratic both in its internal and external conduct 33. According to the passage, political defection is increasingly taking place— (A) More on ideological grounds (B) To strength the democratic process (C) As a result of basic conceptual differences (D) As a matter of pure opportunism 34. The author has equated the party’s stand to tell legislator never to disagree with it, with— (A) Charity (B) Feudal age (C) Democracy (D) Turpitude Instructions—(Q. 35–40) Given below are the words with different spellings. Select the one which you consider to be correctly spelled and shade the appropriate answer in the space provided for it on the Answer Sheet. 35. (A) (B) (C) (D) 36. (A) (B) (C) (D) 37. (A) (B) (C) (D) 38. (A) (B) (C) (D) Annihilate Annihielate Annihilete Anihilate Numismatic Numesmatic Neumismatic Neumesmatic Neumonia Neumonea Pneumonea Pneumonia Weary Wearie Weery Weerie


39. (A) (B) (C) (D) 40. (A) (B) (C) (D)

Flamboyant Flambuoyent Flamebuoyant Flemboyat Referigerator Refrigerator Referigrator Refrigrator

47. Sania Mirza is related to Lawn Tennis. In the same way Saina Nehwal is related to which sport ? (A) Chess (B) Hockey (C) Badminton (D) Squash 48. Who among the following wrote the book ‘The Sound of Music’ ? (A) Maria Von Trapp (B) Hammerstein (C) Robert Wise (D) Howard Lindsay 49. May 17 is celebrated as— (A) USA Constitution Day (B) World Telecommunications Day (C) UN Day for the Disabled (D) International Day for the Elderly People 50. An ‘Act of Parliament’ is called as— (A) Statute (B) State Act (C) Legislation (D) Central Act 51. Can an American Citizen be a party to the International Court of Justice (ICJ) ? (A) Yes (B) No (C) Yes, because America is a member of Security Council of United Nations (D) No, because only states can be a party to ICJ 52. Who can file a Petition in the Supreme Court of India ? (A) Any Indian Citizen (B) Any Person, whether natural or legal (C) Any person resident in India (D) Any person above the age of 18 53. Indian Settlement Commission deals with— (A) Tax Matters (B) Land Disputes (C) Railway Claim Settlement (D) Compensation for Motor Accidents

54. Who was felicitated with ‘Nishan-e-Pakistan’ ? (A) Shatrughan Sinha (B) Maulana Azad (C) Dilip Kumar (D) Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan 55. Which State provided separate reservation for Muslims and Christians in the State Backward Classes List in 2007 ? (A) Andhra Pradesh (B) Tamil Nadu (C) Bihar (D) Kerala 56. Which of the following dances is not a classical dance ? (A) Kathakali (B) Garba (C) Odissi (D) Manipuri 57. Sulabh International is an organisation which provides— (A) Health Services in Rural Area (B) Good Sanitation at Cheap Rates (C) Low Cost Accommodation (D) Low Cost Credit 58. Who among the following was honoured with ‘Officer of the Legion of Honour’ award by French Government in July 2008 ? (A) Dev Anand (B) Yash Chopra (C) B. R. Chopra (D) Mrinal Sen 59. The largest gland in the human body is— (A) Liver (B) Pancreas (C) Thyroid (D) Endocrine 60. The Railway Budget for 20072008 has declared the year 2007 as the year of— (A) Cleanliness (B) Passenger Comfort (C) Staff Welfare (D) Computerization of Reservations 61. In the world of Hindi Cinema, who was affectionately called as ‘Dada Moni’ ? (A) Balraj Sahni (B) Prithviraj Kapoor (C) Ashok Kumar (D) Utpal Dutt


General Knowledge/ Current Affairs
Instructions—(Q. 41–90) From the four answers given, shade the appropriate answer in the space provided for it on the Answer Sheet. Marks : Each question carries 1 (one) mark (Total 50 marks) 41. The largest natural gas reserves are found in— (A) Russia (B) Antarctica (C) Senegal (D) South Africa 42. The President o f the Palestinian Authority is— (A) Mahmud Abbes (B) Yasser Arafat (C) Mustafa Barghouti (D) Humid Karat 43. The person associated with ‘New India’ is— (A) Annie Besant (B) Subshash Chandra Bose (C) Mahatma Gandhi (D) M. N. Roy 44. In a freezer, ice cube will be formed more quickly in trays made of— (A) Rubber (B) Plastic (C) Aluminum (D) Steel 45. Who has been appointed as the Chief of Intelligence Bureau for the next two years ? (A) P. C. Haldar (B) Ravi Mathur (C) Sudha Pillai (D) K. P. Singh 46. At present which country has the presidentship of European Union ? (A) Britain (C) Italy (B) Germany (D) Finland


62. Outstanding Parliamentarian Award (2006) was presented in 2007 to— (A) P. Chidambram (B) Sarad Pawar (C) Mani Shankar Aiyar (D) Sushma Swaraj 63. World’s longest sea bridge took shape in to 2007 in— (A) China (B) Japan (C) Singapore (D) U.S.A. 64. Who among the following Indians became Citigroup’s Investment Banking head ? (A) L. N. Mittal (B) A. K. Subramaniyam (C) Vineet Singh (D) Vikram Pandit 65. The Green Revolution in India has been identified with— (A) Dr. Manmohan Singh (B) Dr. Montek Singh Ahluwalia (C) Mr. Rajendra Singh ‘Waterman’ (D) Dr. M. S. Swaminathan 66. Indian Judge in the UN Law of the Sea Tribunal is— (A) Dr. P. S. Rao (B) Dr. P. C. Rao (C) Mr. Justice Jagannath Rao (D) Mr. Justice Rajendra Babu 67. The Ozone Layer thins down as a result of a chain chemical reaction that separates from the layer— (A) Oxygen (B) Chlorine (C) Nitrogen (D) Hydrogen 68. Joint SAARC University of eight SAARC Nations has been established in— (A) Colombo (B) Dhaka (C) Kathmandu (D) New Delhi 69. Which country recently produced the world’s first cloned rabbit using a biological process that takes cells from a fetus ? (A) U. K. (B) China (C) U. S. A. (D) Germany 70. Which one of the following Vitamins is responsible for blood clotting ?

(A) (B) (C) (D)

Vitamin A Vitamin E Vitamin C Vitamin K

(C) IIM Ahmedabad (D) IIST Thiruvananthapuram 79. In which State ‘Kanya Vidyadhan Yojana’ is operational ? (A) Andhra Pradesh (B) Uttar Pradesh (C) Rajasthan (D) Haryana 80. Who emerged the fastest woman of the world at Beijing Olympics ? (A) Sheron Sumpson (B) Kerron Stewart (C) Ann Fraser (D) Elina Bsiena 81. Savannath grasslands are found in— (A) North America (B) Africa (C) Australia (D) East Asia 82. Which State has launched the ‘Aarogya Sri’—a health Insurance Scheme for families below poverty line ? (A) Andhra Pradesh (B) Uttar Pradesh (C) Maharashtra (D) Kerala 83. The first nuclear reactor of India is named— (A) Rohini (B) Vaishali (C) Apsara (D) Kamini 84. In May 2007 Air Sahara acquired by Jet Airways is being operated as a separate airline under the name of— (A) Jet Lite (B) Jet Sahara (C) Air Jet Line (D) Jet Sahara Lite 85. Suez Canal connects— (A) Mediterranean Sea and Red Sea (B) Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea (C) Baltic Sea and Red Sea (D) Baltic Sea and Black Sea 86. Government has launched EPassport Scheme and first EPassport was issued to— (A) Mr. Arjun Singh (B) Mrs. Sonia Gandhi (C) Dr. Manmohan Singh (D) Mrs. Pratibha Patil

71. What is the meaning of ‘Gilt Edged Market’ ? (A) Market in Government securities (B) Market of Smuggled goods (C) Market of Auctioned goods (D) Market of Gold products 72. Who is the Central Chief Information Commissioner of India ? (A) Prof. Ansari (B) Mrs. Padma Subramanian (C) Mr. Wajahat Habibullah (D) Dr. O. P. Kejariwal 73. The youngest recipient of Padma Shri so far is— (A) Sachin Tendulkar (B) Shobana Chandra Kumar (C) Sania Mirza (D) Billy Arjan Singh 74. Who is the Director of the film “Elizabeth : The Golden Age Cast” ? (A) Ramanand Sagar (B) Ram Gopal Verma (C) Karan Johar (D) Shekhar Kapur 75. The territorial waters of India extend up to ? (A) 12 nautical miles (B) 6 km (C) 10 nautical miles (D) 15 nautical miles 76. ‘Samjhouta Express’ runs between the Railway Stations of— (A) New Delhi – Wagah (B) New Delhi – Lahore (C) Amritsar – Lahore (D) New Delhi – Islamabad 77. Blue revolution refers to— (A) Forest Development (B) Fishing (C) Poultry Farming (D) Horticulture 78. Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam has been appointed as Chancellor of— (A) IIM Mumbai (B) IIT Kanpur


87. The Hindu outfit ‘Hindraf’ has been banned in— (A) Pakistan (B) Thailand (C) Malaysia (D) Bangladesh 88. Which organization is headed by Indian Environmentalists R. K. Pachauri, a Nobel Laureate ? (A) International Environment Panel (B) International Climate Change Panel on

(C) International Pollution Control Panel (D) International Global Warming Panel on

89. Kandhamal, the worst affected town by sectarian violence in September-October 2008 is situated in— (A) Orissa (B) Gujarat (C) Andhra Pradesh (D) Karnataka 90. World ‘No Tobacco Day’ is observed on— (A) January 10 (B) June 1 (C) May 31 (D) March 5

income more than Ram’s in 93. By selling 11 oranges for a rupee, percentage terms ? a man loses 10%. How many oranges for a rupee should he (A) 20% (B) 30% sell to gain 10% ? (C) 25% (D) 15% (A) 9 (B) 10 103. The monthly salary of A, B and C (C) 8 (D) 5 are in the ratio 2 : 3 : 5. If C’s Monthly salary is Rs. 1,200 more 94. A person takes 3 hours to walk a than that of A. Find B’s monthly certain distance and riding back. salary— He could walk both ways in 5 (A) Rs. 2000 (B) Rs. 1000 hours. How long could it take to (C) Rs. 1500 (D) Rs. 1200 ride both ways ? (A) 1.5 hr (B) 1 hr 104. In a town there are 94500 people. 2/9 of them are foreig(C) 0.5 hr (D) 2 hrs ners, 6400 are immigrants and 95. Change 1/8 into percentage— the rest are natives. How many (A) 12·5% (B) 15% are natives ? (C) 8% (D) 25% (A) 67100 (B) 27400 96. 12·5% of 80 is equal to— (C) 77600 (D) 88100 (A) 8 (B) 20 105. Total salary of three persons A, B (C) 10 (D) 40 and C is Rs. 1,44,000. They spend 97. Which number should fill the blank space to complete the series : 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, … (A) 12 (C) 14 (B) 13 (D) 15 80%, 85% and 75% respectively. If their savings are in the ratio 8 : 9 : 20, find C’s salary— (A) 48000 (B) 64000 (C) 40000 (D) 32000


Elementary Mathematics
(Numerical Ability)
Instructions—(Q. 91–110) From the four answers given, shade the appropriate answer in the space provided for it on the Answer Sheet. Marks : Each question carries 1 mark (Total 20 marks)

98. The smallest of the fractions 106. The population of a town is given below— 155625. For every 1000 males there are 1075 females. If 40% of 9 11 (A) (B) 10 the males and 24% of the females 12 are literate, find the percentage 23 32 (C) (D) of literacy in the town— 28 33 (A) 33·7 (B) 32·7 99. Three friends shared the cost of (C) 31·7 (D) 30·7 a television. If Amit, Bharat and Dinesh each paid Rs. 4200, 107. 10 sheep and 5 pigs were Rs. 3000 and Rs. 1800 respecbought for 6,000. If the average tively, then Dinesh paid what per price of a sheep is Rs. 450, find cent of the total cost ? the average price of pig— (A) 10% (C) 30% (B) 20% (D) 40% (A) Rs. 380 (C) Rs. 340 (B) Rs. 410 (D) Rs. 300

91. The average monthly income of a 100. The average age of 29 boys of a 108. Ram weight 25 kg more than class is equal to 14 years. When person in a certain family of 5 Shyam. Their combined weight is the age of the class teacher is members is Rs. 1000. What will 325 kg. How much does Shyam included the average becomes 15 be monthly average income of weight ? years. Find the age of the class one person in the same family, (A) 150 kg (B) 200 kg teacher— if the income of one person (C) 125 kg (D) 160 kg increased by Rs. 12,000 per (A) 44 years (B) 40 years year ? (C) 52 years (D) 66 years 109. Find out the wrong number in (A) Rs. 1200 (B) Rs. 1600 the series : 101. It takes 8 people working at (C) Rs. 2000 (D) Rs. 3400 3, 8, 15, 24, 34, 48, 63 equal rates to finish a work in 96 (A) 24 (B) 34 days. How long will 6 workers 92. A dishonest shopkeeper uses a take for the same work ? (C) 15 (D) 63 weight of 800 gm for a kg and (A) 92 days (B) 128 days professes to sell his good at cost 110. What is the location value of 7 in price. His profit is— (C) 111 days (D) 84 days the figure 9872590 ? (A) 20% (C) 24% (B) 21% (D) 25% 102. Ram’s income is 20% less than Shyam’s. How much is Shyam’s (A) 72590 (C) 70000 (B) 7 (D) 7000


(C) Paris Convention (C) Pappu Yadav Vs. State of Bihar (D) None of the above Legal Aptitude (D) Bachan Singh Vs. State of 125. Public holidays are declared Punjab under— Instructions—(Q. 111–155) From (A) Criminal Procedure Code the four options given, shade the 118. When the master is held liable for the wrongful act of his appropriate correct option in the (B) Civil Procedure Code servant, the liability is called— space provided for it on the Answer (C) Representation of the People (A) Strict liability Sheet. Act (B) Vicarious liability Marks : Each question carries 1 (D) Negotiable Instruments Act mark (Total 45 marks) (C) Tortous liability 126. When a person is prosecuted for (D) Absolute liability 111. Which is the oldest Code of Law committing a criminal offence, in India ? the burden of proof is on— 119. The act of unlawfully entering into another’s property cons(A) Naradasmriti (A) Accused (B) Prosecution titutes— (B) Manusmriti (C) Police (D) Complainant (A) Trespass (C) Vedasmriti 127. Offence which can be compro(B) Restraint (D) Prasarsmriti mised between the parties is (C) Appropriation known as— 112. Private international law is also (D) Encroachment (A) Non-compoundable Offence called— 120. Which Parliamentary Commit(B) Congnizable Offence (A) Civil law tee in Indian system of demo(C) Compoundable Offence (B) Local laws cracy is chaired by a member of (D) Non-cognizable Offence (C) Conflict of laws Opposition Party ? (D) Common law 128. Husband and wife have a right (A) Estimates Committee to each others company. The 113. A nominal sum given as a token (B) Joint Parliamentary Comright is called— for striking a sale is called— mittee (A) Conjugal right (A) Earnest money (C) Public Accounts Committee (B) Human right (B) Advance (D) Finance Committee (C) Civil right (C) Interest 121. Supreme Court held that Pream(D) Fundamental right (D) Solatium ble as a basic feature of Con114. Joint heirs to a property are stitution cannot be amended in 129. A person ‘dying intestate’ means he— called— the case of— (A) Died without Legal Heirs (A) Co-heirs (A) Golaknath V s . State of (B) Died without Making a Will (B) Coparceners Punjab (B) Maneka Gandhi Vs. Union (C) Died without any Property (C) Successors of India (D) Died without a Son (D) Joint owners (C) S. R. Bommai Vs. Union of 130. If a witness makes a statement in 115. The right of a party to initiate an India Court, knowing it to be false, he action and be heard before a (D) Kesavananda Bharati Vs. commits the offence of— Court of law is called— state of Kerala (A) Forgery (A) Right in rem 122. In the year 2002 the Competition (B) Falsehood (B) Right in personam Act was enacted replacing— (C) Perjury (C) Fundamental right (A) Trade Marks Act (D) Breach of trust (D) Locus standi (B) Copy Right Act 131. A child born after father’s death 116. Indian Parliament is based on the (C) Contract Act is— principle of— (D) MRTP Act (A) Posthumous (A) Bicameralism 123. A right to recover time barred (B) Heir (B) Universal Adult Franchise debt is— (C) Intestate (C) Dyarchy (A) Universal right (D) Bastard (D) Federalism (B) Perfect right 132. A formal instrument by which 117. The Supreme Court held that (C) Imperfect right one person empowers another to evidence can be recorded by (D) Fundamental right represent him is known as— video-conferencing in the case — (A) Affidavit 124. The law relating to prisoners of (A) State of Maharashtra Vs. war has been codified by— (B) Power of Attorney Prafull B. Desai (A) Geneva Convention (C) Will (B) Paramjit Kaur Vs. State of (B) Vienna Convention (D) Declaration Punjab



133. The temporary release of a 143. Which of the following is not 152. A person who goes underground included in the Preamble to the prisoner is called— or evades the jurisdiction of the Constitution ? Court is known as— (A) Parole (B) Amnesty (A) Morality (B) Justice (A) Offender (C) Discharge (D) Pardon (C) Sovereign (D) Socialist (B) Underground 134. The offence of inciting disaffec(C) Absentee tion, hatred or contempt against 144. ‘Court of Record’ is a Court which ? (D) Absconder Government is— (A) Maintains records (A) Perjury (B) Forgery 153. What is a caveat ? (B) Preserves all its records (C) Sedition (D) Revolt (A) A warning (C) Can punish for its con(B) An injunction 135. India became the member of tempt United Nations in the Year— (C) Writ (D) Is competent to issue writs (A) 1956 (B) 1945 (D) Certiorari 145. A judge of the Supreme Court (C) 1946 (D) 1950 can be removed from office only 154. Muslim religious foundations are known as— 136. A party to the suit is called— on grounds of— (A) Din (B) Wakfs (A) Accused (B) Plaintiff (A) Gross inefficiency (C) Ulema (D) Quzat (C) Litigant (D) Complainant (B) Delivering wrong judgments (C) Senility 155. Beyond what distance from the 137. Who heads the four member (D) Proved misbehaviour or coast, is the sea known as ‘High Committee appointed to study incapacity Sea’ ? the Centre-State relations, especially the changes took place 146. Fiduciary relationship means a (A) 20 Nautical miles since Sarkaria Commission— relationship based on— (B) 300 Nautical miles (A) Justice M. M. Punchi (A) Trust (C) 200 Nautical kms (B) Justice Nanavati (B) Money (D) 12 Nautical miles (C) Justice Barucha (C) Contract SECTION–V (D) Justice Kuldip Singh (D) Blood relation 138. No one can be convicted twice 147. The Chairman of Tehelka for the same offence. This docEnquiry Commission is— trine is called— (A) Justice Kripal (A) Burden of proof (B) Justice S. N. Phukan (B) Double conviction (C) Justice Saharia (C) Double jeopardy (D) Justice Liberhan (D) Corpus delicti 148. The concept of judicial review 139. A participant in commission of has been borrowed from the crime is popularly known as— Constitution of— (A) Respondent (A) U.S.S.R. (B) U.K. (B) Under-trial (C) U.S.A. (D) Switzerland (C) Defendant 149. Every duty enforceable by law is (D) Accomplice called—

Logical Reasoning
Instructions—(Q. 156–165) Each question below consists of one Assertion (A) and one Reason (R). Examine them and shade the correct answers using the Code, below on the Answer Sheet. Marks : Each question carries 1 (one) mark (Total 45 marks) Codes : (A) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A A is true but R is false A is false but R is true Area along the equator records the highest temperature throughout the year. On the equator, days and nights are equal for the largest part of the year.

140. Which of the following is not (A) Accountability (B) payable to Central Government ? (B) Obligation (A) Land revenue (C) Burden (B) Customs duty (D) Incidence (C) (C) Income tax 150. The killing of a new born child (D) (D) Wealth tax by its parents is— 156. A : 141. Where is the National Judicial (A) Malfeasance Academy located ? (B) Infanticide (A) Kolkata (B) Bhopal (C) Abortion R : (D) Foeticide (C) Delhi (D) Mumbai

142. Who have constitutional right to 151. Offence of breaking a divine idol is— audience in all Indian Courts ? 157. A : Commercial fisheries have (A) Salus populi (A) President not developed in tropics. (B) Crime (B) Chief Justice of India R : The demand for marine food (C) Sacrilege (C) Attorney General from low income population (D) Blasphemy (D) Solicitor General is low in the tropics.


(C) E lives on floor 2 (6) B and R have to be together. 158. A : Lightning thunder and heavy rain accompany (D) B is on floor 6 (7) C and Q have to be together. volcanic activity. 166. If there be five boys in the team, 174. If condition 5 is invalid, how R : Volcanoes throw water many types of arrangement are the lone girl member is— vapour and charged partipossible ? (A) P (B) Q cles in the atmosphere. (A) 2 (B) 3 (C) R (D) S 159. A : Soils in some parts of Punjab, (C) 1 (D) 5 Haryana and Rajasthan are 167. If, including P, the team has Instructions—(Q. 175–177) Read three girls, the members other saline. than P are— and answer the following : Anita is R : Evaporation exceeds prethe niece of Prateek’s mother. Anita’s (A) BCFQR (B) ADEST cipitation. mother is Prateek’s aunt. Rohan is (C) ADBST (D) BFRST 160. A : The monsoons arrives sudAnita’s mother’s brother. Rohan’s 168. If the team including C consists mother is Anita’s grandmother. From denly in India in June. of four boys, the other members this information, deduce the relationR : The monsoonal low presof the team are— ship between : sure trough is well-deve(A) ADEPQ (B) ABDQR loped over India. 175. Rohan’s mother is .… (C) DEFAQ (D) BEFRQ Anita’s mother. 161. A : India built dams and reservoirs to manage water 169. If four members including E (A) Aunt (B) Mother resources. have to be boys, the members (C) No relation (D) Sister other than E are— R : India had enough experi176. Prateek’s and Anita’s mother ence in canals. (A) ABCQR (B) ADFST are— 162. A : The life expectancy in Euro(C) BCFQR (D) ACDFQ (A) Cousin Sister pean countries is very high. (B) Sister-in-law 170. If four members have to be girls, R : European countries have the members of the team are— (C) Friend low mortality rate. (D) Sisters (A) BCPQRS (B) BFPRST 163. A : The nomadic hordes (C) BCQRST (D) BCPQRT 177. Rohan is Prateek’s— slaughter their animals for (A) Brother Instructions—(Q. 171–174) Read meat. (B) Sister-in-law the following data and use it for R : Animals form the chief (C) Uncle answering the following questions source of food and livelithat follow : (D) Cousin brother hood for nomadic herders. Six people A, B, C, D, E and F Instructions—(Q. 178 and 179) 164. A : Exploitation of equatorial live on a six story building, each on Identify the answer which is the rain forest of Amazon basin one floor. The following statements correct inference of the following is not easy. describe where they stay. questions. Assume the statement to R : This region is very rich in be true. (1) B lives on floor 6. several types of deadly (2) A is equally far from C and 178. If you are serious you must animals and insects. E. work. You are not serious, so you 165. A : The Sea remains free from do not work. (3) F is an engineer. ice from British Columbia to (A) Inference is definitely true (4) D is two floors above F. Bering Sea. (B) Inference is definitely false (5) C does not live next to an R : Air moving off the comengineer. (C) Inference is uncertain paratively warm waters of (D) Inference cannot be drawn North Pacific Drift gives the 171. Which of the following is true ? coastal areas of British (A) C lives on floor 4 179. All honest people are rogues. All Columbia a warmer climate. rogues are politicians. So poli(B) A is exactly between D tician are honest. and F Instructions—(Q. 166–170) Study the following information carefully (A) Inference is definitely true (C) E is on floor 5 and answer the questions given below (B) Inference is definitely false (D) B is on floor 5 it. From amongst six boys A, B, C, D, (C) Inference is uncertain E and F and five girls P, Q, R, S and T, 172. If statement 5 is disregarded (D) Inference is irrelevant which floor does A stay on ? a team of six is and to be selected (A) 5 (B) 4 180. Double jeopardy is— under the following conditions : (C) 3 (D) 1 (1) A and D have to be together. (A) A two edged weapon (2) (3) (4) (5) C cannot go with S. S and T have to be together. B cannot be termed with E. D cannot go with P. 173. Which of the following is not true ? (A) F is not next to D (B) C lives between B and D (B) A dilemma (C) A confusing expression (D) Second prosecution after the first trial for the same offence


191. Which of the following is the 187. ‘Postmortem’ means— lightest in weight ? (A) Routine of a post office (A) A (B) B (B) Examination of a dead body (B) Secret plan to commit a (C) C (D) D crime (C) Posting a letter 192. E is lighter in weight than which (D) Duties of a postmaster (C) Disobeying the criminal of the other two articles ? process Instructions—(Q. 188–190) Read (A) A, B (B) D, C (D) Willful deceiving of the fact the information given below and (C) A, C (D) D, B 182. Which is correct for the purpose answer the questions that follow : of criminal deception ? (1) There is a group of five girls. 193. E is heavier than which of the following two articles— (A) Dishonest concealment of (2) Kamini is second in height (A) D, B (B) D, C facts but younger than Rupa. (C) A, C (D) A, B (B) Dishonestly receiving of (3) Pooja is taller than Monika 181. Conspiracy is— (A) Absconding from the police property (C) Making damage by an act (D) Intentionally giving consent but younger in age. (4) Rupa and Monika are of the same age but Rupa is tallest between all of them. 194. Which of the following articles is the heaviest in weight ? (A) A (B) B (C) C (D) D

Instructions—(Q. 183–187) Out (5) Neelam is taller than Pooja 195. Which of the following repreof the four meaning given against and elder to Rupa. sents the descending order of each word, only one is correct. Please weights of the articles ? open the kit of your wit and make the 188. If they are arranged in the correct meaning : ascending order of height, who (A) A, B, E, D, C will be in third position— 183. Fatal is— (B) B, D, E, A, C (A) Monika (A) That which ends in happi(C) E, C, D, A, B (B) Rupa ness (D) C, A, D, B, E (C) Monika and Rupa (B) That which ends in sorrow 196. Which of the above given state(D) Neelam (C) That which ends in death ments is not necessary to determine the correct order of articles (D) That which ends in com- 189. If they are arranged in the descending order of their ages, according to their weights ? promise who will be in fourth position— (A) 1 (B) 2 184. And Egoist is— (A) Monika or Rupa (C) 3 (D) 5 (A) A person who believes in (B) Kamini 197. All men are mad. All mad are harming others (C) Monika kept in mad houses. So all men (B) A person who believes in (D) Data inadequate are kept in mad houses— polygamy (A) Inference is true 190. To answer the question “who is (C) A person who deceives in the eldest person in the group”, (B) Inference is false fate which of the given statement is (C) Inference is probably true (D) A person who thinks only of superfluous— (D) Inference is probably false himself (A) Only (1) 198. Milk is poison. Wine is poison. 185. A ‘Fatalist’ is— (B) Only (2) So wine is milk— (A) A person who believes in (C) Only (5) (A) Inference is true fate (D) None of these (B) Inference is false (B) A person who is unable to Instructions—(Q. 191–195) Study (C) Inference is probably true pay his debts the following information and (D) Inference is probably false (C) A person who does not get answer the question given below it : tired A blacksmith has five iron 199. One of the basic rights of a party in a civil proceeding is— (D) A person who cannot convey articles A, B, C, D and E, each having his feelings a different weight. (A) The right to have a tribunal of his choice (1) A weighs twice as much as 186. ‘Theist’ is— B. (B) The right to be heard (A) One who does not believe in God (B) One who believes in God (C) One who always complains against God (D) One who always praises God (2) B weighs four and a half times as much as C. (3) C weighs half as much as D. (4) D weighs half as much as E. (C) The right to be provided with free legal assistance (D) The right to have his case decided speedily

(5) E weighs less than A but 200. A person deprived of his permore than C. sonal liberty is required to be


produced before a magistrate within— (A) One month (B) One week (C) Twenty-four hours (D) Twelve hours from his arrest

Answers with Hints


Essay Contest

Duties and Responsibilities of a Citizen
—Aalia Khatoon
It is a common knowledge that every right has a corresponding duty. Rights and duties are like two sides of the same coin. As well-known UrduHindi writer Prem Chand says : “The rights and duties are wedded to each other. The biggest rights in the world are achieved through service and sacrifice.” When citizens are given rights, it becomes the duty of the citizen to exercise the rights responsibly. For example, citizens have the right to Aalia Khatoon criticise the government if it fails to provide them electricity, water, roads and so on. But, it is also the duty of the citizens not to misuse electricity and water which are becoming scarce. Similarly, the roads provided to them should be kept clean. Thus, if one claims right to work, it also becomes imperative for one to recognise the same rights for others. As Laski says : “He that will not perform functions cannot enjoy rights, any more than he, who will not work ought not to enjoy bread.” Duties in a democratic political system are defined as an obligation. Obligation becomes inevitable in a society based upon mutual fellowship. Without duties, there can be no rights. It is only in a world of duties, rights will have significance. Duties are of two types; one is moral, the other is legal. A moral duty is based upon moral foundations or ethical considerations. For example, it is our moral duty to obey or respect our parents. Normally, a state cannot punish its subject for defiance of such moral duty. On the other hand, a legal duty is imposed by the state for its citizens. And hence, defiance of such duties will invite punishment as per the rule of the state. Duties of citizens may be further subdivided into positive and negative forms. When a citizen exercises his right with a view to maximizing social welfare, he performs a positive duty. As examples of positive duty, we may cite obedience to the laws of the state, defence of the country, payment of taxes, etc. When a citizen does a thing which the state prohibits, he performs a negative duty. The important duties of a citizen are : allegiance to the state, obedience to the laws, payment of taxes, and the duty to assist the government in maintaining law and order. Allegiance to the state involves willingness to defend the country during the times of war. Some states like former USSR prescribed universal military service for its citizens. Most of the states introduce conscription, that is, compulsory military service for its citizens during war-time. It is the duty of a citizen to obey all those laws which are directed towards the welfare of society. Every responsible citizen is expected to pay the taxes imposed by the state. Every citizen is expected to cooperate with the government in maintaining law and order. For instance, a citizen can help the authorities in detecting crime. A citizen must place his public interest above private interest and thus contribute towards the progress of its country. A country is governed on the basis of some basic principles. These determine the structure of the government and its functions. Based on the principles, rules are formulated to govern a country. These rules collectively form the Constitution of the country. On 26 January 1950, Indian Constitution came into effect. The framers of the Indian Constitution did not contemplate the inclusion of duties, although they drafted the most impressive list of Fundamental Rights, to be incorporated in the Constitution for the welfare of its citizens. As rights and duties go together in any democratic society, hence, duties originated in the 42nd amendment of the Indian Constitution in the year 1976. The Swaran Singh Committee recommended the insertion of fundamental duties. The 42nd Amendment Act introduced Article 51-A in the Constitution. The eleven fundamental duties, to be followed by the Indian citizens, are as follows : (a) To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem; (b) To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom; (c) To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India; (d) To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so; (e) To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women; To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture; (g) To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures; (h) To develop the scientific temper, humanism, and the spirit of inquiry and reform; (i) To safeguard public property and to abjure violence; (j) To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement. (k) To provide opportunities for education to his child, or as the case may be, ward between the age of six and fourteen years. (f)

Continued on Page 2070


Debate Contest

There should be a Total Ban on Student’s Participation in Politics
In Favour
—Bhaskar Jyoti
Primarily, I would like to clarify here that students should not be mistaken as youth force or vice-versa. My entire contemplation on this topic is based upon considering student only as student. There is nothing like politics on Bhaskar Jyoti student’s level but the present scenario has endowed student’s organisations an ugly mask of politics. Leading a group of students for their welfare and for their rights is often misunderstood as politics. If leadership is always politics, then should a class prefect or class representative of nursery be considered a political head? If student union and participation in student union is assumed to be student’s politics, then, I on my personal experience object to any such kind of participation. Biggest religion of students as inscribed in epics and quoted by revered personalities is only and only procuring quality education devoid of any kind of obstruction and deviation. Having achieved the optimum level of education, students should opt what they like which can undoubtedly range from a politician to a very good researcher. Actually what seems from outside is not really within. I contested world’s most glamorous elections of student union in Delhi University and sensed the rampant and filthy politics played in the name of student organisations with a close vigil. Political parties after pushing the country into deep ditch of corruption are spreading their hold into temples of education. Sporadic visit of Rahul Gandhi into esteemed colleges in the name of promoting and encouraging youth has already won the attention of revered columnists. If fact, each student’s organisation currently active in universities is being handled by political mafias behind the curtain. Unmatured student’s brains are devoid of clear vision and they can’t take right decisions at all places. These political mafias take better vantages of it and use the explosive reservoir of energy to spread chaotic and turbulent atmosphere in colleges and universities. They evoke a sense of alienation and disrespect for teachers and law and orders proclaimed by the universities. Students start assuming themselves as supreme power and tend to oppose every rule and regulation. One of the examples history has seen as a repercussion of unmatured vision and students’s politics was failure of mass movement initiated by JP Movement. It was initiated so as to restore stability and peace in Bihar and other places but the end got confined to taking resignation of the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. All student supporters of JP gradually started moving back to classes but JP demanded closure of universities. He followed unconstitutional and unlawful measures to keep alive his movement. Due to loss of vision and goal several political leaders and organisations like RSS moulded him in their own way. This was all due to unmatured thoughts which can more often affect other student leaders also. Student leaders with inexplicable amount of energy turn into a mere puppet into the hands of these political parties. Suppressing the quality of real leaders tickets are more often given to a very beautiful girl so that she can be produced as a subliminal sex symbol and may seduce the boys for casting their votes in favour of the party. Ugly politics of caste and creed is injected into the innocent minds of students. Greater deviations and disasterous repercussions might have been one of the reason that esteemed universities like BHU and Jamia Millia Islamiya have completely banned conduct of union’s election in their universities. Every year I see many of my witty friends spoiling their career running after politics. Education becomes their secondary or tertiary essential and sometimes non-essential. They suffer from irreparable loss like irregularity in classes, shortage of attendance, irregularity in submitting assignments and fail to clear off internal and final exams. They become reluctant to leave the college because universities on no ground intend to compromise with such kind of students who only harm college environment. Growing clout of money power in union election with the help of main stream political parties is yet another ugly face of students’ politics. Parties like ABVP, NSUI and INSO currently active in Delhi University expand lakhs and crores of money for sticking posters, banners, managing processions, showing power and strength. Day before elections, college after college is taken to PVR theatres, restaurants, pubs and discos so that students may cast votes in favour of the party. I write here one of the ugliest things which I saw while contesting the election. It was that, while campaigning in hostels in night, bottles of wines were served not only that all sorts of sexual requirements of boys in hostels of esteemed colleges were either fulfilled or assured to be fulfilled after procuring the seats. Reports of Lingdhoh Committee regulating students’ unions are kept aside and the very springs of democratic polity is being poisoned at the source. When politics at relatively such a smaller level has gone so corrupt, what will these students do with national polity is a billion dollar question ?


Criminalisation of politics is again one of the most wicked forces of students’ politics. Every year arrogant discussions of students causes polarization in university campus which results into tussels, skirmishes, kidnapping of candidates and even sometimes murder. This year also one of the students of Khalsa College was ruthlessly murdered infront of the college gate. Hurling of bullets and bombs, phenomenal violence and riots are very common in Aligarh Muslim University and Jamia Millia Islamiya. Above all, student outfits who lead the student’s union are unable to resist anti-student move. Recent example of the fact was their silence over fee hike and user charges in Delhi University at the U.G., P.G. and research levels. The magnitude of the fee hike has been around 100%, under most of the heads, while late charges have been increased by 12·5 times. Their indifference and constant failure to oppose such anti-student policies is a shameful reality. Then, why should they be allowed to engross in politics even when they can’t comprehend the needs of common people, that too on the expense of time and career as well ? Last but not least, participation of students in politics has aroused a complex set of political, economic and psychological factors with some very disturbing manifestations. Our country is not passing through a phase of freedom struggle, state of emergency, economic unstability or unstable government that it will need revolutionaries or politicians like Subhash Chandra Bose, Bhagat Singh or Jai Prakash Narayan. What India needs today for its booming and aspiring economy, complete rehaul of system as well, is a bunch of honest and intelligent policy makers to enlighten the direction of politicians, a whole lot of doctors, engineers, administrators and bureaucrats which can only be produced by imparting and taking quality education, true moral values and better understanding of the situations these can only be achieved by keeping education totally away from unhealthy mists and fogs of

politics which brings deviations, corruptions, indiscipline and paralyse the movements of architects of golden future.

—Mahesh Kumar
“Man is by nature a political animal.” —Aristotle India is the largest democratic country in the world. It is possible because of the largest number of voters who are a part and parcel of the establishment of the government. In 1986, the then Prime Minister of India Late Rajiv Gandhi thought of assimilating the youth of the nation in building the government by reducing the age of the right to vote from 21 to 18. It was a historic step in the democratic set-up of the nation. Nowa-days the most progressive, articulate, inspired and dynamic segment of the country’s population is the students’ community. Students are the back-bone of any economy, system or structure of any nation. They are the future of every nation. It is their responsibility to apply everything they learn, practically and thus contribute to the development of the nation. Politics is the best way to accomplish this very potential. We cannot build an apartment just because we have bricks and labourers. There should be someone, in this context, an engineer, who guides workers in building it. Similarly, only an efficient leader can take a nation forward. That is the reason why we conduct elections to choose our representatives. Students have a burning zeal to excel. The power of the youth is like a mighty river, waiting to be channelised. If it is utilised in a constructive manner, only then can progress be made. “Students should study politics and be alive to the current problems.” —K. M. Munshi It has been rightly said that experiences make a person perfect. This saying is applicable in the field of politics. Political experience constitutes an essential part of this learning curve. This experience prepares one to face the challenges better and enables one to understand the condition and feelings of the people. The

much-hyped dirty, murky nature notwithstanding, politics has the potential to inculcate qualities like general awareness, keeping abreast of current happenings and above all, leadership qualities in an individual. Students who join politics can become good orators. They become assertive by shedding their timidness and shyness. Tackling tribulations, solving disputes and handling crisis situations, however small or big they may be, infuse confidence in them. It helps them, in developing skills to deal with people from all backgrounds and of all shades of opinion. Since, from the time of Vedic period, we can take the examples of history. History is dotted with examples of students playing a vital role in overthrowing corrupt tyrannical regimes, freeing their people from overseas bondage, and launching persistent crusades against such evils as social injustice and exploitation. Most of the great leaders in history entered politics during student life. There, political education or training during student life is important for success in life. Many students’ unions like All India Students Union Federation (AISUF), National Students Union of India (NSUI), Akhil Bhartiya Vidyarthi Parishad (ABVP), Khasi Students’ Union (KSU), All Manipur Students Union (AMSU), etc., are big and powerful organisations in our country. Their clout is so great that they can even go against the general people’s verdict; where politicians fail, they succeed easily. The power of the youth can indeed be a great agent of social change. “Political action is the highest responsibility of the youth of the nation.” —John F. Kennedy No doubt, there is a great role of students in active politics of the nation especially in a democratic country like ours. However, there should be a certain limit to the extent of the students’ participation in political succession. The youth of the nation, especially the students, channelised in a proper way can bring a sea-change in the society and nation. A student’s main point is to study, and it should be kept in mind that political activities should not muddle one’s studies. One is not expected to


stay behind unreceptive in the face of criminalisation of politics, dismantling of democratic organisations, corruption, socialism and casteism. But all this does not mean that the participation of students in politics should be banned. The participation of students in active politics should be through proper channel. “Politics should be the part-time profession of every citizen, especially the students.” —Dwight D. Eisehonner The present political scenario in India is a fanatical struggle of diverse political parties engaged in enlisting the support of students. In many cases, different political affiliations have led to deep division within the student community. The existence of student groups with differing ideologies has sometimes resulted in instances of agreeably acrimonious exchanges between antagonistic groups. So much so that even the campus elections held in educational institutions have also become somewhat tainted by undue political fervour among the students’ community. The emergence of youth as a new political class is a consequence of the creation of the idea of youth as a distinctive life stage with its attendant cultures and social understanding. That has been made possible by a rapid change of the educational system. And it has all been supported mainly by the requirements and rewards of industrial economies. In our country, and in a number of other developing nations, modern educational institutions have created a young political class along with the others such as the middle and the working classes. Due to the pride of place given to the youth in the political hierarchy in these nations, the students’ community has gained prominence as a potent political force. The significance given to the students for an active participation brings positive results to the society and the nation. In India students have always played a vital and crucial role in the political process. “We can’t think of successful politics until there is active participation of the students.” —My Experiments With Truth (M. K. Gandhi)

Given the special right and importance to the students’ politics, certain questions assume much importance and interest whether or not student politics is like national politics and integrates with it, whether students’ politics is separate, from, opposed to, or ahead of national politics ? Everything has its advantages and disadvantages; this general rule is applicable in the case of students’ politics as well. The entry of politics into the premises of educational institutions has caused untold damage to many students. It is often seen that students get rusticated owing to their active participation in politics, thus losing their hold on studies. But all this does not mean that the participation of the students in politics should be banned. The participation of students in politics should be promoted but through getting them channelised in a proper manner. They should be given adequate guidelines; their energy and power should be mobilised so that they can be able to participate in politics to understand the soul of democracy. In a nutshell, participation in politics trains a student to be a perfect citizen in all respects. It gives one training in the democratic way of life. One grows into a responsible and cultured citizen, who is a valuable asset to the nation. It creates in one a sense of patriotism, leadership, sympathy for helpless, team-spirit, etc. A student must develop all such qualities in him during this period of politics. For example, all the participants of youth brigade of UPA started political career in student life. P.Darpan


Continued from Page 2067
Hence, the aim of every individual is to lead a balanced life. To fulfill a rightful demand for one’s rights should also be supplemented with wise performance of duties. It is rightly said, “Give to the world the best you have and the best will come to you.” One of the main reasons for deterioration in the economic, social and political fields is too much insistence on rights only without caring for duties. Do the trade unions which often call for strike on minor issues in the so called interest of its members ever care to tell their constituents about their duty towards public in general and nation in particular ? Naturally, such strikes go against the interest of the nation and hence cannot be justified from the standpoints of rights and duties of citizens. Therefore, every individual citizen should be concerned about duties and should perform duties with total responsibility and devotion. Development of a nation lies in the hands of its responsible citizens. Father of Nation, Mahatma Gandhi, always emphasised on ‘Karma’, that is, duty. Every capable citizen should give its best for the betterment of its nation. As Dr. S. Radhakrishnan once said, “each individual in civilized society should only think of what he is capable of doing for his country and not what he can get out of it.”

Test Your Knowledge Answers with Hints


Essay Competition
Topic : Duties and Responsibilities of a Citizen.

Continued from Page 1968
provided an opportunity to carry out the plan. Yushchenko was out and out anti-Russian and pro-west. Therefore full weight was put to ensure his victory. Even in 2004 the election result of second round poll was in favour of Yanukovich. But the result was challenged; street demonstrations were organised, the Supreme Court was won over and a third round poll was ensured to reverse the verdict. Yushchenko became the President of Ukraine. It was a big success of U.S. diplomacy. Yushchenko did not disappoint his patrons at least on one count. He is outright anti-Russian and as the President of Ukraine did his best to ensure that Russian influence in Ukraine is completely inked out from every sphere of life. He distanced his country from Russia and diplomatic relations between two neighbours became strained. He did his best to get entry in European Union and become a member of the NATO. But these moves bore no fruits. In Ukraine a good number of people are of Russian origin. They became annoyed by anti-Russian character of his policy and programme. Another factor which contributed in reversal of ‘Orange Revolution’ was failure of Yushchenko government to deliver goods. Economy, health, housing and corruption were the main issues in 2010 election. On all these issues Yushchenko cut a sorry figure with no positive achievements to show. Corruption was rampant and economy in poor health. In 2009, Gross domestic production declined by 15%. The current global crisis hit Ukraine very hard. President and his team were blamed for all the wooes. As a matter of fact the leaders of ‘Orange Revolution’ never worked as a united team. They quarrelled among themselves which adversely affected their performance and image. The fizzling out of ‘Orange Revolution’ is a setback to U.S. ambitions and policies in this region. The new President is known for his pro-Russian leanings. The UkraineRussia ties will be strengthened P.Darpan during his regime.

Quiz Contest
Concentric Quiz (Science & Technology Special) Ist Prize Winner
Chitransh Kumar S/o Mr. Subhash Kumar Chandra, C/o Mr. Rakesh Kumar Saxena Gali No. 2, Krishna Vihar (Near Reshu Beauty Parlour) Rampur (U.P.)

Ist Prize Winner
Alia Khatoon Munger Bihar–811 201

IInd Prize Winner
Shweta Chandra Lucknow U.P.–226 010

IInd Prize Winner
Shini Chandra D/o Mr. Sailesh Kumar Saxena Bareily (U.P.)

IIIrd Prize Winner
Abhishek Upadhyaya M.N.S. 28/9A-11A, Anaula Taktakpur, Varanasi Uttar Pradesh

IIIrd Prize Winner
Radhe Shyam Kumar S/o Sri Ram Pritsah V+P–Bhadian via Nanpur District–Sitamarhi Bihar–843 333

Debate Competition
Topic : There should be a Total Ban on Student’s Participation in Politics.


For the Topic
Bhaskar Jyoti H. N. 232 Dhakka Village Delhi–07 Ajanta Roy Birbhum West Bengal–731 101

5. The correct sequence in increas-ing order of molecular weights of hydrocarbons is—methane, ethane, propane and butane. 7. Neem Tree has acquired industrial importance of biofertilizer, biopesticide and anti-fertility compound. 14. Aluminium surfaces are often anodized. This means the deposition of a layer of aluminium oxide. 18. When light waves pass from air to glass, the variables affected are wavelength and velocity. 20. In atom, the order of filling up of orbitals is governed by Aufbau principle.

Against the Topic N.A.
Mahesh Kumar Jhajjar Haryana

Anamika Kumari Lajpat Nagar New Delhi–110 024


(Union Territories Special)
1. Which of the following Union Territories is predominantly a rural area ? (A) Chandigarh (B) Dadra & Nagar Haveli (C) Puducherry (D) Daman & Diu 2. Diwaso festival is celebrated in which of the following Union Territories ? (A) Puducherry (B) Daman & Diu (C) Chandigarh (D) Dadra & Nagar Haveli 3. Daman is bound on the south by— (A) Kolak river (B) Kalai river (C) Musi river (D) None of the above 4. Which of the following was constituted as Union Territory on November 1, 1966 ? (A) Chandigarh (B) Lakshadweep (C) Puducherry (D) Delhi 5. ‘A large variety of timbers are in this Union Territory. The most valuable timbers are padauk and gurjan’ ? Which of the following Union Territories is being referred to here ? (A) Lakshadweep (B) Andaman & Nicobar Islands (C) Daman & Diu (D) Dadra & Nagar Haveli 6. Which of the following is not a Negrito tribe ? (A) Nicobarese (B) The Great Andamanese (C) Sentinalese (D) Jarawas 7. Which of the following is not located in Daman & Diu ? (A) Devka Beaches (B) Mirasol Water Park (C) Bom Jesus Church (D) Vanganga lake 8. After prolonged skirmishes between the Portuguese and Marathas, on December 17, 1779, the Maratha Government assigned the aggregated revenue of Rs. 12,000 in a few villages of this territory to the Portuguese as compensation to ensure their friendship. The territory referred to here was— (A) Goa (B) Daman & Diu (C) Dadra & Nagar Haveli (D) Yanam 9. Which is known as the City Beautiful ? (A) Yanam (B) Laskhadweep (C) Mahe (D) Chandigarh 10. Which of the following Union Territories has the largest Industrial area in Asia ? (A) Chandigarh (B) Delhi (C) Puducherry (D) Daman & Diu 11. Which of the following is not located in Andaman & Nicobar Islands ? (A) Roberts Bay (B) Macpherson’s Strait (C) Dugong Creek (D) Cheriyam Island 12. The dialect ‘Bhilodi’ is spoken in— (A) Dadra & Nagar Haveli (B) Daman & Diu (C) Chandigarh (D) Delhi 13. The Union Territory which had the population of 0·10% of total population of India had the population density (as per 1991 census)— (A) 2,034 (B) 1,683 (C) 5,632 (D) 7,900 14. The total inhabited villages in Daman & Diu is— (A) 23 (C) 48 (B) 40 (D) 70

15. Among the states and Union Territories of India, which of the following was ranked 29th by population size as per 2001 census ? (A) Puducherry (B) Chandigarh (C) Andaman & Nicobar Islands (D) Lakshadweep 16. Which of the following Constitutional Amendment Act is associated with Delhi ? (A) The Constitution (Seventieth Amendment) Act (B) The Constitution (Sixtyninth Amendment) Act (C) The Constitution (Sixtythird Amendment) Act (D) The Constitution (Seventyfirst Amendment) Act 17. Port Blair is the headquarters of— (A) North Andaman (B) Middle Andaman (C) Nicobar (D) South Andaman 18. Which territory had Varishtha Panchayat working as an advisory body of administration after the liberation from foreign rule ? (A) Puducherry (B) Daman & Diu (C) Dadra & Nagar Haveli (D) Goa 19. Puducherry has been described by Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru as— (A) Treasure of French Culture (B) A Glimpse of French Culture (C) The Window of French Culture (D) Land of the Saints 20. Delhi was made the capital of British India in— (A) 1908 (B) 1911 P.Darpan (C) 1919 (D) 1933


(Union Territories Special)
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Mental Exercise

Test Your Knowledge
1. Abul Fazl wrote— (A) Akbarnamah and Ain-iAkbari (B) Akbarnamah and Tabquat-iAkbari (C) Tabquat-i-Akbari and Ain-iAkbari (D) Ain-i-Akbari and Tuhfa-iAkbari 2. Who among the following founded the Ramkrishna Mission (1896) ? (A) Gopal Krishna Gokhale (B) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar (C) Narendranath Dutta (D) Ramkrishna Paramahansa 3. The first South Indian Kingdom attacked by Akbar was— (A) Bijapur (B) Asirgarh (C) Ahmednagar (D) Barar 4. The book titled ‘Young India’ dealing with Indian National Movement was written by— (A) Aruna Asaf Ali (B) Mohd Iqbal (C) Bipin Chandra Pal (D) Lala Lajpat Rai 5. Which religion Triratna ? (A) Buddhism (B) Jainism (C) Vaishnavism (D) Shaivism believes in 8. Who among the following led the Revolt of 1857 in Lucknow ? (A) Birjis Qadir (B) Wajid Ali Shah (C) Maulvi Azimullah (D) Maulvi Ahmadullah 9. The call ‘One religion, one caste and one God for mankind’ was given by— (A) Jyotiba Phule (B) Sri Narayan Guru (C) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar (D) Swami Vivekanand 10. The name of the spiritual Guru of Shivaji was— (A) Dadaji Kondadeva (B) Ramdas (C) Tukaram (D) Eknath 11. Who among the following was the head of the military department under Delhi Sultans ? (A) Sipahsalar (B) Mir Bakhshi (C) Ariz-i-Mumalik (D) Mutaufi-i-Mumalik 12. The writer of ‘Prayag Prashasti’ was— (A) Fahien (B) Huen-Tsang (C) Harisen (D) Bhasa 13. Wine and other intoxicating drugs were forbidden by the Mughal ruler named— (A) Babar (B) Aurangzeb (C) Jahangir (D) None of the above 14. Sheikh Nizamuddin Auliya was born in— (A) Agra (B) Delhi (C) Badaun (D) Lucknow 15. Which one of the following vitamin helps in clotting of blood ? (A) Vitamin A (B) Vitamin B6 (C) Vitamin D (D) Vitamin K 16. Which one of the following vitamin is abundant in Guava fruits ? (A) Vitamin A (B) Vitamin B12 (C) Vitamin C (D) Vitamin D 17. Which causes the Chikungunya disease ? (A) Bacteria (B) Helminthic Worm (C) Protozoan (D) Virus 18. What is the purpose of adding baking soda to dough ? (A) To generate moisture (B) To give a good flavour (C) To give good colour (D) To generate carbon dioxide 19. The great Lawn Tennis player Bjorn Borg is from which country ? (A) Sweden (B) Australia (C) U.S.A. (D) Italy 20. The reservoir G.B. Pant Sagar is located on which river ? (A) Betwa (B) Ghaghara (C) Kosi (D) Rihand 21. Industrial Development Bank of India was set up in— (A) 1960 (B) 1964 (C) 1968 (D) 1969 22. Prime Lending Rate is the rate of interest on which— (A) World Bank gives loans to less developed countries (B) Reserve Bank of India gives loan to its employees (C) Commercial Bank gives loan for consumption goods (D) Commercial Bank gives loan to top-rated clients 23. The Headquarters of World Bank is located in— (A) Manila (B) Washington DC (C) New York (D) Geneva

6. Which among the following provinces was called the nursery of soldiers in India ? (A) Bengal (B) Gujarat (C) Awadh (D) Punjab 7. Who among the following introduced Dagh-o Chehra (the practice of branding of horses and descriptive rolls of soldiers) ? (A) Iltutmish (B) Balban (C) Alauddin Khilji (D) Firozshah Tuglaq


24. A meteor is— (A) A rapidly moving star (B) A piece of matter which has entered the earths atmosphere from outer space (C) Part of constellation (D) A comet without a tail 25. Where is Indian Institute of Mines situated ? (A) Dhanbad (B) Ranchi (C) Jamshedpur (D) Hazaribagh 26. National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR) is located at— (A) New Delhi (B) Kanpur (C) Chennai (D) Kolkata 27. ‘Gaborone’ is the capital of— (A) South Africa (B) Botswana (C) Namibia (D) Angola 28. Which of the following grants is made when the amount authorised by the Parliament through the appropriation act for the current financial year is found to be insufficient ? (A) Additional Grant (B) Supplementary Grant (C) Excess Grant (D) Vote of credit 29. Which of the following Constitutional Amendment Act facilitated the appointment of the same person as a governor for two or more states ? (A) 7th Constitutional Amendment Act 1956 (B) Fifth Constitutional Amendment Act 1955 (C) Sixteenth Constitutional Amendment Act 1963 (D) Twenty-First Constitutional Amendment Act 1967 30. Which of the following Articles mentions that the Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha ? (A) Article 15 (B) Article 75 (C) Article 82 (D) Article 32 31. Michelle Bachelet is the President of— (A) Chile (B) Argentina (C) Peru (D) Colombia 32. Peso is the currency of— (A) Thailand (B) Mexico

(C) Malaysia (D) None of the above 33. Department of Drinking water supply is part of— (A) Ministry of Water Resources (B) Ministry of Rural Development (C) Ministry of Home Affairs (D) None of the above 34. The least densely populated Union Territory is— (A) Lakshdweep (B) Chandigarh (C) Puducherry (D) Andman and Nicobar Islands 35. Diamond Harbour and Salt Lake cities are situated in— (A) California (B) Florida (C) Hong Kong (D) Kolkata 36. Which one of the following is known as the Coffee port of the world ? (A) Sao Paulo (B) Santos (C) Rio de Janeiro (D) Buenos Aures 37. The length of its day and the tilt of its axis are almost identical to those of the earth. This is true of— (A) Uranus (B) Neptune (C) Saturn (D) Mars 38. The New Population Bomb refers to— (A) An increase in the population of the aged in the third world (B) Rapidly growing urban population in the third world (C) Large scale distress migrations in the third world (D) Deluge of Soviet emigrants 39. Where is the Doldrums Belt is located ? (A) Near the Equator (B) Near the poles (C) Near the Tropic of Cancer (D) Near the Tropic of Capricorn 40. Which one of the following is the continent with the highest mean elevation in the world ? (A) Antarctica (B) North America (C) Asia (D) South America [For Answer See Page 2070]

Continued from Page 1952
base is targeted to increase from 10·6 crore as on April 1, 2009 to 16·0 crore by the year 2015. The focus would be on states and regions where coverage is below the national average. A new low-cost LPG distributor scheme, the Rajeev Gandhi Gramin LPG Vitrak Yojana (RGGLVY) was launched on October 16, 2009 with a view to release LPG connections in rural areas where the operations with the present norms are economically unviable. This scheme has been launched at locations having potential of upto 600 refills per month. AT and T acquires 8·07 per cent stake in Tech Mahindra—The largest telecom services provider in the United States AT and T company has a cquired an 8·07 per cent stake in Tech Mahindra, the Mahindra & Mahindra group IT company. IT is worthnoting that last year Tech Mahindra had bought Satyam Computers. AT and T has bought 9·87 million Tech Mahindra Share, according to filing to the National Stock Exchange (NSE) on March 23, 2010. NLC Green Power Portfolio to touch 1700 Mw by 2017— Neyveli Lignite Corporation (NLC), a public sector enterprise is harping on green power technology to drive its future growth. NLC is a ‘miniratna’ public enterprise which plans to generate almost 1700 Mw under green technologies of the company’s total installed capacity of 10000 Mw by the end of 12th Five Year Plan in 2017. As per official sources of NLC, the company aim to have 1000 Mw of hydro power generation capacity, besides 500 Mw and 200 Mw of wind and Solar energy capacities respectively by 2017. Besides, the company will ramp up its mining capacity from 24 million tonnes at present to 75 million tonnes during 2012 -17. At present, NLC operates three thermal power stations with an installed capacity of 2,500 Mw. It is worthnoting that NLC is also pursuing other power projects in Gujarat (500 Mw), Rajasthan (1,000 Mw) and Orissa (2,000 P.Darpan Mw).

Edited, Printed and Published by Mahendra Jain for M/s Pratiyogita Darpan, 2/11A, Swadeshi Bima Nagar, Agra-2 and Printed by him at Pratiyogita Darpan Printing Unit, 5 & 6 Bye Pass Road, Agra.

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