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Third Edition
R P Jain
CHAPTER 1
1.1 (a) Analog. The output of a pressure gauge is proportional to the pressure being measured and can assume any value in the given range. (b) Digital. An electric pulse is produced for every person entering the exhibition using a photoelectric device. These pulses are counted using a digital circuit. (c) Analog. The reading of the thermometer is proportional to the temperature being measured and can assume any value in the given range. (d) Digital. Inputs are given with the help of switches, which are converted into digital signals 1 and 0 corresponding to the switch in the ON or OFF position. These signals are processed using digital circuits and the results are displayed using digital display devices. (e) Analog. It receives modulated signals which are analog in nature. These signals are processed by analog circuits and the output is again in the analog form. (f) Digital. It has only two possible positions (states), ON and OFF. (g) Digital. An electric pulse is produced for every vote cast by pressing of switch of a candidate. The pulses thus produced for each candidate are counted separately and also the total number of votes polled are counted. 1.2 (a)
(i) S1 OFF OFF ON ON (iii) S OFF ON S2 OFF ON OFF ON Bulb ON OFF Bulb OFF OFF OFF ON (iv) (ii) S1 OFF OFF ON ON S1 OFF OFF ON ON S2 OFF ON OFF ON S2 OFF ON OFF ON Bulb OFF ON ON ON Bulb OFF ON ON OFF
(b) (i) S1 0 0 1 1 (iii) S 0 1 S2 0 1 0 1 Bulb 1 0 Bulb 0 0 0 1 (iv) (ii) S1 0 0 1 1 S1 0 0 1 1 S2 0 1 0 1 S2 0 1 0 1 Bulb 0 1 1 1 Bulb 0 1 1 0
(c)
(i) AND
(ii) OR
(iii) NOT
(iv) EXOR
1.3
1 Input A 0 1 Input B 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 t(ms) 0 1 2 3 4 5 t(ms)
1 AND 0
1 OR 0
1 NAND 0
1 NOR 0
1 EXOR 0
1.4
Inputs A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 (a) 1 0 0 0 Outputs of (b) (c) 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 (d) 0 1 1 1
The operations performed are (a) NOR (b) NAND
(c) AND
2
(d) OR
1.5
For Fig. 1.6
(a) A 0 1 Y 1 0 (b) A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 Y 0 1 1 1
AB
1 1 1 0
Y 0 0 0 1
(c)
A 0 0 1 1
B 0 1 0 1
A
1 1 0 0
B
1 0 1 0
For Fig. 1.8 (a) A 0 1 Y 1 0 (b) A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 Y 0 0 0 1
A+B
Y 0 1 1 1
1 0 0 0
(c)
A 0 0 1 1
B 0 1 0 1
A
1 1 0 0
B
1 0 1 0
1.6 1.7
(a) NAND, NOR (c) NAND (a)
Inputs A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1
(b) AND (d) OR
AB 0 0 1 0
AB
0 1 0 0
Output Y 0 1 1 0
(b) EX–OR (c) A
Y
B 3
(d) \
Y = AB + A B
Y = AB + A B
= AB ⋅ A B
Y = Y = AB ⋅ AB = Y1 ⋅ Y2
where,
A Y1 Y
Y1 = AB
and
Y2 = AB
B
Y2
1.8
For simplicity, we shall consider 2input gates, but the results are equally valid for any number of inputs. In the positive logic system, the higher of the two voltages is designated as 1 and the lower voltage as 0. On the other hand in the negative logic system, the lower of the two voltage is designated as 1 and the higher voltage as 0. Therefore, if 1s and 0s are interchanged, the logic system will change from positive to negative and viceversa. (a) In the truth table of positive logic AND gate replace all zeros by ones and all ones by zeros. The resulting truth table is same as that of the OR gate. Similarly, if all ones and zeros are interchanged in the truth table of the OR gate, the resulting truth table will be same as that of the AND gate. (b) Repeat part (a) for NAND and NOR gates. (a) A + A B + A B = (A + A B ) + A B = A (1 + B ) + A B = A × 1 + AB = A + AB = (A + A ) (A + B) = A + B (b) AB + A B + A B = (A + A ) B + A B = B + A B = (B + A ) (B + B ) = A +B (c) A BC + A B C + AB C + ABC = A BC + A B C + AB (C + C ) = A BC + A B C + AB = A BC + A (B + B C) = A BC + A (B + B ) (B + C)
4
1.9
= A BC + AB + AC = C (A + A B) + AB = C (A + A ) (A + B) + AB = C (A + B) + AB = AB + BC + CA 1.10 (a)
A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1
AB
AB 0 0 1 0
A + A B + AB 0 1 1 1
A+B 0 1 1 1
0 1 0 0
(b)
A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 AB 0 0 0 1
AB AB
AB + A B + A B 1 1 0 1
A +B
0 1 0 0
1 0 0 0
1 1 0 1
(c)
A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 C 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1
A BC
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
AB C 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
AB C 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
ABC LHS 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1
AB 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
BC 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
CA 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
RHS 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1
1.11
(a) The realization of LHS requires, two inverters, two 2input AND gates, and one 3input OR gate, whereas the realization of RHS requires only one two input OR gate.
A A B B
(i) 5
(ii)
(b) The realization of LHS requires two inverters, three 2input AND gates and one 3input OR gate, whereas the realization of RHS requires only one inverter and one 2input OR gate.
A A B B
(i)
(ii)
(c) The realization of LHS requires three inverters, four 3input AND gates and one 4input OR gate, whereas the realization of RHS requires only three 2input AND gates and one 3input OR gate.
A
B C
(i) A B
C
(ii)
1.12
(a) AB + CD = AB + CD = AB ⋅ CD
6
(b) (A + B) (C + D) = ( A + B) ⋅ ( C + D )
= ( A + B) + ( C + D ) (i) The left hand side of (a) can be realized by using two 2input AND gates followed by one 2input OR gate, while the right hand side is realizable by two 2input NAND gates followed by another 2input NAND gate. Hence an ANDOR configuration is equivalent to a NANDNAND configuration. (ii) The left hand side of (b) is realizable by two 2input OR gates followed by a 2input AND gate, while the right hand side is realizable by two 2input NOR gates followed by another 2input NOR gate. Hence an ORAND configuration is equivalent to a NORNOR configuration.
1.13
(a) A B A B Y C D (i) (b) A B A B Y C D (i) C D (ii) Y C D (ii) Y
1.14 (a) Since A × B = B × A Therefore, the AND operation is commutative. If A × (B × C) = (A × B) × C, then the AND operation is associative. This can be proved by making truth table as given below:
A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 C 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 (A × B) × C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 A × (B × C) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
7
Since the last two columns of the truth table are identical, which proves that the AND operation is associative. (b) Since, A + B = B + A, therefore, OR operation is commutative. The associative property requires A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C which can be proved by making the truth table in a way similar to the truthtable of (a) above (c) Since, A Å B = B Å A, which means the EXOR operation is commutative. The associative property requires (A Å B) Å C = A Å (B Å C) This can be proved by making truth table 1.15 (a) Since = A ⋅ B = B ⋅ A , therefore, the NAND operation is commutative. To verify whether the NAND operation is associative or not, we prepare the truth table as given below. From the Table we observe that the last two columns are not identical, which means
A ⋅ ( B ⋅ C ) ≠ ( A ⋅ B) ⋅ C
This shows that the NAND operation is not associative.
A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 C 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1
A ⋅ ( B ⋅ C)
1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1
( A ⋅ B) C
1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1
(b) Since, A + B = B + A , which means the NOR operation is commutative. By making a truth table similar to the truth table of (a) above we can verify that
( A + B) + C ≠ A + ( B + C )
1.16 1.17 Therefore, the NOR operation is not associative. Two possible realizations are given on page 9: (i) If only one of the variables is 1 and all others are zero, then (1 Å 0) Å 0 Å 0 Å . . . = 1 Å 0 Å 0 Å . . . =1 Å0=1 (ii) If only two of the variables are 1 and all others are zero, then (since EXOR operation is commutative and associative) (1 Å 1) Å 0 Å 0 Å 0 Å . . . = 0 Å 0 Å 0 Å 0 Å . . . = 0 (iii) Similarly, if only three of the variables are 1, then (1 Å 1) Å 1 Å 0 Å 0 Å . . . =0 Å1Å0Å0Å0Å... =1
8
A B C D
AÅB AÅBÅC
Y AÅBÅCÅD or
A B
AÅB
C D CÅD Fig. 1.17
Y AÅBÅCÅD
1.18
1.19
In the same way we can try higher number of ones. It is obvious from the above discussion that Z = 1, if an odd number of variables are 1 and Z = 0 if an even number of variables are 1. Since a logical variable can assume one of the two values (0 or 1) the number of possible combinations is 2N. Take an Nbit binary number bN–1 bN–2 . . . b2b1b0 and write all combinations from 00 . . . 000 to 11 . . . 111 in normal binary ascending order. (a) 7402 is a quad 2input NOR gate. This means there are four identical 2input NOR gates. Each gate requires three pins, two for inputs and one for output. Therefore, the four gates requires 3 ´ 4 = 12 pins. Two pins are required for the power supply (VCC and GND). Hence it is a 14pin IC. (b) 7404 is a hex inverter. The number of pins = 2 ´ 6 + 2 = 14. (c) 7408 is a quad 2input AND gate. The number of pins = 3 ´ 4 + 2 = 14. (d) 7410 is a triple 3input NAND gate. The number of pins = 4 ´ 3 + 2 = 14. (e) 7411 is a triple 3input AND gate. The number of pins = 4 ´ 3 + 2 = 14. (f) 7420 is a dual 4input NAND gate. The number of pins = 5 ´ 2 + 2 = 12. Since 12pin IC package is not used, therefore, it is packaged as 14pin IC. Two pins are left free (NC). (g) 7427 is a triple 3input NOR gate. The number of pins = 4 ´ 3 + 2 = 14. (h) 7432 is a quad 2input OR gate. The number of pins = 3 ´ 4 + 2 = 14.
9
1.20
1.21
(i) 7486 is a quad EXOR gate. The number of pins = 3 ´ 4 + 2 = 14. (a) (i) 7408 and 7432 (ii) 7400 (b) (i) 7432 and 7408 (ii) 7402 Logic Circuit A 0.4V = 0 2V = 1 Logic Circuit B –0.75V = 1 –1.55V = 0
Inputs A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 C 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 AND Y1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 OR Y2 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Output NAND Y3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 NOR Y4 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1.22
1.23
(a)
Yes.
A B C Y or A B C Logic 1 (b) A B C Y or A B C Logic 0 (c) A B C Y or A B C Logic 1 (d) A B C Y or A B C Logic 0 10 Y Y Y Y
1.24
1.25 1.26 1.27
Yes. AND — by connecting one of the inputs to logic 0 OR — by connecting one of the inputs to logic 1 NAND — by connecting one of the inputs to logic 0 NOR — by connecting one of the inputs to logic 1. (a) Activehigh (b) Activelow (c) Activehigh (d) Activelow (a) Activelow (b) Activehigh (c) Activelow (d) Activehigh (a)
A B Y C
Y = A × B × C = (A × B) × (C) (b)
A B Y C
Y = A + B + C = (A + B) + (C) (c)
A B AB Y C AB
C
Y = A ⋅ B ⋅ C = ( A ⋅ B) + C
= ( A ⋅ B) ⋅ C
= A⋅ B⋅C
(d)
A B C 11 Y
1.28
(a) A Å B = A B + A B
A Å B = AB + A B
= AB + AB = A Å B (b) A ⊕ B = AB + AB A Å B = AB + A B = AB + AB
A Å B = AB + A B = AB + AB (c) B Å (B Å AC) = B Å B Å AC = 0 Å AC = AC
12
CHAPTER 2
2.1 (a) 111001 = 1 ´ 25 + 1 ´ 24 + 1 ´ 23 + 0 ´ 22 + 0 ´ 21 + 1 ´ 20 = 32 + 16 + 8 + 0 + 0 + 1 = (57)10 (b) 101001 = 1 ´ 25 + 0 ´ 24 + 1 ´ 23 + 0 ´ 22 + 0 ´ 21 + 1 ´ 20 = 32 + 0 + 8 + 0 + 0 + 1 = (41)10 (c) 11111110 = 1 ´ 27 + 1 ´ 26 + 1 ´ 25 + 1 ´ 24 + 1 ´ 23 + 1 ´ 22 + 1 ´ 21 + 0 ´ 20 = 128 + 64 + 32 + 16 + 8 + 4 + 2 + 0 = (254)10 (d) 1100100 = 64 + 32 + 0 + 0 + 4 + 0 + 0 = (100)10 (e) 1101.0011 = 1 ´ 23 + 1 ´ 22 + 0 ´ 21 + 1 ´ 20 + 0 ´ 2–1 + 0 ´ 2–2 + 1 ´ 2–3 + 1 ´ 2–4 = 8 + 4 + 0 + 1 + 0 + 0 + 0.125 + 0.0625 = (13.1875)10 (f) 1010.1010 = 8 + 2 + 0.5 + 0.125 = (10.625)10 (g) 0.11100 2.2 (a) = 0.5 + 0.25 + 0.125 = (0.875)10 Quotient Remainder 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 Thus (37)10 = (100101)2 Similarly, (b) (255)10 = (11111111)2 (c) (15)10 = (1111)2
13
37 2 18 2 9 2 4 2 2 2
1 2
18 9 4 2 1 0
0
0
1
0
1
(d) Integer part: (26)10 = (11010)2 Fractional part: 0.25 0.5 ´2 ´2 0.5 1.0 ¯ ¯ 0 1 Therefore, (26.25)10 = (11010.01)2 (e) Integer part: (11)10 = (1011)2 Fractional part: 0.75 0.5 ´2 ´2 1.5 1.0 ¯ ¯ 1 1 Thus (11.75)10 = (1011.11)2 (f) 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.8 0.6 0.2 0.4 0.8 ´2 ´2 ´2 ´2 ´2 ´2 ´2 ´2 0.2 0.4 0.8 1.6 1.2 0.4 0.8 1.6 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1... Thus, (0.1)2 = (0.00011001)2 The process may be terminated at the required number of significant bits. 2.3 (a) 1 1 1 1 0 0 ¬ Carry 1 1 0
1 0 +1 1 1 1 0 Final carry (b) 1 1 + 1 0 Final carry 2.4 (a) 01000 –01001 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0
1 0. 1. 0.
1 1 0 0 1 1 0
¬ Carry 0 0 1 1
01000 + 10111 (2’s complement) 11111 Since the MSB of the sum is 1, which means the result is negative and it is in 2’s complement form. 2’s complement of 11111 = 00001 = (1)10 Therefore, the result is –1.
14
(b)
(c)
01100 Þ 01100 –00011 + 11101 (2’s complement) 101001 = + 9 Ignore 0011.1001 Þ 0011.1001 –0001.1110 +1110.0010 (2’s complement) 10001.1011 = + 1.6875 Ignore Quotient
375 8 46 8 5 8
2.5 (a)
Remainder 7 6 5 6 7
46 5 0
5 Therefore, (375)10 = (567)8 = (101110111)2 (b) Quotient Remainder 249 31 1 8 31 3 7 8 3 0 3 8 3
7
1
(c)
2.6 (a)
(b) (c)
Therefore, (249)10 = (371)8 = (011111001)2 Integer part: (27)10 = (33)8 = (011011)2 Fractional part: 0.125 ´8 1.000 ¯ 1 Thus (0.125)10 = (0.1)8 = (0.001)2 Therefore, (27.125)10 = (33.1)8 = (011011.001)2 11 011 100.101 010 = (334.52)8 (334.52)8 = 3 ´ 82 + 3 ´ 81 + 4 ´ 80 + 5 ´ 8–1 + 2 ´ 8–2 = (220.65625)10 01 010 011.010 101 = (123.25)8 = (83.328125)10 10 110 011 = (263)8 = (179)10
15
2.7 (a)
375 16 23 16 1 16
Quotient 23 1 0
Remainder 7 7 1
1 7 7 Therefore, (375)10 = (177)16 (or 177H) = (0001 0111 0111)2 (b) Quotient Remainder 249 15 9 16 15 0 15 16 F 9 Therefore, (249)10 = (F9)16 (or F9H) = (1111 1001)2 (c) Integer part: Quotient Remainder 27 1 11 16 1 0 1 16 1 B Thus (27)10 = 1BH Fractional part: 0.125 ´ 16 2.000 ¯ 2 \ (0.125)10 = 0.2H \ (27.125)10 = (1B.2)16 = 1B.2H = (00011011.0010)2 2.8 (a) 1101 1100.1010 10 = (DC.A8)16 (DC.A8)16 = 13 ´ 161 + 11 ´ 160 + 10 ´ 16–1 + 8 ´ 16–2 = (220.65625)10 (b) 0101 0011.0101 01 = (53.54)16 = (83.328125)10 (c) 1011 0011 = (B3)16 = (179)10 2.9 For each decimal digit write its natural BCD code (a) 46 = 0100 0110 (BCD) (b) 327.89 = 0011 0010 0111.1000 1001 (BCD) (c) 20.305 = 00100000.0011 0000 0101 (BCD) 2.10 For each decimal digit write its 4bit Excess3 code. (a) 46 = 0111 1001 (Excess3) (b) 327.89 = 0110 0101 1010.1011 1100 (Excess3) (c) 20.305 = 0101 0011.0110 0011 1000 (Excess3)
16
2.11 Starting from 4bit Gray code given in Table 2.8 formulate 5bit Gray code as given below in Table 1. Table 1
Decimal No. 0 1 2 : : 13 14 15 16 17 18 : : 29 30 31 G4 0 0 0 : : 0 0 0 1 1 1 : : 1 1 1 G3 0 0 0 G2 0 0 0 : : 0 0 0 0 0 0 G1 0 0 1 G0 0 1 1 3 1 1 0 0 1 1 Decimal No. 0 1 2 0 : 17 : 30 31 32 33 : 46 : 62 63 G5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 G4 0 0 0
Table 2
G3 0 0 0 G2 0 0 0 G1 0 0 1 G0 0 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1
1 0 0 0 0 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
1 0 0
1 1 0
Similarly, form 6bit Gray Code as given in Table 2. From Table 2, we obtain (46)10 = 111001 (Gray Code) 2.12 Writing the 6bit code for each character (See Table 2.9), we obtain 100111 001011 000011 101100 101000 2.13 (a) Write the 7bit ASCII code for each character (See Table 2.10) R.P. JAIN = 1010010 0101110 1010000 0101110 1001010 1000001 1001001 1001110 (b) Write the 8bit EBCDIC code for each character (See Table 2.9) R.P. JAIN = 11011001 01001011 11010111 01001011 11010001 11000001 11001001 11010101 (c) Write the 6bit internal code for each character (See Table 2.9) R.P. JAIN = 101001 011011 100111 011011 100001 010001 011001 100101 2.14 (a) Count the number of ones for every character from ASCII table and attach a 1 or 0 as the MSB for odd or even number of ones respectively. For example, the ASCII code for R is 1010010, which has three ones. Therefore, a 1 is to be attached as MSB and the resulting 8bit code with even parity will be 11010010 Similarly, the code for l is 0101110 which has four ones. Therefore, a 0 is to be attached as MSB and the resulting 8bit code with even parity will be 00101110.
17
In a similar way parity bit can be attached to every character. (b) Repeat part (a) for EBCDIC code. 2.15 (a) Attach 0 or 1 as MSB to make the number of ones odd. For example, 8bit ASCII code for R with odd parity is 01010010 (b) Repeat part (a) for EBCDIC code. 2.16 (a) Since, 25 = 32 and 26 = 64, therefore, the minimum number of bits required to encode 56 elements of information is 6. (b) 27 < 130 < 28 Therefore, 8 bits are required to encode 130 elements of information. 2.17 In the 8 bit ASCII code with the parity bit, if binary to hexadecimal conversion is used, the resulting format will be hexadecimal. For example, R = 11010010 = D2 H and l = 00101110 = 2EH for even parity and R = 01010010 = 52H and l = 10101110 = AEH for odd parity. 2.18 Consider the following examples: (i) 7 0111 Þ 0111 –3 –0011 + 1100 (1’s complement) 4 10011 1 EndAround Carry (EAC) 0100 = 4 (ii) 3 0011 Þ 0011 –7 – 0111 + 1000 (1’s complement) –4 1011 = –4 in 1’s complement form From the above examples the rules of subtraction can be summarized as: (a) Add ones complement of the subtrahend to the minuend. (b) If a carry is produced, add endaround carry (EAC) (c) If the MSB of the sum is 0, the result is positive (d) If the MSB of the sum is 1, the result is negative and it is in one’s complement format. 2.19 100 ´ 20 ´ 8 bits. 2.20 132 ´ 7 bits. 2.21 Let us consider the BCD code for 9 and find out its Hamming code for error correction.
Decimal digit 9 Position BCD odd parity for 1,3,5,7 requires p1 = 1 odd parity for 2,3,6,7 requires p2 = 1 odd parity for 4,5,6,7 requires p3 = 1 ® 1 p1 : : : 1 : 1 : 1 2 p2 : : : : : 1 : 1 18 Hamming Code 3 4 5 n1 p3 n2 1 : : 1 : 1 : 1 : : : : : : : 0 0 : : 0 : 0 : 0 6 n3 0 : : 0 : 0 : 0 7 n4 1 : : 1 : 1 : 1
Therefore, Hamming code for decimal digit 9 is 1 1 1 0 0 0 1. Similarly, Hamming code is determined for each BCD digit and the complete sequence is given below.
Decimal digit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Position ® 1 p1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 2 p2 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 Hamming code 3 4 5 n1 p3 n2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 6 n3 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 7 n4 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1
19
CHAPTER 3
3.1 (a) The number of covalent bonds breaking away increases with temperature, which decreases the resistivity of the semiconductor material, whereas in a metal an increase in the temperature results in a greater thermal motion of the ions, and hence decreases the mean free path of the free electrons. This results in a decrease in the mobility and hence resistivity increases with temperature. (b) All the covalent bonds are intact at 0 K and hence there are no free charge carriers, whereas at room temperature some of the covalent bonds break away resulting in small conductivity. 3.2 (a) Using the VI relation of the diode, we obtain
and
» I0 exp (V1/hVT) I2 = 2I1 » I0 exp (V2/hVT)
I1 2 = exp (V2 – V1/hVT)
(3.1) (3.2)
From Eqs. (3.1) and (3.2), V2 – V1 = hVT 1n 2 = 2 ´ 26 ´ 0.693 mV » 36 mV Since, V1 = 700 mV Therefore, V2 = 700 + 36 = 736 mV Percentage change =
736 − 700 × 100% 700
or (b)
= 5.14% 3.3 From the V–I relation of the diode, we obtain I1 » I0 exp (700/hVT) and \ or (b) I2 » I0 exp (750/hVT) I2/I1 = exp (50/2 ´ 26) = 2.616 I2 = 2.616 ´ 2 = 5.232 mA Percent change =
5. 232 − 2 × 100% 2 = 161.6%
3.4
I2 = 10 = e {(V2 – V1)/2 ´ 26} I1
or V2 – V1 = 52 1n 10 = 119.73 mV
3.5 (a) The circuit will be under steadystate at t = 20ms, i.e.,
dQ =0 dt
20
∴ I1 ≈
Since, \
V1 R
=
10 = 1mA 10
Q =I t
Q = 1 ´ 10–6 ´ 10–3 = 10–9 C
(b) The diode will turn off when excess minority charge has been removed.
VR = 5 = 0. 5 mA R 10 The differential equation is dQ Q + = − 0. 5 × 10 −3 dt τ IR ≈
Solving this with initial condition Q(0) = 10–9 C (part (a)), we obtain Q = – 0.5 ´ 10–9 + 1.5 ´ 10–9 e–t Set Q = 0 for cutoff \ t = 1.099 ms (c) The various waveforms are given below. The recovery time constant tR = RCO = 10 ´ 103 ´ 10 ´ 10–12 = 0.1 ms
Vi V1 = 0V 0 V2 = 5V Vd 0.7V 0 5V Id 1 mA 0 0.5 mA Excess Q Minority Charge 0 0 t 1.099 ms 21 t tR t t
tR
t
3.6 (a) Since the EB junction is forwardbiased, therefore, the transistor is conducting (i.e., IC is flowing). It may either be operating in the active region or in the saturation region. Let us assume that the transistor is operating in the saturation region. Then the base and collector voltages will be VBE, sat (= 0.8 V) and VCE, sat (= 0.1 V) respectively. Therefore, the collector current IC and the base current IB are given by IC = and IB =
VCC − VCE , sat RC
V BB − V BE , sat RB
=
10 − 0. 1 = 3. 33 mA 3
5 − 0. 8 = 21 µA 200
=
hFE IB = 21 ´ 100 = 2.1 mA Since IC>hFE IB, therefore the transistor cannot be in saturation. Hence it is conducting in the active region. with VCC = 6V, let us again assume that the transistor is operating in the saturation region. Therefore,
⋅
6 − 0.1 ≈ 2 mA 3 The current IB remains same as in part (a). Therefore, now IC < hFEIB which means the transistor is certainly operating in the saturation region. (b) The value of RC required for the transistor to be in saturation is given by IC = VCC − VCE , sat RC
or RC ≥ 10 − 0. 1 kW 2. 1 ³ 4.7 kW \ The value of Rc just sufficient for saturation will be 4.7 kW. If the value of RC used is more than 4.7kW, the transistor will continue to be operating in the saturation region. (c) The value of RB required to drive the transistor into saturation is given by IC ≤ h FE × or RB ≤ 100 ⋅
≤ h FE I B
V BB − V BE , sat RB
5 − 0. 8 kW 3. 3
£ 127.27 kW
22
The value of RB just sufficient to drive the transistor into saturation will be 127.27 kW. If a smaller value of RB than the value calculated above is used, the transistor will be driven deeper into saturation. 3.7 (a) For the transistor to be in the cutoff region, the voltage VBB £VBE, cut–in £ 0.5 V (b) For active region operation
VCE − VCE , sat RC ≥ V BB − V BE , sat RB ⋅ h FE
or,
VBB <
R B VCC − VCE , sat ⋅ + V BE , sat RC h FE
5 − 0.1 < 100 ⋅ + 0. 8 2 100
< 3.25 V Therefore, the range of VBB for active region is 0.5 V < VBB < 3.25 V (c) The range of VBB for saturation region is VBB ³ 3.25 V 3.8 For the transistor to be in saturation
VCC − VCE , sat RC
≤
V BB − V BE , sat RB
⋅ h FE
R B VCC − V CE, sat or, hFE (min) = R ⋅ V C BB − V BE , sat 5 − 0. 1 = 200 ⋅ 1 5 − 0. 8
= 233.3 3.9 Assume the transistor to be in saturation. Writing KVL equations for the collector and base circuits, RCIC + VCE, sat + RE (IC + IB) = VCC and RBIB + VBE, sat + RE (IC + IB) = VBB
Substituting the values, we obtain, 53 IC + 50 IB = 4.8
23
and 50 IC + 100 IB = 4.2 Solving these equations, IC = 0.096 mA and IB = –6.214 mA Since IB comes out to be negative, hence the transistor is not in saturation. Assuming VBE = 0.7 V in the active region, KVL for the base circuit will be [RB + (1 + hFE) RE] IB = 5 – 0.7 or, IB = 8.43 ´ 10–4 mA \ IC = hFE IB = 8.43 ´ 10–2 mA and IE » –8.43 ´ 10–2 mA 3.10 The equivalent circuit at the input of a transistor consists of input resistance Ri in parallel with the input capacitance Ci as shown in Fig. given below:
C + Vi – Equivalent circuit at the transistor input B RB Ri Ci
When fast changes occur in Vi, the voltages at B change with the time constant Ci (RBRi) If a capacitor C is connected across RB, the voltage at B will change as soon as Vi changes because of the capacitive voltage divider. This helps in improving the switching speed of transistor circuit. 3.11 (a) For the load transistors IC,sat = IB,sat =
5V = 2.5 mA 2 kW 2. 5 mA = 2. 5 µA 100
\ The minimum value of Vi required for the load transistors to be in saturation is Vi(min) = 25 ´ 10–3 ´ 10 + 0.8 = 1.05 V
24
(b) Assuming the load transistors to be in saturation the equivalent circuit at their input will be as shown in Fig. (a), which reduces to the circuit shown in Fig. (b). Now, the voltage Vi = VO can be determined using the principle of superposition and is given by Vi = VO = = 3.8 V
10 kW Vi 0.8 V 10 kW 0.8 V (a) (b) Vi 5 kW 0.8 V
5 2 ´5+ ´ 0.8 5+2 5+2
(c) The base current IB1 = I B2 =
3. 8 − 0. 8 mA 10
= 0.3 mA 3.12 (a) When both the transistors are cutoff, there is no current drawn from the supplies, and the voltage at Y is 5 V. (b) When both the transistors are in saturation, the voltage at Y is 0V. (c) Assume T1 to be cutoff and T2 to be in saturation. Since T2 is in saturation,
æ VCC ö the voltage at Y will be 0 V. The currents I1 and I2 will be same ç = è RC ÷ ø
and IC2 = I1 + I2. Similarly, if T1 is in saturation and T2 is cutoff then IC1 = I1 + I2
(d) V1 0V 0V 5V 5V V2 0V 5V 0V 5V Y 5V 0V 0V 0V
It performs NOR operation. 3.13 (a) Assume the transistor to be in saturation.
5 − 0. 8 Therefore, IC = 5 = 5 mA, I B = = 0. 042 mA 1 100 hFE IB = 150 ´ 0.042 = 6.3 mA
Since IC < hFE IB, therefore, the transistor is definitely in saturation.
25
(b) When S1 is closed, I1 = (5 – 0.7/4) = 1.075 mA assuming the transistor to be in saturation. Therefore, IC = I + I1 = 5 + 1.075 = 6.075 mA Since IC < hFE ⋅ IB
Therefore, the transistor continues to remain in saturation. (c) When both S1 and S2 are closed, if we again assume the transistor to be in saturation, I C = I + I1 + I2 = 5 + 2 ´ 1.075 = 7.15 Now IC <hFE⋅IB
Which means the transistor no longer remains in saturation. Therefore, it is conducting in the active region. 3.14 The base current required for each transistor to be in saturation is 25mA. Therefore, total base current will be 25 ´ 100 mA. If this current flows through RC of driver, the voltage at its collector will be VO = 5 – 2 ´ 103 ´ 25 ´ 100 ´ 10–6 =0 Which shows that it is not possible to have a base current of 25 mA for each of the load transistor. Hence, the load transistors will not remain in saturation. 3.15 Let T1 be cutoff. Therefore, the circuit will be as shown below:
VCC RC T1 VCC RC
T2
Now, the total resistance in the collector circuit of T2 is RC  RC = RC/2 which means its collector current increases. This requires the base current to be doubled for the transistor to remain in saturation. Therefore, the transistor will be operating in the active region. RC 3.16 The effective resistance = RC  RC = 2
26
RC ⋅ CO 2 3.17 (a) Since VGS = 0, therefore, the VDS VS ID characteristic will be same as the characteristic for VGS = 0 in Fig. 3.41(b). (b) Transistor T2 acts as load for T1, the vi characteristic of the load is that of part (a). Since the current ID is same in both T1 and T2, therefore, for a given value of ID, the voltage.
Therefore, the time constant = VDS1 = VDD – VDS2 Take various values of ID and for each ID determine VDS2 from the curve of (a). Calculate VDS1 and locate a point corresponding to VDS1, ID on the characteristic of Fig. 3.28. Thus, we get a load curve AB as shown below. From this we see that when Vi = 0, and Vi = 5V, VO = 5V VO » 0V
Therefore, the circuit functions as an inverter.
ID, mA Load curve 4 3 2 1 0 A 0 5 10 B VGS = 5 V 4 V 3 V 2 V 1 V VDS, V
27
CHAPTER 4
4.1 When the output of the driver gate is high, the load gates are in saturation and T1 and T2 are cutoff. Therefore, VO = 1.14V. The current drawn from the supply,
I1 =
VCC − VO 3. 6 − 1. 14 = = 3. 844 mA 640 RC
when the output of the driver is low, T1 and/or T2 are in saturation and VO = 0.2V. The current drawn from the supply I2 = Average current
3. 6 − 0. 2 = 5. 312 mA 640
I1 + I 2 3. 844 + 5. 312 = 2 2
= I av =
= 4.578 mA Average Power drawn from the supply = VCC ´ Iav = 3.6 ´ 4.578 mW = 16.48 mW 4.2 (a) & (b)
hFE = 10 N 5 6 7 8 9 10 VO 1.14 1.09 1.055 <1.04 <1.04 <1.04 Noise Margin D1 0.1 0.05 0.015 Load gate transistors not in saturation ’’ ’’ VO 1.14 1.09 1.055 1.026 0.997 0.984 hFE = 20 Noise Margin D1 0.22 0.17 0.135 0.106 0.077 0.064
The voltage VO and noise margin D1 are given in Table. (c) Fan out and noise margin increases with increase in hFE. (d) For hFE = 10, if N > 7, the load gate transistors come out of saturation. The value of noise margin decreases with increased N. 4.3 (a) Let us consider all the possible cases: Case I A = B = C = D = 0. Therefore, all the transistors TA, TB, TC, and TD are cutoff, hence Y = Y1 = Y2 = 1 Corresponding to this, each gate will be able to drive 5 gates. Therefore, the fanout of this combination will be 10. Alternatively, we can consider
28
equivalent collector resistance R¢C = RC  RC = RC/2, which means the base current of 5 + 5 load transistors can flow through R¢C and give same output voltage corresponding to logic 1 as the output voltage of each gate individually while driving 5 load gates. Case II At least one of the inputs of each gate P and Q are HIGH. This will drive the corresponding transistors into saturation and consequently Y = Y1 = Y2 will be LOW and hence the load transistors will be cutoff. Therefore, there is no problem of fanout. Case III At least one of the inputs to gate P is HIGH and C = D = 0. The transistor whose input is HIGH will be driven to saturation forcing the output voltage to LOW. Consequently, Y = Y1 = Y2 will be LOW and this situation is similar to that of Case II. Case IV A = B = 0 and at least one of the inputs to gate Q is LOW. This will lead to a situation similar to that of Case III. Therefore, the fanout is 10. (b) Without load gates, the propagation delay timeconstant
=
RC ⋅ 2C O 2
= RC ⋅ CO which is same as the propagation delay timeconstant of a single gate. With load gates, the propagation delay timeconstant for a single driver (without wiredlogic) is
RB æ ç RC + N è
ö ÷ × ( CO + NCi ) ø
where, N is the number of load gates. RB is the resistance in the base circuit of a load gate. Ci is the input capacitance of a load gate. With wireANDing, the timeconstant will be
æ RC RB ç 2 + N è
ö ÷ × (2 CO + NCi ) ø
(see Prob. 4.1)
When the output is high, the current drawn from the supply is IH = 3.844 ´ 2 mA Similarly, for low output IL = 5.312 ´ 2 mA \ Iav = 9.156 mA Power drawn from the supply = 3.6 ´ 9.156 mW = 32.96 mW 4.4 (a) This circuit has active pullup (consisting of T2 and 100 W resistor) instead of passive pullup RC used in normal RTL gates. The state of transistor T2
29
will always be opposite to that of T3, i.e., if T3 is cutoff, T2 is in saturation (since T1 is cutoff) and viceversa. Therefore, when the input Vi is HIGH, T3 will be in saturation, while T2 is cutoff and VO = VCE,sat » 0 V. When Vi is LOW, T2 is in saturation and T3 is cutoff. The output voltage VO will be HIGH. (b) If it is driving N load gates, the output circuit corresponding to HIGH state will be as shown in Fig. Prob. 4.4(a).
VCC(3.6 V)
640 W 450 W IB
100 W T2 IO 450 W/N P VBE, sat » 0.8 V Equivalent input circuit of load gates
Fig. Prob. 4.4(a)
IO =
VCC − VCE , sat − V BE, sat 100 + 450 / N 3. 6 − 0. 2 − 0. 8 100 + 450 / N 2. 6 100 + 450 / N
= =
Writing KVL for the closed path P, we obtain VCC – 1090 IB – VBE, sat − or IB =
450 I – VBE, sat = 0 N O
öù 450 æ 2.6 1 é ê 3.6  0.8  0.8 ç 100 + 450/ N ÷ ú 1090 ê N è øú ë û
For T2 to be in saturation hFE.IB ³ IO \
öù 30 é 450 æ 2.6 2.6 ´ç ê2 ÷ ú ³ 100 + 450/ N 1090 ê N è 100 + 450/ N ø ú ë û
From the above equation, we obtain N ³ 2.5. Therefore, N ³ 3 since N is an integer.
30
Since, I1 = I2 = . . . = IN. Therefore, IO =
2. 6 = N ⋅ I1 100 + 450 / N
The values of I1 for various values of N are given in Table Table
N1 30 40 50 60 70 I1 (mA) 750 585 480 403 349
The base current required for saturation for a normal RTL is about 300 mA, which means N can be taken as 70, which is very large. (c) The relevant portion of the circuit is shown in Fig. Prob. 4.4(b). Here T3A and T2B are in saturation, whereas T2A and T3B are cutoff. Neglecting the base currents IE2B = I C 3 A =
3. 6 − 0. 2 − 0 . 2 100
= 32 mA
VCC = 3.6 V
100 W T2A IC3A A = 1 T3A T3B T2B
100 W
IE2B B = 0
Fig. Prob. 4.4(b)
4.5 (a) When all the inputs are HIGH the voltage at the point P will be Vp = 0.8 + 0.7 = 1.5 volts.
5 − 1. 5 = 0. 7 mA 5 and IB = 0.7 – 0.16 = 0.54 mA This will increase the fanout to 17, but the noise margin D0 will be reduced from 0.8 V to 0.2 V. ∴ I1 =
31
(b) In this case VP = 0.8 + 0.7 ´ 3 = 2.9 V \ I1 = 0.42 mA, and IB = 0.26 mA This will reduce the fanout to 6, but the noise margin D0 will be increased to 1.4 V. 4.6 For a fanout of 10, 0.82 ´ 10 + 2.182 = hFE ´ 0.4 or hFE » 26 4.7 The Fig. Prob. 4.7 shows the relevant portion of the circuit. The worst condition corresponds to the situation when the output transistor of one of the driving gates is in saturation and all others are cutoff. Corresponding to this the output voltage at Y is VCE,sat » 0.2 V, which means the input diodes of all the load gates driven from this combination are conducting. Assuming all the other inputs of load gates to be HIGH. IL = 0.82 mA Assuming T1 to be in saturation, the collector current of T1 is given by, N¢ IL + MI¢1 where, N¢ is the fanout with the wireANDed connection. This collector current must be same as the collector current of the single gate driving N gates which is given by NIL + I¢1 \ NIL + I¢1 = N¢IL + MI¢1
VCC(5 V) I¢1 RC T1 Y1 Y P1 IL VCC(5 V) R
VCC RC T2 I¢1 Y2
IL P2
VCC R
VCC RC TM I¢1 YM
IL
VCC R PN¢
M Gates wireANDed Fig. Prob. 4.7 32
N¢ Load gates
or
N¢ = N – (M – 1) I¢1/IL = N – (M – 1) 2. 182 0. 82 = N – 2.66 (M – 1)
4.8 When all the inputs are HIGH, the input diodes are nonconducting. If we assume that the transistor T1 is in saturation, then VP = VBE, sat + VD + VBE, sat = 0.8 + 0.7 + 0.8 = 2.3 V The voltage at the collector of T1 = VCE, sat + VD + VBE, sat = 0.2 + 0.7 + 0.8 = 1.7 V Since the voltage at P is higher than the voltage at the collector of T1, IB1 cannot exist, therefore, the assumption that T1 is in saturation is inconsistent. Hence T1 is in active region. In fact when T1 is conducting, the voltage drop across R2 will reversebias the CB junction of T1 and therefore T1 will definitely be operating in active region. 4.9 If any input is LOW, the corresponding input diode conducts and therefore, VP = 0.9 V, which keeps T1, D2, and T2 cutoff. Hence Y = 1. If all the inputs are HIGH, the input diodes will be nonconducting. T1 will be in active region and T2 in saturation region. Hence Y = 0. This shows that the circuit operates as a NAND gate. (a) When all the inputs are HIGH, VP = VBE1 + VD + VBE3, sat = 0.7 + 0.7 + 0.8 = 2.2 V Here, VBE has been assumed to be 0.7 V in active region. Therefore, VCC – VP = R1I1 + R2IB1 Also I1 = (1 + hFE) IB1 IB1 =
5 − 2. 2 × 10 3 = 49. 78 µA 1. 75 × 31 + 2 V BE 2 , sat 5
= 0.16 mA,
and
I1 = 1.543 mA, I2 =
IB2 = I1 – I2 = 1.543 – 0.16 = 1.383 mA Standard load =
VCC − V D − VCE,sat R1 + R 2
=
\
5 − 0. 7 − 0. 2 = 1. 093 mA 1. 75 + 2 VCC − VCE , sat = 1. 093 N + 2.182 RC
33
IC2 = N ⋅ I L +
For T2 to be in saturation, IC2 £ hFE IB2 or, 1.093 N + 2.182 £ 30 ´ 1.383 or, N < 36 Therefore, the fanout of this gate is 35 which is much higher than the fanout of the DTL gate of Fig. 4.12. (b) Noise margins D1 = 0.5 + 0.6 + 0.5 – 0.9 = 0.7 V D0 = –V(1) + (VP – VDg) = – 5 + (2.2 – 0.6) = – 3.4 V (c) When the output is LOW, the power P (0) = (I1 + I¢1) VCC = (1.543 + 2.182) ´ 5 = 18.625 mW When the output is HIGH, the power P (1) = I1 ´ Vcc = 1.093 ´ 5 = 5.465 mW The average power Pav =
= P ( 0 ) + P (1) 2 18. 625 + 5. 465 = 12 . 045 mW 2
4.10 (a) When at least one of the inputs is LOW, VP = V (0) + VD = 0.2 + 0.7 = 0.9 V Corresponding to this T1 and T2 will be nonconducting. When all the inputs are HIGH, T1 will be conducting in active region, Zener will be in the breakdown region and T2 in saturation. Therefore, VP = VBE, active + VZ + VBE, sat = 0.7 + 6.9 + 0.8 = 8.4 V The 1 level noise margin = D1 = Vg + VZ + Vg – VP = 0.5 + 6.9 + 0.5 – 0.9 =7V The 0 level noise margin = D0 = – [V (1) – (VP – VDg)] = – [15 – (8.4 – 0.6)] = – 7.2 V (b) When all the inputs are HIGH, VP = 8.4 V. Writing KVL from VCC to VP, VCC – VP = R1 (1 + hFE) IB1 + R2 IB1
34
or,
IB1 =
VCC − V P 15 − 8. 4 = R1 (1 + h FE ) + R 2 3 ( 41) + 12
= 0.0489 mA The current through Zener diode, I1 = 41 ´ 0.0489 = 2.004 mA \ IB2 = I1 – I2 = 2.004 – 0.16 = 1.844 mA The current through RC = 14. 8 = 0. 9867 mA 15 The load current IL = 0.95 mA \ IC2 = 0.9867 + 0.95 N £ 40 ´ 1.844 or, (c) N £ 76 P(0) = (I1 + I¢1) ´ VCC = (2.004 + 0.9867) ´ 15 = 44.86 mW P(1) = I1 ´ VCC = 0.94 ´ 15 = 14.1 mW \ Pav = 29.48 mW 4.11 IL = 0.94 mA, I¢1 = 0.9867 mA N¢ = N – (M – 1) I¢1/IL = N – 1.03 (M – 1) 4.12 The noise margins depend upon temperature because the voltage across a conducting diode and VBE are temperature dependent. The input diode and the baseemitter junction of T1 are in polarity opposition, therefore, the temperature sensitivities of these two junctions cancel. Therefore, the temperature sensitivity of the circuit depends on the temperature sensitivities of D2 and the baseemitter junction of T2. In HTL, D2 is replaced by the Zener diode. Since the temperature sensitivity of a Zener diode is positive whereas for a forwardbiased diode it is negative, therefore, the temperature sensitivities of Z and the baseemitter junction of T2 cancel (their magnitudes are of the same order). Hence the temperature sensitivity of the HTL gate is significantly better than that of the DTL gate. 4.13 (a) When the output is LOW. Basecollector junction of T1 is forwardbiased T2 and T3 are in saturation. Therefore, VB1 = 0.7 + 0.8 + 0.8 = 2.3 V Current through RB1 =
5 − 2. 3 = 0 . 675 mA 4
VC2 = 0.8 + 0.2 = 1V Current through RC2 =
5 −1 = 2. 857 mA 1. 4
35
Since, T4 and D are cutoff, therefore, IC4 = 0 Therefore, ICC(0) = 0.675 + 2.857 = 3.532 mA (b) At least one of the inputs is LOW. \ VB1 = 0.2 + 0.7 = 0.9 T2, T3 and T4 are cutoff \ ICC1 = Current through RB1 =
5 − 0. 9 4
= 1.025 mA (c) The total current will be sum of current through RB1 (as given in (b) part above) and given in Eqs. 4.10 and 4.11 = 1.025 + 41.36 = 42.385 mA 4.14 The current I remains same and it does not affect the fanout of the gate G1. 4.15 (a) If RC4 = 0, the change in output from logic 0 to logic 1 will be faster. Since T3 does not turn off (because of storage time) as quickly as T4 turns on, therefore, both T3 and T4 will be conducting simultaneously for some time which will cause almost short circuiting of the VCC supply. (b) When the output is in LOW state, VB4 = 1 V which makes VBE4 = 0.8 V if the diode D is not present. This means T4 will be in saturation and its collector current would be IC4 =
VCC − VCE 4 , sat − VCE 3, sat 100 5 − 0. 2 − 0. 2 = 46 mA 100
=
which is very large and will increase significantly the power dissipation. Moreover, it is simply a wastage of power. (c) (i) When output is in LOW state, the shorting of output to ground will not have any effect. (ii) When output is in HIGH state, the relevant portion of the circuit with output shorted to ground is shown in Fig. Prob. 4.15. The base current and the collector current of T4 will become IB4 =
= VCC − V BE 4 ,sat − V D RC 2 5 − 0 . 8 − 0. 7 = 2. 5 mA 1. 4
36
and
IC4 =
VCC − VCE 4 ,sat − V D RC 4 5 − 0. 2 − 0. 7 = 41 mA 100
=
\
Is = IC4 + IB4 = 41 + 2.5 = 43.5 mA
This large current will continuously be drawn from the supply as long as at least one of the inputs is LOW. This will damage the transistor T4 and the diode D.
VCC = 5V RC4 = 100 kW RC2 = 1.4 kW T4 IB4 C2 E2 C3 D Is IC4
E3
Fig. Prob. 4.15
4.16 Let the output transistor T3 of one gate is in saturation, while that of the other gate is cutoff. The voltage at Y will be LOW, which will make the transistor T4 of the gate whose T3 is cutoff to conduct through T3 of the other gate which is in saturation. The corresponding current drawn from the power supply will be IC4 + IB4 = 41.4 mA. This continuous current will damage these transistors. When both the outputs are HIGH or LOW, the currents drawn from the supply will be same as the currents without this connection. 4.17 The circuit is shown in Fig. Prob. 4.17. RC(max) =
VCC − VOH (5 − 2. 4) × 10 3 kW = I OH + 8 I IH 250 + 8 × 40
VCC − VOL 5 − 0. 4 = = 1. 44 kW I OL + 8 I IL 16 − 8 × 1. 6
= 4.56 kW RC(min) =
Therefore, 1.44kW < RC < 4.56 kW 4.18 The relevant portion of the circuit is given in Fig. Prob. 4.18. (i) When the output Y = 1, VCC – (5 IOH + 6 IIH) RC ³ VOH
37
which gives RC(max) =
VCC − VOH ( 5 − 2 . 4 ) × 10 3 kW = 1. 74 kW = 5 I OH + 6 I IH 5 × 250 + 6 × 40
VCC = +5 V RC IIH IOH
Output circuit of opencollector gate
Fig. Prob. 4.17 VCC = 5 V IOL IOH IOH IOH IOH IOH Fig. Prob. 4.18 38 RC
Load gates
IIH IIL IIH IIL IIH IIL IIH IIL IIH IIL IIH IIL
Y
(ii) When the output Y = 0, it is assumed that only one of the driving gates has its output transistor in saturation while the output transistors of all the other gates are cutoff.
VCC − VOL £ IOL + NIIL RC
which gives RC(min) =
VCC − VOL I OL + NI IL 5 − 0. 4 ≈ 0. 72 kW 16 − 6 × 1. 6
=
Therefore, RC should be between 0.72 kW and 1.74 kW. A value of RC = 1 kW is reasonable. 4.19 Let us assume a supply voltage VCC = + 5V and corresponding VOH = 2.4 V \ RC(max) = RC(min) =
( 5 − 2. 4 ) × 10 3 ≈ 1. 28 kW 7 × 250 + 7 × 40 5 − 0. 4 ≈ 0.159 kW 40 − 7 × 1. 6
and
Therefore, 0.159kW < RC < 1.28 kW 4.20 (a) No (b) No (c) No
VCC = +5 V A
(d) Yes
VCC = +10 V 10 V, 30 A Lamp
7407
Fig. Prob. 4.20
7407 is an opencollector noninverting buffer with VOH = 30V (maximum), which means a lamp load along with the necessary supply voltage may be connected as shown in Fig. Prob. 4.20. 4.21 Let us take ALS devices driving other devices. (i) ALS driving standard devices IOH (ALS) = – 400 mA IOL (ALS) = 8 mA (74 series) IIH (Standard) = 40 mA IIL (Standard) = – 1.6 mA
39
Here, and
– IOH (ALS) = 10 ´ IIH (Standard) – IOL (ALS) = 5 ´ IIL (Standard)
This means, when the output is LOW, the fanout is 5, whereas it is 10 when the output is HIGH. Therefore, the fanout is 5 (ii) ALS driving ALS IIH (ALS) = 20 mA IIL (ALS) = – 0.1 mA Which gives a fanout of 20 when the output is HIGH and 80 when it is LOW. Therefore, the fanout is 20. Similarly, the complete table can be verified. 4.22 Case I Let T2 be cutoff. Then the output circuit will appear as shown in Fig. Prob. 4.22(a), whose equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. Prob. 4.22(b).
P RC2 T4 Vn RE4 Q (a) Fig. Prob. 4.22 (b) Y Vn RC2 B4 I E4 RE4 Q C4 hFE I Y P
From the equivalent circuit, we obtain (a) VYQ =
R E 4 (1 + h FE ) V R C 2 + (1 + h FE ) R E 4 n
1. 5 (101) V 0. 3 + (101) (1. 5) n = 0.998 Vn =
(b) VYP = – (Vn – VYQ) = – 0.002 Vn Therefore, if the terminal P is grounded, the noise voltage present in the output is negligibly small. Case II Let T2 be conducting and T1 be cutoff. (a) The noise voltage at the collector of T2 = the noise voltage at the base of T4. = 1.18 Vn = 0. 797 Vn . 1.18 + 0. 3 Since T4 is operating as an emitterfollower, therefore, VYQ = 0.797 Vn (b) VYP = – (Vn – 0.797 Vn) = – 0.203 Vn
40
This again shows that the noise voltage is very small between Y and P and hence the terminal P is grounded. 4.23 (a) The 5.2 V supply will appear across RE4 or RE3 and no damage is caused to the supply and the circuit. (b) The 5.2 V supply voltage will appear across the output transistor T4 or T3. Also 5.2 V supply gets applied to their bases through RC2 and RC1 respectively. Therefore, the output transistor will burn out. 4.24 In a TTL gate, when the output changes from V(0) to V(1), a current spike of 41.4 mA is produced, whereas in the case of ECL the change in current is negligibly small when the output changes from LOW to HIGH and viceversa. 4.25 Let A = B = C = 0, D = 1, and E = 0 Therefore, Y1 = 0 and Y2 = 1. Corresponding to this T4 of G1 is acting as an emitter follower while that of G2 is acting as a diode. The relevant portions of the circuits are shown in Fig. Prob. 4.25. In this when Y1 and Y2 are connected together, the voltage at the output terminal will be equal to – 0.75 V (i.e., the voltage across T4 acting as a diode). Consequently T4 goes to cutoff. Similarly, when Y1 = 1 and Y2 = 0 identical situation will prevail making the output 1. When Y1 and Y2 both are same, the output will be equal to Y1 = Y2. This confirms that OR operation is performed when the outputs are connected in wired logic. Similarly, it can be proved for all the other cases.
VCC = 0 VCC = 0
RC2 (0.85 V) T4 Y1 RE4 (1.55 V) 5.2 V Y2 (0.75 V) T4
RC2
RE4
Fig. Prob. 4.25
5.2 V
4.26 The output logic levels of ECL, input/output logic levels of MC10H125 IC, and the input logic levels of TTL are shown in Fig. Prob. 4.26
2.5V –0.9V VOH VOH 2V 0.8 VIH VIL
0.5V VOL –1.13V VIH –1.48V VIL MC10H125 Translator (b) Input/output logic level voltages of Translator Fig. Prob. 4.26 41
–1.7V VOL ECL (a) Output logic level voltages of ECL
TTL (c) Input logic level voltages of TTL
From the logic levels, we observe, VIH (Translator) < VOH (ECL) VIL (Translator) > VOL (ECL) which shows that the input of MC10H125 IC is ECL compatible. Similarly, VIH (TTL) < VOH (Translator) VIL (TTL) > VOL (Translator) which shows that the output of the translator is compatible with TTL. 4.27 The output Y of ECL NOR gate is Y = A + B The output of the Translator circuit is Y and the output of TTL Inverter will be Y = Y. A B ECL Y Y MC10H125 Translator
Fig. Prob. 4.27
Y
TTL
The complete circuit is shown in the above figure. 4.28 (a) Consider the NMOS inverters shown in Fig. 4.25. If the output accidently gets shorted, large current from VDD will continuously flow through the load transistor T2 which may damage the load transistor. (b) Consider the CMOS inverter of Fig. 3.33. When T1 is ON, the output voltage is LOW (» 0V). Now if the output gets shorted to ground, it does not cause any problem. On the other hand when Vi is LOW, T1 is cutoff, and if the output gets shorted to ground, whole of VCC will appear across T2 which is conducting. This will cause a relatively very high current to flow through T2 which may damage it, since T2 is not meant to carry such large currents. The normal current through T1 and T2 is extremely small being the OFF current of either T1 or T2. 4.29 Its operation is given below
Inputs A 0 0 VCC VCC B 0 VCC 0 VCC T1 OFF ON OFF ON State of T2 OFF OFF ON ON T3 ON OFF ON OFF T4 ON ON OFF OFF Output Y VCC 0 0 0
42
4.30 The fanout is given below.
TTL/CMOS 54/74 54H/74H 54L/74L 54S/74S 54LS/74LS 54AS/74AS 54ALS/74ALS 74HC 400 500 200 1000 4000 2000 400 74HCT 400 500 200 1000 4000 2000 400 74AC 400 500 200 1000 4000 2000 400 74ACT 400 500 200 1000 4000 2000 400
4.31
54/74 (a) 74HC/74HCT (b) 74 AC/74 ACT 2 15 54H/74H 2 12 54L/ 74L 21 133 54S/ 74S 2 12 54LS/ 74LS 11 66 54AS/ 54ALS/ 74AS 74ALS 8 48 40 240
4.32 When output is HIGH, it can drive a total of up to 1200 gates. When output is LOW, it can drive 20 74AS gates requiring 10 mA of current. The remaining 14 mA of current can drive 140 74ALS gates. Therefore, maximum possible number of ALS gates which can be driven is 140. 4.33 The output logic levels of CMOS and the input logic levels of MC10H124 TTLtoECL translator are given in Fig. Prob. 4.33.
VOH 3.76V VIH VOL 0.37V VIL 2V 0.8V
CMOS (a)
MC10H124 translator (b) Fig. Prob. 4.33
From these logic levels, we observe, VIH (Translator) < VOH (CMOS) VIL (Translator) > VOL (CMOS) which shows that the input of the translator is compatible with CMOS. Since the output of the translator is compatible with ECL, therefore, CMOStoECL interfacing is possible using TTLtoECL translator. 4.34 The output logic levels of MC10H125 translator and the input logic levels of CMOS (74HCT & 74 ACT) are shown in Fig. Prob. 4.34.
43
VOH
2.5V VIH 2V 0.8V VIL 0.5V
VOL
MC10H125 Translator (a)
CMOS (74HCT & 74ACT) (b)
Fig. Prob. 4.34
From these logic levels, we observe, VIH (CMOS) < VOH (Translator) VIL (CMOS) > VOL (Translator) Therefore, the output of the translator is compatible with these CMOS devices. Since the input of the translator is compatible with ECL, therefore, ECLtoCMOS interfacing is possible. For CMOS 74 HC, and 74 AC series VIL = 1.35V VIH = 3.85V and for CMOS 74 C series VIL = 1.5V VIH = 3.5V For these CMOS ICs, VIL (CMOS) > VOL Translator but VIH (CMOS) < VOH (Translator) Therefore, a resistance R and VCC are required to be connected to pull up the voltage at P corresponding to VOH (Translator) VCC R P MC10H125 Translator (c)
Fig. Prob. 4.34
CMOS
44
CHAPTER 5
5.1 Let S1 and S2 be the two switches. The circuit diagram of the system is shown in Fig. Prob. 5.1(a):
0 S1 1 L 0 S2 ON = 1 OFF = 0
1
Supply Fig. Prob. 5.1(a)
Bulb
(a) The truth table is given below:
S1 0 0 1 1 S2 0 1 0 1 L 0 1 1 0
(b) The logic equation is L = S 1 S2 + S1 S 2 (c) The ANDOR realization is given in Fig. Prob. 5.1(b):
S1 S2 L
Fig. Prob. 5.1(b)
(d) Replace each of the AND gates and the OR gate in the above figure by NAND gates. The resulting circuit will be NANDNAND realization.
5.2 (a) A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 B 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 Inputs C 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 45 D 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 Output f 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 (Contd.)
(Contd.) Inputs A 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 B 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 C 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 D 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Output f 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1
(b) The Kmap is given in Fig. Prob. 5.2. The simplified expression is f = BC + BD
CD AB 00 00 01 11 10 1 1 1 (a) Fig. Prob. 5.2 1 1 B 1 BC D (b) BD 01 11 10 B C f
5.3 (a) f1 = (A + B + C + D ) ( A + B + C + D) ( A + B + C + D) (A + B + C + D ) (A + B + C + D ) (A + B + C + D) (A + B + C + D) ( A + B + C + D) ( A + B + C + D ) f2 = (A + B + C + D) (A + B + C + D ) (A + B + C + D ) (A + B + C + D ) (A + B + C + D) (A + B + C + D) (A + B + C + D) (A + B + C + D) (A + B + C + D) (b) The Kmaps for f1 and f2 are given in Fig. Prob. 5.3(a) and (b) respectively. The minimized expressions are:
CD AB 00 00 01 11 10 0 0 0 0 (a) Fig. Prob. 5.3 46 0 01 0 11 0 0 10 0 CD AB 00 00 01 11 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 (b) 0 0 0 01 11 10
f1 = ( B + C + D) ( A + B + C) ( A + B + D) (A + B + D ) (A + B + C ) f2 = (A + C ) (A + B) ( A + C + D ) (B + D ) (c) The ORAND realizations are shown in Fig. Prob. 5.3(c) and (d) for f1 and f2 respectively.
B C D
A
C
A B f1 B f2
A B C
A B D
A B D A B C
D A C D
Fig. Prob. 5.3
(c)
(d)
(d) Replace all the AND and OR gates in figures (A) and (B) by NOR gates to obtain realizations using only NOR gates. 5.4 (a)
A B C D
B C
B D
A D
f
A B
Fig. Prob. 5.4(a)
47
(b)
A B C D A B C
f
A B D
A B D Fig. Prob. 5.4(b)
(c) Realization for (a) requires 7400 – 1 7420 – 1/2 7430 – 1 a total of three chips. Realization for (b) requires 7427 – 1 74260 – 1 a total of only two chips. 5.5 (a)
A C
A C D
7410
Y
B
(b)
A B C
A B C
B C D
Y
1/ 3 7427
7427 Fig. Prob. 5.5 48
(c) Realization of (a) requires only one chip whereas (b) requires two chips. 5.6
A
D
3/4
7402
C
D
f
B Fig. Prob. 5.6
5.7 (a)
CD
AB 00
01 11 1 1
10 1 1 1 1 A
00 01 11 10 C 1 1 1 1
1 1
Fig. Prob. 5.7(a)
(b) f = å m (2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15) (c) f = A + C
A f B Fig. Prob. 5.7(b)
5.8 (a) Figure Prob. 5.8 (i) below gives the Kmap. Using offset adjacencies shown in the Kmap, the expression for f1 can be written as f1 = (C ¤ D) (A ¤ B) + (C ⊕ D) (A ⊕ B) = (A ⊕ B) ¤ (C ⊕ D)
CD AB C D (A ¤ B) 00 01 11 10 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
00 01 11 10
C D (A Å B)
CD (A ¤ B) C D (A Å B)
Fig. Prob. 5.8(i) 49
A B C D Logic 1 Fig. Prob. 5.8(ii) f1
Its realization using EXOR gates is given in Fig. Prob. 5.8(ii). This realization requires only one 7486 IC chip. (b) Its Kmap is given in Fig. Prob. 5.8(iii) The minimized expression is f2 = A B + AB D + ACD The realization using NAND gates is given in Fig. Pro. 5.8(iv). This requires one 7410 chip and one gate of 7400 chip.
CD AB 00 00 01 11 10 1 1 1 1 (iii) 1 1 1
A
01 11 1 10
B
A B D A C D Fig. Prob. 5.8
f2
(iv)
5.9 Truth table of BCDtoExcess3 code converter is given below.
BCD D 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 C 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 A 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 E3 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 E2 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 Excess3 E1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 E0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0
Here only ten out of sixteen combinations are used and the other six are taken as don’tcare conditions. The Kmaps for the outputs E0, E1, E2 and E3 are given in Fig. Prob. 5.9. The minimized expressions are: E0 = A
50
BA
DC 00 1 0 0 1
01 11 1 0 0 1 E0 (a) ´ ´ ´ ´
10 1 0 ´ ´
BA
DC 00 1 0 1 0
01 11 1 0 1 0 ´ ´ ´ ´ E1 (b)
10 1 0 ´ ´
00 01 11 10
00 01 11 10
BA
DC 00 0 1 1 1
01 11 1 0 0 0 E2 (c) ´ ´ ´ ´
10 0 1 ´ ´
BA
DC 00 0 0 0 0
01 11 0 1 1 1 ´ ´ ´ ´ E3 (d)
10 1 1 ´ ´
00 01 11 10
00 01 11 10
Fig. Prob. 5.9
E1 = BA + B A E2 = CB A + C A + C B E3 = D + CA + CB The circuit can be drawn using NAND gates. 5.10 Truth table of Excess3toBCD converter can be prepared using the truthtable of Prob. 5.9. The Kmaps can then be prepared and minimized. The minimized expressions are given below. A = E0 B = E1 E 0 + E1 E 0 C = E 2 E 1 + E2 E1 E0 + E3 E1 E 0 D = E3 E2 + E3 E1 E0 The circuit can now be drawn using NAND gates. 5.11 (a) The Kmap is shown in Fig. Prob. 5.11(a). The minimized expression is
f1 = C D = C + D
(b) The Kmap is shown in Fig. Prob. 5.11(b). The minimized expression is
f 2 = ( A + B + D) ( B + C + D ) ( A + C )
(c) The Kmap is shown in Fig. Prob. 5.11(c). The minimized expression is
f 3 = ( A + B + C + D ) ( B + C + D) ( A + B + C ) ( A + C + D )
The circuits for f1, f2, and f3 can be drawn using NOR gates.
51
CD
AB 00
01 11
10
CD
AB 00
01 11 0
10
00 01 11 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 (a) CD AB 00 0 0 0 0 0 0
00 01 11 10 0
0 0 0 (b) 0 0 0
01 11 0
10 0 0
00 01 11 10 0 0
0
(c) Fig. Prob. 5.11
5.12 The Kmap for f1 is shown in Fig. Prob. 5.12 and the minimized expression is
f 1 = A BE + AC E + ABD + BC + AB CD E
This can be realized using NAND gates. Similarly, the minimized expression for f2 is
f 2 = C E + ABD + ADE + AD E + B CE + CDE + AB E
which can be realized using NAND gates.
A = 0 BC DE 00 00 01 11 10
A BE
BC 10 1 DE 00 01 11 10
A = 1 AB CDE 00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 01 11 10 1
AC E
01 11
1 1
1 1 1
ABD
BC Fig. Prob. 5.12
5.13 (a) Its Kmap is given in Fig. Prob. 513(a).
52
(a)
CD
AB 00 00 01 11 10 1 1
01 11 0 1 0 0 1 0
10
1 0 0
Fig. Prob. 5.13(a)
The minimized expression is
Y = AC D + B C D + ACD
A C D B C D A C D
Y
Fig. Prob. 5.13(b)
(b) The Kmap is given in Fig. 5.18 of the book and Y = C D + CD (c) Realization of part (a) requires 2 IC chips (7410) whereas for part (b) one IC chip (7400) only is required.
C
D Y C
D
Fig. Prob. 5.13(c)
5.14 (a) Figure Prob. 5.14(a) and (b) show the Kmaps of f1 for NAND and NOR realizations respectively. The minimized expressions are f1 = ABC + CD + BD + AD (SOP) and f1 = ( A + B + C ) (C + D) ( B + D) ( A + D) (POS) Circuits using NAND and NOR gates can be designed using the above expressions. (b) Similar to part (a), the minimized expressions are obtained which are given below. f2 = A C D + BC + AB
53
(SOP)
and
f2 = ( A + B ) ( B + D ) ( B + C ) ( A + C )
(POS)
These equations can be used to design circuits with NAND and NOR gates.
AB CD 00 01 11 10 1 1 ´ (a) Fig. Prob. 5.14 1 ´ 1 00 01 11 10 1 1 1 CD 00 01 11 10 ´ 0 0 (b) 0 0 AB 00 0 01 0 11 0 ´ 10
5.15 Its Kmap and circuit realization are given in Fig. Prob. 5.15.
(a)
A C (B Å D)
AB CD 00 00 01 11 10 A C (B ¤ D) 1 01 11 1 1 D f1 10 1 A B
C
(b)
B 01 11 1 1 1 A 1 1 A(C Å D)
A (B Å C)
AB CD 00 00 01 11 10
10
C
A
1
1
f2
1 C D
54
(c)
AB CD 00 00 01 11 10 1 1 01 11 1 1 10 A C A C (BÅD) B D Fig. Prob. 5.15 f3
A C(B Å D)
5.16 Its truth table is given in Table Prob. 5.16. Table Prob. 5.16
A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4bit word B C 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 D 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Odd parity bit PO 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 Even parity bit PE 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0
The Kmap for Po is given in Fig. Prob. 5.16(a), from which Po is obtained as Po = AC (B ¤ D) + A C (B Å D) + A C (B Å D) + AC (B ¤ D) = (A Å C) ¤ (B + D) Its realization using EXOR and EXNOR gates is given in Fig. Prob. 5.16(b).
AB CD 00 00 01 11 10 1 0 1 0 01 11 0 1 0 1 (a) Fig. Prob. 5.16 55 1 0 1 0 10 0 1 0 B 1 D (b) A C Po
5.17 From the truthtable given in Prob. 5.16, Kmap is prepared and the circuit is designed. These are given in Fig. Prob. 5.17. PE = A ⊕ B ⊕ C ⊕ D
AB CD 00 00 01 11 10 1 (a) 1 1 1 01 11 1 1 1 10 1 A B C D Fig. Prob. 5.17 (b) PE
5.18 (a) The Kmap using 1’s is given in Fig. Prob. 5.18(a). The minimized expression for f1 is
f 1 = ABC D E + ABCD F + CEF + A B C DEF
The circuit for f1 can be realized using NAND gates. Similarly, we can minimize using 0’s which will lead to a circuit realizable by NOR gates. (b) The Kmap using 0’s is given in Fig. Prob. 5.18(b). The minimized expression for f2 is f2 = (A + B + C + D + E + F ) ( A + B + D + E + F) ( A + B + C + E + F ) (A + C + D + E + F) (A + B + C + E + F) (A + B + C + E + F) (A + B + C + E + F) (A + B + C + D ) (A + B + D + E) (B + C + D + E) (B + C + D + F ) (A + B + C + D) The circuit for f2 can be realized using NOR gates. Similarly, we can minimize the function using 1s which will lead to a circuit realizable by NAND gates. 5.19 Let the augend, addend, and the carry inputs to the fulladder be An, Bn, and Cn – 1 respectively and Sn, and Cn be the sum and carry outputs respectively. (a) An and Bn are applied at the two inputs of first halfadder HA – 1. Its outputs are S1 (Sum) and C1 (Carry). Its truth table is given in Table Prob. 5.19. Table Prob. 5.19(a)
An 0 0 1 1 Bn 0 1 0 1 56 S1 0 1 1 0 C1 0 0 0 1
B
A CD 00 00 0 01 11 10 1
0 CD 00
1
EF
01 11
10
EF
01 11
10
00 1 1 01 11 10 1 1
AB CDEF
CD 00 00 1 01 11 10 1 1 1 1 1
CEF
01 11 10 EF
CD 00 01 11 10 00 01 11 10 1 1
EF
ABC D E
ABCDF Fig. Prob. 5.18(a)
0 1 CD 10 0 EF 00 01 11 10 CD 00 0 00 0 0 0 0 01 11 10 0
B
A CD 00 00 0 01 11 10 CD 00 00 1 01 11 10 0 0 0 0 0 0
EF
01 11 0 0
0
0 0
0
EF
01 11 0
10
EF
01 11
10
00 0 01 11 10 Fig. Prob. 5.18(b) 57
An
Bn
Cn – 1
HA – 1 C1
S1 HA – 2 C2
S2 = Sn
Cn
Fig. Prob 5.19(a)
Truth table of the fulladder using input variables S1, C1, and Cn – 1 is given below: Table Prob. 5.19(b)
C1 0 0 1 0 0 1 S1 0 1 0 0 1 0 Cn – 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 Cn 0 0 1 0 1 1 Sn 0 1 0 1 0 1
Kmaps for Cn and Sn are shown below: Cn – 1
C 1 S1 00 0 1 0 0 01 0 1 11 ´ ´ 10 1 1 Cn – 1 C1 S1 00 0 1 0 1
01 1 0
11 ´ ´
10 0 1
Kmap for Cn
Kmap for Sn
Cn = C1 + S1 × Cn – 1 Sn = S1 C n  1 + S 1 Cn – 1 = C1 + C2 = S1 Å Cn – 1 Sn and Cn are generated using HA –2 and an OR gate as shown in the block diagram.
58
(b)
An Bn
EX–OR(1)
S1
EX–OR(2) S2 = Sn C2
C1 AND2 AND–1 Cn–1 Fig. Prob. 5.19(b) OR Cn
5.20 Propagation delay time for Sn = tpd [EXOR(1)] + tpd [EX –OR(2)] = 20 + 20 = 40 ns. Propagation dealy time for Cn = tpd [EXOR(1) + tpd (AND2) + tpd(OR) = 20 + 10 + 10 = 40 ns. Since the propagation delay time (tpd) of AND–1 is less than the tpd of EXOR(1), therefore, it is not counted. 5.21 f (A, B, C, D) = p M(2, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12) = S m (0, 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 11, 13, 14, 15) Table (a)
Group 0 1
Grouping of minterms according to number of 1’s.
A 0 1 4 3 5 6 11 13 14 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Variables B C D 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 Check for inclusion in groups of 2 ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü
Minterm
2
3 4
Table (b)
Group 0 Minterms A 0, 1 0, 4 1, 3 1, 5 0 0 0 0
Grouping of two minterms
Variables Check for inclusion B C D in groups of 4 0 — 0 0 — 0 1 1 ü ü ü (Contd.) 59
0 — — 0
(Contd.) Group 1 Minterms A 4,5 4, 6 3, 11 5,13 6, 14 11, 15 13, 15 14, 15 0 0 — — — 1 1 1 Variables Check for inclusion B C D in group of 4 1 1 0 1 1 — 1 1 0 — 1 0 1 1 — 1 — 0 1 1 0 1 1 — ü
2
3
Table (c) Grouping of 4 minterms
Group 0 Minterms A 0, 1, 4, 5 0, 4, 1, 5 0 0 Variables B C — — 0 0 D — —
Table (d) PI table
PI terms Decimal numbers 0 1 ´ ´ 3 ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ Minterms 4 5 6 11 13 14 15 ´ ´
0, 1, 4, 5 Ä AC ü 1, 3 AB Dü 4, 6 A B Dü B CDü 3, 11 BC Dü 5,13 BC D ü 6, 14 ACD ü 11, 15 ABD 13, 15 ABC 14, 15 ü
ü
ü ü ü ü ü
From the PI table, we see that the column for minterms 0 contains only one ´, therefore, A C is an essential primeimplicant. All the other columns contain 2 or more Xs. Therefore, starting from the primeimplicant A B D, we see the minterms that are covered by each primeimplicant and find the minimum number of primeimplicants that will cover all the minterms. Depending upon the primeimplicants selected above, the minimized function is f (A, B, C, D) = AC + ABD + ABD + B CD + BC D + BCD + ACD There can be other options also.
60
5.22 f (A, B, C, D) = Sm (1, 3, 5, 8, 9, 11, 15) + d(2, 13) Table (a) Grouping of minterms/don’t care terms according to number of 1’s.
Group Minterm/ don’t care term 1 2* 8 3 5 9 11 13* 15 A 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 Variables B C 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 D 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 Check for inclusion in group of 2 ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü
1
2
3 4
Table (b)
Group
Grouping of 2 minterms/don’t care terms
A 0 0 — 0 1 — — 1 1 1 1 Variables B C 0 — 0 0 0 0 1 0 — — 1 — 0 0 1 0 1 0 — 0 1 — D 1 1 1 — — 1 1 1 1 1 1 Check for inclusion in group of 4 ü ü ü
Minterms/ don’t care terms 1, 3 1, 5 1, 9 2*, 3 8, 9 3, 11 5, 13* 9, 11 9, 13* 11, 15 13, 15
1
2 3
ü ü ü ü ü ü
Table (c)
Group
Grouping of 4 minterms/don’t care terms
Minterms/ don’t care terms 1, 3, 9, 11 1, 5, 9, 13* 1, 9, 3, 11 1, 9, 5, 13* 9, 11, 13*, 15 9, 13*, 11, 15 A — — — — 1 1 Variables B C 0 — 0 — — — — 0 — 0 — — D 1 1 1 1 1 1
1
2
There are a total of 5 primeimplicants BD , CD, and AD from Table (c) and AB C and AB C from Table (b).
61
Table (d) PI Table
PI terms Decimal numbers 1 2* Minterms/don’t care terms 3 5 8 9 11 13* ´
Ä
15
BD 1, 3, 9, 11 ´ CD 1, 5, 9, 13* ü ´ AD 9, 11, 13*, 15 ü ABC 2*, 3 AB C 8, 9 ü
´ ´ ´
Ä ü
´ ´ ´ ´
Ä
´
´ ü ´ ü
The essential prime implicants are: CD, AD, and ABC . Except the minterm 3 all the other minterms have heen covered by the essential primeimplicatns. Therefore, B D is to be included in the minimized expression. The minimized function is f (A, B, C, D) = B D + C D + AD + AB C . 5.23 f (A, B, C, D, E) = Sm (8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 15, 16, 18 , 21, 24, 25, 26, 27, 30, 31) Table (a)
Group 1
Grouping of minterms according to number of 1’s
A 8 16 9 10 18 24 11 13 21 25 26 15 27 30 31 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 B 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 Variables C D 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 E 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 Check for inclusion in group of 2 ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü
Minterm
2
3
4 5
Table (b)
Group Minterms A 1 8, 9 8, 10 0 0
Grouping of 2 minterms
B 1 1 Variables C D 0 0 0 — E — 0 Check for inclusion in group of 4 ü ü (Contd.) 62
(Contd.) Group Minterm A 8, 24 16, 18 16, 24 9, 11 9, 13 9, 25 10, 11 10, 26 18, 26 24, 25 24, 26 11, 15 11, 27 13, 15 25, 27 26, 27 26, 30 15, 31 27,31 30, 31 — 1 1 0 0 — 0 — 1 1 1 0 — 0 1 1 1 — 1 1 B Variables C D 0 0 0 0 — 0 0 0 0 0 0 — 0 1 0 0 — 1 — 1 0 — 0 — 0 0 1 1 1 0 — 1 1 — — 1 1 1 1 1 E 0 0 0 1 1 1 — 0 0 — 0 1 1 1 1 — 0 1 1 — Check for circlusion in group of 4 ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü
2
3
4
1 0 — 1 1 1 1 1 — 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Table (c) Grouping of 4 minterms
Group Minterms A 8, 9, 10, 11 8, 9, 24, 25 8, 10, 9, 11 8, 10, 24, 26 8, 24, 9, 25 8, 24, 10, 26 16, 18, 24, 26 16, 24, 18, 26 9, 11, 13, 15 9, 11, 25, 27 9, 13, 11, 15 9, 25, 11, 27 10, 11, 26, 27 10, 26, 11, 27 24, 25, 26, 27 24, 26, 25, 27 11, 11, 26, 26, 15, 27, 27, 30, 27, 15, 30, 27, 31 31 31 31 0 — 0 — — — 1 1 0 — 0 — — — 1 1 — — 1 1 B Variables C D 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 — 0 — 0 0 0 0 0 — — — — 63 — 0 — — 0 — — — — — — — 1 1 — — 1 1 1 1 E — — — 0 — 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 — — — — 1 1 — — Check for inclusion in group of 8 ü ü ü ü ü
1
1 1 1 1 1 1 — — 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
ü ü ü ü ü ü
2
3
Tabe (d)
Group 1 Minterms
Grouping of 8 minterms
A B 1 Variables C D 0 — E —
8, 9, 10, 11, 24, 25, 26, 27
—
Tabe (e) PI Table
PI terms Decimal numbers 8 Minterms 9 10 11 13 15 16 18 21 24 25 26 27 30 31
Ä
21 AB CDE ü ü 16, 18, 24, 26 ACE ü 9, 11, 13, 15 ABE BDE 11, 15, 27, 31 ABD ü 26, 27, 30, 31 ü 8, 9, 10, 11, 24, ´ BC 25, 26, 27
´
Ä
´
´ ´ ´ ´ Ä ´ ´ ü
´
´ Ä ´ ´ ü
´ ´
´ ´
´ Ä ü ü ü
´ ´
The minimized function is f (A, B, C, D, E) = A B C D E + A C E + A BE + ABD + B C
64
CHAPTER 6
6.1 (a) In the 16:1 multiplexer IC 74150, the data output is inverted input, i.e., complement of the data input line selected. Since the data output is 1 when the input variables correspond to decimal numbers 2, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 15, therefore, the data input lines corresponding to these decimal numbers are to be connected to logic 0 and the data input lines 0, 1, 3, 5, 8, 13, and 14 are to be connected to logic 1. The circuit is shown in Fig. Prob. 6.1.
Logic 0 Logic 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 16:1 8 9 Multiplexer 10 74150 11 12 13 14 15 G S3 S2 S1 S0 Logic 0 (MSB) A B C D (LSB) Fig. Prob. 6.1
Y
(b) To realize a four variable truthtable or logic expression using an 8:1 multiplexer the truth table is partitioned as shown by dotted lines (Table 6.3). In this, the inputs A, B, and C are to be connected to S2, S1 , and S0 Table Prob. 6.1(b)
A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Inputs B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 65 C 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Output Y 0 D D 1 D 1 D D
select inputs respectively. Now, we observe the relationship between input D and output Y for each group of two rows. There are four possible values of Y and these are 0, 1, D, and D . These are given in Table Prob. 6.1(b). From this table, we note the output Y for each of the combinations of A, B, and C and then make the connections accordingly. The implementation of this function using a 74152 IC is shown in Fig. Prob. 6.1(b). This IC also has the data output which is complement of the data input line selected.
Logic 1 0 D 1 2 D Logic 0 3 4 5 6 7 S2 S1 S0 74152 Y
A B Fig. Prob. 6.1(b)
C
6.2 A 32:1 multiplexer can be designed using two 16:1 multiplexers following any one of the following approaches. (i) A 32:1 multiplexer will have five selection lines, say, A, B, C, D, and E, where A is the MSB. If A is connected to the Enable input of one of the 16:1 multiplexers, while the enable input of the other multiplexer is connected to A , then for A = 0, the first multiplexer is enabled and for A = 1 the second multiplexer is enabled. Thus for the first 16 of the 32 data inputs one multiplexer gives output depending upon the select inputs while for the remaining 16 data inputs the other multiplexer gives the output. Now if the two outputs are ORed together, the system will function as a 32:1 multiplexer. The complete circuit is shown in Fig. Prob. 6.2(i). (ii) Another method can use two 16:1 multiplexers with their select lines connected together. This is followed by a 2:1 multiplexer to select one of the two outputs. The select line of the 2 : 1 multiplexer is driven from input A. The complete circuit is shown in Fig. Prob. 6.2(ii). 6.3 The truth table of a fulladder in given in Table Prob. 6.3. To realize this, using 8:1 multiplexers requires one multiplexer for Sn and one for Cn output. Assuming 74152 IC, the circuit is shown in Fig. Prob. 6.3.
66
ì ï ï Data í inputs ï ï î
G1 E (LSB) D C B
0 1 2
M 1 Y1
15 16 : 1 S3 S2 S1 S0
Output F (A, B, C, D, E) S3 S2 S1 S0
ì ï Data ï í inputs ï ï î
A (MSB)
16 17 M2 18 16 : 1 31 G2
Y2
·
Fig. Prob. 6.2(i)
ì ï ï Data í inputs ï ï î
G1 Logic 0 B C D E (LSB)
0 1 2 M1 Y1 15 16 : 1 A(MSB)
S3 S2 S1 S0 S 0 Output M3 Y 1 2 : 1 F (A, B, C, D, E) G3 S3 S2 S1 S0 16 17 18 31 G2 M2 16 : 1 Y2
ì ï Data ï inputsí ï ï î
Logic 0
Logic 0
Fig. Prob. 6.2(ii) 67
Table Prob. 6.3
An 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Inputs Bn 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 Outputs Cn–1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Sn 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 Cn 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1
The gates required for NANDNAND realization are: 4input NAND gate 1 3input NAND gates 5 2input NAND gates 3 Inverters 3
Logic 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Logic 0 An Bn Cn–1 Logic 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Logic 0 Fig. Prob. 6.3 68 74152 IC2 Cn S2 S1 S0 S2 S1 S0 74152 IC1 Sn
Therefore, the following IC packages will be required: 7420 – 1 7410 – 2 7400 – 1 In contrast to four packages required in NANDNAND realization, the realization using 8:1 multiplexers require only 2 IC packages. 6.4 The A inputs are applied directly to the adder, whereas the B inputs are applied through EXOR gates. When the switch S is in ADD position the outputs of the EXOR gates will be same as the B inputs. Also Cin = 0. Therefore, the circuit functions as a 4bit adder. On the other hand, when S is in SUB position, the EXOR gates function as inverters. Also Cin = 1, therefore, the circuit adds A to the 2’s complement of B and hence functions as a 4bit subtractor. The complete circuit is shown below.
64444 74444 8 4 4
B3 B2 B1 B0
B Input
A3 A2 A1 A0
64748
A input
7 4 8 3 4bit Adder
ADD Cin S SUB VCC
C0
S3
S2
S1
S0
6.5 Table Prob 6.5 (i) gives the truth table of GraytoBCD code converter. Table Prob. 6.5(i)
G3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 Gray code G2 G1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 G0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 69 D 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 C 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 BCD code B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 A 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1
(a) For A output (i) When G3 G2 = 00
G1 0 0 1 1 G0 0 1 1 0 A 0 1 0 1
(ii) When G3G2 = 01
G1 1 1 0 0 G0 0 1 1 0 A 0 1 0 1
\ A = G1 ⊕ G0 (iii) When G3 G2 = 10
G1 1 1 0 0 G0 0 1 1 0 A X X X X
\ A = G1 ¤ G0 (iv) When G3 G2 = 11
G1 0 0 1 1 G0 0 1 1 0 A 0 1 X X
\A= X \ A = G1 ⊕ G0 Similarly, we can obtain the expressions for the D, C, and B outputs. These are given in Table Prob. 6.5 (ii). Table Prob. 6.5(ii)
G3 0 0 1 1 G2 0 1 0 1 D 0 0 X 1 C 0 1 X 0 B G1
G1 X 0
A G1 ⊕ G0
G 1 ¤ G0 X G1 ⊕ G0
The G3 and G2 are used as the select inputs. The complete circuit can be drawn which requires two 74153 packages and one 7486 package. (b) The complete circuit is shown in Fig. Prob. 6.5(b). It requires one 74154, one 7430, one 7420, and one 7400 IC packages. 6.6 The truth table of BCDto7segment decoder is given in Table Prob. 6.6(i) and Fig. Prob 6.6(i) shows a commonanode 7segment display device. Table Prob. 6.6(i)
D 0 0 0 0 0 0 C 0 0 0 0 1 1 BCD Inputs B A 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 a 0 1 0 0 1 0 b 0 0 0 0 0 1 SevenSegment Outputs c d e f 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 g 1 1 0 0 0 0 (Contd.)
70
Table Prob. 6.6(i) (Contd.)
D 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 C 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 BCD Inputs B A 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 a 1 0 0 0 X X X X X X b 1 0 0 0 X X X X X X SevenSegment Outputs c d e f 0 0 0 0 X X X X X X 0 1 0 1 X X X X X X 0 1 0 1 X X X X X X 0 1 0 0 X X X X X X g 0 1 0 0 X X X X X X
Y0 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Y5 G1 G0 74154 Y6 Y7 Y8 Y9 Y10 Y11 Y12 Y13 Y14 S3 S2 S1 Y15 S0 Aü (LSB)ï ï ï ï ï ï Bï ï ï ï ï BCD ï ýoutputs ï ï Cï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï Dï (MSB) ï þ
0 13 4 444 44 2 2 1 3
G
G
G
G
Gray code inputs Fig. Prob. 6.5(b)
(a) From Table Prob. 6.6(i), we can prepare Table Prob. 6.6(ii) which gives outputs in terms of A and B inputs for each combination of D and C inputs. The circuit for generating data inputs for the multiplexers corresponding to Table Prob. 6.6 (ii) is shown in Fig. Prob. 6.6 (ii). The ICs required are: 74153 3 1 packages 2
71
7408 7432 7404
3/4 package 3/4 package 1/2 package
Anode
a b c d e f g f e
a b g c d · DP DP
Fig. Prob. 6.6(i)
Table Prob. 6.6(ii)
D 0 0 1 1 Inputs C 0 1 0 1 a
BA
b 0 B⊕ A 0 X
c
Outputs d
BA
e A A+ B A X
f A+B AB 0 X
g
B
A 0 X
BA 0 0 X
B¤A A X
AB 0 X
B
A+ B
B
BA
A+B AB BA
BÅA
B¤A
A
A Fig. Prob. 6.6(ii)
(b) The circuit is designed in a way similar to Prob. 6.5. The ICs required are: 74154 one package 7420 one package 7410 one package
72
7430 one package 7404 1/6 package (c) The IC 7442 is a BCDtodecimal decoder circuit with activelow outputs. These outputs are to be connected exactly in the same way as in the case of part (b) realization. The IC packages required are same as in part (b) with 74154 replaced by 7442. (d) From the IC packages requirements for parts (a), (b), and (c), we observe the savings in hardware when demultiplexers/decoders are used for the realization of multiple output systems. 6.7 Table Prob. 6.5(i) can be rearranged suitably to give the truth table of BCDtoGray code converter. (a) From the truth table, Table Prob. 6.7 (a) is obtained following the procedure used in Prob. 6.1(b). Table Prob. 6.7(a)
D 0 0 0 0 1 C 0 0 1 1 0 B 0 1 0 1 0 G3 0 0 0 0 1 G2 0 0 1 1 1 G1 0 1 1 0 0 G0 A
A A A A
The circuit can now be designed using four 74151A ICs (one for each of the outputs). The D, C, and B inputs are to be applied to the S2, S1, and S0 select inputs respectively. (b) Table Prob. 6.7(b) can be obtained from the truth table following the procedure of Prob. 6.5 (a). The circuit can now be designed using two 74153 ICs and two EXOR (7486) gates. Table Prob. 6.7(b)
D 0 0 1 1 C 0 1 0 1 G3 0 0 1 X G2 0 1 1 X G1 B
B 0 X
G0 A⊕ B A⊕ B A X
(c) Following the approach similar to (b), we obtain Table Prob. 6.7 (c). Here eight rows of the truth table are grouped together. Table Prob. 6.7(c)
D 0 1 G3 0 1 G2 C 1 G1 B⊕ C 0 G0 A ⊕ B A
73
The circuit can now be designed using one 74157 (Quad 2:1 multiplexer) IC and two EXOR gates of 7486. (d) Following the procedure used in Example 6.3, the circuit can be designed using one BCDtodecimal decoder IC 7442 and NAND gates (2, 4, 5, and 6input). (e) The minimized expressions are G3 = D G2 = C + D G1 = C B + C B G0 = B A + B A The realization will require eleven 2input NAND gates. (f) The package count for each part are given in Table Prob 6.7(d) Table Prob. 6.7(d)
Part a b c d e No. of IC packages 74151A – 4, 7404 – 1 74153 – 2, 7486 – 1 75157 – 1, 7486 – 1 7442 – 1, 7430 – 2, 7420 – 1 7400 – 3
6.8 The truth table for f1, f2, and f3 outputs is given in Table Prob. 6.8(i) (a) The truth table is reduced to Table Prob. 6.8(ii) for realization using 8 : 1 multiplexers. The circuits can now be designed for f1, f2, and f3 outputs using multiplexers and inverters. (b) Using the truth table the circuits for f1, f2, and f3 can be designed following the procedure outlined in Example 6.1. The realizations will require one 16 : 1 multiplexer for each output. (c) The circuit can be designed using one demultiplexer and two 8input and one 6input NAND gates. Table Prob. 6.8(i)
D 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Inputs C 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Outputs B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 A 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 74 f1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 f2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 f3 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Table Prob. 6.8(ii)
D 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 C 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 f1
A A A A A A A A
f2 1 1 0 0 0 A
A 1
f3 0 A 1
A A 0 A 0
6.9 In a 40:1 multiplexer, there are 40 data input lines (I0 through I39), 6 select lines FEDCBA. The lower order three select bits C, B, and A are used as S2, S1, S0 select inputs respectively for 8:1 multiplexers M1 through M5. The higher order three select bits F, E, and D are used as select inputs S2, S1, and S0 for the multiplexer M6, which selects output of one of the multiplexers M1 through M5.
I0 – I7 G M1 S2 S1 S0 C B A I8 – I15 S2 S1 S0 G M2 0 1 2 3 4 M6 5 6 7 G S2 S1 S0
Y
I16 – I23 G I24 – I31
M3 S2 S1 S0 C B A S2 S1 S0 M4 G C B A (LSB)
F E (MSB)
D
I32 – I39 Enable
S2 S1 S0 G M5 Fig. Prob. 6.9 75
For example if the select inputs are 011111, data input 7 of M2 (I15) will appear at the output Y. 6.10 The BCDtodecimal decoder is to be used as an 1 : 8 demultiplexer. The address inputs for demultiplexers D1 through D6 are C, B, and A. D is active0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
D X2 X1 X0 (LSB) C B A D1 7442
D X2 X1 X0 0 1 2 3 D6 4 D 7442 5 6 7 8 C B A9 C B A D2 7442
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
D X2 X1 X0 ( C B A D3 7442
Enable
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
X5 X4 X3 (MSB) X2 X1 X0
D C B A D4 7442
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
D X2 X1 X0 C B A D5 7442
32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39
Fig. Prob. 6.10 76
low input for demultiplexer function. The outputs 8 and 9 of D1 through D5 are not used in this configuration. The lower order three bits of the address X2, X1, and X0 are applied at the C, B, A select inputs respectively of each decoder chip D1 through D5. The higher order three bits of the address X5, X4, and X3 are applied at the C, B, and A select inputs respectively of D6. For example, if the 6bit select inputs are 001111, then output 1 of D6 is activated, which activates decoder D2 and the output 7 of this decoder goes low. This corresponds to output on line 15 (which is same as the decimal equivalent of 001111). The complete circuit is shown in Fig. Prob. 6.10. 6.11 For the fulladder circuit designed using halfadder circuits shown in Fig. Prob. 6.11.
EX–OR(1) An Bn S1 EX–OR(2) S2 = Sn C1 AND2 AND–1 Cn–1 Fig. Prob. 6.11
C2 OR
Cn
The propagation delay time for Cn is tpd = tpd [EXOR(1)] + tpd (AND2) + tpd (OR) = 20 + 10 + 10 = 40 ns This is the propagation delay time for carry to travel one fulladder. For an nbit adder, this carry has to ripple through all the n adders. Therefore, the propagation delay time for the carry to propagate from C–1 to Cn–1 in the circuit of Fig. 6.12 (a) will be n ´ 40 = 40 ns. 6.12 Let the four digits BCD numbers be P4P3P2P1 and Q4Q3Q2Q1. P4 and Q4 are applied at the A and B inputs respectively of adder # 4 and similarly the other inputs are applied as shown below.
Q4 P4 Q3 P3 Q2 P2 Q1 P1
BCD adder #4 C¢¢¢¢ C2 0
BCD adder #3 C¢¢¢ C1 0
BCD adder #2 C¢¢ C0 0
BCD adder #1 C¢0 C–1
144444444444444 2444444444444444 4 3
5digit output Fig. Prob. 6.12 77
C0
S15–S12
S11–S8
S7–S4
S3–S0
6.13 Its truth table is given in Table Prob. 6.13. Using Kmaps the minimized expressions given below are obtained. Table Prob. 6.13
Inputs A1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 A0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 B1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 B0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 A>B 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 Outputs A=B 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 A<B 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
A > B = A0 B 1 B0 + A1 A0 B 0 + A1 B 1 A = B = A1 B 1 (A0 ¤ B0) + A1B1 (A0 ¤ B0) = (A0 ¤ B0) (A1 ¤ B1) A < B = A 1 A 0 B0 + A 0 B1B0 + A 1B1 The complete circuit can be drawn using gates. 6.14 The comparator C1 compares the least significant four bits. Its A > B, A = B, and A < B outputs are connected to the corresponding cascading inputs of C2 respectively. The complete circuit is shown below.
A0 – A3 B0 – B3 C1 7485 A>B A=B A<B A4 – A7 A>B A=B A<B 7485 A>B A=B A<B B4 – B7 C2 A>B A=B A<B
Logic 1 Logic 0 Fig. Prob. 6.14 78
6.15 The operation is given below.
Inputs CIC 1 A B A>B A=B A<B A B A>B A=B A<B A B A>B A=B A<B A B A>B A=B A<B A B A>B A=B A<B A B A>B A=B A<B = 1001 = 1011 =1 =0 =1 = 0000 = 0000 =1 =0 =1 = 1011 = 1101 =1 =0 =1 = 0010 = 0001 =1 =0 =0 = 0010 = 0011 =0 =1 =0 = 0001 = 1000 =0 =0 =1 Outputs
A>B=0 A<B=1
CIC 2
A>B=0 A<B=0
CIC 3
A>B=0 A<B=0
CIC 4
A>B=1 A<B=0
CIC 5
A>B=0 A<B=1 A=B=0
CIC 6
A>B=0 A=B=0 A<B=1
6.16 The leastsignificant bit (A1) of BCD input is same as the leastsignificant bit of the output. The other three bits (D1, C1, and B1) are applied to C, B, and A inputs respectively. D and E inputs are connected to logic 0. The binary output is obtained at B3B2B1B0 outputs as shown in Fig. Prob. 6.16.
79
ì A1 ï BCD ï B1 inputs í C ï 1 ïD î
1
B0 A B C D E G 74184 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Y5
B1 ï Binary ï ý outputs B B3 ï þ
2
ü ï
(MSB)
Fig. Prob. 6.16
6.17 The IC 74148 is a priority octaltobinary encoder. If more than one inputs are given in the same chip, the highest numbered input will appear in the binary form at the output. If two inputs are given simultaneously, one of which is in IC1 and the other one in IC2, then E0 of IC2 will be HIGH, which will disable the IC1 chip. This shows that the circuit is a priority encoder. 6.18 Apply the 6bit input to A through F inputs and connect the other two inputs G and H to logic 0. Connect EVEN and ODD inputs to logic 1 and 0 respectively. If the parity of the 6bit word is even, å EVEN output will be 1, whereas, if the parity of the 6bit word is ODD, then å ODD output will be 1. 6.19 The 7bit input is applied at A through G inputs and H = 0. If EVEN and ODD inputs are at logic 1 and 0 respectively, then å EVEN output is 1 if the 7bit input is even and 0 if the 7bit input is odd. Therefore, these seven bits along with the å EVEN output bit will give an 8bit word with odd parity. The circuit is shown below.
A  G A  G SEVEN
ü ï 8bit odd ý parity word ï þ
74180 H EVEN SODD ODD
Logic 1
Logic 0 Fig. Prob. 6.19
80
6.20 The circuit is shown in Fig. Prob. 6.20 and its operation is given in Table Prob. 6.20.
B0 – B7 SEVEN P1 74180 SODD EVEN B8 – B13 Logic 0 SEVEN P2 74180 SODD
G H
B0 – B13
EVEN ODD Fig. Prob. 6.20 ODD
ü ï ý ï þ
Table Prob. 6.20
Parity of B0 – B7 åEVEN EVEN ODD 1 0 P1 åODD 0 1 Parity of B8 – B13 EVEN ODD EVEN ODD åEVEN 1 0 0 1 P2 åODD 0 1 1 0
From the table we see that the parity of B0 – B13 and åODD of P2 is even. 6.21 The circuit is shown in Fig. Prob. 6.21 and its operation is explained in the Table Prob. 6.21.
B0 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 7486 B8 B9 Logic 1 Fig. Prob. 6.21 81 A B C S EVEN D E F 74180 G H EVEN SODD ODD
1 on even parity
15bit even parity word
Logic 1
B14
Table Prob. 6.21
Parity of B0 – B7 EVEN EVEN ODD ODD Parity of B8 – B9 EVEN ODD ODD EVEN Cascading inputs EVEN ODD 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 Outputs åEVEN 1 0 1 0 åODD 0 1 0 1
6.22
b0 – b 7 SEVEN P1 EVEN ODD
b8
b9 – b16
SEVEN P2 EVEN ODD SEVEN P10 EVEN ODD High on EVEN High on ODD
b17
b72 – b79
SEVEN P9 EVEN ODD Fig. Prob. 6.22
b80
6.23 The circuit is given in Fig. Prob. 6.23. Here P1, P2, and P3 are 9bit parity checkers. 6.24 See Fig. Prob. 6.24 (a and b) 6.25 See Fig. Prob. 6.25 6.26 Let the four BCD digits be ABCD, with A as MSD. The circuit is given in Fig. Prob. 6.26. The leastsignificant bits of the BCD digits are applied at the data inputs of M1 and similarly higher order bits are applied to M2, M3, and M4. The select input are fed from the mod4 counter, which drives a BCDtodecimal decoder.
82
b0 P1 b8
SEVEN
b9 P2 b15
SEVEN
High on EVEN
SODD
High on ODD
b16 SEVEN P3 b24 Fig. Prob. 6.23 (a) VCC VCC Current Limiting resistor
VCC BCD input (MSB) ìD
ïC í ïB îA
7442
GND
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Fig. Prob. 6.24(a)
83
(b)
+170 V R = 10 kW 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Anode
NIXIE Tube 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 +5V VCC 74141
D C A 1444 24444 4 B 3 BCD Input (b) Fig. Prob. 6.24 0 1 2 3
(LSB)
A B C D Enable (logic 0) D1
E F G H D2
0 1
15
Detects 0001 Fig. Prob. 6.25
14 15
Detects 0001111
The multiplexer outputs are decoded by the BCDto7segment decoder with activelow outputs. When the counter output is 00, digit A is selected and at the same time anode A1 goes HIGH, thereby displaying the digit A on the leftmost 7segment display. Similarly, when the counter outputs are 01, 10, and 11 B, C, and D digits are displayed respectively on second, third, and fourth displays in sequence. In this way each display will be ON for onefourth of the total time. If the clock frequency is sufficiently high, the display would appear to be continuous. 6.27 For R to glow, the inputs required at the rows for each column are as given in Table Prob. 6.27. The circuit is to be designed in a way similar to that of Prob. 6.26. One column must glow at a time in sequence. Seven 5:1 multiplexers and a mod5 counter will be required for this.
84
A0 B0 C0 D0
0 1 M1 2 3 S S 1 0 BCDto7segment decoder a b c d e f g Buffer inverters ··· 0 1 2 3 4 BCDtodecimal decoder
A1 B1 C1 D1
0 1 M2 2 3 S S 1 0
A B C (MSB) D
A2 B2 C2 D2
0 1 2 M3 3 S S 1 0
A1
A2
A3
A4
A3 B3 C3 D3
0 1 2 M4 3 S S 1 0
Q0
Q1
Q2
Q3
Mod4 counter
Clock Fig. Prob. 6.26
Table Prob. 6.27
Row/Column ® ¯ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 3 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 4 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 5 0 1 1 0 0 0 1
85
CHAPTER 7
7.1 When S = R = 0, the outputs of the gates G3 and G4 will be 1. Therefore, G1 and G2 will act as inverters. Hence, the circuit of fig. 7.4 is same as that of Fig. 7.3. 7.2 (a) With S = 1 and R = 0, the outputs of G3 and G4 are 0 and 1 respectively. Since one of the inputs of G1 is 0, therefore, its output Q = 1. This makes both the inputs of G2 as 1 giving an output Q = 0. Now if S = R = 0, the inputs and output of G2 remain unaffected, which makes the lower input of G1 as 0 while the upper one becomes one giving again Q = 1. This means the outputs do not change. (b) With S = 0 and R = 1, Q1 = 1 and Q = 0 in a manner similar to part (a) and also Q and Q will remain unchanged when S and R both are made 0. 7.3
R Q
Q
S Fig. Prob 7.3
7.4 (a) With Pr = 0, Q will be 0 which makes one of the inputs of G3 0. Therefore, whatever may be the other input of G3, its output will be 1. This results in both the inputs of AND gate G5 to be 1 giving Q = 1. That is, the FLIPFLOP is set irrespective of the S, R, and CK inputs. (b) If Cr = 0, then the FLIPFLOP is reset following the same logic as discussed in part (a). (c) If Pr = Cr = 1, the AND gates G5 and G6 are enabled, making this circuit identical to a normal clocked S – R FLIPFLOP as shown in Fig. 7.5. 7.5 (i) When Jn = Kn = 0, the AND gates are disabled resulting in Sn = Rn = 0. Therefore, when a clock pulse is applied, the outputs Q and Q will not change, i.e., Qn+1 = Qn. (ii) When Jn = 1 and Kn = 0, then Sn = Q n and Rn = 0. Now, if Qn = 1 then Sn = 0, i.e., Sn = Rn = 0 and the output Qn+1 = Qn = 1. On the other hand if Qn = 0 then Sn = 1 which will make Qn+1 = 1. Therefore, whatever may be the state of the FLIPFLOP, it will go to set state in this condition when a clock pulse is applied. (iii) If Jn = 0 and Kn = 1 then Sn = 0 and Rn = Qn. Following the above discussion, we find that the FLIPFLOP will go to the reset state when a clock pulse is applied. (iv) If Jn = Kn = 1, then Sn = Q n and Rn = Qn. Now, if Qn = 1, then Sn = 0 and Rn = 1 which will make Qn+1 = 0. Similarly, if Qn = 0, then Sn = 1 and Rn = 0 which makes Qn+1 = 1. Therefore, Qn+1 = Q n.
86
7.6 Y1 = ( J ⋅ Q ) ⋅ CK
= J ⋅ Q ⋅ CK
and
Y2 = J ⋅ Q ⋅ CK Hence, Y1 = Y2
7.7 Q1 = Q and 7.8
Clock Input
Q2 = Q
Output í
ìQ îQ
7.9
Clock Input
Output í
ìQ îQ
7.10
Clock
Input
Output Q
7.11 Let Q = 1 and Q = 0. This makes R = Q = 1 and S = Q = 0. When a clock pulse is applied, Q and Q will become 0 and 1 respectively. Now, R = Q = 0 and S = Q = 1 and on
87
application of a clock pulse, Q and Q become 1 and 0 respectively. This show that Q and Q change with every clock pulse, and hence the circuit behaves as a toggle switch. 7.12 The truth table is given in Table Prob. 7.12. From this table we observe that when Tn = 0, Qn+1 = Qn, whereas, when Tn = 1, Qn+1 = Q n. Table Prob. 7.12
Tn 0 0 1 1 Qn 0 1 0 1 Sn 0 1 1 0 Rn 1 0 0 1 Qn+1 0 1 1 0
7.13 When Q = D = 0, a clock pulse will make Q and Q 0 and 1 respectively. Now
Q = D = 1 and the next clock pulse will change the Q output to 1. Thus, the outputs change with every clock pulse. 7.14 The characteristic table and the truth table for decoder are given in Table Prob. 7.14 (a). The Kmaps for Y1 and Y2 are shown below, which give
Y1 = Q + CK + J = Q ⋅ J ⋅ CK and Y2 = CK + K + Q = Q ⋅ K ⋅ CK Table Prob. 7.14 (a)
CK 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 J 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Characteristic table K Qn 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Qn + 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 Truth table for decoder Y1 Y2 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 1 0 X 0 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 X 0 1 1 1 0
(b) The excitation table and the truth table for decoder are given in Table Prob. 7.14(b). The Kmaps can be prepared and minimized. The minimized expressions are:
88
KQ
CKJ 00 00 1 01 ´ 11 ´ 10 1
01 1 ´ ´ 1
11 0 ´ 1 0
10 1 ´ 1 1
KQ
CKJ 00 ´ 1 1 ´
01 ´ 1 1 ´
11 1 1 0 1
10 ´ 1 0 ´
00 01 11 10
Y 1 = Q + CK + J = Q ⋅ J ⋅ CK (a)
Y 2 = CK + K + Q = Q ⋅ K ⋅ CK (b)
Y1 = CK + D = CK ⋅ D and Y = CK + D = CK ⋅ D Table Prob. 7.14(b)
CK 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Excitation table D 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 Qn 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Qn+1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 Truth table for decoder Y1 Y2 1 X 1 X 1 1 0 X X 1 X 1 X 0 1 1
(c) Using the above method, we obtain Y1 = CK ⋅ T ⋅ Q Y2 = CK ⋅ T ⋅ Q Complete circuits can be drawn for each of the above cases. 7.15 (a) The truth table required for conversion from SR to D FLIPFLOP is given in Table Prob. 7.15(a). The Kmaps for S and R outputs are prepared as shown in Fig. Prob. 7.15(i) from which we obtain the minimized expressions for S and R as S = D and R = D and Table Prob. 7.15(a)
Data input D 0 1 0 1 Output Q 0 0 1 1 89 SR FF inputs S R 0 1 0 X X 0 1 0
Q
D 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 ´ (a) Q
D 0 0 1 ´ 1 1 0 0 (b)
Fig. Prob. 7.15(i)
(b) The required truth table is given in Table Prob. 7.15(b) from which the minimized expressions are obtained as J= D and K= D
Table Prob. 7.15(b)
Data input D 0 1 0 1 Output Q 0 0 1 1 J 0 1 X X JK FF inputs K X X 1 0
(c) The required truth table is given in Table Prob. 7.15(c) and the minimized expression for D is given by D = JQ + KQ Table Prob. 7.15(c)
Data inputs J 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 K 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 Output Q 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 DFF input D 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1
(d) Table Prob. 7.15 (d) gives the required truth table from which we obtain the minimized expressions for S and R as S = T ⋅Q and R =T⋅Q
90
Table Prob. 7.15(d)
Data input T 0 1 1 0 Output Q 0 0 1 1 S S – R FF inputs R X 0 1 0
0 1 0 X
(e) The truth table can be prepared and expressions for J and K inputs obtained. J=K=T Similarly, all the other conversions can be made. The minimized expressions obtained are given below: (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) T = J Q + KQ T =D⊕Q D = S + RQ D =T⊕Q T = S Q + RQ J = S, K = R
7.16 Let the inputs to the latch be Y1 and Y2. (i) When the clock is LOW: Y1 = Y2 = 1 independent of D input and the state of the FLIPFLOP cannot change. (ii) When the clock is HIGH: Y1 and Y2 are complement to each other and for each value of D we find that the values of Y1 and Y2 do not change. This means the state of the FLIPFLOP cannot change. (iii) When the clock goes from LOW to HIGH: Case I: Let D = 0 Y1 will remain 1 and Y2 changes from 1 to 0. Therefore, Q becomes 0. While the clock is HIGH, if there is any change in D, Y1 and Y2 will remain unaltered. When the clock comes back to 0 from 1, then Y1 = Y2 = 1 which also does not affect the output Q. Case II: Let D = 1. Y2 will remain 1 and Y1 changes from 1 to 0. Therefore, Q goes to 1. Now, while the clock is HIGH, if there is any change in D, Y1 and Y2 will remain unaltered. When the clock goes back to 0, then Y1 = Y2 = 1 which will not affect the output Q. 7.17 The waveforms obtained are shown in Fig. Prob. 7.17. 7.18 (a) When the switch is in position 1, Pr = 0 and Cr = 1. Therefore, Q = 1. Now, if the switch is changed over to position 0, as soon as it makes contact for the first time, Q will become 0. Now, even if the switch
91
Clock
1 0 0 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
J 0 1 Q 0 1 Q 0 (b) Fig. Prob. 7.17 (a)
debounces, the output Q will not be affected. Similarly, the switch will operate in the reverse switching. (b) When the switch is in position 1, Q = 0 and Q = 1. When the switch is thrown to position 0, at the first contact Q becomes 1. Now, when the switch debounces, the outputs Q and Q do not change. 7.19 The clock, CKs and CKD waveforms are shown in Fig. Prob. 7.19. At the rising edge of the clock CKs, the data present at the data input terminal Ds is loaded into the source FF. When CKD goes HIGH, the data is loaded into the destination FF. Now, if the delay time Dt2 is more than it takes to change the present output of the source FF, the operation will not be reliable. In fact, the clock skew may violate the hold time requirements of the destination FF. This difficulty can be overcome by adding additional delay to assure reliable operation.
Clock
CKS
Dt1
CKD
Dt2
Fig. Prob 7.19
7.20 The waveforms are shown in Fig. Prob. 7.20. The states of the counter are 00, 01 and 10. 7.21 The waveform at CK will be as shown in Fig. Prob. 7.21. This means, the level triggered Dtype FF will operate as a positiveedgetriggered FF.
92
1 Clock pulses 1 0 1 0 1 Q 0 = J1 Q1 0 1 0
2
3
4
5
6
7
J 0 = Q1
Fig. Prob. 7.20
Fig. Prob. 7.21
93
CHAPTER 8
8.1 (i) When the mode control input, M = 1, all the A AND gates are enabled and all the B AND gates are disabled. The circuit effectively reduces to that of Fig. Prob. 8.1(i). This is a rightshift register.
Serial input D3 FF3 Q3 D2 FF2 Q2 D1 FF1 Q1 D0 Q0 FF0
Fig. Prob. 8.1(i)
(ii) When M = 0, all the B AND gates are enabled and all the A AND gates are disabled. The circuit effectively reduces to that of Fig. Prob. 8.1(ii). In this case the data will get shifted to the left direction, i.e., it functions as a leftshift register.
Q3 FF3 D3 Q2 FF2 D2 Q1 FF1 D1 D0 FF0 Q0
Serial input
Fig. Prob. 8.1(ii)
8.2
A 5stage twistedring counter is shown in Fig. Prob. 8.2(a). Let us assume that all the FLIPFLOPs are in the clear state, i.e., Q4 = Q3 = Q2 = Q1 = Q0 = 0. The various outputs when clock pulses are applied are given in Table Prob. 8.2. Table Prob. 8.2
At the end of clock pulse 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Q4 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 Q3 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 Outputs Q2 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 Q1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 Q0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0
At the end of the tenth clock pulse, the circuit comes back to its initial state. Therefore, it is a mod10 counter. Its state diagram is shown in Fig. Prob. 8.2(b).
94
D4 Q4 FF4 Clock Clear
D3 Q3 FF3
D2 Q2 FF2
D1 Q1 FF1
D0 Q0 FF0 Q0
Fig. Prob. 8.2(a)
00000
10000
11000
11100
11110
00001
00011
00111
01111
11111
Fig. Prob. 8.2(b)
8.3 Let Y0, Y1. . . be the outputs corresponding to pulses 0, 1, 2, . . . respectively. The truth table for the decoder is given in Table Prob. 8.3. For all the remaining combinations of Q’s, the Y outputs are don’t care. The Kmap is to be prepared for each output. Figure Prob. 8.3 gives the Kmap for Y0 . Similarly, other Kmaps can be prepared. The minimized expressions are given by Y0 = Q 4 Q 0 Y1 = Q4 Q 3 Y2 = Q3 Q 2 Y3 = Q2 Q 1 Y4 = Q1 Q 0 Y5 = Q4Q0 Y6 = Q 4Q3 Y7 = Q 3Q2 Y8 = Q 2Q1 Y9 = Q 1Q0
Table Prob. 8.3
Q4 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 Q3 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 Inputs Q2 Q1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 Q0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 Y0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Y1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Y2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Y3 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Outputs Y 4 Y5 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 Y6 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 Y7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Y8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Y9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
95
The circuit can be drawn using ten 2input AND gates.
Q3Q2 Q1Q0 00 00 01 11 10 1 0 0 ´ Q4 = 0 01 ´ ´ 0 ´ 11 ´ ´ 0 ´ 10 ´ ´ ´ ´ Fig. Prob. 8.3 Q4 = 1 Q3Q2 Q1Q0 00 00 01 11 10 0 ´ ´ ´ 01 ´ ´ ´ ´ 11 0 ´ 0 0 10 0 ´ ´ ´
8.4 To generate these waveforms, a 4stage twistedring counter is required. The waveforms at the Q outputs are shown in Fig. Prob. 8.4(i). The required, waveforms can be obtained by using decoders shown in Fig. Prob. 8.4(ii), which are designed in the same way as Prob. 8.3.
1 Clock Pulses Q3 Q2 Q1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Q0 Fig. Prob. 8.4(i) Q3
Q2
f1
Q1
Q0
f2
Q2
f3
Q0
f4
Q3
Q1
Fig. Prob. 8.4(ii)
8.5 The count sequence is given in Table Prob. 8.5. From the count sequence we observe that Q0 changes with every clock pulse. This can be obtained by using a Ttype FLIPFLOP (FF0) with T0 = 1.
96
Q1 changes whenever Q0 changes from 0 to 1, therefore, if Q 0 is used as the clock input for FF1 with T1 = 1, the desired changes in Q1 will be obtained. Similarly, Q2 changes whenever Q1 goes from 0 to 1. The desired changes in Q2 can be obtained by using Q1 as the clock input for FF2 with T2 = 1. The complete circuit is shown in Fig. Prob. 8.5.
T0 = T1 = T2 = 1 T0 Clock Q0 FF0
Q0
T1 Q1 FF1
Q1
T2 FF2
Q2
Q2
Fig. Prob. 8.5
Table Prob. 8.5
Q2 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 Q1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 Q0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1
8.6 For a ripple UP counter Q outputs of the preceding stages are to be connected to the clock inputs of the succeeding stages, whereas for a DOWN counter Q outputs are to be connected to the clock inputs. Therefore, ANDOR gates are used between stages as shown below. The AND gates A are enabled when UP/ DOWN input is at logic 1, connecting Q outputs to clock inputs, whereas the AND gates B are enabled when UP/DOWN input is at logic 0 connecting Q outputs to the clock inputs.
T0 = T1 = T2 = T3 = 1 T0 Clock pulses Q0 FF0 A0 T1 Q1 FF1 B0 A1 T2 Q2 FF2 B1
Q2
A2
T3
Q3 FF3
Q0
Q1
B2
Q3
UP/ DOWN Fig. Prob. 8.6
97
D0
D1
D2
D3
Load
Pr Q0 FF0 Q0
Pr Q1 FF1 Q1 Fig. Prob. 8.7
Pr Q2 FF2
Q2
Pr
Q3
FF3 Q3
The preset inputs are used for asynchronous loading. The relevant portion of the circuit is shown on next page. When load input is HIGH, the data at the D inputs will be entered in the FLIPFLOPs. The other details will be same as in Prob. 8.6. 8.8 At the end of the tenth pulse Q3 = Q1 = 1, the output of G becomes 0. Also CK = 0, therefore, the output of the latch is 0. Now if Q1 or Q3 goes to 0, the output of the latch continues to be 0. When the eleventh clock pulse appears at CK, the output of the latch will go to 1 and normal counting will proceed. 8.9 (a) For the divideby5 circuit, the count sequence will be 000, 001, 010, 011, 100, 000. Therefore, as soon as the count reaches 101, all the three FLIPFLOPs must be cleared. The circuit is shown in Fig. Prob. 8.9.
T0 = T1 = T2 = 1 T0 Clock pulses Q0 FF0 Cr Q 0 T1 Q1 FF1 Cr Q 1 Fig. Prob. 8.9 T2 Q2 FF2 Cr Q 2
(b) For the divideby7, the resetting of FLIPFLOPs is required as soon as the count reaches 111. Therefore, a 3input NAND gate with inputs Q0, Q1, and Q2 will be required to clear the FLIPFLOPs. 8.10 The waveforms are shown in Fig. Prob. 8.10. It is clear from the waveforms that the frequency divisions by 3, 6, and 12 are obtained at the QC, QD, and QA outputs respectively.
98
Clock 1 pulses 0 1 QD QC 0 1 0 1 QB QA 0 1 0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 11 12 13
Fig. Prob. 8.10
8.11 The states of the circuit of Prob. 8.10 are given below.
QD 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 QC 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 QB 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 QA 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0
(a) The ÷ 7 counter is obtained by terminating the count sequence when QB = QA = 1. The circuit is shown in Fig. Prob. 8.11(a).
Output QA QB QC
QD
A input 7 Clock pulses B input R1 R2 4 9 2
Fig. Prob. 8.11(a) 99
(b) The ÷ 9 counter is obtained by terminating the count sequence as soon as QD = QA = 1. The circuit is shown in Fig. Prob. 8.11(b).
Output QA QB QC QD
A input Clock pulses B input
7
4
9 R1
2 R2
Fig. Prob. 8.11(b)
(c) The ÷ 11 counter is obtained by terminating the count sequence as soon as QD = QC = QA = 1. The circuit is shown in Fig. Prob. 8.11(c).
Output QA QB QC QD
·
A input Clock pulses B input 7 4 9 R1 2 R2
Fig. Prob. 8.11(c)
8.12 If we use the complements of QD, QC, QB, and QA as outputs, we obtain the DOWN counter. The sequence is given in Table Prob. 8.12.
QD QC QB QA
0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0
0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 100
0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0
0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 (Contd.)
(Contd.)
QD QC QB QA
0 0 0
0 0 0
1 1 0
1 0 1
8.13 Since 128 = 16 ´ 8, therefore, a divideby16 counter followed by a divideby8 counter will become a divideby128 counter. IC 7493 is a 4bit binary counter. Therefore, two IC packages will be required. The resulting circuit is shown in Fig. Prob. 8.13.
Q0 QA Q1 QB Q2 QC Q3 QD QA Q4 QB Q5 QC Q6 QD
A input Clock pulses B input
A input IC1 7493 R1 R2 B input IC2 7493 R1 R2
Logic 0 Fig. Prob. 8.13
Logic 0
8.14 IC7490 is a decade counter. If two such ICs are cascaded, it becomes a divideby100 circuit. To get a divideby96 counter, the counter is reset as soon as it becomes 1001 0110. The complete circuit is shown below.
100 101
QA QB QC A input Clock pulses B input
QD A input
QA
QB
QC
QD
IC1 7490 S1 S2 R1 R2
IC2 7490 S1 S2 R1 R2
B input
Fig. Prob. 8.14 101
8.15 Since 78 = 13 ´ 6, therefore, we have to use 7493 as a mod13 and 7492 as mod6 counters. For the mod13 counter QD, QC, and QA outputs of 7493 are ANDed and used to clear the counter when the count reaches 1101. For the mod6 counter, QA output of 7492 is connected to B input and the QD output of 7493 is connected to A input of 7492. The complete circuit is shown in Fig. Prob. 8.15.
QA
QB QC QD
QA
QB QC QD
A input Clock pulses B input 7493 R1 R2 A input B input 7492 R1 R2
Fig. Prob. 8.15
8.16
Clock pulses QA
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12 13
QB
QC QD Fig. Prob. 8.16
102
8.17
Clock pulses QA
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
QB
QC QD
RC Fig. Prob. 8.17
8.18 The counter have states from 0000 to 1100. The clearing operation will occur at the rising edge of the next clock. The waveforms are
1 Clock pulses QA 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
QB
QC QD Cr Fig. Prob. 8.18
8.19 The counter ICI operates as a counter for counting in the UP direction when Cr = L = 1. When the count reaches the maximum value (111 in 4bit binary and 1001 in decade counter) its RC output goes HIGH which makes ENP = ENT of IC2 HIGH for one clock cycle advancing its output by 1 and making Q
103
outputs of ICI 0 at the next clock cycle. After this clock cycle ENP = ENT = 0 for IC2 and IC1 will go on counting the pulses. When the outputs of IC1 and IC2 both reach the maximum count, RC outputs of both of these ICs will go HIGH. This will make ENP = ENT of IC3 HIGH and therefore, the next clock pulse will be registered in this counter and simultaneously IC1 and IC2 will be cleared. This way the counting will continue. 8.20 Alternative I: Connect the circuit shown in Fig. Prob. 8.20(a) between the QC, QD outputs and the clear input (with L = 1). As soon as the count becomes 1100, the counter is cleared. Alternative II: Connect the circuit shown in Fig. Prob. 8.20(b) between QC, QD outputs and load (L) input (with Cr = 1). As soon as the count reaches 1100, the counter is loaded with P inputs which must be PA = PB = PC = PD = 0. There are two possible operations in this circuit, whereas only one type of operation is possible in the circuit of Fig. 8.27.
QC QD (a) Fig. Prob. 8.20 QC QD (b)
Cr
L
8.21 For the DOWN counter, the clock pulses are applied at CKDOWN input. When the output becomes 0, the counter is loaded with preset inputs 0101 and the states will be: 0101, 0100, 0011, 0010, and 0001. The circuit is given in Fig. Prob. 8.21(a) and waveforms are shown in Fig. Prob. 8.21(b).
QA +VCC CKUP CKDOWN Cr PA PB PC PD L Borrow 74192 QB QC QD Carry
Clock pulses
+VCC Fig. Prob. 8.21(a)
104
Clock 1 pulses 0 1 QA 0 QB 1 0 QC QD 1 0 1 0
Borrow Fig. Prob. 8.21(b)
8.22 The modified state diagram is given in Fig. Prob. 8.22(a). Its state table is given in Table Prob. 8.22(i) from which Table Prob. 8.22(ii) is obtained to determine the FF inputs.
1 11 1 0 0 10 Fig. Prob. 8.22(a) 00 0 0 1 1 01
Table 8.22(i)
Next State Present State A B 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 X=0 A 1 0 0 1 B 1 0 1 0 A 0 1 1 0 X=1 B 1 0 1 0
Table Prob. 8.22(ii)
X 0 0 Counter State QA QB 0 1 0 1 JA 1 X 105 FLIPFLOP Inputs KA JB X 0 1 X KB X 1 (Contd.)
(Contd.) Table Prob. 8.22(ii)
X 0 0 1 1 1 1 Counter State QA QB 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 JA X 0 0 1 X X FLIPFLOP Inputs KA JB 1 X X X 0 1 1 X 1 X 1 X KB X 1 X 1 X 1
This gives and
JB = KB = 1 JA = KA = (QB ¤ X)
The circuit is shown in Fig. Prob. 8.22(b).
Logic 1 JB FFB KB Clock pulses x = 1 UP = 0 DOWN Fig. Prob. 8.22(b)
QB
QB
QB
JA FFA KA
QA
QA
8.23 A divideby5 circuit will give the required inputoutput relationship. The states of this circuit are: 000, 001, 010, 011, and 100. The Q2 output will be the required output when the input waveform is used as the clock input. 8.24 Since there are ten states, therefore, it requires four FFs. The FFs with their inputs are given as follows. FF0 : J0, K0 FF1 : J1, K1 FF2 : FF3 : J2, K2 J3, K3
The count sequence and the corresponding values of the FF inputs required to get the count sequence are given below. The unused states are taken as don’t care (X) conditions.
Q3 0 0 Count Sequence Q2 Q1 Q0 0 1 1 0 1 0 J0 X 1 K0 1 X J1 X 0 FF Inputs K1 J2 1 X 1 X K2 X 0 J3 0 0 K3 X X (Contd.) 106
(Contd.) Q3 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 Count Sequence Q2 Q1 Q0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 J0 X 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 K0 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 X J1 1 X X 0 1 X X 1 FF Inputs K1 J2 X 0 1 X X 0 1 X X X X 0 0 0 1 X K2 0 0 1 X X X X 1 J3 0 0 1 X X X X X K3 X X X 0 0 0 0 1
Using Kmaps, the expressions for FF inputs can be minimized and the minimized expressions are: J0 = K0 = 1 J1 = Q1 ⋅ Q0 + Q3 ⋅ Q2 K1 = Q0 J2 = Q1 ⋅ Q0 K2 = Q1 ⋅ Q0 + Q3 ⋅ Q2 J3 = Q2 ⋅ Q1 ⋅ Q0 K3 = Q2 Using the FLIPFLOPs and the above expressions, the circuit can be drawn. 8.25 The circuit is given in Fig. Prob. 8.25.
Pulses Logic 1
QA ENT ENP
QB
QC
QD
74163 Load Cr
Logic 1 Fig. Prob. 8.25
107
8.26 (a)
Q1
Q1 Q0
Q1
Q0
D1
Q1 FF1
Q1
Y Q0
Q0
X
D0
Q0 FF0
Q0
(b)
Clock Fig. Prob. 8.26(a) 0/0 1/1 0/0 11 1/0 10 0/0 Fig. Prob. 8.26(b) 1/0 01 0/0 00 1/0
(c)
Present State Q1 0 0 Q0 0 0 Input X 0 1 Next state Q1* 0 0 Q0* 0 1 108 Output Y 0 0 J1 0 0 FF FF1 K1 X X J0 0 1 Inputs FF0 K0 X X (Contd.)
(Contd.) Present State Q1 0 0 1 1 1 1 Q0 1 1 0 0 1 1 Input X 0 1 0 1 0 1 Next state Q1* 0 1 1 1 1 0 Q0* 1 0 0 1 1 0 Output Y 0 0 0 0 0 1 J1 0 1 X X X X FF FF1 K1 X X 0 0 0 1 J0 X X 0 1 X X Inputs FF0 K0 0 1 X X 0 1
Q1Q0 X 00 01 11 10 0 1 0 0 0 1 ´ ´ ´ ´
Q1Q0 X 00 01 11 10 0 ´ 1 ´ ´ ´ 0 1 0 0
J1 = Q0× X Q1Q0 X 00 01 11 10 0 1 0 1 ´ ´ ´ ´ 0 1
K1 = Q0× X Q1Q0 X 00 01 11 10 0 ´ 1 Y = Q1 × Q0 × X ´ 0 1 0 1 ´ ´
J0 = X
K0 = X
X J1 FF1 K1
Q1
Q1
J0 FF0 K0 Clock Fig. Prob. 8.26(c)
Q0
Q0
8.27
(a)
D1 = Q1 ⊕ X D0 = Q0 ⊕ Q1 Z = Q1 ⋅ X + Q0
109
(b) The state table will be
Q1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 Present State Q0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Input X 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Next State Q1* Q0* 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 Output Z 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
Here, the initial state has been assumed as Q1 Q0 = 00 and correspondingly the other states have been assigned. From the table, we obtain the output sequence as 001110. 8.28
Present Q1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 State Q0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 Input X 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Next State Q1* 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 Q0* 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 FF1 J1 0 0 1 0 X X X X K1 X X X X 0 0 0 1 J0 0 1 X X 0 1 X X FF inputs FF0 K0 X X 1 0 X X 0 1
From the state diagram, state table as shown above is prepared and inputs to FF0 and FF1 are obtained using the excitation table of JK FF. Kmaps are prepared for J1, K1, J0, and K0 with Q1, Q0, and X as the input variables as given below.
X Q1Q0 00 01 11 10 0 0 1 0 1 0 ´ ´ ´ ´ X Q1Q0 00 01 11 10 0 ´ 1 ´ ´ ´ 0 1 0 0
J1 = Q0× X Q1Q0 X 00 01 11 10 0 1 0 1 ´ ´ ´ ´ 0 1
K1 = Q0× X Q1Q0 X 00 01 11 10 0 ´ 1 0 ´ 1 ´ 0 1 ´ K0 = Q1 ¤ X
J0 = X Fig. Prob. 8.28(a)
The circuit can be drawn using the above expressions.
110
J0 FF0 K0 Clock X
Q0
J1 FF1
Q1
Q0
K1
Q1
Fig. Prob. 8.28 (b)
8.29
The State table along with the inputs required for T, SR, and JK FLIPFLOPs are given in the Table. From this the simplified expressions for these inputs are obtained using Kmaps. These are T2 = Q 2 ⋅ Q1 ⋅ Q 0 ⋅ X + Q 2 ⋅ X + Q 0 ⋅ X T1 = Q 0 + Q 2 ⋅ Q1 ⋅ X + Q 2 ⋅ Q1 ⋅ X + Q 2 ⋅ Q1 ⋅ X T0 = Q 0 + Q1 X and Y = Q0 ⋅ X S2 = Q 0 ⋅ X + Q1 ⋅ Q 0 ⋅ X R2 = Q 0 ⋅ X S1 = Q 0 + Q 2 ⋅ X R1 = Q 2 ⋅ X + Q 2 ⋅ Q 0 ⋅ X S0 = Q 1 ⋅ Q 0 ⋅ X R0 = Q0 and Y = Q0 ⋅ X J2 = Q1 ⋅ Q 0 ⋅ X + Q 0 ⋅ X K2 = X J1 = Q 0 + Q 2 ⋅ X K1 = Q 2 ⋅ X + Q 2 ⋅ X J0 = Q1 ⋅ X K0 = 1
(a)
(b)
(c)
and
Y = Q0 ⋅ X The complete circuits can be drawn using the above expressions.
111
112
8.30 Table 8.17 along with the inputs J2, K2, J1, K1, J0, and K0 required for the FFS is given below.
Present State Q2 Q1 Q0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 Input Next State Output X Q2* Q1* Q0* Y J2 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 X X K2 X X X X X X X X 1 0 FF inputs J1 K1 J0 1 0 0 1 X X X X 1 0 X X X X 0 1 1 1 X X 0 1 X X 1 0 X X 1 0 K0 X X 1 1 X X 1 1 X X
The simplified expressions are: J2 = Q 0 ⋅ X + Q1 ⋅ Q 0 ⋅ X K2 = X J1 = Q 0 ⋅ X + Q 0 ⋅ X K1 = Q0 + X J0 = Q 2 ⋅ Q1 ⋅ X + Q1 ⋅ X + Q 2 ⋅ X K0 = 1 Y = Q 2 ⋅ X + Q1 ⋅ X + Q1 ⋅ Q 0 The Complete circuit can be drawn using the above expressions. 8.31 The state diagram is given below.
1/0 1/0
000 1/0
001 1/1
010 1/0 0/0
1/0
111 1/1 0/1 110 0/0 0/1 101 0/1 Fig. Prob. 8.31 0/0
011 0/0
0/0
100
1/0
113
From Table 8.18 we observe that from the present states 001 and 100, the next states and the outputs are same. This means these two states are identical and one of them can be eliminated. Similarly, the states 011 and 111 are identical. Therefore, eliminating the states 100 and 111 we obtain Table Prob. 8.31 (a). From this we observe that the states 000 and 010 are identical. Therefore, the state 010 can be eliminated and the reduced state table is given in Table Prob. 8.31 (b). Table Prob. 8.31(a)
Present State Q2 Q1 Q0
* Q2
Next State X=0 * * Q1 Q0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0
* Q2
X=1 * * Q1 Q0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1
Output Y X=0X=1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
0 0 0 0 1 1
0 0 1 1 0 1
0 1 0 1 1 0
1 0 1 1 1 1
0 0 0 0 0 0
Table Prob. 8.31 (b)
Present State Q2 Q1 Q0
* Q2
Next State X=0 * * Q1 Q0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0
* Q2
X=1 * * Q1 Q0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1
Output Y X=0X=1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1
0 0 0 1 1
0 0 1 0 1
0 1 1 1 0
1 0 1 1 1
0 0 0 0 0
8.32 (a) The circuit can be designed using the method similar to that of Example 8.15. (b) The circuit can be designed using the method similar to the design of Probs. 8.26(c), 8.28, 8.29(c), and 8.30. 8.33 The output sequence can be obtained similar to Prob. 8.27(b) and is given below. 01000111010 8.34 (a) (i) The circuit is initially in stable total state 0001 (first row, second column). When X1, X2 because 11, the state transitions will be 00 ® 11 ® 11
Shown in the Fig. Prob. 8.34(a) (i) by solid arrows.
114
X1 X2 Q1 Q2 00 00 01 11 10
01 00
11 10 11 10 11 10
Fig. Prob. 8.34(a) (i)
Since, both the states are required to change here, therefore, race condition exists and the circuit will either attain 01 or 10 state first. If it is 01, state transitions will be 00 ® 01 ® 10 ® 10 Shown in the Fig. Prob. 8.34(a) (i) by dotted arrows. If it is 10, the circuit goes to 10 stable state from 10 unstable state. 00 ® 10 ® 10 (ii) The circuit is initially in stable total state 1111 (third row, third column). When X1 X2 becomes 01, the state transitions will be 11 ® 00 ® 00 It is shown by solid arrows in Fig. Prob. 8.34(a) (ii) Here again both the states are required to change, therefore, race condition exists. The circuit will be making transitions. 11 ® 10 ® 00 ® 00 or 11 ® 01 ® 00 ® 00 depending upon whether Q1 changes first or Q2 changes first. Both are shown in Fig. Prob. 8.34(a) (ii)
Q1 Q2 X1 X2 00 01 00 00 00 00 Fig. Prob. 8.34 (a) (ii) 11 11 10
00 01 11 10
(b) In (a)(i) The circuit is required to change from stable state 00 to stable state 11 , but due to unequal time delays, the circuit goes to stable state 10 which shows that the race is critical. In (a)(ii).
115
The state change is from 11 to 00 through both the paths and therefore, the race is noncritical. 8.35 (a)
X1 X2 00 Q 2 Q2 00 01 11 10 00 00 – – 01 – 11 11 – 11 01 01 11 – 10 00 01 01 –
Fig. Prob. 8.35 (a) Transition Table
For X1 X2 = 00, the next state specified is 00, therefore, the entry in the first row, first column will be 00 . When X1 changes to 1 while X2 = 0, again the next state specified is 00, therefore, the entry in the first row, fourth column will be 00 . Similarly, squares corresponding to input sequence are filled. These are shown in Fig. Prob. 8.35(a). All the remaining squares are unspecified.
+ + (b) Kmaps are prepared for Q1 and Q 2 from the state transition table. These are shown in Fig. Prob. 8.35(b).
X1 X 2 Q1 Q2 00 01 11 10 00 0 0 ´ ´ 01 ´ 1 1 ´ 11 0 0 1 ´ 10 0 0 0 ´
X1 X2 Q1 Q2 00 00 01 11 10 0 0 ´ ´
01 ´ 1 1 ´
11 1 1 1 ´
10 0 1 1 ´
+ (i) Kmap for Q 1
+ (ii) Kmap for Q 2
Fig. Prob. 8.35 (b)
The next state logic equations are
+ Q1 = X 1 X2 + X2 Q1 + Q 2 = X2 + X1 Q2
116
(c) The logic circuit is shown in Fig. Prob 8.35 (c).
X1
X2 X2 Q1 X1 Q2
Q1+
Q2+
Fig. Prob. 8.35(c) Logic diagram
8.36 When the circuit is in stable state e inputs can change to 01 or 10. When X1 X2 = 01, the output Y may be 0 or 1 and the nextstate will be b. Since for the stable state b , the output is 0 and for the stable state e the output is 1, while transition from e ® b ® b , the output may change during unstable b or stable b . Similarly, when X1 X2 = 10, X2 has changed while X1 = 1, therefore, Y = 1 and the next state will be f and then f . X1 X2 = 00, is not possible when the circuit is in stable state e , therefore, the next state and the output are unspecified for X1 = X2 = 0 and the entry in the first column, fifth row will be –, –. When the circuit is in stable state f , the input can change to 00 or 11. If it changes to 00, the nextstate will be a and the output may be 0 or 1, since the outputs for stable states f and a are 1 and 0 respectively. When X1 X2 becomes 11, the nextstate will be e and since X1 = 1 and X2 is changing state, therefore, Y = 1. From f , it can not go to X1 X2 = 01, therefore, the entries in the second column, sixth row will be –, –.
117
CHAPTER 9
9.1 Let us assume that the voltage vc = V(0), i.e., the voltage corresponding to LOW level, at t = 0. Therefore, vo = V(1), the output of the AND gate will be V(1) which will charge the capacitor C with the time constant t = RC. When vc reaches V(1), the output of the inverter goes to V(0), thereby discharging the capacitor with the same time constant through the output transistor of the AND gate, and so on. Thus, square waveform will be generated at the output. The waveforms of vc and vo are illustrated below.
vc V(1) t V(0) t vo V(1) t
V(0) 0 T1 T2 Fig. Prob. 9.1 t
9.2 Let vo be in logic 0 state under steadystate condition. The output of the NAND gate will be logic 1; the capacitor will get charged to voltage V(1) making the input to the inverter as logic 0 which produces logic 1 at the output. This shows that it is not possible for vo to be in logic 0 state under steady state. 9.3 When the voltage vi at the input is very low, the output voltage will be maximum positive. It will saturate at vo = VD + VZ1. This makes the voltage at the noninverting input terminal as R2 R1 (V Z 1 + V D ) + V R1 + R 2 R1 + R 2 R When the voltage at the input increases and passes through the above voltage, the output voltage vo will change from (VD + VZ1) to – (VZ2 + VD). Hence R2 R1 (V Z 1 + VD ) + VUT = V R1 + R 2 R1 + R 2 R Now, when vi > VUT , vo = – (VZ2 + VD) This gives voltage at the noninverting input terminal as
− (V Z 2 + V D )
118
R2 R1 + V R1 + R 2 R1 + R 2 R
When the voltage at the input decreases and passes through this value, the output vo changes from – (VZ2 + VD) to + (VZ1 + VD). Hence VLT = −
R2 R1 (V + VD ) + V R1 + R 2 Z 2 R1 + R 2 R
9.4 Using the expressions for VUT and VLT derived in Prob. 9.3, we obtain VUT =
0.1 ( 4. 6 + 0. 6 ) + 100 (1) 100 + 0.1 100 + 0.1
» 1.0042 V VLT = −
0. 1 ( 4. 6 + 0. 6) + 100 (1) 100 + 0. 1 100 + 0. 1
» 0.9938 V The input waveform is shown in Fig. Prob. 9.4(a) with VUT and VLT marked. When the input voltage is zero, the output is + 5.2 V. Now, when the increasing input voltage passes through the voltage VUT, the output changes from +5.2 V to –5.2 V and remains at that level as long as the input voltage is higher than VLT. As soon as the decreasing input voltage passes through VLT, the output comes back to +5.2 V. The output waveform is illustrated in Fig. Prob. 9.4(b).
vi 5V VUT VLT 0
t
5V (a) vo 5.2 V
0
t
5.2 V (b) Fig. Prob. 9.4 119
9.5 The maximum negative output voltage Vo′ and the maximum positive output voltage Vo′′ are given by
Vo′ = VZ2 + VD1
and
Vo′′ = VZ1 + VD2
Let us assume the output voltage to be maximum positive (V 0′′ ). The capacitor C will be charging from –b Vo′ to Vo′′ with the time constant t = RfC, where b = (R2/R1 + R2). The capacitor voltage is given by vc = V o′′ – (Vo′′ + b Vo′ )e – t/t at \ or t = T1, vc = b Vo′′ b Vo′′ = Vo′′ – ( Vo′′ + b Vo′ ) e T1 /t T1 = t 1n
Vo′′ + bVo′ Vo′′ (1 − b )
At T1, the output voltage changes from positive maximum to negative maximum ( Vo′ ). Consequently, the capacitor will discharge with the same time constant from b Vo′′ to – Vo′ . However, the discharge will be terminated as soon as vc reaches –b Vo′ , at which time the output will swing back from – Vo′ to + Vo′′ . During the discharging of the capacitor. vc = – Vo′ + ( Vo′ + b V o′′ ) e – t/t at \ or t = T2, vc = b Vo′ b Vo′ = – Vo′ + ( Vo′ + b V o′′ ) e–T2/t T2 = t 1n
Vo′ + bVo′′ Vo′ (1 − b )
The charging and discharging will go on in the same way and the time period of the resulting output square waveform will be T = T1 + T2
1 1 and the frequency = f = = T T1 + T2
9.6 During the interval T1 when vo is positive, the feedback resistance R¢f in series with the conducting diode D will be in the circuit. Similarly, during the interval T2 when the output is negative, R¢¢ in series with the conducting diode will f be effective. Therefore, the output voltage levels will be
Vo′ = VZ2 + VD1 – VD » VZ2
and
Vo′′ = VZ1 + VD2 – VD » VZ1
120
If we assume identical Zeners for convenience, and R¢f = R¢¢, the square wave f will be symmetrical. In case R¢f ¹ R¢¢f , the periods T1 and T2 can be obtained using the relationships derived in Prob. 9.5 and are given by T1 = t 1 1n T2 = t 2 1n
Vo′′ + bVo′ , t 1 = R′ C f Vo′′(1 − b ) Vo′ + bVo′′ , t 2 = R ′′ C f Vo′ (1 − b )
and
The output voltage waveform is shown in Fig. Prob. 9.6.
v V ¢¢ o bVO¢¢ vc t2 t vo
t1 0
bV¢¢ O  VO ¢ T1 T2 T3 T4
Fig. Prob. 9.6
9.7 If vo = –Vo under steadystate, the capacitor C will get charged with the polarity opposite to that indicated in the figure. When the capacitor voltage passes through the voltage bVo, the output voltage will go to +Vo. This shows that the output voltage cannot remain as –Vo under steadystate. 9.8 When the output voltage is in logic 1 state, i.e., V(1), the capacitor C charges with the time constant t = RC. The charging gets terminated when vc reaches VUT and the output changes to V(0) = 0 V. Now, the capacitor discharges with the same time constant until its voltage becomes VLT. At this voltage, the output goes back to V(1). The timings T1 and T2 corresponding to the charging and discharging of C respectively are given by T1 = RC 1n T2 = RC 1n
V (1) − V LT V (1) − VUT
and
VUT V LT
121
Hence,
VUT ù é V (1)  VLT + 1n T = T1 + T2 = RC ê1n ú VLT û ë V (1)  VUT
9.9 An astable multivibrator with T1 = 30 s and T2 = 60 s can be used for this purpose. A circuit using OP AMP Schmit trigger circuit is shown below. In this circuit when the output is positive, diode D3 conducts and the RED bulb is ON. On the other hand, the diode D4 will conduct when the output is negative and consequently the GREEN bulb will be ON. Assuming identical Zener diodes, we obtain (using the results of Prob. 9.6), T1 = τ 1 1n
1+ β 1− β
R¢ f R¢¢ f – +
D1 D2 R – R1 + + VZ VZ RED D3 D4 vo
C R2 Fig. Prob. 9.9 –
GREEN
and Let \
T2 = τ 2 1n
1+β 1−β
R1 = R2 = 100 kW, b =
1 2
and
C = 1000 mF
R¢f = 27.3 kW and R¢¢f = 54.6 kW TON » 0.7 RC Assuming R = 1.5 kW C =
0. 2 × 10 −6 ≈ 200 pF 0. 7 × 1. 5 × 10 3
122
9.10 (a) The pulse duration is given by
(b) The pulse duration for C < 1000 pF is given by the graph shown in Fig. Prob. 9.8. Assuming R = 10 kW, we obtain from the graph C » 35 pF.
10000 7000 4000 2000 1000 700 400 200 100 70 40 20 10 122 123
TON Output pulse width, ns
R = 50 kW R = 30 kW R = 20 kW R = 10 kW R = 5 kW
1 2 4 10 20 40 100 200 400 1000 CEXT External timing capacitance, pF Fig. Prob. 9.8
9.11 (a) Here R = 2 kW \C=
5 × 10 −3 = 3. 57 µF 0. 7 × 2 × 10 −3
The duty cycle is 67% with the internal resistor. Therefore, the time period, T =
5 = 7. 5 m s 0. 67
and the maximum frequency, fmax =
1 ≈ 134 Hz 7. 5 × 10 −3 5 × 10 −3 ≈ 178. 6 nF 0. 7 × 40 × 10 3
(b)
C=
The duty cycle is 90% with an external resistance of 40 kW. Therefore, the maximum frequency, fmax = 180 Hz 9.12 The frequency and duty cycle are given by 1. 4 f= C (RA + 2RB ) and D =
(9.1)
RA + RB × 100 RA + 2RB
123
(9.2)
From Eq. (9.2) 60 = or
RA + RB × 100 RA + 2RB
RB = 2RA, Assuming RA = 1 kW
Now, from Eq. (9.1), we obtain C=
1. 4 ≈ 4. 67 nF × 10 3 × 100 × 10 3 3
The circuit is shown in Fig. Prob. 9.12.
VCC
RA 4 8 7 2 555 6 + C 5 1 3 – vC vO RB
0.01 mF Fig. Prob. 9.12
9.13 (a) When the voltage across the capacitor (vc) is increasing and is less than 2/3 VCC, the output voltage is HIGH and the capacitor charges with the time constant t1 = RAC. When vc reaches 2/3 VCC, the capacitor gets discharged through RA and RB with the time constant t2 = (RARB) C and the output voltage drops to 0 V. As soon as this decreasing voltage crosses 1/3 VCC, the charging starts again. The waveforms of vc and output voltage, vo are illustrated in Fig. Prob. 9.13(a). (b) The circuit corresponding to the charging of the capacitor C is shown in Fig. Prob. 9.13(b) and corresponding to the discharging is shown in Fig. Prob. 9.13(c). During charging the voltage across the capacitor, vc, is given by vc = 1 VCC + 2 VCC (1 − e − t / τ 1 ) 3 3 t = T1, vc = 2 VCC 3
124
at
vC To VCC 2/3VCC t1 1/3VCC To 0V 0 T1 vo V(1) t T2 t t2
0 T (a) VCC RA RA vC + – vC C + – C RB VCC
(b) Fig. Prob. 9.13
(c)
\ or
e  T1 /t 1 = 1 2 T1 » 0.7 t1 = 0.7 RAC
During discharging, vc is given by
RB RB é2 ù VCC ú e  t /t 2 + VCC vc = ê VCC R A + RB R A + RB ë3 û
at which gives T2 = t = T2, vc =
1 3
VCC
R A RB é 2 R A  RB ù C 1n ê ú + RB RA ë RA  2 RB û
125
\ T = T1 + T2 = 0.7 RAC + Duty cycle = T1/T ´ 100%
RA RB é 2 RA  RB ù C 1n ê ú RA + RB ë RA  2 RB û
(c) From the expressions for T1 and T2 obtained in part (b), we observe that it is possible to make T1 = T2 (i.e., 50% duty cycle). The condition which must be satisfied to achieve this is 0.7RA = (d) If
R A RB é 2 R A  RB ù 1n ê ú RA + RB ë RA  2 RB û
RB = 20 kW From part (a), we obtain
RA 20 é 2 RA  20 ù 1n ê ú = 0.7 R A RA + 20 ë RA  40 û
or RA » 48 kW
(e) From Fig. Prob. 9.13 c, we obtain
RB R VCC < 1 VCC , or R B < A 3 2 RA + RB
9.14 (a) The input pulses and the corresponding output for this monostable circuit of Fig. 9.35 are given in Fig. Prob. 9.14.
T1 Input pulses Output 0 1 T Fig. Prob. 9.14
A
B
The output is in LOW state until the first falling edge (A) appears, at which time it goes HIGH. It remains HIGH for a period T = 1.1 RAC and then goes LOW. It will remain LOW till the next negative edge (B) appears. If (n – 1) T < T < nT1 where n is an integer, then the frequency of the output waveform will be
fo =
fi æ 1ö ç fi = T ø ÷ n è 1
Thus the circuit functions as a frequency divider.
126
(b) Here
T1 = 1 m s 10
Choose RA and C values in Fig. 9.35 such that Since 0.2 ms < T < 0.3 m s T = 1.1 RAC
Therefore, if we choose RA = 2.2 kW and C = 0.1 mF then T = 0.242 m s 9.15 If the output is in HIGH state under steadystate, the transistor T1 of the timer is cutoff and the capacitor is therefore getting charged. When the voltage across the capacitor reaches 2/3 VCC, the transistor goes to saturation, thereby discharging C and the output goes LOW. Hence, it is not possible for the circuit to be in HIGH output state under steadystate. 9.16 In the circuit of Fig. 9.35, if we connect pin4 (Reset) to pin2 (Trigger) it becomes a retriggerable monostable multivibrator. In this circuit, whenever the trigger pulse goes LOW, the circuit is reset, i.e., the output and the discharge terminals go LOW. When the input pulse goes from LOW to HIGH, the output goes to HIGH for a time period T = 1.1 RC. Thus, the circuit becomes a retriggerable monostable multivibrator.
127
CHAPTER 10
10.1 10.2
10 10 S = V. As long as DV < , i.e., 2 8 − 1 255 2 5/255 V the leastsignificant bit will be significant. The analog output voltages for each of the digital inputs are given below. From this we observe that this circuit converts digital inputs in one’s complement format to analog output.
The step size or resolution =
Digital Input S2 S1 S0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1
Output voltage without offset – 3.5 – 2.5 – 1.5 – 0.5 + 0.5 + 1.5 + 2.5 + 3.5
Output due to offset + 3.5 + 3.5 + 3.5 + 3.5 – 3.5 – 3.5 – 3.5 – 3.5
Net Output Vo 0 1 2 3 –3 –2 –1 0
10.3 (i) Let b3 = 0, b2 = 1 and b1 = b0 = 0. The equivalent circuit corresponding to the lower order four bits is shown in Fig. Prob. 10.3(a). From this we obtain Iin
=
VR (8 /11R) × ( r + 8 /11R) r (8 /11R) 2R + ( r + 8 /11R ) VR 2R
The current due to b6 is \ or
V R (8/ 11R ) VR = 2 R( r + 8 /11R) + r (8/ 11r ) 16 × 2 R
r=8R
RF b2 2R r Iin +
VO
VR
R 4R 8R
Fig. Prob. 10.3(a)
(ii) Let b3 = b2 = b0 = 0, and b1 = 1. The corresponding equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. Prob. 10.3(b).
128
Iin =
VR (8 /13 R) ´ r (8 /13 R ) ( r + 8 /13 R) 4R + r + 8 /13 R VR . 4R
The current due to b5 is
To satisfy the same condition, we obtain r = 8 R.
RF b1 4R r Iin +
VO
VR
R 2R 8R
Fig. Prob. 10.3(b)
(iii) Let b3 = b2 = b1 = 0, and b0 = 1 The equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. Prob. 10.3(c) from which we obtain Iin =
VR ( 4 / 7 R) × ( r + 4 / 7 R) r ( 4 / 7 R) 8R + ( r + 4 / 7 R)
The current due to b4 is VR/8R. Therefore, to satisfy the same condition, we obtain r = 8R
RF b0 8R r Iin VR R 2R 4R +
VO
Fig. Prob. 10.3 (c)
10.4 The modified circuit will be equivalent to the circuit given in Fig. 10.4. The analog output voltages for various digital inputs are given in table The output voltage is given by
RF RF æ RF ö Vo + V1 + V2 ÷ Vo =  ç R R /2 R /3 ø è
129
S0
R RF = R R/2 +
S1
VO
S2
R/3 Fig. Prob. 10.4
where
Vn = – =+
1 2 1 2
if Sn = 1 if Sn = 0. Table Prob. 10.4
S2 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
Digital Inputs S1 S0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1
Analog Output V 0 +1 +2 +3 –3 –2 –1 0
We observe from the table that this circuit also converts digital input in one’s complement format to analog output. 10.5 The circuit for 4bit D/A converter is shown in Fig. Prob. 10.5. This circuit without offset gives an analog output of –7.5 V for the digital input 0000 and
+ 1/2 V1 0 1 0 1 0 R/2 RF = R + VO R 0 1 S2 ROFF 1/2 V +
R/4
V (1) = 1/2 V
R/8 1 0 V (0) = 1/2 V Fig. Prob. 10.5 130
+7.5 V for the digital input 1111. Therefore, the offset required is +7.5 V for 0000 input and –7.5 V for 1111 input. R Therefore, ROFF = 15 10.6 When the 4bit digital input is 0000, the output voltage will be

1 2
RF RF RF ö æ RF ç  R + R /4 + R /2 + R ÷ è ø X
where, RX is the resistance in the path of switch S 3 . This voltage must be 0. Therefore, R RX = 4 + 2 + 1 or RX = R/7
R R/2 R/4 R/7 S3 Fig. Prob. 10.6 + VO
The resulting circuit is shown in Fig. Prob. 10.6.
S0 S1 S2 RF = R
10.7 Let the analog voltage range be from –V0 to +V0. The step size will be 2/7 V0. The reference voltages are given below. There is one more negative number than the positive numbers in 2’s complement representation. The circuit is shown in Fig. Prob. 10.7.
Reference voltages V0 VR7 = 5/7 V0 VR6 = 3/7 V0 VR5 = 1/7 V0 VR4 = –1/7 V0 VR3 = –3/7 V0 VR2 = –5/7 V0 VR1 = –V0 –9/7 V0 0 2’s complement digital output S 011 010 001 000 111 110 101 100
If we choose to ignore 100 output, the resistor chain will be connected between +V0 and –Vo and only six comparators will be required. The decoder circuit can be designed in the usual manner.
131
V R Va Analog voltage VR7 = +5/7 V0 R VR6 = +3/7 V0 R VR5 = +1/7 V0 R VR4 = –1/7 V0 R VR3 = –3/7 V0 R VR2 = –5/7 V0 R VR1 = –V0 R –9/7 Vo Fig. Prob. 10.7 – + – + – C5 Two’s complement format + – + – + – + – + C1 C2 C3 C4 L A T C H E S D E C O D E R C6 C7
B2 ü B1 ý B0 þ
ï ï
10.8 The conversion time t is given by
Va ⋅ 2 N ⋅ TC VR where, N is the number of bits in the digital output, TC is the time period of the clock, Va is the analog voltage, and VR is the reference voltage. The largest Va can be equal to VR. Therefore, when Va = VR
t = 2 N ⋅ TC + t = 2 N + 1 ⋅ TC = 2 13 × 10 −5 or, f<
10 5 8192
Therefore, f < 12 per second.
132
10.9 The voltage step =
=
10 V 26 −1
10 V 63
10.10 (a) DAC 80 is a 12bit D/A converter. (i) Complementary binary input (CBI) Table Prob. 10.10(a) gives the voltage corresponding to LSB for each of the ranges. Table Prob. 10.10(a)
Analog output range 0 0 0 0 0 to ± 2.5 V to ± 5 V to ± 10 V to + 5 V to + 10 V Voltage corresponding to LSB 1.22 2.44 4.88 1.22 2.44 mV mV mV mV mV
(ii) Complementary coded decimal code (CCD) input The analog output range for this code is 0 to + 10 V. Therefore, the voltage corresponding to LSD = 10/1000 = 10 mV (b) ADC 80 is a 12bit A/D converter. The voltages corresponding to LSB for various analog input ranges are given in Table Prob. 10.10(b). Table Prob. 10.10(b)
Analog input voltage range ± 2.5 V ±5V ± 10 V 0 to 5 V 0 to 10 V Voltage corresponding to LSB 1.22 2.44 4.88 1.22 2.44 mV mV mV mV mV
10.11 (a) CSB: It is complementary straight binary code. For example, the straight binary code for decimal 2 is 0010. Decimal 2 will be coded in CSB as complement of 0010, which is 1101. (b) COB: It is complementary offset binary code. It is determined by finding out CSB and then offsetting it by –2n – 1. Where n is the number of bits used to represent the number. For example, decimal 2 will be coded as 1101 – 1000 = 0101. (c) CTC: It is complementary two’s complement code. It is obtained by complementing two’s complement, for example, two’s complement representation of – 2 is 1110 and therefore, it will be coded in CTC as 0001. (d) CCD: It is complementary coded decimal code. It is obtained by complementing the natural BCD code. For example, natural BCD code
133
for decimal 2 is 0010 and therefore, it will be coded in CCD as 1101. Table Prob. 10.11 gives the decimal number for each of the 4bit binary numbers in each of the above codes. Table Prob. 10.11
Binary CSB 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Equivalent decimal values COB CTC +7 +6 +5 +4 +3 +2 +1 0 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7 –8 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7 –8 +7 +6 +5 +4 +3 +2 +1 0 CCD – – – – – – 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
134
CHAPTER 11
11.1 The number of pins P is given by 2P = M (a) P = 2 Address range: A1A0 = 00 to 11 (b) P = 4 Address range: A3A2A1A0 = 0000 to 1111 (c) P = 6 Address range: A5A4A3A2A1A0 = 000000 to 111111 (d) P = 8 Address range: A7A6A5A4A3A2A1A0 = 00000000 to 11111111 (e) P = 10 Address range: A9A8A7A6A5A4A3A2A1A0 = 0000000000 to 1111111111 (f) P = 11 Address range: A10A9A8A7A6A5A4A3A2A1A0 = 00000000000 to 11111111111 (g) P = 16 Address range: A15 A14 A13 A12 A11 A10 A9 A8 A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0 = 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 to 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 (h) P = 20 Address range:
A19 A18 A17 A16 A15 A14 A13 A12 A11 A10 A9 A8 A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0= 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 to 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
11.2 (a) 0 to 3; 0 to F; 00 to 3F; 00 to FF; 000 to 3FF; 000 to 7FF; 0000 to FFFF; 00000 to FFFFF. (b) 0 to 3; 00 to 17; 00 to 77; 000 to 377; 0000 to 1777; 0000 to 3777; 000000 to 177777; 0000000 to 3777777. 11.3 The maximum access rate = 1/Cycle time gives the maximum rate for each memory. It is given below for each memory.
Memory A B Maximum rate
1 × 10 9 = 666666/s 1500 1 × 10 9 = 1724137/s 580
(Contd.) 135
(Contd.) Memory C D E F Maximum rate
1 × 10 9 = 2222222/s 450
6 1 × 10 9 = 5 ´ 10 /s 200
1 × 10 9 = 16666666/s 60 1 × 10 9 = 1250000/s 800
11.4 (a) 4 chips of 2142 and one 1out of4 (i.e., 2lineto4line) decoder IC will be required. (b) 2 chips of 2142. (c) 16 K bytes = 16 K ´ 8 = (16 ´ 1024) ´ (4 ´ 2) = 32 ´ (1024 ´ 4) Therefore, 32 chips of 2142 will be required. One 1out of16 decoder will be required to select a specific chip pair. 11.5 (a) Since the total number of locations is 4 K, therefore, the width of the address bus required is 12. The lower ten bits of the address (A0 – A9) are connected to the address bus of each RAM chip, and A10 and A11 are applied to a 2lineto4line decoder. This decoder will select one out of the four chips depending upon the values of A10 and A11. The complete circuit is shown in Fig. Prob. 11.5 (a) which can be understood easily. (b) For obtaining 1024 ´ 8, two 2142 RAM chips are connected as shown in Fig. Prob. 11.5 (b). Here, the address A0 – A9 is applied to both the chips. The upper chip, IC1 has been used for the lower four bits and the lower chip, IC2 for the upper four bits, of the 8bit word. (c) For obtaining 16 K bytes of RAM, 16 sets of 1 K ´ 8 circuits as shown in Fig. Prob. 11.5 (b) are required. A0 – A9 will be same for all the 16 sets. The most significant four bits of the addresses are to be used to select one out of the 16 sets. For this purpose a 4lineto16line decoder circuit is to be used in a way similar to that used in Fig. Prob. 11.5 (a). Let us, for convenience, number these sixteen sets as RAM0 to RAM15. 11.6 (a) 4 K bytes = 4 K ´ 8 = 2 ´ (2 K ´ 8) Therefore, two chips of 2716 and one inverter are required. (b) 2 K ´ 16 = (2 K ´ 8) ´ 2 This also requires two chips of 2716. (c) 4 K ´ 16 = 2 ´ 2 ´ (2 K ´ 8) The number of 2716 chips required is four. One inverter will be required to select one pair of 2716s. 11.7 (a) For 4 K locations, the width of the address bus required is 12. The most significant bit A11 of the address is used to select the chip and the other 11 bits A10A0 are applied to both the chips. The address bit A11 is applied at the chip select ( CS 1 ) input of ROM0 and its complement is applied at
136
A0 – A9
WE
OD
2142 RAM  0 I/O1 – I/O4
CS 1 CS2
+VCC A0 – A9 2142 RAM  1 I/O1 – I/O4
CS 1 CS2
2 3 A0 – A9
+VCC S 2142 RAM  2 I/O1 – I/O4
CS 1 CS2
A11
WE
OD
WE
WE
OD OD
2142 RAM  3 I/O1 – I/O4
CS 1 CS2
+VCC
Fig. Prob. 11.5(a)
CS 2 input. Therefore, when A11 = 0 ROM0 is selected, whereas A11 = 1 will select ROM1. Figure Prob. 11.7(a) illustrates the relevant portion of the circuit. (b) Figure Prob. 11.7(b) shows 2 K ´ 16 ROM. The lower order eight bits of each of the 16bit words are stored in IC1 and the higher order eight bits are stored in the corresponding location in IC2. (c) For obtaining 4 K ´ 16 ROM, use two sets of 2 K ´ 16 memory (Fig. Prob. 11.7(b)) and connect them as shown in Fig. Prob. 11.7(a). 11.8 (a) In the linear selection addressing, a oneoutofN decoder is used to select one of the N memory locations. For example, Fig. Prob. 11.8(a) shows as 4lineto16line decoder used to select one out of sixteen memory locations.
137
D
A0 – A9
A
+VCC
T
A
B
U
(4
A10
2lineto4linedecoder
1
OD
–
0
B
WE
I
T)
A0 – A9
2142 IC1 OD I/O1 – I/O4
WE
CS 1 OD CS2
2142 IC2 A0 – A9 I/O1 – I/O4
ï ï ï ï ï ï8bit output ý (D0 – D7) ï ï ï ï (D4 – D7) ï ï ï þ
(D0 – D3) ü
Fig. Prob. 11.5(b) (8 – B I T) D0 – D7 D A T A O0 – O7 O0 – O7 D8 – D15 B U S
CS 2 2716
2716 A0 – A10 ROM0
CS 1
O0 – O7
A11
A0 – A10
ROM1 O0 – O7 Fig. Prob. 11.7(a) 2716
A0 – A10
IC1
CS CS CS 2716
IC2
A0 – A10
ü ï ï ï 16bit output ï ý (D – D ) 0 15 ï ï ï ï þ
Fig. Prob. 11.7(b) 138
0
Memory location 0 Memory location 1 Memory location 2
ì 3 ï ï A2 Address ï ï inputs í ï A1 ï ï ï A0 î
A
1 4lineto 16line decoder 2
14 15
Memory location 14 Memory location 15
Fig. Prob. 11.8(a)
(b) In the coincident selection addressing, a memory location is selected by applying an X address and a Y address. The decoder circuitry consists of 1outofX and 1outofY decoders as shown in Fig. Prob 11.8 (b). Here, the X address is A1A0 which selects a row and the Y address is A3A2 which enables a column. Each memory element is placed at the intersection of a row and a column.
0 1 2 3 Column Row 0
D00 1 of 4 Decoder DL A0
D01
D02
D03
ì ï A1 ï ï ï ï ï ï Row drivers ï í Diode ï matrix ï Column ïA enable 2 ï ï ï ï A3 ï î
1 of 4 Decoder DH
D10
D11
D12
D13
1
D20
D21
D 22
D23
2
4bit address
D30
D31
D32
D33
3
Column sense amplifiers
Chip select (CS) Data output Fig. Prob. 11.8(b) 139
11.9 The operation of this circuit is similar to that of the circuit of Fig. 11.9(a). Here, the gates of the inverters are not held at VDD but are clocked so that T3 conducts only when f2 = 1 and not when f1 = 1, even if the bit stored on C1 is 1. When T3 conducts, T4 also conducts. The f2 needs to be 1 only long enough to allow C2 to charge from VDD through T3 and T4. In contrast to this, in the circuit of Fig. 11.9a, the power is always drawn from the supply throughout the clock cycle. Therefore, there is considerable reduction in power dissipation in this circuit. 11.10 When the transistor T4 conducts, C3 charges from C2 forming a capacitive loop. In order to charge C3 without causing appreciable voltage drop, the ratio C2/C3 must be very large. Therefore, C2 >> C3. 11.11 During the interval when f1 = 1, C charges to logic 1 through T3, independently of data input (since f2 = 0, therefore, T2 is OFF). This logic level remains on C after f1 returns to logic 0. Now, if the data input is 1, then during f2 = 1, T1 and T2 will conduct and C will get discharged to logic 0 level. On the other hand, if the input is at logic 0, T1 will be OFF and C will continue at logic 1 level. In general, the logic level of C will be complement of input logic level. Similarly, during f3 and f4 phases, the complement of logic level on C will be transferred to output capacitor (between drain of T6 and ground). 11.12 (i) Association Operation: When A1A0 = 11, outputs of the OR gates are 1 irrespective of the logic level at W (i.e., W = X). The outputs of the NOR gates will be 0, which will disable the latches. The output of the EXOR gate will be 0, if the data input bit is same as the bit stored (Q0), otherwise it is 1. Therefore, the output of the AND gate is 1 for mismatch and 0 for match. The output Y of the wiredOR gate will be 0 if both the data inputs match with the bits stored, otherwise it will be 1. The data outputs D1 and D0 are both 0. (ii) Associate Operation with Higher Bit Masked: When A1A0 = 01, and
W = 1, the operation of the circuit will be similar to the operation explained in (i) above except that the output of the AND gate on the I1 side will always be 0, therefore, match condition will be checked only for I0 bit. The AND gate of D1 output is enabled. (iii) Associate Operation with Lower Bit Masked: The operation is similar to the operation of (ii) above.
(iv) Read Operation: When A1A0 = 00, and W = 1, the latches are disabled. Depending upon which Y is selected by making it 0, the output Q0 of the latch appears at the corresponding D output. It is also possible to read more than one location at a time. This happens when more than one address input is made 0. The output will be OR operation performed on all the selected outputs. (v) Write Operation: When A1A0 = 00, and W = 0, the latches are enabled for the location by making the Y input 0. The same data also appears at the D outputs following the arguments of (iv) above.
140
(vi) Associate and Write at the Match Addresses: (a) When A1A0 = 01 and W = 0, the association operation is performed for the lower bit (ii) above. The outputs will be 0 for matched conditions and 1 for mismatch conditions. When there is matching, the corresponding higher bit (I1) is latched into the latch and it also appears at the D1 output. (b) When A1A0 = 10 and W = 0, the operation will be similar to the operation of part (a) above. The matching will be performed for higher bits and the lower bit (I0) will be stored in the locations for which I1 match. 11.13 Since 16 ´ 2 = 2 ´ (8 ´ 2), therefore, it requires two chips. The data inputs, data outputs, and mode control inputs of two 8 ´ 2 CAMs are connected as shown in Fig. Prob. 11.13. The resulting system has 16 address inputs (Y0 – Y15). Thus, it becomes a CAM of sixteen 2bit words.
I1 I0 A1 A0 Y0 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Y5 Y6 Y7 D0 D1
A0 A1 I0 I1
8´2 CAM IC1 D1 D0
W
W
W
A0 A1 I0 I1
D1
D0
8´2 CAM IC2
Y8 Y9 Y10 Y11 Y12 Y13 Y14 Y15
Fig. Prob. 11.13
11.14 8 ´ 8 = 4 ´ (8 ´ 2) Therefore, the number of chips required is four. Since the number of words is 8, therefore, Y0 – Y7 of each chip are connected to a common bus. The circuit of 8 ´ 8 CAM is shown in Fig. Prob. 11.14. 11.15 16 ´ 8 = 2 ´ (8 ´ 8) Therefore, for designing a 16 ´ 8 CAM, two 8 ´ 8 CAMs as shown in Fig. 11.14 can be connected as shown in Fig. Prob. 11.15. 11.16 It is a 16word, 8bit word CAM. The first operation is to interrogate the MSB of all words for a 1 with all other bits masked, i.e., the key is
141
A7 A6 I7 I6
A5 A4 I5 I4
A3 A2 I3 I2
A1 A0 I1 I0
A1 A0 I1 I0 8´2 CAM
A1 A0 I1 I0 8´2 CAM
A1 A0 I1 I0 8´2 CAM
A1 A0 I1 I0 8´2 CAM
Y0 – Y7
Y0 – Y7
Y0 – Y7 D0 D4
Y0 – Y7
W D1
D7
D0 D6
W D1
D5
W D1
D3
D0 D2
W D1
D1
D0 D0
W
Fig. Prob. 11.14
I7 8 ´ 8 CAM
I0 Y0Y7 Y0Y7 D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7
A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0
D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0
W
D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 8 ´ 8 CAM
Y8Y15
Y0Y7
I7 Fig. Prob. 11.15
I0
1XXXXXXX. If only one word indicates a match, then the maximum valued word search is complete. However, if several words indicate a match, then the CAM is to be interrogated again with key as 11XXXXXX. In case no match occurs when the MSB is interrogated, then the next key has to be
142
11.17 11.18
11.19
11.20
01XXXXXX. This process is to continue till at the most all the bits of the words are interrogated. In any case no more than 8 interrogation cycles will be required to determine the maximum valued word. In the case of RAM, each word is to be compared sequentially. Therefore, the time required for the search will be dependent on the number of words stored which is sixteen in this case. The operation is similar to the operation of Prob. 11.16 with 1’s replaced by 0’s in the search process. A CAM is ideal for this. Because of the parallel search operation in CAM, just in one cycle, we can find out whether the word is already stored or not. If not, it can be stored in the next location available. In contrast to this, the search process is serial in a RAM which is time consuming and hence a RAM is not suitable for this purpose. The inputs and the outputs of all the CCDs are to be connected in parallel. The additional address bits are decoded and used to select one of the CCDs for read/write operation. The clock and write enable are also connected in parallel. For expanding word length, the address, chip select, write enable, and clock inputs of all the devices are connected in parallel. The number of data inputs and outputs are used independently. The number of inputs/outputs will be equal to the number of CCDs.
143
CHAPTER 12
12.1 The BCDtoExcess3 code converter’s truth table is given below.
BCD A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 B 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 C 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 D 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 E3 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 Excess3 E2 E1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 E0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0
(a) For the design using PROM, a PROM of size 10 ´ 4 is required, but since PROM of this size does not exist, therefore, a PROM of size 16 ´ 4 is to be used. Data is to be stored in the PROM at the addresses corresponding to the BCD code, the data is Excess3 code. For example at the address 0000, the data stored is 0011 and at the address 1001 the data stored is 1100. (b) Logical expressions can be written for E3, E2, E1, and E0 outputs in terms of A,B,C, and D inputs. To reduce the hardware requirements, these expressions can be minimized using Kmaps.
A B C D
E3 E2 E1 E0 Fig. Prob. 12.1 (b)
The simplified expressions are: E3 = A + BC + BD E2 = B C D + B C + B D E1 = C D + CD E0 = D
144
The size of PLA required is No. of inputs =4 No. of outputs =4 No. of product terms =9 The circuit is given in Fig. Prob. 12.1(b). (c) The required size of PAL is No. of inputs =4 No. of outputs =4 Minimum number of =3 AND gates for each output The circuit is given in Fig. Prob. 12.1(c).
A E3 B E2 C E1 D E0
Fig. Prob. 12.1 (c)
12.2 Follow similar procedure as given in Prob. 12.1. 12.3 Prepare truth table and follow similar procedure as given in Prob. 12.1. 12.4 The inputs of two 82S100 devices are to be connected in parallel. This will result in 8 + 8 = 16 outputs. 12.5 The inputs I0 to IM1 are common for all the PLAs. Depending on the values of IM to IM+Q1, one of the output lines of the decoder will go LOW activating the corresponding PLA and disabling all the other PLAs. Hence, the number of inputs increases. 12.6 Architecture of a PLD refers to the attributes of the device significant to the logic of a design to be implemented. It includes. · Configuration of pins. · The size and the arrangement of the programmable array(s). · Configuration of the input and output interface logic.
145
12.7
Input I1
I1 I2 I2 I3 I3 I4 I4 I5 I5 I6 I6 I7 I7 I8 I8 I9 I9 I10 I 10
Column 2 3 0 1 4 5 8 9 12 13 16 17 20 21 24 25 28 29 30 31
Input/output IO2
IO 2 IO3 IO 3 IO4 IO 4 IO5 IO 5 IO6 IO 6 IO7 IO 7
Column 6 7 10 11 14 15 18 19 22 23 26 27
12.8
Input I1
I1 I2 I2 I3 I3 I4 I4
Column 0 1 4 5 8 9 12 13 16 17 20 21 24 25 28 29
Input/output IO1
IO 1 IO8 IO 8 O2
Column 2 3 30 31 6 7 10 11 14 15 18 19 22 23 26 27
O2 O3
O3 O4 O4 O5 O5 O6 O6 O7 O7
I5
I5
I6
I6
I7
I7 I8 I8
146
12.9 It has four multiplexers, MUX–1, MUX–2, MUX–3 and MUX–4. Each one may be programmed to be in 0 or 1, which means its output will be either same as input 0 or input 1. Table below gives all the possible conditions.
MUX – 1 MUX – 2 MUX – 3 MUX – 4 No. of product Terms 8 8 8 Output Enable pin11 pin11 Term Controlled Term Controlled pin11 pin11 Term Controlled Term Controlled pin11 pin11 Term Controlled Term Controlled pin11 pin11 Term Controlled Term Controlled Output Output pin/FF output feedback input feedback
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 1
0 1 0
Reg. Comb. Reg.
0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1
1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1
8 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7
Comb. Reg. Comb. Reg. comb. Reg. Comb. Reg. Comb. Reg. Comb. Reg. Comb.
input feedback input feedback input feedback input feedback input feedback input feedback input
12.10 These are given in Fig. Prob. 12.10. 12.11 Here the output of an AND gate controls the output. (a) Open all the inputs to the controlling AND gate. (b) Keep all the inputs intact (connected) to the controlling AND gate. (c) Keep the connections corresponding to the inputs A, B, C, D, E , F , G and H intact to the controlling AND gate and open all other connections. 12.12 When x1 = 0, f will be obtained from the upper multiplexer. For x2 = 0, topmost cell will be selected and f will be 1; whereas for x2 = 1, the cell second from the top will get selected and f = 0. Similarly, for x1 =1 when and when x2 = 1, f = 0 x2 = 1, f = 1
147
Registered output B = 1
Combinational output B = 0
AR D Q SP
A=0
AR D Q SP
A=1
AR D Q SP
AR D Q
A=0
SP
AR D Q
AR D Q SP
A=1
SP
Q
A=0
AR D Q SP
AR D Q SP
Q
Fig. Prob. 12.10 148
REGISTER FEEDBACK CD = 00
COMBINATIONAL FEEDBACK CD = 10
BIDIRECTIONAL I/O CD = 11
A=1
Therefore, the truth table will be as given below.
x1 0 0 1 1 x2 0 1 0 1 f 1 0 0 1
12.13 The truth table of the given function f is
x1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 x2 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 x3 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 f 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1
when x1 = 0, f will be obtained from output of top multiplexers’ structure, when x1 = 1, f will be obtained from output of bottom multiplexers’ structure. Now, when x2 = 0, the output will be obtained from the topmost multiplexer and when x2 = 1, it will be obtained from the next multiplexer. When x3 = 0, the output will be from the topmost cell, and when x3 = 1 it will be from be next cell. Similarly, the complete circuit can be analyzed. The bits to be stored will be
0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1
149
CHAPTER 13
13.1 The memory address space is given by M = 2P where, P is the address bus width. The memory address space for the mPs are given below.
Microprocessor 8080A 6800 8086 9900 Z8000 Memory address space 64 K bytes 64 K bytes 1 M bytes 64 K bytes 8 M bytes
13.2 The number of distinct combinations of 8bit words = 28 = 256 Therefore, the total number of instruction codes, assuming single byte op code = 256. The total number of instruction codes in 8085A mP is 246. 13.3 (a) 2142 is a 1024 ´ 4 bits RAM Therefore, 4 K bytes = 4 K ´ 8 bits = 4 ´ 2 ´ (1 K ´ 8) bits = 8 chips 2716 is a 2 K ´ 8 bits EPRPM. Therefore, only one 2716 chip is required. (b) Let the first 2 K bytes be in EPROM and next 4 K bytes be in the RAMs. The relevant connections are shown below.
A8 – A15 8085 A WR
RD
AD0 – AD7 ALE A0 – A7 8212
CLR
DS2 MD
DS 1
+VCC Fig. Prob. 13.3(a) 150
Other connections are indicated below: A0 – A10 from mP to A0 – A10 of 2716 A0 – A9 from mP to A0 – A9 of each of 2142 CS2 of each 2142 to Vcc
WR from mP to WE of each 2142
RD from mP to OD of each 2142
A10 A11 A12 (from mP) A13 A14 A15 (from mP) A0 A1 A2 8205
E1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
To CS of 2716 To CS 1 of RAM set 1 To CS 1 of RAM set 2 To CS 1 of RAM set 3 To CS 1 of RAM set 4
E2 E3
Fig. Prob. 13.3(b)
(c) The address of various chips are given below.
Memory chips EPROM RAM pair RAM pair RAM pair RAM pair Starting address in hex. 1 2 3 4 0000 0800 0C00 1000 1400 Last address in hex. 07FF 0BFF 0FFF 13FF 17FF
13.4
(i) MVI A, 00H ; Load accumulator with zero (ii) SUB A ; Subtract A from A (iii) ANI 00H ; AND A with zero (iv) XRA A ; A EXOR A Note that the information beyond semicolon (;) are comments. 13.5 Let DE and HL pairs be pointers to source and destination memory locations respectively. The program is given below: LXI D, 0F00 H ; Initialize source pointer LXI H, 1F00 H ; Initialize destination pointer LXI B, 100H ; Initialize counter LOOP: LDAX D ; Load A with contents of source memory CMA ; Complement A MOV M, A ; Store in destination memory INX D ; Increment pointers INX H
151
DCX B MOV A, C ORA B JNZ LOOP
; Decrement counter ; Check counter for zero
NEXT: 13.6 The program is given below: LXI H, 0A02H ; Store destination address in HL pair LDA 0A00H ; Load A with first number MOV B, A ; Transfer to B LDA 0A01H ; Load A with second number CMP B ; Compare A and B JZ FINIS ; Go to FINIS if the two numbers are equal JC GREAT ; If CY = 1, (A) < (B) MOV M, A ; Otherwise (A) > (B) JMP FINIS GREAT: MOV M, B FINIS : 13.7 The following instructions will clear the memory location. LXI H, 01A0H MVI M, 00H 13.8 LXI H, A001H ; Initialize pointer MOV C, M ; Get the number of bytes in C INX H ; Increase pointer by 1 START : MOV A, M ; Get a byte of data in A REP : DCR C JZ STOP ; Stop at end of data INX H CMP M ; Compare JC REP ; If (A) < (M), try next number JMP START STOP: STA FF00H ; Store the smallest element END 13.9 ANI 0FH 13.10 LOOP: DCR 0 JZ FINIS IN DATA MOV M, A INX H JMP LOOP FINIS: MOV B, A
152
SOLUTION The operation performed by each instruction is given below: START: LXI H, BUFR ; Initialize HL pair with address BUFR MOV C, 0BH ; Initialize counter with decimal 11 LOOP: DCR C ; Decrease counter by one JZ FINIS ; Go to FINIS if counter = 0 IN DATA ; Input a byte from DATA port MOV M, A ; Move the byte to memory ; location pointed to by HL pair INX H ; Advance the pointer by one JMP LOOP ; Go to loop FINIS: MOV B, A ; Move the contents of A to B The operation performed by this program is to input ten bytes from input port DATA and store them in memory locations starting from BUFR. 13.11 N=3+3+1+1+1+1+1+1 = 12 bytes 13.12 (A) 0000 1000 (B) 1001 0011 ADD B 1001 1011 The result is not a valid BCD number. ADD B instruction must be followed by DAA instruction. The effect of this is given below: 1001 1011 0000 0110 Add 6 because the leastsignificant four bits do not represent a valid BCD digit 1010 0001 0110 0000 Add 60 because the mostsignificant four bits do not represent a valid BCD digit 10000 0001 = (101)10 13.13 Assume a set of ten keys for entering BCD number and a 7segment display for displaying this number. It is also assumed that BCDto7segment codes are stored in memory from the starting address 00XXH. The block diagrams for the input and output devices are shown in Fig. Prob. 13.13(a) and (b) respectively. Assume 01H and 02H as the port addresses of the input device and output device respectively. The addresses are decoded and proper signals are generated for Enable and Device Select terminals for reading and writing. The program can be written as MVI B, XXH LXI H, 0000H IN 01H ADD B MOV L, A MOV A, M OUT 02H
153
VCC
D (MSB) DecimaltoBCD Encoder (Inputs & outputs activelow) C B Inverting Tristate Buffer
D3 D2 D1 Data bus of mP b c d
A D0
Enable (a) Current limiting resistors VCC Common anode a b c f d e e f g a g
Data bus
Dtype Latch
Device Select
(b)
Fig. Prob. 13.13
13.14 The last six instructions will be POP PSW POP H POP D POP B EI RET
154
Here it is assumed that the interrupts are kept disabled during the execution of the subroutine. 13.15 The ASCII code for decimal 0 is 0110000 and for? is 0111111. The program is given below: LXI H, 00F1H LDA 00F0H CPI 0AH JNC QUE ADI 00110000 B MOV M, A JMP STOP QUE : MVI M, 00111111 B STOP: END 13.16 Refer to Table 13.3
mP 8086 80186 80286 80386SL 80386 DX 80486 DX Pentium Address bus width 20 20 24 25 32 32 32
13.17 Eight 8bit or four 16bit AX: AH, AL BX: BH, BL CX: CH, CL DX: DH, DL 13.18 Four zeros at the leastsignificant four bit positions are appended to the 16bit segment register, making it 20bit address. Actual physical 20bit address is this 20bit data plus the contents of the pointer register. 13.19 CS = 2000H IP = 1A00H 20bit address of the next instruction byte will be fetched from 20000 + 1A00 21A00 H 13.20 20bit current address of the stack will be 24000 + A000 2E000 H
155
CHAPTER 14
14.1 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) 14.2 (a) Yes. It contains all the allowed characters. No. character ‘ ’ is not permitted. No. starting character can not be a numeral. Yes. Upper and lower case characters can be mixed. No. Hyphen (–) is not allowed. No. Two consecutive underscores are not allowed. ENTITY NAND 2 IS PORT (X, Y : IN BIT; Z : OUT BIT); END NAND 2; (b) ENTITY NAND 3 IS PORT (A, B, C : IN BIT; Y : OUT BIT); END NAND 3; 14.3 A 4:1 multiplexer is shown in Fig. Prob. 14.3. It has four data inputs I0, I1, I2, and I3 and two select inputs A and B. There is one output Y.
I0 I1 I2 I3 AB Fig. Prob. 14.3
Y
The entity declaration is LIBARY IEEE; USE IEEE STDLOGIC; 1164 ALL; ENTITY MULTI4 IS PORT (IO, I1, I2, I3, A, B ; IN STDLOGIC; Y: OUT STDLOGIC); END MULTI_4; 14.4 (a) For 2input NAND gate ARCHITECTURE df_nand 2 OF NAND 2 IS BEGIN Z Ü NOT (X AND Y) AFTER 10 ns; END dfnand 2; (b) For 3input NAND gate ARCHITECTURE df_nand 3 OF NAND 3 IS BEGIN Y Ü NOT (A AND B AND C) AFTER 10 ns; END df_nand 3; 14.5 LIBRARY IEEE; USE IEEE. STD_LOGIC_1164. ALL;  Name of entity chosen is F_A
156
ENTITY FA IS PORT (A, B, CIN: IN STD_LOGIC; S COUT: OUT STD_LOGIC); END F_A; ARCHITECTURE FA_STR OF F_4 IS COMPONENT NAND 3 PORT (X1, X2, X3 : IN STDLOGIC; Y: OUT STD_LOGIC); END COMPONENT; COMPONENT NAND 4 PORT (X4, X5, X6, X7 : IN STDLOGIC; Z: OUT STD_LOGIC); END COMPONENT; COMPONENT INV PORT (P : IN STD_LOGIC; Q : OUT STD_LOGIC); END COMPONENT; COMPONENT NAND2 PORT (X8, X9 : IN STD_LOGIC; R : OUT STD_LOGIC); END COMPONENT; SIGNAL AB, BB, CINB, S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6, S7 : STD_LOGIC; BEGIN I1 : INV PORT MAP (A, AB); I2 : INV PORT MAP (B, BB); I3 : INV PORT MAP (CIN, CINB); N1 : NAND3 PORT MAP (AB, B, CINB, S1); N2 : NAND3 PORT MAP (AB, BB, CIN, S2); N3 : NAND3 PORT MAP (A, BB, CINB, S3); N4 : NAND3 PORT MAP (A, B, CIN, S4); N5 : NAND4 PORT MAP (S1, S2, S3, S4, S); N6 : NAND2 PORT MAP (A, B, S5); N7 : NAND2 PORT MAP (B, CIN, S6); N8 : NAND2 PORT MAP (A, CIN, S7); N9 : NAND3 PORT MAP (S5, S6, S7 COUT); END FA_STR; 14.6 LIBARY IEEE; USE IEEE. STD_LOGIC1164. ALL; ENTITY FA IS PORT (A, B, CIN: IN STD_LOGIC; S, COUT: OUT STD_LOGIC) END FA; ARCHITECTURE FULL_ADDER OF F_A IS; BEGIN S Ü ((NOT A) AND B AND (NOT CIN)) OR ((NOT A) AND (NOT B) AND CIN) OR (A AND (NOT B) AND (NOT CIN)) OR (A AND B AND CIN) AFTER 15 ns; C OUT Ü (A AND B) OR (B AND CIN) OR (A AND CIN) AFTER 10 ns; END FULL_ADDER;
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A I1 AB
B I2
CIN I3 N 1 BB CINB N2 S2 S1
N5 N3 S3
S
N4 A B B CIN A CIN N6 S5
S4
N7
S6
N9
COUT
N8
S7
Fig. Prob. 14.5
158
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