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MOLECULAR WEIGHT DETERMINATION BY THE VICTOR MEYER METHOD

OBJECTIVE: To determine the molecular weight of an unknown liquid using the Victor Meyer apparatus.

INTRODUCTION: The Victor Meyer method consists of vaporiizing a known weight of liquid in a chamber maintained at an appropriate and constant high temperature. The air displaced from the chamber by the vaporized sample is cooled to room temperature, and its volume carefully measured. Substitution of air for the actual vapor thus provides a means of determining the volume the known mass of vapor would occupy at room temperature if it could be cooled without condensation. A modified form of the Victor Meyer apparatus is shown in Figure 1. It consists of four parts: (a) a syringe used to inject a known volume of a volatile liquid, (b) a vaporizer chamber which contains the vapor after the sample is injected, (c) a gas burette for measuring the volume of air displaced by the vapor of the sample injected, and (d) a steam generator connected to a heating jacket surrounding the vaporizer chamber. The volatile liquid is injected into the vaporizer chamber which is surrounded by a steam jacket whereupon the liquid ( which should have a boiling point below 100°C) volatilizes completely. Connected to the chamber is a vertical tube tall enough to prevent the vapor, which should be denser than air; from diffusing to any significant extent to the top of the tube where the connection is made to a gas burette. The gas burette contains water as the indicating liquid and has associated with it a side tube of the same diameter open to the atmosphere. A leveling bulb permits equalization of the pressure inside and outside the apparatus before each reading of the burette. Since the pressure, temperature, and volume inside the heated chamber are the same before and after the sample is injected, the number of moles of gas (air or air plus vapor) in the chamber is essentially the same before and after volatilization, by Avogadro’s law. The volume occupied by the liquid before volatilization is assumed to be negligible. Thus, a quantity of air, equal in number of moles to the quantity of liquid volatilized, is expelled into the gas burette. It should be noted that it is not necessary that the temperature of the vaporization chamber be known, but it must be constant.

PROCEDURE: The apparatus should be assembled as in Figure 1. As much space as possible should be left between the gas burette and the rest of the apparatus to minimize temperature variations in the area of the gas burette. The flushing hose should be connected to the vacuum line only when necessary for flushing between runs. The volatile liquid sample is injected using a syringe (this will be demonstrated to you in the laboratory). It is desired to have an amount of liquid which will give a vapor volume of 15 to 20 mL. The liquids you will be using are: dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. From the densities of the liquids, their molecular masses and assuming room temperature to be 20°C, calculate the volume of liquid to be injected for each to give a vapor volume of 15 to 20 ml.

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Liquid Dichloromethane Ethyl acetate Methanol Acetone

Molar Mass 84.93 88.12 32.04 58.08

Density at 20°C 1.3266 g/mL 0.9003 g/mL 0.7914 g/mL 0.7899 g/mL

Once the vaporizing chamber has reached a constant temperature you are ready to begin the experiment. At this point the screw clamp on the flushing hose should be closed. After steam has passed through the outer jacket and is emerging from the lower end; the leveling funnel is lowered from its highest to its lowest point and allowed to remain there a minute; this process should be repeated several times. The purpose of this is to saturate the air in the upper part of the apparatus with water vapor at room temperature in order to avoid a volume increase due to water vaporization in the burette during the run. After the water level has been finally brought to a point near the top of the burette scale, the clamp holding the funnel is tightened. The initial burette reading is taken after drift has ceased. Before taking a reading the leveling funnel should be raised or lowered so that the water levels in the burette are the same. To test for leaks, the leveling funnel is lowered to its lowest position for a minute or so, then returned and the burette reread. A measured volume of the volatile liquid is injected into the vaporizing chamber. As the sample is vaporized the water level in the gas burette falls, the leveling funnel should be lowered so as to maintain equal pressure inside and outside the apparatus. When the hot air displaced into the gas burette cools, a slight contraction may be noted. When drift ceases (but not later than 1 or 2 minutes after injection of the sample), the final burette reading is taken. Make sure that the levels of the liquid are carefully adjusted to the same height. After the apparatus has stood for a longer time, the volume of the measured air may decrease, because of diffusion of the vapor from the vaporizing chamber into the cooler parts of the apparatus where it condenses. The final reading of the gas burette is taken before such condensation occurs. The temperature in the gas burette should also be recorded using the thermometer provided on the apparatus. To flush out the vapor in preparation for the next run, the screw clamp connection to the vacuum line is established, and the screw clamp opened. MAKE CERTAIN THAT THE VALVE TO THE GAS BURETTE IS CLOSED BEFORE YOU BEGIN FLUSHING OUT THE VAPOR USING THE WATER ASPIRATOR!!!!

Four or five runs should be carried out for each liquid until consistent results are obtained. The barometer should be read during the laboratory period. The reading should be corrected to O°C for thermal expansion of the mercury and scale. (See Appendix).

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CALCULATIONS: The molar mass M of the vapor is calculated from the familiar equation for an ideal gas PV = (sample mass/Molar Mass)RT where P is the pressure read from the barometer and corrected to 0°C. V = volume of displaced air, (in L) T = absolute temperature at which volume is measured sample mass = mass of liquid used R = 0.08206 L-atm- mol-1K-1 If done with care this experiment gives results sufficiently precise to demonstrate deviations from ideal gas behavior in the vapor concerned. For substance whose critical temperatures and pressures are known, the gas imperfections can be estimated roughly from Berthelot’s equation. A convenient form of this equation is Tc2  9PTc gRT 1+ 1-6 2  M= 128PcTs Ts PV    Pc = critical pressure of the substance used Tc = critical temperature of the substance used Ts = temperature of steam jacket

(

)

where

Substance Dichloromethane Ethyl acetate Methanol Acetone

Pc(atm) 60 37.8 78.5 47

Tc(°C) 237 250.4 240 235.5

-4APPENDIX BAROMETER CORRECTIONS The entries in the table below are calculated on the assumption that the barometer has a brass scale graduated to be accurate at 0°C. These corrections should be subtracted from the observed barometer readings. (If the brass scale is accurate at 20°C, the appropriate corrections are approximately 0.3 mm greater than those given).

T,°C 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

720 mm 1.88 1.99 2.11 2.23 2.34 2.46 2.58 2.69 2.81 2.93 3.04 3.16 3.28 3.39 3.51

740 mm 1.93 2.05 2.17 2.29 2.41 2.53 2.65 2.77 2.89 3.01 3.13 3.25 3.37 3.49 3.61

760 mm 1.98 2.10 2.23 2.35 2.47 2.60 2.72 2.84 2.97 3.09 3.21 3.34 3.46 3.58 3.71

780 mm 2.03 2.16 2.29 2.41 2.54 2.67 2.79 2.92 3.05 3.17 3.30 3.42 3.55 3.68 3.80

Determination of the Molar Mass of a Volatile Liquid by Vapor Density
Background Chemical and physical methods for determining atomic and molecular formula weights or molar masses have been important historically as a way of analyzing and categorizing new materials. The modern laboratory is generally equipped with instrumentation which makes many of these methods obsolete. However the principles upon which the older methods were based are not insignificant and many form the foundation for the prediction of physical and chemical properties and behaviors of substances. The classic Dumas method for determining the formula weight of a volatile liquid is a case in point. Avogadro proposed as early as the mid-1800's that equal volumes of gases measured under identical conditions would contain equal numbers of gas particles. With an established relative atomic mass scale it was possible to describe a constant volume which would contain a gram-atomic weight of a gaseous element or compound under fixed conditions, what we know today as the molar volume. At STP this volume is 22.4 L for an ideal gas. An understanding of the various gas laws allows for an application of this useful information to liquids and solids which are appreciably volatile, i.e., possess relatively high vapor pressures. As long as the temperature and pressure are known, a measured volume of gas can be converted to moles since:

n=

PV RT

Massing a sample of gas is relatively simple. These two pieces of information are the minimum required for a molar mass determination. In the Dumas method a volatile liquid is heated to a known temperature (above its boiling point) and allowed to escape from a container through a tiny orifice. Once the liquid has vaporized, the container is cooled to room temperature. Gradually the vapor which remained in the container at the higher temperature condenses to a liquid and is then massed. If the volume of the container is known along with the high temperature, the room pressure can be used (because the system is open to the atmosphere through the orifice) to calculate moles. From there a molar mass can be determined. This method depends on a lot of things going right. One assumption is that while the liquid is volatile enough to vaporize at the elevated temperature, it is not so volatile that a significant amount will be lost to evaporation through the orifice as the container cools. The vapor is also assumed to behave ideally at the temperature and pressure at which it occupies the container. The amount of error implicit in this approximation varies from compound to compound and is tied to the variables which create deviations from ideal behavior: molecular volume and intermolecular forces. Generally speaking, the larger these are, the greater the error in the determination. The situation is further complicated by the interaction of these two factors. For example, a small molecule may have significant intermolecular forces (hydrogen bonding perhaps) but a large molecule may have comparatively weak forces (like dispersion forces). Combinations run between these extreme examples making predictions of error from this source difficult.

Adapted from Experimental Studies for General Chemistry, Malcolm F. Nicol, Arlene A. Russell, Eleanor D. Siebert Laboratory Manual for Chemistry, Lawrence Epstein

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There is another problem with the basic method which is more easily addressed. When the container is "empty", i.e., before the liquid is added or the vapor forms, there is a fixed amount of air determined by the volume, temperature and pressure in the container. This air has mass and contributes to the overall mass of the container assembly. But when the liquid is present it vaporizes to some extent determined by its vapor pressure at room temperature. The presence of this vapor forces out some of the air through the orifice since the internal pressure is equalized with the room pressure and the number of gas particles remains constant if the temperature and pressure remain constant. Thus when the container is massed again there is air missing that should be counted in the final mass if the mass of the condensed liquid is to be determined by difference. This results in an apparent mass of liquid that is too small which in turn makes the molar mass calculation too small. The moles of air forced out by the vapor are equal to the moles of vapor that forms. This is determined by the vapor pressure of the liquid at room temperature. If this value is known, the moles of vapor that are present in the flask above the residual condensed liquid can be calculated as: n vapor = Pvapor Vcontainer RT

Avogadro's Law tells us that these moles of vapor must equal the moles of air displaced since the conditions are the same for both. These "missing" moles of air can be converted to grams using the weighted average molar mass of air and added into the final mass of the assembly. All of this depends, of course, on knowing the vapor pressure of the liquid, Pvapor. The value could be determined experimentally but for the purposes of this experiment a list of possible unknowns and their vapor pressures at 298 K will be provided.
The Experiment

The molar mass determination should be done at least twice. The following non-locker materials will be provided:
• • • • • • The Chemicals

aluminum foil fine copper wire razor blades, pliers, wire cutters, etc. boiling stones 600 mL beaker hypodermic syringe

The unknowns used in this experiment include the following:
acetonitrile (41.0 g/mol, vp298 = 81 mmHg, bp = 81.6oC) or ethanenitrile is a poisonous liquid with an ether-like odor. It is soluble in water and most common organic solvents. Like acetone, it forms a low-boiling azeotrope with water. It is used in many organic syntheses and wherever a polar solvent with high dielectric constant is required. Breathing the vapors should be avoided. Skin contact may cause irritation.

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ethanol (46 g/mol, vp298 = 55, bp = 78oC) or ethyl alcohol is a clear, colorless liquid with a pleasant odor and a burning taste. It absorbs water readily from the air and is miscible with water and many organic liquids. Most ethanol is used in alcoholic beverages in dilute form. It is also used in the laboratory as a common solvent, in pharmaceuticals, and as a common topical antiseptic. Nearly all ethanol sold as "alcohol" (not for drinking) has been denatured (including the ethanol in the lab). Denaturing in this context means adding some substance which does not markedly interfere with the behavior or properties of ethanol except to render it unfit for drinking. Most denaturants are toxic. ethyl acetate (88.1 g/mol, vp298 = 82 mmHg, bp = 76.5oC) has a characteristic fruity odor and a pleasant taste when diluted. It is somewhat soluble (1 mL in 10 mL) in water and mostly soluble in common organic solvents. It is used in artificial fruit essences and as a solvent for lacquers and varnishes (including fingernail polish). Prolonged breathing of vapors may cause liver and kidney damage. isopropyl acetate (102.1 g/mol, vp298 = 58 mmHg, bp = 90oC) is a colorless liquid which is soluble in about 20 parts water but miscible with ethanol and ether. It is a solvent for cellulose derivatives, plastics, oils and fats. Vapors may be irritating to mucous membranes and narcotic in high concentrations. 2-propanol (60.1 g/mol, vp298 = 41 mmHg, bp = 82.4oC) or isopropyl alcohol is a flammable liquid, miscible with water and common organic solvents. It forms a low-boiling azeotrope with water and can also be used to make low-freezing mixtures (i.e., as an antifreeze). It is a solvent in many quickdrying commercial preparations (inks, shellacs, oils, etc.) and is used as a topical antiseptic in a 70% solution (rubbing alcohol). Ingestion of as little as 100 mL can be fatal.

While there are no special problems associated with the use of these compounds in this experiment, all should be treated with caution. Inhalation of the vapors for long periods of time should be avoided. Skin contact should likewise be limited. Many of the liquids will attack plastics and finishes. Spills should be dispersed on paper toweling immediately and the toweling removed at once to the fume hood for evaporation of the liquid. The liquids will be dispensed by hypodermic syringe and most will interact with the rubber plunger, causing it to swell. For that reason, once the liquid has been injected the plunger should be pulled out of the syringe body to dry.
Technique Discussion

In essence the experiment consists of creating a container with a reproducible volume and a pinhole orifice from which the volatile liquid will be vaporized at the boiling point of water and room pressure. After cooling, the mass of the container is greater by the amount of liquid that remains (representing the amount of vapor which filled the volume at the boiling point of water and room pressure). [a mass correction must also be made for the air displaced by the vapor as discussed previously] A clean, dry 125 mL Erlenmeyer flask serves as a suitable container. It is small enough to mass on the analytical balance and large enough to contain a sufficient mass of vapor. The mass of the flask on the rough balance is required for the volume determination since when it is full of water it will be too heavy for the analytical balance.

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A cap may be fashioned for the flask from a square of aluminum foil and secured with fine copper wire twisted tightly around the neck just below the rim. Excess foil should be removed with a razor blade as it provides a place for condensed water (from the boiling process) to "hide". The assembly should be prepared carefully so that it can be used several times. Once prepared it should be massed "empty" (analytical balance). The unknown is introduced with a syringe. The needle is used to make a tiny hole in the foil cap and 3-4 mL of the liquid is injected. Enlarging the hole at this point with an unsteady hand will introduce serious errors into the determination. The flask should be immersed in a 600 mL beaker of water (with a few boiling stones added). The water level should be high enough to cover most of the flask but not so high as to allow water to enter through the hole in the foil or to bubble in around and under the copper wire loop. The beaker can be suspended on a tripod over a Bunsen burner. A watch glass secured by the ring from a ring stand can be used to keep the flask from bobbing up in the water. The water bath should be brought quickly to a boil but then the heat should be reduced to achieve a gentle boil for about 10 minutes or until all of the liquid is evaporated. The boiling point of water at room pressure and the pressure itself should be recorded. The flask is removed from the water and allowed to cool. Water must be removed completely from the outside of the flask. Be especially careful about the cap edges as steam from the boiling water can condense just under the edges and change the mass of the container significantly. When the flask has returned to room temperature and is completely dry on the outside it should be remassed. Additional trials may be done simply by adding more liquid through the same hole and repeating the procedure described above. After the final trial the cap assembly is removed and the flask rinsed thoroughly and then filled almost completely with room temperature water (record). After the outside has been carefully dried the flask can be placed on the rough balance and additional water added to fill it completely. The mass is then recorded. This last measurement, together with the first one and the density of water at room temperature, allows the volume of the flask to be determined.

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The Report

Your initial calculations should include: [repeat the calculation sequence for your separate trials; you must then decide on the treatment of the two molar masses] 1. The apparent mass of vapor that occupied the flask at the boiling water temperature 2. The volume of the flask, based on water density 3. Moles of gas occupying the flask at the temperature of the boiling water 4. Estimated molar mass of the unknown and tentative ID of the unknown 5. The moles of air displaced by the volatile liquid vapor (at RT) 6. The molar mass of air (calculated) 7. Mass of air displaced by the volatile liquid vapor 8. The true mass of vapor that occupied the flask at the boiling water temperature 9. The corrected molar mass of the vapor [relative error] Your conclusion to this experiment should include some judgment as to the validity of your two trials. To that end, you should compare your results with the list of unknowns supplied by the instructor. Be sure to consider factors such as intermolecular forces and consequent deviations from ideality to support your results. As usual, don't forget to constructively criticize your technique if your results were poor and/or inconsistent. Pay particular attention to the contribution that stray water drops might have on your results. One small drop of water (such as from an eyedropper) is about 0.05 mL.

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