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INDUS INSTITUTE OF HIGHER EDUCATION KARACHI THE STUDY OF DENIM WASHING A PROJECT SUBMITTED TO THE FACULITY OF TEXTILE SCIENCES IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF REQUIRMENTS FOR DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF TEXTILE SCIENCE (B S TEXTILE) SUPERVISED BY: ENGR ABDUL SALAM FACULTY MEMBER. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
SUBMITTED BY: SYED ASIM NAJAM ID: 1002 MARCH, 2009
Indus Institute Of Higher Education
FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT
All thanks are due to Almighty “ALLAH” the most beneficial and merciful who enable us to complete this project. The completion of this project is perceived as the fruitful result of and incredible effort, devotion and hard work. It can be stated without any hesitation that this thesis is the outcome of the joint effort of all concerned by successfully negotiating the various tedious problems and hurdles.
We are particularly thankful of Sir Adbul Salam our project advisor for the guidance and valuable cooperation render by him at any stage regarding this project. He fully indulged himself to facilitate our job whenever approached him to seek guidance regarding this study. Special thanks are reserved for the Head of Textile Science Department Sir Hasib-uSalam for encouraging and motivating throughout the successful completion of this project. We are very thankful to each and every person of Ragby Industries specially Sir Ejaz Shah, who make ourselves very comfortable during our whole internship program, who led us to complete this project work.
Indus Institute Of Higher Education
FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT
Faculty of Textile Science INDUS INSTITUTE OF HIGHER EDUCATION Karachi.
Certificate I am pleased to certify that the following students have satisfactorily carried out a thesis work, under my supervision on the topic of “Denim Washing” I further certify that his thesis is worthy of presentation to the Faculty of Textile Sciences, INDUS INSTITUTE OF HIGHER
EDUCATION Karachi for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Textile.
1. Syed Asim Najam 2. HOD Textile Science: ---------------------------
Indus Institute Of Higher Education
1 Introduction 2.1 Direct dyes 3.1.3 History of denim 1.1 Introduction 3.2 Components of amchine 2.5 Expected Results Page No.2.2 Indirecy warping or sectional warping 2.3 Procedure of warping Chapter # 3 Dyeing 3.4 Area of study 1.2 Classification of dyes 3.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT TABLE OF CONTENT Content Chapter 1 1.1 Rope dyeing 4 Indus Institute Of Higher Education .3.2.4 Draw warping 2.2 Reactive Dyes 3.2 Back ground 1.4Sulphur Dyes 3.1.3Literature Review 1.3 Denim dyeing 3. Chapter 2 Warping 184.108.40.206 Vat dyes 3.2.3 Ball warping 2.2.1 Direct warping 2.3 Disperse Dyes 3.2.1 Introduction 1.
2 Shuttle less weaving Chapter 5 Faults in production of denim 5.2 Basic weave design 4.3 Dobby shedding 4.3.1 Introduction 4.3.8 Drying zone 3.2 Faults in raw material 5.10Leasing zone 3.7 Sizing 3.12 Beaming 3.3 Shedding system 4.4 Classification of weaving machine 220.127.116.11 Cooking tanks and dsoing system 3.2 Faults of dyeing 5 Indus Institute Of Higher Education .3 Faults in product 5.1 Faults in machine 5.1.4 Difference between rope dyeing and slasher dyeing 3.1 Crank shedding 4.6 After-washing process and drying 3.3.13 Transportation of beams Chapter 4 Weaving 4.1 Shuttle weaving 4.1 Faults of warping 5.3.1.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT 3.2 Slasher dyeing 3.1.2 Cam shedding 4.4 Jacquard shedding 4.4.11 Expansion comb 3.9 Accumulator 3.
10 New development toward economical and ecological denim processing 6.3.9 Machine use for denim 6.3.8 Softening process 6.7 Whiskering 6.3 Sizing Faults 5.1 Introduction 6.3 Processes involve in Denim washing 6.2.2 Faults in raw material 5.4.2 How does washing create unique look 6.4 Weaving Faults Chapter # 6: Denim washing 6.2 Wet process 6.6 Spraying 6.2 Reference 1.1 Chemical wash 6.1 Conclusion 7.1 INTRODUCTION 6 Indus Institute Of Higher Education .1 Faults in machine 5.2 Mechanical wash 6.1 Dry process 6.4 Types of denim washes 6.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT 5.2.11 Value edition Chapter 7 7.4.
A majority of source books suggest that denim derives from the English translation of the South of France French phrase 'serge de Nîmes'. dye or technique. The word 'denim' probably came from the name of a French material. 1. called jean. cloth. No one truly knows the perfect answer to where jeans began.3 HISTROY OF DENIM: In fashion history. Denim fashion history is thus associated with Serge de Nimes.2 BACKGROUND • • • • We have interest in denim washing. But we do know that the phrase denim jeans are thought to derive from several sources. 7 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . The material. Levi´ s which stands for Levi Strauss is normally called the forefather of jeans. serge de nimes: serge (a kind of material) from nimes (a town in France). one that covers all age groups. because they wore clothes made from it. As so often happens fashions often emerge together in various parts of the world and are the result of the sudden availability of a new fabric.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT Denim and jeans . When talking about denim the name Levi´ s is one of the first to be mentioned. Denim is a universal fabric. Few industries work on this topic so that’s why we decide to do the topic and we will try to optimize the process and try to invent new washes or finishes in denim. jeans and denim history continues to baffle. races and social divides that’s why we think it will have high demand in the future and this is also the point of our attraction for this topic. was named after sailors from genoa in Italy. Denim has fewer difficulties in process as compare to other dyeing process. When tracing back the history of these trousers to its origins it is true that Levi Strauss played an important role concerning their development and distribution but he had also other inventive business partners.where do the names come from? The word jeans come from a kind of material that was made in Europe. No one is totally certain where the words come from. 1.
Davis. By applying this indigo-dyed combined twill the first jeans out of Denim was almost born or better sewn. About 1947 denim made a break-away from work clothing image. In 1970 American youth adopted denim as their favorite fabric. The fabric´s name Serge de Nimes was quickly turned into „Denim“ in American colloquial language. Serge is the French. When the trousers were applied as working trousers for cowboys. Under the management of Levi Strauss the jeans were now produced in series. This was no problem for Levi Strauss and Co. One day a customer inspired him to repair the torn off pockets with the help of rivets. too. blue-collar workers and penniless youth into a fashion conscious market for a widening mass of people of almost all ages. Although the working trousers out of Denim were stout they had a tendency to get worn out where the pockets were. At the end of the sixties of the 19th century he replaced the brown sail cloth by an indigo-dyed. from a source of tough. Jacob Youphes mended the trousers with a needle and thread. cheap clothing for cowboys. chiefly in the area of sportswear and rainwear and an occasional appearance in high fashion collections as a "different-looking" evening dress. The name of the town of Genova was modified into „jeans” in the American slang. wear resistant cotton fabric coming from France. Part of a "back to nature" movement that emphasized ecology and the natural denim being a fabric created from a natural fiber was a primary factor. The application of metal rivets for jeans is due to the Polish emigrant Jacob W. since they reinforced the trousers again with metal rivets at the crossing point of the four seams at the crotch tip. 8 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . also called AJacob Youphes. Expression for a combined twill and Nimes is the French town where the fabric comes from. Since 1960 the jeans business has undergone an explosive transformation. When he continued producing these trousers he used cheap cotton fabrics coming from Genova. however they got worn out at the crotch tip.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT Levi Strauss found out that the gold diggers´ hard work in the mines made their clothes get worn out very quickly and he produced stout working trousers out of the sail cloth he had taken with him which he called „half overalls“. Since the trousers were so stout not only the gold diggers liked them but which is not surprising in America? The cowboys appreciated them very much. The name of this fabric was „Serge de Nimes“.
Another object of the invention is to economically provide stonewashed denim fabric of different shades and colors. denim dyeing they are done internationally as well as locally in our country in which few are discussed below. 9 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . The main techniques used include simple washing.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT 1. • In earlier work many denim washes has been created in which some denim washed names are given below: 1 2 3 4 • ACID WASH ENZYME WASH BLEACH WASH STONE WASH Companies that “finish” jeans by washing them or distressing them for a worn-in look. stonewashing. Different experiment have been done before on denim washing. • Another experiment was done internationally and primary object of the invention is to provide a method of treating denim fabric in plain fabric form or in garment form to economically produce stonewashed denim fabric of various different shades colors without multiple steps. Most major jeans manufacturers use several different laundries that specialize in different finishes. The original batch methods for dyeing yarn skeins have been replaced for the most part with continuous dye ranges that can produce thousands of pounds of dyed yarns each hour. and sandpapering by hand.4 LITERATURE REVIEW The studies related to the denim manufacturing and processing is available to understand the process sequence and achieving various washing effects of denim. stone (pebbles) are use for washing which is known as stone wash but now a days stone (pebbles) are replaced by rubber balls because stone damaged the fabric during the washing process. which uses an abrasive-bristled Tonello machine. or large inventories of fabrics and dyes. or applying enzymes to simulate “cat’s whisker”-wear line. laser burning. Processes for producing yarns dyed with indigo have been in use for thousands of years. sandblasting. expensive equipment. • In past.
FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT • Our seniour students also worked on denim washing and they also tried to developing the new techniques in denim washing but unfortunately they were not success in developing new techniques. 1.5 AREAS OF STUDY: In this project we will study denim washing along with its weaving and its dyeing process and we will try to optimize the current methods but we will focus deeply on denim washing and its finishing. 10 Indus Institute Of Higher Education .
Ball Warping : In ball warping (Figure 5). The yarns then pass through a comb-like device (sometimes called a hack or reed). which will occur later. the yarns are brought together and condensed into a rope before being wound onto a relatively short cylindrical barrel (sometimes called the shell or log) that has no end flanges.beaming operation. 250 to 400 yarn ends are pulled from the creel. which keeps each warp yarn separate and parallel to its neighboring ends. This device is located at the base of the warper head and traverses back and forth. which is a cylindrical barrel with side flanges. The rope must be wound at a constant tension to keep the yarns from tangling. Normally. In both cases. a lease string is placed across the sheet of warp yarns to aid yarn separation for the re. yarns are collected in a sheet form where the yarns lie parallel to each other and in the same plane onto a beam. 2. which are located in a framework called a creel. At intervals of every 1000 or 2000 yards (or meters). guiding the newly formed rope of yarn onto a log. The yarns then go through a funnel-shaped device called a trumpet or condenser. 11 Indus Institute Of Higher Education .FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT WARPING The first process in the manufacturing of denim is warping. For ball warp denim.1 INTRODUCTION Warping is the process of transferring multiple yarns from individual yarn packages onto a single package assembly. the supply yarn packages are placed on spindles.. This is known as beam warping. which collapses and condenses the sheet of yarn into rope form.
or left natural.2 COMPONENTS OF MACHINE • Creel • Rods • Chain System • Control Devices 12 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . garment dyed. which can later be piece dyed. 2. These yarns will not go through the rope indigo dye range. but are left “natural” and will end up either slasher dyed or in an undyed fabric.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT Beam Warping Beam warping maintains the yarns in an open sheet form and winds the yarns parallel to each other onto a slightly wider flanged beam. Another option would be to beam dye the yarns using a dye other than indigo.
e. Then the yarn comes to the winding zone or headstock. Sensors sense any type of yarn breakage and in case of yarn breakage knotting is done. DYEING 3. The dye solution or dispersion is almost always in an aqueous medium. Similarly if cones are finished on one frame side then trolley system of cone changing is used in this way chains rotates the whole frame of empty side and new filled side of frame is forwarded again knotting is done between the new cones yarn and already winded yarn.1 INTRODUCTION Dyeing is a process in which we impart colour into the fabric. rod tension. Then the yarn is wounded on beam in this way for a required length if beam is changed after one filling of beam then knotting of yarns is made. which supports beam. and sacker tension. The yarn from the cones is unwounded and passes from rod by cross wound. A major objective of the fixation step 13 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . Magnetic tensioner is used for yarn tension. and yarns in an alignment so that each and every yarn end can wound separately. All commercial textile dyeing processes take place by the application of a solution or a dispersion of the dyes to the textile material followed by some type of fixation process. Extra yarn is then removed through cutting. Combs straighten the yarns towards pressure drum. catcher tension.3 PROCEDURE OF WARPING: The creel stand has maximum capacity of five cones per stand.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT • Sensors • Head stock • Expansion Comb • Dust and fly accumulation unit Showering assembly 2. holed by a catcher guided to the tensioning zone when cone rotates anticlockwise. which are removed through an anti static device. There are three types of tension in warping i. Static charges due to friction of yarns on metal surface cause static charges.
Therefore. Direct dyes depend on secondary forces such as hydrogen bonds and vander waals forces to bond with cellulose fibres. The classifications of dyes are as follows: • Direct Dyes • Reactive Dyes • Sulphur Dyes • Vat Dyes 3. Because of the simplicity of application and great choice of products available. direct dyes are a popular dye class. 3. Direct dyes ranges from moderate to poor in wash fastness. Dyeing is mainly depends on the type of fabric.2 CLASSIFICATION OF DYES For our convenience we make classes of dyes. typically 400 to 1200. Dye which reacts with water is said to be “hydrolyzed”. Fixation Reaction 14 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . The reaction between a reactive dye and the fibre produces a covalent bond. 3. By their nature reactive dyes also react with water. due to these classes the application of dyes is much easier.2 REACTIVE DYES Reactive dyes contain groups that react with the hydroxyl groups in cellulose. structure of fabric and the properties of dyes. Dye which reacts with the fibre is said to be “fixed” to the fibre.2.1 DIRECT DYES Direct dyes have been used to dye cellulose for over 100 years. Since secondary forces are relatively weak.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT is normally to ensure that the coloured textile exhibits satisfactory fastness to subsequent treatment in aqueous wash liquors. direct dye molecules have relatively high molecular weights.2. Light fastness varies from poor to excellent depending on the particular dye. The great majority of direct dyes are azo structures.
As a class.2. Chemical nature of sulphur dyes 3. Vat dyes are more expensive and difficult to apply than other classes for cellulose such as directs sulphurs. but some can be applied to protein fibres. Sulphur dyes are usually dull in shade since the molecular structures are complex. They usually have outstanding colourfastness properties. They have good to excellent wash fastness and good light fastness in dark shades.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT Cell – CH2 – OH + DYE – X Cell – CH2 – O – DYE + HX Cellulose reactive dye dyed fibre acid X=reactive group Hydrolysis reaction H – O – H + DYE – X DYE – OH + HX Dye molecules which react with the fibre and become fixed have excellent fastness to washing because of the high strength of the covalent bond. 3. and reactive. the sulphur dyes are not resistant to chlorine containing bleaches.4 SULPHUR DYES Sulphur dyes are widely used on cotton mainly because they are economical to use.5 VAT DYES Vat dyes are mainly on cellulosic fibres.2. Dye molecules which are hydrolyzed may be weakly attached to the fibre and if not washed out at the end of the dye cycle have very poor wash fastness. Light fastness of pale shades is poor. 15 Indus Institute Of Higher Education .
Indigo is attractive for its pleasing blue colour and for the unique fading characteristics of garment dyed with it. CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION OF VAT DYES Reactions of Indigo Dye 16 Indus Institute Of Higher Education .FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT Indigo is a special case in the vat dye class. Vat dyes in keto form are water insoluble pigments. Vat dyes are characterized by the presence of a keto group.
Preparation of the vat containing the leuco forms of the dyes. Oxidation of the absorbed leuco compound back to the parent pigment inside the fibers 17 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . Dyeing of the material. 3. 2. in which the fibers absorb the water-soluble leuco compound. BASIC STEPS IN THE DYEING PROCESS The dyeing of cellulosic materials with vat dyes follows a four-step sequence: 1.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT THE SUBSTANTIVITY AND DYEING CHARACTERISTICS OF VAT DYES FOR CELLULOSIC FIBRES.
3 DENIM DYEING: The classical jeans were produced out of indigo-dyed Denim fabric. because of which the outer layer of warp yarn is coated with indigo. and the core of the yarn remains undyed. These stoppages would in turn cause large shade variations. The yarns applied for Denim were exclusively produced on ring spinning machines in former times. The dyeing process is mainly influenced by the dyestuff characteristics. and the yarn breaks would show up as bad faults in 18 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . which passed continuously through several dye baths. Two methods are applicable for continuous dyeing with indanthrene dyes: rapid dyeing and vat dyeing. sulphur and indanthrene are mainly used in the dyeing process. for the weft yarn the fineness ranges are mainly 75 to 120 tex. The development of OE (open end) yarns by applying smaller rotors with a spinning speed of up to 200 m/min . Originally. The special character of this fabric only the warp thread is dyed makes it necessary to carry out dyeing in yarn form.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT 4. When cotton yarn is dyed with indigo.has led to the application of OE rotor yarns both for warp and weft. Soaping of the dyed material to remove pigment loosely adhering to the fiber surfaces and to develop the true shade and fastness properties. regularity as well as a small part of short-stapled cotton fibers belong to the basic features of the denim yarn. squeeze rollers or airing sequences. If Denim is made out of Tencel or Modal especially for jeans shirts the finenesses are up to 25 tex. if there were breaks in the yarn (and there would be. The yarns would be then mended. dyeing temperature and necessary chemicals used in the process. Indigo dye is the most popular choice as it has good depth of shade and suitable rubbing and washing fastness. the dyeing process had to be stopped. 3. reactive dyes are used and fixed with hot caustic soda solution. it leaves a ring-dyeing effect. However. The yarns applied for weaving must be of high quality: a high fiber for strength. or else it would lead to very bad tangling. the warp yarns or ends were put through the dye bath side by side to form a sheet of yarn. For regular jeans qualities the warp yarns are spun in a fineness of 50 to 90 tex. This gives the denim garment a unique ‘faded look’ and a rich blue shade after repeated use and wash. as each yarn had to take the tension of being pulled through these processes virtually on its own). While processing the basic colored denim. Indigo.
Special attention shall be paid here to Indigo.3.1 ROPE DYEING Indigo Rope Dyeing When dyeing according to the rope dyeing or cable dyeing method. It is said to have been used for dyeing in India and China 2000 years BC already.15 000 m length. On the continuous dyeing installation. Indigo belongs to the category of water-insoluble dyestuffs. an infinitely more efficient system has been introduced. There are two processes in the practice for continuous dyeing: • · Rope Dyeing • · Slasher or Sheet Dyeing 3. 12 to 36 cables are led side 19 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . Here the various dyeing processes with different concentrations of chemicals as well as the subsequent yarn sizing exert an influence on the quality and the appearance of the ready fabric. The Indigo plant is used for preparing Indigo Nowadays. Now. It was first mentioned in a book 13 BC. yarn dyeing with indigo is done continuously.400 warp threads are bound on the ball warper to very thick cables of 10 000 .FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT the fabric. the „king of dyestuffs” since it plays an important role in obtaining the jeans effect.350 . at that time the name Indian blue indicated the country the color came from.
dyed and dried after the dyeing process on cylinders and put into cans. this method has proven to be very good through obtaining an optimum indigo dyeing.80 m.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT by side. The warps are added to the sizing machine. 20 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . Normally. The disadvantage compared to other methods is that yarn breakages do occur more often. sized and then led together to warp depending on the total numbers of threads. 6 dyeing vats are in use. Then the cables are dissolved to warps on the long chain beamer. Size of the dyeing unit is between 60 . However it is important that the cables have a constant tension in order to avoid warp stripes. wetted. In practice. There are nevertheless variations with 3 to 8 dyeing vats.
FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT 3. These are much smaller compared to the rope dyeing machines.2 SLASHER DYEING Indigo Sheet or Double Sheet Dyeing (Slasher Dyeing).When dyeing according to the sheet dyeing method. 21 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . each yarn wets much faster and in this way reduces the dipping and wetting times during dyeing. instead of cables the warp threads are fed to the machine parallel next to each other.3. each thread has a larger surface compared to a dyeing cable and this requires somewhat more hydrosulphite to prevent a premature oxidation of the indigo. Another advantage is that the cables don’t need to be open after dyeing. All in all. Moreover.
The machine is then much shorter and the hydrosulphite consumption is 22 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . the fabric of the loop dye method is led several times through the same dyeing bath.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT Whereas during rope and sheet dyeing the yarns are always led in succession to the dyeing baths.
. and the dye is adsorbed by the fibers. 23 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . The warp sheet is taken to wetting tank (like mercerize. different dyeings of the yarn. Following rinsing. It is then taken to a hot washing tank whose temperature is maintained at 850C. Warp sheet is then taken to dyeing tanks where dye is reduced to soluble leuco form by using sodium hydrosulfite. semi mercerize and causticize tanks depends upon the dyeing methods) which swells the fiber and increases its dye uptake. It is then taken to cold washing tank whose temperature is maintained at 60 0C. Depending on the number of dyed passages and the concentration of indigo in the dyeing vats. warp sheet is dried on cylinders dryers prior to the application of sizing agent. yarn is then contacted with the reduced dye.  WORKING PRINCIPLE OF SLASHER Warp beams are brought to the dyeing and sizing section in sheet form as per requirement. It is taken to two hot washing tanks for fixation. taking approximately 60 seconds.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT lower. The fixed leuco indigo in the yarns of the warp sheet was oxidized to form pigment during transport of the warp sheet in the air space following the dwelling chamber.
Cylinder drying is done using steam heated hot rolls. Warp yarns are assembled on the ball Warp yarns are directly wound on a beam Ropes are drawn through dyeing range Dyeing is done in sheet form side by side. SLASHER DYEING in the form of a sheet. the sheet of yarns is passed through the size box which contains the hot water solution or mixtures of sizing agents.4 DIFFERERENCE BETWEEN SLASHER AND ROPE DYEING ROPE DYEING warper to form a rope. After sizing they are dried 24 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . After the size box. Due to the nature of sizing. the yarns go through the dryer section.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT OXIDATION REACTION Na2S2O4 + O2 + 2NaOH → Na2SO4 + Na2SO3 + H2O + C16H10O2N2Na2 + ½ O2 + H2O + Sodium Hydrosulfide C16H10O2N2 + 2NaOH Oxidized indigo During the slashing process. 3. The Teflon coating is done on all the cylinders to prevent sticking of yarns. The ends are same machine in continuous process by spread out on long chain beamer Or on a drying cylinders and then sizing is done rebeamer. excess size is squeezed off as the yarns pass through squeeze rolls. The wet yarns are dried by using drying cylinders. These beams are then wound on a weaver beam taken to sizing. They are separated into individual sheets by leasing rods and individual ends of yarns are separated by passing through comb then the yarns are wound on to a loom beam for weaving. After dyeing they are dried on a drum After dyeing the warp sheet is dried on the drier and deposited in cans. the yarns in the sheet may be stuck together at the exit of the dryer section. and the yarn sheet is wound on the same machine and after drying it is onto warp beams. The yarns pick up the required quantity of size solution in the size box. Accumulator stores 150 meters of warp sheet.
The oxidation time is greater for fixation is affected faster. The rope dyeing machine is much The sheet dyeing machine is smaller than expensive than Slasher. • Topping: In this case the warp sheet is dyed with indigo in start and then it is washed and then it is dyed with another dye (normally with sulfur). First the warp sheet is dyed with sulfur and then it is washed and then dyed with indigo. a rope dyeing machine. which means that the prime costs are lower Rope opening is avoided Warp sheet entanglement is a danger • Bottoming: In this case another dye is applied before dyeing with indigo.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT and assembled on the weaving beam. 25 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . is feasible for short lots. It can only run for coarse yarn as the It can run for fine yarns too tension on rope breaks the yarn Time consuming processes are rebeaming Rebeaming is not required and sizing is and then sizing done after dyeing. Good depth of shade is achieved Depth of shade is not good In rope dyeing we have very high In Slasher dyeing productivity is less but it productivity but the limitation is that it is very expensive for short lots. the applied uniformly wetting process is shorter and a wetting trough may be adequate. The immersion and oxidation times are much shorter The wetting time is greater and so dye is Owing to the paralleled warp threads. As the dye bath is less exposed to air so Setting up or stabilization of the dye baths dye is affected less.
Firstly the warp sheet is dipped in the dyeing liquor and then airing is done in order to do fixation as indigo and sulfur dyes are in reduced form in liquor than they are oxidized by giving air. Owing to the high circulation rate of the dye liquor in two circuits.5 COOKING TANKS AND DOSING SYSTEM: A color kitchen is also known as cooking tanks. Indigo vat. The computer-controlled dosing system for dyestuff and chemicals is the heart of the machine. Five cooking tanks are also provided with the machine which is used for the preparation of liquor for pre-treatment. The airing process is also known as dwelling time. For this purpose an airing zone of about 40 m is provided after each bath. dyeing and sizing. local bath concentration differences are avoided. The metering control stores the required adjustment parameters and guarantees a high level of process reliability and reproducibility. Washing is done after each bath in order to remove unfixed dye. They are connected with the machine via dosing system. Dyeing of indigo occurs at low temperature and that of sulfur at high temperature. 3. Which is necessary because if airing is not proper than immature oxidation occurs. hydrosulphite and caustic soda are continuously added according to calculated quantity indications and depending upon speed. Color UN levelness owing to fluctuations in bath concentrations does no longer occur. 26 Indus Institute Of Higher Education .FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT • Bottoming indigo Topping: In this case the warp sheet is firstly dyed with some dye and then after washing with indigo and then after washing with other dye like sulfur.
smooth and elastic or extensible to certain degree. And then it is dried on the assembly having 07 drying cylinders. To achieve these properties on the warp yarns. a protective coating of polymeric film forming agent (size) is applied to the warp yarns prior to weaving. warping and dyeing processes are quite good. they are still not good enough for the weaving process for most of the yarns. Useless dye is drained easily from the tanks with the pipes connected at there bottom.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT The used dyes can also be preserved with the help of two storage tanks on the machine.6 AFTER-WASHING PROCESS AND DRYING After dyeing of the warp sheet washing is done in order to remove the unfixed liquor from the warp sheet. 3. The two or three hot washes are done after the dyeing. 3. this process is called slashing or sizing. The main purposes of slashing are as follows: • To increase the strength of the yarns • To reduce the yarn hairiness that would cause problems in weaving process • To increase the abrasion resistance of the yarn against other yarns and various machine elements 27 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . The weaving process requires the warp yarns to be strong.7 SIZING Although the quality and characteristics of the warp yarns coming out of the winding.
FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT • To reduce fluff and fly during the weaving process for high speed weaving machines. One sizing tank is provided after the drying zone. Whose function is to minimize chance of stoppage of machine because of the change of beam on the head stock and insertion of rods in the leasing zone they accumulate the extra warp when the speed is reduced from the headstock by moving assembly to upward direction as shown in figure below 28 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . Cylinder drying is done using steam heated hot rolls called the drying cylinders. 3. The wet yarns are dried by using cylinder drying. After drying two accumulators are provided on the machine. The capacity of the size box is about 400 liters. 3. Sizing material is provided automatically by dosing system or it can be manually added.9 ACCUMULATOR: Accumulator is also known as compensators. The drying zone contains 14 cylinders. The cylinders are coated with Teflon to prevent sticking of the yarns on the cylinders.8 Drying Zone After the size box the yarns go through the dryer section.
10 LEASING ZONE Due to the nature of sizing. 29 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . the yarns in the sheet may be stuck together at the exit of dryer section. The individual sheets of yarns from each section beam are separated.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT When the head stock is moved with a greater speed the excess warp is removes from the accumulator. Therefore they are separated into individual ends using leasing rods. 3.
11 EXPANSION COMB Pins in the expansion comb separate the yarns within each sheet. A machine speed of 100-110 m/min. A pressing roller is pressing the warp yarn for uniform tension winding. is used 3. A pressing roller is pressing the warp yarn for uniform tension winding.12 BEAMING The yarns are wound on to weaver’s beam at the headstock. 3.13 TRANSPORTATION OF BEAMS: After the winding of dyed warp beams the from the head stock the samples of the yarn are taken to laboratory for testing and then it is transported to the weaving department. usually 3600 mm is used. Maximum beam width of 4000 mm can be used.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT 3. 30 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . With the expansion comb the warps are spread according to the required width of the weaver’s beam. A guide roller guides the yarns to the weaver’s beam.
FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT WEAVING 4.1 INTRODUCTION The process of producing a fabric by interlacing warp and weft threads is known as weaving. both the process as well as the machine has undergone phenomenal changes. The machine used for weaving is known as weaving machine or loom. right from the simplest handloom to the most sophisticated loom. Over the years. Weaving is an art that has been practiced for thousands of years. there is a wide range of looms being used. The earliest application of weaving dates back to the Egyptian civilization.2 BASIC WEAVE DESIGNS There are three basic weaves: • Plain weave • Twill weave 31 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . 4. As of today.
the yarns are freer to move when being worn resulting in a fabric that is both flexible and resilient. The two different technologies available for weaving machines are . Air current. etc. now denim is generally woven through Shuttle less Weaving System namely. Water current. or over one and under three warp (1/3) yarns. a process which gives the yarn much greater resistance both to tensile stress and to abrasion. rapier looms or projectile looms. The yarns used in making denim have a very high twist. Rapier. The Conventional Shuttle loom results in lesser production due to slow speed and excessive wear and tear of machinery. As such.Conventional Shuttle Weaving System which is done by Ordinary Looms or Automatic Looms. the warp-faced twill pattern calls for passing the weft yarn over one and under two (1/2). Waterjet. In denim. A 2x1 twill is used in lighter weight denim.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT • Satin Weave DENIM WEAVING: Denim is a fabric traditionally woven with what is known as a twill weave. The warp thread is in the form of sheet. Because there are fewer lacings in twills than in plain weaves. The most common twill used for jeans is a 3x1. Projectile. This is simply a weaving pattern that produces parallel diagonal ribs. such as Shuttle. or a Projectile weaving machine. which are the length-wise indigo dyed yarn and the filling. and the Shuttle less Weaving System which is done by Airjet. Airjet looms. The weaving process interlaces the warp. The weft thread is inserted between two layers of warp sheets by means of a suitable carrier. 32 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . Rapier. The selection of carrier depends upon the type of weaving machinery used. which are the natural-colored cross-wise yarn.
moving to the right. and Weights The classical construction of a bottom weight 14. Other denim fabrics and denim “look-a-likes” may vary in construction from 52 to 70 warp yarns per inch and from 36 to 52 picks per inch. If the twill line is made to rise to the left.hand twill weave. The weights of these finished fabrics can vary between 3. This would be verbally stated as “3 by 1” twill or “3 by 1” denim. as the weft threads appear to move upward and to the left as opposed to upward and to the right.5 and 16. 3/1 broken twill. or 2/2 broken twill. As a rule. then the design is left-hand twill. The weight of the fabric usually determines what the final garment application will be: Numerical notations for different denim designs. the same sequence is repeated but advanced up one pick. Left hand twill denim is softer to the touch than right hand twill. the fabric weave design. the twill line is rising to the right.5 ounces per square yard. and was originally used by Lee denim. The number of warp yarns per inch is sometimes referred to as the fabric sley. each warp yarn is going “over” three picks and then “under” one pick. Also influencing the fabric weight is the amount of size left on the finished fabric. giving the characteristic twill line.5-ounce denim is 60-64 warp yarns per inch and 38-42 filling yarns per inch. and the fabric is classified as a right. and the fabric tightness. In this case. such as 3/1. In this case. At the next end. Left Hand Twill: This refers to the direction that the denim is woven. 2/1 twill. This advancing upward sequence continues. Weaves. 33 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . Left hand twill is easy to spot. denim is woven as 3/1 twill. denote what each warp yarn is doing relative to the filling yarns that it is interlacing with. Broken twills are designed by breaking up the twill line at different intervals thus keeping it from being in a straight line. The weight is influenced by the size of the yarn used.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT Typical Denim Constructions.
as almost all jeans are woven with right hand twill. and combinations of 3/1 and 1/3 twills.the end effect resembles a random zig-zag. Jacquard 34 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . herringbones. The weave is instead alternated right and left . broken twill jeans (traditionally considered the cowboy-preferred denim) contain no distinct direction of weave. The opposite of Left Hand twill. baskets. the tension in the yarns is balanced in Broken Twill. The weft (filler) threads will be visible in upward-right diagonal lines on right-hand twill jeans. this weave is much more common. Broken Twill: Instead of the twill running to the right or left. By going on both directions. Non-conventional Denim Fabric Constructions Indigo-dyed yarns have been woven in plain weaves known as chambray. bedford cords. oxfords.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT Right Hand Twill: This refers to the direction that the denim is woven. Broken Twill was designed to combat the twisting effect that was a characteristic regular twill (and considered a 'fault' by many at the time).
Crank Shedding 2. These results in the appearance of a diagonal line called twill line in the fabric. Twill Weave Twill Weave is produced in a stepwise progression of the warp yarn interlacing pattern.3 SHEDDING SYSTEM: There are four shedding systems used to provide manipulation to the warp yarns: 1. This system is used only for plain weave and its derivatives. Jacquard Shedding 4. The interlacing pattern of each warp yarn starts on a different filling yarn and follows the same formula. Cam Shedding 3. In this system.1 CRANK SHEDDING: This is the simplest shedding system. which also gives the minimum number of harnesses. which is then characteristic of this design. the crankshaft of the weaving machine provides the harness motion.3. Steep twill. Reclining twill and Broken twill are the different variations of the twill weave. Common twill. Dobby Shedding 4. the twill weaves are called right-hand or left-hand twills. The sum of the digits in the formula determines the unit cell of the design.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT designs and dobby weaves have also been incorporated into denim designs to produce new looks and textures. at least three harnesses are required for a twill weave. Depending on the direction of the twill line. 4. 35 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . requires weaving the design.
They are normally built to control up to 30 harnesses. Basically there are two separate functions in dobby mechanism: 10 power transmission. such as pictures. positive and rotary dobby.4 JACQUARD SHEDDING: Jacquard Shedding offers unlimited patterning possibilities. Cam shedding mechanisms are relatively simple. They can be mechanical or electronic. Jacquard systems are placed on top of the weaving machine. The Jacquard machines offer the highest level of warp yarn control. to be produced in the woven fabrics. Picks per repeat are virtually unlimited in dobby. 4.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT 4. Most Jacquards heads generally are equipped to handle over 2000 harness cords or hooks with pattern repeating on about on about 9000 picks and multiple heads can be employed over a single weaving machine to increase the weave pattern capability. 2) connection and disconnection of the harnesses to from the power source at the proper time. The transfer is done by means of the cam’s edge or a groove cut in its surface. A pair of cams is sufficient to weave plain fabric. Dobby mechanisms are classified as negative.3. FILLING INSERTION: 36 Indus Institute Of Higher Education .3 DOBBY SHEDDING: Dobby mechanisms are more complicated than cam systems. This versatility is due to the separate control of each warp end or groups of similarly interlacing warp ends within the pattern repeat across the fabric width. the new machines are all double lift.2 CAM SHEDDING: A typical cam system can handle weave patterns with up to 14 different harnesses. They enable the most sophisticated patterns. A cam is a disk that transforms a rotational motion of its own to a reciprocating motion of a follower.3. 4. Jacquard machines can be mechanical or electronic with single lift or double lift mechanisms.3.
FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT
After each shed change, the filling yarn is inserted through the shed. It is possible to select and insert different filling yarns one after another. Weaving machines are usually classified according to the filling insertion mechanism. The major filling insertion systems used today are rapier, projectile, air-jet, and waterjet, which are called shuttle-less weaving systems.
4.4 CLASSIFICATION OF WEAVING MACHINES:
Weaving machines are classified according to their filling insertion mechanism. The classification is as follows: 1. Shuttle 2. Shuttle-less • Rapier • Projectile • Air-Jet • Water-Jet
4.4.1 Shuttle Weaving
In shuttle weaving, a shuttle that traverses back and forth across the loom width, inserts the filling. Shuttles can be made of wood or plastic. Filling yarn is wound on the quill and the quill is placed in the shuttle. As the shuttle move across the loom, the filling yarn is unwound from the pirn and lay in the shed.
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4.4.2 Shuttle-less Weaving: Rapier Weaving
In Rapier weaving, a flexible or rigid solid element, called rapier, is used to insert the filling yarn across the shed. The rapier head picks up the filling yarn and carries it through the shed. After reaching the destination, the rapier head returns empty to pick up the next filling yarn, which completes the cycle. A rapier performs a reciprocating motion. Rapier weaving machines can be of two types: 1. Single Rapier Machines: A single, rigid rapier is used in these machines. The rigid rapier is a metal or composite bar usually with a circular cross section. The rapier enters the shed from one side, picks up the tip of the filling yarn on the other side and passes it across the loom width while retracting. Therefore, a single rapier carries the yarn in one way only and half of the rapier movement is wasted.
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FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT
Also there is no yarn transfer since there is only one rapier. The single rapier’s length is equal to the width of the loom. 2. Double Rapier Machines: Two rapiers are used in these machines: one rapier, called the giver, takes the filling yarn from the yarn accumulator on one side of the loom, brings it to the center of the machine and transfers it to the second rapier which is called the taker. The taker retards and brings the filling yarn to the other side. Similar to the single rapier machines, only half of the rapier movements is used for filling insertion
Projectile weaving machines use a projectile equipped with a gripper to insert the filling yarn across the machine. The gripper projectile draws the filling yarn into the shed. The Projectile glides through the shed in a rake- shaped guide. Braked in the receiving unit, the Projectile is then conveyed to its original position by a transport device installed under the shed.
Air-jet weaving is a type of weaving in which the filling yarn is inserted into the warp shed with compressed air. Air-jet system utilizes a multiple nozzle systems and a profiled reed. Yarn is drawn from a filing supply package by the filing feeder and each pick is measured for the filling insertion by means of a stopper. Upon release of the filling yarn by the stopper, the filling is fed into the reed tunnel via tandem and main nozzles, which provide the initial acceleration. The relay nozzles provide the high air velocity across the weave shed. Profiled reed provides guidance for the air and separates the filling yarn from the warp yarn.
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After beating up the filing 40 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . Water-jet weaving machine can only be used for hydrophobic fibers. The relative velocity between the filling yarn and the water jet provides the attractive force.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT Water-Jet Weaving A water-jet weaving machine inserts the filling yarn by highly pressurized water. The reed holds one or more warp yarns in each dent and pushes them to the cloth fell. The reed is also used to control the warp yarn density (ends/inch) in the fabric. it lies relatively far from its final position. These metal strips are uniformly spaced. This final position is called the fell. Beat-up When the filling yarn is inserted through the shed. then there would be no tension on the yarn results in curling and snarling of the yarn. If there is no velocity difference. The spaces between the metal strips are called dents. Reed is a closed comb of flat metal strips. which is the imaginary line where the fabric starts. Beat-up is the process of pushing the last inserted filling yarn to the cloth fell by using a device called reed. The fabric is not formed until beat-up occurs. which affects the weight of the fabric.
Then they are threaded through drop wires heddle eyes and reed dents. Regular reed and Profiled reed (used in air-jet weaving). The rear row starts from the middle of the first dent of the front row of the metal strips. Leasing (i. The fabric take-up removes the cloth at a rate that controls filling density (picks per inch). the reed is withdrawn to its original rest position before the insertion of the next filling. heddle eye and reed dent can be performed manually or by means of automatic machines. This can be achieved by drawing -in or tying -in. is unwound. LOOMING Looming covers the process involved in warp preparation after sizing up to setting them to loom. selecting warp) of the warp at this stage simplifies the separation of the yarns. Reeds are identified by a “reed number’ which is the number of dents per unit width. the heddles of the harness frames and the dents at the reed. The automatic drawing machine can handle the leasing-in and drawing -in process in one single operation. DRAWING-IN The process of drawing every warp end through its drop wire. Fabric take-up As the fabric is woven. Reeds are of two types according to their shape. The warp ends are then passed through the drop wires of the warp stop motion. The process can be shown as follows: Drawing-in → Warp Tying → Loom During slashing. Specifying the number of ends per dent with a certain reed number dictates the density of warp yarns in the fabric. A double reed has two rows of metal strips. In both case. The double reed is used in terry weaving. the choice depending upon whether or not the new warp is different form the warp already on the loom.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT yarn. TYING-IN 41 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . it should be removed from the weaving area.e. Reed can be single or double. the exact number of warp yarns required in fabric is wound on to the loom (or weaver's) beam. a length of warp yarn. just enough to reach to the other side of the frame. This is achieved by the take-up motion.
Tying-in may be done by means of a small portable machine on the loom or as a separate operation away from the loom.1. • Chain breakages • If frictional drum should not be kept in a polished state. Therefore. the drawing-in process can be omitted. then thermal damages occur due to abrasion. the new warp beams will be identical with the exhausted beams on the looms.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT When fabric of a particular type is being mass-produced. FAULTS IN DENIM PRODUCTION 5.1 FALUTS IN MACHINE: • Stop motion does not work on creel and on warping drum as a result broken ends are not traceable for knotting.1 FAULTS OF WARPING: 5. if every end on the new beam is tied to its corresponding end on the old beam. 42 Indus Institute Of Higher Education .
• If the accumulator do not work properly than the machine is stopped.3 FALUTS IN PRODUCT: • Misalignment of yarn sheet if the yarn sheet is not properly adjusted • Uneven package density • Too soft package winding • Package could not be in uniform density 5. • If comb do not move properly then there is a chance of cutting of comb due to friction with yarn.1.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT • Brake could be inefficient. Which causes entanglement of warp sheet as pressure is not properly distributed • Faults in dosing system can cause serious problem of shade variation. • Sprockets are jammed. 43 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . • Tension supplied if varied it causes breakages or loosening in yarn.2.1 FALUTS IN MACHINE: • leakage of steam in drying cylinders • wear and tear of rollers if bearing is jammed • Improper working of load cell on squeezing roller.2 FALUTS IN RAW MATERIAL: • Neps • Long thick places (in case of non slub yarn) • Short thick places (in case of non slub yarn) • Thin places • Weak places • Count variation • Hairiness 5.2 FALUTS OF DYEING: 5.1. • If speed of warper increase than yarn sheet may break 5.
however. With dry denim. 44 Indus Institute Of Higher Education .FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT • If speed of the machine is kept greater than the yarn` s bearable strength 5.2 FALUTS IN RAW MATERIAL: The main causes of the dye ability variations in yarn are: • Immature fibres • Dead fibres • Vegetable matter or other foreign matter • Wrong twist • Bad splice • Neps • Count variations 5.4 WEAVING FAULTS: • dropper will not fall • sensors do not work properly • Problem in electrical panel • Problem in electronic card • wear and tear of temple • if dust comes in nozzles • improper working of solenoid valves DENIM WASHING 6. This creates what many feel to be a more natural.3 SIZING FAULTS: • pressure rolls do not work properly • squeezing rollers do not work properly 5.1 INTRODUCTION: Denim washing is the aesthetic finish given to the denim fabric to enhance the appeal and to provide strength. such fading is affected by the body of the person who wears the jeans and the activities of their daily life.2. unique look than pre-distressed denim. Much of the appeal of dry denim lies in the fact that with time the fabric will fade in a manner similar to that which artificially distressed denim attempts to replicate.
Following process are carried out in DRY process. There are at least three fundamental reason that indigo dyed denim washes down to produce lighter and more attractive shades during washing. DRY PROCESS 2. Brushing 2. WET PROCESS 6. enzymes and chemical effect. Which are listed below? 1.2 HOW DOES WAHING CREATE UNIQUE LOOK? Washing of the denim cause it to fade which result its unique look. 1. • • 6. Clipping BRUSHING: 45 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . Some of the undyed fiber in the interior of the yarn migrate to the yarn surface diluting the color of the yarn. Hand whisker 3. Tagging 5.3.1 DRY PROCESS: It is called Dry Process because all the processes which are listed below is done in dry condition. Indigo dye has intrinsic chemical instability to strong oxidizing agent such as chlorine bleach. Grinding • • Hand Grinding Wheel Grinding 4. in the other says we don’t use any chemical including water in this process. • the outer more heavy dyed yarn surfaces loses dyed through abrasion by stones.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT 6.3 There are two process involved in DENIM WASHING.
The selection of the emery paper is depend upon the fabric weight i.g 100. By brushing the dye is removed from the surface of the garment. HAND WHISKER: In this process the same machine is use as used in brushing.400.600 grade.320. normally 320 grade of emery paper is used and for heavy fabric high emery paper of 100 and 120 are used. 46 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . The garment is wear on the machine (horizontal or vertical machine) which have two legs is filled by air (air is directly come from the compressor). Different types of emery paper are used e.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT In this department dyed garment (denim) is scrabbled or brushed using Emery paper. In this process whisker is produce by using emery paper or rod (emery paper is wound on the rod).400 and 600 grain size. if fabric is light then we use emery paper of 320.then we start brushing with the help of emery paper until our required effect is achieved.e.120.
100 grade of emery paper is use for this process. PADDING: This is the main process of grinding in which fabric is put on the plate. HAND GRINDING: This is the process in which garment is slightly damage by removing surface yarn with the help of hand grinding machine.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT GRINDING: This process is use to get a worn look on the garment.then emery paper is rubbed against the garment which remove the yarn from the garment to get the desire effect. by doing all these the grinding area on the garment is become visible. The effect of both process (padding and hand grinding) are approximately same. PATTERN MAKING: In grinding first the pattern is make of different designs then these pattern is mark on the grinding areas in the garment with the help of chalk. WHEEL GRINDING: 47 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . Which include the following processes. Hand grinding is done on the small areas while padding is done on large areas. which have a rubber pad of same pattern or design which is already mark on the garment .
Clip. back pocket and back pocket cover are grind using wheel grinding machine. Washing 48 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . front pocket.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT In this process the edges of the garment like edges of the waist band. bottom hem. Pre-Treatment 2. 1. Tag Pin Tagging Machine CLIPPING: In this process the small areas of the garment is bound by using clips on the required areas (generally at the bottom hem) then garment is put in the oven and finally forward to the washing dept. for final effect. 6.2 WET PROCESS It is called wet process because in this we use certain chemicals to obtain a desired result.3. TAGGING: It is a process which is use to get a unique effect by knotting the small areas of the garment through tag pin by using tagging machine.
All the woven fabric contains size on them due to reasons to strengthen the yarn for weaving. Over dyeing 9. This process removes impurities. Dissolvable sizes in water (Starch based). Bleach wash 5. starch & stains during handling of fabric. Stone wash 6. 1. stiffness & color loss. 49 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . Here the fate of denim garment is decided that it’s going to appear good or bad.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT 3. This step is also called desizing (Removal of Size applied during denim fabric making in weft yarn). Water Soluble (CMC or PVA based sizes ) and 2. There are many types of sizes available in the market but they can be divided in two major groups. Spraying 10. Whiskering PRE TREATEMENT This is very first & basic step but most important step of washing. Sand Blasting 7. Tinting 8. Starch based sizes are most commonly used due to cheap prices & readily availability. Enzyme wash 4. Good Pre treatments avoid streaking.
.Tinting .Denim bleaching . retain elasticity. 6. Potassium Permanganate is also being used on 100% sulphur black denim fabric for bleaching/reducing agent to get unique effects. Hydrogen Peroxide ) · Enzymatic desizing with Alfa amylase .e.e.Enzyme wash . CHEMICAL WASHES: .Acid wash .4. This process helps to get Greyer cast & also protects the lycra/spandex.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT Methods of Removing Sizes from Denim: · Washing with High Alkaline agents ( i. Soda ash ) · Washing with High Acidic agents (i. This is eco friendly & convenient . As it takes longer time to give desired effect.1.4 DENIM WASHES ARE OF TWO TYPES: 6. a) Calcium hypo chlorite b) Sodium hypo chlorite c) Hydrogen peroxide d) Potassium permanganate First two chemicals are commonly being used for every medium to vintage denim but when it comes to super vintage & light shade its advisable to use potassium permanganate bleach to cut the color faster till half way & then neutralize it & go with Liquid ( Hypo ) bleach to adjust the desired shade. Hydrogen Peroxide is rarely used as bleaching agent when very less color loss required or if fabric is sulphur top. Acetic acid ) · Washing with Oxidative chemicals ( i.Over dyeing DENIM BLEACH: This in one an important step in washing denim & can be done by various bleaching agents. As it’s not production friendly till laundry 50 Indus Institute Of Higher Education .e.
Materials should be carefully sorted before processing for color uniformity. bad smell from garment. Process cycle 51 Indus Institute Of Higher Education .FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT has very expertise team to handle this program. Proper Neutralizations of bleaching process is very essential in order to get rid of fabric strength. Care should be taken for the bleached goods so that they should be adequately antichlored or after washed with peroxide to minimize yellowing. It is preferable to have strong bleach with short treatment time. yellowing & skin irritation etc. temperature and treatment time. Discoloration produced is usually more apparent depending on strength of the bleach liquor quantity. otherwise it will result in many shades & cast. In this process a strong oxidative bleaching agent such as sodium hypochlorite or KMnO4 is added during the washing with or without stone addition.
i. the cellulose. and pockets more noticeable Salt pepper effect is color contrast effect. Post treatment includes final rinsing and softening cycle. pocket. 52 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . etc. Required antichlor treatment. hems. When the desired color is achieved. 2. Due to harshness of chemical. difficult to reach the same level of bleaching in When desired level of bleaching reached the time span available to stop the repeated runs. the enzymes can be stopped by changing the alkalinity of the bath or its temperature. Chlorinated organic substances occur as abundant products in bleaching. • • • • Harmful to human health and causes corrosion to stainless steel.e.e. ENZYME WASH: It is environmentally friendly wash. The effects produced by the cellulose enzyme are--1. It involves the Application of organic enzymes that eat away at the fabric. and pass into the effluent where they cause severe environmental pollution. it may cause damage to cellulose resulting in severe strength losses and/or breaks or pinholes at the seam.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT LIMITATION: • • Process is difficult to control i. Use of cellulase making the seams. Problem of yellowing is very frequent due to residual chlorine. bleaching is very narrow.
Enzyme are very sensitive with parameters in washing cycle i. If any of these parameters are not up to the mark. There are mainly three kind of Cellulase being used for Denim washing . For Salt & pepper effect . The structure of Enzyme is a biological polymer and it can be found in every cell. This is also widely known as Anti pilling enzyme. … bio bleaching Catalase …… Peroxide killer Enzyme is kind of protein that is obtained from fermentations method from naturally existing bacteria & fungi. its biodegradable products. • • • • Amylase …. Hybrid enzymes. Acidic 3. result will not be accurate.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT 3. There are four kind of Enzymes available in market for Denim Laundry business. Where as acidic cellulase give faster results but with too heavy back staining & cuts down the indigo color. Neutral. Generally called as Cellulase & it works on cotton( Cellulosic fiber ) only.e. pH . Enzyme are living organisms which will attack a specific molecular group. Neutral enzyme gives better salt & pepper effect with very less back staining & its generally come sin powder form & also retains better strength of fabric than acidic Cellulase. contrast Laccase…. The reaction of enzyme can be easily controlled. Now a days laundry people needs faster results in less time & money hence chemical suppliers combined 53 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . Desizing Cellulase …. Bio Polishing Cellulase are being used to have protruded fiber removal from denim & oven fabric.. also affects the strength of fabrics. Any Cellulase used in process must be cleaned/killed after the process completion by simply disturbing the parameters ie. or raising pH to alkaline where no Cellulase withstand. Neutral 2. By raising high temp. Cellulase are available in 3 categories 1. Faded garment with acid cellulase enzyme provides less color contrast in proportion to garment washed with neutral cellulase enzymes. Acid and Bio polishing Enzyme. Temperature & time. so they eco friendly.
CLEAN UP: After finishing Enzyme wash it is must to add clean up process for better results & garments appearance & that can be done in various ways & methods. laundries do not prefer it. • • Process cycle: 54 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . By using non ionic detergents in medium to high temperature By doing two good hot water rinse etc. All processes mentioned below kill/ deactivate the active enzymes process which is necessary in order to protect/retain garment strengt • Hydrogen peroxide in alkaline pH clean up enhances the brightness & rich blue tone of indigo. But due to high cost & low self life. Laccase is bio bleaching agent & alternative for conventional bleaching agents. This impart greyer cast to blue denim & enhances salt & pepper effect. As clean up is a must process to be carried out after every chemicals steps done for any garments which allows next process to happen smoothly.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT Neutral & acid cellulase in such way that it works faster & with better results than acid cellulase with cost effectiveness & known as Hybrid enzyme.
FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT ACID WASH: It is done by tumbling the garments with pumice stones presoaked in a solution of sodium hypochlorite or potassium permanganate for localized bleaching resulting in a non uniform sharp blue/white contrast. The advantage of this process is that it saves water as addition of water is not required. Blue and black can be overdyed with bright contrasting colours to obtain special effects. indigo dyed denim has a tendency to yellow after wet processing. Process cycle LIMITATIONS OF ACID WASH • • Acid washed. The most current and successful forms of overdyeing consist of dyeing washed out indigo jeans with luminous colours. In this wash the color contrast of the denim fabric can be enhanced by optical brightening. washing or rinsing. OVER DYE: • • • Dyeing over the fabric or jeans to add another tone of color Most often used is a 'yellowy' over dye to create a 'dirty' look Also can be applied with spray gun or paintbrush for local coloring There are many variations. The major cause is residual manganese due to incomplete neutralization. In this process direct dye is applied into already Indigo dyed garment. It takes 10 pieces of garment and put 55 Indus Institute Of Higher Education .
• • • The garment has been lightly colored in order to give the final denim appearance The techniques involve the addition of the colorant in the stone washing cycle. This process takes from 5 minutes to 15 minutes time for better results followed by dye fixing & cleans up of superficial dye. Tinting being used to give garments a used / vintage & muddy look. TINTING: Tinting is a process where very less amount of tint is involved & mainly direct dye is being used to do this process. reaches the level of dyeing. This is being done to change hue/cast/tone of indigo. Because of this it must be insured that dyes and cellulose are compatible. 56 Indus Institute Of Higher Education .FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT into the washing machine and add direct dye with all its auxiliaries and run it for 15 mins and check the shade then rinse. As soon as quantity of tint color increases & it cover up indigo.
2. Stone wash Bio stone washing Sand Blasting STONE WASH: Stone washing is a textiles manufacturing process typically utilized by the fashion industry. freshly dyed jeans are loaded into large washing machines and tumbled with pumice stones to achieve a soft hand and desirable look. Stone-washing also helps to increase the softness and flexibility of otherwise stiff and rigid fabrics such as canvas and denim. In the process of stone washing. hardness. Process cycle: 57 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . The process is quite expensive and requires high capital investment. removing some dye particles from the surfaces of the yarn.4.2 MECHAINCAL WASHES: 1. size shape and porosity make these stones multifunctional. Pumice stones give the additional effect of a faded or worn look as it abrades the surface of the jeans like sandpaper. Variations in composition.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT 6. in order to give a newly-assembled cloth garments a worn-out appearance. 3.
5 to 3 /1 It depends on the degree of abrasion needed to achieve the desired result. 58 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . Smaller. PROBLEMS CAUSED BY STONES • For instance stones could cause wear and tear of the fabric. because they float around with the jeans. Stone should be selected of the proper hardness. It should be noted that large. instead of lying in the bottom of the water. Stones can be reused until they completely disintegrate or washed down the drain. hard stones last longer and may be suited for heavy weight fabrics only. Turkish stones are preferred for their porosity and cleanliness or stones from Sicily. = 0. softer stones would be used for light weight fabrics and more delicate items. then pumice. but their supply is limited. /fabric wt. and size for the particular end product. shape.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT SELECTION OF STONE: First pea gravel. Stone wt.
BACK STAINING AND RE-DEPOSITION The dye removed from denim material after the treatment with cellulose or by a conventional washing process may cause "back staining or "redeposit ion. This reduces quality of the products and life of equipment. to stone abrasion the stones. Adding dispersion/suspension agent to wash cycle. production costs. Re-coloration of blue threads and blue coloration of white threads. resulting in less contrast between blue and white threads. Metal buttons and rivets on the jeans in the washing machines get abraded. in color and rough too 59 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . and increases Stones may turn into powder during the process of making the garment grayish Provides rougher feel than enzyme wash Stone may lead the harm to the machine parts is never uniform. Water pollution during disposal of used liquor. Using alkaline detergent like sodium per borate with optical brightener as after Limitations of stone washing • • • • • • • Quality of the abrasion process is difficult to control Outcome of a load of jeans The process is non-selective.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT • • • • • • Damage to wash machineries and garment due to stone to machine and machine Increase in labor to remove dust from finished garments. little percentage always getting ruined by too much abrasion. Intermediate replacement of wash liquor. Back staining and re deposition. Denim is required to be washed several times in order to completely get rid of The process of stonewashing also harms the big expensive laundry machines. Remedy of back staining • • • wash.
In the traditional stonewashing process. machine and less pumice dust in the laundry environment. the blue denim was faded by the abrasive action of pumice stones on the garment surface. The primary target of stonewashing the denim with pumice stones or enzymes is to provide the garment worn out. The use of less pumice stones results in less damage to garment. DISADVANTAGES OF CELLULASE TREATMENT There are certain disadvantages of cellulase treatment. A small dose of enzyme can replace several kilograms of pumice stones. the jeans are rigorously washed adding surfactants to it. old and aged look. Nowadays. Sometimes both stones and enzymes are used for the purpose. This process could result to color-fading of jeans and there is added usage of water for the washing. BioStonewashing has opened up new possibilities in denim finishing by increasing the variety of finishes available. denim finishers are using a special cellulase. For example. It could leave marks of backstaining like blue threads becoming more blue or white threads becoming blue. These can be used either alone or in combination with pumice stones in order to obtain a specific look. example is the stonewashing of denim jeans. SAND BLASTING: 60 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . Productivity can also be increased because laundry machines contain fewer stones or no stones and more garments.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT BIO-STONE WASHING: Many garments are subjected to a wash treatment to give them a slightly worn look. Cellulase works by loosening the indigo dye on the denim in a process know as 'Bio-Stonewashing'. To get rid of such unwanted re-coloration of threads. Thus wastage of water and certain amount of backstaining could be experienced. it is now possible to fade denim to a greater degree without running the risk of damaging the garment. Below are some cellulases for denim finishing. each with its own special properties.
6 SPRAYING: Spraying is done after the brushing or scrapping process.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT Sand blasting technique is based on blasting an abrasive material in granular. Any number of designs could be created by special techniques. These both resin are combined to form one resin which is then apply on the garment.KMnO4 is work as a bleaching agent which reduce the color or dye from the garment. not using any chemicals It is a water free process therefore no drying required. • • • • It is purely mechanical process. 6. 61 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . Variety of distressed or abraded looks possible. In this process KMnO4 (so called pinky) is sprayed via spray gun on to the garment. It is also use for spraying Resin on the garment to visible the whiskers different resin is used such as MKR and MIR. powdered or other form through a nozzle at very high speed and pressure onto specific areas of the garment surface to be treated to give the desired distressed/ abraded/used look.
FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT ADVANTAGES It is water free process therefore zero effluent discharge. Easy to use 4. 6. 1.7 WHISKERING (MALAVASI): There are two types of machine in this dept. 1. Malavasi • • Maximum temperature: 250 C Maximum pressure: 1200 kpa 62 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . Less time consuming 2. Different designs are possible 3. No adverse effect on fabric strength.
PERMENANT WHISKER: These whiskers are those which are permanent and not remove either after the several washes. 1. In permanent whisker first resin is apply on the required area on the garment then the garment is placed on the Malavasi machine. Non-permenant Whisker. These all parameters can vary according to the requirement. Temperature and pressure is set according to the fabric e.g. Permenant Whisker 2. for PC fabric temperature is 180-200 and pressure is 1200 kpa while the time is 20-25 sec. Topper machine • • Maximum temperature: 200 C Maximum pressure: 250 psi. In this process two types of whisker is produce.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT 2. After doing all these garment is put in the oven (to bake the resin coated area). 63 Indus Institute Of Higher Education .
giving a yellow tint is commonly known as yellowing. sandblasting. In this process we spray water on the garment and put in malavasi machine. machine sanding. During this process there is a big problem -the discoloration of denim i. By using normal softener will lead to ozone problem.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT Crease lines around the crotch. Industrially done with laser. 64 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . hand sanding and abrasive rods.e change in shade or loss of whiteness. As denim is very heavy in compare with other fabrics hence its needs softening.8 SOFTENING PROCESS: Softening process of Denim is very critical. 6. Also used for 'knee whiskers' (whiskers on the sides of knees) and 'honeycombs' (crease marks on the back of the knee) RESIN RECIPE: The purpose of resin is cross linking and the typical resin recipe are as follows: Mg (as a catalyst) ARCO Fix Water L:R 1:30 NON-PERMENANT WHISKER: These are the whisker which are non permanent and can be removed easily.
As it’s a widespread problem & there in no single reason for its cause. acids. Hence its advisable to use Antiozonate softener which prolong ozone reaction of Indigo & keep garment in good condition. • • • • • • Ensure bleaching neutralization & rinsing is proper Minimize back staining Avoid use of chemicals which cause yellowing Avoid leaving garment in open air for longer time Control drying & curing temperatures Using right Antiozonate softener with right pH CHEMICALS ON DENIMS 1. MINIMISATION OF YELLOWING RISK Its Impossible to eliminate yellowing but it is possible to prolong & reduce the conditions which causes classical yellowing. Bleach fast Indigo Value addition to denim Retains indigo on certain parts Kind of resist effect Chemical applied by brush.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT Indigo dyed fabric are even more prone to yellowing. Anti-depositing agent Prevents back staining of fabric by loose indigo during washing Improves contrast in denim 65 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . Instead a number of condition can singly or in combination lead to the problem. Therefore good control must be used to minimize this type of damage. detergents & chemical contribute to yellowing problems. finishes or washing processes. cured at 150C Ex. Temperature of drying & curing can impart yellowing due to scorching of the cotton. Light . As cotton & all organic polymers develop yellowing in time. impurities. Indigofix AXN 2. It is not specific to chemicals or chemical treatment but certainly some of the factors among these can lead to the yellowing. Yellowing in not specific to certain fibers.
money and energy as added to final rinse Gives used and worn out effect 4. Dye stuffs with softener To carry dyeing and softening in one step Soft and supple hand Saves time. Anti creasing agent Provides fabric to fabric lubrication Prevents formation of crack marks and streaks Minimizes abrasion and gives strength 5. Wrinkle formation Creating smooth and permanent wrinkle Cross linking concept Ex. DMDHEU White pigment Can be applied by brush. spray or screen Then cured at 150C Washed and treated with softener 66 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . White pigment Can be applied by brush.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Used in stone wash step 3. spray or screen Then cured at 150C Washed and treated with softener 6.
FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT PROCESS RCIPE SHEET: 67 Indus Institute Of Higher Education .
PP 200. tensel treatment etc). such us stone washing. viscose. speeding up the process and guaranteeing at the same time uniformity in the treatment and softness to the denim fabric. allows to manage and to control all the functions of the machine as well as the process operations. They have variable speed and are equipped with an industrial B&R PC and a PLC Mod. and in particular the “Wash program”. linen. entirely worked out by Tonello’s engineers. they are supplied with baskets provided with special beaters. The software. Particularly indicated for the treatment of jeans. 68 Indus Institute Of Higher Education .9 MACHINE USE FOR DENIM WASHING: TONELLO MACHINE: Machines suitable for all types of washing processes. It is possible to store up to 500 recipes (with 200 steps/each). bleaching and other washing treatments on garments of different materials (cotton.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT 6.
FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT G1 420 LS EV1 Made in Italy Patented Technical Data • • • • • • • • Cylinder Volume G1 420 LS EV1 4180 l Cylinder Dimensions Ø1890x1490 mm Variable Speed Installed Power Height Width Depth Weight 0/110 rpm 17 kW 2600 mm 2940 mm 3100 mm 4400 kg 69 Indus Institute Of Higher Education Dimensions .
chances of human error are slim. thus avoiding the need for photolites of serigraphy cleaning. a mask is used to give the desired shape that is to be applied on the fabric. images. extremely safe and reliable OZONE FADING: By using this technique. The laser projects through a lens system. text or even pictures. The novelty of this system is that • • • • • • It is water free fading of denim. It is an ecological and economical process. therefore requires very low maintenance and cleaning. The design is electronically translated on the fabric. extremely safe and reliable.10 NEW DEVELOPMENTS TOWARDS ECONOMICAL AND ECOLOGICAL DENIM PROCESSING USE OF LASER TECHNOLOGY: It is a computer controlled process for denim fading. which expands the beam. The machine is very simple and compact. This beam is passed through the shaped mask that comprises an aperture of the desired shape and is then deflected by a mirror to strike the textile substrate. Bleaching of denim garment is done in washing machine with ozone dissolved in water. Denim garments can also be bleached or faded by using ozone gas in closed chamber. It can create local abrasion and fabric breaks. This technique enables patterns to be created such as lines and/or dots.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT 6. Being an automatic system. The machine is very simple and compact. The duration of exposure determines the final effect on the fabric. used look effect. moustache with excellent reproducibility and higher productivity. the garment can be bleached. therefore requires very low maintenance and cleaning. The advantages associated with this process are: 70 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . In one version of this concept.
Particularly good results are obtained with blue indigo dyed denim. tinting and stone washing effect can be achieved in a single bath. To make this process economical and ecologically friendly. By using this new technique. As this process is not involved with any chemical. plastic. clarity of patterns. rubber or Portland cement. Less water consumption. By using water recycling system. durability. the technique can be used as economical and environmental friendly denim processing. and softness of the resulting fabric are related to the type of dye in the fabric and the amount and manner of fluid impact energy applied to the fabric. These are made of abrasive material such as silicate. This method is very simple and environmentally friendly because after laundering. • • • • • Less process time to achieve tinted look. 71 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . This is not true over dyeing but merely gives the impression of a change in overall colour of the fabric. ozonized water can easily be deozonized by UV radiation. Less chance of patches or unevenness Alternate of pumice stone To overcome the shortcoming of pumice stones. garment has been lightly coloured in order to give the final denim appearance a slight shift. Less energy consumption. some novel colour based enzymes have been introduced in the market. or excessive warp shrinkage. Color washout of dye in the striped areas produces a faded effect without blurring. it is pollution free. synthetic stones have been developed. texture. Hydro jet treatment generally involves exposing one or both surfaces of the garment through hydro jet nozzles. and other characteristics of denim garment. In this. loss of fabric strength or durability. The degree of colour washout. No extra chemical required therefore making process more economical. WATERJET FADING: Hydro jet treatment has been developed for patterning and/or enhancing the surface finish. SINGLE BATH STONE WASHING AND TINTING TECHNIQUE Tinting of denim garment is usually done after the stone wash process.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT • • Color removal is possible without losing strength. This process consumes large quantity of water and chemical.
rhinestones and glitter.11 VALUE ADDITION: Globally. Then. It gives a halo effect to denim garments. There have been short cuts. New add-ons are being incorporated in the form of patches. As stone discharge of the process is very less. 6. Denim designers are experimenting with fabric and garment details including embellishments in order to add value to its garments. in the light of three effects to be imparted on the same garment. spray potassium permanganate on applied portion and its surrounding area. therefore making process is economical and ecological. TINTING WITH WHITE DISCHARGE EFFECT ON DENIM GARMENTS: The standard route to blasting/discharging/tinting is quite elaborate. Reproducibility of washing is manageable. appliqué. Less damage of machine and garments. If tinting is done on blasted/discharged areas. neutralize the garment to remove potassium permanganate.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT The advantages of using such type of products are: • • • • • All major problems associated with the use of volcanic grade pumice stone can be overcome. first apply neutralizer where you want the resist effect and thereafter. Durability of such product is much higher and can be used repeatedly from 50300 cycle depending upon type of synthetic stone. The process of adding value to this legendary outfitter enhanced from time and time by devising some new methods such as: GETTING REVERSE EFFECT ON DENIM IN DISCHARGE PROCESS: In spray process. which may be right/wrong/ingenious. it obviously remains 72 Indus Institute Of Higher Education .
After the application. Ozone is another strong oxidizing agent. If indigo does 73 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . TINT DENIM-GARMENTS WITHOUT CHANGING THE TONE OF INDIGO: Tinting is achieved by application of the direct/reactive dyes. either overall or localized. SIGNIFICANCE OF OZONE-FASTNESS IN INDIGO GARMENTS: Oxidizing agents have a property of attacking chromophoric group of the dyestuff and destroying-discharging the color. dyeing the method could be followed wet-on-wet. it follows the dyeing route. However. After drying the garment. a neutralization step consisting of provide-acetic acid is given which is followed by hot and cold rinses. There are inorganic as well as organic ozone-seavenger. if the tinting is overall. which is protected by virtue of garments being stacked. In case of white discharge tinting the route would start with desizing-biopolishing on gray garment. the tint would be all over. After air-drying for about 1015 minutes. In case of spray tinting the garment will have to be dried first. which protect the indigo in denim garments from the attack of ozone and hence control the value-loss. In case of reactives. the biopolished garment can straight away go for tinting wet-on-wet followed by finishing and drying. the fixing chemical goes along with the dyestuff. In case of direct dyes. The folds in folded-denim garment otherwise have relatively greater exposure to atmospheric ozone than the rest of the garment. However. If tinting were done by immersion method. After drying the garment. which could discharge indigo in denim-garments. In either case the tinting. For tinting by dyeing method. Potassium permanganate is a well-known chemical extensively used for discharge of indigo in denim garments. peroxide bleaching after biopolishing being optional. a potassium permanganate spray is given to areas where white discharge is aimed at. the second application would be that of dye-fixing agent for an adequate fastness.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT a spray method. is done very lightly to achieve a particular cast. However. This results into localized discharge of indigo at the folded marks. the treated garment is dried in the air or in a tumble drier for adequate fastness. as the term signifies. potassium permanganate is used as and when discharge is required and the ultimate purpose is value-addition. if a localized area is the target. whereas for overall tinting. The process starts on gray garment being hand blasted followed by desizing and biopolishing. tint-spray is given followed by air/machine drying and finishing. a spray method is used. Finally the finishing and drying would complete the process.
the effect looks more aesthetically appealing and is considered desirable. APPROACHES TO MILD WASHING EFFECTS ON SULPHUR-DYED DENIM GARMENTS: Garment washing may affect the whiteness level of your garments. These effects being very popular have their own drawbacks. The tone-change should be gradual and not abruptive. such as weathering. as they can look dull or yellow after processing. have higher fallout rates. When tone changes fad gradient. stone washing. There are many special effects. Make sure to determine any costs involved and factor them into your product costing. Talk to your garment washer about prices and what to expect of the process you choose to do. acid washing and distressing that can be produced by garment washers. 74 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . They are costly. and are generally rougher on the fabrics. Most garment washers add whitener to the process to ensure a bright white finished product.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT not change tone would look like a print with a sharp boundary.
wet process and dry process these two are the main operation although there are also other process but they are the sub process. which uses an abrasive-bristled Tonello machine. We include approximately all the major finishes and the process which involve different operations e. sandblasting. stonewashing. World-consumption of denimwears today is equivalent of about 4. Generally saying people who don’t know about denim washing then after reading this report you get a sound knowledge about the whole process which are carried out in denim preparation and its washing. The demand of denim is increasing day by day. Companies that “finish” jeans by washing them or distressing them for a worn-in look.g. In the whole report we have highlighted denim washing processes and make our main focus on the processes and washes we had done in rugby industries while in this report we also describe the manufacturing of denim fabric. or applying enzymes to simulate “cat’s whisker”-wear line. laser burning. and sandpapering by hand. The main techniques used include simple washing.FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT CONCLUSION Our aim for making this report is to provide a new finishes and working on the parameters and processes use in denim washing. So to meet this huge requirement of denim new finishes techniques is developed which is economical and ecological and our textile industry follows all those processes. 75 Indus Institute Of Higher Education . Most major jeans manufacturers use several different laundries that specialize in different finishes.500 million meters per year of denim fabrics.
FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT REFERENCES: 1.com/.com/2009/03/dyeing-process-for-denim. http://www./process-for-adding-value-to-denim 76 Indus Institute Of Higher Education .com/tutorials/warping 3.. http://textilepedia. 4.blogspot. http://en.thecompanymarketing.fashion-incubator.org/wiki/Denim 2.wikipedia. www..