FLOW OF CONTENTS

WHAT IS NETWORK? SECURITY DATA PACKETS COMMUNICATION CHANNELS WAY OF COMMUNICATION ATM PROTOCOLS ETHERNET INTERNET

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NETWORK ELEMENTS ADVANTAGES OF NETWORK TOPOLOGIES TCP/IP MODEL OSI MODEL TYPES OF COMPUTER NETWORKS

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MODEM CONCLUSION OF THE STORY QUESTIONS?

NETWORK
WHEN 2 OR MORE AUTONOMOUS COMPUTERS ARE CONNECTED WITH THE HELP OF DATA COMMUNICATION DEVICES OR TRANSMISSION MEDIA THEN THEY ARE SAID TO BE IN NETWORK. MAIN AIM IS COMMUNICATION. ANOTHER IS RESOURCE SHAIRING.

SECURITY
CENTRAL FILE SERVERS TO SAVE ALL FILES AT ONE PLACE. USERNAME & PASSWORD EXTERNAL SECURITY. BACK UP OF FILES TO RECOVER THEM BACK IN CASE OF ANY CRASH.

DATA PACKETS
CLIENT DATA NETWORK IS USED. DATA IS SENT THROUGH WORKSTATIONS. DISPATCHED IN FORM OF PACKETS. HEADER & TRAILERS ARE ATTACHED. EG. POST OFFICE. ELECTRICAL SIGNALS ELECTRICAL WIRES. LIGHT SIGNALS FIBRE OPTICS. ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES - SPACE

BANDWIDTH
THE RATE AT WHICH DATA CAN BE SENT ACROSS. 10 MEGABITS 10 MILLION 0 S & 1 S 0 S & 1 S ARE BITS. 8 BITS 1 BYTE. 4 BITS NIBBLE. 1024 BYTES 1 KB 1024 KB 1 MB

COMMUNICATION CHANNELS
COAXIAL CABLES 
COPPER WIRE IN PLASTIC INSULATION  AGAIN ENCASED IN METAL BRAID  CONNECTED TO DEVICES THROUGH BAYONET CONNECTION.  CALLED BNC PLUG  EG CABLE CONNECTION

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TWISTED PAIR 
UNSHIELDED TWISTED PAIR IN TELEPHONE SYSTEMS  SHIELDED TWISTED PAIR

FIBRE OPTICS CABLES 
LAN CONNECTION  LIGHT PULSES ARE TRANSMITTED  LED S OR LASERS

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ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. 
MICROWAVES OR RADIOWAVES  MICRO HAVE HIGH BANDWIDTH  CONNECTION GETS WEEK DUE TO FOG & RAIN.  SATTELITE CONNECTION.  DISH TV CONNECTION

WAYS OF COMMUNICATIONS
SIMPLEX ONE WAY TWO WAY 
ANTENNA TO TV

HALF DUPLEX 

ONLY ONE CAN TRANSMIT AT ONE TIME  TELEPHONE TALK

FULLDUPLEX 
WEB CHAT

TWO WAYS ACTIVE

ATM
ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSFER MODE 
DATA SEND BIT BY BIT OR CHARACTER BY CHARACTER.  LINKS COMPUTER WITH TELEPHONE.  REMOVES DISTANCE B/W LAN S & WAN S

AUTOMATIC TELLER MACHINE

PROTOCOLS
SET OF RULES & REGULATIONS FOR STANDARISING COMMUNICATION FTP TELNET TCP/IP HTTP SHTTP ARE EG S

ETHERNET
IT S A LAN TECHNOLOGY LESS EXPENSIVE EASY TO INSTALL EASY TO MAINTAIN SPEED 10/100 Mb/SECOND 2 OR MORE PACKETS CANNOT BE SEND AT THE SAME TIME. COLLISION CHANCES ARE MORE.

INTERNET
NETWORK OF NETWORKS WEB BROWSER MOSAIC, MOZILLA WEB SERVER NT SERVER

NETWORK ELEMENTS
REPEATERS CENTRAL HUB IN N/W BRIDGES A DEVICE B/W 2 LAN S ROUTERS TCP/IP GATEWAYS B/W 2 INCOMPATIBLE N/W S HUB 
ACTIVE HUB MULTIPORT REPEATERS  PASSIVE HUB CONNECTION POINT  HYBRID HUB ACCOMODATES DIFF CABLES

ADVANTAGES OF NETWORK
RESOURCE SHAIRING DATA SHAIRING CENTRALIZED MGMT REDUCED COST SPEED LESS TIME

TOPOLOGIES
ARE NETWORK DESIGNS 
      BUS/LINEAR RING STAR TREE MESH/CONNECTED MULTIDROP HYBRID

BUS/LINEAR TOPOLOGY
ALL COMPUTERS ARE CONNECTED THROUGH 1 WIRE.

RING TOPOLOGY
CUMPUTERS ARE CONNECTED THROUGH IN FORM OF A RING.

STAR TOPOLOGY
ONE CENTRAL HUB IS THERE. IF HUB FAILS THEN REST SYSTEMS WILL ALSO FAIL.

HUB

TREE TOPOLOGY
HEIRARCHICAL TREE FORMAT IS APPLIED. IF TOP NODE FAILS THEN REST SYSTEMS WILL ALSO FAILS.

MESH OR CONNECTED
ONE TO ONE COMMUNICATION B/W EACH COMPUTER IS THERE.

MULTIDROP TECHNOLOGY
MULTIPOINT N/W IS THERE. ONLY SINGLE CABLE IS SHARED. ONLY ONE SYSTEM CAN SEND OR RECEIVE THE DATA PACKETS. THEY REGULARLY MONITOR THE CHANNEL IF IT IS FREE OR BUSY. IT OVECOMES THE COST PROBLEM OF MESH TOPOLOGY.

HYBRID TOPOLOGY
IT S A COMBINATION OF RING + STAR + MESH TOPOLOGIES.

TCP/IP MODEL
TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL/INTERNET PROTOCOL.
APPLICATION LAYER

TRANSPORT LAYER

INTERNET LAYER NETWORK ACCESS LAYER PHYSICAL LAYER

OSI MODEL
OPEN SYSTEM INTERCONNECTED

APPLICATION LAYER PRESENTATION LAYER

TRANSPORT LAYER NETWORK LAYER DATA LINK LAYER PHYSICAL LAYER

TYPES OF NETWORKS
LAN WAN MAN SAN/WIRELESS LAN

MODEM
HARDWARE MODEM CONTRLLER LESS MODEM SOFTWARE MODEM MODEM & CELLULAR PHONES DIGITAL ALTERNATIVES TO MODEM 
ISDN  GSM DATA CARDS  FAST CONNECTION OVER TWISTED PAIRS.

CONCLUSION
NETWORK HAS GIVEN US THE WAY TO BE CONNECTED TO VARIOUS PARTS OF THE WORLD. NUMBER OF NETWORKS COMBINEDLY FORM INTERNET. WWW IS A TYPE OF WAN. WIDE AREA NETWORK.