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iMonuo!

on

BSTATION LA YO- T

Publication No. 299

Editors G~N. Mathur R.S. 'Chadha

iSo5uoil':2!IOO

Central Board of Irrigation and Power New Delhi

MANUAL ON

S,UBSTATION LAYOUT

Publication No. 2:99

Editors G.N. Mathur R.S~ Chadha

..

ISO, 90011 :' 2000

CENTRAL BOARD OF IRRIGATIONA'N,D POWER Malcha Mar,g, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi 110 021

2006

L~,BN No. 81-733,6-306~4

"Reproduction of articles in publication in any form is permissible subject to proper acknowledgement and intimation to the publishers. The publishers have taken utmost care to avoid errors In the publication, However, the publishers are in no way responsible for the au thcnti city of data or Information given by the ccntributors,"

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EXPERTS COMlVlITTEE

Shri S.c.. Misra

Director {Projects] (Re~'d) Power Grid Corpozatien of India Ltd.

Members

Sbri J.B. Shall

Chief Engineer (Transmission) Gu jarat Electricity Board

Sardail.' Patel Vidyu~ Bhawan Race C01!Jtse~ Vadodara-39{1 007

ShdP.ll. Mehta.

Deputy Eng.ine,er (Transrnissi{)ll Deptt) Guj~at E]ecm.city Beard

Sardar Patel V~dyt11 Bhawan

Race Course, Vadodara- 390 0()i7

Sh;-ri M.H. KSba.tr-iya

Executive Engineer (Transmis si.on Uepu.) Gujarat Electridty Board

Sardar Patel Vidyut Bhawan

Race Course. V adodara- 300 007

Skri .~ GopaJa Rao.

Chief Engineer (Construction}

AP Transmission Cerporatlon Limited Vidyut Soud~a. H ydeoralbad.~.500 082

Shd H.G. ClIabra

Director IP&D (TS)

Bhalra. HeM Management Boru:rl. 66 kV Sub Sm... Industrial Area 1 Sector 28, Chendigarh, Punj aib

Sbrl S.K. Boy Mob,atl"3 Dep,kty Director (8£& TD) Central Electricity Authority Sewa Bhawan, R.K. Puram

N ew Dc:llii~ H 0 066,

SbriR.P. Lal

Executi ve Director (O&M)

N a,tiOI1~J H ydroelectric PO'iMe,r Corp.Ltd, Sector 33, NHPC Offioo Complex Faridabad (Haryana)

8kri ~j Kwnar Geneml Manager

National Hydroelectric Power Corp.Ltd Sector 3.3

NHPC Office Complex Faridabed (Haryma)

Sbri Viku Saltscn3 G.eneral Manager

Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd Sedor 29, Plot 2,. Sandamini

Near IFFCO Chowk

Gurgacn, Haryana

8hri M.M. Goswami

Deputy General Manager (EngS" SIS) Power Grid Corpcration of Indsa Ltd Sector 29. Plm 2, Saudarnini

Near IFFCO Chowk

GU![gaon, Haryana

Shri. B.N. Saini

Sup« r,iente:ruiing Engineer (400 tV Design)

llajasUJ:an Rajya Vidyut Prasaran Nigam Ltd Vidyut Bhawan, JJ anpath

Jaipnr

Sbd K.s. Kattigehallima.U Chief Engineer (R!eld.)

Karnataka Power Transmission. Corpn Ud.

Shri M.K. Ckowdhury

Su:perie:mending Engineer (E) CP &: ED West Bengal State E.lectrl.dly Board Vidyul!Bha wan, B idhannagas

Block - DJ, Sector U

Kolkata~700 00 ~

(ill)

Shri .P.R. Ganage

Chief Engineer (Transmission Planning) Maharashtra State Elcctrici ty Board

51h Floor, Prakashganga, E Block

Plot No. C 19,. Kurla Complex

Bandra (E)j Mumbai-400 0<51

Sbri K.K. Shah (Alternate)

Executive Engineer Design

Maharasbtra State Electricity Board Maharashtra Stare Electricity Board

5ilil Floor" Prakashganga, E Block

Plol No. C 19" Kurla Complex

Bandra (E). Mumbai-400 051

Shri S.K. Jain

DepuJy Director (T &'S- II) Pun] ah State- Electricity Board. Patiala-H? UOI

Shri S. Ayyadurai

Chief Engineer (Personne 1) Tamil Nadu Electricity Board

800, Anna Salai, Chcnnai-600 002

Late Skri A.K.Kapur Former Executive Director

Power Grid, Corporarion of India Ltd .. A-55, East of Kailash

New Delhi-l1 0 065

Shri 8aosb Nayar

Addl. General .Manager (TBEM) Integrated Office. Complex Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited Lodi Road; New Delhi-LHl 003

Sllri Raman Gu.lathl

Group' Manager (Engg.)

Alstom T &D Systems Limited

A 21~24~ Sector 16

NaIda

Shri. E. V. Rao Head (Engg.)

KEC International Limited

B 190, MIDe Industria] Area Butibori - 441 08

N agpur District

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'i:'f'IFI! (-J T~_,tID): [111-Mt~~. ~ ,;_ ;Q~1-~1Q!i!!I'2

~ .~ ~ 1!I'R<I ~ i;o&~~ 7fIII1I[""I 'Fi

CHAiiIlI't:RSON" EJ,.QF~IlCIO S!ECIRIIT"~'ij!

TO THEGat~Mi"~A CE!fl1RiIiI~ aJ!:CTRK:fn' AlfiT"iH~rll"'t _oIl !lIIIA'WAft,. R K. "1.I1i1JU11

~'~.n_

,Foreword

Inu:Ha is on d1Ie thres~ ,of Il1Iig't'iI OOt)l"lOill'nic 'gli"~ and tne OO'UIi'ltry's initiatiYBS ~ n the I~nfrastructure ~ parnculiamly the ~ '~ are moving fast towards a higl'ler gii\owth ~rajecrory.

Substations 3mvitallll"ilks in the power' ~m,s and their 'improved Lly,ailability ba,sed on we:U thought of design PiIl',ametM I ~a,v out.etc.~ plalvmajQt role ~n power del.ivery system".

The primary Inequ~rements of it ,good sub$ta:tJoo lav out are neKibi~ity f r~liabiUtyl' ease Qf operation and maintenaoceand 'Soa~ ,of ~:t:iing persorulIeI ,and ,equipment.

Keepinrg. in View 'ttlQim portaID'K.e of 'the subJied: and to dissemina,te the practices bel ng adopted Ibythe v'~uious utj1litles for- substation layootaAd to enable them to dedde the best layout ~suita !:)Ie' to their 'set c~'itiMS 'ttleCentrai bn:l of Irrigation and Power Pub1iished a Manual on Layout of SUb $tItion for the· first time in m961. The Ptublication was rlevlsedlfoor times from 1967 tal 1:996.

In view ,of very fast ~edhnoi!ogical ,cIevel:opments ilm paws sector it was felt desirable to oomprehenSively revimand .~. tiIM:!' roonlJil 0Il00: .aga in ta king I~nw 'Go:n.siderai!]oF'l tile latest dey,elopments and t:edhnologies 00 the sub statloo ,equipment etc. The rev~se(jl ,edition ooversHile basic MqllJirements aM kif dle· sake o.f mumtiQlJf1I contains typica~ layout for Y·alious rypes of txI&'ba'r systemS. This !Marwool i,l'I1(j~ud~ b"l,ef 01 scusslon onthe va riou5Clomponenl:S of aUiXU'iaryfacUill:ies required: in a substation to the e:rtelilt these affect statioo i!all(Out. n also, oovers, odlef asped:ss~has, minimum dears nces and r,eq:ui remmts ofinsped:liona n£I mainmrtaoc@' ,also.

I am sure ttl attl"le' IP~t pu~icatioo. wiUI proye to be a YelIY ursefu~ g~ide~lJr the Powe.r IUtillities, Manufactuii"ers" andooncemed eng.ineers.

I approoiare the' 'efifmts"rnacte Dy Expert (omm~ ~n oongim.g Gut this oomprenensiV€' document. I oong,atulate 'CBIP, fur their ItnitHt:M:!! and also oommend ~ linva.~lJ!abl~ contribution of 1M' au~, members of tne Expert Group Ii Cenltra'! Board €.If Irrigatfon and Power ..

(RAKESH HATH)

Nj,ew 'DeI~1

N o:vember, 2006

(v)

The country's transmission perspectiveplan for Tenth & Eleventh Plan focuses on the creaticn of the N ational Grid so that present Generation capacity as, well as future addition are optimally utilized .. for this purpose, themassive uansmission system comprising of several EHV substations and transmission lines is being plannedin the years. ahead. Keeping this in view, all out efforts are required to be made by the planners, designers/ engineers in the country to ensure mat these substations perform in me best possible manner with minimum down time. IBfside this aspect, the economic consideradons and parameters relating to the safety of~e working personnel have to be ensured. To achieve this goal, the latest technological developments/ requirements have to be kept in view while designing these yital installations! substations.

One of the objective of existence of Central Board of Irrigation. & Power is to work as a platform for the experts in the field to prepare vital technical publications in Power & Water Resources sectors for reference of practicing engineers and other users.

The First Manual (111 Substation Layout was published by the CBI&.P in the year 1967. The publication was revised four times during the period 1967 - 19,916. Since last edition was published about a. decade back, a feed back was received that this publication is required to be comprehensively reviewed and revised taking into consideration the developments in thetechnolcgies on the sub staticn equipment €mel utilizing experience of the professional engineers involved in planning, design. development, operation and maintenance of the EHV sub stations.

Accordingly acommittee of experts from state utilities and P'SU's was constituted under the chairmanship of Shri S.c. Misra, the then Director (Projects) POVlERGR]D for preparation of this revised.' 'Manual on. Substation Layout",

1m this publication, a. serious attempt bas been made to cover the basic requirements and jU,mstraJtions containing typical layout for various bus-bar systems besid.e brief diJsCJUSslOD on the various eomponeats of .auxiliary :facilities required for a modern ElIV' substation including other aspects such as mint-mum required clearances with respect te safety, iAspectlonand maintenance of the substatlen •.

111~.8 manual ills 0'[1 t come of ceaseless efforts made during last three years by an members of the expert group. The. C~Iltra].Board of Irrigation & Power wishes to acknowledge its grateful thanks to the authors of this manual for their valuable contribution. I acknowledge with thanks the tremendous contribution made by late Shri A.K. Kapur, Retd, Executive Director (pOWERGRID) beside the contribution by other members of the Expert group representing CEA, NHPC, A.P. TRANSCO.~ GEB, BBMB,RRVI'NLt KPTCL, \VBSEB, MSEB~ PSEB~ TNEB. BHEL. ALSTOM & KEC ill finalizing the manual Special thanks

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arc due to Shri S .. C. Misra, Chairman of the expert group for Jus tremendous mput and directions given. I would like to add that but for the untiring efforts of Shri V.B. Prasad, Executive Director (Retd), NHFC, Shri R.S .. Chadha, the then Director (IT) CIHP ~ Shri M.M. Goswami, POWERGR1D, Shri S.K. Mohapatra (CEA)a_md Shri R.K. Gupta. (POWER:GRID )it would not have been possi ble tobring out this updated manual in this form.

I hope that the publicatioa will be at amnense use and shall have excellent reference value to lffile practicing engineers and other professionals of power utilities, manufacturers, researchersctesting stations, faculty members and students of engineering Insti unes in Indi aand abroad,

New Delhi November 2006

G"N. Mathur Secretary Central Board of lrrigation & POWl~r

..

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CONTENTS

Preface Foreword

Chapter 1 Intra ductIo n

Chap:ter 2 Substaiion Equipment Chapter 3 Substation Aux;iliary' Facilities Chapter 4 Bus-Bar Schemes

Chapter 5, Safety Clearances

Cha pt,er 6 Gas-I ns IJ late d Switchgear Cha,pter 7 Physic-al layout

(v) (vii) 1 7 17 37 411 47 51

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Chapter 1

INTRO'DUC'TION

Substations form an important element of transmission and distribution nstwork of electric power system. Bas ical,1 Y" these provide' points for oontrolling the supply of power on different routes by means of various equipment such as transformers, compensaffnq equipment, olrcuu breakers, isolators etc, The various circuits are joined together through these components to bus-bar systems at 'the substations. While the bus-bar systems havefollowed certain definite patterns, thus limiting scope for variation, there is practica'lly no standardisation regarding the physical arrangement of the various components mn the layout For the same type of bus-bar system, different tavouts have 'been used rnn diff,errentooLlntries, and, in fact, in India there are variations in this reaaro among the, various Power utllltles and State Electricity Boards etc. Although standardisation to a great extent is feasible, some variations in layout are inevitable ln view of valryinQl climatic and other conditions ln vartous parts of thecountry. This Manual glives the baste requirement, and, for the sake of iUustration, contains typlcallayouts for various types of bus-bar systems up to 4010 k:V system voltage,

'One of the primary requirements ot a glood substation layout is that it should be as econornlcal as. possible, which is particularly lrnportant in view of the paucity of land and rising cost of land, material and labour. To meet the large programme for expansion of transmission and distribution facilities, the layout should ensure the desired degree of flexbilitY,-reliability, ease of operaflon and maintenance, and safety of the operation arid maintenance personnel. Besides, the layout should not lead to breakdowns in power supply due totaults within the substatlon, as such faults ars more severe than those oocurrtnq on the Ilines away from the substations. This Manual iincludes br]ef details about the various components of auxiliary facilhias f,equired in substation to the extent they relate to substation layout, It also covers minimum clearances and other related aspects.

The Bureau of lndian Standards are periodically publishing Indian standards, Codes. of Practice and Guides. It is essential tha~ the equbrnent actually used and the practices followed conform to these, standards. For ~he convenience of users, a list of the relevant latest Indian Standards, Codes, Guides etc. is enclosed as Append.ix 1.1 , and the 11St of relevant I'EG Standard enclosed as Appendix 1 .. 2.

2

Appendix 1.11

List af Indian Standlards~. GlJ.ddes~ Codes etc", rl!q ui red, for Referenoe

18:325

Til ree-phase inductJlon motors

IS: 39B(Pt-l )

A~um~nuum oCl!n;ciuotors fn, oIVI1l,mead transrnlssien purposes; Pi 1·~ .Aluminium stranded conductors

IS:, 398(Pt-2)

A1urnrnium conduc~ors for overhead tfansmlssion purposes: Pt.2· Aluminium oonduc4ors, gal~lIIized steel re'lnroroed

Aluminium oonduotors - 9iaWanized steel reinforood for exira h~gh vo~ta.ge {400 IkVanti ,alxwe)

~S: 692

Paper i nS!JJla~ed Ie.ad ,shaathedcab~es,for fartad v'011age upto andl inQ1utiin 9 33

k:V- spedfioartion .

liS: B94

Pomel1ain ~nSllJlato:rs for overhead poweir Hnes, with a n;omrr!a~ voltag:e glre~te~ than 1 eoe volts

~S: 731

18:8012

Use 0'1' s,truC'lI.ll raJ s~ee'J un O"IfIemead ~ransm i'5sion IU netowers - Code 01 prn.ClLOOS.

Code af Ipractioe for design ~Qad$ (other than eMhqua~e) for i:nJi~dinSis and structures

18:933

18:934

lfh ree-phase d iistriburliio!'l trafl$·f:orme~ upto and ~nclu:dif'! 6111 00 kVA, 111 kV, outdoor type

IS:'180

IS: li 248

D t~ed adng indioa1l1nganiSiiogue electrical rn.eas'l"lI'iing i nstrJ..! ments and their acoessories

IS; 1255

Cod'eof prarn1ce fo:r installatiol1 and maintenance, 01 paper Insuiatea power cables {UptQ and inolurling 33 kV)

IS: 1554 (Pt-1)

PVC insulated (healllY duM, e'leo1Jri'c cables P,art~ 11, for worlkjng volitages upto and inclu:ding 1 '1 00 vol:'I:s

IS: 15.04 {Pt-2)

8pedifucation fur PVC insu~1Jlted {heavy duty) e!leotric cab~'es PBlrI-'2, for w,orkiing \l'o~tages from :9.3 kV upto and itrloluding 11 :kV

11$:11646

IS: 1651

P:la~te pOSitive plate mtionery cell lead add ibatteries

IS: 1866

Code. 01 pradioefor maintenOUlceiElnd superv~sion of lm~li1eral il'llsuf'altul'lg oi! in eql!.lipmemt

18:2026 ~:~~--~ IS: 2062

~S: 20991

3

IS; 2121

15:2165

~ !"!sulation coordina:lJ1on

Gode of pmc~l,oe for se~BClio.n, I nS'l.alllarl~(mand rn llIinienalilce of por'tablefirslaid fire exlinguiiShers

15:2190

IS: .23[]9

Oode o.f pIaclioeio:r p~oledion 'Clf bu~~dlunQl$' and all lied' slrrJ.IIchJre egai os.t lightningl

IS; 2486

~nsLillat.or futJIing,s for (fv9~h9ad pOW91F lines with nomLna~ vol~age· 9 realer ll.iflIn 1000V

18: 2544

Por'Celain post inslUJ1a!torsfor syste!T!cs with nomjna~ vo~tages: g!leaterthan 1000 voits

Recommended praC'lice for ho.t-dip gawani:zing of ironomdl SfIeel,

'IS: 2633

Metlhodsfor testing I!JI1I~fo;rm ily of ooating of zinc cOallted articles

eu rrent trainsforrnellS

Code at pr.adlce torf~resafl€ily ot indust!ila~ buildtngl, €~@ctrical generaIt[ng and di,slri outing stations

m:3034

[IS.: 3043

[b~9h1!nin 9 arresters fer allema;ting ollJrre;m systems non-Ti nearresi$lQr type ~~ghtni rig arrl;ls1!er

liS: 3070 {Pt2)

IS: 3156

IS:. 3046 (Pt 1 ,2}

PrinoTpleiS 'for gooo [lightingi and aspW'ls of desig ns, Dade of p rn.oHoo

I Code of practice for ~merimi IluminatioUi

IS: 3646 (Pt. 3}

Application guide klr insulation coordinati.o!ll

Application ,guide 'for non-lin ear f'iesi!Ste r type su rg.ll: aR',eSlOrs w~~hout se ries gap for .AC sy,srn:rn

A,pp:l'tcatiQn guide fm vO,ltage tn:ansformers

18.:4201

IS:. 469~

Wrought alluminlumand a:llIIminium all:oy bars,. rods, tubes and seetienstor e~leatricaJ purposes

~S: 5547

~S: 5653 (PI. t&2)

IS: 5561

IS: 5578

IS: 6005

4

IS: 7098 (Pt·1}

Cross lin ked pDIy;ethylene i !"Isl.l~ated PVC shaafhad cables: Part 1 For working voltage upto and i:ncluding 1 1 00 V

IS: 7098 {Pt-2)

Cross Ii nked po~yetillylene insulated PVC shealhea cables: Part 2 Fe r workin g voltaqes from 3.3 kV ucte and ineludl ng 53 kV

IS: 7098 (Pt =, 3)

Cross-linked polyethylene insu'lated thermoplastic sheathed cables; Part 3 for worikin g voltages fro m 66 kV uptc and includnn 9 .220 kV

15: 8437(Pt.1 &2)

Guide on eff®cts of currents passing through human body

IS:. 9921

Alternating cumwl't disconnections (isolators) for vol'tages above' 000 vatt

Code ot practice to r se lecticn, installatJon and maintenance of transrc rmers

1S: , 0028 (Pt~ 1, Pt .2&3)

1$:101118

Code of practice for selection, instaJlatiol1 and maintenallce of s-witcl1g,ear and control ge,a,r

15:10136

, Code of practice for selection of disc insulator fittings for highest system 'JIoltag'es of 72.5 kV and above

1$:100',62

Space rs and spacer dampers for t\vin horizontal. bund Ie conde ctOI'S.

18:10561.

App!ication guide tor power trsnstcrmers

IS: ~ 2032 (Pi-2)

I Graphical symbo~s usee in eleetro-technoloqy ; cenoueto rs a nd eon nectingl tlevic.es

IS: 12032 (Pl-4)

Graphical symbols used in e I,ectrro·technology: I? assive components

IS: 12032 (PHS)

Graphical symbo'ls used lnelectro-technoloqy: Production and Converslon of

eleotrical energy -

Graphical symbols used in electro-technology : Switchgear, control gear and protective devices

IS: 12032 {PH)

115:12300

Voltage bands 'for etectrical installations including preterrec vQ'lta,ges and fl'eq L1enO)'

IS: 120153

Classitica:tion of degrees of protec,tion provided by enclosures of electri,cal equipment

IS: 13,134

Gukie for selection C1,t IfI<S'U tators in respect of poll ution condit~on S'.

IS; 13118

Specification for high votLa'ge AC circuits breakers

IS: 1.3516

Methods of synthe1iG testl 119 cf high voruage AG cireu i,t breakers

IS: 13947 (Pt.l to 5)

LV swi~chgea:r and control gear

ANS~/~EEE :80

I EE.E guide forsalety in AC substation groundin 9

5

Appendix 1.2

list of lEe Standards

IEC-60034 (1P1 to P19:)

IRotating electrical machin es

I EC-60044-2

Current lransformers.

Voltage Transformers .

I EC-600414-4

IEC-60051 : (pj to P9)

~ nstrumsnt 1" ransfcrmers; Measli rementet Partiel Discharges

Recommendations for Direct. ACling in dicatl ngl.a:n .lIogue eiectr~cal measuring instrlJments and their aecesecnes.

----------------~

Power Transformers

IE C-<S0076-1 0

Determination of Transtormer and lRe.actor Sound Lev,als

lEG-Sl095

, I EC-60099·4 25

Electromechal1l1ical Contactors ku 'house hol,d and sim i I sr purposes

Metal oxide surge arrestors without gaps

IEC-60129

Alliemating Current Dlsconneeters (tsojators) and Earthing

switches .

IEG-n29

IEC-60137

Aitematin 9 DL.mrent IEartl'ling Swi1tches Induced Cun,ant swltchirm

Insulated bushings for altelrl1ating! volilag9S abol\le 1000 V.

IEC-6Q1'68

Tests on indoor and outdcor post insulators of ceramic material or glass for SY$,tems, wUl!h Nominal Voltages 'Greater than 1000 V

IIEG-IYO 1.63

Guide tothe Se!e;ctlon- of H~gh Voltage Cables

iEG-601.a9 {P1 to 'P7)

Low trequ enc), cables and wires with PVC il).8 ulatlon and PVC sheath

IIEC·60214

OnwLoad Tap-Changers

T ems on Hollow Ins uJatQrs for use i n electrical e~lIipmerrt.

IEC-60255 (Part 1 to part 23)

IEC-602,65, (Part 1 s Part 2)

EI ectrical relays

Hiigh Volta'ge swimfrhe.s·

IEO-60273

ChaJacteristics o,t iildoor and outdoor post intSulators fo r systems with' nominal voltages greater than 1100aV

Reactors

lEG IEC-60297 (P1 10' P4)

Dimel1lsions of mechanical stlf'uclt.m~s of the 482.6mm (19 inches) series

lEe .. 60376

,I EC -'60431

SpeCiflcaltion and Acceptance Qf New Sulphur Hexafloride

Radio interie,rence T est on H~gh Volta.,ge Iins ulators

lEe -<60'507

Artificial Pollution jests on High v.oltage Inslilat,ors to. be used on

AC Systems '\.

lEG -60694

Common Specifica1Jonfol' Hig:h VoJ.tag.e Swi'tchgear & Control gear Standards

G uude for the Sa-ree-Lion of I nsu lators 'i n respect of pontlted Conditions

I lEG --60865 (P1&. P2)

Short Circuit Current - Calculation of effects

lEe = 60354

I,EC-62211-1 00

Loadin 9 Gu ide for Oi I ~ lrrrn ersed power transformers

High VolIag e Alternati ng eu rnliint Circuit Breake rs

Synthetic Testing of High Voltage alt,e:rl'ftating current circuit Breakers

6

IEC-61264

Co upling capacitorsanc; capacitor dividers

Press Llrized Hollow Column lnsulators

IEC-60358

II EC4lO481

Coupling Devices for power Line Carrier Systems.

I EG .. 60947 ·4-1

Low voltage switchgear and control gear

I EC-60529

IEC .. 60439 (P1 s 2)

! low V,oltage Switchgear and mntrol gealr assernblles

Cou pu ng Dillvioosfor P ower line carrier systems

I EC-60303

_ I Un e trapsfot A. C. power systems

Sing,le sideboard power line came'. terminals

~Ec .. 604a1

Plall1U1ing of (single Sfde-BaHld) power line carrier systems

IEC-60495

IEG-B06BS

Expression of 1he performance of electricaJ .& electronic measuring equi:pment

Man machine lntertace (MMII) .. Actuating principle,s,

Symbols lor Altemat~ng-C l.!rrent E~ecllicity meters

I EC-'60t521

,Olass 0.5, 1 and 2 alternating current watt hour metres

I EC-60547

Modular plug·~ n U n~ a~d standa~d 19-inah rack me lIr11ttt'lg unit based on N I M Stand'a ra, (tor ereciron lc nuclea ri nstruments]

IEC-603Q5

I nsuiato rs for overhead lin es wfrth nominal voltageabov,e 1 000 v; ceramic or glass iflsu'a.l'or units fOfftc.syslems Characteristics of String Insula.tor Units of the cap and pintYP9

IEC-60372 (1'984)

Ilocllling devices for bali! ,and socket couplings 0] string insulator units: dimensions and tests,

Insulalorsfor Qveu'headlli!iles with a nomil1all vonage above 1000 V.

IIIEC-{10433

I Chawacteristics of string lnsu later u~nts 0'1 ~he 1'01"1 9 ro d type

IEC-~04l71

Polyviny1 Ch1loride· insulated cables Ci,t rated voltages up to and i!1CIUdil'lg 4!.50f75()V

I EC-60227 (P1 to P7)

Conductors of il"'lsu'lated cabl.es

i IEC-602S0

:lEG-60287 (Pl to P3)

I Calculatio,1'l of the contimJOus clJrnmt .rating of cables (100% load factor)

IEC-<603'04

IEC-60331

I Standard colours for i nsulation fm low-firequ'erncy cables and wires

I Tests on electric eables under ~ire conditions

IEC-605Cl2

Exliruded solid dielectric instliated power ceblss for rated voltages from 1 kV uptoto 30 kV

I EC-754 (Pi and P2.\

Tests on gases evoWed duriinal combustion ot electnc caoles

SUIBSTAT'ION EQUIPMENT

.2.1 Th e substatio n layout is infil uenced to a 'gln~at extent ily the d i mensl (I ns of ttl e var]ous eculprnent and their accessories with]fI the substation. A detailed specification for various equipment is outside the scope of this Manual How8v,ar, in til is ch spte r .0 n~:y the brl et d eta Us o:~ th e v a. Ii ous eq u i pm€! lilt to th e exte nt they re late to the Substation layout, have been :rncluded.

2 .. 2 BUS-B.ARS

Substations ~nclud€ bus-bars and are divided into bays ..

2 .. 2 .. 1.1 The 0 utdoor b us-bars are eithe r of the ri'gi d typ e 0 r th e strai n I Hex ~b lie typ e.

2.2.1.2 II n th e wi'Q ld typ e, pipe s are us e di tor b us-ba rs an d a lso for makl ngl connections to the various equipment wherever required. The bus-bars and the connections are supported On1 oedeetal mounted insulators. This leads to a low level type of swi.tchyard, wherein equipment as wlen as the bus-bars are spread out, Since the bus-bars are ,rigid,~he clearances remain constant. However as the bus-bars and connections are not V8'ry h~gh from the gwulild., the maintenance is easy, IDueto ~arge diameter of the pipes, the corona loss lsaiso substantia~:~y less .. 'It is a~so claimed that th is systam is more reliab ~e than the strain I Hexi bl e b LIS. ~ n case ofa rigJd typ e [Jus ,. sp adal care has to. be taken i rJ respect of aeolia n vi b ratl 0 n,

2.2.1 .• 3 Til e the sltrain I~I exi DI e type· of b us bars is on ave rhead system con d ucla rs 811m nQl between supporting structures an d 5~ra~n ltransi o n tylP e ins u:~ators. The str]nging tension may be in the range 0111 5m)-900 kg per conductor I sub-eonductor (of a bundle conductor) for lnstallatlons lfIpto 1.3,2 kV. For 22.0 kV and 400 kV i nsta Hati ons, s:tri ng i n g tsnslo n may be ] nth e rain 9'9 of 1. 000 ~ 200.0 kg pe r con d u etor t sub-conductor (of a bundle conductor) depending upon span ... The eonduetor tensi 0 n .wh~ ch strong iy ~nrlllJ e tl cas the design and 'I.nl€ ig ht of structure has to be specified carehJltUy witih reference to span, ambient temperature, wind! velocity and rel evant site con d~tions.

2.2.1.4 The desi'gn of structures can be eoonomlsed by su~tab~,y locating spacers in bundle conductor bus bars for .245 IkV and highter vdtage substations.

2.2.2 B u s-bar Ma!ter~a.1

:2.2 .. 2.1 For the rigid bus bar alfwangemernt., alluminium pipes of Grade e.340~ WP ,conforming to ~S:~5082 are ,commonly used. The oommon'~y used sizes of pipes are g]vran in T.abl,€· 2"1.

- - _. __ ~ . _ ... 1., ., .. _

- 1-- _;II ••• - - ~ •• -_.- I --- _ ..... ----

liable 2.11: C:ommQn~y 'Used SiZie of Pipes

Systermv(),lta~g,e jlieV)

12.5

42 35

60 5.2

60 49.25

--~~~------~

89 78

8;9 74

104.0 90.1

lQ1J3 85.4

114.3 102.3

114.3, 91,2

400

114.3 1012.3

~ 14.3 97:2

1V 114~

1V 100

2 .. 2.:2.2 Th 8 mate ri a ~ com m orl'~Y used for b us-bars and con n ections of till e strain t flex.ib~e type bus-bars are ACSRfAAC.lh,e fdlowing sizes am commonly used either as singl~'€ conductors or as bundles [Table 2.2) :

:System 'lJolta,ge ,(lieV)

Type

ACSA Me

Strall1ding (All St.~.1 Drna,(mm)

I[)iame~er of co m pl:e~e conductor (lmm)

145

245

ACSR AAG

ACSR

AAC

3onl'J. .. 7"9 19/·l3.53

19.53 11.65

30.1113.00 191·{4.22

2:1.00 2:1.10

400

.AJCSR

54ntJ.18 'JOfl1427 5417/3"35, 19f.J5,3fi 371-15,2:3

28.62 29'.89 30"15 26.80 36.61

2 .. :2.2.3 Since alurrmlum oxidises rapidly, gr'E!!a~ care is necessary ~n makirng connections. in case of long spans, expansion joints should be provldedto avo~d strain on the supporting irmu:I'ators dUE! to thermal expansion or comracnon of pipes.

2.2.2.4 The bus-bar sizes should meet '~he e~,ecbica.1 and mechanical requ[rements of th e specif~c a pp I leal lon for wh id~1 these a,re chose n.

,2 .. 3 cmcurr BREAKE~RS

5411713.53

3~.11

2 .. 3..1 Circu it b rea ker is a. rn ec h a n~ca.1 switch~n g dev~cle capable of m a king, carry[ngl and breaking c u rre nts u nder 111 arm 81.1 ci rcu]t con di~ions an dalso rnakl in 9 ~ ca rryi:nglvor a specified time and bmakhgl currents under s'pecifiedabnorma~ circult ccrdltlons.

C~ rcu it 8 rsakers of the typ es in (jli cated be:bw have· b €len used in I nd la, .

36, kV Milllmrum oil. Bu~k oil, VacuUlm~ SF6

7:2.5 kV

Min[mum oil .. Bulk oil, SlF'6

9'

'1145 kV 245 kV 420 kV

Minimum dl. BUI~k oil, SF6

Mini mu m 0[1. Bu:ik oi I ~ Ai,r :B last, SF f! Minimum oil. Bu:lk oll, Air Blas[I' SF,s

HOW,9ver, minimum oil, bulk oil and amr blast eirouit breakers are be:ingr phased out due to advancementin technology. SF,s circuit breakers are genera~ly the present day cholce at transmi,ss~mll vol~ages.

The ckcu 11 brea!k:elus may be of ~ivetan!k or dead taok d €is jlgn. Tile: c~ rcu it breake rs of

_' ~ .~

the !'~ive tanl("typefor outdoor suestanons have the interrupters housed lin pon::::r:;l,l'ain

wea.ttler~shie:!ds on ~he~op of an insiJ~~a~ed support column. The circuit breakers of the "dead tank" type have interrupters housed in an earthed metal container with their connections 'taken om: tlhmugh pcrcetaln bushings and the bw;;~,i:ngs may be use d to house the· current transfnrme rs ..

2.3.3 245 kV and higher voltage outdoor circuit breakers, generally necessitate the provlslo n of ap preach road sto r b rea ker m al men anee.

2.3.4. Tille commonly used openltingl mechanisms are pneumanc, spring, hydraulic or their combhatffiorlls.

2.4 ID'ISCON:NECTORS AND' EARTHING S:WnCHES

2 .. 4.1 A discormecitor is a mechanlcal switching device, which provides in the open p os itl1:on j an iso~at~ng distance rneelln 9 the s pecifu ed r.equWre m e nts, A. d i seomector can open and close a circl!l~~whe:nI either a negligibl,e current has to be broken or made or when no Significant change in voUHge acrossthe terminals of each pole of the dlseormectcr OOCUIrS. I~ can also carry current under normal ckcuit condltions and carry for a. specified time the short circuit currents. Discnnnectors are used for transfer of load from one bus to anothe r and a~ so to i solats sq u i p me nt to r m ai nte nanee ,. Although a. varmety of dlsconnectors are avalla b~ e j t h e facto r wh ich has the maxlmurrr lntluence on the station layout is whether the dtsconrrector is of the verJti.cal break type, parrtograph or horizontal break type .. Horizontal break type normally occupies mom space '~hanthe vertlcal break type, Out of the horizontal centre break and honzonta' double break. type, the fermer requires a greater phase '1:0 phase clearance ..

2.4,.2 The location of d~s(:onnecting switcliles ~n substations affects not on:~y the substation layouts but rnalntenance of the dlsconnectors contacts also .. tn some suosta tic ns > th e dscon ne cts are m 0 U nted at higher p osi ti on s aith EH ve l1~caUy 0 r hmizonta~ly. Although such substations occupy smaller spacajhe merrtsnance of d iseon nscf n g switches ins LI ch substations is rno re d~mcu It and ti m e co nsu m ~n gl.

2.4.3 Earthing switch is a mechanical switchrung device for 'earthing parts of a ,drcuit, capable ot WiU1.s:ta.lI"ldingl for a specified time short-elrcuit currerus, but not required to carry normal rated currents of the clrcult.

2.4.4 lt Is usual for dlsceonectors to be motorized .. Earthingl switches may be motorized or operated manually .

. 2 .e 4.S ln case of double circuit lines the eal1hJng sw]tches: shall be capable of switchinq iinduct[ve current (elBctromagneticaUy induced) and capacHive currents (electrostatically induced) as per the values specii]ed in IEC 162271-~O~2 when parana ~ ci rcu it is e newg lzsd, Th e d lsconnecto r rnu st also be capable o.f intis rru p~i i1Q1 and making parallel elrcults when tli"all15ferr~ng' bad] between main and reserve bus

bars accordlnqto ilEC requirements .-

2.5.1 ~ nstrum e:II'lI ~raIl1l1s,~o.rme!lfs am devices u sedtotranstorm the valu es ot current and vo~tagein the pr~marY systemte values suitable for the rneasurinq inatruments, meters, protective relays, etc, These also serve the purpose of iso~ating the primary syste mtrom ttl e se con da ry syste ffiI.

2.5.:2 Current TIi.ansforme.ll's (,eT) may be either of thebushlnq typ's or wound type .. The busblnq types are normally accornmooated wlthin the-transforrner bushlnqs and the wound types are invarlably separate~y mounted. The location off the current transformer with respect to associated] c~rcuit breaker has an important bearing! upon the protection scheme as weU as layout of substation .. So far, 'the wound typ,e current transformers wiith dead tank construction have been used .. How9:velr., current transtorrners with llvs-taok oonstmcnon also awe being used,

2.5.3, VoUag,e Transform'er ,(VT), may~'be _either of the electrc-magneflctype orthe capac~tor type. The e~jectm-magnet:tc type VTs are: more (,osUy than the capacitor type and are commonly used where high61f aocuracy is required as ln the ,caSN3: of revenue metering. Capacitor iiyp.eis pr<l::!ferred parncu~ar,~ at h~gh voltages due to lowe r cost am d .i t se IVeB the p urpose of a coupl in g capaelto r aliso for the carrl e r equlprnent, For g.round fault mlaying,an addit~cHllaJ cure or a windingl ls r,equired in the VTs whi.ch can be conneeted in open delta, The voU:age transformers are connected o,nthefeeder side of the' elrcult bresker .. Howev,er, another set of V'o1tage' transformer is norma~~ly r,eqU'~w:ed on the bus-bars for s:ync.hronisation.

2.5.4 Tile tank. ofthe instrument transtormers may preferably be gaJvan~zed as this

wou:~d ,requh·,€ leas~ mMntenanoe. , .

_ ._ R •• , _ •• ~ _. • __ ' •• ~ • ... ..... r - - - - - •••• _, - - _.. ~ I ••• • _... - - -- - - - - ~ I ~

...,.,

li

2.6 Compact .Air~l~nsul:a.ted S~llJbs:tati('ln (CA,~S) I InteUiglell1,f A~il~~lm"su~a.ted

Substation I(IIAI~~S)

.2 .. 6.1 Compact Ai r~IIfISu la ted S ubstation (CAl S) f I nteUi gen~ Ai~r~ I nsu lated Su bsta ti 0 n (IA!S) based on modular concept has been deve!~oped by various manufacturers oiffering advantages in compactness, ,easy in instalillation" lower malntenance requirement etc, A. sing'le module can include bmakier" disconnector, DOlT (Di'Qi[8.1 Opttcal Insfrurnent Transtorrner- current arid' voltagetransfonmer, i.e., DOCT" DOVT) for metsrrng and protection! surge arrester, and ,ea,rtlhirilg sw~tch .. '~n some modules, wfith a trolley mounted Gircui.t BreaL~er ~C8)1 te .. , ciI:UE!w'out typej, d[soolilnector fiunction is achieved by the movement ofthe comp~ete breaker unit Compostte mod'ul:es are p re ~ m anufactu red ~ pre-tested and then i nteg rated to repl ace the~u nctions of numbs r of co UilivenHonal compol~"MEHl~S. In a compact design, a~l~ pnmary and secondary fu n ctlons requ ~red fm a Iii ne or transto rmer bay i n one pre-man IJfac~Ulred and pretested swUiching module (for all voltage !!ev,els) can he integral:ed .. The concept also alio.ws~o build, Ulpg.r.ade or extend substanon more effic:ienNy ..

:2 .• 16 •. 2 Hybrid type switchgleaw could a~so be considered for reducingi space and 'from re ~1 abmityean:; ldera lion

2 .. 7 .. 1 Transtorrner Js the hugest piece o~ equipment in a substation and it is, thereto re jim p 0 rtantfro m th e po int of vIew of station I a.yout Fe r ~n stance, on aeoou flit o~ Ia.rg e di mens io fl S, iit is 918 nerally n ot PQiss~bl.e to accommodate two fran stormers in ad]aDBrll bays. One of~he problems is ~he lnstallatlon of radiators,which makes the wi,dth of~he transtormer much more than bay width .. In orderto reduce the risk of sp read of fi re, I ar'ge t ranstormees are provided wi1h sto ne p ebbl B mill ed snaki ng pits an d oi I ,ooll,9ctmng IPit. Ii n addiUon to ab eve pr(}vis ion., s eparatlo n waUs are plroVlide d i nbetween the transformers and also between the trarrsformer and the control ro om bui~ding, mi requir,sd roadl-cum-rail trecks ~s also provided illor movement of transformer. R:ei'8vant, sscnons of CBIP' Manual on Transformers may be' fef'8rred~o in thi s context

2.7.2 One of the important factors g:overning the ~ayout of the substatlol1 is whether ihetranstorrner is aihree-phase unit or a bank of3 single-pha:se transformers, The space requi,re.men~s wilt! s~nglle - phase banks 81m much larqer than fhoss with ttlre8~phasetfansformer:s. Besides, in the case of single~ph.ase banks, it. is usual to provide one spa re 51 riI'!;lI'~e -p hase transtormer ,. an d U Sled ~11i case of a tau It or maintenance of one of the singh:! phase units. The spare u:ni:~ may be permanently instaJ~ed in the swUchyard ready IDa rep~aoe the unit, wh~ch is out of service,

2 .. .8 REACTlI,VE CO:MPENSAT~ON EQUIPMENT

:2.8.,1 Headive compensation may be of swi.tcned or non-switched type as ~ndicat€ld by system studies O'·f ·~he ne!twork in which the aubstations are located.

_ •• _ - I •• '·_ - --- ••• -. -- •• --.-"" •• " .•• ----- ._-'_ --- - _ .... _- - .,

12

The non-swltohedtype compensanon usually cornprtses shunt reactors pe~manenUy connected to transm~ss]on llne or '~O bus bam at the substations as per 'the requirements .. Next to '~he transformer, shunt reactcrseonsfituts ~Ia.rge pi'€C8S off equipmel1it These also can be in the form of si~g~e~phase units ortlhre€l phase units. Often another reactor called neutral grOUlnd]ng reactor, which is connected between the neutral bushing of '~he nne shun~ reactor and earth, is provided to maciHtate si:r1g!e p ole auto-reo losl ng ,. H owev€ r incase OT bus reacto r n e utra~ ~s so,i~d Iy 'g rou nded. Si nc e th sse eq u i prnsnt also 00 nta i ifJl oH~ th e ,prov is ion s vel ld to r iran storm ers apply to s hi u nt reactors to 0.,

The swHched compensation can comprise switched reactors, switched capacitors or thyni star centro lied rsacto rs and ~hy ristor switch ed capacitors k n own as Sta ftc; VeU Compensations (SVC). These are' selected .according 10 the system requirements and con n eel€! d dir,sctly '1:0 ihe i r .own d isc.rete! trsnsforme rs ..

2,.8.2. F~!exib~e AC Trransmlssi,on Systems (FACT'S)

Flex!b~e .AC Transmtsslon Systems (FACTS) techno~ogy is an evoMng '~echnollogy 'based solUtion for enh.ancingthe powertrarnsmission capabiliity of ex'isting transmission system. FACTS is denned as "A~,ternaUng Cur,r€n~ Transmission systems lncorparallnq power electronies based and other static controllers to enhance oontroUabimy and increase power transfer capability.," Thus, FACTS increases the flexibHirty of powell systems, make them more controllable and allililow

. increased utilization 'of existing network closer to ~ts thermal loadlnq capaelty without jeopardizingihB stab.~li~. FACTS 'ttechnol'ogy can boost power transfer capability in stability II]mited system by about 20 to 30%. BythB process not o~l~y capacity is in creased b ut also d ElS jig 11 and ~ns~aJ,1 ationcest is saved. Seve raltyp €ls of .FACTS controller I devices e.q, StaUc VAR Compensatnr I(SVC)" Static Compensa~olr (STATGOM), Ttruyris'~or Controlled Series Compensation {TCSG). Unified Power Flow GOrlltroUer ,(UPFC). Inter~nne Power _Flow Gorrtro~ier (!!PFC) etc. carl be adopted to achieve the 'goa.I ..

2,.8.2 •. 1"si:a:fic 'Va',. Systems

The following are the basic types of reactlve power control elements, whi:ch make up all or part of any Staflc VAR sys,tem :

.. Satuiratedi Reactor (SR)

• . Controiied Shwl,tReacb'),r (CSIR)I

I. Thyr~stor-switched Capacitor (ISO)

• Thyr~stor-switched Reactor (ISA)

Static VAR Compensators (SVGs) are shunt connected static raaetive power gl®nernto:rs ar;I(]Vor absorbs rs whose OUi~p lJt are va.ri ed so es to 'Clontrol specific param eters of th e €!,I,ectric paws r svstsrns.

2AJ ... 3 Seri!es COlmpensatiiofll

Series capacitors are connected in series witihthe Url€! conductors to compensate for the !~lI1ductive reactance of the I~in€. They reduce tlh!e transfer reactance between the buses of which the line is connected, lncrease maximum power that can be transm U1~d ,and redu CIS _1th e effe.ct!vEl' react]ve powe r losses. The series compensation can be va.niable~ype· ~vith control by ThyrIs~or (also called as Thyristor Controlled Series. CompensatioUli-· TeSe).. Dependinglupon system requirement, a line can be compensated with fixed. senes compensation or fixed series compensation and TCSC.

2.B.4 The substatlon .~ay out should' be such as can accomrnedate the requked comoensanon equlpments, Many.,a.-t]m,e only some o~ tllilese may be required in the initial stage and may underoo alte,ra.twon as U~,e! system dBv€,lops. Typical ~ayolJ~ space requirement series cornpenssncn equipment is Qliven in Chapter-? .

. 2.'9.1 A sub statio n has to be shie~dedl agai~st direct ~Iightnrng strokes either by provislon of overhead shield wire/eanhwi'ne or spikes (masts). The: methodology followed for systems upto ~.45 kV ls by sultabte placement of earthwireslmasts so as to provide coveraqe to the entlre station .equipmHIrrlt. GeUileraUy., an anglle of shield of 6o.Q for zones covered by two or more wif.es/masts and 45° for s~n,gle wire/mast is considered ad e qua te. IFor 245 k.V lnstalla Ii ons an d above, no rmally use of electromagneti,c m€~hods is resorted to. The most used method for determ[ntng shielded zones are the Mousa Method and Hazev~g Method. The detalled design of s hi e ld ~filg system is outsl de t~ e SGO pe olth i s publ ieatiorr,

2.f:1'.2 Bes~d8s, direct strokes .• the substation equipment has also to be protected aglai nsttrave I~~ngl wa VEl s du etc nghtn~ng strokJe son the ii n as enteri ng the s ubstado n .

Th e appa ra tus most com m 0 nil y use d for this p u rpcs e is tJn e S urg e arreste r,

A(jvances in materlal technology has resulted in the development of metal oxide ,gaplesstype surge arrestors, which are being most widely used: because of better protection level, hi'gher energy ~and.lirlg I d1~scJJafige capability and ~ow power loss under normal operatinq eonoltions.

The most important and cosUyequipment wn a substation is thetransformer and the normal pra:eH 08 ~sto i nstaU Surge arreste rs as near ttl e transformer as far as. possible. The, fixi~g up of insulation level for various equlpments within a substation requires a detailed study of ~nsul:atiorlcoordinatjorl w]th Ug~ltning arrester as the tocal polnt for providing protection loth€! equipment from power frequency over-voltage exceedinq the ratillg of the arrester, lnthe EHV ranqe, there is also the: problem 'Of switch.ing ov,er-voltaigesandtihB me of the arrester mtl}t be conslderably reduced! due tofreqtm~t operanons because of such overvoltages, Sometimes 11 ]8 not possible to

• • • - - _. - - - - _. - - - •• I II· - - - - - - - - ~ ~

I I _ •• __ •• _ ••• ~ I r --- - - •• , •• - - - ....... , - - - _. --

14

locate the Hg htnin g' ar rests r ve ry n ear thetra In slorme r, [However, th e re is n 0 prob I!e m so ~ on 9 as til e t ra n stormer :i s w~th i n the p rotectlve dtsta n G8 from the Su rgearreste r. B es ides p rotecti ng the t ran sto rm e rs, tIM e i ig ftltnl n 9 arrests rs also provide prote eli on to the e-quipment on the bus s:idellocated withj~ certain distance. In 'the case of very large substations where the Sur'g:e arrester for the transformer does not provide adequate protection to the other equlprnent, additiona~ Surge arresters eifher on the bus or 0[1 various lines have to be provided. For determination of number of Surge arresters and their locetions, each case has to be studied taking the size and importance of the substation, lsoceraunic tevel~ aF1itlcipat,ed ovsrvoltaoes etc. ~nto consideraton.

:2.1 0.1 Provislon of adequate insulation in a substation is of primary lmportance from the point: ot view of reliability of supply and safety of personnel, However, the station des~gln should be so evotveo that the quantlty of insulators required is mlnlrnum commensurate with the expected securlty of supply. An important conslderatlon in determininq the insulation In a substation! particularly :if it is located near sea or a thermal power gene,ratlingsta.tion or anlrtdustrlal plant Is the level of polllutton. As a Hrst step to combat thts problem, special insulators with higher creepaqe distance should be used. In case this does not suffice, washlnq the insulators by using Hve Iline eqlUllpment has to be resortedto and this aspect has to be kept In mind whill18 deciding the layout of the substation .. Another method, which has proved to be successful in other countries, involves the appllcanon of suitable type of 'gn38s8s or Boom Temperature Vulcanization (ATV) compounds on the

. surtace of the lnsulators. This, howev,er., also requires deantng of insulation the frequency depending upon the deqreeand the! type of poUuUon.

2.10.2 The ereepaqe distances for ~he dlNerent pollution levels are provided acco rdi nglto T able :2.3:.

Creepag€! dismnce, (oorn!k:V o~ hi~g hes~ svs~em v.Qft8C1e l

Medltum

20

25

31

Fa r detarrn i rI~I~.gthe cweepag'e distance requilr;em ent, the, hi 9 hest line-lo~l~ ne voltage of the system forms the basis. ..

2.10.3 The foUowing t.ypes of insulators are normally used. (A) BtlsSuppOrll:nsu~at'ors

{ill Cap and Pi ntype

I

15

{Ii) Sol ldeo re typ e (i i i) Po~ycone typ e

(19) St rat n Ins u lators I(i) 0 isc insu lato rs

(ii) Long rod' porcelain insul~a~ous (iii) Po:lymer insulators

2.11 STRUCTURES

2 ... 11 .. 1 The cost of structuresalso is a major consideration while deciding the .~ayout of a suosta tic FiI. Fo rlnstancs, i n the case of the stra~n I nexiibl a .tJ us-bar arranqem €I nt I cost of shu C[U'r>t9S ]8 much hig her than i n the case of ri g id bus typ E!. S irn i I arly the fo rm of structures also piays an impmian~ part and jhe choiee is usuall~y between us~ng a few heavy structures or a. large n urn ber of s maHe r stru Cit IJ res. Wili I s f n al iz~ng th B design, size, and: singh:,:! Un8 dh3!.glram of structures, safety ctearence requirements should be ensured.

2.11.:2 Stee~ is. the most commonly used material in India for substation strucfures .. NormaHy the steel structures are hoHJlip Igalvanised so asto protect them against eorroslon. However, ga!va~isil:lg' sometimes has not proved effective, partrcullarly in s ubstati 0 n S located in coastal 0 r in d ustria:l. areas and wn such cases pal ntl n 91 a ~so b eco mel s esse nt:i:aL In ome r count nes sped a~~ pal nts have be end eve ~o peo wh lcha re appl i e d w~tlh i n the sh op an d these pal nts ha va proved q u~te eff,ectmve ..

2.12 POWER LIINE CA,RR~ER. IE(~U~PMENT

2.1 :2.1: The carrier equ[pment required for cornrnunlcation, relaying and teh3meteriflg~s connected to line through hi'Q,h1 frequency cable, coup~ing capacitor and wave trap. The wave trap ~s ifistaJ~ed at the line entrance. The coupHng cap ac 1tors are i rlsta:n.ed on the lin e side of t ne weve trap an d are no rmally baSB mounted. The wave trapstor voltage levals upto 145 IkV can be mounted on the 9 ant ry stru ctu re 0 n wh idl, the I in e i s tel~mlnated et the su bsta non 0 r rnou nte d on to p otthe capacitor voltage transformer. However, the wa.v.e traps for voltagie levels of 245, k.V and above genera.lly require separate supportinq lnsuletor stacks mounted 'Or! snuetures of appropriate heights.

I

Chapter 3 SU~BSTA'T'I'ON AUXILIIAIRY FACI LI'TI,E,S

3.1 Be sid as ttl e me. in e quip m e nt di scussed in Ch apte r 2 a In umber of a uxili ary facl limes S [jet! as earth~ng, cab ~i n 9 ~ or! hand lingl system, Hh!lm i nation system, fi re fighting, craneand other unloading faGm~ies, oil filtra'Non. AC/DG auxlllary system etc., have to be providedw.ithin a substation. Tnese requrernents have been briefly cUscussed in this chapter to the extent these relate to the substanon layout,

3.,2 EAA:rH~NGi

-3Jt1 Prov[s~o.n of adequate eartih,ing system rn a substation is €xtremelly lmpcrtant for safety of the operating personnel as weU as for' proper system operation and performance of the protection devices. Tha primary req,ukement of a good earthing system in a substation are:

(a) The .~mpedarlce to ground should' be as low as possible. lin genera! it should not exceed j ohm for substations wit~ high fault levels (EHV substation) and 5 ohms for substations with ,iOiW 1fauit ,~ev€'ls (Distributlon suhstancn),

(b) The step and touch potentials should be with~n safe limits.

3 ... 2.2 To meet these requwrements. an €'arthing system comprwsing an earthinq mat buried all a sLlitab:~e depth below ground. supplemented with ground rods at suitable points Is provided in the substations. AJ~ the non-current carry~ng rnetai parts of the ,equ lp rnent i n the su bstafio n are co nnecte d to the earth i n g mat so as to €r1IiS ure that milder Ifau rt cond itmons~, n one ofthese parts ~s at a potentia i hi g her tha fl t:h at of th e earthing mat Under normal corrdition, the groLind rods make little contrbufion in lowering the earth resrstarrce. These are, however, he~pfu~ in maJntaining low value of resistance under all weatlh e r cond i:ti on s wh i eh is partie ul a rly imp ortant Jor install arion S w,itl1 hi 9 h system ea rth tau It currents.

3.2.3 .AM substations shm .. dd have provision for earthing the follow~ng:

(b) (c) (d)

The neutral points of equ~pment in each separate system. There should be lrrdep end en~ e a mil for the dii He rent syste m s. Each of thes e earthe d poi n ts should be interconnected w~th the station 'earthing mat by two different d,iH'gonaUy opposite connectors to avoid common mods fa~'~ure.

Equipm.ent framework and other non-current canry~ng metal parts. All'Elxtraneous metal frameworks not assoctated wit~ equipment

L1ghitli~g arresters: These should hl:!ve independent ea!1h~ng which shou I'd in tum be connected to 'the station grou~,dirlg grJd or earthrnat;

_, • - • I I. •• __ ._ ••• I I - •• _ •• , - - _. ~ I. I •• I· - - ,_. - • - - _ •.... I,. ----

""<""" I

18

3 .. 2.4 The Harth[ng lOt substation ffe~ce has to be considered from the v~ewPQint 'Of touch and step potemlals ln the peripheral area outside the fence. INormally the earth mat has to be extended by 1 m to 1.Sm beyond the fence so as to ensure that the area in the vicinity of the substatlon fence is safe.

Where the fenced area is :Iarge and mat area is small, ih that case fence earthing should be isolated from the main earth mat so that person touching the fence is protected from danger due to transfer voltage.

3 .. 2.5 Earthing in a substation must conform to the requirements of the lndian Electricity Rules and the provlslons of the ire levant sections of latest IS: 3043 and iEEE Std ~ 80. The earthing system should be designed to have low overall I lmpedance, and a current carrymng capacity consistent w.ith the fault current magnitude. The major parameters which influence design of earth mat are:

(a) Ma.gnitude of fault current:

(b) Duration of fault:

I( c) SoH resistivity:

(d) R.esiistivity of surface material:

{e) Shock duration:

(f} Material of Barth conductor, and

(g)1 Earth mat ,grid geometry

3.2 .. 6 Bare stranded copper conductor or copper strip used to find extensive application ~n the construction of earth mat in ·the past However, on account of high cost of copper and the need to economise ]n tile USIE!: of copper" current practice in the country is based on the use of steel conductor for earth mat.

In view of fast deterioration of GI p~pe electrode, cast iron pipe electrode' is preferred for earthing. The minimum distance between the electrodes shall be twice the length of electrode ..

3.2.7 Design Proce,du('e

For detail'ed design of earth malt ralerence may be made to ·the latest edmon of IEEE-80, GBIP Technical Beport No .. 5 on 'Steel Grounding Syst1ems where Grounding Mat is. not. needed' and CBIP PublicaUon No. 223.

3.3· CABUNG

3.3.1 Trenches and cable ducts are normally lald for cable runs. in very lar'Qe substations! particularly those associated with power plants, tunnels have also been

19

used, Except where cables €nter and take off from trench, direcUy buried cables are generally ,avowded to facilitate ilocatJiogfauits and rapidly lrestowing~he supp~y.

3,.3..2 The substa flon area, shoul d be' prop e r,~y graded' so that til e rain wa ie rls drai ned away form the cables trenches. for drain~ng off any wame,rthat may enter the tre nch es ~thes e shou ld be slop ed ~n thel r run to dra] UiI freely and' necessary arrangements made to remQiv,e the accumulated WeJiter as arruei' when requlred, Cable tre nch es should be provided! with strong an d effectiv!e cove rs, Cab les s hou ld n at be laiel' direct:ry ln the trench ttoor, A. typical cablle bench [8 shown in Fi.Q" 1. At pOints ef en~ryirllto indoor areas, termlnanon chambers e~c., waterproof amjfireproof sealIng armngements should be made. Cab~e trenches snould not run thmuqh oll rooms.

3.3,.3· Go ndu~ts sh aliid have the mini mum Iriu..Jmb er o:f bends i nthel r run, Pull boxes to faciHta te ca bl e p u:I'Ung she ul d be p rnvided at su itsbl e :~Q eatlo ns, Condu i~s shou Id be sloped and drained at low points. Care must be exemisedto see that water does not accu m u[a Ie w~th~nth e condu its or drni n into tih e equ ipmen~ at the end.

·3.3.,4, In indoor areas, cabha may be laid :in racks supported on wa~h3.> ceilingl or noor, floor benches or clamped 10 waill,~s 011 oeUing. Wherever a large number .of cables am invo~vedl and conditions so permit! a system of racks is pref,erabl'€l as it g~ves qu~ck access. Particular care should be taken in substa.tion design to perrnit easy entry of; cable in to switcllilg,ear wi~h convenience of handl.~ngl even afterwards.

3.3.5 Cable lay~ngl sho'U,I:d be done in accordance W~Uil systematicaUy prepared calb~le schedules, In ma]or subst\a~]on thousands of separate cables will be invo~~ved and ,quicktr.acing of defe;(:ts:wi!l. depend v.ery much on the, orderliness exercised whi~e laying .. All cable ends shOLJ~d be SiJitab'~y labeled tofadlitate easy lidentmncatran ..

3 .. 3 ... 6 Power (:ab~esand :corltro~1 cab les shou lei 'be s€ g.rega~ed by run n ing 'i[~ separa te tre nches or on separa te racks so that in the €v,ent of a tire I~h e control cab lesare not a ifected . Segregation of AC and DC control cabl es to the extent possl b~l:e is also useful. Separate cables should be used for each CT and PT. In the case of 4{JO kV subs.tations ,and substaUDns having numerica.lki~gital re'iaYSJ shielded cables should. be used tor CT and PI circuas and armoured cables for other circuits. These should not be [n 01 uded i rI the cams of otner m u hleore comrel cables, Wh i Ie, auangii n 9 cab Ie ru n s it shou ld be, kept ln min d that thearrang.eme nt sho ul d be such that a fire at any po[ntwil~ not lead to. complete shutdown otfhe whole substalionfor a lang~ime. Flexible conduits should be, used at terminal cQ,nnectionstn motors, pumps" etc. The main trenches should be formed :slu::tJthat !heavy eurrent ,c:anyingl conductors do not run paealle lto the contm~ cables.

The cable ducts should be lal d a way~rom l~iig htni I1gartes~e rs to mi n i rnizethe ,effect 0'( high dischalrge current flow.

_. _ ••• _. __ .___ • •• I.n _,--,. _ ••

- __ ._ I. - .. -- -~ ..

20

In main trenches a. heavy current c:arryin,gl conductor should not be, run parallel to control cables, This conductor should be clamped at suitable intervals to the support anqles earthed! to rod electrode's at every ,20/25-meter intervals. This shield conductor drain all induced current and minimizes induction of high voltage In the control cables.

POW8r cables are placed in the top rack. Lower racks contain control cables. lt unarmoured cables are used these' should find place in the bottom most rack.

3,.3,..1 XLPE1PVC insulated cables conforming to the indian Standards listed in Appendix 1 .. 1 ~n Chapter 1: should be used up 1011 kV.

3.3.8 MulUcore control cables should also be PVC I XLPE insulated and colour coded, Adequate number of spare cores should be included in all control cables, Wherever fiber optic cabte are used they should be armoured type.

3.3,.9 VV~euever insulated cables are used reierenoe should be made to latest IS: 1554 and ~.s:. 694. Earthing of cables sheaths, provision of earth contlnutty conductors etc., should be as per latest IS: 1255. "Coda of Practice for lnstatiatlon and M.aintenance, off Paper Insulated Cabl'es" (upto and. including 33 kV) and latest IS: 30'43 Code of Practice on Earthing.

3.3.10 Whemver" application demands, FRLS cables and fittings should be used, For mechanical protection, armoured cables are used in case these are laid on Iladder type trays. For 400. 'kV switchya:rds" irrespective off tha type of cable trays" armoured cabl e s h ou Id! be us ed, Arm ou red cab les can be burl ad directly. Howeve r the unarmoursd cables, can be laid in conduits.

3.4 OIL HANDUNG SYSTEM

3,,4.1 The ,oil handlling system is r,equh'ed 'for treatment of insullating oil in transtoimers, reactors etc. Details regarding handlinQl and treatment of 011 are given in latest ~S: 1866 - "Coda of Practice tor Mai~t!ellanc,e and Supervision of ~.nsulalinQi

Oils 'j:11l1 service. -

3.4.2 Oil may be stored in clean drums. Tbe drums should be stored,horizontally w~th ceps be'low oil level. It should be: tested perloolcally for dielectric strenQith and kept in good condlnon.

8..4.3 Portable oil filtration set of adequate capacity mounted on trucks may be provided to cater to the requirements Oil gmulP of substations. A typ~call.ayout of oi~ handll ng system for a ce n t rally locate d or a lar'g e substation ls shown in Fi.g. 2.

......

-~

-LII

I

' ....

3.5.1: Goocf l~g hting in a substan on is necessa uy tnf8Dc~~:itate no rmal ope ration an d mal ntefl ance a.ctiviUes and a t the same 1I:i me to ensu re s a.fB~Y of the WOlrkingl personnel, As per latest IS.; 36416 (Pt U) ~'Schedu~efor values of UluminaUofil and Glare Index" recernrnends values o~ in~ensity of muminla'ttion. Table 3..11 ccntalns the recommended va:~tJesfm d~:fferent parts o~ substations ..

S1. No. Pa rtlicli la rs

Aver3.geimll,llmilili1lf~iQf! U~itifilg GiIo'l.f'e

[ev,e~1 'llYx' Iindex.

11. OOIl1i1Jrol mems:

Velikal! control paf1l,e~s R,ear of control pan e:ls Co!nmno! d:esks

Switch houses

,20() 10300 '19

rso 19

300 19

'1510 25

2_ Battery room

3- Carrie r mom

30(]

300 19

1,00

300 25

19

1 0 Corridlors 70

16

~ 11 App.rnach roads ,20

I -

I 113 Car paiiks: 20

19

~15~ .. __ -+~S~'~o7.r~e~ro~u~.m~~ ~1=OO~"' r- I .

~ 16 earo~le Q!atllervllil'oor1O

Outdoor s'lN'itc-h:rard ,a'~erage illumination level shall be 50 lux on maIn equfpme.nt and 20 tux on balance area of switchyard.. tn the out door swifchyard, the area covered by transfiormer/reactor should .ha've .,5,01 lux.

3.5.2 The I i ghlt~ng system of a parflcul ara reawbeth e r outdoor or indoor should be designed in such a way that ullrnform ill u miil1lati on is achli,eved. As~aw as possibleany dark. spots should be avotded. This requires careful phicing of 'the luminaries! selection of proper mounting heIghts and provision om sockets Jn the mr;u'shaf'l!ing idosks and mechanism boxes of circumt breakers/disconnect swltchestor providiing supp~~emerrLary lighUng Wherever required. lin outdoor swltchyards, oril!,y~he ,equipmenVbus bar areas are illuminated. ~n, outdoor area, ~it]lm]r:laries s!hou~d be directed as far as possible '~olwards transformers" circuit breakers/ctsconnect swltches, mheilf mechanism boxes etc., where some' operations may be necessary du ririllg erne rgency at night

- - - _. ~ - , .. ,_, - _. - - - .... ~ ~ - __ • ..,.,., •• - •• , •• , __ • - - • ~ I

22

3:.S.3 There am several classiflcations of the types of lighting such as direct, ~ndirect. s,emi-indirect, diffusion, etc., The types of lighting or the combinations should be, so chosen as wculd provide adequate I evel of Ig~ar,e-free m:umir~ation without ereatinq undesirable shadows,

3.5,.4 Direct l.i'ghth'l9i system is the most common~y used and it employs open dlspersJlve reflectors, sUv,er g~ass reflectors and arng~e reflectors. The slmpleet form of 'g enera I d iffus~o n UtUn g [8 the p la~1n s ph e re of 0 paJ 9 I ass. The sp h e ri ca lforrn may be modified and any 'torm.i~1Vhich U1S' desig~,er can think of may be used. The efficiency of the genera~ dUfusion 'fitting depends part'l:y on shape but much more on the properties of the dUusing materlal used.

a.5.S The typical indirect fitUng is and opaque bowl with lamp suspended in it at such a depth that a~;~the direct ~,igh[ from the lamp as well as tormthe· bow!11 is emitted in the ru p per hem isph e re. The: s em i, eli r:ectfifii ng s Ii e in bet'llv,een tn e i I1d~ rEH::I and the g,sneral diffusion ~iMi nqs.

3..5 .. 6 Flood I'~g:htfming's are in essence, projectors with parabollc reflectors. There are two types of floodlights: the wide beam type and the narrow beam type. W~d:e beam type ls suitable where accurate control is not necessary and the .Iight is projected on~y avera short distance. The narrow beam type is used where light is requ i red~o b lSi pro j ectad aver ~ 0 ng,er d istan c es,

3.5.7 The choice of lamps, i.e., incandescent, fJuorescentj mercury vapour, sodium vapour halog'el1 etc .. j. depends mai,r~~y on the nature of work, the number of hour of utilization annually j the cost of enertJY and the power available for lllumlnatlon. Table 3 .. :2. g~v,es different types om lamps and tittIngslhat may be used ir1' diffefentarea of a substanon ,.

3.5:.8 The' 'foJl"emost: crite non mn th 8' d'esi'g 11 of iULi min afion system o~ i no o 0 r area s uch as control mom. workshop" repalr bay. offices.e~c .• rug, that. mum~naUon a~ ~he working heightthroughoul the area should be as uniform as possible 80 as [0 avoid eye fatigue. In practice, complete uniformity' of illumination ls diHicuU to achieve 12Uld a rati 0 oftffil e minim lim inte ns ity to th e maxi rnu m equ a] to about. 70 pe rce nt _ ~ s usu ally considered' acceptable ..

3.5,.9' Energy eonservation reqllirement haste be kept in v~ew whille seiecting type of lamp' and typl9 o~ mUng., WhHe designing the lux level requirernern rutilizaUon coeff ci ant wa.ctor m a.y be conslds red _~o take ca re effect o:~ d ust, polluti 0 n etc. on r.efl ectors used ,~n the I ig hUng fixtures.

Th e n]g ht tlime Mghtmn 9 otexterlorareas [8 necessitated by operational req uir,em en!" S'6DLi r'ity or decoratlve purposes or a comblnatlon of ~h€se. It is usedtor m ummatln g olddoor s,wiOO!chy.a rei's tsansfo rmer ya rds, approach roads to substanons, BtC., Use of 'flood: I~ght:s has been in iP,rac:Uce for il~um~nation of swritchyalrds. How€·ver, floor Hghts generally cause g~am~ if not properly positioned and mounted at proper heights. As the lumen ouiput (IT mercury/sod~um vapour lamps is quits appr.edable ascompered

--

23

..

to incandescent lamps, nood light units havilrlg mercury/sodium vapour 'Iamps wi~h medium and wide angle cove:uage, mounted at suitable heigh~s are preferred, If 'the floor ligiht: is. mounted .at a heiglht o.f 16 to 10m it would be away from the normal vis~on a.ng~,e (8°) of a man approachingl ~~ andthereforejl there would be no problem of g~are. II'f the des~gln of the fh:uJd ~i[ghU:rng is followed in an orderly mashion.. it is: easy to ob~ai n IJIlrl itorrn mum i r1 ation in the! outdoor sw[itchya raJ. Th e spU!~over Ug h~ fro m fllood Ii,gihts provkied in the switchyardis g~eneraJlry sufficlent for renee ~~ghUng. Separate fence lighting is provided on:~y ill excapficnal cases. light: fim~gs ln the switchJyaJlds are mounted on substanon structur€lHghti~g masts. Typical lamps and fi~nings generally IProv ~dle din som e mde nUfieod areas are g ivan in Tab hi! 3..2

Tab~e 3.2 : Typ~cal Lamps & RtUngs, in Some Idedl'lUr~iedl.All'eas

Store, reoms, workshops Fluomsce~t lndustrial

81:. No.

11."

2.

3.

Roads

room

BaUen; room

Acid proof, 1:nduslrial

4.

linG us-trial

5.

Exlema~ ~ighiting Oml Ibuilding

Mereu ry vapou r vapour

sodium Wa.tertight need nght

6.

Me,ocu ry' vapou r vapour

sod ium Water f ghtflood [~g'ht

7.

Outdoo r switdhya rd

Fence ~ightirtg

Mereu ry va:pou r vapour

sod i urn POrllt type we. ter tight, flood Ilght

8.

Mercury vepo L1r vaoour

sodtum 1 Post type wale r ti'g ht I street IiQ ht mtin~s

9.

3.5,.1 0 Th B P U rposs of street Ili,g htrnl~ g in s ubsta tiOlrl s is to p remote safety an d convenience on the approach roads, service roads and side walls inside switchyardjl etc., The aim should be to pmvide condltions of v~sibm;ty adeqlUatefora.ccurat€~· certain and comfortable seeilUlg.

3.5.11 Em € rgen cy IIghti ng ~s calledfor ln case of AC StJ ppiyfai iu Fe in su bstanons. In indoor lnstallatlons such as a 'oontrol room. switchgear rooms, etc., DC larnps con nected to th e D G supply s.ystem sh ou~,d be, provid ad at su it:ab~e iocaU 0 n s. The S B are brought into service in case of AG supply faiimrE! .. These are normally w~,red through automatic changeov,er contaetor at the DC Idi.strlibu~ion board. 'iln 'Workshops! repair shops. and macblne hall, where mereury/sodurn vapour ~amps are employed, provision should be made for all€! ineandescentlamp fitting ot siLl!~ta,ble power for a gro~p of 4 to 6 mercury/sodium vapour lamps. This would avoid an etxtienderJ~o~a.1 bl ad~outin the event ota vollta9'e eli p o r mom e rdary ~nte rru ption of AC S!~ pply, as ~h e dis ch a r'ge lamps ta k.€ a. few IITI irlutes to give fu II Iwg ht output agai n.

3,.Ek 1 Compressed air system in subsliation may be required for the cperation of air blast circuit breaker and pneuma.tically operated cireult breakers and disconneet

-_., .,. __ .... - -_., "---' -

• _ • __ .......... •• ,. • f!'.

....

24

switches. A rellable source of supply of compressed air i:s very essential for successful operation of the equipment

3.6.2 Compressed air requirement of a substation can be met by either a central compressor system or a unit compressor receiver system.

3.6.2.1 Central Compressor B,ystem

3.6,.2.1.1 This arrangement is 'generally provIded in substation, where the number of circuit breakers to 'be served is large. Thecentral compressor normally works at a hIgh pressure and through reduciing valves, the- pressure is reduced at local receiver of each circuit breaker to a work,ingl tevel, The values of high or low pressure vary from manufacturer to manutacturer.

However, generally 1he rated pressure of the central air Irece,iveli is kept about twiice the rated pressure for breaker operation .. The advantages of choos;ing, higher pressure tor the central receiver are:

(i) Ensu red aval lab mty of worki hg pressu re' in the c.i reult b re a ke r recelveo immediately after one, specltleo duty operation.

(ii) Elimination o.f moisture in the compressed air, as expansion takes place from high pressure iin 'the central receiver to workingl pressure in the clrcuit breaker receiver.

(iii) Heduetton in storage volume.

3,.6.2.,1.2 The central compressor system should comprise at le'851 two compressors, each capable of charging the centrall air receiver to its rated pressure with~n prescribed time. The capacity of the Iocal receiver should be adequate for the breaker to perform one standard duty cycle" The capacity of the air recelver s,hou~d be adequate for the! total number of breakers likelyto perform one standard diJty cyde simultaneously. The capacny of the amm' compressor should be adequate so that the time required for the f~rst charging or charging under normal 'running cooditions or (:tlarg~ng alter one standard dlll~ -cyc'lewhichever is mom critical, does not exceed ttl e" speelfled lim its,

3.6,.2 .. 2 U,JitCompress,o.r Recei've'r System

3 .. 6,,2.2.1 This system may be provided in the! substations, where the number of circuit breakers to be served ls smalt lnthls arranqement, each circuit breaker shan have its own compressor and recejver .. A s:ingile compressor is used but a connector is provldedto allow a portable compressor to be ,coupled for maintenance 'purposes or in emer'g'9ru;:,y. In such an arrangement, the' storage capadty 01 the local receiver s ho ul d be sufficie nt: fo r two 0 r three operations with OU~ reeharq i ng. The u s ual

'~

25

pracfice ms that ~he t]me to restore 95 percent pressure fanowingl a break cperaticn is .3-5 min utes or ,evelUli less.

3,.ltS.3 Compressed air always oorm~ains moisture to some extent which must he elim.inated so as to ensure the sa;.fety of operation.

3.'6.4 Th e ptp e fro rn ~he atr su p;p~~f' system to ttl e oi rCl1i~ b reake r she ul:d b 8 normally of ring main or double bus type to ensure (;ontinuity of S'lJp'P'~Y.' Formerly. solid drawn copper pipi,ng was used for compr,essed air but" ill vwew o.f the' acute shortage of copp er ~ i'l: is not €leo nomicalto IUS,€: cop per prprngl. I nstead blae k steel 0 r gab/an ized iron IP~pirilg may be used. Scr'ewed ma~l~earrJle iron ~itlings should be used for bw pressure :f7atm. and! bw,sr;'.Wheu,e! h[gh pressures are encoun~er,ed.flanged 'il'org:ed bl ack steel firtti ngs may be used,

·3.'6.5 A typical ,cernlttra'l compresser arwangement for a substation usiing air b'~ast ci rcu it b make rsls shown ~n F.igl. 3.

3.7.1i Large substation sometimes has the facilities o~ rapair bay along with a crane off adequate cap,acrr~y for Ihandiing'the! heavmest equipment which is usually the' train sfo rmer, I rI vi,ew of h,eavy cost and infrequent LJlSB, howeve r, '~h i s facmty is not provided ln alii substations. In the' case of substatkmlS nearthe 'generatingl stations, the se Nice bay and c rane '~aci liUes normally avai lable atlh e g,e ne ratm gl sta Non are lIti I lzed, .~ n th e case of s ubstaui OII"nJS! which aren 01 nea r a. glerile ratl n 9 statlo f1S, crane an dl service bay facmtmes· ff1ay be p rovjdedl at. one oontra~1 V' lo ca ted s u beta Non to serve a. gluoup of nearby substaUons connected by road or rai'~.

3~1.2 Provision of a raw~ track shm.dd be made for movement o~ transtorrner from switchya.rd tojh e repa~ir bay.. Po]nt mor ~ackjng pad shn uld be p rcvided at the, 'twansrormer fOlJllldaHon, to 'facilitaw€i '90ll tum on the r,a~~ track Ior chang~ng~he direction of wheels.

8.S, FIIR.!E PROTECTI'QN IFACI.UlIES

3.8.1 I n vi ew of a law.g.9 nu m bar of on~ ml e d eq Ul~p m ants ina su bstation, it is very important that proper a~erJlifonis @Iiven to lselatlon, Hmitatim~ and exl:inguishing' of fire so as to avoid dama.ge to ,cosUy equ~pment! reduce chances off serious dislocafion of power supply and ensure safety of personnel The first step in this d i rectlon is in herent ~n the desi 9n and ~ayout of the S'U bstafion itself, whkh s hou Id be suchth,a~~f 'rim occurs in any equlomentlt should be' limited and isoiab3,a sa that lit does not spread to o~llIef equlpments. For fh~ls purpcseihe foUowif~.g are the gene:u.a~ giUldelines:

_. -- - .... ". - •• - ~.I ----.

• - -- __ I ,- - •• __ •• ,

26

(I:) The spacing of the equipment should be considered. 'Extra space is not usuaJI.y prov]dedfor 1fiir,e ]so~ation, but the space avaliable is taken into account in deddinQl other isolation measures.

Oi) F[re isolation wal!ls should - be provided betweeo ~atrge oil-fllled equlprnents such as two or more transformers placed! adjacent to each other, These should be of adequate sUengt.~1 and om such size thatthe adjacent equipment is reasonably sale from fire risk due to burning, oil llyinglfmm the equipment on fire.

(l ~ i) ln i nd oor areas a utomatlcflreproof doors sh au Id be provided for roo ms wh~ch house major ell-filled equwpment The rcorns should also be constructed wIth a vlewto isolaHngl the' fire ..

(Iv) Soak. pits or drain pits should be provrnded below ~arge oil~m~ed equipment to drain off the burning on falling below fhe equlprnent.

(v) M~nm ~tems of oil-filled equlprnent sbould be placed jn beds .of grave~ or pebbles which wil:ll quench and prevent the spread of burning oil,

(vii) Gare should be exercised that any prospective flrre can be easily approached to r q ue nch~ngl.. ln closed spaces al1d bu~~!dtngs attention sh ould al so be gIven to evacuafion of personnel (Refer IS: 1646) ..

(v~r) A~ii 0 ~~ P]p es an d cab I e tren ches should be s ecHona.i~sed by mea rl e of cross

wa~.~s. .

3.8.:2 A wel~ coordinated system ot fire protection should be pmvrded to coveraf areas of ~he· suossatlon and'aB types of Hke~yfires.. The detaUs oj fire protection have to be worked out on ·the basis (If Si:Z.'8, type an d ]ocaUon of th e, S u bsta t~Or1l, accessibility and degre,e of attendance. Care sh.ou~d be taken ·~hat any fbe can be fought from more than one source and dependence is not pl'ac'edi on s:ingle equipment for this purpose:

3..8 .. 3 The subject of fire sa.fety involving electrical equipment is exhaustively covered in latest IS:1'646~, IS: 3.034 and CBIP Manuam on Transformer.

3.8.4 Fim lFi:ghting System

3.8..4.1 Ali substations should be equipped with n.re f~ght:]r1g! systems c'Onformlnglto the requlrements Q'iVern in latest '18:1646, and Fke Proteciiol1 Manual Part-Ilssued by TarUf Advisory Committee of .lnsUlwance Companies ..

3:.B.4.2 Trailer pumps where provided should draw :tihe]r water supply from ground tanks of suilt:ab~'e slzes, ·~he ~ocatior~1 and dhMribution of which sha~~ be such that no item to be protected is more than aboll:t 80m away from 3riliy ground tank,

J

27

3.8,.4,.3 The more va.luablle ,equipment or areas forming concentrated fire risk should be covered by special fire protective systems .. In this class are:

(a) Transtormers, both indoor and outdoor:

(b) Oill-fHled reactors:

(c) OH -wi lied switchg ear:

(d) Oil tanks and on pumps:

(e} Oil, grease and paint stores: and

(f) Synchronous. condensers.

3.8.4.,4 Although the substitution of bulk~oill and minimum oil circuit breakers. by SF6 g!as circuit breakers has reduced the risk of fires in e:lectrica! installations, considerable ,risk sti:U exists on account of transformers, reactors. cables etc., -whrcil contain combustiblle illlsullating rnatarlals, Fires in Ilive electrii'cal equipment, motors, machinery etc. - tall lin class C accordlnq to the Tariff Advlsory Committee CI!assification of Fires, It is necessary to provide effiici,ent Fire Protection Systems in the Electrilca.i lastallatlons .. Flre Protection System consists of the iol'llowirol9:

(i) F,i:re IPrev,ention

(II) Fire Detection and annunciation

(iii) F~re Extinguishing.

3.8.5.1 Fire prevention ls of utmost importance and should be g~ven its due if risk of occurrence of fires has to be e~irnina]edjm:inimi~ed. ThE!< safety and preventive measures applicable fOlr substations as recommended by the relevant authorltles must be strictly followed whHe' planning the, substaflons,

3.8.5.2 All 'fi,re fighting equipment and systems should be properly maintained. Regular mock drills should be conducted and substatron staff made aware of ~mportance of fire pmv,enUon and mmparted ~raining in proper use of the fire f,ighting equipment provided mn various parts of the substation, control room building etc.

3,.B.6 Fire D,eliection and AnnLJInci:a1i,onl

a..8.6.1 Fire detection if carried out at the incipient stage can he!lp in timely containment and HxUngui.sh~ng of fire speedi'ly. Detection can either be dane visuaUy by the personnel present in vicinity of 'the site o~ occurrence or automaticaUy with the use of detectors operaUng 'On the prinejples of fixed temperature, resistance variation" differential thermal' expansion, rate of rise Oof ternperanne presence of smoke, gas, flame etc, Hre detectors of the foillowing types a~e usually used:

1

(i) Ionisation type

(i~) Smoke type

(i ~i) Photoelectnc type

,(iv) Bimetal type

(v) Linear heat detecfion tyPIS

3,.8,.16,.:2 Ionisation -type detectors are used more commonly. However in areas ,~ik.e cable vaults, Ionisation srnose and Unear heat oetecnen type detectors are used. Smoke type detector is effect.iv€ tor Jnvlslble smoke, and photoelectric type for visihle smoke, smoke 'type detectors incorporate lEDs. which start: glowimlgi~, the event o~Hr,e.

3.B.6 .3 Detectors are .10 ea ted at stm~egiic position sand arran ged iin zan es jo facilitate properlndlcaflon O'~nre :~ocatiiorJl' transmlsslon 01 Audio-visuai! signals to F[re control: panels and aCluaUon of the appropriate Fire FighthlQI Systems., 'Ill the rooms with false' oeilings, these a,r€! provided above the cemng as wen as below it For the detectors located above the false ceilings, remote response indicators should a,~so be provided.

3 .. 8.,.6.4 De18c~ors are provided at the rate Qif one for a maximum area of 80 m2 ]n the zo nesto be ,covered by th e Fijir,€ Protection System

3.8.1 :1F~FeExtinglUishing

3.8.7.1 The Fire Extinguishing Systems used! for fire protection of the various e qu~pmentslb uUdiln gin au bstatlo ns are tlh efo~i!owingl: '

'(0 H¥drant sys~em.

(H)I High ve!od~ water spray system.

(H i)< Po liable nlrH B.x1wn 9 u is he rs,

(lv) Nitro g:e 11 ;~il1 j ecnon fi rei p reve nt~o n methcd 'for~ransrorme r only

3.,8.8.1 Hydrant: System is ~nstaJI'ed for the protection ofthe,~ollow]ng areas from frum:

0) Control room buildingl

(ii) LT. transformer area

(iwij Diesel generator set bui~drng

_---_._ .. ---,_ - _ ..... -----

29'

(~v) Fi re wa te r pu mp house

tv) SuitaJJie location in tile switchiyard.

3.,E!:.8.:2 Hydran~s are the backbone of Fim FmghUI1Q System as these can help f:ilghti ng ~i res o]alili n~en:s~ti as run ,all classes of fires and contl n u e to be in servwce eve fll if the aff,ected bu i~d'i n gs/strilj etu res have collapsed, These Ike epth e ad~oin~ng properties!buUdings '0001 and~hfm3by save them from the serious .eff'Hcts of ~ire and rnlnlmize the risk ofexpIIQs~ons.

3,.,8,_,8.,3 The IHydrant Syslelmis supplied water from FID,ueWater Pump HOUSi9. Fir,s Wah3~f Pump' House is located by the side of Fire! Water Storage Tankscoostrueted within the substa~ion boundary lim:~ts. These tanksere made of ROC above ground such that t~ ese are e,as~~y access ib~e. W,ater fro m tnes e tanks iis pump ed i nto fhe Fire Hydn~u~,1Ii System wiith horlzontal ceantriil!uga~ pumps.

3 .. 8. B..4 The Hydrant System essentially eon sists ala network of p ip es~~aid both above 'glmu nd and un d e rg:round ,. wh~ctJ feed wate r unde r pressure to a nu rnber of hydra nt valves ilocate d at strategwc I~o catio~ 5, tlh ro lJg h 0 Lit the su hstation, P ressu re in the plp!,rlg is ma~ntahed wlttn the help of hydm~pneumatic tanks and jockey pumps. Jockey pump's. compensate 'for m~nor ,~eakages also. llhe hydro-pneumatic tanks are pressurized w~th compressed air supplied by twoair~compressors ofwhicil one is working at a time and other acts as standby.

Adjacent to the Hydraln,ts~ hoseplpes, branch pipes and nozzles are lk,ept in Hose Boxes .. In case om fire, the hoses wIDth nozzles ,alre coupled to the respective hydraJru~s arid water jet is diredediowants the seat o~ ~~Iue.

3.8.B.5, Om dmp of preSSUtrf3 in tili1e p~pingl network, bslewa preset value, the HlydrEJ1[ Pu mp starts automaUcally and oonti nues to IlHlI ti I~ ~t is stopp ed manually a.fter 'fi re has been extingllished,

J ,,8 .,8.6 The q uantity of water to be availabl e tor fi re p roeecno nand th e n umber of fire water pumps depend on the totall1lumber of hydrants whmch are provided as per guidelines of Tairiff .Advi.sory Committee Manu'at aocording' to wll~.ch substations fa:W~ In "'Ught Flra Hazard" ca,tegory. The! parameters of Fijjlu,e Water Pumps as per TAC guildelines ale ,given below ..

(a)

For '~~e t~tal_ifliUmber IO~ hrdmnts u;to twenty, one no pump of 96, m31t1r capacmty wllth at pressure of 5 .. 6 kg/em '(gaug19)

For the '~~tal . number of. hyd~ants. exceeding tweanly u~'~~ I:iffy live,. one no.

pump OT '1137 m3/h.rca:paclty wlth.a pressure of 7.0 kg/em I(gauge) _

For~he~otalnumber .of hydrants exceedi~g fi~~ive,. upto hundred. one no. pump o~1171 m3/hr with a pressure o~ 7.0. kg/em (gauge).

('b)

(0)

._ ~ .. - ._, .. - .. - - - ...

_ ..... - _ .. - - _ .. ,----'

.. ,_, - -- --- .---

30

3.8.8.1 .As. per T AC '9uwdelines, the ~ock.ey pump should have a. capacity of t 0.8 m3/hr. and th'9 hvdro-pneumatctank should have a eapac~ily Or~ 18 m3. The effective capacity o~ the Fiire Water Tank should' be not less than one hour of ag'gregate pumping capacity, wHh a minimlim o~135 m3.

3,.8.,6.8, All components of the Hydrant System such as pipi:ng, valves, fminglsj, hoses, branch pipes. nozzles etc .. should be of approved make acceptableto TAC.

3·.,8.'9 .. 2 Hi'g'hl Velocity Water Spray System consists of a. network of projectors arranged around the equipment to be! protected. Wat,er under pressure is directed into the projector network thmugh a. d€~uge valve from a lpiping network lexdus~vely laid for the Spray Sys~!em. Water ~eaves tf1e projectors. in the form of conical spray of water droplets lrav1elling at highl veloclty,

3 .. 8.9 H~gh Vello.city Water (HVW), Spray System

:3.8.9.1 This type .of Fbe Proteetion Sys.tem~s provided for the ·rollowing types o~ equipment

(i) Power Transformer, both auto and mu~~i-wind~ngl

00 Shunt Heactors

This system is designed: on the assumption that one reactor/transformer is on fire at a. tlrne, For this assumption, the largest p~eDe of equlpmentIorrns the basis.

3.,B.'9.4 Therats of burning om a tlamrnabte liqu~d depends upon the rate at whi(:h ~t vaporlzes and the, s.upp'~y of oxyg:en to support combustion. It lsths maximum when the rate of burning otm e ·f~ am mab~·e liquid i sthe maxrnu m and the su rtace of the: liquid! is near boiling point, The~igh: ve~~ociqr water spray system while forming an em.ul~siolll, intersperses cold wa~s,f·wnh the ~iquid,. cools it and towers down the rate of vacourlsaucn which prevents further escape of fmammab~~e' vE!pours. Dur~ng passage of water droptets mhmugh flames, som,~', of thewatar gets converted into steam, which d i hJi~es oxyglen i rl ·the! ,air supp o.l1i n91 the fin:!: and creatas a s moothe rilln g effect! whidl, a.ids in €xting.u[sh~rrng th,e f:ire ..

3.8,.fJt.3 Tile hi'gh v,elocity droplets bcrnbard t~e SllJriace of 0]1 and form an ernulslon ot oil and water wh]ch does not support cornbustlon. TI1~s emulsion converts a fflammab~'e liquid into a non-lntlammable one. However, th~,s emulsion is not of a s.tab~l!e charnels r an d the refore sh,ort~ aHa r th e water is s hut off j oil starts to sep ara te out from water which can be dirained away j leaving the aU behind urlimpaMed.

3.8 .. 9.5 An autorn aUc de:1 uge va~ive~rigge red by a s epa rats system of qu artzold bu ~ b detector heads mounted on a pipe ·wort array charged with wa~er, at HVW spray mains pressure. lnitiatesihe HVW· Spray System operatlon a. When aflre causes ona or more of the quanzo:id bulbs to operate" pressure in the de~e,ctor pipe wOlwk f,aJls

31

and this .aU owsth e d elu ge valve to ope riI the reby perm itting wa tie r to f~ ow to all th e projectors. in the open pipe array covertng the risk

3.8.9 .. 6Wate't' Supply to' HVW Sp.ray Sys:te,m

(a) Two pumps are provlded for HVW Spray System.. O~these!, one is electric motor driven and tl11e other diesel engline, driven. Thecapacity and head of the pumps is selected to protect the biggest risk .. I~ has been experienced that each pump having a .capacity iQf 41 0 m3~hr ~s usually adequate for the b~ggest ri ski n suostaf ons .e

(b) These pumps ars ~ocated in Fire Water Pump House. S~liitabl'B connection with the Hydrant System is proVided so as to allow f~ow of water from Hydrant Systiem to HVW Spray System but not wn the reverse dlrecnon,

.. (e) Standby d~ese:~ engine driven pump is a com morn standby facmty for HVW spra.Y' as we~il~ as H yd rant Syst.em.

(d) These pumps are automatlcally started through pressure switches located seqtH~mt~a.~iy in headers. Howe:verj stoppingl of the pumps is done manually after the lfii Fe! 'ge~s extl rig u i she d.

(e) The val LI,E!'S of press u re of ru n rill 1119 wale r and d ~sch arge den s~1ty Qiiven bel ow are recommended for HVW Spray System:

(l) Minimum pressure of running

a t any p rojeetor at any instance.

3.5 Bar

(ii) Maximum pressure of rtmning water at .any proj,ecior at: any :in stance

5, .. 0 Bar

(Hi) Disch argl8 d ensi ty 0 n 9 ro~ nd s u rface

6 .. 1Ipm/m2

'(iv) Dischar·ge density on other surface

Not 'I~ess th an 1 Ct2 ~pm/m2

3: .8.10 Water Supplies

3.8.1 O.1W.ater for Ure fighti.ng purposes should be supplied from the water storaqs tanks meant exclusruve'ly for the 'purpose. Tl~le a.ggregate storage capadlty of these tanks shou~d be equal to the sum of the [oHowing':

(~) One-hour pumping capacity of Hydrant System or13S m3 whi.ch over is more,

(i i) H aJf -an-ho ur wate r requ i rernanttor s~ng~e l~a rge st iii s k cove red by HVW S P ray System ..

.r·- ..• , . _. •. -- -- - - - - - ... ~ .. - - _.. - _ ...

32

The water storage tank made of RCe constructlon over groulI1d should be ]n two parts.

3.8.10.2 Fine Wate,u pumps located lnthe Fire Wa.ter Pump' House should have pumping head SUIltabh3' to cover the facilUies for future stages also. The piping system should be designed to perrnlt '8:xtensionswUhout dismpHon min the existingl system. The material O'f :piping is mUd steel as per IS: 1239118.: 3589' medium g:mde. The pipingl laid] underground is coaled and wll"apped agahs~ corrosion as, per ~S: 10221 andthe piping laid over ground! consists of galvanis,ed mUd steel.

3,.8,.10.3 All equipment and accessories, (:onstitut:tngl theHIVW Spmy System, such as f~ow control valve, heat det!edors, projector nozzles, p~p'ing, vahres,fiUings, hu;,trumentalIOIl etc., should be of appmvedl ma'k;es ao~)eptaJble! to TAe.

3.8.'111.1 Portable and Mobile Fire Ertinguishe:rs are prcvlded at suitable locations to r indo 0 r/O[j~(j:oor appl ica Ii on s. These ,ext:]ng'u]sh,ers are' used dU,ri ng early sta.g:es. of iocalisedl fires to prevent them from slPread~ngl." FoU'owing 'ttyp~s off these exnlil gu lshers are u sua Uy p rovid ad.

0)' Pressurised Water Type

(ii) Carbon Dioxide Type!

(m} D,ry Chemical T~i'P'8

(iiv)' Halon tyPE!

(v) Mechanical foam Type'

hl 9. 01 kg size in 4.5 kJg size

i~ 5.0 kJg size

i,FI s.o kg size - ln 5 O~:~IiS, gmtrs.

For the quantities off these' types and their applications, ~he norms gliven lin TAG manual should be ~oHowed.

• The make (Ji~ these ext~nguishers should! also be acceptable to TAG.

• Halon type tlre extinguishe,rs am flOW getting phased out 011 eccount of their negative effect on the atmosphere ..

II Th e transfo rme rs shall be protected Ibiy autorn atic high ve'l ocitywa~)er sp ray system or by carbon dioxide or BCF ,(8romochloro~~ifluromethane) or BTM (8:Wlmotrif~uw.met~ane) fixed instanaUon system or Nitmgeninj;ecUon end dn;)in rnethnd,

.. Nlitrogen i~jectrnon fire prevention method is being used by ,a~ew utilities at present.

- ~ ••• ...,. ._. _._ - - ._. - - ~ .~ I. I. - - - - - - ... - • ~ ••• - - -

- I

33

3.(1:.'12.1i IFi re IP mtection Sysmem stl 0 uld i ncl ude su i'tab~e i nstrum entation and necessaw oon~rds to rende r ttl e system ,eftilcij en~ and r€J~ab le, There s hCHJI~d b e 1~(Jcalll control panels '~or each of tine pumps illdi.vIidlially,as also for the, operation of de:~uge valve of the HVW Sp:ray System. There shoUl~d be a common control panel for the ,Jack.ey Pump and Air COm,pNil!SSO,rs. Maim armunclatlen panel should be provided in fbe control mom for mhe faciliUes prollJ~dedin~he eontrol roorn and for repeaUngl some anrnrnetationfrom pump house ..

3 .s. ~ 2.2 The foHow]ngl .An n Lin elation is uSlIal:l;y provided in the F~re We. ter IP u mp House:

o(~) E~jectric motor driven HVW spmy pump runnh1.gJfaUsto start

(iii) lJ]esell~ngifie driven HVW spray pump, mnnhlg/faIDisto start

(wi il' H:yd rant pump ru IiIIUllwngllai Is to start

(Iv) JOCkHy pump' mnning/faUs to start

(v) Air compressor fails to start

(vii) Hydro-pneumatic talilkpressur,e low

(v:ii) Hydro-pneuma~ic tank pressure hmgh l(viH) System header pressure low

(~;x:) Fire in t:ranslormer/m:Z{cto('.

I(X) F~re in smok.e detec~ion system

(xi) Wat!€!r storage tank water level low (xii) High speed diesel on~ank.l·eve~ low

l .8,01 2 ... 3 The f'o:~I!o:wlng An n unci a.tillons: shou Idb e a vai lable in ~h s eont rol roo m a! so:

(i) Fi ra in t ranetorrn erfr,e!a.ctor

-

(ii) Hydrant pump/diesel ,engine operated HVW spray pump in operation.

(iimi) MO~o.f operated HVW spray pump in operation

(iv) Fire/FauU in Zone· 1

(V)I 'Fi pe/Fau It iin Zone .2

(vi) Fi re/Fault ~n Zone a.

{vii} FiiUe/Fau~:~ifil Zone 4{d'e,pend~ng o:n th.e, number o~ zones)

3.,8.12.·4 AU fire :p mtec4tion equrp msnt sh n Lilld be covered by a. re,g ul ar and strict malntenance and test ro utl]ne. Tit"! e hlyd:u.aln,~ systems should be checked eve ry wee k

...

34

which may be possible du:ring n~ght sh~Us. Sprinkler systems should: be cheeked at regular intervals, Portable equipment should be charged at specmed intervals and checked regulady for loss of charqe, damagle~ etc, Records of all tests and checks must be maintained.

3!.8.t2 . .5 Provlslon should be. made to switch off the air condiUonrng equcment in case of fire.

3.8.12.6 Cable entry openings shall be sealed to prevent the spread~ng affire.

A now d~a~g[ram. of a typical HVW Spr·ay and Hydra.nt System is enclosed as Fig., 5,.

3.9 DC AU)(]lARV SUPPL V

,.

3.9.1 DC Aux~aary supply is required for relays, instrumentation, closing and! trIpping

of Circuit breakers. ,emergency li@hUng,. control board 'indicafions, etc. Durrng normal' operaton, battery c:~arger (recUfier bridge w,~th Silicon diodes and Silicon control rectifiers) provldes the required' DC supply .. However, to take cam of failure of the AC supply (rectiNer)l a storage battery of adequate capacity ]5 provided to meet the DC requirement .Normail~y, the storaqs battery meuely keeps f~oaling on the direct current system and supplles current in case of fallurs of the reGtr'wier in substafion. It is desirable to provide dupllcate rectlftsrs to meet the oonting,sncy.of rectitier fai:lurB. An anangemefil,t shall be made to supply a ill unimerrupted DC supply to ~oad whe reverih e - battery charg er is facl I itated with fl 08 tltrick ~€!booS't charq i ~gl_

3.9 .. 2 Tine voltag'6 commonly used fbr the IDC auxi:liiary supply is 1110. or 220 volts batteriestor substations and 48 volts for P'L;CC. G,enemlJy lead add batteries are used ..

3 .. 9".3 Cap.a.c~ry' oW the battery should be adequate to supply ..

[a) Momentary current requ~,r:ed TQii" the operation of $witchg'ear..

{b) The continuous load of indh::atinQi I:amps, ho!dng coils for relays contactors, eto.,

3,.91.4 Comolete DC equipment for 0,. substation may be divided into mree parts i.e., storage batte ry an d accessories, c~h:a,rg i ng 'E!{~ ui prnent and dstrubution boa rd. .

3,.91.$ The ,charging equipmeht: 'g:ene ra lily consists of float' c~argerand boost chary,er. In major substanons, twinf]oat chargers' and twin boost- cl~argers or w~n~1 float cum

. boost charges w~th a sUlltable, switch~ng. cubic~eair,egen_ewall¥ used for re.ifability.

- .

35

3.9Jj, The distrib~tiion board has a~.~ncomin.g cirouU from the DC battery and a n umber of 0 ~t go~ng ci rcu its for elosi ng an dtrlppl ng ~ alarm an d l~n dica~i ontor contra II and relay panels, A. separate circuit is provldedjor the emerg,ency load normaUyfed from .AG supp~y but is automat~csdlysw~tched en to IDC supply in the event of AC power jfai~ure ..

3.~ {II AG AUXIIUARY SUPPL V

3.,,~ '0.1, AG supply both single· and three-phase, are needed In at suostanontor internal uSle for severeltunctions such as:

(a) 1I!I~umillation.

(b) BaHe ry cha rg~ ng

(c) Transformer cooling system

(d) 0111 filtration plant

(e) Transformer tap-chancer drives

(f) Air co m pressors

(g) Power supplies for corrmunleaticn equipment

(h) Crane

(~) B reakers/discorm Bet switch motors

m !Fire protection system

(k) Space heaters in cubicles and maffiha~Mng kiosks

(~) A ~ r -co ndttlo nrn glventi la ti on equlprne nt

3 .. 10.2 Aux~liary T:ransf()rmer

The design of AC auxiliary supply system must besuch that it ensures continuity of supply un d eral'~ COil d ltlon s, as 'war as p ractlcable, rei iabiiilUy b eilr1lg the basic requ~r,ement~n a substafion, ~.t is normal!~y provided from a station transformer connected to the 11 IkV or 33 kV station bus. lts "Capacity should be adequate to meet the demands of aJi the essential connected loads. Generally, two such transformers are prov~ de d lnall major su bstation s,

;3. , 0 .. 3 I~ n case of transtorm e rs wh ere te rtl]a.ry wl ~d~ng is a vallable one auxllta ty transformer can be connected to telrtiary of transformer for station power supp]y with adequate insulanon margln and protection to save the damage to main transformers fromfhe Secondary system faults.

3.10.4. The station transformer lis connected to the indoor AG d~stribuHorl panel through duplicate cables, Duplicate teeds to important loads. am made from the .AC d i striib uti on . panel S th rough ounets, wh]ch are co n fro II ed, by sW~.tch fu ses or oi reuit breakers,

36

I nth e event ow shutdown 'of the entire sta tlon l ensure ava i~~a bl Htry o~ AC .a Ulxm.a:ry' s.upp~y for chalrgingl o~ protective iequipmen~s, DB set shall pr>t3ie,rably be' provided in major slJbstaUons wi~h Auto Mafn F.aH (AMF)I panel pref,srably. Cha~ge over scheme shalll be provided in AC distribuHon p:anellJ to feed important loads by DG set

3;.1: CUi I~noomer of AG distribuUOf~1 panel shall be provtded with 4~pole breaker either it may be from au xU~a.111" tra nsto rrner or tram DO set

3.111 VENT~LAT~ONl

3,.111.1 !BatteryRoomV,entHa:Uo:1I1

Exhausl fans should be provided" Fu,rt:her i is necessary to ensure sL!lfficierr~: air inlet to the battery room by providing blowers" im necessary. Exhaust atone without air inlet, a negat~:ve pressure will be created in the battery mom which wiU cause

(a) EvaporaUon of €:lectrdy1e even at the normal room temperature and tille fi.~e spray o~ ,e'lecUolY1e wiill setne on eaiU's, stands etc., reducing the e~eGltrical i nsul atiorJ of: the bane ry fro m the ground.

(b) The !'wydra ~1'en evolved tro m tit! e bane ry may form an expl osive m~xtti re if th e room prressure ~asrediLIced ..

Chapter' 4

4.1 TYPES OF' 8:US, BAR SCHEMES

The various types of bus-bar schemes generally considered in this Manua.l are:

(a) Srngle bus-bar

(b) Main and transfer bus-bar

(c) 0 ou b~ e' bus-bar

(d) Double main and transfer bus

(e) Ring' bus-bar and mesh bus-bar

(f) one-and-hart circuit breaker

(g) Double-bus doub:~e~bn3iak,er scheme

4.,2, SELECTJON OF IBUS-BAIR SCHEME

4.2.1: The selection of a bus-bar scheme and its possible extension is an important initial step in substation desiqn. The, aspects whlch inUtJence this decision are operational filexibility, system safety, mliabillity, a'Vali,lability, ability to tacllitata system control and! cost Figure 6 (A to J) shows the various bus-bar arranpernents and Fig-. 6 (K} shows the graphic symbols for various equipment. An important factor in selection of bus-bar scheme is the deqree of reliability of supply expected during maintenance or fauns. Careful oonslderaflon has also to be given r,e'garding the amount of redundancy to be provided so as to determlne the equipment, which can; be permitted out of use on account of maintenance or faults, Certain amount of sectlonalisafion has atsc to be provided lin a substation so as to ensure that in the event of a fault; a ~arge power source does not 'Q'et disconnected. I.n the case of step-LIp substations associated with large g,enerating stations a fault within tile substation may have, serious repercussions fromthe point of view of the system operating as a whole and, therefore, a ve~ h~gh degrree or renabiHty Is required in such cases as comparedto step down or swrtciling stations. SimHarly. the exposure of a substation to atmospheric hazards such as lightning, marine and indust~ia.1 pollution etc.;'allso plays an lrnportant part in dec-]ding the type' of the bus-bar system. Future expansion ot the bus-bar system at least ina, foreseable future ma.y also be, considered.

4.,3 .. 1 This ls the simplest scheme, ln which each circuit ms provided with one circuit breaker (F:rg. 6 (An. Thls arrangement offers littme, security aqafnst bus bar isolator mamtenanoe. The! entire substation is lost in case of a fault on the bus bar or a.ny

.....

38

I

bus-bar isolator and also in case of maintenance thereof. Another disadvantage is !

that in case of maintenance of circuit breaker associated h~eder has also to be shutdown. One of the methods for redueinq the number of circuits lost in case of a

bus 'fault is to secnonallss the, bus as shown in Fig,. 6 (8).

4.3·.2 The arrangement in Fi:g. 6 (G) is a. improvement 'Over that shown in Fig. 6 (8), as additlonal by-pass isolators are provided to permit feeder circuit breakers to be taken out for maintenance without switching out the associated feeder. On occurrence of a fault on thefeeder connected to bus bar through by-pass isolator, the other feeder on that bus section will also be lost.

4.4 MAIN AND TRANSFER BU'S ARRANGEMENT (Fig. 6 (On

This is technically a singlle bus bar arranqernent with an additional bus bar called "Transfer bus" energised from rnaln bus bars through a bus coupler circuit, l.e., tor 'n' number of circuits it employs n+ 11 circuit breakers. The addifional provision of transfer bays and bus coupler circuit taellltates taking- out one circuit breaker at a ti me~o r routine OVE! rhau I and maintenance w:i tho LJ t de-e ne rg i s i ngl ttl e circuit controlled by that breaker as that circuit then 'gets energlsBd through bus coupler breaker and transfer bus bar. Each circui~ rs connected to the main bus-bar through a circuit 'breaker w~th tsolatcrs on both side and through all isolator to the transfer bus-bar.

As in the case of singlle bus arrangementtthis scheme also suffers from the disadvantage that in the event of a fautt on the main bus bar or the associated Isolator, them ~s a complete shutdown of the substeticn. Complete shut down can be avoided through sectiona~li,zIngl the main bus with the provision of addltlonal one, sing~le phase bus PT for svnchronlzanon in case of more than eight bays .. This scheme has been used in lndia, USA and also in some of the European countries, particularly for step-d'own substations, as bus-bar faults are rare ..

4.S DOUBLE BUS-BAR SCHEME

4.5·.1 In this scheme a double bus bar is provided and each circuit can be connected' to either one of these bus-bar isolators as shown in Fig. 6 (E)-. Bus coupler breaker is also provided so tharthe circults can be switched on from one bus to the- other on-load. The scheme suffers from the dlsadvantaqs that when the circuit breaker 'is taken out for maintenance, the associated f·eeder has to be shutdown. This can be avoided by proviidin9~ a by-pass tsolator across clrcuit breaker as shown In Fig. 6 ,(E). But under this condition all the circuits have to be transferred to one busand.protectlon otteedar has to. be transterred to bus couplet. This scheme has the Ili:mitation that onlry one bus is available when any breaker has to be taken out for maintenance. The double bus-bar scheme wilh by-pass is available when any breaker has to be taken out of: maintenance. The double bus-bar scheme with by-pass lsolator across clrcult breakers is very suitable for :iarge generating, stations as welli as liarge grId substations forming part of a well Inter-

]

39

Clem nected system wh e f\ei n a va r~ety of 'g rouping Oof el reu ~ts is ra q ui red l F~gl,. 6 ,(IF), S h()ws' an o~h e r aim m ativ€!! of~h is scheme. In Nl is ,aUe rnaUve the by-pass iso~~a'~or.s are connected to one of the main bus bars as: shown. This scheme; oonstff:hJII~es double bus-bar Scheme with main reserve and transfer bus-bars,

In both these schemes, use ot itemporary earthing devi[oe is called for during lbreak>ew maintenance, Astemporary ea.rthing drlves can resulit in serious aecidents, ~If no;!: removed, WI is preteraole to pmv~dethe lsolators on either s[cte,s, ot the" circui~ b r,ea!ken~, across which bypass' isolators are provld ed with i nrteg raJ earth in 9' swHc nes having rnechanlcal interlocldnQlf,eatuu;es.

40:6, DO'UIBLE UAI:N AND lRAINSIFER BUS~BAR SCHEIM E.

The limltation olll scheme .Fi~g. 6, (F} can be overcome .by using additionaltransfer , bus, ~r.ansf,er bus b raeker and isolators as shown in .Fig. ,6, (G). In th is airrallg ament, theffH::!d e r; the brealkef of wi'! ich is. to be m aJ~l'~ai ne d rus t mns.fened to ,ttl e tran 9l'B r bus without affecting nile other cbcuiiES. This scheme has been w[dely used for the highly interconnected pOW/BI!r networks wihelu'®! s\lIlitchhgl f!exibiUy is rnmportant and rnuhlple supply routes are available. This scheme ~~. also used! for spU'tUng networks, wh~ch are onll:y connected in emergendes.

4.7.1 Each ciri(}uU lseentrolled by.·m;o circuit breakers and thereforr-e, anv on,e; Q1fCU]t

s v . ~'~

breaker can be taken out 'for maintenance without Qlffecting theEa3!CUrID~ of slip·p,ly. A

circuit" fault also is cleared by opeolng of two breakers. 11f! both cases the ring is bra ke 11 and the bus-bar [8 reduced to seen O~ allsed si ngl~,e bus- ba r sc heme!. I riI th e case of a '~ee der ifaun:lthe cir,Quit: iso~ato:r carl be 0 p e ned i t hie faulty f,eede r dis.conneCiteij] and bo~h the breakers ,cl:osed wh]ch would close the ri:ngl .. This system has got a number of advantaqas such as maintenance of a circui~ breakerwithout loss of supp~y and wiltho'ut providing by-pass facil]ties, loss of only ~he! fauityfeeder in case .of ateeder fault, and I~OSS o.f only two circuits in case of a circLlit breaker tault, Them are, tmweveif, some problems such as occurrence ot a fault when a ci rcui~ b reaker is beingl m ai ntai ned resu Ilwn gl n a dio u 0.1'8 break mn the mesh and (:ap,acity Ii m ltation of t'he eq LWi p men! to pass. the maxlm u m eu rrern that may wi ow rou nd th e m es h. 'If these are iPlrmrided: for! tt adds to cost of the station. ~ n Vi!8W .of 'mh ese problems, irt ~s 000 n sidered desi rab Ie: tOo ][mHtihe nu m be r oil ciilreu its (.I n t.h e mesh ..

4.'7.2 The mesh scheme is very sumtable where the number of circuwts is compa.ratively smalll and chances of future expanston are tess such as substations assoelatedwith gener,a.Hng plants and also step-down stlbsma.t]ons opera.Ung a'~ extra h~gh volta.ges. This scheme has been used on many om our !sarily lnstallatiens, However l' during the recent past ~h ere h ave' 110t bee n many In eta ~ la lions ofth is '~yp'e as this scheme does not lend itself easHy to tunher exp.ans~on. However, the mesh

40

arrangement has been widelYiLJsed in UK Ier their 275 kV and 400 kV substations and also in USA for thelr h]gh vo~tage installations. operati:rlgl at .230 kV and above,

41.8 ONE-AN~D-HAlF :BREAKER SCHEM1E. (FIG. 6 (II s JU

4 .. 8.1 ~ n this scheme three clrcuit tireak,ers are used for (:o~t:romng two clrcuitsas shown in Fig. 6 (II' &J). Normally, both ~he bus-bars areln service.

,.

A fau~t on any bus is clleared by the openingl of the associated circuit breakers without affecHtlg ccmlrrultytor supply. SimUaMl~!I'\ any circuit breaker can be taken out to r m ai ntenan ce without causl ng~WiIite rru ptlon .AM I:oad transfer is do ne by 'the breakers and therefore, the operation is simple. HOWHlJer relaying [8 somewhat more i nvolved as th e th i rd bra ake r has to be res pensive to tm ubi es on eitherffee der in th e correct sequence. Besides, each breaker has to be suitable for cany]ngl the currents o~ two. circuits to meet the requirements of various switch]l~g operations, whIch may ln some cases increase the cost. The breaker and a ha~·f scheme is suttable tor those substations whichl handle larqa amounts of power on each circuit, The scheme has been widely used in USA partlcularly forthe]r EHV substations operatlnq at 330 kV and abOVR This scheme has been applIed wide~yin [he 4.20 kV systems In thls country 81JSO.

41.9 DOUBLE-BUS ANID' DrQUBlE-BRE,A'KE.R SCHEMIE

In this sc hem e two circu ~t breakers are used 'f.o r contro I lin 9 011 e circuit as sh ownl n Fig. 6 (K). Nonmaliy both bus-bars are in service, S~milar to breaker and half sch e m 8.. a 'vau It 0 ~ any b IlJ S is el'8 are d by 0 P en i n91 of the asscclatad cl reu it b reake rs wirthout aff,ecting connfllli1l:y of supply .. Simi:larly any CiWLii1 breaker can be taken out of maintenance without causinq lnterruption .. A~li load transfer is done by breaker and therefore, t1hre operation is simple and re~laying ]8 also simpler compared to breaker and half scheme. Because of increase in number of breakers per :bay and higher CO$~. double bus daubl€! breaker scheme is. sur:ta:tJ.I'6 tor fhose substations, whIch handle large amount of power.

......

SAFETVCLEARANCES

5.1 OVER~VOLI A~GE .AND INSULA '[IO,N LEVEL

5.1.1. All equipment il1staUed il1l a suhstaflnn aria! des~gned' ~o take lnto account om the rated power frequency 'vd~age of netvvork;temporary over volta.Qles at power frequency caused by e.g. sudden loss o~ load and lor earth faults; swib::hing' over vottaaesarrd Hghtfllhg' over voltages. Acoording~y equ]pment iis SUbj'8Ct to foUowing voltage tests.

(a) Ughtning impulse wiUIDstana voltage (1 .e 2150 micro sec.) .

(10,) Swibclhhgl impu~slewifhstarld voltagl8 (2501/2500 micro sec .. )

(e) Short. dmaliom1 power frequency wNthsta.nd voltage (50 Hz) (wet: and lor dry)

(d) Comlbined v(:l~tage test

~5.1 .. 2 The s BIt ow test vol~ag 8 values de~B rm~nesth e insulation level, Standard ~~sLllaHU1g leve~:s are demined ~n I ED:: 60071-1, -2 or relevant ~S.. For equipment voltage upto .245 kV" IIEG60011-11 slpecifies s:~andard rated short duration power frequency and ligh~ning impulse w:iths:tand lIloltages.. For equipment vd~a.ge beyond 245 kV, IIEC60071-1 specifi'es standard ralecil switchifl,g and lightnililg imiPu~se with stand volag es, The necessary ~:nsu~!ation ~eve ~ dep ends 0111 'the i ns ul atlon CO~ ordination, l.e., on the properties of different components of the network (main'j;y ~ines).. the protection used ag.a~nst overvoltag'€s (linO surge arrester are V'Bn; ,effectijV,e)l, on altit~ude and aliso on the required rn'i[abnity of the subs:~a~io!l (permissib~e probability of' ~Iashovelr) and may vary ~n d~ff,erent parts of the same s ubstatlo n,

5.011.3 An E HVapparalus ~~H'e gen era!!y p ro~ec'Led Sigai 11IS.~ li'ght~,in 9 as we~l~ as switching over voltage, .. The equ~pment used for protecnon are coordinated w]th protected apperanrs 10 ,el~.suresafe operation as well as .·~o maintain the stability of the inte roo nneded I!Jn~~s of till e power sys:~e m.

5.2 SOME DEFI:IN~tIONS:

Th 9' se 1'8CNo n of the d~e lectr~c stra ngth .of eq lJI~p me Ilt ~n reta ti 0 n to tilil e vo Itages wh lch can appear online sysltem mar Which the equipment is intended and ·talking into aceou nt 'uh e se rviee errvi ronment and the en aracterlstie of the aval tabte p rOifie·c~ive devices.

.. •• _ ,_ - - .. _ - lOa •• _-- --,--,._ - -

42

Note: I!Dielectr:ic strength" of the equlpmaot, is meant here its rated or its standard :insulation tevel

The primary objectives of insulation co-ordination are:

.' To establish the maximum steady state, temporary and! transient over-voltage ~evels to which the 'various components of a system may be subjected in practice ..

• To select t~,e insulation str,englth and characteristics of equipment, including thos,e for protective devices, used in order to ensure a safe, economic and reUablle' install'ation In the event of the above over-voltages.

5.2.2 Rated ~nsullatioli1 Level

A set of standard withstand voltages which characterize the electric strenqfh of the insulation ..

The selacfion o.f the rated insulation level consists of the selection of the most econornloal set of standard! withstand voltaqes (U'w) of the lnsulatlen sufficient: to prove that a 111I the required ~withstand voltages are met.

5.2 .. 3 Standanj lnsulatlen llevel

A rated insulation level, the standard withstand voltages which are associated to hIghest V9Uag,9 (Um) as recommended in ~EC ..

5.2.4 "lnstallation" means any composite elecmcal unit used for the purpose of gene.rating" transimmi'ng', transmlttinq, 'Donv,ertingt distribution or umizingl energy.

5.2 .. 5 Safety Clearance·

Minimum clearance from any point on or about the permanent equipment where a man may be required to stand (measuredfrom position of thefeet) to the nearest

unscreensd i~ive conductor ~n alr, '

5.2.6 "Earthed" or "Connected with Earthll:. means connected with the generall mass of earth in such manner as to ensure at an times an immedra.te discharge of ene.rgy without danQler.

5.2.7' "Earthihg system" means an electrical system in which aU the, conductors are earthed.

5.3 ELECTRIICAL CLEARANCE

5, .. 3.1 As per Indian Electricity Au'les, all electric supply lines and apparatus shall be Q:jf s uff erne nt: raf ngl for powe r, insulation an d estl m atedtaut ell rrent and of surflclent mechanical strength, 'vorthe duty which ·they may be required to perform under the environmental conditions of install!llation and shall be constructed, installed;

-I

43

protected, worked and maintained in such manner as to ensure satetv of human belnq, anmal and property.

5<.3,.2 It is not possible to test the whole' IHIV lnstauanon by corresponding test voltaqes, Steps are to be taken to avoid flashover occurring below the- impu~s'e withstand ~evet Therefore minimum c!eararu::e in air between Hve parts or between Uve and dead parts are stated, to obtain the, raquired insulation ~eve~ in arrangements which have not been tested. Smaller clearances are permiaslble if the particular arrangement has besn tested by the prescribed insulation test ,(IIEC:60071 ,·1 ~ -2 )1 takingl into account a~i relevant environmental condition H.,g. raln, pollution. This specifIed electrical clearance must be mamtalned under ,an normal conditions.

5,,·3,,3 The clearances may also be lower, where i~t has been contirmed by operannq experience that the over voltages are lower than those expected in the selection of the standard wirth stand voltaqes or that the gap cOIllHgruration is more favourable than that assumed for the recommended clearances,

5.3.4 The verious equlpments and other facimies discussed! in Chapters 2, 3 and 4 have to be so arranged within the substation that certain minimum clearances are always available hom the point of vIew of the system reliability and. safety of operating personnel.

The followillg parameters are llsual"ly'defined:

(a) Minimum hei'ght of live parts above the accessible surface ..

(b) Minimum hei'ght of lowest parts of insulators above the accessible surface.

(c) Minimum horizontal distance Ibetween a live part and protective rai:ls1fenoesj etc.

(d) Minimum distance b etv!le en a Illive part and human body (or coneucnvetools)

d u ri 11 9 the work in the substatlo n. .

5,.3.5 Clesranoes as per Indian Standard Code are provided 'for eteotrlcal apparatus so that suf-ficient space is available for easy operation and maintenance without any· hazard to' operating and maintenance personnel working near the equipment and for ensurinq adequate ventilation. These include the minimum clearances from live parts to' earth, between nve parts of ,adjacent phases and sectional clearances between live parts and 'Work section required tor maintenances 01 an equipment. Besides, it is also necessary that sufflclant elearancato ground is also available within the substation 510 as to ensure safety of the personnel moving about withitl the swltchyard,

5.3.16 The minimurn air clearance to 'ground and between phases are function of s:witchtng, Ilightning impulse withstand voltags, environmental condition and gap factor wlhh::h depends on electrode oonfigluration,. For volltage upto ,245 kV, usually

44

lightningl over volta,ges are considered the govem.ingwactor whereas for 420 kV and hilghe.r voltage s:witctling over voltage am considered the goveming factor.

5,.3.7 For determil1ati,on of phase-to-ground air clearance, the "rod-structure" co nfigu ration is t~ e worst el ectrode eonf glUlra.tmo n no rmal Iy encou mered in pracf ce;: the "conducter-etrueture" rConHgura.Uon covers a. ~alrlge range of normally used co nfigll ration . But the necessary inter-phase clearance is mom related to the "rodcendueter'' and III conductor- 'c!ondluctor'i conUgmauon. The unsymmetrical "rodcenductor" configu.ration is. the worst el,ectmdie configuration normally €t1Icourrtlered ~n service. The ucondm;:tor~cIOlilduclor'~ ,confIguraHoln covers all symmetrical configurations, with similar ,ed'ectmde shapes on the two phases,

5.3.8 :For voltage up~o 245 kV~, the air clearance phase-to-earth and phase-to-phase ~s determined from torthe rated lightning impulse withstandi voltaqe. For voltage grea.ter than 245 kV" the phase-to-eanh clearances is the higher \f.a!~u€ of the clearances dsterrrmedtor the rod-structure oon~igUiratio:n for the standard Hght.n~ng ~mpullse and for the standard switching' ,impulse withstand voltages .. The phase-tophase clearance is the higher value ()f the elearance determined tor the rodstructure ,configuration for fhe standard lightning imp~lJ~lse and for the standard :switching j'mpllise wit~stam:l \(o]tage .. ·

5.3.91 Tabl es, 1 gives the recornm en ded values of:cll'eara n ce re q u~rle d to r substa Uo n up to 800 kV.

Highest system. v()italge . l(kV)

Lightning impuWse vonag,e (kVp),

Swi~ching I,nilpuWse v~lt.age (k.Vp)

Sah'l'ty elearanees

(rom)

36

1 12.3

I .

325

450 550

Bet'INeen Phase andl Earth(m,m)

Betw"ee,!il IPhase's (mm)

3400 3,700

; 145 I-

I:

550 650

320

320

3700 3600

1.245

950 11050

630

63.0

4300 .:)1000

il42S

900 11100

900 1100

11100 ~300

1100 1300

I 11900 2100

HlOO 2100

1 Oc50 (Ph-E) 1575 "Pih~PIiI)

. 800

2100

1550 {Ph-E) 2550 {Ph-pin

6400·'

W300

BaJsed on Rod·stnJct!1Jre air gap. Based 00 R,'od-COll1dlJ'ctm air gap,

This value of air ci,earances are U~e min~m!!.lm nlues dh::hll.t:elCi t]y eJ!e(;trica~ oo,nsiderat~on and do not irdude any add~tion for co:nstruc1lion to!erance,s, e:ffect cd short ciroui~s:, wind 'eHects and $a~'e1:y ot ~ersonn el. E)'le.

I

45

N,otes,:

'.' Saf-ety clearances are based on the insulation hei'ght of 2.44 rn which is the height of IIQwest po:int on the lnsulator where it meets the earthed Metal.

• The distances indicat'ed above are not applicable to equipment whicll has been suibj;s'cted to impulse test since mandatory clearances might hamper tile, design of the equipment, increase its cost,

• The' values. in Table referto an attitude not exceeding 1000 m andtaks into account till e most unta vourable ,[;0 n d~ti ons W'~ i ch rna y resu It from til e atmos phe ri e pressu re variati on, temperatu re and mol stu Ire. A. corrscf on facto r of I, .25>% per .1 00 m is to be ~ppHed to r i In C reasi n 9 th e ai r ell earancs fa r altitudes more than 10.00 m and upto 30'00 m,

• No safety clearance is required between the bus-bar isolator or the bus-bar insulators. However, safety clearance is necessary between the section is 01 a to r or the b us-ba r its eU 811 d the elrco i t b rea ke u.

• For the purpose of computing the vertical clearance of an overhead strung conductorfhe maximum sagl ot any conductor shall be calculated on the basis . of' the rnaxlrnurn sag in stm air and 'the maximum temperature as specified.

5.3.10_ As an alternative to maintain safety clearances in some substaflon earthed barriers are useo to ensure safety of the maintenance personnel. The use of ,earthed barriers is quite common at 'lower voltages of 36 kV 72.5 kV. However, as the vdltage increases, the saving in space decreases and at 420 kV level, normally earthed barriers are not provided. In case paucity of space if 2.44 m clearance is not avaliable then localized earthed fencing with safety clearance can be considered by 'the desi,gner.

.. ....

GAS ... IINSUlATED'S'WIITCHGEA,R

6.~ SFs gas,~]nsulated switchgear ,(GIS) lis now widely used forconsfruenon of compact substaffons, Some of tne applicatiions for whi'ch GilS is eminernUy suib3:d are Usted b eh)w:

0) lnstallaflo r'ruS 'for w'h ich stning en1t demands, regarding S,8ClJlfillty must be met.

Ow) ~n door s:L~ibsta.tiknlsto OOClI py the m in imu m space iin de nse~y popu:la1ed IlJ rban areas.

{iii) i nstall a~io:ns in areas with h,igh risk ·Oof poll~tio nand corrcslon fmm in dustrlial plants or by rnartne and desert dima~es.

(iv) Extens~on oill conV8rlUona!1 outdoor installations where space! is. a~ a premaim.

{v) Rep~€:u:emenlt 0'11 co,nventmo.nal~ swi~Dhgealr by BlFa metal clad switchg'Ber fom" a

high,er system voltage without incn9asingl tine, specs occup~edt -

(vi) Appiicatl[on.s ,involving use of metal (:Iad swi'~chgear with components of COr1lvenil~on.al dBsign!. to min~m.iz.eama requlrernent.

(vi i). U nd er'QIrO u n d Sill bsta.tlio:t1:S for p umped stnrag e and other hydmelec~ric power s~a.Hons.,

(vi i i) Outdo or i nstalla ti on where, s uriface is: not sas ny a vail~abl e.

(ix) lll.nstallatior~,s in difficult site oondit:ionls (19.'g., seismically ,active areas, h~gh alt:it:nJd e areas eto.).

6.2. CONIS,TRUCTIO.NA.lIDE,T.AILS

6;.2.1; For any single IitrH~ diagram, thare are usually a number of posslbls physical arrangements. The shape oithe s~,te of i nstalUatillon and~he n atu re of iinte roonn ectmo:ns,. l.e, ~ lines andror cables arl9 to be considered. IMost (US de.s[g ns were devell.opedinmallyfor double bus, si~,gle breaker anangeme.F1lt Thls has been wi d e~,y u sed and provides good! if,e~:i ahi lity. sim;pl~:cmty ~n ope ratl on ~ easy protecti ve rei a.ying an d ElXicel1e nt aoono my.

16,.2,.2 It is found economical to adopt S~phase enclosur'€ up to. 1'45 :kV system vol.tag 6'. For system vo~tag esabove 1451 kY, sing~le-phasle e nC~OSllJlue d'esig PIS are preferred'. FuncUonaUy j '~he pe,rlorrtlanoe does not differ between 3-phase enclosure and single~ph.ase! ,enc!llosUire of G~'S but, it could depend on users choices.

16. 2 .. 3Th e G ~S com pone n Is Ilke cl reu it b reekers, ~oad break switchie s j earth! n 9 switcih es, isd aters I' vol.tage tran storrners, current trar1IS~Ormers, s u r'g e anes1e rs an d eormeetorsare functionally separate modules of a standardized modular sys.~em.

__ .. , ••• • __ ~ I. ••• I r - - -- _.- ~ ..

48

6. :2:.4 Tn e enclosure of GJi.S co uld be made, Qif aJiu min ill rn alloy or sta~n less steel, Th e selection of material largelY depends on~e.mlPeratllLlre rise conslderatlons and perm~ssibl8 limits de'pertlciling on emfssivmty (solar radlation] and/ortamparature rise of C onductor),

6.2.5 SF6 is 1iive! tlmas as dense as air .. It [8 U~H~d ~rJ GIIS on pressures from 3 .. 5, - 7 bars absolute .. Tille pressure is so selected that g,as: will not condansalnto liquid at th e ~owest temp e rature ,. the' equ i prne nt co u 1.0 expe rr en CiS. Th is 9 as is ab 0 Lit ~I 00 nmesbethu~halll alr wn terms. of interruptinQl arcs.

6 .. 2.16 Cone: or dsc shaped inSLWllators mou~ded from higlh quaU;ty resin support to active pa rts ~n sid e th e e nelosu res and serve as ba Hi ers between adlace nt 9 as~ fmad compartments.

6.2.7 S il~v,er~p lated p!!us contacts p rnvl de corme ctlons between 1[1 d~vidLia I components and bolted flang'9s between the enclosores ..

6.2.8 The operating' mechan]sm for cir(:~it breaker CQuld be electro-hydraulically ,(hydraulic spring driv,s) operated or spring,mspring operated Tor least maintenance,

6 .. :2.9 The load break switches and h.igh speed' ea.rth~ngl switches are operated by motor charged springmechanwsm and the saf,ety earthing switches and dIsconnects .are operated by motor operated mechanism.

6.2.11 0 Manua'~ operation of safety earthing switches is also possble as an a~ te rna flve to motor ope ration.

5.2:.1111 Connectors en ab I,e stral 9 ht I i:r1 e, 90 deg ~ ~:20 d:eg 10 1 ,8.0 degl~ tou r way and 'f-conneeflons beWisen the various elements,

6.;!.12 The m odu~!es inc lu:de' com pensati ng unirts to IP erm it lats ral mounting, axial com pe nsatlon, ~)a.ra~~el~ camp€! nsa~ioml ~ tnl,e ranee co rn pensaf on I' vi bra ti (I n compensafion etc. The lateral mountllng lInii~S enable sections ow switchgear to be re moved and re-inserta d with 0 ut i nte rfe r.in 9 with adja.ce:f1ll pa rts, Axi a i compensate rs ta.k.e'-up' the ,changes in bus bar I en 9th due to tern peratu ra va ria lion. Parall e I co rnp ens atolls are i rntendle,d for accc m mo dati 11191 :Ialrg,e lin ea r expansions. an dangle tolera I1lC€S. Tol e rancs compensators ars intended totake u p rna nlUfact1L~llri nQ and assemb~y tolerances, Vibra.lrnon compensators absorb vibrations caused by transtermers connected direcUy to SFs switchgear by oil/SFs bushings.

6:.2,,13 Approximate space Irequir,ements for daubla bus Ia.y out: with vertiGa~1 br,eak.er scheme can be estimated app,roximate~,y by assuming the wid~h (3.0 m x 8 . .5 m x 8.0 m] I,eaving 1.5 m along~he depth, for panels. 2 .. .0 m for movement O.r1 either side .along the' Ilength .of bus. bar fer 400 kV system

•• I. I I ._ •• , .....• _. - -.. _. - _A ~g I. -- - --

-

49

6.2.14 nependrng on the bus bar a:rrangemen't~the various elements am assembled to constitute various bays in the desired sequence.

6.3 CONTROL CABINETS

6,.3.1 The elements for control, indicafion and alarms are contained in local control cabinets mounted close to bays. The elements normally mounted in the control cabinets consist of the fOrllowlil1gl:

(i) M i m i c diag ram w,~th con tro I switches for electrically ope rated b re a ke rs, 110 ad break switches, disconnects and earthing switches and indicators for ail components provided with auxilia.ry switches.

(ii) localll.Remote Selector Switches.,

(iii) jldarm 'facia with ind~cating larms for rnonltorlnq operating system, gas density

and ,auxiliary supplIes.

(iv) Contactors, timing' relays etc.

(v) Terminal blocks.

(vii) Interior lightingl, heater, cable glands.

(vi i) lockable bypass switch as for d ef,e a ti n 9 th ei nterl oc ks to tacllltats m ai n te nance work.

6.4 liNTER lOCKS

6 .. 4.1 G:IS control cabloet includes electrical inter1~ocks to prevent incorrect switching sequence and ensure correct operations of isolators, circuit breakers and earthing switches from local control cabinet or from the control mom.

iUS SAFETY lOCKS.

6.5.1 Safety locks for Illocking the disconnects and earthing switches ill the positions "Operaflon" or "'Maintenance" are also provided. In the "Maintenance" position these 'locks interrupt the control circuits of motor drives for disconnects and earh~ng switches. In the manually operated earthing switches, these locks in the "Operation" posltion do not permit ellgagement of manual operating handle with the earthing switches operating shaft,

6.16 SUPPORT,ING STIRUCTURES

'6.6.1 Depending on the design of tn s.taUati on. the GI'S can be self supporting or erected on steel supporting strucfures o~ simple design anchored to the substation ftoor.

t

• ~ •• ~ ~'. '.: 1. '.._-' ;. ~", - :- _ ......

- - -

50

6.7 GROUNIDIING

The three enclosures ot si'ngle phase G'~S are required to be bonded to each other at the ends of GIS to ensure to flow circulating' currents, These circulated enclosures currents cancel the, magnetic field that would otherwise exist outside the enclosure out to conductor current, 3,~,phas,s' enclosures GIS does not have cir,clJ~ating currents but does have eddy currents in the enclosure and should aliso be multi point grounded. AII~hough multi point 'grounding, leads to some losses in the enclosure due to circullating current mul'ti point ,grounding results in many par.aliiel path for the current' from an internal path to flow . to the switchyard ground grid. The recommendaflons of manufacturers and multi point grounding concept normally ensures touch and step potentials with,in safe levels prescnoed by iEEE 80 ..

6.8 The GIS should be extendable ~o meet the requirem,etr~t: of additlon of bays in future. The side on which the extension is to be made should be provided with suitable extension bellowsJlflanges with blankinq platies. The building that jls to house the GIS should have space provision for '~urture extension.

'6.91 GIS TE.RMINAT.ONS

GIS terminations coul'd' be; any of the following:

.' SF,s to air bushings

• SF.s to cable' termination

• SFa to oil bushings for direct connection to 'transformer

• SFe; bus duct

A.III termoatlon modules are commonly used to connect the G~S with transformer. Overhead lines could be connected to GIS either though cables or through SF!) to' air bushings. Type, o~ terrnlnanons has also bear~ngi on the size of subs,tations .. If cab~e or SFe bus ducts are used. substation can be kept quite compact, SFs to. a~r bushlnqs, on the other hand, requires minimum clearance in air and thus requires more: space and! in ,additionj 'they ara subject to enviironmenrtal conditions .. ES,peciallly in crlUeslindustria~ areas where space is both rest~i:cted and expensive and the surroundinq environment has impact on type of termination. preference should be for cable termlnatien or SF6 bus duct Se,iection of caJt~le termination will have to be' jiudiciously done keeping in view me specIfic requirement.

Chapter 7

PHYSICAL LAYOUIT

7.1 ST A.TtONI srre

7.1.1 Site limitation ts O~€ of the important considerations ln deddhg 'tl1.e typ,e of I ayout of a substation. ~It sho'tJ1ldi be fme 'fro m ai~ obstructio ns fro m the po i Uilt of v]ew of oonvenlefil,ce of terminaflng high voltage tm.nsm~ssiont lines .. At the same time H shou lei bsaccessl b~e to th € p u bl ic road. to faciUtate transpo rt of plant an d eq u~p ment, As war as possible, ~It shou:~d be near a town and away from municipal dumplnq grounds! areas and also away from police and mmtary ~ine ranqes, The site sheuld he. ve ,good d ~inki ngl water for staNorru staff. 0 utdocr substat~orl sh ou ld not be wTUn i n :3 kmfrom aerodrome or should be as per a:v~atiol1,gluid€line'S.

7,.1.2TYP'9 ot lsolstcrs has great innt~enoe! in bay width and I~eve~ oithe substation. Using double break [ype! of Isolators compared to Horizontal Centre Break lsolators, bay width can be reduced b'y1 Og 15%.. Pantogmp:fll lsolators are best sultsd for Double Ma~n and Transfer {OMT) scheme (wiU~ ~Ie~~bl,e bus a~rangement) but it requires proper and careful erection of ~sda.tor and stringk~g of buses. By us~rng ve rt~cal: break lso late rs ,the h ei g hit of :~evels increases but vertical brea ~ lsotatcrs are more econorrfcat Ior voltagl8s mom than 400 kVdluE! to lesser II:ength of beam, bay width and ultsn a tely ~ esse r req u irem e III o:ff~and.

7 .1i .• 3 Wih i ~e ptan n i ng th e ta yout and orienta lion of an EHV sub station in on:le r to avold r]ght of way problem ln future, approximate provish:m sheuld be made for i nstall~a.ti 0 n oftowe rs for i ncom i ng'! outgoing I~n ss and this aspect sh 0 u ld be considered simu~i~aneous.ly ar~dj provlslon made according:ly in the construcuon ot emanaUng transmlsslon lines. It ls necessaryto consider in the ~'8lymj~ dlesignf the poss.i:biIUty of exten sian of substati,on. The nne and transformer 'bays: se'quenDE! should, i~ posslbje, be fixed minimizing the possibility of overloadlnq bus bars and oonnecting conductor,

7.2 SE:LECTION OF LA .. ND'

The land for substafion should be selected on the basis of slze ot substation, switchvard layout design depend's on swUciling scheme, shape and slze of land .. A substation requires land for consist of switchyardl~ control and admlnlsiraflve bulldlnq, stores, security barrack, (;d~ony, etc. Conside~~ng hlcff:!asingl cost of land but keepfng provlslon 110 rnnure exten s iQ,n~follow~ ~Ig size o,f lands are requ i red for a s ubsta.t~ on

• 400/220/132 kV: 45-60' acres

• 220/1 3.2133 kV: 1 5- ~ a. acres

• 13.2/33/11 kV : 8-10 acres

.. 33/11 kV : 2:~3 ames

S2

7.3 ~lLUSTRATION]S

1.,3.1 Figlure 7 (a) to 34 illustrates some! typical layouts of 420~ .245, 145, 72.5 and 36 kV substations as mentioned] in Table 7. ~I ineludinq some! typical layouts .adopt:ed rece nUy co mmis sio ne d substations, These ~ayo uts are ibein 91 gl~VE!ni fo r 'Q,snerall guidaillil()t! oli'lly and are not illtended to servs as standard layouts. The various types of layouts included here~11i are as tollows;

Fi !lure rNla.

Switchyard and substaHon oil nalildling_8l[S,tBm schemath:::;p~prnmdiaQrO!m

Flgure 3:

TypicaJ comoressedalr system fowatr blast droult, breaker

TypiGa~ 400/220 kV conitml roO:11II1 (ground floor)

lFiguwe4A.

TYQlcal1 400/220 k:V (;o~t:N)1 room (Hrst floor)

FigllUH No.,

Sun~I'e line diagram fervaneus types 01 swil:clillJ 1lI<q1 schemes

YaH-age Bus system E1lay wldtihl Bus 1\~\ilie:1

kV (tVIP,ican

420 Double main allnd transfer .bus21 m Low

(Pian)

Figure 7 (0)

420 I D oubJ'e maun a:n;(ffitralr~sfer bus

(SecUoni)

21 m Low
,21 m, Low
.21 m Low
2] m low
27 m Low
27 m I IL.OW'
27 m ] tow
2.7 I1I'il Low
27 m low
2.7 m low
24 rn I low
15 nil low
15 m low
1'6: m low
15 m Low
15 m low
lS m LOw
16 m High
17 m High Figure 8(a)

F'i.g ura 8(b)

420 ! Bn;laker and hallf. O-typ e

anangeme:nt (Plain} -

420 . Breaker and nalit. D-type

,arran gement (S€ctiori),

420 6realker and halif. D-type arrall'ligeme:nt IlSLJD)

Figljre 8(d)

420 Br,eaker and ha~f with 1-Ph Hansrormer wl~h auxilila ry bus a ifll'8ngement

Figme 8(0), Sheet 1 of fi

Figure 8{d} .• Sheet .2ot 10

420 Sing'le ~[rlie diagram

42.0 Plan

Fig,ll! re 8~d}" Sheet 3 SA or ,6,

Fig.~ re 8{d} • Sheet 5, of 6

42.0

Plan of tr,ansJoumer area

Fig ~He a(d) , Sheet 0 of 6

Frguwe B{e)

I

Fi.Qti re 9.11.

245

~

I

Bmake r and half

Double main arlld ~Jran,sfe.r

Main and transfer wah pnlvi;s~oE1l f,o r ,oo:rl'll,er~iGn to dou'bl'e main and tmnsfer

F.·. rg.t! ret CIA, Sheet 1 of II 2 I

245

245

245

Double bus

Ftg me 1 QA, Shee~.2 of ! 2.

SectiOfih$.

FiOl!J1fe 1'OB

245

245

Double bus

Double bus

53
Fi:gure 11 245 iCh;nub!e' bus 17 rn Low
Figur'8 12A 24:5, Double bus GIS NA
F,iQure 12 B 245· Double bus GIS NA
I F~gl.l!re 13, .245 MaIn transfer 17 m High
IFigure 1.4 .245 Mai n and transfer 17 rn I low
Rgure 15 245 I Stnuteibus H rn I High
Figure ~:'6 245 Sincle bus 117m low
FiQulre 111 '145 Double bus 10..4 m Hiah
Fia.un~ u8 145 Doub:le bus 10..4 rn to'w
Figure 19 145 Main and transfer 1'0.4 m , High
F1Qur.L3· 19A 145 Main and tr:atr1sfe r 12 m Low
Fi:gur,e i9A" Sheet 1 of 1,45 Single line diag ram 12 m Low
4 I
figure 19.A. Sheet 2 of 145 Plan 12 m Low
4
, F,igure 19A, Sheet 3&4- 145: Sections 12 Low
m
of4
Figure 20 145 Mai nand transf.er 10.4 m l.ow
Figll.l!re20A 145 Ma.i n and ;transfer 10.5 m Low
Figure 21 1,45 Sinqil:e bus 10.4 m High'
Fi,QUffi 22 1.45 Sinal'e bus 10.4 m low
FiQure 23 72.5 I Oouble bus 7.6 m High
Figurre 24 72.5 Double bus 7.6 m I Low
FCQlJre,24A 72_5' Double bus 7.'6 m low
Fi;Qure 25 72.5 Main and transfer 7.6 m High
Fi'gure 26 72.5 Main and tr~ansfe r I 7.6 m Low
Figure 27 72.5 Simile blls 7.8 IT'! IHliQh
RgUire .28 7,2Jj, Single bllS 7.6 m lLoW'
,Figll!.l! re .29 36 Dou ble bus 5.5 rn HiQh
Figure 30 3'6 IJouble bus, 5.5m Low
Fig Lire 31 36 Main and transfe.r 5.5 m Hugh
Figure 32 36' Mai n an d transfer 5.5 m Low
FiQure 33 36 SinQlle bus 5.5 m Htgh
Figure 34 36 S.[no'l~e bus 5.5 m Low Note: Layouts shown in this Manual] am thill ones g,ener.;~.lly adopted by the utilities

7.4 It is recommended that based on the equipment selected,' the basic data included in th~'s manual and the operating experience, the laycuts may be standardized so that a uniform design ms obtained which would reduce the cost as weill as construction period.

7.~ LAYOUT Of CONTR.OL ROOM IBUILDliN1G

The size of 'the oonfrel room bui~ding ls dependant on the number of rooms, equlpmente in the room arid varies from uUllity 'to utility, Typical sizes 'for di'fferent rooms of the control mom building for a 400/22,0 kV substation with conventional control and re~ay panels having the ioliow[ng number of bays is given, in Table 7.2.

400 kV system - One and half breaker bus scheme having 8 nos. diameters to. accommodate 12 nos. lline feeders. 2 nos. 400}220 kV transtormers, ,2 IlOS. bus reactors.

54

220 kV system - Doublle main and transfer bus scheme. to accommodate 7 nos .. line feeders, 2 nos, 400/220 kV nsnstonners, 1 nos, bus transfer and 1 nos. bus coupler bay ..

Ap;prQximaile size Oenglth x breadth)

1. Control Roo.m

tsrnx tom

15 rn x 14 m

2. Re~ay and IPL.:CC Ro am

3. MOe Room

(Main SWdtchbo,ard. ACDB, DCDB, Battery Charger)

2Umx1Sm

4. Battery Room (Accommodation of 2 no-so 220 V 8: 2 nos .. 50V Battery Ban k in SinQle Row Singh;l' Tier Arrang:emenU

15 me x 8 m

5.. . Comm L..J I'll lcatlon Room

u5 m x 7 m

7rnxSm

6. 8m Tft-in-Ch an:iQ's Room

s mx sm

7. Engineerj.s Room

s m xs m

7mxSm

10. Ubrary 'el.! m Recore! Room

9. Ma in1:enanDe Room .

111. . Electro nics Test Lab

9mx5m

13.. Toilets

As, per requirement

12. Maintenance Staff Room

14. I P,aJl1ltl"Y'

- .

For an automated substation, relays and PlCC equlpmsnts may be accommodated

ill a weather proof bay controller unit located iin the outdoor switchyard: Hence R,elay, PLCC room and communication room are not required and size ot control room can be red uoed as, the co ntrol ro om to r such typ e of app licatlon sh a u ld b 8 su ltabl e for accommodation Qif Computer peripherals and cornmunlcetion equipment,

ABOUT CONTRIBUTORS

Sbr.i H.G. Chh.abra did his B.B" (Elect) from Punjab Engineering College, Chandigarh, in I 972. He has a wideexperience, and is presently working as Superintending Engineer in Bhakra Beas Management Board, Chandigarh,

Shri M. >Gopillla Rag" M.E., (Elect) & F.I.E. is presently Chief Engineer Construction AP TRANSCo. He has 35 years of experience in various areas' of Engineering. and mtroduced 132lV Shunt Capacitor Banks in 1998 in AP, TRANSOO" He is trained. in GIS in Germanyand Japan, and has contributed several technical papers in National and International Seminars,

S:Ld M.M. Goswam.ii is presenrly working a-s Addition al General Manager in POVil'ERGRID. He has over 25 years of experience working with various organizations like ASEB, NTPC, PO\VERG~JD in the field of Design & Engineering of Transformer and Substations, Condition Monitoring, DGA etc. He is also associated in the development of technical specification. 'design review and testing of first 800 kV transformer and reactors being commissioned

.. by POWERGRID. He has published a number of technical papers. He is also associated with standardization of Transformer & Substation by BIS, CB)P, ClORE etc.

Shrl R.K.Gupta is Post Graduate in High Voltage Engineering from GOVL Engineering College, Jabalpur, and PG DC in Thermal Power Pliant Engineering from NrTI. Delhi He joined POVlr1ERGRID in 1998 as Executi ve trainee. At present, he is working as Assistant Chief Design Engineer in Corporate Engineering (Substation) Department, He is involved in various substations engineering activities relating to stand,rdization. of Layout, type testing of various equipment, failure analysis of Transformer/Reactors and Design Review & Type Testing of the first 800 kV class Shunt Reactor.

Slid Raj Kumar did his RE. from TIT and is presently working as General Manager (Design E&M) in NHPC: Faridabad, He has very rich experience in design as well as construction of EHV Transmission Systems .. Associaredwith 400 'kV field tesdng, he' contributed to elimination of dosing resistors from 400 kV CBs. He is senior member ofIEEE,. associated with' Power Engineering Society, ClORE National Study Committee 23,38,34,C5 and presently A2-31 on Contamination. in Transformer Oil.

Shr] S.K. Ray Mohapatr.a was born in Orissa, India in 196i.He graduated in E~ectrical Engineering from Sambalpur Uni versity, Orissa in ] 9 B2.and had his Master's Degrees and nv:mA from Indian Institute of Technology" K1:!amgpur and F,acu.[~y of Management Studies, Univ,ersity of Delhi in 1'984 snd 2003 respectively. Hls professional experience ofmore than 20 years includes Preject appraisal, tendering & procuremeot, design and engineering of EHV substations w~thIDe Central Electricity Authority of Government o,f India, identification .lJi:ld Investigation work for harnessing hydro power potential (micro I mini I small hydroelectricpower pmj eels) arid assessment of wind power potenHaJ W]tilil Govr, of Orissa (India) and. testing & quality control of PVC & XLPE cables of mlkV .and 33kV grade with MIs NICCO Orissa UcL. India, He has already contri buted (en papers and articles in N adona] seminarsand Ir ... dian Pl}wer magazines and representing asa ill.ember in various technical committees of CB]&P. India.

SultmdaMukhOi,pi3.1lli:,Y3Y was born in Asan so], India in I 947. He grad ueted ill Electrical Engineering from J adavpur U niversity, Calcutta .in 1968 and had his Master's and Doctorate Degrees from Indian Instinne of Technology, Kharagpur and Ro orkee in 1970 and Th.979 [,esp ecti vdy. Hi s employment experience of more than 34 years includes teaching and research in Roorkee, and power system planning, design arid operation with [he Central Electricity

• , . I.

Autbority of Government of India, H~ has authored two. books. and twenty-

seven papers, won 11.EEE Third. Millennium Medal in 2000, PES Delhi Chapter Outstanding Eagineer Award ,& PES Asia-Pacific Regional Outstanding Engineer Award fo[ 200 I. IEEE RAB Leadership & Achievement A\vards in

- "

2.002 & 2004 respectively, Since beginning of 2005 he is in tile PES Governing,

Body as Asia-Pacific Regional Representative, He is also Fellow of the Ins~huHcm.Qf Engineers (India) and Institution of Electronics and Teleccmrannicetions Engineers (India),

Shrl B~N. Saini did his .BE (Elect) from MalvJiya Regional Engineering College, Jaipur, In :~912 end later M .. Tech.{p~)wer Apparatus & Systems) from [ndiarn Institute of Technology Delhi, in ]983. He is presently working as Superintending Eegineer (400 k V Desigi[l) in Raj asthan Rajya Vidyut. Prasaren Nigam Limited, He had been posted on deputation in eRA during]918.-83. He has vast experience in design of EHV substations.

I

Sbri K.S. KaUigel1.aU:iimaU Chief EI'lg.ineer (ReM), Karnataka Power Transmission Corporation Ltd,

~ .. ----.-.-- ... ~-.--_, .-- ....... ~

....

CENTRAL BOARD OF IRRIGAT'ION AND PO\VER Malcha Marg, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi = 110 021 ~ India

Phones : 91~1 ]-261 15984,. 26H 1294,26875017. 26880557

Fax: 91-11-26116347

E=mail: cbip@cbip.mg.cbip@vsnl.com Website : w\vw. chi p .org

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CA1lLE TRAY sUffORT FOB SECTIQN 1-1

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DETAIL OETRENCR CoyER SLAB l'DR SECIION (1-1) & (2-g)

SECTION 2~?

.fLAti m DETAIL OF M!CUQRIN!J

CABLR TRAY BUPP08T FOR 1516 ¥ S FLAT

SECTION ft-2 " J-3

1. All DIMENSIONS ARE IN MM UNlESS OTHERWISE SPECtFlEO.

2. DO NOT SCAlE THE DRG. FOLLOW WRITTEN DIMENSIONS ONLY.

3. R.C.C MIX. SHOULD BE M20 GRADE.

4. lfAN CONCRETE SHALL 8E 1 :4:6.

5. ClEAR COVER FOR SOnOM SLAB R£lNF. ON TOP SIDE IS 25MM.

6. liFTING HOOK ARE TO BE PROVIDED IN EVERY TENTH Sl.AB.

7. NECESSARY OPENING SHAlL BE PROVIDED AT APPROPRIATE

--'~i-.Af--76l<6 idS fVJ lOCATIOPN TO TAKE OUT CABLfS.

8. FOR ACTUAl DEPTH OF TRENCHES REFER CABLE TRENCH lAYOUT.

9. F.G.L DENOTES FINISHEO GRADEt> LEVEL (fORMATION LEVEl).

10. F.G.L TO BE TAK€N FROM LAYOUT ORG.

11. A SLOPE OF 1:250 SHA1.L BE GIVEN IN lHE DIRECTION PE:RPtNOtCUlAR TO THE RUN OF THE TRENCH fOR ALL SECTIONS.

12. AU. CABLE TRENCHES SHAlL 8E GIVEN A SLOPE OF 1:500 IN THE DIRECTION OF MAIN RUN.

13. EARTHING CONDUCTOR 'E' 5OX6 'MS FlAT WOULD BE WElOED ON THE CABLE SUPPORTING STRUCTURES BEFORE INSTAllATION

OF CABLES.

14. ALL STEEL STRUCTURE PLATES WOULD BE PAINTED WITH NON ,CORROSIVE PAINT ON A SUITABLE PRIMER BEFORE INSTAUATlON Of CABLES EARTHING CONDUCTORS WOULD HAVE REO PAINT.

15. TRENCH WALL SHALL CLEAR THe; EQUIPMENT FOUNDATION BY 100 MM.

16. NECESSARY CONSTRUCTION JOINTSHAU. BE PROVIDED AT EV£RY 30M (MIN.) OR AS PER SITE CONDmON.

17. 40 MM CLEAR COVER FOR WALL AND BOTTOM SlAB REINFORCEMENT WHICH IS TOWARDS EARTH SIDE SHALt. BE PROVIDED.

18. ALL SUPPORT ANGLE SHALL BE L50X50X6.

19. ANCHORING FlAT (75X6 MM) SHAll ae: PROVIDED AT EACH SUPPORT ANGLE POINT.

20. EARTHING CONDUCTOR MKO 'Et SHAll. BE PROVIDED ON THE TOP TIER OF EACH CABlE TRENCH SECTIONS.

SECTION 3-~

SECTION 4-4

TXP· PErAIL Of SLAB SUPPORT

DETAIL OF TRENQR kOVEB FOR SECTION 3-;J & 4-4

=, ..........

f

s[1

TYPo CABLE SUPPORT

FiGURE-1

MANUAl ON SUBSTATIONS (LAYOUT & DESIGN}

TYP~CAl CABLE TRENCH SECTIONS

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o AIR FIi..TER ___ FUSIBLE Pl..UG

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(>- UNLOADER. (PART Of COMP~SSOO) e COMPR€SSOR PReS~ CONTROl,..

PflE$SURE A:,.ARM

@ 8 @

r*J R£LleF \At. 'IE PRESSURE RECUC.ING VALVE

l.OW PRESSURE SWiTCH PRESSURe GAUGE

1<0- NON RETURN VN,.vf!.

_ T" STQP ~t.V£ NORMlIU .. 'f OPEN

D"J (WHEeL Oi'ERAT~O)

~ STOP \iAL'';E~ NORMAU':f C(,O"EO

(8) fl..cm INDiCATOR

A!fl-PiI'E CONNECT;;ji"J El.C:CT~!(:AL CO~~Cli('t..;. ~ MANiFOLO

FIGURE~ 3

·" - - _ __ _ .•.... _--_._---_ _._--

: I

I I

L .... ~ +. _

SCHEDULE OF OPENINGS

!TYPE I SIZE

NOS.

DESCRIPTION

i DOORS

. ~

8

cr

----------- ------------

o

i ,
I 2.OM X 2.4M :5 IIOOR WIt1f ALUMINIUM FI'IAHE ANO GI.A2£D DOUBI.E
j D SHUTl'ER.
I DI 1.2H X2.4M 2 DOOR WIt1f AI.UKINIUH FRAMe AND GlAZe!> SllU'lTEI\
I
1
! 02 0.9" X 2.4M 8 OOOR WIlli ALUt1IfUUft fPAHE ANO GLAZED SIIUTTE~
! 03 0.8M X 2.4M 4 TEAK WOO%) FRAHEWQRK WIlli fLUISH OOOR ()$T.
i ,
i SD 0.9M X 2.4M 2 TEAK WOOD FRAtlEWOI!K WITfi FLUSH OOOR «!>T.
I I WINDOWS
i 1.9M X 1.68M AUIHIHItJff GLAnD W!HIlOl9.
, WI 15
,
I W2 1.2M X 1.68" :5 ALUIIINlUH Gt.A2f1> llllIIlOW.
i W3 3.0H X 1.68M 10 A~NlUH GLAnD WIIIOOVt.
i
:
I VENTILA TORS

.VI IO.45M){ 0.9HI 6 I·UUHJNIUH GLAZED LOUVEREDV!IITl1ATMS.

I I I I r I I

." ©

I I I I

rll:CTROUIC TI:5T I.A6

STAFf 0fI'ICf.

MAlT. STAff KOOM

FIGURE-4B

PICAL 400/220KV CONTROL ROOM

FIRST FLOOR

FIRST FLOOR

MANUAL ON SUBSTATION LAYOUT 4: DESIGN

®

_J_

a

I

-- .. ---0

8AnfR.Y ROOM

PANTR.Y

U5RARY

LOBBY

INI5TRATVE

FFfCE AREA mt x 14.6 mt

SCHEDULE OF OPENINGS

DESCRIPTION

TYPE SIZE

DOORS

AlUMINIUM OOOR WITH OORMA BTS80 ~ UNIVERSAL
MD 2.2M X 2.4M FLOOR SPRING, DOU8LE DOOR WITH tECHANICAl SACK
CHECK, HYDRAIJUC HOU> OPEN OR DE!.AYEO ACTION.
0 2.0M X 2.4M 2 OOOR WITH ALUHINIUHFRAHE ANI> GLAZED SHUTTER.
Of f.2H X 2.4M :5 OOOR WITH ALUMINIUM FRAME AND GLAZED SHUTTER.
D2 O.9H X 2.4M 4 OOOR wlm ALUMINIUM FRAME ANI) GLAZEO SHUTTER.
03 0.8M X 2.4M 5 TEAK WOOD FJW1EWORK WITH FLUSH DOOR OST.
SO 0.9M X 2.4M 4 TEAK WOOl> FRAMEWORK WITH FLUSli t)00R CST.
RS 2.4M X 2.4M MS ROLLING SHUTTERS WINDOWS

WI I. 9M X 1.68M

13 AlUMINIUM GlAZED WINOOW.

7

ALUHINIUH GLAZEO WINDOW.

W:S 1.511 X 1.6811

VENTJLA TORS

ALUMINIUM ~lAZEI> LOUVEReD VENTILATORS.

VI 0.45M X 0.911

FIGURE 4A

lYPlCAL 400/220KV CONTROL ROOM

,.

GROUND 'FLOOR

GROUND FLOOR

MANUAL ON SUB STATION LAYOUT ¢ DESIGN

... .. - .. - -~.- ------- ---- .. ----

,._-""-_ ------.----------------------------------------------------r-:A~PP:::::E:::-:N::::DI;:X--:I~II:-:T:;;:O;-;:TE::;C:;:HN::I:;:-CA:7L-;;SP:::E:;:CI;;:F:;;IC::A:;;TI;;:;-ON:7I

j

i F'OR F'lRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

...----------18f-.---;r-O<J-c:;H)<J-I)<::-A-- ====]l THIS AARANGMNT !S TO BE ~R/II PIWVlD£l) nm EACH ~ACTORI

REACTOR TRANSFORMER.

'----tXt--~L..::=::.:___j

I I

I

Cr

I

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AIR, VESSEL

TO DIESEL ENGINE.

LEGEND ~ ALARM

~ GATE VALVE NORMALLY OPEN ~ GATE VALVE NORMALLY CLOS~D

-1>+ NON-RETURN VALVE

* GLOBE VAL VE NORMALLY OPEN ...... GLOBE VALVE NORMALLY CLOS(D

~FLOAT OPERATED GATE VALVE

~ TEST VALVE

® PRESSURE GAUGE
_, .~ PRESSURE SWITCH
';
@ LEVEL GAUGE
~ LEV£L SWITCH
~. BASKET STRAINER
FLOAT OPERATED LEVEL GAUGE
&l Y - TYPE STRAINER
@ v ATER MOTOR GONG
D REDUCER
~ THREE WAY COCK/ VALVE
Y VENT
. J. DRAIN
. y.
~ OUTDOOR HYDRANT
-[ INDOOR HYDRANT
.~ QUARTZOID BULB DETECTOR
~ HV\I SPRAY NOZZLE
@PUMP
- \lATER LINE
gJ DELUGE VALVE FIGURE - 5

MANUAL ON SUBSTATION (LAYOUT 8c DESIGN)

DET AILS Of HIGH VELOCITY 'vi A TER (HV\v')

SPRAY SYSTEM

NTS

LL

I

v- PUMPHDUSE

L

rFPH 8c DG SET BUILDING

~

~r=~~~r-=~~~==~~~~~~~ _j

DIESEL TANK

YATER STORAGE .I8NK

\JATER STORAGE TANK

f 1. THE HYDRANT POINTS toR TRANSfORMER/ REACTOR SHALL BE LOCATED AT LEAST 20M AWAY FROM THEM.

2. AS SAFETY MEASURE, A WARNING PLATE SHALL BE PLACED NEAR HYDRANT POINTS FOR TRANSFORMER/ REACTOR TO CLEARLY INDICATE THAT WATER SHALL BE SPRAYED ONLY AFTER ENSURING

THAT THE POVER TO THE TRANStoRMERI REACTOR 'WHICH IS ON rtRE IS SWITCHED OFF

AND THERE ARE NO LIVE PART \JITHIN 20 M, DISTANCE OF THE PERSONNEL USING THE HYDRANT.

CONTROL ROOM BUILDING

TYPICAL ARRANGEMENT DE HV\,/ SeRA Y SYSTEM

r;' : . .,.".__
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1-"""
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lEGEND:~

TAANSFORMEP. CIRCUlT BREAKER

-®-

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lSOt.ATOR lice lSOLATO~ HOB

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tSUB-SYATHJN HANtiAl !

tBUS B};>,R ARRANGEMf:NTS i JFiGURE - 6 {A TO K . I

~-~-.~.---,:..-.~-,-~

NO'tf;:.OlHER j'ft;MS~. g. C1. PT, ss.cvr, CC ETC NQTSHO'''lil't

::;;

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C.l.CVT.

C.L. NEUTRAl REACTOR'

ca. REACTOR

LIGHTININ MAST

C.L. LA

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C.L.LIGHTNING MAST

C.L.OFC.V.T.

C.L.C.T.

C.L.C.T.

,

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C.L. ISOlATOR wITH

, GROUNDING 6lAOES

C.L. C.B.

C.L. BUS SUPPORT

C,L. MAIN SUS 2

C.L •. BUS S\JPPORT.

NOTE:

220 IW SWTCHYARO TO BE ALtGN£<O 1Mil-! EXISrmO YARD.

FENCE.

c.t. MAIN BUS 1

i

FENCE i

7~.He·----~~*~.~~~~~-Xx-~x~~~~i--~

!

.. ------- ... ~---.

. SPARE

i STARTING

i TRF. NO.2

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STARTiNG TRF.IiO.1

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------_._------------

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. //""FENCE ~~8~O~*-6~5~O~O~~~_*~~~~~~~~~~~~~7~~~~~~~~--~~~~----~~----~~~~~~~~7~~~==~r_~=-~

C.L C.L C.L C.L C.L. C.L.

LIGHTNING MAST MAIN BUS#1 . MAIN BUSlt2 . C.T. BREAKER TRANSFER BUS

/

C;L.

LIGHTNING MAST

C.L.

MAIN BUS NO.1

C.L.

BREAKER

C.L.

MAIN BUS NO.2

SECTION E-E

SECTIONF-F

8000 .

FENCE

MA~N BUS NO.1

MAIN BUS NO.2

FENCE

C.L.

MAIN BUS NO.1

C.L.

MAtN BUS NO.2

15000

ct.

GENTRANS

I,

C~l. .

ISOLATOR

C.L TRANSFOR MER BAY

C.L GENRATOR

TRANSFORMER AND NO.9

POTHEAD

I.C.T .. NO.1

GENRATOR NO.l0

I

j

L

10000

ROAD BREAKER ISOLATOR

TRANSFER BUS

ISOLATOR WAVE TRAP

C.L. C.L.

C.L. C.V.T. LA

NEUTRAL REACTOR

C.L.

REACTOR

'SECTION D-D

m-c=-----,r--------__:_,,_ TO 220 KV

"I f I

GL

C.L.

ROAD

C.L.

BREAKER

·C.L C.T.

C.L TRANSFER BUS

C.L. e.V.T.

SECTION C-C

fl I I

~--~~ __ ~ __ -- __ ------~M~A~IN~~U-·~-·N-O-.-l------~-------M-A-r~N~~~u~=·_N_o_2~ __ ~1~--Ro-cA-·LD-·-----B~~~~~:~K-ER-----rs-oc~LA-lT._O-R~l~--~---T-RA-N~~~·~~E~R-B-u~s------·~l

SECTION 8-B

G.L

//-", ,

P.T.

LINE BAY NO.1

GENERATOR NO.12

GENERATOR NO. 11

aUSCOUPLER

LINE BAY NO.3 LINE BAY NO.4

GENERATOR NO.13

LINE BAY NO.2

I

SE"CTION'A-A

FfGURE- 7 (b)

MANUAL ON SUBSTATIONS (LAYOUT & DESIGN)

DOUBLE MAIN AND TRANSFER BUS TYPE 420 KV BIl 1550 KVp

:

220 KV YARD (300x110)

.

SPACE PROVISION FOR MAINT. SAY ~Ox30

....

i

I

I

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29

'.

91

10. \l_

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I BUS

FUT:lIftE FUTURE UNE-l llNE.-II SPARE

d. I'~:::a::~::' ::::::::!:::::::::::::======~== __ ====== ~ __ ~~~ R_E_A(_T~ __ ~ ~~~ __ ~ ~ __ ~~ __ ~~~ ~

((WAD CONDUCTOR}

,- _"

.

O.G.· BUilOING 14x22

'r-:-Y3

t TT~1.

FUTURE TT-3

TT-2

FUTURE 11-4

r'r-'_' __ -:~'L~_.. . I SPARE

~----.

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FlHURE fUTURE II F,UTURE (fUTURE)

(FUTURE)

(FUrURE)

SUB-St A T IONMANl)A L

LOW LEVEL TYPE. '

BREAKER AND HALF BUS ARRANGEMENJ !t20KV 1245KV Bll 1425KV 110S0KV .' '

~1~-+-(-B--42~O~K~V-----r'~20~O~~~A~,~~13-4~E~~7~8~1

245KV16GOA" . ' 2 THM' . 12,

9 6

.tqQOA ··38 I 16'{J'OA ".?

ISO 4.2QKV (HCB1Z45KV

R

. E

TMH

2

I'SO 420KV

315M '2

3

Ut1H

12

CT 420KV

245KV

200M 42

160M ' (,

.R € - TMH

42 42 '12

'NOTES;

1 . WAVE TRAPS MAY ·HAVE TO BE INSTALLED

ON ANY TWO OF THE THREE PHASES IN THE tiNE

'2 All DIMENSIONS ARE IN METRES , •

(VT 420l<V 24SKV

5

8800Pf', 3 6

E TMH

(VT ---420KV

6

4400PF i5 E

R'

1

LA--196KV

198KV 6 TMH

8 lA~-3nKVIZoO) 21

R 21

9 BPI-- 420KV 242

, FOR 4'''IPS.Al

TUSE

f 122 E 104

S 16

10 ' WT .: 420KV CLASS 3000A 4

200M 1.

200M 2

I i f

.

I i

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f r

.

I ,

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rHIS . .JUMPER FOR THlRD- PHASE

_ IWITH-OUT W.1.)

9 ..i. 1 J. 7 +

VIEW Y2~Y2

I C.l.

8US-1

-- ~-~---'------'~'-----~7------~----~""-- -"'--:fHlS~ISOI:A-TOR-'FOR--':--~-- '-~--~------- -_.;~~-~.~. .~~~~~-~---~--~-------~--.~---

OTHER END fEEDER

I

TO ----I;..--ta 220 KV YARD

CONTROL ROOM

:_.~.4~,~~~~lt~4f~. ',7 j' 6~.:1-

. _(~:.': . - ..•..•.. '41-.' .. ~._.-.-:-_-- ';'_- ·_.- .. ·_·_ ..... t ...... ~---:--=-~49~-:-:-;.__--:-_ .. -+l. .... t _~,;__-:.... .17!.O __ ~__:~ ....-~_j

. VIEW Y3- Yi 1

NOTE:

- 1. ~u 0ItUSI0NS AM IN METRES 2.l1GHlNING ttASTS ARE NOT SHOWN IN

TIE stOlONS. : -

. 3. AU. STR11i1t6 -IS lWIN HOOS£ ACSR - E)(CEPTAS IIGtAT£O

27
J ~l-'
:1
-
af

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QUAD. CONDUC10R

(fUTURE)

BUS REACTOR

(FUTURE)

LEGEND STAGE-I.

STAGE-I - PROPOS£D.· FutURE

. SUB-STATION. MANUAL

lOW lEVEL TYPE

BREAKER AND HALF .

8US ARRANGEMEMT . 42OKV/245KV Bll 1425KV/10S0KV

SUB ... ST A TION MANUAL KEY DIAGRAM OF 420KV 1245KV' SUB S T A TION

BREAKER AND HALF SCHEME

.75

VIEW X1-Xl

FIGURE"

--- .. --.:r--·-----·---- -- .... -····--4----·-· .. ·- .. · _ ..... - ......

··_·_·_···-9····· .. _.- ,--.-.-~ ... -~ .. ~-. ~- .. - .. - ..... --.-

12

--------.-----

13

J6

. F'IGURE 8. 0 (SHEET 1· OF' 6)
K K
MANUAL ON ,SUBSTATIONS
(LAYOUT &OESIGN)
SlD FOR BREAKER AND HALF SCHEME.
400/220KV SUBSTATION
SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM·
L - 400/220 KV SYSTEM L 10

11

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AU O!MEHSIORS AR£ IN ·IMWtoETRt 1lNU:SS 01HeRVIIS£ SP(QI'lEl).
lHS f1AAAMf.:J£aS ~ '/ItI1CH ll1E SYs'ffll1S O£P(IIOOfT fOR ARE;-
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1 - ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN MM. UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED 2- MINIMUM CLEARANCES;

0) BETWEEN PHASES

b) BETWEEN PHASE TO EARTH

c) SECTONAL ClEARENCE . d) VERTICAL DISTANCE BETWEEN LOWEST P ART OF THE INSULA TOR AND PUN TH LEVEL

3- THE PARAMETERS FOR WHICH THE SYSTEM IS DESIGNED ARE:

4000MM' 3500MM 6500MM

. '

2550MM

a) SYSTEM VOLTAGE 420kV (RMS) 4QQKV

b) LIGHTNING fMPULS£ WITHSTAND VOLTAGE:' ±1550kVP (DRY.& WET)

c) SWITCHING IMPULSE WITHSTAND. VOLTAGE : +1050kVP

(DRY & WET) ,

d) POWER FREQUENCY WITHSTAND VOLTAGE; 630kV(rms)

,(DRY & WET). '

e) MINIMUM CREEPAGE DISTANCE: 25MM/kV(10500mm)

f) MAXIMUM F AUL T LEV?L : 40kA/1 Sec.

4- LINE TRAP POSITIONS SHOWN IN THE LAYOUT ARE INDICA TIVE ONLY.

FtNAL lOCAT{ON WiLL BE DECIDED BASED ON PlCCREQUIREMENT.

5-PUNTH HEIGHT OF FOUNDATiON Will BE +300MM FROM THE FINISHED GROUND LEVEL GRAVEL TOP LEVEL WILL BE +100MM FROM THE F.G.L

6- CONNECTION TYPES r400KV SWlTCHYARD

LEVEL FROM PUN TH CONDUCTOR TYPE

, + 15000MM QUAD ACSR MOOSE

a) MAIN BUS I . &11

b) TRANSFER BUS

c) JACK BUS

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TWIN ACSR MOOSE 4" IPS.' AL. TUBE

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7- STATIC CONDUCTOR TENSION (AT 0 DEG. C WiTHOUT WiND)

a) MAIN BUS J &11 4000 KG/PHASE

c) JACK BUS 4000 KG/PHASE

8- TOWER BASE DETAilS:

a) LONGITUDINAL FACE

b) TRANSVERSE FACE

9- GIRDER/BEAM DIMENSiON:

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. 3500 MM - 4700 MM (B/B)

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Figure- 8 (e).·

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----.;...

132KY GAN'IR'f. PT&1'I

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.RAl.1RAat

. HAVING PROVISION FOR· .' .. -

CONVERSION T()'OODBLE MAIN.AND . .1RANSFER BU$;~~' .

. BAY;WlDTH:·15M(220KV), 9.6M(132KVf &4.8M(331<V)'

" '_: _ ",/., "

FIGURE-9B .

.

220/132133KV SUBSTATION WITH.MAJNANDTRANSFER BUS BARS

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ENLARGE VIEW OF SINGLE LINE LAYOUT DRAWING OF 220 KV-16 BAY WIQTH' '

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SECTION D-D .. (BQS CQUPLE_R}

~..u...... _t~

6000 • eos 4000.1. 4000 a U!(){~wt. ~_=' .. .I ~I~ 4OOl). t .woo .t ~ ... L.J_..J!~_._~ __ . __ i

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. SECTION . B-B (IMNSFi~ BUS CQIJ~tE.Rj

'fW.IH Aesa MOOS8 _ .. TO iGi !JAY
V; ~!lW .• ,,' 1f.tm IlOO , I . 1Wlf I!R'1S I II \.' 7 ,.
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MOOSE

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2000

t t t ·t ~ t t

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SECTION . C~C liCT BAy)

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(3.75m)

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SECTION . A:"':' A (IJNE BAY)

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1- ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN MM. UNLESS. OTHERWISE SPECIFIED 2~MINfMUM CLEARANCE : .•

0) BETWEEN PH.~SES

b) BETWEEN PHASE TO EARTH

c) SECTONAL CLEARENCE .

d) VERTICAL DISTANCE BETWEEN LOWEST

PART OF THE. INSULATOR' AND .PUNTIi LEVEL

3- 'THE PARAMETERS FQRWHICH THE SYSTEM IS 'OESIGNED ARE:

0) SYSTEM VOLTAGE (RMS) 220KV

2100MM

2100MM 5000MM 2550MM

o

1

c) SWITCHtNG IMPULSE WlTHSTANO VOLTAGE: NA

. . .

d) POWER FREQUENCY WITHSTAND VOLTAGE: 460kV(rms)'

e) MiNIMUM CREEPAGE DISTANCE :'

f) MAXIMUM FAULT LEVEL.:

'25MM/kV(6125m~) . 40kA/1 Sec.

E

4"": UNE TRAP POSITIONS SHOWN IN THE LAYOUT ARE INDICATIVE' ONLY, FJNAL LOCA 1l0N WILL .8E DECIDED BASED ON ·PlCCREQUIREMEt'4T. .

'. 5- PLINTH HEIGHT OF FOUNDATION wilt BE +300MM FROM THE FINISHED GROUNb LEVEL GRAVEL TOP LEVEL WILL BE +1 bOMM FROM THE F.Q.l~

'. ',f" •

6~ CONNECTION TYPES

. 2~OKV SWJTCHYARD'

...

LEVEL FROM . PLINTH'· . CONDUCTOR TyPE:

. : ,-' "..

a) MAIN BUS I &11 +11700MM QUAD ; ACSR. MOOSE

b) TRANSFER BUS + 11700MM.iWlN. ACSR MO,QSE .

c) JACK SUS ·+16200MM TWIN. ACSR MOOSE

d) EQUiP. TO EQUIP. +S900MM . 4" JPS~.·AL TUBE·

e) DROPPERS TWIN ACSR' MOOSE "..

7- . STA llC CONDUCTOR TENSION (. AT 0 DEG. C ): . '.' ':' .

. a)' MAIN BUS. J &n 1000 KG/CONDUCTOR (48M" SPAN) ."

b) TRANSFER BUS 1000 . kG/CONDUCTOR (48M SP~N) .' '.'

c) JACK BUS . 2000 KG/CONDUCTOR ·(66~. SPAN) ..

. 8: .. ·:!~~7~.;.~A~ DETAILS:

·.o);~~OOGJ.)J..JDINAL FACE .3500 MM' (B/B)'

. .... bf~~~$5iERsE . fACE . . 2500 M~ (alB) .

.' .··.9-~··~R~~~~~i~ENSlbN: 1500.MM (B/B) x 1200 MM (8/B)· :, .'.

o ,.',' •• ,c::/~' ·,·.",,<.oc:>.'.'L>.'.; . .:r:..~':~'~'~:' ;',.:f· .

F

. lAYOUT DRAWING - '220.KVli6M. BAY WIDTH· ":: .. (DOUBLE MAIN AND.TRANSFER·SCHEMe) :

LOW lEVEtTYPE

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11000\ isaL IICICM. ISOL teOOl'lSOL 11000\ iSOL teocil. GCa. leollo\ !SOC.-t ANNEXURE 9(c)

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ELABORAWNlIEW OFSINGIt.E L1NEDIAGRAM OF 220 KV 11fiMBAY WIDl'"H (DOUBLE MAIN TRANSFER SCHEME) LOW IJ.EVELTYPE

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I i I I I II I fl,' ,I I' I I I P:9 f b I ~ I 'SHlELDING WIRE I I IA I ci. OF VOLTAGE TRANSF

,I,i . 'I If " II I' 1 . 112M.' 112M I I I " ~I ~f! .I~ ~a"} ~ I I I ~I CL.OF LlGHTNINGI\KKI:l;>.1 !oK

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I REGULATING I REGULATING I REGULAllNG I REGULATING I REGULATING J ' 'REGl.JL.ATING I , ., SAY-10 J l REGULATING I REGULATING., REGULATING , BAY-IS

TRANSFORMER·2 TRANSFORMER-3 TRANSFORMER-4 iRANSFORMER-5 TRANSFORMER-6 sy>..V.7 I FEEOER-2 I rutV-9 AUXILIARY BAY·11 TRANSFORMER·, TRANSFORMER-2 TRANSFORMER·3 REGUlAllNG

5 SIMILAR TO BAY- 15 SIMILAR TO BAY-15 SIMILAR TO BA Y·15 SIMILAR TO BAY-1S SIMILAR TO BAY-15 BUS sECnON-1 SIMILAR TO BAY. 11 BUS S[cnON.2 TRANSFORM€R·2 INCOMfNG FEEOER-3 SIMILAR TO BAY·1S SIMILAR TO BAY-15 SIMILAR TO 8AY-15 TRANSFORMt::R-4

~ .' -

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FIGURE-10A

NotE :-

SHEET 1 OF2

~uJ\f..""\.A.rMo ~·~tl'$'·';~~·~"l

11 . .fMd·,'ma»f.J

MANUAL ON SUBSTATIONS (LAYOUT & DESJGN)

1

ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN MMIF NOT INDfCATED OTHERWISE

SECTIONAL FIGURES ARE GIVEN AT SHEET OF THIS DRAWING

INDICATE VERTICAL DOWN RUN OF EARTH WIRE

ALONG THE STRUCTURE

POSTINSULATORSTRU€TURESSHAtL Hf\\tE PROVISION FOR FITTING SCREEN

SCALE:

NTS

2

RI

DOUBLE BUS ARRANGEMENT LOW LEVEL TYPE 245KV·,BIL 1050KVp

--

3

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S.INGLE UNEDIAGRAM

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4

$Y$TEAI:<r.'OKV, ~ WH4, ':!OOI\. 1Q(W I.lVA NEUTRAL EARlHEO

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lNCOMING-1 INCOMING-2

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FEEDER II (TO RI$HIKESt1)

BUS-COUPLER

l'----_A

t.__--c

PLAN

BUS-1

6US-1

8US-1

. EARTH WIRE

EARTH INIRE OF 7/9 S.w.G. -1
-
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TRANSF~RMER NO.3 .: • TRANSFOR~ER NO.4

1_1_1_1_L_1_£
SECTIOND"'D (lIGHTNING ARRESTER NOT SHOilVN)

SECTION A-A (FEEDER BAY)

" '

SECTION B-8 (BUS COUPLER BAY)

SECTION·C-C (INCOMING BAY)

. NOTE:

1. REFERENCE GROUND LEVEL 554.85

2. THE MAIN BUSES ARE OF AlLALLUMINUM 0.75

SQ.· INCH COPPER EQUIVALENT, TARANTULA CONDUCTOR. ALL THE JUMPERS ARE OF ACSR 0.4 SQ. INCH DEER CONDUCTOR EXCEPT FOR BUS COUPLER BAY WHERE THESE WILlSE OF TARANTULA. BUS FOR SPARE CABLE SHALL BE

OF OEER CONDUCTOR.

220KV CABLES FROM UNDER GROUND POWER HOUSE

2.333 M 2.007 M

/,

\

1 CB 2 ISO

3150 WITH E/S 4 CT

5 PT

6 COUPLING CAPACITOR 7 WAVE TRAP

8 LA

9 PI

10 INVERTED PI

MANUAL ON SUBSTATIONS (LAYOUT & DESIGN)

_ ... ., .... .._ .. .4 ...... ' __ ....... ~ .. _ •. __ ...... , ... _._~ .• _.-:-:.¥_._ .. .; ..... _ .... ~ __ ., , ._. .. ~~. __ .~ . ..,.... ..... _'''_,.__ ..

BUS-l

(All DIMENSIONS ARE IN METRES UNLESS MENTIONED OTHERWISE)

u

CLEARANCES .

FIGURE-10B

1. SAFETY CLEARANce

SECTION GROUND.

CLEARANCE CLEARANCE

4.94M 2.44M

DOUBLE BUS ARRANGEMENT (HIGH LEVEL TYPE) 245KV, BIL 1050 KVp

SINGLE LI.NEDIAGRAM

Z. MINIMUM CLEARANCES ADOPTED FOR 1 050 (J<V)

(CREST) IMPULSE WITHSTAND VOLTAGE

SCALE:

PHASE TO EARTH

PHASE TO PHASE

SHEET 1 OF 1

NTS

::_:=~~.,."._:-_~ '_ ..... . . ==. ::=::_:::. ==.=.::~ ....... =" "'::=' :::'=='==:::_~:::::""":::"', =. ::~_. =====_~~::_:::_::. ~'__,='~-=-:::-i-= .. _::,. ....... = .. _::_::. _::"_=.':::_======:::::::::::=:::,:============= ===================================~=========:::-:-:==:=::::::::::==========

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.... SINGI£ ·CONOUDTOR . ,(MOOSE)

'.SHlilDING WIRE (7/8 sWG) •.

.. "'BUS",,~

. BUS-:.II y

ffi

II

FIRE PROTECTION

WAlL ..

~~o .: · . (ZEBRA)

C.LOFRECJlfIER .RooM . , E 1455.5·· .. ~..... .'

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BUS 'SECTION· BAY.·' .

. SECTION.'""D~D·· :.. . . r,

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MANUAl· ON SUBSTA.TIONS ..... (LAYOUT & DESIGN)

o o

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lM.1.

GRAVEL

NOTES!-

1. SHIELD WIRE STRucTuRE ClAMpSIWl.BE AT ·lM INTERVAl

2. THE fOUNDATION OF· UGHTNINGARRAsT£RS SHAll· ~ MADE' FLUSHWlTH THE RAIL TRA,CK TP FACIlITATE THE EASY

.. REMOVAL Of THE' AUX_ TRANSfORMER

3. AlL DI~ENSION~ ~E IN MM .IF NOT INOICATW .()TH£RW~E

AUX~ 'TRANSFORMER tIRC-UIT SECTION ~C~C

. .'

ttTRANSFORMER·

.. SHaIT2Of2·

;

i

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'f 'I . " 1 '1- 'T .

SEC110N AT l-l SECTION AT X-X (LINE SAY)

. X 'SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM

r.--

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L..-v

PLAN

NOTE

1. REPLACE SECTION Y-Y WITH SECTION Y'-Y'WHEN AN ISOLATOR IS TO BE

PROVIDED BElWEEN THE TRANSFORMER AND CIRCUIT BREAKER IN THE TRANSFORMER CIRCUIT.

2. All Ot~ENSlONS ARE IN MM.

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FIGURE-18,

DOUBLE BUS ARRANGEMENT {t.OW,LEVEL TYPE), ,', ,145 KV ,~ll6~KVp

NOTE:

1. REPlACE THE SECTION y-YWrrn SECTION Y'-Y'

WHEN AN ISOlATOR IS TO BE PROVIDED BElWEENTHE 1RANSFORMERAND CIRCUIT BREMER IN THE TRANSFORMER CIRCUIT '

2. All DIMENSIONS ARE IN MM.

3. EQUIPMENT SPACING IN THE DRAWINGS ARE BASED QN ()[.q , , PRACTICE OF MOUNTING THE EQUIPMENT {e.g. LA.M0C6.CTetc.} , DIRECTlY ON fOUNDATION WITH SCREEN AROUND IT. 'IN DRAwiNG

EQUlPMENTS ARE MOUNlED ON STRUCTURE AND SCREEN IS REMOVED AS PER PRESENT PRACTICE.

THfREFORE,INTER EQUIPMENT SPACING

CAN FURTHER BE OPTIMISED BY USER.

MANUAL ON SUBSTATIONS (LAYOUT & DESIGN)

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PROVIDED BETWEEN THE TRANSFORMER ANOCfRCUJT BREAKER IN THE TRANSFORMER CIRCUIT. ,

2. All DIMENSIONS ARE IN MM.

3. EQUIPMENT SPACING IN THEORAWINGS ARE BASED ON OLD " PRACTICE OF MOUNTING THE EQUIPMENT (e.g. LA, MOCB, CT *) DIRECTLY ON FOUNDATION WITH SCREENARbUNDlT.INDRAWlNG

EQUIPMENTS ARE: MOUNTEDON STRUC1URE AND SCREEN IS' , REMOYED AS PER PRESENTPRACTfCE.

THEREFORE, INTER EQUIPMENT SPACING

, ' CAN FURTHER BE OPTIMISED BY USER

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2. ISOLATOR

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4. LIGHTNING ARRES!ER· .

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5. POTENTIAL TRANSFORM,~R .

6. POST INSULATOR :

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MANUAL ON SUBSTATIONS .. (LA YOur.& DESIGN)

OUBlEBUS ARRANGEMENT (HIGH lEVEL TYPE) 145KV~ BIL 650 KVp

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SR.NO. EQUIPIOlNT DESCRIPTION QTY.
I. ~l 14SKV. 12SOA $Fe CfiCUIT eROJ(£R os NOS.
2. (- WRl!t:NT JIWIsroRII£R 15 NOS.
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FIGURE 19 A (SHEET1 OF 4)

12.

MANUAL ON SUBSTATIONS (LAYOUT & DESIGN)

POWER~

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