ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY y y Mouth- breaks up food particles Salivary glands- saliva moistens and lubricates foods.

Amylase digests polysaccharides y y y Pharynx- swallows Esophagus- transports food Stomach- stores and churns food. Pepsin digests protein. HCl activates enzymes, breaks up food, kills germs. Mucus protects stomach wall. Limited absorption. y Small intestine- completes digestion. Mucus protects gut wall. Absorbs nutrients, most water. Peptidase digests proteins. Sucrases digest sugars. Amylase digests polysaccharides. y Large intestine- reabsorbs some water and ions. Forms and stores feces. o Cecumo Appendix- its function are not certain, but some biologists believe that the appendix serve as a sort of ³breeding ground´ for intestinal bacteria. Often called simply the intestinal flora, a community of various bacterial populations normally inhibits the colon. The predominance of non pathogenic bacteria under normal conditions is thought to help prevent disease. Some of the non pathogenic bacteria are also thought to aid in the digestion or absorption of essential nutrients. Also, it blind extension of posteromedial cecum. It contains many lymphoid nodules and serves as bacterial reservoir of sorts. o Ascending colon- watery stool o Transverse colon- mushy stool o Descending colon- semi-formed stool o Sigmoid colon- feces are formed y y Rectum- stores and expels feces. Anus- opening for elimination of feces.

Mouth Salivary glands Pharynx Esophagus Stomach Small intestine Large intestine Cecum Appendix Ascending colon Transverse colon Descending colon Sigmoid colon Rectum Anus .

) Sex(male) Mucosa of appendix secretes Distention of the appendix Increase intraluminal pressure Impaired blood supply edema Inflammation ulceration infection Antibodies (WBC.o. neutrophils) fight against infection Dead WBC.PATHOPHYSIOLOGY MODIFIABLE RISK FACTOR: y Nutritional intake (less intake of high fiber foods) Obstruction of appendix lumen by fecalith NON-MODIFIABLE RISK FACTORS: y y Age(13y. bacteria and dead tissues Formation of purulent exudate Further distention of the appendix Vomiting Pain (RLQ) Loss of appetite .

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