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, or chemical engineering. It is an integrated engineering effort comprising parts of many engineering disciplines directed to the development and design of systems of transport, warfare, exploration, and natural resource extraction that have only one thing in common, namely, that they operate in, or upon the surface of, a body of water.
From a functional point of view, a ship is a most complex vehicle which must be reliably self sustaining in its element for extended periods of time. A ship is perhaps the most multipurpose of vehicles, have more built-in functions than does any other vehicle type. As a part of a transportation and military system. the ship contains a greater variety of components than any other vehicle. Marine Engineers and Naval Architects The division of responsibilities between naval architects and marine engineers are seldom sharp, and it differs from one activity to another. Marine Engineers are, in general, principally responsible for the engineering systems, including the main propulsion plant, the powering and mechanical aspects of the ship functions such as steering, anchoring, cargo handling, weapon systems, heating, ventilation, refrigeration, air conditioning, electrical power generation and distribution, and interior and exterior communications. Navel Architects are, in general, primarily concerned with the hydrodynamic and hull form characteristics of the ship, the structural design of the hull, maneuverability characteristics of the vehicle, and its stability to survive and endure in the marine environment. Diesel Engines Internal combustion engine principles first proposed by Sadi Carnot in the early 19th century. Dr.Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel applied Sadi Carnote's principle into a patented cycle, that has become known as "Diesel Cycle". His patented cycle operated when the heat generated during the compression of the air fuel charge caused ignition of the mixture, which then expanded at a constant pressure during the power stroke of the engine. Dr. Diesel's first engine ran on coal dust and used a compression pressure of 1500 psi( about 103 bar) to increase its theoretical efficiency. Also there was no provisions for cooling.
Consequently, between the extreme pressure and lack of cooling, the engine exploded and almost killed its inventor. After recovering from his injuries, Dr. Diesel tried again using oil as fuel, adding a cooling water jacket around the cylinder, and lowering the compression ratio to about 550 psi(about 35 bar). This combination eventually proved successful. Production rights to the engine were sold to Adolphus Bush, who built the first diesel engine for commercial use. Further lot of inventions affected construction and increased efficiency of the engine. Still now researches are going on for better results and alternatives. How Does it work Diesel Engine is a type of internal combustion engine (one from which work is obtained by compression of the fuel within the cylinders themselves) which operates on the constant pressure or diesel cycle principle. Fuel is admitted directly into the cylinder and combustion takes place as a result of the heat of compression. In these engines, gas pressure in the cylinder acts on the piston, forcing it down during the power stroke to drive the crankshaft through connecting rods. The extreme positions reached by the piston correspond to the top and bottom dead center positions (TDC & BDC) of the crank and are so designated. The inside diameter of the cylinder is the bore. The distance traveled between dead centers (TDC &BDC) is the stroke, corresponding volume is the swept volume, or displacement, of the cylinder. The cylinder volume above piston when piston is at TDC is called clearance volume. Similarly the cylinder volume above piston when piston is at BDC is called cylinder volume. The ratio of the cylinder volume to the clearance volume is the nominal compression ratio. The greater combustion pressure is the result of the higher compression ratio used by diesel engines. Compression ratio is a measure of how much the engine compresses the air inside the cylinder. In a diesel engine compression ratio ranges from 14:1to as high as 24:1 are commonly used. Higher compression ratios are possible because only air is compressed, and then the fuel is injected. This is one of the factors that allows the diesel engine to be so efficient.
Fuel Injector Testing Mount he fuel injector in its test rig and connect up the oil supply. Under no circumstances should hands be placed under the injector spray. The high velocity oil jet can penetrate the skin and cause blood poisoning. With the injector priming valve open, operate the hand pump to prime the injector. Once the fuel flows from the priming valve it can be closed.
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Oil Container Pressure Gauge Shut off valve Pump lever Test pump Injector High Pressure fuel pump
Operate the pump rapidly for several strokes. The injector should open with a high pitched chatter and fuel should be emitted in a fine cloud. After the injector opens, check to make sure the pressure does not fall off too quickly. To test for the tightness between the nozzle needle and seat, operate the hand pump slowly to gradually increase the pressure until it is just below opening pressure. Maintain the pressure for a few seconds and ensure injector is not dripping. To test for tightness between needle and guide, operate the hand pump to increase pressure until it is just below opening pressure. See how long it takes the pressure to fall off. If the pressure falls quickly the needle and guide should be replaced. Where nozzles are cooled internally, these spaces should be pressure tested to check for tightness. Blank off one of the fuel valve cooling connections and fill the injector cooling space with water or fuel, depending upon the cooling medium. Then connect a low pressure air supply to the other connection. Leave the air on for a short period of time and test for internal or external leakage. Overhaul of Fuel Injectors When overhauling fuel injectors it is important that the work area is very clean. Lay paper out on the work bench, disused charts are ideal. Do not use rags or cloths for cleaning components. Wash all items thoroughly in kerosene and blow dry with compressed air. Inspect all sealing faces for any damage. Small scratches can be removed by lapping in against a special surface plate, using a fine lapping paste such as jewelers rouge. Any pitting or indentation of the sealing face mean the nozzle should be replaced or sent to specialists for reconditioning. Clean the nozzle bore with a special drill and use specially supplied needles for cleaning the nozzle holes. If the holes are too large, or appear oval when inspected with a magnifying glass, the nozzle should be discarded.
The nozzle needle and guide are matched a pair and should not be interchanged. The needle should be free to move in the guide and when lifted it should drop down into the guide under its own weight. Reassemble the injector and tighten the cap nut down to the correct torque. Note that some engine manufacturers supply different sets of nozzles for the same engine. An example of this would be slow steaming nozzles, which may have different size holes. Always make sure the correct nozzle has been fitted.
Piston Rings Piston rings are part of the engine yet an important they tend to be neglected because they are a consumable item. Often they can be found in the corner of a storeroom covered in dirt and rust, and in severe cases they have been painted. Piston rings should be kept in a dry place and stored flat. A light coating of protective lubricant will prevent them from rusting. If they are covered, make sure they are checked regularly to ensure they are in satisfactory condition. The functions of piston rings are: 1. Provide a seal to the combustion chamber to prevent gases and combustion products passing the piston. 2. Control the lubricating oil. 3. Conduct heat away from the piston to the liner. Types of Piston Rings 1. Compression ring ± Provides a gas seal. 2. Scraper or Oil Control ring - Distributes oil on the cylinder liner preventing the oil passing upwards into the combustion chamber. These rings are normally found on trunk piston engines. The piston ring sits in a machined groove, located such that the ring operates at an acceptable temperature. If the rings where fitted too high, the high temperatures would rapidly burn off the oil and the rings would seize in their grooves. The piston ring must be free to move in its groove, therefore, a clearance is required. Ring clearances are shown in the figure below.
Effect of Clearances Groove Clearance Allows pressure to build up behind the ring Allows oil to flow into the groove
Too small Groove Clearance Ring will stick in the groove. This will result in poor sealing and possible blow by which will burn away the oil and cause scuffing. Insufficient gas pressure behind the ring will affect sealing.
Too large Groove Clearance Ring flutter and possible breakage
Back Clearance Allows pressure to build up behind the ring
Butt Clearance This may also be termed gap clearance and is required to accommodate the ring expansion as it heats up. Too small Butt Clearance As the ring expands the butt will come together. This will exert a large radial pressure on the liner, breaking down the oil film and increasing scuffing wear. Ring seizure may occur. Too large Butt Clearance Excessive gas leakage
The piston rings operate in a hostile environment. The load is fluctuating and at top dead center the rings are at their slowest speed and highest temperature. The rings must withstand corrosive combustion products. Piston rings must therefore have high tensile strength to resist breakage, combined with good anti-corrosive properties. Rings must also maintain tension at lower combustion pressures and be compatible with the liner material. White Metal Bearings Bearings are fitted in order to reduce both friction and wear between the running surfaces. This is achieved primarily by the lubricant, with a hydrodynamic oil film to keep the surfaces apart. The oil film can never completely prevent contact, particularly at times such as start up. Dirt particles larger than the oil film thickness may also enter the bearing and damage the journal, therefore a suitable bearing material must be used. Shell bearings consist of a steel backing with a white metal lining bonded to it. These steel backing gives support to the bearings and improves fatigue life. White metal bearings may be: Tin Based: Tin : 89 % Antimony: 7.5 % Copper : 3.5 % Lead Based: Lead : 83 % Antimony: 15 % Arsenic : 1 %
Tin : 1 % Other trace alloying elements are usually added to improve the grain structure. Tin based white metals are more commonly used as they have better fatigue strength and corrosive resistance. There may be a bearing over-layer consisting of a galvanic coating which is typically 90 % lead and 10 % tin. This ensures good embeddability and conformity between surfaces. In addition there may be a flash layer of 100 % tin to prevent corrosion. This layer of tin is then removed during the running in process. Centrifugal Pumps Introduction Pump is a device, which adds to the energy of a liquid or gas causing an increase in its pressure and perhaps a movement of the fluid.
A SIMPLE PUMPING SYSTEM A simple pumping system consists of a suction branch, a pump, and a discharge branch. See the figure above. Liquid flows into the pump under either "GRAVITY & ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE" (when the liquid to be pumped is above the center line of the pump) or only under "ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE" (when the liquid to be pumped is below the center line of the pump). Pump Characteristics Pump only adds to the energy of the fluid in the system. Energy required to bring the fluid to the pump is an external one and in most practical conditions is provided by the atmospheric pressure.
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE PUSHING UP LIQUID INTO PUMP SUCTION (Referring figure above, even though liquid on suction side is below the pump center line, still liquid will rise upto the pump center because of external atmospheric pressure acting on the surface of liquid; and no pressure vacuum) acting on the other side (at pump center). Types of Pumps Displacement Liquid or gas is displaced from suction to the discharge by the mechanical variation of the volume of a chamber or chambers. All displacement pumps are self-priming pumps. These pumps include Reciprocating Pump, Gear Pump,Screw Pump, etc. Centrifugal Flow through the pump is induced by the centrifugal force imparted to the liquid by the rotation of an impeller or impellers. Centrifugal pumps are not self-priming pumps. These pumps must be primed by gravity or by priming equipment external or internal with the pump. These pumps are basically radial flow, axial flow or mixed flow type. CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
SECTIONAL VIEW SHOWING PARTS
Construction and Working The pump consists of a rotating impeller within a stationary casing. The impeller construction has two discs joined at in between surface by a set of internal curved vanes. Impeller has an eye (opening) at the center and is mounted on shaft, which is driven by a suitable prime mover such as an electric motor, steam engine through crank mechanism, or a turbine. Opening in the sides of the impeller near shaft, called eye, communicates with the suction branch as shown in the figure below.
CROSS SECTION SHOWING EYE, SHAFT, ETC. Assume there is a certain amount of fluid at the eye of the rotating impeller. The fluid will flow radially outwards (because of centrifugal action) along the curved vanes in the impeller, increasing its linear velocity. The fluid leaves the impeller in a similar manner to sparks shooting from a Catherine wheel. The high velocity fluid is collected in specially shaped casing called volute casing, where some of the kinetic energy of the fluid is converted into pressure energy. Fluid under pressure now leaves the impeller producing a drop in pressure behind it at the eye of the impeller. (Throwing off the water from the eye of the impeller leaves the space with vacuum). This causes the fluid from the suction pipe to flow into the pump under atmospheric pressure and subsequently that fluid also gets discharged like earlier one. This way fluid in the pump acts like a piston moving outward causing drop in pressure behind it. However, if initially there is no liquid at the eye, there will be no pumping action as explained, since there is no vacuum formed at the eye of the impeller. Centrifugal pump therefore is not a self-priming pump. In such case, where normally at the start of the pump the level of the liquid is below the eye of the pump, a self priming unit is normally attached to the pump which helps to create vacuum at the eye of the impeller hence priming the pump. As soon as pump starts taking suction self priming unit is automatically disengaged.
Performance Characteristics of a Centrifugal Pump
Refer the performance characteristics drawn above. n-Q - Efficiency Vs Flow Rate and HP/Q - Horse Power (of the prime mover) Theoretical Discharge Head Vs Flow Rate (H/Q) plot is a straight line as shown. When there is no flow or discharge valve is shut, loss of head is mainly due to shock and eddy losses. As flow rate increases, frictional losses come into picture and it dominates other losses. Efficiency Vs Flow Rate plot is well explained down below.
From above graphs it is clear that, 1. If the pump discharge head is lesser the flow rate of the liquid is higher and therefore pumping of the liquid is faster. 2. Pump if run at normal duty flow rate by maintaining normal duty discharge head the liquid will be pumped utilizing least possible rate of energy by the pump or in other word at this point efficiency of the pump is maximum. REFERENCES "Basic Marine Engineering" by J.K. DHAR; Principles of Marine Engineering - Series (PMES)"Marine Auxiliary Machinery" by H. D. McGeorge Self Priming Unit for Centrifugal Pumps Centrifugal pumps are not self priming. If initially there is no liquid a the eye, there will be no pumping action for a centrifugal pump. In absence of liquid, air (sometimes vapour) will be present at the eye, and owing to its light density air could be thrown out under centrifugal force only if the speed of the impeller is very very high (like in a Turbocharger Blower). In such a case, where normally a the start of the pump the level of the liquid is below the eye of the impeller, we can make use of a self priming unit.
Figure above shows an automatic arrangement for pumping out bilges, using a centrifugal pump, wherein the air (vane) pump will get engaged automatically and draw out any air at the start or during running. Once the air is drawn out it will get disengaged automatically. Discharge side of the pump is connected with one side of the piston (engage / disengage mechanism) as shown in the figure. Consider the pump is started with no liquid at the eye of the impeller. Now the impeller will be rotating but the absence of liquid at the discharge (means no discharge pressure) makes the piston to move forward due to spring pressure and thus the bevel connected to the air pump rotor shaft engages with the rotating shaft of the centrifugal pump. This drives the air pump to remove any vapour or air present inside the pump suction and the liquid rises to prime the pump. Once the pump is primed discharge commences, discharge pressure rises which acts on the piston thereby pushing the piston against the spring pressure. Thus the air pump gets disengaged. Hence whenever there is any ingress of air or vapour in the pump suction, discharge pressure reduces and air pump engages to remove the same. What is Net Positive Suction Head or NPSH
From the figure shown, If pressure exerted by atmospheric air (or any other atmosphere, which is surrounding the liquid on suction side) is H0 and is more than the 3 losses mentioned below 1. Loss of head because of friction in suction line, H1 2. Loss of head because of volatility of liquid, H2 3. Loss of head in rising the liquid into the pump suction, H3 Only then will the liquid rise up to the pump. However the liquid can be discharged effectively and without cavitation of the pump only if this 'left over head' called 'available NPSH (Net Positive Suction Head) is greater than the 'required NPSH' of the pump. Former we have calculated as [H0 - (H1 + H2) + or - H3] and later is given by pump manufacturer after conducting trials on the pump. The 'required NPSH' curve of a pump is provided by the pump manufacture.
Required NPSH Curve At lesser flow rate the pump requires lesser NPSH. Therefore when an oil tank of a tanker is being stripped; to prevent cavitation and vibration of the pump and yet strip the cargo tank almost dry, we reduce the flow rate of the pump as the level of the liquid falls. Though now the pump discharges at slow rate but same time it does not cavitate as value of 'required NPSH' is much lesser and is easily provided even by he reduced liquid level of tank. Alternatively if 'available NPSH' is less than 'required NPSH', increasing the inert gas pressure will delay the time when pump will start cavitating.
Required NPSH and Cavitation
Referring to the figure above, when cargo level in tank is at 'X', a flow rate upto 'X1' can be maintained without fear of cavitation of the pump. When cargo level drops to say level 'Y', the flow rate should be reduced to or below 'Y1' to avoid cavitation. In the tankers this is done by throttling the discharge valve of the cargo line. Reciprocating Positive Displacement Pumps The displacing pumping action is achieved by the reduction or increase in volume of a space causing the liquid (or gas) to be physically moved. The method employed is either a piston in a cylinder using a reciprocating motion, or a rotating unit using vanes, screws or screws.
RECIPROCATING PISTON PUMP A reciprocating positive displacement pump is shown diagrammatically in the figure above to demonstrate the operating principle. The pump is double acting, that is liquid is admitted to either side of the piston where it is alternatively drawn in and discharged. As the piston moves upwards, suction takes place below the piston and liquid is drawn in, the valve arrangement ensuring that the discharge valve cannot open during suction stroke. Above the piston, liquid is discharged and the suction valve remains closed. As the piston travels down, the operations of suction and discharge occur now on opposite sides. Why an Air Vessel is Fitted? An air vessel usually fitted in the discharge pipe work to dampen out the pressure variations during discharge. As the discharge pressure rises the air is compressed in the vessel, and as the pressure falls the air expands. The peak pressure energy is thus stored in the air and returned to the system when pressure falls. Air vessels are not fitted on the reciprocating boiler feed pumps since they may introduce air into the de-aerated water. Working When starting the pump, the suction and discharge valves must be opened. It is important that no valves in the discharge line are closed, otherwise either the relief valve will lift or damage may occur to the pump when it is started. The pump is self priming, but where possible to reduce wear or the risk of seizure it should be flooded with liquid before starting. An electrically driven pump only need to be switched on, when it will run erratically for a short period until liquid is drawn into the pump. A steam driven pump will require the usual draining and warming through procedure before the steam is gradually admitted.
Use of Relief Valve A relief valve is always fitted between the pump suction and discharge chambers to protect the pump should it be operated with a valve closed in the discharge line. Maintenances Most of the moving parts in the pump will require examination during overhaul. The pump piston, rings and cylinder liner must also be thoroughly checked. Ridges will eventually develop at the limits of the piston ring travel and these must be removed. The suction and discharge valves must be refaced or ground in as required. Gear Pumps - Rotary Positive Displacement Pumps Operation This is a rotary displacement or rotary positive displacement pump. Two toothed wheels shown, mesh together and are a close fit in casing. Initially the air or gas is trapped between each pair of consecutive teeth and the same is dragged along the casing from suction to discharge side till no more air is left on the suction side. Liquid from the tank will thus rise up into suction line under atmospheric pressure, subsequently this liquid will now be trapped between each pair of two consecutive teeth and dragged along the casing into the discharge side and pumping of liquid will commence. The working principle just explained is what makes the pump a self priming pump. Further if liquid level on suction side is at a higher level, the liquid will flow into the suction side on its own at first instant itself. Usually the pump is electric motor driven through a chain or wheel drive. Control of flow rate is achieved by a bypass valve or controlling speed of prime mover.A number of such pumps in series can be used to develop high pressure. Such pumps are efficient and smooth running.
GEAR PUMP Uses These pumps are used for duties as a lube oil pump, boiler fuel oil pump, fuel oil transfer pump, main engine driven lube oil pump. As a main engine driven lube oil pump it will have a set of suction and discharge valve to give same side discharge at all times irrespective of ahead or astern movement of the main engine.
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