Advertising

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Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the form of communication. For the British musician, see Gaye Advert. For other uses, see Advertiser. For content guidelines on the use of advertising in Wikipedia articles, see Wikipedia:Spam. For a proposal on advertising about Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Advertisements.

References

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

^ "JEG - Sign In Page". Joeg.oxfordjournals.org. http://joeg.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/8/3/421. Retrieved 2009-04-20. ^ "TNS Media Intelligence". Tns-mi.com. 2007-01-08. http://www.tns-mi.com/news/01082007.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-20. ^ Bhatia (2000). Advertising in Rural India: Language, Marketing Communication, and Consumerism, 62+68 ^ a b Eskilson, Stephen J. (2007). Graphic Design: A New History. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-300-120110. ^ Advertising Slogans, Woodbury Soap Company, "The skin you love to touch", J. Walter Thompson Co., 1911 ^ a b McChesney, Robert, Educators and the Battle for Control of U.S. Broadcasting, 1928-35, Rich Media, Poor Democracy, ISBN 0-252-02448-6 (1999) ^ "Public Interest, Convenience and Necessity". Museum.tv. http://www.museum.tv/archives/etv/P/htmlP/publicintere/publicintere.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-20. ^ "Annual U.S. Advertising Expenditure Since 1919". Galbithink.org. 2008-09-14. http://www.galbithink.org/ad-spending.htm. Retrieved 200904-20. ^ "Marketing." Encyclopedia of Journalism. 2009. SAGE Publications. 28 April 2010. Sage-ereference.com http://www.usatoday.com/money/advertising/2002-10-17-fake-ads_x.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-20.

9. 10. ^ McCarthy, Michael (2002-10-17). "Digitally inserted ads pop up more in sports". usatoday.Com. 11. ^ Keith Mcarthur. "Business". globeandmail.com.

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12. ^ Canwestmediaworks.com 13. ^ Orad.tv 14. ^ Advertising's Twilight Zone: That Signpost Up Ahead May Be a Virtual Product - New York Times 15. ^ "Welcome to E-Commerce Times". Ecommercetimes.com. http://www.ecommercetimes.com/story/48956.html. Retrieved 2009-04-20. 16. ^ Altstiel, Tom, and Jean Grow. Advertising Strategy: Creative Tactics From the Outside/In. CA: Sage Publication Inc. 2006. Print. 17. ^ Aimdigitalvisions.com 18. ^ Aimdigitalvisions.com 19. ^ Aimdigitalvisions.com 20. ^ "Interactive - VOD" "Comcast Spotlight website". Retrieved October 5, 2006. 21. ^ a b "Who's Buying What at Super Bowl 2007". Advertising Age. http://adage.com/SuperBowlBuyers/. Retrieved May 10, 2010. 22. ^ Elliott, Stuart (February 8, 2010). "Do-It-Yourself Super Ads". New York Times.
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23. ^ Horovitz, Bruce (December 31, 2009). "'Two nobodies from nowhere' craft winning Super Bowl ad". USA Today.
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25. ^ "Welcome to SCRUB". Urbanblight.org. http://www.urbanblight.org/. Retrieved 2009-04-20. 26. ^ "How the Highway Beautification Act Became a Law". Fhwa.dot.gov. http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/infrastructure/beauty.htm. Retrieved 2009-0427.
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28. 29. ^ Bhatia and Ritchie 2006:542 30. ^ Global marketing Management, 2004, pp.13-18 31. ^ Young, p.131

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^ Leonard. Retrieved 2009-04-20.com. Scott (2009-05-19). "Student-Run Advertising Agency: A Showcase for Student Work. October 9. http://money. 33.jsp? _nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED351711&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED351711. http://www. 35. Lights Up" (in en). James (1992-08-00)." (in en).cnn.com/money/companies/management/2005-10-09-goodson-profile_x. Theresa (2005-10-10). ^ Armstrong. "Using Quasi-Experimental Data To Develop Empirical Generalizations For Persuasive Advertising" (in en 2 . "Madison Ave. Fortune. "USA Today.htm.htm. 2005".eric.32. ^ Avery. ^ Howard. Devin (2005-12-12). Usatoday.usatoday.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini. http://www.com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/2005/12/12/8363132/index.ed. 34.

Advertisements would encourage retailers to stock the product. the desired action could be to help the sales force or the retailers to sell the product. The consumer-oriented advertisement could serve other purposes. In the system of mass production and mass consumption the relations between the producer and the consumer are no longer direct. the desired action of the advertiser could be to secure and retain wholesalers and retailers for its product. This could be done through the announcement of new type of convenient packaging. Let us begin with dictionary definitions. etc. distributed on different pages and have distinctive designs. A political party takes a particular decision. The newspaper or magazine. publicity might be considered as an umbrella word. educational institutions. Here too advertisements could be used. At this stage it is necessary to make a distinction between advertising and publicity and propaganda. The same purpose could also be served by offering gifts or concessional prices. which take larger space. Let us take a very common experience. It might be necessary to reduce prices to hold on to consumers against competition. financial institutions. The Concise Oxford Dictionary defines 'publicity' as "being open to general observation. In reality. the communication link is a direct one and a direct response is sought. One was of a brand of cigarettes. Of course. Advertisements could be persuasive. It would. not advertising. This becomes absolutely essential when there is any shortage of the product. would obviously be considered the most effective medium for advertising purposes. Similarly. classified and display. From all this one can come to a further refinement of the definition of ‘advertising’: “Advertising is the paid dissemination of information for the purpose of selling or helping to sell commodities and services or of gaining acceptance of ideas that may cause people to think or act in a desired manner. institutional or for creating confidence in an institution. this definition would also cover a wide range of different types of advertisement. There are some occasions when the advertisement provides a direct link between the consumer and the producer. a desired action is sought to be motivated. governments. social and cultural organizations. You must have noticed advertisements which carry a long list of names of shops which stock the goods advertised or provide after sales service. Classified advertisements are those. which brings in the largest number of coupons. marriages and births or acknowledgement of services rendered and so on. The advertisement merely said that the particular brand was worth waiting for. religious bodies and political parties. industrial. or even books. This becomes absolutely essential when the sales are going well. Such advertisements also inform the consumers of retail outlets in their localities. Apart from attracting consumers. welfare groups. even when there is rise in prices. which covers practically every activity that opens up to general observation or makes public. therefore. retail. especially when conducting sale. It is often necessary to keep the name of the brand before the eyes of the consumer. of course. which appear in specially designed columns. notoriety. cooperative or joint. These would include business organizations. not available at that time. as in the case of electronic entertainment goods or electric domestic equipment. Then there are display advertisements. by announcing some improvements in the quality of the product or service." According to the chamber's Twentieth Centaury Dictionary publicity in the sense of advertising is used especially in the USA. An advertisement could thus invite enquiries about terms of trade from retailers and wholesalers. Secondly. There are advertisements. It is publicity. because of production restrictions. free of cost. There are also advertisements purely for information purposes. informative. as news.” This definition would cover first the different types of organizations that take to advertising. The desired action here is not merely a sale but also a response to a coupon. which serve a dual purpose. on the expectation that it would ensure consumer response and hence sale. include advertising. where necessary. The advertisement might have a coupon attached to it for further information or even for securing a free gift. such as those announcing deaths. In this case. It might help to explain one or two of the types mentioned here. trade. The purpose of advertising could also be recruiting staff or trying to secure export orders or announcing trading results to build confidence among shareholders. Advertising would be necessary also to motivate consumers to continue buying a product or service. Backed by advertising support the sales force can approach consumers and retailers. an advertiser might want to find out how useful a particular newspaper or magazine is in reaching the right consumer. It is carried in the media. The wholesaler and the retailer come in between. as it used to be said at one time. government. the business of advertising goods or persons.ADVERTISING • • What is advertising? The desired action could be winning back lost consumers. one cannot forget that probably more marriages are made today through the classified matrimonial advertisement columns of the daily newspapers than in heaven. arrangements of types and also illustrations in some cases. such as persuading buyers to continue with the product or service against competition from a new brand. This is not advertising. This would be publicity. When the • • • • • 3 . When department stores or retail outlets advertise. even when the sales are going well. Hence. Public meetings to introduce the candidates might follow this public announcement through a press conference. I can recall some war-time advertisements. financial. with different motivations for desired action or thought. The decision may be about the candidates to contest an election on behalf of the political party concerned.

etc. or makes acceptable to the public. All these activities are now covered by the concept of social marketing. it is selling an idea. put up posters and hoardings asking people to vote that would amount to advertising as part of a planned publicity effort or campaign." The Chamber's Twentieth Century Dictionary is a little more specific in its definition of 'propaganda': "Any association. activity." Here is one relationship established with advertising. speedy and easy cooking is a very essential requirement of daily living. and the general public. In all this generalization that we have indulged in. all advertisements seem to fit into a pattern of information. At the same time there is propaganda for social causes." In the world of commerce and industry the key word today is no longer selling." The Chambers' Twentieth Century Dictionary says: "Directing relations with the public. That is why the late David Malbert. This is because no marketing situation is the same. The Institute of Practitioners in Advertising in the UK defines advertising thus: "Advertising presents the most persuasive possible selling message to the right prospects for the product or service at the lowest possible cost. The Concise Oxford Dictionary defines 'propaganda' as: "Association or organized scheme for propagation of a doctrine or practice. In reality this is a very complex process of carrying the consumer from the level of awareness about the satisfaction offered by a particular product or service to the compulsion to go and buy it. we shall get some idea of this vast and diverse range of advertising situations and desired responses. The government undertakes much of this propaganda. A consumer buys a product or service for the satisfaction it provides. plan. If we consider different types of advertising. (usually derogatory) doctrine. Advertising tries to convince a prospective consumer that a particular product or service would satisfy an actual need or even a latent need. 4 .. does not sell directly. advertising is not selling a product or service. This need might even be purely psychological. such as political propaganda. marketing and advertising. for the spread of opinions and principles. one knows very well that one would not become a film star by using the soap or even acquire the complexion of a film star. In the final analysis. which is associated with exaggerated or false claims and promises government propaganda too has a similar association. This covers a very wide range of activities. Thus advertising creates demands for new products and hence new lifestyles.g. Thus any communication about the goods or services provided by this organization or institution finds a sympathetic audience." Further. family planning. clean. information. but in the satisfaction it provides. but marketing.• • • • • • next step is taken to buy space in newspapers. etc. nor is it marketing. and so on. fight against AIDS and drugs. Public relations too is related to selling. persuasion." The marketing operation would include dissemination of the most persuasive information to enable a sale. give (person) information on value of something. There are different kinds of motivations for different segments of the population. by creating trust and confidence in it. Like marketing. public relations also use advertising to sell an organization or an institution. They might also be said to have met a latent demand. At the same time the concept of selling has today been widened to cover more than goods and services. practice). such as blood donation. It is an activity designed to gamer support for an opinion. or advertising. motivation. The consumer is buying satisfaction. Just as advertising helps make marketing effective. It involves using the arts and science of marketing a product and service through advertising. anticipating and satisfying consumer requirements profitably. The interest is not in the product or service for itself. The Concise Oxford Dictionary defines the word 'sell' as: "Advertise or publish merits of. Advertising thus is a component of marketing. diffuse (statement. an institution or organization that might be involved in marketing goods and services or even ideas. another area of operation in this total complex of activities. It also has unpleasant associations. The psychological satisfaction is of the selfdelusion that one uses the same toilet soap as a film star. etc. belief. especially to effect change or reform. agent of marketing. If one buys a soap which is advertised as the beauty soap of the stars. It includes ideas as well as political parties and individual politicians or religious personalities or god men. It only provides the most persuasive communication. information. This definition emphasizes the main objective as 'to sell'. inspire with desire to buy or acquire or agree to something. 'to propagate' means: “Disseminate. These products are related to a particular lifestyle. city editor of The Evening Standard of London defined advertising as an. They are very useful for families in which both husband and wife work. propaganda. Once again let us turn to the Concise Oxford Dictionary for a definition: "(Especially good) relations between organizations. Advertising also sells a lifestyle. Unless the product or service meets a consumer need and is easily available to him or her. depending on a very diverse range of factors. Only it sells. which include geographical locations. Advertising of branded products are usually on a national scale. however. The advertising message itself then carries credibility from the outset. creed or idea. as a salesman or a hawker does. Different products and services call for different responses. This is very true of advertisements of such products as pressure cookers or gas stoves." In some respects propaganda is like advertising. Advertising is not directly selling goods or services. Advertising. The Institute of Marketing defines 'marketing' as: "The management process responsible for identifying. These might be described as convenience products. Marketing includes marketing communication. it is marketing communication." One could also add to it the idea of right time and right place for the selling message to reach the prospects. but nevertheless it is significant. by promoting knowledge through advertisement. advertising would be of no use. e. so also public relations can help advertising by building a good image of an organization. Having established the relationship between publicity. Thus the distinction between propaganda and advertising is somewhat slight. This becomes evident when we consider the official definition of advertising. from identifying a product or service to reaching it to the consumer with the main objective of realizing profits. it is also necessary to understand its relationship with public relations.

we found that purchase decisions in the case of engineering products. That is where the purchase or the desired action takes place. The audience or the consumers would be very different from those buying goods from retail outlets. The advertising is also nationwide. though there might be a regional emphasis at times. Let me give an example from my own experience. as is often the case with consumer goods. chemicals. such as communal amity. What the retail outlet -provides. stationers. advertising might generate an interest. Trade advertising too needs a specialized approach. As we have already seen. When there was a discussion about the quality and capability of the competing manufacturers. etc. We generally do not have such trading areas today. The products or services are those. company shares. mutual funds. The desired response of advertising has to be the willingness to stock and even promote the products concerned. The desired response would be the use of these products or services as in other cases. but different retail outlets provide a different range of goods. The satisfaction that they would look for would be very different. family welfare and health care. drug stores. One can easily imagine that in a country as diverse as India. A steel plant had invited tenders for buying new machinery and new technology. Such advertising could be described as concept advertising. in which I was involved. So you have retail advertising for the local market. It could also be regional depending on how the industrial users of such products are concentrated or dispersed. are often taken by a number of persons. Such advertising would be addressed to all categories of citizens to persuade them to accept certain ideas and even act accordingly. For instance. What is important. department stores. hotels. There were two foreign manufacturers competing. super bazaars. As large sums of money are involved. bookshops. our advertisement was considered and the company I was working for was selected. many of them multinational corporations with operations extending all over the world. etc. Such advertising is usually national as the advertisers are interested" in the national market. religious tolerance. The people responsible for the actual purchase do so on the recommendations of the actual users. text-books and a whole range of products or services which might not be bought directly by these persons. can be more specialized. Another type of specialized advertising is professional advertising. big machinery. Here too the market is usually' countrywide. eateries. toiletries. The desired response would be purchase of the advertised product or service. building material. This has its own challenges in terms not only of creativity but even in the creative utilization of available media or even innovating new ones. except for the large department stores. engineers. So we had the weavers' area or the barbers' area. airlines. office equipment and products or services used in the manufacture of these products or which can facilitate their manufacture. where we can buy practically everything.• • • • • So we would be first concerned with national advertising. however. government. The products or services could include textiles. such as machinery and equipment. furniture shops. whatever the area of the complex of activities one might be engaged in. the impact of all advertising is felt ultimately at the local or retail outlet. The market for such products would be the entire country. After all. but would be recommended by them. however. These could be drugs and medicines or medical equipment. various religious institutions. The products or services advertised naturally relate to what is offered by the retail outlet concerned. intermediate products used in the manufacture of finished goods. lubricants. The advertiser is the manufacturer of the products which the retailers and wholesalers are expected to stock as part of the entire marketing process. At the same time effective advertising can make a difference. teachers and so on. etc. architects. It is obvious that the approach of advertising would be suited to the specific requirements of the local situation. insurance. I was involved in advertising for one of the manufacturers. advertising of consumer goods and services. There was a time when both villages and cities had areas where only one type of goods or services was available. In this case the audience is not the consumer. Advertising would be national or regional depending on the nature of the market. which helps public relations as well. This could include advertising. but demands a different kind of approach than that for consumer goods or even for industrial products. The advertisers would be social welfare groups. cultural organizations. environmental protection. Among them are people who actually use the machinery in the factory. but not necessarily determine purchase. The market is the retailer and the wholesaler. mass literacy and so on. Industrial advertising is another specialized area. political parties. advertising is not confined to providing persuasive information about products and services. So would be the sources from which they would seek the information. The advertiser in this case is the retail store or the local service organization: textile shops. It is the producers of these goods and services who would advertise. such as medical practitioners. electric goods shops. This type of advertising could also be called consumer advertising. The desired response of advertising would be purchase of the consumer's requirements from the advertised retail outlets. banking. non-governmental organizations. The products advertised would include steel. generally. It would obviously be part of what is known as social marketing. this itself is a major creative challenge for everyone. scientists. Advertising would be very specific in character and could be very limited in the exposure it 5 . which meet the professional requirements of these people. From the national we come to the local level. is the message to be communicated. Advertisers of such products and services and for such a huge market would naturally be the large producers or service organizations. machinery. We decided to release a full-page advertisement in the local English daily to appear on the morning the tenders were to be opened and a final decision taken. Obviously the market is local. except maybe cars and of course. Such advertising is usually on a national scale. manufactured foods. it is also concerned with the acceptance of ideas not connected with the sale of a product or service. The advertisement did help in the purchase decision. during a study. The approach in this case is to professional users or prescribes of products and services.

In some cases the selling message could be very indirect as when promoting a leisure product or service. spending on advertising was estimated at more than $150 billion in the United States[2] and $385 billion worldwide. Even the salesman at the retail outlet might have some influence in the final purchase decision. I had come across a lavishly produced journal. This is exactly what the name suggests. advanced technology. television. which was a Black magazine and many well-known products and services were advertised with illustrations of Black people and their living environments. The challenge often is to present the message in an easily recognizable environment to create a sense of identity. study. adopting a lifestyle or accepting and acting according to an idea or concept. such as encouraging 'environmentally friendly' behaviors. One talks of selling advertisements. and today. magazines. Advertising may be placed by an advertising agency on behalf of a company or other organization. efficient management. influence. in the United States. The distinction is easier to understand when we relate it to what we call as informative advertisement. Mass media can be defined as any media meant to reach a mass amount of people. make aware. The demands of the product or service and of the market are very diverse and much thought. tradition of quality and service. It could be local. one might even talk of collaboration with a well known multinational company or using imported material. understanding and hard labor are necessary for an 'advertisement'. Much information is required to help the consumer make up his or her mind. In many cases the advertisement alone would not influence the decision to purchase a particular brand of the product. Modern advertising developed with the rise of mass production in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. which involves the repetition of an image or product name in an effort to associate related qualities with the brand in the minds of consumers. Ebony. True. lifestyle. readers or listeners) to purchase or take some action upon products. financial advertising has become a highly specialized area. Several types of mass media are television.[1] Commercial advertisers often seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through branding. In 2007. This is public relations advertising. good industrial relations. This is again a very challenging area of advertising. evocative words. motivate and finally ensure the desired action. Some years ago. pioneering role or serving the national interest. outdoor or direct mail. news programs. music and dance. Advertising can also serve to communicate an idea to a mass amount of people in an attempt to convince them to take a certain action. You might say that all advertisements are trying to persuade people to buy or accept something and in that sense all advertising is selling. persuade. what we have earlier defined as: "To inform. One could also consider a broader classification of types of advertising. The challenge here is that we are dealing with audiences in a foreign country. thanks to the operation of multinational corporations. 6 . chairman's speech at the annual general meeting and so on. and a "lazy man" routine through a loss of exercise . It can cover all the various types that we have discussed so far. In many areas. sales of shares. for instance. They cost a great deal of money and. Nonprofit organizations may rely on free modes of persuasion. and published pictures and articles. The whole concept of relaxation. Government advertising is in a special category. this distinction of separate identity is getting diffused. such as a weekend stay at a hotel in a place of tourist interest. Export advertising too is in a special category. radio. inviting company deposits and debentures. to consumer and industrial products produced in the public sector and such services. employment notifications. In building the image of a company one talks of its research skills. and similar moods is roused. It varies from classified advertisements to display: from the tender notices. where one has to choose between providing information in a highly persuasive manner or create a need. It covers banking operations. Non-commercial advertisers that spend money to advertise items other than a consumer product or service include political parties. It should be evident now that there is possibly more to advertising than a pretty picture. A typical example would be consumer durables. such as a public service announcement.• • • • • • provides. such as a refrigerator or a music system or a micro-oven. These brands are usually paid for or identified through sponsors and viewed via various media. company trading results. and even unhealthy behaviors through food consumption. ideals. therefore. At certain levels of living." It may be investing in a product or service. or new media such as websites and text messages. interest groups. Different types of media can be used to deliver these messages. Advertising is a form of communication intended to persuade an audience (viewers. religious organizations and governmental agencies. building the prestige of an institution or an organization. and on to concepts and ideas. to what type of a consumer and for what kind of a response. We also talk of institutional or corporate advertising. common messages about consumer products and services are conveyed across national boundaries. regional or national in its exposure and would attempt to reach out both to a very wide as well as a very specific audience. In this case an immediate sale is not expected. It includes the name of a product or service and how that product or service could benefit the consumer. to persuade a target market to purchase or to consume that particular brand. are purchased after a great deal of consideration. One might discuss it with friends. including traditional media such as newspapers. but there are advertisements whose main concentration is on the consumer to persuade him or her to go and buy a product or service. internet. advertisement of the same product and service might be different for Blacks from that for the rest. depending on what we are exporting. Even so. video game and television viewing promotion. In recent years. These items are not bought on an impulse. or services. radio.

both big and small alike. one thing is to conclude. from these primitive posters to the discovery of printing. the announcement of a new online technology. and that is that you have to keep doing it. stays constant. men. women and even children.is of interest only to the archaeologist. rich and poor. Newspapers. no way around it. It is hard to find a satisfactory definition of advertising. must be appealed to.from proclamations to the beginning of pictorial and lettered inscriptions. most ads are for sales Expect your ad to have a short shelf life. Disadvantages • • • • • Ad space can be expensive Your ad has to compete against the clutter of other advertisers. is advertising. larger and swifter efficiency. Free help in creating and producing ad copy is usually available Quick turn-around helps your ad reflect the changing market conditions. Advantages • • • • • • Allows you to reach a huge number of people in a given geographic area You have the flexibility in deciding the ad size and placement within the newspaper Your ad can be as large as necessary to communicate as much of a story as you care to tell Exposure to your ad is not limited. and from the advent of printing to the beginning of real advertising . Every attempt to secure the sale of a product or service is advertising.all these are forms of advertising in that they seek to attract attention to a product or a service that is for sale. The wares of the primitive merchant displayed invitingly in front of his booth is advertising. At least one principle we know of. an imagination that sees in a product possibilities which can be realized only by appealing to the public in new ways to create a desire where none existed before. including the giants ads run by supermarkets and department stores as well as the ads of your competitors Poor photo reproduction limits creativity Newspapers are a price-oriented medium. So rapidly has advertising advanced through its various changes that even the latest dictionaries and encyclopedias are out of date in their attempts to define it. not eroding with the passing of time or the use and or abuse of men. the barker in front of a side show. membership in an affiliate program. as newspapers are usually read once and then discarded. 7 . The advertising of yesterday is not the advertising of today. an omnibus word conveying different ideas to different people. and the promise of an even greater growth. to advertise their businesses. Men not so very old have witnessed its entire development from an untrustworthy instrument of quacks to its place as an engine in the conduct and expansion of business.And every succeeding year since the beginning of the human entrepreneurship it has left its precious deposit of new ideas. to secure a job or an employee. it keeps asking for every ounce of your commitment if you expect any kind of visible returns. it has to be fed. wearing a peculiar shirt or distinctive sticker in your car . better methods. For a product or a service of general use. A picturesque way of putting it is to call it business imagination. the promises of an internet marketer. It is of no value to the business entrepreneur. Newspapers are one of the traditional mediums used by businesses. readers can go back to your message again and again if so desired. The ad you decide to run today can be in your customers' hands in one to two days. No advertising definition is here possible except as this entire article may be accepted as a definition. It is a very broad word. The early history of such announcements . An inscription on a wall. not concerned with the weather outside. high and low. A want ad.The Definition of Advertising Advertising has been described as a mode of communication designed with the attempt to convince people to begin or increase the use of a product or service. nor considering your personal health status. It would be of no assistance to understanding modern advertising than ancient Phoenicians coins would be to comprehending the principles of a modern bank. some sort of formal announcement had to be made. Whatever the appropriate definition of advertisement is. or taking into account your surrounding circumstances. Just as soon as there were enough people in the world. Advertising in the dictionary sense has a history as old as that of the human race. it is because it has been.

radio rates have seen less inflation than those for other media Pages can look cluttered. and your ad can easily get lost in the clutter Your ad is placed together with all your competitors Limited creativity in the ads. alternative to newspaper advertising. The vast array of radio program formats offers to efficiently target your advertising dollars to narrowly defined segments of consumers most likely to respond to your offer. given the need to follow a pre-determined format Ads slow to reflect market changes 8 . Hispanic Yellow Pages. Internet directories containing national. etc. so your competitors can quickly react to your prices With the increasing popularity of the Internet. interactive or consumer search databases. Advantages • • • • Allows for better targeting of audience. Magazines are a more focused.g. Advantages • • • • • • Wide availability. as you can choose magazine publications that cater to your specific audience or whose editorial content specializes in topics of interest to your audience. Audiotex or talking yellow pages. Magazines. High reader involvement means that more attention will be paid to your advertisement Better quality paper permits better color reproduction and full-color ads The smaller page (generally 8 ½ by 11 inches) permits even small ads to stand out Disadvantages • • • • Long lead times mean that you have to make plans weeks or months in advance The slower lead time heightens the risk of your ad getting overtaken by events There is limited flexibility in terms of ad placement and format. at home. This medium allows you to reach highly targeted audiences. local and regional listings. Aside from the traditional Yellow Pages supplied by phone companies. at work. and even in the car. as the audience is actually looking for the ads Ads are reasonably inexpensive Responses are easily tracked and measured Frequency Disadvantages • • • • Radio Advantages • • • • • • Radio is a universal medium enjoyed by people at one time or another during the day. Newspapers are a highly visible medium. Space and ad layout costs are higher Yellow Pages. Blacks. Gives your business personality through the creation of campaigns using sounds and voices Free creative help is often available Rates can generally be negotiated During the past ten years. and other services classified as Yellow Pages.). A growing number of readers now skip the print version of the newspaper (and hence the print ads) and instead read the online version of the publication. newspapers face declining readership and market penetration. as mostly everyone uses the Yellow Pages Non-intrusive Action-oriented.• • • You may be paying to send your message to a lot of people who will probably never be in the market to buy from you. There are several forms of Yellow Pages that you can use to promote and advertise your business. albeit more expensive. you can also check out specialized directories targeted to specific markets (e.

sound and motion Disadvantages • • • • • Message is temporary. production and airtime costs Direct Mail. often called direct marketing or direct response marketing. Because of this. which means that your ad has to work hard to get their attention Television Advantages • • • Television permits you to reach large numbers of people on a national or regional level in a short period of time Independent stations and cable offer new opportunities to pinpoint local audiences Television being an image-building and visual medium. Your ad campaign is hidden from your competitors until it's too late for them to react Active involvement . a radio ad may require multiple exposure to break through the listener's "tune-out" factor and ensure message retention Radio is a background medium. is a marketing technique in which the seller sends marketing messages directly to the buyer. Your message can be as long as is necessary to fully tell your story. as the success of this kind of promotional campaign depends on the quality of your mailing list. Telephone sales. quality of your list and size of the campaign. photographers. you may have to advertise simultaneously on several stations to reach your target audience Listeners cannot go back to your ads to go over important points Ads are an interruption in the entertainment. it offers the ability to convey your message with sight. as most ads are only thirty seconds long or less.the act of opening the mail and reading it -. You have total control over the presentation of your advertising message. and may require multiple exposure for the ad to rise above the clutter Ads on network affiliates are concentrated in local news broadcasts and station breaks Preferred ad times are often sold out far in advance Limited length of exposure. Most listeners are doing something else while listening. thus helping increase positive response.can be elicited from the target market.Disadvantages • • • • Because radio listeners are spread over many stations. sales letters. Advantages 9 . or telemarketing. Telemarketing. Can be expensive. etc. Long lead times are required for creative printing and mailing Producing direct mail materials entail the expense of using various professionals . printers. depending on your target market. Advantages • • • • • • • Your advertising message is targeted to those most likely to buy your product or service. Direct mail. artists. Direct mail include catalogs or other product literature with ordering opportunities. Disadvantages • • • • • Some people do not like receiving offers in their mail. Resources need to be allocated in the maintenance of lists. Marketing message can be personalized.copywriter. is an effective system for introducing a company to a prospect and setting up appointments. and throw them immediately without even opening the mail. which limits the amount of information you can communicate Relatively expensive in terms of creative. and sales letters with brochures. Effectiveness of response to the campaign can be easily measured.

recipients need not purchase or make a contribution to receive these items. particularly if the telemarketing is outsourced to an outside firm It is most appropriate for high-ticket retail items or professional services. set-up cost is minimal Increased efficiency since you can reach many more prospects by phone than you can with in-person sales calls. This can be an inappropriate medium for some businesses. Advantages • • • • • • • Flexibility of use High selectivity factor as these items can be distributed only to the target market. Price starts at 3 EUR per image. Disadvantages • • • • • • • • An increasing number of people have become averse to telemarketing. It's easy to prospect and find the right person to talk to. If hiring an outside firm to do telemarketing. distributed during trade shows). It's cost-effective compared to direct sales.. Ads by Google Images for your ad? We have the images you need. answering any questions or concerns they may have about your product or service. cars. If done well. national and even global prospects. This kind of advertising entails the use of imprinted. Results are highly measurable. such as key chains.scanstockphoto. Great tool to improve relationship and maintain contact with existing customers. etc. More people are using technology to screen out unwanted callers. anything! www. Disadvantages • • • • • • Targeting your market is difficult. particularly telemarketers Government is implementing tougher measures to curb unscrupulous telemarketers Lots of businesses use telemarketing. They can generate goodwill in receiver The items can be used to supplement other promotional efforts and media (e. target audience may decide to keep the items. mugs. These articles are distributed for free.g. or decorative products called advertising specialties.com India free classifieds Buy and sell. useful. jobs.olx.in 10 . hence promoting long retention and constant exposure Availability of wide range of inexpensive items that can be purchased at a low price. computer mouse. as well as to introduce new products to them Makes it easy to expand sales territory as the phone allows you to call local. Specialty Advertising. They can create instant awareness. there is lesser control in the process given that the people doing the calls are not your employees May need to hire a professional to prepare a well-crafted and effective script It can be extremely expensive. it's 100% free: Apartments.• • • • • • • • • Provides a venue where you can easily interact with the prospect. It is difficult to find items that are appropriate for certain businesses Longer lead time in developing the message and promotional product Possibility of saturation in some items and audiences Wrong choice of product or poor creative may cheapen the image of advertiser Different Types of Advertising Here is an article that talks about the different types of advertising. You can get a lot of information across if your script is properly structured. www. If outsourcing. Read on..

In addition to this. Common examples include Fosters and Kingfisher beer brands. Advertisement for products like cigarettes or alcohol which are injurious to heath are prohibited by law in several countries and hence these companies have to come up with several other products that might have the same brand name and indirectly remind people of the cigarettes or beer bottles of the same brand. Outdoor Advertising – Billboards. Tradeshows and Events Outdoor advertising is also a very popular form of advertising. If not this. The billboard advertising is very popular however has to be really terse and catchy in order to grab the attention of the passers by. Fliers The print media have always been a popular advertising medium. kiosks. or the use of Cadillac cars in the movie Matrix Reloaded. The radio jingles have been very popular advertising media and have a large impact on the audience. the print media also offers options like promotional brochures and fliers for advertising purposes. the position of the advertisement (front page/middle page). There is no commercial in the entertainment but the brand or the product is subtly( or sometimes evidently) showcased in the entertainment show. Thus. the time of broadcast (prime time/peak time). for example an advertisement in the glossy supplement costs way higher than that in the newspaper supplement which uses a mediocre quality paper. The radio might have lost its charm owing to the new age media however the radio remains to be the choice of small-scale advertisers. The kiosks not only provide an easy outlet for the company products but also make for an effective advertising tool to promote the company’s products. Introduction of a new product or service. and also several events and tradeshows organized by the company. The most common examples of outdoor advertising are billboards. Often the newspapers and the magazines sell the advertising space according to the area occupied by the advertisement. The price of print ads also depend on the supplement in which they appear. Covert Advertising – Advertising in Movies Covert advertising is a unique kind of advertising in which a product or a particular brand is incorporated in some entertainment and media channels like movies. The company can organize trade fairs. Television advertisements have been very popular ever since they have been introduced. or even exhibitions for advertising their products. Brochures. as well as the readership of the publications. television shows or even sports. Radio and the Internet Broadcast advertising is a very popular advertising medium that constitutes of several branches like television. For instance an advertisement in a relatively new and less popular newspaper would cost far less than placing an advertisement in a popular newspaper with a high readership. Kiosks. For instance a company that manufactures sports utilities can sponsor a sports tournament to advertise its products. Advertising products via newspapers or magazines is a common practice. which makes use of several tools and techniques to attract the customers outdoors. Surrogate Advertising – Advertising Indirectly Surrogate advertising is prominently seen in cases where advertising a particular product is banned by law. Magazines.Advertising is the promotion of a company’s products and services carried out primarily to drive sales of the products and services but also to build a brand identity and communicate changes or new product /services to the customers. and of course the popularity of the television channel on which the advertisement is going to be broadcasted. the company can organize several events that are closely associated with their field. Organizing several events or sponsoring them makes for an excellent advertising opportunity. The cost of television advertising often depends on the duration of the advertisement. several reasons for advertising and similarly there exist various media which can be effectively used for advertising. Mentioned below are the various categories or types of advertising: Print Advertising – Newspapers. Advertising has become an essential element of the corporate world and hence the companies allot a considerable amount of revenues as their advertising budget. radio or the Internet. Communicating a change in the existing product line. which are 11 . There are several reasons for advertising some of which are as follows: • • • • • Increasing the sales of the product/service Creating and maintaining a brand identity or brand image. Based on these criteria there can be several branches of advertising. which is evident in the fact that many people still remember and enjoy the popular radio jingles. Broadcast advertising – Television. Increasing the buzz-value of the brand or the company. Some of the famous examples for this sort of advertising have to be the appearance of brand Nokia which is displayed on Tom Cruise’s phone in the movie Minority Report.

a clock. At first. the first American advertising to use a sexual sell was created by a woman – for a soap product. there exist a section of advertisers that still bank upon celebrities and their popularity for advertising their products. Celebrity Advertising Although the audience is getting smarter and smarter and the modern day consumer getting immune to the exaggerated claims made in a majority of advertisements. Using celebrities for advertising involves signing up celebrities for advertising campaigns. illiteracy. agencies were brokers for advertisement space in newspapers. the success of this advertising format eventually led to the growth of mail-order advertising. a horse shoe. extend its readership and increase its profitability and the formula was soon copied by all titles. advertisers and agencies recognized the value of women's insight during the creative process. the radio and television stations are granted on the basis of a fixed amount of Public service advertisements aired by the channel. In June 1836.[4] An 1895 advertisement for a weight gain product. and medicines. which consist of all sorts of advertising including. In the 17th century advertisements started to appear in weekly newspapers in England. As the economy expanded during the 19th century.[5] 12 . energy conservation. Public Service Advertising – Advertising for Social Causes Public service advertising is a technique that makes use of advertising as an effective communication medium to convey socially relevant messaged about important matters and social welfare causes like AIDS. and the general populace was unable to read. a diamond. The tradition of wall painting can be traced back to Indian rock art paintings that date back to 4000 BC. Oglivy once said. television ads or even print advertisements. in France. there were few career choices for women in business. however. These early print advertisements were used mainly to promote books and newspapers. Volney Palmer established a predecessor to advertising agencies in Boston. [3] History tells us that Out-of-home advertising and billboards are the oldest forms of advertising.". deforestation. In fact. Around 1840. miller. Africa. Ayer opened in 1869. As the towns and cities of the Middle Ages began to grow. In the United States. Charles-Louis Havas extended the services of his news agency. signs that today would say cobbler. a candle or even a bag of flour. and was located in Philadelphia. poverty and so on.W.[4] Around the same time. Wall or rock painting for commercial advertising is another manifestation of an ancient advertising form. advertising was one of the few. the advertisement featured a couple with the message "The skin you love to touch". As education became an apparent need and reading. developed advertising expanded to include handbills.it is much too powerful a tool to use solely for commercial purposes. N. N. false advertising and so-called "quack" advertisements became a problem. Commercial messages and political campaign displays have been found in the ruins of Pompeii and ancient Arabia. advertising grew alongside. Ayer & Son was the first full-service agency to assume responsibility for advertising content. History Edo period advertising flyer from 1806 for a traditional medicine called Kinseitan Egyptians used papyrus to make sales messages and wall posters. which is present to this day in many parts of Asia. Although tame by today's standards. Since women were responsible for most of the purchasing done in their household. as well as printing. a suit. At the turn of the century. Today public service advertising has been increasingly used in a non-commercial fashion in several countries across the world in order to promote various social causes. W. In USA. which were increasingly sought after as disease ravaged Europe. and South America. a hat. However. allowing it to lower its price. which ushered in the regulation of advertising content. David Oglivy who is considered to be one of the pioneers of advertising and marketing concepts had reportedly encouraged the use of advertising field for a social cause. Havas to include advertisement brokerage. which became increasingly affordable with advances in the printing press. tailor or blacksmith would use an image associated with their trade such as a boot.often seen to promote their brand with the help of surrogate advertising. Fruits and vegetables were sold in the city square from the backs of carts and wagons and their proprietors used street callers (town criers) to announce their whereabouts for the convenience of the customers. "Advertising justifies its existence when used in the public interest . Lost and found advertising on papyrus was common in Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. political integrity. making it the first French group to organize. French newspaper La Presse was the first to include paid advertising in its pages.

originally a private company.4 percent. Nonetheless. in the US in 1925. and various innovations utilizing social network services such as MySpace. Some of the most creative and long-standing American advertising dates to this period. However. A fierce battle was fought between those seeking to commercialise the radio and people who argued that the radio spectrum should be considered a part of the commons – to be used only noncommercially and for the public good. The scope of advertising management mainly depends on the change in technology. As cable and satellite television became increasingly prevalent. Marketing through the Internet opened new frontiers for advertisers and contributed to the "dot-com" boom of the 1990s. Congress did require commercial broadcasters to operate in the "public interest. each individual radio program was usually sponsored by a single business in exchange for a brief mention of the business' name at the beginning and end of the sponsored shows. such as QVC. However. The single sponsor model is much less prevalent now. such as via product placement. The late 1980s and early 1990s saw the introduction of cable television and particularly MTV. such as The United States Steel Hour. it was still a common practice to have single sponsor shows. The United Kingdom pursued a public funding model for the BBC. This practice was carried over to television in the late 1940s and early 1950s.[7] Public broadcasting now exists in the United States due to the 1967 Public Broadcasting Act which led to the Public Broadcasting Service and National Public Radio. the first radio stations were established by radio equipment manufacturers and retailers who offered programs in order to sell more radios to consumers. a notable exception being the Hallmark Hall of Fame. Pioneering the concept of the music video. and necessity". This period of American advertising is called the Creative Revolution and its archetype was William Bernbach who helped create the revolutionary Volkswagen ads among others. Entire corporations operated solely on advertising revenue.for example now-a-days advertising can make a blender by increase the sale of onething to many people by publicity such publicity can create along sale and services towards the product used by them. the main advertising media were newspapers. signs on streetcars. creating the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. MTV ushered in a new type of advertising: the consumer tunes in for the advertising message. Advertising spending as a share of GDP was about 2. The share of advertising spending relative to GDP has changed little across large changes in media. in the United States. the U. having consumers vote through text messages. radio station owners soon realised they could earn more money by selling sponsorship rights in small time allocations to multiple businesses throughout their radio station's broadcasts. users. Previously. In Canada. which involve unusual approaches such as staged encounters in public places. a number of websites including the search engine Google.Guerrilla advertising is becoming increasing more popular with a lot of companies. clubs and civic groups. the capitalist model prevailed with the passage of the Communications Act of 1934 which created the Federal Communications Commission. This reflects an increasing trend of interactive and "embedded" ads. advocates like Graham Spry were likewise able to persuade the federal government to adopt a public funding model. 13 . For example. This eventually became the standard for the commercial television industry in the United States.[6] To placate the socialists.9 percent.[8] A recent advertising innovation is "guerrilla marketing". rather than it being a by-product or afterthought.In the early 1920s. magazines. but incorporated as a public body by Royal Charter in 1927. unobtrusive ads intended to help. In the early 1950s. The 1960s saw advertising transform into a modern approach in which creativity was allowed to shine. DuMont had trouble finding sponsors for many of their programs and compensated by selling smaller blocks of advertising time to several businesses. By 1998. and interactive advertising where the viewer can respond to become part of the advertising message. This type of advertising is unpredictable and innovative. the DuMont Television Network began the modern practice of selling advertisement time to multiple sponsors. At the turn of the 21st century. This has led to a plethora of similar efforts and an increasing trend of interactive advertising. convenience. and included: schools. many non-profit organizations followed suit in setting up their own radio stations. However. [edit] Necessary skills The scope of advertising has a lot of future to go because in present life the technology has been increased that much. rather than inundate. The Volkswagen ad campaign—featuring such headlines as "Think Small" and "Lemon" (which were used to describe the appearance of the car)—ushered in the era of modern advertising by promoting a "position" or "unique selling proposition" designed to associate each brand with a specific idea in the reader or viewer's mind. which causes consumers to buy the product or idea. and outdoor posters. specialty channels emerged. giveaways of products such as cars that are covered with brand messages. advertising spending as a share of GDP was slightly lower—about 2. and ShopTV Canada. producing unexpected messages that made advertisements more tempting to consumers' eyes. In some instances the sponsors exercised great control over the content of the show—up to and including having one's advertising agency actually writing the show. including channels entirely devoted to advertising.[6] When the practice of sponsoring programs was popularised. the British Broadcasting Company. Home Shopping Network. rather than selling the sponsorship rights to single businesses per show. started a change in online advertising by emphasizing contextually relevant.S. As time passed. offering everything from coupons to free Internet access. television and radio had become major advertising media.

public interest advertising. and social marketing are different terms for (or aspects of) the use of sophisticated advertising and marketing communications techniques (generally associated with commercial enterprise) on behalf of non-commercial. such as HIV/AIDS. newspapers. Radio advertisements are broadcast as radio waves to the air from a transmitter to an antenna and a thus to a receiving device. many broadcast stations in America air the bulk of their required public service announcements during the late night or early morning when the smallest percentage of viewers are watching.Geana. Infomercials describe. posters. musical stage shows.[14][15] Infomercials An infomercial is a long-format television commercial. Public service advertising. Radio advertising Radio advertising is a form of advertising via the medium of radio. The word "infomercial" is a portmanteau of the words "information" & "commercial".[9] [edit] Types of advertising Virtually any medium can be used for advertising. The marketing mix was suggested by Jeremy McCarthy. magazines. cinema and television adverts. [edit] Digital advertising Television advertising / Music in advertising The TV commercial is generally considered the most effective mass-market advertising format. Commercial advertising media can include wall paintings. Airtime is purchased from a station or network in exchange for 14 . Public service advertising reached its height during World Wars I and II under the direction of more than one government. sides of buses. political ideology. street furniture components. subway platforms and trains. in its non-commercial guise. energy conservation and deforestation. so that the consumer sees the presentation and then immediately buys the product through the advertised toll-free telephone number or website. elastic bands on disposable diapers. and often demonstrate products and their features. It is typically inserted into otherwise blank backdrops[10] or used to replace local billboards that are not relevant to the remote broadcast audience. bus stop benches. in the 1960’s. virtual billboards may be inserted into the background[12] where none exist in real-life. [11] More controversially. Virtual advertisements may be inserted into regular television programming through computer graphics.doors of bathroom stalls. roof mounts and passenger screens. non-commercial advertising. display. as is reflected by the high prices TV networks charge for commercial airtime during popular TV events. shopping carts. the granting of television and radio licenses by the FCC is contingent upon the station broadcasting a certain amount of public service advertising. radio. market coverage and movement organization. shopping cart handles (grabertising). [edit] Marketing mix The marketing mix has been the key concept to advertising. To meet these requirements. typically five minutes or longer.stickers on apples in supermarkets. billboards. professor at Harvard Business School. and the backs of event tickets and supermarket receipts.[edit] Public service advertising The same advertising techniques used to promote commercial goods and services can be used to inform. web popups. mobile telephone screens. This technique is especially used in televised sporting events[13] Virtual product placement is also possible. human billboards. banners attached to or sides of airplanes ("logojets"). The marketing mix consists of four basic elements called the four P’s Product is the first P representing the actual product. taxicab doors. cause marketing. town criers. educate and motivate the public about non-commercial issues. web banners. The annual Super Bowl football game in the United States is known as the most prominent advertising event on television. and commonly have testimonials from consumers and industry professionals. leaving more day and prime time commercial slots available for high-paying advertisers. Any place an "identified" sponsor pays to deliver their message through a medium is advertising. The last P stands for Promotion which is the process of reaching the target market and convincing them to go out and buy the product. Advertising. The main objective in an infomercial is to create an impulse purchase. public interest issues and initiatives. Mugur Valentin. Price represents the process of determining the value of a product. is a powerful educational tool capable of reaching and motivating large audiences." Attributed to Howard Gossage by David Ogilvy. printed flyers and rack cards. "Advertising justifies its existence when used in the public interest—it is much too powerful a tool to use solely for commercial purposes. skywriting. The majority of television commercials feature a song or jingle that listeners soon relate to the product. Place represents the variables of getting the product to the consumer like distribution channels. in-flight advertisements on seatback tray tables or overhead storage bins. the opening section of streaming audio and video. In the United States. The average cost of a single thirty-second TV spot during this game has reached US$3 million (as of 2009).

These can be on dedicated vehicles built solely for carrying advertisements along routes preselected by clients. [16] 15 . Online advertising Online advertising is a form of promotion that uses the Internet and World Wide Web for the expressed purpose of delivering marketing messages to attract customers. as in the movie Minority Report. and advertisements in such places as shopping carts and in-store video displays. In "Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer". Conventions. the whole film stops to show a Coca-Cola billboard. as Kellogg's did not want to associate with him after he was photographed smoking marijuana. The ultimate goal of sales promotions is to stimulate potential customers to action. including e-mail spam. I. some being backlit. Another example of advertising in film is in I. where main character played by Will Smith mentions his Converse shoes several times. the main transport vehicle shows a large Dodge logo on the front. however. while others change. For example. product placement for Omega Watches. Sporting events. [edit] Physical advertising Press advertising Press advertising describes advertising in a printed medium such as a newspaper. which is a larger ad (can include art) that typically run in an article section of a newspaper. which allows private individuals or companies to purchase a small. One-day. including: Target advertising. Mobile displays are used for various situations in metropolitan areas throughout the world. product giveaways. Some billboard displays are static. A form of press advertising is classified advertising. Billboard advertising: Billboards are large structures located in public places which display advertisements to passing pedestrians and motorists. eye-catching displays promoting a specific product.airing the commercials. Celebrity branding This type of advertising focuses upon using celebrity power. Robot and Spaceballs also showcase futuristic cars with the Audi and Mercedes-Benz logos clearly displayed on the front of the vehicles. and to jumpstart sales. in a film. Advertisers often advertise their products. [edit] Sales promotions Sales promotions are another way to advertise. Store openings and similar promotional events. Ford. when celebrities share their favorite products or wear clothes by specific brands or designers. fame. proponents of radio advertising often cite this as an advantage. in some cases. such as at eye level. online classified advertising. Rich Media Ads. The billboards are often lighted. or trade journal. It includes placement of a product in visible locations in a store. the main character can use an item or other of a definite brand. Blade Runner includes some of the most obvious product placement. samples coupons. calling them "classics. and long-term campaigns. One mistake by a celebrity can be detrimental to the public relations of a brand. Product placements Covert advertising. popularity to gain recognition for their products and promote specific stores or products. Another form of press advertising is the Display Ad. where Tom Cruise's character John Anderton owns a phone with the Nokia logo clearly written in the top corner. loyalty programs. Sales promotions are double purposed because they are used to gather information about what type of customers you draw in and where they are. Cadillac chose to advertise in the movie The Matrix Reloaded. such as a major national newspaper or magazine. swimmer Michael Phelps' contract with Kellogg's was terminated. they can be placed in any location with large amounts of viewers. Social network advertising. VAIO. Mobile billboard advertising Mobile billboards are generally vehicle mounted billboards or digital screens. large banners strewn from planes. Similarly. sweepstakes. BMW and Aston Martin cars are featured in recent James Bond films." because the film is set far in the future. also known as guerrilla advertising. in text ads. This encompasses everything from media with a very broad readership base. In-store advertising In-store advertising is any advertisement placed in a retail store. Celebrities are often involved in advertising campaigns such as television or print adverts to advertise specific or general products. for example. China. Sales promotions include things like contests and games. such as on mass transit vehicles and in stations. to more narrowly targeted media such as local newspapers and trade journals on very specialized topics. Most often. they can also be specially equipped cargo trucks or. they are located on main roads with a large amount of passing motor and pedestrian traffic. and others employing spotlights. at the ends of aisles and near checkout counters. money. magazine. which as a result contained many scenes in which Cadillac cars were used. or his watch engraved with the Bulgari logo. is when a product or brand is embedded in entertainment and media. most notably Casino Royale. following his performance of eight gold medals at the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing. Examples of online advertising include contextual ads that appear on search engine results pages. narrowly targeted ad for a low fee advertising a product or service. and Big advertisements from smaller companies. advertising networks and e-mail marketing. The use of celebrities to endorse a brand can have its downsides. however. While radio has the obvious limitation of being restricted to sound. in shopping malls or office buildings. For example. The RedEye newspaper advertised to its target market at North Avenue Beach with a sailboat billboard on Lake Michigan. for example. Robot. continuously or periodically rotating among a set of advertisements. and discounts. and in stadiums. banner ads.

Friendertising is a more precise advertising term in which people are able to direct advertisements toward others directly using social network service. advergaming. Spam has been a problem for email users for many years. Unsolicited bulk E-mail advertising is known as "e-mail spam".8% (magazines) and −18. It is online advertising with a focus on social networking sites. "Xerox" = "photocopier". Some companies have proposed placing messages or corporate logos on the side of booster rockets and the International Space Station. −11. "sell it"). although some have used the Internet to widely distribute their ads to anyone willing to see or hear them. Personal recommendations ("bring a friend". and "Band-Aid" = adhesive bandage) — these can be seen as the pinnacle of any advertising campaign. Controversy exists on the effectiveness of subliminal advertising (see mind control). Digital signage is being successfully employed in supermarkets. and uses the camera feature of modern phones to gain immediate access to web content. banner. In general. Flash. Older media advertising saw declines: −10.2 billion and providers such as Admob delivered billions of mobile ads. "Hoover" = vacuum cleaner. CoverGirl. Digital signage also offer the unique ability to see the target audience where they are reached by the medium. As the mobile phone became a new mass media in 1998 when the first paid downloadable content appeared on mobile phones in Finland.2% respectively. More advanced mobile ads include banner ads.1% and 9. enabling the messages to be relevant to the target audience at any given time and location which in turn. Advertising on the World Wide Web is a recent phenomenon. which replaces the need to do any typing of web addresses. 16 . radio and newspaper because of a shift toward consumer's usage of the Internet for news and music as well as devices like digital video recorders (DVRs) such as TiVo. By 2007 the value of mobile advertising had reached $2. Digital signage is poised to become a major mass media because of its ability to reach larger audiences for less money. A particular feature driving mobile ads is the 2D Barcode. also first launched in Finland in 2000. The CW Television Network airs short programming breaks called "Content Wraps. [edit] Rise in new media With the dawn of the Internet came many new advertising opportunities. spreading buzz. coupons. This is a relatively immature market. "Nintendo" (often used by those exposed to many video games) = video games. Popup. 83 percent of Japanese mobile phone users already are active users of 2D barcodes.7% (radio). Particularly since the rise of "entertaining" advertising. Prices of Web-based advertising space are dependent on the "relevance" of the surrounding web content and the traffic that the website receives. Unpaid advertising (also called "publicity advertising"). some people may like an advertisement enough to wish to watch it later or show a friend. Technology advances has also made it possible to control the message on digital signage with much precision. A new form of advertising that is growing rapidly is social network advertising. −14. and email advertisements (the last often being a form of spam) are now commonplace. Guitar Hero II. gets more response from the advertising. Equating a brand with a common noun also risks turning that brand into a genericized trademark . or achieving the feat of equating a brand with a common noun (in the United States. However. and recently Toyota. some companies oppose the use of their brand name to label an object. Multimedia Messaging Service picture and video messages. advergames and various engagement marketing campaigns." to advertise one company's product during an entire commercial break.[17] Another successful use of digital signage is in hospitality locations such as restaurants. "Vaseline" = petroleum jelly. the advertising community has not yet made this easy.[19] E-mail advertising is another recent phenomenon.[edit] Media and advertising approaches Increasingly. it was only a matter of time until mobile advertising followed. other media are overtaking many of the "traditional" media such as television. From time to time.1% (TV). but it has shown a lot of promise as advertisers are able to take advantage of the demographic information the user has provided to the social networking site. can provide good exposure at minimal cost. "Kleenex" = tissue. and the pervasiveness of mass messages (see propaganda). In the last three quarters of 2009 mobile and internet advertising grew by 18. Popunder.[18] and malls.7% (newspapers ). Crest.turning it into a generic term which means that its legal protection as a trademark is lost. The CW pioneered "content wraps" and some products featured were Herbal Essences.

with the intent of upholding the standards or codes like the Advertising Standards Authority in the UK.[29] The advertisement of controversial products such as cigarettes and condoms are subject to government regulation in many countries. In New Zealand. Also brought about by the Internet and the theory of The Long Tail.[26] Cities such as São Paulo have introduced an outright ban[27] with London also having specific legislation to control unlawful displays. Crowdsourced advertisements have gained popularity in part to its cost effective nature. it remains controversial. General Mills. which had found that Sweden was obliged to accept foreign programming.g. This debate was exacerbated by a report released by the Kaiser Family Foundation in February 2004 which suggested fast food advertising that targets children was an important factor in the epidemic of childhood obesity in the United States. the Frito-Lays division of PepsiCo held the Crash the Super Bowl contest. Some examples are: the ban on television tobacco advertising imposed in many countries. but remain independent.500 per offence. many advertisers view governmental regulation or even self-regulation as intrusion of their freedom of speech or a necessary evil. Some self-regulatory organizations are funded by the industry.[21]Chevrolet held a similar competition for their Tahoe line of SUVs. Zooppa has launched ad competitions for brands such as Google. Currently the display of an advertisement without consent from the Planning Authority is a criminal offense liable to a fine of £2. allowing consumers to create their own Doritos commercial.[edit] Niche marketing Another significant trend regarding future of advertising is the growing importance of the niche market using niche or targeted ads. most often they are a result of brand sponsored advertising competitions.[22][23] This trend has given rise to several online platforms that host user-generated advertising competitions on behalf of a company. right from their home. the winning ad that aired in the 2009 Super Bowl was ranked by the USA Today Super Bowl Ad Meter as the top ad for the year while the winning ads that aired in the 2010 Super Bowl were found by Nielsen's BuzzMetrics to be the "most buzzed-about". usage tracking. Canada. These advertisements are targeted to a specific group and can be viewed by anyone wishing to find out more about a particular business or practice at any time. User-generated ads are created by consumers as opposed to an advertising agency or the company themselves. For instance. There have been increasing efforts to protect the public interest by regulating the content and the influence of advertising. advertising agencies and the media agree on a code of advertising standards that they attempt to uphold.[21] Due to the success of the Doritos user-generated ads in the 2007 Super Bowl. Hershey’s. However. there is a vigorous debate on whether (or how much) advertising to children should be regulated. However. Therefore. Among others. honest and truthful'. In fact. high consumer engagement. provide advertisers with audiences that are smaller but much better defined. Founded in 2007. Naturally. Frito-Lays relaunched the competition for the 2009 and 2010 Super Bowl. customer profiles and the growing popularity of niche content brought about by everything from blogs to social networking sites. decent. The resulting ads were among the most-watched and most-liked Super Bowl ads. including those from neighboring countries or via satellite. “banning advertisements for children's toys between 7 am and 10 pm and a total ban on advertisement for war toys". leading to ads that are more relevant to viewers and more effective for companies' marketing products.[28] In Europe and elsewhere. Microsoft.[20] [edit] Crowdsourcing The concept of crowdsourcing has given way to the trend of user-generated advertisements. In the past. and the total ban of advertising to children under 12 imposed by the Swedish government in 1991. 17 .[24] [edit] Regulation Main article: Advertising regulation In the US many communities believe that many forms of outdoor advertising blight the public realm. Nike.[25] As long ago as the 1960s in the US there were attempts to ban billboard advertising in the open countryside. the advertising industry operates a system of self-regulation. Greece’s regulations are of a similar nature. and Mini Cooper. the most efficient way to deliver a message was to blanket the largest mass market audience possible. as the long-term impact on the advertising industry is still unclear. Though that regulation continues in effect for broadcasts originating within the country. Advertisers. Zinio. they employ a wide-variety of linguistic devices to bypass regulatory laws (e. South Africa. printing English words in bold and French translations in fine print to deal with the Article 120 of the 1994 Toubon Law limiting the use of English in French advertising). advertisers will have an increasing ability to reach specific audiences. For the 2007 Super Bowl. and many European countries. it has been weakened by the European Court of Justice. In the UK most forms of outdoor advertising such as the display of billboards is regulated by the UK Town and County Planning system. Comcast Spotlight is one such advertiser employing this method in their video on demand menus. The general aim of such codes is to ensure that any advertising is 'legal. and ability to generate word-of-mouth. All of the major outdoor billboard companies in the UK have convictions of this nature. This causes the viewer to become proactive and actually choose what advertisements they want to view. NBC Universal.

many advertisers have opted for product placement on TV shows like Survivor.[33] [edit] New technology The ability to record shows on digital video recorders (such as TiVo) allow users to record the programs for later viewing. such as Flow of Attention. not verbal. where advertising students create campaigns for real companies. The ability to identify which elements and/or moments of an ad that contributes to its success is how economies of scale are maximised.[34] Organizations such as American Advertising Federation and AdU Network partner established companies with students to create these campaigns. To counter this effect. According to Professor J. export. means the company will receive additional profits from the sales of these sets. elements of the ad. Additionally. that idea or ideas can be imported by any other market. Linguistic variation is often used by advertisers as a creative device to reduce the impact of such requirements. such as the advance of online social networking. Born from the evolutionary stages of global marketing are the three primary and fundamentally different approaches to the development of global advertising executions: exporting executions. Flow of Emotion and branding moments provide insight into what is working in an ad in any country or region because the measures are based on the visual. A surge in advertising interest is typically attributed to the strong relationship advertising plays in cultural and technological changes. [edit] Advertising education Advertising education has become widely popular with bachelor. and importing ideas that travel. Once one knows what works in an ad. evidence-based principles “draw upon typical practice. the fact that these sets are sold.”[35] 18 .the tobacco industry is required by law in most countries to display warnings cautioning consumers about the health hazards of their products. enabling them to fast forward through commercials. and increasing the company’s speed of implementation. [edit] Advertising research Main article: Advertising research Advertising research is a specialized form of research that works to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of advertising. master and doctorate degrees becoming available in the emphasis. Scott Armstrong from The Wharton School. developing economies of scale in the creative process. Continuous ad tracking and the Communicus System are competing examples of post-testing advertising research types. maximising local effectiveness of ads.[citation needed] They can be applied to an advertising campaign with high confidence of increasing persuasiveness regardless of time and place.[32] This is reflected by the growth of non-traditional agencies in various global markets. business objectives that must be balanced when developing worldwide advertising: building a brand while speaking with one voice.[31] [edit] Diversification In the realm of advertising agencies. expert opinion. fewer people watch the shows on TV. which must be taken into consideration when applying them. Principles are usually accompanied with various conditions. A unique model for teaching advertising is the student-run advertising agency. Market research measures. Advertising research includes pre-testing (also known as copy testing) and post-testing of ads and/or campaigns—pre-testing is done before an ad airs to gauge how well it will perform and post-testing is done after an ad airs to determine the in-market impact of the ad or campaign on the consumer. multi-national. [edit] Future of advertising [edit] Global advertising Advertising has gone through five major stages of development: domestic.[30] Advertising research is key to determining the success of an ad in any country or region. [edit] Evidence-based advertising Evidence-based advertising refers to advertising principles. However. such as Canadian business TAXI and SMART in Australia and has been referred to as "a revolution in the ad world". as more seasons of pre-recorded box sets are offered for sale of television programs. It entails numerous forms of research which employ different methodologies. international. For global advertisers. potentially competing. continued industry diversification has seen observers note that “big global clients don't need big global agencies any more”. factual evidence and empirical evidence. and global. producing local executions. which have been proven through experimental studies. there are four.

19 .

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