Force and area
• The amount of pressure exerted depends on the size of the force and the area over which it is exerted.

Exert = to apply a force to an object

• Pressure is measured in newtons per square metre, also known as Pascal. • One pascal [Pa] is the same as one N/m².

Calculating pressure .

W= mg .Remember that the weight of a body is equal to the product of its mass and gravitational acceleration.

the greater the pressure that it exerts. .Applications of increased pressure • The smaller the area that a given force acts upon.


Applications of decreased pressure • The larger the area that a given force acts upon. . the lower the pressure that it exerts.

.• All these objects work by spreading force over a large area in order to reduce pressure.


.Pressure of a liquid The pressure due to the weight of a liquid is called the hydrostatic pressure.

by finding the ratio of the weight of the liquid to the area of the bottom of the vessel. .• The pressure exerted by a liquid at the bottom of a cuboid vessel can be calculated in the same way as the pressure of a cuboid block.

• The pressure exerted by a liquid on the bottom of a container is the product of the density of the liquid. . the gravitational acceleration and the depth of the container.


Hydrostatic pressure and the density of a liquid .

Pressure . depth and density • For a given liquid. increases with density . increases with depth • ii. its pressure: i.

Pressure of liquids
• It is independent of the - the shape of the container. - the size of the container. - the area of its surface

Pressure in liquid depends only on its vertical distance from the surface of the liquid.

Applications of pressure in liquids
• Dam holds water at high altitude. The wall of the dam has to be thicker at the base. Explain. • The wall of the dam is built thicker at the bottom to withstand a higher pressure.

Applications of pressure in liquids
• Water is stored in water tank at higher level. Why? • The water tower is built at high place so that the water has sufficient pressure to flow to consumer’s house.

Applications of pressure in liquids • Submarine is built with thick wall. • Submarine is built with thick wall so as to withstand enormous pressure at greater depth . Explain.

Work example 1 .

Work example 2 .

Atmospheric Pressure .


• Atmospheric pressure is the pressure caused by the weight of the air above us. .GAS PRESSURE AND ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE • Gas pressure is the force per unit area exerted by the gas molecules as they collide with the walls of their container.

• Hence. atmospheric pressure is lower . • As a result. the frequency of collisions of the molecules is lower. the density and the temperature of the air are lower. • At higher altitudes.Atmospheric pressure • Atmospheric pressure decreases with the altitude or the height above sea level.


metre water • Notes: • .1 atm = 76cmHg .atmosphere (atm) .Pascal (Pa) .Atmospheric Pressure at Sea Level = 1atm .centimetre/milimetre mercury (cmHg/mmHg) .Unit of atmospheric pressure • The units of atmospheric pressure used in the SPM syllabus include: .

• Explanation: The force caused by the atmospheric pressure acts on the surface of the cardboard is greater than the weight of the water in the glass.Show existence of atmospheric pressure • The cardboard does not fall and the water remains in the glass even though it’s not supported by anything. .

it will crash instantly. . The high atmospheric pressure outside exerts a great force on the can and causes it crashes.Show existence of atmospheric pressure • When a can filled with hot water is closed and is cooled down rapidly by pouring cold water on it. its pressure decreases. • Explanation: When the air inside the can is cooled.

Instrument Used to Measure Atmospheric Pressure -Fortin Barometer -Anaroid Barometer -Simple Barometer .

Problem solving -> simple barometer .

More About Simple Barometer The height. h will remains unchanged when i) the glass tube is lifted up from the dish ii) the glass tube is lowered further into the dish iii) the diameter of the glass tube increases iv) the glass tube is tilted v) the quantity of mercury in the dish is increased .

Spring barometer .

Application of atmospheric pressure • • • • • Drinking straw Rubber sucker Syringe Vacuum cleaner Lift pump .

.Low pressure or high pressure • If in some area the pressure is higher than it is in the surrounding area. we say that it is an area of high pressure.

Gas pressure .

Manometer .Instruments used to measure gas pressure .Bourdon Gauge .

Using Manometer .

P = hρg P = (10.25m ρ = 1000kgm3 g = 10ms-2 Gas Pressure. Density of water = 1000kg/m3] Answer: i) Gas Pressure.Problem solving • Manometer • Figure above shows the water levels in a water manometer used to measure the pressure of a gas supply.25)(1000)(10) P = 102500 Pa . Find the pressure of the gas in unit of i) cm water ii) Pa [Atmospheric Pressure = 1000cm Water. P = Patm + Pwater P = 1000 + (30-5) = 1025 cm Water ii) h = 1025cm = 10.

U-Tube • A U-tube can be used to determine density .

Find the density of liquid X. • Answer: .6g/cm3.Problem solving U-tube • Figure above shows a U-tube filled with 2 liquids X and Y that do not mix. Given that the density of liquid Y is 1.

Gas Pressure In A Capillary Tube Pgas = gas pressure in the capillary tube Patm = atmospheric pressure h = length of the captured mercury column ρ = density of mercury g = gravitational field strength .

If the atmospheric pressure is 100. P = Patm + hρg P = 100.Problem solving Capillary Tube • Figure above shows a capillary containing a column of mercury.600kg/m3] • Answer: Gas Pressure.005)(13600)(10) P = 100680Pa . find the pressure of the gas trapped in the capillary tube. [Density of mercury = 13.000Pa.000 + (0.

Bourdon Pressure Gauge • If pressure is applied. • The copper tube pushes the lever system and hence rotates the pointer. • Gas pressure can be read directly from the scale. the copper tube will be straightened slightly. .

Pascal's Principle • Pascal's principle states that any change in pressure applied to an enclosed liquid will be transmitted to every point of the fluid without any change in magnitude. .

This shows that the pressure applied to the plunger has been transmitted uniformly throughout the water. .Pascal's Principle .Prove • When the plunger is pushed in. the water squirts equally from all the holes.

• The hydraulic system acts as a force multiplier .A simple hydraulic machine • Hydraulic machines make it possible to transfer forces through pipes filled with a liquid.

what is the force F. on the large piston? • Answer . If a force of 250 N is applied to the small piston.Problem solving Pascal's Principle • In a hydraulic system the large piston has crosssectional area A2 = 200 cm2 and the small piston has cross-sectional area A1 = 5 cm2.

Hydraulic Jack • When the handle is pressed down. valve B will be closed while vale A will be opened. The hydraulic fluid is forced into the large cylinder and hence pushes the piston moving upward. Hydraulic fluid from the buffer tank will be suck into the small cylinder. valve A is closed whereas valve B is opened. . • The large piston can be lowered down by releasing the hydraulic fluid back to the buffer tank through the release vale. • This process is repeated until the load is sufficiently lifted up. • When the handle is raised.

the piston of the master cylinder applies a pressure on the brake fluid. cause the pistons at the wheels to push the brake shoes to press against the surface of the brake.Hydraulic Brake • When the brake pedal is pressed. • This pressure is transmitted uniformly to each cylinders at the wheel. . • The friction between the brakes and brake shoes causes the vehicle to slow down and stop.

Archimedes' Principle .

Archimedes' Principle • Archimedes Principle states that when a body is wholly or partially immersed in a fluid it experiences an upthrust equal to the weight of the fluid displaced. .

buoyant force is an upward force exerted by a fluid on an object immersed in it.The upthrust in water force) • The upthrust (i. . Thrust= The force due to fluid pressure.e.

. the object will sink into the fluid. • If weight of the object = upthrust.Principle of Floatation: • Displaced volume of fluid = volume of the object that immerse in the fluid. • If weight of the object > upthrust. the object is in balance and therefore float on the surface of the fluid.

W = mg =ρobjectVobjectg . F = ρliquidVliquidg • Weight.Partially Immerse • Density of Object < Density of water Upthrust = Weight • Upthrust.

W = mg =ρobjectVobjectg .Fully Immerse • Density of Object < Density of water F = Upthrust T = Tension of the string W = Weight F=T+W • Upthrust. F = ρliquidVliquidg • Weight.

W = mg =ρobjectVobjectg .Fully Immerse • Density of Object > Density of water F = Upthrust T = Tension of the string W = Weight T+F=W • Upthrust. F = ρliquidVliquidg Weight.

Vblock = 0.2)(10) .Problem solving Archemedes Principle A block that has volume of 0.(1000)(0.2 m3 Density of metal block. ρblock = 8 × 103 kg m-3 Density of metal block. hence Upthrust + Tension = Weight ρwaterVwaterg + T = ρblockVblockg T = ρblockVblockg . ρwater = 1 × 103 kg m-3 The system is in equilibrium. Find the tension of the string? [ Density of the metal = 8 × 103 kg m-3. density of water = 1 × 103 kg m-3] Answer: Volume of metal block.ρwaterVwaterg T = (8000)(0.2)(g) T = 14000 N .2 m3 is hanging in a water tank as shown in the figure above.

Applications of Archimedes' Principle • • • • Submarine Hot air balloon Hydrometer Hydrometer is an instrument used to measure the relative density of liquids. • Ship – Plimsoil line .

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