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Published by: seemaagiwal on Aug 04, 2010
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³Planning involves selecting mission and objectives and the actions to achieve them; it requires decisionmaking that is, choosing from alternative courses of action.´ -Heinz and Koontz ³A plan is a trap laid to capture.´ -Allen Planning is the process of bridging the gap between where we are and where we want to be in the future. Thinking before doing is planning.

Nature of planning
Desired Status st at u s

Gap Planning Required

Current Status T1 Time T2

Characteristics of Planning
-Planning is goal- oriented -Planning is an intellectual or rational process -Planning is a primary function -Planning all- pervasive -Planning is forward looking -Planning is a perpetual process -Planning is an integrated process -Planning involves choice

Planning Process

Analyzing opportunities Reviewing the plans Formulating of Supporting plans

Establishing objectives

Determining Planning premises Identification of alternatives

Choice of Alternative plans

Evaluation of alternatives

Types of Planning
‡ Plans based on organizational levels
± Strategic Planning ± Tactical Planning ± Operational Planning


Types of Planning
‡ Plans based on frequency of use
± Single- use plans
‡ Programs ‡ Budgets ‡ Projects

± Standing Plans
‡ Policies ‡ Procedures ‡ Rules

Types of Planning
‡ Plans based on time frame
± Long-term Plans ± Intermediate Plans ± Short-term Plans


Making Planning Effective
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Linked to long-term objectives Direction for action Consistent Feasible Simplicity Flexible

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