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Reviewer Pre Finals

Reviewer Pre Finals

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Published by: Shinji on Aug 05, 2010
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Communication

 The evoking of shared or common meaning in another person Interpersonal Communication  Communication between two or more people in an organization Interpersonal Communication Model

Richness: The ability of a medium or channel to elicit or evoke meaning in the receiver. Reflective Listening A skill intended to help the receiver and communicator clearly and fully understand the message

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Feedback Loop: The pathway that complete two way communications. Language: The word, their pronunciation, and the method of combining then used and understood by a group of people. Data: uninterpreted and unanalyzed fact. Information: Data that have been interpreted, analyzed, and have meaning in some user.

Affirming contact: The receiver affirms contact with the communicator by using simple statement such as “I see”, “Uh-huh”, and “Yes I understand”. Paraphrasing the expressed: After an appropriate time, the receiver might paraphrase the expressed thoughts and feeling of the speaker. Clarifying the implicitly: People often communicate implicit thought and feeling about the problem in addition to their explicitly expressed thought and feeling. Reflecting “Care” Feeling: The receiver should go beyond the explicit or implicit thought and feeling that the speaker is expressing. Silence: Long extended period of silence may cause discomfort and be a sign or source of embarrassment, but silence can help both speaker and listener in reflective listening. Eye contact: Eye contact is a non-verbal behavior that may help open up a relationship and improve communication between two people.

One-Way versus Two-Way Communication Five key to effective supervisor communication Expressive speaker: Better supervisor express their thought, ideas, and feeling and speak-up in a meeting. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Be patient Hold your temper Go easy to criticism Ask question Stop talking

Here are ten tips to help you to become better listener 1. Stop talking 2. Put the speaker at ease 3. Show the speaker you want to listen 4. Remove distraction 5. Empathize with the speaker

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Empathetic Listeners: The better supervisors are willing, empathetic listener, they are patient with, and responsive to, problem that employee, peer, and others bring to them about their work. Persuasive Leaders (and some exception): Better supervisors are persuasive leader rather than directive, autocratic one. Sensitive to Feeling: Better supervisors are also sensitive to the feeling, self-image, and psychological defense of their employee.

Informative managers: Better supervisors keep those who work for them well informed and are skilled at appropriately and selective dissemination information. Barrier to Communication Barrier to communication are factor that block significantly distort successful communication Five Communicational Barrier  Physical separation  Status difference  Gender difference  Cultural diversity

 Language Defensive and Non-defensive communication  Defensive Communication: Communication that can be aggressive, attacking, and angry, or passive and withdrawing.  Non-Defensive Communication Communication that is assertive, direct, and powerful. Two pattern in defensive communication at work 1. Subordinate Defensiveness: Characterized by passive, submissive, withdrawing behavior. “You are might” and “I am wrong”. 2.
Dominant Defensive: Characterized by active and aggressive, attacking behavior. “The best defense is the good offense”.

Work Teams and Groups
Mutual Acceptance  In this stage, the focus is on the interpersonal relations among the members. Members asses one another with regard to trust worthiness, emotional comfort and evaluative acceptance.

This authority issue is also an interpersonal issue related to trust and acceptance.

DECISION MAKING  The focus turns to decision making activities related to the group’s task accomplishment. Specifically, the group must make decisions about what its task is and how to accomplish that task. Motivation and Commitment Attention is directed to self motivation and the motivation of other group members for task accomplishment. Some members focus on the task function of initiating activity and ensure that the work of the group really gets moving. The emphasis is on execution and achievement whether through a process of questioning and prodding or through facilitation and workload sharing.

CHARACTERISTICS OF A MATURE GROUP PURPOSE AND MISSION May be assigned to a group. The mission statement is converted into a specific agenda, clear goals, and a set of critical success factors. Stating the purpose and mission in the form of specific goals enhances productivity. BEHAVIORAL NORMS Behavioral norms which evolve over a period of time are well-understood standards of behavior within a group. Some behavioral norms become written rules, such as an attendance policy or an ethical code for a team. Productivity norms even influence the performance of sport teams. GROUP COHESION The interpersonal attraction binding group members’ together .It enables a group to exercise effective control over its members in relation to its behavioral norms and standards. Goal conflict in a group, unpleasant experiences, and domination of a subgroup are among the threats to a group’s cohesion. Groups with low levels of cohesion have greater difficulty exercising control over their members and enforcing their standards of behavior. Group cohesion is influenced by a number of factors, most notably time, size, the prestige of the team, external pressure, and internal competition. TASK AND MAINTENANCE FUNCTIONS TASK FUNCTIONS Those activities directly related to the effective completion of the team’s work. Some task functions are more important at one time in the life of the group, and other functions are more important at other times. MAINTENANCE FUNCTIONS Those activities essential to the effective, satisfying interpersonal relationships within a group or team. Communication within a group ensures balance contributions from all members. Maintenance functions enhance togetherness, cooperation, teamwork, enabling members to achieve psychological intimacy while furthering the success of the team. WHY WORK TEAMS? Teams are very useful in performing work that is complicated, complex, interrelated, and/or more voluminous than one person can handle. Obviously, people working in organizations cannot do everything because of the limitations of arms, legs, time, expertise, knowledge and other resources. Individual limitations are overcome and problems are solved through teamwork and collaboration. Teams make important contributions to organizations in work areas that lend themselves to teamwork. The recent emphasis on team-oriented work environment is based on empowerment with collaboration, not on power and competition.

Participation in Decision Making
  Decision making in which individuals who are affected by decisions influence the making of those decisions. WHAT LEVEL OF PARTICIPATION?

Participation decision making is complex, and one of the things managers must understand is that employees can be involved in some, or all of the stages of the decision-making process.  THE GROUP DECISION-MAKING PROCESS  SYNERGY  A GROUP IS TO GAIN COMMITMENT TO A DECISIONS  GROUPS ALSO BRING MORE KMOWLEDGE AND EXPERIENCE TO THE PROBLEM SOLVING SITUATION  GROUP DECISIONS CAN SOMETIMES BE PREDICTED BY COMPARING THE VIEWS OF THE INITIAL GROUP MEMBERS WITH THE FINAL GROUP DECISION  ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF GROUP DECISION MAKING ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES *More knowledge and information *pressure within the group Through the pooling of group conform and fit in Member resources *increased acceptance of *one forceful member, who may Employees and commitment ramrod the decisions To the company *the amount of time required *greater understanding of the Decision,  GROUPTHINK  A deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment resulting from pressures within the group.  Symptoms of groupthink  Illusions of invulnerability  Illusions of group morality  Illusions of unanimity  Rationalization  Stereotyping the enemy  Self-censorship  Peer pressure  Mind guards  GROUP POLARIZATION  The tendency for group discussion to produce shifts towards more extreme attitudes among members.  TECNIQUES FOR GROUP DECISION MAKING  Brainstorming  Normal Group Technique  Delphi Technique  Devil’s Advocacy  Dialectical Inquiry  Quality Circles and quality teams  Self-Managed Teams  TECHNOLOGICAL AIDS TO DECISION MAKING  Expert systems  Decision Support Systems  Group Decision support systems  Decision Making in the Virtual workplace  ETHICAL ISSUES IN DECISION MAKING

They contend that the decision maker should ponder 3 questions: 1. Is it legal? (Will I be violating the law or company policy?) 2. Is it balanced? (Is it fair to all concerned in the short term and long term?) 3. How will it make me feel about myself? (Will it make me proud of my actions?)

Work Team Structure and Work Team Process
Work team effectiveness in the new environment requires attention by management to both work structure and work team process.  The primary structure issues for work teams are goals and objectives, operating guidelines, performance measures, and the specification of roles. Work team process is the second important dimension of effectiveness. Two of the important process issues in work teams: Cooperative behaviors Competitive behaviors Quality Teams and Circles Quality teams and quality circles are part of a total quality program. Quality teams are different from quality circles in that they are more formal and are designed and assigned by upper level management. Quality team- a team that is part of an organization’s structure and is empowered to act on its decisions regarding product and service quality. Quality circles-are small groups of employees who work voluntarily on company time typically one hour per week, to address work related problems such as quality control, cost reduction, production planning and techniques, and even product design. Social benefits Psychological intimacy-is a emotional closeness to other team or group members Integrated Involvement- is closeness achieved through task and activities. Employment and Self-Managed teams Self-managed teams -are broad based work teams that deal with issues beyond quality. Empowerment skills -through employee self management is an alternative to empowerment through teamwork. Upper echelons: TEAMS AT THE TOP Self-managed teams at the top of the organizations are referred to upper echelons. Upper echelon theory are argues that the background characteristics of the top management team can predict organizational characteristic Multicultural Teams Homogeneous groups are in which all members are share similar backgrounds are giving way to token groups in which all but one member come from the same background, bicultural groups in which members represent each of two distinct cultures, multicultural groups are in which members represent three or more ethnic backgrounds. Managerial Implications: Teamwork for productivity and quality Work groups and teams are important vehicles through which organization s achieve high-quality performance. The triangle for managing in the new team environment

Ulat Sa Filipino (Sining Sa Pakikipagtalastasan)
Pagpapaikli ng mga salita (abrevation)


Isang pinaikling form ng isang salita o parirala Binubou lamang ng mga maikling salita o mga letra galing sa isang parirala. Ito ay hango sa salitang latin na “brevis” ang ibig sabihin ay “maikli” Halimawa: “abbreviation” pagpinaikli “abbr” o “abbrev” Mga maaring paikliin Mga panglan ng mga tao, bayan, lalawigan, lungsod, bansa. M.L.Q. Cal. Lag. D.C. K.P. C.P.R. Sta. Cruz, Lag. Ranggo o titulong isisnasama sa ngalan ng tao. Pang. Kint. Hen. Dr. Sen. Gob. Ahensya o sangay ng pamahalaan SK: Sangguniang Kabataan KWF: Kumisyon sa Wikang Filipino Iba’t ibang Kapisanan o Samahan UMPIL:Unyon ng Manunulat sa Pilipinas KBP: Kapisanan ng mga Brodkaster sa Pilipinas Oras at Buwan Ika-7:30 n.u. Pebrero- Peb. Ika-12:00 n.t. Oktubre- Okt. Ika-4:30 n.h. Nobyembre- Nob. Ika-8:00 n.g. Disyembre- Dis.

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Mga Uri ng Talata
Ano ba ang talata? Ang talata ay grupo ng mga naka-ugnay na pangungusap tungkol sa isang paksa. Ito sa ingles ay "paragraph". 4 na uri Talatang Nagsasalaysay Talatang Naglalarawan Talatang Naglalahad Talatang Nangangatwiran Talatang Nagsasalaysay Nagkukwento, nagsasaad kung kelan, saan at paano ang mga nangyari. Talatang Naglalarawan Nagsasaad o nagpapakita ng anyo hugis, kulay at katangian

Talatang Naglalahad Nagpapaliwanag o Nagsasaad ng isang katotohanan palagay o opinyon. Talatang Nangangatwiran May layuning mapapaniwala o kaya ay mapansang ayon ang iba sa kanyang katwiran Ngayong Mahal na Araw ay ating ginugunita muli ang Pasyon ng ating Tagapagligtas na si Hesukristo. Binabalikan natin ang Kanyang pagdurusa sa krus bilang kabayaran sa ating mga kasalanan. Bagamat alam natin na ang kaganapan na ito ay tapos na, at ang ating Panginoon ay BUHAY nagyon at nasa langit (huwag maniwala sa pamahiin na ang Diyos ay patay kapag Biyernes Santo at Sabado de Gloria; ang mahal na araw at isang paggunita lamang), mainam na sariwain ang mga kaganapan ng pasyon sa ating kamalayan upang hindi tayo makalimot sa tanda ng lubos ng pagmamahal sa atin ng Diyos. Isang malaking iskandalo ang kaganapan ng Pasyon. May Diyos ba ng nagdurusa? May Diyos ba na nagpapakasakit? May Diyos ba na ayaw lumaban sa Kanyang mga tagatugis at pinabayaan na Siya ay maipako sa krus para sa kamalian ng iba? Aba, anong klaseng Diyos ito!

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