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Zera Babe S.

Buison The nicotine in cigarettes is thought to

Marketing contract the blood vessels in the uterus
and placenta. This interferes with the
delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the

Factors Affecting Prenatal 6. Alcohol

When consumed in moderate amounts,
1. Maternal nutrition alcohol has no ill effects. But if the
mother drinks excessively, she is likely
Fetus gets the nourishment from to give birth to a small baby with
maternal blood stream through placenta, retarded motor development.
so the mother’s diet should contain
necessary nutrients, like proteins for 7. Emotional state of mother
tissue building and repair, fats to form
tissues, etc. Emotions can temporarily affect the
child. The activity level of the fetus is
2. Mental health increased when the mother is
emotionally upset. Difficulty of labor and
Substances that can harmfully affect delivery is also related to the mother’s
pre-natal development are called level of tension during the preceding
tetrarogens, which may either cause months.
physical or mental abnormalities. Some
diseases, if contracted by the mother, 8. Maternal age
are believed to be tetratogence. A
disease causing virus can be Those woman who are below 21, have
transmitted from the mother’s blood chances of miscarriage, still births, and
stream to the baby’s if it is small enough fetal malformations. The reason is that
to pass through the placental screen. the reproductive organs of the female
are not fully mature.
3. Bacterial infections

Bacterial infections may also cross the

placental screen, one such infection,
toxoplasmosis, has recently been Principles of Growth and
blamed for some cases of congenial Development
brain damage and blindness.

4. Drugs 1. Development is orderly and

follows a sequential pattern
Drugs are other chemicals that can filter which is predictable.
through the placenta into the blood 2. Development is the product of
stream of fetus. The risk is greater the interaction of maturation and
during the early stages of pregnancy, learning.
when development is progressing more 3. There are individual differences
rapidly. in development.
4. Development proceeds by
5. Smoking stages.