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ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေ ေေေေ

ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ

ေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေ


“ေေေေေေေေေေေေ” ေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေ
ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေ ေေေေေ
ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ

ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ


ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေ (ေေေေေေေေ
) ေ ေေေေ ေေေေေေ
ေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေ
ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ
ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ

ေေေေေေေေေေေေ

ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေ


ေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေ ေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေ ေေေေ
ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေ

ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေ


“ေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေ” ေေေေေ ေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေ

ေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ “ ေေေေေေေေေေေေ ”


ေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေ “ေေေေေေေေေေေ” ေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ
ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ

ေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေ ေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေ


ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေ ေေ ေေေ ေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေ ေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ
ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေ ေေေေေေေ
ေေေေေေေ ေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေ

ေေေေေေေေေေေေ

ေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေ
(ေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေ-ေေေေ) ေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ
ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေ
ေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေ
ေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ
ေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေ
ေေေေေေေေေေ

ေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေ(ေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေ-ေေေေ) ေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ


ေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေ ေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေ
ေေေေေေ ေေ ေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေ
ေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ

ေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေ


ေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေ

ေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေ
ေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေ“ေေေေေေေေေေေေေ” ေေ ေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ
ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေ
ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ
ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေ ေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ
ေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေ “ေေေေေေေေေေ” ေေေ
ေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေ ေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေ ေေေေ
ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ
ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေ
ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေ ေေေေ ေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေ
ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ

ေေေေေေေေေ

ေေေေ ေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ “ေေေေေေေေေ” ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ


ေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေ
“ေေေေေေေေေ” ေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေ ေ ေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေ
ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေ ေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေ ေေေေ ေေေေေ ေေေေေ
ေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေ ေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ

ေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေ “ေေေေေေေ” ေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေ


ေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေ

ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ


ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေ ေေေ ေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေ
ေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေ
ေေေေ ေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေ

ေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေ
(Dr. Jonathan Wade)
ေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ
ေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေ
ေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ
ေေေေေေေေ ေေေေ ေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ
ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေ ေေေေ ေေေေေေေ ေေေေေ ေေ ေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ
ေေေေေေေေ ေ ေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေ
ေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ

ေေေေ ေေေေေေေ ေေေေေ ေေ ေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ “ေေေေေေေေေ


” ေေေေေေေ
ေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ
ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ

ေေေေ ေေေေေေ ေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေ


ေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ

ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေ (Thesaurus of Karen Knowledge)


ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေ ေေေေေေ ေေေေေ
ေေေေေ ေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ

ေေေေေေေ ေေေေေ(Dr. Mason)

ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေ ေေေေ ေေေေေေေ ေေေ ေေ ေေေေေေေေေေ


ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ
ေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေ ေေ ေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေ
ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ (Old Testament) ေေေ ေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေ
ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ

ေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေ


ေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေ

“ေေေေေေေ” ေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေ (The Morning Star) ေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေ


ေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ
“ေေေေေေေ” ေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေ

ေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ


ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေ
ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ

ေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေ


ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ “ေေေေေေေ” ေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေ
ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ

ေေေေ ေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေ


ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေ
ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေ ေေေေ ေေေေေေေ ေေေ
ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေ ေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေ
ေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ

ေေေေေေေ ေေေေေ ေေေ ေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ


ေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေ ေေေေေေေေ ေေေေ ေေေေေေ ေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ
ေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေ
ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေ

ေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေ ေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေ (ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ


) ေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေ
ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ

ေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေ


ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေ
ေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေ
ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ
ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေ
ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေ
ေေေ ေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေ
ေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ
ေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေ ေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေ
ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ

ေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေ


ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ........

ေေေေေေေေေေေ…….ေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေ


ေ.ေေေေေေေ
.ေေေေ

ေေေေေေေေေ

ေေေေေ ေေေေေေေ- ေေေေေေေေ

ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ
- ေေေေေေေေ (ေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေ ေေ
-ေ.ေေ)

ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ
- ေေေေေေေေ (ေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေ ေ
-ေ.ေေ)

ေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေေေ - ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ

The Karen People of Burma: A Study in Anthropology and Ethnology by


Harry Ignatius Marshall

ေေေေေေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေ
(links) ေေေေ

http://gutenberg.net.au/karen-people-of-burma.html

http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=shn

ေေေေေေေေေ ေေေေေေ