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Edward Mendelson, \X1illiam Meredith and Monroe K. Spears, Executors of rhe Estate of W H.

Auden, from W H Auden:

Collected Poems by W.H. Auden. Used by permission of Random House, Inc. a lonely end (semi-found poem) by Libby Oughton from Getting the Housework Donrfor the Dance © 1988. Patterns by Amy Lowell from The Complete Poetical Works of Amy Lowelf. Copyright © 1955 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Copyright © renewed 1983 by Houghton Mifflin Company, Brinton P Roberts, and G. D'Andelot Belin, Esquire. Reprinted by permission of Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Grass by Carl Sandburg from Cornhusleers by Carl Sandburg, copyright 1918 by Holt, Rinehart and Winston and renewed 1946 by Carl Sandburg, reprinted by permission of Harcourt, Inc. The Dying Eagle by E.J. Pratt frorn Collected Poems, University of Toronto Press, 1989. Reprinted with permission of the publisher. As We Like It by Clara Claiborne Park. from The American Scholar, Vo!' 42, No.2, Spring 1973. Reprinted by permission of Clara Claiborne Park. How Do You Know It's Good: by Marya Mannes from But Wi/1ft Sell by Marya Mannes, © 1962 by Marya Mannes, J.B. Lippincott Company. One Critic's Praise Is Another's Purple Prose by Philip Marchand. Reprinted with permission ~ The Toronto Star Syndicate. Encouragement Is A Two-Edged Sword by Alison Blackduck. Reprinted by permission of the author. Mongrel Beauties by Pica Iyer. Reprinted by permission of the author. August by Roderick Haig-Brown. © 1990 Valerie Haig-Brown. Reprinted by permission. Phobias by Jeffrey Kluger. © 2001 Time Inc. Reprinted by permission. Shopping for Scholarships by John Schofield. Reprinted by permission of Macleans. Four Who Make a Difference by Jennifer Burke Crump. Reprinted with permission from the May 2001 Readers Digest. Opening Doors by Johanna Weidner. Reprinted by permission of the Kztchcncr- Wrlterloo Record. Out of This World by Chris Hadfield. © 2001 Time Inc. Reprinted hy permission. For Conversation, Press #1 by Michael Alvear. Reprinted by permission of the author. Blondie cartoon. Reprinted with special permission of King features Syndicate. Now Hear This by Don Oldenburg. © 2001, The Washington Post. Reprinted with permission. State of the Uniform by Dick Snyder. Printed with permission of enRoute magazine © 200 1 by Dick

Snyder; published by Spafax Canada Inc. Don't Lecture Us by San Grewal. Reprinted with permission ~ Tbe Toronto Star Syndicate. Bone Etchings and Blood Tattoos: Letters from Niger by Marcello DiCintio from Eucnt: The Douglas College Review, Winter lOOO/200 I, Vol. 29:3, copyrighr © 2000 by Marcello DiCintio. Excerpt from Things That Must Not Be Forgotten from Things Th.rr Must Not Be forgotten: A Childhood in Wartime Chinel by Michael David Kwan. Published in Canada by Macfarlane Walter & Ross, Toronto. Graduates: Go Make a Difference by Adrienne Clarkson. This speech has been published with the approval of the Governor General of Canada, Government of Canada, 2001. Catalogues by Jessica Bulman from Ophelia Speaks by Sara Shandler © 1999 HarperCollins Publishers Inc. Reprinted by permission of HarperCollins Publishers Inc. Excerpts from The Medium is the Massage by Marshall McLuhan. From The Medium is the MelSSage by Marshall McLuhan & Quentin Fiore, copyright © 1967 by Marshall McLuhan, Quentin Fiore and Jerome Agel. Used by permission of Random House, Inc. Oh Canada! Will the Internet make our home a virtual land? by Sheryl N. Hamilton. Reprinted by permission of the author. Tainted Search by Paddy Kamen. Reprinted by permission of the author. You Pay, You Play by Adam Cohen. © 2001 Time Inc. Reprinted by permission. Hi & Lois cartoon. Reprinted with special permission of King Features Syndicate. Imperial Tobacco Canada Limited and JTI-Macdonald Corp. Advertisement. Reprinted by permission of Imperial Tobacco Canada Limited and JTI-Macdonald Corp. Lighter Skin Lures Indian Brides-to-Be by Sharlene Azam. Reprinted with permission ~ The Toronto Star Syndicate. Six Chix cartoon. Reprinted with special permission of King Features Syndicate. Advertising Still Missing Mark with Women by Susan Heinrich. Reprinted by permission of the National Post. Image Conscious by Kate MacNamara. Reprinted by permission of the author. Desigu That Makes You Buy by Julie McCann. Reprinted by permission of the author. Two Cheers for Consumerism by James S. 'Iwirchel' from Lead Us Into Temptation: The Ti-iumph a/American Materialism by James B. Twitchell, © 1999 Columbia University Press. Reprinted with the permission of the publisher.

536 Elements of English 12

Writers, backgrounds of, 456 Writing

academic, 482-84 action plans, 497 audience, 479 descriptive, 484-85 purpose, 479-81 revising, 496-97 types, 477-78

"You Pay, You Play" (Cohen), 400-401

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Repetition, 495

Report, 45,133, 193, 198,222,263,276, 342,350,362,406,409,412,415, 431,524


in academic writing, 482 documentation, 474-76 strategies, 468-72

using the Internet, 470-72 Research report, 524

Restrictive (essential) clauses, 439 Resume, 524

"Revenge Gardening" (Harper), 64-77,


Revenge tragedy, 449

Review, 42, 209, 295, 308, 524 Revising, 496-97

Rhetoric, 460

Rhyme scheme, 193,212,466,524 Rhythm, 466

Richler, Mordecai, 46-56 Role-playing, 41, 299, 342, 524 Romantic period, 451

Roman tragedy, 448

"Room on the Roof, A" (Liebrecht), 78-98, 183

Root words, 442-43


Sandburg, Carl, 266 Sarcasm, 524

Satire, 133,276,524 Scene, 462

Schofield, John, 327-32 Semicolons, 444, 483 Seminar presentations, 503 Seneca, 448, 449 Sentences

combining, 483-84 order within, 441 parts of, 438-40

532 Elements of English 12

types of, 440-41 unconventional structure, 442 variety in, 440-42

Setting, 98, 193,227,239,249,460, 462, 524

Shakespeare, William, 277-84, 449 "Shopping for Scholarships" (Schofield),


Short story, 459, 524 Simile, 524

Simple sentences, 441 Slang, 478

Snyder, Dick, 354-57 Sonnets, 464 Sophocles, 447

Sound, in poetry, 465-66 Soutar-Hynes, Mary Lou, 196-98 Speech, 385, 524

Spellcheck use, 496

"Spinning" (Wilson), 232-34 Spondaic foot, 467

Standard Canadian English, 479 Stanza, 197,212,231,234,239,257,


"State of the Uniform" (Snyder), 354-57

Stoicism, 448

Stone Angel, The (Laurence, Nichol), 134-83,229

Story, 7,17,41, 56, 63, 98,134,229,

234,271,476,524 Storyboard, 524 Strindberg, August, 452 Structure, 460

Style, 41, 45,183,189,198,217,276,

283, 295, 326, 350, 524-25 Subjective completion, 438

Subjects, of sentences, 438 Subordinate clauses, 440, 483 Subordinate (dependent) clauses, 439 Subordinating conjunctions, 438

Literary essay, 189,237,263, 522 Literary sociogram, 119, 522 Litotes, 276, 522

Logic, 489-93

"lonely end (semi-found poem), a" (Oughton), 241, 255-58

"Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock, The" (Eliot),242-53

Lowell, Amy, 259-63, 357

Lyric poem, 464


MacNamara, Kate, 416-18

Majeeda, Queen, 206-207, 208 Mannes, Marya, 209, 285-90, 293-95 Marchand, Philip, 290-95

Marlowe, Christopher, 449

McCann, Julie, 419-26

McLuhan, Marshall, 390-94

Media works, 507-10

Medium is the Massage, The (McLuhan), 390-94

Memoir, 2, 373, 378, 522

Merchant of Venice, The (Shakespeare),

277-78, 280-84 Metacognition, 522 Meter, 466

Metrical variation, 467-68 Middleton, Thomas, 449 Miller, Arthur, 452 Mitchell, Reid, 42-45

"Modern Day Slavery" (Majeeda), 206-207,208-209

"Mongrel Beauties" (Iyer), 189,224, 300-308

Monologue, 276, 522

Mood, 7, 214, 217,249, 312, 316, 373,


Moore, Marianne, 210-12 "Mosquito, The" (Leacock), 274-76 Munro, Alice, 18-45

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Name calling, 493

Narrative, 221, 239, 249, 257, 347, 463-64,464,522

Narrator, 7, 56,208, 212, 217, 227, 231, 234,236,239,249,250,258,263, 379, 522

Nemesis, 447

Neoclassicism, 450

Newspaper article! report! story, 522 Nichol, James W, 182

Non-restrictive (non-essential) clauses,


Noun clauses, 440 Nouns, 434

"Now Hear This" (Oldenburg), 351-53


Obituary, 522 Object, of verb, 438

"0 Can@da! Will the Internet Make Our Home a Virtual Land?" (Hamilton), 394,395-97

Odds Are (Powell), 120-33 Ode, 217, 522

"Ode on a Grecian Urn" (Keats),


Oldenburg, Don, 351-53 Ondaatje, Michael, 184-89

"One Critic's Praise Is Another's Purple

Prose" (Marchand), 290-93 O'Neill, Eugene, 452

"Opening Doors" (Weidner), 340-42 Opinion essay, 362, 385, 522

Oral communication, 498-506

Oral tradition, 446

Oughton, Libby, 241, 255-58 "Out of This World" (Hadfield),

343-47 Oxymoron, 300, 461


Editorial, 299, 332, 342, 520 Elegy, 465

Eliot, T.S., 248, 251-53, 482 Ellipsis, points of, 445 E-mail, 510-14

Emotion, 490-91,492-93 "Encouragement Is a Two-Edged Sword"

(Blackduck),296-99 Engfer, Lee J., 57-63

Epic poem, 450, 465

Essay, 45, 98,119,189, 193,208,222, 231,237,250,253,263,271,276, 283,294,298,307,312,315,347, 350,353,356,373,379,412,431, 474,476,520

Essential clauses, 439 Etymology, 520 Eulogy, 520 Euphony, 466 Euripides, 447

Example, development by, 485 Exclamation mark, 444 Exclamatory sentences, 441 Explicit meaning, 409, 520 Exposition, 488, 520 Extended metaphor, 197, 520


Fable, 271, 520

Facts, in writing, 492 Fallacies, logical, 490-91

"Female Characters in Shakespeare's

Plays, The," 277-84 Figures of speech, 460 Films, 507

Flashback, 77, 520-21 Flyer, 521

Foot, in poetry, 466-67

"For Conversation, Press #1" (Alvear), 348-50

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Foreshadowing, 521

"for writers whose work i have loved" (Soutar-Hynes), 196-98

"Four Who Make a Difference" (Crump),

333-39 Fragmentation, 454 Free-verse poem, 464 Frost, Robert, 194-95 Future tense, 436-37


Gerund, 435, 436

Girl Who Loved Her Horses (Taylor), 77,

99-119,339 Glittering generalities, 493 Glossary, 7, 276,521

"God's Grandeur" (Hopkins), 240-41 Grace, Patricia, 2-7

"Graduates: Go Make a Difference" (Clarkson), 380-85 Grammar, unconventional, 442 "Grandfather's Dreams" (Breeze), 204-206, 208-209

Graphic organizer, 63, 119,267,308,

356,404,521 "Grass" (Sandburg), 266 Greek tragedies, 446-47 Grewal, San, 358-62


Hadfield, Chris, 343-47

Haig- Brown, Roderick, 231, 309-12 Haiku, 465

Hamartia, 447,451

Hamilton, Sheryl N., 395-97 Harper, Sue, 64-77

Heinrich, Susan, 413-15

"Here's to My Hair" (Barrow), 203, 208-209

"Hi and Lois" (Walker and Walker), 405-406



Abstract nouns, 434 Accent, 465

Active voice, 437 Adaptation, 312, 518 Adjective clauses, 440 Adjectives, 437 Adverb clauses, 440 Adverbs, 437

"Advertising Still Missing Mark with

Women" (Heinrich), 413-15 Aeschylus, 447

Alliteration, 465

Allusion, 461

Alvear, Michael, 348-50

Ambiguity, in postmodernism, 454-55 Analogy, 229, 234, 347, 486, 518 Anapestic foot, 467

Anthology, 212, 239, 267, 271, 476,518 Antithesis, 385, 518

Appositives, 483-84

Archetype, 518

Argumentative essay, 518

Aristotle, 447-48

Article, 239, 326, 332, 338, 347, 350, 353,361,397,404,406,412,415, 418,425,431,476

Assertive sentences, 440

Assonance, 465

"As We Like It: How a Girl Can Be Smart and Still Popular" (Park), 279-82

As You Like It (Shakespeare), 278, 280-84 Atmosphere, 518

Arwood, Margaret, 218-22 Auden, WH., 254-55, 257

526 Elements of English 12

Audience, persuasion of, 489-93 "August" (Haig-Brown), 231, 309-12 "Author's Commentary: The Uncertain

World" (Richler), 51-55, 56 Autobiography, 518

Azam, Sharlene, 410-12


Baigent, Beryl, 228-29

"Bambinger" (Richler), 46-50, 55, 56 Bandwagoning,492

Barrow, Michelle, 203, 207, 208-209 Bathos, 276, 518

Beckett, Samuel, 452-53

"Beyond Pastel" (Lawrence), 235-37 Bi~,294, 342,406,410,415,418, 518 Biography, 17, 241, 518

Blackduck, Alison, 296-99

Blank verse, 464

Bombast, 450

"Bone Etchings and Blood Tattoos"

(Dicintio), 363-73 "Bones" (Engfer), 57-63 Boolean searching, 471-72 Bourgeois tragedy, 451-52 Brecht, Bertolt, 452

Breeze, Jean "Binta," 204, 208-209 Brochure, 332, 518-19

Browning, Janisse, 225-27 Bulman, Jessica, 388-89


Cacophony, 466 Camera terms, 508 Caption, 519 Caricature, 519

you shall find me a grave man." The word "grave" could mean both "serious" and "dead in the grave."

report: An oral or written account or opinion formally expressed, based on findings from investigation or inquiry.

research report: A form of non-fiction writing intended to inform an audience about a particular topic. It contains factual information that is carefully researched from authoritative sources. (See also The Reference Shelf, pages 468-475.)

resume: A summary of a person's work experience, skills, education, and interests.

review: A form of writing that discusses the good and bad points of a book, film, work of art, and so on. It usually provides a synopsis or description of the work and focuses on a few key aspects, using evidence to support arguments.

rhyme scheme: The pattern of end rhymes in a poem. A rhyme scheme is indicated by assigning each new end rhyme a different letter of the alphabet. For example, the rhyme scheme of the first stanza of Robert Frost's poem "Dust of Snow" is abab. (See also The Reference Shelf, pages 464-465.)

role-playing: Assuming and acting the

role of a character, fictitious or real, and using dialogue and/or gestures, appropriate to the individual, to present the character to an audience in an improvisation.

sarcasm: A cutting expression or remark.

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satire: A literary work that ridicules human vices and follies, often with the purpose of teaching a lesson or encouraging change. Odds Are takes a satirical look at modern relationships.

setting: The place and time of a story, play, or poem. (See also The Reference Shelf, pages 460 and 462.)

short story: A short fictional prose narrative having only one major character, plot, setting, and theme. The short story usually focuses on a single conflict, character, or emotional effect.

simile: A figure of speech that makes a comparison between two seemingly unlike things using a connective word such as like or as. An example is "his long dreadlocks fly/untethered like snakes set free" in "intertribal." See also metaphor.

speech: A public address, usually given in formal language, often to persuade an audience. Adrienne Clarkson's speech is a convocation address.

stanza: A set number of lines grouped together to form units in poetry.

story: See short story.

storyboard: A series of panels with sketches and dialogue representing the shots in an advertisement, film, or television program, used to plan for a film or video.

style: The particular way in which a writer expresses himself or herself in writing. It

is the sum effect of the author's choice of

printed and electronic material, including the placement of the words and illustrations or photos. Layouts can be done by hand or by using computer software.

literary essay: See essay.

literary sociogram: A visual organizer that shows the relationships between characters in a piece of writing.

litotes: A form of deliberate understatement that emphasizes a characteristic by using the opposite or negative form. To say "Shakespeare was no minor dramatist" when you mean to emphasize Shakespeare's importance to English drama is an example of litotes.

memoir: A form of autobiographical writing dealing with personal recollections of people or events.

metacognition: The act of thinking about, explaining, and refining personal thinking processes; when you explain the thinking behind an argument or analysis, you are engaging in metacognition.

metaphor: A figure of speech that makes a comparison between two seemingly unlike things without using connective words such as like or as. See also simile.

Sometimes writers use an extended metaphor - a metaphor that develops its comparison over several lines or paragraphs of a piece of writing or even throughout the entire piece. "for writers whose work

i have loved" uses an extended metaphor that compares the words of writers with mangoes.

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monologue: A speech by one person telling a story, revealing character, or describing a humorous or dramatic situation.

A dramatic monologue is a form of poetry in which a character speaks to a definite but silent listener and thereby reveals his or her own character.

An interior monologue is a form

of writing that reveals the inner thoughts of a character.

mood: See atmosphere.

narrative: Another word for story. Narratives have the following elements: plot, conflict, characters, setting, point of view, and theme. Narratives may be fictional or non-fictional.

narrator: The person or character who tells the story.

newspaper article/report/story: Nonfiction prose that informs readers about

an event or issue. It has titles in the form of brief sentences (also known as headlines). The most important information appears at the beginning of a newspaper article so that the reader can stop reading once he or she has sufficient information on the topic.

obituary: An account of a person's life, character, or achievements published in a magazine or newspaper shortly after the person's death.

ode: A lyric poem that uses lofty or dignified language and is often addressed to someone.

opinion essay: See essay.

diction: The deliberate choice of words to create a specific style, atmosphere, or tone. Also, depending on purpose and audience, writers may use slang, colloquialisms, jargon, dialect or formal or informal levels of language. (See also The Reference Shelf, pages 478-481.)

drama: A story written in the form of dialogue intended to be acted out in front of an audience. It consists of plot complication and resolution, character revelation, conflict, setting, and theme.

dramatic monologue: See monologue.

editorial: A newspaper or magazine article giving the opinion of the editor, publisher, etc. regarding a subject.

essay/magazine article/supported opinion piece/personal essay/literary essay: Nonfiction prose that examines a single topic from one point of view. It requires an introductory paragraph stating the main or controlling ideas, several paragraphs developing the topic, and a concluding paragraph. The title often identifies the topic. Formal essays are usually serious and impersonal in tone. Personal or informal essays reveal the personality and feelings of the author and are conversational in tone. "Encouragement Is a Two-Edged Sword" and "Out of This World" are examples of this type of non-fiction writing. Essays

can be informational, persuasive, argumentative, or literary.

An informational essay provides information to the reader. It has supporting details and frequently involves some analysis of the information presented.

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A persuasive essay uses supporting details and argumentation to persuade the reader to accept the writer's point of view.

An argumentative essay argues for or against a question or a position on a topic, issue, etc.

A literary essay discusses and analyzes themes, characters, meanings, etc. of a work of literature. "T.S. Eliot: The Design of His Poetry" is a literary essay.

etymology: The historical origin and development of a word. Most dictionaries provide the etymologies of words. (See also The Reference Shelf, pages 442-443.)

eulogy: A speech or writing in praise of a person, action, etc.

explicit meaning: An idea or a message that is stated directly by the writer. For example, the Imperial Tobacco advertisement explicitly states that it supports Bill 5-15. See also implicit meaning.

exposition: A piece of writing that presents information, explains ideas, or presents an argument. It is a generic term for writing that is not drama, narration, or description. "Opening Doors" may be considered an exposition.

extended metaphor: See metaphor.

fable: A story meant to teach a lesson. It often includes talking animals.

flashback: A device that shifts the narrative from the present to the past, usually to reveal a change in character or to illustrate an important point. "Revenge Gardening"

adaptation: In literary terms, a work that has been modified or altered. For example, the drama The Stone Angel

is an adaptation of Margaret Laurence's novel.

analogy: A comparison that focuses on something similar between two things that are otherwise not the same. An analogy is often used to explain a complex idea in terms of a simpler one.

anthology: A published collection of literary material including poems, short stories, novels, non-fiction selections, or other material.

antithesis: A figure of speech in which words or ideas are set up in parallel structure or balance against each other

to emphasize the contrast in their meaning. For example, "To err is human; to forgive, divine" (Alexander Pope).

archetype: A literary term used to describe an image, character type, or plot that occurs frequently in myths, religion, folklore, and literature. Some archetypes often found in literary works are the images of the seasons, of life, death,

and rebirth; the characters of the heroadventurer or the fatal woman; the

plot or story of the quest or the purifying Journey.

argumentative essay: See essay.

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article: See essay and newspaper article.

atmosphere (or mood): The prevailing feeling in a literary work created through word choice, descriptive details, and evocative imagery. The description of the narrator's mother in "It Used to Be Green Once" evokes an atmosphere of fun and ligh theartedness.

autobiography: The story of a person's life written by that person.

bathos: An unintentional anticlimax resulting from an unsuccessful attempt to achieve dignity or elevated style in literature. Instead of achieving the intended effect of dignity or pathos, the passage often causes laughter on the part of a reader or spectator. The term is also commonly applied to the deliberate use of anticlimax for satiric or humorous effect.

bias: An underlying preference for or prejudice against a particular idea, value, or group of people.

biography: The story of a person's life written by someone other than the person.

brochure: A printed booklet, or pages that are folded into panels, used to advertise or give information about a business, product, place, and so on. A brochure often contains colourful graphics or pictures.