SHADOW ALARM

A mini project report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN ELECTRONICS AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING
Submitted by A.NAFEES AHMED R.SWETHA Sk.IBRAHIM

Y7EM249 3/4 B.Tech

Y7EM310 3/4 B.Tech

Y7EM291 3/4 B.Tech

Under the esteemed guidance of

Sri N.V.KrishnaRamesh
lecturer

Sri G.Subrahmanya Sharma
Assistant Professor

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING

KONERU LAKSHMAIAH COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
(AUTONOMOUS)

Green Fields, Vaddeswaram - 522 502, Guntur District, A.P. Approved by A.I.C.T.E.  Affiliated to AcharyaNagarjuna University Accredited by N.B.A. Accredited by N.A.A.C ISO 9001-2000 Certified
2008-09

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING

KONERU LAKSHMAIAH COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
(AUTONOMOUS)

CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the mini project entitled “SHADOW ALARM”, being submitted by A.NAFEESAHMED(Y7EM249),R.SWETHA(Y7EM310), Sk.IBRAHIM(Y7EM291)in partial fulfillment for the award of degree of Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech) in Electronics and Computer Engineering of AcharyaNagarjuna University, is a record of confide work carried out by them under our guidance and supervision during the academic year 2008-2009 and it has been found worthy of acceptance according to the requirements of the university.

MrN.V.K.Ramesh, M.Phil. Lecturer and Project Guide.

Tech.S.MrSri G. B. A. Prof. Finally.V. good will and support both moral and technical extended by several individuals out of which this project has evolved. Her invaluable moral support and guidance throughout the project helped us to a greater extent.D) Head of the Department ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We take this opportunity to remember and acknowledge the co-operation.S. With profound gratitude.S.S.BALAJI for his enthusiastic assistance and inspiring us all the way and for arranging all the facilities and resources needed for our project. PRINCIPAL of our college for his interest in our academic performance.. It is with immense pleasure that we would like to express our indebted gratitude to our guides MrN. We are also thankful to Dr. We are grateful to our family members for their moral and financial support.Dr.Nafees Ahmed(Y7EM249) .K.REDDY. We always cherish our association with them.Subrahmanya Sharma. Lecturer and Project Guide. We are very grateful to God for having us with his wisdom and knowledge and guidance through out this work.L. We are greatly elated and thankful to our Head of the Department Dr. our verbal abilities limit the expression of heartfelt feelings towards our non-teaching staff and friends who had directly or indirectly helped and supported us in completing our project in time.Ramesh and MrG.Subrahmanya Sharmawho has also guided us a lot and encouraged us in every step of the project work.Balaji(Ph.

It does not form part of any previous project work . A.Swetha (Y7EM310) Sk. thesis or report to the college or any other college.Ibrahim(Y7EM291) DECLARATION I here by declare that this Mini Project entitled “LASER TORCH-BASED VOICE TRANSMITTER AND RECEIVER” submitted by us is our original project work.Nafees Ahmed (Y7EM249) R.R.Ibrahim(Y7EM291) .Swetha(Y7EM310) Sk.

3 TRANSISTORS 3. CIRCUIT ELEMENTS 3.PHOTOS 5.2 CAPACITORS 3.CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION 1.3 COMPONENTS LIST 2.1 IC 555 2.IC PIN DESCRIPTION 2.4 ZENER DIODE 4.2 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 1.1 RESISTORS 3.CONTENTS TOPIC CERTIFICATE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT DECLARATION ABSTRACT 1.CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE 6.1 INTRODUCTION 1.2 IC 741 2.4 LIGHT EMITTING DIODES 3.REFERENCES PAGE NO .3 IC UM3561 3.

A dim lighting in the room is necessary to detect the moving shadow.So it can be used at night by shopkeepers to protect the valuables in their showrooms.ABSTRACT Our mini-project is to design and check the functionality of ‘SHADOW ALARM’ circuit . It can also be used to provide security at warehouses(go-downs) where storage and protection of various types of goods is main concern. Shadow Alarm is opto-sensitive circuit that sounds an alarm whenever a shadow falls on it . .Now a days it is widely used in aspects of security systems . it does not require an aligned light beam to illuminate the photo-sensor. Unlike opto-interruption alarms based on light-dependent resistors (LDRs).where security is our main concern . and works good for home-security too.

The non-inverting input of IC1 gets a controlled voltage from potential divider R2 and VR1. This low pulse triggers the monostable (IC2) designed for a delay of 51 seconds using R6 and C3. This makes the output of IC1 high.1V DC to IC UM3561. the phototransistor conducts and the inverting input (pin 2) of IC1 gets a lower voltage than its non-inverting input (pin 3).1. Resistor R8 and zener diode ZD1 provide 3. it does not require an aligned light beam to illuminate the photosensor. the output of IC1 goes low.INTRODUCTION This opto-sensitive circuit sounds an alarm whenever a shadow falls on it. The circuit is powered by a 9V PP3 battery and uses the most sensitive photo-sensor L14F1 to detect shadows. which is indicated by the glowing of LED1. Unlike opto interruption alarms based on lightdependent resistors (LDRs). So it can be used at night by shopkeepers to protect the valuables in their showrooms. When it is towards left the buzzer beeps. It is portable and can be used at any place that is to be monitored. Op-amp μA741 (IC1) is used as a voltage comparator. In the presence of ambient light. When a shadow falls on the photo sensor.CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION 1. . Its inverting input is biased by the voltage obtained from the junction of 100k resistor R1 and the collector of phototransistor T1. and when it is towards right IC UM3561 (IC3) activates to give a loud alarm simulating a police siren. The output of IC2 is used to light up LED2 and activate the alarm.1. Slide switch S2 is used to select either the buzzer or siren. A dim light in the room is necessary to detect the moving shadow.

2.CIRCUIT DIAGRAM .1.

1 K 4.ZENER DIODE 3. IC1 741 2. T1 L14F1 2. 47UF 5.1V 8.COMPONENTS LIST: 1. IC’s 1.RESISTORS 1. IC3 UM3561 2.01UF 3.LED 7. 47 Ohm 7. 220 K 9.SPEAKER 8Ohms/0. 4. CAPACITORS 1.5w 47K 1No 2No’S 1No 1No 1No 1No 2 No’s 1No 1No 1No 1No 1No 1No 1No 1No 1No 1No 1No 1No 1No .TRANSISTORS 1. 100K 3.7K 4. IC2 NE555 3. T2 BC548 3. 1 Megaohms 8. 10UF 2.3. 100 Ohm 5. 0.PRESET 6.1. 680 Ohm 6. 10 2.

the timer functions as a one-shot.2. and is a true 50% duty cycle square wave. and reset currents: 20pA (typ) • High-speed operation: 500kHz guaranteed • Wide operating supply voltage range guaranteed 3 to 16V over full automotive temperatures • Normal reset function.See Figure 3.) Less than a 1%frequency variation is observed over a voltage range of +5V to +15V. The voltage across the capacitor . Upon application of a negative TRIGGER pulse to pin 2. while at the same time being a direct replacement for those devices in most applications.1 IC 7555 PIN DIAGRAM The ICM7555 is a CMOS timer providing significantly improved performance over the standard NE/SE555 timer. PIN DIAGRAM FEATURES: • Exact equivalent in most applications for NE/SE555 • Low supply current: 80mA (typ) • Extremely low trigger. IC PIN DESCRIPTION 2. Initially the external capacitor (C) is held discharged by a transistor inside the timer. threshold. The ICM7555 is a stable controller capable of producing accurate time delays or frequencies. no crowbarring of supply during output transition • Can be used with higher-impedance timing elements than the bipolar 555 for longer time constants • Timing from microseconds through hours • Operates in both astable and monostable modes • Adjustable duty cycle • High output source/sink driver can drive TTL/CMOS • Typical temperature stability of 0. (Trip points and output swings are symmetrical.005%/oC at 25°C • Rail-to-rail outputs OPERATION ASTABLE OPERATION The circuit can be connected to trigger itself and free run as a multivibrator. MONOSTABLE OPERATION In this mode of operation. the internal flip-flop is set which releases the short circuit across the external capacitor and drives the OUTPUT high.The duty cycle is controlled by the values of RA and RB. The output swings from rail to rail. see Figure 2A.

The OP-AMP has two inputs. This time if it is positive going into the 741 then it is still positive coming out.now increases exponentially with a time constant t = RAC. 2.In a noninverting amplifier the voltage enters the 741 chip through leg three and leaves the 741 chip through leg six. The most common Op-Amp is the 741 and it is used in many circuits. Leg three is the input and the output is not reversed. Leg two is the input and the output is always reversed. it negative by the time it comes out through leg six. The polarity has been ‘inverted’. which in turn discharges the capacitor rapidly and also drives the OUTPUT to its low state. APPLICATIONS • Precision timing • Pulse generation • Sequential timing • Time delay generation • Pulse width modulation • Pulse position modulation • Missing pulse detector 2. 1. It is very cheap especially keeping in mind the fact that it contains several hundred components. and one output at pin 6.When the voltage across the capacitor equals 2/3 V+.In an inverting amplifier the voltage enters the 741 chip through leg two and comes out of the 741 chip at leg six. A non-inverting amplifier. An inverting amplifier. Polarity remains the same. FEATURES: Short Circuit Protection Excellent Temperature Stability Internal Frequency Compensation High Input Voltage Range Null of Offset . INVERTING ( .2 IC 741 DESCRIPTION : The Operational Amplifier is probably the most versatile Integrated Circuit available.a little like a Darlington Pair. the comparator resets the flip-flop.) and NON-INVERTING (+).TRIGGER must return to a high state before the OUTPUT can return to a low state. Its main purpose is to amplify (increase) a weak signal . The 741 is used in two ways. The OP AMP is a ‘Linear Amplifier’ with an amazing variety of uses. If the polarity is positive going into the chip.

Since theintegrated circuit includes oscillator and selector circuits.PIN DIAGRAM: CONNECTION DIAGRAM: 2. a compact sound module can be constructed with only a few additional components.3 IC UM3561A DESCRIPTION: UM3561 is a low-cost. The M3561 contains a programmed mask ROM to simulate siren sound FEATURES: Four sounds can be selected Power on reset. . low-power CMOS LSI designed for use in alarm and toy applications.

Typical 3V operating voltage A magnetic speaker can be driven by connecting 8-pin DIP package form an NPN transistor PIN DIAGRAM: PLAYING MODES: .

Ω. are the most commonly used of all electronic components. very high wattage ratings • Semiconductor Resistors . RESISTOR SYMBOL The symbol used in schematic and electrical drawings for a Resistor can either be a "zigzag" type line or a rectangular box. In all Electrical and Electronic circuit diagrams and schematics. PASSIVE ELEMENTS 3. RESISTOR TYPES All modern resistors can be classified into four broad groups. They are "Passive Devices". low wattage values • Film or Cermet Resistor .1 RESISTORS Resistors (R).Made from conductive metal oxide paste. very low wattage values • Wire-Wound Resistors.Made of carbon dust or graphite paste. .Metallic bodies for heat sink mounting. to the point where they are almost taken for granted. the most commonly used resistor symbol is that of a "zig-zag" type line with the value of its resistance given in Ohms.3.High frequency/precision surface mount thin film technology • . that is they contain no source of power or amplification but only attenuate or reduce the voltage signal passing through them. Carbon Composition Resistor . When used in DC circuits the voltage drop produced is measured across their terminals as the circuit current flows through them while in AC circuits the voltage and current are both in-phase producing 0o phase shift.

The Resistor Colour Code Table. Colour Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Digit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Multiplier 1 10 100 1K 10K 100K 1M ± 0. The Standard Resistor Colour Code Chart. tolerance. These coloured painted bands are generally known as a Resistors Colour Code.5% ± 0. small resistors use coloured painted bands to indicate both their resistive value and their tolerance with the physical size of the resistor indicating its wattage rating. and watt rating of the resistor are generally printed onto the body of the resistor as numbers or letters when the resistor is big enough to read the print. such as large power resistors. So to overcome this.25% ± 1% ± 2% Tolerance . these specifications must be shown in some other manner as the print would be too small to read.RESISTOR COLOUR CODE The resistance value. When resistors are small such as 1/4W Carbon and Film types.

cermet (ceramic and metal mixture) or a coil of wire (for low resistances).1 0. RHEOSTAT This is the simplest way of using a variable resistor. Presets are much cheaper than standard variable resistors so they are sometimes used in projects where a standard variable resistor would normally be used. The track may be made from carbon. Variable resistors may be used as a rheostat with two connections (the wiper and just one end of the track) or as a potentiometer with all three connections in use. linear or logarithmic track.Violet Grey White Gold Silver None 7 8 9 10M ± 0. Miniature versions called presets are made for setting up circuits which will not require further adjustment.1% 0. Variable resistors are often called potentiometers in books and catalogues. A small screwdriver or similar tool is required to adjust presets. and their physical size.They are designed to be mounted directly onto the circuit board and adjusted only when the circuit is built. PRESETS Symbol These are miniature versions of the standard variable resistor. are also available. Multiturn presets are used where very precise . The track is usually rotary but straight track versions. the other to the moveable wiper. They are specified by their maximum resistance. Two terminals are used: one connected to an end of the track. The standard spindle diameter is 6mm.01 ± 5% ± 10% ± 20% VARIABLE RESISTORS CONSTRUCTION Variable resistors consist of a resistance track with connections at both ends and a wiper which moves along the track as you turn the spindle. Turning the spindle changes the Rheostat resistance between the two terminals from zero up to the maximum resistance. usually called sliders.

000. This flow of electrons to the plates is known as the Charging Current and continues to flow until the voltage across the plates (and hence the capacitor) is equal to the applied voltage Vc. The screw must be turned many times (10+) to move the slider from one end of the track to the other. 1.000000001 = 10-9 F Picofarad (pF) 1pF = 1/1. At this point the capacitor is said to be fully charged and this is illustrated below.DIELECTRIC Dielectric Capacitors are usually of the variable type such as used for tuning transmitters. a current flows charging up the plates with electrons giving one plate a positive charge and the other plate an equal and opposite negative charge.000 = 0.000000000001 = 10-12 F TYPES OF CAPACITORS There are a very large variety of different types of Capacitors available in the market place and each one has its own set of characteristics and applications from small delicate trimming capacitors up to large power metal can type capacitors used in high voltage power correction and smoothing circuits.000001 = 10-6 F Nanofarad (nF) 1nF = 1/1.000. PRESET(OPEN STYLE) MULTITURN PRESET PRESET(CLOSED STYLE) 3.000 = 0. When a voltage is applied to these plates.000.000. giving very fine control. receivers and transistor radios. the Capacitor or sometimes referred to as a Condenser is a passive device. Capacitor Construction Q=CxV UNITS OF CAPACITANCE • • • Microfarad (μF) 1μF = 1/1. They have a set of fixed plates and a set of moving plates that mesh with the fixed plates and the position of the moving plates with .2 CAPACITORS INTRODUCTION Just like the Resistor.000 = 0. and one which stores energy in the form of an electrostatic field which produces a potential (Static Voltage) across its plates.adjustments must be made.000.000.

polycarbonate. The capacitance is generally at maximum when the plates are fully meshed. teflon etc. 103 would indicate 10 x 103 PF 4. FILM CAPACITORS Film Capacitors are the most commonly available of all types of capacitors. These include polyester (Mylar). Ceramic capacitors have values ranging from a few picofarads to one or two microfarads but their voltage ratings are generally quite low. Ceramic capacitors have a high dielectric constant (High-K) and are available so that relatively high capacitances can be obtained in a small physical size. ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITORS Electrolytic Capacitors are generally used when very large capacitance values are required. Variable Capacitor Symbols As well as the continuously variable types. Film type capacitors are available in capacitance ranges from 5pF to 100uF depending upon the actual type of capacitor and its voltage rating. 2. polystyrene. a semi-liquid electrolyte solution in the form of a jelly or paste is used which serves as the second electrode (usually the cathode). are made by coating two sides of a small porcelain or ceramic disc with silver and are then stacked together to make a capacitor. These are generally small devices that can be adjusted or "pre-set" to a particular capacitance with the aid of a screwdriver and are available in very small capacitances of 100pF or less and are non-polarized. Ceramic types of capacitors generally have a 3-digit code printed onto their body to identify their capacitance value. Here instead of using a very thin metallic film layer for one of the electrodes. consisting of a relatively large family of capacitors with the difference being in their dielectric properties. polypropylene. The dielectric is a very thin layer of oxide which is grown electro- . metallized paper. preset types are also available called Trimmers. For very low capacitance values a single ceramic disc of about 3-6mm is used. They exhibit large nonlinear changes in capacitance against temperature and as a result are used as de-coupling or by-pass capacitors as they are also non-polarized devices. Film capacitors also come in an assortment of shapes and case styles which include: • • • Wrap & Fill (Oval & Round) Epoxy Case (Rectangular & Round) Metal Hermetically Sealed (Rectangular & Round) 3. CERAMIC CAPACITORS Ceramic Capacitors or Disc Capacitors as they are generally called. For example.respect to the fixed plates determines the overall capacitance.

The majority of electrolytic types of capacitors are Polarized. PIN CONFIGURATION:- . A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals changes the current flowing through another pair of terminals.chemically in production with the thickness of the film being less than ten microns. Aluminum Electrolytic and Tantalum Electrolytic capacitors. the transistor provides amplification of a signal. with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. Some transistors are packaged individually but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits. It is made of a solid piece of semiconductor material. Electrolytic Capacitors are generally used in DC power supply circuits to help reduce the ripple voltage or for coupling and decoupling applications.TRANSISTOR A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals. This insulating layer is so thin that it is possible to make large value capacitors of a small size. Because the controlled (output) power can be much more than the controlling (input) power. Electrolytic's generally come in two basic forms. 3.3. that is the voltage applied to the capacitor terminals must be of the correct polarity as an incorrect polarization will break down the insulating oxide layer and permanent damage may result.

L14F1 TRANSISTOR CHARACTERSTICS ADVANTAGES The key advantages that have allowed transistors to replace their vacuum tube predecessors in most applications are • • • • • • Small size and minimal weight. Some transistorized devices have been in service for more than 30 years. making transistors suitable for small. allowing the development of miniaturized electronic devices. resulting in low per-unit cost. Lower power dissipation and generally greater energy efficiency. Lower possible operating voltages. Highly automated manufacturing processes. . batterypowered applications. Extremely long life. Higher reliability and greater physical ruggedness.

. In contrast. “white” LEDs are actually combinations of three LEDs of a different color. is better achieved in electron tubes due to improved electron mobility in a vacuum. or a blue LED with a yellow scintillator coating. wavelengths (or colors) from the infrared to the near ultraviolet may be produced.000 volts). In a diode formed from a direct band-gap semiconductor. releasing energy in the form of photons. High power. When a diode is forward biased (switched on). Silicon transistors are much more sensitive than electron tubes to an electromagnetic pulse. high frequency operation. The first LEDs were red and yellow. The LED is based on the semiconductor diode. narrow-spectrum light.LIMITATIONS • • • Silicon transistors do not operate at voltages higher than about 1. 2. electrons are able to recombine with holes within the device. The forward potential of these diodes depends on the wavelength of the emitted photons: 1. An LED may be paired with a photodiode or phototransistor in the same package. This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. such as generated by an atmospheric nuclear explosion. to form an opto-isolator. and higher-frequency diodes have been developed over time.LIGHT EMITTING DIODES: A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source. such as that used in over-the-air television broadcasting. Depending on the material.4 V to violet. LEDs can also be used as low-efficiency photodiodes in signal applications.2 V corresponds to red. 3. All LEDs produce incoherent.4.000 volts SiC devices can be operated as high as 3. such as gallium arsenide. electron tubes have been developed that can be operated at tens of thousands of volts. carriers that cross the junction emit photons when they recombine with the majority carrier on the other side.

Colors and Materials: Color Wavelength (nm) Voltage (V) Semiconductor Material Infrared λ > 760 ΔV < 1. but not in the reverse direction. or anode.03 (AlGaInP) Gallium(III) phosphide (GaP) Gallium arsenide phosphide (GaAsP) 2. depends on the band gap energy of the materials forming the p-n junction. and therefore its color. the LED consists of a chip of semiconducting material doped with impurities to create a p-n junction. because these are indirect band gap materials. In silicon or germanium diodes. current flows easily from the p-side. and releases energy in the form of a photon.9 Gallium arsenide (GaAs) Aluminium gallium arsenide (AlGaAs) Red 610 < λ < 760 Aluminium gallium arsenide (AlGaAs) Gallium arsenide phosphide (GaAsP) 1.10 (AlGaInP) Gallium(III) phosphide (GaP) Orange 590 < λ < 610 . The wavelength of the light emitted. As in other diodes. When an electron meets a hole. The materials used for the LED have a direct band gap with energies corresponding to near-infrared.03 < ΔV < Aluminium gallium indium phosphide 2. to the n-side. visible or near-ultraviolet light.63 < ΔV < Aluminium gallium indium phosphide 2. or cathode. the electrons and holes recombine by a non-radiativetransition which produces no optical emission. it falls into a lower energy level. Charge-carriers—electrons and holes—flow into the junction from electrodes with different voltages.Like a normal diode.

0 Aluminium gallium indium phosphide (AlGaInP) Aluminium gallium phosphide (AlGaP) Zinc selenide (ZnSe) Indium gallium nitride (InGaN) 2.48 < ΔV < blue with red phosphor.5 ADVANTAGES • • • • • Efficiency Size On/Off time Cycling Dimming .76 < ΔV < Indium gallium nitride (InGaN) 4. 2.7 Silicon (Si) as substrate — (under development) 2.48 < ΔV < Silicon carbide (SiC) as substrate 3.0 Dual blue/red LEDs.7 or white with purple plastic Diamond (235 nm)[38] Boron nitride (215 nm)[39][40] Aluminium nitride (AlN) (210 nm)[41] Aluminium gallium nitride (AlGaN) Aluminium gallium indium nitride (AlGaInN) — (down to 210 nm)[42] Blue/UV diode with yellow phosphor Green 500 < λ < 570 Blue 450 < λ < 500 Violet 400 < λ < 450 Purple multiple types Ultraviolet λ < 400 3.10 < ΔV < Aluminium gallium indium phosphide 2.9 < ΔV < Gallium(III) phosphide (GaP) 4.18 (AlGaInP) Gallium(III) phosphide (GaP) Indium gallium nitride (InGaN) / Gallium(III) nitride (GaN) [37] 1.Yellow 570 < λ < 590 Gallium arsenide phosphide (GaAsP) 2.1 < ΔV < 4. 3.4 White Broad spectrum ΔV = 3.

the diode exhibits a voltage drop due to its junction built-in voltage and internal resistance. the diode will be permanently damaged. By contrast with the conventional device. . When the reverse bias breakdown voltage is exceeded.ZENER DIODES: Zener diode is a type of diode that permits current not only in the forward direction like a normal diode. Unless this current is limited by circuitry.• • • Cool light Slow failure Lifetime DISADVANTAGES • • • • • • High initial price Temperature dependence Voltage sensitivity Light quality. a conventional diode is subject to high current due to avalanche breakdown. The amount of the voltage drop depends on the semiconductor material and the doping concentrations. the so-called Zener voltage. A Zener diode exhibits almost the same properties. Area light source Blue Blue pollution APPLICATIONS Application of LEDs fall into four major categories: • • • • Visual signal application where the light goes more or less directly from the LED to the human eye. A conventional solid-state diode will not allow significant current if it is reverse-biased below its reverse breakdown voltage. to convey a message or meaning. Narrow band light sensors where the LED is operated in a reverse-bias mode and is responsive to incident light instead of emitting light.g. In case of large forward bias (current in the direction of the arrow). or as a voltage stabilizer for low-current applications. The Zener diode is therefore ideal for applications such as the generation of a reference voltage (e. except the device is specially designed so as to have a greatly reduced breakdown voltage. but also in the reverse direction if the voltage is larger than the breakdown voltage known as "Zener knee voltage" or "Zener voltage".5. Generate light for measuring and interacting with processes that do not involve the human visual system. for an amplifier stage). Illumination where LED light is reflected from object to give visual response of these objects. a reverse-biased Zener diode will exhibit a controlled breakdown and allow the current to keep the voltage across the Zener diode at the Zener voltage. 3.

The Zener diode's operation depends on the heavy doping of its p-n junction allowing electrons to tunnel from the valence band of the p-type material to the conduction band of the n-type material. In the atomic scale. The breakdown voltage can be controlled quite accurately in the doping process. Breakdown voltage for commonly available zener diodes can vary widely from 1.05% are available. While tolerances within 0.2 volts to 200 volts. the most widely used tolerances are 5% and 10%. this tunneling corresponds to the transport of valence band electrons into the empty conduction band states. .PHOTOS . as a result of the reduced barrier between these bands and high electric fields that are induced due to the relatively high levels of dopings on both sides. 4.

5.CONCLUSION&FUTURE SCOPE .

electronicsforyou.howstuffworks.REFERENCES  www.com .com  www.com  www.freedatasheets.wikipedia.com  www.circuits-today.org  www.6.

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