1.

Basic Principles of Electricity|

1. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICITY
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Electricity The Volt The Ampere The Ohm Ohm’s Law Ampacity Electrical Systems
2 2 2 2 2 3 3

|1

|1. Basic Principles of Electricity

1.1 ELECTRICITY
Electricity, simply put, is the flow of electric current along a conductor. This electric current takes the form of free electrons that transfer from one atom to the next. Thus, the more free electrons a material has, the better it conducts. There are three parameters involved in the electrical equation: the volt, the ampere and the ohm.

1.2 THE VOLT
The pressure that is put on free electrons that causes them to flow is known as electromotive force (EMF). The volt is the unit of pressure, i.e., the volt is the amount of electromotive force required to push a current of one ampere through a conductor with a resistance of one ohm.

1.3 THE AMPERE
The ampere defines the flow rate of electric current. For instance, when one coulomb (or 6 one second, it is defined as a current of one ampere. 10 electrons) flows past a given point on a conductor in
18

1.4 THE OHM
The ohm is the unit of resistance in a conductor. Three things determine the amount of resistance in a conductor: its size, its material, e.g., copper or aluminum, and its temperature. A conductor’s resistance increases as its length increases or diameter decreases. The more conductive the materials used, the lower the conductor resistance becomes. Conversely, a rise in temperature will generally increase resistance in a conductor.

1.5 OHM’S LAW
Ohm’s Law defines the correlation between electric current (I), voltage (V), and resistance (R) in a conductor. Ohm’s Law can be expressed as: V=I R volts amps ohms

Where: V I R

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1. Basic Principles of Electricity|

1.6 AMPACITY
Ampacity is the amount of current a conductor can handle before its temperature exceeds accepted limits. These limits are given in the National Electrical Code (NEC), the Canadian Electrical Code and in other engineering documents such as those published by the Insulated Cable Engineers Association (ICEA). It is important to know that many external factors affect the ampacity of an electrical conductor and these factors should be taken into consideration before selecting the conductor size.

1.7 ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS 1.7.1 Medium Voltage
The most widely used medium voltage (2.4 to 35 kV) alternating current (AC) electrical distribution systems in North America are illustrated below:

Figure 1.1 – Three phase wye (star), three wire

Figure 1.2 – Three phase delta, three wire

Figure 1.3 – Three phase star, four wire, grounded neutral

1.7.2 Low Voltage
Typical low-voltage systems (0 to 2,000 V) are illustrated below:

Figure 1.4 – Three phase wye (star), three wire, grounded neutral

Figure 1.5 – Three phase delta, four wire, grounded neutral

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2. Conductors|

2. CONDUCTORS
2.1 Strand Types
2.1.1 Concentric Strand 2.1.2 Bunch Strand 2.1.3 Rope Strand 2.1.4 Sector Conductor 2.1.5 Segmental Conductor 2.1.6 Annular Conductor 2.1.7 Compact Strand 2.1.8 Compressed Strand 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 10 11

2.2 2.3 2.4

Coatings Tensile Strength of Copper Wire Copper Strand Properties
2.4.1 Strand Classes 2.4.2 Solid Copper 2.4.3 Class B, C and D Copper 2.4.4 Class H Copper 2.4.5 Class I Copper 2.4.6 Class K Copper 2.4.7 Class M Copper

12 14 16 19 21 22 24

2.5

Aluminum Strand Properties
2.5.1 Solid Aluminum 2.5.2 Class B Aluminum 2.5.3 ACSR 25 26 28

2.6

Additional Conductor Properties
2.6.1 Stranding, Diameter, Area and DC Resistance (32 through 4/0 AWG) 2.6.3 IEC Stranding 30 35 2.6.2 Stranding, Diameter, Area, DC Resistance and Weight (20 AWG through 2,000 kcmil) 32

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|2. Conductors

CONDUCTORS
The conductor is the metallic component of cables through which electrical power or electrical signals are transmitted. Conductor size is usually specified by American Wire Gauge (AWG), circular mil area or in square millimeters. AWG The American Wire Gauge (sometimes called Brown and Sharpe or B. and S.) is used almost exclusively in the USA for copper and aluminum wire. The Birmingham Wire Gauge (BWG) is used for steel armor wire. The diameters according to the AWG are defined as follows: The diameter of size 4/0 (sometimes written 0000) equals 0.4600 inch and that of size #36 equals 0.0050 inch; the intermediate sizes are found by geometric progression. That is, the ratio of the diameter of one size to that of the next smaller size (larger gauge number) is:
39

0.4600 _____ = 1.122932 0.0050

Circular Mil Sizes larger than 4/0 are specified in terms of the total area of a cross-section of the copper in circular mils (cmil). A circular mil is a unit of area equal to the area of a circle one mil in diameter. It is /4 (equal to 0.7854) of a square mil (one mil 0.001 inch). The area of a circle in circular mils is therefore equal to the square of its diameter in mils. A solid wire one inch in diameter has an area of 1,000,000 cmils, whereas one square inch 1,000,000 cmils (equal to 1,273,200 cmils). equals 4/ Square Millimeters Metric sizes are given in terms of square millimeters (mm2). Conductor Characteristics Relative electrical and thermal conductivities of common metal conductors are as follows: Table 2.1–Relative Electrical and Thermal Conductivities of Common Conductor Materials
Relative Electrical Conductivity at 20°C Relative Thermal Conductivity at 20°C

Metal

Silver Copper (annealed) Copper (hard drawn) Gold Aluminum Magnesium Zinc Nickel Cadmium

106 100 97 72 62 39 29 25 23

108 100 – 76 56 41 29 15 24
Continued on next page >>

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2. Conductors|

Table 2.1–Relative Electrical and Thermal Conductivities of Common Conductors (Continued)
Relative Electrical Conductivity at 20°C Relative Thermal Conductivity at 20°C

Metal

Cobalt Iron Platinum Tin Steel Lead

18 17 16 15 12 8

17 17 18 17 – 9

Additional electrical properties can be found in Section 7 of this handbook.

2.1 STRAND TYPES 2.1.1 Concentric Strand
A concentric stranded conductor consists of a central wire or core surrounded by one or more layers of helically laid wires. Each layer after the first has six more wires than the preceding layer. Except in compact stranding, each layer is usually applied in a direction opposite to that of the layer under it. If the core is a single wire and if it and all of the outer strands have the same diameter, the first layer will contain six wires; the second, twelve; the third, eighteen; etc.

Figure 2.1–Concentric Strand

2.1.2 Bunch Strand
The term bunch stranding is applied to a collection of strands twisted together in the same direction without regard to the geometric arrangement.

Figure 2.2–Bunch Strand

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1. A multiple conductor insulated cable with sector conductors has a smaller diameter than the corresponding cable with round conductors. stranded conductor composed of three or four sectors slightly insulated from one another.3 Rope Strand A rope stranded conductor is a concentric stranded conductor each of whose component strands is itself stranded.3–Rope Strand 2.6 Annular Conductor An annular conductor is a round. The finished conductor is smooth on the surface and contains practically no interstices or air spaces.1. Conductors 2.7 Compact Strand A compact stranded conductor is a round or sector conductor having all layers stranded in the same direction and rolled to a predetermined ideal shape. stranded conductor whose strands are laid around a suitable core. Figure 2. Figure 2. This construction has the advantage of lower AC resistance (less skin effect).7–Compact Strand 8| .1.4–Sector Conductor 2.5–Segmental Conductor 2.1.5 Segmental Conductor A segmental conductor is a round.1. Figure 2.4 Sector Conductor A sector conductor is a stranded conductor whose cross-section is approximately the shape of a sector of a circle. Figure 2. This construction has the advantage of lower total AC resistance for a given cross-sectional area of conducting material by eliminating the greater skin effect at the center.6–Annular Conductor 2. This results in a smaller diameter. A rope stranded conductor is described by giving the number of groups laid together to form the rope and the number of wires in each group.|2. Figure 2. The core is usually made wholly or mostly of nonconducting material.

36 83.232 0.169 0.8 211.62 66.558 0.630 0.238 0.5477 0.2576 0.178 0.2294 0.292 0. A compact conductor is.252 0. the smallest in diameter (except for a solid conductor.299 0.700 0. Table 2. the conductor has been put through a die that “squeezes out” some of the space between wires.2043 0. In a compact conductor each wire is preformed into a trapezoidal shape before the wires are stranded together into a finished conductor.) Class B Compact Class B Compressed Class B Concentric 8 6 4 3 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 – – – – – 16.728 0.1285 0.24 41.213 0.706 0.283 0.659 0. A comparison is shown below: Solid Compact Compressed Concentric Figure 2.3648 0. This results in even less space between wires.772 Continued on next page >> |9 .616 0.6 133.8 Compressed Strand Compressed conductors are intermediate in size between standard concentric conductors and compact conductors.6 250 300 350 400 450 0.184 0.575 0.51 26.322 0.5916 0.423 0.260 0. therefore.134 0.2893 0.5000 0.1.681 0.406 0.1 167. Diameters for common conductor sizes are given in the table below.6708 0.6325 0.69 105. each individual wire is round and considerable space exists between wires.4600 0.000 kcmil Conductors In a concentric stranded conductor.268 0.570 0.146 0.376 0.2.3249 0.512 0.470 0.141 0.520 0. of course).4096 0.361 0. Conductors| 2.74 52.528 0.8–Comparative Sizes and Shapes of 1.1620 0.419 0.749 0.225 0.2–Diameters for Copper and Aluminum Conductors Conductor Size (AWG) (kcmil) Solid Nominal Diameters (in.332 0.475 0.456 0.661 0.611 0. In a compressed conductor.336 0.373 0.

) Class B Compact Class B Compressed Class B Concentric – – – – – – – – – 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 900 1.8062 0.999 1.000 0.929 0.0000 0.8660 0. It is also used for high-frequency applications where silver’s high conductivity (better than copper) and the “skin effect” work together to reduce attenuation at high frequencies.964 0. silver and nickel. is its poor solderability.8367 0.152 Sources: ASTM B8 and B496 ICEA S-95-658 (NEMA WC-70) 2.9487 1.938 0.998 1. copper oxidizes rapidly if not nickel plated. Nickel coatings are used for conductors that operate between 200°C and 450°C.|2.7746 0.000 1.845 0. 10 | .855 0. These are tin.789 0.060 0.093 1.901 0.893 0.877 0. Tin is the most common and is used for improved corrosion resistance and solderability.829 0.736 0.908 0.061 1.7071 0.813 0. At these high temperatures. Silver plated conductors are used in high-temperature environments (150°C–200°C). One drawback of nickel.866 0.031 1.8944 0.968 1.775 0. Conductors Table 2.2 COATINGS There are three materials commonly used for coating a copper conductor.2–Diameters for Copper and Aluminum Conductors (Continued) Conductor Size (AWG) (kcmil) Solid Nominal Diameters (in.7416 0.813 0. however.117 0.935 0.

79 6.750 3.7 13.02 4. Breaking Load (lb.580 1.000 4.47 3.90 1.140 6.520 3.3 TENSILE STRENGTH OF COPPER WIRE Table 2.435 1.730 3.3 17.25 0.010 2.970 5.280 825 530 335 215 135 85.1 21.0 19.7 8. Breaking Load (lb.01 1.40 | 11 .2 27.7 7.010 645 410 262 167 106 67.64 5.600 3.985 2.82 1.535 1.) Medium Hard Drawn Min.765 2.53 2.6 43.94 4.215 765 480 315 200 125 78.5 31.) (AWG) 4/0 3/0 2/0 1/0 1 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 6.440 1.450 1.3–Tensile Strength of Copper Wire Size Soft or Annealed Max.530 4.14 2.930 1.5 54.) Hard Drawn Min. Conductors| 2.20 1.99 3. Breaking Load (lb.720 5.5 49.16 8.990 1.970 1.48 2.1 7.4 12.660 4.2.690 3.2 34.020 2.5 11.

XLP. Conductors 2. N/A Conductor constructions having a range of areas from 5. over sheaves and apparatus conductors. PVC. 9 AWG containing 19 stranded members of seven wires each. 14 AWG containing seven stranded members stranded members of seven wires each.1 Strand Classes Table 2.000 circular mils and employing 91 stranded members of 19 wires each down to No.4–Strand Classes ASTM Standard Construction Class Application B8 Concentric lay AA A B C D For bare conductors – usually used in overhead lines. Conductor constructions having a range of areas from 5. etc.4.|2.000. This is the most common class. For conductors where greater flexibility is required than is provided by Class B. such as for use on take-up reels.000 circular mils and employing 61 stranded members of 19 wires each down to No.4 COPPER STRAND PROPERTIES 2.000. For bare conductors where greater flexibility than is afforded by Class AA is required. Typical uses are for rubber-jacketed cords and conductors where flexibility is required. For conductors insulated with various materials such as EP. Typical uses are for portable (flexible) conductors and similar applications. Continued on next page >> B173 Rope lay with concentric stranded members G H 12 | .

0126 0.0063 0. 20 16. 16. 16. 18. 8. 14. 16.0100 0. Fixture wire. 9.0063 0.4–Strand Classes (Continued) ASTM Standard Conductor Size Individual Wire Size Diameter (in. Oscillating fan cord. Heater cord with greater flexibility than Class M. 18. 18. 18.0201 24 Typical use is for special apparatus cable.0040 0. Very good flexibility.000 0. 20 10. flexible cord and portable cord. 14.2. Rubber-covered conductors.000 Up to 1. Fixture wire. Heater cord and light portable cord. 12. Typical use is for portable cord. 10 10. 16. 14. 20 16. Fixture wire and portable cord with greater flexibility than Class K. 18.0050 0. 20 14. 20 10.0080 0. 20 0. More flexible conductors than provided in preceding classes.000 7. Conductors| Table 2. 12.0201 0. 20 18. 12.0100 0.) (AWG) Construction Class Application (kcmil/AWG) B172 Rope lay with with bunch stranded members I Up to 2. K M B174 Bunch stranded I J K L M O P Q Up to 2. 18.0031 30 34 24 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 Source: Compiled from ASTM standards listed | 13 . Typical use is for welding cable.

9 24.7 80.1 7.5–Standard Nominal Diameters and Cross-sectional Areas of Solid Copper Wire Size (AWG) Diameter (mils) Cross-sectional Area (kcmils) Weight (lb.33 5.9 162.020 0.640 0.110 3./1.580 2.610 0.620 1.0 197.484 0.5 156.6 364.68 12.20 4.970 0.77 15.82 6.620 41.5 19.|2.0 249.6 20.9 32.43 9.5 78.4 101.6 11. Conductors 2.1 17.820 16.86 7.100 105.43 24.452 1.230 6.5 114.530 5.8 45.1 61.690 66.253 0.3 35.9 15.4.0 30.2 12.542 1.98 6.4 12.240 20.92 19.380 8.812 0.8 324.260 2.92 3.5 25.09 2.510 13.) 4/0 3/0 2/0 1/0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 460.1 57.2 39.740 33.800 133.9 90.090 26.9 14.202 0.0 64.090 10.128 – – – – – – – – – – – – – 31.360 52.180 4.945 1.9 289.3 40.4 15.6 229.3 181.4 204.404 0.320 0.384 – – – – – – – – – – – – – 314.770 0.0 144.000 ft.3 128.600 167.600 83.6 142.7 10.223 0.02 3.511 0.0 28.8 72.3 211.159 0.3 257.98 Continued on next page >> 14 | .2 Solid Copper Table 2.) Breaking Strength Soft or Annealed (lb.050 1.3 22.1 50.290 1.90 3.9 49.0 409.2 98.

Specification for Standard Nominal Diameters and Cross-Sectional Areas of AWG Sizes of Solid Round Wires Used as Electrical Conductors | 15 .5 4.16 2.5 3.1 2.0314 0.00246 0.0250 0.58 1.623 0.100 0.3 5.060 0.00484 0.5–Standard Nominal Diameters and Cross-sectional Areas of Solid Copper Wire (Continued) Size (AWG) Diameter (mils) Cross-sectional Area (kcmils) Weight (lb.0202 0.048 – – – – – – – – 3.76 1.095 0.9 8.2.0 4./1.00625 0.152 0.0397 0.50 1.5 2.000 ft.0122 0.99 1.57 0.0504 0.0792 0.6 5.990 0.00784 0.494 – – – – – – – – Source: ASTM B258.00961 0.303 0.) Breaking Strength Soft or Annealed (lb.0 7.00400 0.8 2.2 2.0 8. Conductors| Table 2.191 0.0640 0.241 0.0 3.120 0.076 0.) 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 10.00310 0.0160 0.25 0.785 0.0 1.1 6.

|2. Conductors

2.4.3 Class B, C and D Copper Strand
Table 2.6–Class B Concentric-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors
Number of Wires Diameter of Each Strand (mils) Nominal Overall Diameter (in.)

Size (AWG or kcmil)

Weight (lb./1,000 ft.)

5,000 4,500 4,000 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,900 1,800 1,750 1,700 1,600 1,500 1,400 1,300 1,250 1,200 1,100 1,000 900 800 750 700 650 600 550 500 450 400 350 300 250 4/0

217 217 217 169 169 127 127 127 127 127 127 127 91 91 91 91 91 91 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 37 37 37 37 37 37 19

151.8 144 135.8 143.9 133.2 140.3 125.5 122.3 119.1 117.4 115.7 112.2 128.4 124.0 119.5 117.2 114.8 109.9 128.0 121.5 114.5 110.9 107.1 103.2 99.2 95.0 116.2 110.3 104.0 97.3 90.0 82.2 105.5

15,890 14,300 12,590 11,020 9,353 7,794 6,175 5,866 5,558 5,402 5,249 4,940 4,631 4,323 4,014 3,859 3,705 3,396 3,088 2,779 2,470 2,316 2,161 2,007 1,853 1,698 1,544 1,389 1,235 1,081 926.3 711.9 653.3

2.58 2.45 2.31 2.16 2.00 1.82 1.63 1.59 1.55 1.53 1.50 1.46 1.41 1.36 1.32 1.30 1.26 1.21 1.15 1.09 1.03 1.00 0.964 0.929 0.893 0.855 0.813 0.772 0.728 0.681 0.630 0.575 0.528
Continued on next page >>

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2. Conductors|

Table 2.6–Class B Concentric-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors (Continued)
Number of Wires Diameter of Each Strand (mils) Nominal Overall Diameter (in.)

Size (AWG or kcmil)

Weight (lb./1,000 ft.)

3/0 2/0 1/0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20

19 19 19 19 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

94.0 83.7 74.5 66.4 97.4 86.7 77.2 68.8 61.2 54.5 48.6 43.2 38.5 30.5 24.2 19.2 15.2 12.1

518.1 410.9 325.8 258.4 204.9 162.5 128.9 102.2 81.05 64.28 50.97 40.42 32.06 20.16 12.68 7.974 5.015 3.154

0.470 0.419 0.373 0.332 0.292 0.260 0.232 0.206 0.184 0.164 0.146 0.130 0.116 0.0915 0.0726 0.0576 0.0456 0.0363

Source: ASTM B8 Specification for Concentric-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors, Hard, Medium-Hard, or Soft

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|2. Conductors
Table 2.7–Copper Strand Diameters
Conductor Size Class B Compact (in.) Class B Compressed (in.) Stranding Class B Concentric (in.) Class C Concentric (in.) Class D Concentric (in.)

(AWG)

(kcmil)

14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

4.11 5.18 6.53 8.23 10.39 13.09 16.51 20.82 26.24 33.09 41.74 52.62 66.36 83.69 105.6 133.1 167.8 211.6 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 900 1,000 1,100 1,200 1,250 1,300 1,400 1,500 1,600

– – – – – – 0.134 – 0.169 – 0.213 0.238 0.268 0.299 0.336 0.376 0.423 0.475 0.520 0.570 0.616 0.659 0.700 0.736 0.775 0.813 0.845 0.877 0.908 0.938 0.999 1.060 – – – – – – –

0.0704 0.0792 0.0888 0.0998 0.113 0.126 0.141 0.158 0.178 0.200 0.225 0.252 0.283 0.322 0.362 0.406 0.456 0.512 0.558 0.611 0.661 0.706 0.749 0.789 0.829 0.866 0.901 0.935 0.968 1.000 1.061 1.117 1.173 1.225 1.251 1.275 1.323 1.370 1.415

0.0727 0.0816 0.0915 0.103 0.116 0.130 0.146 0.164 0.184 0.206 0.232 0.260 0.292 0.332 0.372 0.418 0.470 0.528 0.575 0.630 0.681 0.728 0.772 0.813 0.855 0.893 0.929 0.964 0.999 1.030 1.094 1.152 1.209 1.263 1.289 1.314 1.365 1.412 1.459

0.0735 0.0825 0.0925 0.104 0.117 0.131 0.148 0.166 0.186 0.208 0.234 0.263 0.296 0.333 0.374 0.420 0.471 0.529 0.576 0.631 0.681 0.729 0.773 0.814 0.855 0.893 0.930 0.965 0.999 1.032 1.093 1.153 1.210 1.264 1.290 1.316 1.365 1.413 1.460

0.0735 0.0826 0.0931 0.104 0.117 0.132 0.148 0.166 0.186 0.209 0.235 0.264 0.297 0.333 0.374 0.420 0.472 0.530 0.576 0.631 0.682 0.729 0.773 0.815 0.855 0.893 0.930 0.965 0.998 1.032 1.095 1.153 1.211 1.264 1.290 1.316 1.365 1.413 1.460

Continued on next page >>

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2. Conductors|

Table 2.7–Copper Strand Diameters (Continued)
Conductor Size Class B Compact (in.) Class B Compressed (in.) Stranding Class B Concentric (in.) Class C Concentric (in.) Class D Concentric (in.)

(AWG)

(kcmil)

– – – – – – –

1,700 1,750 1,800 1,900 2,000 2,500 3,000

– – – – – – –

1.459 1.480 1.502 1.542 1.583 1.769 1.938

1.504 1.526 1.548 1.590 1.632 1.824 1.998

1.504 1.527 1.548 1.590 1.632 1.824 1.998

1.504 1.527 1.549 1.591 1.632 1.824 1.998

2.4.4 Class H Copper
Table 2.8–Class H Rope-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors
Size (AWG or kcmil) Number of Strands Nominal Diameter of Each Strand (in.) Nominal O.D. (in.) Nominal Weight (lb./1,000 ft.)

Construction

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 3/0 4/0 4/0 250 300 350

133 133 133 133 133 133 133 259 259 259 259 259 427 259 427 427 427 427

19x7 19x7 19x7 19x7 19x7 19x7 19x7 37x7 37x7 37x7 37x7 37x7 61x7 37x7 61x7 61x7 61x7 61x7

0.0111 0.0125 0.0140 0.0158 0.0177 0.0199 0.0223 0.0160 0.0180 0.0202 0.0227 0.0255 0.0198 0.0286 0.0223 0.0242 0.0265 0.0286

0.167 0.188 0.210 0.237 0.266 0.299 0.335 0.336 0.378 0.424 0.477 0.536 0.535 0.601 0.602 0.653 0.716 0.772

52 65 82 105 132 167 208 210 266 334 422 533 532 670 675 795 953 1,110
Continued on next page >>

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|2. Conductors
Table 2.8–Class H Rope-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors (Continued)
Size (AWG or kcmil) Number of Strands Nominal Diameter of Each Strand (in.) Nominal O.D. (in.) Nominal Weight (lb./1,000 ft.)

Construction

400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 900 1,000 1,100 1,200 1,250 1,300 1,400 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,750 1,800 1,900 2,000

427 427 427 703 703 703 703 703 703 703 703 703 703 703 703 703 703 1,159 1,159 1,159 1,159 1,159 1,159

61x7 61x7 61x7 37x19 37x19 37x19 37x19 37x19 37x19 37x19 37x19 37x19 37x19 37x19 37x19 37x19 37x19 61x19 61x19 61x19 61x19 61x19 61x19

0.0306 0.0325 0.0342 0.0280 0.0292 0.0304 0.0316 0.0327 0.0337 0.0358 0.0377 0.0396 0.0413 0.0422 0.0430 0.0446 0.0462 0.0372 0.0383 0.0389 0.0394 0.0405 0.0415

0.826 0.878 0.923 0.980 1.022 1.064 1.106 1.145 1.180 1.253 1.320 1.386 1.446 1.477 1.505 1.561 1.617 1.674 1.724 1.751 1.773 1.823 1.868

1,270 1,435 1,590 1,770 1,920 2,085 2,255 2,410 2,560 2,895 3,205 3,535 3,845 4,015 4,170 4,485 4,815 5,145 5,455 5,625 5,770 6,100 6,400

Source: ICEA S-95-658 (NEMA 70) Appendix K

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2. Conductors|

2.4.5 Class I Copper
Table 2.9–Class I (24 AWG Strands) Rope-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors
Size (AWG or kcmil) Nominal Number of Strands Nominal 0.D. (in.) Nominal Weight (lb./1,000 ft.)

Construction

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 900 1,000 1,100 1,200 1,250 1,300 1,400

1x26 1x33 1x41 1x52 7x9 7x12 7x15 7x19 7x23 7x30 19x14 19x18 19x22 19x28 7x7x13 7x7x15 7x7x18 7x7x20 7x7x23 7x7x25 7x7x28 7x7x30 19x7x12 19x7x13 19x7x14 19x7x15 19x7x17 19x7x19 19x7x21 19x7x22 19x7x23 19x7x24 19x7x26

26 33 41 52 63 84 105 133 161 210 266 342 418 532 637 735 882 980 1,127 1,225 1,372 1,470 1,596 1,729 1,862 1,995 2,261 2,527 2,793 2,926 3,059 3,192 3,458

0.125 0.138 0.156 0.185 0.207 0.235 0.263 0.291 0.319 0.367 0.441 0.500 0.549 0.613 0.682 0.737 0.800 0.831 0.894 0.941 0.980 1.027 1.152 1.194 1.235 1.290 1.372 1.427 1.495 1.537 1.564 1.605 1.674

32.5 41 51 65 80 105 134 169 205 267 342 439 537 683 825 955 1,145 1,270 1,460 1,590 1,780 1,905 2,090 2,260 2,435 2,610 2,965 3,305 3,655 3,830 4,000 4,175 4,560
Continued on next page >>

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570 5.765 1.533 0.921 1.276 1.|2.880 1. Conductors Table 2.600 1.522 3.797 1.107 1.440 Source: ICEA S-75-381 (NEMA WC 58) Appendix K 2.054 4.101 9.000 19x7x28 19x7x30 19x7x32 19x7x33 19x7x34 19x7x36 19x7x37 3.270 2.666 1.875 5./1.470 0.453 5.D.750 1.682 0.916 6.980 7.054 4.499 2.517 5.451 3.120 960 802 676 535 425 338 Continued on next page >> 22 | .107 1.990 3.933 0.4.000 ft.) 1.458 2.500 1.064 1.419 1.700 1. O.985 5.101 9.125 1.) Construction 1.940 1.989 2.517 5.220 5.976 2.935 2.110 1.581 6.980 7. (in.900 2.788 4.921 1.809 0.920 6.6 Class K Copper Table 2.635 1.453 5.985 5.323 1. (in.988 0.455 2.666 1.465 1.056 0.745 5.265 6.989 2.9–Class I (24 AWG Strands) Rope-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors (Continued) Size (AWG or kcmil) Nominal Number of Strands Nominal 0.389 4.878 0.D.768 0.000 ft.323 1.522 4.724 3.166 1.627 0.581 6.065 7.207 1.003 4.800 1.240 2.585 2.990 3.916 6.064 37x7x39 37x7x35 19x7x60 19x7x57 19x7x52 19x7x49 19x7x45 19x7x41 19x7x38 19x7x34 1x7x30 19x7x26 7x7x61 7x7x51 7x7x43 7x7x34 7x7x27 19x56 10.499 2.323 1./1.990 4.10–Class K (30 AWG Strands) Rope-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors Size (AWG or kcmil) Rope-Lay with Bunch Stranding Nominal Number of Strands Strand Construction Bunch Stranding Nominal Number of Strands Approx.) Weight (lb.000 900 800 750 700 650 600 550 500 450 400 350 300 250 4/0 3/0 2/0 1/0 10.458 2.290 1.715 1.065 7.852 1.256 4.305 1.522 3.) Nominal Weight (lb.

048 0.179 0.000 ft.3 12./1.304 0.0 5.101 0.2 Sources: ASTM B172 Specification for Rope-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors Having Bunch-Stranded Members and ICEA S-75-381 (NEMA WC58) Appendix K | 23 .060 0.235 0.) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 836 665 532 420 336 266 210 168 133 – – – – – – 19x44 19x35 19x28 7x60 7x48 7x38 7x30 7x24 7x19 – – – – – – 836 665 532 420 336 266 210 168 133 104 65 41 26 16 10 0.272 0.157 0. (in. Conductors| Table 2.146 0.) Weight (lb.038 266 211 169 132 106 84 66 53 42 32.078 0.126 0.202 0.397 0.10–Class K (30 AWG Strands) Rope-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors (Continued) Size (AWG or kcmil) Rope-Lay with Bunch Stranding Nominal Number of Strands Strand Construction Bunch Stranding Nominal Number of Strands Approx.8 8.2. O.0 3.5 20.D.338 0.

576 0.269 0.508 0.130 975 821 684 547 427 337 268 212 169 134 105 84 67 53 42 32.0 5.384 5.085 1.000 ft.11–Class M (34 AWG Strands) Rope-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors Size (AWG or kcmil) Rope-Lay with Bunch Stranding Nominal Number of Strands Strand Construction Bunch Stranding Nominal Number of Strands Approx.396 10.788 17.038 3.0 3.691 11.048 0.183 1.064 836 665 532 420 336 259 168 – – – – 61x7x59 61x7x53 61x7x47 61x7x44 61x7x41 61x7x38 61x7x35 61x7x32 37x7x49 37x7x44 37x7x39 37x7x34 19x7x57 19x7x48 19x7x40 19x7x32 19x7x25 7x7x54 7x7x43 7x7x34 7x7x27 19x56 19x44 19x35 19x28 7x60 7x48 7x37 7x24 – – – – 25.581 6.035 0.084 1.300 1.101 0.384 5.101 8.404 1.581 6. Conductors 2.207 1.126 0.4.997 0.945 13.323 1.664 12.000 900 800 750 700 650 600 550 500 450 400 350 300 250 4/0 3/0 2/0 1/0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 25.325 2.5 21.755 1.226 14.713 0.256 3.415 2. (in.0 12./1.) 1.337 0.920 1.768 0.664 12.806 7.|2.) Weight (lb.305 0.101 8.507 16.193 22. O.8 8.320 4.825 0.D.901 0.107 1.666 1.250 2.396 10.2 Sources: ASTM B172 Specification for Rope-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors Having Bunch-Stranded Members and ICEA S-75-381 (NEMA WC58) 24 | .507 16.078 0.465 1.320 4.107 1.325 2.788 17.240 2.226 14.666 1.215 0.193 22.7 Class M Copper Table 2.645 0.945 13.133 1.196 0.331 1.256 3.162 0.580 2.069 18.240 0.060 0.806 7.064 836 665 532 420 336 259 168 104 65 41 26 1.910 2.376 0.630 1.423 0.256 1.146 0.631 20.646 2.323 1.646 2.069 18.631 20.691 11.940 0.

1 57.800 133.253 194.6 20.580 2.5882 0.999 4.404 0.8 324.380 8.530 5.8 72.5.090 26.0 28.5 114.510 13.40 24.492 1./1.542 7.2.996 2.5 25.5 ALUMINUM STRAND PROPERTIES 2.9 32.4 154.) 4/0 3/0 2/0 1/0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 460.290 1.9 211.7464 0.184 0.9 90.0 144.230 6.050 1.6 229.740 33.360 52.240 20.7 80.9 162.640 0.3713 0.1 50.3 97.0 76.600 83.820 16.0 409.9 289.13 15.9 15.000 ft.886 1.3 181.4693 0. Conductors| 2.090 10.020 0.180 4.4 204.2 122.511 0.3 22.3 128.100 105.12 19.812 0.8 45.3 35.35 30.9410 0.260 2.690 66.764 3.2944 0.1 Solid Aluminum Table 2.17 12.620 41.371 1.776 2.110 3.2323 Continued on next page >> | 25 .03 9.98 48.320 0.3 257.3 40.0 64.6 364.559 5.600 167.1 17.4 101.91 60.36 38.620 1.12–Aluminum 1350 Solid Round Wire Size (AWG or kcmil) Diameter (mils) Cross-Sectional Area (kcmils) Weight (lb.

5 114.2 128.500 3.1853 0.12–Aluminum 1350 Solid Round Wire (Continued) Size (AWG or kcmil) Diameter (mils) Cross-Sectional Area (kcmils) Weight (lb.2 114.128 0.9 128.8 109.600 1.250 1.000 1.000 0.3 119.750 1.900 1.202 0./1.173 1.935 Continued on next page >> 26 | .583 1.800 1.370 1.9 107.) Size (AWG or kcmil) Number of Wires 4. Conductors Table 2.415 1.2 12.5 117.159 0. Reverse-Lay Aluminum 1350 Conductors Diameter of Each Wire (mils) Nominal Overall Diameter (in.6 11.0 121.459 1.400 1.225 1.1459 0. Annealed and Intermediate Tempers 2.2 Class B Aluminum Table 2.8 143.) 27 28 29 30 14.7 112.13–Class B Concentric-Lay-Stranded Compressed.300 1.2 140.500 2.000 ft.000 2.200 1.5 110.0 0.5.|2.323 1.100 1.3 10.000 3.09189 Source: ASTM B609 Specification for Aluminum 1350 Round Wire.4 124.968 0.1 117.700 1.5 122.117 1.9 133.502 1.000 900 800 750 700 217 169 169 127 127 127 127 127 127 127 91 91 91 91 91 91 61 61 61 61 61 135.500 1.275 1.0 119.250 1.1173 0.100 0.542 1.3 125.1 – – – – 1.4 115.060 1.480 1.

3 104.4 86.901 0.2 19.5 30.5 48.456 0.5 24.8 61.749 0.283 0.6 43.0 82. Reverse-Lay Aluminum 1350 Conductors (Continued) Diameter of Each Wire (mils) Nominal Overall Diameter (in.089 0.5 94.2 38.2.200 0.2 12.159 0.405 0.) Size (AWG or kcmil) Number of Wires 650 600 550 500 450 400 350 300 250 4/0 3/0 2/0 1/0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 61 61 61 37 37 37 37 37 37 19 19 19 19 19 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 103.7 77.611 0.322 0.2 15.113 0.2 110.5 66. Conductors| Table 2.789 0.558 0.706 0.2 95.126 0.0 116.3 90.178 0.7 74.13–Class B Concentric-Lay-Stranded Compressed.362 0.252 0.2 99.1 0.661 0.0 97.866 0.829 0.2 68.512 0.225 0.2 54.4 97.142 0.2 105.071 – – – Source: ASTM B231 Concentric-Lay-Stranded Aluminum 1350 Conductors | 27 .0 83.

0 636.1216 7/0.1880 54/0.1121 19/0.4 336.1329 26/0.272 1.1354 24/0.1880 26/0.5 556.590 1.5 397.1783 54/0.) Steel Number/Diameter (in.044 1.1880 7/0.0961 19/0.1013 18/0.0921 7/0.1486 7/0.1535 45/0.1085 1/0.431 1.1367 26/0.0 636.1758 7/0.5 397.511 2.0 477.1189 19/0.) 2.1015 1/0.075 896 1.0 795.0940 1/0.1236 24/0.0 556.1261 26/0.1573 54/0.0971 7/0.1030 7/0.1213 7/0.4 266.1716 45/0.0862 7/0.0 636.1564 24/0.431 1.0 795.1329 7/0.5 477.0 954.1410 18/0.1137 18/0.074 2.5.1436 45/0.4 336.000 ft.1628 26/0.1261 7/0.1463 24/0.1523 18/0.1049 7/0.113 954.5 336.113 1.0874 19/0.1758 30/0.1628 45/0.1287 18/0.023 875 819 690 766 717 604 747 657 615 518 547 512 432 527 463 365 367 290 Continued on next page >> 28 | .) Weight (lb.635 1.094 1.840 1.590 1.1217 19/0.0788 1/0.1138 7/0.1820 26/0.1217 2.1456 45/0.1253 19/0.1602 84/0.0 477.1360 7/0.1486 30/0.0858 1/0.0 795.1053 7/0.1059 7/0.1367 7/0.613 1.434 1.0 477.1749 24/0.8 84/0.14–Concentric-Lay-Stranded Aluminum Conductors.|2.1059 26/0.1628 7/0.1681 54/0.0977 7/0. Conductors 2.5 556.1628 18/0.431 1.0884 1/0.0961 7/0.229 1. Coated-Steel Reinforced (ACSR) Size (AWG or kcmil) Stranding Aluminum Number/Diameter (in.156 1.1456 54/0./1.255 1.780 1.3 ACSR Table 2.8 266.1329 45/0.792 1.0 397.272 1.0886 7/0.

0921 8/0.0974 6/0.0 183.1489 7/0.1299 1/0.1 276.1 149.1029 1/0.1214 6/0.) Steel Number/Diameter (in.3 203.1670 1/0.1052 1/0.3 441.0 2 2 4 4 6 6/0.4 36.0961 6/0.1327 12/0.0 57.8 336.0961 1/0. Conductors| Table 2./1.0834 1/0.9 3/0 159.7 91.) 4/0 211.1672 12/0.) Weight (lb.1672 7/0.1261 12/0.2.1059 6/0.1327 16/0.2 190. Coated-Steel Reinforced (ACSR) | 29 . Coated-Steel Reinforced (ACSR) (Continued) Size (AWG or kcmil) Stranding Aluminum Number/Diameter (in.1878 7/0.0 134.6 2/0 110.0 106.1327 7/0.1 527.1000 7/0.1127 12/0.1327 19/0.0661 291.1151 12/0.6 145.8 396.1151 7/0.0661 1/0.8 80.000 ft.5 676.1 Source: ASTM B232 Specification for Concentric-Lay-Stranded Aluminum Conductors.1052 7/0.14–Concentric-Lay-Stranded Aluminum Conductors.0977 7/0.1489 12/0.8 176.8 1/0 101.1214 1/0.3 67.8 476.0772 6/0.0834 6/0.1059 1/0.0921 1/0.1878 12/0.2 254.1261 7/0.4 230.

52 1.2 70.8 24.020 0.203 0.254 0.0 278.7 54.057 0.0 404. Diameter.3 94.025 0. Diameter.4 14.023 0.7 13.031 0.2 14.82 4.320 0. Conductors 2.015 0.27 1.3 100.02 1.6.6 18.032 0.8 577. Area and DC Resistance (32 Through 4/0 AWG) Table 2.025 0.787 0.024 0.6 ADDITIONAL CONDUCTOR PROPERTIES 2.48 11.4 9.0 106.8 315.406 0.9 34.5 58.|2.032 0.32 1.154 0.627 2.3 15.5 59.5 20.3 11.32 176.4 127.040 0.016 0.016 0.3 221.227 0.0 754.8 14.000 ft.0 182.19 1.828 2.036 0.5 81.483 0./AWG) Conductor Diameter (in.128 0.02 0.0 139.5 193.8 54.051 0.201 0.057 0.1 176.197 1.0 397.31 1.081 0.29 1.635 0.1 37.523 0.963 0.45 6.821 0.965 0.564 0.0 67.030 0.1 Stranding.0 159.113 1.8 67.10 7.620 1.580 0.426 2.010 0.7 16.406 0.1 22.22 1.000 1.021 0.0 175.019 0.45 1.7 28.9 16.032 0.914 1.048 0.034 0.533 0.43 1.010 0.0 635.040 0.2 21.0 304.9 27.3 146.241 0.326 0.517 0.507 0.032 1.6 253.013 0.7 26 24 22 20 18 16 Continued on next page >> 30 | .0 112.511 0.205 0.0 475.811 0.008 0.5 10.2 84.322 0.046 0.600 2.2 25.050 0.060 0.23 1.813 0.355 0.012 0.5 42.47 1.8 37.39 4.813 0.0 23.08 4.47 4.0 448.900 1.038 0.051 0.635 0.77 6.580 2.47 577.141 0.2 23.) (mm) (cmils) Conductor Area (mm ) 2 Copper DC Resistance at 20°C (ohms/1.0 15.6 89.0 475.52 63.5 33.607 0.0 1.5 10.6 232.305 0.762 0.047 0.5 38.037 0.020 1.17 1.089 0.5 349.0 700.15–Stranding.04 4.382 0. Area and DC Resistance Size (AWG) Stranding (No.4 31.824 1.897 0.584 0.600 1.050 0.771 1.6 96.610 0.940 1.3 6.) (ohms/km) 32 30 28 Solid 7/40 Solid 7/38 Solid 7/36 19/40 Solid 7/32 19/38 Solid 7/32 10/34 19/36 Solid 7/30 16/34 19/34 Solid 7/28 10/30 19/32 26/34 Solid 7/26 16/30 19/30 41/34 Solid 7/24 19/29 26/30 65/34 0.1 50.9 44.093 0.058 0.254 0.381 0.15 6.

257 0.690 81.700 105.740 42.4 53.459 0./AWG) Conductor Diameter (in.29 2. Area and DC Resistance (Continued) Size (AWG) Stranding (No.0 67.380 9.440 0.289 0.140 0.838 4.142 0.33 5.6 33.410 0.440 0.59 7.710 0.05 2.112 0.210 0.34 8.53 3.4 85.30 3.800 26.2 107 107 2.0 9.110 3.055 0.08 1.18 5.111 0.919 0.31 3.08 3.33 8.866 26.000 66.05 2.394 0.430 0.2.000 ft.204 0.53 6.090 0.30 1.27 12.718 0.104/30 0.325 0.96 2.32 8.74 5.100 211.951 0.129 0.80 1.8 11.) (mm) (cmils) Conductor Area (mm ) 2 Copper DC Resistance at 20°C (ohms/1.410 0.53 6.081 0.6 13.099 0.79 10.365 0.060 8. Diameter.338 0.500 83.41 6.088 0.600 104.94 2.174 0.36 2.33 2.0 84.000 167.166 0.97 3.180 0.071 0.464 0.500 10.500 16.38 1.024 16.51 13.64 4.10 0. Conductors| Table 2.87 1.258 0.4 4.600 210.7 15.172 0.6 10.560 42.290 0.3 33.12 5.7 42.3 13.6 21.325 0.63 8.26 10.54 8.5 21.100 133.15–Stranding.257 0.4 9.120 0.162 0.223 0.530 6.496 0.902 0.1 21.068 0.14 5.328 0.31 2.197 12 10 8 6 4 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 | 31 .500 17.44 0.077 0.11 1.400 2.361 10.) (ohms/km) 14 Solid 19/27 41/30 Solid 19/25 65/30 Solid 37/36 105/30 Solid 133/29 168/30 Solid 133/27 266/30 Solid 133/25 420/30 Solid 665/30 Solid 817/30 Solid 1.608 1.360 66.28 4.070 0.275 0.500 133.29 5.230 0.65 1.591 0.63 1.26 4.080 6.180 0.4 41.564 0.41 1.44 1.364 0.81 1.204 0.800 166.22 4.466 0.84 3.08 3.4 11.18 6.240 26.82 1.4 67.130 0.091 0.102 0.36 8.661/30 Solid 2.5 53.064 0.289 0.330/30 Solid 1.68 3.22 5.59 2.100 6.045/30 Solid 1.600 41.460 0.42 4.700 0.61 2.280 0.

7923 0.380 10.054 1/0.10 1/3.77 22.0486 1/0.37 1/3.76 20.335 2.0432 1/0.81 0.102 0.70 3.820 6.30 1.071 7/0. Diameter.19 13.5 2.55 58.837 12.14 7/0.750 6.77 7/0. Diameter. Weight and DC Resistance Number/Diameter of Individual Wires (in.130 6.90 60.0305 1/0.851 7.613 4.30 3.75 – – 1.84 1.293 7.045 0.641 7/0.26 15.91 3.40 16.810 7.042 1/0.8730 0.00 4.073 0.99 1.5167 0.017 0.277 3.089 7/0.83 63.97 38.15 3.530 6.67 7/1.102 0.573 2.98 24.21 8.090 16.144 0.960 4.800 13.620 1.44 12.13 10.930 4.40 1.0 1.59 7/0.970 1.67 4.110 4.8543 0.387 6.6147 0.93 2.649 2.403 7/0. Area.05 2.26 3.5 1.63 14.59 2.78 22.266 11.77 3.91 31.999 1.864 1/2.386 1/1.116 0.0808 7/0.0242 1/0.820 20.281 8.16 1.063 0.580 2.41 29.087 3.75 89.040 0.081 0.523 5.051 0.2 Stranding.634 1.700 20.) (ohms/km) Nominal Area (mm ) 2 Size (AWG) Nominal Weight (lb.061 2.58 7/1.000 ft.80 2.980 6.126 0.63 7/0.090 13.061 0.0508 7/0.23 1/3.) (mm) DC Resistance at 20°C (68°F) (ohms/1.803 2.91 7/1.020 1.613 7/0.036 1/0.109 0.5 – – 2.510 16.524 2.71 19.1443 7/0.620 1.46 1.41 11.54 53.620 1.00 39.12 3.960 2.092 0.162 0.141 7/0.533 1/1.16–Copper Conductor Stranding.06 2.122 9.5073 32.530 7.057 2.6.02 1.036 0.046 0.055 0.695 1.26 7/1.59 2.5 – – 4 4 – – 6 6 – – – – 10 10 – – 987 1.107 7/2.0385 1/0.109 7/0.309 1.589 1.71 23.890 10.146 0.38 29.29 7/0.064 0.128 0.978 1/2.603 4.890 7.410 9.017 1/0.32 2.755 1/2.127 5.021 1/0.21 2.488 1/1.700 19. Area.213 4.045 7/0.05 7/0.864 2.86 74.093 1.058 0.141 0.91 0.580 2.020 4.686 1/2.24 10.5217 0.14 1.164 0.820 – 20 – 18 18 – – 16 16 – – 14 14 – – 12 12 – – 10 10 – – 9 9 8 8 – – 7 7 1/0.039 0.60 40.055 7/0.600 2.081 0.54 93.03 64.917 4.032 7/0.22 6.68 37.62 15.034 1/0.315 4.94 35.877 9.417 2.615 1/1.480 1.0152 1/0.63 11.0 – – 1.307 1/0.93 59.1144 7/0.316 7.) (mm) Overall Diameter (in.6380 0.100 3.296 4./1.0192 1/0.304 0.212 5.071 0.089 0.000 ft.95 21.991 1/1.110 4.032 0.157 8. DC Resistance and Weight (20 AWG Through 2.277 3.50 – 0.14 18.|2.0545 1/0.60 1.098 6.8073 0.782 5.40 7/0.80 7/0.51 18.33 33.43 31.1019 7/0.05 23.25 11.84 35.430 3.58 4.1144 0. Conductors 2.63 1.17 50.380 11.77 47.000 kcmil) Table 2.51 93.442 6.52 56.80 17.37 20.664 Continued on next page >> 32 | .510 19.08 46.82 13.4980 0.36 75.027 1/0.157 4.067 1.) (kg/km) (cmils) 0.02 7/0.11 13.23 50.17 62.800 11.130 0.80 95.26 7/0.711 1.432 1/1.970 2.26 2.29 1.1285 7/0.930 6.38 0.0121 1/0.

0664 19/0.73 7/1.89 19/2.73 99.1071 61/0.600 237.7 241.07520 0.2.3 20.0867 7/0.4 79.100 69.000 600.000 6 6 – 6 4 – 3 – – 1 – 1/0 2/0 – 3/0 3/0 – 4/0 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 1/0.02117 0.061 19/0.47 37/2.373 0.1 231.000 400.8 13.67 102.7 1.690 98.316 2.01762 0.000 750.746 2.02116 0.0837 19/0.073 19/0.484 1.620 69.853 2.03527 0./1.757 3.13 19/2.400 133.567 0.148 1.07214 0.000 500.04625 Continued on next page >> | 33 .0811 37/0.000 592.10020 0.214 3.505 0.240 31.5 218.5 464.1507 0.162 0.4 14.02189 0.61 7.0 128.75 7/1.11 4.000 250.0973 37/0.9 12.54 37/2.7 24.5 20.065 7/0.3950 0.9 11.0 215.7 433.100 19/0.700 105.) (kg/km) (cmils) – – 16 – – 25 – 35 35 – 50 – – 70 – – 95 – 120 – 150 – 185 – 240 240 – – 300 – – – – 26.1044 0.31 0.3 410.) (ohms/km) Nominal Area (mm ) 2 Size (AWG) Nominal Weight (lb.0772 7/0.0688 7/0.491 1.000 474.24 5.608 1.71 19/2.09903 0.88 6.4909 0.089 37/0.57 19/2.3 749.160 2.068 7/0.575 0.95 61/2.4 312.600 33.964 0.54 19/1.8295 0.) (mm) Overall Diameter (in.18 5.1639 0.7 652.29 37/2.3288 0.320 1.1429 0.294 2.2065 0.04625 0.100 37/0.728 0.06668 0.85 19/1.64 37/2.000 167.04997 0.549 1.6 16.02199 0.740 49.332 0.01410 1.04230 0.2 120.998 0.295 2.000 ft.18 19/2.55 19/1.05780 0.1 611.2176 0. Diameter.4 889.5 25.800 187.1388 0.46 10.142 1.801 0.7 517.16–Copper Conductor Stranding.081 1.07940 0.240 26.000 300.1055 37/0.8 484.798 0.02857 0.01410 0.300 52.7 20.838 2.04959 0.470 0.2605 0.044 0.2005 0.630 0.4023 0.4 769.1 148.101 19/0.02102 0.000 211.3 20.0908 1/4.893 0.0 12.62 7. Weight and DC Resistance (Continued) Number/Diameter of Individual Wires (in.699 1.114 61/0.27 9.430 0.0822 37/0.100 138.06310 0.8 1.419 0.094 37/0.260 0.66 5.471 0.2070 0.20 7/2.6 22.11 7/1.75 8.4 14.06944 0.000 ft.0992 61/0.3259 0.07181 0.8 191.300 0.05453 0.82 91/2.68 37/0.51 61/2.000 750.04357 0.3424 0.086 19/0.0745 19/0.528 0.1 258.069 1.7 162.000 474.100 83.06943 0.842 1.1162 61/0.000 365.0612 7/0.104 37/0.43 80.3 517.0673 19/0.06293 0.4139 0.39 37/1.376 1.1495 0.305 0.30 61/2.3 325.700 0.02642 0.162 7/0.6577 0.48 6.115 1.55 7/1.206 2.090 37/0.0822 37/2.255 0.09375 0.4 155.6843 0.0 770.16 7/2.0811 37/0.2528 0.8 18.5 384.0905 61/0.813 0. Conductors| Table 2.235 1.000 500.3183 0.4 25.26 37/2.0 17.1 320.0 771.1789 0.01511 0.296 1.0 597.206 0.2467 0.4944 0.204 0.000 700.6 10.) (mm) DC Resistance at 20°C (68°F) (ohms/1.446 3.72 61/2.609 1.7 324.05803 0.891 0.1261 0.219 2.184 0.1 645.7 22.316 118.814 0.099 61/0.800 167.090 41. Area.1109 91/0.3 924.63 19/1.03018 0.90 61/2.3 17.365 0.681 0.96 7/2.447 0.232 0.43 9.3 151.1157 0.000 350.999 4.4 970.52 61/2.

01735 91/0.085 3.007050 0.9 35.000 1.070 6.117 61/2.234.471 3.97 1.000.19 169/0.3 32.01735 0.000 ft.000 1.000 ft.894 6.) (mm) Overall Diameter (in.250.04377 0.8 35.9 41.152 1.632 1. Canadian (CSA).1280 91/0.) (mm) DC Resistance at 20°C (68°F) (ohms/1.132 91/3.631 4.000 2.000 800.290 1.284 9./1.01321 0.642 3.7 32.447 2.031 1.894 7.500.452 1.0938 61/0.000.02312 0.01322 0.16–Copper Conductor Stranding. Diameter.38 61/3.1255 127/3.000 800.04334 0.1145 91/0.006670 0.76 91/0.1172 91/2.2 29.741 6.1048 91/0.1284 91/3.845 3.580.008460 0.01058 0.1 26.153 1.000 1.591 5.35 91/0.590 4.632 4.673 3.0992 127/2.01334 0.005287 0. American (ASTM and ICEA) and German (VDE) Standards 34 | .76 Based on British (BSA).000 1.02313 0.000 1.25 91/2.678 4.1087 127/2.91 91/2.033 9.5 41.032 1.175 6.1088 169/2.287 1.176 3.01765 0.1 41.90 61/2.66 91/2.858 3.632 26.000 1.289 1.000 2.01058 0.000.008463 0.3 29. Area.02786 0.500.858 4.02188 0.000 1.03472 0.250.000 1.005287 0.|2.085 3.02777 0. Conductors Table 2.147 91/3.) (kg/km) (cmils) 400 – – 500 – 625 – – – – 800 1.52 91/0.000.617 1.412 1.00849 0. Weight and DC Resistance (Continued) Number/Diameter of Individual Wires (in.7 32.04338 0.722 5.26 127/0.005380 0.000 – – 789.970.98 127/0.73 127/0.191 0.000 1.02776 0.114 61/0.000 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 61/0.9 36.742 6.5 2.468 2.007183 0.026 1.189 9.03472 0.) (ohms/km) Nominal Area (mm ) 2 Size (AWG) Nominal Weight (lb.2 26.892 6.413 1.

6.67 7/0.05 128/0.1 32/0.16 140/0.51 944/0.05 194/0.25 7/0.07 2.21 1.16 224/0.05 768/0.21 800/0.51 614/0.26 50/0.70 790/0.67 392/0.0 1.10 32/0.05 72/0.123/0.16 192/0.26 56/0.03 37/2.1 1.31 80/0.07 100/0.14 0.21 16/0.07 1.200/0.35 7/1.43 7/0.70 – – – – – 14/0.23 – – – – 7/0. (mm) Multi-wire Stranding No.040/0.21 30/0.07 392/0.1 512/0.3 IEC Stranding Table 2.52 37/2.38 0.08 0.52 61/2./Dia.21 32/0.51 1.21 705/0.41 400/0.035x0.470/0.51 485/0.07 1.31 2.905/0.05 1.31 1.1 2.07 195/0.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 400 500 – – – – – – 7/0.05 384/0.280/0.07 260/0.13 7/2.65 84/0.27 37/2.41 356/0.048/0.560/0.1 42/0.21 24/0. (mm) Extra-fine Wire Stranding (Class 6) No.41 – – – – 18/0.690/0.75 1.51 765/0.16 12/0.85 7/1.27 7/0.69 259/0./Dia.1 64/0./Dia.120/0.52 19/1.69 494/0.2.51 1.52 19/0.52 7/0.37 7/0.05 41/0.51 1.61 – – 18/0.34 0.41 128/0.05 174/0.69 627/0. | 35 .07 – – – – – – – – – – – – 25/0./Dia.31 1.41 280/0.83 19/2.07 131/0.280/0.1 768/0.41 200/0.07 88/0.1 3.16 28/0.1 – – – – – – – – – – – – – 36/0.41 19/0.31 1.43 7/0.07 651/0.600/0.05 512/0.30 7/0.05 256/0.05 0.16 84/0.10 42/0.16 56/0. Conductors| 2.41 2.5 2.530x0.340/0.31 990/0.1 69/0.1 320/0.16 19/0.1 48/0.62 133/0.17–Typical IEC Stranding Cross Section (mm ) 2 Ordinary Stranding (Class 2) No.24 61/2.69 189/0.5 0.225/0.64 49/0.10 21/0.05 7/1.31 84/0.70 7/2.1 192/0.52 19/0. (mm) Fine Wire Stranding (Class 5) No.51 49/0.58 133/0.16 42/0.51 2.05 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Note: Additional information is available in IEC 60228.07 65/0.768x0.41 1.21 512/0.50 61/2.21 320/0.69 336/0.25 0.1 128/0.385x0.30 7/0.17 19/2.37 7/0. (mm) 0.89 61/3.

Control.1 Thermoplastics 3.4 Thermal Characteristics 3.3 Telecommunication Color Codes 43 48 49 3.3.4.4.1 Power.4.2 Thermoset 3.1 Thermoplastic 3.3.3 Color Coding 3.4.1 3.3 EPR Versus XLPE 3.2.2.4 Properties 3. Instrumentation and Thermocouple 3.2 Thermosets 3.2 Belden Electronic Color Code 3.3.2.5 Halogen Content 3.2.4.INSULATION AND JACKET MATERIALS 3.3.4. Insulation and Jacket Materials| 3.3 Fibrous Coverings 3.2 Purpose Types and Applications 3.4 Additional Information 38 40 42 42 38 3.6 Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI) 3.4.7 Dielectric Constant 51 54 55 55 56 57 57 | 37 .

chemical. The most commonly used fluoropolymers are Teflon (PTFE.or nickel-coated wire. The nickel. which contributes to their excellent thermal. The price range can vary accordingly. control. Fluoropolymers Fluoropolymers.|3. Insulation is applied around a conductor to provide this isolation.” PVC does not usually exhibit extremely high. weathering and abrasion. 3.5. This range of properties makes PVC a suitable outer covering for such cable types as underground feeders (Type UF). are extrudable thermoplastics used in a variety of low-voltage insulating situations.2 TYPES AND APPLICATIONS 3. Halar (ECTFE) and Kynar or Solef (PVDF). Thermoplastic CPE is more common than thermoset CPE. acids. Typical dielectric constant values range from 3.and silver-coated designs are rated 260°C and 200°C maximum. street lighting and cables for direct burial. FEP and PFA). PVC is frequently used as an impervious jacket over and/or under metal armor where the installation requires PVC’s protective characteristics. The cost of Teflon is approximately 8 to 10 times more per pound than PVC compounds. Plenum-rated cables jacketed with Flamarrest meet NFPA 262 (formerly UL Standard 910). temperature range and chemical resistance. Fluoropolymers contain fluorine in their molecular composition. PTFE Teflon is extrudable in a hydraulic ram type process. Properties of both thermoplastic and thermoset CPE are given in Section 3.5 to 6. sunlight. 38 | . Tefzel (ETFE). Teflon has excellent electrical properties. FEP Teflon is extrudable in a manner similar to PVC and polyethylene. aerial. PVC-based jacketing material with low smoke and low flame spread properties.4. Most wire and cable insulations consist of polymers (plastics). The many varieties of PVC also differ in pliability and electrical properties. Flamarrest is a plenum grade. PTFE must be extruded over a silver. thermoplastic jackets of PVC provide cables with the ability to resist oils.1 Thermoplastics Chlorinated Polyethylene (CPE) CPE is one of the few polymers available in both thermoplastic and thermoset (cross-linked) versions. Certain formulations may have a –55°C to 105°C rating. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Sometimes referred to simply as “vinyl. thickness of the insulation and preform size. This means that long wire and cable lengths are available.and low-temperature properties in one formulation. respectively. while other common vinyls may have a –20°C to 60°C rating.1 PURPOSE Conductors need to be electrically isolated from other conductors and from the environment to prevent short circuits. Insulation and Jacket Materials 3. Lengths are limited due to the amount of material in the ram. thermoset formulations have better high-temperature properties than thermoplastics but are also higher in cost. with the exception of PTFE Teflon (sometimes called TFE). which have a high resistance to the flow of electric current. As a rule.2. heat. A jacket is the outermost layer of a cable whose primary function is to protect the insulation and conductor core from external physical forces and chemical deterioration. When properly formulated. alkalis. It is not suitable where subjected to nuclear radiation and does not have good high-voltage characteristics. mechanical and electrical characteristics.

Halar (ECTFE) is similar to Tefzel and is also used in wirewrap applications. chemical resistance. then sintered. thermal characteristics and impact resistance. Wire insulated with PFA is rated up to 250°C (482°F) and has excellent high-temperature creep resistance. Halar’s temperature rating is –70°C to 150°C. heat resistance. but they tend to have poorer electrical properties. Halar has excellent chemical resistance. low-temperature toughness and flame resistance. with high-density. Teflon FEP is an excellent nonflammable jacketing material for multiconductor cables. toughness. PVDF has a temperature maximum of 135°C (UL). Tefzel’s temperature rating is –65°C to 150°C. Wire insulated with Teflon FEP can be melt extruded by conventional methods. Polyethylene (PE) Polyethylene has excellent electrical properties. but because it is less expensive than Tefzel. Because of its high dielectric constant.6 for cellular (foamed) insulation. It has a low dielectric constant. it is often used as insulation on multipair plenum telephone cables. radiation resistance and flame resistance. although some forms are translucent in thin sections. It has a glossy surface and is transparent in thin sections. it tends to be a poor insulator. Teflon PFA is a perfluoroalkoxy copolymer resin supplied by DuPont. however. Insulation and Jacket Materials| Teflon PTFE is the original Teflon resin invented by DuPont in 1938. | 39 . polyethylene is stiff and very hard. However. Kynar (PVDF) is one of the least expensive fluoropolymers and is frequently used as a jacketing material on plenum cables. Flame retardant formulations are available. white material. Maximum continuous service temperature of Teflon PTFE is 260°C (500°F). Maximum continuous service temperature is 400°F (205°C). Low density PE (LDPE) is the most flexible. electrical properties. Teflon FEP is a true thermoplastic. Moisture resistance is excellent. Conductors can also be wrapped with tape of Teflon PTFE. Polyolefins (PO) Polyolefin is the name given to a family of polymers. and very high insulation resistance. Specific advantages of wire insulated with Teflon PTFE include: •Nonflammability •Extremely high insulation resistance •Very low dielectric constant •Small size compared to elastomer insulated wires •Excellent lubricity for easier installation •Chemical inertness. It has a maximum operating temperature of 125°C (UL). Tefzel is a thermoplastic material having excellent electrical properties. polypropylene (PP) and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA). The dielectric constant is 2. It is an opaque. To coat wire for insulating purposes. Specific advantages of wire insulated with Teflon FEP include: •High current carrying ability (ampacity) •Easy color coding •Smallest diameter of any high-temperature wire •Nonflammability •Very low moisture absorption.3.3 for solid and 1. depending on molecular weight and density. It does not melt in the usual sense. Properly formulated PE has excellent weather resistance. The most common polyolefins used in wire and cable include polyethylene (PE). Teflon FEP was also invented by DuPont and became commercially available in 1960. a stable dielectric constant over a wide frequency range. Tefzel (ETFE) is commonly used in computer backplane wiring and has the highest abrasion and cut-through resistance of any fluoropolymer. Teflon PTFE is extruded around the conductor as a paste. high-molecular weight formulations being least flexible.

|3. Insulation and Jacket Materials
Polypropylene (PP) Similar in electrical properties to polyethylene, this material is primarily used as an insulation material. Typically, it is harder than polyethylene. This makes it suitable for thin wall insulations. The UL maximum temperature rating may be 60°C or 80°C, but most UL styles call for 60°C maximum. The dielectric constant is typically 2.25 for solid and 1.55 for cellular designs. Thermoplastic Elastomer (TPE) TPE, sometimes called TPR (thermoplastic rubber), has excellent cold temperature characteristics, making it an excellent insulating and jacketing compound in cold climates. It is resistant to aging from sunlight, oxidation and atmospheric ozone. It retains most of its physical and electrical properties in the face of many severe environmental conditions such as a salt water environment. TPE compounds can be rated as high as 125°C (257°F). TPE has good chemical resistance to all substances except hydrocarbons. It has a tendency to swell in a hydrocarbon environment, causing the material to degrade. It has good abrasion resistance. It will resist wear, cutting and impact. These properties make TPE jackets an excellent choice for use in control cables that are dragged around or frequently moved. TPE compounds are used as insulating materials up to a 600-volt rating. The most common cables using TPE insulation are portable control cables such as SEO and SJEO. Polyurethane (PUR) Polyurethane is used primarily as a cable jacket material. It has excellent oxidation, oil and ozone resistance. Some formulations also have good flame resistance. It has excellent abrasion resistance. It has outstanding “memory” properties, making it an ideal jacket material for retractile cords.

3.2.2 Thermosets
Chlorinated Polyethylene (CPE) Cross-linked chlorinated polyethylene is a material with outstanding physical and electrical properties for many cable jacket applications. It is highly resistant to cold flow (compression set) and other forms of external loading as well as heat, light and chemical attack. CPE is also often supplied in a thermoplastic (non-cross-linked) version. CPE compares favorably with most other synthetic elastomers currently used for cable jacketing. It is resistant to ozone and ultraviolet (sunlight) degradation. Properly compounded, CPE will withstand prolonged immersion in water. It will not support combustion, but under the right conditions of excessive heat, oxygen supply and flame source, it will burn slowly. Removal of the ignition source, will extinguish the flame. CPE jacketed cables pass the IEEE 383, UL, CSA and ICEA flame tests. CPE maintains its flexibility at –18°C (0°F) and does not become brittle unless temperatures are below –40°C (–40°F). Its low temperature impact resistance is excellent. CPE jackets are suited to 105°C (221°F) and intermittently to higher temperatures. They will maintain adequate flexibility after repeated aging at elevated temperatures. They are known for abrasion resistance and long life in mining cable applications. CPE does not support the growth of mold, mildew or fungus. CPE is resistant to most strong acids and bases and many solvents except for chlorinated organics. It is particularly well-suited to chemical plant use where both above ground (ultraviolet and flame retardancy) and below ground (water and chemical resistance) properties are desired. CPE’s resistance to oils and fuels is good. CPE can be conveniently colored over a wide range and will maintain color upon aging.

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3. Insulation and Jacket Materials|

Neoprene (CP) Neoprene is a vulcanized synthetic rubber also referred to as chloroprene. It provides a resilient jacket that resists permanent deformation under heat and load, and does not embrittle at low temperatures. It is highly resistant to aging from sunlight and oxidation, and is virtually immune to atmospheric ozone. Samples of neoprene-jacketed cable, tested outdoors under constant exposure for 40 years, have remained tough, resilient, uncracked and completely serviceable. Neoprene jackets are “flame resistant,” i.e., not combustible without directly applied heat and flame. Neoprene will burn slowly as long as an outside source of flame is applied, but is self-extinguishing as soon as the flame is removed. Neoprene-jacketed power cable can be flexed without damage to the jacket at –40°C (–40°F) and will pass a mandrel wrap test down to about –45°C (–49°F). Neoprene jackets resist degradation for prolonged periods at temperatures up to 121°C (250°F). Satisfactory performance at even higher temperatures is possible if the exposures are brief or intermittent. Neoprene jackets have excellent resistance to soil acids and alkalis. Mildew, fungus and other biological agents do not deteriorate properly compounded neoprene. These jackets perform well in many chemical plants. They are tough, strong, resilient and have excellent resistance to abrasive wear, impact, crushing and chipping. Because of these properties, neoprene is the jacketing material frequently used for mine trailing cables and dredge cables. Cross-linked Polyethylene (XLP or XLPE) Cross-linked polyethylene is a frequently used polymer in wire and cable. It is most often used as the insulation of 600 volt building wire (e.g., Type XHHW), as the insulation in 5 to 69 kV and higher rated power cables and as the insulation in many control cables. XLP has very high insulation resistance (IR), high dielectric strength and low dielectric constant (2.3). It also is a very tough material at temperatures below 100°C, so it is resistant to cutting, impact and other mechanical forces. Its low-temperature performance is also very good: down to –40°C and below. XLP’s fire resistance, however, is poor unless flame retardants are added. XLP is lower in cost than EPR. Ethylene Propylene Rubber (EP, EPR, or EPDM) Ethylene propylene rubber is a common synthetic rubber polymer used as an insulation in electrical wire and cable. EPR is used as the insulation in 600 volt through 69 kV power cables, as an integral insulation/jacket on welding cables and as an insulation in many cords, portable mining cables and control/instrumentation cables. Because of its rubber-like characteristics, EPR is used in many highly flexible cables. Its dielectric strength is good but not as high as that of PE or XLP. Dielectric constant ranges from 2.8 to 3.2 depending on the specific EPR formulation. EPR is abrasion resistant and is suitable for use at temperatures down to –60°C. It is fairly flame retardant and can be made even more flame retardant by careful formulation. Flame retardant versions are often referred to as “FREP” or “flame retardant EP.” EPR’s high-temperature characteristics are very good. Some formulations can withstand continuous temperatures as high as 150°C.

| 41

|3. Insulation and Jacket Materials
Hypalon (CSP) Hypalon is a thermosetting, cross-linked, chlorosulfonated polyethylene made by DuPont with many excellent physical and electrical properties. It is inherently resistant to cold flow (compression set) resulting from clamping pressures and other forms of external loading; it is immune to attack by ozone; and it is highly resistant to aging from sunlight and oxidation. Water absorption of properly compounded Hypalon cable sheathing is extremely low. Hypalon sheathing will not support combustion. It will burn slowly as long as an outside source of flame is applied but is self-extinguishing as soon as the flame is removed. It remains flexible at –18°C (0°F) and will not become brittle at –40°C (–40°F). Hypalon jacketed constructions pass both the Underwriters Laboratories’ vertical flame test and the U.S. Bureau of Mines’ flame test for mining cable. At high temperatures, Hypalon will perform satisfactorily after short-term exposure at up to 148°C (300°F) – even higher if compounded for maximum heat resistance. It is well-known for its resistance to chemicals, oils, greases and fuels. It is particularly useful as a cable sheathing in plant processing areas, where airborne chemicals attack ordinary jacketing materials and metal conduit. Hypalon surpasses most elastomers in resistance to abrasion. It is highly resistant to attack by hydrocarbon oils and fuels. It is especially useful in contact with oils at elevated temperatures. Sheathing of Hypalon provides high resistance to impact, crushing and chipping. Hypalon’s electrical properties make it appropriate as insulation for low-voltage applications (up to 600 volts) and as jacketing for any type of wire and cable. Silicone Silicone is a soft, rubbery insulation that has a temperature range from –80°C to 200°C. It has excellent electrical properties plus ozone resistance, low moisture absorption, weather resistance, and radiation resistance. It typically has low mechanical strength and poor scuff resistance.

3.2.3 Fibrous Coverings
Fibrous coverings are commonly used on high-temperature cables due to their excellent heat resistance. They are normally constructed of a textile braid (e.g., fiberglass or K-fiber) impregnated with a flame and heat-resistant finish. K-fiber insulating materials are a blend of polyaramid, polyamid, phenolic-based and fiberglass fibers. They are available as roving and yarn for insulating applications and as rope for use as fillers. They provide a non-asbestos, abrasion-, moisture-, flame- and temperature-resistant, non-melting insulating material for all applications requiring a 250°C (482°F) temperature rating, which would have previously utilized asbestos.

3.2.4 Additional Information
Additional information on the selection of cable jackets is available in IEEE 535 “Guide for Selecting and Testing Jackets for Power, Instrumentation and Control Cables.”

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3. Insulation and Jacket Materials|

3.3 COLOR CODING 3.3.1 Power, Control, Instrumentation and Thermocouple
ICEA standard S-73-532 (NEMA WC57) contains several methods for providing color coding in multiconductor power and control cables. Methods 1, 3 and 4 are the most widely used. Method 1 – Colored compounds with tracers Method 2 – Neutral colored compounds with tracers Method 3 – Neutral or single-color compounds with surface printing of numbers and color designations Method 4 – Neutral or single-color compounds with surface printing of numbers Method 5 – Individual color coding with braids Method 6 – Layer identification Method 7 – Paired conductors Historically, ICEA has established the sequence of colors used for Method 1 color coding, which consists of six basic colors, then a repeat of the colors with a colored band or tracer. This sequence of colors is referred to as K-1 color coding because it was formerly found in Table K-1 of many ICEA standards. (See Tables 3.1 through 3.5.) In the latest ICEA standard the color sequences are located in Tables E-1 through E-7. The National Electrical Code (NEC) specifies that a conductor colored white can only be used as a grounded (neutral) conductor and that a conductor colored green can only be used as an equipment grounding conductor. The use of Table E-1 (formerly K-1) color coding would therefore be in violation of the Code in a cable having more than six conductors if conductors #7 (white/black), #9 (green/black), #14 (green/white), etc. are energized. To address this issue, a different color coding sequence was developed by ICEA for cables that are used in accordance with the NEC. Table E-2 (formerly K-2) of the ICEA standard provides this color sequence. The ICEA standard provides further guidance stating that if a white conductor is required, this color may be introduced into Table E-2 as the second conductor in the sequence. If a green insulated conductor is required, it likewise can be introduced into the table. However, the white and green colors may only appear once. The most popular multiconductor control cables in sizes 14 AWG–10 AWG have Method 1, Table E-2 color coding. The cables do not contain a white or green conductor. The most popular control cables used in sizes 8 AWG and larger are three conductor cables having black insulation surface ink printed with the numbers 1, 2 and 3. This is Method 4 color coding in the ICEA standards. The electric utility industry often specifies control cables with the E-1 color coding sequence. For applications where the NEC is applicable, such as in industrial and commercial applications, the E-2 color sequence is normally used. ICEA standard S-82-552 (NEMA WC55) contains methods and color sequence tables for instrumentation and thermocouple cables.

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|3. Insulation and Jacket Materials
Table 3.1–E-1 (Formerly K-1) Color Sequence for Control Cables
Background or Base Color First Tracer Color Second Tracer Color Background or Base Color First Tracer Color Second Tracer Color

Conductor Number

Conductor Number

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Black White Red Green Orange Blue White Red Green Orange Blue Black Red Green Blue Black White Orange Blue Red Orange Black White Red Green Orange Blue Black White Red

– – – – – – Black Black Black Black Black White White White White Red Red Red Red Green Green White Black Black Black Black Black Red Red Black

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Red Red White White White White Green Green Green

31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60

Green Orange Blue Black White Orange White Black White Red Green Orange Blue Black White Red Green Orange Blue Black White Red Green Orange Blue Black White Red Green Orange

Black Black White White Red White Red White Black White White Red Red White Black White Orange Red Red Orange Black Orange Red Black Black Orange Orange Orange Black Green

Orange Green Orange Orange Orange Blue Blue Green Green Green Blue Green Green Blue Blue Blue Red Blue Orange Red Orange Black Blue Blue Orange Green Green Green Blue Blue

Note: The former K-1 color sequence was the same as E-1 through conductor number 21. K-1 then repeated. The above table is only applicable to control cables. The color sequence for instrumentation cables can be found in ICEA S-82-552 (NEMA WC 55).

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Table 3.2–E-2 (Formerly K-2) Color Sequence for Control Cables
Conductor Number Background or Base Color Tracer Color

Table 3.3–E-3 (Formerly K-3) Color Sequence for Control Cables
First Tracer Color (e.g., Wide Tracer) Second Tracer Color (e.g., Narrow Tracer)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

Black Red Blue Orange Yellow Brown Red Blue Orange Yellow Brown Black Blue Orange Yellow Brown Black Red Orange Yellow Brown Black Red Blue Yellow Brown Black Red Blue Orange Brown Black Red Blue Orange Yellow

– – – – – – Black Black Black Black Black Red Red Red Red Red Blue Blue Blue Blue Blue Orange Orange Orange Orange Orange Yellow Yellow Yellow Yellow Yellow Brown Brown Brown Brown Brown

Conductor Number

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

Black White Red Green Orange Blue White Red Green Orange Blue Black Red Green Blue Black White Orange Blue Red Orange

– – – – – – Black Black Black Black Black White White White White Red Red Red Red Green Green

Note: The above table is only applicable to control cables. The color sequence for instrumentation cables can be found in ICEA S-82-552 (NEMA WC 55).

Note: The above table is only applicable to control cables. The color sequence for instrumentation cables can be found in ICEA S-82-552 (NEMA WC 55).

| 45

Wide Tracer) Second Tracer Color (e. 46 | .g...4–E-4 (Formerly K-4) Color Sequence for Control Cables Conductor Number First Tracer Color (e. The color sequence for instrumentation cables can be found in ICEA S-82-552 (NEMA WC 55). Narrow Tracer) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Black Red Blue Orange Yellow Brown Red Blue Orange Yellow Brown Black Blue Orange Yellow Brown Black Red Orange Yellow Brown Black Red Blue Yellow Brown Black Red Blue Orange Brown Black Red Blue Orange Yellow – – – – – – Black Black Black Black Black Red Red Red Red Red Blue Blue Blue Blue Blue Orange Orange Orange Orange Orange Yellow Yellow Yellow Yellow Yellow Brown Brown Brown Brown Brown Note: The above table is only applicable to control cables. Insulation and Jacket Materials Table 3.|3.g.

5–E-5 (Formerly K-5) Color Sequence for Control Cables Background or Base Color First Tracer Color Second Tracer Color Conductor Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Black White Red Green Orange Blue White Red Green Orange Blue Black Red Green Blue Black White Orange Blue Red Orange Black White Red Green Orange Blue Black White Red Green Orange Blue – – – – – – Black Black Black Black Black White White White White Red Red Red Red Green Green White Black Black Black Black Black Red Red Black Black Black White – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Red Red White White White White Green Green Green Orange Green Orange Continued on next page >> | 47 . Insulation and Jacket Materials| Table 3.3.

|3. Insulation and Jacket Materials
Table 3.5–E-5 (Formerly K-5) Color Sequence for Control Cables (Continued)
Conductor Number Background or Base Color First Tracer Color Second Tracer Color

34 35 36 37

Black White Orange White

White Red White Red

Orange Orange Blue Blue

Note: The above table is only applicable to control cables. The color sequence for instrumentation cables can be found in ICEA S-82-552 (NEMA WC 55).

3.3.2 Belden Electronic Color Code
Table 3.6–Common Multiconductor Color Code (Belden Standard)
Conductor Color

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Black White Red Green Brown Blue Orange Yellow Purple Gray Pink Tan

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3. Insulation and Jacket Materials|

Table 3.7–Common Multipair Color Code (Belden Standard)
Pair No. Color Combination Pair No. Color Combination

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Black and Red Black and White Black and Green Black and Blue Black and Yellow Black and Brown Black and Orange Red and White Red and Green Red and Blue Red and Yellow Red and Brown Red and Orange Green and White Green and Blue Green and Yellow Green and Brown Green and Orange White and Blue

20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37

White and Yellow White and Brown White and Orange Blue and Yellow Blue and Brown Blue and Orange Brown and Yellow Brown and Orange Orange and Yellow Purple and Orange Purple and Red Purple and White Purple and Dark Green Purple and Light Blue Purple and Yellow Purple and Brown Purple and Black Gray and White

3.3.3 Telecommunication Color Codes
Individual telecommunication cable conductors are color-coded with solid colors (Table 3.8) or by applying a colored band of contrasting color to solid colored wires (Table 3.9). Bandmarking is used on inside wiring cable, plenum cable and switchboard cable. The color combinations are such that each wire is banded with the color of its mate. For example, in a blue and white pair, the blue wire has a white band and the white wire a blue band. Telephone wires (e.g., inside-outside station wire and distribution frame and jumper wire) that do not have paired constructions have solid color wires. All colors must be readily distinguishable and lie within the Munsell color standard. Large Pair Count Cables In cables having more than 25 pairs, the pairs are arranged in groups, each containing a maximum of 25 pairs and wrapped with distinctively colored binder threads to permit distinction between groups.

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|3. Insulation and Jacket Materials
Table 3.8–Telecommunication Cable Color Code (Solid Colors)
Pair No. Tip Ring

Table 3.9–Telecommunication Cable Color Code (Band Marked)
Pair No. Tip Ring

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

White White White White White Red Red Red Red Red Black Black Black Black Black Yellow Yellow Yellow Yellow Yellow Violet Violet Violet Violet Violet

Blue Orange Green Brown Slate Blue Orange Green Brown Slate Blue Orange Green Brown Slate Blue Orange Green Brown Slate Blue Orange Green Brown Slate

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

White-Blue White-Orange White-Green White-Brown White-Slate Red-Blue Red-Orange Red-Green Red-Brown Red-Slate Black-Blue Black-Orange Black-Green Black-Brown Black-Slate Yellow-Blue Yellow-Orange Yellow-Green Yellow-Brown Yellow-Slate Violet-Blue Violet-Orange Violet-Green Violet-Brown Violet-Slate Red-White

Blue-White Orange-White Green-White Brown-White Slate-White Blue-Red Orange-Red Green-Red Brown-Red Slate-Red Blue-Black Orange-Black Green-Black Brown-Black Slate-Black Blue-Yellow Orange-Yellow Green-Yellow Brown-Yellow Slate-Yellow Blue-Violet Orange-Violet Green-Violet Brown-Violet Slate-Violet White-Red

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3. Insulation and Jacket Materials|

3.4 PROPERTIES 3.4.1 Thermoplastic
Table 3.10–Properties of Thermoplastic Insulation and Jacket Materials Low-Density Polyethylene E G G-E E E E G E P G-E E G-E G-E G-E Cellular Polyethylene E G G E E E F E P G E G-E G-E G High-Density Polyethylene E E G-E E E E E E P G-E E E E G-E

PVC Oxidation resistance Heat resistance Oil resistance Low-temperature flexibility Weather, sun resistance Ozone resistance Abrasion resistance Electrical properties Flame resistance Nuclear radiation resistance Water resistance Acid resistance Alkali resistance Gasoline, kerosene, etc. (aliphatic hydrocarbons) resistance Benzol, toluol, etc. (aromatic hydrocarbons) resistance Degreaser solvents (halogenated hydrocarbons) resistance Alcohol resistance Underground burial E G-E F P-G G-E E F-G F-G E F F-G G-E G-E P

Polypropylene E E F P E E F-G E P F E E E P-F

P-F

P

P

P

P-F

P-F

G

G

G

P

G-E P-G

E G

E F

E E

E E

P Poor, F Fair, G Good, E Excellent, O Outstanding These ratings are based on average performance of general purpose compounds. Any given property can usually be improved by the use of selective compounding. Source: Belden
Continued on next page >>

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|3. Insulation and Jacket Materials
Table 3.10–Properties of Thermoplastic Insulation and Jacket Materials (Continued)
Cellular Polypropylene Plenum PVC

Polyurethane

Nylon

CPE

Oxidation resistance Heat resistance Oil resistance Low-temperature flexibility Weather, sun resistance Ozone resistance Abrasion resistance Electrical properties Flame resistance Nuclear radiation resistance Water resistance Acid resistance Alkali resistance Gasoline, kerosene, etc. (aliphatic hydrocarbons) resistance Benzol, toluol, etc. (aromatic hydrocarbons) resistance Degreaser solvents (halogenated hydrocarbons) resistance Alcohol resistance Underground burial

E E F P E E F-G E P F E E E P

E G E G G E O P P G P-G F F P-G

E E E G E E E P P F-G P-F P-E E G

E E E E E E E-O E E O O E E E

E G-E F P-G G E F-G G E F F G G P

P

P-G

G

G-E

P-F

P

P-G

G

E

P-F

E F

P-G G

P P

E E-O

G P

P Poor, F Fair, G Good, E Excellent, O Outstanding These ratings are based on average performance of general purpose compounds. Any given property can usually be improved by the use of selective compounding. Source: Belden
Continued on next page >>

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3. Insulation and Jacket Materials|

Table 3.10–Properties of Thermoplastic Insulation and Jacket Materials (Continued)
FEP Teflon Tefzel (ETFE) PTFE (TFE) Teflon Solef/Kynar (PVDF)/PVF Halar (ECTFE)

Oxidation resistance Heat resistance Oil resistance Low-temperature flexibility Weather, sun resistance Ozone resistance Abrasion resistance Electrical properties Flame resistance Nuclear radiation resistance Water resistance Acid resistance Alkali resistance Gasoline, kerosene, etc. (aliphatic hydrocarbons) resistance Benzol, toluol, etc. (aromatic hydrocarbons) resistance Degreaser solvents (halogenated hydrocarbons) resistance Alcohol resistance Underground burial

O O O O O E E E O P-G E E E E

E E E E E E E E G E E E E E

O O E-O O O O O E E P E E E E

O O E O E-O E E G-E E E E G-E E E

O O O O O E E E E-O E E E E E

E

E

E

G-E

E

E

E

E

G

E

E E

E E

E E

E E

E E

P Poor, F Fair, G Good, E Excellent, O Outstanding These ratings are based on average performance of general purpose compounds. Any given property can usually be improved by the use of selective compounding. Source: Belden

| 53

11–Properties of Thermoset Insulation and Jacket Materials Hypalon (Chloro-Sulfonated Polyethylene) EPR (Ethylene Propylene Rubber) Neoprene XLPE CPE Silicone Rubber Oxidation resistance Heat resistance Oil resistance Low-temperature flexibility Weather. G Good. Any given property can usually be improved by the use of selective compounding. toluol. F Fair. etc. E Excellent. Source: Belden 54 | . etc. Insulation and Jacket Materials 3. O Outstanding These ratings are based on average performance of general purpose compounds. kerosene.|3.2 Thermoset Table 3. (aliphatic hydrocarbons) resistance Benzol. sun resistance Ozone resistance Abrasion resistance Electrical properties Flame resistance Nuclear radiation resistance Water resistance Acid resistance Alkali resistance Gasoline. (aromatic hydrocarbons) resistance Degreaser solvents (halogenated hydrocarbons) resistance Alcohol resistance Underground burial G G G F-G G G G-E P G F-G E G G G E E G F E E G G G E E E E F E E P G-E E E G E P G G-E G-E G-E P E G G O G G F-G E P E G-E G-E G-E F E E G-E F E G-E G-E F-G G G G-E E E F E O F-G O O O P G F-G E G-E F-G F-G P-F P-F F F F F P P P-F P F P P-G F G-E G E P E E E G-E E G G P Poor.4.

4 Thermal Characteristics °C –80 –60 –40 –20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 °C -20°C PVC (Standard) 80°C -55°C PVC (Premium) 105°C -60°C Polyethylene 80°C -40°C Polypropylene 105°C -40°C Cross-linked Polyethylene 130°C -60°C Ethylene Propylene Rubber 150°C -40°C Hypalon (CSPE) 105°C -40°C Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) 105°C -40°C CPE 105°C -65°C Silicon Braidless 150°C -65°C Silicone with braid 200°C -70°C Teflon 260°C °C –80 –60 –40 –20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 °C Figure 3. Insulation and Jacket Materials| 3.12–Properties of EPR Compared with Those of XLPE Cross-linked Polyethylene (XLPE) Less deformation below 100°C Lower in cost Lower dissipation factor Lower dielectric constant Higher dielectric strength Physically tougher More resistant to chemicals More oil resistant Ethylene Propylene Rubber (EPR) Less deformation above 100°C More heat resistance Less shrinkback Less thermal expansion More corona resistant More flexible More tree retardant More sunlight resistant 3.3.4.1–Nominal Temperature Range of Cable Polymers | 55 .3 EPR Versus XLPE Table 3.4.

Insulation and Jacket Materials 3. 56 | .02 <0.13–Halogen Content in Typical Insulation and Jacket Materials Typical Halogen Content Percent by weight Material PE insulation or jacket XLP insulation 600 V (6 AWG and larger) XLP insulation 5-35 kV EPR insulation 5-35 kV Polyurethane jacket EVA jacket XLP insulation 600 V (14-8 AWG) FR-EPR insulation Hypalon (insulation grade) FR-XLP insulation Hypalon jacket (heavy duty) Neoprene jacket CPE jacket Hypalon jacket (extra heavy duty) PVC jacket <0.02 7–13 9–14 13–16 11–17 16–26 16–18 14–28 18–33 22–29 NOTE: Halogen content can vary from manufacturer to manufacturer.|3.4.02 <0. The above values should be used for general comparisons only.02 <0.02 <0.02 <0.5 Halogen Content Table 3.

3 2.4.8–3.5–8 8–10 9–10 6–12 | 57 .5 2.8 3–4 3.9 3.6 2.3 2.2–2.6 2. Typical values are shown below.15–Dielectric Constant of Common Wire and Cable Materials Material Dielectric Constant Material Dielectric Constant Teflon (FEP.5 3. The oxygen content of air is 20. which finds the percent oxygen required to sustain combustion.9 percent.3.3 2.1 2.6 Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI) LOI values are used to determine the relative flammability of polymers.7 Dielectric Constant Table 3.3–2.2–5 6.3–3. PFA or TFE) Polypropylene Cross-linked Polyethylene Polyethylene TPE Halar (ECTFE) Tefzel (ETFE) EPR Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) 2.8 Polyester (Mylar) Silicone Nylon Mica PVC Hypalon Neoprene Kynar (PVDF) 3. Tests are usually conducted in accordance with ASTM D2863.14–LOI of Common Wire and Cable Materials Material Percent Oxygen Material Percent Oxygen Teflon PVDF (Kynar) Halar Plenum grade PVC FR-EP FR-XLP CPE Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) Hypalon 93 43–85 55 38–42 30–40 30–40 28–36 32–35 34 Neoprene Tefzel PVC Kevlar NBR PVC XLP (Unfilled) PE (Unfilled) 32 30–32 28–32 29 28 20–23 20–23 3.4. Insulation and Jacket Materials| 3. Table 3.

2 Copper Braid Shield 4.1 Conductor Shield (Strand Shield) 4.4.2.1 Power Cable 4.2. SHIELDS 4.2 Outer Shield (Insulation Shield) 60 60 4.1.3 Spiral (Serve) Shield 62 63 63 | 59 . Shields| 4.1 Foil Shield 4.2.2 Electronic Cable 4.1.

Shields A shield is a metallic covering enclosing an insulated conductor or group of conductors. which can harm the insulation. Thus. A uniform distribution of electrical stress extends the life of the cable by eliminating partial discharges. transistors. the primary purpose of the conductor shield is to provide a smooth. The insulation shield material is either electrically conductive or made of a high dielectric constant material and provides a uniform electrical field within the insulation. Microscopic channels called “trees” may form and ultimately cause premature failure of the insulation. The insulation shield also provides an important safety function at terminations and splices where the metallic part of the shield may not completely cover the cable insulation surface. is the conductive shield. 4. but at the outside of the cable’s insulation. continuous and void-free interface between the conductor and insulation.400 volts. Semiconductive shields must be as smooth.1 POWER CABLE The use of shields in power cables rated above 2. shields for electronic and power cables perform very different functions. The various components of a power cable shield are discussed below. Without a stress control layer.1. There are two basic types of conductor shields – “conductive” and “emission” shields.1 Conductor Shield (Strand Shield) The nonround geometry of stranded conductors permits air gaps between the outer surface of the conductor and the inner surface of the insulation. It too must remain in intimate contact with the insulation and be free of voids and defects. Energetic ions bombard the insulation. An emission shield uses a material with a high dielectric constant to do its job. help protect the user from shock hazards and increase cable reliability by preventing partial discharges (corona) in cables rated above 2. Power cable shields. 4.400 volts reduces electrical shock hazard to people and provides uniform distribution of electrical stresses throughout the insulation. 4. however. Volume resistivity of the insulation shield is normally less than 500 ohm-meters.2 Outer Shield (Insulation Shield) The insulation shield plays much the same role as the conductor shield in protecting the insulation from the damaging effects of corona. used in the electronics industry). high electric fields cause partial discharges within these gaps. The most popular type. Though sometimes similar in appearance. on the other hand. 60 | . It is a material (either an extruded carbon black loaded polymer or carbon black impregnated fabric tape) with electrical conductivity midway between that of a metallic conductor such as copper and that of an insulation such as XLP.e. break molecular bonds and degrade the insulation.|4. Such a material is commonly referred to as a “semiconductive” shield (not to be confused with semiconductors. i. cylindrical and clean as possible to avoid electrical stress concentrations that can lead to insulation damage. Electronic cable shields serve to both minimize the effect of external electromagnetic signals on the conductors in the cable and to reduce the radiated signal from the cable to an acceptable level..1. AEIC document CS8 and ICEA publication T-25-425 contain detailed specifications on the electrical and physical performance of the conductor shield.

It is generally helically applied over a semiconducting polymer insulation shield. | 61 . Helically applied copper wire shields are sometimes used on 5 through 35 kV and higher rated power cables. Copper tape Jacket Insulation shield Insulation Conductor shield Figure 4.4.inches wide. Power cables rated 5 to 35 kV and up frequently utilize copper tape as the metallic component of the metal/polymer shielding system. In combination with the extruded insulation shield. They are sometimes used in combination with copper tape to provide additional shield fault current capacity. The wires can be used as “ripcords” to reduce termination time during installation. a copper tape shield increases insulation life by maintaining uniform electrical stress throughout the cable insulation and provides low end-to-end resistance of the shield system.to 1 1/2. UniShield cables have six corrugated copper wires longitudinally imbedded in a conducting CPE jacket.1–Power Cable Shielding Advantages Disadvantages • When properly grounded. Shields| Copper Tape Shields The copper tape used in power cable shields is usually 5 mils thick and 1.1–Typical Copper Tape Shielded Power Cable Table 4. provides protection from electrical shock • Increases life of the cable insulation • Reduces electromagnetic interference (EMI) • Must be terminated with a medium voltage termination to control electrical stresses • Higher cost Wire Shields Metallic wire shields on power cables come in two basic types: helically applied copper wires and UniShield.

2) with the foil facing in or the foil facing out. Foil facing in Foil facing out Figure 4. Foil shields provide excellent protection from electromagnetic interference. In addition to shielding effectiveness. As a result. mechanical. The small amount of energy that makes it all the way through the shield generates an interference voltage in the signal carrying conductors of the cable.3) construction provides the best electrical isolation between shields of adjacent pairs as well as 100 percent coverage. 4. 4.2–Foil Shielding Advantages Disadvantages • 100% coverage • Low cost • Ease of termination • Good flexibility • Excellent shielding at high frequencies • Poor mechanical strength • Short flex life • Less effective at low frequencies 62 | .|4. The shield can be overlapped (Fig. This overlap creates a slot where signal leakage through the shield can occur.2 ELECTRONIC CABLE Electronic cable shielding provides an efficient way to manage electromagnetic interference (EMI). 4.1 Foil Shield Foil shields are usually constructed of aluminum foil with a 1/2-mil thick polyester backing. an interference current is induced in the shield. especially at high frequencies. Shields 4. A tinned copper drain wire is placed in contact with the foil side of the shield to provide easier grounding of the shield at the cable terminations. electronic cable shields must satisfy a long list of electrical. The incident energy is partially reflected from the shield and partially absorbed by the shield and a small amount penetrates through the shield into the cable.2.2–Foil Shield Figure 4. The smaller the interference voltage. the better the shield. The “Z” fold (Fig. a diversified line of shield designs has evolved in the wire and cable industry. chemical and cost requirements. Foil shields are most common in electronic and coaxial cables. When a shielded cable is present in an ambient electromagnetic field. This backing provides mechanical strength.3–Z-Fold Foil Shield Table 4.

3–Copper braid shields Advantages Disadvantages • Best at low frequencies • Good mechanical strength • Increased flex life • Increased cost • More difficult to terminate 4.6–Spiral or Serve Shield Table 4. Braid shields are most effective at low frequencies.4–Spiral Shields Advantages Disadvantages • Excellent flexibility • Long flex life • Poor electrical performance at high frequencies | 63 . Shields| 4. Typical coverage ranges from 60 percent to 90 percent. Spiral shields are used primarily in audio. Generally.2. microphone and retractile cord cables where extreme flexibility and a long flex life are required.4. are typically constructed with bare or tinned copper wires from 32 to 40 AWG in size that are helically applied in a flat or ribbon configuration (Fig. Spiral shields range in coverage from 80 percent to about 97 percent. The tightness of the braid determines the percent coverage.3 Spiral (Serve) Shield Spiral or serve shields. the higher the coverage the better the shield.6).4–Dual Braid Shield Construction on a Multipair Cable Figure 4.2. Outer braid Inner braid Copper braid Jacket Jacket Insulation Figure 4. 4.5–Copper Braid Construction on a Coaxial Cable Table 4. Braid shields are also commonly used on cables where increased flex life and mechanical strength are required. Figure 4. Braid shields are typically used on coaxial cables and on low-speed communication cables. Spiral shields perform best when used at low (audio) frequencies. as they are sometimes called.2 Copper Braid Shield A braid shield typically consists of copper wire ranging in size from 32 to 40 AWG braided into a mesh around the cable core.

4 5.5. Armor| 5.5 Interlocked Armor Continuously Corrugated and Welded (CCW) Basket-Weave Lead Sheath Wire Serve 66 66 67 67 67 | 65 .3 5.2 5.1 5. ARMOR 5.

5. The interlocking construction protects the cable from damage during and after installation. while improving the reliability.500 1.1–Continuously Corrugated and Welded (CCW) Armor 66 | .2 CONTINUOUSLY CORRUGATED AND WELDED (CCW) CCW armor is made by forming an aluminum strip into a circle along its length and then welding it at the seam. Table 5. CSA and/or ICEA. These stresses could damage the insulated conductors or the optical fibers in the cable if they are not properly protected.) Nominal Thickness (mils) Steel or Bronze Aluminum 0 to 1.1 INTERLOCKED ARMOR Interlocked armor typically uses galvanized steel or aluminum. However. safety and performance of the cable core. Armor (usually a metal) is frequently applied over the cable core to provide this protection.|5.1). Jacket Armor Figure 5. Armor Cables often need to be placed in areas where they are subjected to harsh mechanical stresses.501 and larger 20 25 25 30 5. The armor may be applied directly over the insulation or over an inner jacket. other metals are sometimes used for specialized applications. Materials and construction generally comply with the requirements of UL. The armor extends the life. 5.1–ICEA Recommended Thickness of Interlocked Armor Diameter of Cable (in. This type of sheath provides an impervious seal against moisture and other chemicals as well as physical protection. The following are some frequently used armor types. This smooth tube is then rolled or crimped to form ridges to prevent kinking while bending (see Fig.

to 1/4. Lead alloy sheaths. 5. ducts and raceways. a lead sheath may be used to protect insulated cables from moisture. | 67 . Tar or asphalt (bitumen) is placed over and around the steel wires to reduce the effects of corrosion.inch diameter solid steel wires.5 WIRE SERVE Wire serve armor is most commonly found on submarine cable because it provides excellent physical protection from boat anchors. 5.4 LEAD SHEATH For underground installations in conduits. sharks. containing added tin or antimony. This type of armor is referred to as GSWB (galvanized steel wire braid) in some international standards. aluminum or bronze.5. a jacket over the lead is recommended. This type of armor normally consists of 1/8. Armor| 5. yet is much lighter in weight than other types of armored coverings. Commercially pure lead is used on some lead-covered cables. This armor is generally used on shipboard cables because it provides the mechanical protection of an armored cable. This type of armor is referred to as SWA (steel wire armor) in some international standards. are used where a harder sheath is desired or where vibration may be encountered. Materials and construction generally comply with the requirements of IEEE Standard 45 and various military specifications. etc. In locations where corrosive conditions may be encountered.3 BASKET-WEAVE Basket-weave armor is constructed of metal wires forming a braided outer covering. which are laid helically around the circumference of the cable. sharp rocks. The wires may be of galvanized steel. which conforms to the requirements of ASTM B29 and ICEA S-93-639 (NEMA WC74).

3.7.6.7 Armored Power and Control Electronic Cable 6.4 IBM Cabling System 78 80 80 82 | 69 .3 Short Circuit Current 6.1 Coaxial Cable 6.3.1 Flexible Cords 6.1 Control Cable 6.5.2 Twinaxial Cable (Twinax) 6. CABLE TYPES AND SELECTION CRITERIA 6.1 Voltage Rating 6.5.3 Thermocouple Wire 73 73 74 75 6.5 High Temperature Power 6.6 6. Instrumentation and Thermocouple 6.4 6.1.5.3 Construction and Building Wire Control.5 Special Conditions 76 76 76 77 77 78 6. Cable Types and Selection Criteria| 6.5.3 UTP and STP 6.4 Voltage Drop Considerations 6.7.5.2 Instrumentation Cable 6.1 Portable Power and Control 6.2 6.2 Conductor Size 6.7.1.3.2 Mining Cable 71 72 72 6.7.

2 Indoor Cables 6.8.3 Optical Fiber Cable Selection 86 86 87 88 6.8 Telephone 6.10 6.8.1 Fiber Types 6.11.2 Fiber Selection 6.1 Outside Cables 6.11.3 Insulation and Jacket Materials 83 83 84 84 85 6.11 Military Shipboard Cables (MIL-DTL-24643.|6.8.11. MIL-DTL-24640 and MIL-DTL-915) Optical Fiber Cables 6.12 Tray Cables 70 | .9 6. Cable Types and Selection Criteria 6.

1–Flexible Cord Type Designations TST SPT-1 SPT-2 SPT-3 SPE-1 SPE-2 SPE-3 SV SVO SVOO SVT SVTO SVTOO SVE SVEO SVEOO SJ SJO SJOO SJOOW SJT SJTO SJTOO SJTOOW SJE SJEO SJEOO SJEOOW S SO Tinsel Service Thermoplastic Service Parallel Thermoplastic – 1/64" Insulation Service Parallel Thermoplastic – 2/64" Insulation Service Parallel Thermoplastic – 3/64" Insulation Service Parallel Elastomer – 1/64" Insulation Service Parallel Elastomer – 2/64" Insulation Service Parallel Elastomer – 3/64" Insulation Service Vacuum Service Vacuum Oil-Resistant Jacket SVO with Oil-Resistant Insulation Service Vacuum Thermoplastic SVT with Oil-Resistant Jacket SVTO with Oil-Resistant Insulation Service Vacuum Elastomer SVE with Oil-Resistant Jacket SVEO with Oil-Resistant Insulation Service Junior SJ with Oil-Resistant Jacket SJO with Oil-Resistant Insulation Weather Resistant SJOO Service Junior Thermoplastic SJT with Oil-Resistant Jacket SJTO with Oil-Resistant Insulation Weather-Resistant SJTOO Service Junior Elastomer SJE with Oil-Resistant Jacket SJEO with Oil-Resistant Insulation Weather Resistant SJEOO Service Service with Oil-Resistant Jacket Continued on next page >> | 71 . SJO. Thermoset portable cords have excellent cold bend characteristics and are extremely durable. Table 6. In portable cord terminology. T = thermoplastic. and OO = oil-resistant insulation and jacket. SJOW.1 Flexible Cords Flexible cords come in a number of UL and CSA types including SO. J = junior service (300 volts). W = weather resistant. STO and SJTO. SOW. For example: S = service. SOOW. O = oil-resistant jacket. The temperature rating of these cables can range from -50°C to +105°C for SOOW and -37°C to +90°C for other thermoset cords. Thermoplastic cords typically have temperature ratings that range from -20°C to +60°C. Cable Types and Selection Criteria| 6. SJ.1. each letter of the cable type indicates the construction of the cable.1 PORTABLE POWER AND CONTROL 6.6.

THHN. 8. Among the most common are Type W and Type G. USE. This category of wire is typically used as the permanent wiring in residential. SHD cables are unique in that they not only carry voltage ratings up to 25 kV but also have great flexibility and incredible physical toughness. thermostat wire. can withstand frequent flexing and carry a voltage rating of up to 2 kV. 6. High Heat resistant. In building wire terminology. Mine power feeder (MPF) cables typically have voltage ratings of 5. Wet and dry locations (-2 means 90°C wet).|6. SHD cables are generally available with or without a ground check conductor.1–Flexible Cord Type Designations (Continued) SOO SOOW ST STO STOO STOOW SE SEO SEOO SEOOW HPN HSJ HSJO SO with Oil-Resistant Insulation Weather-Resistant SOO Service Thermoplastic ST with Oil-Resistant Jacket STO with Oil-Resistant Insulation Weather-Resistant STOO Service Elastomer SE with Oil-Resistant Jacket SEO with Oil-Resistant Insulation Weather-Resistant SEOO Heater Parallel Neoprene Heater Service Junior HSJ with Oil-Resistant Jacket 6. XHHW. SE-U. For example: THHN – Thermoplastic. For low-voltage applications. Wet and dry locations (-2 means 90°C wet) RHHW-2 – Rubber insulation. Heat resistant. TFFN.and 600-volt wire and cable including UL Types THW. High Heat resistant.1. Nylon jacket XHHW-2 – Cross-linked (X) insulation. Wet and dry locations (-2 means 90°C wet) USE-2 – Underground Service Entrance wire (-2 means 90°C wet) 72 | . RHW. USE-2. THWN-2. THW-2. RHH. Nylon jacket THWN-2 – Thermoplastic. RHW-2. MPF cables are flexible but are designed for only limited or occasional movement. UL types with a “-2” suffix are rated 90°C in both dry and wet locations. each letter of the wire type indicates something about the construction. Like mine power cables. there are a number of portable cables used by the mining industry. 15 or 25 kV and are available with or without a ground check conductor. High Heat resistant. commercial and industrial facilities. Shovel (SHD) cables are generally used to power heavy duty mobile mining equipment. XHHW-2 and others. THWN. SER. Both cables are a heavy-duty construction.2 Mining Cable Mine power cables are generally designed to be used as flexible feeder cables for circuits between the main power source and mine load centers or as equipment trailing cables. Cable Types and Selection Criteria Table 6. TFN.2 CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING WIRE Construction and building wire encompasses a wide variety of 300. A ground check (GC) conductor is a separate insulated ground wire that is used to monitor the “health” of the normal ground wire.

3 CONTROL. or with individual shields over each pair (or triad) and an overall shield. along with possible exposure to oils. petroleum. High ambient temperature conditions (such as near boilers and steam lines).3. It is normally available in 300. steel.1 Control Cable Control cables differ from power cables in that they are used to carry intermittent control signals. voltage.2–Control Cable with Overall Shield Figure 6. solvents and other chemicals (in chemical.6. Environmental Conditions Control cables are generally subject to rather severe environmental conditions. pulp and paper and cement plants).3. Stranded. The voltage level for control circuits may range anywhere from millivolts up to several hundred volts. pressure. current loading is rarely a deciding factor in the choice of control cable. Cable Types and Selection Criteria| 6. bare copper PVC Nylon jacket PVC jacket PVC insulation Nylon jacket Tape binder (optional) Figure 6.3–Control Cable with Individually Shielded Pairs and An Overall Shield | 73 .or 600-volt constructions with a single overall shield.1–A Typical 600 V Control Cable 6. INSTRUMENTATION AND THERMOCOUPLE 6. etc. flow.) to a PLC or DCS process control computer or to a manually operated control panel. Primary criteria that are applied to the selection of control cable are voltage level and environmental conditions. temperature. are vital considerations. Therefore.2 Instrumentation Cable Instrumentation cable is generally used to transmit a low-power signal from a transducer (measuring for example. Figure 6. For this reason an examination of these conditions is at least as important as electrical considerations. which generally require little power.

Temperature limit of the thermocouple depends on the thermocouple wire: wire size. Cable Types and Selection Criteria 6. Note that thermocouple wire color codes can vary around the world. Reliable and accurate at high temperatures. it is the only type with limits of error guaranteed for cryogenic temperatures. Reliable and accurate at high temperatures. The conditions of measurement determine the type of thermocouple wire and insulation to be used. Type T (Copper vs Constantan) is used for service in oxidizing.3. Exposure to a vacuum should be limited to short time periods. Type R and S (Platinum vs Rhodium) are used in oxidizing or inert atmospheres. as it is called. Source: PMC Corporation Figure 6. inert or dry reducing atmospheres. Temperature range. Use thermocouple connectors if required. Type K (Chromel vs Alumel) is used in oxidizing.|6. Thermocouple wire is available in either thermocouple grade or extension grade. Must be protected from sulfurous and marginally oxidizing atmospheres. Electronic equipment senses this voltage and converts it to temperature. They are made of the same alloys and have the same color codes as extension wire. wire insulation. Thermocouple Types Type J (Iron vs Constantan) is used in vacuum. Iron oxidizes rapidly at temperatures exceeding 538°C (1. or for short periods of time under vacuum. a small voltage is produced. Thermocouple wire or thermocouple extension wire of the same type must be used to extend thermocouples to indicating or control instrumentation. At this thermocouple junction. Must be protected from sulfurous and marginally oxidizing atmospheres. inert or reducing atmospheres or in a vacuum. Must be protected from contamination. oxidizing. and therefore heavier gauge wire is recommended for longer life at these temperatures. response and service life should be considered. Hook up red color-coded wire to negative terminal of instrument. insulation requirements. Thermocouple wire can be fabricated into an accurate and dependable thermocouple by joining the thermoelements at the sensing end. and environmental factors.4–A Typical Thermocouple Circuit 74 | . environment. Extension grade wire is normally lower in cost and is recommended for use in connecting thermocouples to the sensing or control equipment.000°F). inert or dry reducing atmospheres. Type E (Chromel vs Constantan) may be used in oxidizing. inert or reducing atmospheres.3 Thermocouple Wire A thermocouple is a temperature measuring device consisting of two conductors of dissimilar metals or alloys that are connected together at one end. It is highly resistant to corrosion from atmospheric moisture and condensation and exhibits high stability at low temperatures. Red color code is negative throughout circuit. Produces the highest EMF per degree of any standardized thermocouple.

3213 and 3214 UL Style 3284 and CSA CL1254 | 75 . SRK.1 Thermocouple Type Wire Alloys ANSI Symbol Color Code Individual Jacket *Iron vs Constantan Chromel vs *Alumel Copper vs Constantan Chromel vs Constantan Platinum vs 13% Rhodium ( ) Platinum vs 10% Rhodium ( ) *Magnetic JX KX TX EX RX SX White/Red Yellow/Red Blue/Red Purple/Red Black/Red Black/Red Black Yellow Blue Purple Green Green 6.1 Thermocouple Type Wire Alloys ANSI Symbol Color Code Individual Jacket *Iron ( ) vs Constantan ( ) Chromel ( ) vs *Alumel ( ) Copper ( ) vs Constantan ( ) Chromel ( ) vs Constantan ( ) Platinum ( ) vs 13% Rhodium ( ) Platinum ( ) vs 10% Rhodium ( ) *Magnetic J K T E R S White/Red Yellow/Red Blue/Red Purple/Red – – Brown Brown Brown Brown – – Table 6. 3075.6. Cable Types and Selection Criteria| Table 6.000 842 482 392 302 257 MG (Non-UL) MG (UL Style 5107) TGGT (UL Styles 5196 and 5214).3–Color Code for Thermocouple Extension Wire Per ANSI/ISA MC96. SRGK and UL Types SF-2 and SFF-2 SRG. The table below lists some of the most common high-temperature wire and cable types along with their temperature rating. 3125.2–Color Code for Thermocouple Wire Per ANSI/ISA MC96. 3172 and 3231). 3074. TKGT (UL Style 5214) TMMG.4 HIGH TEMPERATURE High temperature generally refers to wire or cable with a temperature rating of 125°C (257°F) or higher.4–High-temperature Wire and Cable °C °F Type 538 450 250 200 150 125 1. TGS and UL Styles 3212. TCGT (UL Style 5288) SRG (UL Styles 3071. Table 6.

5. proximity of other cables.3 Short Circuit Current A second consideration in selection of conductor size is that of the short circuit current. adjacent sources of heat. flexibility and flame resistance 6. Occasionally. the presence of the other cables effectively increases the ambient temperature. such as the presence of corrosive agents.400 volts in the U. The temperature at which a particular cable will operate is affected by the ability of the surrounding material to conduct away the heat. etc.5. the current-carrying capacity is materially affected by the ambient temperature as well as by the installation conditions. The direct result of such a design is lower cost.S. the higher the current-carrying capacity of a given conductor size. It is apparent from the above that many conditions must be known before an accurate current-carrying capacity can be determined for a particular cable installation. Cables designed for use on grounded systems take advantage of the absence of this full line-to-line voltage stress across the insulation and use thinner insulation.|6. Therefore. Running a single-conductor cable through a magnetic conduit will increase the apparent resistance of the cable and will also result in a lower current-carrying capacity due to the additional resistance and magnetic losses. when a cable is run close to other cables. to be shielded. In case of a phase-to-ground fault in a three-phase system. Cables rated 5 kV and above are separated into two classifications: grounded systems (100 percent insulation level) and ungrounded systems (133 percent insulation level). it is possible to operate ungrounded systems for up to one hour with one conductor at ground potential. This condition results in full line-to-line voltage stress across the insulation of each of the other two conductors. 76 | . For example. which the cable must be able to carry in an emergency.2 Conductor Size Conductor size is based principally on three considerations: • Current-carrying capacity (ampacity) • Short-circuit current • Voltage drop The current-carrying capacity of a cable is affected primarily by the permissible operating temperature of its insulation. emergency overload conditions are also involved and may affect conductor size. A recent change in the NEC now requires all cables operating above 2. Similarly. Cable Types and Selection Criteria 6. which decreases the ability of the cable to dissipate its heat. thermal conductivity of soil. a cable installed in a 40°C ambient temperature has an ampacity that is only about 90 percent of the ampacity in a 30°C ambient. as well as reduced cable diameter.5 POWER Below are some of the key considerations when selecting a power cable: • System voltage • Current loading (ampacity) • External thermal conditions such as ambient temperature. For this reason each conductor of such a circuit must have additional insulation. 6. From a thermal standpoint there is a limit to the amount of short-circuit current that a cable can handle without damage.1 Voltage Rating The system voltage on which the cable is to operate determines the required cable voltage rating. • Voltage drop • Special conditions.5. 6. The higher the operating temperature of the insulation.

before proceeding with an important cable installation. etc.6–Typical Wire Shielded 15 kV Power Cable 6. and the advice of competent engineers obtained.5–Typical Tape Shielded 15 kV Power Cable PVC jacket Binder tape Extruded insulation shield Extruded conductor shield Copper conductor Copper wire shield XLP insulation Figure 6.6. on short.) • The effect of magnetic materials such as pipes or structural members close to large cables carrying heavy current loads • The presence of corrosive chemicals in the soil or other locations in which the cable is installed • The interference that may occur in telecommunication circuits because of adjacent power cables • Flame and radiation resistance • Mechanical toughness • Moisture resistance • Overload and fault current requirements All special conditions should be carefully investigated. even though the current load is adequately handled by a smaller size conductor. steam lines.5. 6.5 Special Conditions The following are only a few of the many special conditions that may affect cable selection: • The presence of large sources of heat (boilers. high-voltage lines by heating. conductor size on long.5. it might be necessary to increase conductor size. Generally. low-voltage lines is governed by voltage drop. Cable Types and Selection Criteria| PVC jacket Extruded insulation shield Extruded conductor shield Copper shielding tape EPR insulation Copper conductor Figure 6. Due to voltage drop considerations.4 Voltage Drop Considerations Cable conductor size is sometimes governed by voltage drop rather than by heating. | 77 .

For example. which is the outer polymer layer protecting the parts inside Outer conductor Inner conductor PVC jacket PE dielectric Figure 6. insulation material. These basic types come in various combinations of stranding.1 Coaxial Cable A coaxial cable consists of four basic parts: • Inner conductor (center conductor) • Outer conductor (shield) • Dielectric.|6. Some common types and key characteristics are described below. Velocity of propagation is expressed as a percentage of the speed of light. Characteristic impedance is independent of length and typically ranges from 35 to 185 ohms. conductor count. jacket material.7. which is dependent on length. For information on the various types and their applications. In other materials. 6. This need for impedance matching is especially critical at higher frequencies. 75 and 93 ohms. The characteristic impedance of a cable should not be confused with the impedance of the conductors in a cable. which is 186. In free space or air. etc.000 miles per second. interconnecting cable and receiver should all have the same impedance. electromagnetic energy travels at the speed of light. For example.900 miles per second – or 35 percent slower than in free space. 6. which separates the inner and outer conductors • Jacket. Uniformity is also measured as structural return loss (SRL). where the consequences of mismatches are more severe. however. see Section 5 on armor. the energy travels slower.6 ARMORED POWER AND CONTROL Armored cables comprise a group of cables that are designed to withstand severe mechanical and chemical environments. depending on the dielectric constant of the material. Cable Types and Selection Criteria 6. a transmitter. Velocity of Propagation Velocity of propagation is the speed at which electromagnetic energy travels along the cable. VSWR The Voltage Standing-Wave Ratio (VSWR) is a measure of the standing waves that result from reflections. The most efficient transfer of energy from a source to a load occurs when all parts of the system have the same characteristic impedance. a velocity of 65 percent means that the energy travels at 120. It expresses the uniformity or quality of a cable’s characteristic impedance. 78 | .7–Typical Coaxial Cable Characteristic Impedance The characteristic impedance of a coaxial cable is a function of its geometry and materials.7 ELECTRONIC CABLE This category of wire and cable covers thousands of small gauge single-conductor wire types along with many types of multiconductor cables. The most common values are 50.

tubular metallic outer conductor. The greater the coverage. Consequently. thin foils are sometimes used to supplement the braid to provide better coverage for greater shielding effectiveness. it does not provide complete shielding – energy (RF signals) can leak through the shield via minute gaps in the braid. while the other serves as earth ground. One caution: Do not confuse a flexible cable having a multilayer outer shield with triaxial cable. The two conductors bind the energy within the cable. the better the shield.8–Common Types of Coaxial Cable | 79 . the quality of the dielectric is important to efficient. • Dual Coax This cable contains two individual coaxial cables surrounded by a common outer jacket.6. This construction gives the cable a very uniform characteristic impedance (low VSWR) and excellent shielding. To combat this. One outer conductor (shield) serves as a signal ground. • Flexible Coax The most common type. Speed is important to engineers who must know the transit time of signals for digital transmission. the current associated with the energy travels primarily on the outside of the center conductor and the inside of the outer conductor (shield). Voltage Rating This is the maximum voltage the cable is designed to handle. providing better noise immunity and shielding. • Semirigid Coax Semirigid coax has a solid. but at the expense of flexibility. many cables have several layers in the outer conductor. Cable Types and Selection Criteria| The dielectric (insulation) separating the two conductors determines the velocity of propagation. similar to a pipe. In addition. speedy transfer of energy. While the braid makes the cable flexible. Operating Temperature Range This is the minimum and maximum temperatures at which the cable can operate. Coaxial Types The following paragraphs describe four common types of coaxial cable. • Triaxial Cable (Triax) This coax has two outer conductors (shields) separated by a dielectric layer. Flexible Coax Jacket Outer conductor (braid) Semirigid Coax Outer conductor Inner conductor Inner conductor Dielectric Triax Jacket Outer conductor (braid) Inner conductor (braid) Jacket Dual Coax Outer conductor (braid) Dielectric Dielectric Inner conductor Dielectric Inner conductor Figure 6. Although the electromagnetic energy travels in the dielectric. flexible coax has a braided outer conductor (shield) of extremely fine wires.

A common use of twinax is high-speed.0 8. In appearance.3 32. the cable is often similar to a shielded twisted pair.8 26.9–A Typical Twinaxial Cable 6.7. Insertion loss. which provides greater noise immunity. Cable Types and Selection Criteria 6.7. crosstalk.5–Category 3 Performance (100 meters) Frequency (MHz) Insertion Loss (dB) NEXT (dB) PSNEXT (dB) 0.772 1. Table 6. A summary of their electrical requirements are shown below. The center conductors may be either twisted or run parallel to one another.1 43.0 2.2 2.7 13.2 and its related addenda.2 Twinaxial Cable (Twinax) Twinax has a pair of insulated conductors encased in a common outer conductor (shield).0 16.0 4. Jacket Twinax Outer conductor (braid) Inner conductor Dielectric Figures 6.6 5. 5e.3 100 ohm Twisted Pair Cable 100 ohm unshielded twisted pair (UTP) and shielded twisted pair are low pair count cables (usually 4 pairs) that have been designed for use in local area networks such as Ethernet. Balanced mode means that the signal is carried on both conductors. but it is held to the tighter tolerances common to fixed-impedance coaxial cable.3 27.0 40. 6 and 6A.|6.0 10.6 8. Because of their relatively low cost these cable types are widely used and are available in several different performance categories (levels) – currently Categories 3. balanced-mode multiplexed transmission in large computer systems. impedance and other electrical parameters are specified in TIA/EIA-568-B.2 43 41 32 28 26 23 Maximum propagation delay: 545 ns/100 m at 10 MHz Maximum delay skew: 45 ns/100 m at 16 MHz Characteristic impedance: 100 15 ohms from 1 to 16 MHz 80 | .3 23.5 9.

6 8.8 2.3 48.3 37.8 51.3 51.8 32.0 65.5 20.0 16.9 27.3 60.5 20.8 44.9 20.0 32.8 50.8 53.4 35.6 21.3 51.6 21.0 24.772 1.0 8.8 67.1 18.0 24.3 44.7 40.3 39.8 47.0 17.8 36.0 10.4 42.0 7.8 37.8 36.8 6.3 47.0 25.7 47.8 52.8 59.8 57.6.8 2.1 5.0 62.0 1.5 25.0 25.8 34.0 31.8 39.8 55.3 63.5 9.0 4.0 24.25 62.9 31.9 38.0 25.3 56.3 74.0 67.8 18.7 38.8 51.3 54.8 49.5 8.8 29.3 6.5 10.0 31.8 41.0 20.8 30.0 23.0 64.3 65.4 32.0 4.7–Category 6 Performance (100 meters) Frequency (MHz) Insertion Loss (dB) NEXT (dB) PSNEXT (dB) ELFEXT (dB) PSELFEXT (dB) Return Loss (dB) 0.0 4.3 58.6 21.0 72.0 74.3 64.4 11.8 46.772 1.3 Maximum propagation delay: 538 ns/100 m at 100 MHz (536 at 250 MHz) Maximum delay skew: 45 ns/100 m at all frequencies | 81 .2 54.0 8.8 33.5 100.8 19.7 34.4 19.9 24.0 25.8 16.3 23.0 3.3 70.3 53.2 52.0 16.0 24.7 37.8 42.0 1.7 44.3 39.2 45.8 38.9 35.8 35.3 10.8 19.0 25.3 49.5 100.3 23.25 62.0 22.7 17.2 9.7 43.9 47.0 25.3 42.8 43.4 20.0 20.9 24.8 – 60.0 200.3 – 63.8 76.5 25. Cable Types and Selection Criteria| Table 6.2 42.6–Category 5e Performance (100 meters) Frequency (MHz) Insertion Loss (dB) NEXT (dB) PSNEXT (dB) ELFEXT (dB) PSELFEXT (dB) Return Loss (dB) 0.8 39.9 45.7 15.4 20.8 5.8 45.9 28.7 41.9 23.8 48.4 44.8 40.8 36.0 67.0 23.0 250.1 Maximum propagation delay: 538 ns/100 m at 100 MHz Maximum delay skew: 45 ns/100 m at 100 MHz Table 6.8 19.9 27.0 10.3 56.

In a balanced system.2 28.0 150.2 48. In local area networks (LANs).3 39.8 5.8 64.3 16.8 67.0 250.3 74. Electromagnetic interference is present in all types of cabling to some degree.0 20.8 21.1 42.0 67.7 27.0 67.3 13. the more twists per foot in the conductor pairs of the cable.5 67.0 19.7 38.0 24.3 41.5 20.” which contains two DGM pairs plus four VGM pairs and “Type 6.0 67.5 61.4 9.3 21. there is very little radiation of EMI since the external field from one conductor is effectively canceled by the external field from the other conductor of the pair.2 34.0 25.8 59.2 60.8 18.4 44.3 49.7 45.5 100.7 27.2 50.5 57.5 33.8 16.0 67. Cable types consist of various combinations of shielded data grade media (DGM) and non-shielded voice grade media (VGM).2 30.2 25.2 40.9 47.3 18.8 37.6 58.7.9 45.0 2.0 64. When properly grounded (connected) to the associated electronic equipment.0 24.2 54. the shield acts as a barrier to incoming as well as outgoing EMI.3 37.0 25.7 44.9 28.3 35.8 49. Generally.6 31.3 34.0 16.3 32.8 57.7 41.9 12. In an unshielded (UTP) cable.0 500.8 52.3 54.2 54. the better the cable is electrically balanced.8 40.2 Maximum propagation delay: 538 ns/100 m at 100 MHz Maximum delay skew: 45 ns/100 m at all frequencies 100-ohm Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) vs Shielded Twisted Pair There are two basic types of electromagnetic interference (EMI) that cable engineers worry about – EMI emissions and EMI immunity.0 67.3 15.0 67.4 56.2 67.5 31.8 14.5 (Token Ring) networks and equipment.1 34.8 46. 6. “Type 2.3 42.4 IBM Cabling System The IBM Cabling System is a structured building wiring system that is compatible with IEEE 802.9 7.9 31.9 18.8 20.0 350. the currents in the two conductors are equal in magnitude but flowing in opposite directions.1 3.9 15. Emissions refer to energy that is radiated by the cable that might affect the proper operation of a neighboring circuit or system.0 4.0 8.2 52.|6.5 62.1 18.8 36.5 15.3 23.3 65.0 66.8 16.6 21.0 10.4 42.1 24.1 35.8 24.0 59.3 56. offers better protection from EMI problems.8 39.3 26.8 15.8 36.1 23.7 10.8 19.8 55.0 31.1 52.0 300.3 37.8–Category 6A Performance (100 meters) Frequency (MHz) Insertion Loss (dB) NEXT (dB) PSNEXT (dB) ACRF (dB) PSACRF (dB) Return Loss (dB) PSANEXT (dB) PSAACRF (dB) 1.” which is a 2-pair DGM cable with smaller conductors (26 AWG instead of 22 AWG).1 33.0 25.3 16.7 37.3 63.0 23.7 47.7 13. Shielded cables generally use an aluminum or copper shield to provide protection.3 60. therefore. Cable types include “Type 1.0 17.9 15.8 34.1 34.5 25.5 15.8 11.0 400.25 62. Cable Types and Selection Criteria Table 6. That is.2 5.7 39. careful design of the cable and the associated electronic equipment results in a “balance” of the currents in the two conductors of a pair.7 32.8 43.1 58.8 72. Category 5e cable has more twists per foot than Category 3 cable and.3 58.” which is a 2-pair DGM cable.0 67.8 51.9 24.3 51.0 67.0 67.3 38.4 10.8 53.0 200.5 8.8 38.1 36. Immunity is the ability of the cable to reject outside signals that might interfere with the proper operation of the circuit or system to which the cable is attached.0 450.0 67. 82 | . failure to properly manage EMI can have an adverse effect on the integrity of the transmitted information.9 27. For example.

or sometimes called black cable. Station wire and inside cables are usually used in plenum.6.1 Outside Cables Outside cables typically range in size from small (2 to 6 pair) constructions. i. Water is the “Achilles’ heel” of outdoor telephone cable because it increases capacitance (normally 0. on the other hand.g.8 TELEPHONE Telephone cables play a major role in modern communications. The PE jacket and metal armoring isolate signal-carrying conductor pairs from moisture. Cables installed in one.8..083 µF per mile) between the “tip” and “ring” conductors and compromises crosstalk (pair-to-pair signal coupling) performance of the cable. 6. Some aircore cable designs are kept dry by pressurizing the core of the cable with dry air or nitrogen. 2) copper and 3) hybrid (composite) cable with both fiber and copper components under one jacket. it is usually designed for both indoor and outdoor use because it often extends to the exterior of the building. Exchange cables are manufactured in “filled” and “unfilled” (aircore) versions. inside homes and commercial buildings. Type CMR. Telephone cable is usually classified according to its location of use. the interstices between insulated conductors are filled with a waterproofing gel to prevent the ingress and longitudinal movement of water.and two-family dwellings must be identified as Type CMX. True inside cable.8. Article 800 of the National Electrical Code (NEC) requires that telephone wire and cable be plenum rated when installed indoors in plenums (air handling spaces) without conduit. Wire or cable used indoors. i. Many high pair-count copper cables have been replaced by optical fiber cables. the other to the ring of the plug. mechanical damage and lightning induced voltages. 6. While station wire is one type of inside wire. | 83 .. a riser rating. which are typically installed between central offices of the telephone company. Cable used outdoors between the telephone company’s central office and the building being served is referred to as outside cable. is typically larger (25 to 200 pair) 22 or 24 AWG cable. because they are often installed in underground ducts or directly buried in the earth. General purpose communication cables must be labeled Type CM. When installed in vertical risers in multistory buildings. The plenum version is a highly flame retardant construction that is capable of passing the Steiner Tunnel Flame Test (NFPA-262). and general purpose versions. In conjunction with microwave and satellite transmission. which are usually referred to as “service drop” or “buried distribution” wire (the cable installed in many residential backyards). copper or steel sheaths. are designed with various combinations of polyethylene (PE) jackets and aluminum. is required. is referred to as premises distribution wiring or more simply as inside cable. copper and optical fiber cables provide the communication links that have become essential to society. up to large 1.2 Indoor Cables Inside wire and cable is usually divided into 1) station wire and 2) inside cable (sometimes called IC). telephone wire and cable has generally been grouped into three broad categories: 1) fiber.e.500 pair “exchange” cables. Exchange cables. which is installed exclusively indoors in larger public and commercial buildings. With the advent of optical fiber cables in the early 1980s. The terms tip and ring are carryovers from earlier days when each twisted pair was terminated with a 1/4-inch diameter plug at a manually operated switchboard. it must carry the marking CMP (CM for communication and P for plenum). e. With filled cables.. 22 or 24 AWG wire and is typically installed in residences. One conductor was attached to the tip. riser.e. Cable Types and Selection Criteria| 6. Station wire is usually 2 to 4 pair.

|6. Cable Types and Selection Criteria

6.8.3 Insulation and Jacket Materials
Two thermoplastic polymers are generally used to insulate the conductors of outdoor telephone wire and cable: polypropylene (PP) or polyethylene (PE). These polymers are used primarily because of their low dielectric constant, high dielectric strength (to withstand lightning induced overvoltages), excellent moisture resistance, mechanical toughness, extrudability in thin walls and low cost. Indoor dielectrics include PP and PE but, in addition, include FEP (fluorinated ethylene-propylene or Teflon), ECTFE (ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene or Halar) and PVC (polyvinyl chloride). FEP and ECTFE are used in plenum cables to provide the necessary flame retardancy and are extruded on the wire in either solid or foamed (expanded) versions. The most important telephone wire and cable electrical characteristics and their usual units of measurement include capacitance (microfarads per mile), conductor resistance (ohm per loop-mile), crosstalk (decibel isolation between pairs) and attenuation (decibels per mile). When used for high-speed digital applications, characteristic impedance (ohm) and structural return loss (decibels) also become important. The mechanical and chemical characteristics of telephone cable insulation are as important as the electrical characteristics. Several important mechanical and chemical characteristics include compression cut resistance, low-temperature brittleness, resistance to the base oils used in filling gels, adequate tensile and elongation properties, and acceptable long-term aging characteristics.

6.9 MILITARY
The U.S. military has developed extensive specifications for many wire and cable types used in military applications. This includes hook-up and lead wire, airframe wire, control cable and coax. A MIL-Spec wire or cable must meet rigorous performance requirements. Tests that prove the wire or cable meets the specified requirements must be conducted by the manufacturer and must be carefully documented. Following is a partial list of military wire and cable types.
Type Description

MIL-C-5756 MIL-C-7078 MIL-C-13294 MIL-DTL-915 MIL-DTL-3432 MIL-DTL-8777 MIL-DTL-13486 MIL-DTL-16878 MIL-DTL-24640 MIL-DTL-24643 MIL-DTL-25038 MIL-DTL-23053 MIL-DTL-27072 MIL-DTL-27500

Cable and wire, portable power, rubber insulated (replaced by SAE-AS5756) Cable, aerospace vehicle (replaced by NEMA WC27500) Field wire (replaced by MIL-DTL-49104) Shipboard cable (inactive for new design except outboard types) Power and special purpose cables used for ground support systems (“CO” types), 300 and 600 V Aircraft wire, silicone insulated, 600 V, 200˚C Cable, special purpose, low tension, single and multiconductor, shielded and unshielded General purpose hook-up and lead wire Shipboard cable, lightweight Shipboard cable, low smoke Aircraft wire, inorganic fibrous/Teflon insulation, high temperature and fire resistant, engine zone wire Tubing, heat shrink (replaced by AMS-DTL-23053) Cable, power and special purpose, multiconductor and single shielded (replaced by NEMA WC27500) Aerospace and other general application wire
Continued on next page >>

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6. Cable Types and Selection Criteria|

(Continued)
Type Description

MIL-DTL-49055 MIL-DTL-55021 MIL-I-22129 MIL-W-76 MIL-W-5845 MIL-W-5846 MIL-W-81822 MIL-W-47206

Cable, power, flat, unshielded Cable, shielded singles, twisted pairs and triples, internal hook-up Tubing, PTFE, nonshrink General purpose hook-up wire Thermocouple wire, iron and Constantan Thermocouple wire, chromel and alumel Solderless wrap (wire wrap), insulated and uninsulated Cable, single conductor, twisted pairs; and multiconductor, high temperature (replaced by MIL-DTL-27500)

6.10 SHIPBOARD CABLES (MIL-DTL-24643, MIL-DTL-24640 AND MIL-DTL-915)
Due to concern about flammability, smoke and toxicity, the U.S. Navy introduced the MIL-DTL-24643 cable specification. Generally, this document provides low-smoke, fire-retardant cables that are approximately equivalent in size, weight and electricals to many of the older MIL-DTL-915 constructions. In consideration of circuit density, weight and size, the U.S. Navy produced the MIL-DTL-24640 cable document. The cables covered by this specification are also low-smoke, fire-retardant constructions, but they are significantly lighter in weight and smaller in diameter. MIL-DTL-24640 cables are used to interconnect systems where weight and space savings are critical; however, they are not direct replacements. Because the overall diameters have been reduced and electrical characteristics may have been changed, they should not be used to replace existing MIL-DTL-915 or MIL-DTL-24643 constructions unless a comprehensive electrical and physical system evaluation or redesign has been completed. For many years, most of the shipboard power and lighting cables for fixed installation had silicone-glass insulation, polyvinyl chloride jacket, and aluminum armor and were of watertight construction. It was determined that cables with all of these features were not necessary for many applications, especially for applications within watertight compartments and noncritical areas above the watertightness level. Therefore, for applications within watertight compartments and noncritical areas, a new family of non-watertight lower cost cables was designed. This family of cables is electrically and dimensionally interchangeable with silicone-glass insulated cables of equivalent sizes and is covered by Military Specification MIL-DTL-915.

6.11 OPTICAL FIBER CABLES
In all types of optical fiber cables, the individual optical fibers are the signal transmission media that act as individual optical wave guides. The fibers consist of a central transparent core region that propagates the optical radiation and an outer cladding layer that completes the guiding structure. The core and the cladding are typically made of pure silica glass, though other materials can be used. To achieve high signal bandwidth capabilities, the core region sometimes has a varying (or graded) refractive index.

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|6. Cable Types and Selection Criteria

6.11.1 Fiber Types

125 µm 50 or 62.5 µm diameter core diameter Multimode Fiber

8 µm core diameter

125 µm diameter

Single-mode Fiber

In pulse

Out pulse

Multimode

Single-mode Figure 6.10–Optical Fiber Types There are two basic fiber types – single-mode and multimode. Single-mode has a core diameter of 8 to 10 microns and is normally used for long distance requirements (e.g., interstate) and high-bandwidth (information carrying capacity) applications. Multimode, on the other hand, has a core diameter of 50 or 62.5 microns and is usually used intrabuilding. Laser-optimized fibers are a fairly recent development in which 50-micron multimode fibers are optimized for 850 nm VCSEL (vertical cavity surface emitting laser) sources and can provide significantly increased bandwidth performance when compared with standard multimode fiber types. The added bandwidth of laser-optimized 50-micron fiber allows for distance support up to 550 meters for 10 Gigabit Ethernet networks as well as providing a lower overall system cost when compared with single-mode systems utilizing higher cost 1300 or 1550 laser sources. Laser-optimized fiber is referred to as “OM3” fiber in ISO/IEC-11801. OM3 fibers are also referenced by other industry standards, such as the TIA-568 wiring standards and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). OM1 and OM2 designations are specified for standard 62.5 and 50 micron multimode fibers, respectively.

6.11.2 Fiber Selection
The three major fiber parameters used in selecting the proper fiber for an application are bandwidth, attenuation and core diameter. Bandwidth The bandwidth at a specified wavelength represents the highest sinusoidal light modulation frequency that can be transmitted through a length of fiber with an optical signal power loss equal to 50 percent (-3 dB) of the zero modulation frequency component. The bandwidth is expressed in megahertz over a kilometer length (MHz-km). Attenuation The optical attenuation denotes the amount of optical power lost due to absorption and scattering of optical radiation at a specified wavelength in a length of fiber. It is expressed as an attenuation in decibels of optical power per kilometer (dB/km). The attenuation is determined by launching a narrow spectral band of light into the full length of fiber and measuring the transmitted intensity. This measure is then repeated for the first 1.5 to 2.5 meters of the same fiber cable without disturbing the input end of the fiber. The dB/km attenuation is then calculated and normalized to 1 km.
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6. Cable Types and Selection Criteria|

Core Diameter The fiber core is the central region of an optical fiber whose refractive index is higher than that of the fiber cladding. Various core diameters are available to permit the most efficient coupling of light from commercially available light sources, such as LEDs or laser diodes.

Ray outside acceptance cone Acceptance cone

Cladding

Core

Ray lost in cladding by absorption Figure 6.11–Optical Fiber Attenuation

6.11.3 Optical Fiber Cable Selection
Another important consideration when specifying optical fiber cable is the cable construction. Proper selection depends on the environment in which the cable will be installed. One of two different types of cable construction are generally employed to contain and protect the optical fibers. Loose Buffer The first is a loose buffer tube construction where the fiber is contained in a water-blocked polymer tube that has an inner diameter considerably larger than the fiber itself. This provides a high level of isolation for the fiber from external mechanical forces that might be present on the cable. For multifiber cables, a number of these tubes, each containing one or more fibers, are combined with the necessary longitudinal strength member. Loose buffer cables are typically used in outdoor applications and can accommodate the changes in external conditions (e.g., contraction in cold weather and elongation in warm weather). Tight Buffer The second cable construction is a tight buffer tube design. Here, a thick buffer coating is placed directly on the fiber. Both constructions have inherent advantages. The loose buffer tube construction offers lower cable attenuation from a given fiber, plus a high level of isolation from external forces. This means more stable transmission characteristics under continuous mechanical stress. The tight buffer construction permits smaller, lighter weight designs and generally yields a more flexible cable. A comparison of these two cable constructions is shown below.

Loose buffer tube Fiber

Tight buffer tube Figure 6.12–Optical Fiber Cable Designs

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|6. Cable Types and Selection Criteria
Table 6.9–A Comparison of Loose Tube and Tight Buffer Optical Fiber Cable
Cable Parameter Cable Construction Loose Tube Tight Buffer

Bend radius Diameter Tensile strength, installation Impact resistance Crush resistance Attenuation change at low temperatures

Larger Larger Higher Higher Higher Lower

Smaller Smaller Lower Lower Lower Higher

Strength Members Once the optical fiber is surrounded with a buffer, either loose or tight, strength members are added to the cable structure to keep the fibers free from stress and to minimize elongation and contraction. Such strength members provide tensile load properties similar to electronic cables and, in some cases, are used as temperature stabilization elements. Jacket As with conventional metallic cables, the jacket protects the core from the external environment. With optical fibers, however, the selection of materials is influenced by the fact that the thermal coefficient of expansion of glass is significantly lower than that of the metal or plastic used in the cable structure. Installation Normal cable loads sustained during installation or environmental movements first stress the strength members without transferring the stress to the optical fibers. If the load is increased, the fiber may ultimately be placed in a tensile stress state. This level of stress may cause microbending losses that result in attenuation increase and possibly fatigue effects.

6.12 TRAY CABLES
Tray cables are a special class of cables designed to meet stringent flame test requirements. A tray cable rating is given to a cable if it can meet the UL or CSA Standard for the rating. To obtain the rating, a cable must pass the 70,000 BTU, UL 1685 Vertical Tray Flame test or the Vertical Flame Test described in CSA C22.2 No. 0.3 (See Section 11.2 Fire Safety Tests for additional information). In effect, a cable does not have a tray cable rating unless it is so marked, for example “for CT use” or “Type TC.” Electrical inspectors will usually reject a cable even if it is capable of passing the tray cable fire test unless it is clearly marked on the cable as being a tray-rated cable. A summary of applicable UL Standards, listings and markings is shown in Table 6.10. Note that, in some cases, the tray rating is an optional marking and is not an inherent part of the listing. Other UL and CSA Types that can be installed in tray in accordance with the NEC include CL2, CL2R, CL2P, CL3, CL3R, CL3P, CM, CMR, CMP, CMG, FPL, FPLR, FPLP, OFN, OFNR and OFNP.

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6. Cable Types and Selection Criteria|

Table 6.10–Tray Cable Listings and Markings
Standard UL Listings (Types) Optional Markings

UL 4 UL 13

AC PLTC

For CT use Direct burial Sunlight resistant ER (Exposed Run) For CT use Sunlight resistant Oil resistant Pump cable Sunlight resistant For CT use Direct burial Sunlight resistant Oil resistant Direct burial Sunlight resistant Oil resistant ER (Exposed Run) LS (Limited Smoke) Direct burial Sunlight resistant CI (Circuit Integrity) Limited combustible Wet location Direct burial Sunlight resistant CI (Circuit Integrity) Limited combustible Wet location Direct burial Sunlight resistant Wet location

UL 44

XHHW-2 RHW-2, RHH, RH SIS, SA CM, CMR, CMP MV

UL 444 UL 1072

UL 1277

TC

UL 1424

FPL, FPLR, FPLP

UL 1425

NPLF, NPLFR, NPLFP

UL 2250

ITC

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ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS 7.6 7.1 7.11 7.3 7.10 7.2 7.4 7. Electrical Characteristics| 7.5 7.9 7.12 7.8 7.7.13 DC Resistance of Plated Copper Conductors DC and AC Resistance of Copper Conductors DC and AC Resistance of Aluminum Conductors Reactance and Impedance at 60 Hz AC/DC Resistance Ratio at 60 Hz Temperature Correction Factors for Resistance Voltage Drop Maximum Conductor Short Circuit Current Maximum Shield Short Circuit Current Resistance and Ampacity at 400 and 800 Hz Current Ratings for Electronic Cables Ampacity of Power Cables Basic Impulse Level (BIL) Ratings 92 95 97 98 100 101 102 103 106 107 108 109 109 | 91 .7 7.

826 395.302 545.985/30 703/0.141 449.200 448.267 744.436 494. of Wires/Size (AWG or in.000 ft.533 691.912 505.0165 0.0158 0.800 701.|7.0165 0.031 Continued on next page >> 92 | .990/30 925/24 427/0.0306 980/24 3.895 598. safely and efficiently.0243 0. physical.0200 0.152 554.054/30 427/0. chemical and thermal properties match those of the application. 7.0316 1.0204 0.300 538.596/24 6. at 20°C (68°F) Silver Plated Nickel Plated Tin Plated 777 750 750 750 700 700 700 650 650 650 646 600 600 600 550 550 550 535 500 500 500 450 450 450 444 400 400 400 373 350 1.0222 0.332/24 427/0.930 399.916/30 703/0.0139 0.451 399. Electrical Characteristics For a wire or cable to perform its intended function reliably.0286 AAR H I K H I K H I K AAR H I K H I K AAR H I K H I K AAR H I K AAR H 788.000 373.0169 0.0244 0.728 751.110/24 427/0.453/30 1.0169 0.470/24 5.500 551.729/24 6.) Strand Class Nominal Area (cmils) Nominal DC Resistance ohms/1.448/30 703/0.800 651. the wire or cable must be selected so that its many electrical.0146 0.019 455.028 1.0184 0.1–DC Resistance of Plated Copper Conductors Wire Size (AWG/kcmil) No.406 593.400 451.0342 1.711 752.0304 1.0146 0.028 0.522/30 1.700 665.0220 0.028 0.862/24 7.025 0.709 349.647/24 703/0.319 452.404 599.0148 0.0185 0.125/24 5.028 0.0218 0.0327 1.0157 0.127/24 4.372/24 5.269 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.0292 1.0200 0. The following sections provide information on some of the most frequently requested electrical parameters.952/24 703/0.0241 0.0183 0.0171 0.029 0.517/30 1.0200 0.1 DC RESISTANCE OF PLATED COPPER CONDUCTORS Table 7.684 644.988 698.0325 1.600 649.

066 0.503 5.052 0.59 1.10 1.043 0.512 6.343 166.65 1.107 0.874 6.900 260.0234 37/26 7/0.083 0.689 0.02 1.354 249.134 0.900 210.642 1.137 0.628 0.0295 37/0.053 0.800 313.068 257.473 16.067 0.989/30 646/24 427/0.80 1.7.71 1.044 0.75 1.401 133.066 0.259 0.099 – – – – – – – – – – 0.458/30 777/24 427/0.037 0.129 0.168 0.53 – – – – – – – – – – 0.0158 133/27 19/0.0305 19/25 19/0.088 0.052 0.775 104.168 0.18 1.083 0.177 0.354 6.665/30 427/0.60 1.043 0.376 10.393 0.165 0.630 0.337 345.75 1.330/30 427/0. of Wires/Size (AWG or in.264 0.304 66.1–DC Resistance of Plated Copper Conductors (Continued) Wire Size (AWG/kcmil) No.417 0.63 Continued on next page >> | 93 .87 1.700 83.084 0.500 4.165 0.69 0.655 0.616 1.067 0.037 0.259 0.140 52.0185 37/28 65/30 7/0.116 0.500 167.107 0.990 250.91 1.0177 1.066 0.088 6.00 1.03 1.640 0.669 42.0223 133/0.70 1.0242 I K AAR H I K AAR H I K K H K H K H K H K H K H H H H H H C D H B C D B C C D K B 356.900 212.78 1.035 0.137 0.818 16.0242 637/24 2.249 0.134 0.053 0.164 0.0385 19/0. Electrical Characteristics| Table 7.) Strand Class Nominal Area (cmils) Nominal DC Resistance ohms/1.016 133/0.000 133.031 0.202 26.682 81.037 0.325 0.692 0.084 0.80 2.81 1.165 0.109/30 427/0.164 0.404 9.0199 133/25 133/0.032 0.916 299.500 105.144 0.409 0.165 0.103 0.0211 133/29 7/0.018 665/30 259/0.168 0.87 2.052 0.13 1.105 0.000 ft.205 0.082 0.499/30 2.983 10.947 298.0202 817/30 259/0.500 66.654 1.052 0.10 1.168 0.61 2.105 0.916 66.0265 735/24 2.20 1.069 0.535 16.0198 1.615 33.00 1.045/30 259/0. at 20°C (68°F) Silver Plated Nickel Plated Tin Plated 350 350 313 300 300 300 262 250 250 250 4/0 4/0 3/0 3/0 2/0 2/0 1/0 1/0 1 1 2 2 2 3 4 5 6 8 8 8 10 10 10 12 12 12 12 12 14 882/24 3.042 0.861 296.249 0.0223 1.

600 2.78 2.0067 7/34 19/38 7/36 19/40 7/38 19/42 7/40 7/42 7/44 C C D K B C C K B B K C C B K C B C B C B B C B C B C B B B 3.50 58.60 14.28 4.65 2.608 1.20 14.10 6.70 23.60 62.0 256.80 39.86 2.18 9.00 163.0 2.58 5.40 39.77 7.59 2.27 – 8.00 99.20 6.60 13.426 2.60 6.2 Note: AAR – American Association of Railroads Strand Classes B.216 700 754 448 475 314 277 304 175 182 112 118 67 43 28 2.38 6.600 1.0 244.10 33.99 6.20 88.10 60.58 4.) Strand Class Nominal Area (cmils) Nominal DC Resistance ohms/1. of Wires/Size (AWG or in.14 4.769 1.90 34.00 37.70 2.49 4.|7.600 1.0 241.65 – 9.10 21.86 5.20 4.10 5.60 90.831 4. Electrical Characteristics Table 7.58 9.0092 7/.1–DC Resistance of Plated Copper Conductors (Continued) Wire Size (AWG/kcmil) No.60 22.53 14.0152 7/26 16/30 19/30 19/0.000 ft.60 24.86 5.82 9.0147 37/0.0 225. H.100 2.62 2.67 6.02 4.0117 26/30 7/0.80 23. C.70 148.28 10/30 19/32 7/30 19/34 7/34 19/36 7/0.111 1.65 2.62 4.60 96.69 9. at 20°C (68°F) Silver Plated Nickel Plated Tin Plated 14 14 14 14 16 16 16 16 18 18 18 18 18 20 20 20 22 22 24 24 25 26 26 28 28 30 30 32 34 36 19/27 19/0.61 5.105 4.23 4.0 2.50 33.22 6.40 54.0105 41/30 7/0.0192 19/29 19/0.30 82. D.62 2.70 66.30 58.580 2.14 6.0 391.617 1.5 369.07 15.70 24.10 36.84 10.900 1.07 6.81 2.80 35.65 4.15 15.079 4.50 36.39 4.80 159.41 4. I and K per ASTM 94 | .27 4.20 94.000 1.

744 0.116 0.116 0.295 0.128 0. DC 75°C Conductor Temperature 60 Hz AC *Single Cond.466 0.515 0.2 DC AND AC RESISTANCE OF COPPER CONDUCTORS Table 7.0 11.0437 1.57 4.163 0.325 0.162 0.18 0.29 2.54 4.9 13.4 75.203 0.8 260.0543 0.0519 0.195 0.0639 0.0 189.466 0.0353 1.0 12.0579 0.184 0.061 0.491 0.29 2.0454 – – – – – – – – – – – – – 3.31 0.080.194 0.18 0.162 0. DC 90°C Conductor Temperature 60 Hz AC *Single Cond.0573 0.1 8.24 0.744 0.148 0.3 131.14 1.7.0759 0.102 0.822 0.88 1.184 0.6 125.4 199.744 0.126 0.147 0.515 0.196 0.205 0.0 789.2–DC and AC Resistance of Copper Conductors.99 3.1 332.8 52.0423 0.122 0.783 0.97 1.0971 0.3 529.0671 0.6 82.0799 0.1 16.2 30.515 0.154 0.203 0.2 19.0483 Continued on next page >> | 95 .1 103.102 0.0 49.07 1.7 31.0608 0.1 504.118 0.0629 0.0639 0.0516 0.62 1.0769 0.0 827.073 0.31 0.96 4.0807 0.05 0.98 1.3 20.0518 0.0950 0.822 0.31 0.295 0.57 1.822 0.0807 0.491 0.0547 0.1 0.97 1.7 480.07 1. Nominal Ohms Per 1.88 1.5 79.24 0.0923 0.0409 – – – – – – – – – – – – – 2.0461 1.88 1.0452 – – – – – – – – – – – – – 3.98 1.378. †MultiCond.325 0.0579 0.314.147 0.064 0.9 40.295 0.3 6.466 0.9 119.14 1.783 0.073 0.185 0.2 64.0 648.23 3.1 47.783 0.0433 – – – – – – – – – – – – – 3.9 164.07 1.155 0.17 0.8 26.8 209.8 20.6 317.6 414.1 302.0971 0.98 1.250.0 750.0769 0.29 2.9 7.049 0.0794 0.13 0.0411 – – – – – – – – – – – – – 2.75 2.253 0.24 0. †MultiCond.128 0.31 0.5 7.105 0.491 0.154 0.34 5.0492 0.122 0.1 33.18 0.325 0.97 1. Size 40 38 36 34 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 1. 20°C Conductor Temperature DC (AWG/kcmil) DC 60°C Conductor Temperature 60 Hz AC *Single Cond.000 ft.061 0.1 2. †MultiCond.310 0.0431 – – – – – – – – – – – – – 3.159 0.0839 0.1 0.4 10.0541 0.0923 0.14 1.124 0.310 0.403 0.638 0. Electrical Characteristics| 7.

0199 0.0108 0.00705 0.0083 0.000 0.000 5.0275 0.864 0.0278 0.0262 0.0306 0.00546 – 0.0418 0.0177 0.0181 0.0219 0.035 0.0117 0.0302 0.0106 0.00428 0.0226 0.0217 ohms per 1.0144 0.00755 0.0141 0.881 0.0373 0.0369 0.0119 0.500 1.784 0.750 2. †MultiCond.0113 0.019 0.0188 0.0123 – – – 0.822 0.0264 0.|7.0138 0.0170 0.00604 0.0353 0.0355 0.0184 0.0219 0.0339 0.0103 0.0193 0. The resistance at 25°C would be 0. buried or in nonmetallic conduit. DC 90°C Conductor Temperature 60 Hz AC *Single Cond.0372 0.00356 0.0205 0.025 0.0123 0.00278 – 0.00677 0.00529 0.00521 0.0145 0.0246 0.000 ft.838 0.0249 0. ohms per 1.0271 0.0258 0.0175 0. all others are for ASTM Class B stranded conductors.00454 – 0.00433 0.0131 0.0108 0.00818 0.00774 0.0398 0.0125 0.0212 0.0307 0.0164 0.00917 0.00983 0.0117 – – – – – – 0.000 2. DC 75°C Conductor Temperature 60 Hz AC *Single Cond.016 0. Electrical Characteristics Table 7.00847 0.0323 0.0181 0.0390 0.500 3.01030 0.0291 0.00613 0.00218 0.0137 0.0326 0.0132 0. †MultiCond.0198 0.00701 0.3–Temperature Correction Factors for Copper DC Resistance Temperature (°C) Multiplying Factors for Correction To: 20°C 25°C 60 75 90 0. Table 7.00982 0.00265 0.00861 0.00904 0.0167 0.2–DC and AC Resistance of Class B Copper Conductors.0208 0.00496 0.0387 0.0238 0.00252 0.0215 0.00874 0.0231 0.0229 0. *One single conductor in air.0151 0. 96 | .00738 0.250 1.000 1.00645 0.0135 0.0378 0.800 Example: The DC resistance of a 500 kcmil copper conductor at 60°C is 0. †MultiCond.0172 0.021 0.000 ft.00412 0.0129 0.881 0.00795 0. Size 350 400 500 600 700 750 1.0208 0.0262 0.0338 0.0129 0.031 0.00835 0. (Continued) 20°C Conductor Temperature DC (AWG/kcmil) DC 60°C Conductor Temperature 60 Hz AC *Single Cond.0123 0.00934 0.0152 0.0246 ohms per 1.0178 0.000 ft.022 0.0138 0.0342 0.0246 0. †Multiconductor cable or two or three single conductors in one metallic conduit.0175 0.0111 – – – – – – Note: 40 AWG through 26 AWG values are for solid conductors.

0137 0.0302 0.240 0.319 0.848 0.0168 0.507 0.266 0.0106 3. | 97 .266 0.483 0.483 0.0288 0.848 0.0122 3.0381 0.0297 0.765 0.08 1.119 0.102 0.106 0.28 0.93 1.0850 0.201 0. Electrical Characteristics| 7.0170 0. DC *Single Cond.13 1.0890 0.0283 0.0135 0.24 2. Size 12 10 8 6 4 3 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 750 1.106 0.0593 0.167 0.0333 0.483 0.533 0.250 1.28 0.0302 0.34 0.159 0.4–DC and AC Resistance of Class B Aluminum Conductors.0186 0.0445 0.167 0.500 1.0111 3.402 0.40 2.0560 0.24 2.253 0.0848 0.000 ft.211 0.0320 0.0557 0.0448 0.0142 0.0340 0.151 0.126 0.0336 0.101 0.159 0.0177 0.0239 0. 75°C Conductor Temperature 60 Hz AC †MultiCond.0215 0.0908 0. 90°C Conductor Temperature 60 Hz AC †MultiCond.0428 0.08 1.0635 0.0317 0.201 0.0806 0.0124 0.0179 0. DC *Single Cond.03 1.0370 0.0575 0.132 0.126 0.93 1.0216 0.808 0.0686 0. †Multiconductor cable or two or three single conductors in one metallic conduit.0822 0.0472 0.0525 0.159 0.0115 0.0370 0.0158 3.750 2.240 0.808 0.03 1.34 0.422 0.335 0.507 0.3 DC AND AC RESISTANCE OF ALUMINUM CONDUCTORS Table 7.0176 0.533 0.0374 0.0353 0.382 0.0207 0.0150 0.0608 0.0744 0.0963 0.0507 0.0288 0.335 0.132 0.765 0.0406 0.13 1.40 2.133 0.211 0.0424 0.0222 0.0357 0.151 0.13 1.319 0.0400 0.0580 0.0322 0.507 0.0228 0.0605 0.0273 0.101 0.201 0.0203 0.0674 0.0173 *One single conductor in air. †MultiCond.0953 0.422 0.34 0.0892 0.0808 0.211 0.93 1.0162 0.40 2.848 0.120 0.0127 0.0706 0.0218 0.7.0303 0.127 0.24 2.03 1.253 0.0307 0.191 0.000 3.382 0.000 1.422 0.0578 0.0177 0.303 0.335 0.0228 0.107 0.0623 0.240 0.253 0.0403 0.0708 0.0756 0.402 0.0865 0.402 0.0143 0.21 0.266 0.382 0.0193 0.08 1. 60°C Conductor Temperature DC (AWG/kcmil) 60 Hz AC *Single Cond.0149 0.0533 0.303 0.0265 0.191 0.21 0.0954 0.0504 0.0158 0.0741 0.0121 0.0337 0.167 0.0111 3.119 0.0552 0.0165 3.0269 0.0638 0.319 0.808 0.0672 0.0450 0.191 0.0720 0.151 0.0318 0.0253 0.0212 0.0500 0.0101 3.0427 0.0654 0.0184 0. buried or in nonmetallic conduit.0292 0.21 0.0201 0.765 0.28 0.303 0.0131 0.0117 3.0186 0. ohms Per 1.0353 0.533 0.

0764 0. 7.189 0.0354 ohms per 1.0404 0.0814 0.0627 0.0750 0.0522 0. Electrical Characteristics Table 7.0380 0.133 0.0760 0.662 0.267 0.0982 0.0376 0.0694 0.6–Reactance and Impedance at 60 Hz for Single Copper Conductor Cables Installed in Air.5–Temperature Correction Factors for Aluminum DC Resistance Temperature (°C) Multiplying Factors for Correction To: 20°C 25°C 60 75 90 0.0732 0.0787 0.0628 0.422 0.0816 0.0695 0.228 0.0816 0.0766 0.0554 0.0773 0.780 0.0740 0.861 0.878 0.|7.0622 0.118 0.137 0.0441 0.0500 0.0772 0.0640 0.0892 0.0934 0.0445 0.0779 0.0850 0.0598 0.0798 0.0799 0.417 0.0600 0.0700 0.0962 0.181 0.1070 0.0645 0.0481 0.0561 0.1000 0.0710 Continued on next page >> 98 | .1082 0.0926 0.0734 0. The resistance at 25°C would be 0.0664 0.0476 0.818 0.0884 0.878 0.661 0. (AWG/kcmil) Reactance Impedance Approximate ohms per 1.1135 0.0732 0.000 ft.121 0.261 0.0422 0.143 0.0606 0.0718 0.0602 0.0633 0.0403 0.0573 0.0840 0.0559 0.0826 0.0922 0.420 0.1016 0.664 0.0652 0.0853 0.000 ft.0842 0.0976 0.0462 0.0993 0.0741 0.0780 0.424 0.0557 0.0709 0.0715 0.0753 0.0868 0.0908 0. 6 in.0840 0.156 0.116 0.000 ft.0581 0.0815 0.0819 0.0674 0.0880 0.0412 0.0680 0.264 0.0400 0.0656 0.0876 0.216 0.0539 0. per Conductor at 25°C (77°F) Distance Between Centers of Conductors 4 in.0534 0.0954 0.255 0.127 0.0520 0.0621 0.796 Example: The DC resistance of a 500 kcm aluminum conductor at 60°C is 0.225 0.109 0.221 0.160 0.0918 0. Buried or in Separate Nonmetallic Conduits Conductor Size 2 in.0682 0.0718 0.0403 ohms per 1. Reactance Impedance Reactance Impedance 8 in.0678 0.835 0.0652 0.0660 0.0710 0.103 0.0661 0.0728 0.659 0.186 0.0945 0.0974 0. Reactance Impedance 8 6 4 3 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 750 0.1025 0.0706 0.0700 0.0926 0.175 0.4 REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE AT 60 Hz Table 7.0789 0.0588 0.0869 0.108 0.151 0.0866 0.

0606 0.750 2.0264 0.0687 0.0532 0. Reactance Impedance 800 900 1.0660 0.0582 0.10.0527 0.0354 0.0296 0.0566 0. | 99 . Electrical Characteristics| Table 7.0574 0.0285 0.0376 0.0554 0.0342 0.0614 0.0514 0.0594 0. (AWG/kcmil) Reactance Impedance Approximate ohms per 1.0673 0.0370 0. Buried or in Separate Nonmetallic Conduits (Continued) Conductor Size 2 in.0314 0.0527 0.0632 0.0360 0.0639 0.0527 0.0453 0.0500 0.000 0.0636 0.0701 0. per Conductor at 25°C (77°F) Distance Between Centers of Conductors 4 in.0427 0.0621 0.0512 0.7. 6 in.0512 0.0548 0.0272 0.0472 0.000 ft.0670 0.0481 0.0619 0.0328 0.0585 For equations that can be used to calculate inductive reactance for other conductor spacings.0440 0.500 1.0619 0.6–Reactance and Impedance at 60 Hz for Single Copper Conductor Cables Installed in Air.0597 0.0276 0. Reactance Impedance Reactance Impedance 8 in.000 1.0518 0.0605 0.0460 0.0422 0.0396 0.250 1.0685 0.0434 0. see Section 18.0593 0.0546 0.0307 0.

(b) Single conductor shielded cable. but only with conductor sizes up to 250 kcmils.00 1.00 1. two or three cables in the same metallic conduit.018 1. (c) Three conductor nonshielded cable.13 1.102 1.00 1.06 1.039 1.05 1.02 1. one cable in metal conduit. 1957.08 1. Edison Electric Institute.233 1. The table represents maximum AC losses for the conditions outlined.185 1.750 2.250 1.19 1. multiply DC resistance values corrected for proper temperature by the AC/DC resistance ratio given below.00 1.000 1.00 1. 100 | .|7. For larger conductor sizes the short-circuited sheath losses increase rapidly and the table above does not apply. Electrical Characteristics 7.00 1.500 1.044 1. (d) Three conductor shielded cable.009 1.07 1.025 1.067 1. two or three cables in the same metallic or nonmetallic duct or conduit.000 1. in ducts and in conduit.5 AC/DC RESISTANCE RATIO AT 60 Hz Table 7. The single conductor column in the table above covers single conductor nonshielded cable having spacing of six inches or more including all conditions of use except when two or more cables are pulled into the same metallic or nonmetallic conduit. The multiple conductor column in the table above covers the following conditions: (a) Single conductor cable. Conductor Size (AWG/kcmils) Single Copper Conductors in Air.03 1.01 1. all conditions of use in air.005 1.142 1.16 1.10 1.011 1.006 1.04 1. or in Individual Nonmetallic Conduits Multiple Copper Conductor Cable or Two or Three Single Conductor Cables in Same Metallic Conduit Up to 3 2 and 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 750 800 1.21 – – – – – – Source: Underground Systems Reference Book.7–AC/DC Resistance Ratio at 60 Hz To determine effective 60 Hz AC resistance.034 1.00 1.

Electrical Characteristics| 7.00393 per degree Celsius Ro [1 a (T To )] | 101 .212 1.404 1.154 1.385 1.116 1.482 1.308 1.8–Temperature Correction Factors for the Resistance of Copper Conductors Temp°C Multiplying Factor 25 40 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 100 105 125 130 150 200 1.096 1.135 1.231 1.173 1.674 The DC resistance of copper wire increases with increasing temperature in accordance with the formula: Rt Where: Rt Ro a Resistance at temperature T Resistance at temperature To Temperature coefficient of resistance at To [At 20°C (68°F) the temperature coefficient of copper is 0.058 1.250 1.193 1.6 TEMPERATURE CORRECTION FACTORS FOR RESISTANCE Table 7.000 1.289 1.7.

10 for aluminum conductors are calculated at 60°C.000 0.0140 0.0073 0.0150 0.577 for single.0055 0.0085 0.0120 0.0042 0.0120 0.0100 0.0066 0.3030 0.3330 0.0061 0.1910 0.0120 0.9 for copper conductors and 7.0130 0.0230 0.0320 0.0093 0.0080 0.0050 0.or three-phase line-to-neutral.0510 0.0095 0.0066 0.0067 0.0110 0.2720 0.0160 0.0050 0.0062 0.1300 0.0078 0.|7.0073 0.0054 0. multiply by 1.0260 0.0270 0.0078 0.9–Phase-to-Phase Voltage Drop Per Amp Per 100 ft.0720 0.0190 0. To obtain values for other circuits.0023 102 | .0100 0.0530 0.0310 0.1720 0.0790 0.0095 0.0095 0.0023 0.0043 0.1200 0.2080 0.0730 0.0055 0.0260 0.0520 0.1210 0.0840 0.0033 0.0038 0.0059 0. They may be used without significant error for conductor temperatures up to and including 75°C.0210 0.0220 0.0340 0.0035 0.0470 0.0330 0.0190 0.0073 0.0260 0.2710 0.0097 0.0081 0.0840 0.0210 0.1710 0.0066 0.0280 0.0071 0.0045 0.1300 0.0037 0.0120 0. 60 Hz System Operating at 60°C with Copper Conductors Size (AWG/kcmil) 80 In Non-Magnetic Conduit Percent Power Factor 90 100 80 In Magnetic Conduit Percent Power Factor 90 100 12 10 8 6 4 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 750 1.0067 0.0220 0.0210 0.0160 0.0140 0.0088 0.7 VOLTAGE DROP The values in Tables 7.0330 0.102 for copper and by 1.0110 0.0170 0.0085 0.1910 0.0530 0.0076 0.0800 0.0074 0. Electrical Characteristics 7. Voltage drop = Table value Current in amps 100 Length of circuit in feet Voltage drop in percent = Voltage drop in V 100 Circuit voltage in V Table 7.0130 0.0088 0.3320 0. For 90°C multiply by 1.0059 0.0340 0.0110 0.1100 0.0170 0.105 for aluminum. of Circuit for a Three-Phase.0180 0.0110 0.0064 0.0110 0.0140 0.3030 0.0480 0.0055 0.0260 0.2080 0.0029 0.1090 0.0160 0.0062 0. the estimated average temperature that may be anticipated in service.0088 0.155 for single-phase line-to-line and by 0.

1120 0.0110 0.0780 0.1230 0.0130 0.2680 0.0071 0.0055 0. A cable’s maximum short circuit current rating is the maximum allowable current that the cable can withstand without damage.0210 0.1320 0.1 and 7.0330 0. respectively.0520 0.0170 0.0087 0.0380 0.0069 0.0085 0.1910 0.5230 0.0120 0.2140 0. of Circuit for a Three-Phase.0180 0.0420 0.0052 0.0120 0.0470 0.1330 0.4760 0.0130 0.0830 0.0082 0.0120 0.0042 7.0100 0.2690 0.0460 0.0063 0.0260 0.0140 0.0790 0.0230 0.0330 0.0079 0.0140 0.0068 0. possible short circuit currents must be considered in power system design.0059 0.0420 0.0042 0. | 103 .0730 0.0110 0.4240 0.7.0260 0.0500 0.0210 0.0062 0.0050 0.000 0.0170 0.0083 0.0330 0.1230 0.0180 0.0310 0.0260 0.0073 0.0120 0.5230 0.0079 0.0099 0.0320 0.0076 0.1110 0.2990 0.0068 0.0410 0.0140 0.2.0520 0.0091 0.0100 0.0092 0.0070 0.0048 0.0270 0.2070 0.0260 0.0089 0.0210 0.0120 0.0130 0.0099 0.0840 0. 60 Hz System Operating at 60°C with Aluminum Conductors Size (AWG/kcmil) 80 In Non-Magnetic Conduit Percent Power Factor 90 100 80 In Magnetic Conduit Percent Power Factor 90 100 12 10 8 6 4 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 750 1. The maximum allowable short circuit current for copper and aluminum conductors can be determined with the aid of Figures 7.0120 0.0710 0.0180 0.0074 0.0140 0.8 MAXIMUM CONDUCTOR SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT Because of the high kilovolt-ampere (kVA) capacity of many power systems.10–Phase-To-Phase Voltage Drop Per Amp Per 100 ft.3290 0.1890 0.0390 0.0170 0.0340 0.2070 0.0077 0.0130 0.0160 0.0220 0.0088 0.0400 0.1720 0.0150 0.0510 0.0250 0.4260 0.0220 0.0150 0.0160 0.1700 0.0095 0.4750 0.3290 0. Electrical Characteristics| Table 7.0088 0.

016 y 8 C cles– 0.6 0.2 [] I --A 2 T2 + 234 t = 0.13 7 se ond 30 l co n 33 Cyc es–0 60 d s .6 e 66 7 s cond eco nd s 4C 2C ycl 30 20 10 Short Circuit Current–Thousands of Amperes 8 6 5 4 3 2 1C Conductor copper.4 0.1–Maximum Conductor Short Circuit Current for Copper Cables 104 | .|7. Insulation cross-linked polyethylene and ethylene propylene rubber.5 0. Electrical Characteristics 100 80 60 50 40 ycl e– es– 0.0297 log ---------------T1 + 234 [ ] I = Short circuit current – amperes A = Conductor area – circular mils t = Time of short circuit – seconds T1 = Maximum operating temperature – 90˚C (194˚F) T2 = Maximum short circuit temperature – 250˚C (482˚F) 0.1 10 8 6 4 AWG 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 500 kcmil 1000 Conductor Size Source: ICEA P-32-382 Figure 7.8 0.0 33 s 16 e ec 66 Cyc s–0 . les Cyc –0 2667 econ 10 d .50 les sec 0C – 0 o ycl es– 1.03 7 sec ond ycl 0. Curves based on formula: 1 0.000 0 sec nd ond 0s 1.3 0.

5 0. Electrical Characteristics| 100 80 60 50 40 30 1 2 C Cycle ycl –0 es– .0 sec ond 1.6 000 66 sec 7 s on eco d nd s 20 10 Short Circuit Current–Thousands of Amperes 8 6 5 4 3 2 Conductor aluminum. Curves based on formula: 1 0.1 10 8 6 4 AWG 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 500 kcmil 1000 Conductor Size Source: ICEA P-32-382 Figure 7.2–Maximum Conductor Short Circuit Current for Aluminum Cables | 105 .2 [] I --A 2 T2 + 228 t = 0.0125 log ---------------T1 + 228 [ ] I = Short circuit current – amperes A = Conductor area – circular mils t = Time of short circuit – seconds T1 = Maximum operating temperature – 90˚C (194˚F) T2 = Maximum short circuit temperature – 250˚C (482˚F) 0. Insulation cross-linked polyethylene and ethylene propylene rubber.3 0.50 0 C le sec 00 ycl s–1 ond es– .2667 nd 10 0 Cyc .1 67 Cyc nd 30 33 sec les Cyc 3s ond –0 les eco 6 –0 .6 0.0 67 8 C ycles 33 sec –0 ycl 3 s on es– .06 16 eco d 0.4 0.01 4C 0.8 0.7.

944 37.446 12.130 14.11–Maximum Short Circuit Current for Copper Shielding Tape (Amperes) Shield Dia.004 1.511 2.093 9. final temperature of 200°C.5 percent overlap.875 3. 106 | .008 3.044 18.065 7.571 4.484 11.540 4.724 41.272 24.554 5.107 10.042 1.352 2.474 1.696 4.022 4.566 1.183 2.075 733 1.289 5.504 45.284 4.061 5.274 5.006 5.420 2.018 2.577 10. 5 mil copper tape with 12.) Effective Shield Area (cmils) 1 2 Short Circuit Time (Number of Cycles at 60 Hz) 4 8 16 30 60 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 1 3/4 2 2 1/4 2 1/2 2 3/4 3 7.525 3.011 11.066 4.326 3.828 2.585 2.073 10.104 1.047 4. Electrical Characteristics 7.150 1.568 6.824 22.844 2.874 8.854 3.314 15. (in.840 4.090 2.613 2.215 2.143 8.158 16.604 26.955 3.384 30.437 518 780 1.215 20.122 11.304 1.264 15.101 12.079 8.187 18.036 5.|7.880 14.051 6.044 8.9 MAXIMUM SHIELD SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT Table 7.300 2.749 17.137 Source: ICEA P-45-482 Information in this chart is based on initial temperature of 65°C.157 7.136 12.137 2.591 1.016 6.708 7.243 22.723 6.032 3.164 33.440 7.

154 0.94 0.70 0.90 2.00 1.53 1.) Cable Diameter (in.25 1.21 0.65 0.05 1.70 1.7.08 1.72 0.00 1.00 1.12–400 and 800 Hz Ampacity Factors for 600 V Copper Cables with Class B Strand.40 1.310 0.00 1.93 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.) AC/DC Resistance Ratio Ampacity Derating Factor* AC/DC Resistance Ratio Ampacity Derating Factor* 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 350 500 750 1.98 0.146 0.16 1. Electrical Characteristics| 7.98 0.813 0.82 2.08 1. Installed with Minimum Triangular Spacing in Air or in Nonmetallic Conduit 400 Hz DC Resistance 75°C (ohms/1.33 1.16 1.89 0.490 0.61 0.000 ft.00 1.25 0.00 1.0608 0.097 0.184 0.62 1.98 0.780 0.0767 0.372 0.50 0.05 1.10 RESISTANCE AND AMPACITY AT 400 AND 800 HZ Table 7.44 0.00 1.54 3.81 0.32 0. | 107 .0368 0.23 0.06 3.575 0.0258 0.00 1.15 1.00 1.77 0.40 1.90 0.470 0.63 0.998 1.0129 1.22 1.000 Source: ICEA P-43-457 0.00 1.66 0.116 0.69 0. Ampacity equals the 60 Hz ampacity multiplied by the derating factor.39 0.97 1.54 * These derating factors do not apply to cables with metallic sheath or armor.87 0.92 1.00 1.54 3.96 0.) 800 Hz Conductor Size (AWG/kcmil) Conductor Diameter (in.84 0.75 0.00 1.12 1.194 0.57 0.00 0.38 1.60 1.528 0.44 1.00 1.00 1.80 0.24 0.05 2.0172 0.84 0.74 0.418 0.122 0.03 1.81 0.073 0.00 1.152 0.56 1.232 0.30 2.00 1.00 1.292 0.14 1.00 1.092 0. nor to cables installed in conduit or adjacent to steel structures.332 0.681 0.0515 0.93 0.

number of conductors contained within the cable. Next. first determine conductor gauge.7 16 . Current ratings for power applications are published by codes and standards groups including NEC. find the current value on the chart for the applicable temperature rise (temperature rating of cable minus ambient temperature) and conductor size. IEEE and IEC. Note: Current ratings are intended as general guidelines for low power. To calculate the maximum current rating per conductor.30 0. 1 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 Conductor Size (AWG) 14 12 10 8 Figure 7. multiply the chart value by the appropriate conductor factor.15 0.0 4-5 0. Electrical Characteristics 7. ICEA.6 2-3 1. The chart assumes the cable is surrounded by still air at an ambient temperature of 25°C. UL. NEMA. CSA.3).|7. 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 Current (Amperes) 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 C 35° Rise ure erat p Tem re ratu mpe C Te 10° Rise No. maximum temperature rating of the cable and environmental conditions such as ambient temperature and airflow.3–Current Ratings for Electronic Cables 108 | .11 CURRENT RATINGS FOR ELECTRONIC CABLES The maximum continuous current rating for an electronic cable is limited by conductor size.8 6 . electronic communications and control applications. temperature rating and number of conductors for the cable of interest. To use the current capacity chart (Figure 7. of Conductors* Factors 1 1. Current values are in RMS amperes and are valid for copper conductors only.5 * Do not count shields unless used as a conductor.

7. These “spikes.13–Basic Impulse Level (BIL) Ratings System Voltage Rating (kV) Basic Impulse Level (kV) 2.g. Common BIL ratings are shown below. is designed to withstand short-term. tables covering many common situations are available.12 AMPACITY OF POWER CABLES The ampacity of a power cable depends primarily on its conductor size. Electrical Characteristics| 7.0 25.1 Canadian Electrical Code IEEE Standard 835 Power Cable Ampacity Tables ICEA P-53-426 (NEMA WC 50) Ampacities Including Shield Losses for 15 Through 69 kV Cables ICEA P-54-440 (NEMA WC 51) Ampacities of Cables in Open-Top Cable Trays IEEE Standard 45 Recommended Practice for Installations on Shipboard 7.13 BASIC IMPULSE LEVEL (BIL) RATINGS Electrical equipment. conductor material (e. but very high-voltage pulses such as those sometimes caused by lightning and switching surges.5 5.0 35.5 microseconds and a falltime around 40 microseconds. Frequently used ampacity tables are contained in the following publications: NFPA Standard 70 National Electrical Code CSA Standard C22.0 60 75 95 110 150 200 350 650 Source: IEEE 82 Impulse Voltage Tests on Insulated Conductors | 109 .0 138.0 8. typically have a risetime in the range of 1. Table 7. copper or aluminum). installed cable configuration and other factors.” as they are sometimes called. temperature rating.0 69.0 15.. including wire and cable. Because so many external conditions affect ampacity. ambient temperature. tables covering all situations are not possible. However. The basic impulse level (BIL) is the maximum impulse voltage that a cable is designed to withstand.

7 Hipot Testing 8.1.1.3 Storage 113 113 113 114 8.3.4 8.5 8.2 Test Procedure 8.2 Handling 8.3.1 Suspended by Clamping Around Cable 8.6.1 Test Equipment 8.1 Receiving. INSTALLATION AND TESTING 8.1 Receiving 8.3.3.7.7.6 Installation Methods Overhead Messengers Vertical Suspension 8.3.4 Evaluation of Results 131 131 133 133 | 111 .3 Conduit Fill Pulling 8.1.8.5 Pulling Lubricants 8.3. Installation and Testing| 8.2 Tension Limitations 8.1 Methods of Gripping Cables 8.3 Test Voltage 8.6.4 Pulling Tension Calculations 8.3 Helpful Hints 8.2 Suspended by Conductor 130 130 8.3.7 Minimum Bending Radii 119 119 120 121 123 123 123 125 128 8.7.2 8. Handling and Storage 8.6 Sidewall Pressure (SWP) 8.7.

10 8.10.|8.9 8.8 8.11 8.12 Fault Locating Megger Testing Moisture Removal 8.1 Purging Water from Conductor Strand or Shield 133 134 135 136 137 Fiber Optic Testing LAN Cable Testing 112 | . Installation and Testing 8.

This prevents loosening of the cable turns. | 113 .1.1 RECEIVING.8. 8. With heavy reels or reels that may be unbalanced.3 Storage Where possible. The information has been obtained from many sources and covers some of the major considerations when installing and testing power. If the roll direction is not indicated. • Each reel should be chocked. all reels should be visually inspected for both hidden and obvious damage. When cable lengths are cut from a master cable reel. Steel lifting bars of a suitable diameter and length should be used when lifting cable reels by crane or other overhead lifting devices. dry surface.1. reels should be stored indoors on a hard. 8. instrumentation. • Reels should be stored to allow easy access for lifting and moving. 8. If reels must be stored outside they should be supported off the ground and covered with a suitable weatherproof material.2 Handling Cable reels should always be rolled in the direction of the “roll this way” stenciled on the flanges. fiber and communication cable. HANDLING AND STORAGE The following guidelines are recommended to prevent possible deterioration or damage of cable during handling or storage prior to installation. rotate the reel in the same direction it was rotated when the cable was wound onto the reel.1.1 Receiving Before accepting any shipment. all exposed cable ends should be resealed with plastic weatherproof caps or tape to prevent the entrance of moisture. which may cause problems during installation. the use of a lifting yoke is recommended to prevent reels from slipping or tipping during lifting. Cable reels should only be lifted by forklift trucks from the sides and only if the forks are long enough to cradle both flanges. 8. Installation and Testing| This section is intended as a guide for the installer’s use in the field. control. • Each reel should be aligned flange to flange. Be especially alert if: • A reel is lying flat on its side • Reels are poorly stacked • Protective covering (packaging material) is removed or damaged • Cable end seals are removed or damaged • Reel flanges are broken • A reel has been dropped • Cable ties are loose • Nails or staples have been driven into the reel flange.

THW. RHW RHW-2 14 12 10 8 6 4 3 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 750 800 900 1. THHW. refer to Tables C1 through C12 in Annex C of the 2008 NEC. for other wire types or for installation of compact stranded conductors. Chapter 9 of the National Electrical Code. Installation and Testing 8.1–Maximum Number of Conductors in Electrical Metallic Tubing (EMT) Type Letters Conductor Size (AWG/kcmil) 1 Conduit or Tubing Trade Size (in.) ⁄2 3 ⁄4 1 11⁄4 11⁄2 2 21⁄2 3 31⁄2 4 RHH.000 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 4 3 1 1 1 0 0 0 7 6 5 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 8 6 4 3 1 1 1 1 11 9 8 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 16 13 10 6 4 3 1 1 1 20 17 13 7 5 4 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 28 23 18 10 8 6 2 1 1 27 23 18 9 8 6 5 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 39 31 24 14 11 8 3 3 2 46 38 30 16 13 10 9 7 5 4 4 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 64 51 40 24 18 13 6 5 4 80 66 53 28 22 17 15 13 9 7 6 5 5 3 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 112 90 70 42 32 24 10 9 7 120 100 81 42 34 26 23 20 13 11 10 8 7 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 169 136 106 63 48 36 16 13 11 157 131 105 55 44 34 30 26 17 15 13 11 9 7 6 6 5 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 221 177 138 83 63 47 20 17 15 201 167 135 70 56 44 38 33 22 19 17 14 12 9 8 7 7 6 5 4 4 4 3 3 282 227 177 106 81 60 26 22 19 THHW.2 CONDUIT FILL Below is a table of the maximum number of conductors that can be installed in electrical metallic tubing (EMT). For installation in other types of conduits. THW THW-2 14 12 10 8 6 4 1/0 2/0 3/0 Continued on next page >> 114 | . The table is based on Table 1. Table 8.|8.

THWN. THWN-2 14 12 10 8 6 4 3 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 750 800 900 1.000 THHN. Installation and Testing| Table 8.000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 9 5 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 22 16 10 6 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 35 26 16 9 7 4 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 61 45 28 16 12 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 84 61 38 22 16 10 8 7 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 138 101 63 36 26 16 13 11 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 5 4 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 241 176 111 64 46 28 24 20 15 12 10 8 7 6 5 4 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 9 7 6 6 5 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 364 266 167 96 69 43 36 30 22 19 16 13 11 9 7 6 6 5 4 3 3 3 3 2 12 10 8 7 7 6 4 4 4 3 3 3 476 347 219 126 91 56 47 40 29 25 20 17 14 11 10 9 8 6 5 4 4 4 3 3 16 13 11 10 9 7 6 5 5 5 4 4 608 443 279 161 116 71 60 51 37 32 26 22 18 15 13 11 10 8 7 6 5 5 4 4 Continued on next page >> | 115 .1–Maximum Number of Conductors in Electrical Metallic Tubing (EMT) (Continued) Type Letters Conductor Size (AWG/kcmil) 1 Conduit or Tubing Trade Size (in.) ⁄2 3 ⁄4 1 11⁄4 11⁄2 2 21⁄2 3 31⁄2 4 4/0 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 750 800 900 1.8.

Installation and Testing Table 8.|8. TFFN 18 16 14 12 10 2 6 4 3 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 750 800 900 1.) ⁄2 3 ⁄4 1 11⁄4 11⁄2 2 21⁄2 3 31⁄2 4 TFN.1 116 | . Annex C. XHHW-2 8 Source: 2008 NEC.1–Maximum Number of Conductors in Electrical Metallic Tubing (EMT) (Continued) Type Letters Conductor Size (AWG/kcmil) 1 Conduit or Tubing Trade Size (in.000 22 17 8 6 5 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 38 29 15 11 8 8 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 63 48 25 19 14 13 6 4 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 108 83 43 33 24 18 10 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 148 113 58 45 33 30 14 10 8 7 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 244 186 96 74 55 53 22 16 14 11 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 – – 168 129 96 81 39 28 24 20 15 13 10 9 7 6 5 4 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 – – 254 195 145 105 60 43 36 31 23 19 16 13 11 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 3 3 2 – – 332 255 190 135 78 56 48 40 30 25 21 17 14 12 10 9 8 6 5 4 4 4 3 3 – – 424 326 243 100 72 61 51 38 32 27 22 18 15 13 11 10 8 6 6 5 5 4 4 XHHW. Table C.

505 0.562 0.216 0.494 0.210 0.366 0.201 0.276 0.683 0.342 0.394 0.63 1.300 0.135 0.584 0.405 2.364 0.07 31⁄2 3.49 1.114 0.420 0.305 0.83 0.650 0.296 0.178 0.603 0.226 1.828 0.102 0.31 1.2–Maximum Cable Diameters for Permissible Conduit Fill No.119 0.55 4 4.42 1.307 0.418 0. Chapter 9.144 0.249 0.414 0.424 0.824 Max.623 0.157 0.453 0. Installation and Testing| Table 8.00 1.914 0.778 0.15 1.668 0.184 0.06 0.234 0.868 0.999 0.53 0. Diam.796 0.676 0. of Wires or Cables in Conduit (in.876 0.133 0.263 0.61 1.363 0.283 0.200 0.201 0.706 0.441 0.351 0.) 1.235 0.525 0.178 0.165 0.710 0.519 0.740 0.30 1.935 0.01 0.610 0.14 1.583 3.653 0.322 0.858 0.768 0.470 0.661 Source: 2008 NEC.390 0.47 3 3.187 0.395 0.644 0.749 0.38 21⁄2 2.916 0.152 0. of Wires or Cables Conduit Trade Size (in.460 0.294 0.03 0.591 0.707 0.106 0.224 0.264 1.807 0.141 0.242 0.05 11⁄4 1.806 0.19 0.988 0.273 0.266 0.109 0.8. Table 1 | 117 .14 0.622 0.445 0.462 0.380 0.164 0.139 0.767 0.337 0.23 1.538 0.755 0.520 0.172 1.175 0.698 0.61 2.503 2.545 0.125 0.276 0.552 0.435 0.231 0.339 1.) 11⁄2 2 Actual ID of Conduit (in.193 0.651 0.392 0.151 0.314 0.239 0.614 0.02 0.339 0.563 0.) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 0.27 1.254 0.807 0.380 0.596 0.256 0.601 0.984 0.471 0.511 0.07 1 ⁄2 3 ⁄4 1 1.

50 2.95 5. in.78 2.622 0.380 1.14 4 1.|8.47 0. in. minimum conduit size would be 4 inches.82 1.) (in.) 1/2 1 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 4 0.04 1. 40 percent Fill (in.80 1. solve as follows: 3.08 1.28 0.20 inches. each cable has an overall diameter of 1.34 1.469 3. The general equation for calculating wire or cable area is: Area in square inches Where: = 3.21 0.86 1.92 2.53 0.38 12.34 0.54 3.026 0.09 Source: 2008 National Electrical Code.14 OD = overall diameter of each single-conductor wire or multiconductor cable n = number of wires or cables of that diameter Example: Pulling (3) 2/0 15 kV cables.94 0.049 1.60 0.16 0. please refer to Table 4 in Chapter 9 of the NEC.068 4. in.824 1.48 2. Installation and Testing Table 8.63 1. 53 percent Fill Allowable Fill (sq.74 0.72 0. 118 | . 31 percent Fill Over 2 Cond. Table 4 For other conduit types.) (sq.79 7.2 2 OD2 4 n 3.26 3.46 0.91 6. Chapter 9. Referring to the table.09 0.16 0.04 3.36 4. Total Area 1 Cond.067 2.) 2 Cond. Using the formula.610 2.27 0.3–Dimensions and Maximum Allowable Percent Fill of Electrical Metallic Tubing (EMT) Trade Size Internal Dia.30 0.12 0.39 sq.

Interlocked Armor Cables When pulling interlocked armor cable it is usually necessary to grip both the armor and the conductors. when pulling eyes are used or when the conductor is formed into a loop) it should be limited to 0. or if an interlocked armor cable is pulled around too small a sheave.2 Tension Limitations When the pulling force is applied directly to the conductor (e.g.3. When a grip is applied over nonmetallic sheathed cables. Long. for example. | 119 . In addition. hard pulls will necessitate the use of pulling eyes. the pulling force should be limited to 1. However. it is possible to damage cables while applying lower tensions if.3 PULLING 8.. insulated cables may be gripped either directly by the conductors or by a basket-weave pulling grip applied over the cables. Preassembled Aerial Cable This type of cable should always be gripped by the messenger that is usually attached to a pulling swivel. per circular mil for aluminum. the pulling force in pounds should not exceed 300 to 500 times the radius of the bend in feet.006 lb. Installation and Testing| 8. In some instances it is desirable to use a grip over the outer covering in addition to the conductor connection to prevent any slippage of one with respect to the other.008 or 0.3. Larger sizes are more easily handled by applying a pulling grip over the cable or cables provided the pull is not too severe.006 factors. Heavier pulls usually require connecting directly to the conductor either by means of pulling eyes or by forming a loop with the conductor itself. the ends should be bound together with electrical tape before applying the grip overall. When pulls are relatively light a basket-weave grip can often be used. The insulation on each conductor is removed before the loop is formed. the grip being applied over the armor to prevent it from slipping back. 8. Nonmetallic Sheathed Cables Smaller sizes of nonmetallic sheathed cables can usually be gripped directly by the conductors by forming them into a loop to which the pull wire or rope can be attached. This latter approach provides the greatest strength. To limit the sidewall pressure to a safe value at bends in duct and conduit runs.008 lb.1 Methods of Gripping Cables In general. The appropriate method to use depends on the anticipated maximum pulling tension. The above limits are maximum values that should not be exceeded. a basket grip should be applied over the conductors to prevent any slippage and to facilitate guiding the conductors through the pulleys.000 pounds provided this is not in excess of the force calculated above using the 0. This can be accomplished in a number of ways. Every installation detail cannot be covered here but staying within the above tension limits will help ensure a successful installation. Another method requires that two holes be drilled through the cable (armor and conductors) at right angles to each other and a loop formed by passing steel wires through the holes and out over the end of the cable.8. there are sharp projections in a poorly constructed duct bank. One method requires that a portion of the armor be removed. A third approach is to use a pulling eye and a grip together. per circular mil area of cross-section for copper and 0. If more than one cable is involved. Electrical tape is then applied over the armor and down over the conductors and a long basket-weave grip is applied such that it grips both the armor and the conductors.

1–How to Calculate Clearance 120 | . of Conductors/Cables Configuration Formula Clearance=D d 1 Clearance= 3 Cradled D 2 1. Do not exceed recommended “conduit fill” requirements.366d D 2 d 1 ( ) (D d) d 2 Clearance= 3 Triplexed D 2 d 2 D 2 d 1 ( ) d 2(D d) 2 Figure 8. Clearance refers to the distance between the uppermost cable in the conduit and the inner top of the conduit. The cables may be of single or multiple conductor construction. Installation and Testing 8. ensure all cable diameters are equal. (1) Be sure there is adequate clearance between conduit and cable.3.3 Helpful Hints The following suggestions – though not all-inclusive – will give greater assurance of success.1 where “D” is the inner diameter of the conduit and “d” is the outer diameter of the cable. When calculating clearance. No.|8. Clearance should be 1/4 inch at minimum and up to one inch for large cable installations or installations involving numerous bends. It is calculated as shown in Figure 8. Use the triplexed configuration formula if you are in doubt.

• If 1. With pulling eye attached to copper conductors. (4) Avoid sharp bending of the cable at the first pulley in overhead installations by locating the payoff reel far enough away from the first pulley that the leadin angle is kept relatively flat. (7) Keep adequate tension on the messenger in aerial cable installations to prevent sharp bends at pulleys. b. and are designed to have no deleterious effect on the cable. Do not release the tension on the messenger until it is secured to poles on both ends. talc.4 Pulling Tension Calculations Pulling tension calculations are recommended in the design stage of all cable installations that are expected to fall in the moderate to difficult category.05D/d is less than 2. Example: For copper TM Where: TM n CM maximum tension.5. mica or the like. (1) Maximum Pulling Tension a.05D/d is larger than 3. These materials can lead to tracking of the cable jacket. (3) Use adequate lubrication of the proper type to reduce friction in conduit and duct pulls. Grease and oil type lubricants should not be used on nonmetallic sheathed cables. serious jamming is probable. lb. 8. This usually occurs when cables are being pulled around bends or when cables twist.05D is used for the inner diameter of the conduit because bending a cylinder creates an oval cross-section in the bend. use a sufficient number of rollers to prevent the cable from dragging on the tray.05D/d is between 2. the actual overall diameter should be measured prior to computing the jam ratio.and 90-degree bends.0. Graphite and other electrically conducting lubricants should not be used on nonshielded cables rated 2 kV and above. the maximum pulling tension in pounds should not exceed 0. IEEE 576 and AEIC CG5. Because there are manufacturing tolerances on cable. which might result in excessive tension.8 and 3. This is particularly important if there will be a delay of some time between the pulling operation and splicing and terminating. check that end seals are still intact and have not been damaged to the point where water could enter.006 times the circular mil area. jamming is impossible. There are a number of commercially available wire pulling compounds (many of which are UL Listed) that are suitable for use with polymer jacketed cables. A value of 1. • If 1.008 times the circular mil area.008 n CM | 121 . IEEE 971.8. • If 1.0. Installation and Testing| (2) Jamming is the wedging of three cables lying side by side in a conduit. Software programs are commercially available that can perform sophisticated modeling of expected pulling tensions and sidewall pressures. Below is an overview of the basic calculations. With pulling eye attached to aluminum conductors. They usually consist of soap. Avoid sharp bends in the cable by using a conveyor sheave with multiple small rollers at all 45. Apply plastic or rubber tape to help protect against invisible damage if the cable will be subjected to immersion or rain. number of conductors circular mil area of each conductor 0. Additional information is available in IEEE 1185. These programs are recommended over manual methods.3. the maximum pulling tension in pounds should not exceed 0. (6) When installing interlocked armor cables in cable tray. jamming is impossible but clearance should be checked. (5) After installation. The jam ratio is calculated by slightly modifying the ratio D/d.

lb.0 instead of 0. If the coefficient of friction were 0.5 but can vary from 0. coefficient of friction (typically 0. the multipliers given below are applied to the tension calculated for the straight section preceding the bend.14 1. If the coefficient of friction were 1. weight of cable per foot. the multipliers would have to be squared.|8.0 depending on condition of the duct and the amount of lubricant used) (3) Bend Multipliers For a curved section. feet (valid only for straight sections) maximum tension.4–Bend Multipliers for Pulling Tension Calculations Bend Angle Degrees Bend Angle Degrees Multiplier Multiplier 15 30 45 60 1.75.50 2.94 2. Installation and Testing (2) Maximum Permissible Pulling Length: L TM C W M Where: LM TM W C maximum pulling length. Table 8.70 75 90 105 120 1.30 1. lb.2 to 1.20 2. the multipliers would be raised to the one and one-half power. 122 | .5.5.86 Note: These multipliers are based on a coefficient of friction of 0.48 1.

i. the pressure must be kept as low as possible and should not exceed specified values.5 Pulling Lubricants Many commercial lubricants are available and may be employed to reduce pulling tensions provided they do not affect electrical or mechanical characteristics of the cable.01 and Greater 169 and less 170 and larger 4 5 5 6 6 7 | 123 .01 to 2.00 and less 1.6 Sidewall Pressure (SWP) To prevent damage to a cable from pressure that develops when a cable is pulled around a bend under tension. Cable manufacturers generally recommend a maximum SWP of 500 lb./ft.. Cable pulling lubricants should be formulated for the conditions of the pull.e. be safe for the environment. The primary function of a pulling lubricant is to reduce the tension on the cable as it is installed in a duct. The appropriate quantity to use can vary by for the conditions affecting each pull.0015 L D Where Q is the quantity of lubricant needed in gallons.7 Minimum Bending Radii Power Cables without Metallic Shielding The minimum bending radii for both single. it makes the cable more slippery. Installation and Testing| 8. 8. not degrade the cable jacket and be easy to work with. The quantity of lubricant required depends on various factors: The pull length. for most 600 V and medium-voltage power cables. Sidewall pressure tension out of the bend divided by bend radius. 50 percent from the average depending on installation conditions.3. This is accomplished by reducing the friction (technically the coefficient of friction) between the cable and the inside surface of the conduit. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions 8.5–Minimum Bending Radii for Cables without Metallic Shielding Thickness of Conductor Insulation Minimum Bending Radius as a Multiple of Cable Diameter Overall Diameter of Cable in Inches (mils) 1.8. the condition and size of the conduit and the difficulty of the pull. Some LSZH (Low Smoke Zero Halogen) cables require special pulling lubricants such as Polywater LZ to prevent chemical damage to the jacket.and multiple-conductor cable without metallic shielding are as follows: Table 8. The recommended average quantity of lubricant per pull is equal to: Q 0. L is the length of the pull in feet and D is the inner diameter of the conduit in inches.3.3.00 2.

0" Cable Diameter 90° 180° Figure 8. The manufacturer should be consulted for specific product limits.000 volts use eight times the cable diameter. For cables rated over 5. Installation and Testing Example: If minimum bending radius is six times cable O.0 inches. For flat twin cables. Portable Cables The minimum bending radius for portable cables during installation and handling in service is six times the cable diameter for cables rated 5. is 2.10 NEMA WC58 (ICEA S-75-381) NEMA WC74 (ICEA S-93-639) IEEE 1185 NEMA WC70 (ICEA S-95-658) 124 | . the minimum bending radius is 12 inches (minimum bending diameter is 24 inches). For multiconductors.24. and cable O.000 volts and less.D. 336. 330.D. whichever is greater. the minor diameter is used to determine the bending radius.|8.2–Calculating Minimum Bending Radius Power Cables with Metallic Shielding The minimum bending radius for all single conductor cables with metallic shielding is 12 times the overall diameter of the cable. Sources: NEC Articles 300.34. Interlocked Armor or Corrugated Sheath (Type MC) Cables The minimum bending radius for Type MC cable is seven times the external diameter of the metallic sheath. Fiber Optic Cables Minimum bending radius for fiber optic cable is typically 10 times the cable diameter when under no tension and 15 times diameter at rated maximum tension. it is seven times the overall diameter or 12 times the individual conductor diameter. 0° 270° Radius 12" 2.24 and 727.

8.3–Cable Pulling Setups Continued on next page >> | 125 .4 INSTALLATION METHODS Apply lube at entrance of guide-in tube Setup for duct close to floor Setup for overhead into tray (a) Proper (b) Improper The feed-in setup should unreel the cable with the natural curvature (a) as opposed to a reverse “S” curvature (b). Installation and Testing| 8. Figure 8.

Installation and Testing Capstan Pulling rope A setup with timbers because pulling eyes were not available Figure 8.3–Cable Pulling Setups Continued on next page >> 126 | .|8.

8. Remember to use the radius of the surface over which the cable is bent. pulleys | 127 . Installation and Testing| Single sheave Single sheaves should be used only for guiding cables. A 10-inch cable sheave typically has an inside (bending) radius of 3 inches! Figure 8. Never allow a polygon curvature to occur as shown. not the outside flange diameter of the pulley. use multisheave assemblies (also called conveyor sheaves) of the appropriate radius. multi-sheave assemblies. Arrange multiple blocks if necessary to maintain minimum bending radii whenever cable is deflected. conveyor sheaves. The pulleys must be positioned to ensure that the effective curvature is smooth and deflected evenly at each pulley. pulleys at the top of a vertical drop). single sheaves. Sheave assembly For pulling around bends. Radius The fit of the pulley around the cable is also important when the pulling tension is high (for example.3–Cable Pulling Setups sheave.

6 1. (7 6 AWG) * Extra-High Strength 6.|8.890 20.6 1.282 9.500 13. (7 10 AWG) 3/8 in.4 3.000 26.4 128 | . Nominal Messenger Size 30 Percent EHS Copper-Clad Steel Aluminum Clad Steel EHS Galvanized Steel High-Strength Galvanized Steel Type 316 Stainless Steel Type 302 Stainless Steel 1/4 in.9 5. (7 12 AWG) 5/16 in.730 6./1.5 2.000 10.5 OVERHEAD MESSENGERS Table 8.301 10.8–Maximum Core Weight in lb.3 4.750 8.020 15.8 2.9 2.6 3. 139 204 324 408 515 104 165 262 330 416 121 205 273 399 517 121 205 273 399 517 136 208 278 405 525 132 208 278 405 525 Table 8.1 3.300 8.500 18.900 4. 5/16 in.000 33. 30 Percent of Breaking Strength) Nominal Messenger Size 30 Percent EHS Copper-Clad Steel Aluminum Clad Steel EHS Galvanized Steel High-Strength Galvanized Steel Type 316 Stainless Steel Type 302 Stainless Steel 1/4 in.7 3.5 6.800 26.200 15. 3/8 in. 7/16 in.7 5.2 3.4 1.8 7.460 6.5 2. 1/2 in.0 4.930 19.6–Messenger Breaking Strength in lb.1 1.800 14.196 13.200 18. 5/16 in.800 7.9 4. (Based on Final Sag of 30 in.3 4.650 11.060 22.9 3.650 11. Nominal Messenger Size 30 percent EHS* Copper-Clad Steel Aluminum Clad Steel EHS* Galvanized Steel High-Strength Galvanized Steel Type 316 Stainless Steel Type 302 Stainless Steel 1/4 in./ft.900 16. 1. 3/8 in.890 16.400 20.4 4.5 8.700 Table 8.9 1. (7 8 AWG) 7/16 in. 7/16 in.200 23.1 6. at 60°F in a 150 ft. Span. 1/2 in.5 2.400 30.000 ft.8 5. Installation and Testing 8. (7 7 AWG) 1/2 in.6 2.7–Messenger Weight in lb.

/1.2 M Common Siemens Martin High Strength Extra High Strength Common Siemens Martin Utilities Grade 6 M High Strength Extra High Strength Common Siemens Martin Utility 10 M High Strength Extra High Strength Siemens Martin High Strength Utility 16 M Siemens Martin High Strength Utility 25 M 73 73 121 121 121 121 205 205 225 205 205 273 273 273 273 273 399 399 399 517 517 517 1.8. Class C: Three times the amount of zinc coating as Class A.950 11. Additional information on overhead messengers is available in ICEA P-79-561 Guide for Selecting Aerial Cable Messengers and Lashing Wires.000 11.650 3.000 8.800 15.750 6.100 18.350 6.400 1.200 4.9–Galvanized Steel Strand/Physical Specifications Nominal Messenger Size (in.200 5.000 Class A: Minimum amount of zinc coating.000 12.350 14. 3/16 3/16 1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4 5/16 5/16 5/16 5/16 5/16 3/8 3/8 3/8 3/8 3/8 7/16 7/16 7/16 1/2 1/2 1/2 Common Utility 2.150 4.400 9.250 6.) Minimum Strength lb.500 18. Grade Weight lb.800 25.000 ft. Class B: Twice the amount of zinc coating as Class A. | 129 .150 2.900 3.500 10. Installation and Testing| Table 8.

50 ft.|8. 100 ft. 80 ft./1.4. 180 ft. Installation and Testing 8.600) ( /4) /1. or 1.000) 470 11. cable weight in lb. of cable having three 4/0 AWG (211. total cable weight is 3. each conductor is supported at the top with a full tension terminal: F [(211. F A W T L Where A T W L F conductor area in sq.080 lb. Article 300.6 VERTICAL SUSPENSION 8.000. length in feet safety factor (must be at least 7.4. in. 120 ft. 135 ft.0 unless otherwise required by appropriate authority) Example: Suspend 470 ft./ft.240 lb./1. in. per conductor.000 ft.000 (1. 40 ft.6. 35 ft.10–Spacings for Conductor Supports Maximum Support Spacing for Conductors in Vertical Raceways AWG or Circular Mil Size of Wire Aluminum or Copper-Clad Aluminum Copper 18 AWG through 8 AWG 6 AWG through 1/0 AWG 2/0 AWG through 4/0 AWG over 4/0 AWG through 350 kcmil over 350 kcmil through 500 kcmil over 500 kcmil through 750 kcmil over 750 kcmil Source: NEC. 95 ft. 8.6.1.8 (OK) If the suspended cable is installed in a conduit elbow at the top. check sidewall loading.19 100 ft. 85 ft. 100 ft. 200 ft.000] 36. 60 ft.1 and in NEMA WC 74 (ICEA S-93-639) Section 7.2 Suspended by Conductor Additional information on vertically suspended cables is available in NEMA WC 70 (ICEA S-95-658) Section 4. 130 | ./sq.600 circular mils each) soft-drawn copper conductors.000 ft. conductor tensile strength in lb.1 Suspended By Clamping Around Cable Table 8.080/1.

Normally this requires only a few seconds unless cable circuits of high capacitance are involved. rubber gloves and nonconducting hard hats. motors. Allow the residual voltage on the circuit to decay then ground the conductor just tested. Record leakage current at each step. A constant or decreasing leakage current with respect to time at maximum test voltage is the usual acceptance criterion for DC hipot testing. Acceptable procedures.1.2 and 400.7. Proof Testing – At any time during the period of guarantee.” Before performing any DC overpotential tests: • All equipment must be disconnected from the cable circuit. etc. Read and understand and follow the operator’s manual for the particular test set being used! It should be also noted that other field tests are growing in popularity–including VLF (very low frequency) and PD (partial discharge) test methods. e.2 Test Procedure Refer to IEEE Standard 400. | 131 . although varying slightly in technique. the cable circuit may be removed from service and tested at a reduced voltage (normally 65 percent of the original acceptance value) for five consecutive minutes.7. 8. • Caution – It should be recognized that DC charges on cable can build up to potentially dangerous levels if grounds are removed too quickly.1 Test Equipment Direct current test equipment is commercially available with a wide range of voltages. • Establish adequate clearance between the circuit test ends and any grounded object. • Step Method – Apply test voltage slowly in five to seven increments of equal value.8. Record the leakage current at one minute intervals for the duration of the test. and to other equipment not under test (approximately 0. This will preclude damage to such equipment and will prevent test interruptions due to flashovers and/or trip-outs resulting from excessive leakage current.g.7 HIPOT TESTING Overview This section provides an overview of high-potential DC testing of power cables. Maintain solid grounds after the test on the cable for at least four times the duration of the test. Some equipment will take longer to reach the maximum test voltage because of the amount of charging current. set the test set voltage control to zero. 8. to the maximum specified. circuit breakers. surge arrestors. • Ground all circuit conductors not under test and all cable shields as well as nearby equipment. Acceptance Testing – After installation and before the cable is placed in regular service the specified test voltage is applied for 15 consecutive minutes.. disconnect transformers. Allow sufficient time at each step for the leakage current to stabilize. • At the end of the test period. have more or less been standardized as either a “withstand test” or a “time-leakage current test. Consult appropriate safety officer. It is a good safety practice to maintain these grounds longer and while reconnecting circuit components. Installation and Testing| 8. whichever is less. Accessory equipment is necessary to safely conduct high-voltage tests such as safety barriers. The direct current test may be applied either continuously or in predetermined steps to the maximum value in accordance with applicable specifications: • Continuous Method – Apply test voltage at an approximate rise rate of 1 kV per second or 75 percent of the rated current input of the equipment. • Consult termination manufacturer for maximum test voltage recommendations and time limitations.3 contain additional details. see IEEE Standards 400 and 400. switch taps. All safety precautions must be observed during testing at high voltage. IEEE 400. • Maintain the test voltage at the prescribed value for the time designated in applicable specifications. For more details. All tests made after cable installation and during the guarantee period should be made in accordance with applicable specifications.25 inches per kV).

Effective insulation resistance of the cable system may be calculated by means of Ohm’s Law: R V/I. This results in an increase of corona. plastic or glass containers. 132 | . In fact. Restated another way the relation is: Megohms Kilovolts Microamperes 1. dampness. snow) • Failure to provide adequate clearance to ground • Improper shield termination. Erratic readings can be caused by: • Fluctuating voltage to test set • Improper test leads. Humidity. The environment must be carefully considered or test results may not be significant. This may be accomplished by covering these areas with plastic envelopes. nonmetallic sheathed cable is dependent upon the environment in which it is installed because the characteristics of the return circuits are unknown.g. preferring possible breakdowns during testing rather than experiencing a service outage. constant voltage source. Consider using a portable motor driven alternator to energize the test set. Common Testing Problems High-leakage current can be caused by: • Failure to guard against corona • Failure to clean insulation surface • Failure to keep cable ends dry (high relative humidity. Do not use the same source that is supplying arc welders or other equipment causing line voltage fluctuations.|8. depending on the model). these tests can result in damage to the cable insulation. Wind prevents the accumulation of space charges at all bare energized terminals. It is desirable to reduce or eliminate corona current at the bare metal extremities of cable or terminations. Test equipment should be supplied from a stable. condensation or actual precipitation on the surface of a cable termination can increase the leakage current by several orders of magnitude. fog. Installation and Testing Additional Considerations High-potential testing of medium-voltage power cables is usually performed with negative polarity connected to the conductor. IR in general has little or no direct relationship to breakdown strength. Humidity also increases the termination leakage current. Some power cable users have adopted a program of testing circuits during planned outages. One advantage of DC high-voltage testing is that it can detect conducting particles left on the creepage surface during splicing or termination. Routine periodic DC maintenance testing of cable for the evaluation of the insulation strength is not a common practice. It is nearly impossible to recommend test voltage values for maintenance. Saran® or Handiwrap®) or suitable electrical putty. High-potential testing is a tool for determining insulation resistance at high voltages. The output voltage of the test set must be filtered and regulated. The significance of conducting DC high-voltage tests on nonshielded. plastic wrap (e. dew.. An arbitrary test voltage level could break down a cable circuit that would otherwise render long trouble-free service at normal operating AC voltage. wind.000 Insulation resistance (IR) may also be measured with instruments that give a direct reading at 500 volts (or higher. which is included in the total leakage current.

For most cables.7. the method is nondestructive and is used successfully on faults having characteristics within the capabilities of the method. Splices. sometimes distort the echo and can mask the fault. These units are portable. a splice or termination. The device can usually locate faults within 2 percent of the cable length. Connected to the end of a cable. commercially available devices that can be used in the field to locate some types of conductor breaks or shorts. • After the cable has been completely installed and placed in service. gradual insulation failure may be in progress. The time required to reach steady-state current depends on insulation temperature and material. etc. this includes shorts having a resistance of less than a few ohms and opens having a resistance greater than several hundred ohms. a violent increase in current occurs accompanied by tripping of the test set. After that time.. DC testing is not recommended. failure or flashover has probably occurred in the cable. short or tap is encountered. | 133 . This process will probably continue until eventual failure of the cable unless the voltage is rapidly reduced. the device functions much like radar. a DC proof test may be made at any time within the first five years at the test voltage specified below. A failure can be confirmed by the inability to sustain the second application of the test voltage. without any increase in applied voltage.11–Maximum DC Test Voltages for Shielded Power Cables Rated Voltage Phase-to-Phase (kV) Maximum DC Field Test Voltages in kV During Installation 100 Percent 133 Percent (Grounded) (Ungrounded) First 5 Years 100 Percent 133 Percent (Grounded) (Ungrounded) 5 8 15 25 28 35 46 28 36 56 80 84 100 132 36 44 64 96 100 124 172 9 11 18 25 26 31 41 11 14 20 30 31 39 54 Sources: ICEA S-94-649 Appendix E. NEMA WC 74 (ICEA S-93-639) Appendix F and ICEA S-97-682 Appendix E 8. a DC proof test may be made at a voltage not exceeding the test voltage specified below.8 FAULT LOCATING One of the many types of fault locating equipment is the Time Domain Reflectometer (TDR). Nevertheless. If at any time during the test.8. other insulations rarely exhibit this type of failure. Table 8.4 Evaluation of Results The test current will momentarily increase for each voltage increment due to the charging of capacitance and dielectric absorption characteristics of the cable–ultimately leaving only the conduction current plus any external surface leakage or corona currents.3 Test Voltage DC hipot test voltages are specified by ICEA and NEMA for tests conducted during and after installation as follows: • At any time during installation. Rubber and nonpressurized impregnated paper insulations will usually exhibit this type of insulation failure. taps. However. the current starts to increase slowly at first but at an increasing rate. Installation and Testing| 8. TDRs are only capable of locating breaks or shorts having an impedance different than that of the cable. sending out low-voltage pulses that travel the length of the cable and echo back when an open. If. applied for five consecutive minutes. 8. applied for five consecutive minutes.7.

Failure to clean water based cable pulling lubricants from the cable test ends has caused erroneous rejection of good cable. high humidity.9 MEGGER TESTING If the DC voltage applied during an insulation resistance (IR) test on power cables is relatively low (0. Refer to the figures below for suggested hookup. Note Use of the Guard (G) Connection G L E Megger insulation tester Figure 8. • Records – Keep detailed records and provide a copy to the owner. Be sure shields are grounded! Remember that insulated conductors are capacitors.5–Connections for Testing Insulation Resistance Between One Wire and All Other Wires.6 to 2. Without Being Affected by Leakage to Ground 134 | . • Voltages – Check cable and termination manufacturer’s guidelines.5 kV).4–Connections for Testing Insulation Resistance Between One Wire and Ground. Without Being Affected by Leakage to Other Wires. Low resistance readings may be caused by contaminated or moist cable ends. Stay clear of energized cable. An inherent limitation of low-voltage IR tests is their interpretation. Low-voltage IR tests are particularly useful in detecting shorts due to installation or handling damage to 600-volt-rated cables.|8. Reminders: • Safety – Follow the test equipment supplier’s instructions. the test is often referred to as a “Megger” test. nonmetallic-sheathed cable is very dependent upon the environment because the environment determines the characteristics of the return circuit. Operators must know the equipment. G L E Megger insulation tester Figure 8. Installation and Testing 8. etc. The readings obtained from such testing on nonshielded.

apply two layers of half-lapped HV insulating tape to act as a sealing cushion. which turns blue instead of “off” white when wet. Dry nitrogen is available from welding gas suppliers. otherwise the nitrogen gas will only flow through the path offering the least resistance.10. Pressure regulator Dry air or nitrogen Clamp Hose adapter Threaded nipple Hose 1/2 in. Installed Cables: The splices and terminations must be removed if they interfere with the flow of air or nitrogen. Make a small vent hole by clipping one bag corner. The sulfate is available from scientific laboratory supply houses. several cables may be connected to the gas supply.8.10 MOISTURE REMOVAL 8. fittings and flow regulators as shown in Figure 8. Secure the bag with tape or clamps. Attach a one-gallon plastic bag to the exhaust end of the cable. supply hose Reducing coupling Clamps Cable Figure 8. Maintain gas flow for at least eight hours after all indications of moisture have stopped. valves. Installation and Testing| 8. Connect the cable ends to a dry nitrogen or dry air supply using hoses. At the cable end having the highest elevation.6–Moisture Removal Equipment | 135 . As shown.6. Position one cable end to its lowest possible elevation. All Cables: Purge the shield separately from the insulated strands. A hardware store humidity gauge may also be used. The cable can then be purged as described above. Apply 15–25 psi (gauge).1 Purging Water from Conductor Strand or Shield Cables Not Yet Installed: Remove end seals. Water vapor may be readily detected by sprinkling one tablespoon of anhydrous cupric sulfate in the plastic bag.

Cable attenuation can be caused by microbending of the fiber. Small optical microscopes are used to visually inspect the workmanship of installed fiber optic connectors. The difference is the attenuation and is usually reported in decibels. An OTDR is able to determine the distance to the reflection and the amount of signal loss at that point. a portion of the optical pulse is reflected back to the source. connector.11 FIBER OPTIC TESTING Testing a newly installed fiber optic system can increase the overall performance of a system. A light pulse is sent down the fiber and as it encounters a fault. decrease the amount of downtime and reduce costs for the system owner. excessive mechanical force on the cable or. Handheld optical power meters and light sources are used to determine the total attenuation of the fiber including any splices or connectors. 136 | .|8. of course. With this method the light source injects light with a known signal level (brightness) into one end of the fiber. splice. Optical Time Domain Reflectometers (OTDRs) are used to locate faults and to measure attenuation of cables and connectors.. The power meter is attached to the other end of the fiber and measures the light output at a specific wavelength. impurities in the fiber. etc. Attenuation is the parameter most frequently measured and includes the attenuation of the cable as well as that of attached connectors. OTDRs work on a radar-like principle. a broken fiber. Installation and Testing 8.

attenuation.g.. impedance and other parameters. Category 3. the ability to maintain proper system operation is extremely important. 4. e. | 137 . opens or severely deformed cable. There are several types of test equipment that are commonly used to evaluate local area network (LAN) unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) and shielded twisted-pair (STP) cabling. Installation and Testing| 8. TDRs analyze the reflections and report the magnitude of the impedance mismatch and the location of faults.12 LAN CABLE TESTING With society’s dependency on data networks around the world. determine length and measure attenuation of the cable.8. 5 or 6. The TDR sends a low-voltage pulse along the cable and then “looks” for reflections that result from impedance mismatches that are caused by shorts. These devices typically characterize the installed system with regard to crosstalk. Time Domain Reflectometers (TDRs) are devices used to locate faults. Low-cost handheld LAN cable testers are available to certify the electrical performance. of newly installed LAN cable.

1 ST 9.5 MTP/MPO 9.4 Fiber Optic Connectors 9.1.4.4.1 Selection 9.2 9.4.1.1. CABLE ACCESSORIES 9. Cable Accessories| 9.4.4.1.2 Stud Sizes 145 147 9.4 MT-RJ 9.8 F Series 141 141 142 142 142 143 143 143 9.6 UHF 9.3.6 FC 9.1.1 Selection 9.4 SHV 9.1.2 BNC 9.1.4.7 FDDI 9.2 SC 9.3 TNC 9.1 Coaxial Connectors 9.4.4.9.1.8 SMA 148 148 148 149 149 150 150 151 151 | 139 .1.2 RJ11 and RJ45 Modular 144 Power Connectors 9.3.1.1 Types 9.1.1.3 LC 9.7 N Series 9.1.4.1.1.1.3 Data Connectors 9.5 SMA 9.

2 Working Load 9.4.2.4.4 Epoxy and Polish Connectors (Anaerobic) 152 152 152 153 153 154 154 154 154 9.4.3 Additional Load Considerations 9.1 No-Epoxy/No-Polish Connectors (Mechanical Splice Type) 9.6 NEMA Plug and Receptacle Configurations 140 | .2.2.5.4 Installation Environment 9.4.4.3 Epoxy and Polish Connectors (UV Cured) 9.4.5.2. Cable Accessories 9.3.5 Nomenclature 9.4.|9.3 Fiber Cable Construction 9.5.3.1 Support Span 9.5.5 Cable Tray Systems 9.4.4 Fiber Optic Connectors (Continued) 9.3 Connector Termination Methods 9.4.5.3.2 Mode of the Fiber 9.2 Epoxy and Polish Connectors (Heat-Cured) 9.6 Additional Information 155 155 155 155 156 156 157 9.5.1 Type and Construction of Connector 9.2 Considerations for Selecting 9.

a connector is usually specified by its nominal impedance and its allowable voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR). the TNC is the obvious choice. The VSWR indicates the quality of the match. 75-ohm. screw and snap-on. In most versions. The nominal impedance of the connector indicates its basic match to the nominal impedance of the cable. Figure 9. The three common types are bayonet. 4 GHz connectors are now available to meet the demand and usage of 75-ohm coax cable. If the highest frequency is 8 GHz. Frequency range determines the upper frequency limit of the application. BNC connectors are 50-ohm connectors rated to 4 GHz. for instance. Often the coupling method is the main difference between two series of connectors.1–BNC Connectors | 141 .1. MIL-PRF-39012 covers many popular types of coaxial connectors.1.1 COAXIAL CONNECTORS Coaxial connectors should appear electrically as extensions to the cable. Both BNC and TNC series connectors. BNC connectors are the most common for miniature cables because of the easy connection/disconnection offered by their bayonet coupling. they should connect to the cable with as little disruption of the electrical signal as possible. It includes mating and overall dimensions. while the BNC is limited to 4 GHz. performance and testing procedures for each connector.1 Selection Just as MIL-DTL-17 covers the main types of coaxial cables. a TNC connector is essentially the same. 9. Thus. In selecting a connector. users generally consider cable size. but with a threaded coupling. Cable size determines the connector series as subminiature. 9. either connector can be used. frequency range and coupling method. The TNC connector.) If the highest frequency of the application is 2 GHz. in other words. Connectors can be used at frequencies below this range but are not recommended at frequencies above this range where performance (especially VSWR) becomes degraded. Cable Accessories| 9. however. can be used with miniature cable. materials. medium or large.9. Coupling method determines the procedure for joining two mating connectors. For example. (This is due to the difference between bayonet and screw couplings.2 BNC By far. is usable to 11 GHz. miniature. a BNC connector uses bayonet coupling.

5 SMA Widely used in avionics. except it has a threaded rather than a bayonet coupling.000 volts (rms).3–SMA Series Coax Connectors for Flexible Cable 142 | .4 SHV For medium-size cables. SMA connectors are the most popular type for subminiature cable and offer the highest performance in their class.1.1. and high-performance test equipment applications. 9. military. radar. They have bayonet coupling but do not have a constant impedance. especially when subjected to vibration.|9. The tight interface of the threads. 9. SHV connectors are high-voltage connectors rated to 5. Cable Accessories 9.4 GHz when used on flexible cable and up to 18 GHz on semirigid cable. Figure 9.3 TNC A TNC connector is virtually identical to a BNC connector. They meet MIL-PRF-39012 requirements up to 12. allows the connector to maintain a low VSWR up to 11 GHz with flexible cable and up to 15 GHz with semirigid cable.1. They were originally designed for high-energy physics applications.2–SMA Series Coax Connectors for Semirigid Cable Figure 9.

7 N Series These screw thread connectors were the first true RF connectors. screw threaded couplers for RG-59. Figure 9.1. it is still widely used.4–UHF Series Coax Connectors 9. Figure 9. 2 GHz for the miniature version.5–N Series Coax Connectors 9.9.8 F Series The F type connectors are 75-ohm. The F type connector is simple to install. and RG-11 type coaxial cables and are the standard for cable television systems.1. including Ethernet and other IEEE 802 networks using medium-size coaxial cable. RG-6. low-cost commercial and 75-ohm versions in a variety of styles and materials. developed during World War II to handle microwave frequencies up to 11 GHz. Most connectors are terminated to the cable by a single crimp on the attached ferrule. Their main application is in cost sensitive consumer applications. Despite the connector’s age. Cable Accessories| 9.6–F Series Coax Connector | 143 . UHF connectors exhibit nonconstant impedance and a low upper-frequency limit of only 500 MHz.6 UHF The first coaxial connectors. Figure 9. designed in the 1930s.1. It is the standard coaxial connector for many coaxial cable based local area networks. economical and meets the specifications of CATV/MATV systems. offering dual-crimp.

8 Position Modular Jack Pair Assignments for UTP Figure 9. the conductors are inserted into the rear of the plug in a specific pattern. With the locking tab down.2. The most used standards are ANSI/TIA/EIA 568-B (wiring methods “A” or “B”). Rear View Front View 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Side View 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Figure 9.7–RJ45 (8 pin) Modular Plug The individual pairs of 100-ohm UTP (unshielded twisted-pair) cabling are usually connected using one of the two pair assignments shown in Figure 9. others for stranded wire.|9. Some are designed for use with wires with solid conductors. Cable Accessories 9. The wiring configuration varies.8–Pair Assignments A (left) and B (right) for an RJ45 Modular Jack 144 | .7.8.2 DATA CONNECTORS 9.1 RJ11 and RJ45 Modular RJ11 and RJ45 modular plugs and jacks are widely used in communication applications. The pins of the plug are numbered 1 through 8 as shown in Figure 9. depending on the wiring method selected for the system.

(See examples in Figure 9. Many have also received CSA approval and are approved under SAE AS7928 (formerly MIL-T-7928) and other standards.9.10. corrosion and vibration. The tools include small plier types. Dies marked with the matching die index number and color can be used to install the connector. or plated with a proprietary finish to provide corrosion resistance.9–Typical Compression Connector Compression Connectors Compression connectors are designed for reliable and controllable electrical connections. for a wide variety of applications.) Some have permanent die grooves or adjustable dies. Manufacturers publish extensive tables of suitable connector. Inc. Dual-rated aluminum compression connectors may be used on both copper and aluminum conductors. The connector barrels are typically prefilled with oxide inhibiting compound. Aluminum compression connectors are usually manufactured from high-conductivity. Copper compression connectors are normally manufactured from high-conductivity electrolytic copper. | 145 . splices and tap connectors requiring third-party testing and approval are listed by Underwriters Laboratories. Many aluminum and copper terminals and splices are marked with a die index number and are color-coded to identify the correct installation die. Industry Standards Compression terminals (See Figure 9.3 POWER CONNECTORS 9. tool and die combinations to ensure a quality splice or termination.1 Selection Figure 9. All conform to applicable sections of the National Electrical Code. Aluminum compression connectors are recommended for use on aluminum conductors. Tooling Tooling systems are essential for proper installation of a compression connector. lead-plated. only the recommended tools and dies should be used. Cable Accessories| 9. while others require a change of die sets or nest die for each connector size. full-cycle ratchet designs. Connectors must withstand a wide range of electrical and environmental conditions including current surges. hydraulically-powered heads and battery actuated tools. Oxide inhibiting compound usually contains homogeneously suspended metallic particles that penetrate the wire's oxides to establish continuity between the individual strands and the connector barrel for a low-resistance connection. virtually all the air is removed leaving a tight homogeneous mass of connector and conductor. Since connectors and dies are designed as a unit for specific wire sizes. high-purity wrought aluminum. When properly installed. temperatures.11).3. Connector designs are engineered to match the cable size to provide the necessary physical strength requirements for reliable electrical performance. Selection and Use Copper compression connectors are recommended for use on copper conductors. They are designed with sufficient mass and are electro-tin plated to minimize corrosion due to galvanic action between dissimilar metals. The connectors are normally tinplated.

D. B L I. O. = L= O.10 Typical Compression Tools O. Cable Accessories Battery-operated crimping tool Hand-operated crimping tool Figure 9.|9. I.D.D.D.D.11 Typical Compression Terminals (Lugs) 146 | . B L P C C' P C W W One-hole lug B= C= C1= I. = P= W= Length of barrel Edge of tongue to center of stud hole Stud hole spacing (two-hole lugs only) Inner diameter Length of lug Outer diameter Tongue length Tongue width Two-hole lug Figure 9.D.

0 13.500 5/8" .148 .4375 1/2" .9.3.112 .148 .750 .265 M2 M2.250 Hole Diameter Inch .8 3.12–Terminal Stud Size Chart in English and Metric Units | 147 .656 .2 Stud Sizes Hole diameter English Bolt Size #2 #4 #5 #6 #8 #10 1/4" 5/16" .0 2.138 . Figure 9.174 .0 16.328 M10 Bolt Diameter Inch .0 3.1 16.4 3.397 M10 .5 4.095 .781 M18 18.515 M16 .3 10.8 Source: ISO 263 for English stud sizes and ISO 262 for metric stud sizes.625 .0 6.1 6.1 10.375 7/16" .8 4.086 .7 3/4" . Note: Bolt illustrations not drawn to scale.0 10.190 .450 M12 .7 8.0 5.0 Hole Diameter mm 2.5 3.125 .164 .200 .5 M3 M3.0 3.0 8.0 19. Cable Accessories| 9.4 12.5 M4 M5 M6 M8 Bolt Size Metric Bolt Diameter mm 2.4 5.120 .3125 3/8" .0 11.

Because of their small size. There are several varieties of newer small form factor (SFF) connectors that are much smaller than the ST and SC.4 FIBER OPTIC CONNECTORS Fiber optic connectors are used at the ends of optical fiber. For higher multi-fiber terminations (up to 12 fibers) there is the MTP/MPO connector. It is non-optically disconnecting and has a “keyed” insertion for performance reliability and to prevent tip rotation. and two SC connectors are often held together with a plastic clip making this a “duplex” connection.1. Two common SFF connector types are the LC and the MT-RJ. Cable Accessories 9.|9. This is the recommended standard size fiber connector for enterprise cabling installations. it stands for Straight Tip connector. Originally developed by AT&T. methods of mechanical coupling.1 ST Connector The standard size ST connector was one of the first connector types widely implemented in fiber optic networking applications. They allow fiber optic equipment and patching connections to be made easily and quickly.1. The ST is still very popular for building applications but it is slowly being replaced by the SC and the smaller.5 mm ferrule to hold a single fiber. It was developed in Japan by NTT (the Japanese telecommunications company) and is believed to be an abbreviation for Subscriber Connector. It is usually used with ribbon cable for high-density backbone. The SC utilizes a push-on/pull-off mating mechanism. 9. The main differences among the types of connectors are their dimensions. Figure 9. small form factor (SFF) connectors.13–ST Connector 9. the number of fibers they contain and the particular termination methods (including tooling. ST connections use a 2. which is easier to use than the twist-style ST connector when in tight spaces.1 Types of Fiber Optic Connectors The larger standard size fiber connectors. The connector body of an SC connector is square. they allow a higher fiber port density on optical equipment and patch panels. Figure 9. The connector has a bayonet style “twist-on/twist-off” mechanism. 9. consumable items and training) required to install them. such as the ST and SC.2 SC Connector The standard size SC connector also has a round 2.4. have been around for many years and are still the most widely used.4.4. cross-connect and breakout applications. Many types of fiber optic connectors are available.5 mm ferrule with a round plastic or metal body that holds a single fiber. The connectors mechanically couple and align the cores of fibers so that light can pass through with a minimum amount of attenuation (loss). denser.14–SC Connector 148 | .

Cable Accessories| 9.3 LC Connector The LC connector is the most commonly used small form factor (SFF) connector. Each connector holds one fiber. The joined duplex LC connector only takes as much space as one SC connector.4 MT-RJ Connector The MT-RJ is another small form factor (SFF) connector.4.4.” This connector fits an adapter with the same footprint of a standard single-fiber connector.15–LC Connector 9. and the connector body resembles the square shape of SC connectors but it is much smaller. The MT-RJ connector closely resembles an RJ-style modular plug and terminates two fibers in a single ferrule so it is always “duplex. The connector locks into place with a tab (just like a modular RJ-style plug).16–MT-RJ Connectors | 149 . Figure 9.1. The ferrule of an LC connector is 1.1.25 mm. similar to the SC.9. It was developed by Lucent Technologies and it stands for Lucent Connector. It utilizes a push-pull mechanism. Two LC connectors are normally held together in a duplex configuration with a plastic clip. Figure 9. It was developed by AMP/Tyco and Corning and MT-RJ stands for Mechanical Transfer-Registered Jack.

Cable Accessories 9.4. data centers. In addition. The MTP connector is often used on both ends of preterminated cable assemblies to facilitate the quick and easy interconnection of pre-connectorized patch panels.5 MTP/MPO Connector The MTP is a high-density multifiber optical connector. disaster recovery and industrial operations.18–FC Connector 150 | . It is keyed to prevent tip rotation and damage to mated fiber. The connection is held in place by a push-on/pull-off latch and has a pair of metal guide pins that protrude from the front of the connector for alignment.6 FC Connector The FC connector has a 2.17–MTP/MPO Connector 9.|9. These connectors are typically used for single-mode applications but multimode connectors are available.5 mm ferrule tip with a threaded screw-on mechanism. MTP/MPO applications include horizontal zone cabling systems as well as high-density backbones and cross-connects used in large buildings.4. The MTP connector contains up to twelve optical fibers within a single ferrule and is available in both multimode and single-mode versions. It is a trademark of US Conec and is an improvement on the original MPO (multi-fiber push-on) connector designed by NTT.1. Figure 9. This connector is used with fiber ribbon cable to achieve very high density. Not as popular as it once was. Figure 9.1. it is used at one end of cable assemblies that “break out” multifiber cables into separate single fiber connectors at the other end. it is slowly being replaced by SC and LC connectors.

bulky plastic housing that uses a squeeze-tab retention mechanism. There are two types used: SMA 905. Cable Accessories| 9.1. SC or other SFF connectors. B. While it is still found in predominantly military and industrial applications. One is the primary and one is for backup. The FDDI connector is designed to mate to its specific network.” It was originally designed for the military and was in use before the ST connector. Figure 9.19–FDDI Connector 9. The FDDI connector has a keying system to prevent connections of incompatible network nodes. Most SMA 906 type connectors come with a plastic ring on the tip so they can be used as a SMA 905 connector. It is generally used to connect to equipment from a wall outlet while the rest of the network will have ST. and S.20–SMA Connector | 151 . It is rarely used in building network applications.9. There are four receptacle keys: A. The termination on the fiber optic cable itself is called an FDDI connector also known as an MIC (media interface connector) connector. the use of the SMA connector is diminishing.4. It is actually a fiber-based network access method based on the token ring protocol and utilizes two fiber rings.8 SMA Connector This connector was designed by Amphenol and stands for “Subminiature A.4. Figure 9.1. M.7 FDDI Connector FDDI stands for fiber distributed data interface. which has a ferrule that is the same diameter from the base to the tip. It contains two ferrules in a large. It was the dominant connector in data and closed-circuit video applications. which has an indented (smaller diameter) section on the tip side of the ferrule. and SMA 906.

the following must be taken into consideration: • • • • Type and construction of connector (SC. no epoxy/no polish. loose tube. at 125 µm. the specific style and in some cases the type of material used. it might make sense to use the same type of connector on the fiber infrastructure and distribution cabinets • Fiber patch cords with different connector types at each end can be used where the opto-electronic equipment connector does not match the connector on the fiber distribution equipment. Polymer materials have the advantage of a lower cost without sacrificing performance. Other types are available LCs are the most common small form factor (SFF) connector. therefore. Other types. it has the same overall diameter of 125 µm as the 62.) Termination method (heat cure.|9. However.5/125 µm. Another type of multimode fiber gaining popularity is 50/125 µm. one should consider using the same type of connectors throughout the facility Many projects have a written specification that defines the particular type of fiber connector required If most opto-electronic equipment in a facility has predominantly one connector type.5 µm core because cladding layer of glass is thicker.5 µm multimode cores. • Multimode – The most common size for multimode fiber is 62.. anaerobic. etc.2 Considerations for Selecting Fiber Optic Connectors When selecting fiber optic connectors.4.2–Mode of the Fiber The mode of the fiber is important when selecting a fiber connector. have higher typical insertion loss. Even though the overall fiber diameter size (core plus cladding) may be the same between single-mode and multimode fibers there is typically a different connector required for each within the same type (i. Single-mode connectors must be manufactured to more precise tolerances. they are generally more expensive.2. small form factor (SFF) and the high-density multi-fiber type connector. durable material that does not wear down even after a high number of reconnections.) 9. SC is the recommended standard size connector followed by the ST in popularity. Fibers are either multimode or single-mode. LC. however.) Mode of fiber being connectorized (single-mode or multimode) Construction of fiber (tight buffer. 9.2. • Single-mode – The typical fiber size is 8/125 µm which indicates a core diameter of 8 µm surrounded by a cladding layer of glass making the overall diameter of the fiber 125 µm. It is a hard.4. MTP etc. FC. etc. Note that the overall fiber diameter. generate more debris during re-mating and do not perform well during thermal cycling or vibration testing. 152 | . breakout. This indicates a core diameter of 62. jumper cordage. These are commonly used materials: • Ceramic – Connector tips made from ceramic are preferred because ceramic closely matches the thermal characteristics of glass. • Composite (polymer) – Connectors with composite tips are not as durable as those made from ceramic or stainless steel but offer a cost-effective solution and are suitable for many applications where a high number of reconnections are not anticipated. ST. Connectors with stainless steel ferrules (when compared to ceramic or composite). it is more expensive than other materials. The three most common form factors (sizes) are “standard” size.e. are also available The MPO/MTP type connector is used for high-density fiber applications usually with ribbon fiber When adding fiber and connectors to an existing facility. Cable Accessories 9. is the same as for multimode. Some considerations are: • • • • • • For new installations. however.4.5 µm surrounded by a cladding layer of glass making the overall diameter of the fiber 125 µm.5 µm fiber but provides a greater bandwidth. such as the MT-RJ connector. Note that the core size of the 50 µm fiber is smaller than the 62. MT-RJ. SC single-mode or SC multimode connector). UV cure. • Stainless steel – Stainless steel tips offer durability. This is because the proper alignment of the 8 µm single-mode core is more critical than on the larger 50 or 62. The type of material used in the tip (ferrule) of the connector is also important.1–Type and Construction of Connector Choosing the right fiber connector means selecting the proper form factor.

Cable Accessories| 9. These cables can be single-mode or multimode are available in both indoor and outdoor versions. necessary for proper installation. accessories and in some cases consumable items. Within the same connector types (ST. ribbon cable. It is available in both single-mode and multimode versions and in indoor and outdoor constructions. • Jumper cordage (patch cable) – Jumper cordage is divided into four construction types: simplex. called subunits. however.4. Inside the cable the fibers are typically laid out in rows of 12 fibers each. They may contain multiple small tubes. setup and tear-down) | 153 . from the building entrance point within buildings. Traditionally. SC. is to select the desired termination method of the connector. In effect. dual subunit duplex. Multi-fiber building cable has multiple tight-buffered fibers under a common jacket. LC. hold and terminate the fibers within the connector itself. • Ribbon cable – A type of cable construction that provides the highest fiber density in the most compact cable size. It is in direct contact with the fiber and surrounds it bringing the O.D.4. and data-center backbones where high-density fiber counts are needed. Loose tube cables require a buffer tube fanout or breakout kit in order to connectorize the fibers. • Fanout/Breakout cable – Each fiber in a fanout/breakout cable is jacketed and protected with strength members. that contain several fibers each or there may be one “central” tube that contains all the fibers in the cable. there are now tight-buffered outdoor versions available. Loose-tube cable is available in single-mode or multimode versions. It is ideal for mass-fusion splicing and for use with multifiber connectors such as the MTP/MPO. polishing. etc.3–Fiber Cable Construction The construction of the fiber cable needs to be considered when selecting fiber optic connectors. once the connector type. Simplex. polishing films. With technical specifications being equal. in duct or in direct buried applications.D. It is important that the proper cable be selected based on the environment and application needed. These vary from manufacturer to manufacturer and even within connector types from the same manufacturer. and round duplex. zipcord.9. Choose a connector that matches the breakout kit subunit type for a proper fit. zipcord duplex.3 Connector Termination Methods The final step in choosing a fiber connector. • Loose tube (loose buffer) cable – Loose tube cables are used for outdoor applications and contain multiple bare fibers that float freely within larger buffer tubes. of the jacket on the cable. and dual subunit cordages can be directly connectorized.). one row on top of the other. Connectors must be selected that fit the O. etc. 9. connect. These cables are water-blocked utilizing gel and/or dry water-swellable tapes or yarns within and around the buffer tube(s) inside the cable. Round duplex usually requires a breakout kit. fiber mode and cable construction are known. Ribbon fiber cable has become very popular as the cable of choice for deployment in campus. Connectors can be directly installed on the ends of 900 µm tight-buffered fibers without the use of a fanout or breakout kit. • Tight-buffered cable (Tight buffered multi-fiber distribution cable) – This type of fiber is used mainly indoors. the termination method chosen usually comes down to a matter of cost based on the following considerations: • • • • • • • Is a specific termination method specified? Is the installer already equipped with the tool kits and accessories needed for use with a particular type of connector termination method? How many connectors being installed? What is the training and experience level of the installer? What are the material costs? (connector itself. of the fiber up to 900 µm. Primary construction types are tight buffered. A connector can be installed directly on each jacketed fiber and the connectorized fibers can be patched directly into electronic equipment or patch panels etc. each fiber is a simplex jumper cord (patch cable).2. Tight-buffered cable has a “buffer” layer of plastic coating extruded onto the fiber. there are different termination methods to choose from based on the connector manufacturer’s design and the particular methods used to to prepare.) What are the consumable costs? (adhesive/epoxy. It is available in both single-mode and multimode versions.) What is the cost of labor? (curing. They come in various constructions depending on whether they will be installed aerially. loose tube (loose buffer). Each type of connector has its own procedures and requirements for the tools. building. of the building entrance point if run exposed. tooling etc. fanout/breakout cable and jumper cordage. most loose-tube cable was not UL Listed for indoor use so it had to be terminated or transitioned to an inside rated cable within 50 ft. There are now versions available that are indoor/outdoor rated making it allowable to extend the cable further than 50 ft.

etc. labor and consumables costs of termination.3. Usually a more cost-effective solution than heat-cured connectors.5 /125 µm multimode versions are available for each connector.3–Epoxy and Polish Connectors (UV Cured) This connector uses UV light to cure the epoxy.4. This type of connector is a cost-effective way to make cable assemblies or to install in locations where a large number of fibers are terminated at one time.2–Epoxy and Polish Connectors (Heat-Cured) The fiber is secured in the connector using epoxy. It is a connector with a polished fiber already factory-installed in the tip along with a mechanical splice type alignment system to facilitate attaching the connector to the end of a fiber.) Requires polishing Longer installation time than no-epoxy/no polish 9.4.3.4. Cable Accessories The following explains the most common termination methods: 9. • • • • No oven or lamp needed No electrical source required Requires polishing Faster installation time than heat-cured 154 | . • • • • • • Heat-cured in an oven Batch termination Low connector cost Consumables required (epoxy and polishing paper. • • • • • • • No epoxy or polishing No consumables and few tools needed No power source required Minimal setup required Connectors cost more Faster installation Reduced labor cost 9. laser-optimized 50/125 µm multimode and 62. The bare fiber is dipped into a primer and then pushed through the ferrule. Single-mode.|9. An adhesive is injected into the connector ferrule and it will not harden until mixed with a curing agent. When taking into account the material. • • • • • • Epoxy cured by UV lamp – no heat generated Lower connector cost Lower consumables cost Requires polishing (easier polish than heat-cure) Faster cure and overall installation time than heat-cured connectors Higher yields/less scrap 9.3. This causes the primer and adhesive to mix and curing occurs.4. 50/125 µm multimode.3. these type connectors are often the most cost-effective solution.1–No Epoxy/No Polish Connectors (Mechanical Splice Type) This type of connector has become very popular.4–Epoxy and Polish Connectors (Anaerobic) No ovens or UV lamps are needed for curing.

power plants): aluminum. commercial.]) • Power cables in a single layer – width is key issue (refer to applicable electrical code) • Low-voltage cables in a stacked configuration – key issues are loading depth and width (refer to applicable electrical code).5 CABLE TRAY SYSTEMS 9.to 20-foot support spacing (use 20-foot sections) Extra long span: over 20-foot to 30-foot support spacing (use 24. loading depth and strength). possibly hot-dipped galvanized after fabrication (HDGAF) Outdoor industrial (petrochemical. wind. stainless steel. Installation Environment Tray material and finish have a significant impact on tray performance in any given environment. light industrial): aluminum. automotive. pregalvanized steel Indoor industrial (automotive. snow loads – outdoor installations 9.5.or 30-foot sections). fiberglass Special (petrochemical. Considerations include: • Types and numbers of cables to support (total cable load in lb. pregalvanized steel. Tray types typically used for various span lengths include: • • • • Short span: 6. 9.2 Working Load The working load depends on tray size (width.5. concentrated load – industrial installations • Ice.1 Support Span The support span length is an important consideration as it affects the strength of the system and the length of the straight sections required.5. office. environmental air): contact manufacturer | 155 . pulp and paper./ft.3 Additional Load Considerations • 200-lb.to 8-foot support spacing (use 12-foot sections) Intermediate span: 8. Cable Accessories| 9.5. Typical tray types used in various environments are shown below.9. pulp and paper. 9. power plants): aluminum. • • • • • Indoor dry (institutional.to 12-foot support spacing (use 12-foot sections) Long span: 16. per linear foot [lb. hot-dipped galvanized after fabrication (HDGAF) Outdoor marine (off shore platforms): aluminum.4.

5.21–Cable Tray System 9. Vertical bend segment (VBS) 12. Solid flanged tray cover 17.21: 1. Left-hand reducer. Ventilated trough-type cable tray 3. 30 degrees vertical inside bend. 90 degrees horizontal bend.|9.” Article 392 of the National Electrical Code (NFPA 70) and on the Cable Tray Institute Web site at www. ladder-type cable tray 9.5. Frame type box connector 15. ladder-type cable tray 8. Cable Accessories 6 8 5 1 10 2 3 13 9 11 12 16 7 4 18 14 17 15 Figure 9. 45 degrees vertical outside bend. ladder type cable tray 14. ladder-type cable tray 5. Channel cable tray.com. ventilated-type cable tray 10. Horizontal tee. Vertical tee down.” NEMA VE-2 “Cable Tray Installation Guidelines. 45 degrees horizontal bend. ladder-type cable tray 11. 156 | . 90 degrees vertical outside bend. ladder-type cable tray 7. ladder-type cable tray 6. 90 degrees vertical outside bend 9.cabletrays. Barrier strip straight section 16. Horizontal cross. Ventilated channel straight section 18. Ladder-type cable tray 2. ventilated trough-type cable tray 13.5 Nomenclature The following items are keyed by number to the parts illustrated in Figure 9. Straight splice plate 4.6 Additional Information Additional information on cable tray systems is contained in NEMA VE-1 “Metal Cable Tray Systems.

9. Grounding 1-Phase 125/250 V X W G Y Y 4-Wire 3-Phase 120/208 V W Z X Y Z 1-Phase 250 V G 1-Phase 277 V G 3-Phase 250 V X G 1-15 5-15 6-15 7-15 11-15 20 AMP 14-15 15-15 18-15 2-Pole 2-Wire 1-Phase 250 V 2-Pole. Grounding 1-Phase 125 V G W W 3-Pole 3-Wire 3-Phase 250 V X Y Z 3-Pole. Grounding 1-Phase 125/250 V G X W Y Y 4-Wire 3-Phase 120/208 V W Z X Y Z 1-Phase 250 V G 1-Phase 277 V G 3-Phase 250 V X Z 3-Phase 250 V X G 2-20 5-20 6-20 7-20 10-20 30 AMP 11-20 14-20 15-20 18-20 2-Pole 2-Wire 1-Phase 250 V 2-Pole. 4-Wire. Grounding 1-Phase 125 V G W 3-Pole. 3-Wire 1-Phase 125/250 V W W X Y Y 3-Pole. 4 Wire. 3-Wire. 3-Wire 1-Phase 125/250 V W X Y Y 3-Pole. 4-Wire. 3-Wire. 3-Wire. Grounding 1-Phase 125/250 V G X W Y Y 4-Wire 3-Phase 120/208 V W Z X Y Z 1-Phase 250 V G 1-Phase 277 V G W 3-Phase 250 V X Z 3-Phase 250 V X G 2-30 5-30 6-30 7-30 10-30 11-30 14-30 15-30 18-30 Continued on next page >> | 157 .1–NEMA Non-Locking Plug Configurations 15 AMP 2-Pole 2-Wire 1-Phase 125 V 2-Pole.6 NEMA PLUG AND RECEPTACLE CONFIGURATIONS Table 19. Grounding 1-Phase 125 V G W 3-Pole. Cable Accessories| 9.

Grounding 1-Phase 125/250 V G X Y Y Z W Y X Y 2-Pole.1–NEMA Non-Locking Plug Configurations (Continued) 50 AMP 3-Pole. Grounding 1-Phase 125 V W G 1-Phase 250 V X Y 1-Phase 277 V W G G L1-15 L5-15 L6-15 L7-15 Continued on next page >> 158 | . Grounding 1-Phase 3-Phase 125/250 V 250 V G X W Y Y X G Z X Y 4-Wire 3-Phase 120/208 V W Z 14-60 15-60 18-60 Note: Receptacle configurations are a mirror image of the plug configurations shown.|9. 2-Wire 1-Phase 125 V 2-Pole. Table 19. Grounding 1-Phase 125 V G W 3-Pole. 4-Wire. Cable Accessories Table 19. 4-Wire.2–NEMA Locking Plug Configurations 15 AMP 2-Pole. 3-Wire. 3-Wire. 3-Wire 1-Phase 125/250 V W X 4-Wire 3-Phase 120/208 V W Z X Y Z 1-Phase 250 V G 1-Phase 277 V G W 3-Phase 250 V X 3-Phase 250 V G 5-50 6-50 7-50 10-50 11-50 14-50 15-50 18-50 60 AMP 3-Pole.

5-Wire. | 159 . 3-Wire 1-Phase 600 V X Y G 1-Phase 250 V X Y G 1-Phase 277 V W G 1-Phase 480 V X Y G 1-Phase 125/250 V X Y W 3-Phase 250 V Y Z X 3-Phase 480 V Y Z X 3-Phase 600 V Y Z X L5-30 L6-30 L7-30 L8-30 L9-30 L10-30 L11-30 L12-30 L13-30 30 AMP 3-Pole. Grounding 3-Phase 120/208 V Y X G Z W Y G Z 3-Phase 480 V X Y Z 3-Phase 3-Phase 277/480 V 347/600 V X W Y X W Z 3-Phase 277/480 V X W 3-Phase 347/600 V Y X G Z W L14-20 L15-20 L16-20 L18-20 L19-20 30 AMP L20-20 L21-20 L22-20 L23-20 2-Pole. 3-Wire. Grounding 3-Phase 277/480 V Y X Z W 3-Phase 480 V Y X G Z 3-Phase 120/208 V Y X G Z W 3-Phase 3-Phase 277/480 V 347/600 V Y G Z X W Y X G Z W Y X Z G L14-30 L15-30 L16-30 L17-30 L18-30 L19-30 L20-30 L21-30 L22-30 L23-30 Note: Receptacle configurations are a mirror image of the plug configurations shown. 3-Wire 1-Phase 600 V X Y G 1-Phase 277 V W G 1-Phase 480 V X Y G 1-Phase 125/250 V X Z W 3-Phase 250 V Y Z X 3-Phase 480 V Y Z X L2-20 L5-20 L6-20 L7-20 L8-20 20 AMP L9-20 L10-20 L11-20 L12-20 3-Pole. Grounding 1-Phase 3-Phase 125/250 V 250 V X W Y G Y X Z G 4-Pole.9. Cable Accessories| Table 19. 4-Wire 3-Phase 600 V 3-Phase 3-Phase 120/208 V 120/208 V Y X W Z Y X Z W 4-Pole. Grounding 1-Phase 125 V W G 3-Pole. Grounding 1-Phase 250 V X Y G 3-Pole. 3-Wire. Grounding 1-Phase 3-Phase 125/250 V 250 V W X Y G Y X Z G 4-Pole.2–NEMA Locking Plug Configurations (Continued) 20 AMP 2-Pole 2-Wire 1-Phase 250 V 1-Phase 125 V W G 2-Pole. 4-Wire 3-Phase 120/208 V G Y X W Z Y Z 4-Pole. 4-Wire. 5-Wire. 4-Wire.

1 Reel Size 10.2 Moving and Lifting 169 169 | 161 .2.2 Reel Handling 10.1.1 Reel Terminology 10.1. Packaging of Wire and Cable| 10.10.1 Storage and Shipment 10.2 Minimum Drum Diameter 10. PACKAGING OF WIRE AND CABLE 10.1.2.3 Capacities and Dimensions of Shipping Reels 162 162 164 10.

Nonshielded and wire shielded. Single. 10.and multiple-conductor nonmetallic-covered cable 1.1 Reel Terminology W T D H C A A = Flange diameter B = Arbor hole diameter C = Clearance D = Drum diameter H = Height T = Traverse W = Overall width B Figure 10. Helically applied b.1–Reel Terminology 10. Tape shielded a.1.1–Minimum Drum Diameter for Wire and Cable Minimum Drum Diameter as a Multiple of Outside Diameter of Cable Type of Cable A.1 REEL SIZE Selection of proper reel (spool) size depends on the length and overall diameter (O. damage to the material is likely.000 volts b.1.|10.2 should be observed. A reel not matched to the weight of the cable wound on it may be damaged during shipment. The minimum drum (hub) diameters given in Section 10.000 volts (1) Nonjacketed with concentric wires (2) All others 2. Packaging of Wire and Cable 10. Longitudinally applied corrugated tape 10 12 14 14 20 14 Continued on next page >> 162 | .D.) of the cable or wire to be rewound. including cable with concentric wires a. 0–2.1. All wire and cable has a minimum safe bending radius. Over 2. If cable is subjected to bends sharper than the minimum radius. Longitudinally applied flat tape c.2 Minimum Drum Diameter Table 10.

including self-supporting cables – the circumscribing overall diameter shall be multiplied by the factor given in item A or B and then by the reduction factor of 0.50 F. the minor outside diameter shall be multiplied by the appropriate factor to determine the minimum drum diameter. Source: NEMA WC 26 (EEMAC 201) Binational Wire and Cable Packaging Standard | 163 . Bare conductor Notes to Table: 14 25 30 16 16 14 14 26 24 22 21 19 20* 20 1.51–1. Aluminum (1) Outside diameter – 1.1 Minimum Drum Diameter for Wire and Cable (Continued) Minimum Drum Diameter as a Multiple of Outside Diameter of Cable Type of Cable B. 2. Fiber optic cables G.751" and larger 2.0–0. Flat tape armored 4. the highest factor for any component type shall be used. E. Single.25 1.750" and less (2) Outside diameter – 1. Tubular metallic sheathed a. For “flat-twin” cables (where the cable is placed upon the reel with its flat side against the drum). In all other cases. B and C. Interlocked armor C. Lead b. The multiplying factors given for item E refer to the outside diameter of the duct. Packaging of Wire and Cable| Table 10.75. the outside diameter is the diameter outside of all the material on the cable in the state in which it is to be wound upon the reel.50 0.01–1. Wire armored 3.50 Over 1. Corrugated metallic sheath 5. Combinations – For combinations of the types described in items A. inches – 0. D.10. * Some manufacturers recommend 30. Multiple single conductors cabled together without common covering.26–1.and multiple-conductor cable in coilable nonmetallic duct Outside diameter of duct.and multiple-conductor metallic-covered cable 1. Single. the outside diameter is the diameter over the metallic sheath itself. 3.00 1. When metallic-sheathed cables are covered only by a thermosetting or thermoplastic jacket.

920 3.188 4.75 0.073 1.270 2.3 Capacities and Dimensions of Shipping Reels Table 10.182 1.10 0.182 13.776 5.855 7.464 1.115 32 24 16 2 36.877 6.45 1.514 852 545 378 278 213 168 136 113 95 81 70 61 16 12 6 1 12.70 0.546 5.354 2.222 6.694 1.182 19.25 0.149 1.35 1.00 1.546 4.280 1.515 1.724 11.036 6.962 4.509 2.414 9.) Traverse (in.668 1.890 20.073 1.965 1.061 6. Packaging of Wire and Cable 10.30 1.858 2.436 9. (in.886 1.207 164 | Cable O.969 5.95 1.144 2.330 1.083 5.969 5.877 15.317 13.306 1.25 1.886 10.35 0.1.099 3.991 3.829 3.65 1.15 0.10 1.406 1.115 30 18 12 2 27.40 1.414 7.50 0.750 13.) Drum Dia.877 15.285 2.009 817 24 12 10 1 30.012 1.490 1.471 3.55 0.742 1.65 0.|10.485 1.30 0.742 1.338 1.20 1.120 3.886 1.05 1.464 2.490 1.) .589 3.60 0.485 1.80 0. (in.15 1.320 1.920 3.) 0.097 2.280 1.85 0.146 1.20 0.671 1.610 1.987 1.036 6.118 28 18 12 1 27.2–Capacities of Typical Shipping Reels per NEMA WC 26 Flange Dia.744 2.681 4.207 998 838 24 12 12 1 26.280 9.681 10.70 The following formula from NEMA WC 26 can be used to calculate approximate cable capacity per reel: Footage = 0.262 T (H C) (D 2 (Wire OD) H C) 16 10 12 1 3.40 0.320 2.D.397 1.681 10.276 2.) Clearance (in.120 3.025 920 830 36 24 16 2 30.109 3.271 1.509 2.476 1.027 20 12 8 1 20.829 3.097 2.969 2.45 0.069 883 742 633 545 475 24 16 10 1 40.277 1.90 0.439 4.60 1.297 1.670 1.576 5.55 1. (in.354 2.50 1.243 17.

959 3.821 6.314 2.757 9.003 2.590 6.122 1.285 23.880 45.836 12.145 1.987 1.814 13.858 6.980 6.738 1.618 4.231 2.634 8.389 9.110 5.078 14.436 1.688 39.707 16.127 11.584 2.547 3.715 2.650 2.882 6.825 1.779 4.993 2.245 13.566 22.832 31.392 6.193 11.995 7.010 35.848 1.370 12.868 25.106 3.640 12.632 28.610 43.318 2.676 19.911 4.909 2.108 3.449 6.412 4.565 5.439 3.698 22.118 1.887 4.725 12.261 2.067 9.523 2.445 31.351 7.477 3.913 4.928 4.910 3.558 15.341 1.900 5.803 7.925 14.310 2.637 17.505 16.636 1.425 2.255 7.566 6.110 9.891 12.350 33.285 8.829 21.275 11.886 8.499 3.808 15.011 4.193 2.645 27.545 5.519 6.116 16.658 8.046 1.215 6.545 5.527 1.756 5.926 10.963 5.497 43.626 46.981 2.959 3.489 7.075 Continued on next page >> | 165 .651 16.471 4.624 16.438 19.681 3.270 3.682 12.061 8.285 2.097 35.553 3.300 5.174 5.488 11.881 26.506 14.994 7.957 2.263 20.243 29.862 23.628 2.214 27.223 4.672 10.769 20.043 17.723 1.945 9.771 41.828 11.415 2.020 5.949 3.951 6.433 4.828 10.829 2.490 4.333 3.239 7.091 12.816 48.044 23.955 26.454 17.467 6.545 29.882 13.773 3.143 1.027 946 875 811 754 703 657 35. Packaging of Wire and Cable| 40 30 16 2 42 26 24 2 48 36 24 2 54 32 24 3 60 28 28 3 66 36 36 3 72 36 36 3 78 48 42 3 84 54 48 3 90 54 48 3 96 54 56 3 32.601 8.174 6.886 14.709 11.944 19.760 1.525 1.013 3.171 3.898 1.739 2.200 3.052 1.262 23.908 7.207 3.772 2.130 7.753 8.659 5.960 15.860 1.450 21.890 18.801 14.819 2.227 2.911 7.264 2.179 20.557 7.092 8.622 3.087 9.359 5.476 4.650 2.302 29.632 26.017 2.215 2.861 9.301 21.114 4.139 31.958 8.731 17.853 20.919 24.628 1.237 10.782 34.043 15.478 1.638 1.575 7.222 1.424 12.013 4.049 10.222 8.677 4.439 5.721 44.633 3.773 10.10.837 4.701 5.198 37.752 9.456 5.276 12.470 6.827 4.362 5.502 2.353 44.707 6.973 10.274 9.336 6.859 11.515 2.750 18.309 15.207 2.995 1.308 6.011 4.996 6.510 13.432 3.557 35.987 8.914 10.434 24.908 7.942 5.573 7.486 5.425 40.996 1.

80 1.|10.30 2.75 2.60 2.25 2.85 1.15 2.80 2.90 2.) 1.95 2.) Traverse (in.75 1.10 3.85 2.) 2. (in.10 2.90 1.15 3.45 3.2–Capacities of Typical Shipping Reels per NEMA WC 26 (Continued) Flange Dia.40 3.50 2.65 2.25 3.35 3.30 3.00 2.95 3.) Drum Dia.05 2.20 2.) Clearance (in.50 16 10 12 1 16 12 6 1 20 12 8 1 24 12 10 1 24 12 12 1 24 16 10 1 28 18 12 1 30 18 12 2 32 24 16 2 36 24 16 2 The following formula from NEMA WC 26 can be used to calculate approximate cable capacity per reel: Footage = 0.40 2.70 2.20 3. (in.55 2.45 Cable OD (in.35 2. Packaging of Wire and Cable Table 10.262 T (H C) (D 2 (Wire OD) H C) 166 | .05 3.00 3.

689 2.999 1.864 4.769 1.322 2.227 2.636 3.612 1.892 2.130 4.393 2.978 1.389 4.032 2.904 1.468 3.636 1.951 1.677 1.366 4.124 2.321 2.181 3.486 2.587 1.809 2.768 1.700 2.10.804 1.139 2.018 1.421 2.142 2.979 2.433 | 167 .591 84 54 48 3 4.048 2.999 3.500 2.918 2.488 5.511 3.536 90 54 48 3 5.590 1.222 2.597 2.319 3.654 1.646 1.774 1.419 5.044 2.033 1.358 1.491 78 48 42 3 3.505 1.326 2.906 3.800 2.438 2.791 1.127 3.162 2.519 1.828 2.717 1.688 2.715 1.720 1.867 1.561 1.704 3.188 4.811 3.342 3.656 4.931 96 54 56 3 5.122 72 36 36 3 2.056 1.227 2.898 1.202 3.175 1.911 4.179 3.356 2.617 4.527 2.293 1.887 1.628 3.762 2.088 2.108 1.420 4.223 2.319 3.408 2.239 2.178 3.733 5.516 3. Packaging of Wire and Cable| 40 30 16 2 42 26 24 2 48 36 24 2 54 32 24 3 60 28 28 3 1.705 1.177 3.798 3.834 1.947 1.559 2.475 1.981 3.662 1.827 1.429 1.277 66 36 36 3 1.144 2.306 2.320 3.925 2.069 1.565 1.473 3.641 2.232 1.585 2.999 1.

Packaging of Wire and Cable Table 10.3–Typical Small Reel Dimensions Reel A Flange Diameter (in.) D Drum Diameter (in.2 below) B Arbor Hole (in.) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 12 13 16 24 30 115⁄8 16 61⁄2 61⁄2 61⁄2 61⁄2 101⁄2 101⁄2 11⁄2 11⁄2 11⁄2 2 2 2 2 ⁄4 3 ⁄4 3 6 5 5 12 12 8 12 115⁄16 115⁄16 115⁄16 115⁄16 31⁄2 31⁄2 6 123⁄4 12 14 14 35⁄8 31⁄4 11⁄2 2 31⁄4 71⁄2 23⁄4 8 63⁄4 123⁄4 123⁄4 15 15 4 3 3⁄4 13⁄4 21⁄4 3 1⁄2 73⁄4 3 81⁄4 21⁄2 33⁄4 41⁄2 11 21 2 41⁄4 1 ⁄2 1 ⁄2 ⁄2 ⁄4 11⁄4 1 3 Plywood Plywood Plywood Plywood Plywood Plastic Fiberboard Metal Metal Metal Metal Metal Metal ⁄4 ⁄4 15⁄8 3 3 15⁄8 13⁄4 W T D H C A A = Flange diameter B = Arbor hole diameter C = Clearance D = Drum diameter H = Height T = Traverse W = Overall width B Figure 10.) T Traverse (in.) Reel dimensions (See Figure 10.) Approx.2–Reel Dimensions 168 | .|10.) W Overall Width (in. Reel Weight Material (lb.

1 Storage and Shipment Except for reels less than two feet in diameter and weighing less than 200 pounds. Do not store or ship reels on their side. Cables larger than 1⁄2 inch in diameter should be sealed with tight-fitting heat-shrinkable or hot-dipped (peel coat) end caps designed for the purpose. Never allow fork to touch cable surface or reel wrap. Lower reels from truck using hydraulic gate. Smaller diameter cables should be sealed with PVC tape such as 3M Scotch 33 or with end caps (end caps preferred). Storage or shipment of the reel while lying on its side greatly increases the likelihood of tangling and damage to the cable. Lower carefully. Reels can be hoisted with a shaft extending through both flanges. Packaging of Wire and Cable| 10.2. hoist or fork lift. Do not lift by top flange. resting on both flanges.2 Moving and Lifting Yes No Cradle both reel flanges between forks. or other tests. Upended heavy reels will often arrive damaged. If reels of cable will be stored for longer than one month. reels should be stored and shipped upright.3–Proper Handling of Cable Reels | 169 . Always load with flanges on edge and chock and block securely.. 10.10. Cables or reel will be damaged. Never drop reels. Be sure all staples and nails that might damage the cable are removed. Figure 10. Caution must also be used to prevent damage to the cable end as it is frequently utilized for hipot. i. they should be protected from rain and direct exposure to sunlight to maximize service life. Both cable ends should be sealed against the entrance of moisture.2. continuity. Refuse or receive subject to inspection for hidden damage. CAUTION: Make sure staples are shorter than flange thickness so that they cannot extend through the flange and damage the cable.e.2 REEL HANDLING 10.

Industry Standards| 11.9 FAA 11.1.5 Telcordia (formerly Bellcore) 11.1.1.1.1.S.2 AEIC 11.16 MSHA 11.15 ITU-T 11.1.8 EIA 11.1.1.4 ASTM 11.11 IEC 11.1.1.13 ISA 11.17 NEMA 11.19 RUS 11.18 NFPA 11.1.11.7 ECA 11.20 SAE 11.1 Industry Standards List 11.1.1.21 TIA 11.3 ANSI 11.14 ISO 11.1.1.1.1.1 AAR 11.1. Government Specifications 173 174 175 176 179 180 181 181 182 182 184 186 188 188 188 188 189 190 190 191 192 193 195 | 171 .6 CANENA 11.10 ICEA 11.1.1.1.22 UL 11.12 IEEE 11. INDUSTRY STANDARDS 11.1.1.23 U.

2.3.4 NFPA 262 Steiner Tunnel Test for Plenum Rated Cable 11.2.11 UL 1581 VW-1 Flame Test 196 197 198 199 200 200 201 201 201 201 202 11.1 Fire Safety Test Methods 11.2 NEC Fire Test Summary 11.2.3.10 UL 1685 11.3 Regulatory and Approval Agencies 11.1 Underwriters Laboratories 11.3 Comparison of Vertical Cable Tray Tests 11.2.2.2.6 UL 1581 Vertical Tray Flame Test 11.2 Fire Safety Tests 11.3.9 IEEE 1202 11.2. Industry Standards 11.2.5 UL 1666 Riser Flame Test 11.2.2.7 ICEA T-29-520 11.2 National Electrical Code (NEC) 11.2.3 International 203 204 206 172 | .8 CSA FT4 11.|11.

1 AAR Association of American Railroads www. 0–600 Volt Cable for Locomotive and Car Equipment Specification for Single Conductor. Clean Stripping Rubber Insulated. Silicone Rubber Insulation. 581.3 S-501 S-502 S-503 S-506 S-4210 – Specification for Single Conductor.1 INDUSTRY STANDARDS LIST 11. 0–600 Volt. Clean Stripping Ethylene Rubber Insulated. 0–300 Volt. 0–600 Volt. Wire and Cable | 173 .org or www.11. Industry Standards| 11.1. Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene Jacketed Cable for Locomotive and Car Equipment ECP Brake System Cable Communications and Signals Manual.org Title Document No. 125°C Cable for High Temperature Use on Locomotive and Car Equipment Specification for Single Conductor. Section 10. Glass Polyester Braided.arema. 0–600 Volt. Neoprene Jacketed Cable for Locomotive and Car Equipment Wiring and Cable Specification Specification for Single Conductor. Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene Integral Insulated-Jacketed. 0–300 Volt.aar.

CG1 CG3 CG4 CG5 CG7 CG11 CS1 CS2 CS3 CS4 CS7 CS8 CS9 CS31 Guide for Application of AEIC Maximum Insulation Temperatures at the Conductor for Impregnated Paper-Insulated Cables Installation of Pipe-Type Cable Systems Installation of Extruded Dielectric Insulated Power Cable Systems Rated 69 kV through 138 kV Underground Extruded Cable Pulling Guide Guide for Replacement and Life Extension of Extruded Dielectric 5 through 35 kV Underground Distribution Cables Reduced Diameter Extruded Dielectric Shielded Power Cables Rated 5 through 46 kV Impregnated Paper-Insulated.1.|11. Metallic-Sheathed. Metallic-Sheathed Cable Solid Type Impregnated Paper-Insulated Cable. Gas-Filled Impregnated Paper-Insulated Low and Medium-Pressure Self-Contained. Liquid-Filled Cable Cross-Linked Polyethylene Insulated Shielded Power Cables.org Title Document No.aeic. 69 through 138 kV Extruded Dielectric Shielded Power Cables Rated 5 through 46 kV Extruded Insulation Power Cables and Accessories Rated Above 46 kV through 345 kV Electrically Insulating Low Viscosity Pipe Filling Liquids for High-Pressure Pipe-Type Cables 174 | .2 AEIC Association of Edison Illuminating Companies www. Low Pressure. Industry Standards 11. High-Pressure Pipe Type Impregnated Paper-Insulated.

ansi.org Title Document No. Industry Standards| 11.184 Local Distributed Data Interface (LDDI) Network Layer Protocol Data-Link Layer Protocol for Local Distributed Data Interfaces Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) Network Layer Protocol Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) Station Management Standard FDDI—Media Access Control Nonmetallic-Sheathed Cables Intelligent Peripheral Interface (IPI) Enhanced Physical Interface (withdrawn) Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) Physical Layer (replaced by document #INCITS 148) Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) Single-Mode Fiber Physical Layer Medium Dependent (replaced by document #INCITS 184) | 175 . 0337-D 0338-D 0382-D 0503-D 0684-D 719 X3.11.3 ANSI American National Standards Institute www.148 X3.1.129 X3.

Hard. Medium-Hard. Industry Standards 11.astm.1.4 ASTM American Society for Testing and Material www. B1 B2 B3 B8 B33 B47 B49 B105 B172 B173 B174 B189 B193 B227 B228 B229 B230 B231 B232 B233 B246 B258 B263 B298 B324 B399 B400 Hard-Drawn Copper Wire Medium-Hard-Drawn Copper Wire Soft or Annealed Copper Wire Concentric-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors. or Soft Tinned Soft or Annealed Copper Wire Copper Trolley Wire Hot-Rolled Copper Rods Hard-Drawn Copper Alloy Wires for Electrical Conductors Rope-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors (Bunch Stranded Members) Rope-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors (Concentric Stranded Members) Bunch-Stranded Copper Conductors Lead-Alloy-Coated Soft Copper Wire Resistivity of Electrical Conductor Materials Hard-Drawn Copper Clad Steel Wire Concentric-Lay-Stranded Copper-Clad Steel Conductors Concentric-Lay-Stranded Copper and Copper-Clad Steel Composite Conductors Aluminum 1350-H19 Wire. Coated-Steel Reinforced (ACSR) Aluminum 1350 Drawing Stock for Electrical Purposes Tinned Hard-Drawn and Medium-Hard-Drawn Copper Wire Standard Nominal Diameters and Cross-Sectional Areas of AWG Sizes of Solid Round Wire Used as Electrical Conductors Determination of Cross-Sectional Area of Stranded Conductors Silver-Coated Soft or Annealed Copper Wire Aluminum Rectangular and Square Wire Concentric-Lay-Stranded Aluminum Alloy 6201-T81 Conductors Compact Round Concentric-Lay-Stranded Aluminum 1350 Conductors Continued on next page >> 176 | . for Electrical Purposes Concentric-Lay-Stranded Aluminum 1350 Conductors Concentric-Lay-Stranded Aluminum Conductors.|11.org Title Document No.

4 ASTM (Continued) Title Document No. B401 B452 B496 B500 B549 B566 B609 B624 B694 B736 B800 B801 D470 D866 D1047 D1351 D1523 D1929 D2219 D2220 D2308 D2655 D2656 D2671 D2768 D2770 D2802 D2863 Compact-Round Concentric-Lay-Stranded Aluminum Conductors. Aluminum Clad Steel Cable Shielding Stock 8000 Series Aluminum Alloy Wire Concentric-Lay-Stranded Conductors of 8000 Series Aluminum Alloy Test Methods for Cross-Linked Insulations and Jackets for Wire and Cable Styrene-Butadiene (SBR) Synthetic Rubber Jacket for Wire and Cable Polyvinyl Chloride Jacket for Wire and Cable Polyethylene-Insulated Wire and Cable Synthetic Rubber Insulation for Wire and Cable. Aluminum Alloy. Copper Alloy Wire Copper. Annealed and Intermediate Tempers High Strength. 60°C Operation Polyvinyl Chloride Insulation for Wire and Cable.001 V to 35 kV Test Methods for Heat-Shrinkable Tubing General-Purpose Ethylene-Propylene Rubber Jacket for Wire and Cable Ozone-Resisting Ethylene Propylene Rubber Integral Insulation and Jacket for Wire Ozone Resistant Ethylene-Alkene Polymer Insulation for Wire and Cable Test Method for Measuring the Minimum Oxygen Concentration to Support Candle-Like Combustion of Plastics (Oxygen Index) Continued on next page >> | 177 . Copper-Clad Bronze.000 V Cross-linked Polyethylene Insulation for Wire and Cable Rated 2. Aluminum Clad Steel Reinforced (ACASR/AW) Copper-Clad Aluminum Wire Aluminum 1350 Round Wire. Copper-Clad Stainless Steel and Strip for Electrical Cable Shielding Aluminum.1. Steel Reinforced (ACSR) Concentric-Lay-Stranded Aluminum Conductors. 90°C Operation Test for Ignition Temperature of Plastics Polyvinyl Chloride Insulation for Wire and Cable. 75°C Operation Polyethylene Jacket for Electrical Insulated Wire and Cable Cross-linked Polyethylene Insulation for Wire and Cable Rated 0 to 2. Industry Standards| 11. Steel Reinforced (ASCR/COMP) Copper-Clad Steel Wire for Electronic Application Compact Round Concentric-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors Metallic Coated Stranded Steel Core for Aluminum Conductors.11. Copper Alloy. High Conductivity.

Industry Standards 11. Base Metal Thermocouple Wire with Glass Fiber or Silica Fiber Insulation Specific Optical Density of Smoke Generated by Solid Materials Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates for Materials and Products Using an Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter 178 | . Heavy-Duty and Extra-Heavy-Duty NBR/PVC Jackets for Wire and Cable Ozone-Resistant Thermoplastic Elastomer Insulation for Wire and Cable. Flame Spread and Mass Loss Testing of Insulating Materials Contained in Electrical or Optical Fiber Cables When Burning in a Vertical Cable Tray Configuration Duplex.|11.4 ASTM (Continued) Title Document No. Heavy-Duty and Extra-Heavy-Duty Cross-linked Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene Jackets for Wire and Cable Test Methods for Physical and Environmental Performance Properties of Insulations and Jackets for Telecommunications Wire and Cable Test Methods for Electrical Performance Properties of Insulations and Jackets for Telecommunications Wire and Cable Heat Release. D3554 D3555 D4244 D4245 D4246 D4314 D4565 D4566 D5537 E574 E662 E1354 Track-Resistant Black Thermoplastic High Density Polyethylene Insulation for Wire and Cable Track-Resistant Black Cross-linked Thermosetting Polyethylene Insulation for Wire and Cable General Purpose.1. 90°C Operation Specification for General Purpose. 90°C Dry–75°C Wet Operation Ozone-Resistant Thermoplastic Elastomer Insulation for Wire and Cable.

5 Telcordia (formerly Bellcore) www. STALPETH and Bonded PASP) Generic Requirements for Network Outdoor Customer Premises and Universal Cross-Connecting Wire Generic Requirements for Miniature Ribbon Connector and Cable Assembly Generic Requirements for Distributing Frame Wire Generic Requirements for Central Office Cable Generic Requirements for Central Office Coaxial Cable Generic Requirements for Singlemode Optical Connectors and Jumpers Generic Requirements for Telecommunications Power Cable Generic Requirements for Optical Cable Innerduct Generic Requirements for Premises Optical Fiber Cable Generic Requirements for Metallic Telecommunications Cable Generic Requirements for Metallic Telecommunication Wire Generic Requirements for Coaxial Drop Cable Generic Requirements for Coaxial Distribution Cable Single Pair Buried Distribution Wire Multiple Pair Buried Wire Generic Requirements for Network Plenum Cable/Wire Generic Requirements for Network Shielded Station Wire Generic Requirements for Inside Wiring Cable (3 to 125 Pair Sizes) Generic Requirements for Two Pair Station Wire Pulp Bonded STALPETH Cable Pulp Bonded PASP Cable Continued on next page >> | 179 . GR-20 GR-63 GR-78 GR-110 GR-111 GR-115 GR-126 GR-135 GR-136 GR-137 GR-139 GR-326 GR-347 GR-356 GR-409 GR-421 GR-492 GR-1398 GR-1399 TR-NWT-000123 TR-NWT-000124 TR-NWT-000131 TR-NWT-000132 TR-NWT-000133 TR-NWT-000134 TR-TSY-000103 TR-TSY-000104 Generic Requirements for Optical Fiber and Optical Fiber Cable Network Equipment-Building System Requirements: Physical Protection Generic Physical Design Requirements for Telecommunication Products and Equipment Generic Requirements for Thermoplastic Insulated Steam Resistant Cable Generic Requirements for Thermoplastic Insulated Riser Cable Inner-City PIC Screened Cable (Filled.11. AASP Bonded.1.com Title Document No.telcordia. Industry Standards| 11.

6 CANENA Council for the Harmonization of Electrical Standards of the Americas www. 180 | .org THC (Technical Harmonization Committee) #20 is responsible for wire and cable products.1.canena.|11.5 Telcordia (Continued) Title Document No. Industry Standards 11.1. TR-TSY-000105 TA-TSY-000120 TA-TSY-000121 TA-TSY-000122 TA-TSY-000125 TA-TSY-000127 TA-TSY-000128 TA-TSY-000129 TA-TSY-000140 TA-TSY-000141 TA-TSY-000142 Pulp Bonded Steam Resistance Cable Customer Premises or Network Ground Wire Generic Requirements for One-Pair Aerial Service Wire Generic Requirements for Multiple-Pair Aerial Service Wire Rural Aerial Distribution Wire Network Aerial Block Wire Bridle Wire Tree Wire Standard Shielded Polyethylene Insulated Twisted Pair Cable Terminating Cable Central Office Hook-up Wire 11.

global. Industry Standards| 11. Office Cable Cable for LAN Twisted Pair Data Communications–Detail Specification for Type 8.7 ECA Electronic Components. Title EIA-492A000 EIA-359-A Specification for Multimode Optical Wave Guide Fibers Standard Colors for Color Identification and Coding (Munsell Color) | 181 .org EIA documents are available from Global Engineering Documents. Non-Plenum Cable Cable for LAN Twisted Pair Data Communications–Detail Specification for Type 1. Outdoor Cable Cable for LAN Twisted Pair Data Communications–Detail Specification for Type 1.org Title Document No.ihs. Inc. Plenum Cable 11.com Document No.eia.ec-central. Plenum Cable Cable for LAN Twisted Pair Data Communications–Detail Specification for Type 6. Non-Plenum Cable Cable for LAN Twisted Pair Data Communications–Detail Specification for Type 2. ECA-199-A ECA-215 ECA-230 ECA-280-C ECA-297-A ECA-364 ECA-403-A ECA-IS-43 ECA-IS-43AA ECA-IS-43AB ECA-IS-43AC ECA-IS-43AD ECA-IS-43AE ECA-IS-43AF ECA-IS-43AG ECA-IS-43AH ECA-IS-43AJ Solid and Semisolid Dielectric Transmission Lines Broadcast Microphone Cables Color Marking of Thermoplastic Covered Wire Solderless Wrapped Electrical Connections Cable Connectors for Audio Facilities for Radio Broadcasting Electrical Connector Test Procedures Precision Coaxial Connectors for CATV 75 Ohms Omnibus Specification–Local Area Network Twisted Pair Data Communication Cable Cable for LAN Twisted Pair Data Communications–Detail Specification for Type 1.1. www. Undercarpet Cable Cable for LAN Twisted Pair Data Communications–Detail Specification for Type 9. Riser Cable Cable for LAN Twisted Pair Data Communications–Detail Specification for Type 1. Plenum Cable Cable for LAN Twisted Pair Data Communications–Detail Specification for Type 2.11.1.8 EIA Electronic Industries Alliance www. Assemblies and Materials Association www.

1.1. Bare and Weather Resistant Ampacities.global. C) Airport Lighting Certification Program Airport Construction Standards Control Cable.gov Title Document No. Industry Standards 11.com Document No.9 FAA Federal Aviation Administration www.869-1 AC 150/534-7 AC-150/5345-53 AC-150/5370-10 FAA-E-2042 FAA-E-2793 FAA-701 Fire and Smoke Protection Underground Electrical Cables for Airport Lighting Circuits (L-824-A. Including Effect of Shield Losses for Single-Conductor Solid-Dielectric Power Cable 15 kV Through 69 kV (NEMA WC 50) Ampacities of Cables in Open-Top Cable Trays (NEMA WC 51) Cable Tray Flame Test Varnished-Cloth-Insulated Wire and Cable for the Transmission and Distribution of Electrical Energy (NEMA WC 4) Weather-Resistant Polyethylene Covered Conductors Continued on next page >> 182 | .icea. Inc.|11. Exterior.net ICEA documents are available from Global Engineering Documents.000 Volts) FAR 14.faa.869 (a)(4) Fire Retardance of Wire and Cable 11. B. AC 25. 25. www. Title S-56-434 S-61-402 S-81-570 P-32-382 P-43-457 P-45-482 P-46-426 P-51-432 P-53-426 P-54-440 P-56-520 S-65-375 S-70-547 Polyolefin Insulated Communication Cables for Outdoor Use Thermoplastic-Insulated Wire and Cable for the Transmission and Distribution of Electrical Energy (NEMA WC 5) 600 V Direct Burial Cable Single Electrical Conductors and Assemblies with Ruggedized Extruded Insulation Short Circuit Characteristics of Insulated Cable Conductor Resistances and Ampacities at 400 and 800 Hz Short Circuit Performance of Metallic Shields and Sheaths on Insulated Cable Power Cable Ampacities (Replaced by IEEE 835) Copper Conductors. 5 to 25 kV Rubber-Insulated Cable (0–8.ihs.10 ICEA Insulated Cable Engineers Association www. Exterior Power Cable.

Sealed Conductor Low-Smoke. Control.000 BTU/Hour) Water Penetration Resistance Test. Instrumentation and Portable Cables (NEMA WC 53) Conducting Vertical Cable Tray Flame Tests (210.11.10 ICEA (Continued) Document No. Industry Standards| 11. Instrumentation and Portable Cables for Test (NEMA WC 54) Standard Test Methods for Extruded Dielectric Power. Halogen-Free (LSHF) Polymeric Cable Jackets | 183 .1. Control.000 BTU/Hour) Conducting Vertical Cable Tray Flame Tests (70. Title S-73-532 S-75-381 S-80-576 S-82-552 S-83-596 S-87-640 S-94-649 S-97-682 S-104-696 S-110-717 T-22-294 T-25-425 T-26-465 T-27-581 T-29-520 T-30-520 T-31-610 T-33-655 Standard for Control Cables (NEMA WC 57) Portable and Power Feeder Cables for Use in Mines and Similar Applications (NEMA WC 58) Category 1 and 2 Unshielded Twisted Pair Communications Cable for Wiring Premises Instrumentation Cables and Thermocouple Wire (NEMA WC 55) Optical Fiber Premises Distribution Cable Fiber Optic Outside Plant Communications Cable Concentric Neutral Cables Rated 5 through 46 kV Utility Shielded Power Cables Rated 5 through 46 kV Indoor-Outdoor Optical Fiber Cable Optical Fiber Drop Cable Test Procedures for Extended Time-Testing of Insulation for Service in Wet Locations Guide for Establishing Stability of Volume Resistivity for Conducting Polymeric Components of Power Cables Guide for Frequency of Sampling Extruded Dielectric Power.

11 IEC International Electrotechnical Commission webstore. Chapter 461. Industry Standards 11.1.ch Document No. assessment of global characteristics. Title 24764 60050-461 60055-2 60079 60092 60096 60141 60169 60173 60183 60189 60204 60227 60228 60229 60230 60245 60287 60304 60331 60332 60339 TR60344 60364-1 60446 60457 Information Technology–Generic Cabling for Data Center Premises (not yet published) International Electrotechnical Vocabulary. definitions Identification of conductors by colors or alphanumeric Rigid precision coaxial lines and their associated precision connectors Continued on next page >> 184 | . Paper-insulated metal-sheathed cables for rated voltages up to 18/30 kV (with copper or aluminum conductors and excluding gas pressure and oil-filled cables) Electrical apparatus for explosive atmospheres (hazardous locations) Electrical installations in ships Radio-frequency cables Tests on oil-filled and gas-pressure cables and their accessories Radio-frequency connectors Colors of the cores of flexible cables and cords Guide to selection of high-voltage cables Low-frequency cables and wires with PVC insulation and PVC sheath Safety of machinery–electrical equipment of machines (industrial) PVC insulated cables of rated voltages up to and including 450/750 V Conductors of insulated cables Tests on cable oversheaths which have a special protective function and are applied by extrusion Impulse tests on cables and their accessories Rubber insulated cables of rated voltages up to and including 450/750 V Calculations of the continuous current rating of cables (100% load factor) Standard colors for insulation for low-frequency cables and wires Tests for electric cables under fire conditions–circuit integrity Tests on electric and optical fiber cables under fire conditions General purpose rigid coaxial transmission lines and their associated flange connectors Calculation of DC resistance of plain and coated copper conductors of low-frequency cables and wires Low-voltage electrical installations–Part 1: Fundamental principles.|11.iec. Electric cables.

11.11 IEC (Continued) Document No.1. Industry Standards| 11. Title 60502 60541 TR60649 60695 60702 60708 60719 60724 60728 60754 60757 60800 60811 60834 60840 60851 60885 60949 60966 61034 61158 61883 61936-1 Extruded solid dielectric insulated power cables for rated voltages from 1 kV to 30 kV Comparative information on IEC and North American flexible cord types Calculation of maximum external diameter of cables for indoor installations Fire hazard testing Mineral insulated cables with a rated voltage not exceeding 750 V Low-frequency cables with polyolefin insulation and moisture barrier polyolefin sheath Calculation of the lower and upper limits for the average outer dimensions of cables with circular copper conductors and of rated voltages up to and including 450/750 V Short-circuit temperature limits of electric cables with rated voltages 1 kV and 3 kV Cable networks for sound and television signals Tests on gases evolved during combustion of electric cables Code for designation of colors Heating cables with a rated voltage of 300/500 V for comfort heating and prevention of ice formation Common tests methods for insulating and sheathing materials of electric and optical cables Performance and testing of teleprotection equipment of power systems Tests for power cables with extruded insulation for rated voltages above 30 kV up to 150 kV Winding wires–test methods Electrical test methods for electric cables (including partial discharge) Calculation of thermally permissible short-circuit currents Radio-frequency and coaxial cable assemblies Measurement of smoke density of cables burning under defined conditions (3 meter cube smoke apparatus) Fieldbus for use in industrial control systems Consumer audio/video equipment–Digital interface Power installations exceeding 1 kV AC Part 1: Common rules | 185 .

org Document No. Title 45 48 82 101 120 323 383 400 404 422 510 524 525 532 539 575 576 634 635 690 738 802 816 835 848 Recommended Practice for Electrical Installations on Shipboard Test Procedures and Requirements for AC Cable Terminations 2. and Testing of Insulated Power Cable as Used in Industrial and Commercial Applications Standard Cable Penetration Fire Stop Qualification Test Guide for Selection and Design of Aluminum Sheaths for Power Cables Standard for the Design and Installation of Cable Systems for Class 1E Circuits in Nuclear Power Generating Stations Standard for Calculating the Current-Temperature of Bare Overhead Conductors Local and Metropolitan Area Networks: Overview and Architecture Guide for Determining the Smoke Generation of Solid Materials Used for Insulations and Coverings of Electrical Wire and Cable (withdrawn) Power Cable Ampacity Tables Standard Procedure for the Determination of the Ampacity Derating of Fire-Protected Cables Continued on next page >> 186 | .1. Inc.|11. www.5 kV through 500 kV Guide for Design and Installation of Cable Systems in Power Generating Stations (withdrawn) Recommended Practices for Safety in High Voltage and High Power Testing Guide to the Installation of Overhead Transmission Line Conductors Guide for the Design and Installation of Cable Systems in Substations Guide for Selecting and Testing Jackets for Underground Cables Definitions of Terms Relating to Corona and Field Effects of Overhead Powerlines Guide for the Application of Sheath-Bonding Methods for Single Conductor Cables and the Calculation of Induced Voltages and Currents in Cable Sheaths Recommended Practice for Installation. Industry Standards 11.ieee.12 IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers.5 kV through 765 kV Test Procedure for Impulse Voltage Tests on Insulated Conductors Guide for the Statistical Analysis of Thermal Life Test Data Master Test Guide for Electrical Measurements in Power Circuits Qualifying Class 1E Equipment for Nuclear Power Generating Stations Qualifying Class 1E Electric Cables. Termination. Field Splices and Connections for Nuclear Power Generating Stations Guide for Field Testing and Evaluation of the Insulation of Shielded Power Cable Systems Standard for Extruded and Laminated Dielectric Shielded Cable Joints Rated 2.

Industry Standards| 11. Title 930 1017 1018 1019 1143 1185 1202 1394 1407 C2 C62.41 C62.1.12 IEEE (Continued) Document No.92 Statistical Analysis of Electrical Insulation Breakdown Data Field Testing Electric Submersible Pump Cable Specifying Electric Submersible Cable-Ethylene-Propylene Rubber Insulation Specifying Electric Submersible Pump Cable-Polypropylene Insulation Guide on Shielding Practice for Low Voltage Cables Guide for Installation Methods for Generating Station Cables Standard for Propagation Flame Testing of Wire and Cable Standard for a High Performance Serial Bus Guide for Accelerated Aging Test for MV Power Cables Using Water-Filled Tanks National Electrical Safety Code (NESC) Surge Voltages in Low-Voltage (1.000 V and less) AC Power Circuits Neutral Grounding in Electrical Utility Systems | 187 .11.

16 MSHA Mine Safety and Health Administration www.1. Title 4589 5657 TR9122 Oxygen Index Test Radiant Cone Flame Test Toxicity Testing of Fire Effluents 11. Systems and Automation Society www.407 Flame Tests 188 | . Industry Standards 11.org Document No.org Document No.iso.itu.isa.01 50.gov Document No.1.|11.3 Transmission Media Characteristics 11.13 ISA Instrumentation. Title 30 CFR 7.06.1.int Document No. Title Blue Book. Facicle III.1.02 Wiring Methods for Hazardous (Classified) Locations Instrumentation Part 1: Intrinsic Safety Fieldbus Standard for Use in Industrial Control Systems 11.14 ISO International Organization for Standardization www.msha. Title RP 12.15 ITU-T International Telecommunication Union/Telecommunications Sector www.

Including Effect of Shield Losses for Single-Conductor Solid-Dielectric Power Cable 15 kV through 69 kV (ICEA P-53-426) Ampacities of Cables Installed in Cable Trays High-Temperature and Electronic Insulated Wire Impulse Dielectric Testing Standard Test Methods for Extruded Dielectric Power.000 Volts) High Temperature Instrumentation and Control Cable High Temperature Instrumentation and Control Cables Insulated and Jacketed with FEP Fluorocarbons High Temperature Instrumentation and Control Cables Insulated and Jacketed with ETFE Fluoropolymers High Temperature Instrumentation and Control Cables Insulated and Jacketed with Cross-Linked (Thermoset) Polyolefin (XLPO) High Temperature Instrumentation and Control Cables Insulated and Jacketed with ECTFE Fluoropolymers Wire and Cable Packaging Ampacities.1 WC 63.2 HP 100.nema. Industry Standards| 11.000 Volts or Less Nonshielded Cables Rated 2. Instrumentation and Portable Cables for Test 3. Title HP 3 HP 4 HP 100 HP 100. Instrumentation and Portable Cables (ICEA T-27-581) Guide for Frequency of Sampling Extruded Dielectric Power.000 Volts) Electrical and Electronic FEP Insulated High Temperature Hook-up Wire: Types KT (250 Volts). K (600 Volts) and KK (1.1.2 WC 66 WC 67 WC 70 WC 71 WC 27500 Electrical and Electronic PTFE Insulated High Temperature Hook-up Wire.001–5.4 WC 26 WC 50 WC 51 WC 52 WC 53 WC 54 WC 56 WC 57 WC 58 WC 61 WC 62 WC 63.org Document No.17 NEMA National Electrical Manufacturers Association www.1 HP 100.11. Control. E (600 Volts) and EE (1.0 kHz Insulation Continuity Proof Testing of Hookup Wire Standard for Control Cables (ICEA S-73-532) Portable and Power Feeder Cables for Use in Mines and Similar Applications (ICEA S-75-381) Transfer Impedance Testing Repeated Spark/Impulse Dielectric Testing Twisted Pair Premise Voice and Data Communications Cables Coaxial Premise Data Communication Cable Category 6 and Category 7 100 Ohm Shielded and Unshielded Twisted Pair Cables Uninsulated Conductors Nonshielded Power Cables Rated 2.3 HP 100. Control. Types ET (250 Volts).000 Volts Aerospace and Industrial Electrical Cable | 189 .

nfpa.gov/rus/telecom Document No.org Document No.usda.19 RUS Rural Utilities Service (formerly REA) www.1. Industry Standards 11. Title 1753F-150 1753F-151 1753F-152 1753F-204 1753F-205 1753F-206 1753F-208 1753F-601 Construction of Direct Buried Plant Construction of Underground Plant Construction of Aerial Plant Aerial Service Wires (PE-7) Filled Telephone Cable (PE-39) Filled Buried Wires (PE-86) Filled Telephone Cable with Expanded Insulation (PE-89) Filled Fiber Optic Cables (PE-90) 190 | . Title 70 75 79 99 258 262 NEC® (National Electrical Code) Protection of Electronic Computer/Data Processing Equipment Electrical Standard for Industrial Machinery Health Care Facilities Handbook Recommended Practice for Determining Smoke Generation of Solid Materials Test for Flame Travel and Smoke of Wires and Cables for Use in Air-Handling Spaces 11.18 NFPA National Fire Protection Association www.1.|11.

1.11. and Motor Coach Wiring High Voltage Primary Cable Low Voltage Ultra Thin Wall Primary Cable Serial Control and Communications for Vehicle Network Seven-Conductor Cable for ABS Power Fluoropolymer Insulated Electrical Wire PVC Insulated. Electric.sae. Cross-linked Alkane-Imide Polymer.20 SAE International (formerly Society of Automotive Engineers) www. Truck-Tractor. Cross-linked Polyalkene. Industry Standards| 11. Title J156 J378 J1127 J1128 J1292 J1654 J1678 J1939 J2394 AS22759 AS50861 AS50881 AS81044 Fusible Links Marine Engine Wiring Low Voltage Battery Cable Low Voltage Primary Cable Automobile Truck. Trailer. Copper or Copper Alloy | 191 . Copper or Copper Alloy Wire Wiring Aerospace Vehicle Wire.org Document No. or Polyarylene Insulated.

Industry Standards 11.1.21 TIA Telecommunication Industries Association www. Title TIA-225 TIA-232-F TIA-259 TIA-422-B TIA/EIA-423-B TIA-440-B TIA-485-A TIA/EIA-455-B TIA-492AAAA-A TIA/EIA-568-B.|11.1 TIA-569-B TIA-570-B TIA/EIA-606-A TIA-942 TIA-472C000 TIA-472D000 TIA-475C000 TIA-515B000 Rigid Coaxial Transmission Lines 50 Ohms Interface Between Data Terminal Equipment and Data Communication Equipment Employing Serial Binary Data Interchange Rigid Coaxial Transmission Lines and Connectors.5 µm Core Diameter/125 µm Cladding Diameter Class 1a Multimode. Cables.org Document No. 75 Ohms Electrical Characteristics of Balanced Voltage Digital Interface Circuits Electrical Characteristics of Unbalanced Voltage Digital Interface Circuits Fiber Optic Terminology Generators and Receivers for Balanced Digital Multipoint Systems Standard Test Procedures for Fiber Optic Fibers. Connecting and Termination Detail Specification for 62. Transducers.tiaonline. Graded-Index Optical Waveguide Fibers Commercial Building Telecommunications Cabling Standard Commercial Building Standard for Telecommunications Pathways and Spaces Residential Telecommunications Infrastructure Standard Administration Standard for the Telecommunications Infrastructure Telecommunications Infrastructure Standard for Data Centers Sectional Specification for Fiber Optic Premises Distribution Cables Sectional Specification for Fiber Optic Cables for Outside Plant Use Specification for Fiber Optic Type FSMA Connectors Specification for Optical Fiber Cable Splice Closures 192 | .

THW-2. TA.11. TBS. UF-B) Protectors for Communication Circuits Nonmetallic-Sheath Cables (Types NM-B. www. TFN. THHW. TFFN. SE-U. SOW-A. CMR. THWN. CL3. USE-2) Machine Tool Wires and Cables (Type MTW) Medium Voltage Power Cable (Type MV) Welding Cables Power and Control Tray Cables (Type TC) Marine Shipboard Cable Cables for Power-Limited Fire-Alarm Circuits Cables for Non-Power-Limited Fire-Alarm Circuits Continued on next page >> | 193 . Inc.) Fixture Wire Thermoplastic-Insulated Wires and Cables (Types TW. THWN-2. XHHW-2. SE-R. FEP. FEPB) Manufactured Wiring Systems Communication Cables (Types CMX. SPT-1. CL3X.com Document No. Title 4 13 44 62 66 83 183 444 486A-486B 486C 486D 486E 493 497 719 723 758 814 817 854 1063 1072 1276 1277 1309 1424 1425 Armored Cable (Type AC) Power-Limited Circuit Cable (Types CL3P. SIS) Flexible Cord & Fixture Wire (Types SO. CMP) Wire Connectors Splicing Wire Connectors Sealed Wire Connector Systems Equipment Wiring Terminals for Use with Aluminum and/or Copper Conductors Thermoplastic Insulated Underground Feeder & Branch Circuit Cables (Types UF. CL2P. TFE. SA.1. THW. CL2R. SJO. RH. SJ. CL3R. RHW. RHH. SE. CM.22 UL Underwriters Laboratories. NMC-B) Tests for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials Appliance Wiring Material (Type AWM) Gas-Tube-Sign Cable Cord Sets and Power-Supply Cords Service Entrance Cables (Types USE. etc. Industry Standards| 11. SOW.ul. THHN. PLTC) Thermoset-Insulated Wires & Cables (Types XHHW. RHW-2.

and Flexible Cords Electrical Equipment for Use in Class I and II. Division 2. Title 1426 1459 1565 1581 1604 1650 1651 1666 1680 1685 1690 1740 1863 2196 2225 2250 2556 2261 2273 2276 2424 60079 Electric Cables for Boats Telephone Equipment Positioning Devices Reference Standard for Electrical Wires. W. PPE) Optical Fiber Cable Standard Test for Flame Propagation Height of Electrical and Optical Fiber Cables Installed Vertically in Shafts Stage Lighting Cables Vertical-Tray Fire-Propagation and Smoke-Release Test for Electrical and Optical-Fiber Cables Data-Processing Cable (Type DP) Industrial Robots Communication Circuit Accessories Fire Resistive Cables (“CI” Rated) Cables for Use in Hazardous Locations (Type MC-HL) Instrumentation Tray Cable (Type ITC) Wire and Cable Test Methods (Trinational) Cables for Network-Powered Broadband Systems Festoon Cable Recreational Vehicle Cable Limited-Combustible Cable Electrical Apparatus for Explosive Gas Atmospheres 194 | . Cables.22 UL (Continued) Document No. G-GC. and Class III Hazardous (Classified) Locations Portable Power Cable (Types G.1. Industry Standards 11.|11.

Foam Dielectric General Specification for Cable. Electrical. Electrical (Flexible.daps. 600 V. Electrical.23 U. Coaxial. Unshielded). Special Purpose. Hermaphroditic Cable Comparison Handbook Data Pertaining to Electric Shipboard Cable Splices. Radio Frequency. Electrical. Corrugated Outer Conductor Cable. Fiber Optic. Environmental Resistant. Government Specifications http://assist. Electrical.S. Chromel and Alumel Thermocouple Cable and Wire. Electrical. Fire Resistant and Flight Critical Special Purpose. Polyethylene XLP General Specifications for Cables. Internal Hookup Wire-Electric. Flexible and Semirigid General Specification for Cable and Cord. Power. Insulated. Multiconductor and Single Shielded Power Cable General Specification for Cable. Electric. 200°C General Specifications for Cable. Radio Frequency.mil/quicksearch Document No. Coaxial. High Temperature. Radio Frequency. Power. Insulated Wire. Low Smoke. Round Conductor General Specification for Cables Twisted Pairs and Triples.1. Fiber Optic. Semirigid. Electrical. Flat. Semirigid. Crimp Style. Electrical.dla. Circular. Uninsulated Weather-Resistant Power & Cable Flexible Cord and Fixture Wire (Replaced by UL 62) General Specifications for Cables. Polymide-Insulated Copper or Copper Alloy General Specification for Connectors. Single Terminus General Specifications for Connectors.11. Electrical General Specifications for Wire. Portable | 195 . Electric. Cross-Linked. for Shipboard Use Wire. Title AA-59544 A-A-59551 J-C-145C J-C-580B MIL-DTL-17H MIL-DTL-915G MIL-DTL-3432H MIL-DTL-8777D MIL-DTL-13777H MIL-DTL-16878G MIL-DTL-23806B MIL-DTL-24640G MIL-DTL-24643B MIL-DTL-25038H MIL-DTL-27072F MIL-DTL-28830D MIL-DTL-38359C MIL-DTL-49055D MIL-DTL-55021C MIL-DTL-81381C MIL-C-83522D MIL-DTL-83526C MIL-HDBK-299 MIL-S-81824 MIL-W-76D MIL-W-5846C QPL-AS5756-I Wire & Cable Electrical Power Electrical Copper Wire. Electrical. Lightweight for Shipboard Use General Specification for Cable and Cord. Copper. Silicone-Insulated. Electrical. Insulated General Specification for Cable. for Shipboard Use Cable (Power & Special Purpose) and Wire. Copper. Power. Environment Resistant Wire and Cable. Hookup. Electrical (300–600 Volts) Wire. Electrical. Industry Standards| 11. Airport Lighting.

2. Industry Standards 11.1–Fire Safety Test Methods Some common fire safety test methods used in the wire and cable industry are listed below: Fire Hazard North America Worldwide Ignitability Propagation Smoke Toxicity Corrosivity Halogen Content ASTM D2863 UL 1685 and IEEE 1202 UL 1685 and ASTM E662 University of Pittsburgh IEC 60754 MIL-DTL-24643 IEC 60332 IEC 60332 IEC 61034-2 ISO TR 9122 IEC 60754-2 IEC 60754-1 196 | .|11.2 FIRE SAFETY TESTS 11.1 Fire Safety Test Methods Table 11.

Industry Standards| 11.11.2 NEC Fire Test Summary Table 11. UL 1685 UL 1581 Vertical Wire.2–NEC Fire Test Summary General Use (UL 1581 Vertical Tray) Limited Use (UL 1581 Vertical Wire) National Electrical Code Article Plenum (NPFA 262) Riser (UL 1666) 645 Under Raised Floor of IT Room 725. CSA FT1 300. MC. Class 2 Power-Limited 725. CSA FT6 UL 1666. VW-1. IEEE 1202.000 Btu/hr 527. Steiner Tunnel.000 Btu/hr | 197 .2. CSA FT4. Class 3 Power-Limited 725 Power-Limited Tray Cable 727 Instrumentation Tray Cable 760 Fire Protective Power-Limited 760 Fire Protective Non-Power-Limited 770 Optical Fiber Nonconductive 770 Optical Fiber Conductive 800 Communication 800 Undercarpet Communication 820 Cable TV Cable Application All types shown below CL2P CL3P No listing No listing FPLP NPLFP OFNP OFCP CMP No listing CATVP All types shown below CL2R CL3R No listing No listing FPLR NPLFR OFNR OFCR CMR No listing CATVR Common Names DP.000 Btu/hr 3. AC CL2 CL3 PLTC ITC FPL NPLF OFN or OFNG OFC or OFCG CM or CMG No listing CATV Flame Energy – CL2X CL3X No listing No listing No listing No listing No listing No listing CMX CMUC CATVX Plenum Space Riser Shaft General Use Limited Use NFPA 262.000 Btu/hr 70. Riser Test UL 1581 Vertical Tray.

65 m /s 2 2f 3 21 20 No 457 mm 75 mm in back Horiz.4 0. =Depends on amount of cable loading Source: NIST Technical Note 1291 198 | .3 2.17 m /s 2 1.3–Comparison of Vertical Cable Tray Tests IEEE 383 UL 1581 ICEA T-29-520 CSA FT4 IEEE 1202 UL 1685 /ULa UL 1685 /IEEEb IEC 60332-3 Burner power (kW) Time of flame (min) Alternate source Burner placement c 21 20 Yes. c=Height above bottom of tray and distance from specimen d e f surface.4 0. 2.40 150 3 20 20. b=Version with CSA FT-4/IEEE 1202 flame exposure.3 0. =Two each on two different sizes g h i of specimens.4 0.25 95 3 1 3.3 Full Front only if D 13 mm Yes 0. =Not yet specified.4 0.5 0.15 Front only No 21 20 No 457 mm 75 mm in front 20° up 2. char length (m.4 0.3 2. =Not applicable in the UL 1581 version. from bottom) Peak smoke release 2 -1 rate (m s ) Total smoke 2 released (m ) a No No N/A 3 2.25 Front only if D 13 mm Yes 0.15 Front only No e 62 20 No 300 mm 200 mm in back Horiz.0 0. 40 No 600 mm 75 mm in front Horiz.4 N/A N/A Yes 5 m /s 1 2.3 2.786 N/A N/A 3 20 20 No 300 mm 75 mm in front 20° up 2.786 N/A N/A =Version with UL 1581 flame exposure.5 3. with no spaces Yes h g Angle of burner Tray length (m) Tray width (m) Sample length (m) Width of tray used for cables (m) Thin-size cables to be bundled Test enclosure specified Required air flow rate Test runs needed Max. =This dimension is 457 mm in the UL 1581 version.1 N/A N/A 1.4 N/A N/A No N/A 2 2.5 0. oily ragd 600 mm 75 mm in back Horiz.3 2. =Time is 20 minutes for Category C.4 0.3 2. 3.3 2.4 0. 2. 2. respectively.786 0.4 Full Front only if D 13 mm Yes 5m /s 1 1.30 front or front back Mounted flush.|11. 40 minutes for Categories A and B.3 Comparison of Vertical Cable Tray Tests Table 11. Industry Standards 11.15 20 20 No 300 mm 75 mm in front 20° up 3.4 0.4 0.2.

with intake and exhaust ducts and a means of regulating flow velocity of air through the tunnel.000 Btus. and an optical device in the exhaust of the chamber measures smoke density. A 25-foot long Steiner Tunnel is used for the test. Industry Standards| 11.11. Two circular burners are mounted vertically at the intake end of the tunnel just in front of the cable tray.62 m) Cables Burners Figure 11.15 maximum average. A cable is listed for plenum use if flame spread is less than 5 feet from the end of the ignition flame. along with a 240 ft.000 Btu/hr and the energy consumed for the test is 100. The Canadian version of this test is known as the CSA FT6 fire test.5 maximum peak. and 0.1–NFPA Steiner Tunnel Flame Test | 199 ./min forced draft through the tunnel for twenty minutes. The cable samples are mounted in a cable tray in one layer in the tunnel and the tunnel is sealed. The output of the burner is 300.4 NFPA 262 Steiner Tunnel Test for Plenum Rated Cable The NFPA 262 “Steiner Tunnel” Flame Test (formerly UL 910) measures flame spread and smoke generation in a simulated air handling plenum.2. Flame spread and smoke density are monitored throughout the test. Windows at 1-foot intervals allow for flame spread measurements. Photocell Air Flow 25´ (7. and optical density is less than 0. Methane is burned. and the flame is extinguished.

750 Btus.44 m) Figure 11. extinguishing the burner flame. as described in Underwriters Laboratories Standard 1666.2. A cable may continue to burn after the burner is shut off. 200 | .2. The energy output of the burner is 70. gas pipe with 90 degree elbow mounted below a 1-foot square drilled steel plate. Industry Standards 11. The energy output of the burner is 527.13 m) Cable Tray Air Flow Block Wall 12´ (3. The burner is mounted on the edge of the riser hole on the floor of the second level. This test simulates a fire in a nonflame stopped riser within a high-rise building.22 m) 8´(2.6 UL 1581 Vertical Tray Flame Test The Vertical Tray Flame Test is used as a good approximation of flame spread in cables run in groups.66 m ) Burner 4 ´ (1. however. and 1-foot 2-foot rectangular holes in both the second and third level floors allow cable to be installed in racks extending between the first and third levels. A 6 to 1 mixture of air to propane is burned using a 10-inch wide ribbon burner. A cable passes the vertical tray test if it does not propagate flame to the top of the tray (6 ft. 2 feet from the floor and midway between two rungs. or a consumed test energy of 263.000 Btu/hr and the cable is subjected to 23. the test is not complete until the cable stops burning.333 Btus for the test. A cable may be listed as riser cable if the flame does not propagate up to the floor of the third level.500 Btu/hr.). The burner is placed horizontally 3 inches from the back of the tray. See IEEE 1202 or CSA FT4 for a similar but slightly harsher test method. This test method is also contained in IEEE 383 and in UL 1685. A burner is made up of a 1 ⁄4 in.5 UL 1666 Riser Flame Test The Riser Flame Test. Steel fire doors provide access to the second and third levels for installing cables. The chamber for the test is a three story block construction design.2–UL 1666 Riser Flame Test 11. A steel ladder type tray 12 inches wide 3 inches deep and 8 feet long with 1-inch 1/2-inch rungs spaced 9 inches apart is mounted vertically on the floor of the test chamber.|11. was developed to test cable flammability in riser applications. The center 6 inches of the tray is filled with cable samples in one layer spaced 1/2 cable diameter apart. The flame is applied for twenty minutes and then removed. 7´(2. A mixture of air and propane is burned for thirty minutes and then shut off.

7 ICEA T-29-520 A variation on the UL 1581 (UL 1685) Vertical Tray Test is the 210. the setup is essentially the same as with the 70. 11.8 CSA FT4 A flame test very similar to the IEEE 1202 test is CSA’s FT4 test. 11.3–UL 1581 Vertical Tray Flame Test 11.2. An optional smoke emission test method is also described. This test is more stringent than the IEEE 383 test. This test method is also one of two methods contained in UL 1685.2.000 Btu test except the gas flow is increased to generate 210. Industry Standards| 1 (0.9 IEEE 1202 The IEEE 1202 flame test is virtually identical in test severity to the Canadian FT4 test. IEEE 1202 or CSA FT4 are often used instead.000 Btu/hr of flame energy and the burner-to-cable spacing is increased to 200 millimeters.2. 11.30 m) ´ 96˝ (2.2.3 for more details.2. In the 210.11.000 Btu test. | 201 .000 Btu flame test specified in ICEA Standard T-29-520. A cable passing this smoke test can be given an “LS” (Limited Smoke) rating.000 Btu/hr instead of 70.44 m) 18˝ (0.10 UL 1685 UL Standard 1685 contains both the UL 1581 (IEEE 383) and FT4 (IEEE 1202) fire test methods.46 m) Figure 11. See Section 11. This test method appears to be losing favor in the industry. This test method is also one of two contained in UL 1685.

|11. The test measures relative flame propagation of a single wire or cable. and the cotton batting is not ignited by dripping particles. but a general overview of the test is as follows.11 UL 1581 VW-1 (Vertical-Specimen) Flame Test The VW-1 Flame Test was the first flame test developed for studying flame spread on wire and cable. and cotton batting covers the floor of the chamber to a height 9 inches below the point. Clamps hold a single specimen vertically in the center of the box. the cable doesn’t burn longer than 60 seconds after any flame application. 14-inch deep and 24-inch high steel box open at the front and top. The energy output of the burner is less than 3. The flame is applied to the sample for 15 seconds five times (total 75 seconds) with a minimum 15 seconds between flame applications or until burning ceases.4–UL 1581 VW-1 Flame Test 202 | . whichever is longer.000 Btu/hr and the test energy is less than 65 Btus. Ten inches above this point a kraft paper “flag” is placed on the sample facing away from the burner. The VW-1 test is very similar to CSA’s FT1 flame test. The fixture used is a bench-mountable 12-inch wide. The burner is placed so the inner cone meets the test sample surface.2.to 5-inches high with a 1/2-inch inner blue cone. Indicator Flag 10˝ (0. The test procedure is detailed in Underwriters Laboratories Standard 1581. A sample “Passes VW-1” if less than 25 percent of the flag is burned away. A Tirrill burner (similar to a Bunsen burner) is mounted on a 20 degree angle block and has a flame 4. Industry Standards 11.25 m) Cotton Figure 11.

FEPB. STOOW THW. RHW. TPT. THWN-2. G.1 Underwriters Laboratories Table 11. USE-2 MTW MV WELDING CABLE TC Boat Cable MC – W. CL3. THW-2.3 REGULATORY AND APPROVAL AGENCIES 11. CL2. SA. CL3R. S. CM. CL2R. SO.3.5–Typical UL Marks | 203 . SE. CMR. THNN. TFFN. G-GC. CL2P. RHW-2. CMX UF NM. TFE. PPE 444 Communication Cables 493 Thermoplastic Insulated Underground Feeder & Branch Circuit Cables 719 Nonmetallic-Sheath Cables 758 Appliance Wiring Material 814 Gas-Tube-Sign Cable 854 Service-Entrance Cables 1063 Machine-Tool Wires & Cables 1072 Medium Voltage Power Cable 1276 Welding Cable 1277 Electrical Power & Control Tray Cables with Optional Optical-Fiber Members 1426 Electrical Cables for Boats 1569 Metal Clad Cables 1581 Reference Standard for Electrical Wires. RH. XHHW-2 TFN. PLTC XHHW. THHN.11. STO. STOO. TST. FEP. RHH. SOO. NMC AWM and all UL “Styles” GTO-5. GT0-10. TS. SEO. and Flexible Cords 1650 Portable Power Cables Typical examples of UL’s mark appear below: ® Figure 11. Industry Standards| 11. SIS. Z. ZW CMP.4–Summary of Wire and Cable Types Covered by UL Standards UL Standard UL Listing(s) Covered in the Standard 4 13 44 62 83 Armored Cable Power-Limited Circuit Cable Rubber Insulated Wires & Cables Flexible Cord & Fixture Wire Thermoplastic Insulated Wires AC CL3P. SE. STOW. ST. Cables. GTO-15 USE.

National Electrical Code Articles related to the wire and cable industry include: Article 100 Article 110 Article 200 Article 210 Article 215 Article 220 Article 225 Article 230 Article 250 Article 300 Article 310 Article 310. It is revised on a regular three year schedule. The National Electrical Code is divided into approximately 120 articles. NMC and NMS Power and Control Tray Cable: Type TC Service-Entrance Cable: Types SE and USE Underground Feeder and Branch-Circuit Cable: Type UF Rigid Metal Conduit: Type RMC Liquid-Tight. electrical..2 National Electrical Code (NEC) History and Articles The first NEC document was written in 1897 at the insistence of various insurance.3.” i. the local inspector.e. Flexible Nonmetallic Conduit Type: LFMC Electrical Metallic Tubing: Type EMT Electrical Nonmetallic Tubing: Type ENT Cable Trays Messenger Supported Wiring Flexible Cords and Cables Continued on next page >> 204 | . Up to and including 2008. there have been a total of 51 editions. It does not attempt to ensure the reliability. Flexible Metal Conduit: Type LFMC Liquid-Tight. The Code is published by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) as a “recommended standard” and does not become law until it is officially adopted by state or local governments.15 Article 310. architectural and other interested parties. Industry Standards 11. performance. Feeder and Service Calculations Outside Branch Circuits and Feeders Services Grounding and Bonding Wiring Methods Conductors for General Wiring Ampacities for Conductors Rated 0–2000 Volts Ampacities of Conductors Rated 2001 to 35.000 Volts Armored Cable: Type AC Flat Conductor Cable: Type FCC Medium Voltage Cable: Type MV Metal-Clad Cable: Type MC Mineral-Insulated. Metal-Sheathed Cable: Type MI Nonmetallic Sheathed Cable Types NM. proper operation or long life of equipment – these considerations are beyond its scope. Enforcement and interpretation of the Code is ultimately the responsibility of “the authority having jurisdiction. The intent of the Code is to ensure the electrical and fire safety of electrical equipment.60 (B) Article 320 Article 324 Article 328 Article 330 Article 332 Article 334 Article 336 Article 338 Article 340 Article 344 Article 350 Article 356 Article 358 Article 362 Article 392 Article 396 Article 400 Definitions Requirements for Electrical Installations Use and Identification of Grounded Conductors Branch Circuits Feeders Branch-Circuit.|11.

See Article 725 of the NEC for complete requirements. Classes I. Industry Standards| (Continued) Article 402 Article 409 Article 500 Article 501 Article 502 Article 503 Article 504 Article 505 Article 590 Article 604 Article 610 Article 645 Article 725 Article 727 Article 760 Article 770 Article 800 Article 820 Article 830 Chapter 9 Fixture Wires Industrial Control Panels Hazardous (Classified) Locations.5– NEC Article 725 – Summary of Remote Control. 1. Remote-Control. Zone 0.11. Divisions 1 and 2 Class I Locations Class II Locations Class III Locations Intrinsically Safe Systems Class I. Class 2. Class 3. conductor properties. and 2 Locations Temporary Installations Manufactured Wiring Systems Cranes and Hoists Information Technology Equipment Class 1.) Table 11. etc. Class 2 cables must be rated at least 150 volts and Class 3 cables must be rated at least 300 volts.005 Amps 10 Amps Note: The above is a highly simplified overview only. Signaling and Power-Limited Circuit Types Circuit Type Circuit Voltage Maximum Current Class 1 Remote Control and Signaling (Not Power-Limited) Class 1 Power-Limited Class 2 Power-Limited (Fire and Shock Safe) Class 3 Power-Limited (Fire Safe Only) 0 through 600 0 through 30 0 through 30 30 through 150 30 through 150 Unlimited 33 Amps 8 Amps 0. II. and III. but may not be so marked. Signaling and Power-Limited Circuits Instrumentation Tray Cable: Type ITC Fire Alarm Systems Optical Fiber Cables and Raceways Communication Circuits Community Antenna Television (CATV) and Radio Distribution Systems Network-Powered Broadband Communication Systems Tables (Conduit fill. | 205 .

3.|11.6–Symbols of International Organizations Agency Country(ies) Represented Symbol CSA (Canadian Standards Association) Canada CEBEC (Comite Electrotechnique Belge Service de la Marque) Belgium CEBEC DEMKO (Danmarks Electriske Materailkontrol) Denmark SETI (Electrical Inspectorate Sakiniementie) Finland CENELEC (European Committee for Electrotechnical Standards) See Note 1.3 International Table 11. KEUR (NV tot Keuring van Elektrotechnische Materialen) Netherlands NEMKO (Norges Electriske Materallknotroll) Norway Continued on next page >> 206 | . Industry Standards 11. IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) More than 60 around the world ISO (International Standards Organization) More than 60 around the world IMQ (Istituto Italiano del Marchio di Qualità) Italy KEMA.

Industry Standards| Table 11.6–Symbols of International Organizations (Continued) Agency Country(ies) Represented Symbol ÖVE (Österreichischer Verband für Elektrotechnik) Austria SEMKO (Svenska Electriska Materielkontrollanstalten) Sweden SEV (Schweizerischen Electrotechnischen Verein) Switzerland UL (Underwriters Laboratories) USA ® UTE (Union Technique de L’Électricité) France VDE (Verband Deutscher Elektrotechnischer) Germany Note 1: Austria Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom | 207 .11.

6 Supply Voltages and Plug Configurations 211 213 215 215 219 219 12. CONTINENTAL EUROPE 12. Continental Europe| 12.2 AFNOR 12.4.1.9.5 French Standards 12.9 Dutch Standards 12.12.1 European Union (EU) Standards 12.1 DEMKO 12.4 Danish Standards 12.1 UTE 12.3 Belgian Standards 12.2.3 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations 224 224 224 12.2 Austrian Standards 12.1 ÖVE 12.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configuration 220 220 12.2 CENELEC Cable Identification 12.1.1.9.2 IBN/NBT 12.2.3.3 Supply Voltages and Plug Configurations 221 221 222 12.1.3.1.1 CEBEC 12.5.5.1 KEMA 12.4 Supply Voltages and Plug Configurations 225 225 225 225 | 209 .1.3 CIGRE 12.4.3 CENELEC Color Codes 12.4 CENELEC Copper Conductors 12.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configuration 223 223 12.5.5.2 NEC 12.1 CENELEC 12.3.5 CEN 12.9.

1 SEMKO 12.11.3 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations 233 233 233 12.10 Norwegian Standards 12.13.11 Portuguese Standards 12.14.2 NPT 12.12 Spanish Standards 12.14.13 Swedish Standards 12.13.12.6.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations 234 234 12.14 Swiss Standards 12.|12.1 NSAI 12.1 AENOR 12.6.7.4 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations 232 232 232 232 12.10.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations 231 231 12.7 Irish Standards 12.10.2 ITS 12.6.7.8. Continental Europe 12.8.8.1 IMQ 12.2 CEI 12.2 ESTI 12.11.1 DIN 12.6 German Standards 12.4 Supply Voltages and Plug Configurations 227 229 230 230 12.14.12.1 SNV 12.3 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations 237 237 237 210 | .3 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations 236 236 236 12.8.8 Italian Standards 12.1 NEMKO 12.6.2 VDE 12.13.3 DKE 12.10.2 Supply Voltages and Plug Configurations 235 235 12.3 CESI 12.1 IPQ 12.

there are country identification threads that are colored black.2 inches) long. As a result. | 211 . Additional information is available at www. and yellow 1 cm (0.eepca. Siemens HAR . CENELEC adopts existing IEC standards whenever possible.org. indicates Germany. Title EN 50143 EN 50173 EN 50214 EN 50395 EN 50396 EN 60079-11 EN 60079-14 EN 60228 EN 61138 HD 21 HD 22 HD 308 HD 359 HD 505 HD 586 HD 603 HD 604 Cables for Signs and Luminous–Discharge–Tube Installations Rated 1 through 10 kV Information Technology–Generic Cabling Systems Flat PVC Sheathed Flexible Cables Electrical Test Methods for Low Voltage Cables Non-electrical Test methods for Low Voltage Cables Intrinsically Safe Electrical Apparatus for Explosive Atmospheres Electrical Apparatus for Explosive Gas Atmospheres Conductors of Insulated Cables Cables for Portable Earthing and Short-Circuitting Equipment PVC Insulated Cables of Rated Voltages up to and Including 450/750 V Rubber Insulated Cables of Rated Voltages Up To and Including 450/750 V Identification and Use of Cores of Flexible Cables Flat PVC Sheathed Cables for Lifts and Similar Applications Test Methods for Insulating and Sheathing Materials of Electric Cables Mineral Insulated Cables with Rated Voltage Not Exceeding 750 V Distribution Cables of Rated Voltage 0. red and yellow. For example. it may be used interchangeably in the member countries.6/1 kV Power Cables with Special Fire Performance for Use in Power Stations CENELEC has adopted common standards for the European community.1 EUROPEAN UNION (EU) STANDARDS 12. The countries in Table 12. black 3 cm (1.1 are CENELEC members that recognize the HAR mark. to at least one conductor or the outer jacket. The member countries adopt these standards without any fundamental changes.org Document No.6/1 kV 0.cenelec.1.1 CENELEC European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization www. red 1 cm (0.4 inches) long. Continental Europe| 12. The HAR identification mark is applied along with the marks of origin and testing authority.4 inches) long. HD 21 and HD 22 CENELEC documents are based on relevant IEC specifications. For example. When wire and cable is manufactured in a CENELEC country and is marked with the HAR approval on the jacket. Each country’s testing authority can do its own testing for a manufacturer to obtain HAR (Harmonized) approval. The different products are marked: SIEMENS VDE lengths of the colors indicate the nationality of the testing authority.12. In addition.

394 1 2.181 0.V.394 1.181 0.181 3 1.181 3 Norway NEMKO HAR 0.394 1.394 1 2. tot Keuring van Elektrotechnische Materialen (KEMA) Norges Elektriske Materiellkontroll (NEMKO) Asociación Electrotécnica y Electrónica Española (AEE) Svenska Elektriska Materielkontrollanstalter (SEMKO) British Approvals Service for Cables ÖVE CEBEC DEMKO UTE VDE IIRS HAR HAR HAR HAR HAR HAR 1.181 1. Red cm in.181 1 3 1 3 1 3 1.756 7 Spain UNE HAR 1.394 1.969 0.394 1 1.|12.963 5 United Kingdom BASEC HAR 0.394 1 1.181 0.394 1 0.181 1.969 5 1 3 1 1 5 Italy IMQ HAR 0.394 1.394 1 1. cm in.394 1.181 3 1 3 3 3 3 0.181 0.969 5 Netherlands KEMA HAR 0.394 1 0.1–CENELEC Harmonized Approvals in the European Union Member Country Licensing Body/ Certification Agency Imprint or Embossing on Jacket or Insulation Black in. Continental Europe Table 12.181 1.181 3 0.394 1 1.394 0.394 1.181 3 212 | .394 1 0.181 3 1.756 7 Sweden SEMKO HAR 0. Yellow cm Austria Belgium Denmark France Germany Ireland Österreichischer Verband für Elektrotechnik (ÖVE) Comité Electrotechnique Belge (CEBEC) Danmarks Elektriske Materielkontroll Union Technique de l’Electricité (UTE) Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker (VDE) National Standards Authority of Ireland (NSAI) Istituto Italiano del Marchio de Qualita (IMQ) N.

1–CENELEC Cable Identification Code | 213 .nondivisible Conductor form U Rigid.12. solid (Class 1) R Rigid. Continental Europe| 12. round conductor.1.2 CENELEC Cable Identification Type of Cable H Harmonized standards A Recognized national standards N Non-authorised national standards Rated Voltage U0/U 01 100 V 03 300/300 V 05 300/500 V 07 450/750 V Insulating and sheathing material B EPR (ethylene propylene rubber) E4 PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) E6 ETFE (ethylene tetrafluoroethylene) E7 PP (polypropylene) Q4 PA (polyamide) Special constructions H Flat construction .divisible H2 Flat construction . stranded (Class 2) K Flexible conductor for fixed installations (Class 5) F Flexible conductor of a flexible cable (Class 5) H Highly flexible conductor of a flexible cable (Class 6) Y Tinsel conductor Number of conductors Green/yellow conductor for earthing X Without earthing conductor G With earthing conductor Nominal cross section of the conductors Figure 12. round conductor.

300/500 V. 5 Core PVC Appliance Wire. 300/500 V. 300 V.2–Example of a CENELEC Cable Identification Code Below are CENELEC identification codes for some common cable types: Cenelec Harmonized ID Code H03VH-H H03VV-F2 H03VV-F3 H03VVH2-F2 H05RR-F2 H05RR-F3 H05RR-F4 H05RR-F5 H05V-U H05VV-F2 H05VV-F3 H05VV-F4 H05VV-F5 H07V-K H07V-R H07V-U H05VVH2-F PVC Flexible Figure “8” Cable PVC/PVC Flexible Mains Cable. Continental Europe Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Harmonized type Rated voltage 450/750 V Rubber insulated Neoprene jacketed Fine-stranded. 300/500 V. 300/500 V. 2 Core PVC/PVC Flexible Mains Cable. Solid Copper Flat Flexible Elevator Cable 214 | . 300 V. 3 Core PVC/PVC Flexible Mains Cable. Single Conductor PVC Single Conductor Building Wire.5 mm 2 Figure 12. 450/750 V. flexible 3 conductors With protective ground conductor Conductor size 2. 2 Core PVC/PVC Flexible Mains Cable. 5 Core PVC Single Conductor Building Wire. 300/500 V. 4 Core Rubber/Rubber Flexible Mains Cable. 300/500 V. 300/500 V. 2 Core Oval Rubber/Rubber Flexible Mains Cable. 450/750 V. 2 Core Rubber/Rubber Flexible Mains Cable. 3 Core Rubber/Rubber Flexible Mains Cable. 450/750 V PVC Single Conductor Building Wire. 300 V. 450/750 V PVC/PVC Flexible Mains Cable. 300/500 V.|12. 4 Core PVC/PVC Flexible Mains Cable. 3 Core PVC/PVC Flexible Mains Cable.

a Class 6 conductor has more wires than a Class 5. For example.1. Continental Europe| 12.60 12.5 2. CENELEC standard EN 60228 contains additional information. black and grey Green/yellow.2 through 12. brown. grey and black All conductors black with white numbers • For Cables WITH a Green/Yellow Earth Conductor: • 1 Conductor • 2 Conductor • 3 Conductor • 4 Conductor • 5 Conductor • 5 Conductors All colors except yellow.0 35. the number of wires in a conductor (the fineness of the strand) is indicated by a numeral instead of by a letter as with the U.3 CENELEC Color Codes Through CENELEC.0 25.25 2.0 16.727 0. brown. white or grey Brown and blue Brown.5 give the DC resistance for some common conductor sizes and stranding types.50 5. green.0 6. brown and blue Green/yellow.0 10.2–DC Resistance of Class 1 (Solid) Copper Conductors Nominal Conductor Size (mm2) Minimum Number of Wires Approximate Diameter of Wire (mm) Maximum DC Resistance at 20°C (ohms/km) 1. system.15 0.41 4.76 3. others black with white numbers Reference: CENELEC HD 308 12. black and grey Blue.78 2.0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1. “Green/yellow” indicates green insulation with a yellow stripe. brown. blue.S.61 3.08 1. black.5 4. black and grey Blue.1. the EU countries have established the following color code for flexible cables as of 2006.83 1. black and grey One conductor green/yellow.65 6.57 4.524 | 215 .12.38 1. Table 12. • For Cables WITHOUT a Green/Yellow Earth Conductor: • 1 Conductor • 2 Conductor • 3 Conductor • 4 Conductor • 5 Conductor • 5 Conductors All colors except yellow. Tables 12. brown.4 CENELEC Copper Conductors In the EU.10 7. white or grey Not specified Green/yellow. green.

0 300.0 150.0 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 19 19 19 37 37 37 61 61 61 61 91 91 91 – – – – – 6 6 6 6 12 15 18 18 30 34 34 53 53 53 53 53 12.0 400.0 120.0 35.727 0.41 4.0470 0.124 0.3–DC Resistance and Stranding of Class 2 Copper Conductors Minimum Number of Wires Compact Circular or Circular Sector Shaped Nominal Conductor Size (mm2) Maximum DC Resistance at 20°C (ohms/km) 1.0176 216 | .0 1.0366 0.0 630.0 6.5 2.0221 0.61 3.0 10.15 0.|12.0 70.0 500.0 25.5 4.000.0283 0.268 0.0 50.08 1.10 7.0 16.0754 0.524 0. Continental Europe Table 12.0 800.83 1.0 95.0 185.0991 0.193 0.153 0.387 0.0 240.0601 0.

0 0.98 4.164 0.108 0.41 0.24 0.41 0.21 5.129 0.565 0.795 0.41 0.210 0.0 16.106 0.0 35.7 8.51 0.161 0.0486 0.51 0.61 39.0 13.0 25.0 95.132 0.5 4.95 1.272 0.31 0.0817 0.12.0 500.21 0.51 0.41 0.0 185.5 0.386 0.0391 | 217 .3 7.0 300.0 70.0801 0.0 26.51 0.51 0.0 120.26 0.0384 40.206 0.21 0.0 10.0 240. Continental Europe| Table 12.0495 0.41 0.21 0.39 1.277 0.5 2.51 0.51 0.0 50.554 0.30 1.0 1.09 3.75 1.0 19.95 3.26 0.393 0.5 13.91 1.4–DC Resistance and Stranding of Class 5 (Flexible) Copper Conductors Maximum DC Resistance at 20°C Nominal Conductor Size (mm2) Maximum Diameter of Wires (mm) Plain Copper (ohms/km) Tinned Copper (ohms/km) 0.780 0.31 0.21 0.7 20.0 400.1 26.0641 0.0 150.0 6.51 0.0654 0.

554 0.30 1.795 0.|12.31 0.0 6.0 35.0 300.393 0.0641 40.0 95.95 3.272 0.0 185.5 2.31 0.31 0.210 0.16 0.0 16.21 0.0 120.277 0.95 1.0 50.161 0.106 0.5 0.0801 0.09 3.31 0.386 0.0 25.5 4.31 0.0654 218 | .21 0.16 0.98 4.31 0.108 0.129 0.75 1.0 1.21 5.164 0.16 0.7 20 13.5 13.16 0.7 8.780 0.0 70.39 1.21 0.21 0.91 1.16 0.21 0.21 0. Continental Europe Table 12.24 0.16 0.0 10.0 0.0 240.132 0.3 7.1 26.0817 0.565 0.31 39 26 19.5–DC Resistance and Stranding of Class 6 (Highly Flexible) Copper Conductors Maximum DC Resistance at 20°C Nominal Conductor Size (mm2) Maximum Diameter of Wires (mm) Plain Copper (ohms/km) Tinned Copper (ohms/km) 0.31 0.206 0.0 150.

eu 12.7–EU Power Plug Configurations Jack Plug Description “Schuko” European CEE 7 Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16 | 219 .1.5 CEN European Committee for Standardization www. Continental Europe| 12.1.6 Supply Voltages and Plug Configurations Table 12.12.6–EU Supply Voltages Frequency (Hz) Voltage 50 50 220 250 Table 12.cen.

2 AUSTRIAN STANDARDS 12.ove.2. A grounding conductor is required in the electrical cord attached to appliances that are not double insulated.|12.2.1 ÖVE Österreichischer Verband für Elektrotechnik www.9–Austrian Plug Configuration Jack Plug Description “Schuko” European CEE 7 220 | . Table 12.at 12.8–Austrian Supply Voltage Frequency (Hz) Voltage 50 220/380 The neutral wire of the secondary distribution system is grounded.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configuration Table 12. Continental Europe 12.

sgs.3 BELGIAN STANDARDS 12. PVC Insulated Cables for the Transmission and Distribution of Electrical Energy Armored. 12. Continental Europe| 12. and 15 kV Power Cables Power Cables–Insulated Overhead Transmission Lines Rated 0.12.3.com 12. Title CEBEC NBN C 33-111 NBN C 33-121 NBN C 33-211 NBN C 33-221 NBN C 33-321 NBN C 33-322 NBN 759 Armored Cables Insulated with Impregnated Paper for the Transmission and Distribution of Electrical Energy Armored.be Document No.6/1 kV Underground Power Cables Rated 1 kV Power Cables | 221 . Aluminum Conductor Cables Insulated with Impregnated Paper for 1.1 CEBEC Comité Electrotechnique Belge www.cebec.ibn. 6.3.2IBN/NBT Institut Belge de Normalisation www.

3 Supply Voltages and Plug Configurations Table 12.11–Belgian Plug Configurations Jack Plug Description Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16 Belgium Socket CEE 7/7 plug 222 | .|12. Continental Europe 12.10–Belgian Supply Voltages Frequency (Hz) Voltage 50 50 127/220 220/380 The neutral wire of the secondary distribution system is grounded. Table 12. A grounding conductor is required in the electrical cord attached to appliances.3.

12–Danish Supply Voltage Frequency (Hz) Voltage 50 220/380 Table 12.12.4 DANISH STANDARDS 12. Continental Europe| 12.13–Danish Plug Configuration Jack Plug Description Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16 | 223 .4.4.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configuration Table 12.1 DEMKO Danmarks Elektriske Materielkontrol www.dk 12.demko.

12.5.6/1 kV 12.4 Supply Voltages and Plug Configurations Table 12.org 12.1UTE Union Technique de l’Electricité www. Continental Europe| 12. Title NF C32-207 NF C33-209 Insulated Cables Covered with a Light PVC Sheath and Rated 300/500 V Bundle Assembled Cores for Overhead Systems Rated 0.com Document No.afnor.cigre.org 12.2 AFNOR Association Française de Normalisation www.5 FRENCH STANDARDS 12.5.16–French Supply Voltages Frequency (Hz) Voltage 50 50 220/230 127/220 | 225 .5.ute-fr.3 CIGRE Conference International des Grands Reseaux Electriques a Haute Tension www.5.

|12.17–French Plug Configurations Jack Plug Description Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16 French Socket CEE 7/7 plug “Schuko” European CEE 7 British Standard BS 1363 226 | . Continental Europe Table 12.

de Document No.1 DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung www. Continental Europe| 12.din.18–DIN 47100 Color Code for Single Conductors (WITH Color Repetition Above 44) Conductor No. Title VDE 0888 (EN 60793) Optical Fibres–Measurement Methods and Test Procedures Table 12.6 GERMAN STANDARDS 12.12. Color Conductor No.6. Color 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 white brown green yellow grey pink blue red black violet grey/pink red/blue white/green brown/green white/yellow yellow/brown white/grey grey/brown white/pink pink/brown white/blue brown/blue 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 white/red brown/red white/black brown/black grey/green yellow/green pink/green yellow/pink green/blue yellow/blue green/red yellow/red green/black yellow/black grey/blue pink/blue grey/red pink/red grey/black pink/black blue/black red/black | 227 .

Continental Europe Table 12.19–DIN 47100 Color Code for Paired Conductors (WITH Color Repetition Above 22) Pair No.|12. Wire A Wire B 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 white green grey blue black grey/pink white/green white/yellow white/grey white/pink white/blue white/red white/black grey/green pink/green green/blue green/red green/black grey/blue grey/red grey/black blue/black brown yellow pink red violet red/blue brown/green yellow/brown grey/brown pink/brown brown/blue brown/red brown/black yellow/grey yellow/pink yellow/blue yellow/red yellow/black pink/blue pink/red pink/black red/black 228 | .

vde-verlag.12.2 VDE Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker (German Electrotechnical Society) www. wires and flexible cords Tests for halogen content of wires and cables | 229 . Title D 0250 0265 0266 0271 0281 0282 0293 0295 0472-815 Insulated Power Cables Polymer Insulated Lead Sheathed Power Cables Power Cables with Improved Behavior in Case of Fire Rated 0.6.000 V Conductors of cables.6/1 kV High voltage cable for special applications rated 0.de Document No.6/1 kV Wire and cable for power circuits with thermoplastic insulation rated to 450/750 V Wire and cable for power circuits with rubber insulation rated to 450/750 V Identification of conductors in cables and flexible cords used in power installations rated up to 1. Continental Europe| 12.

Continental Europe 12.3 DKE Deutsche Kommission Elektrotechnik Informationstechnik www.6.de 12.|12.21–German Plug Configurations Jack Plug Description Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16 “Schuko” European CEE 7 230 | .dke.20–German Supply Voltage Frequency (Hz) Voltage 50 220/380 Table 12.6.4 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations Table 12.

Continental Europe| 12.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations Table 12.22–Irish Supply Voltage Frequency (Hz) Voltage 50 220/380 The neutral wire of the secondary distribution system is grounded.12.7 IRISH STANDARDS 12.23–Irish Plug Configurations Jack Plug Description “Schuko” European CEE 7 British Standard BS 1363 | 231 .1 NSAI National Standards Authority of Ireland www. A grounding conductor is required in the electrical cord attached to appliances.7.ie 12. Table 12.7.nsai.

25–Italian Plug Configurations Jack Plug Description Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16 “Schuko” European CEE 7 232 | .4 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations Table 12.|12.ceiuni.1 IMQ Istituto Italiano del Marchio de Qualita www. The neutral wire of the secondary distribution system is grounded. voltage tolerance: 10 percent.24–Italian Supply Voltage Frequency (Hz) Voltage 50 220/380 A grounding conductor is required in the electrical cord attached to appliances.8 ITALIAN STANDARDS 12.8.imq.8.3 CESI Centro Elettrotecnico Sperimentale Italiano www.it 12.8. Table 12.cesi. Frequency tolerance: 2 percent.it 12.2 CEI Comitato Elettrotecnico Italiano www.8.it 12. Continental Europe 12.

Continental Europe 12.kema.6/1 kV Screened flame retardant EMC cables with XLP insulation and halogen-free thermoplastic sheaths rated 0.15–Dutch Plug Configurations Jack Plug Description Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16 “Schuko” European CEE 7 224 | .nl 12.V.14–Dutch Supply Voltage Frequency (Hz) Voltage 50 220/380 The neutral wire of the secondary distribution system is grounded.6/1 kV 12.1 KEMA N.com Document No.3 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations Table 12.9. screened and PVC sheathed EMC cables rated 0. tot Keuring van Elektrotechnische Materialen www.|12.2 NEC Netherlands Electro-Technical Committee www.9.9. Table 12.9 DUTCH STANDARDS 12. Title KEMA 157 KEMA 149 KEMA 250 Cables for temporary installations rated 450/750 kV Cross-linked polyethylene insulated.nen.

npt.10.2 NPT Norwegian Post and Telecommunications Authority www.26–Norwegian Supply Voltage Frequency (Hz) Voltage 50 230 Table 12.3 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations Table 12.1 NEMKO Norges Elektriske Materiellkontroll www.com 12.27–Norwegian Plug Configurations Jack Plug Description Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16 “Schuko” European CEE 7 | 233 .nemko.no 12.10 NORWEGIAN STANDARDS 12.12.10.10. Continental Europe| 12.

ipq.pt 12.29–Portuguese Plug Configurations Jack Plug Description Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16 Old British Standard BS 546 234 | .11.1 IPQ Instituto Portugues da Qualidade www.28–Portuguese Supply Voltage Frequency (Hz) Voltage 50 220/380 Table 12.|12. Continental Europe 12.11 PORTUGUESE STANDARDS 12.11.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations Table 12.

30–Spanish Supply Voltage Frequency (Hz) Voltage 50 50 127/220 220/380 A grounding conductor is required for the 220/380 voltage.12. Continental Europe| 12.es Document No.31–Spanish Plug Configurations Jack Plug Description Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16 Old British Standard BS 546 | 235 . Title UNE UNE 20432 UNE 21172 Tests on Electrical Cable Under Fire Conditions Measurement of Smoke Density of Electric Cable Burning in Defined Conditions 12.12 SPANISH STANDARDS 12. Table 12.12.1 AENOR Asociación Española de Normalización y Certificación www.2 Supply Voltages and Plug Configurations Table 12.aenor.12.

se 12.3 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations Table 12.33–Swedish Plug Configurations Jack Plug Description Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16 “Schuko” European CEE 7 236 | .13. Table 12.1 SEMKO Svenska Electriska Materielkontrollanstalten www.|12.13 SWEDISH STANDARDS 12.32–Swedish Supply Voltage Frequency (Hz) Voltage 50 220/380 The neutral wire of the secondary distribution system is grounded.its.se 12.13.2 ITS Informationstekniska Standardiseringen www.13.semko. Continental Europe 12. A grounding conductor is required in the electrical cord attached to appliances.

34–Swiss Supply Voltage Frequency (Hz) Voltage 50 230/380 The neutral wire of the secondary distribution system is grounded.14 SWISS STANDARDS 12.12.14.5 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations Table 12. Continental Europe| 12.1 SNV Schweizerische Normen-Vereinigung www.35–Swiss Plug Configurations Jack Plug Description Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16 “Schuko” European CEE 7 | 237 .ch 12.snv. A grounding conductor is required in the electrical cord attached to appliances.ch 12.14. Table 12.esti.14.2 ESTI (formerly SEV) Eidgensisches Starkstrominspektorat www.

1.1.1.1.7 Department of the Environment 13.13.6 British Telecom 13.10 EA (Formerly ESI) 13.2 BASEC 13.9 ERA Technology Limited 13.1.15 RIA 240 242 242 242 242 243 243 243 244 244 244 244 245 246 246 247 13.1.4 BNFL 13.8 Department for Transport 13.1.1.3 BBC 13.1. United Kingdom| 13.13 Ministry of Defense (MODUK) 13.1.1 BSI 13.14 Network Rail 13.1.1 Standards 13.5 BRB 13.12 London Underground Limited 13.1. UNITED KINGDOM 13.1.11 IET (Formerly IEE) 13.1.1.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations | 239 .

steel-reinforced.com Document No.F.bsi-global. BS 6007 and BS 7919 Insulated flexible cables and cords for coil leads Mineral-insulated cables PVC-insulated flexible cables for switchgear and controlgear wiring rated 600/1.000 V Insulated flexible cords Specification for trailing cables for mining purposes Thermoset insulated. for overhead power transmission Welding cables Bare fine resistance wire for precision electrical equipment Radio frequency cables Wrought aluminum wire for electrical purposes Polyethylene-insulated copper conductor telecommunication distribution cables Tin or tin-lead coated copper wire PVC-insulated split concentric cables with copper conductors for electric supply L.1 BSI British Standards www.1 STANDARDS 13. United Kingdom 13.|13. BS 6004. Title BS 3G 210 BS 115 BS 183 BS 215 BS 638-1 BS 1117 BS 2316 BS 2627 BS 3573 BS 4393 BS 4553 BS 4808 BS 5099 BS 5308 BS 5467 BS 6004 BS 6007 BS 6141 BS 6195 BS 6207 BS 6231 BS 6500 BS 6708 BS 6724 BS 6746C PTFE insulated equipment wires with silver-plated conductors Metallic resistance materials for electric purposes General purpose galvanized steel wire strand Aluminum conductors and aluminum conductors. armored cables having low emission of smoke and corrosive gases Color chart for insulation and sheath of electric cables Continued on next page >> 240 | . cables and wires with PVC insulation and PVC sheath for telecommunication Spark testing of electric cables Instrumentation cables Specification for armored cables with thermosetting insulation for electricity supply PVC-insulated cables for electric power and lighting Single core heat resisting cables Replaced by specifications BS 6500.1.

1 BSI (Continued) Document No. vertical flame spread Flat Polyvinyl Chloride sheathed flexible cables Test methods for cables under fire conditions. rod. round copper wire for electrical conductors Specification for coaxial cables for wired distribution systems Cables for signs and luminous-discharge-tube installations Copper and copper alloy grooved contact wire for electric traction Conductors for overhead lines: aluminum-magnesium-silicon alloy wires Conductors for overhead lines: zinc coated steel wires Test methods for cables under fire conditions. wire for general purposes Copper and copper alloys for electrical purposes. United Kingdom| 13.1. bar and wire Copper and copper alloys. drawn. Title BS 6883 BS 6899 BS 6977 BS 7655 BS 7671 BS 7884 BS 7919 BS EN 10244-2 BS EN 10257 BS EN 12166 BS EN 13601 BS EN 13602 BS EN 50117 BS EN 50143 BS EN 50149 BS EN 50183 BS EN 50189 BS EN 50266 BS EN 50214 BS EN 50267 BS EN 60228 BS EN 60332 BS EN 60811 BS EN 61238 PD 6455 Elastomer insulated cable for fixed wiring in ships Replaced by specification BS 7655 Replaced by specification BS EN 50214 Insulating and sheathing materials for cables IEE Wiring Regulations Copper and copper-cadmium conductors for overhead power transmission Electric Cables-Flexible cables rated up to 450 V/750 V for use with appliances and equipment intended for industrial and similar environments Zinc or zinc alloy coatings on steel wire Galvanized steel wire for armoring land and submarine cables Copper and copper alloys. evolved gases Conductors of insulated cables Tests on electric and optical cables under fire conditions Test methods for insulating and sheathing materials of electric cables Mechanical and compression connectors for power cable Cancelled | 241 .13.

United Kingdom 13.bbc.|13.2 BASEC British Approvals Service for Cables www.basec. Title PSF 1/2M PSF 1/3M PSF 1/9M PSF 4/1M Video cable (similar to Belden 8281) Video cable Flexible camera cable Microphone cable 13.gov.5 BRB British Railways Board www.1.com Document No. Title PM73479 Cables for electricity supply and control having low emission of smoke and corrosive gases when affected by fire (see Section 13.1.uk Document No.1.3 BBC British Broadcasting Company www.brb.1.org.uk BASEC is a product marking and certification agency similar to UL and CSA in North America 13. Title TDE/76/P/16 Single core cables for traction and rolling stock (cross-linked polyolefin types) 242 | .co.bnfl.1.uk Document No.1 “BS 6724” for additional information) 13.4 BNFL British Nuclear Fuels www.

000 V) PVC-sheathed cable 13.uk Document No.7 Department of the Environment www. armored Power cable for motorway communication systems (split concentric. United Kingdom| 13.8 Department for Transport www. jelly-filled. Single core 6 mm2 (2.13.gov.uk Document No.1.gov. twisted-pair telephone cable for outdoor use (up to and including 100 pairs) External telephone cable Coaxial cable Polyethylene insulated and sheathed.1.dft.6 British Telecom (BT Group) www. twisted-pair telephone cable for outdoor use (above 100 pairs) Self-supporting aerial telephone cable Jumper wire Internal telephone cable PVC-insulated and sheathed telephone cable for indoor use Telephone cordage Undercarpet telephone cable Drop wire no.com Document No. 10 “LFH” insulated and sheathed telephone cable for indoor use 13.btplc. polyethylene-insulated.1. polyethylene-sheathed. Title TR 1173 TR 1238 TR 2029 Multipair communications cable. Title M&E 42 Aviation ground lighting. jelly-filled. Title CW1109 CW1128 CW1198 CW1229 CW1236 CW1252 CW1257 CW1293 CW1308 CW1311 CW1316 CW1378 CW1600 Single. armored) Inductive loop cable for vehicle detection systems | 243 . twin and triple jumper wire for electronic equipment Polyethylene insulated and sheathed.doeni.

org Document No.12 London Underground Limited www. United Kingdom 13.theiet.10 EA (Formerly ESI) www.1.11 IET (formerly IEE) www.350/11. Title G4727 G4726 RSE/STD/024 part 6 2.9 ERA Technology Ltd. limited fire hazard (low smoke nonhalogenated).uk/tube Document No.000 V cable with three solid aluminum phase conductors and aluminum sheath/neutral conductor (CONSAC) Impregnated paper insulated corrugated aluminum sheathed 6. www.1. limited fire hazard (low smoke nonhalogenated). Title 09-6 09-7 09-8 09-12 43-13 Auxiliary multicore and multipair cables PVC-insulated concentric service cables with stranded copper conductors and copper concentric conductors Impregnated paper insulated 600/1.energynetworks. lead-sheathed cables Sustained current ratings for PVC insulated cables Sustained current ratings for cables with thermosetting insulation User’s guide to power cable fault location Cabling installations: user friendly guide (EMI separation recommendations) 13.co. 2. Title ERA 69-30 Part I ERA 69-30 Part III ERA 69-30 Part V ERA 93-0233R ERA 98-0668 Sustained current ratings for paper-insulated.era.5 mm2 to 300 mm2 Cables for use on rolling stock (“LFII” types) 244 | .1.org Document No. 1.uk Document No. 3 and 4 core SWA cable low voltage.|13. Title BS7671 IEE Wiring Regulations 13.5 mm2 to 300 mm2 Single core cable insulated nonsheathed.tfl.1.gov.000 V cable (PICAS) Aerial bundled conductors (ABC) insulated with cross-linked polyethylene for low voltage overhead distribution 13.

radio frequency (coaxial) Equipment wires. electric.13. electrical. limited fire hazard. electrical (subminiature electric cables) Cables. sheathed Determination of the smoke index of the products of combustion Determination of the toxicity index of the products of combustion Cables. Title DEF STAN 02-525 DEF STAN 02-526 DEF STAN 02-527 DEF STAN 02-711 DEF STAN 02-713 DEF STAN 61-12 part 1 DEF STAN 61-12 part 2 DEF STAN 61-12 part 4 DEF STAN 61-12 part 5 DEF. and cables.mod. thin-wall insulated. sheathed for general services Requirements for cables. rubber insulated. electric. electrical (for power and lighting) Cables.1. power.5 mm2 | 245 . limited fire hazard Requirements for cables. fire survival.dstan. electrical.13 Ministry of Defense (MODUK) British Defense Standards www. low toxicity Cables. high temperature zones and limited fire hazard.STAN 61-12 part 6 DEF STAN 61-12 part 8 DEF STAN 61-12 part 9 DEF STAN 61-12 part 18 DEF STAN 61-12 part 25 Requirements for electric cables. limited fire hazard. or silicone rubber insulated equipment wires PTFE insulated equipment wire Cables. United Kingdom| 13.uk Document No. special purpose. electrical (insulated flexible cords and flexible cables) Cables. special purpose. electrical (small multicore cables) Polyvinyl chloride (PVC). up to conductor size 2. polyethylene.

15 RIA Railway Industry Association www.1. Title NBRB/RIA 10 BRB/LUL/RIA 21 Twin and multicore jumper cables for diesel and electric vehicles Single-core cables for installation on traction and rolling stock (rubber types) 246 | . Title NR/PS/SIG/00005 Flame retardant compound insulated cables for railway signalling 13.networkrail.org.14 Network Rail www.1.uk Document No.uk Document No. United Kingdom 13.co.riagb.|13.

1 – United Kingdom Supply Voltage Frequency (Hz) Voltage 50 230/400 Table 13.13.2–United Kingdom Plug Configurations Jack Plug Description Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16 British Standard BS 1363 | 247 . United Kingdom| 13.2 SUPPLY VOLTAGE AND PLUG CONFIGURATIONS Table 13.

1 14. Latin and South America| 14.3 14.5 Mexican Standards Venezuelan Standards Brazilian Standards Colombian Standards Argentine Standards 250 252 253 253 253 | 249 .14.2 14. LATIN AND SOUTH AMERICA 14.4 14.

1 ANCE Asociación de Normalización y Certificación www. and Jackets of Electrical Conductors–Test Method Ultimate Strength and Elongation of Insulation.mx Document No. Insulations and Protective Coverings of Electrical Conductors–Test Method Flame Test on Electrical Wires–Test Method Cold Bend of Thermoplastic Insulation and Protective Jackets. Resistivity and Conductivity–Test Method Insulation Resistance–Test Method Tensile Strength and Elongation by Strain of Wires for Electrical Conductors–Test Method Convection Laboratory Ovens for Evaluation of Electrical Insulation–Specifications and Test Methods Determination of Light Absorption Coefficient of Polyethylene Pigmented with Carbon Black–Test Method Power Cables with XLP or EP Insulation Rated 600 V Vertical Tray–Flame Test–Test Method Wire and Cable Test Methods 250 | . Insulations.org. Insulations and Jackets of Electrical Conductors–Test Method Thermal Shock Resistance of PVT Insulations and PVT Protective Coverings of Electrical Conductors–Test Method Heat Distortion of Semiconductive Shielding.1 MEXICAN STANDARDS 14. Semiconductive Shielding. and Jackets of Electrical Conductors–Test Method Accelerated Aging in Forced Air Convection Oven of Semiconducting Shields.1. Title NOM-001-SEDE NMX-E-034-SCFI NMX-J-008-ANCE NMX-J-010-ANCE NMX-J-012-ANCE NMX-J-013-ANCE NMX-J-014-ANCE NMX-J-032-ANCE NMX-J-036-ANCE NMX-J-040-ANCE NMX-J-066-ANCE NMX-J-177-ANCE NMX-J-178-ANCE NMX-J-186-ANCE NMX-J-190-ANCE NMX-J-191-ANCE NMX-J-192-ANCE NMX-J-193-ANCE NMX-J-212-ANCE NMX-J-294-ANCE NMX-J-312-ANCE NMX-J-417-ANCE NMX-J-437-ANCE NMX-J-451-ANCE NMX-J-498-ANCE NMX-J-556-ANCE Mexican Code Standard for Electrical Installations Plastics Industry–Carbon Black Contents on Polyethylene Materials–Test Method Tinned Soft or Annealed Copper Wire for Electrical Purposes Conductors with Thermoplastic Insulation Rated 600 V Concentric Lay Stranded Copper Conductors for Electrical Purposes Rope Lay Stranded Copper Conductors Having Concentric Stranded Members for Electrical Purposes Rope Lay Stranded Copper Conductors Having Bunch Stranded Members for Electrical Purposes Concentric Lay Stranded Aluminum Cable for Electrical Purposes Soft or Annealed Copper Wire for Electrical Purposes Determination of Moisture Absorption in Insulations and Jackets of Electrical Conductors–Test Method Determination of Diameters of Electrical Conductors–Test Method Determination of Thickness in Semiconductive Shielding.ance. Latin and South America 14. Used on Insulated Wire and Cable–Test Method Electrical Resistance.|14.

14.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configuration Table 14.1.2–Mexican Plug Configuration Jack Plug Description North American Ungrounded | 251 .1–Mexican Supply Voltages Frequency (Hz) Voltage 50 127/220 Table 14. Latin and South America| 14.

2. annealed and of intermediate tempers Multi-pair telephone cables for external plant Enameled coil wire 252 | .fondonorma. Latin and South America 14.S. Aluminum 1350/1370 for manufacture of electrical conductors Aluminum conductors 1350 with concentric stranding Conductors with twisted concentric aluminum layers.org Document No. Specifications and methods test.ve or www.org.1 FONDONORMA Fondo para la Normalización y Certificación de Calidad www. Determination of the level of extinction of partial discharges Compacted concentric round aluminum cables Round aluminum wire 1350. rectangular Aluminum conductors with aluminum alloy reinforcement (ACAR) Wires and Cables.2 VENEZUELAN STANDARDS 14.000 V and control cables Compacted bare aluminum conductors for electrical use Round aluminum alloy 6201-T 81 wires for electrical use Conductors with aluminum alloy 6201 T-81 wires Flexible cords and wires Bare soft copper wires. Title 0200 0397 0457 0468 0529 0530 0533 0534 0541 0555 0556 0557 0558 0777 1110 2570 2644 2645 3198 3484 Venezuelan National Electrical Standard (Código Eléctrico Nacional) (Based on the U. National Electrical Code [NFPA 70]) Wires and single-conductor cables with thermoplastic insulation Calculation of the permissible current in cables Sampling and methods of test to determine the cross-sectional area of conductors Bare copper cables. reinforced with steel Insulated wires and cables for distribution of electrical energy up to 2.codelectra.|14.

iram.5 ARGENTINE STANDARDS 14.S.ar Document No.1 ICONTEC Instituto Colombiano de Normas Técnicas www.abnt.5.org. Title NM 247 NM 274 NM 280 2214 62266 PVC Insulated Cables Rated up to 450/750 V Silicone Insulated Cables Rated up to 450/750 V Conductors of Insulated Cables Cathodic Protection Cables Power and Control Cables with Low Smoke Emission and No Halogen (LSZH) Rated 1 kV | 253 .4 COLOMBIAN STANDARDS 14.4.br Document No.0 kV to 36.1 ABNT Associação Brazileira De Normas Técnicas www.com.3.org.co Document No. Title NTC 2050 Colombian National Electrical Standard (Based on the U.14.icontec. Latin and South America| 14.3 BRAZILIAN STANDARDS 14. Title NBR 5410 NBR 11301 NBR 14039 Low Voltage Electrical Installations Calculation of the Continuous Current Ratings of Cables at 100 percent load factor Installation of Electrical Systems Rated 1.2 kV 14.1 IRAM Instituto Argentino de Normalización y Certificación www. National Electrical Code [NFPA 70]) 14.

CANADA 15.3 “FT6” Fire Test 265 265 266 267 15. Canada| 15.1 “FT1” Fire Test 15.4.3 15.1.2 “FT4” Fire Test 15.5 Single Conductor Teck Terminations | 255 .4.15.1.4.1 CSA 15.4 Cable Types Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations Fire Ratings 15.2 15.2 SCC 256 257 258 264 15.1 Standards 15.

8 C22.org Document No. 26 C22.1 C22.2 No.csa-international.2 No.2 No.2 No. 96 C22. 138 C22. 130 C22. 174 C22. 179 C22.2 No. 197 Canadian Electrical Code.2 No.1 STANDARDS 15.2 No. 18 C22.2 No. 35 C22.3 C22. 131 C22. 0. Low-Energy Control Cable and Extra-Low-Voltage Control Cable Thermoset-Insulated Wires and Cables Grounding and Bonding Equipment General Use Receptacles.2 No. Conduit Boxes and Fittings Cord Sets and Power Supply Cords Wireways. 0. 49 C22. 51 C22.2 No. 129 C22. 56 C22. 0 C22. 48 C22.2 No.2 No.csa.2 No. 42 C22. Canada 15. 75 C22. Part I General Requirements—Canadian Electrical Code. Title C22.12 C22.2 No. 0.2 No.|15. Auxiliary Gutters and Associated Fittings Extra-Low-Voltage Control Circuit Cables. 21 C22.2 No. 188 C22.2 No.2 No.2 No.ca and www.2 No. 41 C22.2 No. 62 C22. Part II Test Methods for Electrical Wire and Cables Safety Functions Incorporating Electronic Technology Wiring Space and Wire Bending Space in Enclosures for Equipment Rated 750 V or Less Outlet Boxes.2 No.2 No.1.2 No.1 CSA Canadian Standards Association www. 127 C22. Attachment Plugs and Similar Wiring Devices Nonmetallic Sheathed Cable Flexible Cords and Cables Armored Cables Service-Entrance Cables Flexible Metal Conduit and Liquid-Tight Flexible Metal Conduit Surface Raceway Systems Wire Connectors Thermoplastic-Insulated Wires and Cables Portable Power Cables Aluminum-Sheathed Cables Mineral-Insulated Cable Cable Tray Systems Equipment and Lead Wires Neutral Supported Cable Heat Cable Systems Type TECK 90 Cable Heat Tracing Cable and Cable Sets for Use in Hazardous Locations Cables and Cable Glands for Use in Hazardous Locations Airport Series Lighting Cables Splicing Wire Connectors PVC Insulating Tape Continued on next page >> 256 | .2 No. 52 C22.2 No. 124 C22.2 No. 123 C22.2 No. 65 C22.2 No.2 No.2 No. 38 C22. 126 C22.2 No.

230 C22.2 C49.2 No. | 257 . Canada| Document No.2 No.ca Standardization is the development and application of standards–publications that establish accepted practices. 2556 C49.2 No. Standards help ensure better. 222 C22. and are an essential element of technology. 262 C22. 214 C22.2 No. innovation and trade. All Tempers for Electrical Purposes Compact Round Concentric-Lay Aluminum-Stranded Conductors (Compact ASC) Electrical Power Connectors for use in Overhead Line Conductors Paper-Insulated Power Cable Concentric Neutral Power Cable Rated 5-45 kV Communication and Power Line Hardware Information Processing Systems 15.2 No.1 C68.3 C83 Z243 Sealed Wire Connector Systems Fire Alarm and Signal Cable Appliance Wiring Material Products Non-Metallic Conduit Communications Cables Type FCC Under-Carpet Wiring Systems Tray Cables Optical Fiber Cables Control and Instrumentation Cables Marine Shipboard Cable Optical Fiber Cable and Communications Cable Wire and Cable Test Methods Compact Aluminum Conductors Steel Reinforced (ACSR) Aluminum Alloy 1350 Round Wire.2 No. services and systems.2 No. 208 C22.2 No. It also represents Canada’s interests on standards-related matters in foreign and international forums. The Standards Council carries out a variety of functions intended to ensure the effective and coordinated operation of standardization in Canada. 239 C22.15.3 C49. 232 C22. 210 C22.scc.2 No. technical requirements and terminologies for products.1. 198 C22.2 No. Title C22. safer and more efficient methods and products.2 No.2 SCC Standards Council of Canada www.5 C57 C68.2 No. 245 C22. 211 C22.

where not exposed to mechanical injury For exposed wiring in dry or damp locations Armored cable Armored cable TECK90 AC90 TECK90 90 90 90 Non-metallic-sheathed cable NMD90 90 Non-metallic-sheathed cable NMW. if suitable for corrosive conditions encountered For exposed wiring in dry locations where not exposed to mechanical injury For exposed wiring in dry locations and in Category 1 and 2 locations.1–CSA Cable Types Conditions of Use Trade Designation CSA Type Designation Maximum Allowable Conductor Temperature °C For exposed wiring in dry locations only For exposed wiring in dry locations where exposed to corrosive action. Canada 15.|15. NMWU 60 Rubber.2 CABLE TYPES Table 15.(thermoset-) insulated cable Thermoplastic-insulated cable Nylon jacketed thermoplastic-insulated cable Non-metallic-sheathed cable R90 TW T90 NYLON 90 60 90 NMD90 90 Continued on next page >> 258 | .

15.(thermoset-) insulated cable Aluminum-sheathed cable Mineral-insulated cable Thermoplastic-insulated cable Nonmetallic-sheathed cable TECK90 ACWU90 RW75 RL90. Canada| Table 15. NMWU 90 90 75 90 75 90 90 60 75 60 90 75 90 60 75 75 90 60 90 90 90 60 For exposed wiring where subjected to the weather Armored cable Rubber.1–CSA Cable Types (Continued) Conditions of Use Trade Designation CSA Type Designation Maximum Allowable Conductor Temperature °C For exposed wiring in wet locations Armored cable Rubber.(thermoset-) insulated cable Thermoplastic-insulated cable Neutral-supported cable Nonmetallic-sheathed cable For concealed wiring in dry locations only For concealed wiring in dry and damp locations For concealed wiring in dry locations and in Category 1 and 2 locations where not exposed to mechanical injury Armored cable Nonmetallic-sheathed cable Nonmetallic-sheathed cable Continued on next page >> | 259 . RW90 RA75 RA90 MI. TWN75 NMWU TECK90 RW75 R90. RW90 TW. TWU TWU75 NS-75 NS-90 NMWU TECK90 AC90 NMD90 NMW. LWMI TW TW75.

Canada Table 15.1–CSA Cable Types (Continued) Conditions of Use Trade Designation CSA Type Designation Maximum Allowable Conductor Temperature °C For concealed wiring in wet locations Armored cable Nonmetallic-sheathed cable Aluminum-sheathed cable Mineral-insulated cable TECK90 ACWU90 NMWU RA75 RA90 MI. TWN75.(thermoset-) insulated cable Thermoplastic-insulated cable Nylon jacketed thermoplastic-insulated cable For use in raceways. in wet locations Rubber. RWU90 TW.(thermoset-) Insulated cable Thermoplastic-insulated cable For use in ventilated. TWU75 AC90 TECK90 90 90 60 75 90 90 90 60 90 75 90 60 75 90 90 For use in raceways. RWU75 RW90. LWMI R90 TW T90 NYLON RW75. nonventilated and ladder type cable trays in dry locations only For use in ventilated. LWMI RL90 75 90 90 90 Continued on next page >> 260 | .|15.(thermoset-) insulated lead-sheathed cable RA75 RA90 MI. nonventilated and ladder type cable trays in wet locations Armored cable Armored cable TECK90 ACWU90 90 90 Aluminum-sheathed cable Mineral-insulated cable Rubber. in dry or damp locations Rubber. TWU TW75. except cable trays. except cable trays.

(thermoset-) insulated cable Armored cable Nonmetallic-sheathed cable Rubber. LWMI TWU TWU75 ASLC TC AC90 ACWU90 TECK90 RA75 RA90 MI NS-75 NSF-90 75 90 90 90 60 75 90 75 90 90 60 75 90 90 90 90 90 75 90 90 75 90 Continued on next page >> For direct earth burial (with protection as required by inspection authority) Mineral-insulated cable Thermoplastic-insulated cable Airport series lighting cable Tray cable For service entrance above ground Armored cable Aluminum-sheathed cable Mineral-insulated cable Neutral supported cable | 261 .15. Canada| Table 15. RWU90 RA75 RA90 MI.1–CSA Cable Types (Continued) Conditions of Use Trade Designation CSA Type Designation Maximum Allowable Conductor Temperature °C For use in ventilated and nonventilated cable trays in vaults and switch rooms For direct earth burial (with protection as required by inspection authority) Rubber.(thermoset-) insulated cable Aluminum-sheathed cable RW75 RW90 ACWU90 TECK90 NMWU RWU75 RL90.

CMX.(thermoset-) insulated cable Armored cable Aluminum-sheathed cable For high-voltage wiring in luminous-tube signs For use in raceways in hoistways For use in Class 2 circuits. concealed or used in raceways. in dry or damp locations For use in Class 2 circuits in dry locations in concealed wiring or exposed wiring where not subject to mechanical injury For use when concealed indoors under carpet squares in dry or damp locations For use in communication circuits when exposed. in exposed or concealed wiring or use in raceways. CMH 60 Continued on next page >> 262 | .|15. or in ceiling air handling plenums Luminous-tube sign cable Hoistway cable Extra-low-voltage control cable Extra-low-voltage control cable ELC 60 Flat conductor cable FCC 60 Communication cable CMP. CM. GTOL – LVT 75 90 90 60 75 75 90 90 90 75 90 60 60 60 Thermoplasticinsulated wire Rubber. CMG. CMR. Canada Table 15. indoors in dry or damp locations.1–CSA Cable Types (Continued) Conditions of Use Trade Designation CSA Type Designation Maximum Allowable Conductor Temperature °C For service entrance below ground Service-entrance cable USEI75 USEI90 USEB90 TWU TWU75 RWU75 RWU90 TECK90 ACWU90 RA75 RA90 GTO.

or in plenums For use in buildings in dry or damp locations. for exposed or concealed wiring (or damp or dry) locations For use in ventilated non-ventilated and ladder type trays.1–CSA Cable Types (Continued) Conditions of Use Trade Designation CSA Type Designation Maximum Allowable Conductor Temperature °C For use in fire alarm. concealed or used in raceways including cable trays. OFNG. concealed or used in raceways including cable trays. or in plenums For use in buildings in dry or damp locations. OFCR. OFNH Conductive optical fiber cable OFCP.1. Table 19) | 263 . Canada| Table 15. nonventilated and ladder type cable trays in wet locations and where exposed to weather For use in cable trays in Class I Division 2 and Class II Division 2 hazardous locations For use in buildings in dry or damp locations. direct earth burial. in ceiling air handling plenums. direct earth burial. OFCH As marked on cable Hybrid conductor cable NMDH90 90 Control and instrumentation Cable (without armor) CIC 250 (dry or damp locations) 90 wet locations) Armored control and instrumentation cable (other than steel wire armor) ACIC 250 (dry or damp locations) 90 wet locations) Source: Canadian Electrical Code (CSA C22. where exposed. OFN. OFNR. where exposed. OFCG. signal and voice communication circuits where exposed. where exposed or concealed For use in ventilated non-ventilated and ladder type trays. for exposed or concealed wiring in wet (or damp or dry) locations in ceiling air handling plenums Fire alarm and signal cable FAS FAS 90 FAS 105 FAS 200 TC 60 90 105 200 As marked on cable Tray cable Tray cable TC As marked on cable As marked on cable Non-conductive optical fiber cable OFNP. concealed or used in raceways. indoors in dry or damp locations For use in raceways including ventilated. OFC.15.

2–Canadian Supply Voltage Frequency (Hz) Voltage 60 120/240 The neutral wire of the secondary distribution system is grounded. Table 15.3–Canadian Plug Configurations Jack Plug Description North American Ungrounded North American NEMA 5-15 264 | . Canada 15.3 SUPPLY VOLTAGE AND PLUG CONFIGURATIONS Table 15. 4-wire systems such as 120/208 volts are available as well as 347/600 volts for commercial establishments. Three-phase.|15.

4).1).11. 0.15. 15. burning must cease within 60 seconds after removal of the flame source. published by the Canadian Standards Association. Cables are marked from “FT1” to “FT6. Canada| 15. para 4.3 Test Methods for Electrical Wires and Cables. Cables are subjected to five. For the cable to pass the test. 15.4.11. para 4.2 No. is the national safety code for electrical installations that is adopted into law by each province and territory with amendments or local rules. Cables are mounted on a vertical tray and exposed for 20 minutes to a 70. The Code includes references to a stringent series of tests developed for flame testing of wires and cables.4 FIRE RATINGS The Canadian Electrical Code.000 Btu/hr flame. and not more than 25 percent of the extended portion of the indicator can be burned.3 Test Methods for Electrical Wires and Cables. For the cable to pass the test.1 “FT1” Fire Test The FT1 test procedure is known as the “Vertical Test” (published in CSA Standard C22. 0. the resulting char distance must not be greater than 1. 15 second duration applications of a specified flame.2 No. | 265 .” depending on which of the specified flame test requirements they fulfill.5 meters from the point of flame application.2 “FT4” Fire Test The FT4 test procedure is known as the Vertical Flame Test – Cables in trays (published in CSA Standard C22.4.

para 4. masonry walls or concrete slabs. Wires and cables with combustible outer jackets or sheaths that do not meet the above classifications should be located in noncombustible raceways.3 Test Methods for Electrical Wires and Cables. 266 | . that may be used as a plenum in buildings of combustible or noncombustible construction.3 “FT6” Fire Test The FT6 test procedure is known as the Plenum Flame Test (published in CSA Standard C22.11.|15. and (b) spaces between a ceiling and floor. and FT4 – Wires and cables that are suitable for installation in: (a) buildings of noncombustible and combustible construction. 0. Canada 15.4. or ceiling and roof.4.2 No. 15.4 Designations The markings for wires and cables meeting the flame spread requirements of the National Building Code of Canada (without additional fire protection) are: FT1 – Wires and cables that are suitable for installation in buildings of combustible construction.6).

Canada| 15.5 SINGLE CONDUCTOR TECK 90 TERMINATIONS Single conductor high-current armored cables require special termination methods to prevent excessive heating caused by induced “circulating currents” in nearby conductors and “eddy currents” in nearby magnetic materials.1.1–Termination of Single Phase Single-Conductor Teck 90 Cables for Circuit Ampacity Over 425 Amps Connectors and lock nuts of nonmagnetic materials Nonferrous metal Insulating material Supply end Load end Ground wires cut off inside and isolated Ground wires and armor are connected to panel body and earthed Separate ground conductor Armor and ground wires are isolated from each other | 267 . Figure 15.15. One acceptable method is shown in Figure 15.

4 Limiting Temperatures for Insulated Cables 270 271 271 272 16.4.3. ASIA PACIFIC 16. Asia Pacific| 16.4.1.2.2 ACMA 16.3 Supply Voltages and Plug Configuration 16.1 Australian Standards 16.2.2 CNIS 275 275 | 269 .1.2 Plug Configuration 274 274 16.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations 273 273 16.1.4 Chinese Standards 16.1 SPRING Singapore (formerly PSB) 16.3.2 Singapore Standards 16.1 JSA 16.16.3 Japanese Standards 16.1.1 CQC 16.1 SAA 16.

2 AS/NZS 5000.6/1 kV Mining Cables Other Than Reeling and Trailing Electric Cables — Polymeric Insulated — For Working Voltages Up To and Including 0. Installation and Maintenance Classification of Hazardous Areas Australian/New Zealand Wiring Rules Electrical Installations — Selection of Cables: Cables for Alternating Voltages Up To and Including 0.6/1 kV Cables for High-Voltage Luminous Discharge Tube Installations Electric Cables — Polymeric Insulated — For Distribution and Service Applications Electric Flexible Cords Electric Cables — Aerial-Bundled Voltages Up To and Including 0.au or www.1 AUSTRALIAN STANDARDS 16.6/1 kV Electric Cables — Polymeric Insulated — For working voltages Up To 450/750 V Electric Cables — Polymeric Insulated — Multicore Control Cables Mineral-Insulated Cables and Their Terminations Up To 750 V Requirements for Authorized Cabling Products Installation Requirements for Customer Cabling (Wiring Rules) 270 | .saiglobal.1 AS/NZS 3112 AS/NZS 3123 AS/NZS 3158 AS/NZS 3166 AS/NZS 4961 AS/NZS 3191 AS/NZS 3560 AS/NZS 1972 AS/NZS 5000.6/1 kV Plugs and Socket-Outlets Plugs.standards.1 AS/NZS 5000.1.1 SAA Standards Australia www. Asia Pacific 16.|16.com Document No.org.3 AS/NZS 60702 AS/ACIF S008 AS/ACIF S009 Impregnated Paper Insulated Cables for Electricity Supply at Working Voltages Up To and Including 33 kV (Metric Units) Conductors in Insulated Electric Cables and Flexible Cords Welding Cables Electrical Equipment for Explosive Atmospheres — Explosion Protection Techniques Electrical Equipment for Explosive Atmospheres — Selection. Title AS/NZS 1026 AS/NZS 1125 AS/NZS 1995 AS/NZS 2380 AS/NZS 2381 AS/NZS 2430 AS/NZS 3000 AS/NZS 3008. Socket-Outlets and Couplers for General Industrial Application Fibrous-Insulated Electric Cables and Flexible Cables for Working Voltages of 0.

Asia Pacific| 16.1–Australian Supply Voltages Frequency (Hz) Voltage 50 50 240/415 250/440 The neutral wire of the secondary distribution system is grounded.16.1. Table 16.1.3 Supply Voltages and Plug Configuration Table 16.2–Australian Plug Configuration Jack Plug Description Australian Standard AS/NZS 3312 | 271 .gov.2 ACMA Australian Communications and Media Authority www.acma.au 16. A grounding conductor is required in the electrical cord attached to appliances that are not double insulated.

4 Limiting Temperatures for Insulated Cables Table 16.|16.3–Limiting Temperatures for Australian Insulated Cables Type of Cable Insulation Cable Operating Temperature. Asia Pacific 16.1. °C Normal Use Minimum Elastomer compounds Type R-EP-90 Type R-CSP-90 Type R-CPE-90 Type R-HF-90 Type R-S-150 Type R-S-200 Thermoplastic compounds Type V-75 Type HFI-75-TP Type V-90 Type HFI-90-TP Type V-90-HT Heat-resisting fibrous insulation Type 150 Type 200 Type 350 Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) Type X-90 Type X-HF-90 90 90 90 90 150 200 75 75 75 75 75 150 200 350 90 90 -40 -20 -20 -20 -50 -50 0 -20 0 -20 0 0 0 0 -70 -70 Source: Australian/New Zealand Wiring Rules (AS/NZS 3000) 272 | .

16.2 SINGAPORE STANDARDS 16.1 SPRING Singapore (formerly PSB) www. Title SS254 SS299 Part 1 SS300 SS358 Electrical Apparatus for Explosive Gas Atmospheres Fire Resistant Circuit Integrity Power Cables Methods of Test for Gases Evolved During Combustion of Electric Cables PVC Insulated Power Cables up to and Including 450/750 V The following British and international cable standards are also used in Singapore: BS6004.gov. 16.spring.5–Singapore Plug Configurations Jack Plug Description Ungrounded Europlug CEE 7/16 British Standard BS 1363 | 273 .2.4–Singapore Supply Voltage Frequency (Hz) Voltage 50 230/400 A grounding conductor is required in the electrical cord attached to appliances. Asia Pacific| 16.sg Document No. BS6346.2. BS6500.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations Table 16. Table 16. IEC 60331 and IEC 60502.

jsa.jp Document No. No.2 Plug Configuration Table 16.6–Japanese Plug Configuration Jack Plug Description Japanese Standard JIS C 8303 (Same as NEMA 5-15 and CSA 22.1 JSA Japanese Standards Association www.3.2. Title JIS C3307 JIS C3316 JIS C3401 JIS C3406 JIS C3605 JIS C3606 JIS C3609 JIS C3612 JIS C3621 JIS C3650 JIS C3653 JIS C3660 JIS C3662 JIS C3663 600 V PVC Insulated Wires PVC Insulated Wire for Electrical Apparatus Control Cables Low Voltage Cables for Automobiles 600 V Polyethylene Insulated Cables High-Voltage Cross Linked Polythylene Insulated Cables High-Voltage Drop Wires for Pole Transformers 600 V Flame Retardant Polythylene Insulated Wires 600 V Ethylene-Propylene Rubber Insulated Cables Installation Methods of Cables Embedded in Concrete Installation Methods of Cables Buried Underground Test Methods for Insulating and Sheathing Materials of Electric Cables PVC Insulated Cables Rated Up To 450/750 V Rubber Insulated Cables Rated Up To 450/750 V 16. Asia Pacific 16. 42) 274 | .3 JAPANESE STANDARDS 16.3.or.|16.

cn Document No.cnis.com.1 GB 12972 GB 15934 Rubber Insulated Cables of Rated Voltages Up To and Including 450/750 V Polyvinyl Chloride Insulated Cables for Rated Voltages Up To and Including 450/750 V Insulated Cables (Wires) for Railway Vehicles of Rated Voltage Up To and Including 3 kV Flexible Rubber-Sheathed Cables for Mining Purposes Cord Sets | 275 .cn 16.4.4 CHINESE STANDARDS 16. CQC Chinese Quality Certification Center www. Asia Pacific| 16.4.16. Title GB 5013 GB 5023 GB 12528.gov.2 CNIS Chinese National Institute of Standardization www.cqc.

CONVERSION TABLES 17. Circumference and Area Length.4 17.6 Metric to English Conductor Size Circular Measurements – Diameter. Area.1 17.3 17.2 17. Conversion Tables| 17. Power and Energy Temperature Conversion kVA to Amperes Horsepower to Amperes 278 282 287 290 291 293 | 277 .5 17.17. Weight.

000 – – 1.000 634.250.000 884.000 – – 800 – – 630 – – – 500 – 400 – – – – 300 – – 240 – – – 185 – – – 150 2.000 400.000 750.000 1.|17.580.000 987.000 1.000 592.000 296.000 Continued on next page >> 278 | .000 – – – 750 – – 600 – – 500 – – 400 – – 350 – 300 – 2.000 1.024.500.000 365.1 METRIC TO ENGLISH CONDUCTOR SIZE Table 17.000 789.233.780.000 455.000 1.000 1.750 – 1.000 900 888 800 761 635 630 626 520 508 500 449 400 381 380 322 305 300 273 254 240 231 230 195 185 178 165 152 150 – 1.000 350.500 1.015 1.970.000 1.250 – – – 1.000.000 1.750.000.000 748.000 300.000 600.000 500.000 474.000 325.000 1.000 1.000 537. Conversion Tables 17.000 1.1–Conductor Size Conversion: Metric to English and English to Metric Metric Conductor Area (mm ) 2 Standard Metric Sizes (mm ) 2 Standard English Sizes (kcmil/AWG) English Conductor Area (cmil) 1.240.000 384.

100 83.360 61.740 37.9 54 51.4 21 19 17 16.17.3 11.6 50 43.300 44.900 105.6 13.660 52.128 41.820 Continued on next page >> | 279 .600 98.240 22.1–Conductor Size Conversion: Metric to English and English to Metric (Continued) Metric Conductor Area (mm2) Standard Metric Sizes (mm2) Standard English Sizes (kcmil/AWG) English Conductor Area (cmil) 140 127 120 119 107 100 95 85 72 70 67 60.100 66.600 101.600 26.800 141.000 187.700 72. Conversion Tables| Table 17.1 16 13.000 234.3 27 25 22.500 86.800 138.090 31.717 31.000 237.100 119.7 42 37 35 34 31.430 33.792 26.900 69.5 10.600 197.620 49.5 – – 120 – – – 95 – – 70 – – – – 50 – – – 35 – – – 25 – – – – – 16 – – – – – 250 – – 4/0 – – 3/0 – – 2/0 – 1/0 – – – 1 – – 2 – 3 – – 4 – 5 – – – 6 – 7 276.655 20.000 250.000 211.000 133.000 167.

620 2.093 2.00 3.790 13.800 11.50 – – – 8 – – 9 – – 10 – – – – 12 – – – 14 – – – – 16 – – – 18 – – – 20 – – 19.380 9.50 2.090 11.890 7.530 5.871 1.970 1.50 1.82 0.52 0.372 7.110 3.020 987 965 Continued on next page >> 280 | .092 6.5 – – – – 1.082 4.580 2.58 0.|17.85 1.27 7.08 1.292 13.93 5.12 1.77 8.68 0.64 6.930 4.142 1.480 1.00 6.33 1.206 1.18 2.339 1.75 – – – 0.1–Conductor Size Conversion: Metric to English and English to Metric (Continued) Metric Conductor Area (mm2) Standard Metric Sizes (mm2) Standard English Sizes (kcmil/AWG) English Conductor Area (cmil) 10.5 – – – 1 – – 0.95 0.38 8.700 19.682 10.58 2.31 1.02 4.644 3.620 1.49 10 – – – – – 6 – – – – 4 – – – 2.60 3.50 0.510 16.294 4.00 9.31 2.889 8.00 5.25 4.246 16.960 2. Conversion Tables Table 17.57 1.26 5.00 0.75 0.

0080 0.0013 Reference: IEC 60228 – 0.013 0.128 0.2 39.032 0.7 9.61 6.25 4.2 – – – – – – – – – – – 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 640 404 253 159 100 63.0050 0.00 2. Conversion Tables| Table 17.324 0.8 25.56 | 281 .205 0.0032 0.020 0.051 0.0020 0.17.1–Conductor Size Conversion: Metric to English and English to Metric (Continued) Metric Conductor Area (mm2) Standard Metric Sizes (mm2) Standard English Sizes (kcmil/AWG) English Conductor Area (cmil) 0.081 0.0 15.

) Area (sq.500000 0.04342 0.531250 0.406250 0.750000 0.44179 0.69029 0.687223 0.15033 0.27627 1.00019 0.906250 0.981748 1.562500 0.47937 0.468750 0.11045 0.12962 0.84707 2.125000 0.187500 0.392699 0.312500 0.04909 0.098175 0. Circumference and Area Diameter Fractional (in.812500 0.57080 1.37122 0.490874 0.33824 0.74889 2.875000 0.37445 1.07670 0.73708 Continued on next page >> 282 | .093750 0.00019 0.24850 0.031250 0.937500 0.09281 0.30680 0.|17.375000 0.781250 0.15984 2. CIRCUMFERENCE AND AREA Table 17.65072 2.35619 2.51849 0.687500 0.07992 1.00173 0.2–Circular Measurements – Diameter.55914 0.046875 0.47262 1.86532 1.196350 0.01227 0.02761 0.2 CIRCULAR MEASUREMENTS – DIAMETER.250000 0.96350 2.343750 0.06167 2.06213 0.625000 0. Conversion Tables 17.843750 0.) 1/64 1/32 3/64 1/16 3/32 1/8 5/32 3/16 7/32 1/4 9/32 5/16 11/32 3/8 13/32 7/16 15/32 1/2 17/32 9/16 19/32 5/8 21/32 11/16 23/32 3/4 25/32 13/16 27/32 7/8 29/32 15/16 31/32 0.589049 0.22166 0.66897 1.00307 0.64504 0.785398 0.19635 0.015625 0.294524 0.156250 0.03758 0.27688 0.17257 0.01917 0.40574 0.968750 0.656250 0. in.049087 0.147262 0.60132 0.718750 0.94524 3.76715 1.437500 0.25802 2.281250 0.062500 0.) Decimal (in.00690 0.) Circumference (in.17810 1.883573 0.55254 2.218750 0.593750 0.45437 2.

500000 2.53429 3.6727 5.30144 5.187500 1.31969 4.687500 1.90874 5.26493 7.562500 1.88664 0.250000 1.6664 4.9798 Continued on next page >> | 283 .062500 3.89049 6.67588 6.437500 1.062500 2.85398 8.1416 3.1572 5.3410 3.500000 1.) Area (sq.92699 4.6230 1.7612 2.47953 6.) Circumference (in.4849 1.2365 2.73064 3.4053 2.187500 3. in.9087 5.) Decimal (in.125000 1.78540 0.87223 7.2000 4.375000 1.7671 1.875000 2.83573 9. Conversion Tables| Table 17.2126 6.812500 2.22843 9.812500 1.33794 3.06858 7.125000 3.63938 8.000000 3.24668 8.) 1 1 1/16 1 1/8 1 3/16 1 1/4 1 5/16 1 3/8 1 7/16 1 1/2 1 9/16 1 5/8 1 11/16 1 3/4 1 13/16 1 7/8 1 15/16 2 2 1/16 2 1/8 2 3/16 2 1/4 2 5/16 2 3/8 2 7/16 2 1/2 2 9/16 2 5/8 2 11/16 2 3/4 2 13/16 2 7/8 2 15/16 3 3 1/16 3 1/8 3 3/16 1.1075 1.937500 2.05033 8.14159 3.5466 3.49779 5.62113 9.03208 9.65763 7.3662 7.125000 2.750000 1.000000 1.0739 2.437500 2.42478 9.937500 3.4978 6.9761 4.3530 1.08684 6.5802 2.9483 3.875000 1.687500 2.750000 2.4301 4.12334 4.312500 1.10509 5.2–Circular Measurements – Diameter.250000 2.2272 1. Circumference and Area (Continued) Diameter Fractional (in.99402 1.6699 7.28319 6.46128 7.01380 0.71239 4.375000 2.69414 5.9175 2.17.625000 1.0686 7.7583 3.44303 8.7771 7.562500 2.625000 2.51604 4.062500 1.312500 2.9396 6.187500 2.4119 5.000000 2.81748 10.

687500 4.7050 15.0824 8.9956 11.6796 11.147 19.1554 13.9043 16.772 14.062500 4.033 15.|17.4159 11.566 12.0447 11.687500 3.375000 3.691 23.812500 3.125000 5.312500 5.250000 5.349 16.937500 5.562500 4.7810 11.6029 10.) 3 1/4 3 5/16 3 3/8 3 7/16 3 1/2 3 9/16 3 5/8 3 11/16 3 3/4 3 13/16 3 7/8 3 15/16 4 4 1/16 4 1/8 4 3/16 4 1/4 4 5/16 4 3/8 4 7/16 4 1/2 4 9/16 4 5/8 4 11/16 4 3/4 4 13/16 4 7/8 4 15/16 5 5 1/16 5 1/8 5 3/16 5 1/4 5 5/16 5 3/8 5 7/16 3.1919 11.875000 4.9226 15.6897 16.250000 3.635 20.4065 10.5116 15.000000 5.562500 3.5664 12.500000 4.9773 12. Circumference and Area (Continued) Diameter Fractional (in.1767 12.3700 12.6211 9.625000 4.1372 14.625000 3.221 Continued on next page >> 284 | .187500 4.375000 4.466 15.7445 13.4943 16.721 18.166 22.904 16.2102 10.3153 15.7262 14.187500 5.800 17.665 19.257 17.1007 16.607 15.7992 10.9408 14.629 21. Conversion Tables Table 17.3518 13.9462 9.875000 3. in.812500 4.2970 16.437500 4.7627 12.8861 17.190 18.312500 4.500000 3.062500 5.364 13.312500 3.5846 11.000000 4.937500 4.962 13.7932 12.125000 4.437500 10.3335 14.6179 8.) Area (sq.186 14.648 22.375000 5.5299 14.2–Circular Measurements – Diameter.3883 11.9678 10.5481 13.250000 4.129 20.1737 12.) Decimal (in.1189 15.437500 3.9591 13.750000 3.3206 10.750000 4.135 21.) Circumference (in.2806 9.2958 8.

750000 7.500000 8.6350 20.2423 19.2743 28.000000 9.849 53.8131 21.375000 8.125000 9.535 27.718 44.183 34.125000 8.8678 18.456 55.862 63.500000 5.173 48.000000 6.) 5 1/2 5 9/16 5 5/8 5 11/16 5 3/4 5 13/16 5 7/8 5 15/16 6 6 1/8 6 1/4 6 3/8 6 1/2 6 5/8 6 3/4 6 7/8 7 7 1/8 7 1/4 7 3/8 7 1/2 7 5/8 7 3/4 7 7/8 8 8 1/8 8 1/4 8 3/8 8 1/2 8 5/8 8 3/4 8 7/8 9 9 1/8 9 1/4 9 3/8 5.4751 17.5619 23.132 61.250000 8.375000 17.687500 5.0642 18.500000 7.750000 5.000000 7.125000 6.937500 6.625000 5.3473 24.301 24.5984 21.0597 29.282 42.17.3108 26.109 27.250000 9.4589 18. Circumference and Area (Continued) Diameter Fractional (in.785 37.4524 23.750000 8.) Area (sq.426 60.4202 20.125000 7.6715 17.1692 23.2605 18.617 65.871 41.375000 7.2–Circular Measurements – Diameter.9911 22.122 38.758 24.625000 8.7400 25.9546 24.707 50.397 67.7035 27.179 45.375000 6.875000 8.500000 6.000000 8.812500 5.6532 18.1327 25.680 31.8816 28.406 25.967 26.8496 19.9181 26.274 29.562500 5.265 51.688 28.3838 22.472 35.250000 7.250000 6.625000 6.) Circumference (in.5254 25.875000 9.919 33.625000 7.4889 27. in.201 69.485 39.465 30.6670 29.7765 23.029 Continued on next page >> | 285 .875000 5.088 56.750000 6.875000 7.850 25. Conversion Tables| Table 17.0277 20.0962 27.745 58.2788 17.664 47.2058 21.) Decimal (in.

Conversion Tables Table 17.4159 2 70.000 to calculate mils.760 74.882 72.6305 31.625000 9.) 9 ⁄2 95⁄8 93⁄4 1 9.500000 9.) Area (sq. Multiply square inches by 645.16 to calculate mm .662 76. 286 | .0232 31.2–Circular Measurements – Diameter.) Decimal (in. 2.000000 29.2378 30.540 97⁄8 10 Notes: 1. 3.750000 9. Multiply inches by 1.) Circumference (in.875000 10.|17.4 to calculate mm.8451 30. Circumference and Area (Continued) Diameter Fractional (in.589 78. in. Multiply inches by 25.

240.7854 0. AREA.155 0.54 0.3701 0.53 1.764 0.3 LENGTH.9144 Continued on next page >> Square inches Square mils Square millimeters Square inches Square meters Circular mils Square centimeters Square millimeters Square mils Square feet Square inches Circular mils Circular mils Square inches 0. divide by the factor given in the table.000001 | 287 .0929 1.4516 645.4 1.0005067 0.973.0254 25. POWER AND ENERGY Table 17.2732 0.00 6.3–Conversion Factors Note: Frequently used conversions are shown in bold type.6093 0.001 0.17.6214 3.48 0.000. Conversion Tables| 17.03281 30.00155 1.3048 2.3937 0.00 0.00 10. To Convert From To Multiply By Area Circular mils Circular mils Circular mils Square centimeters Square feet Square inches Square inches Square inches Square inches Square meters Square millimeters Square millimeters Square mils Square mils Length Centimeters Centimeters Feet Feet Inches Inches Inches Inches Kilometers Meters Meters Meters Miles Millimeters Millimeters Mils Mils Yards Inches Feet Centimeters Meters Centimeters Meters Millimeters Mils Miles Feet Inches Yards Kilometers Inches Mils Inches Millimeters Meters 0.03937 39. WEIGHT.0254 0.273.16 1.0000007854 0. To convert in the reverse direction.2808 39.0936 1.000.000.3701 1.

Conversion Tables Table 17.3–Conversion Factors (Continued) To Convert From To Multiply By Power Foot-pounds per minute Foot-pounds per minute Foot-pounds per second Foot-pounds per second Horsepower Horsepower Horsepower Kilogram-meters per sec. Foot-pounds Joules Watt-hours British thermal units Joules Kilogram-meters Joules British thermal units Ergs Foot-pounds Gram-calories Kilogram-meters Foot-pounds Joules British thermal units 0.25 0.10198 7.1020 778.8117 3.001285 1.0226 0.00 0.4126 Continued on next page >> 288 | .356 0.2388 0.00 1.00 746 9.001341 0. Watts Watts Watts Watts Energy British thermal units British thermal units British thermal units Foot-pounds Foot-pounds Foot-pounds Gram calories Joules Joules Joules Joules Joules Kilogram-meters Kilogram-meters Watt-hours Horsepower Watts Horsepower Watts Foot-pounds per minute Foot-pounds per second Watts Watts Foot-pounds per minute Foot-pounds per second Horsepower Kilogram-meters per sec.001818 1.00 550.055.186 0.000947 107.0000303 0.293 0.356 33.000.7375 0.233 9.807 44.00 0.7375 0.|17.1383 4.

S.488 0.2248 4.000 feet Ohms per 1.000 yards Newtons Pound-force Miscellaneous Diameter circle Diameter circle Diameter sphere cubed U.3–Conversion Factors (Continued) To Convert From To Multiply By Weight Kilograms Kilograms per kilometer Ohms per kilometer Ohms per 1.0936 0.1516 | 289 .4960 1.S.2808 1.33 62. Conversion Tables| Table 17.1416 0.1337 8.4482 3.3048 3. gallons U.8862 0.8327 0. gallons Cubic feet Feet of water (4°C) Inches of mercury (0°C) Knots Pounds Pounds per 1.000 feet Ohms per kilometer Ohms per kilometer Kilograms Kilograms per kilometer Kilograms per kilometer Pounds per kilometer Pound-force Newtons Circumference Side of equal square Volume of sphere Imperial gallons (British) Cubic feet Pounds of water (20°C) Pounds of water (4°C) Pounds per square inch Pounds per square inch Miles per hour 2.000 yards Pounds Pounds per 1.S.4912 1.205 0. gallons U.0936 0.4536 1.4336 0.6719 0.427 0.000 feet Ohms per 1.5236 0.000 yards Pounds per 1.17.000 feet Pounds per 1.

8 242.2 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 113.4 12.4 300.2 50.8 161.6 280.8 35.8 89.0 177.2 41.112 1.0 186.0 132.0 338.0 159.2 239.4 111.652 1.0 231.0 222.0 240.912 3.4 21.6 199.6 127.2 122.4 39.2 104.2 293.4 219.6 136.2 -27.0 69.8 233.0 204.4 120.2 Boiling 99 100 101 102 103 104 210.0 -29.4 138.6 -14.2 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 59.8 80.452 3.4 † 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 221.2 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 300 350 400 500 275.0 123.2 23.0 15.0 78.4 237.4 84.6 190.092 3.8 53.0 -49.6 172.2 -9.0 -11.6 118.0 60.4 201.8 116.8 143.4 3.0 258.2 -36.0 150.4 1.2 149.8 197.4 165.6 226.600 1.8 179.0 320.632 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -58.4 48.700 1.2 203.2 212.0 276.2 284.832 2.4 192.0 374.6 271.8 26.2 -0.6 -5.8 62.500 1.4 -7.8 17.8 287.0 -70 -94.4 147.4 183.0 141.8 188.0 168.0 96.0 114.6 10.4 129.8 251.6 163.6 298.6 154.4 75.6 100.2 257.8 125.0 356.200 1.0 -38.0 392 410 428 446 464 482 572 662 752 932 600 700 800 900 1.0 285.6 -23.6 208.0 42.900 2.300 1.292 1.2 95.4 246.8 224.0 -40.8 170.2 131.000 1.8 -31.4 102.272 3.6 64.6 289.8 215.0 213. Conversion Tables 17.8 71.4 264.8 278.0 -60 -76.2 77.4 -16.0 87.8 98.800 1.4 -34.472 1.372 2.8 134.2 248.2 86.4 156.0 6.0 249.8 -4.8 206. Degrees Fahrenheit Conversion Formula: °F °C °C °F °C 9/5°C 32° 5/9 (°F 32°) °F °C °F °C °F °C °F °C °F °C °F °C °F -80 -112.2 194.2 176.6 244.8 -13.2 302.000 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 1.2 -18.0 294.4–Degrees Celsius (Centigrade) vs.8 260.4 57.2 *32.6 -32.8 44.2 158.2 266.6 82.0 33.4 174.4 255.0 195.2 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 † 167.8 -22.4 30.6 55.2 14.6 46.552 2.6 28.4 273.0 -50 -45 -40 -39 -38 -37 -36 -35 -34 -33 -32 -31 -30 -29 -28 -27 -26 -25 -24 -23 -22 -21 -20 -19 -18 -17 -16 *Freezing † -15 -14 -13 -12 -11 -10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 *0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 5.8 269.4 93.0 -2.2 185.4 228.6 73.8 8.732 2.2 290 | .2 230.2 140.6 217.0 105.400 1.8 152.6 235.012 2.0 267.6 91.4 282.192 2.8 296.0 51.4 -25.6 145.|17.6 181.0 24.2 68.6 262.6 253.0 -20.6 19.6 109.4 TEMPERATURE CONVERSION Table 17.8 107.4 66.6 37.4 291.000 1.

12 4.5 50 75 100 167 200 8.66 25 41 62 83 124 208 312 416 624 830 1.17.1 10.08 3.5 21 31 42 62 104 156 208 312 415 695 833 2.16 6.660 4.33 12.4 15.5–kVA to Amperes Single Phase Circuits kVA Rating 120 V Current in Amperes at: 240 V 480 V 1 1.5 KVA TO AMPERES Table 17.5 10 15 25 37.6 21 31 52 78 104 156 207 348 416 Continued on next page >> | 291 . Conversion Tables| 17.5 16.390 1.16 6.5 2 3 5 7.33 12.24 8.

8 43 72 108 144 192 216 288 384 480 720 292 | .200 1.5–kVA to Amperes (Continued) Three Phase Circuits kVA Rating 208 V Current in Amperes at: 240 V 480 V 600 V 3 6 9 15 30 45 75 112.8 18 36 54 90 135 180 240 270 360 480 600 900 2.0 41. Conversion Tables Table 17.8 8.6 25.|17.4 21.3 16.6 7.6 36 72 108 180 270 360 480 540 720 960 1.800 3.9 5.380 2.0 125 208 312 415 554 625 830 1.7 14.2 10.5 150 200 225 300 400 500 750 8.2 14.6 83.4 28.080 7.110 1.

9 5.8 14. see Table 430.5 6.2 12.4 125 250 624 Note: Based on a motor efficiency of 90 percent and system power factor of 0.8 57.0 12.2 2. | 293 . Check with applicable codes for specific ampere values to size overcurrent protective devices or conductors.0 62.5 25.5 25.4 28.6–Horsepower to Amperes Three Phase Motor Horsepower Rating 208 V Current in Amperes at: 240 V 480 V 1 2 5 10 20 50 100 200 300 2.6 144 288 576 – 2.6 HORSEPOWER TO AMPERES Table 17. Above values are theoretical values based solely on numerical calculations.0 49.17.5 5.9 125 250 500 – 1.250 of the National Electrical Code. For example. Conversion Tables| 17.8.

3 18.10 Inductive Reactance | 295 .18. FORMULAS AND CONSTANTS 18.1 18.5 18. Formulas and Constants| 18. Inductance and Capacitance in AC Circuits Series and Parallel Connections Engineering Notation Diameter of Multiconductor Cables Determination of Largest Possible Conductor in Cable Interstices Conductor Diameter from Wire Diameter Coaxial Capacitance 296 297 297 298 298 299 300 300 301 301 18.6 18.8 18.7 18.2 18.4 18.9 Electrical Properties of Circuits Resistance and Weight of Conductors Resistance.

73 hp 746 V cos Eff.000 kVA 1.73 I V cos 746 Eff. 1. Efficiency of motor I Current (amperes) kw Kilowatts kVA Kilovolt–amperes hp Horsepower V hp 746 cos Eff.|18.000 296 | .000 1.000 I V 1. Formulas and Constants 18.73 V cos kw 1.73 I V 1.1–Electrical Properties of Circuits Alternating Current Desired Data Single Phase Three Phase Direct Current Kilowatts (kw) I V cos 1.000 1.000 cos kw 1.000 cos I V 1. 1.000 1. I V Eff.73 I V 1.000 1.000 Horsepower output I V cos 746 Eff. 746 Amperes (I) when horsepower is known Amperes (I) when kilowatts are known Amperes (I) when kilovolt-amperes are known cos θ Power factor of load (pf) V Volts between conductors Eff.1 ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF CIRCUITS Table 18. hp V 746 Eff.73 V kVA V 1. kw V 1.000 Kilovolt-amperes (kVA) I V 1.000 V kVA V 1.

in.1416 f Frequency in cycles per second | 297 . Formulas and Constants| 18. INDUCTANCE AND CAPACITANCE IN AC CIRCUITS Table 18. Cross-sectional area in cmils Area in sq.3 RESISTANCE. L and C) V R Voltage in volts Resistance in ohms 2 fL R2 (2 fL)2 I R2 (2 fL)2 R R2 R R2 + (2 fL)2 1 2 fC R2 + 2 fL 1 2 fC 1 ( ( ) 1 2 fC 2 I R2 + 2 fL 1 2 fC ) 2 ( ) 1 2 fC 2 1 R2 + 2 fL ( 1 2 fC ) 2 1 R2 + 2 fL ( ( ) 1 2 2 fC R 1 2 fC ) 2 1 I Current in amperes C Capacitance in farads L Inductance in henries 3.2–Resistance.2 RESISTANCE AND WEIGHT OF CONDUCTORS The resistance and weight of any uncoated copper wire at 20°C (68°F) having a conductivity of 100 percent IACS may be calculated from the following formulas: Ohms per 1. Inductance and Capacitance in AC Circuits If Circuit Contains Reactance Impedance “V” for Current “I” Power Factor Resistance (R) Only O R IR 1 Inductance (L) Only 2 fL 2 fL I2 fL O Capacitance (C) Only 1 2 fC 1 2 fC I 1 1 2 fC O Resistance and Inductance in Series (R and L) Resistance and Capacitance in Series (R and C) Resistance. in.18.0081455 or Cross-sectional area in sq.176 0.000 feet 10371. 3.854.09 or area in cmils 0.000 feet Pounds per 1.0030269 18. Inductance and Capacitance in Series (R.

000 1.000000000001 0.|18.4–Engineering Notation Multiplying Factor Prefix Symbol Scientific Conventional 12 tera giga mega kilo hecto deca deci centi milli micro nano pico femto atto T G M k h da d c m µ n p f a 10 9 10 6 10 10 2 10 1 10 3 1.000001 0.000.000.000000000000001 0.000.1 0. Formulas and Constants 18.4 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTIONS Table 18.000.01 0.3–Series and Parallel Connections Resistance (R) Inductance (L) Capacitance (C) Series R R1 R2 R3 + … L L1 L2 L3 + … 1 __ C C 1 __ C1 C1 1 __ C2 C2 1 __ C3 C3 + … … Parallel 1 __ R 1 __ R1 1 __ R2 1 __ R3 … 1 __ L 1 __ L1 1 __ L2 1 __ L3 … 18.000.000000001 0.000000000000000001 10 -2 10 -3 10 10 -9 10 -12 10 10 -18 10 -15 -6 -1 298 | .000 100 10 0.000 1.000 1.5 ENGINEERING NOTATION Table 18.001 0.000.

Table 18.18.000 2.700 3.610 | 299 . multipy the diameter of an individual conductor by the applicable factor below.000 3.6–Diameter of Multiconductor Cables Number of Conductors Factor 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1.6 DIAMETER OF MULTICONDUCTOR CABLES To calculate the overall diameter of a group of round conductors of uniform diameters twisted together.000 2.4142 1.7183 3.310 3.5–Engineering Notation e 2.7854 one conductor three conductor greater than less than or equal to less than greater than or equal to 18.7321 0.1416 2 3 /4 1/C 3/C 1.414 2.155 2. Formulas and Constants| Table 18.000 3.

000 4.00 Wire Diameter 1.8–Concentric Stranded Conductor Diameter from Wire Diameter Number of Wires in Conductor Factor to Calculate Conductor Diameter 3 7 12 19 37 61 91 127 169 217 271 2.000 11.8 CONDUCTOR DIAMETER FROM WIRE DIAMETER To calculate the nominal diameter of any concentric-lay-stranded conductor made from round wires of uniform diameters. of Wires For a greater number of wires use the formula: Conductor Diameter 300 | . Formulas and Constants 18.7 DETERMINATION OF LARGEST POSSIBLE CONDUCTOR IN CABLE INTERSTICES The following factors permit the calculation of the maximum size conductor that will fit into the interstices (open spaces) of various conductor configurations.00 17.155 3.667 0. multiply the diameter of an individual wire by the applicable factor below: Table 18.414 0.00 19.332 No.00 13.155 5.377 0.483 0. Multiply the diameter of one main conductor by the factor from the chart below to obtain the largest diameter that will fit into the interstices.000 7.|18.00 15.354 18.7–Determination of Largest Possible Conductor in Cable Interstices Number of Conductors Factor 2 3 4 5 6 0. Table 18.000 9. while keeping within a circumscribing circle.

C2 is capacitance in microfarads per kilometer e is the dielectric constant D is diameter over the insulation d is diameter under the insulation 18.023 Ln ( GMD ) ohms/1. GMR ( GMD ) ohms/km GMR Where: GMD GMR geometric mean distance (equivalent conductor spacing) geometric mean radius of conductor For conductors in a triplexed configuration.000 ft. concentric stranded conductors.0556e D Ln d 0.363d for a 7-wire strand up to 0. GMR ranges from 0.9 COAXIAL CAPACITANCE C 7.000 ft. For round.0169e D Ln d () () Where: C1 is capacitance in microfarads per 1. Formulas and Constants| 18.18.10 INDUCTIVE REACTANCE The inductive reactance of a shielded 3-conductor medium-voltage power cable at 60 Hz can be calculated with the following formulas: XL or XL 0. | 301 . GMD is equal to the center-to-center spacing.354e Log10 (1 + 2t/d) Where: C is capacitance in picofarads per foot e is the dielectric constant (also known as SIC) t is insulation thickness in mils d is diameter over the conductor (diameter under the insulation) in mils Other forms of this equation include: C1 or C2 0.386d for a 61-wire strand where “d” is the diameter of the conductor.0754 Ln 0.

Glossary| GLOSSARY | 303 .

A/D – Analog/Digital. beads or braided filaments. AL – Aluminum ALLOY – A substance (usually metallic) composed of two or more individual substances. by heating to just below its melting point and then slowly cooling it. AFCI – Arc Fault Circuit Interrupter. An integrated circuit device that converts analog signals to digital signals. AMPLIFIER – A device used to boost the strength of an electronic signal. using Aluminum coated steel wire. The conductor may be centered by means of a spirally wound synthetic filament. b) power loss. This construction is also referred to as an air dielectric. AIA – Aluminum Interlocked Armor.|Glossary 0–10 V – A common analog process control signal voltage range. ALTERNATING CURRENT – Electric current that periodically reverses direction. or process control system. A bare composite of aluminum and steel wires. ADHESIVE-BONDED – Cables bonded by adding an adhesive coating to the surface of the cable components. A A – Common abbreviation for Ampere (see ampere) AAR – American Association of Railroads. 304 | .) of airborne equipment. AGC – Automatic Gain Control. using Aluminum clad steel Wire. AMPERE – A standard unit of current. c) heat dissipation. ACAR – Aluminum Conductor. ACRF – Attenuation to Crosstalk Ratio Far-end. ABRASION RESISTANCE – Ability to resist surface wear. 4–20 mA – A common analog process control signal current range. using Class C zinc-coated steel wire. A method of adding information to an electronic signal where the height (amplitude) of the wave is changed to convey the added information. etc. This also generally lowers the tensile strength of the material. ADDRESS – The location of a terminal. Steel Reinforced. A type of cable sheath. AIRCRAFT WIRE – An electrical wire primarily designed for the extreme conditions (temperature. AIR SPACED COAX – A coaxial cable in which air is basically the dielectric material. usually aluminum around steel. See ELFEXT. A protective device that detects arcing and then turns the circuit off. ACSR/AZ – Aluminum Conductor. ACSR/GB – Aluminum Conductor. AC – (1) Alternating current. or any other unit or component in a network. Steel Reinforced. AMPLITUDE – The maximum value of a varying wave form. fuels. Steel Reinforced. a peripheral device. AMPACITY – The rms current which a device can carry within specified temperature limitations in a specified environment: dependent upon a) temperature rating. using Class B zinc-coated steel wire. closely fitting aluminum tube. (2) A UL cable type with flexible metal tape armor. An ampere of current is flowing when one coulomb of charge is passing a point every second. a node. ANNEAL – To soften and relieve strains in any solid material. AF – Audio Frequency. altitude. then joining and curing the adhesive to form a cable. Aluminum-Reinforced cable. such as metal or glass. AM – Amplitude Modulation. AEIC – Association of Edison Illuminating Companies. ANNEALED WIRE – See Soft Wire. AB Switch – A coaxial cable switch capable of switching one cable to one of two branch cables. ACSR/AW – Aluminum Conductor. See Bonded Cables. AIR CORE CABLE – A cable in which the interstices in the cable core are not filled with a moisture barrier. AERIAL CABLE – A cable suspended in the air on poles or other overhead structure. AMBIENT – Conditions existing at a location prior to energizing of equipment (example: ambient temperature). Steel Reinforced. Designated as the amount of current that flows when one volt of emf is applied across one ohm of resistance. Composite Reinforced aerial cable. ANNUNCIATOR WIRE – Usually single solid copper. ANNULAR CONDUCTOR – A number of wires stranded in reversed concentric layers around a core. ACSR/GC – Aluminum Conductor. Admittance is the reciprocal of impedance. ACCELERATED LIFE TEST – A test in which a cable is subjected to extreme conditions to determine the life of a cable. Alternating current is generally abbreviated AC. solvents. while improving its flex life. AGING – The irreversible change of material properties after exposure to an environment for an interval of time. ACCR – Aluminum Conductor. AMPLITUDE MODULATION (AM) – Transmission method in which variations in the voltage or current waveform of a signal carry encoded information. ALS – A type of cable consisting of insulated conductors enclosed in a continuous. Steel Reinforced. ADMITTANCE – A measure of how easily alternating current flows in a circuit. ACSR/GA – Aluminum Conductor. Contains a ceramic strength member to reduce sag at high temperatures (up to 210°C). ANALOG – Not digital. It is expressed in mhos. ACSR – Aluminum Conductor. Steel Reinforced. AMPERE-TURN – The product of amperes times the number of turns in a coil. A or B. using Class A zinc-coated steel wire. A continuously varying waveform. sometimes twisted pair or triplexed for open wiring of bell circuits and other low-voltage systems.

ANTIOXIDANT – Retards or prevents degradation of materials exposed to oxygen (air). UL type AWM wire. AWM – Appliance Wiring Material. ARC RESISTANCE – The time required for an arc to establish a conductive path in a material.000 Hz. Usually 20–20. One method is given in IEEE Standard 101. BINDING POST – A device for clamping or holding electrical conductors in a rigid position. The lower the AWG number the larger the wire diameter. BIMETALLIC WIRE – A wire formed of two different metals joined together (not alloyed). BITS PER SECOND (bps) – The number of bits of data transmitted through a digital process control cable in one second. BALLAST – A device designed to stabilize current flow. AUI – Attachment Unit Interface. ARRHENIUS PLOT – A statistical method used to predict time-to-failure. ARMOR-X – Southwire’s trademark for CCW aluminum armor. AUDIO FREQUENCY – The range of frequencies audible to the human ear. AWG – American Wire Gauge. BASEBAND – A signalling technique in which the signal is transmitted in its original form and not changed by modulation. such as sand in a trench. usually expressed as a number referenced to a power of 10. BER – Bit Error Rate. BALANCED CIRCUIT – A circuit so arranged that the impressed voltages on each conductor of the pair are equal in magnitude but opposite in polarity with respect to ground. BIRDCAGE – The undesirable unwinding of a stranded cable. BIT – Abbreviation for binary digit. BAND MARKING – A continuous circumferential band applied to a conductor at regular intervals for identification. measured as frequency (in cycles per second. BIL – Basic Impulse Level. BARE CONDUCTOR – A conductor having no insulation or jacket. BASEBAND LAN – A local area network employing baseband signalling. ASTM – American Society for Testing Materials. APPLIANCE WIRE AND CABLE – A classification covering insulated wire and cable for internal wiring of appliances and equipment. ARMATURE – (1) Rotating machine: the member in which alternating voltage is generated. BNC is said to be an abbreviation for Bayonet-Neill-Concelman. ANTENNA LEAD-IN WIRE – (Not coaxial) Parallel twin lead construction. formed so that each convolution locks mechanically upon the previous one (interlocked armor). based on a device’s performance at different temperatures. An organization that sets standards on various material tests for industry. ATTENUATION – The decrease in magnitude of a signal as it travels through any transmitting medium. A unit of information equal to one binary decision or the designation of one of two possible and equally likely states (such as 1 and 0) of anything used to store or convey information. BELDFOIL – Belden trademark for a highly effective electrostatic shield using reinforced metallic foil. BNC – Common connector for coax. The crest value of a lightning impulse voltage of a specified wave shape which a high-voltage cable or termination is required to withstand under specified conditions.Glossary| ANSI (American National Standards Institute) – An organization that publishes nationally recognized standards. B BACKFILL – The materials placed to fill an excavation. may be a formed metal tube or a helical wrap of wires. BANDWIDTH – The width of a communication channel. BARREL-PACKED – Method of coiling wire into a drum for shipment. (2) electromagnet: the member which is moved by magnetic force. | 305 . such as a cable or circuitry.3 controller and the baseband transceiver or broadband modem. AUDIO – A term used to describe sounds within the range of human hearing. ATTENUATION CONSTANT – A rating for a cable or other transmitting medium. BINDER – A tape or thread used for holding assembled cable components in place. ASKAREL – A synthetic insulating oil which is nonflammable but very toxic. BALANCED LINE – A cable having two identical conductors with the same electromagnetic characteristics in relation to other conductors and to ground. A wire diameter specification. Also used to describe devices which are designed to operate within this range. The ratio of received bits that are in error. plastic jacketed with fixed 300 ohm impedance for connecting a remote antenna to a receiver. which is the relative rate of amplitude decrease of voltage or current in the direction of travel. A seven bit plus parity code established by the American National Standards Institute to achieve compatibility among data services and consisting of 96 displayed upper and lower case characters and 32 nondisplayed control codes. BONDED CABLE – Cable consisting of preinsulated conductors or multiconductor components laid in parallel and bonded into a flat cable. usually a helical winding of metal tape. ARMOR – Mechanical protector for cables. plated or coated wire. ASCII – American National Standard Code for Information Interchange. It has been replaced by silicone oils. BELT – Layers of insulation on a conductor. It is measured in decibels per unit length of cable. ANTENNA ROTOR CABLE – Multiconductor flat or round cable used to supply power to a motorized antenna and control wires for changing direction of rotation. relative to a specific number of bits received. or hertz). The interface between the Ethernet/IEEE 802. It can include wire with a steel core. BELTED-TYPE CABLE – Multiple conductor cable having a layer of insulation over the assembled insulated conductors. A channel’s bandwidth is a major factor in determining how much information it can carry. or layers of jacket on a cable. Attenuation is measured as a ratio or as the logarithm of a ratio (decibel).

BRAID ANGLE – The smaller of the angles formed by the shielding strand and the axis of the cable being shielded. Also known as Standard Wire Gauge (SWG). telecommunications have resulted. BONDING – The method used to produce good electrical contact between metallic parts of any device. BRAZING – The joining of ends of two wires. BRAID CARRIER – A spool or bobbin on a braiding machine which holds one group of strands or filaments consisting of a specific number of ends. BUS-BAR WIRE – Uninsulated tinned copper wire used as a common lead. wire or connector in addition to the normal jacketing or insulation. BRIDGE – A circuit which measures by balancing four impedances through which the same current flows: Wheatstone measures resistance Kelvin measures low resistance Schering measures capacitance. New British Standard (NBS). BREAKING STRENGTH – The maximum load that a conductor can withstand when tested in tension to rupture. BREAKDOWN VOLTAGE – The voltage at which the insulation between two conductors breaks down. BUTYL RUBBER – Synthetic rubber formerly used for electrical insulating purposes.|Glossary BONDED CONSTRUCTION – An insulation construction in which the glass braid and nylon jacket are bonded together.” BUS – A network topology which functions like a signal line which is shared by a number of nodes. crush-resistant polymer tube applied over optical fibers to provide mechanical protection. RHW. BUFFER – A protective coating in intimate contact with an optical fiber. BX – A common type of armored building wire rated 600 volts. Type SO cable is often used. The term booster is also applied to antenna preamplifiers. BRAID ENDS – The number of strands used to make up one carrier. an 8-bit quantity of information. BUNCHER – A machine that twists wires together in a random arrangement. Boosting generators are also used to raise the level of a DC line. The carrier revolves during braiding operations. BREAKDOWN (PUNCTURE) – A disruptive discharge through the insulation. BUNA – A synthetic rubber insulation of styrenebutadiene. BROADBAND LAN – LAN which uses FDM (frequency division multiplexing) to divide a single physical channel into a number of smaller independent frequency channels. or groups of wires with nonferrous filler metal at temperatures above 800°F (427°C). BUNCH STRAND – A conductor in which all individual wires are twisted in the same direction without regard for geometrical arrangement. BRITISH STANDARD WIRE GAUGE – A modification of the Birmingham Wire Gauge and the legal standard of Great Britain for all wires. THW and THHN wire. BURIED CABLE – A cable installed directly in the earth without use of underground conduit. The different channels created by FDM can be used to transfer different forms of information – voice. Also called “direct burial cable. used mainly in referring to parallel data transfer. BOOSTER – A device inserted into a line (or cable) to increase the voltage. The strands are wound side by side on the carrier bobbin and lie parallel in the finished braid. BUILDING WIRE – Commercial wires used in the building trades such as: Types RHH. BSL (Basic Switching impulse insulation Level) – The crest value of a switching impulse voltage of a specified wave shape which a high-voltage cable termination is required to withstand under specified conditions. dielectric constant Wien measures capacitance. BUTT SPLICE – A splice wherein two wires from opposite ends butt against each other. Braiding machines are identified by the number of carriers. Also refers to the connectors and straps used to ground equipment. Many applications have been developed using buoyancy to advantage – numerous types and sizes for power. Used extensively in automobiles and aircraft to prevent static buildup. in the center of a splice. communications. BORE HOLE CABLE – Power and/or communication cable suspended down a vertically drilled hole to equipment undergound. (2) A form placed around the wire termination of a multicontact connector to contain the liquid potting compound before it hardens. BROADCAST – The act of sending a signal from one station on a LAN to all other stations. BUTT WRAP – Tape wrapped around an object or conductor in an edge-to-edge condition. now as SBR. BRAIDING MACHINE – Machine used to apply braids to wire and cable and to produce braided sleeving and braids for tying or lacing purposes. BOOT – (1) Protective coating over a cable. BRANCH JOINT – A cable joint used for connecting one or more cables to a main cable. rods. dissipation factor. BUSHING – A mechanical device used as a lining for an opening to prevent abrasion to wire and cable. semiconductor capacity and data storage. BUFFER TUBE – A loose. data and video. was known as GR-S. BREAKOUT – The point at which a conductor or group of conductors breaks out from a multiconductor cable to complete circuits at various points along the main cable. BYTE – Generally. dissipation factor BRIDGED TAP – The multiple appearances of the same cable pair at several distribution points. Transformers are usually employed to boost AC voltages. English Legal Standard and Imperial Wire Guide. also generally referred to in data communications as an octet or character. BORDER LIGHT CABLE – Same as stage cable but more than 2 conductors. B and S – Brown and Sharpe wire gauge – same as AWG. BRAID – Textile or metallic filaments interwoven to form a tubular structure that may be applied over one or more wires or flattened to form a strap. or against a stop. BUOYANT CABLE – Originally military type MIL-C-2401 with built-in floatation ability. 306 | .

usually color coded and with a protective jacket overall. cabled together. CELLULAR POLYETHYLENE – Expanded or “foam” polyethylene. An RS-232 control signal (on Pin 8) which indicates that the local modem is receiving a signal from the remote modem. CABLE ASSEMBLY – A cable assembly is a cable with plugs or connectors on each end for a specific purpose. CABLE CLAMP ADAPTER – A mechanical adapter that attaches to the rear of a plug or receptacle to allow the attachment of a cable clamp. nitrogen and oil are the most common fluids. | 307 . CABLE – A cable may be a small number of large conductors or a large number of small conductors. usually from power transmission lines. CAD – Computer-Aided Design. One of the European Union’s key electrical standards-writing bodies. BELTED – A multiconductor cable having a layer of insulation over the assembled insulated conductors. A type of cable sheath. CABLE. distortion and delay distortion so they lie within specific limits. which states that the product being shipped meets customer’s specifications. including shield. tube. CAPACITIVE REACTANCE – The opposition to alternating current due to the capacitance of a capacitor. (3) A spindle. (2) the positive pole of a storage battery. C CONNECTOR – A bayonet-locking connector for coax. CB – Citizens Band. CD – Carrier Detect. C CONDITIONING – A type of line conditioning that controls attenuation.Glossary| C C – Symbol for capacitance and Celsius. CABLE CORE BINDER – A wrapping of tapes or cords around the conductors of a multiple-conductor cable used to hold them together. Also called Received Line Signal Detector (RLSD) and Data Carrier Detect (DCD). media type and cable length. UNBALANCE-TO-GROUND – An inequality of capacitance between the ground capacitance of the conductors of a pair which results in a pickup of external noise energy. UNBALANCE – An inequality of capacitance between the wires of two or more pairs which result in a transfer of unwanted signal from one pair to others. For coaxial cable. CABLE SHEATH – The protective covering applied to cables. CABLE JOINT – A complete insulated splice. PRESSURIZED – A cable having a pressurized fluid (gas or oil) as part of the insulation. CABLE SUPPORT – A device to mount a cable on a supporting member. CAPACITANCE COUPLING – Electrical interaction between two conductors caused by the potential difference between them. The cable attenuation is a function of frequency. CATV CABLE – General term for all cables used for community antenna TV service and feeders. CENELEC – Comité Européen de Normalisation ELECtrotechnique. CAPILLARY ACTION – The travelling of liquid along a small interstice due to surface tension. One of the many services often found on broadband networks. or bobbin (on a braiding machine) containing yarn or wire. the insulating material may also serve as the protective covering. CAPACITANCE. CABLE. cable or circuit. or group of insulated splices. CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE – A written statement. MUTUAL – The capacitance between two conductors (typically of a pair) with all other conductors. It may be formed in various configurations. CAPACITANCE. In some designs. It is measured in ohms and is equal to 1/(6. type of dielectric and spacing between the conducting surfaces. CABLE CORE – The portion of an insulated cable lying under a protective covering. short circuited to ground. CAPACITANCE. consisting of individual closed cells of inert gas suspended in a polyethylene medium. CCW – Continuously Corrugated and Welded. distribution and house drops. CATHODIC PROTECTION – Reduction or prevention of corrosion by making the metal to be protected the cathode in a direct current circuit. CABLE CLAMP – A device used to give mechanical support to the wire bundle or cable at the rear of a plug or receptacle. The capacitance is determined by the area of the surface. CARRIER – (1) An AC electrical signal that is used to carry information.28 fC) where f is the frequency in Hz and C is the capacitance in farads. CABLE FILLER – The material used in multiple-conductor cables to occupy the interstices formed by the assembly of the insulated conductors. Cable losses are usually calculated for the highest frequency carried on the cable. CAM – Computer-Aided Manufacture. contained within a single protective covering or housing. normally generated by a Quality Control Department. employed as a braid. C is named after Carl Concelman. CCTV – Closed-Circuit TeleVision. thus forming a cable core. CABLE LOSS – The amount of RF (radio frequency) signal attenuated by coaxial cable transmission. DIRECT – The capacitance measured from one conductor to another conductor through a single insulating layer. (2) The woven element of a braid consisting of one or more ends (strands) which creates the interlaced effect. One type of two-way radio communication. resulting in a desirable reduction of dielectric constant. CATHODE – (1) The negative electrode through which current leaves a nonmetallic conductor. CABLING – The method by which a group of insulated conductors is mechanically assembled (or twisted together). such as an electrolytic cell. CATV – Community Antenna TeleVision. higher frequencies have greater loss than lower frequencies and follow a logarithmic function. CAPACITANCE – Capacitance is that property of a system of conductors and dielectrics which permits the storage of electricity when potential differences exist between the conductors. spool. Refers to the use of a coaxial or fiber cable to transmit television or other signals to subscribers from a single head-end location. CAPACITOR – Two conducting surfaces separated by a dielectric material. CAPACITANCE.

or other means.I. It is an area equal to the area of a circle 1/1000 of an inch in diameter. COMMON MODE NOISE – Noise caused by a difference in “ground potential. CONDUCTIVITY – Capacity of a material to carry electrical current – usually expressed as a percentage of copper conductivity (copper being 100 percent).” By grounding at either end rather than both ends (usually grounded at source) one can reduce this interference.. Also called a circuit facility. When terminated in its characteristic impedance. CHEMICAL STRIPPING – Removal of insulation by chemical means. DuPont under the trade name of Hypalon. CONVENTIONAL CONCENTRIC CONDUCTOR – A conductor constructed with a central wire surrounded by one or more layers of helically laid wires. The direction of lay is reversed in successive layers and generally with an increase in length of lay for successive layers. CONCENTRIC-LAY CONDUCTOR – A conductor constructed with a central wire surrounded by one or more layers of helically laid wires. quads.|Glossary CERTIFIED TEST REPORT (CTR) – A report reflecting actual test data on the cable shipped. CHARACTERISTIC IMPEDANCE – An electrical characteristic of transmission lines. unidirectional beam of light of one wavelength (monochromatic). COMPOSITE (CLAD) WIRE – A wire having a core of one metal with a fused outer shell of a different metal. etc. CONDUCTANCE – The ability of a conductor to carry an electric charge. circuit) between calling and called stations is established on demand for exclusive use by the connected parties until the connection is released.. See Tinned Wire. approximately 8 to 10 percent below the nominal diameter of a noncompact conductor of the same cross-sectional area. CLAD WIRE – Different from coated wire. CONDUCTOR – A material suitable for carrying an electric current. COMPRESSION LUG OR SPLICE – A connection installed by compressing the connector onto the strand. CIRCUIT TRACING – Locating or identifying a specific conductive path. converting upstream (toward the head-end) signals into downstream signals (away from the head-end). COMPOSITE CONDUCTOR – A conductor consisting of two or more types of wire. COLOR CODE – A color system for wire or circuit identification by use of solid colors. triples. line. The reciprocal of resistance. tracers. The ratio of the current flow to the potential difference causing the flow. Manufactured by E. Tends to result in greater susceptibility to electromagnetic and electrostatic interference. a twisting of all conductors about a “common axis” to result in smaller diameter constructions. Several types are as follows: COMPACT ROUND CONDUCTOR – A conductor constructed with a central wire surrounded by one or more preshaped (nonround) helically laid wires and formed into final shape by rolling. or path. CIRCULAR MIL (CM) – A term universally used to define cross-sectional areas of conductors. The wire specimen is then wound around a mandrel after which it is examined for cracks or other defects caused by bending at low temperatures. COMMON AXIS CABLING – In multiconductor constructions. COATED WIRE – Any metal covered by a relatively thin coating of a different metal such as tin. hopefully into a cold weld. braids. CIRCUIT SWITCHING – A switching technique in which an information path (i. COAXIAL CABLE – A cylindrical transmission line comprised of a conductor centered inside a metallic tube or shield. reflections from the end of a line are minimized. e. zinc or other alloy by a dip bath and wipe process. drawing. 308 | . CONCENTRIC-LAY CONDUCTOR – A layer of uninsulated wires twisted around a central wire with subsequent layers spirally wrapped around the inner layers to form a single conductor. is any metal covered with a relatively heavy coating of different metal. CHANNEL – (1) A path for electrical transmission. especially above audio frequencies. (2) A specific and discrete bandwidth allocation in the radio frequency spectrum (for example. etc. in a broadband LAN) utilized to transmit one information signal at a time. often at high speeds in line with insulating equipment. the size of a wire increases. As the number of circular mils increase.e. or coated-stranded together to operate mechanically and electrically as a single conductor. COMPACT STRANDED CONDUCTOR – A unidirectional or conventional concentric conductor manufactured to a specified diameter. Tests are normally conducted by the Quality Control Department and shows that the product being shipped meets the required test specifications. at a temperature lower than the recrystallization temperature. clad.g. surface printing. COLD BEND – Generally refers to a test to determine cable or wire characteristics at low temperatures. The test specimen is cooled in a low temperature box to a specified temperature. separated by a dielectric material and usually covered by an insulating jacket. COIL EFFECT – The inductive effect exhibited by a spiral wrapped shield. CHLOROSULFONATED POLYETHYLENE (CSP) – A rubbery polymer used for insulations and jackets. CHANNEL TRANSLATOR – Device used in broadband LANs to increase carrier frequency. coaxials. COHERENT SOURCE – A fiber optic light source which emits a very narrow. COLD FLOW – Permanent deformation of the insulation due to mechanical pressure (not due to heat softening). such as copperweld (copper over steel) or alum-o-weld (aluminum over steel). COLD-DRAWING – Reducing the cross section by pulling through a die or dies. link. CIGARETTE WRAP – Tape insulation wrapped longitudinally instead of spirally over a conductor. COMPOSITE CABLE – A cable containing more than one gauge size or a variety of circuit types. See Coated Wire. COMBINATION STRANDED CONDUCTOR – A conventional concentric conductor in which the wires in the outer layer are larger in diameter than the wires in the inner layer or layers and the diameters of all wires are within plus and minus 5 percent of the nominal wire diameter for the same size noncombination stranded conductor. each type of wire being plain. CONCENTRICITY – The measurement of the location of the center of the conductor with respect to the geometric center of the circular insulation. COMPRESSED STRANDED CONDUCTOR – A conventional concentric conductor manufactured to a diameter not more than 3 percent below the nominal diameter of a noncompressed conductor of the same cross-sectional area. pairs.

such as additional components. all layers having a common length of lay. CRT – Cathode-Ray Tube. CONTACT – The part of a connector which carries the electrical current. CONTINUITY CHECK – A test performed on a length of finished wire or cable to determine if the electrical current flows continuously throughout the length. the transparent glass or plastic section with a high refractive index through which the light travels by internal reflections. The properties of the resulting thermosetting material are usually improved. or welding. Connectors usually fall into one of the following types: – solder – welded – mechanical – compression or indent Conductors are sometimes spliced without connectors. CONNECTION. CORONA – A discharge due to ionization of the air around a conductor due to a potential gradient exceeding a certain critical value. The term is loosely used to also include coupling at higher frequencies. UNIDIRECTIONAL CONDUCTOR – A conductor constructed with a central wire surrounded by more than one layer of helically laid wires. ROPE-LAY CONDUCTOR – A conductor constructed of a bunch-stranded or a concentric-stranded member or members. used to splice the ends of two or more cable conductors. A television-like picture tube used in terminals. CROSS-LINKED POLYETHYLENE – A dielectric material used for insulating and jacketing. UNILAY CONDUCTOR – A conductor constructed with a central wire surrounded by more than one layer of helically laid wires. caused by a flow of current in the coil. COPOLYMER – A compound resulting from the polymerization of two different monomers. CORROSION – The destruction of the surface of a metal by chemical reaction. WYE – Interconnection of 3 electrical equipment windings in wye (star) configuration. CONTROL CABLE – A cable used for remote control operation of any type of electrical power equipment. CRT is commonly used as a synonym for the CRT terminal. A jacketing compound sold by Dow Chemical under the trademark Tyrin. COUPLING LOSS – Signal losses in an optical fiber due to small differences in numerical aperture. Also referred to as “XLP” or “XLPE. CONDUIT – A tube or trough for protecting electrical wires or cables. Also known as Splicing loss and Transfer loss. sheath. CONNECTION. See Partial Discharge. CPE – Chlorinated PolyEthylene. by soldering. brazing. CONTRAHELICAL – Cable spiralling in an opposite direction than the preceding layer within a wire or cable. Also. Buried counterpoise wire is connected to overhead ground wires and towers. COUNTER EMF – The voltage opposing the applied voltage and the current in a coil. CONTINUOUS VULCANIZATION – Simultaneous extrusion and vulcanization (cross-linking) of wire insulating and jacketing materials. COVERAGE – The calculated percentage which defines the completeness with which a metal braid covers the underlying surface. CROSS-LINKED – Inter-molecular bonds created between long chain thermoplastic polymers by chemical or electron bombardment means. | 309 . COUNTERPOISE WIRE – Bare copper wire used to offset the impact of lightning surges along high-voltage overhead lines and around the base of towers. COULOMB – The derived SI unit for quantity of electricity or electrical charge: One coulomb equals one ampere-second. COPPER-CLAD STEEL – Steel with a coating of copper welded to it before drawing as opposed to copper-plated. around which are laid one or more helical layers of such members. as a central wire. DELTA – Interconnection of 3 electrical equipment windings in a delta (triangular) configuration. The higher percentage of coverage. CONTACT SIZE – The largest size wire which can be used with the specific contact. sometimes called Extruded Strand Shield (ESS). COUPLING – The transfer of energy between two or more cables or components of a circuit. all layers having a common length and direction of lay. Numerous methods of application are used. CONNECTOR – A metallic device of suitable electric conductance and mechanical strength. (2) In fiber optics. core concentricity and tolerances in connectors when two fibers are spliced together. the diameter of the engagement end of the pin. shield. COPPERWELD – Trademark of Copperweld Steel Co. with increase in length of lay for each successive layer. all layers having a common direction of lay. CORONA RESISTANCE – The time that the insulation will withstand a specified level of ionization that does not result in the complete breakdown of the insulation. CONDUCTOR CORE – The center strand or member about which one or more layers of wires or members are laid helically to form a concentric-lay or rope-lay conductor. or armor. core diameter.Glossary| EQUILAY CONDUCTOR – A conductor constructed with a central wire surrounded by more than one layer of helically laid wires. dependent upon resistance of the soil at the tower base. CONTROLLED IMPEDANCE CABLE – A package of two or more insulated conductors where impedance measurements between respective conductors are kept essentially constant throughout the entire length. PARALLEL CORE CONDUCTOR – A conductor constructed with a central core of parallel-laid wires surrounded by one layer of helically laid wires. CORD SET – Portable cords fitted with a connector at one or both ends. CONDUCTOR SHIELD – A conducting layer applied to make the conductor a smooth surface in intimate contact with the insulation. the greater the protection against external interference. CORE – (1) In cables. CORD – A flexible insulated cable.” CROSS TALK – A type of interference caused by audio frequencies from one circuit being coupled into an adjacent circuit. for copper-clad steel conductor. direction of lay being reversed in successive layers. or as a terminal connector on a single conductor. a component or assembly of components over which other materials are applied. also known as back emf. Synonymous with Copperweld.

DERATING FACTOR – A factor used to reduce the current carrying capacity of a wire when used in environments other than that for which the value was established. DIELECTRIC BREAKDOWN – Any change in the properties of a dielectric that causes it to become conductive. CURE – To change the properties of a polymeric material into a more stable. usable condition by the use of heat. DIELECTRIC DISPERSION – The change in relative capacitance due to a change in frequency. dB – DeciBel. A type of brominated flame retardant sometimes used in wire and cable and other products. CT – Cable Tray. The standard unit used to express the relative strength of two signals. while that for polyethylene is 2.3 times that of air. the capacitance of polyethylene is 2. DIELECTRIC HEATING – The heating of an insulating material when placed in a radio-frequency field. A voltage higher than normal operating voltage is applied across the insulation. CURL – The degree to which a wire tends to form a circle after removal from a spool. usually expressed as a gradient in V/mil (volts per mil). “K” for air is 1. maintain and terminate a connection as well as the signal conversion required for communications between the DTE and the telephone line or data circuit. a rate of one coulomb/second. ALTERNATING (AC) – An electric current that periodically reverses direction of electron flow. The number of cycles in a given unit of time (generally a second) is called the frequency of the current. synonymous with modem. 310 | . or reaction with chemical additives. Direct. DecaBDE – DecaBromoDiphenyl Ether. A cable marking which indicates a cable is suitable for use in a cable tray. the equipment that provides the functions required to establish. caused by internal losses during the rapid polarization reversal of molecules in the material. It may be constant or pulsating as long as their movement is in the same direction. Delay skew is caused primarily because twisted pairs are designed to have different twists per foot (lay lengths). it expresses either a gain or loss in power between the input and output devices. DEMAND – (1) The measure of the maximum load of a utility’s customer over a short period of time. NEC Article 392. A type of PolyBrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE).|Glossary CRT WIRE – High-voltage lead wire for energizing cathode ray tubes. When referring to a single signal measured at two places in a transmission system. (see Current. It is also referred to as Specific Inductive Capacity or Permitivity. DIELECTRIC – An insulating (nonconducting) medium. DIELECTRIC CONSTANT – The property of an insulation which determines the electrostatic energy stored per unit volume for unit potential gradient. This test can increase product reliability by detecting faulty workmanship. Polyethylene for example has a dielectric strength of about 800 V/mil. Usually in units of amperes/square meter. Therefore. D D/A – Digital to Analog. DAC – Digital to Analog Converter. CUT-THROUGH RESISTANCE – The ability of a material to withstand mechanical pressure without damage. DCL – Data Carrier Level. The unit of current is the ampere. which includes voice. An insulation and jacketing curing process. determined by the capacitance of the cable. The charging current will be 90° out of phase with the voltage. A device that converts a digital input signal to an analog output signal carrying equivalent information. Normally the failure of an insulation because of excessive voltage. In common usage. DCS – Distributed Control System. Zero dBmV is equal to 1 millivolt across an impedance of 75 ohms. DIELECTRIC STRENGTH – The maximum voltage which an insulation can withstand without breaking down. temperature and pressure required for curing. facsimile and video. CURRENT – The rate of transfer of electricity. text. DC – Direct Current. CURRENT CARRYING CAPACITY – The maximum current an insulated conductor can safely carry without exceeding its insulation and jacket temperature limitations. CURRENT. DIRECT (DC) – Electrical current whose electrons flow in one direction only. CSPE – A jacketing compound based on DuPont’s chlorosulfonated polyethylene (Hypalon). DELAY SKEW – The difference between the propagation delay of any two pairs within the same cable sheath. DATA – Digitally represented information. radiation. CURRENT. DIELECTRIC STRENGTH TESTING – A common test performed on electrical products which is often called hi-pot testing. CHARGING – The current needed to bring the cable up to voltage. CSA (Canadian Standards Association) – Similar to UL in the United States. CV – Continuous Vulcanization. DETECTOR – A fiber optic device that picks up light from the fiber and converts the information into an electrical signal. It is expressed as a ratio. CYCLE – The complete sequence including reversal of the flow of an alternating electric current.) DCE – Data Communications Equipment. DIELECTRIC LOSS – The power dissipated in a dielectric as the result of the friction produced by molecular motion when an alternating electric field is applied. CURING CYCLE – The time. Same as Ampacity. DC RESISTANCE – See Resistance. Sometimes abbreviated CSP. Delay skew could cause data transmitted over one channel to arrive out of sync with data over another channel. A type of industrial automation system. dBmV – (DeciBel MilliVolt) The level at any point in a system expressed in dBs above or below a 1 millivolt/75 ohm standard is said to be the level in decibel-millivolts or dBmV. CSA Certified – A product that has been tested and found to comply with applicable Canadian standards. To cross-link.3.0. (2) The load integrated over a specified time interval. CURRENT. CURRENT DENSITY – The current per cross sectional area.

provides low voltage service to the customer. ELASTOMER – Any material that will return to its original dimensions after being stretched or distorted. ELECTROMAGNETIC COUPLING – The transfer of energy by means of a varying magnetic field. DTE – Data Terminal Equipment. ELECTRONIC WIRE AND CABLE – Wire or cable used in electronic applications. DISTURBED CONDUCTOR – A conductor that receives energy generated by the field of another conductor or an external source such as a transformer. DUPLEX – Two way data transmission on a four-wire transmission cable. The U. the transmission cable from the distribution amplifier to the drop cable. the representation of information in discrete binary form. DISSIPATION FACTOR – Energy lost when voltage is applied across an insulation. discontinuous in time. DIP COATING – An insulating coating applied to the conductor by passing the conductor through an applicator containing liquid insulating medium. Expressed as a percentage of displacement of one circle within the other. EDDY CURRENT – Circulating currents induced in conducting materials by varying magnetic fields. Elevator lighting and control cable. Halar is a Solvay Solexis trademark for this material. DUOFOIL – Belden trademark for a shield in which metallic foil is applied to both sides of a supporting plastic film. as opposed to the analog representation of information in variable. used for terminating the shield. DROP CABLE – In a CATV system. DISTORTION FACTOR – An undesirable change in waveform as the signal passes through a device. DISTURBING CONDUCTOR – A conductor carrying energy whose field(s) create spurious energy in another conductor. coaxial. Dissipation factor is quite sensitive to contamination and deterioration of insulation. DIRECTIONAL COUPLER – A passive device used in a cable system to divide or combine unidirectional RF power sources. One of the control signals on a standard RS-232-C connector. the transmission cable from the distribution cable to a dwelling. | 311 . DRAIN WIRE – An uninsulated wire in contact with a shield throughout its length. DIRECT BURIAL CABLE – A cable installed directly in the earth. It indicates whether the data communications equipment is connected and ready to start handshaking control signals so that transmission can start. one for transmit and one for receive. (2) In an electric power system. The cotangent of the phase angle between voltage and current in a reactive component. DSR – Data Set Ready. DISPERSION – The variation of the refractive index of an optical fiber with wavelength. DUCT – An underground or overhead tube for carrying electrical conductors. EIA – Electronic Industries Alliance. E E – (1) Symbol for voltage. The force which causes current to flow in a circuit. DIN – Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN). ELECTRON VOLT – A measure of the energy gained by an electron passing through an electric field produced by one volt. DUAL CABLE – A two-cable system in broadband LANs in which coaxial cables provides two physical paths for transmission. ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE (E. ECCENTRICITY – Like concentricity. techniques and equipment by which information is encoded as either a binary “1” or “0”. Usually used to represent direct voltage or the effective (root-mean-square) value of an alternating voltage.Glossary| DIGITAL – Refers to communications procedures. or power as integral members of a finished cable. Also known as Power Factor. pulling the metal through a die or series of dies to reduce diameter to a specified size.S. but continuous. DUPLEX CABLE – A cable composed of two insulated single conductor cables twisted together. DRAWING – In wire manufacture. EARTH – British terminology for zero-reference ground.M. Diameter = 1 femtometer. national organization of electronic manufacturers. The German Standard for many products. ELECTROMAGNET – A device consisting of a ferromagnetic core and a coil that produces appreciable magnetic effects only when an electric current exists in the coil. waveforms. designated as left-hand or right-hand.F. ELECTRON – An elementary particle containing the smallest negative electric charge. ECTFE – Ethylene ChloroTriFluoroEthylene. ELECTRO-MECHANICAL CABLES – Dual purpose composite cables made up of support strands capable of supporting predetermined loads together with communication. instead of dividing the capacity of a single cable. a measure of the center of a conductor’s location with respect to the circular cross section of the insulation. DISTRIBUTION CABLE – (1) In a CATV system.16 attocoulomb. (2) A UL cable type. Used as an insulation or jacketing material.) – Pressure or voltage. DTR – Data Terminal Ready. causing light of different wavelengths to travel at different velocities in the fiber. Charge = 0. DOWNLOAD – The process of loading software into the nodes of a network from one node or device over the network media. Inductive coupling. DIRECTION OF LAY – The lateral direction. An RS-232 modem interface control signal (sent from the DTE to the modem on pin 20) which indicates that the DTE is ready for data transmission and which requests that the modem be connected to the telephone circuit. ELECTROMAGNETIC – Referring to the combined electric and magnetic fields caused by electron motion through conductors. in which the wires of a conductor run over the top of the conductor as they recede from an observer looking along the axis of the conductor. It is responsible for the development and maintenance of industry standards for the interface between data processing machines and data communications equipment. DIRECT CAPACITANCE – The capacitance measured directly from conductor to conductor through a single insulating layer.

EOT – End of Transmission Character. An electric charge. FEPB – A UL cable type. Tefzel™ is DuPont’s trademark for this material.) ELONGATION – The fractional increase in the length of a material stressed in tension. When heated the tubing will shrink to its extruded diameter. these external signals emanate from universal motors with brushes. Typically. which may include one or more texts and any associated message headings. EMBOSSING – Identification by means of thermal indentation which leaves raised lettering on the sheath material of cable. Elevator lighting and control cable with thermoplastic insulation. relative to the received signal level measured on that same pair. EO – A UL cable type. A polymer often used in low-smoke. bidirectional simultaneous two-way communications. (ELFEXT is FEXT adjusted to discount insertion loss.” ETL – Electrical Testing Laboratories. EMA – (Electrical Moisture Absorption) A water tank test during which sample cables are subjected to voltage and water maintained at rated temperature. EPR – Ethylene Propylene Rubber. aggravated and accelerated by DC voltage on the cable. EP. 312 | . ELECTROSTATIC DISCHARGE – (ESD) An instantaneous flow of an electrical charge on a nonconductor through a conductor to ground. EPDM – Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer. ELECTROSTATIC COUPLING – The transfer of energy by means of a varying electrostatic field. EPA – Environmental Protection Agency. ETCHED WIRE – A process applied to Teflon wire in which the wire is passed through a sodium bath to create a rough surface to allow epoxy resin to bond to the Teflon. ENDOSMOSIS – The penetration of water into a cable by osmosis. ELECTRO-TINNED – Electrolytic process of tinning wire using pure tin. EPDM – Designations for a synthetic rubber based upon the hydrocarbon ethylene propylene. EXPANDED DIAMETER – Diameter of shrink tubing as supplied. EXTERNAL WIRING – Electronic wiring that interconnects subsystems within the system. Transmission in two directions simultaneously. ET – A UL cable type. ETHERNET – A baseband local area network specification developed jointly by Xerox Corporation. The federal regulatory agency responsible for keeping and improving the quality of our living environment – mainly air and water. EPR.|Glossary ELECTRO-OSMOSIS – The movement of fluids through dielectrics because of electric current. the microfarad (µf). Teflon is DuPont’s trademark for this material. Inc. or electricity at rest. EPROM – Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory. flame-retardant and moisture-retardant finish. non-halogenated cables. It has a minimum conductivity of 99. FAULT. FCC – Federal Communications Commission. EXTRUSION – A method of applying insulation to a conductor or jacketing to a cable. EXTRUDED CABLE – Cable that is insulated by applying insulation material in a continuous extrusion process. GROUND – A fault to ground. Referred to as ACR-F (insertion loss to crosstalk ratio far-end) in the TIA/EIA-568-B. Elevator lighting and control cable with thermoset insulation. Intel Corporation and Digital Equipment Corporation to interconnect computer equipment using coaxial cable and “Transceivers. May have steel supporting strand in the center. neoprene or a variety of plastic compounds. ELECTROSTATIC – Pertaining to static electricity. ETPC – Abbreviation for electrolytic tough pitch copper. The process is continuous and utilizes rubber. EMERGENCY OVERLOAD – A situation in which larger than normal currents are carried through a cable or wire for a limited period of time. an exact copy. the immersion time is long. with the object being to accelerate failure due to moisture in the insulation. ETFE – Ethylene TetraFluoroEthylene. ENDS – In braiding. personal computers. 300 V. The farad is a very large unit and a much smaller unit. F FACSIMILE – The remote reproduction of graphic material. EXIT ANGLE – The angle between the output radiation vectors and the axis of the fiber or fiber bundle. A transmission control character used to indicate the end of transmission. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulates this emission area. FEP – Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene. EQUILAY CONDUCTOR – See Concentric-lay Conductor. FDX – Full Duplex. Fluorinated ethylene propylene insulated wire with glass braid. more technically.9 percent. ENERGIZE – To apply rated voltage to a circuit or device in order to activate it. FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) – An ANSI defined token-passing ring using fiber optic media to attain a 100 Mbps transmission rate. EMI – Electromagnetic Interference. ELEXAR – Shell trademark for a thermoplastic elastomer (TPE). three braids. etc. or.2-Addendum 10 draft. printers or other devices including copy machines. A measure of the unwanted signal coupling from a transmitter at the near-end into a neighboring pair measured at the far-end. FATIGUE RESISTANCE – Resistance to metal crystallization which leads to conductors or wires breaking from flexing. External signals that disrupt the data being transmitted on the local area network or electronic device being operated. FARAD – A unit of capacitance when a difference of potential of 1 volt produces a displacement of one coulomb in a capacitor. ELFEXT – Equal-level Far-end Crosstalk. Capacitive coupling. is more commonly used. EVA – Ethylene Vinyl Acetate. simulates buried cable. for example. EPM. fluorescent lights. the number of essentially parallel wires or threads on a carrier.

expressed in Hertz (Hz). FLAT CABLE – A cable with two essentially flat surfaces. GAUGE – A term used to denote the physical size of a wire. A technology that uses light as an information carrier. FULL DUPLEX – Two-way communications in which each modem simultaneously sends and receives data at the same rate. FUSED SPIRAL TAPE – A PTFE insulation often used on hookup wire. Also called a buffer tube. GALVANIZED STEEL WIRE – Steel wire coated with zinc. Hypalon or CPE jacketed portable power cable with two to five #8 AWG or larger conductors with ground wires. FLUOROPOLYMER – A class of polymers used as insulating and jacketing materials. FLEX-LIFE – The measurement of the ability of a conductor or cable to withstand repeated bending. A cross section of the finished cable approximates the figure “eight. FLAME RESISTANCE – The ability of a material to not propagate flame once the heat source is removed. FIELD MOLDED SPLICE – A joint in which the solid dielectric joint insulation is fused and cured thermally at the job site. forming a metallurgical bond to the base material. FOAMED INSULATION – Insulations having a cellular structure. the fibers are immune to electrical interference. FREQUENCY COUNTER – An electronic measuring instrument that counts the number of cycles of a periodic electrical signal during a given time interval. FIBER DISPERSION – Pulse spreading in an optical fiber caused by differing transit times of various modes. The deviation of the carrier frequency determines the signal content of the message. One Hertz is one cycle per second. A modulation technique in which the carrier frequency is shifted by an amount proportional to the value of the modulating signal. GAS FILLED CABLE – A self-contained pressurized cable in which the pressure medium is an inert gas having access to the insulation. FIELD TESTS – Tests that may be made on a cable system after installation as an acceptance or proof test. Some filling compounds may also serve as the insulation. FILLING COMPOUND – A dielectric material poured or injected into a splice housing or cable to prevent the entry of water. FIGURE 8 CABLE – An aerial cable configuration in which the conductors and the steel strand which supports the cable are integrally jacketed. G G – A UL cable type. GANG STRIP – Stripping all or several conductors simultaneously. This is done so that the finished cable will be round. FLEXIBILITY – The ease with which a cable may be bent. neoprene. Rubber insulated. FIBER OPTICS – Transmission of energy by light through glass fibers. FREQUENCY PLAN – Specification of how the various frequencies of a broadband cable system are allocated for use. (3) A substance used to promote or facilitate fusion. FREQUENCY – The number of cycles per second at which an analog signal occurs. FREQUENCY ANALYZER – An instrument to measure the intensity of various component frequencies from a transmitting source. FLAT CONDUCTOR – A wire having a rectangular cross section as opposed to a round or square conductor. FLEXIBLE – That quality of a cable or cable component that allows for bending under the influence of an outside force.Glossary| FEXT – Far-end crosstalk. FINE STRANDED WIRE – Stranded wire with component strands of 36 AWG or smaller. FREQUENCY MODULATION (FM) – Method of encoding a carrier wave by varying the frequency of the transmitted signal. FM – Frequency modulation. | 313 . FFH-2 – A UL type of fixture wire with a 600 V rating. Common ones include Teflon. FIBER TUBING – A loose.” FILLED CABLE – A cable construction in which the cable core is filled with a material that will prevent moisture from entering or passing through the cable. Filling compounds may require heating or mixing prior to filling. FLAMMABILITY – The measure of a material’s ability to support combustion. FLASHOVER – A disruptive discharge around or over the surface of a solid or liquid insulator. continuous sheet of metal. “F” TYPE CONNECTOR – A low cost connector used by the TV industry to connect coaxial cable to equipment. A measure of the unwanted signal coupling from a transmitter at the near-end into a neighboring pair measured at the far-end. FOIL – A thin. The glass-based transmission cable occupies far less physical volume for an equivalent transmission capacity. The spiral wrapped tape is passed through a sintering oven where the overlaps are fused together. FLOATING – Refers to a circuit that has no electrical connection to ground. crush-resistant cylinder applied over individual fibers to provide mechanical protection. Kynar and Halar. FUSED COATING – A metallic coating which has been melted and solidified. Tefzel. FILLER – Fillers are used in multiconductor cables which occupy the interstices formed by the assembled conductors. FLUX – (1) The lines of force which make up an electrostatic field. FIELD COIL – A suitable insulated winding mounted on a field pole to magnetize it. FUSED CONDUCTORS – Individual strands of heavily tinned copper wire stranded together and then bonded together by induction heating. FLAT BRAID – A woven braid of tinned copper strands rolled flat at the time of manufacture to a specified width. as opposed to limpness that is bending due to the cable’s own weight. FUSE WIRE – Wire made from an alloy that melts at a relatively low temperature. Fiber optic cables (light guides) are a direct replacement for conventional cable and wire pairs. (2) The rate of flow of energy across or through a surface.

GROUND FAULT – A type of electrical failure in which current flows to ground. GUY – A tension wire connected to a tall structure and another fixed object to add strength to the structure. GIGA – A numerical prefix denoting one billion (109). HEATER CORD – A group of cable types defined in Article 400 of the NEC such as types HPD. HDPE – High-Density PolyEthylene.000 volts. HAZARDOUS LOCATION – An area of ignitable vapors. HALOGENS – Chemical elements such as chlorine and bromine that when present in a cable are released when burned. HASH MARK STRIPE – A noncontinuous helical stripe applied to a conductor for identification. HSJ. HARD-DRAWN WIRE – As applied to aluminum and copper.|Glossary GAUSS – A unit of magnetic induction (flux density) equal to 1 maxwell per square centimeter. These materials can cause additional damage to human respiratory systems and to electrical equipment. or neon signs. GROUND CONDUCTOR – A conductor in a transmission cable or line that is grounded. GROUND – A voltage reference point that is the same as earth or chassis ground.000. HDX – Half-Duplex Transmission. GTO – Gas tube sign cable. GROUNDED NEUTRAL – The neutral wire that is metallically connected to ground. GROUND PLANE – Expanded copper mesh which is laminated into some flat cable constructions as a shield. HALF DUPLEX – Two-way communications in which data are sent in only one direction at a time. HINGE CABLE – A cable connected between a hinged or swinging device and a stationary object. wire that has been cold drawn to final size so as to approach the maximum strength attainable. usually with many breakouts. HIGH TENSION CABLES – Generally the high voltage ignition wires for combustion engines. HIGH-VOLTAGE CABLE TERMINATION – A device used for terminating alternating current power cables having laminated or extruded insulation rated 2. gas and oil ignitors. A cycle that occurs once every second has a frequency of 1 Hertz. HIGH TEMPERATURE WIRE AND CABLE – Electrical wire and cables having thermal operating characteristics of 150°C and higher. GFCI – Ground fault circuit interrupter.000 cycles per second. GROUND LOOP – The generation of undesirable current flow within a ground conductor.000 cycles per second. A portable power cable similar to Type G. (Unshielded. owing to the circulation currents which originate from a second source of voltage. colored. UL Listed cable types PLTC. HENRY – A unit of inductance equal to the inductance of a current changing at the rate of 1 ampere per second inducing a counter electromotive force of 1 volt. MC and MV can be used in hazardous locations when installed in accordance with the NEC. etc. GROUND POTENTIAL – Zero potential with respect to the ground or earth. HDTV – High-Definition TeleVision. HS. A protective device that detects abnormal current flowing to ground and then interrupts the circuit. HSJO and HSO. 5 kV–15 kV. HEAT SINK – A device that absorbs heat. HELIX – Spiral winding. HEAT SHOCK – A test to determine stability of material by sudden exposure to a high temperature for a short period of time. but also having a ground check conductor to monitor the continuity of the grounding circuit. HIGH BOND INSULATION – Insulation exhibiting great bond strength to the conductors. GENERAL PURPOSE INSTRUMENTATION BUS (GPIB) – A protocol standard defined by the IEEE. The bandwidth of the average phone line is between 300 and 3. HF – High Frequency. spiral stripe applied to a conductor for circuit identification. HIGH-VOLTAGE POWER (system voltage ratings) – A class of system voltages equal to or greater than 69. TC. 314 | . HIPOT – A DC high potential test used on medium and high voltage cables. H HALAR – Solvay Solexis trademark for Ethylene ChloroTriFluoroEthylene (ECTFE). HEAT SEAL – Method of sealing a tape wrap jacket by means of thermal fusion. HERTZ (Hz) – Cycles per second. HIGH-SPLIT – A broadband cable system in which the bandwidth utilized to send toward the head-end (reverse direction) is approximately 6 MHz to 180 MHz and the bandwidth utilized to send from the head-end (forward direction) is approximately 220 MHz to 400 MHz. GND – Ground. which have been tied together or pulled into a rubber or plastic sheath. HARNESS – An arrangement of wires and cables.) Usually Type GTO.000 volts or less than 230. HEAD-END – A central point in broadband networks that receives signals on one set of frequency bands and retransmits them on another set of frequencies. HPN. See Dielectric Strength Testing. GHz – Gigahertz. used to interconnect an electric circuit. HEAT DISTORTION – Distortion or flow of a material or configuration due to the application of heat. ITC.000. HELICAL STRIPE – A continuous. 1. G-GC – A UL cable type. or fibers that may cause fire or explosion as defined in Article 500 of the NEC. HID – High Intensity Discharge as in mercury metal halide and sodium lamps. Compare with full-duplex transmission. Transmission in either direction but not in both directions simultaneously.5 kV and above. dust. The guard band between the forward and reverse directions (180 MHz to 220 MHz) provides isolation from interference.

HPD – A UL cable type.5 – A physical layer standard specifying a LAN with a token-passing access method on a ring topology. HOT MODULUS – Stress at 100 percent elongation after 5 minutes of conditioning at a given temperature (normally 130°C). Ethernet. It includes both resistance and reactance and is generally expressed in ohms.600 meters. HOUSING – A metallic or other enclosure for an insulated splice. Also called matching stub. IACS – International Annealed Copper Standard for copper used in electrical 2 conductors. diffuse beams of light of many wave lengths.184 feet). IMPACT TESTS – Tests designed to reveal the behavior of material of a finished part if it were subjected to impact or shock loading. ICEA – Insulated Cable Engineers Association. eight control lines and eight signal grounds. The IEEE-802 standard deals with the Physical Link Layers of the ISO Reference Model for OSL. Two or three conductor. IMSA – International Municipal Signal Association. Inc. IMPEDANCE MATCH – A condition whereby the impedance of a particular cable or component is the same as the impedance of the circuit.800 meters (9. INDUCTION – The phenomenon of a voltage. HOOKUP WIRE – Small wires used to hook up instruments or electrical parts. etc. HYPOT – (see Hipot) Registered trade name of Associated Research. HYDROSCOPIC – Readily absorbing and retaining moisture. IMPEDANCE MATCHING STUB – A section of transmission line or a pair of conductors cut to match the impedance of a load. or component offers to alternating current. IEEE 10BASE2 Network – A network conforming to the IEEE 802. A measure of frequency or bandwidth equal to one cycle per second. The changing field induces electric currents in the material and I2R losses account for the resultant heat. | 315 . Thermoset jacketed heater cord. For use in dry locations. for its high-voltage tester.Glossary| HMWPE – High Molecular Weight Polyethylene. cable or device to which it is connected. Sometimes indicated by a thread or other identification stripe. IEEE 802. HV – High Voltage. usually 12 AWG and smaller. (Wi-Fi) IEEE 802. which provides for connection to an IEEE-488 device. or electrostatic charge being produced in an object by lines of force from the source of such fields. IMPEDANCE MATCHING TRANSFORMER – A transformer designed to match the impedance of one circuit to that of another. For use in damp locations. IEEE – Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. INCOHERENT SOURCE – A fiber optic light source which emits wide. IEEE 802.15 – Wireless PAN. thermosetting-insulated heater cord. an internal friction. 100 percent conductivity at 20°C is 0. INDUCTANCE – A property of a conductor or circuit which resists a change in current. IEEE 10BROAD36 – 10 million bits per second over broadband coaxial cable with node-to-node coverage of 3. IEEE-802 – Standards for the interconnection of local networking computer equipment. (Bluetooth) IF – Intermediate-frequency. three or four conductor heater cord with thermoset insulation. Token ring. It causes current changes to lag behind voltage changes and is measured in henrys. The network is capable of carrying information at rates up to 10 Mbps over distances up to 2. An international professional society that issues its own standards and is a member of ANSI and ISO. Formerly IPCEA. HYBRID CABLE – Multiconductor cable containing two or more types of components. magnetic field. HOT STAMPING – Method of alphanumeric coding. HYPALON – DuPont’s trademark for ChloroSulphonated Polyethylene (CSP). Two. HOLDING STRENGTH – Ability of a connector to remain assembled to a cable when under tension.11 – Wireless LAN. IEC – International Electrotechnical Commission. cable. Hz – Hertz. HPN – A UL cable type. IEEE 802. HYSTERESIS – The time lag exhibited by a body in reacting to changes in forces affecting it. HOT TIN DIP – A process of passing bare wire through a bath of molten tin to provide a coating. Named after experimenter Heinrich Hertz. INDUCTION HEATING – Heating a conducting material by placing it in a rapidly changing magnetic field. The association of cable manufacturing engineers who make nationally recognized specifications for cables. IN-BAND SIGNALING – The transmission of signalling information at some frequency or frequencies that lie within a carrier channel normally used for information transmission.3 – An IEEE standard describing the physical and data link layers of a local area network based on bus topology and CSMA/CD. I I – Symbol used to designate current. HSO – A UL cable type. INDEX EDGE – Edge of flat (ribbon) cable from which measurements are made.3 local area network standard. IEEE-488 – An IEEE standard for a parallel interface bus consisting of eight bidirectional data lines. The IEEE 802. INDOOR TERMINATION – A cable termination intended for use where it is protected from direct exposure to both solar radiation and precipitation. HOT STICK – A long insulated stick having a hook at one end which is used to open energized switches. normally indicated by the location of the printing which is near the index edge. Identification markings are made by pressing heated tape and marking foil into softened insulation surfaces.017241 ohm-mm /m. IMPEDANCE – The total opposition a circuit. Parallel construction.3 specification for running Ethernet on broadband.

shield and armor on contiguous lengths of cable. INTERCALATED TAPES – Two or more tapes helically wound and overlapped on a cable. The process of transmitting data to and from the processor and its peripherals. INTRINSICALLY SAFE – Incapable of releasing sufficient electrical or thermal energy under normal or abnormal conditions to cause ignition of a specific hazardous atmospheric mixture in its most ignitable concentration. IONIZATION FACTOR – This is the difference between percent dissipation factors at two specified values of electrical stress. the lower of the two stresses is usually so selected that the effect of the ionization on dissipation factor at this stress is negligible. Circuits having fault detectors which interrupt fault currents within 1 minute are rated 100 percent level. (2) when a liquid. See Article 504 of the NEC. the outer sheath that protects against the environment and may also provide additional insulation. I2R – Formula for power in watts. INTERCONNECTION – Mechanically joining devices together to complete an electrical circuit. usually within a sealed subsystem. See Watt. INPUT – (1) A signal (or power) which is applied to a piece of electric apparatus. INTERAXIAL SPACING – Center-to-center conductor spacing in paired wire or center-to-center spacing between conductors in a flat cable. INSERTION LOSS – A measure of the attenuation of a device by determining the output of a system before and after the device is inserted into the system. INSULATION STRESS – The potential difference across an insulator. IRRADIATION – In insulations. within 1 hour are rated 133 percent level and over 1 hour are rated 173 percent level. INTERFERENCE – Disturbances of an electrical or electromagnetic nature that introduce undesirable responses into other electronic equipment. INTERMEDIATE FREQUENCY – A frequency to which a signal is converted for ease of handling. ISOLATION – The ability of a circuit or component to reject interference. INSULATION RESISTANCE – The electrical resistance of an insulating material at a specific time and condition as measured between two conductors. hand-held tool used to insert contacts into a connector.|Glossary INDUCTIVE COUPLING – Cross talk resulting from the action of the electromagnetic field of one conductor on the other. INTERCONNECTING CABLE – The wiring between modules. INSULATION THICKNESS – The wall thickness of wire insulation. ISDN – Integrated Services Digital Network.phase operating voltage of a three-phase cable system. between units. INTERMEDIATE TEMPER – As applied to aluminum. INTERSTICE – The space or void between assembled conductors and within the overall circumference of the assembly. The stress on insulation is expressed in volts per mil (V/m) or kilovolts per meter (kV/m). JACKET – Pertaining to wire and cable. usually expressed in dB. where l = current in amperes. ISO 9000 – A set of quality standards widely used around the world. INSULATION LEVEL – A thickness rating for power cable insulation. The potential at which an atom gives up an electron. or the larger portions of a system. any temper between soft and hard drawn. the exposure of the material to high-energy emissions for the purpose of favorably altering the molecular structure. such as cable conductors and circuit components. INTERNAL WIRING – Electronic wiring which interconnects components. JAN SPECIFICATION – Joint Army-Navy specification (replaced by current Military Specifications). INSULATING (ISOLATING) JOINT – A cable joint which mechanically couples and electrically separates the sheath. J JACK – A plug-in type terminal widely used in electronic apparatus for temporary connections. (2) The terminals on the apparatus to which a signal or power is applied. ISO – International Standards Organization. INSULATED SPLICE – A splice with a dielectric medium applied over the connected conductors and adjacent cable insulation. A standard which covers a wide range of data communication issues but primarily the total integration of voice and data. ITU – International Telecommunications Union. IONIZATION VOLTAGE – The potential at which a material ionizes. IONIZATION – (1) The creation of ions when polar compounds are dissolved in a solvent. INSULATION – A material having good dielectric properties which is used to separate close electrical components. INSERTION TOOL – A small. IR DROP – A method of designating a voltage drop in terms of both current and resistance. I/O – Input/Output. JET STARTER CABLE – Single conductor 600 V cable used for external aircraft power. Receives its name from the fact that it is an intermediate step between the initial and final conversion or detection stages. JITTER – The slight movement of a transmission signal in time or phase that can introduce errors and loss of synchronization in high-speed synchronous communications. INSULATION TEMPERATURE RATING – A maximum temperature assigned to insulations based on laboratory tests. INSULATED RADIANT HEATING WIRE – Similar to blanket wire but heavier construction for applications such as in ceiling panels. INTERFACE – The two surfaces on the contact side of both halves of a multiple-contact connector which face each other when the connector is assembled. R = resistance in ohms. 316 | . gas or solid is caused to lose or gain electrons due to the passage of an electric current. INSULATION VOLTAGE RATING – The nominal phase-to. buried in ground or driveway and concrete walks.

JOULE’S LAW – When electricity flows through a material the rate of heating in watts will equal the resistance of the material in ohms times the square of the current in amperes. 1. kVA – Kilovolt ampere. LINE LOSS – A total of the various energy losses occurring in a transmission line. welding or by mechanical means. that connects two points in a circuit. A band of frequencies extending from 30 to 300 kHz in the radio spectrum. KYNAR – Arkema Inc. LINE EQUALIZER – A reactance (inductance and/or capacitance) connected in series with a transmission line to alter the frequency-response characteristics of the line. KILO – Prefix meaning thousand. LED – Light-emitting diode. LAYER – Consecutive turns of a coil lying in a single plane. JUMPER CABLE – Extra flexible cables with high-voltage insulation for use as temporary connections. Sometimes shortened to “kcm. LACQUER – A liquid resin or compound applied to textile braid to prevent fraying.Glossary| JOINT – That portion of the conductor where the ends of two wires. LEAD – A wire. LAMINATED TAPE – A tape consisting of two or more layers of different materials bonded together. kW – Kilowatt. device that accepts electrical signals and converts the energy to a light signal. kV – Kilovolt (1. short circuit or ground in an electrical line or circuit.024 bytes. the light source is normally a LED or a laser. usually accelerated environment. with lasers. LAY – Pertaining to wire and cable. designated by the Federal Communications Commission. Described as “right hand” or “left hand. K-FIBER – A polyaramid-based material used for jacketing high temperature cables. Usually has red jacket. soldering.000 watts of power. Transmission speeds are measured in kB/second. trademark for PolyVinyliDene Fluoride (PVDF). LACING AND HARNESSING – A method of grouping wires by securing them in bundles of designated patterns. LEAD-IN – The conductor or conductors that connect the antenna proper to electronic equipment. user-operated. 1. kcmil – One thousand circular mils. LASER DIODE – A semiconductor diode that emits coherent light. LINE DROP – A voltage loss occurring between any two points in a power transmission line. the main light source for optical-fiber transmission. LIGHTNING GROUND CABLE – A specially stranded single conductor cable used to connect lightning rods (air terminals) to grounding rods. to other conductors and to ground. or drop. kbps – Thousands of bits per second (bps). See Lay. LINE LEVEL – The level of a signal at a certain point on a transmission line. is due to the resistance. LINE BALANCE – The degree to which the conductors of a cable are alike in their electrical characteristics with respect to each other. or leakage of the line. kB – K-byte.” KEVLAR – A high-strength DuPont polymer used as a cable messenger or strength member. A user-owned. LENGTH OF LAY – The axial length of one turn of the helix of a wire or member. LF – Low frequency. LINE FAULT – A fault such as an open circuit. moisture absorption. Usually expressed in decibels. high-volume data transmission facility connecting a number of communicating devices within a single building or campus of buildings. rods or groups of wires are joined by brazing. LEAKAGE DISTANCE – The shortest distance along an insulation surface between conductors. A nonleaching wire will retain its plasticizer under extreme temperature conditions and remain flexible after baking. used mainly with multimode fiber. K KAPTON – DuPont’s trademark for polyimide. LIGHT SOURCE – An object capable of emitting light. with or without terminals. W = I2R. LEVEL – A measure of the difference between a quantity or value and an established reference. L BAND – The band of frequencies between 390 and 1. etc. the axial distance required for one cabled conductor or conductor strand to complete one revolution about the axis around which it is cabled. LIMITS OF ERROR – The maximum deviation (in degrees or percent) of the indicated temperature of a thermocouple from the actual temperature. LAY DIRECTION – The twist in the cable as indicated by the top strands while looking along the axis of the cable away from the observer. L L – Symbol for inductance.000 volts). LEAD CURED – A cable that is cured or vulcanized in a metallic lead mold. LAN – Local area network. LIFE CYCLE TESTING – A test to determine the length of time before failure in a controlled. LAUNCH ANGLE – The angle between the radiation vector and the axis of an optical fiber. replaced “MCM” in the 1990 NEC. LEAKAGE CURRENT – An undesirable flow of current through or over the surface of an insulating material. LIMPNESS – The ability of a cable to lay flat or conform to a surface. LEACHING AND NONLEACHING – In a leaching wire the plasticizer will migrate when exposed to heat. Such loss. LINE VOLTAGE – The value of the potential existing on a supply or power line.” | 317 . In fiber optics.550 megahertz.

however. LV – Low voltage. LOADED LINE – A transmission line that has lumped elements (inductance or capacitance) added at uniformly spaced intervals. MEDIUM-HARD DRAWN WIRE – As applied to copper wire. #44 AWG bare copper. Primarily used for checking the insulation resistance of cables. it is also useful for equipment leakage tests. LONGITUDINAL SHRINKAGE – A term generally applied to shrink products denoting the axial length lost through heating in order to obtain the recovered diameter. each strand is enamel insulated. applied longitudinally with the axis of the cable. MAXIMUM CABLE DIAMETER – The largest cable diameter that a high-voltage cable termination is designed to accommodate. LONGWALL MACHINE – A mining machine used to undercut coal.000 kilohertz.g. MECHANICAL WATER ABSORPTION – A check of how much water will be absorbed by material in warm water for seven days (mg/sq. area managers and cell controllers over a broadband token-passing bus network. MEDIUM VOLTAGE – A class of nominal power system voltage ratings between 2. LOW LOSS DIELECTRIC – An insulating material that has a relatively low dielectric loss. MAGNETIC FIELD – The field created when current flows through a conductor. (2) A power system voltage rating of 1.. MINIMUM CABLE DIAMETER – The smallest cable diameter that a high-voltage cable termination is designed to accommodate. MAP – Manufacturing automation protocol. as applied to ignition cable. MASTIC – A meltable coating used on the inside of some shrink products which when heated flows to help create a waterproof seal.g. The OSI profile championed by General Motors Corporation to provide interconnectivity between plant hosts. LOAD – A device that consumes or converts the power delivered by another device. transformers and other electromagnetic devices. Loading is used to provide a given set of characteristics to a transmission line. MEGA – Prefix meaning million. MATV – Master Antenna Television System. LOAD CELL CABLE – Small multiconductor shielded cables for connecting load cells with instruments in electronic strain gauges. in. Used for low inductance coil windings. or campus). complex of buildings. MAXIMUM DESIGN VOLTAGE – The maximum voltage at which a high-voltage cable termination is designed to operate continuously under normal conditions. A filter which greatly attenuates signals of higher than a specified frequency. Commonly used term in the thermocouple industry.|Glossary LITZ WIRE – Very fine. MARKER TAPE – A tape laid parallel to the conductors under the sheath in a cable. such as polyethylene or Teflon. MEDIUM FREQUENCY – The band of frequencies between 300 and 3. LONGITUDINAL WRAP – Tape applied longitudinally with the axis of the core being covered.000 volts or less. LOW NOISE CABLE – A cable specially constructed to eliminate spurious electrical disturbances caused by capacitance changes or self-generated noise induced by either physical movement or adjacent circuitry. having tensile strength less than the minimum for hard-drawn wire. LOSS FACTOR – The power factor times the dielectric constant. LOW BOND INSULATION – An insulation that exhibits a small bond strength to the conductors. supplied from a transformer. LOGGING CABLE – Usually FEP/Tefzel self-supporting instrumentation cable. MARKER THREAD – A colored thread laid parallel and adjacent to the strand in an insulated conductor which identifies the manufacturer and sometimes the specification to which the wire is made. LOC-TRAC – Alpha’s registered trademark for a zipper tubing closure track which does not require any sealants to keep it closed. but greater than the maximum for soft wire. converter. a system rated nominal 24 volts or less. flat or corrugated. even during extreme flexing. A combination of components providing multiple television receiver operations from one antenna or group of antennas. and whose communications technology provides a high-bandwidth. LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN) – A network that is located in a localized geographical area (e. e. LUMEN – A unit of measurement for light output. (2) A UL cable type (metal clad). MC – (1) Main cross-connect. LOW FREQUENCY – A band of frequencies extending from 30 to 300 kHz in the radio spectrum. LOSS – The portion of energy applied to a system that is dissipated and performs no useful work. especially a coiled conductor. LOOP TEST – A long line test where a good line is connected to a faulty line to form a loop in which measurements will locate the fault. LOW VOLTAGE – (1) As defined in the National Electrical Code. LOOP RESISTANCE – The total resistance of two conductors measured round trip from one end. LPF – Low pass filter. 318 | . LOW TENSION – Low voltage. M mA – Milliampere (one-thousandth of an ampere). MEGAHERTZ (MHz) – One million cycles per second. low-cost medium to which many nodes can be connected. building. an office.4 and 46 kV. Generally dropped through borings in subsurface mining or well applications. surface). MEGGER – A special ohmmeter for measuring very high resistance. designated by the Federal Communications Commission. or battery. LONGITUDINAL SHIELD – A tape shield. imprinted with the manufacturer’s name and the specification to which the cable is made. MAGNET WIRE – Insulated wire used in the windings of motors. Also used for weighing and force measurement applications. but passes with minimal attenuation all signals lower in frequency.

MULTIPLEX – The use of a common physical channel in order to make two or more logical channels. Formerly MIL-C-17. To transmit two or more signals over a single channel. Usually rated 5–35 kV. MIL – A unit of length equal to one-thousandth of an inch. amplification. MFD – Microfarad (one-millionth of a farad). Obsolete abbreviation. either by splitting of the frequency band (frequency-division multiplex). MOISTURE ABSORPTION – The amount of moisture. phase of an analog signal to encode and convey (typically digital) information. MULTIMODE – Optical fiber which allows more than one mode of light to propagate. MID-SPLIT – A broadband cable system in which the cable bandwidth is divided between transmit and receive frequencies. A UL cable type.Glossary| MELT INDEX – The extrusion rate of a material through a specified orifice under specified conditions. MULTIPOINT CIRCUIT – A single line connecting three or more stations. MI – A UL cable type. MURRAY LOOP TEST – A method used to localize cable faults. MYLAR – DuPont’s trademark for polyethylene terephthalate (polyester) film. 8. a picofarad (pf). MICRO – Prefix meaning one-millionth. MESSENGER WIRE – A metallic supporting member either solid or stranded that may also perform the function of a conductor. One or more conductors insulated with highly compressed refractory minerals and enclosed in a liquid-tight and gas-tight metallic tube sheathing. Thermoplastic insulated. MIPS – Millions of instructions per second. heat and moisture resistant finish. microphonics can be caused by the shield rubbing against the dielectric as the cable is flexed. or 15 kV. MOLDED PLUG – A connector molded on either end of a cord or cable. in percentage. MONO FILAMENT – A single strand filament as opposed to a braided or twisted filament. MICA – A transparent silicate which separates into layers and has high insulation resistance. MHO – The unit of conductivity. MIL-W-22759 – A military specification for fluorocarbon insulated copper and copper alloy wire. MICROBENDING LOSS – A signal loss due to small geometrical irregularities along the core-cladding interface of optical fibers. The reciprocal of an ohm. MIL-DTL-17 – A military specification covering many coaxial cables. MICROPHONE CABLE – A very flexible. MFT – Abbreviation for 1.. MULTIPLEXER – Equipment that permits simultaneous transmission of multiple signals over one physical circuit. mV – Millivolt (one-thousandth of a volt). MUX – Multiplex. MOTOR LEAD WIRE – Wire that connects to the fragile magnet wire found in coils. that a material will absorb under specified conditions. MULTICAST – The ability to broadcast messages to one node or a select group of nodes. MULTIPLE-CONDUCTOR CABLE – A combination of two or more conductors cabled together and insulated from one another and from sheath or armor where used. 600 V. The Federal enforcement agency for employee safety in mines and mills. 450°C. MIL-DTL-16878 – A military specification covering various wires intended for internal wiring of electric and electronic equipment. mW – Milliwatt (one-thousandth of a watt). MICROWAVE – A short (usually less than 30 cm) electrical wave. Formerly known as MESA. Replaced by SAE AS22759. transformers and stator or field windings. Also. MICROPHONICS – Noise caused by mechanical movement of a system component. e.000 feet. MG – Glass reinforced mica tape insulated cable with an overall sheath of woven glass yarn impregnated with a flame. Usually rated 5. Chapter 1. One measure of processing power. Formerly MIL-C-16878. In a single conductor microphone cable. for example. 600 V appliance wire. MULTIPLE-CONDUCTOR CONCENTRIC CABLE – An insulated central conductor with one or more tubular stranded conductors laid over it concentrically and insulated from one another. or by utilizing this common channel at different points in time (time-division multiplex). MHz – MegaHertz (one million cycles per second). MODULATION – Systematic changing of properties. MODULUS OF ELASTICITY – The ratio of stress (force) to strain (deformation) in a material that is elastically deformed. MSHA – Mine Safety and Health Administration. MTW – Machine tool wire. MV – Medium voltage cables. MSHA regulations appear in CFR Title 30. MICROMICROFARAD – One-millionth of a microfarad (abbreviated µµf). MONOMER – The basic chemical unit used in building a polymer. MIL-SPEC – Military specification. high dielectric strength and high heat resistance. usually shielded cable used for audio signals. 90°C to 105°C. frequency.g. MICROFARAD – One-millionth of a farad (abbreviated µf). | 319 . MOISTURE RESISTANCE – The ability of a material to resist absorbing moisture from the air or when immersed in water. MEMBER – A group of wires stranded together that is in turn stranded into a multiple-membered conductor. MUTUAL CAPACITANCE – Capacitance between two conductors in a cable. The bandwidth utilized to send toward the headend (reverse direction) is approximately 5 MHz to 100 MHz and the bandwidth utilized to send away from the headend (forward direction) is approximately 160 MHz to 300 Mhz. MPF – Mine power feeder cables. MILLI – Prefix meaning one-thousandth. Bureau of mines.

OFHC – Oxygen-Free High-conductivity Copper. The value of resistance through which a potential difference of one volt will maintain a current of one ampere. Wet or dry use. Polyamide. – Outside diameter. made of dielectric materials. which surrounds the core and serves to reflect the light signal. OPEN CIRCUIT – A break in an electrical circuit so that there can be no current flow. Also called polychloroprene. NOISE – In a cable or circuit any extraneous sounds or signal which tends to interfere with the sound or signal normally present in or passing through the system. expressed as a number which is equivalent to the sine of the angle. I = V/R. OPTICAL CROSS-CONNECT – A cross-connect unit used for circuit administration. OPTICAL CONDUCTOR – Materials which offer a low optical attenuation to transmission of light energy. OPEN CELL – Foamed or cellular material with cells which are generally interconnected. NONCONTAMINATING – A type of PVC jacket material whose plasticizer will not migrate into the dielectric of a coaxial cable and thus avoid contaminating and destroying the dielectric. NRZI – Non-Return to Zero Inverted. NETWORK – A series of nodes connected by communications channels. NEMA – National Electrical Manufacturers Association. Nonmetallic sheathed cable. The U. NONMIGRATING PVC – Polyvinyl chloride compound formulated to inhibit plasticizer migration. Formerly the National Bureau of Standards. N-SERIES CONNECTOR – A coaxial connector (RG-8/U) used in standard Ethernet networks. the force which will give one kilogram mass an acceleration of one meter per second. NODE – A station. A binary encoding technique in which a change in state represents a binary 0 and no change in state represents a binary 1. NICKEL CLAD COPPER WIRE – A wire with a layer of nickel on a copper core where the area of the nickel is approximately 30 percent of the conductor area. I is current in amperes and R is resistance in ohms. etc. NONFLAMMABLE – The property of a material that is not capable of being easily ignited. NONCONTAMINATING PVC – A polyvinyl chloride formulation. 600 volts. color TV standard. NEOPRENE – A synthetic rubber with good resistance to oil. NIST – National Institute of Standards and Technology. NM-B – A UL cable type rated 600 volts and intended for use per Article 334 of the NEC. A measure of the unwanted signal coupling from a transmitter at the near-end into a neighboring (non-energized) pair measured at the near-end. NBS – National Bureau of Standards. chemicals and flame. 90°C conductor rating. OPTICAL ENCODER – A device whose position is determined by a photoelectric device and converted to an electrical data output. which does not produce electrical contamination through plasticizer migration. 320 | . NBR/PVC – A blend of acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). OIL AGING – Cable aged in an accelerated manner by placement in an oil bath and heated to a preset temperature for a stated time. For dry use. NOMEX – DuPont’s trademark for a heat resistant. O O. Nonmetallic sheathed cable. It provides for the connection of individual optical fibers with optical fiber patch cords. Now called NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology).2248 pounds force. flame retardant nylon. NMC-B – A UL cable type rated 600 volts and intended for use per Article 334 of the NEC. 480Y/277. or R = V/I where V is voltage. Equals 0. NYLON – An abrasion-resistant thermoplastic with good chemical resistance. OPTICAL FIBER – Any filament or fiber. NEC – National Electrical Code. NOMINAL – Name or identifying value of a measurable property by which a conductor or component or property of a conductor is identified and to which tolerances are applied. OEM – Original equipment manufacturer.D. optical fiber usually consists of a core. The actual voltage at which a circuit operates can vary from the nominal within a range that permits satisfactory operation of equipment. NFPA – National Fire Protection Association. NEWTON – The derived SI unit for force. 90°C conductor rating.|Glossary N NBR – Butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer rubber. Used for jacketing.S. NOMOGRAPH – A chart or diagram with which equations can be solved graphically by placing a straight edge on two known values and reading the answer where the straight edge crosses the scale of the unknown value. N is named after Paul Neill. a material with good oil and chemical resistance. OHM – The electrical unit of resistance. N CONNECTOR – A threaded connector for coax. See also Fiber Optics. NUMERICAL APERTURE – The acceptance angle of an optical fiber which determines the angle at which light can enter the fiber. NEXT – Near-end crosstalk.). NTSC – National Television Standard Committee. a substance with a higher refractive index than the core. which carries the signal and cladding. OHM’S LAW – Stated V = IR. NOMINAL VOLTAGE (NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE) – A nominal value assigned to a circuit or system for the purpose of conveniently designating its voltage class (as 120/240. that is used to transmit light signals.

PATCH CABLE – A cable with plugs or terminals on each end of the conductors to connect circuits of equipment together. A micromicrofarad. OVERALL DIAMETER – Finished diameter over wire or cable. over a single channel using multiple frequencies. PDNs may offer value-added services at a reduced cost because of communications resource sharing and usually provide increased reliability due to built-in redundancy. PEEK – Poly Ether Ether Ketone. PILC CABLE – Paper Insulated. PAYOFF – The process of feeding a cable or wire from a bobbin. Teflon is DuPont’s trademark for this material. or over a multiple-conductor cable. expressed in percent. PARALLEL TRANSMISSION – A type of data transfer in which all bits of a character. OXYGEN INDEX – A test to rate flammability of materials in a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen. OTDR – Optical Time Domain Reflectometer. PFA – PerFluoroAlkoxy. PHASE SEQUENCE – The order in which successive members of a periodic wave set reach their positive maximum values: a) zero phase sequence – no phase shift. PBDE – Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether. Specifically the Williams-Steiger laws passed in 1970 covering all factors relating to safety in places of employment. A packet switched or circuit switched network available for use by many customers. OUTGASSING – Dissipation of gas from a material. OUTPUT – The useful power or signal delivered by a circuit or device. PHASE SHIFT – A change in the phase relationship between two alternating quantities. PBDEs are generally banned by European Union RoHS regulations. PARALLEL CIRCUIT – A circuit in which identical voltage is presented to all components and the current divides among the components according to the resistances or the impedances of the components. Analogous to a waveguide used for microwave communications. PARALLEL STRIPE – A stripe applied longitudinally on a wire or cable parallel to the axis of the conductor. or picofarad (abbreviation pf). PERCENT PLATING – Quantity of plating on a conductor expressed as a percentage by weight. rope lay lead wire attached to a shield for terminating purposes. PCP – Polychloroprene (Neoprene). or other package. PICK – Distance between two adjacent crossover points of braid filaments. A widely used thermoplastic insulation and jacket compound. or multiple-bit data blocks. Measured in degrees. OSCILLOSCOPE – Test instrument for showing visually the changes in a varying voltage by means of the wavy line made on a fluorescent screen by the deflection of a beam of cathode rays. The measurement in picks per inch indicates the degree of coverage. Lead Covered. OZONE – An extremely reactive form of oxygen. PEEL STRENGTH – The force necessary to peel a flexible member from another member that may be either flexible or rigid. OVERCOAT CONDUCTOR – A stranded conductor made from individual strands of tin-coated wire stranded together and then given an overall tin coat. The phase angle between the input and output signals of a system. OSCILLATORY SURGE – A surge which includes both positive and negative polarity values. PDN – Public Data Network. PERCENTAGE CONDUCTIVITY – Conductivity of a material expressed as a percentage of that of copper. PIN ASSIGNMENT – A predetermined relationship between the terminals in a connector and the conductors in a cable that specifies the terminals to which each conductor is to be terminated. PICOFARAD – One-millionth of one-millionth of a farad. are sent simultaneously. OSHA – Abbreviation for Occupational Safety and Health Act. A device used for testing fiber optic cables. PICO – Prefix meaning one-millionth of one-millionth (10-12). OVERLAP – The amount the trailing edge laps over the leading edge of a spiral tape wrap. A class of flame retardants sometimes used in wire and cable products. Results are calculated on a weight basis or volume basis and so specified. P PAIR – Two insulated wires of a single circuit associated together. b) plus/minus phase sequence – normal phase shift. | 321 . More formally referred to as Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI). OUTDOOR TERMINATION – A cable termination intended for use where it is not protected from direct exposure to either solar radiation or precipitation. Also called Crest. PCB – Printed Circuit Board. also known as a “balanced” transmission line. in relation to the start of a cycle. either over separate communications lines or circuits. with 360 corresponding to one complete cycle. following the application of a specified higher voltage. In sufficient concentrations it can break down certain insulations. PIGTAIL WIRE – Fine stranded. PERCENT CONDUCTIVITY – The ratio of the resistivity of the International Annealed Copper Standard (IACS) at 20°C to the resistivity of a material at 20°C. reel. PEAK – The maximum instantaneous value of a varying current or voltage. PE – PolyEthylene. normally occurring around electrical discharges and present in the atmosphere in small but active quantities. PHASE – The location of a position on a waveform of an alternating current.Glossary| OPTICAL WAVEGUIDE – A fiber used for optical communications. extra flexible. PARTIAL DISCHARGE (CORONA) EXTINCTION VOLTAGE – The voltage at which partial discharge (corona) is no longer detectable on instrumentation adjusted to a specific sensitivity. OSMOSIS – The diffusion of fluids through membranes.

whose prime function is to act as electrical insulation. PREBOND – Stranded wire that has been fused. The term polymer is often used in place of plastic. POLYETHYLENE – A thermoplastic material having excellent electrical properties. PLATED HOLE – A hole with walls that have been plated with conductive material to provide an electrical connection between the conductive patterns on both sides of a printed circuit or an anchor for soldering an inserted wire.|Glossary PITCH – In flat cable. A type of industrial control system. POTTING – Sealing by filling with a substance to exclude moisture. PRIMARY INSULATION – The first layer of nonconductive material applied over a conductor. composed of electromagnetic energy to travel from one point to another over a transmission channel. POLYBUTADIENE – A type of synthetic rubber often blended with other synthetic rubbers to improve their properties. usually most noticeable in communicating with satellites. POWER CABLES – Cables of various sizes. used extensively as a moisture resistant cable core wrap. PPE – PolyPropylene Ethylene. PRINTING WIRING – A printed circuit intended to provide point-to-point electrical connections. normally. POLISHING – Act of smoothing ends of optical fibers to an “optically smooth” finish. POSITIVE SEQUENCE IMPEDANCE – See Phase Sequence. Kapton is DuPont’s trademark for polyimide. POLYPROPYLENE – A thermoplastic similar to polyethylene but stiffer and having a higher temperature softening point. the speed-of-light delay. designed to distribute primary power to various types of equipment. PROPAGATION DELAY – The time it takes a signal. POLYURETHANE – Broad class of polymers noted for good abrasion and solvent resistance. Can be in solid or cellular form. PROPAGATION VELOCITY – The velocity of the propagation of a wave or pulse along a transmission path. PREMOLDED SPLICE – A joint made of premolded components assembled in the field. – Abbreviation for point-of-sale. PLENUM – The air return path of a central air handling system. PLUG – The part of the two mating halves of a connector that is movable when not fastened to the other mating half. Expressed in dB. PORT – A point of access into a computer. POROSITY – Multiple voids in an insulation cross section. PRIMARY – The transformer winding that receives the energy from a supply current. PLANETARY TWISTER – A cabling machine whose payoff spools are mounted in rotating cradles that hold the axis of the spool in a fixed direction as the spools are revolved so the wire will not kink as it is twisted. 322 | . POLYIMIDE – A relatively high temperature plastic developed for use as a dielectric or jacketing material. rated 300 volts.S. or device and power delivered by that device to a load. POLYMER – A substance made of many repeating chemical units or molecules. topcoat tinned or overcoat tinned. single or multiconductor. constructions and insulations. PLTC – Power Limited Tray Cable. POLYOLEFINS – A family of plastics including cross-linked polyethylene and various ethylene copolymers. bromine and iodine. PROPAGATION TIME – Time required for a wave or pulse to travel between two points on a transmission line. Mylar is DuPont’s trademark for polyester. Usually expressed in watts and equal to I2R. P. PLENUM CABLE – Cable approved by a recognized agency such as UL for installation in plenums without the need for conduit. a network or other electronic device. POWER FACTOR – The cosine of the phase difference between current and applied voltage. POLYESTER – Polyethylene terephthalate. PLC – Programmable Logic Controller. either ductwork or open space over a suspended ceiling. POLYHALOCARBON – A general name for polymers containing halogen atoms.O. PITCH DIAMETER – Diameter of a circle passing through the center of the conductors in any layer of a multiconductor cable. rubber or elastomer. Sometimes referred to as Plus Sequence Impedance. POSITION CODING – Identification of conductors by their location. POWER LOSS – The difference between the total power delivered to a circuit. the physical or electrical interface through which one gains access. the interface between a process and a communications or transmission facility. PLY – The number of individual strands or filaments twisted together to form a single thread. The halogens are flourine. it is equal to 10 log10 (P2/P1) where P1 is input power and P2 is the power at the load. chlorine. POLYAMIDE – The chemical name for Nylon. POWER RATIO – The ratio of the power appearing at the load to the input power. the nominal distance between the index edges of two adjacent conductors. PRODUCTION TESTS – Tests made on components or subassemblies during production for the purpose of quality control. POINT-TO-POINT WIRING – An interconnecting technique wherein the connections between components are made by wires routed between connecting points. POLYCHLOROPRENE – See Neoprene. PLASTICIZER – A chemical added to plastics to make them softer and more flexible. POLARIZATION – The orientation of a flat cable or a rectangular connector. POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) – A general purpose thermoplastic used for wire and cable insulations and jackets. generally using abrasives. POWER – The amount or work per unit of time. possible only when conductors are located in assigned positions with relation to each other throughout the entire length of a cable. cable.

QPL – A Qualified Products List issued by the U. generally twisted together in pairs. | 323 . RANDOM WINDING – A winding in rotating equipment wherein wires do not lie in an even pattern. QUAD – A series of four separately insulated conductors. causing standing waves. Also referred to as powersum alien equal-level far-end crosstalk (PSAELFEXT). A common insulating and jacketing material used on cables. The reactance of a capacitor decreases with an increase in frequency. REFERENCE EDGE – See preferred term Index Edge. measured at the far-end. PULSE CABLE – A type of coaxial cable constructed to transmit repeated high-voltage pulses without degradation.S. REA (RURAL ELECTRIFICATION ADMINISTRATION) – A federally supported program to provide electrical service to rural areas. PSANEXT – Powersum alien near-end crosstalk. It has good weathering and abrasion-resistant properties and can be used for direct burial. REACTANCE – The opposition to an alternating electron flow by a capacitance or inductance. (2) Change in direction of a light wave or ray in an optical fiber. REFLOW SOLDERING – The process of connecting two solder-coated conductive surfaces by remelting of the solder to cause fusion. PULSE – A current or voltage that changes abruptly from one value to another and back to the original value in a finite length of time. Resins are broadly classified as thermoplastic or thermoset according to whether they soften or harden with the application of heat. R – Symbol for electrical resistance. Can be used for direct burial. For example. PVC-IIA – A MIL-DTL-17 coax jacket type. R RADIO FREQUENCY – The frequencies in the electromagnetic spectrum that are used for radio communications. REFLECTION LOSS – The part of a signal that is lost to reflection of power at a line discontinuity. PSNEXT – Powersum near-end crosstalk. PVC-I – A MIL-DTL-17 coax jacket type. PSAFEXT – Powersum alien far-end crosstalk. Q Q band – The band of frequencies between 36 and 46 gigahertz. PROXIMITY EFFECT – Nonuniform current distribution over the crosssection of a conductor caused by the variation of the current in a neighboring conductor. RECOVERED DIAMETER – Diameter of shrinkable products after heating has caused it to return to its extruded diameter. PYROMETER – See Thermocouple. government. Sometimes abbreviated TFE. Arkema Inc. but is a contaminating type and will cause cable attenuation to increase with age.’s trademark for this material is Kynar. REACH – A European Community Regulation on the safe use of Chemicals through Registration. RED PLAGUE – A powdery. REDRAW – The consecutive drawing of wire through a series of dies to reach a desired wire size. individual insulation. twisted together. A computation of signal coupling from multiple near-end disturbing channel pairs into a disturbed pair of a neighboring channel or part thereof. or both. A computation of signal coupling from multiple near-end disturbing channel pairs into a disturbed pair of a neighboring channel or part thereof. A grey polyvinyl chloride material which is semi-noncontaminating. Also known as the “cold” junction. One type of Teflon. A computation of signal coupling from multiple pairs of disturbing channels. electromagnetic energy reflections can occur at an impedance mismatch in a transmission line. it is usually located at the emf measuring device. measured at the near-end. REFRACTION – The bending of lightwaves or rays as they go from one material to another due to the difference in velocities in the materials. PVC – PolyVinyl Chloride. originally of plant origin but largely synthesized now. Evaluation and Authorization. PT – Thermostat cable with solid conductor. PVC-II – A MIL-DTL-17 coax jacket type. RESIN – A solid or semisolid organic substance. the opposite occurs with an inductance. REINFORCED SHEATH – The outer covering of a cable that has a reinforcing material. The amount of such opposition varies with the frequency of the current. wood or metal. PSAACRF – Powersum insertion loss to alien crosstalk ratio far-end. REFLECTION – (1) The change in direction (or return) of waves or pulses striking a surface. Also called a spool. molded in place between layers. used for winding flexible cable. brown-red growth sometimes found on silver-coated copper conductors and shield braids. A computation of the unwanted signal coupling from multiple transmitters at the near-end into a neighboring (non-energized) pair measured at the near-end. PTFE – PolyTetraFluoroEthylene. RELIABILITY – The probability that a device will function without failure over a specified time period or amount of usage. PULLING EYE – A device used to pull cable into or from a duct. A band of frequencies between 10 kilohertz and 100 gigahertz. A black polyvinyl chloride with excellent weathering and abrasion properties. A black or grey polyvinyl chloride material which is noncontaminating. See RUS.Glossary| PROTECTIVE COVERING – A field-applied material to provide environmental protection over a splice or housing. PVDF – PolyVinyliDene Fluoride. REEL – A revolving flanged device made of plastic. usually a braided fiber. to a disturbed pair in another channel measured at the far-end and relative to the received signal level in the disturbed pair at the far-end. REFERENCE JUNCTION – The junction of a thermocouple that is at a known reference temperature.

cadmium. mercury. etc. Hexavalent Chromium. expressed in decibels.1 to 0. the opposition a material offers to current. Although introduced as a companion standard with RS-449. It is affected by temper. PBB and PBDE. RIP CORD – Two or more insulated conductors in a parallel configuration which may be separated to leave the insulation of each conductor intact. 75°C dry or wet.10. usually a metal tube armored coaxial cable. RIBBON CABLE – A flat cable of individually insulated conductors lying parallel and held together by means of adhesive or an extruded polymer web. The unit of volume resistivity is the ohm-cm. A trademark of the Southwire Company. RING TONGUE – A solderless terminal that connects wire to a stud.” RHH – Rubber-insulated. or parts. rated 90°C. RESISTIVITY – A material characteristic that opposes the flow of electrical energy through the material.|Glossary RESISTANCE – In DC circuits. RS-422 – An ANSI/TIA/EIA standard for cable lengths that exceed the RS-232 50-foot limit. Retractability may be added to all or part of a cord’s length. RS-423 is not widely used. The radio noise appearing on conductors of electric equipment or circuits. RS-232 defines the electrical characteristics of the signals in the cable that connect DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) with DCE (Data Communications Equipment). ROUND WIRE SHIELDS – Shields constructed from bare. RoHS – Restriction of Hazardous Substances. A second color represents the second significant figure and the third is the multiplier or the number of zeros that follow two significant figures. temperature. it indicates the tolerance.11. ROPE UNILAY – A group of stranded conductors assembled in a unilay manner. In AC circuits. tinned or silver-plated copper wire that include braided. It is the ratio. ROUND CONDUCTOR FLAT CABLE – A cable made with parallel round conductors in the same plane. The disruption of radio signal reception caused by any source that generates radio waves at the same frequency and along the same path as the desired wave. Converts temperature to an electrical signal. RS-423 – A TIA/EIA standard for cable lengths that exceed the RS-232 50-foot limit. RETRACTILE CORD – A cord having specially treated insulation or jacket so that it will retract like a spring. ROPE STRAND – A conductor composed of a center group of twisted strands surrounded by layers of twisted strands. then modulate/demodulate them to/from their assigned frequencies. RETURN LOSS – A measure of the degree of impedance mismatch between two impedances. When there is a fourth color band. a common standard for connecting data processing devices. ROOT MEAN SQUARE (RMS) – The effective value of an alternating current or voltages. Similar to ITU-T V. ROCKWELL HARDNESS – A measure of hardness determined by resistance to indention by a small diamond or steel ball under pressure. Made with thermoset insulation. Similar to EMI. RIV – Radio influence voltage. RG/U – “RG” is the military designation for coaxial cable and “U” stands for “general utility. RHW – Rubber-insulated building wire. ROTATING CABLE – A coil of cable whose inner end is attached to a member that rotates in relation to a member to which the outer end of the cable is fastened. RFI – Radio frequency interference. measured in ohms. Sometimes called “hardline. heat and moisture-resistant. alloying. Similar to ITU-T V. RETURN WIRE – A ground wire or the negative wire in a direct-current circuit. A UL cable type. A UL cable type. RIDGE MARKER – One or more ridges running laterally along the outer surface of a plastic insulated wire for purposes of identification. heat and moisture-resistant. RESONANCE – An AC circuit condition in which inductive and capacitive reactances interact to cause a minimum or maximum circuit impedance. It is similar to ITU-T V. RF MODEM – Radio frequency modem. of the amplitude of a reflected wave echo to the amplitude of the main wave at the junction of a transmission line and a terminating impedance.24/V. RESISTOR – An electronic component designed to have a specific value of resistance. RESISTOR COLOR CODE – A method of indicating resistance value and tolerance. contamination.” RINGING OUT – Locating or identifying specific conductive paths by passing current through selected conductors. RS-232 – An EIA recommended standard (RS). ROPE-LAY CONDUCTOR – See concentric-lay conductor. ROMEX – A type of nonmetallic sheathed (Type NM) cable. The first color represents the first significant figure of the value. during production for the purposes of quality control. RESISTIVE CONDUCTOR – A conductor with high electrical resistance. RS-232-C SERIAL I/O PORT – A standard connection interface for computer peripheral equipment. RMS – See root mean square. REW – A 600-volt Canadian wire type covered by CSA standards. 90°C dry or wet. A device used to convert digital data signals to analog signals (and from analog to digital). ROPE CONCENTRIC – A group of stranded conductors assembled in a concentric manner. it specifies a 25-pin connector (the DB-25 connector is almost universally used in RS-232 applications). Although introduced as a companion standard with RS-422.28. spiral and reverse spiral. heat-resistant wire. ROUTINE TESTS – Tests made on each high-voltage cable or upon a representative number of devices. The unit of surface resistivity is ohms/m2. RIGID COAXIAL CABLE – Nonflexible coaxial cable. RS-422 is most frequently implemented on unused pins of DB-25 (RS-232) connectors. RISE TIME – The time it takes the voltage to rise from 0. RHW-2 – Rubber-insulated building wire.9 of its final value. 324 | . resistance is the real component of impedance and may be higher than the value measured at DC. An environmental regulation that limits the amount of six substances in products including lead. RTD – Resistance temperature sensing device. A UL cable type.

ETHYLENE PROPYLENE (EPR) – A synthetic rubber insulation having excellent electrical properties. SHIELDED INSULATED SPLICE – An insulated splice in which a conducting material is employed over the full length of the insulation for electric stress control. between a cable jacket and the components it covers. Silicone rubber-insulated equipment wire. SHIELD PERCENTAGE – The physical area of a circuit or cable actually covered by shielding material. Same as SW except with ground wires. wound around a central core. Frequently confused with the term shield percentage. SEMIRIGID PVC – A hard semiflexible polyvinylchoride compound with low plasticizer content. SEW. Mylar. paper. SHIELD EFFECTIVENESS – The relative ability of a shield to screen out undesirable radiation. It can be utilized to improve stripping qualities and/or flexibility. SERIAL INTERFACE – An interface that requires serial transmission. 600 volts. SEPARATOR – Pertaining to wire and cable. 200°C. aluminum. SENSITIVE CONDUCTOR – A conductor terminated to a circuit that is adversely affected by spurious signals. SEPARABLE INSULATED CONNECTOR – An insulated device to facilitate cable connections and separations. usually copper. | 325 . neoprene. RUS – Rural Utilities Service. SDN – A small diameter multiconductor control cable with neoprene jacket and nylon sheath over polyethylene insulation. or between various components of a multiple conductor cable. SEMIRIGID CABLE – Generally refers to Type MI or Type ALS that can be bent or shaped into a required configuration from coils or reels. SERVED WIRE ARMOR – Spiral wrap of soft galvanized steel wires wrapped around a cable to afford mechanical protection and increase the cable-pulling tension characteristic. used for making transistors and diodes. Usually made by adding carbon particles to an insulator. A federal agency formerly known as the REA. SBR – A copolymer of styrene and butadiene. Also see SO and SJ. SEMISOLID – An insulation crosssection having a partially open space between the conductor and the insulation perimeter. EPR. solid or 7 strand conductor. An RS-232 modem interface signal (sent from the DTE to the modem on pin 4) which indicates that the DTE has data to transmit. germanium. POWER CABLE – A conducting layer applied to increase safety. SECONDARY INSULATION – A nonconductive material that protects the conductor against abrasion and provides a second barrier. or braid of metal. Also GRS or Buna-S. RUBBER. or can offer additional mechanical or electrical protection to the components it separates. SHIELDING. SHIELD COVERAGE – See Shield Percentage. thus preventing the line from radiating radio waves. Service Entrance Cable. SELF-EXTINGUISHING – Characteristic of a material whose flame is extinguished after the igniting flame source is removed. Same as SWO except with ground wires.550 and 5. SHIELD – A sheet. S BAND – A band of frequencies between 1. screen. SEMICONDUCTOR – In wire industry terminology. which is placed between a conductor and its dielectric. SHD – Portable mine power cable. SE – A UL cable type. Silicone rubber insulated fixture wire. with grounding conductors. SEWF – A CSA cable type. SERIES CIRCUIT – A circuit in which the components are arranged end to end to form a single path for current. SEMICONDUCTING JACKET – A jacket having a sufficiently low-electrical resistance so that its outer surface can be kept at substantially ground potential. Not the same as semiconductor materials such as silicon. except flexible stranding 150°C. SGO – A CSA cable type. assembled to give a substantially circular cross section. or the transfer of information in which the bits composing a character are sent sequentially. Same as SF.Glossary| RTS – Request-To-Send. SCHERING BRIDGE – See Bridge. or to keep out any unwanted interference. SHEATH – The outer covering or jacket over the insulated conductors to provide mechanical protection for the conductors. RUBBER INSULATION – A general term used to describe wire insulations made of elastomers such as natural or synthetic rubbers. a material possessing electrical conduction properties that fall somewhere between conductors and insulators. SAE – Society of Automotive Engineers.. SHIELDED LINE – A transmission line whose elements confine radio waves to an essentially finite space inside a tubular conducting surface called the sheath.200 megahertz. etc. SG – A CSA cable type. Implies only a single transmission channel. SEGMENTAL CONDUCTOR – A stranded conductor consisting of three or more stranded conducting elements. S S – A UL cable type. Hypalon. 5 through 25 kV. to contain any unwanted radiation.. each element having approximately the shape of the sector of a circle. etc. Hard service flexible cord with thermoset insulation and jacket. expressed in percent. SFF – A CSA cable type. CPE and others. which it is not. or other conducting material placed around or between electric circuits or cables or their components. a layer of insulating material such as textile. SERVE – A filament or group of filaments such as fibers or wires. SF – A CSA cable type. three or four individually shielded conductors. control dielectric stresses and prevent partial discharges. SERVING – A wrapping applied over the core of a cable or over a wire.

Usually employed for fluorocarbon. SIS – Switchboard wiring made with cross-linked polyethylene insulation. S/N – See Signal-to-Noise Ratio. Junior hard service. 2 or 3 conductor parallel cord. 300 V. SKIN EFFECT – The tendency of alternating current. SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO – A ratio of the amplitude in a desired signal to the amplitude of noise. usually expressed in dB. SJTO – Same as SJT but oil-resistant thermoplastic outer jacket. 300 V. SIGNAL – Any visible or audio indication which can convey information. Same as SOO but UL Listed or CSA Certified for outdoor use. SPT – A UL type of thermoplastic-insulated. cross-linked and mechanically expanded which when reheated or released will return to its original diameter. SNM – Shielded nonmetallic sheathed cable. 600 V.|Glossary SHORT – A low-resistance path that results in excessive current flow and often in damage. SILICONE – A material made from silicon and oxygen. Portable cord and control cable. with or without a third conductor for grounding purposes. 326 | . 600 V. SJOO – Same as SJO but with oil-resistant insulation as well as an oil-resistant jacket. 300 V. In round conductors. but heavier construction for refrigerators or room air-conditioners. SJ – A UL or CSA cable type. but 300 V. SHRINK TEMPERATURE – That temperature that effects complete recovery of a heat shrinkable product from the expanded state. SI – An international system of standardized units of measurement. SINTERING – Fusion of an extruded paste or a spirally applied tape wrap insulation or jacket by the use of high heat to a homogenous continuum.” SQUIRREL CAGE MOTOR – An induction motor having the primary winding (usually the stator) connected to the power and a current is induced in the secondary cage winding (usually the rotor). SPLITTER – A passive device used in a cable system to divide the power of a single input into two or more outputs of lesser power. SHRINK TUBING – Tubing that has been extruded. SJTOO – Same as SJTO but with oil-resistant insulation. nonextrudable materials. SOO – Same as SO but with oil-resistant insulation. SHRINKING RATIO – The ratio between the expanded diameter and recovered diameter of shrinkable products. as its frequency increases. SPC – Statistical Process Control. SOURCE COUPLING LOSS – Loss of light intensity as the light from a source passes into an optical fiber. SPIRAL STRIPE – A color coding stripe applied helically to the surface of an insulated wire or cable. Also. but heavier construction. S METER – An instrument to measure signal strength. SJT – A UL or CSA cable type. parallel-jacketed. SIGNAL CABLE – A cable designed to carry current of usually less than one ampere per conductor. SO – A UL or CSA cable type. SPECIFIC INDUCTIVE CAPACITY (SIC) – Dielectric constant of an insulating material. with a guard band in between to provide isolation from interference. SP-1 – A UL cable type. to travel only on the surface of a conductor. The thermosetting elastomer form is noted for high heat resistance. Spacing is accomplished by ceramic or plastic hangers suspended from a support messenger. Junior hard service thermoplastic or rubber insulated conductors with overall thermoplastic jacket. SHOVEL CABLE – Normally an SHD-GC type that supplies high-voltage (2 to 25 kV) power to mobile equipment. SINGLE-MODE – Optical fiber in which only one mode of light can propagate. SP-3 – Same as SP-2. SHUNT WIRE – A conductor joining two parts of an electric circuit to divert part of the current. Can also be used as a combiner when two or more inputs are combined into a single output. 300 V. two-conductor light duty cord for pendant or portable use in damp locations. SPIRAL SHIELD – A metallic shield of fine stranded wires applied spirally rather than braided. SOLID CONDUCTOR – A conductor consisting of a single wire. SOLEF – Solvay’s trademark for its PVDF polymer. but with oil-resistant jacket. SPIRAL WRAP – The helical wrap of a tape or thread over a core. Frequently called “zip cord” or “lamp cord. same construction as type S except oil-resistant thermoset jacket. SP-2 – Same as SP-1. SJO – Same as SJ. SOFT WIRE – Wire that has been drawn or rolled to final size and then heated (annealed) to remove the effects of cold working. distance between the reference edge of the first and the last conductor. SPLICE – A connection of two or more conductors or cables to provide good mechanical strength as well as good electrical conductivity. SHUNT – A very low resistance component used to divert a portion of the electric current. the information conveyed through a communication system. SPACER CABLE – A type of overhead power distribution cable. Same construction as type S. SPAN – In flat conductors. distance between centers of the first and last conductors. rubber-insulated pendant or portable cord. Hard service cord. SINGLE CABLE – A one-cable system in broadband LANs in which a portion of the bandwidth is allocated for send signals and a portion for receive signals. All thermoset. Can be in thermosetting elastomer or liquid form. SOOW – A UL or CSA cable type. SIC (SPECIFIC INDUCTIVE CAPACITANCE) – See Dielectric Constant.

rubber insulated. SVT – A North American cable type. STRAIN GAUGE – A device for determining the amount of strain (change in dimension) when a stress is applied. a resistance conductor in. For example. Same as SV except oil-resistant thermoset jacket. 300 V 60°C or 90°C. wound around each other to help cancel out any induced noise in balanced circuits. It is usually expressed in ohms. or of any combination of such groups of wires. STANDING WAVE – The stationary pattern of waves produced by two waves of the same frequency traveling in opposite directions on the same transmission line. SUPERCONDUCTORS – Materials whose resistance and magnetic permeability are virtually zero at very low temperatures. STO – A North American flexible cord type. 60°C or 90°C. | 327 . STOO – Same as STO but with oil-resistant insulation. waveguide or analogous system. 300 V. STRAIN HARDENING – An increase in hardness and strength caused by plastic deformation at temperatures lower than the recrystallization range. SUBSTRATE – Insulating material of a printed circuit. usually a high-tensile textile. the property of a conductor that causes it to resist permanent deformation by bending. 600 V. SV – A North American cable type. Same as SVT. jacketed. 150/200°C 600 V appliance and motor lead wire.Glossary| SR – Silicone Rubber cable 600 V. SWEEP TEST – A test given to check attenuation at various frequencies. Same as ST but with an oil-resistant thermoplastic outer jacket. STABILITY FACTOR – The difference between the percentage power factor at 80 volts/mil and at 40 volts/mil measured on wire immersed in water at 75°C for a specified time. or a resistor in series with. SURGE – A temporary and relatively large increase in the voltage or current in an electric circuit or cable. ST – A UL cable type. used to anchor the cable ends at their points of termination and to keep any pull on the cable from being transferred to the electrical connections. 125°C. An unmoving electrical charge. same as type S except thermoplastic construction. measured longitudinally. Also called Transient. flexible copper strand. Vacuum cleaner cord. STATIC CHARGE – An electrical charge that is bound to an object. Overall rubber jacket. Same as SV except thermoplastic jacket. heat and moisture resistant finish. SURFACE RESISTIVITY – The resistance of a material between two opposite sides of a unit square of its surface. SVO – A North American cable type. For light duty in damp locations. The existence of voltage and current maxima and minima along a transmission line is a result of reflected energy from an impedance mismatch.400 volts. heat and moisture resistant finish. Cable core of insulated conductors shielded or unshielded and an overall jacket of braided K-fiber impregnated with flame. generally used above 2. STIFFNESS – As applied to copper. usually twisted. Two wires. two or three conductor. 200°C 600 V fixture wire and power cable. SRG – A cable with ozone resistant silicone rubber insulation with an overall jacket of braided glass yarn impregnated with flame. STRESS-RELIEF CABLE – Cable used to relieve stresses in the process of welding pipe joints by inducing heat in pipe sections to be welded. STANDARD – A set of rules or protocols that describe how a device should be manufactured so it will be reliable and interoperability (compatibility) with others of the same type from different manufacturers will be maintained. a figure of merit used to express the efficiency of the system in transmitting power. STP – Shielded twisted pair. 150/200°C 600 V multiconductor cable. a sparkplug cable. STRAND – One of the wires of any stranded conductor. heat and moisture resistant finish. 600 V. STRANDED CONDUCTOR – A conductor composed of a group of wires. STRAND LAY – The distance of advance of one strand of a spirally stranded conductor. 300 V 60°C. STRAIGHT JOINT – A cable splice used for connecting two lengths of cable. SUGGESTED WORKING VOLTAGE – AC voltage that can be applied between adjacent conductors. Hard service cord. STRUCTURAL RETURN LOSS – Backward reflected energies from uneven parts of the cable structure. in one turn. 60°C. as in coaxial cable. 60°C to 105°C. ST1 – An optional smoke test rating for wires in UL Standard 44. to suppress interference which would otherwise affect radio reception in and near the vehicle. SVTO – A North American cable type. 60°C. STOP JOINT – A splice that is designed to prevent any transfer of dielectric fluid between the cables being joined. STANDING WAVE RATIO (SWR) – In a transmission line. SUPPRESSOR – A device used to reduce or eliminate unwanted voltages in electric or electronic circuits. Rubber jacketed power supply cable (8 AWG to 2 AWG) 600 V. Multiple pairs of wires are contained in one sheath and each wire pair is shielded. STAY CORD – A component of a cable. SRK – A cable with ozone resistant silicone rubber insulation with an overall jacket of braided K-fiber impregnated with flame. STRESS-RELIEF CONE (TERMINATION) – A device used to relieve the electrical stress at a shielded cable termination. SW – A CSA cable type. each of which consists of one or more conductors. except with oil-resistant thermoplastic jacket. surrounded by cladding of slightly lower refractive index. STOOW – Same as STOO but suitable for use in wet locations. SRGK – A cable with ozone resistant silicone rubber insulation with braided glass yarn conductor jacket. STEP INDEX FIBER – A multimode optical fiber consisting of a core of uniform refractive index. STRIP – To remove insulation from a wire or cable.

TAP – (1) Baseband – The component of a connector that attaches a transceiver to a cable. THREE-PHASE THREE-WIRE SYSTEM – An alternating current supply system comprising three conductors over which three-phase power is sent. such that when properly connected allows the emf to be faithfully transmitted to the reference junction. Rated 75°C in wet and dry locations. 90°C nylon-jacketed building wire for use in dry locations. TGGT – PTFE Teflon tape insulation with an insulation covering of wrapped glass yarn and an overall sheath of braided glass yarn impregnated with a moisture. THREE-PHASE CURRENT – Current delivered through three wires. TGS – Solid or flexible copper. the device for pulling wire or cable through a piece of equipment or machine. THWN – A UL cable type. 75°C rated in dry and wet locations. 250°C appliance wire. with each strand a very thin conductor ribbon spirally wrapped around a textile yarn. Fixture wire. Teflon tape. The terminator prevents interference-causing signal reflections. NEC Article 336. or for making temporary electrical connections. Overcoat and Topcoated. TAPED SPLICE – A joint with hand-applied tape insulation. Flame-retardant. THERMOCOUPLE EXTENSION CABLE – A cable comprised of one or more twisted thermocouple extension wires under a common sheath. TEST LEAD – A flexible. (2) Broadband – (Also called a directional tap or multitap) a passive device used to remove a portion of the signal power from the distribution line and deliver it onto the drop line. THERMAL AGING – Exposure to a thermal condition or programmed series of conditions for predescribed periods of time. cannot be resoftened by heating. The application of heat or radiation is called “curing. T CONNECTOR – A cable adapter that attaches a PC with a network interface module to the network. stranded. TFFN – Same as TFF but with nylon outer jacket. TENSILE STRENGTH – The maximum load per unit of original cross-sectional area that a conductor attains when tested in tension to rupture.|Glossary T TAKE-UP – The process of accumulating wire or cable onto a reel. THERMOCOUPLE – A device consisting of two dissimilar metals in physical contact. flame and fraying resistant compound. nickel-clad iron or copper. then coated with tin. PTFE and PFA polymers. 328 | . TF – A UL cable type. glass braid. TIN OVERCOAT (TOC) – Tinned copper wire. moisture and heat resistant. See Tray Cable. 600 V. Teflon tape. but without associated parts such as terminal block. 600 V. A test created by the EPA to determine whether an item can be safely discarded in an ordinary (nonhazardous) landfill. Also known as PTFE (PolyTetraFluoroEthylene). silk or synthetic fibers. TERMINALS – Metal wire termination devices designed to handle one or more conductors. 60°C. THERMOSET – A material that has been hardened or set by the application of heat or radiation. TIA – Telecommunications Industries Association. plastic insulated. TEW – Canadian Standards Association type appliance wires. or nickel conductor. TCLP – Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. connecting instruments to a circuit temporarily. silicone glass braid. bobbin or some other type of pack. once set. 600 V. heat. THERMOCOUPLE LEAD WIRE – An insulated pair of wires used from the thermocouple to a junction box. and which. TFF – Same as TF but flexible stranding. for FEP. connecting head or protecting tube. Solid or stranded single conductor. wire that has been processed to produce a strength approximately midway between that of half-hard wire and that of hard-drawn wire. TC – A UL cable type. TFE – One of three types of Teflon. Thermoplastic vinyl-insulated building wire. THERMOCOUPLE EXTENSION WIRE – A pair of wires of dissimilar alloys having emf temperature characteristics complementing the thermocouple with which it is intended to be used. with each wire serving as a return for the other two. THW – A UL cable type. TANK TEST – A dielectric strength test in which the test sample is submerged in water and voltage is applied between the conductor and water as ground. TAPED INSULATION – Insulation of helically wound tapes applied over a conductor or over an assembled group of insulated conductors. TERMINATOR – A resistive device used to terminate the end of cable or an unused tap into its characteristic impedance. THERMOPLASTIC – A material that softens when heated and becomes firm on cooling. insulated lead wire used for making tests. one of which is maintained at a potential midway between the potential of the other two. and to be attached to a board. THREE-WIRE SYSTEM – A DC or single-phase AC system comprising three conductors. bus or block with mechanical fasteners or clipped on. TEAR STRENGTH – The force required to initiate or continue a tear in a material under specified conditions. 200°C. 60°C. TINNED WIRE – See Coated Wire. Same as THW but with nylon jacket overall.” THHN – A UL cable type. 105°C. TINSEL WIRE – A low voltage stranded wire. TEXTILE BRAID – Any braid made from threads of cotton. 600 V 250°C. Also. which when heated will develop an emf output. TG – Flexible nickel or nickel-clad copper conductor. THREE-QUARTER-HARD WIRE – As applied to aluminum. TEFLON – Trademark of the DuPont Co. thermoplastic-covered solid or 7 strands. TAPE WRAP – A spirally applied tape over an insulated or uninsulated wire. THERMOCOUPLE ELEMENT – A thermocouple designed to be used as part of an assembly. TFN – Same as TF but with nylon outer jacket. TEMPERATURE RATING – The maximum temperature at which an insulating material may be used in continuous operation without loss of its basic properties.

flame and fraying resistant compound.g. typical of telephone and LAN wiring. including control information and use data. stranded then coated with pure tin. and an impervious sheath overall. Contrast with BNC. UNBALANCED LINE – A transmission line in which voltages on the two conductors are unequal with respect to ground. moisture resistant and rated 60°C. TURNKEY SYSTEM – Any system that is completely assembled and tested and that will be completely operational by turning it “on. and a third circular conductor insulated from and concentric with the second. TRACER – A means of identifying polarity. Thermoplastic vinyl-jacketed building wire. Line impedance is determined by the diameter and spacing of the conductors. Usually heavy duty jacketed. TWINNER – A device for twisting together two conductors. | 329 . TNC is said to be an abbreviation for threaded-Neill-Concelman. TOPCOATED – Bare (untinned) copper wire. UNIDIRECTIONAL CONDUCTOR – See Concentric-lay Conductor. TROLLEY WIRE – A round or shaped solid. TR-XLP – Water tree retardant cross-linked polyethylene. TRANSMISSION LOSS – The decrease or loss in power during transmission of energy from one point to another. UHF – Ultrahigh frequency. UL – Underwriters Laboratories. TWIN-LEAD – A transmission line having two parallel conductors separated by insulating material. UNBALANCED-TO-GROUND – Describing a two-wire circuit.” TV CAMERA CABLE – Multiconductor (often composite) to carry power for camera. Inc. U U-BEND TEST – A cable test in which the insulation is tested for resistance to corona and ozone. TNC – A threaded connector for miniature coax.Glossary| TKGT – PTFE Teflon tape insulation with an insulating covering of felted K-fiber yarn and an overall sheath of braided glass yarn impregnated with a moisture. Usually expressed in decibels. TRANSMISSION – The dispatching of a signal. the signaling of data over communications channels. to minimize interference pickup by the lead-in during reception. ULTRASONIC CLEANING – Immersion cleaning aided by ultrasonic waves which cause microagitation. UL LISTED – A product that has been tested and found to comply with applicable standards. See Transmission Line. TWINAXIAL CABLE – A shielded coaxial cable with two central insulated conductors. channels.. a second circular conductor concentric with and insulated from the first. filtered out by glass and causes suntan. TPE – Thermoplastic Elastomer. lights. TWISTED PAIR – A pair of insulated copper conductors that are twisted around each other. TRUNK CABLE – A main cable used for distribution of signals over long distances throughout a cable system. cable insulation that can lead to cable failure. It is invisible. mainly to cancel the effects of electrical noise. etc. e. Thermoplastic underground feeder or branch circuit cable. TRIBOELECTRIC NOISE – Noise generated in a shielded cable due to variations in capacitance between shielding and conductor as the cable is flexed. maneuvering motors. Cable tray systems include ladders. or other means (ISO). video. TRAY – A cable tray system is an assembly of units or sections and ancillary fittings. hard conductor ordinarily used to supply current to motors through traveling current collectors. the band extending from 300 to 3. compare with balanced-to-ground. solid bottom trays and similar structures. TRAY CABLE – A factory-assembled multiconductor or multipair control cable approved under the National Electrical Code for installation in trays. troughs. where the impedance-to-ground on one wire is measurably different from that on the other. TRANSCEIVER CABLE – Cable connecting the transceiver to the network interface controller allowing nodes to be placed away from the baseband medium. made of noncombustible materials used to support cables. TRANSMISSION LINE – A signal-carrying circuit with controlled electrical characteristics used to transmit high-frequency or narrow-pulse signals. TWINNING – Synonymous with pairing. TL-9000 – A quality system for the telecommunications industry based on ISO 9000. TRIAXIAL – A three conductor cable with one conductor in the center. telegraphy.000 MHz as designated by the Federal Communications Commission. intercom signals to operators. TW – A UL wire type. message. TRANSCEIVER – A device required in baseband networks which takes the digital signal from a computer or terminal and imposes it on the baseband medium. TREEING – Microscopic tree-like channels in medium voltage. ULTRASONIC DETECTOR – A device that detects ultrasonic noise such as that produced by corona or leaking gas. or blocks. heat. bare. TWIN COAXIAL – A configuration containing two separate. 15 kV.. ULTRAVIOLET – Radiant energy within the wavelength range 10 to 380 nanometers. e. TRANSMISSION CABLE – Two or more transmission lines. TRANSPOSITION – Interchanging the relative positions of wires to neutralize the effects of induction to or from other circuits or. radio. 250°C 600 V apparatus and Motor Lead wire. TRUE CONCENTRIC – A cable conductor in which each successive strand layer has a reversed direction of lay from the preceding layer. or other form of intelligence by wire. telephony. coaxial cable. messages. facsimile. TUBING – A tube of extruded nonsupported plastic material. complete coaxial cables laid parallel or twisted around each other in one unit. TRANSITION SPLICE – A cable splice which connects two different types of cable. a series of characters. UF – A UL cable type.g.

WALL THICKNESS – The thickness of the applied insulation or jacket. CORONA EXTINCTION – The minimum voltage that sustains corona (partial discharge). WATER ABSORPTION – A test to determine the amount of water absorbed by a material after a given immersion period. VOLTAGE – Electrical potential or electromotive force expressed in volts. WATER COOLED LEADS – Furnace Cables. 600 V or 3. VISCOSITY – Internal friction or resistance to flow of a liquid: the constant ratio of shearing stress to rate of shear. the band extending from 30 to 300 MHz (television channels 2 to 13 and most FM radio) as designated by the Federal Communications Commission. 600 V. VG – Varnished-glass or nylon braid. VOLTAGE BREAKDOWN – A test to determine the maximum voltage insulated wire can withstand before failure. etc. VOLTAGE STANDING WAVE RATIO (VSWR) – The ratio of the maximum effective voltage to the minimum effective voltage measured along the length of a mismatched radio frequency transmission line. One watt is equivalent to the power represented by one ampere of current under a pressure of one volt in a DC circuit.|Glossary UNIDIRECTIONAL STRANDING – A term denoting that in a stranded conductor all layers have the same direction of lay. VA – Volt-ampere. VELOCITY OF PROPAGATION – The transmission speed of an electrical signal down a length of cable compared to its speed in free space. Hypalon or XLP jacketed. V V – Volts. V BAND – A band of frequencies between 46 and 56 gigahertz. VAR – A unit of reactive power that means volt-amperes. VOICE FREQUENCY (VF) – Describes an analog signal within the range of transmitted speech. The SI unit of electrical potential difference. VIDEO PAIR CABLE – A transmission cable containing low-loss pairs with an impedance of 125 ohms. VHF – Very high frequency. UTP – Unshielded Twisted Pair. VOLTAGE. without grounds. VC – Varnished-cambric insulation. VLF – Very low frequencies. 330 | . Used for TV pick ups. (2) A UL cable type. Underground service entrance cable. A designation of power in terms of volts and amperes. The test is described in UL Standard 1581. W W – (1) Symbol for watt or wattage. reactive. VOLTAGE. One volt is the difference in potential between two points of a conducting wire carrying a constant current of one ampere when the power dissipated between these two points is equal to one watt. VOLTAGE DROP – The voltage developed across a conductor by the current and the resistance or impedance of the conductor. VOLT – A unit of electrical “pressure. WATER TREEING – A type of insulation deterioration that can occur after long term immersion in water with an electrical stress applied. as designated by the Federal Communications Commission. Two wires. An unshielded twisted-pair cable usually contains four pairs in a single cable jacket. VAR METER – An instrument used by power companies to measure the kvar consumption. telephone carrier circuits. plating and various chemical processes. VOLTAGE TO GROUND – The voltage between an energized conductor and earth.000 V. WATT – A unit of electrical power. High Energy Cables. VOLTAGE DIVIDER – A network consisting of impedance elements connected in series to which a voltage is applied and from which one or more voltages can be obtained across any portion of the network. Usually welding cable strands cabled with a hose core for carrying coolant – used in heavy duty welding equipment. usually twisted around each other to help cancel out induced noise in adjacent circuits. the band extending from 10 to 30 kHz. Usually expressed as a percentage. electric furnace applications. INDUCED – A voltage produced in a conductor by a change in magnetic flux from an outside source. one to six conductors. UNILAY – More than one layer of helically laid wires with the direction of lay and length of lay the same for all layers. USE – A UL cable type.” One volt is the amount of pressure that will cause one ampere of current to flow through one ohm of resistance. A UL fire rating for single conductor cables. VOLUME RESISTIVITY – The resistance in ohms of a body of unit length and unit cross-sectional area. VW-1 – Vertical wire flame test. VDE – Association of German Electrical Engineers. VULCANIZATION – A chemical reaction in which the physical properties of a polymer are changed by reacting it with cross-linking agents. Formerly designated as FR1. XLP or rubber-insulated. VCSEL – Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser is a type of semiconductor laser diode operating in the 850 nm wavelength window that is commonly used in Ethernet-based networks. Heavy duty portable power cable. WATERFALL – The point at which cables installed horizontally in a tray transition to a vertical section of tray. 130°C. determined by applying a corona producing voltage. closed-circuit TV. then decreasing the voltage until corona is extinct. typically supported by an analog telecommunications circuit. VOLTAGE RATING – The highest voltage that may be continuously applied to a wire or cable in conformance with standards or specifications. See Concentric-lay Conductor. WATER BLOCKED CABLE – A multiconductor cable having interstices filled with a water-blocking compound to prevent water flow or wicking.

Also written XLPE. WAVELENGTH – The distance between the nodes of a wave. WIRE BRAID – Flexible wire constructed of small size strands in tubular form. See Loc-Trac. WIRE NUT – A closed-end splice that is screwed on instead of crimped. A European requirement that promotes the recycling of obsolete electrical equipment. Used for shielding or connections where constant flexing is required. XHHW – A UL cable type. (2) the rising part of an impulse wave. WIRE GAUGE (AWG) – The American Wire Gauge. WELDING – Joining the ends of two wires. XLP – Cross-linked polyethylene. ZETABON – Dow’s trade name for an acrylic acid copolymer coated aluminum tape. The zipper arrangement allows installation with no need to disconnect installed wire. ZYTEL – DuPont’s trademark for nylon resins.000 megahertz. (b) duration in microseconds. (2) a station at which a user can send data to. X BAND – A band of frequencies between 5. or electric current or (b) by cold pressure. Also see RoHS. Gauge sizes are each 20. WRAPPER – An insulating barrier applied as a sheet of tape wrapped around a coil periphery. puncture. disruptive discharge. Cross-linked polyethylene insulated small diameter building wire rated 75°C wet and 90°C dry. For other than rectangular impulses: (a) virtual duration of the wave front in microseconds. using the application of heat or pressure or both.6 percent apart based on the cross-sectional area. electric arc. For rectangular impulses: (a) minimum value of current or voltage. WIRE-WRAPPED CONNECTION – A solderless connection made by wrapping bare wire around a square or rectangular terminal with a power or hand tool. Z Z – Symbol for impedance. A system of numerical wire sizes starting with the lowest numbers for the largest sizes.200 and 10. Usually. WITHSTAND TEST VOLTAGE – The voltage that the device must withstand without flashover. WAVE FRONT – (1) That portion of an impulse (in time or distance) between the 10 percent point and the point at which the impulse reaches 90 percent of crest value. WHEATSTONE BRIDGE – A device used to measure DC resistance. WORKSTATION – (1) Input/Output equipment at which an operator works. WIRE – A rod or filament of drawn or rolled metal whose length is great in comparison with the major axis of its cross section. or groups of wires (a) by fusing. WIRE WRAPPING TOOLS – Portable electric tools and automatic stationary machines used to make solderless wrapped connections of wires to terminals. WP – Weatherproof construction for overhead wires. XHHW-2 – A UL cable type. WAVESHAPE REPRESENTATION – The designation of current or voltage by a combination of two numbers. rods. time is represented on the horizontal axis and the current or voltage value is represented on the vertical axis. WEEE – Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment. a computer or other workstation for the purpose of performing a job. (b) time in microseconds from virtual zero to the instant at which one-half of the crest value is reached on the tail. Cross-linked polyethylene insulated small diameter building wire rated 90°C wet and dry. WEIGHT RESISTIVITY – The resistance in ohms at a specified temperature of a copper wire of uniform cross section and of unit weight and unit length.Glossary| WAVEFORM – A graphical representation of a varying quantity. WICKING – The longitudinal flow of a liquid in a wire or cable due to capillary action. X X – Symbol for reactance. | 331 . originally called Brown & Sharpe Gauge. See Bridge. by means of a flame torch. The ratio of the velocity of the wave to the frequency of the wave. ZIPPER TUBING – Alpha’s trade name for harnessing/jacketing material containing a zipper-track type closure. or other electric failure when voltage is applied under specified conditions. Y YIELD STRENGTH – The point at which a substance changes from elastic to viscous. or receive data from.

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