NASA

SP-367

INTRODUCtiON TO THE AERODYNAMICS OF FLIGHT

Theodore Langley Research

A. Talay Center

Prepared at Langley Research Center

Scientific and Technical Information NATIONAL AERONAUTICS

O_ce AND

1975 SPACE ADMINISTRATION Washington, D.C.

For sale by the National Technical Springfield, Virginia 22161 Price - $7.00

Information

Service

CONTENTS

FOREWORD I. A SHORT

...................................... HISTORY OF FLIGHT .......................... ..........................

lit 1 5 5 10 13 25 9.5 9.5 31 39 59 59 84 91 96 103 119 123 127 ........................... 131 131 131 133 137 137 137 149 .......................... ........................... 147 151 151 169

II. BACKGROUND The Atmosphere Winds The

INFORMATION ..................................

and Turbulence

...............................

Airplane FLOW

.................................... ...................................

III. FLUID The The Ideal Real Fluid Flow

...................................... ...................................... Flow Flow FLOW .................................. .................................. EFFECTS ...........................

Fluid Fluid

IV. SUBSONIC Airfoils

and Wings Devices of Airplane

................................. ............................... ............................... ............................... ................................ ...............................

Aerodynamic Total Drag

Propellers V. TRANSONIC

and Rotors FLOW FLOW

VI. SUPERSONIC The Sonic

SST ....................................... Boom ..................................... THE Flight SUPERSONIC

VII. BEYOND Hypersonic Lifting Space VIII.

................................. ...................................

Bodies Shuttle

.................................... ................................ ...............................

PERFORMANCE of an Airplane 1 Motion 2 Motion

Motions Class Class Class

................................... ................................... Flight

3 Motion-Hovering

IX. STABILITY Stability Control

AND CONTROL

....................................... .......................................

V

APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX

A -

AERONAUTICAL AND

NOMENCLATURE UNITS

................

181 187 193 197

B - DIMENSIONS C - COORDINATE

..................... ......................

SYSTEMS

BIBLIOGRAPHY

...................................

vi

FOREWORD

The nings powered decades but,

science

of aerodynamics

can be traced life from growth span the in the

back has first

thousands the moon

of years first

to its

begin-

remarkably, airplane flight witnessed is in sight. various

only one human at Kitty Hawk phenomenal For aspects those

separated manned

heavier-than-air The last few of aerodynamics encom-

landing.

have

science an interest,

and technology the task

and no letup passing

who possess subject

of education

all the

of the

is staggering. of any education.

Specialization

is indicated

but a background This ductory Research the The subject result volume

knowledge is a result

is an essential of several

semesters

of the author's and technicians

teaching

of an introLangley treatment of

course Center.

in aerodynamics The problem

to apprentices faced was

at the NASA than a layman's on the through

to provide

more

but not the detail is a highly was modified revision

as taught

in many

individual set of notes better.

courses which,

college

level.

qualitative, to fulfill the

illustrated objectives notes herein. more

the teaching

process,

A thorough resulted the

of these

with considerable It is hoped that

up-to-date this volume many

material will

has

in the text interest

as presented to pursue

stimulate of

reader's

specialized

education

in the

topics

aerodynamics.

°°.

111

I. A SHORT

HISTORY

OF

FLIGHT

The It probably through

theory began

of aerodynamics with Early ability and prehistoric man, to fly. called being

is the man's unable

culmination desire to soar Greek

of the the

works actions

of many of the himself, began a basic

individuals. bird and fly

to copy

the air. the

into the heavens philosophers Aristotle formed and bodies Bacon,

attributed

to his gods What that is this air has

But the air and

serious can man law

to question: the notion principle that of air

substance weight

fly in it?

conceived

Archimedes' Men like and its 1500 one studies correctly resulting

of floating Roger decreases (Leonardo flight that

lighter-than-air is a gas,

vehicles.

Galileo,

Pascal

proved

is compressible, around his avid Da Vinci and the studies, action

pressure man

with altitude. da Vinci) foresaw the shape of things that

In the years to come. influenced relative As a result intended But these for the ry man ple and Through others. to the air of these

of bird reaction

came that

the principles it was the the -

and designs

concluded several wing -

movement lift necessary machines being

of the wing to fly. that were by man. those to carprinciin 1783 by

produced ornithopters

he designed of a bird's

to copy designs

the

the muscle His 1.) based

power other The

supplied included machine

did not leave and

the drawing

board. (See fig.

designs flying

first

helicopter

a parachute. Instead hot-air

first

did not imitate took the form

the birds. of a large

it was balloon.

on the lighter-than-air 2.) the Constructed distinction thereafter not fly where devices, was

(See fig. holds

the two Montgolfier the first ascent pastime, his

brothers

from

France,

the balloon Although

of initiating became he willed. but they still years a

of man

into the atmosphere. at the mercy

ballooning and could and

popular Gradually, remained away.

man was balloon

of the winds small engines

designs

acquired

steering flight

lighter-than-air

aerostat

devices.

Heavier-than-air

Sir George of modern glider of the flat cept which number success. Lilienthal successful designs.

Cayley

of England

(1773-1857)

is generally forces

recognized acting

as the and

father built a

aerodynamics. and a tail

He understood unit which

the basic flew

on a wing the

with a wing wing angle Stability to this once

successfully. surfaces would use that

He realized produce more

importance than conglider 1800's and had named over a little Otto 2000

of attack in his very day: tried

and that designs

curved came

lift force

ones. used flew

with

the

of dihedral he built their

an important

In 1853 it is believed of his to use the flying crashing the servants a steam engine

a man-carrying the late airplanes a German He recorded 3 shows Today,

with one

as a passenger. to power

During

of inventors Meanwhile, was

toward

end of the nineteenth in gliders to his

century,

successfully before proved

of his own design. in 1896. Figure flight.

flights Lilienthal

death

one of his this form of

concept

of heavier-than-air

Helicopter

Parachute

Figure

1.- Designs

of Leonardo

da Vinci.

Figure 2

2.-

Montgolfier

balloon

(1783).

Figure

3.-

Lilienthal

glider

(1896).

flying, are

now called claims

hang-gliding,

is enjoying flew given

a substantial first the (the credit. D.C., His in 1896. most fitted airplane twice French,

comeback.

Although

there

various

as to who really are generally Institution

the Germans,

or the

Russians),

Americans

At the Smithsonian was wing designing span small which

in Washington, airplanes. "the Aerodrome," of the same it to crash brothers Their 1 kilometer

Dr.

Samuel

Pierpont was

Langley

steam-powered (fig. 4), over flew

successful with a steam

a 5-meter engine from Unfortuof driving

tandem he built

biplane

two propellers, Congress nately, 1903.

Backed

by a grant to carry October success

a full-scale gear failure 17, 1903,

version caused

a pilot.

launching On December

during

and December in a gasoline-

the Wright

achieved success

engine-powered improving their

machine designs.

of their

own design.

lay in continually

Figure Aviation and numerous

4.-

Samuel have spurred War

Langley's developed advances I (1918),

"Aerodrome" rapidly since

(1903). 1903. Two world Aerial combat wars was

and aerodynamics limited wars have

in the airplane. and German future. sectors advanced Soon swept

commonplace end of World propulsion Today areas shuttle. plane's

by the end of World War II (1945) pointed

concepts wings

at the

the way to the and the civilian

and jet 5.)

dominated at Langley

both the Research

military Center

of aviation. pushed

(See fig. forward

research

is being

in the space

of transonic, The design.

supersonic, material

and hypersonic will shed some

transports, light

lifting

bodies,

and the

following

on the how and why of an air-

World

War

I (1918)

P-51 World War

D II (1945)

Modern

(1974)

Figure 5.- Designs showing advance of aeronautics.

4

II. BACKGROUND

INFORMATION

As a background material required aeronautical descriptions this paper. presented background of aircraft A general Appendix motion above

for the in the

material

presented, This

the

reader

is urged

to examine

the

appendixes. discussions concerning Appendix

information this

is basic paper.

and represents Appendix definitions and units A contains and as used is also an airpaper will in

for the types.

throughout both general B discusses scalars,

nomenclature

aeronautical dimensions and relative systems

discussion C describes the Earth's further

of vectors, the various surface. information

motion used

included. craft's aid

coordinate The

to define

bibliography on the materials

at the

end of the

the reader

in locating

presented.

The Nature namely ing the imately keep dry water the air. Earth 90 km, air of the Air atmosphere.up the The Earth's a mixture and same

Atmosphere is concerned the gases. gaseous about envelope one fluid, surroundof approx-

aerodynamicist atmosphere of several

makes

and represents fluctuating in nearly air near sea winds the

Up to altitudes turbulence

general

atmospheric The I. vapor,

in all directions of clean, are is

mixed

proportions. in table Water Interestingly, volume

normal

composition

atmospheric vapor, dust

level bacteria,

is given etc.

Not included although nitrogen the gases. to light the percentages are

in the table highly variable, taken local

particles,

estimated together position the air

at 0.41-percent represent

total

volume. of the total

and oxygen That the

99 percent to vary

of all

comby monthan

can be made pollution

has

been

brought

dramatically areas

in recent

times

problem

where

in industrialized other harmful

of carbon higher

oxide, sulfur dioxide, and numerous in nonindustrialized areas.
TABLE DRY

pollutants

markedly

I.- NORMAL ATMOSPHERIC

COMPOSITION AIR NEAR

OF SEA

CLEAN, LEVEL

[U.S.

Standard

atmosphere,

1962]

Constituent Nitrogen Oxygen Argon Carbon Neon (N2) (02\ (Ar) dioxide (Ne), helium (Xe) .... (CO2) (He), ethane

gas

and

formula

Content,

percent 78.084 20.948 .934 .031

by

volume

krypton (CH4)

(Kr), , nitrogen (SO2'.,

hydrogen oxide nitrogen (CO),

(H2) (N20), dioxide (NO2) (12) , a total of 0.003 Traces of each gas for

xenon ozone ammonia

_O3) , sulfur (NH3),

dioxide carbon

monoxide

and

iodine

Above to their oxygen,

about

90 km, densities.

the different

gases

begin order

to settle one would of all

or separate find high the gases. strata, constant the

out according concentrations of

respective helium, Based and

In ascending which there

then

hydrogen then,

is the lightest are

on composition, Below 90 km where

two atmospheric is essentially varies

layers, the

or shell is the

"shells." homosphere.

the composition composition

Above common

90 km where Although used

with altitude, distribution.

shell

is called or layers, order Fig7 shows

the heterosphere. the are ure the most the

composition

is one way of distinguishing

shells In ascending

criterion

is the temperature mesosphere,

troposphere, both the

stratosphere, composition-

thermosphere,

and shells.

exosphere. Figure

6 shows temperature

and temperature-defined shells. most important Most ozone weather layer

variation troposphere aircraft also. ultraviolet a popularly

in the various which fly in this is the region.

It is the tics man since lives most here solar

atmospheric occurs here

layer and,

to aeronauof course, absorbing The

Without

the beneficial life

in the stratosphere not have and

harmful ionosphere, outwards. spheric atmosphere the Earth's

radiation, known the layer, region

as we know it would in the mesosphere

developed. extends

begins in which The

indefinitely

It represents constituents where gravitation. the solar a dominant Sun. standard and rocket The wind

ionization

of one or more represents in free at these the outer orbits altitudes

of the atmoregion (greater from the of the only to than Sun) all the

is significant. the atmospheric

exosphere to note that

particles

can move

subject

It is interesting (streams

500 km), becomes way to the The aircraft

of high-energy so that one has wind,

particles an "atmosphere" however, of pressure and

of plasma which

influence density atmosphere.performance

extends small.

of the

solar For

is negligibly altimeter

purposes design,

calibrations, of the speed vertiof

and their

so forth,

knowledge density, constant and

cal distribution sound lar is required. or place,

of such

quantities the real

as pressure, atmosphere model is known of dust, is, must as the moisture,

temperature, never remains

Since

at any particuto what air in the

time

a hypothetical This Earth model (that

be employed standard

as an approximation atmosphere. vapor The

may be expected. model with is assumed respect The Europe ciled Civil cially The to the first

to be devoid

and water

and to be at rest

no winds models slight model This

or turbulence). were developed between in the the 1920's in both were recon-

standard United

atmospheric States. The accepted (ICAO). in 1952 5 km below

and the and

differences was

models

an internationally Organization by NACA from

introduced Standard

in 1952 by the Atmosphere in NACA level. sea

International was offi1235.

Aviation accepted tables

new ICAO the basis

and forms

of tables mean

report

extended

to 20 km above

6

With increased knowledgesince 1952becauseof the large scale use of highaltitude soundingrockets andsatellites, extendedtables above 20 km were published. Finally in 1962,the U.S. StandardAtmosphere (1962)was publishedto take into
account (1962) range able this new data. For all practical Uncertainty purposes, Standard in values the U.S. increased Standard over their Atmosphere common altitude as availis in agreement but extends data decreased. with the ICAO Atmosphere

to 700 kin.

with altitude

Exos

}here

?,
Satellites
: o %

::

:

:
,D

):

:

:

:i

.

:.......... _i:. :_i; !:.i:

...-..:::::

::..

_:_

ij::: ___::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 500 : : ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

c) 2

Thermosphere

x-15
:ii ii; Mesopause ::)::i!ii::!ii::!::i:::ii!#.i::!ili:ii::i::iiii!ii ::;iii:_i::}:_i;ii! !

_ 10__20
;iiiiiiii!ii 80

.__. Meteorological

Mesos

, [

Jhere

Meteors burn up

70 -...z.-__ l ]

¢J

n:

,',' tAzom layer ,' " ' ,',,',, (absorbs solar ultra_mlet ,',:' radiation)
,'ilill' ill ' ','Ii$ !iillillll Illl']

,,,,',_

/ , _,,,,,,, %,

',,',',W/,_/'_' ,' _t' t'/',"'/J_'//' /IdWIIJYI' '/_l_i',"]'/',"]]/'_ "--', ' ' _ ' ...... _'_ ' "_ "'_ " f i / ' [' "/,_/f/'i//_ili//I/Stratosphere/ff/////i//////," I///i/l '!/////i_ _ t_ I , i /' " 30

,,'i,',,,,,',,",'_,,,,I_',_,",',""'/,'_l, ', ,_l 40 '','1i'7'','7/i///I

,' tl 'i' 'ill'
_ ["'ili'

',''llll'_'"'

'[li71]iitHii,l'_

'"_,'"

I'_i!,,ti I_'_

,"

'7 ! ' | [ !. North Pole : ::

........

Balloons ........ T ropopause ::-:: :-:-:-"."." _ "-

i ;::::::7: : _:i:rDi:ti:::.:::::7:!:i::::/:i:::_f¢::!>:i':::¢':'¢:':'::"_':_'_ _ ] 10 , ,_ _ Light __..7 weather ¢ ._ I ff.___[ ,/_l_ tSeaSea

I

/toommerclal._t_ [ aire_r_

level

laircr'_t

Equator

Figure

6.-

Atmospheric

structure.

Geometric pressure, U.S. 100 -

altitude density, Standard

vs.

temperature, of sound 1962

speed Atmosphere

/// 9O

8O ,Mesopause 70

@ o
6O

"

_

\\\

5O --Stratopause
_J

*$
O

4O

_

J
e_ ¢d i

30

2O

10 f

Tropopause Troposphere

150 I 0 I 0 l 200

200 K(temp) I 5 I .5 I 250 kg/m 3_ (density) N/m2(pressure)

250 I 10 I 1.0 I 300

300

15 [:104 I 1.5 l 350

m/sec

(speed

of sound)

Figure

7.- Atmospheric on U.S.

properties

variation.

(Based 1962 .)

Standard

Atmosphere,

With the expansionof this nation's spaceprogram requirements, a needwas generatedfor information on the variability of atmospheric structure that would be used in the design of second-generationscientific andmilitary aerospacevehicles. Systematic variations in the troposphere due to seasonandlatitude had been knownto exist andthus a neweffort was begunto take those variations into account. The result was the publication of the most up-to-date standard atmospheres - the U.S. StandardAtmosphereSupplements(1966). Essentially there are two sets of tables - one set for altitudes below 120km andone for altitudes, 120km to 1000kin. The model atmospheresbelow 120km are given for every 15° of latitude for 15° N to 75° N and in most cases for January andJuly (or winter and summer). Above 120kin, models are presented to take into accountvarying solar activity. The older 1962model is classified in the 1966supplementsas an average mid-latitude (30 N to 60° N) ° spring/fall model. The 1962U.S. StandardAtmosphere is the more general model andit is useful to list the standard sea level conditions: Pressure, Po =
Density, 101 325.0 N/m2

Po = 1.225

kg/m 3

Temperature,

T o = 288.15

K (15 ° C)

Acceleration Speed of sound,

of gravity,

go = 9.807

m/sec2

a o = 340.294m/sec

Figure from these sea level

7 gives

a multiplot

of pressure,

density,

temperature, the shells

and general are

speed variation

of sound of

to 100 km. The

It is intended

merely

to indicate

parameters. In the

temperature-defined (from sea level

atmospheric

also

included. it it

troposphere the temperature type

to 10 to 20 km in the linearly with altitude. again. and pressure

standard In the The are

atmosphere), stratosphere speed seen since, of sound to decrease as will be

is seen first shows rapidly seen,

that

decreases Both curve

remains a similar with the lift The real

constant

at about of variation. The

217 K before the

increasing density

altitude.

density is directly

is of particular

importance

on an airfoil atmosphere.-

dependent be fortunate model Earth's

on the density. if the Earth's effects all real of the atmosphere Sun, the corpres-

It would atmospheric and the

responded ence

to a standard

but thermal rotation

of continents

and oceans,

combine

to stir

up the

9

atmosphereinto a nonuniform, nonstandardmass of gasesin motion. Although a standard atmosphere provides the criteria necessary for design of an aircraft, it is
essential that "nonstandard" performance shows in the real up in numerous atmosphere ways, some be anticipated of which are also. disThis nonstandard performance cussed in this section.

Winds Unquestionably, considerable the that standard the air attention atmosphere mass through the most important

and Turbulence real atmospheric motion flies effect, and one receiving Although of motion and space in with and

of late, which

is the relative is motionless an airplane Its

of the atmosphere. to the Earth, in a state both in time

the air

with respect is constantly is variable

it is known

respect

to the

surface complex.

of the The

Earth. motion motions. and the

motion

is exceedingly motions winds) one effect. and affect

may be divided Large-scale performance

into two classes: motions

(1) large-scale (or

(2) small-scale the navigation

of the atmosphere Figure

of an aircraft.

8 illustrates

(a) Aircraft

heading

parallel

to AB.

Wind

drift

causes

actual

flight

path

AC.

A

(b) Aircraft

yawed

into wind Figure

with 8.-

angle Effect

_

to account

for wind

drift.

of winds.

10

In figure 8(a) the pilot is attempting to fly his aircraft
He sets motion flight point were his heading and flies directly for point ground) which finds him B but winds are blowing have at point of the atmosphere path. After the B if there not taken the 8(b). were into pilot This relative required no winds, account, should change for with had have would drift respect values the to the flight time pilot

from

point

A to point large-scale

B.

(representing crosswise brought C. The

to his intended the pilot winds, to which for off

would

himself off course.

forced pointed have requires

In order drifting

to compensate of the aircraft velocity

the winds, in figure course.

the aircraft canceled

slightly out any

into the wind

as illustrated

Compensation velocity

knowledge

of both

the aircraft's

and the wind Statistical been calculated

to the ground. of horizontal wind speed as a function curve. of a real Figure of altitude 9 represents the the curve, real statistithe have

average and

represent

more curve. time

or less Again, and

a standard in the case

one such wind

typical

statistical

atmosphere, from

velocity

at any particular In the consult case local

place

will vary rather than

considerably use a statistical

cal average. pilot flight should path.
3O

of wind airports

drift

then,

for wind

conditions

and forecasts

along

his intended

2C

o

3

10 J

J

J

J

J

f

i

i

I

i

50 Maximum wind speeds, m/see

I 100

Figure

9.-

A typical USAF

statistical Handbook

maximum of Geophysics.

wind

speed

curve.

11

The small-scale motion of the atmosphereis called turbulence (or gustiness). The responseof an aircraft to turbulence is an important matter. In passengeraircraft, turbulence may cause minor problems such as spilled coffee and in extreme cases injuries if seat belts are not fastened. Excessive shaking or vibration may render the pilot unableto read instruments. In casesof precision flying such as air-toair refueling, bombing, andgunnery, or aerial photography,turbulence-induced motions of the aircraft are a nuisance. Turbulence-inducedstresses and strains over a long period may causefatigue in the airframe andin extreme cases a particular heavy turbulence may causethe loss of control of an aircraft or evenimmediate structural failure. There are several causesof turbulence. The unequalheating of the Earth's surface by the Sunwill causeconvective currents to rise and make the plane's motion through such unequalcurrents rough. On a clear day the turbulence is not visible but will be felt; hence,the name "clear air turbulence (CAT)." Turbulence also occurs becauseof winds blowing over irregular terrain or, by different magnitudeor direction, winds blowing side by side andproducing a shearing effect. In the case of the thunderstorm, one has oneof the most violent of all turbulences where strong updrafts anddowndrafts exist side by side. The severity of the aircraft motion causedby the turbulence will dependupon the magnitudeof the updrafts anddowndrafts and their directions. Many private aircraft have beenlost to thunderstorm turbulence becauseof structural failure or loss of control. Commercial airliners generally Figure lences fly around 10 illustrates such the storms flight path for the comfort and safety of their passengers. turbuof an aircraft through the various

described. Another real atmospheric form, effect is that for of moisture. in the pure dry Water in the air, in either and of pre-

its will

liquid affect

or vapor an aircraft that

is not accounted degrees. aircraft physical

standard with as icing

atmosphere the forms

in varying affect and

Everyone performance damage humid air

is familiar such

cipitation zero less less tance

can adversely in fog or snow, dry dry air air air. than and

on the wings, vapor vapor) take-off is will disbe

visibility dense dense than than

caused (air

by hail.

Water water

consequently of this, dense

containing

Because in the more

an aircraft dry air. in the lift, and conditions airport

requires

a longer

in humid Air density

is a very depends does

important upon the

factor temperature true

drag,

and

engine

power Since

output the it

of an aircraft standard is important

and

pressure

locally.

atmosphere for

not indicate

at a particular local

time

and place, conditions.

a pilot

to contact

a local

for the

atmospheric

12

.,i..t.,. .

;i? iL !iLk ?¸

71 ii iiii

Ii ii
pressure power readings, output

?iii?iiiii!i!i iiiiii j'iiiiiN
density may be obtained and,

i iiiiii!!iii!iii!_!:i:i_i:!:i:i:i:i:i:i:i_i:!:i:i:i!iiiiiiii!iiii!ii!i!iii!i!i!iiiii!:i:i:!:i:!:i Figure I0.- Flight path of an aircraft through various forms of turbulence. Relatively stable air exists above thunderstorms. From hence, the local temperature distance pressure pressure and

take-off The local his

and engine is important altimeter

may be determined. using pressure altimeters. pressure readings rather above A pilot than sea to

in aircraft measured

must level.

zero

to local

sea-level altitude

standard

sea-level

pressure

if he is to obtain

accurate

Although nonstandard still remains

the preceding atmosphere as a primary

discussion

considers

only a few of the the design

many

effects

of a

on aircraft reference

design in the

and performance, preliminary

standard stage

atmosphere

of an aircraft.

The Basic known airplane.Our Before attention proceeding it would airplane. in exploded as follows: will

Airplane be centered mainly on that class of aircraft theory and

as airplanes.

into any be well

discussion

of aerodynamic in some detail

its application physical makeup As figure into several

to airplanes, of a typical 11 demonstrates components gear,

to consider

the overall

view fuselage, The

form,

an airplane tail

may be resolved and control components are

basic landing later

wing,

assembly of these

surfaces, considered

and powerplant(s).

aerodynamics

in the discussion. The body for of an airplane operating and is called controlling the fuselage. airplane. It houses It may the crew and space

Fuselage.the controls

necessary

the

provide

13

_Controt

_

assem

y

.
_n

t
ge3.r

Figure for cargo and passengers

11.-

Basic

airplane

components. sorts. In addition, the basic to it. with the 12. an strucIt is

and carry in the fuselage.

armaments

of various

engine ture

may be housed of the airplane streamlined to be performed Wing.The wing the

The fuselage other large

is, in one sense, components drag. are Designs

since

many

of the

attached vary

generally mission

as much and the provides action

as possible variations the principal of the wing as the

to reduce are endless,

as illustrated of an airplane. to the air. The airfoil

in figure Lift is The crosssection depend airplane

lifting with airfoil

force respect section.

obtained sectional planform airplane Figure

from shape shape mission

dynamic

of the wing of the wing, and

is known

shape, upon the design.

and placement compromise

of the wing necessary often

on the fuselage in the used. overall

the best the shapes and control

13 illustrates Tail assembly

and placements surfaces.rear

The tail of the airplane.

assembly

(appendage) assembly stability

represents consists in yaw, in of

the

collection

of structures stabilizer

at the (fin) and

The tail directional

(1) the vertical and pitch. (2) the

rudder

which

provide

horizontal

stabilizer the

and elevator numerous

which forms

provide that a tail

longitudinal assembly

stability may take.

Figure

14 illustrates

14

/

|

B-26B

Twin-engine

bomber

WWII

/

l

%

P -47N

Albatross

Flying

boat
j/_- /

I (+

,

/

B-52G

Long

range

8-engine

bomber

Figure

12.- Various

fuselage

designs.

15

Wing

Wright

Brothers

P-36

(Subsonic)

L

F-51

(Subsonic)

F-104

(Supersonic)

(a)Examples

of airfoilshapes.

Figure 13.- Wing shapes and placements.

16

Rectangular straight wing

Tapered

straight

wing

Rounded or straight

elliptical wing

Slightly

swept

wing

Moderately

swept

wing

Highly

swept

wing

Simple

delta

wing

Complex

delta

wing

(b) Examples Figure

of wing 13.-

planform.

Continued. 17

High-wing

Mid-willg

Low

-wing

(c) Examples Figure

of wing 13.-

placements.

Concluded.

Rudder --_ //

_

Fin

,vertical

stabiliz(,ri

Elevator

. '

__'_._.._._

_ [t,l'lZdlntitl

Nl:t|)lltZ_l"

H orizo nal Rightfin s ta hi, i zter -

_

_

evatlw _ fin

Twin

tail

V-butl(,r

fl}:-t._il

Figure 18

14.-

Tail

assembly

forms.

Included used or trol for right) (nosing attitude, is

in the lift,

control and by the up

surfaces drag control.

are

all Yaw is

those control generally

moving (turning attached

surfaces the

of an airplane airplane fin. are to the Pitch left con-

provided the airplane

rudder or down)

which is

to the

provided Roll control near

by the (rolling the

elevators the wing

which

generally right or left)

attached is provided tabs aileron

to the by are

horizontal the small ailerons

stabilizer. located hinged functions heavy at to fly whatever on the the parts airspeeds. used on both pilot

to the edge

generally control are

outer inserts the

trailing on airplane the

of the

wing.

Trim and heavy, elevator, the and Flaps

auxiliary whose

surface

elevator, if it is too

rudder, nose the

surfaces heavy, rudder, maintairting and hinged lift at are thus or or or

(1) to balance cruise

tail

wing ailerons

in a stable particular controls, of the effort

condition, the move pilot the

(2) to maintain wishes elevators, the without

setting (3) to help necessary

pilot ailerons are

pressures relieve pivoted

rudder,

to move edges for wing

surfaces. wing and used takeBy form 16 shows used on a

of the

leading They the are lift wing,

and/or used on

trailing primarily

of the landing quickly. an alternate figure

to increase off. Spoilers

reduced devices

to reduce sides

an airplane may

operating of roll a simple large jet

independently control. aileron airliner. gear.on or the The ground Figure and flap

of the the and

they control

provide surfaces

15 illustrates installation

attitude a more

and

complicated

arrangement

Landing it is at may be rest fixed

landing or

gear,

or and

undercarriage, during of most the for several the

supports take-off are and

the

airplane The to shocktypes

while gear

in water, The wheels to and

landing.

retractable. that use skis used. oil for

_tirplanes blow water. of the

attached Special

absorbing landing arrester modern-day gear

struts

or

air

cushion floats

of landing. For gear carrier

of

include are

snow

landings, found on

hooks

Figure

17 shows

arrangements

airplanes. With plant few exceptions flight. related and the an The airplane power must plant The engines the is possess consists main such energy as a thrust-producing of the engine the engine are pulse (and the jet,

Power_plants.device propeller, reciprocating turbojet, engine's Figure or power

to sustain and the

if present), (or turboprop, rotating 18 illustrates Forces on an piston and

accessories. reaction Converting force varied two They body from

types ram jet,

type), rocket

engine. into a thrust many are

of a reciprocating by the propeller.

crankshaft some airplane.or forces or

accomplished placements types be termed

of the

engine general may

possible. that forces airplane between may act and this the on suris the a

There flight. on the

of forces as For body the

body face

in unaccelerated forces. Body force

steady act

a distance. act because

gravitational

weight.

Surface

forces

of contact

19

RuddE Elevator (all-movir Spoiler

-- Flaps

Spoiler Flaps

(a) Control

surfaces

on F-4B

Phantom.

Rudder

_

Side

view

_-T_\
Rudder -_ _

Aileron

.-_

J

.

\_

Speed---, 'el I

Aileron trim tab

_ "_

_ ,

AHeron-_

(b) Control Figure 15.-

surfaces Main control

on T-28B. surfaces.

2O

Left

aJleron

Right

aileron

(a) Simp/e
Outboard aileron

flap arrangement.

Outboard

flap

Inboard

aileron

/ Inboard flap

(b)Jet airlineraileron and flap assembly on Wing. Figure 16.- Flaps and ailerons.

2!

gear Main gear

Arrester hook

(a) Tricycle

gear

-

nose

wheel,

two main

wheels.

_

_Tail wheel

(b) Conventional

gear

-

tail

wheel,

two main

wheels.

Skids

(c) Unconventional Figure 17.-

gear

-

skis,

skids, forms.

or floats.

Landing-gear

29.

Reciprocating or turbo-engine propeliors

]

Jet

engine

Starfighter

Single engine F-104

Twin engine

Phantom _ F-4

Three engines

Trident

Four engines

Multi engine

Figure

18.-

Power-plant

placements.

Lift

Thrust

=-

Weight

Figure 19.- Forces on an airplane in normal flight. 23

medium and thrust, Basically,

and the body, the the other four The the

that three

is,

between forces

the air acting

and the airplane on an airplane, are weight, the

surface. are thrust, all

Lift, surface

drag, forces.

main acting includes

forces weight

on an airplane the flies, airplane the weight

lift,

and drag. fuel. Since

Weight: fuel is consumed tion toward Thrust: propeller, along

itself,

payload, Weight

and the acts

as the center The

airplane of the Earth. force

decreases.

in a direc-

driving rocket axis

of whatever and

propulsive

system

is used, It may take-off

engine be taken

driven to act

jet engine,

engine, of the

so forth, (except

is the thrust. for of air vertical around

the longitudinal Lift: This force from

airplane

airplanes). the major aerody-

is generated the wing. line

by the flow It represents

the airplane, of the resultant

portion namic

resulting force Drag: normal

the

component

to the this

of flight. arises from the flow of air along will the around line the airplane but is

Again, of the simplest velocity.

force

the

component In the

resultant flight

aerodynamic situation

force

of flight. and level under flight these

an airplane the

travel

in straight four

at a uniform conditions. thrust They drag major arise. equals generally arise

Figure this Weight

19 shows basic flight

disposition

of the

forces

To maintain the drag. are known of the

situation, are

the lift

equals

the weight, of an airplane.

and the

and thrust

physical

attributes and

or can be easily dynamic movement is the

determined of the

controlled. through lift and

But lift and the air. drag forces The

because

airplane the

concern This

of aerodynamics subject is considered

manner

in which detail.

now in some

24

III. FLUID FLOW The Fluid Viscosity.- There are basically three states of matter - solid, liquid, andgas. H20 is commonly called "ice" in the solid state, "water" in the liquid state, and "water vapor" in the gaseousstate. Assume onehas a piece of ice andside forces are applied to it (called shearing forces). Very large forces are neededto deform or break it. The solid has a very high internal friction or resistance to shearing. The
word for internal Liquids a solid. ers, air friction is viscosity are considered of water and one and for a solid its since value they is generally behave are very large. from layand gases to be fluids or air. sustained than differently to these

Imagine

two layers a substantial faster must over

If shear relative the water the fluids

forces motion layers. indicates

applied

one discovers layers sliding

of the layers However, that they

with the the fact also possess

another

that a shear force internal friction. Water, under

be applied

to deform

normal more

temperatures, viscous than

is about air. fluids higher

fifty

times

more that,

viscous in general, Under Air,

than

air.

Ice is 5 × 1016 times have gory mary extremely of fluids, interest

One concludes have

solids the cate-

high viscosities liquids generally

whereas possess has

low viscosities. than gases.

viscosities small zero

of pritheories,

in aerodynamics, as a perfect that fluid even

a relatively one that has

viscosity viscosity

and in some or is "inviscid." friction)

it is described

-

But it will be shown important effects

this

small

viscosity

of air drag. (that are

(or internal

has

on an airplane All fluids to some Even not great. be treated At higher

in terms are

of lift and

Compressibility.increasing compared speeds pressure) with involved air gases. are may

compressible but liquids

is, density highly

increases

under

extent, gases For

generally

incompressible provided below about the flow

may

be treated flow

as incompressible over (that an airplane is, no change

subsonic

150 m/sec, throughout into account.

as incompressible speeds the effects

in density must be taken

the flow).

of compressibility

The Pathlines ways the standpoint, time. The and streamlines.approach is chosen out by that ocean buoy A fluid and the

Flow be described approach. as it moves a particle Its position in two different From the Lagrangian space with An exammarked at through pathline. has been

flow may Eulerian

Lagrangian one particle line traced

and it is followed one particle shown in figure

is called 20(a).

ple is a transmitting

25

6-hour intervals over a period of several days. The path observed is the particle pathline. In order to obtain a clearer idea of the flow field at a particular instant, a Eulerian approachis adopted. One is looking at a "photograph" of the flow. Figure 20(b) showsthe surface oceancurrents at a particular fixed time. The entire flow field is easily visualized. The lines comprising this flow field are called streamlines.
,'_ + 48
f /

hrs

t_t+ Particle pathline _-_._ /

42

hrs

it+ ]

36 hrs

., _1+ 30 hrs Coast 2_i + 24 hrs Buoy position at 6 hour intervals

/_+ 18 hrs ! + 12
I

hrs

•_/+
J

6 hrs

_

0 hrs

(a) Particle

pathline.

Streamlines

Flow

at + 6 hours

Coast

(b) Streamlines. Figure 20.Particle pathline and streamlines.

26

It is line.

important refers

to note to the the line

the

differences

between particle

a particle in time at the

pathline and space time. is

and

a streamwhereas The a

A pathline presents particle flow

trace of motion and

of a single of many

streamline of whether Stsady fluid person direction "gusty" if its does or velocity not To house of time flow time. on

particles are ever Of basic of a "steady it blows speed flow or

a fixed same

question next.

pathlines compared about

streamlines unsteady is the flow.concept he stands the the

considered

with

importance flow." constantly direction about remains at fluid all points On

in understanding a windy the day same the wind is a

movements calls the

an object steady speed. In a similar and direction) that

wind

if where If,

from changes, an

at a constant unsteady. (speed

however, manner at the each velocity 21(a) of time flow is

of a fluid flow

object constant in the

is steady this

point be presents and unsteady. are

in the the

necessarily consider a windy later. this day One

require further, at one sees that the

same the

fluid. a

figure instant this

flow

(of air) the flow areas and

about

figure

21(b) There their

shows are

an instant where shape the with

many

pattern

is different;

streamlines

changing

position

Particle pathlines and streamlines

for this flow are not equivalent.

(a)

Streamlines

at

time

t 0.

y

(b) Streamlines Figure 21.Unsteady flow

at time of air

t 1. about a house. 27

Figure house) At time develops through not the appear line t 5.

22 shows tunnel. tunnel at time

a nicely At time is started t2

"streamlined" tO the tunnel begins reaches time is,

body

(as opposed

to the bluff-shaped and no air the body; is flowing. the flow t 3. are The

in a wind t1 the

is not running flowing about

and air finally t4 and that

further an unsteady same. fixed

and state; t3

a constant t 5. When the pathlines

pattern flow and

at time starts, streamlines

flow appears

unchanged

at time

it passes

transient time with

particle

From in position t3

onwards

a steady body. that the

flow is established. A particle P shown

Streamlines on a streamt4 and

respect

to the along with

at time The

moves pathline

downstream coincides

streamline

as shown

at times

particle

streamline.

====2,.i

Tunnel

at

time

t o

Tunnel

at

t 1

r

Tunnel

at

t 2

Tunnel

at

t 3

......

.........

:,:::

'_:"

_'_

Tunnel at t4
Steady flow: Particle pathline : Streamline

Tunnel at t 5

Figure Summarizing, are for equivalent and flow visualization. Rotational the elements and irrotational of fluid at each point this the means

22.that

Unsteady for a steady

and steady flow is the

flow. pathline Eulerian and streamline approach

a particle same

Lagrangian

point

of view

as the

flow.-

Fluid

flow

can be rotational no net angular

or irrotational. (spin) velocity about

If

in the flow have

28

constant velocity.
remains limited irrotational to a small still

It is irrotational. if zero region viscosity the near

As the surface

airflow

passes In real

about life,

the

airfoil Most

section, are of the

it

is assumed.

viscosity

effects

of the airfoil

and in its wake.

flow may

be treated

as irrotational. flow.A simplifying of a one-dimensional Each streamline In the case of stream water argument flow. of steady comprise through to the the "one often employed 24(a) the to aid in undershows a bundle tube tube of since

One-dimensional standing streamlines fluid nent. Fluid locity value flows Taken flows varies basic ideas of a simple along

is that

Figure flow,

flow.

can be thought

of as a stream stream larger or channel. streamline value since made. must

it as if in a tube. the bundle it as, the

is permatube.

together, through across

tubes flows

an even a pipe individual varying

stream

for example, tube, in general, 24(b). section then along

The vevelocuniform

according One

ity variation,

as shown

in figure

can easily

imagine actual

an "average"

of velocity 24(c).

at the cross The velocity distance density, section

to represent

as indicated it varies only

in figure with

is considered the tube where

dimensional" are

the particular pressure, at each In order

observations

In addition also be

to velocity, uniform

temperature, for the

and other

flow properties dimensional. arise, two basic and can neither

cross

flow to be one forces and

to understand They they are the convey

how aerodynamic laws facts of conservation that mass the

principles be created

must nor

be considered. Simply destroyed. For sidered ered stated,

of mass energy

conservation

of energy.

introductory

purposes,

simplifying

assumptions (and hence,

are "perfect").

made. The

The

fluid

is con-

to be inviscid steady

and incompressible

flow is consid-

and one dimensional.
Fluid __.,__ velocity out

Many (actually

streamlines infinitesimal

form

duct

boundary)

thickne_ Fluid velocity t/ in

_

_

Stream.tube

(outside

streamlines

(a) Stream Figure 30 24.Stream tubes

tubes. and one-dimensional flow.

the points, the fluid flow is said to be irrotational.
wheel rotating, figure immersed the 23(b), in a moving motion the flow fluid as in figure If the 23(a). is irrotational. is rotational. wheel

One can imagine a small paddle
If the wheel in a flow, translates as illustrated without in rotates

(a) Irrotational

flow.

(b) Rotational

flow.

Ik

(c) Inviscid, Figure 23.-

irrotational Rotational

flow about and irrotational

an airfoil. flow.

According initially the airfoil

to a theorem it remains shown. The

of Helmholtz, irrotational. flow far ahead

assuming In figure

zero

viscosity,

if a fluid

flow is to

irrotational, section

23(c),

an observer

is fixed

of the airfoil

section

is uniform

and of 29

/-Transverse

velocity ion

_

__'--

Ave ra4Ie

veloeit

y

luidvelocity

(b) Real

velocity

flow

profile.

--

One-dimensional velocity profile

idealized

--}
(c) (e) One-dimensional Figure 24.flow Concluded. profile. Ideal The tion but tube. tions, areas these of mass has continuity equation.The Consider between it is in the A2, the Fluid Flow equation which in figure fluid, Stations V1 flow). being pumped and is is uniform 25(a). under the a statement in diameter This is called of the conservaends, continuity a pipe ends that indicated. Let as the in a system. at both a venturi assumpa constriction Furthermore, is flowing A 1 cross and sections pipe that station cross and the assumed previously 2 have the stated direction respectively. (one-dimensional nor the is fluid fluid 1 and V2 be cross-sectional flow is The must that speeds there at are

average

A further in through station this is an 1 per "mass

assumption the unit sides. time rate"

no leaks equation mass value creation"

in the states

continuity equal the the "mass fluid same

mass unit

passing

passing at any -

2 per section steady

time. or

In fact, there

flow

must -

be

examined flow

accumulation Simply

of mass stated,

assumption

is violated.

(Mass

rate)

1 = (Mass

rate)2

(1)

31

where Mass This equation rate = Density to x Area x Velocity (2)

reduces

PlA1V1 Since reduces the fluid to

= P2A2V2 to be incompressible, p is a constant and equation (3)

(3)

is assumed

AlV 1 = A2V 2 This is the simple flow as long continuity with no leaks. as average equation values equation for inviscid, incompressible, viscous, V2 across the steady, onestill are

(4)

dimensional be valid

If the flow were of Vl and

statement cross

would section

the

used.

By rearranging

(4), one obtains

A1 V 2 - A2 V1

(5)

Since greater made, decreases the nuity the

A1

is greater

than

A2

(see

fig. 25(a)),

it can be concluded It states, decreases shows at the station called this ends.

that

V2

is

than V 1. This is a most that the flow speed increases where the area increases. a larger speed

important where

result. the area 25(b) than

under the assumptions and the flow speed with the In fact, longer by the arrow contiis at tube. an in at

Figure flow speed

constriction equation, narrowest The fact

indicating the part that highest of the the

is reached

at the

of smallest the throat along

area.

This

constriction AV

commonly remains

of the

venturi

product

a constant 25(c) streamlines

a tube the

of flow allows pattern

interpretation the venturi

of the streamline tube. In the area wide part.

picture. of the throat, Hence, The regions flow. the

Figure the

shows

streamline crowd closer

must

together and the spaced indicate

than fluid

in the speed

distance

between

streamlines speaking, spaced

decreases widely streamlines

increases. indicate

conclusion of low-speed

is that, flow

relatively and closely

streamlines regions Bernoulli

of high-speed 's theorem -

the

conservation steady, The

of energy.-

Assume

a fluid The

flow which, energy in

as before, the

is inviscid,

incompressible, of several energies.

and one dimensional. kinetic energy arises

flow is composed

because

of the

32

directed motion of the fluid; the pressure energy is due to the random motion within the fluid; andthe potential energy is due to the position of the fluid abovesome referencelevel. Bernoulli's theorem is an expression of the conservationof the total energy; that is, the sum total of these energies in a fluid flow remains a constant along a streamline. Expressed concisely, the sum of the kinetic energy, pressure energy, and potential energy remains a constant. If it is further assumedthat the fluid flow is horizontal (as, for example, airflow approachingan aircraft in level flight), then the potential energy of the flow is a constant. Bernoulli's theorem reduces to Kinetic energy + Pressure energy =
where the the constant per may unit includes volume, the constant value energy one obtains in terms Constant energy. of pressure If one and considers (6)

of potential

the dimensions

Bernoulli's

theorem

be expressed

of pressure.

I Station 1 I

Ca)

' >
(b)

increased

flow

speed

Figure

25.-

Venturi

tube

and

continuity

principle. 33

The kinetic energy per unit volume is called dynamic pressure q andis deter1 mined by q=_p AV2 where p and V are, respectively, the fluid flow density and speedat the point in question. The pressure energy per unit volume (due
the static The pressure constant of the fluid energy equation per and is given unit volume to to random p. total pressure Pt" motion within the fluid) is the symbol is called the

Bernoulli's

reduces

Dynamic
or

pressure

+ Static

pressure

= Total

pressure

(7)

1 _V 2 _p + P : Pt

(8)

For rotational from streamline usual same case

flow the total pressure Pt is constant along a streamline to streamline as shown in figure 26(a). In an irrotational for airflow approaching as shown that an aircraft, in figure 26(b). fluid the flow, the greater of the flow, the dynamic the total pressure

but may vary flow, the is the

considered value

constant Bernoulli's

everywhere states static

equation less the

in a streamline an_t the less exchange

the the and

speed greater static must

of the flow, the static

the

pressure; exists

speed

pressure. such that

There their

a simple

between

pressures decrease.

total

remains

the same.

As one increases,

the other

Pressure pressures hollow bent

measurement.are measured. a pitot instrument.

Let

us now examine Figure 27(a) its fluid

how total, shows the which

static,

and

dynamic a simple to a pressure tube entrance up to flow point is

in a flow tube,

fluid

flow about

called

tube

after The

inventor, dams

is connected at the fluid

measurement and comes the

readout to rest tube.

up immediately the rest pressure to zero device. hollow been tube of the

at the

"stagnation

point" equation

while the static

divides

around the The total

By Bernoulli's since therefore, shows

at the stagnation when the

pressure tube is, 22(b)

the dynamic

pressure

reduces measuring another have

flow stagnates.

pitot

a total-pressure the fluid flow about of holes

Figure facing This the tube

except into the

now the end tube's side. readout

flow is closed is called as before. The static a static

and a number tube

drilled

and may

be connected point, acts

to a pressure the fluid

measuring

instrument everywhere.

Except pressure

at the stagnation of the fluid

is parallel tube's

to the tube surface. Since

normal

to the

34

Pt, 1 _ Pt,2

Pt,4

(a)

Rotational

flow.

Total

pressure

varies

from

streamline

to streamline.

Pt,1 /"'_"_ Pt, 1

Pt,1 Pt,1

/""'_ _/

__ t/

..7 /

Pt,1 Pt,1

Pt,1 _
Pt,1 Pt,I _

_'I_
_

_J

(b) Irrotational flow.

Total pressure Figure

same

constant value

Pt,l

everywhere

in flow.

26.- Total-pressure

variation.

pressure

must

be continuous,

the static pressure The

normal

to the holes is communicated

into the interior of the tube.

static tube, therefore, with the holes parallel to the measuring device. When properly connected between to total

flow direction, is a static-pressure Figure opposite pressure 27(c) shows a combined

pitot-static tube. readout By

ends of a pressure and static pressure pressure,

measuring

instrument, Bernoulli's

the difference

is measured. 1 _pV 2.

equation this difference is p is known, the fluid

the dynamic flow speed nected

defined as

If the fluid density

can be calculated.

In actual use on aircraft, the pitot-static tube is conindicator which, to the pilot. The by proper gearing, will automatically mounted forward

directly to an airspeed

display the aircraft airspeed

device is sometimes

35

_ Total p_ p..

Smalll --_hoes

" Sta.:--/
pressure entrance To T pressure readout instrument

--"Jl-T To pressure readout instrument

(a)Pitot tube.

(b) Static

tube.

Total_1
pressure .... _rarzc pressure g _

1/

-

I'll
/I II I! !l

M
Outer tube communicates to readout

!
(c) l>itot-static Figure on a boom sible, extending from the 27.airplane flow Pressure nose (also tube. measuring to insure called tube its

static

pressure instrument

Middle tube communicates total pressure to readout instrument

devices. measuring, as closely condition). earlier, the fluid continuity along enterin the In figto the commonly static called flow as pos-

the undisturbed Returning to the equations tube. may have 27(b) and are is a liquid tap equals The

approaching discussion may static

the free-stream introduced

of the venturi to describe of the value. than the

and the

Bernoulli venturi

be used pressure

the static-pressure free-stream of static static tube holes the a tube static similar are

distribution

undisturbed

ing the tube tube ure tube "static within at the at some pressure then 28 holes of figure taps" which static equal are

be used been

as a reference value into the drilled

Any variation free-stream venturi These of the

pressure

is a greater

or lesser

pressure.

the walls static

to measure connected such the

pressure.

to a "U-tube as colored

manometer" When pressure,

having pressure levels the

a U-shape measured in the tube are

alcohol. static

free-stream But static

the fluid above

reference indicated

level.

pressures

or below of fluid

free-stream

by a decrease

or increase

in the level

in the tube.

36

[nviscid,

incompressible

P_oyV_

_

I _I r I Station _/I _ Station 2 (throat)

free-strea_ static pressure andvetocity

St'ttic

tap

manometer

_

_ __

q

pressure,_ q Static pressu P re,UUlll]

Figure Figure and static 2 taps V2 also total 28 shows the complete static than that speed

28.setup

Venturi

tube

flow. tube and a set equation previously tube. of manometers the speed the at at

of a venturi By the 1 V1

to measure is greater is the pressure one

pressure. at station achieved

continuity as seen

station the tion flow). dynamic

speed

throat the

highest Pt

in the venturi in the Pt

By Bernoulli's irrotational

equa-

is constant 1 and 2 +p2

everywhere pressure equation 2 using

flow (assuming in terms

Therefore, pressures

can express

the total

of the static

and

at stations 1 =_p2V2

(8), namely,

lplV122

+pl

=pt

(9)

Since that static block P2

V2 is less

is greater than Pl'

than

V1

and dynamic

P2 = Pl pressure,

(fluid

is incompressible) speed, increases,

it follows the The static of

for as the

hence

pressure diagrams

must decrease to maintain a constant value below the venturi tube show this interchange the venturi in the region This is also the than throat free-stream the flow tube. The conclusion drawn

of total pressure Pt" of dynamic and static from this is that the

pressures pressure low-speed where and mum

all along decreases flow.

of high-speed

flow and by the liquid risen

increases levels above At the

in the of the the

region

demonstrated the liquid static speed

manometers level

as one indicates static The

reaches lower

level

has

reference this

pressure. is the highest. a point

throat

is the mini-

pressure airfoil

since

in an ideal fluid, the

fluid.-

To supply section

of reference the previous

in the discussion

discussions of venturi

to

follow

of a real

following

expands

37

flow to the ideal fluid flow past an airfoil. Figure 29(a)showsa "symmetric" (upper and lower surfaces the same) airfoil operating so that a line drawn through the nose and tail of the airfoil is parallel to the free-stream direction. The free-stream velocity is denotedby Vo_ and the free-stream static pressure by Po_. Following the particle pathline (indicatedby the dotted line andequal to a streamline in this steady flow) which follows the airfoil contour, the velocity decreasesfrom the free-stream value as one approachesthe airfoil nose (points 1 to 2). At the airfoil nose, point 2, the flow comesto rest (stagnates). From Bernoulli's equationthe static pressure at the nose, point 2, is equal to the total pressure. Moving from the noseup along the front surface of the airfoil (points 2 to 3), the velocity increases and the static pressure airfoil, lowest decreases. point value. Beyond to 4, the point Beyond reached this point as one moves along static the the rear surface increases equal the static of the airfoil, until points 3 edge, By the continuity has equation, acquired as one reaches value the thickest and the static point on the its 3, the velocity its highest pressure

velocity

decreases comes edge static

and the with

pressure static increases pressure

at the trailing pressure. value is These shown

4, the flow the trailing and the

to rest pressure

to the total pressure. are

the flow

speed returns for

until

free-stream

to free-stream the center-line

velocin fig-

ity and static-pressure ures 29(b) Note maximum whereas ent). and 29(c). particularly thickness), on the This The parallel fect rear

distributions

streamline

that one

on the

front

surfaces pressures

of the airfoil (a negative pressures

(up to the pressure

station gradient)

of

has

decreasing one has

surfaces

increasing

(a positive fluid case. direction section

pressure

gradi-

relationship lift is defined free-stream

will be of importance as the force direction. zero norma] For no matter and

in the real to the a planar what

free-stream airfoil

and the

drag

to the

operating of the airfoil paradox. of the airfoil

in a peris. It is the always This

fluid,,

the drag defies

is always physical a fluid

the orientation as D'Alembert's components surface on the rear

seemingly result forces exactly The

intuition of zero

is known The

of assuming parallel balance

viscosity. direction of the pressure

of the static-pressure

to the free-stream the components by the for this the

on the front forces difference

surface the upper distribution

of the airfoil. and lower is symthe pressure

lift is determined and is zero

static-pressure particular case

between pressure to the free

surfaces metrical. distribution force

since

the

If, however, symmetry This

airfoil the

is tilted upper and

at an angle and lower the main

stream,

between is very

surfaces function

no longer of the airfoil slight The

exists

and a lift

results. Air

desirable

section. the an

is not a perfect and Bernoulli

fluid. principles

It possesses still apply

viscosity. in the real

With world.

modification, airflow over

continuity 38

lowest pressure

speed static

mu

mu

v_ ®
_ .... P_

Zero
High (Total

speed
pressure

(al High (Tot al

spee_ pressure

pressure)

pressure)

v 4

\
_'x_ _" _reatcr than

\
\ \ cce,_'"

g
>

/

Leading edge

(b) (V = O)

Trailing edge

Distance IV = O)

along

[low

Leading-edge highest I Increasing P = pressure Pt <)o .\_x_ ,,9 "<$'-e _ "

Traili highest

_g-edge pressure 1) : /L,_,,_ _ Pt D.e.c reasing PrOssur

.,,,_'°e?b_

"

g "_-----'-77..vOSl_-I
,] (posing

e pressure
r adient]

N

eb '_
_o _

\_ve.-'_ /

.... _ _Ve Pr
_raclient)

ess Ure

I
l
/

Lowest pressure at shoulder
(c) Distance along flow

0_

Figure airfoil the sent real, will appear to be slightly in several From

29.-

Ideal

fluid

flow about

an airfoil. reduction past in lift and repreand a

different forms.

with an accompanying The discussions of the assumption

existence basic viscous

of drag principles.

few pages is dropped

this

point

on, the inviscid

flow of air

is allowed

to exist. Real Fluid are Flow two different moves The indicate types of real called may fluid laminas. of air be considered of movement 30(b) shows flow: Figmoving

Laminar laminar ure the 30(a) adjacent fluid and

and turbulent.

turbulent

flow.-

There flow the

In laminar flow, (laminas) and then Laminar

fluid

in layers flow, laminas

shows

a laminar layers

the uniform from the left

rectilinear to right.

consisting

in straight-line

streamtubes layers.

streamlines need

the direction line. Figure

of these

flow

not be in a straight

39

Infinitesimal fluid layers (laminas)
w

No distinct layers Fluid exchange free No fluid exchange between layers

l

Uniform flow

rectilinear

(a)

Turbulent moves Adjacent laminas have same Fluid follows curved surface speed in laminas

flow - Flow left to right but disorganized. (d)

generally is highly

profile

_b)
Fluid layers (lamina) move more slowly as one approaches the surface but still slide over one another.

ofile

(c)

_'_

Laminar flow

l
fluid the are flow follows flow airto the complex by the stream° between

(e) Figure a small case foil lines, layers. In turbulent flow. 4O Figure 30(d) flow, secondary random motions number are superimposed on the principal They are evidently segment surface fluid of the surface smoothly, 30.Laminar and turbulent For 30(c) flow. an ideal shows the

of a curved in laminas. later.

airfoil. Figure

the curved

the more

for a real surface,

to be discussed they move. slide over

The closer here without also,

fluid layers

the slower layers

However,

as indicated

the fluid

one another

fluid being

exchanged

shows

a disorganized

of streamlines.

not More ticles

fluid

layers

and

there there is

is

an exchange an exchange particles

of fluid

from

one such

adjacent that slow

sector moving

to another. fluid parmoving

importantly, speed and from may (or above up and

of monmntum give Consider up their figure the smoke

fast down

moving themselves. For but do

momentum 30(e) rises this flow which

to the shows

slower the

particles rising which ments tance turbulent Another faucet. flow.

slow

smoke

a cigarette. wave around

some not

distance lose break their

in smooth is laminar. motion between room is flow

filaments The some laminar disturbed. is the water laminar filadisand

identity;

streamtubes) the cigarette; moves

suddenly this

up into turbulent.

a confused The

eddying

flow

is

transition air and out in the turbulent

flow example Opened But open

closer

to the

cigarette

when of laminar

the

of a common slightly, the brook the flow faucet the flow over at low fully water churns airfoil upon turbulent air.

occurrence speeds and may the slide the flow

water speeds

flows out

in a clear

column turbulent

in a cloudy rocks

column. In the

In a mountain Colorado be seen River that

over

smooth in the

in laminas. turbulent a laminar

downstream surfaces a number flow will cases, The

confused both

rapids. and

It will turbulent

the

may of factors. appear by

assume

characteristic In some smoke be flow less rising

depending cases, in the

"naturally"

in a laminar

flow

as flow

in the can a

In other flow.

causing arises Osborne

a disturbance, as to how one

a laminar can tell

changed is to be parameter

to a turbulent laminar which or

question In 1883,

whether a dimension-

turbulent.

Reynolds of the laminar

introduced

gave

a quantitative

indication

to turbulent

transition. Reynolds strated nar the fact number that over effects under a given water flow was certain region tank on the flow field.In his the The tube was flow experiments, in a tube Reynolds changes setup a stopcock into the is at from demonlami-

circumstances of the had The tube.

flow

to turbulent 31(a). to control of colored When the

experimental with smoothly the tube mouth. was of the up low, tube. into

illustrated the end of

in figure the tube

A large the

a long tube the

outlet faired at the length broke

speed. injected water identity was

tank.

A thin

filament

fluid

into flowing for high, the the

speed

of the its speed cross

through entire filament fig.

the

filament (See fig.

of 31(b).) flow

colored However, that

fluid when

maintained the flow the

the

turbulent

existed Reynolds

through defined

section.

(See

31(c).) which of the has flow. since been known form as the the

a dimensionless a quantitative

parameter, description

Reynolds Reynolds

number, number

to give R is

In equation

R - pVf #

(I0)

41

]

rI

--I [] _ye

Reynolds experimental

[
[ I [ --

,5
Water level drops flow continues as

/
[ [ t/ /-Smooth fairing F . Long

Valve control--, ,o
flow . , tuoe speed \ x

//

I Water [ ......... z_/,/zz'z/zz'zzzzi//////

tank -_--_ ....

t" |

--

/ Dye in [il;unent flow

1_'_ Outlet

-NN "_'

(a)

S

remains speed distinct Low flow (R / 2100) indicating throughout (b) R " 40000 Filament _-turbulent

laminar - Filament flow

breaks flow

up

indicating

,%

-._

__

._-

[ /

(/
Figure where 31.Dependence

,el
of flow on Reynolds number.

l
R - pVf

density

of fluid,

kg/m

3

V

mean

velocity

of fluid,

m/sec

characteristic

length,

m

coefficient discussion),

of viscosity kg/m-sec

(called

simply

"viscosity"

in the

earlier

For the pipe true

this was

setup, laminar

Reynolds

found,

by using

water,

that

below filament. p, V,

R = 2100 This f, or p.

the flow in value was

as evidenced

by the distinct

colored of

regardless

of his varying laminar

combinations

of values

A transi2100

tion between

and turbulent

flow occurred

for Reynolds

numbers

between

42

and40 000dependingupon howsmooth the tube junction was andhow carefully the flow entered the tube. Above R = 40 000 the flow was always turbulent, as evidenced by
the lence colored has The since fluid filament 2100 and breaking up quickly. variable The fact that the transition that Reynolds induced turbunumber (between 40 000) was indicates the effect

on the flow. numerical values given for the f transition is the and are diameter trailing for this particular For flows flow experiment an airfoil, length. an be far of about

the characteristic be the Thus, for distance was the water

length between used

chosen

of the pipe. edge called air whereas

would Additionally, airfoil. different several

the leading between Typically, however,

the chord would

in the Reynolds number

experiment laminar airfoils are

transition

and turbulent operate evident.

the case The number

of an airfoil. general flows are trends,

at Reynolds For a particular flows are

numbers body, mostly

million.

low Reynolds turbulent. The

laminar

and high

Reynolds

number

Reynolds

number

may

be viewed

another

way:

Reynolds

number

= Inertia Viscous

forces forces friction of the fluid. The inertia

(ii)

The forces

viscous

forces

arise the fluid's

because natural are number

of the internal resistance negligible flows the

represent flow the in high forces. steel ball

to acceleration. compared viscous forces flow oil. are

In a low Reynolds forces to the flow) is a small relative Stoke's ball falls

number whereas inertia small through are

inertia Reynolds

forces

with the viscous

An example dropped viscous into

of a low Reynolds a container are

number silicon

(called The settling

of heavy large. Dust flow.

slowly the air

the liquid; case number flows

forces

particles These flows

through laminar.

another

of a low Reynolds flow, are number such present.

number Some very

are

In a high laminar the results

Reynolds

as typically

experienced interesting number Reynolds

in the

flight

of aircraft, between be demonstrated

and turbulent of low Reynolds shortly. Surface body rence this immersed laminar

contrasts flow will

flow and high

roughness

effects As the

on the flow is that surface

field.-

The

effect near

of surface the body the point Figure case

roughness to go from occur-

of a

in a flow field flow will surface

it causes roughness

the flow increases, the

to turbulent. of turbulent

of first

move

upstream

along In each

airfoil.

32 illustrates of flow and

point.

An airfoil

is shown.

succeeding number case.

the degree fixed. The number

surface is seen

roughness

is increased further

and the Reynolds upstream in each

is held The

to go turbulent

Reynolds

43

surface roughnessare not independentof eachother and both contribute to the determination of the laminar to turbulent transition. A very low Reynoldsnumber flow will be laminar evenon a rough surface and a very high Reynoldsnumber flow will be turbulent eventhoughthe surface of a bodyis highly polished.
Pressure transition the static from pressure gradient laminar effects on the flow field.Another important gradient disturbances If the the static static factor in the in the If to turbulent flow is the pressure distance, result. flow field.

increases

with downstream flow will that over

in a laminar pressure pressure decreases flow decreased in this the

flow will be amplified with will downstream tend to remain point Beyond pressure the trailing

and turbulent disturbances Recall thickness. of maximum The laminar.

distance,

in a laminar

flow will damp

out and the

an airfoil flow (or

up to the region. static before

of maximum the point

A laminar thickness

will be encouraged of the airfoil) and may

shoulder

increased. edge.

laminar

flow now is hindered

go turbulent

_ran.

Laminar

_._tion

v_
Tran. sition

SY_ly
r

rough

mrwu

_//_ ,,///7-

v_

v_ Figure 32.Surface roughness and flow field. All cases at same Reynolds number.

44

The vided real the force the fluid shear is

boundary background flow. force referred mentioned An

layer needed important

and

skin-friction to show how

drag.drag is

The

foregoing

discussion immersed subsonic vehicle. This on

has

proin a

produced during surfaces

on a body low-speed of the

aerodynamic flow over force

force the

flight shear

is

caused to as -

by viscous the

skin-friction number, to the fluid, ideal

and

is

strongly

dependent and act pressure

the

factors

previously Figure a body cous 33

Reynolds

surface

roughness, forces that also create

gradients. normal these drag. visto

shows

that

in addition

pressure forces and

everywhere It is fluid

immersed forces which

in a moving modify the

viscous fluid lift

are help

present. the real

./._-

Hydrostatic

pressure

Real

fluid

at rest

Pressure normal

forces to surface

._

___-_-- Static-pressure

forces

flmd

in

a

real

fluid

flow

Figure

33.-

Pressure

and

viscous

forces.

Consider approaching stream. surface the plate,

figure flow; the

34 flow were V_

which ahead ideal, as

shows of the that shown

a very leading

thin, edge

smooth of the fluid At all

plate plate would points

parallel is

to the free over surface moves perthe of

a uniform slip the one

If the with the

fluid

is,

inviscid,

the 34(a). variation

simply along as

velocity velocity

in figure (that is, the

distribution

of velocity

45

pendicularly drag would

away result

from if the

the surface) fluid were

would frictionless

be a uniform (inviscid). of fluid condition. As one at some value is

constant

value

of

Voo.

No

In a real fig. 34(b).)

fluid,

however, very

a very important

thin film no-slip is zero. until this

adheres

to the

surface.

(See

This point

is the

It states away

that from

at the surface the body the a

of a body, velocity constant

B, the flow velocity gradually case

moves point V_.

of the fluid value;

increases of a flat zero are plate

A the velocity The layer

becomes of fluid where

in the

the velocity Within

is changing layer friction cumulative This the

from there

to a constant relative This of all internal

value

is known between

as the boundary the particle to the surface a drag

layer. of

the boundary

velocities friction

layers

and an internal the body. force The

is present. effect drag leading and

extends

these

friction

forces

is to produce drag. flow layer. boundary Eventually, transition for

on the plate. Initially, near

force edge

is referred of the plate, hence, to act

to as skin-friction one has a laminar boundary laminar

and the boundAs one layer a point and flow, moves

ary

layer

also

is steady

layered

a laminar and the

further as more reached becomes there motion. from one This This the

downstream, and more on the plate a turbulent There laminar away

viscosity fluid

continues down

thickens is

is slowed the

by internal boundary (See fig. layer of the fact the that total

friction. layer

where boundary motion

laminar layer. surface is the although

undergoes As is usual Another

34(b).) as well plate. the

turbulent directed difference

is a random

in the at the layer

boundary

as the downstream important builds

is no slip boundary from

velocity

up more thickness in figure from

quickly is greater. 34(c). the wall important

as

moves

the wall,

boundary-layer as shown further

condition tendency the

can be seen in a turbulent slower

by comparing boundary fluid

the two profiles layer of the fluid

away

to

reenergize consequences. The Reynolds viscosity), Reynolds zero.

moving

near

the wall

will be shown

to produce

Reynolds number

number increases layer

has

an important

effect

on the the flow

boundary speed

layer. and/or

As the decreasing the be the

(caused thickens

by increasing more slowly.

the boundary number becomes boundary

However, surface

even

though must

large, layer that than

the velocity never

at the

of the body

Thus,

the

disappears. thickness Yet, of the boundary the velocity edge must layer vary on an airfrom zero layer.

It is interesting craft at the wing is generally of the evident This

to note less wing that gives

a typical a centimeter.

surface

to hundreds tremendous rise to the

of m/sec shearing

at the outer forces (internal drag.

of the boundary must

It is clearly in this region.

friction)

be acting

skin-friction

46

v_

v_
Flat )late

(a) Inviscid

flow along

a flat

plate.

v_ v.
B_-oundary_ layer thickness [......._j | layer thickness " [--_ _ tilickncss l I"_ Flat plate

v_

BW_

Laminar layers

botmdal_ "__] Turbulent layer boundary _

/

(b) Viscous

flow along

a flat

plate.

_rl _l I

:1 (/
Steetl, er I__z/ energy profile exchange and

Laminar taycr

boundary

Turbulent layer

boundary

(c) Comparison Figure 34.-

of laminar

and turbulent flow in a real

flow. fluid.

Boundary-layer

The foil surface and

airfoil

in a real

fluid.-

Figure in figure p_

35 illustrates 29. The The the

the same velocities

real

fluid

flow

over

the

airV_

originally static

considered pressure

free-stream ahead and static

velocity of the airfoil pressures at the leading

free-stream modified

apply. purposes Again

flow field

is only are

slightly the same

and for

all practical fluid case.

as for the ideal

a stagnation maximum on along

point

occurs

edge of the airfoil (total or stagnation changes.

and the pressure reaches its pressure). From this point

value of the airfoil,

Pt at this point the picture

47

Sh¢,ulder of airfoil maxh_mm speed outside ,a[ Ihe llI)w_d_l'vh_yer _ I _--- _/ /--Note / -Flow laver . outside boundary is in_is(id flow ' ",': boundary layer

Turbulent

(S_alled flow)

Figure wake

35.-

Real

fluid

flow about

an airfoil. Bottom

Thickness lower

of boundary surface

layers same

and as

greatly

exaggerated. surface.

flow along

is the

on the upper

As noted because very the

earlier

in the example This boundary fluid. static the

of the flat layer Also, pressure boundary at all.

plate,

a boundary outside

layer

begins

to form

of viscosity. like that

is very

thin and

of it the on the layer. and thus feels

flow acts surface This acts as if static of

much airfoil

of an ideal by the through

the static outside layer But the

pressure the

acting

is determined is transmitted layer were respond

boundary

pressure the

to the surface boundary layer

boundary

not present to it.

this

pressure Over pressure speeds present. the ideal just that shoulder fluid came the

and will the

front

surface

of the airfoil

up to the

shoulder,

an assisting downstream). boundary the airfoil. slower previous

favorable The layer flow is When in the flow

gradient up along This

exists the airfoil.

(pressure The

decreasing flow is laminar layer grows

with distance and a laminar

laminar

boundary however,

in thickness are because appear before rear

along moving the

is reached, case. to rest This

the fluid

particles

than ideal

is an unfavorable edge. at some the

condition It would distance to the

at the trailing come moves to rest from

now,

with viscosity edge

present, is reached.

flow will flow

the trailing surface,

As the gradient particles forces. boundary layer dient pletely. ber that

shoulder pressure

the static-pressure distance). The fluid

is unfavorable must At the layer push

(increasing against both this point, becomes the

with downstream pressure of the flow boundary

unfavorable character

gradient changes This

and the and the turbulent

viscous

transition quickly

laminar boundary gracom(Rememcase.)

a turbulent

layer.

continues and viscosity The the

to thicken

downstream.

Pushing

against

an unfavorable point, the the

pressure

is too much layer the has

for the flow, stalled edge short

and at some of reaching stopping

flow stops edge. fluid

boundary flow reached

trailing

trailing

before

in the ideal

48

This point moving eddies away and the

stall

point

is into

known the

as

the the

separation flow the is nose

point. stalling. before

All Beyond turning

along this around. is

a line line,

starting tile flow is the forced the

from is

this

outward back, and from around airfoil. Figure

flow,

actually of

upstream whirlpools the it. airfoil. The

toward and

This

a region flow field

represents flow

"dead" outside as tile shown

air

which air

disrupting is

Thus, region

dead in

region 35 is

to flow wake

away tile

of eddies

figure

called

behind

36(a) and

compares center-line differences

the

ideal streamline are

fluid

case with

static-pressure the real but fluid once the shoulder) rear this case.

distribution Note that occurs

at up

the to the the

airfoil separation pressure force stream (See fig.

surface point, field acting exactly 36(b).) is

the is

not

very ideal

large fluid

separation net

greatly front

modified. surface and however, The net

In the of the

case

static-pressure parallel of the and the rear front to the airfoil. free

on the

airfoil that real acting fluid

(up to the on case force that the

opposed Now,

canceled in the

surfaces symmetry on

cancellation surface parThe pressure due to the

of forces allel net drag. shearing tion ideal of the fluid to the result

destroyed. free-stream

static-pressure now exceeds

acting

direction force due This

acting

on the

surface. called drag the

is a drag (See fig.

to the is

asymmetric in addition boundary causes

pressure to the layer. a decrease

distribution skin-friction Additionally, in the pressure

36(c).) (internal

a drag

forces

friction) distribution

in the

modificalift from the

static-pressure case.

_[deal .... Real

fluid fluid

_ k

p _' [ leadim, edge, "

x _

_---

/

.......
1 Separatmn
OCCURS near

. trailing edge

.

/

PressuJ'e distribution _reatlv inodified

'" 0

]

Distance in real case

alon_

flow

here fluid

(a) Airfoil
Pressure parallel equal alld to forces free opp_,site

upper

surface

static-pressure

distributions.
These

conll)ollents

no

lonR'er

stream 7

equal component

-

Net

downstream Pressure

(b) Ideal

fluid

airfoil

(no

pressure 36.-

drag). Real fluid

(c) effects

Real on

fluid an

airfoil airfoil.

(net

pressure

drag).

Figure

49

Figure 36(d)showsfiguratively the lift anddrag for an airfoil producing lift in both an ideal andreal fluid case. One sees the effects of viscosity - the lift is reduced anda total drag composedof skin-friction drag and pressure drag is present. Both of these are detrimental effects.
x\\\\\

t
\\\\\', \\*._-4

",'\._ \\ \\_\\

"_\

X\. _. N\ ......
,.\_ \\

\\--_ \\"
©

= ,
\\,,X \\ .....
_\\\\-,

_

<

"_

(d)

Viscosity Figure

effects 36.that

on

an

airfoil.

Concluded. although are the previous on scope airplane the effects all discussion the of this drag other text is was lim-

It should ited of the these to an airfoil aircraft in detail

be

noted, section,

very similar

strongly, processes another. be

occurring beyond the the total that viscosity

components to treat discussed. fluid layer to the The next flow and,

to one but the

degree effects this viscosity drag. drag

or

It is noted one fluid. field when

will discussion,

In summarizing are hence, extent section the result of the

observes The

of a real a boundary of viscosity

of the The arises. flow

causes because lift is

a skin-friction that a pressure the

is disrupted the net pressure

Also,

reduced.

considers Effects

effects

of "streamlining." Figure field. in the higher broadside Four flight 37 shows of the five bodies bodies are aircraft placed operating (R = 104 in a real fluid flow numThe fifth

of streamlining.the resultant encountered at plate plate a much placed edge. small flow

of air bers body

and

at Reynolds to 105).

normally is operating flat

of subsonic number flow drag cylinder, has is

Reynolds to the pressure The the

(R = 107). a large the result, wake the at the with separation drag Reynolds in this larger Overall, case, in this the are total

The points being number, before case drag already the than has

at the

A large component. wake and cylinder. is still that

skin-friction same

a relatively has

operating separation dra_ pressure effects

a smaller

boundary-layer The smaller skin-friction than plate; the

occurs, is a little drag.

shoulders for been the plate,

of the but from

reduced

of the

flat

some

of streamlining

evident.

50

Separationpoint R _ 105_ Flat
]D, --_

Hehtl
] ) I';IL'

lye
f(lrce

plate

_Br(adside)

Separation R _ 105

point-

R

_

10 5

-Separation

point

R

= 10 4

)aration

point

Skin-friction cl rag

Pressure drag

Figure

37.- Effects of streamlining

at various

Reynolds

numbers.

Also,

at the same

Reynolds

number

is a streamlined is very small.

shape. may

There assume

is ahnost

no

boundary-layer streamline

separation may

and the wake

One

then that a Operand in

shape

be defined as the absence

of boundary-layer

separation. component

ating in the condition shown, the pressure

the skin-friction drag now Even more

is the dominant

drag is very small.

noticeable is the very

large reduction by only

overall drag compared eliminating the pressure

with the cylinder or plate. drag since the sMn-friction more siml)le a greater streamlined. fact that area the over

This has been accomplished drag has been increasing

slightly as the bodies became skin-friction exposed to the drag flow is due and to the thus

One

can explain that the increase body the boundary has more layer area may

in

streamlined which

has

act.

51

Finally, 1/10 drag

in figure of the larger

37 at a Reynolds streamline streamlined shape

number

of 104 is a cylinder Surprisingly, pressure reason drag for the

approximately it has the same of

the diameter as the much wake. when

thickness. The the

shape. to imagine

is large slow

because of the

the turbulent early drag of the biplanes could

It is not hard all the realized better shown wire

speeds

bracing wire

used were

is considered. streamlined. the need in the for

A considerably However, this wire

reduced

have

been and body

if the structures

the introduction bracing. higher The smaller drag speed than separawake for

monoplane The fifth number are

eliminated operating the of the to expect size.

is a cylinder

flow at a much velocity). and a much

Reynolds tion points

(accomplished downstream This result of the would cylinder

by increasing shoulders lead one

free-stream cylinder a smaller However, facts

is evidenced. the and previously the actual that measure section

pressure the flow may have

discussed drag actual

of the same These under

is higher by A

is much drag

larger.

contradictory

be explained been compared.

realizing better next

values,

different

flow speeds, This measure

of the performance to be the nondimensional coefficients.-

is needed. drag From

is demonstrated

in the

coefficient. experience, If one places is felt, is one consider his hand the factors broadside speeds determines (high directly the is although resistance that to a along

Aerodynamic determine flow outside at 100 km/hr, the resistance. Reynolds on (velocity) velocity about number times

everyday on a body. little

the aerodynamic a car the window force In fact, under felt

resistance at 20 km/hr,

resistance Velocity

but if one that flight

is considerable. the small (velocity) that

factor

considering relatively or

flow problems viscosities), 2.

of subsonic the resistance

depends

(velocity) is five at the

In the preceding

example,

of 100 km/hr 25 times as great along

times higher

of 20 km/hr,

the aerodynamic

velocity. is little speed. aerodynamic resistance more to doing difficult, of air. so. if Density

If one walks But try to wade

a beach, at the

there same

in the water The density another

It is considerably greater than

not impossible. of the fluid One Little

of water

is much

the density felt

represents more

determining hold a small Now hold stiff to the wind. airflow

factor piece

in the

resistance

by a body. a stiff wind. of (or

experiment: is experienced. the same

of cardboard larger,

up against similarly resistance

resistance

a much

shaped is felt. factor

sheet Area

cardboard length times

up against length)

A considerable is another

exposed

determining by stating is dependent and the the relative that,

of resistance. real

It is now possible fluid, and the air, attitude body about a body, body,

to generalize the aerodynamic the properties

the discussion resistance of the fluid,

in the flow of the size, shape, between as the aero-

on the

of the

velocity defined

and the

fluid

(air).

To illustrate,

consider

lift force

52

dynamic vious For force. important. an effect demonstrated

reaction discussion,

perpendicular lift depends fluid on

to the (size,

free-stream shape, (except attitude, for

velocity fluid

direction. properties, did not

From and

the

pre-

velocity). the are lift also has be

an ideal For

fluid, a real

the fluid,

properties

density) and

influence properties

however, to the Based shape on

viscous, and the

elastic, attitude

turbulent body, the

In addition on the force. that

of the

surface

roughness it may

introductory

discussion

of this

section,

/
Lift = p_, where x V 2 × S × Factor 'is, \ p_V_C p V_ , surface ' a_ roughness, air turbulence)

\
(12) /

PoC,

free-stream

fluid

density

Vo_

free-

stream

velocity

characteristic

body

frontal

area

characteristic

body

length

ot

attitude

of body

P

coefficient

of viscosity

a

¢_3_.

free-stream

speed

of sound

of fluid

(S series

is

a characteristic of comparison times (chord the its length particular previously a..__ V_

body

frontal

area For

that

is

usually

chosen be

to be the

consistent

with of the

a

experiments. length. times For wing a wing, span of shown S

a cylinder however, a rectangular for

it would it is usually wing).

diameter to be it is the

cylinder area check

taken Thus,

planform to

for

necessary

definition been is defined quantity

used the

a body.) P,oV_ or viscosity roughness flow. Air M. is the Reynolds Reynolds the shown number number Mach is

It has or the is R. Also,

that

quantity number fluid Surface

to be the associated compressibility. a laminar past the

Mach with the

The whereas

dimensionless associated the with

number

the

fluid

was

to have represents the effects of

influenced the degree

transition wake

from formed

to a turbulent separation points.

turbulence

of the

Furthermore,

53

attitude called

and shape K, then,

of a body

are

lumped

together

into

the factor.

Letting

the

factor

be

Lift

=p_xV_

2 xSxK

(13)

The dynamic 1. - is included 2 same, 2K

pressure in equation may

of a fluid (13) and by

flow was the value C L.

previously of K

defined is doubled

as

1 _V 2 _p

so if a value the

of

to keep

the equation

be replaced 1

Finally,

Lift Equation mined acteristic

= C L ×_

p_V_

2 x S lift formula states for simply usual that aircraft flight. pressure CL lift times is known is deterthe

(14) as

(14) is the fundamental of lift. area. important shape. The of lift by a coefficient body times

the coefficient

equation

the aerodynamic

the free-stream

dynamic

char-

It is very ent tude, having upon and body

to realize Mach

that

the lift

coefficient CL

CL

is a number air turbulence,

dependattiby and found

the Reynolds or flight

number, experiments of the Lift body

number,

surface a constant. lift Thus,

roughness, and the

It is not by any means by measuring dimensions.

is generally

wind-tunnel

free-stream

conditions

a knowledge

CL-

1

(15) 2, × S

p_V_

The direction.

aerodynamic One obtains

drag

is the

aerodynamic equations

resistance to equations

parallel (14) and

to the (15),

free-stream

analogous

namely,

Drag

1 = C D x_p_V_

2 xS

(16)

or

CD =

Drag 1 p_V 2 2 × S coefficient, dependent on the previously enumerated

(17)

where

CD

is the

drag

parameters. 54

Separati point

on

Flat (B roa( length

plate s ide) d CD = 2.0

Separati point R _ 10 5

on

"

----_

_

....

Cylinder diameter

:

d

CD =

1.2

R

= 10 5

S ep;/rat point

i on

Streamline bed y thickness :d

CD

=

0.12

Separation

Cvlinder diameter =- 1 10 d CD = 1.2

R

= 10 7

Cylinder diameter

=d

CD

=

0.6

Figure The its center moment of gravity. distance. equation acting

38.-

Drag

coefficients

of various of the body's the resultant derivation

bodies. tendency aerodynamic may to turn force about times

on a body moment

is a measure represents that

This

a moment moment

Let it be stated as used for the lift

a similar

be applied that,

to the

and drag

equations

(14) and

(16) such

Moment
or

1 2 × S x _ = Cm × _ p<V_,

(18)

Cm =

Moment 1 5 P_V_2S

(19) _

55

Cm sary

is the for

coefficient on the

of moment number,

and correct.

an additional To reiterate, number,

characteristic CL, surface roughness,

length CD, and air

_ is necesCm are turbulence,

it to be dimensionally Reynolds shape. to return

dependent attitude,

Mach

and body

It is now possible pare first had Mach The area CD the three the five same bodies basic bodies

to the force the

discussion coefficient

associated as a measure

with figure of the more number

37 and

comThe All same

by using demonstrated body

the

resistance.

effects d, the

of progressively same Reynolds and entirely a unit alined drag length

streamlining. R = 105, the

dimension assumed was,

number, aerodynamic S is the

and were

to be smooth therefore, By assuming bodies to the relative number

symmetrically and the drag pressure. Figure been values drag. of 104 with examples, the effect has of larger

with the flow. coefficient the frontal (17), CD

resistance of this same resistance.

is a measure

for the bodies,

for all the proportional that now the Reynolds shape of the are,

as is the dynamic measured drag force of 105, the 2.0, drag and drag. has CD pressure number

By equation 38 repeats by the the flat

is then

directly At the effects small

the results drag coefcylinplate,

of figure ficients der, and

37 except C D.

replaced for

streamline

respectively,

1.2, and 0.12.

These

values

include

the combined The reduced From the

skin-friction operating

cylinder, the

at a Reynolds

its diameter a CD CD of 1.2. and

to one-tenth equation

basic effect

dimension of smaller shape at the cylinders has

of the previous size have higher nullifies equivalent Reynolds

(16), the

small The

cylinder last is, half The

and streamline operating as the

aerodynamic number

drags. of 107, has a CD of

cylinder, as large

0.6,

that

discussed been increased indicates

previously. to obtain of the the effect

Its aerodynamic the higher smaller Reynolds wake numbers, The

drag and, the

in figure number. hence, boundary

37 is large smaller

because drag drag

V_

coefficient coefficient further the

smaller layer

pressure becomes layer the

component. upstream

At high Reynolds along the cylinder. and

turbulent reenergizes against occurs

turbulence drives gradient wake

in the boundary further before results. number. Figure Reynolds subcritical separates along stalling.

flow close forces

to the and the of the

surface

the fluid pressure a smaller lower

cylinder Separation this

viscous

unfavorable and at the

downstream with the

shoulders and wake

Compare

condition

separation

Reynolds

39 is a plot of drag The determined Reynolds numbers of the values curve

coefficient for each of the body CD 105,

CD are

(based shown.

on frontal Also, tested the

area) solid layer a very

against line is an At and wake

number.

experimentally

of cylinders the laminar and

in wind

tunnels. stalls broad

up to about of the

boundary produces

upstream

shoulders

cylinder

56

I 3.(_-O O

Flat Lart_e

pIate cylinder shape

Streamline

[] /N Curve 2.( for

Hiah Small

t_evnolds cylinder

number

c,,'[indcr

g

c_

1.0

O

I
10

I
102

I
103

I
104

I
105

I
106

t
107

I
108

I
109

Royllo[ds

nu l/ib¢_ F

Figure and high CD boundary CD and It is inders. induce improved The tant ideas values.

39.At

Drag

coefficients

as Reynolds and transition

function

of Reynolds from 106

number. and larger, the numbers the

supercritical turbulent abrupt are that are layer are far has the the

numbers separation occurs Reynolds

laminar smaller of 105

layer values. These

becomes A rather values to note

is delayed; between numbers. very as drag similar they

hence,

Reynolds

106 .

critical

interesting bails

spheres

exhibit rather than

behavior smooth their

to that were,

of cylto

Golf

of today boundary distances thus

dimpled and

once

a turbulent driving discussion and

thus

decrease

coefficient.

Much

result. been rather behavior have wake flow With general has been have been made. been and has introduced many Numerous flow The to the may now of the flow imporref-

principles. or

Fluid streamline in the and

flow shapes turbulent other

demonstrated. Viscous examined.

erences layer and

to airfoil unsteady since as well

boundary is two-

flow velocity as

dimensional direction craft

parameters these ideas

vary in mind,

normal one

free-stream study air-

parallel

to it. flow.

operating

in a subsonic

57

58

IV. SUBSONIC

FLOW

EFFECTS

Airfoils The wing cross shape airfoil section.it from the simply Figure side, 13 showed one has

and that

Wings by taking of the question a slice airfoil arises out of an airplane called the airfoil

and viewing section

the

shape The

or more

airfoil

section.

as to how this

is determined. The ultimate air. objective A flat plate of an airfoil at an angle is to obtain of attack, Sir George produced section used the lift necessary could to keep be used Lilienthal drag than an airto in the flat

plane create 1800's surfaces.

in the the

for example, Cayley more lift

lift but the drag that Figure 13 shows

is excessive. curved surfaces the airfoil

and Otto and less

demonstrated

by the Wright

Brothers

in their

1903 airplane. In those theory. ments adopted. rounded The systematic National determine World War The came early usual from days of canvas at that and wood time was wings, the few airfoil "cut and try" helped surface, shapes method. performance, the desirability evolved from

procedure experimentation.

Improveit was of a

If the modification in addition trailing of these to a curved edge. early days were Air

Early leading hit and

tests edge miss

showed, and

a sharp

methods

replaced Force, The and purpose

by much finally here in use are

better, by the was to During

methods Advisory as much II, NACA of most on these following

used

at G/Jttingen,

by the Royal

Committee information

for Aeronautics as possible produced The

(NACA). about results that

"families" are that

of airfoil still

shapes.

investigations

or influence based con-

the design siderably The airfoil:

of today's NACA

airplanes.

discussions

follow

results. are essential in determining the shape of a typical

six terms

(1) The (2) The (3) The (4) The (5) The (6) The Figure (1) the

leading trailing chord camber upper lower

edge edge line line surface surface the step-by-step of the airfoil geometric section construction of an airfoil the section: leading and 59 (or mean line)

40 illustrates desired length

is determined

by placing

Chord Set up leading edge and trailing edge and construct chord line between them.

line

\

Leading edge

;Trailing edge

2.

Add curvature camber line.

with

Camber

line

Upper Wrap camber upper thickness line to surface. about form

surface

added

Chord

line

Wrap about form

same camber lower

thickness line to surface. Lower surface added

4.

Final

airfoil

shape.

(__

Figure trailing points curvature "wrapped" and below (4) the last edges together, greatly about the their desired

40.-

Geometric apart.

construction The chord

of an airfoil. line is drawn by the connecting line. the two This is above

distance

(2) the amount aids the an airfoil

of curvature section's that is,

is determined lifting one adds abilities, the same

camber

(3) a thickness amount

function

camber line; the

line, this final

of thickness surfaces, a specific wind-tunnel

camber shows

thickness result -

determines a typical may

the upper airfoil shape.

and lower It has from

step

set

of

aerodynamic testing. Figure airfoil line). foil When line, sections. If the (the upper

characteristics

all its

own which

be determined

41 illustrates Figure camber surface line

all the aforementioned 42 illustrates is the same an important as the chord

terms aspect line,

for

several

differently line

shaped (or airline). chord line mean

of the camber has a symmetric about the along the

one surface

is a mirror velocity The

image

of the lower airstream a

chord the

the free-stream no lift is produced.

of the angle

oncoming of attack

is alined angle

is the

between

chord

6O

surface G/Jttingen airfoil Upper 387

Leading edge

Chord surface line

Camber_ line

_

Trailing edge

NACA

0012

f

Upper

surface

symmetric

airfoil

Leading edge surface

Chord line equal to camber

line Whitcomb

Trailing edge

er

surface

//---Chord

line

supercritical

airfoil

Leading edge ----'

/ A Lower surface c,_._. , _='"_"
|'.n

/ / "'"_ --

Trailing

edge

Figure

41.-

Airfoil

terminology.

Zero

camber

Symmetric no i.e. lift eL at a = 0

airfoil - 0 °. _ 0 °.

--

Camber of zero

line lift

Chord is also

line, O,

Angle

_z

ift

v_

ve

camber

Asymmetric Positive lift

airfoil at

--

Camber

line

above

chord

line:

a = 0 °.

a L = 0 <0°

v_
ve camber

"lift" Asymmetric Negative "lift" airfoil at -Camber aL line below chord line:

a = 0 °.

= 0 > O°

Figure

42.-

Airfoil

camber

line

variations.

61

and the

the angle

free-stream of attack camber for

velocity zero lies

vector. lift is zero, the

It is or chord

zero aL= line,

in this 0 = 0 °. then of the (c_ = 0o),

case,

that

is,

a

= 0 °.

Thus,

If the results. stream chord lift

line surface

above

an asymmetrical lower surface.) lift stream

airfoil When results. to obtain manner OtL= 0 the

section freeThe zero negais

(Upper velocity line must is, the

is not along

a mirror the inclined chord

image line

is alined be angle an

a positive free

negatively of zero

with 0 is

respect less where than

to the 0°'!. angle

(that

lift

aL=

In a similar of zero lift

tive camber greater than The namic station less causing the

yields 0 °.

asymmetrical

airfoil

the

two-dimensional

wing.in a spanwise

A two-dimensional direction. B or anywhere air

wing In fig_are along from

has 43(a)

no variation the airfoil and the the

of aerodysection wing wing is tips at limitand

characteristics A is in span. the same The

as

at

station is

the flowing

span,

point

of this effects

to prevent (to

around One

three-dimensional aerodynamic course, that the spans for no wing model the minor that

be discussed from the

later). wing's

is trying

to separate effects. be obtained for meaIn this behaves aerodythe by

airfoil's Of

characteristics is infinite airfoil from

three-dimensional simulation in the wind fig. may

in length section, one

but

a close placed

insuring surements, case two namic wing

of the wind

when wall that

tunnel 43(b).) the

tunnel

to the can

other.

(See for),

(except

tunnel-wall is, there is

effects no

be corrected of the iMluence

wing

dimensionally, characteristics. span has on

spanwise will

variation show the

airfoil that

section limiting

A later the aerodynamic

discussion

characteristics. }__'illg - The _. patterns and the other two is fluid one is flows flow is the about an airfoil may motionof or the circutotal flow be

Circulation viewed the fluid as consisting about around The by about infinite. edge the the the

ab_o_ut _a _tw_oz_diln?j}s_ional of two airfoil airfoil is, supcrimposed fig. fig. 44(a)) 44(b)). free-stream

free-stream flow, to give call the the

(see (see

a circulatory coexist

lation, pattern. represented The

These flow

question F the

if the

prescribed, provides corner the is the point

circulation, answer. the velocity the it

be of any pointed As this

value? edgc

A physical caImOt with (fig. that the

condition turn a real a sharp fluid, This stagnation circ_daliop,

flow

trailing is and of F not

without instead

becoming trailing sets edge.

possible

flow Kutta

leaves and

tangentially value

smoothly such theorem

44(c)). rear th.

condition to the lift

required The

moves section

trailing by

Kutta-Joukowsky

relates

to the

l = p_V_r

(20)

62

Infinite length

infinite__

length

(a) Two-dimensional

(2D) wing.

This

side

mounted

Free this

stream direction

from

_ _' j_'V_

/ _ } Wing spans

to show wine in tunr_el

_

\ L..

.... _ms on

de mounted slae mo near wall

_

(b) Testing

for airfoil by using Figure 43.-

section's

aerodynamic

characteristics

a two-dimensional Two-dimensional

(2D) wing. wing testing.

63

elocity about trailing sharp edge

(a) Flow

with

no circulation.

(b) Circulatory

flow only.

Flow edge

leaves smoothly

trailing

(c) Flow Figure 44.-

with

circulation. about a 2D wing.

Circulation

where

lift/unit free-stream

span

of two-dimensional air density

wing

Poo

Voo

free-stream circulation

velocity strength

F

64

Thus, the circulation strenglh I' is set by a necessary physical condition, and the lift l is uniquely determined. For a perfect fluid the drag per unit length is zero.
However, drag wing along in a viscous fluid ilow one loss must include Latex" the a skin-friction changes that drag occur and when a pressure a finite with a resulting of lift.

is considered The

wi]l be shown. coefficiel:ts.q'h,., point :force into is the lift Figure of intersection center of pressure. components 45(a) shows of the the chord resultant line aerodynamic line of

two-dimensional on an airfoil, resultant

force action force drag, attack because has chord dynamic

acting of this may

and the

The as shown

resultant in figure to vary center this

aerodynamic 45(b). The lift, of

be resolved

and drag for

and center is changed. the line

of pressure of action mounted

are

the cambered moments are force along

airfoil present passes the chord,

shown at the through for

as the angle of pressure point. If one

No aerodynamic

of the aerodynamic at seine fixed edge,
point

the airfoil length force The

point the

example, the

a quarter resultant

of a aero-

behind

the leading or the

moment

is not zero to the center

unless

is zero

corresponds point of angle center, the lift,

of pressure. a function of angle about of the

moment Figure point

about -

the quart(,r-chord a system functions all are

is generally a lift, of attack. where drag, the drag,

attack.

45(c)

shows

of reporting

and moment

quarter-chord There the angle

is a point,

the aerodynamic 45(d) shows

moment

is independent about the aerody-

of

of attack. This

Figure system

and moment for a number

namic

center.

of r,,porting

is convenient

of aerodynamic

calculations. The data obtained data. by wind-tunnel Aerodynamic Cd, the testing of NACA families of airfoil include the sections lift coeffiare

two-dimensional cient point These moments el, the drag

characteristics moment

recorded coefficient about

coefficient and the are length moment

the quarter-chord center the forces (em)ac. and

(Cm)0.25c, coefficients per unit

coefficient by measuring,

about

the aerodynamic tests,

obtained of the

in wind-tunnel

airfoil

wing

and nondimensionalizing

as follows:

c/ where dynamic Similarly, l is the pressure

qc

z

(21)

measured lift per unit length of the airfoil wing, q is the testing 1 section. or _pV 2, and c is the chord length of the airfoil

d c d -=_-_ where d is the measured drag per unit length of the airfoil wing

(22)

65

Resultant aerodynamic force

of V_ Chord line --] Line of resultant action force of

pressure

(a)

Lift

Lift

_

=

00_

v_

/_enter

of pressure moves forward as of attack increases

angle

Chordwise on shape

of

position camber

depends line

(b)

Lift Quarter chord point Aerodynamic__.._ center chord o) point Moment about aerodynamic center (independent of a)

.__

Moment one-quarter (depends

about on

(c) Figure 45.Airfoil aerodynamic

(d)

characteristics.

and,
Cm = m qc 2 (23)

where

m

is the

measured or the been

moment aerodynamic shown chosen), and air need

per

unit length center the

acting other

on the airfoil point desired). are

(whether

at the

quarter-chord It has body Mach number shape number, effects

point previously (airfoil are

or any

that

aerodynamic (angle turbulence.

coefficients

dependent number, flow, Mach

on

section negligible and

attitude and air

of attack For is dependent

or), Reynolds low subsonic on the

surface

roughness,

turbulence

Reynolds

number Figure 46 The on

and surface shows main angle 66 data point

roughness reported of this

not be indicated airfoil the shape,

as a separate namely, of the

dependency. an NACA 2415

for a particular figure is to show number,

airfoil.

dependence

aerodynamic

coefficients

of attack,

Reynolds

and surface

roughness.

This of shape, number, Air cl,

indicates Cd, an_le and turbulence number and of

the c m

dependence on airfoil Reynolds rout_hness. included and roughlless number in tile -.2 0 .2 ,4 .C, .8 1 .C_ _.0_l .2

attack,

surface is

_=g<

o

Reyl]olds dependency. effects 2.0 -

Math not includ(!d.

-o

.020

--

--

1.6

.016

1.2

g

.01_
.008

.8

.4

•_

.004

g
0 o 0 0

ca _,| -.4 -.l

8
-,2 slber -.3 -1.2 _ I_" -.4 -1.6 Angle -.5 of attack variation K2" z2_-;;at|at|on Sur face roughness variation -•3 4"_ -.4 9.0 -•8 -.2 O [] 3.0 6.0 x 10 6

Aerl)d;llat!lic

ct,ll[/,l

p_)sltD_ll

x/,,
.241 .246 .246 Standard

y/i.
.014 .013 •013 roughness

,_X 6.0

-2.o
-32

l
-24 Section NACA

,
-[6 -8 angle 2415

,
of Wirlg

t
0 attack, Section

_
8 o0,

t
16 deg

T
24 32

-.5
-1.6

____1
-l.2 -.8 Section NACA -.4

----L_A J 0 lift 2415 coefficit, wine se .4 nt, :tio .8 cl

J 1.2

J 1.6

Specific

body

shapu

(see

upper

right)

Figure x

46.and

Aerodynamic y denote

coefficient distances

dependencies, along X and Y

c

denotes

chord

length,

axes,

respectively.

It is best at this point to examine,

in a general some

manner,

the variation of the coef-

ficients with angle of attack and to discuss informative Figure graphs of these results.

typical features often found in the

47 is a typical graph One

of coefficient of lift cI

against the angle of attack

of the airfoil section.

of the first things noticed is the fact that at an angle of positive lift. This One must move is the

attack of 0 °, there is a positive coefficient of lift,and, hence, case of most cambered airfoils and was discussed earlier.

to a nega-

tive angle of attack to obtain zero bered to have

liftcoefficient (hence zero lift). It will be rememlift. A symmetric be expected. is almost a airfoil was shown

that this angle is called the angle of zero an angle of zero liftequal to 0 ° as might next that from There

Notice straight line. Above

0 ° up to about 10 ° or 12 ° the "liftcurve"

is a linear increase

in the coefficient of liftwith angle of attack. a peak and then declines. The

this angle, however,

the liftcoefficient reaches

angle at which

the liftcoefficient (or lift)reaches

a maximum

is called the stall angle.

67

0

o

Negative stall ]
.... L

-16

-8 Angle of

0 attack,

g ,_ ,de_

Figure

47.-

Coefficient

of lift as a funcliun

uf angle

of attack.

The coefficient the stall angle, the flow being pattern

of lift at the stall angle is the ma.xinmm one may state that the airfoil is stalled has occurred. 0 ° to past on the the the airfoil stall Figure stall 48 shows angle

lift coefficient and a remarkable whose that angle below

el,ma x. change of attack the stall

Beyond in is angle,

an airfoil Note

raised

from

of attack. slowly

the separation the trailing the pressure increased

points edge. drag

move angle Past the

forward

but remain move effects

relatively rapidly of the

close

to and

Near rises

separation stall lift. the "lift occurs of attack angle,

points the

forward greatly

abruptly.

the the

separated

flow is to decrease to note that (fig.

It is interesting angles aircraft flight. of attack and

47) that stall

curve" also.

continues

through

negative an for

a negative

angle angle

In general, the lift

however, necessary

will be operating

at a positive

to obtain

68

points Separation c_ = 00

Turbulent

wake

__:,_ = 5°

.....

/--Separation

point

moves

Maximum 16°.

lift Separation point jumps

(Stall = angle_ _

..._._ ___'__

----_

_

Separated expands

flow region and reduces

lift

5
Large (Reduced lift turbulent and large _ pressure drag)

"-3

Figure

48.-

Stall

formation.

Figure 49 is a typical graph of the of attack of the airfoil section. Usually, small positive angle at the cd The of attack lower corresponding angles. because

coefficient of drag the minimum drag to a positive nears the stall amount lift

c d as a function coefficient occurs coefficient however, and

of angle at a

and builds the separated of the lift angle same is a as flow

only gradually increase occurring. coefficient near-linear before and The of an aircraft in

As one of the curve

angle,

is rapid drag

greater may also

of turbulent

coefficient in figure 46.

be plotted coefficient curve

as a function up to the much stall the

as shown function the same coefficient

Since

the lift the cd

of angle of attack, comments apply. of moment be discussed

appears

is an important when that

parameter subject

in the

stability

and

control

and will

is introduced. wing.The wing of the infinite-span shown two-

Two-dimensional wing compared with three-dimensional in figure 50 is a finite-span three-dimensional (3D) version

69

.O2O

Rapid increases / incd towards .I

u

.01C

u

¢9

_--_Minimum

drag at small cr

i -12

i -8

I

I

I

I

-4 Angle of attack,

4 _, deg

8

12

Figure

49.-

Coefficient

of drag of airfoil

as

a function

of angle

of attack

section. and is

dimensional the chord

(2D) length

wing c

tested times the

in the wing

wind span

tunnel b.

(fig. Thus

43).

The

wing

area

is

S

S = bc

(24)

This on

is this

also

known and chord

as

the

planform

area. by obtains the

If one using 3D

measures the wing

the area,

lift,

drag,

and

moment dynamic of the

3D wing and CL,

nondimensionalizes length, Cm one where

free-stream

pressure, wing;

aerodynamic

characteristics

CD,

and

(L = Total

lift

on wing)

(25)

(D = Total

drag

on

wing)

(26)

M C m =_ qSc

(M = Total

moment

acting

on

wing)

(27)

7O

/ /

Particularly
, W:

sinlp]c
;"

_

//_---

./"

//{¢_>"

same 'd ct u_lL il(__qiL(

x_in_

hi

VES_
I)ifferenl
IIIGY_IStlFt_d C'tJ¢'i'P't_ it'ltl._ I)t) I)!P! t'('lli+tiI1 _}1(" 5all/O coeffici_mts

<'{, c(p

cm

_

CL,

C D,

C m

Figure Notice flow are that the

50.-

Two-dimensic)md for

compared 3I) flow are

with c:_pitallzed

three-dimensional whereas the

conditions. coefficients the finite-span for 2D

coefficients case the letters.

lower from

This

is the

notation

used

to distinguish

coefficients The airfoil wing? C m. wing

infinite-span quvstion data now

coefficients. arises: the are been glance lift, Cl, How can one and and out might use experimental on a real, to stream that the tunnel is, CL, NACA finite CD, 2D 3D and the

important

characteristics Or to put

to obtain way, has how simply At first But this

drag, Cd,

moments cm in the related lree

it another 50 the wing exposed.

In figure tips are and is that for

moved one Why? tunneI the

so that c l = CL,

freely

conclude does the that spanwise for the

c d = CD, answer not But The allow the

c m = C m. the the 2D wing possibility is freely results

is wrong! in the wind about free

Where spanned tips, and

problem walls

lie? and fIow occur. did

The

tested

of airflow exposed nmst in the be

wing

spanwise flow effects may

of air.

3D wing

stream

two-dimensional flow. and

modified

to account

of three-

dimensional

Circulation discussion

the

vortex

sy,'ste m or'_ _}f![Utc, ',vina. the airfoil

_ing.could be

As

was

shown

earlier

in the

of a two-dimen_sion:d

represented

by a free-stream 71

flow and For wing case

a circulation

of strength

F wing,

determined at subsonic rear caused

by the Kutta-Joukowsky speeds, by the the upflow so that F.

condition. in front exists This of the no net is not the

an infinite, exactly for

two-dimensional balances the downflow of air past

at the wing. a line

of the wing,

there

downward

movement a finite

the wing

circulation

three-dimensionai of Helmholtz, wing, the the vortex the wing hence, have vortices pressure the line tips the

By a theorem midair. for a finite For wing, outside tips,

of circulation extends simply

or vortex which wingtips. forces

line

cannot Instead,

end in but the vortex back

an infinite

vortex cannot

to infinity end at the

is permissible

continues from These of these

where names

the free-stream "trailing vortices" strength as follows. surface

flow

them

to trail vortices." the

the wing

or "wing-tip F. Physically,

tip vortices trailing static

same

circulation

formation

can be explained on the upper surface the of the

The than shown that

of a wing

is for the

most positive tips

part lift. since

lower As pressure sur-

on the lower 51(a), function. tendency tend

wing must

operating become

at a normally equal at the wing

in figure

pressures A pressure from

is a continuous faces. cles The of air

gradient wing

exists surface region

between around

the upper differences the wing

and lower so that

of the air

is to equalize the lower pressure

any pressure

parti-

to move the region

tip to the upper In addition, 51(b).) the If

surface there these wing wing wise

(from exists

of high

to the

of low pressure). the the wing. spanwise

the

oncoming of air free

free-stream are combined one tips

flow approaching (superimpose has an inclined of air on the

(See fig.

two movements on the oncoming surface and flow is strongest by the

flow about

stream), outward

inward lower to zero

flow of air wing at the surface. midspan

on the upper The point spanas

an inclined

flow

at the wing

and decreases being parallel

evidenced (fig. 52(a)).

flow direction

there

to the

free-stream

direction

Head-on

view

of

wing

Lower Equal pressures--

than . _ f

free-stream " _-1-1-_'_

static

pressure .. 1",.

/_-_"

/ / 1 / / / /1
Higher static _-

_'Equal

l]_.._fpre==.re=

\
than free-stream pressure b |

(a) Figure 72 51.Finite-wing flow tendencies.

Tip

flow

(b)

Figure 51.-

Concluded.

Flow

over

top

surface

Flow

over

bottom

surface

lll//j ""
i l I I t

;i

I' I

I I I i I l

(a) Figure When is inclined whole tance ces line the air to that leaves from the trail 52.Formation edge of wing-tip of the wing, vortices. the air from the upper result. being cylindrical the surface A strongest disvorti-

the trailing lower back rapidly roll

surface from

and helical

paths

or vortices "strength" fig. 52(b).)

of vortices and decreasing

the wing,

the vortex (See

at the tips

to zero up and

at midspan. combine

A short

downstream which constitute

the vortices the so-called system

into two distinct Figure 52(c) shows just

"tip vortices." replacing the vortex

simplified

picture

of the tip vortex

distribution

discussed.

I
(b)

Figure

52.-

Continued. 73

Tip

vortex

vortex

(c) Figure An account aerodynamic The called a finite system vortex stant starting because rapidly of the tip-vortex into wing their (which effects 52.Concluded. the modifications of the 2D airfoil

constitutes

coefficients vortex in the vortex.

3D counterparts. is equivalent shows to the lift of the wing vortex system). vortex Also, (fig. the 53(a)) vortex starting of connew is for

the bound wing must which vorticity vortices of the

Figure known in some

53(b)

the bound

and the tip vortices

(sometimes be closed is left (fig. are air's

as the horseshoe manner when and

is accomplished starts is being vortices from

by the so-called rest in the case changed,

behind 53(c)). shed. viscosity. back

the wing If the

the wing

lift of the wing the their starting

continually are

Generally, Also, are left.

soon dissipated a wing decays

influence

on the flow behind

the further

they

f

__ /_ ____/.,4----(a) 1/4c (at

vortex 1/4 c line)

F ._ ..(.... ,F Tip vortex

(b) Figure 53.Complete-wing vortex system.

74

F F

_-_(_.

_-

'rip

vortex

r

CY C_

Tip (c) vortex

(Lef 2tairport when off influence drag) plmm takes it does not lift or

Figure

53.-

Concluded.

The and roll dissipate, this change The the

tip vortices each energy take

trail other being some effects movement

back

from

the wing of the

tips wing.

and

they

have

a tendency the

to sink tip vortices later,

toward their may

downstream transformed time and may

Again,

eventually

by viscosity. prove system

As will be discussed to other 54.

to be dangerous are shown

aircraft. Indicated rotates behind), are

important of air the right-tip vortex

of the vortex

in figure The left-tip viewed

directions

due to the vortex rotates clockwise related wing the

system.

vortex from

clockwise, and

vortex rotates

counterclockwise (when viewed from

(when

the bound The

the left

side). two-

bound case.

vortex For

is directly a finite

to the relation

lift on the wing becomes

as in the

dimensional

L = p_V_bF where L lift on three-dimensional free-stream free-stream wing span (spin strength) the upflow (or upwash) caused The in front by the of the wing balanced But, that air density wing

(28)

Poo

Voo

velocity

b F

circulation In both the 2D and

3D cases in back also vortex take

the

downflow

(or downwash) case one must starting

of the

wing

bound cause

vortex.

in the down-

finite-wing influence

into account

the tip vortices tip vortices

(assuming

the

of the

is negligible).

additional

75

¢_'et'"

"-h'

/

Rear

view

_'\.

" _,

q

t

tf_\

\

_.._

_

.....

Downwash

.11,..

"_--,

Upwash

ahead

of

airplane

_

_.JqBound

vortex

v/

Downwash

behind

the

airplane

Figure

54.-

Vortex

flow

effects.

Note vortex One

that

upwash

and

downwash

are

due wash the air behind (fig. the wing

to both the within

the bound wing span.

and the tip vortices. can see that, for an observer downwards upwards path (this fixed in

within air

55) all the whereas

the vortex

system

is moving system

is called is

downwash) called plane order.

all the air Note that

outside

the vortex flying

is moving

(this

upwash). creating The the

an aircraft pattern

perpendicular upwash, to upwash,

to the flight downwash, can become flying through and

of the airin that at the shown airto

vortex

will encounter of downwash motions

upwash large Also

gradient, and cause flying over.

or change extreme into If the

very it.

tip vortices is an airplane plane to roll

in the airplane Note that there

a tip vortex. control surfaces

is a large are control

tendency

for the enough

of the airplane may lose

not effective

counteract experience The of the

the airplane structural problems

roll failure. of severe

tendency,

the pilot

or in a violent

case

tip vortices jets. During

are

compounded these times the

by the speed

take-off

and landings is

new generation the airplane Aviation

of jumbo is operating

of the airplane flight. plane, The the tip

low and Federal 76

at high that

lift for

coefficients a 0.27 MN

to maintain (600 000 lb)

Agency

has

shown

I I
I //

i
,

"',.
• _

J,

[

I
_

_
n .......... Downwash k

[

_

_
[ .L

"

_

-__-_

f /sL_._.-------"_

Very ride

across vortices

turbulent in flying

] I

/_

in tip vortex t,

/ /

in tip vortex

Aircraft rolls over in tip vortex

Figure vortices approach craft flying 1964 and traced greater especially The create per ally, may extend

55.back per

Upwash strongly minute could

and downwash for 5 miles over

fields from Tests

around

an airplane. and the that 90°/sec. incidents downwash light Between could much aircraft be may air-

the airplane also show other exceeding

160 meters into 1969 at least vortex

(500 ft/min). be rolled accidents Realizing between and

a small

a vortex

at rates

100 airplane phenomenom.

countless the FAA

to this

this,

is requesting and small

separation during

times take-offs

and distances and landings.

the large

jets

tip vortices

contribute

to the downwash contribution required drag force

field requires

at and the this

behind

the wing.

To

downwash unit time

due to finite-wing The wing at this power with an additional on the

expenditure component drag.

of energy of downwash Addition-

or power.

to induce known

may be associated the net lift It may way associated

as induced effects.

is decreased point that

by the tip vortex induced A finite drag drag as drag wing

be noted

is an ideal operating

fluid

effect

not in any fluid parasitic r. will

with a fluid's a skin-friction possess ratio may

viscosity. or pressure an induced be defined (Wing

in an ideal often called thus

not possess drag)

(taken

together

but will still The aspect

if generating

lift and

a circulation

span) 2 area (29a)

Aspect
or

ratio

=

Wing

S for any wing.

(_.9b)

77

For the

special

case

of a rectangular

wing

S=b×c so that AR = b = Wing c Chord for a rectangular has wing. a high aspect span length ratio is a measure with of the a short slenderness stubby wing of a wing; of low aspect (30)

Aspect ratio

a long

thin wing ratio. With The

compared

this

in mind,

return

to the

case

of the span a finite the

2D and wing and,

3D wings as such, ratio of lift is the wing;

shown

in figure say

50. it has

2D wing

is the

equivalent ratio. (30). The Figure

of an infinite 3D wing has

one can value ('2ift that the

an infinite mined obtained ces have

aspect

aspect

whose curves effect the

is detercurves") tip vortiis flattened aspect ratio

by equation

56 shows

coefficient evident w at the

for both wings in creating at the the same

by experiment. additional angle

Readily downwash less lift

lift curve smaller

out so that wing. This

of attack effect.

is obtained

for the

is not a beneficial the case where

Consider predicted ure by the

one wants

to get

the same

lift

from

the finite

wing fig-

as

2D aerodynamic by raising 2D wing,

characteristics, the angle that is,

or namely, of attack

C L = c l. wing

From

56, this over

is achieved that of the

of the finite

by a small

amount

a3D This increase

= a2D

+ ,xa of attack to obtain the the same flow

(C L = c/) lift is due to the seen by the wing effect where

(31) of tip vortifor small

in angle downwash

ces on the angles

in changing

relative

w Vo_ It may wing 2D drag be stated coefficient that the drag coefficient drag for the coefficient finite or 3D wing is the infinite-

(32)

plus

the induced

CD = c d + (CD)induce

d

(33)

78

Infiaite

aspect

ratio

Finite

aspect

ratio

I

I I

,
Angle zero of lift

I
iO3D of attack,

I
_a2D Angle

0

Figure where drag sary cd here

56.-

Effect drag

of aspect coefficient

ratio

on coefficient (skin-friction angle of

of lift. drag plus pressure a3D at necesa2D.

is the parasitic of the This 2D wing is greater

coefficient) to get d e C L.

operating than the

at the higher original aspect value

of attack cd AR operating and elliptic

(CD)induce factor" distribution (CD)induced

is inversely relating shown

proportional one to give to

to the comes

ratio

an "efficiency spanwise Also, lift

how close by theory

to achieving induced

an ideal drag

minimum Thus

(e = 1).

is proportional

CL 2.

(CD)induce

d = KCL2

(34)

where

K

is related

to the aspect to this point,

ratio

and the

efficiency version

factor. of a 2D wing slightly. will give This and, data the same in

To summarize lift angle yields coefficient of attack an induced It is important represents. If one

a finite-span angle in the In this the drag of attack parasitic way,

(C L = c/) only if its causes drag an increase coefficient. not to confuse converts the

is raised drag

increase

coefficient

in addition, are drag modified. force that it it is

the 2D wind-tunnel with induced

coefficient to actual

the actual drag,

coefficient

one finds

79

inversely
b 2, and

proportional

to (1) the

span

efficiency squared

factor V_ 2. the stated

e, (2) the wing

span squared

(3) the free-stream of reducing

velocity induced

Methods NACA 3D wing corrections may the b fact and drag ponent the

drag.-

From to obtain

results and drag

it can be seen acting One on the like

that entire these How

2D wind-tunnel if proper

data may corrections

be used for the

the lift are most

tip vortices to get the

included. lift with discussion velocity at high

would

to be as small induced drag

as possible

the least

drag.

be reduced? to as close /k_), and

From to

the previous e = 1 the free-stream component only

one may the Vow.

(1) increase wing last flight) span This

span efficiency (or aspect points relatively at those since ratio up that

factor

as possible,

(2) increase

(3) increase is a small

induced

drag since

speeds

(cruising

unimportant speeds. it accounts

it constitutes (take-off

about

5 to 15 percent

of the total com-

At low speeds

or landing) of the total physical

it is a considerable drag. factors with the that may

for up to 70 percent e and wing

The efficiency trolled Both only by proper wings are

factor design.

span are

be conwings.

Figure lift

57 shows

two airplanes and they have wing

rectangular wing

at the is that

same

coefficient span of the the same

same

area.

The wing.

difference

the wing

second

is twice

that

of the first longer

Ideally, (higher ciency. not make nearly

both wings aspect ratio)

should has arises

produce one-fourth that

lift and drag,

drag.

But the

span wing effiwhy

the induced less induced

and therefore, with AR). small. longer This

a greater wing would spans, give

The thought a wing with flow,

with

drag (high very

an extremely the tip vortex

long wing effects

span being

idealized

In fact,

as figure

58

of first

pl_e

Figure

57.-

Wing-span same lift

effect

on induced and

drag same

for

airplanes

having

same

wing

area,

coefficient,

dynamic

pressure.

80

illustrates, wings. wing requires There essary formance. characteristics, categories planes with ratio of _.

sailplanes But structural a large comes

that

must

rely

on high become

efficiencies, a dominant it.

do have factor.

very A very

long

slender

considerations structural where wing weight the span

thin long

to support

a point increased effects.

disadvantage counteracts aspect

of increasing the advantage ratio on factors other would such factors. give

structural of decreased the

weight drag per-

necdue

to support vortex This

to smaller

A compromise also

optimum capacity,

is necessarily size allowances, with

dependent

as fuel

control

and numerous an aspect 6, and ratio

A survey single-engine airplanes

of airplane light air-

show

sailplanes ratio

of 15 or more, fighter

an aspect

of about

supersonic

with

an aspect

HP-8

(1958)

Figure Another tanks ing wing as shown the formation span interesting in figure way 59.

58.-

High-aspect-ratio induced

wing. drag tends

AR = 24. use of tip plates or tip

of reducing This

is by the to promote physical since

arrangement They have these are

a 2D flow by inhibiteffect there as an increase are other more in

of tip vortices. ratio).

the same

(or aspect drag reduction looking and twist ways

Normally,

not used

valuable

methods. further at methods For of reducing a general the size induced wing, drag, it is necessary sections may may change; and to vary in

Before define three the give taper distinct shape

for a wing. the section airfoil wing. may

the airfoil length

along

First, change may that

or chord

second, the

of the airfoil of the taper taper section also

as one moves change are along

along the

the wing, These

lastly,

angles

of attack the wing Planform

sections terms

wing.

variations

and twist is the (near remain

now considered. length and thickness wing as one proceeds tip) so that the

reduction the fuselage)

of the chord to the

from airfoil

the root sections

tip section (See

(at the fig.

geometrically

similar.

60(a).)

81

Tip

plates

inhibit

tips

_ v Loe

_ k_

_iPw ta_kuSt

inhibit wing tip

Figure

59.-

Tip plates

and

tip tanks.

ileduction in thickness airfoil thickness ;lnd sections charltte Thickness Ch,)rd = Constant Reduction in chord length - airfoil sections sinnlar

(a) Planform

taper. Figure 60.reduction tip section fig. 60(b).) Planform of only this and thickness the airfoil's reduction remains

(b) Thickness taper. thickness results

taper.

Thickness from tions shows this ness fig. the root

taper section tip. wing was wing

is the to the (See with the tips

as one proceeds airfoil 60(c) exception to sec-

in thinner Figure notable in planform stations.

at the wing a typical normal so that 60(d).) taper the

The

chord

constant. One taper

both planform XF-91 were fighter thicker

and thickness which has

taper. inverse

and thick(See

and wider

than

the inboard

82

__. _.

Redtlctbnl and ('hl)rd iirf,nl

m thickness length secti(ms

(c) Planform

and thickness

taper. Figure 60.-

(d) Inverse Concluded.

taper

in planform

and thickness.

Wings decrease in angle represents twist, method minimum should bution.

are

given

twist

so that toward

the

angle

of attack tip is called washin.

varies

along

the

span.

A

in angle of attack

of attack toward

the wing

washout Geometric

whereas twist whereas

an increase (fig. 61(a))

the wing method airfoil it was

tip is called

a geometric different the drag

of changing sections demonstrated This available
sections

the lift distribution, the span represents manner

aerodynamic

by using

along

an aerodynamic 61(b)). To give factor lift e distriof lift.

of changing induced be as close A number

lift distribution

in a spanwise that is the

(fig.

the spanwise case

efficiency

to 1 as possible. of methods
Same used Root s e c ti o n _< NACA

of an elliptic the spanwise
S,'une NACA

spanwise distribution
sections

are

to modify
_

throughout

...."_tk\ _o_x\\\\

_'/positi" /

ve _

used

throughout

\ Neg.ative

"-I../

Washout sR2:tlon / Washin-_

(a) Geometric

twist.

Root section NACA

4 -221 X-Tip section NACA 0024

(b) Aerodynamic Figure 61.Geometric and

twist. aerodynamic twist. 83

These methodsinclude
figure and/or all 62(a) for the methods. aerodynamic

(1) planform wing, to obtain

taper which

to obtain is remarkably

an elliptic elliptic; or

planform

as shown

in twist of

Spitfire twist

(2) a geometric (3) a combination

elliptic

lift distribution;

of these

An elliptical point This there efficient cant. does of view is used are This fall The induced cates data as the

planform

is hard the best by light that

to manufacture type of wing

and

is costly.

Of course, untwisted

from wing.

the

of construction, considerably that indicate wing may

is the untapered, (See

plane

manufacturers. rectangular in reduced that for a real

fig. 62(b).) wing is very drag the may

Surprisingly, nearly as

a square-tipped the gains fact to the tips and

elliptic

so that

induced wing

be insignifi-

result

be traced

lift distribution distribution. appears 62(d) indi-

off to zero wing-tip

at the wing shape, 62(c) one. are perhaps being

approximates of production

an elliptical

at the

point a good

of the tip vortices, and thus whereas figure

to be of more drag. a less

importance Figure favorable and twist later.

in minimizing presents

tip vortex wing-tip

formation shape,

minimizing

Taper is discussed

of greater

importance

when

the

problem

of stalling

Aerodynamic One of, for want increases brakes. well think of the most fascinating term, subjects "aerodynamic drag such

Devices of flight is the vast number to achieve and dive might opening "coming for all of

of aerodynamics devices" as slats, the The affixed slots,

of a better or decreases

to a simple flaps, spoilers, air

wing

in lift and devices is a piece

With that

all these the wing

hanging

on a wing, art.

unsuspecting sound of flaps

traveler slats

of modern combined

and

as one approaches apart these at the devices seams" and

for a landing may the unnerve

with a visual

inspection

of the wing exists on them. maneuvers characteristics weight the

the unknowledgeable. of air travel take-off the

But a purpose is dependent and normal landing flying the

safety

and economy

It is in the a speed

interest

of safety one

to perform does flight

at as low to is

as possible. Consider

But also,

not want condition flying CL,ma flight

be affected. equal would

a near-level For

in which (take-off

airplane

to the lift be operating

(L = W).

minimum lift or minimum

speed x.

or landing) (25) after

wing

at maximum for the

From

equation Vmi n

some

manipulation,

solving

velocity,

yields

(35) Vmin = t p_ 2c_,WmaxS

84

High cost Minimum

complex induced

drag

(a) Elliptic

wing

-

Supermarine

Spitfire

Mk. I.

q/
Low induced drag Aero Commander 100

(b) Untapered,

untwisted

wing.
tip shape drag) corner

Good tip shape for low induced drag

Less favorable (Higher induced Rounded

Sharp

corner

(c) Good

tip shape. Figure 62.Reduction

(d) Poor of induced

tip shape. drag.

The

density

Po_ is considered of the airplane, CL,ma x and/or

to be constant then it is obvious area

and if the weight that Slots

is considered to reduce used

a fixed Vmi n for this is

characteristic to increase purpose. Slots.slot the the formed operating airfoil.

the only way and flaps

the wing

S.

are

The

maximum

coefficient auxiliary the slot

of lift airfoil is open,

may

be increased a slat. flows and the

through Figure through the air

the use 63(a) the

of a

by a leading-edge principle. The When

called the air

illustrates slot and over

slot is a boundary-layer layer about angle the

control wing and

device retards stall

thus

channeled The get airfoil a higher

energizes can then

the boundary be flown

separation. and thus

at a higher

of attack

before

occurs

85

Slat

Slot

(a)Slat.

airfoil Normal Unslotted

|/ I

angle

with _'_stall

, rIncreased slat _/

Angle

of attack,

a

(b) Slat Figure

aerodynamic Slat-slot

effects. operation.

63.-

CL,ma slotted less

x value. A curve showing C L as a function of airfoil is given in figure 63(b). Notice particularly than the stall angle, the airfoil lift curve is relatively

a

for the normal and the that for angles of attack unaffected whether the slot

is opened There explanatory; main German wing. 86

or closed. are two types of slots slat it creates rocket fixed and automatic. a fixed drag the distance The fixed from slot is selfIts a

the leading-edge is that War

is mounted excessive fighter

the airfoil. Figure slots from

disadvantage World The

at high speeds. Me-163 lifting the

64 shows in the the wing

II designed slot

with fixed slat away

automatic

depends

on air

pressure

at high angles of
against slot. the Its One airplane reduced wing main main must

attack leading

to open the edge and are

slot. reduces its added

At low angles drag at high

of attack speeds

the

slat

is flush with the fixed

compared and stall attitude cost. angle which

disadvantages disadvantage approach for

weight, of slots

complexity, is the high nose-up

of both types a landing

created. promotes

The

in an extreme

visibility.

slot

Me-163

Figure F_.llaps.- Flaps wing change flap same area, is one shaped or both. shape method airfoil in the may of the be used airfoil

64.-

Fixed the lift

slots. maximum coefficient 65(a) shows lift coefficient, may camber. The increase by a and the The for the trailing-edge airfoil camber. than entire angle to the reduces that the

to increase section this. flap

A change

in the maximum

be realized

or by increased Figure

of accomplishing with a simple for the

a normal

in the down with the

position flap

for increased is greater over the

maximum unflapped attack tially

lift coefficient airfoil. This Also,

the airfoil coefficients in figure

simple

of lift are 65(b). Note airfoil. The angles.

increased also This flapped that

angle-ofis essenslot opera-

range. unchanged

is shown that

the stall

from

of the angle has

unflapped obtained.

is opposed airfoil

tion where disadvantage

a higher that the

stall slot

was

the

in high landing

87

Inc reased

r Normal airfoil flapped airfoil

(a) Flap.
CL CL,ma.x flapped CL, max normal airfoil Simple flapped _- Normal airfoil-_ airfoil

////
(b) Flap Figure 65.-

Angle

of attack,

a

aerodynamic Simple

effects.

flap operation.
Increases 1) 2) camber wing area

Closed

position

(a) Fowler

flap.

Slot-----_

X_Flap Closed position

system Open position •

(b) Complex Figure

slotted 66.-

flap Types

of Boeing of flaps.

737.

88

Figure 66(a)shows a Fowler flap which is hinged such that it can move back and increase the airplane wing area. Also, it may be rotated downto increase the camber. A very large increase in maximum lift coefficient is realized. There are many combinations of slots andflaps available for use on airplanes. Figure 66(b)showsthe arrangement on a Boeing 737airplane which utilizes a leadingedgeslat and a triple-slotted trailing-edge flap. This combination is a highly efficient lift-increasing arrangement. The slots in the flaps help retard separation over the flap segmentsand thus enhancelift. It may also be notedthat flaps in an extreme downposition (50 to 90o) act as a ° high-drag device andcan retard the speedof an airplane before and after landing.
Boundary-layer control.boundary-layer control. The boundary kinetic nar layer energy to the a longer boundary distance Another method of increasing CL,ma idea is to either remove the low-energy by high-energy directly. the airfoil, Both delay flow from of these separation, above layer over methods and x is by segment of the a lamia

and let it be replaced

or by adding maintain allow

flow for

one to get

larger shown

angle of attack before stall occurs, and to be one means of passing high-energy The low-energy in figure backward boundary 67(a) facing holes layer or slots may air

thus a higher flow over the through

CL,ma x. top surface slots

The slot was of a wing. in the layer wing

be sucked may

or holes boundary

as shown through

or high-energy

be blown in figure
Boundary by

into the 67(b).
layer controlled

as shown

suction

(a) Suction

of boundary

layer.

/_--Add

energy to boundary by blowing high pressure through holes or slots

layer air

(b) Reenergizing Figure 6'/.Forms

the boundary of boundary-layer

layer. control.

89

Spoilers.- Spoilers are devices used to reduce the lift on the airplane wing. They may serve the purpose as on gliders to vary the total lift and control the glide angle. Or on large commercial jets they may be usedto help the aileron control by "dumping" lift on one wing and thus help to roll the airplane. Also, on landing, with spoilers up, the lift is quickly destroyed and the airplane may quickly settle on its landing gear without bouncing. Figure 68 showsthe spoiler arrangement on a Boeing 707wing.

f

/

//

?- Spoi, rs p; o

Figure Dive speed. in a dive, separation speed-brake Stall operating order. adequate spin root tions after section should brakes.Dive slowing aerodynamic and increase (or speed) down quickly brakes

68.brakes when are

Use are

ol spoilers. used in airplanes for to control after descent landing, a large aircraft or

Whether these wake

approaching

a landing, they

helpful. drag. aircraft discussion

Essentially, Figure dive has brake

promote a civilian

the pressure

69 shows

arrangement characteristics.-

and two military The present

arrangements. considerably on

concentrated

near or at the stall A wing should possess warning a stall. first be the "dead of the This and last air" stall,

condition favorable (2) the stall

CL,ma x. A further stall characteristics is gradual, by "forcing" the wing ailerons the and the tips. remain

word about stalling is in so that (1) the pilot has (3) there stall The is little tendency wing-tip to sta-

may be achieved to stall wake). so that Use

to occur outboard, (are

at the wingnot immersed employed so

let it progress

toward

effective

in a turbulent

of twist,

namely

washout,

is often

9O

Fokker

F-28

Speed

brakes

Speed

brakes F-105D

open

x.
_-..___ _ _ F-IOOD Speed bra.ke

Figure

69.-

Dive

(speed)

brake

arrangements.

that

the

wing-root

section stall (See root pilot's

reaches

the

stall

angle are

first.

(See favorable

fig.

70(a).) ones

Also,

airfoil

sections stall

with gradual

characteristics fig. 70(b).) stall,

more

than

with quick

characteristics. As the inboard the

stations controls.

turbulent This

flow from

the wing

strikes stall

the

tail-

plane device. with

and buffets With few spin

condition the plane

is an adequate should maintain

warning attitude

a gradual tendencies.

stall

on both wings,

a level

Total Up to now the shown and and that three drag acting are

Drag

of Airplane has been considered. drag, of many airplane It has (2) pressure other been drag,

on a finite present: an airplane drag

wing

components drag.

(1) skin-friction is composed Possible

(3) induced each

Of course, a total

components drags 91

will introduce

of its own.

component

V_

o


--_ Negative Washout

..

J/iHtEIA.oo<

(a) Twist toward

and wing

stall.

Note

that angle

stalled

region

moves

tip as wing

of attack

increases.

_ACA

651-212

/__

spread

out"

-\NACA 64,-,18

i
(b) Gradual Figure 70.Stall include (4) drag stores, aircraft are (1) drag of wing, wing flaps, (2) drag gear, of nacelles, (7) drag (5) drag of landing and sum (8) drag of the aircraft, These component drag one

Wing

angle

of attack

stall. characteristics.

of fuselage, (6) drag

(3) drag of wing parts. tanks

of tail

surfaces,

and external The net the drag of an

of engines, the

of miscellaneous of the components.

is not simply into

When

components and the

combined the drag in the

a complete

component are called

can affect interference interference

the flow field, effects, drag. and Thus,

hence, change

of another. sum of the

effects drags

is called

(Drag)l+

2 = (Drag)l

+ (Drag)

2 + (Drag)interference

92

Generally, interference drag will addto the componentdrags but in a few cases, for example, addingtip tanks to a wing, total drag will be less than the sum of the two componentdrags becauseof reduced induceddrag. Interference drag can be minimized by proper fairing andfilleting which induces smooth mixing of air past the components. Figure 71 showsa Grumman F9F Panther Jet with a large degree of filleting. No adequatetheoretical methodwill predict interference drag; thus, wind-tunnel or flight-test measurementsare required. For rough computational purposesa figure of 5 percent to 10 percent can be attributed to interference drag on a total aircraft.

(
F9F Panther Jet

Figure Small they craft changes items also reduce War add to the the aircraft's II and shows are total

71.aircraft

Wing

fillets. and although 72 shows coefficient seemingly a TBF as these trivial, Avenger small air-

drag

can greatly from and Figure World

top speed. the increase for. fighter

Figure in drag

components 73 shows breakdown 74 presents

accounted

a Me-109G of the drag a graph Doing

German (includes of how the away with

from

World drag) drag

War of the

II.

Shown is the

percentage Figure decreased streamline all aided upon what

interference total bracing airplane wires,

components. has behind have

coefficient engines

over

the years. use

shielding of polished

cowls, in the has

of flush-riveting of drag. about

techniques, It is beyond total drag airplane measurements the

and use scope drag

surfaces

reduction been

of this

discussion speeds. does Even yield here,

to expand Although good however, pilot tech-

introduced

at subsonic of models tests.

prediction results, the

of drag final drag of the subsequent

and wind-tunnel evaluation measurements proper must

be obtained is dependent

by flight

accuracy and

on flight-test data.

equipment,

nique,

evaluation

of test

93

(National

Advisory

Committee

for

Aeronautics.) Reference condition (see column 1) _C D

C D at C L Condition 1 2 3 4 Airplane Flat Seals Seals gaps Exhaust Canopy sealed plate Airplane completely removed from from replaced removed, arresting-hook and turret leaks 0.0222 and openings 0.0223 trailing antenna tube 0.0227 leak seals removed 0.0230 0.0234 0.0236 0.0237 0.0251 gaps 0.0260 0.0264 change .......... configuration = 0.245 sealed from and nose air hinge-line 0.0203 stacks fairing 0.0211 exits faired 0.0183 0.0189 0.0199

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 I0 11 12 13

0.0006 0.0010 0.0004 0.0008 0.0011 0.0001 0.0004 0.0003 0.0004 0.0002 0.0001 0.0014 0.0009

removed removed

flapped-cowling cowling-flap

Tail wheel uncovered

Aerial, mast, installed 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Canopy and

turret

Leak seals removed cover plate, and Leak seals removed and miscellaneous Fairings Wheel-well Seals over

from shock strut, wing-fold axis from leak bomb-bay doors seals removed removed

catapult

hooks

cover

plates

removed

removed

from

tail-surface

Plates over removed.

wing-tip slot openings Airplane in service condition Total-drag

14

0.0004 0.0081

Figure 72.- Small item influence on total airplane drag.

94

Component Wing ............................. Fuselage ........................ rail surfaces .................. Engine and radiator ......... Appendages .................... Induced drag ...................

Percent

of total 37.5 13.7 6.9 23.3 11.4 7.2

drag

j
Figure
.10

S
73.Typical fighter-drag breakdown.

.0_

D

Wright

-"

.06 _

_hers

_9

.04 B 17

St, .O2 -

homs P-B_1 • • N P-80 • Comet

o
1900

I
1910

I
1920

I
1930 Date, years

I
1940

1
1950

I
1960

I
19q0

Figure

74.-

Decrease

in airplane

drag

coefficient

with

time.

95

Propellers Propellers.into the thrust per force. second a spinning air, propeller stood The propeller This times thrust the converts is equal added while

and Rotors the turning mass imparted was power of air to this at rest of an engine's forced air. backward If one has crankshaft by the ever this

to the

velocity

behind

propeller the slipstream,

the airplane is very

on the ground,

backward

moving

noticeable. configurations is a small wing used on military and civil-

Figure jan airplanes.

75 shows Basically, force along

a variety

of propeller blade

a propeller for axis

producing may

a resultant into of the the rotary a

aerodynamic force pointing

which the

the purposes of the force). airplane (See

of this

discussion,

be resolved in the plane

(thrust), fig. 76.)

and a force The torque

propeller motion

blades of the

(the torque by acting

force

opposes

engine rate

as a "drag" by the engine

on it. torque

In equilibrium, equal and

the propeller opposite to the

rotates propeller

at a constant torque.

determined

Two-bladed Beagle

propeller Pup

oa

Three-bladed Me-109G

propeller

on

Four-bladed

propeller B-29

on

Eight-bladed

contrarotating on Antonov AN-22

propellers

Figure 96

75.-

Various

propeller

configurations.

Direction

of

rotation

_'rhrust
T

Figure

76.-

Thrust

and

torque

of a propeller.

As tions fixed (fig.

figure may respect the relative and the

77 shows, vary

the

propeller from and rotating is the

blade tip

consists to the root the respect sum (See rotation velocity fig.

of a set of the

of airfoil-shaped Although flow and

seca wing of air an is

which with 78(a)),

in shape airplane is of air also

blade. free-stream airplane, airplane The the angle

to the propeller flow propeller and the

sees

only with

relative to the of the

it sees

oncoming velocity relative angle root

which

the

vector

free-stream angle helix varies than between angle from the or the root this

rotational plane of the

velocity. propeller airplane of the root, the

78(b).) is called helix revolving vector that

velocity of advance. to the tip As to the

For since one the

a particular tip sections the

this are velocity aircraft,

propeller relative of the

faster comes is, the

sections. closer approaches To attack peller angle angle. angles helix

approaches

inclined helix angle

oncoming 90 ° .

free-stream

velocity

obtain

an relative

aerodynamic velocity chord section appears with line

force, vector. of the as shown

the Thus, blade

airfoil the section

blade total

section angle from sum This tip

is

placed the plane helix

at

an

angle proand

of

to the rotation of attack

of the angle the small

to the for that

is the 78(c).

of the is known

in figure

as

blade blade in

A propeller and angle. The blade blade, (adjustable propeller). angle the root

blade sections

to be twisted large blade

with angles

the due

sections

with

in main

to the

increase

is

also

called

the

pitch

angle. or

This may be

pitch

angle

may

be

fixed on the

for

a propeller ground pitch

hence pitch The

a fixed-pitch propeller) efficiency or

propeller, controlled is

adjustable in the

by hand air by

automatically power output

(controllable power input

of a propeller

divided

97

blade __ller _ Airfoil

_

_ections

v--" Propeller

Figure

77.-

Propeller

blade

sections.

a,

denotes

angle

of attack

of airfoil

sections.

Wing
7 3

fixed

to

airplane

Free-stream velocity (a) Plane of rotation Velocity and of airplane motion

q

fT'U

Blade

Rotational velocity of this blade section relative to airplane

.o¢, Helix angle

(b)

5
/9
Angle of attack----_ .z_ _x /_#angle -Tntai a.ng[e blade angle or pitch angle of blade

(c) Figure 98 78.Propeller terminology.

and

would

desirably is

be

as

close to the

to a value free-stream setting. angle for

of one

(or

100 and

percent) for

as

possible. efficiency a fine per minute. or

The

efficiency requires pitch (flat

proportional

velocity For take-off,

maximum uses

a different blade or is high angle

pitch-angle or is small used

an airplane high

low

of attack) and

to provide gives low

revolutions per

minute. This

A coarse effect

pitch

cruising

revolutions

illustrated

in figure

79(a).

I

%

l

_

_

r

%

I I I

I I I I II

I] ! I

I I

I I I I I
l I % I \I

l t I I o
I / /

%

I

I I
I

f I
I _ _ _ 1\ \ I I / /

I I

4-

fl

I_I

...//

_'X

2/

\

/

Fin(' (low) pitch

'rake- off

Coarse pitch - Cruise

(high) flight

(a) Pitch

control.

(brake)

- propeller

stopped

fi_"

.q _'°_'_'_''_:'_ _ q

Negative

thrust

(b) Feathered

propeller. Figure 79.Use of pitch control. This are

(c)

Landing

brake.

Some turned velocity. decrease for use as

propellers the leading

may

be edges

feathered of the

in flight. airfoil sections propeller 79(b).) 79(c).) angle an airplane, The mission rounded blades Some In this

means alined

that

the

blades free-stream an engine reversible

are

so that

to the

Feathering the propeller

is used drag. brake. to a large

on a stopped (See (See fig. fig.

to avoid propellers case,

damaging have

and pitch

to

a landing the design blade

negative

thrust

is

obtained

by turning The of which mise propellor shaped and

negative like in design. on the

of attack. is overall to be tips. are influenced shape performed. For used. high is by many factors, by speeds larger some comprothe paddle-

of a propeller, contradictions dependent

cause is

determined For speeds low

largely

blade blades

is usually are used or

slender more

with propeller

99

The wards. tailplane. mental this larger. effective surfaces This may and

slipstream

is produced core it strikes The of the moves

by a propeller of spiraling the tailplane slipstream air

producing that has flows

thrust back than parts

by forcing over the -

air

backand

It is a cylindrical The some that The fact that beneficial. the drag

fuselage some

important

effects

detriflow;

flow is faster and other

the free-stream exposed

means

fuselage, over

tailplane,

to it is for by these them. velocities

slipstream

the tailplane since of the

and is beneficial forces air

in providing produced over

control are

by the tail in the

surfaces square

the aerodynamic velocity of the when or take-off

dependent

on the cases

moving

is important be low. The rotary

of taxiing

the free-stream

motion

of the

slipstream, This may

however, have

causes

the air on the propellers

to strike and

the

tail-

plane

at an angle may

and not headon. (considered be counteracted Figure

an effect The

stability rotary

control of in

of the airplane the propeller opposite producing

in a later

discussion). by using three

effects

of the

motion

contrarotating aircraft that

(spinning form

directions). device.

80 shows

used

this

of a thrust-

Douglas

XB-42

Lockheed

XFV-I

VTO

Figure 100

80.-

Contrarotating

propellers.

Lifting blades The of the number

rotors.rotor are of blades

For vary

a helicopter, shaped with

the

rotor Figure

is the

lift-producing slender (large three

device. aspect helicopters, helicopter,

The ratio). each more

airfoil

and are

long and

the design.

81 shows for carry.

employing blades are

a different used

number

of blades. that

Generally, each must

the heavier

to reduce

the load

Bell AH-16 Heuy-Cobra Two-bladed

Hughes OH-6A Four-bladed

Sikorsky CH-3C Six-bladed

Figure As for defined blades. controlled the airplane

81.-

Helicopters

with varying rotor

blade blades

numbers. have and a pitch the chord angle line of the or

propeller, the

the helicopter plane may of rotation be controlled

as the angle The pitch

between of the

of the blades collectively

blades

(collective

pitch)

individually

(cyclic

pitch).

101

Collective pitch changes the pitch of allblades together and with changes in engine power settings,produces the lift necessary for the helicopter to take-off,hover, climb, and descend. Cyclic pitch is controlled by the swashplate of the rotor head which allows the pitch of individual blades to vary as they rotate about the hub. fly forward, the swashplate is tiltedforward. ward position lift is reduced, (toward and the the direction its flight path of flight) descends. When a pilotwishes to

As each rotor blade approaches the forof its As the cycle, blade path its pitch decreases, to the The lift vector rear, net the blade the pitch effect is rotated is

rotates ascends.

is increased, to tilt (see

blade rotor

lift is increased, disk forward thrust main

and the flight angle,

the whole fig. The

to the desired component blades

the total

82) and a forward rotation helicopter rotor. of the body

is given produces direction. thrust

to the

helicopter. torque control this which tends to

rotor

a reactive Directional to counteract rotor,

rotate plished ency. copter

the

in the opposite

is accomrotational tend-

by a tail Additionally, may

It provides

sufficient the thrust

by controlling

of the tail

the heading

of the heli-

be controlled.

/._
i

Thrust component yielding forward
m orion

Thrust

Axis

of

blades is forwardJ rotation o[ 1

I

Main Main rotors

rotors

V_

Figure

82.-

Helicopter

forward

motion.

102

V. TRANSONIC FLOW Up to this point the airplane was considered to be in motion at subsonic speeds. The air was treated as thoughit were incompressible and a study of the aerodynamics involved using this simplifying assumption was made. As the airplane speedincreases, however, the air loses its assumedincompressibility andthe error in estimating, for example, drag, becomesgreater andgreater. The question arises as to howfast an airplane nmst be moving before one must take into accountcompressibility. Oneimportant quantity which is an indicator is the speedof soundof the air through which the airplane is flying. A disturbance in the air will sendpressure pulses or wavesout into the air at the speedof sound. Consider the instance of a cannon fired at sea level. An observer
situated the sound can easily cannon away some wave distance is heard the from speed the the cannon pressure will see the flash almost time instantaneously later. The him between but observer and the out 83. (or the wave is felt) some

compute

of sound sound

by dividing to reach him.

the distance The shell varies

by the time from

it takes

disturbance as shown

propagates in figure

the cannon shown

in an expanding in figure

hemispherical of sound of the K) the

As was precise, under altitude

7, the speed square root

with altitude. temperature. is 340.3 K the flying comes

To be more At sea m/sec speed at this level but at an of sound altitude

it depends standard

upon

the

absolute speed

conditions

(T o = 288.15 where

of sound

of 15 kilometers m/sec.

the temperature indicates speed,

is down that and,

to 216.7

is only 295.1

This

difference

an airplane therefore,

encounters the compressibility An airplane air and sends

speed of sound at a slower effects sooner. flying well below pulses these the

up against

speed

of sound

creates

a disturbance in figure arrives the 84(a).

in the Air ahead

out pressure receives

in all directions before airplane together

as shown the airplane approaches (fig. gets

of the airplane separates the plane pressure and little around

"messages" But as the

and the speed

flow

the airplane. merge elapses closer

of sound, of the airairplane 84(c)) the

pulses time

and closer the time arrival speed which The through and forces

84(b))

in front of the

between actual same wave" density. passes

the air

a warning

approach pressure of the pressure, of the the there sible air

and the pulses airplane

airplane's move at the

time.

At the

speed They

of sound merge

(fig.

as the airplane. is an almost air the has

together line

ahead in

into a "shock and

instantaneous of the There about

of change

temperature, airplane to break

no warning system.

impending

approach for

and abruptly away from in the

shock those

is a tendency it; as a result, at low incompres-

the airplane

not flow smoothly from

is a change flow speeds.

aerodynamic

experienced

103

Time

= t
0

Cannon flash observed

Cannon fires BOOM

Distance D

Time - t1 time elapses

_Direetion

of

I

Time

= tB is heard

I BOOM

A
of sound = Distance Elapsed D time

Speed

Figure The sound. may have Mach number words,

83.-

Speed

of sound ratio may

of a disturbance. of the airplane relate the degree speed to the speed that Mach, air an flight numbers name in 0.8 used of

is a measure it is a number approach. to 1916). less flow,

of the that

In other

of warning after given Ernst

to an airplane professor For than Mach (1838

The Figure than

Mach

number

is named the names subsonic

Austrian regimes. greater

85 shows one has

to various for Mach 5 the

numbers

one,

flow,

one, flow. patterns

supersonic

and for transonic subsonic a special

Mach

numbers

greater to the or vice

than range versa,

is hypersonic which to 1.2. flow

Additionally, change flow from

flow pertains to supersonic problem area

of speeds about

Mach describ-

Transonic

presents

as neither

equations

ing subsonic the regime.

flow nor

those

describing

supersonic

flow may

be accurately

applied

to

104

/-

Pressure move

pulses away

Disturbanee__

f tom

sour

Pressure ce

i_

Disturbance

at

rest

putses" // begin to [ pile up -J

\\ _

_/_

_" • t-Pressure left by

/

_ D_ isturbance, , begms movmg

pulses disturbance

(a)

Zero

and

low-speed

disturbance.

Shock-wave

pressure Pressure pulses / / _\\_ \\_ M = 0.75 / ) .... / 1 /

discontinuity _ _-_ /_ / _ / __ / / _ _ , n _" _. _-" / ] /

just barely out racing the dmturbance _-_/

Pressure pulses cannot outrace disturbance - air in front has no warning of particle (or airplane) approach

1

j

(b) Nearing

Mach

1. 84.Shock-wave formation.

(c) Mach

1.

Figure

f/fil/1Utl//fl

t

Subsonie/J

._ransonie

..{{_: _i{i::ii:
.8 1.2

3 Maeh number

5

6

7

Figure

85.-

Flight

regime

terminology.

105

With flow sonic pressure speeds mental at high speeds.

these

definitions

in mind,

one

may

now examine was main considered components

in a little

more

detail

the

speeds. Drag and

Up to now, was induced composed drag

the airplane of three (or drag due

to be in motion skin-friction

at subdrag,

drag, there changes This drag

to lift). drag

At transonic of the airplane

and supersonic due to funda-

is a substantial in the increase wing, to the pressure

increase

in the total

distribution. at these matter, high any of shock into speeds is called wave rises drag. The

encountered or for that are

drag wave erable

of the drag part

airplane increases is due of the from

part

of the airplane, further increases which

sharply This a considseparation

and large

in thrust unstable

necessary formation

to obtain

in speed.

waves heat, the

transforms

available the airplane

propulsive surfaces. than

energy

and to the induced transonic range range,

of the flow ficient shock lished, shows drag lift

Throughout in the supersonic Once

the of the

drag erratic been

coef-

of the airplane formation however, the variation at transonic and the and

is greater general

because

flow instabilities. and wing speeds drag composed The drag represented coefficient However, (even
The

a supersonic

flow has

estab86 total

flow stabilizes of an airplane supersonic

the drag drag

coefficient with

is reduced. Mach number.

Figure The

coefficient

can be divided and wave of induced infamous that

into two categories: drag to lift) shows provide early speeds. and less higher show

(1) zeroof zero (or

drag

composed

of skin-friction drag due

(or pressure-related) drag "sound (drag barrier" must In the to higher decreases, toward may due

lift and

(2) lift-dependent drag 86 since maximum the sound

and wave up rather enough days

pressure-related) clearly to exceed sonic in figure the

to lift.

to fly supersonically transonic

the airplane is encountered. a real and the barrier drag

thrust

of tranOnce past is

flight,

barrier the drag

the transonic required speeds,

regime,

thrust

to fly supersonically. the drag increases

as it proceeds the drag coefficient

supersonic a decrease).

though
"Sound

Barr[er"-__

r\ / \ / ?o

\\ \

/

"_

]/ _._. ........

/ Due 2_ .......

coefficient l° wave

drag

.=_

/-Drag-divergence / Mach number

0 Mach number

1.0

Figure 106

86.-

Variation

of wing

drag

coefficient

with

Mach

number.

There is a famous little story, untrue of course, of the pilot who flew his plane beyondthe soundbarrier andthen got trapped there becauseof insufficient reverse thrust to get back below the speedof sound. Another case of perpetual motion. It is a large loss in propulsive energy due to the formation of shocks that causes wavedrag; figure 87 showsthis shock formation about an airfoil. Up to a free-stream Mach number of about0.7 to 0.8, compressibility effects have only minor effects on the flow pattern anddrag. The flow is subsoniceverywhere (fig. 87(a)). As the flow must speedup as it proceeds aboutthe airfoil, the local Mach number at the airfoil surface will be higher than the free-stream Mach number. There eventually occurs a freestream Machnumber called the critical Machnumber at which a sonic point appears somewhereon the airfoil surface, usually near the point of maximumthickness and indicates that the flow at that point has reachedMach 1 (fig. 87(b)). As the freestream Mach number is increased beyondthe critical Mach number andcloser to Mach 1, larger andlarger regions of supersonic flow appear on the airfoil surface
(fig. 87(c)). In order for this supersonic flow to return This loss of heat. be presented engine exceeds For to subsonic flow, it must pass by an an These where, airflow the wave the shocks due to curmust drag shock. of the for a through increase expenditure appear vature decelerate increase In fact, boundary large a shock (pressure discontinuity). that is, a production which (wing, Mach (fig. may of velocity This heat is accompanied represents drag. etc.)

in temperature, of propulsive on the the speed than wave occurs in drag

energy airplane localized

as wave nacelles,

anywhere

fuselage, number 88(a)). from

and thickness, below is greater the shock the

1.0 and the flow

of sound

transonic

would interacts

be estimated with

a loss layer

of energy so that This

through a separation

the boundary the

layer

immediately which Mach is called

behind

shock.

condition

accounts

increase The

is known number

as shock-induced at which the drag Mach

(boundary-layer) coefficient number. of the Large speed.

separation. airplane increases in

free-stream markedly

increases thrust has Mach are

the drag-divergence any thrust, Convair tests further its increases

required

to produce

in airplane

If an airplane

an engine number.

of insufficient The but early prototype flight It will

speed F-102A that

will be limited was originally

by the

drag-divergence as a supersonic it would for this never airplane

designed

interceptor achieve through this

indicated later

because

of high drag, was achieved

goal.

be explained

how success

proper Figure

redesigning. 87(d) large Mach shows regions number airfoil the are character of the flow at a free-stream flow and the 1, a bow shock flow. and the The flow shocks appears begins are Mach very number strong. the airfoil itself parclose At

to one where a free-stream nose. allel Most to the

in supersonic than

greater

around to realine

of the body

is in supersonic and stabilize,

surface

shock-induced

separation

is reduced.

107

Shock (leads

wave formation to wave drag)
Sao = °8

point(M=

1.0)

0
Subsonic Subsonic flow everywhere (Critical Mach number)

Subsonic

(b)

(a)

Supersonic rsonic M_ Moo = .85 Subsonic = .90 Subsonic

Subsonic

Subsonic Supersonic (c) flow

Subsonic

A
M_ = .95

\ Subsonic

s
\.Bows.ock /
Supersomc , wraPoSs_°en_/// /

(d) Figure This condition than forces shock results transonic in lower flow and drag there 87.Shock formation. Supersonic theories flow is more that flow, and forth can predict the wellthe aero-

coefficients. are adequate

behaved dynamic and the thus feels

and moments waves and back and first

present. surface the

Often, may

in transonic jump back the wing tail

flow is unsteady the surface, pulsing the pilot occurred design, through or loss of

on the body separating to the tail vibration airplane

along

disrupting flow a buffeting in the airplane

flow over wing

surface. The

This result This

sends is that condition

unsteady

surfaces of both types

of the airplane. and

controls. barrier.

especially however,

to probe

the sound

With where

proper flying

configurations posed little

gradually

evolved

to the point

the transonic

region

or no difficulty

in terms

of wing

buffeting

lift(fig. 88(b)).

108

"_---------M>I

(a) Total

aircraft

shocks.

e,

$
h_

F-84 0._

(1949)

_

X-15

(1964)

i- _ F-100
f e_

(1954)

/

.=
0.4
e.

b_

/

x 0.6

I 0.8 Mach number

i 1.0

I 1.2

(b) Improving Figure The question value really engine delaying Mach closer suggests thrust number (1) Use (2) Use as to whether 88.one

transonic

flight.

Supersonic may delay of novel

characteristics. the drag-divergence aerodynamic velocities drag. There with are designs. the same Mach number What this available of ways of to a

to 1 is a fascinating is the ability before closer of thin of sweep

subject

to fly at near-sonic large rise include wave

encountering wave to 1). airfoils of the wing wing layer drag These

a number the

the transonic

(or equivalently,

increasing

drag-divergence

forward

or back

(3) Low-aspect-ratio (4) Removal

of boundary

and vortex

generators

109

(5) Supercritical These methods Thin portional is used, foil. appears of using subsonic tural shows the (fig. are

and

area-rule

technology individually.

now discussed The wave drag

airfoils: to the square

rise

associated ratio

with transonic (t/c). than

flow is roughly airfoil thicker

pro-

of the around

thickness-chord the airfoil

If a thinner those

section airpoint

the flow one

speeds may

will be less Mach

for the

Thus,

fly at a higher one reaches that they

free-stream

number Mach

before

a sonic The

and before thin wings speed

the drag-divergence are less effective

number. of lift

disadvantages in the tanks, struc89(a) As

are

(in terms less structure

produced) fuel

range members,

and they

can accommodate stations, by three etc.)

(wing wing. past

support the

armament used

than

a thicker over have the

Figure

airfoil have was

sections increased, designed lift. mishaps a thinner Mach Adolf

U.S. fighters ratios

three

decades. The F-104

speeds 89(b))

the thickness-chord to achieve As a result, were the the minimum landing among

decreased. wave drag

possible speed untrained drag.

but was was

penalized

with low subsonic high and the effect the drag landing of using divergence

of this

airplane Figure

particularly 90 illustrates that

common

pilots. Notice, value. that

section number Busemann

on the is delayed

transonic

in particular,

to a greater who proposed wing

Sweep: reduce shock reduces confirming One section (t/c the waves the

It was effects

in 1935 A swept flow

sweep the

may

delay

and

of compressibility. in transonic over all Mach

will delay Mach

formation

of the it

encountered wave this drag result view the

to a higher Figure no sweep

number.

Additionally, data

numbers. from

91 shows

experimental

as a wing effect

is swept

to a high degree using with

of sweep. airfoil

may

of sweep 92(a)

of a wing a straight Notice

as effectively wing is shown airfoil

a thinner the airflow

reduced). perpendicularly to some that

In figure

approaching is now swept airfoil chord section number delayed results. sweep speeds. A major wing, roots II0 has sections has

to the wing. of sweep than longer

a typical flow over The

section. ratio

If the wing new to

angle are

A, the same previously. 92(b).)

the wing

encounters of thickness airfoil

maximum

been

reduced. flow has a sonic values. 93 shows

(See fig. more point time

One is effectively to adjust to the

using situation.

a thinner

as the

in which and

The, critical number these sweep. are desired Forward

Mach

(at which to higher Figure

appears)

the drag-divergence will

Mach accomplish forward

Sweepforward a modern however, jet in the

or sweepback airplane stability

employing

disadvantages,

and handling

characteristics

at low

disadvantage layer

of swept

wings

is that toward

there the tips there

is a spanwise for sweepback

flow along and toward separation

the the

and the boundary for sweepforward.

will thicken

In the case

of sweepback,

is an early

and

Chord

P-51

(1940' s)

Thickness

_-r

_ZZZZzzz_-

F-86

(1950' s)

T (a) Changes
Very

F-104

(1960' s)

in airfoil
thin wings

sections.

(b) F- 104G airplane. Figure 89.Thin airfoils.

t/c =

.18

O

t/c= .o6

I
0 Mach A .5 number I I , I , i i 1.0

Figure

90.-

Effect

of airfoil

thickness

on transonic Mach

drag. number.

Lift = 0;

q = Constant;

MUD , drag

divergence

III

0.10 0° Sweep

10 1/2 ° Sweep

0.05

I

40 ° Sweep

I 49 1/4 ° Sweep

0

.7

.8

.9 1.0 1.1 Mach number

Figure

91.transonic

Effects drag

of sweep coefficient.

on wing

I

(a) Unswept wing

(b) Swept wing

Chord

v_

[-

Chord

swept

[

Figure

92.-

Sweep

reduces

effective

thickness-chord

ratio.

112

Figure 93.- HFB 320Hansa Jet with forward sweep. stall of the wing-tip sections andthe ailerons lose their roll control effectiveness. The spanwiseflow may be reducedby the use of stall fences, which are thin plates parallel to the axis of symmetry of the airplane. In this manner a strong boundarylayer buildup over the ailerons is prevented. (Seefig. 94(a).) Wing twist is another possible solution to this spanwiseflow condition.

Stall

fence

Wing

(a)

Mig-19

__.....-%_

_

_

Vortex

generators

(b)

Figure

94.-

Stall

fences

and vortex

generators. 113

Low aspect ratio: The wing's aspect ratio is another parameter that influences the critical Mach number andthe transonic drag rise. Substantialincreases in the critical Machnumber occur whenusing an aspect ratio less than aboutfour. However, from previous discussions, low-aspect-ratio wings are at a disadvantageat subsonic speedsbecauseof the higher induceddrag. Removal or reenergizing the boundarylayer: By bleeding off some of the boundary layer along an airfoil's surface, the drag-divergence Mach number can be increased. This increase results from the reduction or elimination of shock interactions betweenthe subsonicboundarylayer andthe supersonic flow outside of it. Vortex generators are small plates, mountedalong the surface of a wing and protruding perpendicularly to the surface as shownin figure 94(b). They are small wings, andby creating a strong tip vortex, the generators feed high-energy air from outside the boundarylayer into the slow moving air inside the boundarylayer. This condition reduces the adverse pressure gradients andprevents the boundarylayer from stalling. A small increase in the drag-divergence Mach number can be achieved. This methodis economically beneficial to airplanes designedfor cruise at the highest possible drag-divergence Mach number. Supercritical and area-rule technology: One of the more recent developmentsin transonic technologyanddestined to be an important influence on future wing design is the NASAsupercritical wing developedby Dr. Richard T. Whitcomb of the NASA Langley Research Center. A substantial rise in the drag-divergence Mach number is
realized. (supercritical arated same tion boundary Mach Figure 95(a) beyond layer. The shows the a classical critical 95(b) has Mach shows airfoil number) operating with near the Mach 1 region and sepits associated airfoil which edge. Mach shocks operating delays the

Figure airfoil

the supercritical upper to the The surface trailing critical

at the formathe

number. of the separation This

a flattened closer

and strength

shocks

to a point

Additionally, number

shock-induced even up to 0.99. performance. The surface new

is greatly delay represents

decreased. a major

is delayed airplane

increase

in commercial

curvature

of a wing

gives

the

wing

its lift.

Because However, trailing

of the flattened to counteract edge.

upper this, the

of the supercritical wing two the near Mach has

airfoil, increased advantages

lift is reduced. camber at the

supercritical There are

main same

of the supercritical ratio, the transonic

airfoil

as shown airfoil

in figure high

96.

First, subsonic drag

by using cruise

thickness-chord 1 before the

the supercritical drag airfoil reduces rise.

permits

Mach

Alternatively, a thicker weight

at lower wing and section

divergence without

numbers, penalty.

supercritical This airfoil

permits structural

to be used higher 114 lift

a drag speeds.

permits

at lower

I

trong shock ---. _ Separated boundary l_ayer

(a) Classical
Weak shock _Smaller

airfoil.

separated

boundary

layer

(
(b) Supercritical Figure 95.Classical and airfoil. supercritical airfoils.

(
_M
cruise

15"{

r_ _9

Thickness-chord

ratio

Figure Coupled Dr. Richard to supercritical T. Whitcomb airplanes area the and

96.-

Two uses

of supercritical "area-rule" Center flight transonic

wing. concept also developed 1950's for by

technology of NASA Langley

is the

Research

in the early

transonic

later

applied states

to supersonic that minimum distribution

in general. and supersonic along and the shows drag is

Basically, obtained nal axis changes area when

ruling

cross-sectional

area

of the airplane which is smooth is made

longitudino abrupt

can be projected in cross body section position,

into a body along its

of revolution Or, curve

length.

if a graph is smooth.

of the cross-sectional curve, 115

against

the resulting

If it is not a smooth

then the cross section is changedaccordingly. Figure 97 presents the classic example of the application of this concept- the Convair F-102A. The original Convair F-102A was simply a scaled-upversion of the XF-92A with a pure delta wing. But early tests indicated that supersonic flight was beyond its capability becauseof excessive transonic drag andthe project was aboutto be canceled. Area ruling, however, savedthe airplane from this fate. Figure 97(a) showsthe original form of the F-102A andthe cross-sectional area plotted against bodystation. Notice that the curve is not very smoothas there is a large increase in cross-sectional area whenthe wings are encountered. Figure 97(b)showsthe F-102A with a coke-bottle-waist-shaped fuselage and bulges addedaft of the wing on each side of the tail to give a better area-rule distribution, as shownin the plot. The F-102A was then able to reach supersonic speedsbecauseof the greatly reduced drag andentered military service in great numbers.

Bulges

at

rear_

_

/-Indent.fuselage

_ o_ [eal ____ Actual

Ideal _ /Actual

Nose

Body

station

Tail

Nose

Body

station

Tail

(a) YF-102A

before

area

ruling. 97.Area has around the curve shocks ruling been

(b) F-102A of F-102A applied

after

area

ruling.

Figure Recently, capable critical the area-rule at Mach Figure plot.

airplane. to design a near-sonic to area ruling, transport a super-

concept numbers

of cruising wing is used. area

0.99.

In addition

98 shows Notice this The

configuration

obtained

and the smooth are

resulting indicates to a

cross-sectional

now is completely and drag divergence

and delayed

that the shape is near optimum. near-sonic Mach number.

ll6

--'-_-. e_

/--

Completely

smooth

surve

o t

/
I

\
%

/
Figure

/
Body station

\
Near-sonic

\
area ruling.

98.-

transport

117

118

VI. SUPERSONIC

FLOW

The through directly supersonic

previous

discussion

has

centered

mainly Many

on the transonic of the techniques minimum

drag used wave

rise also

and how, are in the

proper applicable

design,

it may be delayed. the airplane

in designing

to fly with

drag

regime. returns will exist to the discussion of shock Mach formation, numbers a cone Figure increasing there (fig. above in shape it was 1.0. shown (See that fig. cone) that the a bow 88.) In as it Mach

If one shock three extends cone the wave

for free-stream

dimensions, back from

the bow shock the nose

is in reality

(a Mach

of the airplane. swept back Mach with cone,

99 demonstrates Mach is subsonic 100) has swept at still edge numbers. flow

becomes wing

increasingly back

As long as over most of

is swept

behind

the

the wing sweep loss

and relatively but also

low drag. greater wing

A delta area

wing

the advantage wing higher

of a large for the Mach delta

angle

than

a simple But, leading

to compensate supersonic a highly swept

of lift usually the This Mach condition

experienced cone

in sweepback. the drag Figure a swept

numbers, wing. wing tage

may approach the total

of even rapidly

causes

to increase 101 shows wing

and,

in fact, the

a straight drag advan-

(no sweep) that

becomes wing has drag. include for been

preferable. has over

qualitatively at higher Mach

a straight

or delta

numbers. transonic and are ratio),

Sweepback supersonic dominant. high flaps. which cruise, This a measure straight-wing configurations swing-wing better airplane ical than angles The wave They

used

primarily Mach drag lift, does

in the interest numbers, (due to small

of minimizing wing span

At subsonic high induced maximum airplane

however,

the disadvantages or low aspect of trailing-edge For and

of attack straight-wing

and reduced not have for example, a straight against

effectiveness disadvantages. cruise and

these

an airplane

is designed it would is the logic

to be multimission, be advantageous for the variable

subsonic wing Mach

supersonic wing design. (L/D)max,

to combine sweep plotted

swept for equal that

or swing-wing.

Figure

102 shows

of aerodynamic and swept-wing

efficiency, airplane. speed

number

an optimum to the optimum with be a

Although regimes, role, One of the also.

not necessarily it is evident over the

in their capability the other added are

respective

an airplane speed of the regime,

can in a multimissioned airplanes weight individually. and complexity problems

total

major sweep

drawback mechanisms. 103 shows

swing-wing But technolog-

is the

advances

solving

these

Figure

a variety

of modern

airplanes

employing

a swing-wing.

119

In addition may also be

to low-aspect-ratio by fuselages employing minimize

wings thin

at wings

supersonic and also using

speeds, area

supersonic ruling. the spanwise Also

wave long, lift

drag

minimized

slender, distribution.

cambered

drag

and

improve

Conical

bow

shock

M_=

1.3

F-100D

Conical

bow

shock_

1_=

2.0 English Lightning

Figure

99.-

Mach

cone

and

use

of sweep.

120

F-106

Figure

100.-

Delta-wing

airplane.

wing __ Straight

¢)

Swept / ',

St raight-wi ng

Swept-back advantage

__

J
1.0 1.5 Mach number

I
2.0

Figure

101.-

Wing

design

drag

coefficients

as functions

of Mach

number.

121

25

2O

15

,-1 10 _ Optimum swept wing

!

!

J

0

1.0 Mach number

2.0

3.0

Figure

102.-

Variation

of

(L/D)ma

x

with

Mach

number.

Variable

sweep

airplane.

,_'l,-Ji

¢_::!

Mirage

III

G

F-14A

Figure

103.-

Modern

variable-sweep

airplanes.

122

The SST On June 5, 1963in a speechbefore the graduating class of the United StatesAir Force Academy, President Kennedycommitted this nation to "developat the earliest practical date the prototype of a commercially successful supersonictransport superior to that being built in any other country in the world .... " What lay aheadwas years of development,competition, controversy, andultimately rejection of the supersonic transport (SST)by the United States,and it remains to be seenwhether the British-French Concordeor Russian TU-144 designs will prove to be economically feasible andacceptableto the public. NASAdid considerablework, starting in 1959,on basic configurations for the SST. There evolved four basic types of layout which were studied further by private industry. Lockheedchoseto go with a fixed-wing delta design; whereas, Boeing initially chosea swing-wing design. One problem associatedwith the SSTis the tendencyof the noseto pitch down as it flies from subsonic to supersonic flight. The swing-wing can maintain the airplane balance andcounteract the pitch-down motion. Lockheedneededto install canards (small wings placed toward the airplane nose (fig. 104(a))to counteract pitch down. Eventually, the Lockheeddesign useda double-delta configuration (fig. 104(b))and the canards were no longer needed. This design proved to have many exciting aerodynamic advantages. The forward delta begins to generatelift supersonically (negating pitch down). At low speedsthe vortices trailing from the leading edgeof the double delta (fig. 105(a))increase lift as shownin figure 105(b). This meansthat many flaps and slats could be reducedor done awaywith entirely anda simpler wing design was provided. In landing, the doubledelta experiences a ground-cushion effect which allows for lower landing speeds. This is important since three-quarters of the airplane accidents occur in take-off andlanding. Figure 106showsthe British-French
Concorde wing called and the Russian wing. flight. TU-144 It, too, prototypes. uses They use a variation concept of the double delta in the ogee subsonic the vortex-lift for improvement

low- speed

-Canards lble delta

I i

(a) Lockheed

CL-823. Figure 104.Lockheed

(b) Lockheed SST configurations.

double

delta.

123

(a) Vortices

on double

delta

wing.

Nonlinear coefficient vortices

excess lift due to on wing

Angle

of

attack

(b) Lift Figure Ultimately, U.S. from Boeing 105.with Figure designs. design cruise further advantages

coefficient Lifting

increase vortices design the

due to vortices. of double was delta wing. as the winner design to meet the Boeing originally airline of the derived payload

a swing-wing 107 shows The changes lift-drag size were

selected of this grew into from impinging

SST competition. one of the NASA Major supersonic moved the

evolution airplane

of the

requirements. design. engines faces. The were Despite

incorporated increased exhaust for

2707-100

ratio the

6.75

to 8.2 and the on the concept, rear tail sur-

aft to alleviate previously did not appear

quoted

a swing-wing Because

technologimech-

cal advances

in construction

in time.

of the

swing-wing

124

Russian

TU-144

Figure

i06.-

British-French,

and Russian

SST airplanes.

Model

733-197

Model

733-790

Model

2707-100

Y
I '

_

Model

2707-300

Figure

10'/.-

Evolution

of Boeing

SST design. 125

anisms

and beefed-up resulted.

structure Boeing

due to engine

placement,

incurable

problems

in reducconcept. economic,

tion of payload Figure and environmental While continuing Concorde M = 2.7, design

had no recourse adopted States -

but to adopt a fixed-wing the B2707-300. the project Political, to cancel

107 shows

the final factors

configuration led the United Concorde

in 1972. is still the at One such

the British-French into advanced

and Russian in the

TU-144 United

fly, research States. design

supersonic cruise with at

transports M = 2.2 to 2.4, speed Research of

Whereas, cruised

and TU-144 configurations at the

and the Boeing M = 3.2

a cruise

are being

analyzed. 108.

tested

NASA

Langley

Center

is shown

in figure

Figure 126

108.-

Langley

advanced

SST design.

Sonic One commonly of the referred more objectionable "sonic

Boom facing any supersonic boom, flying one transport must return is

of the problems boom." formation shock

to as the of the

To explain about waves,

sonic

to a description A typical one plane. as shown. above pressure place off the airplane tail

shock-wave

an airplane

supersonically. (bow shock) leading from to be "N" and edges, the airshaped

generates (tail etc. 109.) shock). tend The

two main Shock to merge resulting on the

one at the nose off the canopy, shocks some

waves with

coming the main

wing distance

engine

nacelles, (See fig.

pressure ground, this

pulse pulse

changes is felt

appear

To an observer pressure

as an abrupt below The

compression atmospheric change jolt takes

atmospheric and a final

followed

by a rapid to atmospheric and is felt

decompression pressure. and heard

recompression or less

total

in one-tenth

of a second

as a double

or boom.

airplane Bow shock Tail shock

underpressures Overpressures with distance

decay and

Overpressure

-Underpressure

"N"

shaped

pulses

Figure 109.- Sonic-boom The such spheric sonic boom, angle or the overpressures of attack, altitude, conditions, with increasing with increasing that

generation. them, area, angle and are controlled Mach number, in figure and crossand then by factors atmo110, the

cause

as airplane turbulence,

cross-sectional and terrain. airplane altitude,

atmospheric

As shown of attack first

overpressures sectional decrease area, with

will increase will decrease

increase

increasing

Mach

number. 127

1
f

6
Angle of attack

o

O9

0 Cross-sectional area

1

Altitude

Mach

number

Figure Turbulence the impact Reflections post-boom of the of the

110.-

Factors

affecting may other smooth hand,

sonic-boom the

overpressures. profile the cause speed and thus lessen

in the atmosphere boom or, on the

"N" wave amplify may the

may

in fact

overpressures. multiple of sound booms increases or

overpressures

by terrain

and buildings profile,

aftershocks. altitude. are refracted

In a normal Figure in this The strongest

atmospheric that

with decreasing sures away and travel from decreases

111 shows normal sonic side

the directions that they will

in which at some beneath

the overprespoint the curve

case

and

the Earth. to nothing

boom

is felt path. set

directly

airplane to note where that

on either may

of the flight the

It is interesting waves locally

a turning they

supersonic the

airplane ground

concentrate

of shock

intersect

and produce

a superboom.

Orthogonals shock refracted

(normal waves) by

to

-Supersonic airplane

Stratosphere _/;(_?:S_)_: _W ropopau s e t///_i:_:_/(

_

Troposphere

Boom
,I

heard _ _Maximum
boom

on

ground

Figure

111.-

Refraction

of shock

waves.

128

Perhaps

the greatest concern expressed about the sonic boom

is its effecton the

public. The effects run from structural damage

(cracked building plaster and broken

windows) down to heightened tensions and annoyance of the citizenry. For this reason, the world's airlines have been forbidden to operate supersonically over the continental United States. This necessitates, for SST operation, that supersonic flightbe limited to overwater operations. Research for ways in which to reduce the sonic boom continues.

129

130

VII. BEYOND

THE

SUPERSONIC

Hypersonic Hypersonic although magnitude research First, may these shocks, the body used no drastic have airplane. the shock seriously boundary the air been flight is arbitrarily are defined evident

Flight as flight to define at speeds this. beyond Mach 5 of this

flow changes achieved Several waves

To date, and the

speeds

only by rockets formidable problems

and spacecraft are back about

NASA X-15 speeds. that most the they part,

encountered at such

at these angle the

generated with are

by a body

trail

a high For

interact layers undergoes

the boundary highly turbulent

layers

the body. Secondly,

in nature.

across

strong of

a drastic For

temperature sustained melt; are effects may

increase. hypersonic therefore required. by using

Aerodynamic flight new The most normal

heating metals

is a major

problem. would

in today's

airplanes

quickly

materials

or methods of the

that

can withstand leading edge

the high-temperature of the airplane to obtain surfaces a good wing

temperature degree wing

be reduced ratio, flight about

a high design

of sweepback.

Additionally, Control encounter from the

lift-drag

a flat-plate must them

is used. so that they

for hypersonic dynamic pressure

be strategically to operate. they

placed Otherwise,

sufficient approaching

if shielded

flow by the

fuselage,

for example, airplanes research has

will be ineffective. exhibited shows the much highly of this swept

Figure design delta tips

112 shows The X-20 control. commercial a proposed

two proposed modified Dynasoar

hypersonic

that

philosophy. wing and the

NASA X-15 reentry craft

airplane control

surfaces

out on the wing

for effective Although

hypersonic hypersonic major

flight transport

is a long way knowledge (HST).

from

being

realized, for design.

studies Fig-

are ure

being

conducted

by NASA to obtain

the basic

necessary

113 shows Propulsion

is another prospect Mach does

problem

at hypersonic The ramjet

speeds. engine the air

Economically, works for on the

the prinin pro-

most ciple the

promising that engine. at high This

is the ramjet numbers away with the

engine. shock waves

compress parts and in this

combustion

many is also

moving

represents field.

an efficient

pulsion

method.

NASA research

continuing

Lifting Because tering landing ballistic spacecraft from of the must cost and safety, that it has would

Bodies long been enable the recognized crew have site. that designs the of reencraft to a near and 131

be found

to maneuver reentered Large

a great with

distance. little

Up to now spacecraft control over the landing

and followed forces

entries

recovery

Figure 112.- Examples of hypersonic designs.

°

sport

Figure operations been were usually

113.necessary. aircraft

Proposed

hypersonic

transport 1950's, than

(HST). however, drag NASA has

Starting

in the late more lift have

involved

in designing They

that produce bodies,

and yet resemble but obtain lift

spacecraft. because

are called body shapes.

lifting

for they

no wings

of their

132

Figure teristics

114 shows

four

of the shapes of this unusual

being

tested

to evaluate The

the

handling type

characat the

and flight

qualities

concept. with

M2 vehicle belly ratios

developed

the NASA Ames advantages speeds. shaped sesses shape a flat pointed

Research

Center at hypersonic

is flat

topped

a rounded lift-drag Langley

and combines at subsonic Center

of stability The HL-10

speeds

with high by the

lifting

body trim

developed at Mach belly.

NASA

Research

is it posin has

to provide a rounded from bottom. nose.

optimum

10+ and, Martin

in contrast Marietta

to the X-24A

M2 vehicle, is very

top and a flat

The

different

the previous Rebuilt

two since as the X-24B,

it is more

rounded

although

it, like planform

the HL-10, and

it now has

a double-delta

a more

Northrop

M2-F3

Northrop

HL-

10

Martin

X-24B

Martin

X-24A J

Figure The sonic speed lifting ranges bodies being flight-tested

114.-

Lifting are

bodies. the subsonic may and low superlanding

exploring the lift-drag

to show vehicles.

how control Representative is the

over

ratio

aid in the

of more benefiting

advanced from

of a new Shuttle.

generation

of vehicles

primarily

this

research

Space

Space The cost settled solid-fuel stage method upon Space Shuttle represents and the United

Shuttle States' commitment from orbit. to developing The basic a lowdesign

of delivering is shown

returning l15(a).

payloads The booster

to and stage

in figure

consists tank stage return

of two recoverable used by the orbiter llS(b)

rockets

and a large

nonrecoverable into orbit.

external The orbit

fuel orbiter and

engines

to complete part of the

the boost total vehicle

shown to Earth

in figure

is the actual

to go into

to a controlled

133

Liquid

fuel

_.-Delta-wing-

orbiter

(a) Space Shuttle.

Cargo bay _

udder

(b) Orbiter. Figure landing. mission from ated Aerodynamic when subsonic with the dynamic interest pressures 115.is centered are evident. There range of the Space Shuttle the designs. boost entire some and landing range unique stages of the

about

The are

of Mach problems acting

numbers associon the vehicle,

to supersonic boost phase the such

is covered. as the

of dynamic solid-fuel

pressures boosters

staging

aerodynamics, and landing be able control phase

recovery

by parachutes, Mach numbers. The There mission.

as well

as stability The cle must

considerations of the and mission land like

both at low and high is an area of great

concern.

orbiter are

vehi-

to deorbit

a conventional with this

airplane. part of the

numerous

aerodynamic The hypersonic landing capability attack -

research orbiter flight (fig.

problems l15(b))

associated uses

a double-delta still provide the

wing for orbiter

configuration a good has lift-drag

to optimize ratio in the range angle

the

characteristics With this lift-drag km. high The

and

phase.

capability, orbiter

a side-to-side at a high the

of about about 30 °.

2000

reenters

the atmosphere to concentrate

of

This

angle

of attack

is used

maximum

134

aerodynamic tection control become parachute challenge further

heating

on the underside In the upper

of the vehicle

where

the greatest attitude to control

thermal is controlled tail and

proby (to roll) and a a

is provided. control and yaw)

reaches elevators rudder orbiter

of the atmosphere, pressure and splits ailerons builds,

a reaction

system, elevons

but as the (combined the the

dynamic

the vertical pitch

effective.

On landing, to slow

open to act as a speed The Space Shuttle

brake

is deployed to aerodynamic into

to a stop. to come flight.

represents for probing

research

for years

and is a stimulus

the unknowns

of high-speed

135

136

VIII. PERFORMANCE In the earlier discussions, the conceptsof lift anddrag were explored extensively to discover howthese forces arise. With these basic ideas in mind, it is relatively easy to follow the results of the application of the fundamentalforces on a complete airplane. As indicated earlier, there are four basic forces that act on an airplane - these include lift, drag, weight, andthrust. Additionally, in curved flight another force, the centrifugal force, appears. Performance, to be consideredfirst, is basically the effects that the application of these forces have on the flight path of the airplane. Stability and control, considered later, is the effect that these forces have over a short term on the attitude of the airplane itself. For performance purposes the airplane is assumedto possessstability and a workable control system. Motions of an Airplane Figure 116illustrates the various flight conditions encounteredby an airplane. All the motions may be groupedinto oneof three classes: (1) unacceleratedlinear flight, (2) accelerated and/or curved flight, and (3) hovering flight. Performance of an airplane is a very broad subject and much could be written on it alone. In the interest of brevity, therefore, only the simplest, but probably the most important, aspects of airplane flight are considered. Class 1 Motion
Straight flight dition may has Figure is horizontal always altitude, celerated) The weight. ities over acts occur been and level only touched unaccelerated a small flight section but some system (cruise flight).flight, design comments and level Although it is very straight important This and level since con-

over

of the total in the additional for straight simplicity the flight weight.

it is usually

considered

the standard on before the force surface

condition

of an airplane. will be made. flight. that The

117 shows to the along

flight

path

Earth's this

and for plane. For equal

it is assumed to be horizontal,

tile thrust or constant velocity (unac-

horizontal that lift

it is easily the thrust

seen must

must

To fly at constant

equal

the drag. must be sufficient closely, to produce that there a lift equivalent to the of veloc-

velocity If one which it with

of the airplane this may

examines the the plane

statement fly straight that Lift

it says

is a range equation

and level. = Weight, one

Expanding obtains

(25) and

combining

condition

137

1 Weight = _ p_V_2CL
If it is assumed one easily observes which flying that value is, of speed near by the CL that that may for

S air density V_ p_, and wing area S are

(36)

the weight, as the velocity straight

constant, CL at level

increases, flight occurs

the wing in the wing when

lift coefficient angle of attack. is operating and

decreases, Minimum CL,max, flight a small

be accomplished

by a decrease

and level The from

the wing for

the stall thrust and hence

angle. available a small

maximum the engine.

flying

speed

straight also

is limited

This

condition

requires

angle

of attack.

Maneuver (or combat)

Maneuver (or combat)

Descent turn _lP Indicates flight direction linear and/or flight curved flight

_Unaccelerated, [III]ffm]Accelerated

Figure

116.-

Airplane

flight

conditions.

138

In conclusion, at low speedsto fly straight andlevel the airplane angle of attack is large (fig. l18(a)) whereas for high speeds the airplane angle of attack is small
(fig. 118(b)).

Lift

Thrust Flight path Weight F-106

horizontal to ground

Figure

117.-

Straight

and level

flight.

Lift

= Weight;

Thrust

= Drag.

Low

speed

(a) Straight

and

level

-

low speed.

Need to

less generate

angle same

of attack lift

Horizontal

z

Flight

path High speed

(b) Straight Figure 118.Speed

and effects

level

-

high speed. and level flight.

on straight

Straight, the force dive. flight systems

unaccelerated for the assumed climb cases

ascent

(climb)

or descent

(dive).-

Figure

119 illustrates climb direction or or

of an airplane the thrust angle line

in a straight, lies by along +_ the or

constant-velocity free-stream ->,, respectively.

It has path.

been The

that

or descent

is given

If the

139

+ y

(Horizontal

_

Weight

t
(a) Climb, unaccelerated.

J J J

Horizontal

(b) Dive, Figure forces weight are force summed parallel 119.and

unaccelerated. ascent and descent. path, it is seen that the

Unaccelerated perpendicular

to the flight One obtains

is resolved L=W cos y=

into two components. W cos (-y)

(Climb or dive) (Climb) W siny flight (37)). equal path, In the the the lift (Dive) equals of the the climb component condition component the component

(37) (38) (39) of to

T = D + W sin y T =D +W To maintain weight maintain retarding weight for 140 a straight sin (-y) =D-

climbing to the velocity motion the flight the

(or diving) path thrust (eq. must

perpendicular a constant the forward component

case

drag case

plus

a weight

of the flight

airplane. helps

In the the thrust

of the dive the

condition drag

along

path

by reducing

constant

velocity.

The conclusion velocity ation from the and of a car slowing car from use less

is that thrust one must in going

one

must

use

an increased velocity. (apply

thrust This more gas"

to climb

at constant to the the situcar

to dive "give going

at constant it the and down three level the gas" "let

is analogous to prevent less thrust)

where down speeding

thrust) (use

up a hill

up on the

to prevent

up when also _, = 1.

a hill. special flight, the previously (T = D). Thus, weight condition cases climb derived Secondly the thrust of the angle use of equations that climb to climb for a ver119(c). (37), hence

It is interesting (38), and sin Lift _, = 0 (39). and First, cos

to examine and yields This

in straight Thrust and plus

V is zero,

conditions in a vertical necessary Also,

= Weight

(L = W) and hence

= Drag cos the

_, = 90 °, and vertically tical climb,

sin _, = 1 to the equals drag zero

y = 0. airplane This

is equal the lift

(T = D + W). is shown

(L = 0).

in figure

Horizontal

/

= 90 °

Thru

Weight

Drag_

(c) Unaccelerated Figure 119.-

vertical Concluded.

climb.

141

The equals lift and simplified.

final

condition It is therefore

to be discussed necessary Equation

is gliding to balance (37) remains

flight.

In gliding

flight reaction

the thrust forces (39) is of

zero. drag

the aerodynamic unchanged

with the In a glide L = W cos

weight.

but equation

yg

(40)
(41)

D = W sin Vg as shown in figure 120(a). If one divides equation (40) by equation (41), the result is

L _ D tan

1 _g language is obtained this means when that the smallest ratio of the glide angle,

(42)

In nonmathematical maximum drag sess air the with this ratio currents lift-drag the ratio glide gliding range,

and hence The liftposrely on 120(b),

the lift-drag efficiency

is the maximum. airplane. design as shown Sailplanes since they in figure

is a measure lift-drag them to keep ratio angle

of the aerodynamic ratios aloft. with the This any other hence, nose the with For angle

the greatest

excellent a particular of attack There the angle

aerodynamic airplane,

varies

of the airplane of attack the lift-drag results. for

(not to be confused angle of attack glide for which angle and minimum ratio

of the flight

path). is then angle

is a particular

is a maximum. range. For

maximum glide pilot range instead. angle

of attack, glide the

is less

and the for a

is increased; the airplane this gives

a steeper (increase maximum

It is a natural to try

tendency maximum

to raise

angle

of attack) ratio,

to get

but unless

lift-drag

the descent

will be steeper

Class Class cases 2 accelerated landing, The airplane motion and the and curved

2 Motion flight is considered, banked.turn. of accelerated time it begins (See fig. parts: distance motion. its 121.) (1) the over, climbout The total From after takespecifically for the

of take-off, Take-off.-

constant-altitude is a case roll to the

take-off begins

of an airplane its take-off continuous

the

instant

the

leaving

the ground, needed (2) the obstacle.

it is under may

acceleration. to consist of three climbout

off distance distance, (50-ft)

be considered distance,

ground-roll say, a 15.25-m

transition

and

(3) the

142

Lift

Flight

path

'L
Weight \ cos _,g W sin _,g

(a) Unaeeelerated

glide

conditions.

3O

12.0

--.4 r_

_or%_=_u_=_e p_
o_ 2O

_Jl _

e _ 10

0 0

0

)

-'JO

/
-4

I
0 u,

I'
4

J
8

J
12

a,,
16 20 24

j
28

|

angle

of attack characteristics.

(b)

Glide

aerodynamic

Figure

120.-

Glide

characteristics.

143

Figure Figure weight, sum the zero drag, 122 shows and lift, the forces there

121.acting

Total

take-off the

distance. ground due roll. to the In addition landing acting lift and under to thrust, gear. The

during frictional

is a rolling direction

force

of the airplane

forces down (thrust

in a horizontal the runway. pressure exceeding airplane the

is equal

to the

net force roll, Acting

to accelerate drag are and lift

At the beginning zero total (assuming retarding the

of the force),

ground

as dynamic

is still

no winds).

the net

acceleration and drag (about the

the velocity until

increases some velocity at which angle

build.

The

remains airplane

in a horizontal stall up. velocity The and pitch for

attitude safety)

10 percent

above

is reached the airplane leaves

point of Rolling

airplane the

is "rotated" lift quickly drop gear the for

or pitched exceeds the

increases

attack, friction

weight,

the airplane airplane's

the ground. decreases 20 percent velocity.

forces

to zero

at liftoff,

and the

total

drag

greatly above The the ordi-

as the landing stall nary velocity, equations

is retracted. airplane climb begins (eqs.

At the its

end of transition, usually apply

about at constant case.

climbout (38))

(37) and

in this

//" L

I

I

SA.AB

A-37

Viggen

,,,,t

f

//11

Z'-_
///I/ Rolling _resistance Weight //// Rollins resistance II/I/I/I11

Figure

122.-

Forces

acting

during

take-off

ground

roll.

144

The roll

total

distance

for

the airplane

to clear

15.25

m (50 ft) required from

from for

the

start

of its

is important the so that The

and determines pilot sufficient distance there should know runway

the amount the exists

of runway speed

design the

purposes. may be

Additionally, aborted

maximum

which

take-off

for deceleration by the use use since

to a stop. of flaps they also and other contribute an optimum airplanes These acceleration the form units for high lift to increased flap may setting also

take-off However, retard the

may be reduced is a limit to their

devices. drag for use and

airplane's will units

acceleration. the take-off

There

is usually

an airplane rocket-assisted

which

minimize to take

distance. distance. of high takes

Some

off in the provide this

minimum a means method of a second

represent short

a transitory periods. where flying

increase On board speed

in thrust an aircraft is achieved

and

carrier, in a matter

of a catapult,

or two. down and its at the lowest associated possible techniques the

Landing.vertical touchdown Under and they the tion that are the used

Landing

an airplane velocities. rollout. conditions the weight.

consists The

of touching phase

and horizontal will and ground

approach

to a landing

not be considered,

but only

the two terminal

phases,

namely,

touchdown lift equals

it is assumed The previous

that

the

vertical about

velocity flaps

is near indicates they

zero that

discussion velocity. velocity

advantageously lift coefficient

to decrease and decrease

the landing the landing

Indeed,

increase by equa-

maximum

as indicated

(35).
Figure 123 presents same friction near the forces acting on an airplane for their during magnitude For safe are after the landing and rollout.

They The dition airplane This engine

are rolling

the

as during is greater the

the take-off

except are Spoilers

direction. this conthe

as the brakes

applied.

operation used

occurs lift condition thrust

end of the rollout. the airplane rolling usually from friction the or, more

on the wings into the normal air force

to "dump" The

to prevent increases is zero

rebounding as the

touchdown.

is increased.

for large

commercial reversible the thrust for

and military pitch force

airplanes, or The fig-

is

negative. thrust airplane ure stop. which 123,

This reversers. drag

condition For may

is accomplished ground roll during

by using landing the flaps acting

propellers is retarding. drag. From

be increased there is a net braking

by setting deceleration used

maximum airplane

therefore,

on the

to slow is the

it to a

Another is opened

favorite

device On board

by military carriers,

airplanes the

parachute brake laid is

at touchdown. form deck. forces.

aircraft hook

usual

landing a cable

mechanical across to large the

in the flight structural

of the arresting Deceleration

on the

airplane swift and

engaging

is exceedingly

the airplane

is subjected

145

Rolling

resistance

and

brakes Weight

Rolling

resistance

and

brakes

Figure Constant-altitude plane cases One altitude are of the in a straight the basic banked line.

123.turn.There

Forces

acting

after

landing. 116, not all motions flight in combat heading paths. of an airThese

As shown are ample turns,

in figure cases the

of curved flight-path

include banked In the

climbing maneuvers

and descending required

maneuvers

and aerobatics. is the constant-

to change

turn. discussions of flight first unless were law, of motions insignificant. a body upon of an airplane, But in a turn in a straight force. accelerations they acquire will due to a added continue sigin

previous

change nificance. motion plane the etal

of direction

By Newton's in that same line

in motion

line

acted that law

by an external

To maintain toward this, the

an airof

in a curved curve. force,

path

requires second

an acceleration the force required required force

be supplied to perform to maintain

the center called curved the

By Newton's is proportional third the law

centripflight.

to the acceleration there is a reactive force. The

By Newton's force, called

by the body, force

opposite by:

centripetal

centrifugal mVoo 2 R mass

centrifugal

is given

FC where curve, sees tight m and that turns. Figure particularly causes horizontal centripetal the lift reaction must the is the R

(43) of the airplane, of the turn Voo is the velocity flight massive path. of the airplane this in the equation speeds one in

is the radius centrifugal

or curved occur for

From

the highest

forces

airplanes

at high

124 shows that resultant components, force needed

the

disposition are banked wings that

of forces at an angle to bank also.

in a properly _ to the

executed horizontal.

turn. This

Notice angle and is the by of

the wings

lift on the

When

resolved component

into vertical of lift force that

it is seen to maintain force. Thus,

it is the horizontal the curved flight path.

This

is balanced component constant

centrifugal equal the weight.

For

a constant-altitude lift must

turn

the vertical

the total turn.

be increased

to maintain

altitude 146

when

entering

a banked

t

I
I i I
] Vertical compone,_t i of lift

I
[ I $

I
i Lift

I I I

t
I
Horizontall component of lift I

I I I

Centrifugal force

Weight

Figure

124.-

Forces

in a properly Horizontal lift is or

banked = Centrifugal the greater

turn.

Vertical force. the velocity

lift

= Weight;

The the banking

smaller angle to hold

the must the

turning be. airplane

radius This is in the

in a turn, enough

the

larger lift

required turn.

to produce

a large

horizontal

component

Class Class flight. sphere. whole, and 3 motion has flight this lift be been there results and drag

3 Motion-Hovering to a special motion aerodynamic of the

Flight flight aircraft reaction the Hence, condition; with forces remaining for respect of the that of hovering to the aircraft atmoon thrust flight, the

assigned is no

In hovering As that weight, such, is, no

in no forces. as

In equilibrium, in figure 125.

forces, hovering

must

balanced

shown

Thrust By vertically properly as shown

= Weight controlling in figure the 126. thrust, The the chief aircraft advantage may be made to rise and

(44) descend ability

of such

aircraft

is their

147

/
Thrust of engines

/

Weight

of

airplane

Figure

125.-

Hovering

flight.

Thrust

= Weight.

Thrust

_

Thrust

Weight

Thrust Vehicle

> weight rises

Weight

Thrusq Vehich

< weight descends

Figure

126.-

VTOL

ascent

and

descent.

148

to land and take-off in small spaceswithout the use of long runways. Sincethey land andtake-off vertically they are called VTOL aircraft. They have the addeddistinction of being able to perform at high speedsas a conventionalairplane in flight. This is why helicopters, althoughcapableof hovering flight, are usually not included in this grouping. They are, at present, incapable of the speedsandmaneuvers of conventional airplanes. The first conceptsto be tried were three "tail sitting" airplanes, the Lockheed XFV-1, the Convair XFY-1, and the RyanX-13 Vertijet as shown in figure 127. The
first thrust VTOL landing concept the wing XC-142A two used needed airplanes and the tried and turboprop-powered whereas were need the X-13 the tricky to tilt contrarotating was jet powered. maneuvering over into piloting propellers The main required to supply problems in the the vertical and The next with these take-off flight. sense

the entire the was main such

aircraft body

conventional

was

to keep from 128(a) was level

of the aircraft to the horizontal.

in a conventional The

but tilt

engines

the vertical

LTV-Hiller-Ryan

in figure

an aircraft. separate But this powerplants added Siddeley plane used uses dead for weight vertical to each (fig. take-off flight and regime. of the land-

Another ing and For best where down

concept

to use flight.

conventional

simplicity present-day four

and efficiency, VTOL aircraft.

the Hawker This are in figure

Harrier the concept the

128(b))

is one

of "vectored from

thrust" vertically

rotating

exhaust

nozzles

to deflect

exhaust

to directly flight

behind

as shown

128(c). jets

Control

at low flight tips, nose, and

velocities tail.

and

in hovering

is supplied

by reaction

in the wing

Lockheed

XFV-

I

Convair

XFY-

1

Ryan

X- 13 Vertijet

Figure

127.-

Early

VTOL

airplanes. 149

Wing. tilts down

(a) XC- 142A.

(b) Harrier

GR MKI.

Forward

flight

Transition

Hover

(c) Example Figure 128.-

flight. concepts.

VTOL

150

IX. STABILITY

AND

CONTROL

The chapters acting consider

subject been kept

of stability in the and

and

control

of an airplane

has

throughout the study

the

previous

background the related

so as not to complicate performance considerations. material.

of the forces now to

on an airplane this subject

It remains

in view

of the presented

Stability Simply scribed conditions. For all flight defined, condition. The subject stability is the tendency, is the ability is considered or lack of a pilot first. flight condition, consider the sum of of it, of an airplane to change to fly a preflight

Control of stability

the airplane's

an airplane

to be in equilibrium on it must

for a particular be zero. For Then the

the forces straight

and moments and level and there

example, lift equals acting

an airplane the thrust

flying equals

as in figure are

129(a).

the weight, It is in

the drag,

no net rotating

moments

on it.

equilibrium. Now, noses If the if the airplane (angle is disturbed, of attack for example, by atmospheric is no longer increase, unstable tendency stability. are turbulence, and

up slightly new forces to nose from

increases), caused the

the airplane

in equilibrium. produce motion a will is

and moments, up still further,

by the angle-of-attack airplane 129(b).) has is statically If the initial neutral and static

tendency diverge to hold fig.

and its

equilibrium. position,

(See fig.

of the airplane (See generated and level

the disturbed

the airplane if restoring it back

129(c).) that

On the other tend initially stable. that

hand,

forces to its

moments

by the condi-

airplane tion,

to bring

equilibrium

straight

it is statically If it is assumed

the airplane It may nose

is statically down,

stable,

it may undergo noseup, overshoot condition motion up and dynamic

three to a of straight indicates down there-

forms smaller and that after (fig.

of motion degree, flight.

with time. and eventually

overshoot,

return

to its type

former

equilibrium oscillatory

level

(See fig.

130(a).)

This stable.

of decaying continue

the airplane at a constant 130(b)) or,

is dynamically amplitude. in the worst unstable may the

Or it may is said nose

to nose neutral with

The case, (fig.

airplane it may

to have

stability magnitude

up and down

increasing

and be dynamically An airplane control by working

130(c)). unstable last and instance. flying "hands still be flyable But, qualities. ideally, if the pilot uses not need which is

be dynamically elevators of this stable in this design

he should

to do this. statically necessary

An airplane and dynamically

has

poor

An airplane

can be flown

off" by a pilot

with no control

except

to change

the equilibrium

flight

condition. 151

Lift = weight Thrust = drag No net moments
--n_=======dm_ ....

(a) Equilibrium

flight.

I

lq _ Statically unstable divergent Disturbed moments increase disturbed condition

j

Equilibrium

(b) Statically

unstable
No

airplane.
moments - airplane holds disturbed

condition Equilibrium Disturbed

4

(c) Neutral Figure 129.-

static Static

stability. stability.

Statically to return

stable, airplane

dynamically to equilibrium

stable moments - oscillations

tend decay

Equilibrium

(a) Statically
Moments tend but oscillations

and dynamically
airplane decay

stable.

to return do not

to equilibrium

Equilibrium

.... ...... "t-5-----'')---stable; neutral dynamic stability.
Moments but tend towards are equilibrium divergent [ _ oscillations

(b) Statically

Equilibrium

"_/

\\_/

(c) Statically

stable;

dynamically

unstable.

Figure 130.- Dynamic 152

stability.

Longitudinal motion, tional tional referred lateral stability stability and are

stability stability control closely and

and relates

control

is concerned

with yawing

an airplane's rolling motion.

pitching motion, Lateral and direcand direcsimply

control

relates

to an airplane's

to an airplane's and, therefore,

interrelated

the two are

sometimes

to as lateral Longitudinal

stability. Since stability, longitudinal it is discussed stability first. can be considered Consider independent "trim-

stability.-

of lateral

and directional

an airplane

med" to fly at some angle of attack, _trim" This statement in equilibrium and there are no moments tending to pitch the of gravity. Figure forces dynamic airplane example above ter acting center, usually it lies or below in this the drag will 131(a) are the shows weight thrust close of and how pitch through along equilibrium the the center thrust is achieved of gravity, line. The

says that the airplane is airplane about its center

for an airplane. the lift and drag

The at the aeroof the In this may lie the cen-

and the is very in back the are

aerodynamic of the wing The The thrust moments

center alone. line

to the aerodynamic above the center

center of gravity.

center the forces that

of gravity; times the lift

in this the distance

case,

above.

about moments each

of gravity

between

them

and the center nose-down

of gravity.

It is seen whereas the

case

and thrust

both contribute If these that

contributes

a nose-up

moment. It is evident tail

do not cancel another moment wing

other is

out,

airplane -

not be in equilibrium. tail. The

source

needed achieve the small shown gravity

the horizontal lift or negative of gravity are

horizontal control. center

acts

as a small of the

and the

pilot arm

can from

lift by elevator to the aerodynamic Thus,

Because

long moment tail, only

center forces

of the horizontal tail supplies

relatively moment as is

needed. 13 l(b).

the horizontal

the balancing condition, the airplane the

in figure is zero. If the

To fly in a particular angle. The total

equilibrium moment about

elevator center of

"trimmed"

to a particular

airplane angle

is statically of attack, atrim.

stable moments

in a longitudinal are generated to express

sense, that the tend

then

if disturbed the

away airplane

from to the

the trim

to return

equilibrium

It is customary the center statically there for below

moment

nondimensionally

as a coefficient of moment about Figure 132 shows the longitudinal against negative moments the angle of attack. rotate the nose the

of gravity, or (Cm)cg. (See eq. (27).) stable case of the moments plotted is no moment angles of attack at the trim above atrim' angle of attack;

Of course, nose down

moments rotate

and positive

up for

angles

atrim" of all the moment curves caused tail, and by

Now the curve the different

of figure of the

132 is a composite airplane,

components

for example,

the wing,

fuselage,

153

k
Thrust LLift I ] Thrust

momj
E
oment Drag moment Weight

(a) Net

moment

pitches

airplane

down.

for

tail

force

--I

Tail

moment

= Resultant and

of thrust, drag moments

lift,

(b) Equilibrium Figure 131.Pitch

condition. equilibrium.

thrust. First, stability ure the

Figure

133 shows

this

qualitatively. of the center the entire is sufficiently is statically sufficiently, curve

Some of gravity airplane

fundamental has static a great stability.

facts effect

are

important.

horizontal of the wing, center

position and hence, of gravity

on the static in fig=

As shown

134, if the

forward stable. there becomes

of the aerodynamic If the is a point, horizontal; back center the

center of the

(points airplane (point neutrally the

A or B), then is moved C in fig. stable. curve

the airplane the the tail

of gravity neutral this point

toward where

134),

moment of gravity slope,

airplane D in fig. unstable.

is 134)

If the has

center positive of gravity

is moved airplane

further

(point

moment

and the

is longitudinally toward the nose

Likewise, of point angle

if the center A), the pilot

is moved

forward

too far

(forward the

will

not be able the maximum

to generate lift large

enough

force With There

on the tail power are,

to raise

of attack

to achieve range

coefficient. (fig. 135(a)).

off the usable however,

center=of=gravity

is relatively

154

_9 Positive
b_

moments,

_< _trim

i
¢9

Zero [ _

moments,

_ I" _trim Angle of attack, ot

i
,4

atrim
_9

Negative

moments,

a > atrim

i
0

E &
C9

Figure 132.- Longitudinal staticstabilitymoments

as a functionof angle of attack.

\

v

_\_
h_

,,+°+

. +oo
\ \ _ _,o,,__ae_ t_O
0 I __" Angle of attack

c9

i

_9

O I h_

trim--' _\_ \_ Complete _tatically airplane stable)

\ \ \
Figure 133.Longitudinal static stability components.

\

155

Destabilizing

monmnts

/--->
+
O v

i,J
/
0
_ /_ Neutral ¢/

Center

of gravity

at D

_9 %

5

_ Angle Stable of attack, o, " at B

_9

(equilibrium) condition

_

,e,

I

_,_ _b_Bl_)
_///

_ Destabilizing
nloments

Center

of gravity

at A

Neu!ral

A

B

C

D

Positions ol center of gravity

Figure

134.-

Stable,

neutral,

and unstable

static

stability.

additional engine-on considerations) of the loaded. airplane side the the center The airplane plane than

factors thrust

which effects as shown falls

reduce and

the usable effects 135(b). range,

center-of-gravity (including To insure an airplane landing that

range. gear,

These flaps, center designed

include and other of gravity and the fell outof

ground

in figure the usable

the actual is carefully crashing center unstable.

airplane For was range

within there or the

example, loaded of usable

are cargo

cases shifted The

of transport in flight then airplane factor

airplanes so that became the

because The

of gravity

limits.

location

of gravity horizontal moment

is an important tail is the main

in a stable

airplane. contributor a more that the to the statically horizontal from it is, factor of the the the complete stable tail center more it airlies of

controllable tail

moment will give case, its

curve. tail

A larger (assuming,

horizontal as is the

a smaller center

normal Of course,

aft of the gravity enhances tail location

of gravity The stability respect

of the airplane). further of the away from

distance

is important. the static with

the The

center tail

of gravity efficiency

airplane. wake

depends

on the

to the airplane as close

and slipstream efficiency

engine,

and power for most is of

effects. static

By design stability.

it is made Finally,

to 100 percent to the tail,

as possible from the wing

with respect

the downwash

156

Unstable; _off

<
_-Center xx nmst these (a) lie of gravity between

limits

Ground

Unstable power on

;

7.

mal_

,,iq_

Center must these (b)

of gravity lie between limits

Figure considerable it leaves deflected turbed, degree the importance. a wing. air it will to which flows This

135.Figure

Usable 136(a) of air

center-of-gravity shows how the in the air

range. is deflected reaction force downward or lift. when This

deflection

results

wing

rearward its angle

and hits

the horizontal-tail and the the reason, downwash tail

plane. angle tail

If the also

airplane changes. it will located

is disThe reduce in a in

change

of attack affects this For

it changes airplane. that

directly

effectiveness.

Hence, is often

stability

of the

the horizontal downwash

vertical figure

location 136(b). Dynamic

such

it is exposed

to as little

as possible,

as shown

longitudinal this

stability broad are

is concerned subject two primary attempting

with the and no attempt forms to return

motion

of a statically to treat

stable this subof

airplane. ]ect

Again,

is a very there

is made

in detail. with

Basically, regard

of longitudinal to an equilibrium

oscillations trimmed

interest

to an airplane

157

Lift

_

_

_

_

Downwash angle at tail

(a) Downwash

of wing.

Horizoa_ F- 101A li _ ,_ Downwash

(b) High Figure 136.-

horizontal

tail. effects on tail.

Downwash

flight

condition

after

being period,

disturbed. slow

The

first

form

is the phugoid flight

mode path. The

of oscilla(See

tion which fig. can the 137(a).) control drag is.

is a long Often, this The

oscillation damped and

of the airplane's

it is poorly

can be an annoyance. the more highly variation damps the damped

pilot

generally the greater of attack with no if a

oscillation second 137(b). with

himself oscillation Usually,

although

it is, angle

is a short-period this oscillation short period,

of the

as shown pilot pilot time effort.

in figure

out very oscillation of the pilot's

quickly may

However, to damp he may that may get

its natural

worsen

attempts where

it out by use "out of phase" lead

of a control with

because

slow induce type

reaction dynamical

the oscillation, forces. This main

and thus, A second the

instability oscillation

eventually if the elevators elevator

to destructive are left free. The

of short

term mode, of

occurs

is called effect

"porpoising" accelerations elevator

and is influenced the plane airplane occur. Insofar aerodynamic condition under" that

by the may get

balance.

is vertical the free

out of hand

if a coupling here. are

between

and air-

Proper

design

is essential effects

as compressibility center of the wing

concerned, goes

the rearward supersonic that the

movement evident. may

of the This "tuck

as the airplane stability to such dive.

is most airplane

increases

the static stable

an extent

and be extremely

in a steep

158

Slow Axis remains to flight of airplane tamgent path

ris(" and

_111(1 fall elmnging

of

:lJl'p|alle Minimum speed

spevds

_I _lx i tl/tl

nl

speed

(a) Phugoid

longitudinal

oscillation.

Short period anglt,-of-attaek variation

(b) Short-period Figure 137.Two types

longitudinal of dynamic

oscillation. longitudinal oscillations.

This answer

condition problem goes

has

been

discussed the Other nose to the

previously center

with

regard rearward the

to the

SST.

One of fuel config-

to this

is to move supersonic.

of gravity include

by a transfer wing

as the airplane uration moment added

solutions

double-delta an additional arrangement

or canards due to lift advantage The use

placed in the

at the transonic

of the airplane airplane lift. tailplane aerodynamic

to develop range. This

nose-up has an

and supersonic

of contributing of a canard trim When the

for trim

and a rear of the

for

control

is beneficial. at supersonic at low speeds

The speeds, by proat

canard and the viding zero

would strong uplift. lift and Figure

rearward moments the

shift

center (flaps) to trail

nose-down also generate the

from canard drag. American

high lift devices can be allowed

not used,

in the free

stream

minimum North

138 shows

XB-70. under." center

It has

a pair

of canards the wing

for tips

staare

bility turned

at supersonic downward Directional

speeds to keep stability.is zero

to prevent the aerodynamic Many stability.

"tuck

Additionally, forward.

of the basic In the usual in figure should

ideas

involving

longitudinal condition, static

stability flies stato a directional

also bility,

apply

to directional yawing

equilibrium 139(a). if the a positive sideslip

an airplane is disturbed angle

so that

the yaw angle a positive yaw

as shown

To have airplane

moment

be generated

negative negative vious it has tion, shows observes

angle

or alternatively generated in figure stability. equilibrium, sloping line

by convention, for a negative

sideslip angle

/3 and a The pre-

yawing condition neutral

moment is shown directional

excursion. its disturbed the disturbed

139(b). If the the

If the airplane tendency airplane

holds

position, posiFigure one 140

is to increase is directionally with sideslip case. stable

further

away

from

unstable. angle. Here,

the variation a positively

of yawing-moment

coefficient as a directionally

159

Canards

Folded down wing tips

Figure

138.-

XB-70

airplane.

(a) Equilibrium

condition

of zero

yaw.

Figure 139.- Staticdirectional stability.

160

\ (+)
Sideslip angle Positive moment decrease disturbance yawing tends to

sideslip

\
(b) Sideslip Figure 139.disturbance. Concluded.

(÷)

Sideslip

]

Positive

a_

T
(÷)
&

remS°t °mreing

• (-)
0

Sideslip

angle J

/

s
/_Negatlve / _ restoring

(-)
Sideslip

o
angle

(÷) ._,,.

Figure

140.-

Directional

stability

curve.

161

The directional

fuselage stability.

and the vertical As figure

tail

are

the two most when

influential

components

in condithat main

141 shows, the

an airplane alone will The

is in a disturbed generate vertical a moment tail

t.ion at a sideslip tends to increase of static disturbance,

angle the

8, in general disturbance; that stability.

fuselage

is, it is unstable. When force placed which

is the

component sideslip arm dition. quately usually results by use at large of a dorsal

directional it generates of airplane tends

at an angle when multiplied of vertical to a zero factors

of attack by the tail) sideslip that The

due to the moment a con-

a side

(center The

of gravity moment size that

to aerodynamic the airplane tail is dependent are stalling. may area

center back on many useful,

produces or yaw

stabilizing

to move

of the vertical here. Some ratio

cannot vertical

be adetail

covered has and

observations to prevent

however. result. provides bomber

a low aspect a catastrophic

If a stall

should Adding a stable before

occur, more

instability vertical tail

sideslip

divergence tail

of a dorsal sideslip

fin extension angles. Figure

or ventral 142 shows

yawing after

moment addition

a B-17

and

fin extension. propeller and it also of the The offset take-offs. tail. of a typical imparts a sidewash This F8F pilot effect Bearcat, to counteract airplane a rotational angle at the can be very a carrier the yaw are is a destabilizing velocity tail that to the influence slipstream. the static with a certain during in aircraft require on the direc-

A tractor tional stability,

As shown stability large degree high-

in figure effectiveness engines. of rudder powered

143 it produces

reduces

pronounced plane, induced would

Grumman by the

by the

sidewash

Contrarotating degree of sweep stability since

propellers influences whereas,

a solution

to this

problem. A sweptback wing from This is a

The wing's will the

the yawing

moments. wing

add to the directional total directional reason stability for

a sweptforward a destabilizing over

will

detract

it is by itself sweptback is said it to some angle wings

influence. wings. stability

contributing Lateral undergoing moments condition. Dihedral shows some flight, turbance lift vector the airplane that

choosing

sweptforward lateral the static

stability.a disturbance tend

An airplane that rolls the bank

to possess bank angle and restore

if after and

_, it generates equilibrium

forces flight

to reduce

is often view angle produced one and

used

as a means that

to improve has Under just dihedral the

lateral where condition the weight.

stability. the wings shown, Now,

Figure are

144(a) up at and level that a disThe

a headon dihedral the lift causes rotates

of an airplane to the horizontal.

turned

in straight assume

by both wings wing to drop there sideways

equals

relative

to the other

as shown acting

in figure inward is said

144(b). which

is a component in this

of the weight The

causes and

to move

direction.

airplane

to sideslip

162

V_

Sideslip angle

Airplane to some

is disturbed sideslip angle

Fuselage produces

side force destabilizing moment

arm

Moment

arm

Fin and

rudder

force

produces stabilizing moment

Figure

141.-

Directional

stability

moments.

163

Small

fin

and

rudder-_

_-_

Large Dorsal fin

fin

and

rudder

Figure

142.-

Improving

directional

stability.

Grurrlman F8F-1 Bearcat

Figure

143.-

Slipstream

effect

at tail.

164

Di:e ralT-(a)

---_

Dihedral angle

Velocity
component due to sideslip

(b)

Weight !_ _

Component of weight acting to cause sideslip

L1

____///

L1

>

L 2

//////
Figure

Total relative freestream (main component along longitudinal axis) (c) effect on lateral stability.

144.- Dihedral

the

relative

free-stream If the From sideslip a greater a net force

direction airplane geometric (that is, angle and is

is laterally

now

in a direction stable, moments when free-stream than the raised wings

toward arise have

which that dihedral, hence and hence angle

the tend

airplane to the reduce wing lower

is the

sideslipping. bank closer will There figure angle. to the experience results 144(c). The airplane

considerations, toward the

velocity), wing the

the

wing, lift. in

of attack moment

greater as shown

tending

to reduce

bank

position design, as

of the shown

wing

also

has 145,

an

impact

on the

lateral lateral

stability. stability,

A high-wing whereas a

in figure

contributes

to the

165

Low-wing

placement laterally

is destabilizing

High-wing

placement

is stabilizing

laterally

Figure low wing counteracted Wing swept-wing higher More tends noted bility slightly) The airplane presented gravity, ish placement has

145.-

Effect

of wing effect

placement in roll.

on lateral However, the overall

stability. this lateral 146 shows. will away effect may be

a destabilizing more dihedral

by including sweep airplane normal the will help

to improve stability toward edge the the

stability. When a a sideslip. that stadown

promote

lateral the wing leading toward return

as figure the sideslip

is sideslipping, to the wing's on the bank wing angle and

experience from the arises lateral

velocity to diminish that and

than

the wing and a roll produce

lift is generated

sideslip airplane may

moment

to equilibrium. too much (wings

It may be

the combination some to lessen effects lateral by the as shown angle. set airplanes the

of dihedral will use

and sweep amount

a small

of anhedral

turned

lateral

stability. and vertical there tail. is below increase tend tail may contribute force acts to or detract caused above that there from area of the

of the stability. fuselage

fuselage

In a sideslip, and vertical 147, there side force

will be a side If the the the side center bank force

by the the center

in figure If the up that

is a roll

moment

generated of gravity, angle. the bank

tends

to dimin-

the bank moment

is a destabi-

lizing

will further that also

Destabilizing a sideslip plane decrease arise use

moments because of partial

to increase slipstream dihedral

angle

of an airplane airbe used

in

of the direction span effects. flaps.

of the Added

for a propeller-driven or sweep again may

and the these

to

detrimental

166

/_normal

¢

Figure

146.-

Wing

sweep

aids

lateral

stability.

Cross stability roll are

effects

and dynamic Briefly motion the

effects.stated, and a yaw

As mentioned the motions

earlier,

lateral are

and directional such Thus, stability that a

interrelated. causes a yaw

of an airplane a roll

motion

motion

causes

motion. static

crossand

coupling gives spiral rise

exists to the divergence,

between three

directional roll. is a result a sideslip continue

static

stability

and lateral

important

dynamic

motions

observed:

directional

divergence,

and Dutch divergence

Directional airplane the yawing continue yaws

of a direetionally so that side forces the

unstable on the sideslip. wind.

airplane. airplane This are

When

the

or rolls

into that

generated, may

moments until the

arise

to increase to the relative

condition 148(a).)

airplane

is broadside

(See fig.

167

er

of g rav i t Y _Js -I

- _tLmaa! Side _ml_eZa!in_g

force

I

I

o ravity
/

Side

force

Point

of side-force

v-_

[ _,L

Laterally destabilizing

application I
!

moments

(
Figure 147.Effects of fuselage and tail on lateral stability. Spiral but not very this the case plane divergence stable the is characterized for example, and by an airplane a large finned that is very stable directionally In laterally; airplane relative will The roll bank airplane the faster, No lateral airplane side with force generates stability no dihedral. tends to turn lift, to the

when

is in a bank wind. to still angle The

sideslipping, wing travels

into the airplane

outer

more

and the negate sideslip

a higher increases (See

bank

angle.

is present into

this

roll.

and the fig.

continues

to turn

in an ever-tightening Dutch roll is a motion

spiral. exhibiting

148(b).) of both directional whereas yaws its divergence stability the to side.

characteristics stability is strong, as the The

and

spiral

divergence. If a sideslip rolls away

The lateral disturbance

the directional in one tail from direction, side

is weak. airplane Figure

occurs,

airplane wags

in a countermotion. this effect. primarily

airplane

149(a) Ventral

illustrates fins, wing

although

used of attack,

to augment are also

the vertical beneficial to reduce

fin which in decreasing

may be in the latroll.

the wake eral

of the

at high angles the

stability

and increasing

directional

stability

the

effects

of Dutch

168

Initial flight path

_

Insufficient stability

directional

(a)

Di_ divergence

_

(airplane may yaw broadside

\ to \

\stabilily, oor atera \
_

I
Airplane disturbed

(b)

Spiral _ divergence

--,_

in sideslip

1
._ and _:_flight condition Original

(Bank angle increases and causes greater greater sideslip)

Figure

148.-

Directional

and

spiral

divergence.

Control Control, change alter the lift The vide whether force an airplane flight on the controls control surface are is stable to which shown or unstable, they are 15. is the ability use of a pilot of devices to that

the airplane's

conditions.

It is brought

about attached. They

by the

familiar

in figure

include lateral other

the elevator control

to proand

longitudinal

(in pitch),

the ailerons control

to provide Some

(in roll), devices are

the rudder discussed Figure to the pilot's

to provide later. 150 shows surfaces of view,

directional

(in yaw).

control

a simple is by use

basic of the the

control control stick

system stick back,

as operated and rudder the elevator

by a pilot. pedals. turns From upward

His the

link

control point

if he pulls

control

169

Tail-wagging

"Dutch roll"

(a)

k

Disturbed condition

Undisturbed condition

_------Ventralfins to improve (b)

directional

stability (as well as augment the vertical fin)

Figure

149.-

Dutch

roll.

(fig. surface about of the shown camber ing axis

151(a)). and the

This

movement lift is

gives

a negative This, the

camber in turn,

to the

entire

horizontal-tail a nose-up A side the other it increases the other its and moment motion as the a roll-

a downward center results

produced. and

produces upwards. up wing lift to and while than roll

airplane stick

of gravity in the This

airplane of one camber produces the

pitches aileron of one more

control in figure of the

movement the then causes the control pedals left pedal

down

151(b). other wing.

reduces One wing

moment in the

results. direction pressure pedal

This toward

condition which

airplane stick was deflect back),

about

longitudinal

pushed. the rudder. the rudder If the deflects pilot to the

Applying pushes the right

to the forward

rudder (the

will comes

170

..

Elevator

control

"--

__roncontrol

control

I

Figure right. As shown force in figure to the left 151(c), results. right.

150.this

Basic movement

control

system. the vertical yaws the nose tail camber

increases arises that

and a tail and hence,

A moment

to the right

the airplane effectiveness the the

turns

Control general, is fitted, faces

is a measure control control surface

of how well is with respect Also, than

a control to the

surface entire

does surface

its

job.

In it

the larger the greater greater

to which sur(See

effectiveness. effectiveness

high-aspect-ratio surfaces.

control

possess

control

low-aspect-ratio

fig. 152.)

171

(b) Aileron

control.

Beagle

206

Z.1

(c) Rudder Figure 151.Control

control. surface operations.

172

_ntrol

surface

nOW

//

._V

larger

with

respect

to

_V"

entire

surface

Smaller

control

effectiveness

Greater

control

effectiveness

Figure Balanced flow, to its a pressure original may the controls.distribution position. or may pilot The Whenever

152.-

Control

effectiveness. a control to force surface the into the fluid back

a pilot

deflects tends

will be set force

up that

control control

surface surface design. should the

necessary depending the surface

to hold a particular upon the control

deflection only must

not be small to deflect pilot does

surface

Not be small

be able the

at will,

but the forces to reduce balance the are air

enough forces hinge the helps face

to insure required. of the

that

not tire. two forms when

Balance

is used

deflection The

In figure is set even

153(a) so that further.

of aerodynamic

shown. that force, strikes that

surface forward the surface

the surface a pressure counteracts deflection. However, needed The

is deflected, distribution, the force

surface turn tending

of the hinge

creates This surface reduced.

hence

aft of the design,

control the pilotso that

sur-

to reduce

the control

By careful care must them) systems is used

supplied controls overcontrol are that

effort are

is considerably not "too light"

be exercised lest the pilot

the

(little

effort

to move control balance

unwittingly airplanes

the airplane and, are has balance of the effect small. a sense

to its destruction. whether In fact, of feel aerodynamic artificial

of today's or not, into

power-operated forces the pilot Mass

the pilot-felt the controls so

control

feel

is incorporated

in the in front may

controls. of the hinge line of a control surface to preIt is a

is employed surface which

vent flutter dynamic

occur that

due to accelerations deflects about

on the airplane. lead

and a control

surface

on its own may

to dynamic

173

Area

forward

Area Me109 F

forward

of hinge;

_1_,_
balance. (a) Inset hinge balance.
Mass-balance weight ! " Balanced" moving-surface weight _ _ , J n rfa ce

(a) Horn

_Movi g-su | weight

(b) Mass-balanced Figure 153.Aerodynamic

weight. and mass balance.

instability ity near ward

of the or forward

airplane.

The

solution line.

is to move This may

the

control

surface

center lead

of gravfor-

of the hinge line are

be accomplished by using placed small

by adding mass

of the hinge Tabs.Tabs

or as shown auxiliary Tabs 154(a),

in figure

153(b),

balances. edges of the

control serve balance

surfaces

at the trailing (1) to balance

primary

control As shown

surfaces. in figure

two purposes: tabs are set

and

(2) to trim. and the proporpilot for elevator in

up to move are used If the deflect create are

opposite to assist pilot

tional moving example, deflects moment, edge,

to the primary the control

control surface the elevator and the

surface and

movement. stick

They forces. tab will set

in reducing down,

wishes,

to move downward to move tabs tabs

the balance distribution down. arms stick

upward

as the

pressure surface long

up will they very to zero insure the

a force,

hence

the

control

Because and are forces they when

placed

at the trailing in action. chosen will not tire

balance Trim

possess used

moment pilot important may

powerful

are

to reduce are very

for particular that the pilot is on the a deflected

flight

conditions. steady

They flight.

since be set

in holding or manually

Trim and set

tabs

airplane shows

ground control

operated

by the pilot.

Figure

154(b)

174

Tab t- Balance Fixed surface __ "m':'_

_

surface

otal Main surface "-_ ___ _ _ ' ' Fixed surface

surface

force f--_ / _._ Tab geared proportional deflection to deflect to the control but in the

_

_

__osite

direction

Tab

force

helps

move

control

surface

(a) Balance

tab operation.

r--/g Fixed surface_* ._-,_ _----/-----_position /_ _

Trim

tab-placed by pilot

in a fixed or when

O_',_"_,..._ _,_2_ot--_,_ "_._"__]__

airplane it holds particular

is on the grounda control in a fixed position pilot effort.

_-/ " _._..________.__. without Mom_ced by M(_ment produced by trim tab to counteract control surface to control surface return to undeflected morn ent position

(b) Trim Figure surface plane control with will the trim tab set 154.-

tab Balance

operation. and about no pilot trim the effort tabs. hinge line to zero. to hold the trim The the tab must air-

to reduce condition a new

moments and control

continue

to fly in this When

is required is needed,

surface

deflection. for the

deflection

be readjusted Other categories control the

new setting devices.-

(if adjustable). control used devices in unusual all-moving do not fall flight into the conventional or for controls, added and

control outlined

Some They are are

above. Included

circumstances reaction

advantages. tail.

spoilers,

surfaces,

butterfly Spoilers,

previously lift on a wing the lift-drag to prevent

discussed by altering ratio the

with

respect pressure

to subsonic distribution.

flow,

are They

used are

to reduce useful to are 175 on

or

"dump"

the

the

gliders reduce

to vary

for altitude airplane from

control

and on airliners into the air.

on landing But, they

lift quickly

bouncing

also useful in lateral (roll) control. At low speeds,ailerons are the primary lateral control devices. At high speeds,however, they may causebending momentson the wing that distort the wing structure. At transonic speedscompressibility effects may limit their effectiveness. Spoilers may be used to avoid these disadvantages. As shownin figure 155by reducing the lift on one wing, the spoiler will cause a net rolling momentto roll the airplane aboutits longitudinal axis. Control effectiveness may be increased by increasing the chord length of the control surface relative to the entire surface to which it is fitted. The limiting case is the all-moving control surface. Whereas the conventional control surface changed lift by a changein camber, the all-moving control surface controls lift by angle-ofattack variations. Examples are to be seenon the horizontal-tail surfaces of the F-4 Phantomand the F-14A airplanes (fig. 156). By being able to changeits angle of attack, the all-moving surfaces can remain out of a stalled condition. The conventional control surfaces are considerably less effective at high speedswhere compressibility effects are dominant. The all-moving horizontal tails may be movedindependently as well to provide lateral control. At low dynamic pressures aerodynamic control surfaces becomelargely ineffective becauseonly small forces and momentsare present. Under these conditions, reaction control devices may be used. These are small rockets placed at the extremities of the aircraft to produce the required momentsnecessary to turn the airplane about eachof its axes. At zero or low speeds,the Hawker Harrier VTOL airplane uses reaction rockets placed in the nose, wing tips, andtail as shownin figure 157.
*Large lift

lift

z ....

_-

f_

Ailerons Spoiler on one up winglateral to dump used control lift at as high device speed low

used speeds

Figure 176

155.-

Lateral

control

with spoilers.

,G

All moving "stabilator"

/ _

_

\

F-4

Phantom control

all-moving surfaces Tomcat

_"

\

All-moving surfaces

Figure

156.-

Examples

of all-moving

surfaces.

control

_

J[

_,_

A

Roll

control

thruster

_ Roll control thruster

/ /------_ Engine

V Pitch thrust

control

thruster

Figure

157.-

Hawker

Harrier

reaction

control

system.

The North of such the same

American density the its

X-15 that Space pitch, tail

rocket the

plane

used

reaction surfaces

controls were controls

when useless (fig.

it flew (fig. 158(b))

at altitudes In same

low air manner,

aerodynamic will roll use

158(a)). for the

Shuttle yaw, and

reaction

reason

to change The butterfly since claimed

attitudes. variation of the conventional tall. increased directional up or down The procon-

(fig.

159(a)) the

is an interesting functions

trol

system

it combines are reduced

of the vertical However, motions

and horizontal there and are

advantages lems

weight yaw,

and drag. and both roll

in cross-coupling stability.

of the pitch, To pitch

reduced are

dynamic

up or down,

control

surfaces

moved

177

together
moved

(fig.

159(b)).

To yaw

right through

or left equal

the

"ruddervators" as shown has shown that moves and Cost

as they

are

called 159(c). that

are

in opposite This brief the the

directions introduction

deflections

in figure many factors

to stability

and control

influence airplanes, final

design

of an airplane. conflicting become

It must parameters. more

be stressed As one frequent.

the final towards

design are

is at best the

a compromise

to often

multimissioned

compromises of design.

competition

arbiters

___c

h thrusters

_

lr

Yaw

thrusters

Roll

thrusters

on

wings

(a) X-15

reaction

controls.

(b) Space Figure

Shuttle 158.-

reaction Reaction

controls. controls.

1'/8

Butterfly or "V" tail

Bonanza

(a)

(b)

Both elevators airplane pitches

down; down

Both elevators airplane pitches

up; up

(c)
I Right rudder; airplane yaws Left rudder; airplane yaws

right

left

Figure

159.-

Butterfly

tail

operation.

179

180

APPENDIX

A

AERONAUTICAL

NOMENC

LATURE

General aircraft any machine

Definitions device (whether lighter air, or

or weight-carrying than air) designed

heavier either aerodyne that lift airplane (aeroplane) class

to be supported action than air

by the

by bouyancy of aircraft chiefly

or by dynamic being from heavier

and deriving

its

in flight

aerodynamic

forces driven

a subset

of aerodynes, aircraft,

specifically, heavier than air

a mechanically air, which

fixed-wing

is supported its wings and other when to such gasethe fluids its

by the dynamic aerodynamics the science ous fluids, are bodies aerostat that class that and

reaction deals of the

of the

against of air respect air

with the forces motion being

motion acting with

on bodies

in relative

of aircraft chiefly from

lighter

than derived

and deriving aerostatic

support forces airship a subset

buoyancy

from

of aerostats,

specifically, and with

an aerostat a means

provided

with the

a propelling system direction of motion aerostatics the

of controlling

science that deals with the equilibrium and of bodies immersed in them science aircraft and art of designing, constructing,

of gaseous

fluids

aeronautics

the

and

operating

Aircraft Figure airships 160 presents sketches nonrigid envelope, or reinforced internal

Types types defined herein. craft having by any a gas bag,

of the aircraft (blimp): or skin

(dirigibles)

a lighter-than-air that

is not supported Its gas shape

framework by the

by stiffening. of the

is maintained it is filled.

pressure

with which

181

APPENDIX

A

-

Continued

semirigid envelope

(sometimes reinforced

blimp):

a dirigible having

its main

by a keel but not having

a completely

rigid framework. rigid: a dirigible having supported several gas bags or cells enclosed

in an envelope structure. amp_bi_

by an interior rigid framework

an airplane designed or land

to rise from

and alight on either water

autogyro

a rotary-wing

aerodyne

whose

rotor is turned

throughout

its

flight by air forces through balloon the air

resulting from

the motion

of the craft

a bag, usually spherical, nonporous than-air. material

made

of silk or other light, tough, gas which is lighter-

filled with some

It is an aerostat having two wings

without a propelling system. or supporting surfaces, one

biplane

an airplane

located above boat, flying

the other in which the fuselage (hull) is especially

a type of airplane designed

to provide

flotation on water into air

glider

an engineless currents

airplane flown by being manipulated

that keep it aloft aerodyne whose liftand forward thrust

helicopter

a type of rotary-wing are derived approximately from

airfoils mechanically

rotated about an

vertical axis usually of wood, covered with paper or cloth

kite

a light frame, and designed

to be flown in the wind derives most

at the end of a string

lifting

body

an aerodyne the shape nonexistent

which

or all of its liftin flight from being essentially

of its fuselage, the wings

monoplane ornithopter

an airplane

having

but one wing

or supporting

surface and propulsion

a type of aircraft achieving from

its chief support

the bird-like flapping of its wings consisting of a canopy a drag and suspension lines,

parachute

a cloth device, which

basically produces

force to retard the descent

of a falling body

182

APPENDIX paraglider a flexible-winged, recovery pusher airplane an airplane supporting rotary-wing aircraft a type part tical tailless airplane system

A -

Continued vehicle designed for use in a

kite-like for

launch

vehicles or propellers aft of the main

with the surfaces

propeller

of aerodyne by wings axis

which or blades

is supported rotating

in the about

air

wholly

or in ver-

a substantially

an airplane control

in which are

the devices

used

to obtain

stability

and

incorporated the propeller surfaces

in the wing or propellers forward of the

tractor

airplane

an airplane main

with

supporting take-off take-off which

STOL VTOL V/STOL

short vertical

and landing and landing has both

airplane airplane STOL and VTOL capabilities

an airplane

Amphibian Grumman SA-16A Albatross

srihgii'pd

Rigid

airship

,_,,, °""

_-_

_----

Autogyro

_Balloon

Biplane

Bristol

F2B

Figure

160.-

Examples

of aircraft

types.

183

APPENDIX A - Continued

Flying

boat..-----------_*

Shin

Meiwa

PX-S

Glider

Schweizer

1-23

Helicopter

Sikorksky

CH-3C

Kite

HL-IO

_

Lifting

body

7..-

Flapping

wing

ornithopter

Figure

160.-

Continued.

184

APPENDIX

A -

Continued

Paraglider Parachutes

Modified

ring-sail

Disk-Gap-Band

aircraft .q____Rotary-wing

XB-42

Bell

Jet

Ranger

Tailless airplane

airplane Tailles_

Tractor airplane Boeing 377 Stratocruiser

Figure

160.-

Continued.

185

APPENDIX

A -

Concluded

and landing airplane (STOL) Short take-off

DHC-6 win Otter

Vertical and airplane

take-off landing (VTOL)

Figure

160.-

Concluded.

186

APPENDIX

B

DIMENSIONS

AND

UNITS

There represents

is a fundamental the definition scheme in a lump has

difference

between physical its the

dimensions property For of mass

and units. which remains

A dimension independent of size of

of an inherent used to denote has

of the particular matter the edge present of a book

measure. dimension

example, and the

the quantity physical

of metal

the dimension the particular, the

of length. arbitrary of matter of the scheme in the used lump to denote of metal in meters the may magnitude be expres-

A unit of a physical sed

represents property. or slugs system of units than

Thus,

mass length selected.

in kilograms on the choice rather

and the of units

book

expressed the quantity or feet

or feet influthe length

depending ences the of the book

Usually that is,

to be measured to measure

to be employed, kilometers

meters

or miles.

Basic There are ture. called They are the four basic dimensions

Dimensions interest are length, L, to aerodynamicists. mass, M, time, T, and and 8. These tempera-

of general and

basic

or primary

dimensions by using,

may

be abbreviated

respectively,

Derived Dimensions The tities derived times namics dimensions of all other quantities may be found to be combinations These encountered are of quanknown in aerodyas

expressible or secondary a length and or

in terms L 2.

of the basic For of the are included

or primary example, common in table

dimensions. area II. may quantities

dimensions. A list

be represented

as a length

more

their

dimensions

Angular The tended this ally about arc measure one may 57.3 °. measure of the of the circle central angle

Measurement of a circle that is defined is, a ratio name as the ratio of the sub-

divided

by the radius, but is assigned in degrees radian value

of two lengths. of radians. of 1 radian are

Thus, Additionequals

is dimensionless express The fact the that angle both

a special that

by noting

an angle measure

measure of an angle

and degree does

dimensionof

less means that units to another.

the

numerical

not change

from

one system

187

APPENDIX B - Continued Systemsof Units There are two basic engineering systems of units in use in aerodynamics. They are the International Systemof Units (SI) andthe British Engineering Systemof Units (B.E.S.). In 1964the United StatesNational Bureau of Standardsofficially adoptedthe International Systemof Units to be used in all of its publications. The National Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration has adopteda similar policy and this is the system of units used in this report. Table II lists the SI and B.E.S. units for both the basic dimer_._ions nd some of the more commonaerodynamic quantities. a Vectors and Scalars Vectors are quantities that haveboth a magnitudeand a direction. Examples of physical quantities that are vectors are force, velocity, and acceleration. Thus, when one states that a car is moving north at 100kilometers per hour, with respect to a coordinate system attachedto the Earth, oneis specifying the vector quantity velocity with a magnitude(100kilometers per hour) and a direction (north). Scalars are quantities that have a magnitudeonly. Examples of physical quantities that are scalars are mass, distance, speed,and density. Thus, whenone states only the fact that a car is moving at 100kilometers per hour onehas specified a scalar, speed,since only a magnitude(100kilometers per hour) is given (that is, no direction is specified). To represent a vector on a diagram, an arrow is drawn. The length of the arrow is proportional to the magnitudeof the vector and the direction of the arrow corresponds to the direction of the vector. Figure 161showsthe side view of a wing called the airfoil cross section (or simply airfoil section). Two aerodynamic forces are knownto act on the section: lift and drag. They are vectors andmay be drawn to act through a special point called the center of pressure discussedin the text. In the first step a scale is chosenandthe force magnitudesare scaled. The secondstep is to place the vectors at the center-of-pressure point in the directions specified from the physical definition that lift always acts perpendicularly to the incoming velocity of the air V_ and drag always acts parallel to andawayfrom the incoming velocity of the air. : Vectors may be addedtogether (composition) to form onevector (the resultant) or one vector may be broken down (resolution) into several components. In figure 161 the lift and drag havebeen composedinto the resultant shown. The resultant can be resolved back into the lift anddrag components.

188

APPENDIX

B - Continued

TABLE

II.-SYSTEMS

OF

UNITS

Units Quantity Basic dimensions SI Length Mass Time Temperature L M T 0 oc meter kilogram second (relative) B.E.S. foot slug second OF (relative) OR (absolute)

K (absolute)

Units
Quantity
Area

Derived

dimensions SI L2 L3 LT- 1 LT-2 MLT-2 meters meters meters/second meters/second newton newtons/meter kilogram/meter meters2/second newtonsecond 1 2 3 2 2 3 B.E.S. feet 2 feet 3 feet/second feet/second pound pounds/foot slugs/foot3 feet2/second pound-second foot-pound foot-pound/second radian 2 2 or degree 2 2 2 2

Volume Velocity Acceleration Force Pressure Density Kinematic Momentum Energy Power Angle Angular Angular Moment velocity acceleration of inertia viscosity

ML-IT-2 ML-3 L2T - 1 MLTML2T-2 ML2T-3

joule watt radian or degree

T-1 T-2 ML 2

radians/second radians/second kilogram-meter

radians/second radians/second slug-fl

189

APPENDIX

B Assume:

Continued
Lift Drag = 400 = 100 newtons newtons

v_
Incoming velocity free-stream vector Airfoil section

I
100

I
200

I
300 Magnitude

I
400 scale

i
500

I 600

1 700

N

I
I
i

Step 1 Set magnitude of vectors

Lift

= 400

newtons
_J

-I

I
Drag I 100 newtons

I I

I

J

--i

Re sultant Step 2 Set directions of vectors
O

°/
II

v.

Center

of pre

Figure

161.-

Vector Motion

representation.

Motion is the movement

or change in position of a body.

Motion is always with

respect to a particular observer. One may adopt two points of view.

Consider the flightof an aircraft through the air. First an observer fixed in the air sees the aircraft

approach at velocity Voo. (See fig. 162(a).) On the other hand an observer fixed on the aircraft sees the air (or observer fixed in air) approach him at velocity V,o from the opposite direction. (See fig. 162(b).) The two observers read the same magnitude

of velocity (thatis, speed) but indicate opposite directions. In many cases, for example, in the use of a wind tunnel, the second point of view is adopted where the aircraft or airfoilis fixed in the tunnel and air is forced to flow past it. (See fig. 162(c).)

190

APPENDIX B -

Concluded

Observer in

fixed air

(a) Observer

fixed

in air.

r

Observer fixed on aircraft

(b) Observer

fixed

on aircraft.

Wing

in tunnel

",:::Top

of tunnel'

Observer' stationary with respect to wing/

/

(e) Wind-tunnel

operation over Figure

-

wing

fixed

in place

and V_.

air

placed

in motion

wing 162.-

with velocity Relative

motion.

191

192

APPENDIX

C

COORDINATE

SYSTEMS

A point in space point stitute point is considered what is then is known located the

may

be located origin

by referencing of three mutually

it to a known perpendicular system. each 163(a). origin fig.

point. lines The

The which

known con-

to be the

as a rectangular by specifying origin. This in space the X,

Cartesian the number

coordinate of units along

unknown axes a into coordiused. as

of the three Additionally, may 163(b).) are

measured vector its nate They three

from oriented

system whose

is shown tail Z

in figure at the (See

at random along

is set axes.

be resolved Three generally system.
yCOIE

components

Y, and

systems, are the

employing Earth-axis

right-handed system, the

rectangular body-axis

Cartesian system,

axes,

and the

wind-axis

)onent

_

Origin

°
X r Point P Z Z

(a) Location rectangular Right-hand Z axes

of a point coordinate system point along -

in a right-hand system. X, thumb, of right Y, first hand,

(b) Location rectangular system. components.

of a vector Cartesian Resolution

in a right-hand coordinate into

and second respectively.

fingers

Figure

163.-

Rectangular

Cartesian

coordinate

system.

Earth-Axis In the Earth-axis X and Y axes system the Earth plane down

System to be fiat X and nonrotating. north and Y in figThe

is considered of the the Earth, center

lie in the geometric The Z-axis points

pointing Earth

pointing east. ure 164.

toward

of the

as shown

193

APPENDIX C - Continued
X_t Lie in geometric y_) Earth's surface E } plane of

p- Nonrotati.ng

Figure

164.-

Earth-axis

system.

Body-Axis In the that the body-axis points system the rectangular nose of the

System Cartesian aircraft axis system is oriented with wing such

X-axis axis

out of the The

and is coincident out of the X and Y right axes center

the longiof the air-

tudinal craft

of the aircraft. Z-axis The At this

Y-axis

is directed to both the

and the

is perpendicular of the entire

and is directed of gravity displacement of the terms

downward. aircraft. roll, pitch, Roll:

origin point

system to define

is taken

to be the

it is useful

the important

angular

and yaw. the airplane positive the right roll wing rotates about its longitudinal axis (that is, toward the X-axis). Z-axis, A that is,

is defined drops. rotates turning

as the Y-axis

turning

Pitch:

the the rises.

airplane Z-axis

about toward

the the

Y-axis. X-axis,

A positive that is,

pitch

is defined

as

the nose

of the airplane

Yaw:

the

airplane turning

rotates

about

the

Z-axis. that

A positive is, the

yaw is defined nose moves

as the

X-axis

towards viewed

the Y-axis, from above).

to the right

(clockwise

when

194

APPENDIX

C -

Continued

The figure 165.

body-axis

system

and

the

concepts

of roll,

pitch,

and

yaw

are

illustrated

in

YB

XB

Roll

Yaw

ZB

Figure

165.-

Body-axis

system.

Wind-Axis In the is at the general wind-axis of the velocity perpendicular system, aircraft. vector. to the to both motion also right the is lies wing. the in the in the The The X-axis X and the origin The

System of the X-axis lies is Z rectangular points in the into the Cartesian direction of symmetry downward. In many (no means yawing that the probsystem of the of

center

of gravity

oncoming the The lems motion) Y-axis The ure airplane Y-axis

free-stream and is is

Z-axis and

plane generally 166(a)).

directed axes plane (fig.

perpendicular airplane the out X-axis of the is termed

of interest so that points system 166(b)).

geometric plane Z-axis wind-axis

of symmetry This plane

of symmetry. again is system in the and

of symmetry. in fig-

then

simplified

is illustrated

195

APPENDIX

C - Concluded

Yw

Zw Relative the plane wind of not in )'7 jc/Xw

symrnetry//_

(i"
system. Z-axis in plane of symmetry.

(a) General

wind-axis

Yw

f

(b) Simplified

wind-axis

system. 166.-

X

and

Z

axes system.

in plane

of symmetry.

Figure

Wind-axis

196

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