UNIT 26 ART AND ARCHITECTURE

Structure
Objectives Introduction Background Architecnrre
26.3.1 26.3.2 26.3.3 26.3.4 Residential Architecture Temples and Towers Stupas Rock-cut Architecture

Sculptural Art
26.4.1 Gandhara School 26.4.2 Mathura Art 26.4.3 Amaravati Art

Let Us Sum Up Key Words Answers to Check Your Progress Exercises

26.0 OBJECTIVES
After reading this unit you will be able to : familiarise yourself with important trends of art and architectural activities between 200 B.C. to 300 A.D. learn about the techniques and styles adopted in the fields of architecture and sculpture, distinguish between the major characteristics and forms of the Gandhara, Mathura and Amravati schools of art, and learn about the impact of religious and social conditions on art and architecture of the period.

26.1 INTRODUCTION
In some of the earlier Units (Nos. 3, 10, 11) we have seen how artistic forms had started emerging and to what extent they reflected the culture of a period. Works of a t which were r related to work processes of daily life and were not exclusively produced for a previleged group of society were many. They are found in the forms of rock paintings, terracotta figurines, toys, etc. Gradually works of art, manufactured by specialist craftsmen, came to be produced for exclusive purposes. The Mauryan period witnessed production of splendid specimens of art by the state. With the emergence of social groups who could extend substal patronage for production of specimens of art, new trends in art activities came about. In the post-Mauryan period, patronage by different social groups was the main reason behind the phenomenon that art activities became so widespread all over India and beyond; it was no longer high art exclusively patronized by the state. There was also, from the Mauryan period onward, a shift toward using non-perishable material i.e. stone as a medium of creative expression. There was also constant interaction in this period with those art forms that flourished beyond the frontiers of the Indian sub-continent. There emerged various schools of art. In this unit we shall discuss the main characteristics of Gandhara and Mathura art forms along with those of Sarnath and Amaravati. Most of the art forms and were inspired by Buddhism and ~ainism very few Brahmanical monuments are to be found. This unit also takes into account the architectural and sculptural aspects of various Stupas, viharas and caves etc.

India : Century 200 B.C. To 300 A.D.

26.2 BACKGROUND
During the Mauryan period sculpture and architecture had reached a developed stage. The Asokan pillars; the animals and carvings on the pillars - all represent mature art forms. A unique feature of the specimens of Mauryan art fashioned in stone is the polish and the smooth, glassy surface not to be found during any other period. In addition to the animal figures, the most famous piece of art is the figure of Yakshini from Didarganj, Patna. This superb art piece tells us about the hairstyle, ornaments and dress of women during that period. The Mauryan levels at sites which have been excavated have yielded a large number of terracotta figurines. They indicate that artistic creations were not confined to the Imperial level alone, and even when Mauryan Imperial art declined and new forms of art emerged, the practice of producing terracotta figurines on a substantial scale continued. In the field of architecture we get information about Chandragupta's wooden palace from Megasthenes. Excavations at Pataliputra have revealed wooden walls and columns. We also have references about the construction of Stupas during the Mauryan period from the accounts of Fa-heing, Hiuen-Tsang and in Buddhist literature. Sanchi, Sarnath, Taxila and Bharhut were some of the religious centres in which Stupas may have been originally built in the Mauryan period, and additions were made to them in the later period. In the period between 200 B.C.- 300 A.D. certain general characteristics of art may be highlighted :
1)

Art activities in this period were mostly related to religions practised in this period and symbols and units associated with them.

2) The Buddha image which began to be sculpted in this period was-a departure from earlier representations of him in the form of Bodhi tree, Stupa, foot prints,,etc. Making of
images for worship became common among other religions as well. 3) The construction of Stupas, Chaityas and Viharas became popular. 4) The art forms and all of their symbolic representations were not exclusive toany particular religion. For example, the Bharhut and Sanchi Stupas not only depict scenes from the life of the Buddha but also the reliefs of Yakshas, Yakshinis, Nagas and other popular deities. 5) Similarly, we find that the artists, in order to decorate the Stupas, carved many scenes which they observed in nature along with religious ideas. In fact, these are examples of secular art forms.

6) Because of regular interactions with other cultures in this period we also find elements of non-Indian art in the artistic creations of this period. This is particularly true of the Gandhara region which produced art typical to the region, in which many different elements came to be assimilated.

If

Let us now examine in some detail the various aspects of art and architecture of this period.

26.3

ARCHITECTURE

The architecture of this period can be broadly divided in two categories : i) Residential structures

ii) Religious monuments Under the first category we havetvery few surviving monuments since in the initial phase they were built of perishable materials like wood. However, a number of monuments have survived on unearthed through excavations which come under the second category.

26.3.1 Residential ~rchitecture
In Block 4 (Unit 15) we have already discussed the pattern of city life on the basis of both literary and archaeological sources. We get similar kind of information for this period also. For example, the Milinda Panha describes a city with moats, ramparts, gate houses,

This description to an extent is corroborated by archaeological sources. markets. These during the time of Asoka. Jhandial Temple 26. were dug out and redistributed which led to the construction of other Stupas . i. Buddhist art adopted this practice and the structure built over such a site was known as Stupa. 2. There are references to buildings of several storeys with wagon-vaulted roofs and verandas -mostly constructed of wood. well. However. The Stupas had the shape of a bowl turned upside down. On the top of this rod were placed three small umbrella type discs symbolising respect. According to Buddhist sources. parks.towers.3. The construction of this tower is attributed to Kanishka-I. The earliest known temples for this period are : The temple at' Jhandial (Taxila) The Sankarshana temple at Nagari (Rajasthan) The temple at Besnagar (Madhya Pradesh) An apsidal temple at Nagarjunakonda (Andhra Pradesh). It was here that the urns containing the remains of the Buddha or a great personality connected with the religion was placed in a gold or silver casket. which was a bit flat. At the top. It was a grand structure with 13 storeys surmounted by an iron column with imposing umbrellas.laidout streets.e. The worship of Stupas led to their ornamentation and a specific type of architecture developed for their construction. we have very insufficient data on temple structures from excavations.3 Stupas The practice of preserving the remains of an important personality below accumulated earth was long in existence. Art and Architecture 26. later of the existence of a tower at Purushapura (Peshawar). written several centuries. the remains of the Buddha's body were divided into eight parts and placed under the Stupas. We know from Fa-hein's account. Let us briefly discuss some of the prominent Stupas: i) Bodha Gaya (Bihar) .2 Temples and Towers For this period. lakes and temples. veneration and magnanimity. in the countryside not much change is noticed in architectural style or types of hutrnents. A wooden rod (Yashti) was placed in its'middle and the bottom of the rod was fixed on the top of the Stupa.3. the abode of the Gods. In fact the constmction of temples in which deities were inshrined for worship became common only at a later date and the Buddhist Stupas and other structures were the common forms of religious architecture in this period.the sacred places of Buddhism. used to be its harmika.

ii) Sanchi Stupa (Madhya Pradesh) Sanchi is about 14 kilometers from Vidisa (Bhilsa) and is perhaps the most famous Stupa site in India. and 4) Unique representation of forest animals in a manner which looks as if the whole animal world turned out to worship the Buddha. They illustrate storks from the Buddhist Jatakas. They also are imitation. and Bodhi-tree. were added to beautify it. It has three Stupas all with gateways around them. The entrance gate (torana) of the Stupa depicts four lions on the Vedika.D. etc. Some of the animals are shown with riders in heavy coats and boots. remains from which are now preserved in the Indian Museum. The northern gate and the panels depict stories from the Jatakas. as in other Stupa railings. Calcutta and other museums are : Gateways or toranas which are imitations in stone of wooden gateways. The Stupa was primarily built with the help of the City-Chief and the donations from the public.D. elephant. 250 B. dharmachakra and the events from the life of Lord Buddha and stories from the Jatakas. Yakshis and other divinities who come to be associated with Buddhism. one in each direction. There are. Some of these divinities have inscriptions on them. This magnificant Stupa was 42 metre in diameter and its height was. the Stupa was built with white masble. Four gates. Though the Stupa itself has completely disappeared its sculptured panels have been preserved in Madras and British Museums. and a 'Vedika' was also constructed around it. A number of images have also been found from the Amravati Stupa.e. about 29 metres. Vedika pillars had beautiful carvings of garlanded gods. iii) Bharhut Stupa This Stupa was located 21 kilometers south of Satna in Madhya Pradesh. No trace of the original construction has survived.C. representations of Buddhist themes like Jataka stories in combination with various natural elements. Uprights or posts of these railings have carvings of Yakshas.C. To 300 A. on top.). 3) Lotus and wishing-vines have been prominently and beautifully carved out as ornamentation. In the earlier stage Buddha was represented only through symbols but from first century A. iv) Amaravati Located 46 kilometres from Guntoor. V)Nagarjunakonda . The important features of this Stupa structures. Lotuses have also been carved over the pillars. ox. dharmachakra . Fifteen kilometres from Gaya is the site where Lord Buddha gained 'knowledge' (bodhi) and it was here that Asoka got a 'Bodhi-Manda' constructed. The reliefs of Sanchi display (among other representations) the following quite prominently : 1) The four great events of the Buddha's life. attainment of knowledge. birth. camel. It contained a circular prayer path which was 10 metres high and was made of stone. but the stone railings of Bharhut have. giving their identifications. During the Sunga period this was later on nearly doubled in circumference in 150 B.pravartana and Mahaparinirvana. The bricks of Asokan times were replaced by stones. From the Southern gate we get an inscription from its architrave which tell us that it was donated by King Satakarni and the incision work was done by those craftsmen who worked in ivory. The main Stupa structure no longer exists. i. But the most famous is the Great Stupa which was originally made of brick in Asoka's time (C. some Buddha images began to be found along with their symbols. We have only the remains of the stone pillars constructed during the Sunga period like the raiting pillars found around other Stupas and they too have sculpture the panels in relief. in stone. Stupa. are abundant.India : Century 290 B. a heavy stone border (coping). Railings spreading out from the gateways. of post and rail fence.C. 2) Representations of birds and animals like lion.

The casing of the drum in this Stupa was of stone . with a relic bone inside. The hemispherical top of the drum was decorated with lime and mortar work.ornamentally decorated with images of Bodhisttvas. A Stupa built in the Scytha-Parthian style was found at Jhandial. vi) Taxila Excavations at Taxila and nearby places have exposed a number of Stupas : Sir John Marshall excavated the Chira-Tope Stupa at Taxila. The diameter of this Stupa was 30 metres and the height was 18 metres. The outer casing of the drum consisted of richly carved marble slabs. Here two circular walls. one at the hub and the other at the outer end. In fact. 3) Birth of the Buddha under a flowering teak tree. one at each cardinal point. For example. Art and Architecture 2 ) Buddha's entry into womb in the form of a white elephant. The most important scenes are : 1) Gods praying to Boddhisthva to take birth on the earth. two Stupas were found in Mathura. etc. supported a row of five free standing pillars. were joined by spoke like walls and the intervenneing space was filled with mud or small stones or pieces of bricks. Similarly. Nearby was found a small silver casket enclosing one of gold. In 1908 excavations revealed the existence of a Stupa at Shah-ji-ki dheri near Peshawar. The four rectangular projections. Structural Plan of Stupa (Sanchi) . 3. This Stupa was erected by Kanishka and is referred to in the accounts of Fahien. The importance of this Stupa is because of the beautiful panels which illustrate episodes from the life of the Buddha. this was a period when Stupa architecture developed into particular styles and the presence of similar features in Stupas of various regions suggests the mobility of and interaction between artisans who built the Stupas and beautiful works of art associated with the Stupas. The sculptures and other objects of art are products of Gandhara style (we shall discuss this art form separately in this unit). a number of Stupas have been found in many parts of the country.The Nagarjunakonda Stupa was built in a style different from that of North India.

Chir-tope Stupa (Taxila) . Parts of Stupa Sanchi 5. View of Great Stupa (Sanchi) 6.4.

etc. - . For example in western India. This long hall is internally divided into a nave. Most of the major Chaityas and Viharas of this period were built in western and eastern regions.4 Rock-Cut Architecture Both the Buddhists and the Jainas built Chaityas and Viharas as places of worship. . a The aisles are separdted from the nave by two rows of pillars. The general features of the Chaityas are : They have a long rectangular hall ending in a semi-circle at the rear end.3. Nasik. Kondane. I A chaitya is a shrine cell with a votive Stupa place in the centre.- 1 I ! Viharas were primarily cut out of rocks for the residence of monks.Art and Architecture 7.. Chitaldo. Similarly. Ajanta and Kanheri. in eastern India we have them in Udayagiri (Orissa). Karle. A Sculptural Stupa Panel from Nagarjunakonda 26. an apse and two side aisles. they are located at Bhaja.

courtyard in the front. In the earlier examples of the western Indian caves the plan is irregular. There are about 35 excavations laid out in two groups. The doorway is usually placed facing the votive Stupa. The double storied Ranigumpha cave on Udayagiri hills is the largest of all the caves. Ajanta. Among the Jaina Viharas. The inner facade consists of doorways surmounted by semi-circular arches above.C. A number of small square cells are provided. The pillars come round the votive Stupa placed in the centre of the apsidal part of the nave.India : Century 200 B. those at Udayagiri and Khandagiri (Orissa) were excavated during the time of Kharavela. The facade has a horse-shoe shaped window called the chaitya window.D. To 300 A. Karle Chaitya (Cave) . The hall has a barrel-vaulted ceiling. The earliest of the Viharas of western India are those at such sites as Bhaja. In the latter ones a regular plan was adopted. Another aspect of cave architecture is the excavation of Viharas or monasteries by both Buddhists and Jainas for the use of monks. Some of them are provided with one cell and the others are multicelled ones with an open. The following are the general features of the Viharas : They have a square or oblong hall in the centre. Nasik and Karle. 9. The cells and halls are usually provided with raised benches for the use of monks. Pitalkora. The hall is preceded in front by a pillared veranda. Bedsa.

10. Rani Gumpha Caves (Udaigiri) Check Your Progress 1 I 1) Discuss in about five lines the main features of Mauryan Art. Answer in about ten lines. 2) What is a Stupa ? Discuss the main characteristics of Sanchi Stupa. . Bhaja Chaitya Cave 11.

To 300 A..... When single images were fashioned they too were generally housed in Viharas or were located at religious centres.C... ..... (worship/residence) by monks. ...... (immaturelmature) art forms. Svata. whereas the art of the Sunga-Kanva period had a much wider social base..India : Century 200 B.... In addition to sculptures made in relief on panels. iv) The Taxila excavations were initially carried out by WheelerISir John Marshall).. It was ruled by the Achaneminds of Iran in the sixth-fifth centuries B....... many sculptures were also made in the round........... IC -3) i) Fill in the blanks .... Its art.. Following the Buddhists and Jainas... According to the Hathigumpha inscription.. the Brahmanical religion also conceived of images of different gods and goddesses.. and the events are depicted in a continuous narration...... Pahlavas and Kusanas.................. Later it was occupied by the Greeks...... Most of these sculptures are found on the medallions or rectangular panels on the railings that surround a Stupa. they do not conform to accurate anatomical proportions... the art of the post-Mauryan period was distinct in character from earlier Imperial Mauryan Art.. (see illustrations)... an important development of this period is modelling of the image of the Buddha both in the Mathura and Gandhara schools...... In this period..... v) ..... technique and significance.. These figures are large in size and well-modelled. 26.... they were not intended to do so. we notice the development of regional or local styles or schools in creations of sculptural art.....Roman fahion and vary curly hair in Buddha idols......... Gandhara and the Mathura schools developed in the north while in the south.... Mauryas. The relief sculptures represent themes from Buddha's life and scenes from Jataka stories......D.... was profoundly influenced by Hellenistic art.. .. Most of the art forms were Buddhism and Jainism.. However. this place produced a mixed culture.. The Yakshas and Yakshinis occupy the most important place in this group. But at the same time we must remember that the chief patrons of Gandhara art were the Sakas and the Kusanas...4 SCULPTURAL ART Sculptural art cannot be separated from architecture because sculptures form part of a total complex like a Stupa or a Chaitya... In general. some of the Jaina images found in the votive tablets of the Jainas with ashtamangalas (eight auspicious marks) from Mathura suggest that image worship among the Jainas too was becoming common by the firsr century A. The ... It included the valley of Peshawar.. Buner and Bajjora...damaged torso of a nude figure from Lohanipur (Patna) is identified with a Tirthankara.... The bas reliefs of Sanchi......4. The Mauryan art has been described as palace art. which was mainly Buddhist.. As a result.. Amaravati was the major early centre in the lower Krishna-Godavari valley..D. Icon or image worship among the Jainas may be traced to the Sunga period.. (different/similar) in style with those of North India..... For example the depiction of transparent gamient draped in Graeco .. gateways and plinths of the Stupas and also on the facades and walls of the Viharas and Chaityas. 26......(inspiredldiscouraged)by ii) The Mauryan art represents ...C.. Seated and standing images of Buddha were carved in Mathura and Gandhara....... Among the Buddhists it was the Mahayana sect that propogated image worship.... The art of this period is mostly represented in the Buddhist images and relief sculptures carved on the railings. However.. the existence of image worship among the Jainas of eastern India goes back to the pre-Mauryan times........ Barhut and Bodh Gaya represent an early phase in the art of reliefcarving... iii) The Nagarjunakonda Stupa is .1 Gandhara School Gandhara is located in the north-western part of the Indian sub-continent on both banks of Fiver Indus. Sakas..... Brahmanical sculptures for this period are very few... It is also different in motive.(Mortimer - Viharas were used as places of ..

pilaster and stucco was used to make the idols. These idols give a realistic representation of the human figure clearly indicating limbs and other organs of the body . Decorative Ivory Panel . For example a gold reliquary has been found at Bimaran in which a series of figures are contained within an arcade. Standing Buddha . Bamaran. 12. in the later school instead of schist stone. However. A bronze reliquary was recovered from the side walls of the Stupa at Shah-ji-kidheri.D. Buddha in Meditation 13. For example : a a a Art and Architecture The drum of the Chira Stupa. The Gandhara art had many other aspects also. On the ramparts of small pillars. is decorated by images of Bodhisattvas placed in niches for worship. the images of Buddha. Hadda. at Taxila. of the Sehribhelol Stupa.. Similarly ivory plaques have been found from Begram. 16. 15. During the early school. 17 ) which reflect various aspects related to Gandhara art. It depicts Buddha. mud. Begram and Taxila. They are depicted with sharp features and anatomical accuracy. I 12. Bodhisattvas and incidents from their 'life have been carved out. which existed during first and second century A. 14. 14.The main centres from where the art pieces of Gandhara School have been found are Jalalabad. lime. blue-grey schist stone was used to make idols. Kusana kings and flying geese (symbolic of wandering monks). Gandhara art can be divided into two schoolsearly and later. We give here some illustrations (See Nos. Besides idols we find beautiful carvings on reliefs and bas-reliefs the theme being the life of Buddha and Bodhisattvas. 13.

Bodhisattva Sculpture in Schist 16. Head of Buddha (Stucco) . . 17.15. Bar relief : Buddha eating in company of Monks .

For example. images of kings and other notables. Right hand in abhaya posture. Kankali Tila was the main Jaina site at Mathura and it has yielded an overwhelmingly large number of : Sculptures ayaqapatas or stone slabs with Jaina figures in centre and auspicious marks or with representations of Jaina Stupas (these were objects of worship) a various architectural fragments like pillars. and. It has yielded a number of inscriptions which refer to lay followers of Jainism. Of them Parsvanatha is recognizable from his canopy of snake hoods and Rishabhanatha from rocks of hair falling on his shoulders but other Tirthankara images are not so easily identified. and The head is shaven except one lock. The sculptures here were carved out of red sandstone which was available locally. I I a a Dharam chakra and tri-ratna chiselled in palms and at bottom of the feet. The representations of the Jainas or the Tirthankaras on the ayaqapatas date before the Kushana period but regular images become common only from the Kushana period onward. Art and Architecture 1) The Buddha idols: The earliest images of Bodhisattvas and Buddha were perhaps made at Mathura and sent also to other regions. the Samath image of standing Bodhisttvas installed in the period of Kanishka-I was made at Mathura. Jaina and Brahmanical faiths. as in Sanchi and Bharhut. In fact.D it had not only become a major centre of art but the art pieces of this school were in demand in far off areas. Among the sitting idols the one found at Katra is among the oldest. .C. were uniquely of Mathura. like Afghanistan in the Kushana period.II I 26. Images started getting fashioned in the round so that they could be seen from every side. For example. Let us brietly take a thematic study of the sculpture belonging to the Mathura school.. Another aspect worth noting about this school is that it depicted various patterns of life on the votive pillars. A significant dimension of Mathura art is that it also produced. We get Buddha images mainly in two postures .standing and sitting. The votive pillars from 'KankaliTila' demonstrate how feminine beauty has been utilised by the sculptor. At the same time what they were creating. an inscription (pasada-torana) by a Jaina Sravaka named Uttaradasaka. 2) Jaina specimens : Mathura was a sacred centre of the Jains as it was of the followers and of ~&hmanical Buddhist faiths. The themes handled by the Mathura artists are in fact many. The head and face are shaven. The right hand is shown raised in abhaya posture.4. we have scenes from forests where men and women are collecting flowers. capitals.C. etc. In a time span of nearly four hundred years this school produced a variety of sculptures and other pieces of art for the followers of Buddhist. from local red stone. The dress is always tight on the body and the left hand holds the frill. crossbars. the artist chose elements from nature to enrich his creation. By the first century A. railing .2 Mathura Art The origin of Mathura art form is traced back to the second century B. women playing with cranes or offering fruits to birds and women playing in gardens and water tanks. to Jaina monks and nuns and to donations and dedications made by them. as early as the middle of the second century B.posts. some of the general characteristics of the Buddha idols of this age are: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) They are made of white spotted red stone. There is no mark on the forehead. This shows that Mathura artists were aware of various forms of art activities of the period and were catering to the requirements of different social groups of Indian and non-lndian origin. The characteristics of this idol are: a Buddha sitting under a Bodhi tree. For example.

Saraswati is seated with a hsary and manuscript in her hands. They are . a 3) Brahmanical Images: ~ u i t e few Brahmanical images have been found in Mathura. Woman doing her hair A 0 - ' 19. Some of iconographical features or features which characterize each deity are present in images of this period. Vishnu.Buddhism. He bears resemblance to Bachhus and Oionysius respecting the Roman and Greek gods of wine. 4) The images of rulers: The Mat village in Mathura yeilded big images of ~ u s h a n a Kings and other notables like Kanishka. is depicted as the killer of buffalo demon. boots. Balarama has a heavy turban on his head. were represented in sculpture. A number of Yaksha and Yakshini images have been discovered in Mathura. Durga in her Mahisha-mardini form. In due course Mathura art forms contributed significanily to the development of Gupta art forms. The earliest representations are of Siva. The idea of building reliquaries or structures for housing portrait-statues of rulers and other dignitaries of the State possibly came from Central Asia. Head of a Tirthankara . This refers to linga with four human faces of the Siva on all four sides. Dressed in a simple way she wears no ornaments and is attended by two other figures. During the Kushana period Karttikeya. He is associated with wine and with parties where participants indulge in drinks.D. began to be carved in the form of Chaturmukha linga. 1 18. Sarasvati. Wima and Chastana. including Naga images. associated with all the three religions . a dress in the lower half of the body resembling a salwar.India : To 300 A. Jainism and Brahmanism. Lakshmi. Surya and Sankarshana or Balarma. a sword in one hand and a lotus in the other. 200 B.C. They also forcefully suggest interaction between Gandhara and Mathura art forms. Many heads of Scythian dignitaries have also been found at Mat. though he is represented in the linga form. Kubera and certain other gods. For example Siva. in a heavy coat. He wears . The ~ u r y a the Kushana age is shown riding a chariot driven by two horses. These discoveries indicate that Mathura was the most important centre of the eastern part of the Kushana empire. Kubera was another deity shown with a bulging belly. . This was done to give the rulers a divine status: The dresses which the dignitaries wear were also of Central Asian origin.

Sculptural depiction of a Jataka story >. Surya " .\ 22. Kubera with his disciples .20. 21.

23. The reliefs represent the traditional narrative art taking themes from the Buddha's life and from Jataka stories.C.4. Buddha moves towards the elephant in a spirit of adoration and humility. men throw up their hands and women cling to men. in the lower valleys of the Krishna and the Godavari developed the Amaravati school of art during this period. they are well modelled with long legs and slender frames. The entire story has been depicted in relief on a medallion by the sculptor. The general features of Amaravati art are: the figures are carved out of white marble. Jaggayyapeta etc. physical beauty and sensual expressions command this art.D. the elephant kneels down in submission. princes and palaces figure prominently in sculptural representations. by officials. The whole depiction of the story has been done by the sculptor in a natural way: an infuriatedelephantapproaching the Buddha on a street. though nature is depicted. plinths and other parts of several Stupas. 24. Amaravati. on a relief medallion at Amaravati is depicted the story of the taming of an elephant by the Buddha and the commotion preceding it.India : Century 200 B.C. the central characters are human beings. This was patronised by Satavahana rulers and later by Ikshvaku rulers. Ghantasala. To 300 A.-350 A.D. Inspired by Buddhist themes the main centres of this art were Nagarjunakonda. Chaturmukha ~ u r a l i n ~ a 26. etc. For example. ~ t a i u e of Kaniska . and kings. . The sculptural forms again come to us from the railings.3 Amaravati Art In the eastem Deccan. merchants. men and women are frightened. The most productive and prosperous phase of this art has been dated to 150 8. by other political dignitaries and families. and the entire episode is being watched by wome2 and men from balcony and windows. Goli.

In later narrative reliefs the figures are well-shaped and interrelated. In these. However. with elephants. The way we have the representations of Kushana kings from Mathura in the form of statues. a relief panel at Amaravati which shows a group of six bathing women with water pots is very close to such depictions of Mathura.Amaravati art shows distinct evolution toward maturity of style in a period of five hundred years. and in a relief panel is depicted a scene showing a king on march. produced some of the finest art pieces in ancient India. at Amaravati. "one can see here the beginning of that tall and slender human frame which is so characteristic an ethnic form in the narrative reliefs of the Krishna valley. Art and Architecture 25. However.C. the Amaravati school. A group of Women enjoying their hath . and later. of Pallava sculpture". a relief medallion depicts a court scene where the king is receiving presents. under its Satavahana patrons and master craftsmen. For example: the story of King Udayana and his queen is depicted on a relief. In thematic treatment there is a striking similarity in certain cases with Mathura. horseriders and footmen. they are not individual statues but are arts of a narrative. the figures are isolated units and are not interrelated in one composition. For example. In fact. the earliest examples which we get from Jaggayyapeta date back to 150 B. we find the kings and princes as themes represented in Amaravati sculpture also. For example.

Taming of an Elephant by Buddha . Depiction of the Story of king Udayana and his Queens 2 7 .26.

........ 3) Fill in the blanks... i) The relief sculptures represent themes from .. 4) .............. (Amarava~axilajMathura).... ii) The principal patrons of Gandhara art were ........ ............. (MahabharataJJataka storiesJRamayana).... i) The Tirthankara images from Mathura have a well built body........ iv) Idols related with Brahamanical religion have been found in (SarnaWathMagajunakonda)...... iii) The Gandhara sculpture represents Greek themes in Indian style......... Answer in about ten lines........... (Mauryas/Satavahanas/Sakasand Kushanas)....... iv) Amaravati school of art flourished in Eastern India... Which of the following statements are right (d ) or wrong (x)......... ii) Kubera idol represents sun worship.......... political personalities had drawn the sculptor's attention....A r t and Architecture Check Your Progress 2 1) Discuss in about ten lines the main characteristics of Gandhara art.............. 2) Give such examples of art which demonstrate that besides religious themes.... iii) The foremost examples of nature being represented in sculpture come from .

In a cylindrical shape of 'dholak'. This development is illustrated by the schools of Gandhara. Hellenistic Influence : The influence of art forms in the Indian tradition by that of Rome and Greece art styles. we do not have any information about these master craftsmen. Deep wide ditch filled with water to act as a defence. Ivory Moats Nave Schist : : Images or figures made from the bones.. To 300 A.C. Indian activities during this period were also influenced by art forms. : : Stucco : Vaulted . developed into mature sculptural forms. 26. Stone sculptures. For example. However. 26.India : Century 200 B. terracotta figurines. Though most of the themes in these art forms are religious.6 KEY WORDS Aisle : The prayer path of a Stupa. were being produced in large numbers in this period. The art specimens certainly give us a glimpse into the social and economic life of the period. 26.1 2) See Sub-sec. What we have'is their art but not their names. Vigorous interaction with various non-Indian and the presence of Hellenistic and central Asian elements in India art of this period shows how enriched Indian culture became through contact with other contemporary cultures. both in relief and in the round. Architrave : Projected portion from the Stupa which is known as Banderi in H~ndi. They show that the artisans were no more dependent on royal patronage only because many merchants.5 LET US SUM UP We have seen that during this period both architecture and sculpture reached a high level of maturity and artists produced requisite pieces of art. we do get the names of donors in certain cases. . we do find nature and man being in a close relationship by the sculptor. Mathura and Amaravati. 26. The symbolic representations ultimately gave way to images and the images of the Buddha are the best examples of this change. devotees and other categories of people also patronised them. donors and attendants is an example in this regard. A type of pilaster used for making surface even.- 26. Unfortunately. A type or quality of stone formed through layers. primarily of elephant. Apse : Halfcircular. etc. There was gradual development of art forms and thematic representation.3 3) i) Inspired ii) Mame iii) Different . A place where monks assembled for prayer.3. We have also seen in this unit that certain regions developed their own unique art forms.D.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS EXERCISES Check Your Progress 1 1) See Sec. the earlier creative expressions like rock paintings. The bas relief of Mathura which depicts monks.

26. Art and Architecture of India. I . Oxford. Penguin Books.4. . See Sub-secs.3.4. A History of India Vol. 3) i) Jataka Stories ii) Sakas and Kusanas iii) Mathura iv) Mathura 4) i) J ii) x iii) x iv) x SOME USEFUL BOOKS FOR THIS BLOCK Rornila Thaper.2 and 26. A Comprehensive History of India Vol. write your answer. 2) Mention about the idols of kings which have been found in excavations at Mathura and sculptural representations at Amaravati.4. 26.C. Himanshu Prabha Ray.1. Monastery and Guild.A. J. K. Harle. Nilkanta Sastri (ed).iv) Sir John Marshall V) Residence Check Your Progress 2 1) On the basis of Sub-sec. 2 .

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