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Lecture Notes


National Programme for Capacity Building for Engineers

National Programme for Capacity Building for Engineers in


Sponsored by

National Disaster Management Division
Ministry of Home Affairs
Government of India

December, 2006


R. K. Printers, Rke, 01332-270957
1. Earthquake Engineering: An Overview 1-14
- D.K. Paul
2. Elementary Seismology 15-24
- M. L. Sharma
3. Basic Concepts of Vibration 25-32
- D.K. Paul
4. Performance of Building in Past Earthquakes : Lessons Learnt 33-60
- D. K. Paul
5. Lessons on Detailing from Past Earthquakes 61-72
- Pankaj Agrawal
6. Geotechnical Considerations in Earthquake Resistant Design 73-88
- B.K. Maheshwari
7. Philosophy and Principles of Earthquake Resistant Design 89-98
- Yogendra Singh
8. Earthquake Resistant Design, IS:1893-2002 Code 99-122
- D. K. Paul
9. Earthquake Resistant Low Strength Masonry Buildings 123-130
- Pankaj Agrawal
10. Earthquake Resistant Design of Masonry Buildings 131-154
- Pankaj Agrawal
11. Earthquake Resistant Design and Detailing of RC Structures 155-161
- Yogendra Singh
12. Architectural Considerations and Guidelines for ERD of Buildings 162-180
- Yogendra Singh
13. Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of Existing Buildings 181-208
- Yogendra Singh and D. K. Paul
14. Assessment of Existing Multistoried Buildings for Desired Seismic Performance 209-218
- D. K. Paul
15. Retrofitting of Masonry Buildings 219-232
- Yogendra Singh and D. K. Paul
16. Retrofitting of RC Buildings 233-264
- Yogendra Singh and D. K. Paul
17. Retrofitting Material 265-274
- Yogendra Singh and D. K. Paul
18. Quality Control of Construction 275-286
- Anand S. Arya
19. Fire Safety of Buildings 287-300
- Yogendra Singh
20. Improving Wind/ Cyclone Resistance of Buildings: Guidelines 301-334
- Anand S. Arya, Prem Krishna & N.M. Bhandari
21. Proposed Amendment in Town and Country Planning Legislations, Land use 335-354
Zoning Regulations, Development Control Regulations & Building Bye-laws
- Anand S. Arya
22. Do’s and Don;ts 355-356
23. Essential Details in Structural Drawings 357-358
- Anand S. Arya
Lecture Notes

National Programme for Capacity Building for Engineers



Sponsored by

National Disaster Management Division
Ministry of Home Affairs
Government of India

December, 2006

This lecture notes are being printed for the use of teachers belonging to State Resource
Institutions identified under NPCBEERM for their use in training the practicing
Engineers from the Government Departments, private undertaking etc. No commercial
use of these notes is permitted and copies of these will not be offered for sale in any
It has been realized that most of the casualties and loss of property is mainly due to the widespread
damage/ collapse of the buildings. This is mainly due to the construction practice in our country
which is not well regulated and buildings are being constructed without earthquake resistant
consideration i.e. the IS code of practice is not followed. Civil Engineers passed out from
various engineering colleges do not study Earthquake Engineering and therefore not trained to
design earthquake resistant structures.
The Ministry of Home Affairs is the nodal Ministry for Disaster Management in the country
which has taken many important initiatives to build the capabilities at all levels necessary for
preparing and handling all types of disasters. Some of the important initiatives are (i) ensuring
that BIS Codes on disaster safety construction are followed; (ii) development of model building
byelaws incorporating the disaster prevention consideration for adoption in States and Union
Territories; (iii) introduction of Earthquake Engineering concepts in Engineering Education
Curricula etc. This has suddenly created demand for Structural Engineers and Earthquake
Engineers. Unless a large-scale capacity building programme is taken in the country, this cannot
be achieved. Therefore Ministry of Human Recourse (MHRD) has initiated National Programme
on Earthquake Engineering Education (NPEEE) for training the teachers in Engineering colleges
and Ministry of Home Affairs has undertaken National Programme on Capacity Building of
Engineers and Architects in Earthquake Risk Management. These two programmes are fully
funded by the respective Ministries. The Ministry has identified number of resource institutions
such as IIT’s; IISc; SERC Chennai; CBRI Roorkee; and BITs Pillani. Therefore, it is important
to develop suitable training material, which can be used for such programmes. This volume is
one such effort in this direction.
The course covers basic formulation of engineering seismology, theory of vibration applied to
structural dynamics, common damage to buildings during earthquakes, philosophy and principles
of earthquake resistant design and construction, earthquake resistant measures in masonry
buildings, ductility provisions for better seismic performance, Indian standard codes of practice,
seismic analysis and design of multi-storey buildings, nondestructive testing methods and repair,
restoration and retrofitting of buildings, fire safety of buildings and guidelines for cyclone resistant
This volume is a compilation of the lecture notes delivered by experienced faculty members
from Department of Earthquake Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee.
We hope that these lecture notes will be extremely useful in Capacity Building Programme on
Earthquake, Cyclone and Fire Resistant construction in the country.
The inspiration received from Dr. A.S. Arya, National Seismic Advisor in bringing out this
lecture volume is gratefully acknowledged. The financial assistance received from MHA for
printing this volume is also gratefully acknowledged.

D.K. Paul
Prof. & Head
Chapter 1

D. K. Paul
Professor, Department of Earthquake Engg., IIT Roorkee, Roorkee, 247 667

Earthquake Engineering deals with innovative ideas and knowledge in design and construction,
which are put in practice to safeguard structures from seismic forces and prevent earthquake
hazard from becoming a disaster.
The earthquakes are un-preventable and unpredictable. Earthquake causes vibratory ground
motion caused by waves originating from a source of disturbance inside the earth. These are
generally associated with active tectonic features. Large numbers of earthquakes occur but only
those earthquakes, which affect structures and disrupt the normal way of life, are of engineering
importance. The loss of life and property occurs directly from failure of structures and may also
take place due to indirect causes such as failure of water supply, fire caused by short circuiting
of electric wires or kitchen fires, release of poisonous gases, release of radiation, flooding through
failure of dams and embankments or due to tsunamis. The energy contained in different waves
of different frequencies varies significantly. When such seismic wave strikes a structure resting
on ground causes it to vibrate in horizontal and vertical directions. Intensity of vibration depends
on the relative frequencies of ground motion waves and the structure, and the energy content
associated with the frequencies. The vibratory ground motion causes additional moment and
shear in the structure. If a structure is not designed for the additional forces, the structure may
be severely damaged/ collapsed.
In this article, a brief historical development of Earthquake Engineering in India and world is
presented. The various factors contributing in the development of Earthquake Engineering are
also presented.
History of Earthquake Engineering is not well documented. It is a recent development. Most of
the major developments have taken place in the last 50 years only. The first World Conference
on Earthquake Engineering was held in 1956 in the city of Berkeley, California; second in Tokyo/
Kyoto, Japan (1960); third in Willington, New Zealand (1964); fourth in Santiago, Chile (1968);
fifth in Rome, Italy (1972), sixth in New Delhi, India (1977), seventh in Istanbul, Turkey (1981),
eighth in San Francisco, USA (1985); and the ninth in Tokyo/Kyoto, Japan (1989), the tenth in
Madrid, Spain (1922), the eleventh in Acapulco, Mexico (1986), the twelfth in Auckland, New
Zealand (1999), and Vancouver, Canada(2004).

In the 19th Century, a number of English engineers developed keen interest in earthquakes.
These include Robert Mallet (1810-81), an Irish Civil engineer and John Milne (1850-1913), a
Mining engineer. In the last Century no distinction was made between Seismology and Earth-
quake Engineering. The word "Seismology" was derived from the Greek Word "Seismo" means
"Shaking". It was coined by the engineer Mallet and covered all aspects of earthquakes. In fact
the name "Seismo-logy" means "Shaking-Knowledge" and could have been assigned to Earth-
quake Engineering itself but during the later developments, the name was used for non-engineer-
ing aspect of the subject.
Mallet in 1846 presented his first paper before the Irish Academy "On the Dynamics of Earth-
quakes" which later appeared in the Transactions of the Irish Academy, Vol. 2, 1848. This paper
described the earthquake effects and considers seismic waves and tsunamis. He also describes
his invention of the electro-magnetic seismograph. Mallet also invented the "rocking blocks" (or
falling pins) intensity meter. He also compiled a seismic map of the world, which was in use for
many years. The destructive Naples earthquake of December 16th, 1857 provided him the
opportunity to make an extensive field studies of seismic effects and wrote a detailed report
entitled "The Great Neopolitan Earthquake of 1857". He also compiled a 600-page catalog of
earthquakes. Robert Mallet was therefore responsible for the birth of both the subject of mod-
ern Seismology and the Earthquake Engineering.
Minle, Ewing and Gray together with Seikei Sekiya (1855-96), the world's first officially ap-
pointed professor of Seismology organized Seismological Society of Japan in 1880 and this earth-
quake society was the fore runner of the many National Societies of Earthquake Engineering
that make up the International Association for Earthquake Engineering. Minle was appointed
professor of Mining and Geology at the Imperial College of Engineering in Tokyo in 1882. He
designed the sensitive Seismographs. The October 28, 1891 Mino-Owari devastating earth-
quake provided him the opportunity to make extensive field studies and concerned with the
relationship between the wave motion and the damage. This has resulted in the creation of the
Imperial Earthquake Investigation Committee to look into the ways of predicting earthquakes,
measures to reduce such disaster by choice of suitable methods of construction, building materi-
als and building sites.
Minle had carried out experiments on models to test various conclusions on design and construc-
tion so as to withstand the earthquake forces better. Minle and Japanese seismologist, Professor
Omori tested high columns of bricks on a metal frame trolley. He also tested the idea of base
isolation, now much discussed in Earthquake Engineering and actually designed a building stand-
ing on cast iron balls held between metal plates which separated the building. His instruments
showed that slow moving earth movements were transmitted to the building while sudden shocks
were not. These examples are sufficient to indicate that Minle often designated as the "father of
modern Seismology" made great contribution to what came to be called Earthquake Engineering.
Messina, Italy Earthquake of December 28, 1908: The 83,000 death toll of the Messina
earthquake was the greatest number ever from an European earthquake. The government of
Italy had appointed a special committee composed of nine practicing engineers and five profes-
sors of engineering to study the earthquake and make recommendations. The recommendation
of this committee appears to be the first engineering recommendation that earthquake resistant
structures be designed by means of the equivalent static method (%g method). This contribution
is appears to have been made by M. Panetti, Professor of Applied Mechanics in Turin. He
recommended that the first storey be designed for earthquake forces equal to 1/12 the weight
above and the second and third storeys to be designed for 1/8 of the building weight above. A
Danusso, Professor of Structural Engineering at Milan, won a prize with his paper, "Statics of
Anti-Seismic Construction". The method recommended by Panetti and explained by Danusso,
gradually spread to seismic world.
On January 1, 1943, the city of Los Angeles changed its earthquake requirements so that the
seismic coefficient varied over the height of the building and was also a function of the total
height (i.e. the period of structure). This was the first time that the seismic requirement of
building code took into account the flexibility of building as well as mass. These requirements
were based on dynamic analysis of structures carried out by Martel and his students.
The first accelerographs were installed by the Seismological Field Survey of the U.S. and Geo-
detic Survey in late 1932, just in time to record the first ever strong ground shaking of the
destructive earthquake of March 10, 1933 Long Beach Earthquake. This was the most impor-
tant step in the development of Earthquake Engineering. For the first time engineers could see
the nature of strong ground shaking, the amplitude of motion, the frequency characteristics and
the duration of shaking. This was also the crucial information for dynamic analysis of engineered
Earthquake Hazard
In the first half-century, six mega earthquakes of magnitude 8+ had occurred in India. They
were the 1819 Kutch earthquake, 1897 Shillong earthquake, 1905 Kangra earthquake, 1934
Bihar-Nepal earthquake, 1941 Andaman earthquake and the 1950 Assam earthquake. In the
second half of this century, such large earthquakes have not occurred. Out of these three earth-
quakes have occurred in Himalaya and is considered prone to great earthquakes of magnitude 8
or more. The earthquakes of importance which caused damage were Anjar(1956), Kapkote(1958),
Badgam(1962), Koyna (1967), Baroach(1970), Kinnaur (1975), Pithoragarh(1980), Silchar (1984),
Dharamshala(1986), Shillong(1986), N.E. India (Indo-Burma Border (1987), Indo-Bangladesh
boundary (1988), N.E. India (1988), Bihar-Nepal(1988), Uttarkashi (1991), Latur (1993),
Jabalpur(1998), Chamauli (1999), Bhuj(2001), Kashmir (2005), Sumatra & Andaman(2004) and
Oldham in 1883 published the first authentic catalogue of Indian earthquakes from the earliest
time to the end of 1869. Indian Society of Earthquake Technology has brought out a "Catalogue
of Earthquake in India and Neighbourhood" from historical period upto 1979. A new catalogue is
under preparation which will include recent data. The earlier history of seismological setup in
India is given in Tandon (1959). The very first Milne type seismographs were installed in India in
1898 at the Colaba Observatory, Bombay.
During the past earthquakes, the main damage was due to residential houses of non-engineered
construction. These construction still dominate in severe seismic zones of the country and there-
fore wide spread damage would repeat if a major earthquake strikes again. The initial impetus
on the development of Earthquake Engineering was seen after the Koyna earthquake and
major initiatives were taken in earthquake disaster mitigation and management in the country
after the Bhuj earthquake.
Koyna Earthquake of Dec. 11, 1967
After the Koyna earthquake of Magnitude 6.5, Dec. 11, 1967 the Earthquake Engineering stud-
ies has made steady progress in this country. For the first time, a strong motion accelerogram
was recorded in one of the abutment blocks. Some cracks were developed in the Koyna dam in
the non-overflow section. A host of studies were made to understand the effects of this earth-
quake [ Jai krishna et al.(1969), Chandrasekaran et al.(1969), Saini et al.(1972)]. The State of
Maharastra carried out a program of check analysis for the various dams. The Koyna dam was
strengthened by adding buttresses on the downstream side of non-overflow sections. Analysis
indicated very high tensile stresses in the concrete. It was also realized that it is not possible to
design such dams on no-tension basis for strong motion and necessarily tensile stresses are to be
permitted in mass concrete or masonry.
Bhuj Earthquake of January 26, 2001
The major earthquake of Magnitude 7.7 of January 26, 2001, created lot awareness. After this
earthquake, there has been a paradigm shift in focus from 'reactive' relief to 'proactive' mitiga-
tion and preparedness. Numbers of initiatives were taken to strengthen disaster management
system in the country to reduce the effect of earthquake disaster. The focus is basically to build
up the capabilities at all levels necessary for preparing for and handling disasters. A road map
was drawn to reduce the vulnerability to disasters and to upgrade capabilities at all levels for
responding to disasters. Some of the important measures like amending the building bye-laws to
implement the codal provision on earthquake resistant construction; evaluation and retrofitting of
lifeline buildings and carrying out awareness generation campaigns have been undertaken at
national level.
Initiation of Earthquake Engineering Studies
The officers of the Geological Survey of India (GSI) have been studying all major earthquakes
and publishing their findings in the GSI memoirs. The publication include Oldham's classical
memoir "On the great Assam Earthquake of 1897" which gave a great impetus to seismology
throughout the world. This was perhaps the first earthquake for which a description in some
detail is available. Other important GSI memoirs are on "The Kangra Earthquake of 4th April
1905" and "The Bihar-Nepal earthquake of 1934" which are full of valuable information.
A landmark paper on Earthquake Engineering Problems in India was published by Jai Krishna in
1958 wherein he described the damageability of Indian buildings in an earthquake and methods
of improving present engineering practice and proposed design rules for earthquake resistant
structures [Jai Krishna(1958)]. With the initiative of Professor Jai Krishna an Earthquake Engi-
neering research cell was created at University of Roorkee. Professor D.E. Hudson of the

California Institue of Technology, Pasedena visited the centre as Visiting Professor. Together
with George Housner, he assisted University of Roorkee in establishing the programme in Earth-
quake Engineering. The very first Seminar on Earthquake Engineering was held at Roorkee in
1959 within 3 years after the first World Conference on Earthquake Engineering in 1956 at
Berkeley. The Seminar paved the way for establishing the School of Research and Training in
Earthquake Engineering well known as SRTEE. The status of Earthquake Engineering in India
around this period can be found in the papers of the Seminar volume.
Earthquake Engineering in an organized manner was first introduced in India in 1960 at the
School of Research and Training in Earthquake Engineering (SRTEE), University of Roorkee in
a modest way. As resolved in the Second Indian National Conference on Earthquake
Engineering in 1962, a P. G. Diploma and Master of Engineering Courses including Engineering
Seismology were started in 1963 at the University of Roorkee, which have been continuously
educating the civil and/or mechanical engineers and seismologists upto now, thus producing well
educated personnel who are serving various Government department in the Centre and States as
well as major Industrial consulting organizations in the country.
Initiatives Towards Capacity Building in Earthquake Engineering
Training programmes were being organized by SRTEE for different groups such as teachers of
engineering colleges, field engineers from PWD, bridge engineers, engineers from consulting
organization such as Engineers India Ltd. NTPC, NHPC, having durations of 1 to 3 weeks. Such
training programmes started as early as 1959 and are still continuing. A large number of engi-
neers have thus been trained in the school (Converted to Department of Earthquake Engineering
(DEQ) since 1971 and IIT Roorkee since 2001. Department is participating actively in MHRD's
National Programme on Earthquake Engineering Education (NPEEE) and MHA's National
Programme for Capacity Building of Engineers in Earthquake Risk Management (NPCBEERM)
and National Programme for Capacity Building of Architects in Earthquake Risk Management
Earthquake Disaster Mitigation through Consultancy Services
The School of Research and Training in Earthquake Engineering ( SRTEE) and later
Department of Earthquake Engineering (DEQ) have been providing consultancy to major engi-
neering projects in the country including all major dams, major bridges, petro-chemical works,
building projects, industrial undertakings including atomic power plants to the extent that com-
plete know-how has been developed in the country to carryout earthquake resistant design and
construction without seeking foreign consultancy. When the Koyna dam was cracked during the
earthquake in 1967, SRTEE provided details of rehabilitation and retrofitting of the dam in con-
sultation with the Central Water Commission. SRTEE/DEQ have carried out site specific studies
based on deterministic and probabilistic approaches taking into account historical seismicity, neo-
tectonic activity, potential seismic features, geological surveys, remote sensing photography, fault
movement monitoring and satellite imageries for developing the design seismic parameters for
more than 170 projects in India.

Research and Development
The research and development work have been carried out in all aspect of Earthquake Engi-
neering and have done some pioneering work in Earthquake Engineering Studies and catered to
the need of the country. The Structural Response Recorders (SRR) and Accelerographs were
developed at the Department of Earthquake Engineering and these were deployed in the seismic
region of the country those have provided valuable earthquake data. Several small and large
mechanical shake tables were fabricated and used to carryout testing of structures. A shock
table facility constructed using three railway wagons was found to be very useful in testing
masonry structures. Major landmark in the development of Earthquake Engineering in India is
the establishment of earthquake testing facility at Earthquake Engineering Dept., University of
Roorkee which includes a digitally controlled 20 t biaxial 3.5x3.5m computerized shake table to
test models as well as some full scale testing. It was commissioned in 1984 which greatly helped
in the seismic qualification studies of equipment and structures. The department has awarded 60
Ph.D's and currently, 30 research scholars are pursuing research leading to Ph.D degree.
Establishment of Indian Society of Earthquake Technology (ISET)
The Indian Society of Earthquake Technology was first established in 1964 with headquarter at
University of Roorkee. With a membership of about 1500 geologist, engineers and seismologist it
has provided a forum to scientist and engineers, publishing a journal and disseminating the
information on earthquake technology. The Society and SRTEE along with Institution of
Engineers (India) organized the Sixth World Conference on Earthquake Engineering in Delhi in
January 1977. The Executive Committee of the society has been recognized as the National
Committee on Earthquake Engineering for membership of the International Association of
Earthquake Engineering in which India has held the position of President as well members of
Board of Directors almost without a break
Standardization in Earthquake Engineering
Through very hard work put in by GSI, IMD and SRTEE, the first code of practice of the Indian
Standards Institution on the Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures was brought
out in 1962 as 1893-1962. Rather than using a constant seismic coefficient over the height of
structures, the concept of response spectrum was introduced in the Code. The seismic zoning of
the country was brought out in the Code, demarcated a major part of peninsular India as non-
seismic. Then through the combined effort of SRTEE, CBRI, MES and CPWD the first code on
Non-Engineered Buildings (Masonry and Wooden) was published in 1967 as IS:4326-1967. This
effort continued in revising and updating the codes upto 1984. Through largely the effort of
Department of Earthquake Engineering (Since 1971), University of Roorkee and utilizing the
international experience brought out in guidelines for Non-engineered construction (IAEE-1986),
the Code IS: 4326 was developed into four Codes and Guidelines in 1993.
Strong Motion Instrumentation
Strong motion data is the basic input used for seismic design of structures. SRTEE was the first
Institution to design and build 'strong motion accelograph' and 'multiple structural response
recorders' and install them in the length and breadth of the country. On the initiative of SRTEE
and in collaboration with NSF, USA, an array of strong motion accelographs was installed in
Shillong Plateau. SRTEE was taken as a member of the International Strong Motion Council and
recognized as focal point by Department of Science and Technology, Government of India for
strong motion studies in India and provided large scale funding for the same. As a result addi-
tional strong motion arrays have been installed in Uttaranchal hills, Himachal hills and North
Bihar. All these arrays have provided very important data on attenuation of accelerations in
these areas. These were first installed particularly in some hydroelectric projects.
It may be mentioned that presently there are 159 analog ( SMA-1 -135 and RESA-V -24)
accelographs, 54 digital (SSA-1 -3, SSA-2 -20, GSR-18 -31) accelographs and 338 multiple
structural recorders located in Seismic Zone IV & V. The region wise distribution: N.E. India
SMA-1 -45, SSA-2 -17; Himachel Pradesh SMA-1 -50, SSA-2 2, U.P. Hills SMA-1 40, SSA-1
1 and rest in Nothern Bihar and river valley project sites. There are also 338 Structural Re-
sponse Recorder (SRR) installed in high seismic region of India. The strong motion measure-
ment in the form of dense arrays in Shillong (NE India), Himalayas in Kangra (Himachel Pradesh),
Western Uttar Pradesh and North Bihar is carried out by Department of Earthquake Engineer-
ing, University of Roorkee, supported by Department of Science and Technology (DST). They
have provided valuable information of engineering importance.
Recently, under the Mission mode project DST has entrusted 300 accelerographs to IIT Roorkee
(formerly University of Roorkee) for installation in Zone III, IV and V. Out of installations
carriedout in District Headquaters about 180 accelerographs are being networked using V-SAT
whereas others are being networked through telephone lines.
Twelve buildings located in different part of the country like Delhi, Hydrabad, Ahmedabad, Pune
etc. have been completely instrumented to understand the behaviour of buildings. Many records
have been obtained such as the records of response of Post office building in Ahmedabad during
the Bhuj earthquake of January 26, 2001.
In addition to these some strong motion instruments have been installed in special structures like
dams and multi-storeyed buildings. So far more than 100 three component strong motion records
have been obtained. They have provided valuable information of engineering importance. These
give an idea of attenuation of energy as waves travel from source, peak ground acceleration
(PGA), predominant frequency and the response spectra. The introduction of digital instruments
for acquiring strong motion data is one of the major achievements, which record waves of wide
range of frequencies in a digital form with their range adjustable. These instruments have also
been fitted with absolute time recording mechanism making them immensely more useful to
seismology. The Department of Earthquake Engineering has brought out an Atlas of Strong
Motion Data in a CD.
The widespread installation of strong-motion accelerographs, together with the development of
powerful computers, has provided large amounts of data and this has posed problems of data
acquisition, data analysis, data storage, data retrieval and also data interpretation.
Micro-earthquake Studies
The micro-earthquake monitoring in a region assesses the seismic activity of known tectonic
faults or locates unknown ones lying buried deep. However, prediction of size of future major
earthquakes from studies on micro-earthquake is still far away. The first telemetered seismic
network of instrument has been installed around Tehri dam by the Department of Earthquake
Engineering to monitor the seismic activity in the region of the Tehri dam. It has already collected
valuable data for more than 15 years. The monitoring is still going on and likely to provide
valuable data during the reservoir filling. The telemetered network provides the earthquake data
at a central recording station which can be processed in shorter possible time. It helps in estimat-
ing the source parameters, study the seismicity and seismotectonics of seismically active regions
(e.g. plate boundaries, seismicity of major faults, rift zones), and attenuation characteristics of
the region, site selection, studying the reservoir induced seismicity, study of earthquake predic-
tion and determination of ambient tectonic stress of the region from the stress drop of the locally
recorded earthquakes. The digital telemetry is considered superior to analog telemetry on ac-
count of higher dynamic range, digital transmission in the form of bit stream, and ease with which
the digital data can be processed employing modern computing facilities. Micro-earthquake
studies have also been carried out for many river valley projects by the Department.
Other Important Events and Contributions
The sixth World Conference on Earthquake Engineering was held in New Delhi in January 1977.
India has been represented in various international bodies dealing with Earthquake Engineering.
Four yearly national symposiums are held at Roorkee, twelfth one was held in Dec. 1998. De-
partment of Earthquake Engineering has provided consultancy to many projects in India and
projects in SriLanka, Nepal, Iran, Yemen, Libya, Bangladesh and Bhutan. It has also participated
in UNESCO activities in Yugoslavaia and South and Southeast Asia region.
In case of earthquake, precise prediction is not possible as prediction has no meaning unless the
combined prediction "where", "when", "what size" of earthquake is precisely made. Earthquake
prediction is uncertain and can only be possible partially for certain faults. Research in earth-
quake prediction has shown abnormal ground deformation preceding a major earthquake. Other
parameters were also studied but none of them proved reliable one for prediction. Further, even
if is able to predict earthquake and consequently all the population is evacuated safely, the poor/
faulty and weak construction is bound to fail and therefore there is no substitute for earthquake
resistant construction. Successful earthquake prediction cannot eliminate earthquake hazard.
From engineering point of view, prediction of earthquake is based on importance and type of
structure, and its usable life.
Estimation of Earthquake Parameters
Major and important structures have to be protected from future strong motion earthquakes
which may occur during the life time of structure. As earthquakes cannot be predicted accu-
rately, at best earthquake parameters (i.e. magnitude, epicentral distance and focal depth) can
be predicted on the basis of available seismological and geological information about the past
activity. Improved method of estimating the earthquake parameters based on deterministic and
probabilistic approach, historical seismicity, neotectonic activity, active faults or potential seismic
features, improved technique of mapping, geological surveys, remote sensing photography, fault
movement monitoring, satellite imaginary have made the estimation of earthquake parameters
more reliable. Estimation of earthquake parameters requires both knowledge and judgment, and
it should be done only by qualified and experienced persons.
Seismic Zones
For ordinary structures it is not feasible to undertake a special development of earthquake crite-
ria for each building, instead, general design criteria are presented in the building code. For
ordinary structures, engineers may use general prediction in the form of seismically graded
zones i.e. zones of severe, moderate and light seismicity as shown in seismic zoning map of
India. Similar risk is expected in a seismic zone and accordingly earthquake force can be
Seismic design concept of a structure in many ways different because of the uncertainty of
earthquake loading. The earthquake loading can not be estimated accurately at a site and that
too is uncertain whether it would be subjected in the lifetime of the structure. Therefore, a limited
damage is allowed without permitting the collapse of the structure when subjected to the most
severe earthquake expected at the site thus ensuring safety of lives. Accepting the possibility of
damage, on the basis that it is less expensive to repair when hit by an earthquake rather than
making the structure earthquake damage proof. This concept results in an economical design,
which will be susceptible to earthquake damage but will not collapse in an event of severe
earthquake. These design criteria are also based on considerations of allowable stresses, per-
missible inelastic strain, desired factor of safety against collapse, acceptable damage etc. Intel-
ligent framing system, careful design and construction detail can vastly improve the performance
of structure to resist earthquake
The major developments in basic philosophy and principles of seismic design, development of
normalized shape of response spectra and the multiplying factor based on the attenuation rela-
tionship to obtain the design response spectra, site dependent artificial earthquakes to match the
shape of response spectra, design for strength and ductility, developments in 2D/ 3D mathemati-
cal modeling, simultaneous excitations in three cardinal directions, evaluation of modal damping,
influence of missing modes, modal combinations, soil-structure interaction and dynamic analysis
were developed in the last four decades.
For very important structures/projects such as nuclear power plants, high dams, high-rise build-
ings, long span bridges, etc. and their high cost requires high degree of safety than the ordinary
structures and therefore requires special design criteria. . Seismic design of important and com-
plicated structure is now largely possible in the country. The procedure for evaluation of seismic
parameters for Nuclear Power Plants is very stringent and comprehensive as it assumes the
worst scenario closet to the site. Atomic Energy Regulatory Board has brought out Code of
practice for Seismic Design of Nuclear Power Plants and fairly good guidance is available
through its practice. Nuclear power plant work gave impetus to analysis and design of equipment
located in building at various floor levels. As a consequence, seismic analysis and design of
nuclear power plants in seventies, the development of Earthquake Engineering was accelerated
by the need of these special projects. During this period, Nuclear power plants came up at
various sites: Narora in U.P., Kakrapar in Gujarat, Kaiga in Karnataka. It can be seen from the
foregoing that the setting of design criteria involves many elements that cannot be evaluated
precisely and therefore, it is necessary to rely on judgment. Good judgement, based on experi-
ence, should lead to a near optimum solution of the Earthquake Engineering problem.
Dams and Bridges
For dams also site dependent earthquake parameters are evaluated which was very similar to
Nuclear Power Plants. Finite element technique is used extensively in the analysis of gravity and
fill dams. Foundation-structure-reservoir interaction is considered. Various appurtenant struc-
tures like intake tower, powerhouse, spillway bridge, retaining walls, shafts are also designed for
earthquake effects. Stability of reservoir rim is also carried out. In bridges, the development of
new bearings to reduce forces on super structures is of significance. Only for a few major
bridges, site dependent earthquake parameters were used. Major industrial structures are de-
signed for site specific earthquake parameters.
For buildings, codal provisions are sufficient. The old type indigenous construction developed
over a long time through trial and error which have performed well like bamboo-ikra construction
in Assam, NE India, Dhajji Diwari in Himachal Pradesh and Kashmir; wood frame construction
with brick noggin in Himachal Pradesh and bhunga construction in Kutchch. If possible, wooden
construction should be restored in high seismic regions.
In 1930 earthquake at Dhubri, the phenomenon of friction base isolation was first observed when
the building resting on rocks which could slide were much less damaged then those which were
fixed to the ground.
Response control systems are gaining popularity. It aims in controlling the response i.e. reducing
the response by design. There are two methods of control, passive and active. Seismic base
isolation is a passive device, which has emerged as a major technique to protect buildings, and
some basic research work has been done at DEQ. It is hoped that in near future this technique
would be used widely in seismic regions. Special damping devices, active control systems are
some of other ideas are also gaining popularity.
Finite Element Method in Earthquake Engineering
The finite element method of analysis has also been important development for Earthquake
Engineering. Large numbers of sophisticated finite element softwares are now available and
being developed which are capable of solving difficult large size field problem. This has in-
creased the capability of an earthquake engineer.
Earthquakes are one of the nature's greatest hazards to life and property. As the development
takes place, city and the population grow with new construction. The number of structures and
population exposed to earthquake hazard increase. The earthquake hazard to life and property is
almost entirely with man made structures except for earthquake triggered landslide. Earthquake

hazard can be minimized with better understanding of earthquake behaviour of structures and by
careful planning, design and construction. The dissemination of knowledge to masses is also very
important in the mitigating of the earthquake hazard. The responsibility or mitigation of these
hazards rest on the joint efforts of professionals from instrumentation, geology, seismology, struc-
tural, soil and dynamics. It helps in earthquake preparedness measure also.
India faces a potential disaster during future earthquakes particularly in Himalayas, plains of
Uttar Pradesh, plains of Bihar adjacent to Nepal and in plains of Northeast India. There are wide
spread use of non-engineered construction in residential buildings of common man which are
very prone to earthquake damage. Since earthquake do not occur frequently, people tend to
forget about them so that the non-engineered construction undertaken by the common population
has shown little improvement and as result in future earthquake a greater disaster may occur.
Also many people cannot afford the additional inputs required for improving strength and they
leave it to the fate. This is because earthquake resistant construction practices are not very well
known to the commoner even though the technology is available. Any earthquake hazard mitiga-
tion program has to address this seriously. There is a need for earthquake resistant construction
particularly for lifeline structures like hospitals, water supply and emergency shelters. Still much
effort is needed to educate people about earthquake resistant construction and earthquake pro-
tection methods. Although, the code specifies how a project should be designed however lot of
seismic hazard can be minimized at the initial planning stage of the project. Considerable advan-
tage can be gained by choosing the best site/spot from the earthquake hazard point of view or the
best type of structure for that site. The local geological structures, active faults and the soil
characteristics together with the economic and social consequences of destructive earthquakes
determine the suitable location.
Though, the Code of practice is generally followed in organized sector of construction, it is not at
all followed by small private parties. Therefore, there is a need for municipal by-laws, which
should regulate earthquake resistant construction. There is a need for pre-disaster earthquake
survey and retrofitting of important public buildings having inadequate seismic strength and com-
munication links. The technical know how is available but what is need is allotment of funds.
Regions that are earthquake disaster prone must be identified and without creating scare, disas-
ter mitigation plans must be drawn and executed.
Earthquake disaster management in the country was greatly helped with the Ministry of Home
Affairs as the nodal Ministry for Disaster Management. The establishment of Authorities like
Gujarat State Disaster Management Authority (GSDMA), Orissa State Disaster Management
Authority (OSDMA), Disaster Mitigation and Management Centre (DMMC) in Uttartanchal
have greatly contributed in reducing the vulnerability and in preparing to counter disasters.
Since 1960 massive development of both the Earthquake Engineering and the computer technol-
ogy has taken place. The development of computers has been very important for development of
Earthquake Engineering. These made possible the practical analysis of accelerograms, the de-
velopment of response spectrum of earthquake motions and the design spectrum which have
played important roles in Earthquake Engineering. Computers have also made possible the cal-
culations of the dynamic response of structures to earthquake ground shaking and this has greatly
helped in our understanding of structural dynamics.
There are several important organizations apart from Department of Earthquake Engineering
(DEQ), Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee formerly Univ. of Roorkee which are involved in
various aspects of Earthquake Engineering. The Geological Survey of India (GSI) deals with
seismotectonic activities of various geological features and post disaster survey to draw isoseismals.
The Seismology Directorate of India Meteorological Department (IMD) maintains nationwide
seismological observatories, which record earthquake events. The National Geophysical
Research Institute (NGRI), Hydrabad, Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradoon and
Central Water and Power Research Station (CWPRS) -Pune, Earth Science Department,
University of Roorkee and Bhawa Atomic Research Centre study local micro-earthquake
activities. Some river valley projects and Nuclear Power Plants monitor micro-earthquake
activity of the project sites.
Some analytical and experimental research work are carried out at Central Water and Power
Research Station at Pune and at various IIT's, Indian Institute of Science- Bangalore; BHEL-
Hydrabad, BHEL ARP -New Delhi, Structural Engineering Research Centre (SERC)- Madras;
National Building organisation- New Delhi; Central Building Research Institute (CBRI)- Roorkee,
HUDCO- New Delhi; and BMTPC- New Delhi.
There is now greater awareness in design and construction organizations in India about Earth-
quake Engineering such as Public Works Departments (PWD) in centre and states, Indian Rail-
ways, Nuclear Power Corporation (NPC), National Thermal and Hydro Power Corporations,
Bharat Heavy Electricals, Engineers India Limited, Tata Consulting Engineers, Development
Consultants etc.
Through internet service National Informatics Centre for Earthquake Engineering (NICEE)
excellent work in promoting earthquake engineering in the country.
Over the past fifty years world over, there has been remarkable progress in Earthquake
Engineering studies and research. In India Earthquake Engineering studies were initiated in 1960
in a modest way with the establishment of School of Research and Training in Earthquake
Engineering, at University of Roorkee. Koyna earthquake, construction of Nuclear Power Plants,
and Dam projects in Himalayas provided great fillip to Earthquake Engineering. Bhuj
earthquake has provided great fillip in the Disaster Mitigation and Management activities in the
The knowledge of earthquake ground shaking and earthquake vibrations of structures has
undergone a great expansion. Earthquake resistant design and construction practices have
advanced substantially. Great improvements in building codes for design and construction have
been made worldwide and this will go long way in reducing loss of life and property in future
earthquakes. We are now wiser to identify where to build and how to build so that structure is
economically feasible and safe. The confidence and expertise developed over the years has
attained the level that it is self sufficient in matters of earthquake resistant design. However, the
knowledge has yet to be disseminated widely. The foregoing developments have primarily
resulted through foresight and effective planning, training of manpower, development of
curriculum for education, research, field investigation and consultancy as required to support
professional needs. Much more has to be done in the area of earthquake disaster mitigation and
management to achieve substantial disaster reduction.
Basic Concept of Seismic Codes, International Association for Earthquake Engineering,
Gakujutsu Bunken Fukyu-Kai, Tokyo 152
Bolt, Bruce A., Seismology as a Factor in Earthquake Engineering, Post Conference volume
on VIII World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, July 21-28, 1984, San Francisco,
California, USA.
Catalouge of Earthquake in India and Neighbourhood, from historical period upto 1979 (1983),
Indian Society of Earthquake Technology, Roorkee.
Chandrasekaran, A.R. Srivastava, L.S. and Arya, A.S(1969), Behaviour of Structures in
Koyna Earthquake of December 11, 1967, Indian Concrete Journal, Vol. 43, no.12, Dec.
Dewey, J. and P. Byerly, The early history of seismology, Bull. of Seismological Society, Feb.
Housner, G.W., Historical view of Earthquake Engineering, Post Conference volume on VIII
World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, July 21-28, 1984, San Francisco, California,
IS:1893-1962, Recommendations for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures, Indian Stan
dards Institution, New Delhi.
Jai Krishna (1958), Earthquake Engineering Problems in India, J. of the Institution of Engi
neers (India), Vol.XXXIX, No.1, Pt1, September, 1-31.
Jai Krishna, Chandrasekaran, A.R. and Saini, S.S.(1969), Analysis Koyna Accelerogram of
Dec. 11, 1967, Bull. Seismological Society of America, Vol. 59, No.4, Aug. 1969.
Memoir GSI, The Kangra Earthquake of 4th April, 1905, Memoirs of the Geological Survey
of India.
Memoir GSI , Report on the Bihar-Nepal Earthquake of 1934, Memoirs of the Geological
Survey of India
Memoir GSI, Report on the Great Earthquake of June 12 1897, Memoirs of the Geological
Survey of India.
Paul, D.K.(1984), Behaviour of Buildings During Earthquakes, Proc. Int. Symp. on Creation
of Awareness about Earthquake Hazards and Mitigation of Seismic Risks, ISET Roorkee
Chapter, Roorkee, November 28-29, pp 31-44.
Paul, D.K.(1997), Indian Experience in Earthquake Disaster Mitigation, J. of Indian Build
ings Congress, Vol.IV, No.1, pp. 67, 78.

Paul, D.K.(1993), Engineering Aspects of The Uttarkashi Earthquake of October 20, 1991,
National Workshop on Synthesis of Uttarkashi Earthquake of Oct.20, 1991 and Seismotectonics
of Garhwal-Kumaon Himalaya, Nov. 12-13
Paul, D.K.(1993), Earthquake Resistant Stone Masonry and Cement Concrete Block Build
ings, Workshop on Earthquake Resistant Low Cost Housing, Srinagar (Garhwal), 12-14 March
(also in Hindi).
Richter, C.F., Elementary Seismology, Freeman, 1958
Saini, S.S., Jai Krishna and Chandrasekaran, A.R.(1972), Behaviour of Koyna Dam in Dec. 11
1967 Earthquake, J. Str. Div., ASCE, Vol.98, ST7.
Tandon, A.N.(1959), Development of Seismological Organisation in India, Seminar on Earth
quake Engineering, Univ. of Roorkee, Roorkee, Feb.10-12.

Chapter 2

M. L. Sharma
Assoc. Prof., Department of Earthquake Engineering, IIT Roorkee, 247667

An earthquake is a series of vibrations on the earth's surface caused by the generation of elastic
(seismic) waves due to sudden rupture within the earth during release of accumulated strain
energy. Faulting may be considered as an immediate cause of an earthquake. Earthquakes are
one of the most powerful natural forces that can disrupt our daily lives. The science dealing with
earthquakes is called seismology. The Earthquakes occur due to finite physical sources buried
below the surface of the earth. These sources generate band-limited signals, which are recorded
at the surface of the earth by seismic instruments. The medium through which these signals
propagate, i.e., the Earth, acts as a filter (Fig.1.1).

Earthquake Earth / medium of
Source propagation

[Input: Band Limited signal] [Band Pass filter] [Output signal]
Fig. 1. Earth as a filter

Earthquakes are usually caused when rock below the earth’s
surface suddenly breaks along a fault. This sudden release of
energy causes the seismic waves that shake the ground. When
two blocks of rock or two plates rub against each other, they
stick partially. In other words they don't slide smoothly and catch
on each other. The rocks while pushing against each other do
not move. After a while, the rocks break up because of the
intense pressure built up. Eventually when the rocks break, the
earthquake occurs. During the earthquake and afterwards, the
plates or blocks of rock start moving, and they continue to move
until they get stuck again. The Ried's theory of elastic rebound
explains the cause of earthquakes as in fig 2. Fig. 2 Theory of elastic rebound
The spot below the surface where the rock breaks is called the focus (Fig. 3) of the earthquake.
The region right above the focus (on top of the ground) is called the epicenter of the earthquake.
The epicenter is the point on the earth's surface vertically above the hypocenter (or focus), the
point in the crust, where a seismic rupture begins.

Fig 3. Epicenter and focus of earthquake

Tectonics is a greek word meaning force. In tectonics, the forces of the nature, which are
responsible for the tectonic and geological set up of the region and result in form of earthquakes,
are studied. The tectonics associated with the seismicity of the region is called as seismotectonics.
Plate tectonics deals with the earthquake occurrence, which are due to the movements of the
lithospheric plates. More than ninety percent of the seismicity is due to the movement of the
lithospheric plates.
Earthquakes occurrence over the globe is not uniformly distributed but occur predominantly in
well-defined narrow seismic zones. These narrow zones mainly consist of the circum-Pacific,
the Alpine-Himalayan belt and the world-circling oceanic ridges. The occurrence of earthquakes
can be explained with the help of Plate tectonics theory. Plate tectonics provide valuable insight
into the mechanisms by which the earth's crust and mantle have evolved. Plate tectonics is a
unifying model that attempts to explain the origin of patterns of deformation in the crust, earth-
quake distribution, continental drift, and mid-ocean ridges, as well as providing a mechanism for
the Earth to cool. Two major premises of plate tectonics are: firstly, the outermost layer of the
Earth, known as the lithosphere, behaves as a strong, rigid substance resting on a weaker region
in the mantle known as the asthenosphere. And secondly, the lithosphere is broken into numerous
segments or plates that are in motion with respect to one another and are continually changing in
shape and size.
These seismic zones divide the lithosphere laterally into tectonic plates (Fig. 4). There are 12
major plates (Antarctica, Africa, Eurasia, India, Australia, Arabia, Philippines, North America,
South America, Pacific, Nazca, and Cocos) and few minor plates (e.g., Scotia, Caribbean, Juan
de Fuca, etc.). The parental theory of plate tectonics, seafloor spreading, states that new lithos-
phere is formed at ocean ridges and moves away from ridge axes with a motion like that of a
conveyor belt as a new lithosphere fills in the resulting crack or rift. The mosaic of plates, which
range from 50 to over 200 km thick, are bounded by ocean ridges, subduction zones, and trans-
form faults (boundaries along which plates slide past each other).

Fig 4 The major and minor lithospheric plates
There are three main plate tectonic environments: extensional, transform, and compressional
(Fig. 5). These environments are also called normal, reverse and strike-slip faults respectively.
Plate boundaries in different localities are subject to different inter-plate stresses, producing
these three types of faults that cause earthquakes. Each type has its own special hazards. The
crust moves along cracks called faults. A fault is a break in the earth's crust. The earth can move
in different directions depending on the type of fault.
Tension, a pulling force that causes the plates to move apart, can create a normal fault. The
rocks above a normal fault move downward as the plates below the fault move upward. When
the earth's plates come together, they produce compression forces that push on rocks from
either side. Sometimes the rocks bend. In other cases, they break and one rock slides up over the
other. In a reverse fault the rock above the fault slides up over the rock below the fault. At a
strike-slip fault, the rocks on either side of the fault slide past each other. This sliding force is
called shearing. As the plates slide past each other, the forces bend and twist the land.
Sometimes the land gets caught as it slides. When it releases or breaks, an earthquake occurs.

Fig. 5. Different types of faults due to which earthquakes occur (In each fault are shown two
blocks of earth surface rubbing or pushing over each other)

Tectonic framework of the Indian subcontinent covering an area of about 3.2 million is
spatio-temporally varied and complex (Fig. 6). Three distinctive morphotectonic provinces can
however be generalised as i) Himalaya and the Tertiary mobile belts of the east (Indo-Burma
range) and west (Suleiman-Kirthar fold belt), ii) the Indo-Gangetic Foredeep and iii) the Penin-
sular Shield, all of which are characterised by distinctive stratigraphic, tectonic and deep crustal
features with wide ranging tectonic histories. The
Himalayan region dominated by compressional tectonics marks the largest active continent-
continent collision zone that has witnessed four great earthquakes during the last century. The
Peninsula, in marked contrast is a mosaic of Archaean nucleus with its peripheral Proterozoic
mobile belts sutured and cratonised during late Proterozoic, followed by development of late
Paleozoic intracontinental rift related basins along Precambrian sutures. Cretaceous volcanism
and formation of rift-drift Mesozoic passive coastal basins have added to the complexity of the
Peninsular shield.
Fig. 6 Tectonic Map of India and Neighboring Areas (Eremenko and Negi (1968) and
Valdiya (1973)).
Seismic waves are the waves of intense energy caused by the sudden breaking of rock within
the earth or an explosion. They represent the energy that travels through the earth and is
recorded on seismographs. The two main types of waves are body waves and surface waves.
Body waves can travel through the earth's inner layers, but surface waves can only move along
the surface of the earth like ripples on water. Earthquakes radiate seismic energy as both body
and surface waves.
The first kind of body wave is the P wave or primary wave (Fig. 7). This is the fastest kind of
seismic wave. The P wave can move through solid rock and fluids, like water or the liquid layers
of the earth. It pushes and pulls the rock, it moves through, just like sound waves push and pull
air. P wave reaches the seismogram first and is recorded as the first seismic recording. Hence
the detection of P waves for seismic warning systems is of utmost importance.

Fig. 7. P-wave or primary wave (The arrow shows the direction in which the wave is moving).

The second type of body wave is the S wave or secondary wave (Fig. 8), that is the second
wave felt in an earthquake. An S wave is slower than a P wave and can only move through solid
rock. This wave moves rock up and down, or side-to-side.

Fig. 8. S-wave or secondary wave (The arrow shows the direction in which the
wave is moving )
The first kind of surface wave is called a Love wave (Fig. 9), named after A.E.H. Love, a
British mathematician who worked out the mathematical model for this kind of wave in 1911. It's
the fastest surface wave and moves the ground from side-to-side (shown in Fig 9 with small

Fig. 9 Love wave (The arrow shows the direction in which the wave is moving).
The other kind of surface wave is the Rayleigh wave (Fig.10), named after John William Strutt,
Lord Rayleigh, who mathematically predicted the existence of this kind of wave in 1885. A
Rayleigh wave rolls along the ground (shown in Fig. 10 with rotating circle) just like a wave rolls
across a lake or an ocean. Because it rolls, it moves the ground up and down and side-to-side in
the same direction that the wave is moving. Most of the shaking felt from an earthquake is due
to the Rayleigh wave, which can be much larger than the other waves.

Fig. 10 Rayleigh wave (The arrow shows the direction in which the wave is moving).

Seismologists study earthquakes by observ-
ing the site of occurrence, assessing the
damage caused by the earthquakes, and by
using seismographs. A seismograph is an
instrument that records the shaking of the
earth's surface caused by seismic waves.
Most of the seismographs used today are
electronic devices, but a basic seismograph
(Fig. 11 ) is made of a drum with paper on
it, a bar or spring with a hinge at one or both
ends, a heavy mass, and a pen. The one
end of the bar or spring is bolted to a pole or
metal box that is bolted to the ground. As
the drum and paper shake next to the pen,
the pen makes squiggly lines on the paper,
creating a record of the earthquake. This
record made by the seismograph is called a
Seismogram. .

The seismograms are used to locate the
earthquakes and to estimate the energy
released from the event in terms of Fig. 11.The Basic Seismograph
magnitude of the earthquake. The earthquake hypocenter is located based o the arrival of
primary and secondary waves at different stations recording the earthquake.
The size of the earthquake is measured in terms of magnitude; generally the magnitude reported
is Richter magnitude, which is defined as the log10 of the maximum amplitude, recorded (in
microns) at a distance of 100 km on Standard Wood Anderson Seismograph.
It is a number that characterizes the relative size of an earthquake. Several scales have been
defined, but the most commonly used are (i) Local magnitude (ML ), commonly referred to as
"Richter magnitude," (ii) Surface wave magnitude (MS), which is measured based on surface
wave amplitudes (iii) Body -wave magnitude (MB), which is measured based on body wave
magnitudes and (iv) Moment magnitude (MW ) which is measured based on the fault area and the
Earthquake magnitude is a measure of the amount of energy released during an earthquake.
Depending on the size, nature, and location of an earthquake, seismologists use several different
methods to estimate magnitude. Since magnitude is representative of the earthquake itself, there
is thus only one magnitude per earthquake. But magnitude values given by different seismologi-
cal observatories for an event may vary depending on the magnitude scale used.

The effect of earthquake at any place is measured in terms of its intensity on a XII point MMI
scale (Modified Mercalli Intensity). Thus the Richter scale measures the energy released in an
earthquake by measuring the size of the seismic waves and the Mercalli scale measures the
results of an earthquake, such as the shaking and damage that people actually feel and observe.
The instrument which records the strong ground
motion is called as accelerograph as shown in
Fig. 12.

Fig. 12 Strong motion accelrograph
The record produced is known as accelerogram. The characteristics of accelerogram are shown
in Fig. 13.

Fig. 13. Strong Motion record - Accelerogram
An accelerogram is a time history of acceleration composed of non-periodic sequences of accel-
eration pulses. The maximum amplitude of the pulses is often taken as a measure of severity of
ground shaking. An accelerogram is composed of pulses of different durations and therefore, not
only the peak of amplitude but also the frequency content of the record is necessary in charac-
terization of accelerogram. The temporal evolution of accelerogram is composed of three parts
namely, rise time, strong motion and decay time. The effect of ground shaking is mostly depen-
dent on duration of strong ground motion part. The accelerograms are richer in high frequencies
as we go nearer to the causative fault. The high frequency components attenuate faster than the
low frequency components, therefore the contribution of high frequency component is reduced
in the accelerograms at larger distances. The amplitude of ground acceleration decreases with
increasing distance from the earthquake source. The ground velocity and the displacement can
be obtained by direct integration of the accelerogram.

Chapter 3

D.K. Paul
Professor, Department of Earthquake Engineering, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667

Every structure vibrates under external excitation and mostly depends on its mass, stiffness,
damping and boundary conditions. All of these parameters can be expressed by a single param-
eter frequency ' f 'or time period ' T 'of vibration. The mass of a structure is obtained by dividing
weight 'W' of structure, by acceleration due to gravity 'g'. The stiffness 'k' is a structural
property defined as force 'F' per unit deflection ' δ ' as shown in Fig.1.

The vibration of structure depends upon the degree of freedom of vibration. The number of
independent deflections required to define the complete vibration of a structure is called the
degree of freedom of structure. The vibration of a structure shown in Fig.1 can be define by a
single displacement ' δ ' and therefore can be defined as Single independent Degree of Freedom
System (SDOFS).


mass , m =

Stiffness , k =
Fixed or pinned Boundary

Fig.1 Mass-spring system

Time period of vibration of pendulum i.e the time taken by the pendulum to complete one
complete cycle is given by

1 l
T= (1)
2π g

where, 'T' is the time period of vibration in sec; l is the length of the string and 'g ' is the
acceleration due to gravity.

Figure 2 shows the vibration of a pendulum of length l and mass m . The time period is not
influenced by the mass of the pendulum. The frequency of the pendulum is related to time period
of vibration as

f = cycles/ sec (2)
and the frequency p in radian/sec is given as

p = 2π f radians/sec (3)

extreme position

m m


Fig.2 Vibration of a pendulum of length

Vibration characteristics of structures can be worked out by idealizing the structure as a spring-
mass system. For example an overhead water tank can be idealized as a Single Degree of
Freedom System (SDOFS) as shown in Fig.3.

Heavy mass m m

Mass of tank with water and
part column mass

Stiffness of circular shape

Assumed fixed at foundation

pile providing

Fig.3 Vibration of a overhead tank
The overhead water tank supported on circular shaft can be idealized by simple mass lumped at
the c.g of the tank and by a continuous beam as shown above. The full weight of the overhead
tank, part of the weight of circular staging shaft (1/3 of the total weight of the shaft) and the
weight of the water inside the tank are assumed to be lumped at the c.g of the tank. Since the
tank is resting on pile foundation, the shaft can be considered fixed at the top of the pile cap. So
the lumped mass 'm' at c.g. can be worked as:

m = (Wtan k + W shaft + Wwater ) g (4)

where, Wtan k is the weight of the tank, Wshaft is total weight of the supporting shaft, Wwater is
the weight of water contributing to the vibration.

The stiffness ' k 'of the cantilever circular shaft fixed at the base can be worked out as

k= 3 (5)

where E is the modulus of elasticity, I is the moment of inertia and h is the height of the
cantilever shaft.
The undamped frequency of vibration can therefore can be worked as

1 k
f = (6)
2π m
Say, the spring constant is
k = 0.338 kg cm
The mass m is

4 .5 kg − sec 2
920 cm

1 k 1 0.338 × 920
f = =
2π m 6.28 4.5
= 1.32 sec −1

L0 + δ st
k δ st

x Fs

Here the mass moves in a vertical directions and its position is specified by a coordinate x
position down ward. In minimum case it is convenient to fix the origin o at the position of static
equilibrium of the mass m . In this position the length of the string is L0 + δ st where δ st is the
static deflection i.e. the elongation of the spring due to the weight w .
w = kδ st (7)

To derive the equation of motion of the system we consider in figures the force acting on in at
this position are shown in fig. The spring force

m x&& = k x = 0 (8)

From Newton's second law the equation of motion is

x + Fs + w = −k x − kδ st + w
m && (9)

it reduces to

m x&& + k x = 0 (10)

From the above explanation we conclude that when a mass moves in a vertical direction we can
ignore its weight provided that we choose the origin of the coordinate x at the position O of
static equilibrium. The weight w is balanced by the spring force due to the static deflection δ st
. The spring constant.

w mg
k= = (11)
δ st δ st

Substituting we get,
δ st
T = 2π (12a)

1 g
f = (12b)
2π δ st
Thus when the mass moves in a vertical direction, measurement of the static deflection δ st
enable us to compute the period and frequency of vibration of the system. It is not necessary that
we know the mass m or the spring constant k .

Vibration of a r.c. frame building as shown in Fig.4 can be idealized as Multi Degree of Freedom
System (MDOFS). The slab of 5.0mx5.0m size and thickness of 0.1m is resting on four r.c.
columns of equal size 0.3mx04m. The clear height of the columns is 3.0m. The columns are
assumed fixed at the base.

Material properties

E = 25000000 kN / m2
ν = 0.2
ρ = 23.56 kN / m 3 Z

Fig.4 R.C. frame structure

If the beams and slab are considered flexible, then the structure can be idealized as 2D portal
frame in the direction of the vibration as shown in Fig.5.


yg L

Fig.5 2D idealized portal frame

The stiffness of the portal frame can be worked out as

 I L
 6+ c 
6 EI  I bh 
k = 3c  
h  3 + I cL  (13)
 2 I b h 

where I c is the moment of inertia of column section in the direction of vibration, I b is the
moment of Inertia of the beam section, L is the span of the portal frame and h is the height of
the portal frame.

If the slab is considered rigid then each column will undergo same amount of deformation. This
assumption leads to simplification which means the moment of inertia of beam I b can be taken
as infinity, therefore (7) reduces to



yg L

Fig.6 Rigid floor idealization

24 EI c
k= 3 (14)
Therefore structure can further be idealized as a mass and spring system. The half floor weight
and half the weight of the two columns will constitute the lumped mass at the center of the floor
slab. The stiffness of each column can be added to get the total stiffness as given in (8). The
various forces acting on the free vibrating mass will be the forces due to the stiffness, damping
forces and inertia forces.




yg y


m m (&y&+ &y&g )

Fig.7 Lump mass spring model idealization

If y is the deflection of the mass then the spring/ restoring force will be k y acting opposite to
the motion.
Restoring force = k y (15)
The damping force also acts opposite to the motion and is assumed to be proportional to velocity
of the moving mass.
Damping force = c y& (16)

where c is the damping coefficient and y& is the velocity of the vibrating mass.

The inertia forces acting on the mass is the product of mass and absolute acceleration and acts
opposite to the motion.

Inertia force = m ( y g + y ) = m( &y&g + &y&) (17)
dt 2

where ( &y&g + &y&) is the absolute acceleration of the mass and &y&g is the ground or support
acceleration and &y& is the acceleration of the mass relative to the support or ground.
Equilibrium of forces gives the equation of motion of the system as follows:

m ( &y&g + &y&) + c y& + k y = 0 (18)

which can be expressed as:

m &y& + c y& + k y = −m &y&g
(19)This shows structures subjected to base or ground motion is subjected to a force equivalent
to product of mass and ground or base acceleration. For undamped free vibration, the damping
and ground or base motion will vanish and the equation can be expressed as:

m &y& + k y = 0 (20)

Assuming solution y = a sin pt and substituting in the above equation, undamped frequency is
obtained as:

p= (21)
For mutidegree freedom system, the equation of motion can be expressed as:

M &y& + C y& + K y = − M &y& (22)

where M , C , K are the mass, damping and stiffness matrices of the structure and y is the
vector of independent displacements. The undamped free vibration of multi degree freedom
system can be expressed as:

M &y& + K y = 0 (23)

Assuming a solution y = aφ sin pt where φ is the vector normalized displacements. Substi-
tuting y results in eigen value problem.

Kφ = λ M φ (24)

The time periods of vibration for structural system shown in Fig.4 are compared with the ETABS
solution in Table 1. The time periods compare very well.

Table 1 – Time periods of vibration of structure (Fig.4) and a comparison with ETAB
Direction Mass Stiffness Time Time period
(kN.sec 2/m) (kN/m) period(sec) (sec)
Translation in X direction (horizontal) 6.00 71112.0 0.0600 0.0610
Tortional motion about Z-axis 58.00 597349.5 0.0620 0.0690
Translation in X direction (horizontal) 6.00 40000.0 0.0770 0.0790
Translation in X direction (horizontal) 6.00 4000000.0 0.0077 0.0077

Chapter 4

D.K. Paul
Professor, Department of Earthquake Engineering, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667

The observations of structural performance of buildings during earthquakes provide volumes of
information about the merits and demerits of the design and construction practices in a region
since it is based on the actual test on prototype structures. The study helps in the evaluation of
strengthening measures of buildings and modifying the provisions of the modern code of practice
with minimum additional expenditure.

Numerical techniques have made great stride in Earthquake Engineering and it is important to
critically evaluate the validity of these techniques by the experience of instrumented buildings
during actual strong motion earthquakes which are generally carried out experimentally using
earthquake simulators.

The numerous buildings suffered severe damage in Caracas during the Venezuela earthquake
(1967) which were designed according to modern methods as reported by Borges et al.(1969)
and Degenkolb et al. (1969). Similar experiences were observed in many other earthquakes.
This is the cause for great concern and there is a need for better understanding of the behaviour
of buildings during some important earthquakes has been carried out. Finally, the important les-
sons from the damage behaviour of buildings during earthquakes are summarised.

The indirect damages of buildings during earthquakes are some times far greater than the dam-
ages due to earthquake itself, such as, out break of fire, rock fall, landslide, avalanche and
tsunamis. However, these damages are not due to inadequacies in the design and planning and
therefore, not discussed here.

A description of behaviour of buildings during different earthquakes throughout the world are
summarised here for simple reason that they provide good engineering information about the
behaviour of structures and helps in evolving its strengthening measures. In many cases, illus-
trates the effectiveness of earthquake resistant measures.

Lisbon (Portugal) earthquake of Nov.1, 1755
It has the maximum intensity of X on Modified Mercalli (MM) scale of Lisbon. Nearly 15,000
buildings in the city collapsed and some 60,000 people were killed. The large scale disaster was
largely aggravated by the narrow streets where it was practically impossible to prevent the rapid
spread of fires and the piling up of debris. There were three shocks in all, the first was the most
severe shock and there was not a single stone building remained intact, thirty-to monasteries and
53 palaces were also destroyed; (Poliyakov, 1974).
Rann of Kutch earthquake of June 16th, 1819
This devastating earthquake occurred on 16th June 1819 between 6.45 and 6.50 pm resulting in
nearly 1543 deaths and huge loss of property. It was felt in Ahmedabad, Porbondar, Jaisalmer,
Bhuj etc. In Bhuj alone more than 7000 houses were damaged. The houses built on low rocky
ridges suffered less damage whereas houses founded on a slope leading to plain of spring and
swamps were completely ruined. The Anjar earthquake of 21st July 1956 of Magnitude 7 in this
region also caused considerable property damage. There was total devastation for kutcha-pucca
Bihar-Nepal earthquake of August 26, 1833
A violent earthquake of Magnitude 7.0 - 7.5 struck on August 26, 1833 between 5.30 and 6.00
pm (IST) killing 414 people in Nepal and several hundred in India with severe damage at
Kathmandu, Bhatgaon, Khokha and Patan in Nepal, and Monghyer and Purnea district in India.
At Bhatgaon a loss of 2000 houses (i.e. 42%) were reported. The maximum intensity reported
was IX.
Assam (India) earthquake of June 12,1897
The magnitude was estimated to be greater than 8.5 and responsible for 1542 deaths. It occurred
at 5.15 local time. The peak ground acceleration was estimated to have reached 50 of gravity. It
is one of the greatest earthquake of the world. All the stone and brick buildings were destroyed
over an area of 370,000 sq kms. (Tandon and Srivastava,1974). Some of the buildings sank into
the ground upto their roofs due to liquefaction of soil. The traditional Ikra type of construction of
building of Assam showed good performance.
Great Kangra earthquake of April 4, 1905
This earthquake of Magnitude greater than 8.0 occurred at 6.0 hrs 20.0m (IST) with its epicen-
ter at 32.25N, 76.25E. The maximum MM intensity X was observed in the epicentral region had
taken a toll o 20,000 lives. The buildings were built of sun dried bricks and some times with stone
foundations raised about 15 cm above ground. Roofs were normally of slates but thatch was also
used. The damage were severe, the houses became a heap of sun dried bricks, slates and rafter.
San Francisco (California, USA) Earthquake of April 18, 1906
The earthquake had a magnitude of 8.3 and about 700 to 800 people died. Buildings on hard
ground received comparatively minor damage such as collapsed chimneys, shattered windows.

However, load bearing structural elements were not seriously damaged. Structures erected on
soft ground were severely damaged. Destruction of brick buildings was very severe with walls
and entire sections collapsing. Damage to structures on filled up ground was especially severe
due to differential settlements. The tall buildings resting on piles withstood the earthquake well
and it provided the first test of multistorey steel frame buildings. Extensive nonstructural damage
was common but none of these multistorey buildings were so heavily damaged so as to be
unsafe. Wood frame construction performed very well. Unreinforced sand-lime mortar brick
bearing walls performed poorly. During the earthquake, most of the fire station buildings in the
city were destroyed. The fires which were caused by the destruction of burning stoves and short
circuits in electric wires lasted three days, (Wiegel, 1970).
Messina (Sicily) earthquake of Dec. 28, 1908
It has the maximum intensity of x on MM scale. Peak ground acceleration was 208 of gravity. In
the past this city had been repeatedly subjected to severe earthquakes. During this earthquake,
100,000 people (according to some data- 160,000) were killed, 98 percent of the buildings were
completely destroyed (Polyakov,1974).
The reason for such disastrous consequences was primarily very poor quality of construction.
The walls of the buildings were made of quarry stone laid in a weak lime mortar, no special
earthquake proof measures had been taken. The ground conditions were not also suitable. The
buildings were erected on loose alluvium and highly weathered crystalline rock.
Kanto (Japan) earthquake of Sept. 1, 1923
The peak ground acceleration was about 50% of gravity. It destroyed the Tokyo and Yokohama
cities. The earthquake and the fires that followed caused the death of over 140,000 people with
just as many injured. The number of buildings destroyed were 1,286,261 and 447,128 buildings
were destroyed by fire. Damage was specially severe in places where structures were built on
loose alluvium and appreciably less on firm ground (Okamoto, 1973).
This earthquake illustrates the great influence of ground on the intensity of earthquake. the
advantages of structural frame systems and serious shortcoming of brick construction were
clearly established. Thus, for example, out of 710 reinforced concrete frame buildings, which
were carefully investigated by Japanese specialists, 69 buildings (9.7%) was damaged and 16
buildings (2.2%) were collapsed. Where as out of 485 brick buildings with load bearing brick
walls 47 buildings (9.7%) were completely destroyed and 383 buildings (79%) were severely
damaged. On the basis of these studies, the maximum height of brick buildings was limited to 9
m in Japan.
Santa Barbara (California, USA) earthquake of June 29,1925
It had the magnitude of 6.3 on Richter scale. Substantial damage was observed in buildings
constructed of unreinforced brick with lime mortar. In the residential area, most of the buildings
were of wood frame and found to have performed well. However, there was occasional failure
due to lack of bracing or rotten structural wood. (Inard 1925 and Wiegel 1970).

Long beach (California, USA) earthquake of March 10, 1933
It had the magnitude of 6.3 on Richter scale. Earthquake bracing provisions in USA were incor-
porated in the earthquake resistive design after this earthquake. Buildings with walls of brick
masonry having sand-lime mortar with wood roofs and floors suffered severe damage. After the
1933 long beach earthquake the practice of unreinforced brick construction in USA ended,
(Wiegel, 1970).
The larger wood frame dwellings had serious damages due to failure at or near the foundation
level which was attributed to lack of bracing. However, the performance of wood frame build-
ings was excellent as compared to other materials. Out of the 4575 wood frame residences
studied in Compton, about 95% of them had less than 5% damage. Multistorey building damage
was common in Long Beach and in Los Angeles. The damage were greater in the lower stories.
Pounding damage between multistorey buildings were frequently noted. Few buildings designed
for earthquake forces have performed well.
Great Bihar earthquake of Jan. 15, 1934
His disastrous earthquake of Magnitude 8.4 occurred at 2.0 pm with its epicenter at 26.5N,
86.5E in which nearly 11,000 lives were lost. The areas affected have been found scattered
within a region of 48,60,000 sq km. There was complete damage to all the masonry buildings.
Landslides have occurred in the mountain areas near Kathmandu, Udaipur, Garji and eastern
Nepal. Large scale liquefaction was also reported in Purnea where houses have been tilted and
sunk into the ground. At many places sand and water fountains erupted (Memoir GSI, 1934,
Tandon and Srivastav, 1974).
Fukui (Japan) earthquake of June 28, 1948
The earthquake of magnitude 7.2 occurred at 4.0 a.m. The peak acceleration of 0.6 g was
observed and the focal depth of 15 kms was estimated. During the earthquake 5268 people were
killed and 35,437 structures were destroyed. Forty six out of forty seven reinforced concrete
frame (cast in-situ) buildings upto 9 stories high survived the earthquake well. One building
which was completely destroyed was attributed to errors in calculations (Okamoto, 1973).
Ashkhabad (USSR) earthquake of October 6, 1948
It had the maximum intensity of IX on MM scale. The epicentral distance (D) to Ashkhabad was
about 30 kms and the focal depth (h) was 40 kms. First there was a strong vertical shock
followed by horizontal vibrations which lasted 10 seconds. The city suffered great destruction,
especially buildings with sun dried and burnt brick walls. The main characteristic was the very
poor bond between the bricks and mortar for all type of buildings. The collapse of these buildings
was primarily due to the poor quality of the concrete in the frame elements (the grade was often
lower than 100), the absence of stirrups at the joints and other structural defects. The Ashkhabad
earthquake showed that high earthquake resistance of cast in situ reinforced concrete structural
elements was observed when high quality of construction was used. (Polyakov, 1974).

Tajikistan (USSR9 earthquake of July 10, 1949
A enormous avalanche of rock crashed down and the entire village was buried under a pile of
stones reaching a height of about 12 meters. The lessons of the earthquake the danger shown
the dander to settlements on the slopes of mountains where landslides are anticipated, (Polyakov,
Great Assam earthquake of 1950
The devastating earthquake of Magnitude 8.5 on Richter scale occurred at 14 hrs 09 m 30s
(GMT) with epicenter 28.5n, 97.0E having a depth of focus of about 15 km. An area of nearly
46,000 sq km suffered extensive damage. The epicenter of the shock was located on the unin-
habited part just outside the north east boundary of India. It caused great destruction to property
in north eastern Assam.
Kern Country (Southern California, USA) earthquake of July 21, 1952
The shock had a magnitude of 7.7. It was the first major earthquake to test the earthquake
resistant buildings in USA. Wood frame buildings withstood the earthquake well, however, minor
plaster cracks and damage to unreinforced brick chimneys were observed, (Degenkolb, 1955
and Wiegel, 1970).
All steel structures had almost negligible damage. In multistorey steel structures, the nonstructural
damage was considerable. Reinforced concrete structures had minor damages. The damage
was in the form of cracking of nonstructural partitions etc. Poor quality of reinforced concrete
construction showed significant damage. There was no cases of complete collapse or near
collapse of a multistorey building even when poorly designed and built. Precast reinforced
concrete structure failed due to failure of joints. One story reinforced concrete structures having
precast walls with poured in reinforced concrete columns performed well. Severe damage was
seen in buildings constructed of sand lime mortar. Reinforced brick walls performed well.
Mexico city earthquake of July 28, 1957
The maximum intensity of VII was recorded at Mexico city. It is situated on highly
water-saturated clay with low bearing capacity. Under the layer of clay is a layer of compact
sand 3-9 m thick. Before the earthquake, many of the buildings in Mexico city that were not built
on piles, were damaged due to settlement which was aggravated by pumping out of water for the
water supply system. The above mentioned damages to buildings unquestionably increased the
damages due to the earthquake (Rosenblueth, 1960).
Thornley and Albin (1957) examined the damage of buildings on a small area of the city. On the
analysis of 46 buildings on a small area of the city subjected to the severest shock. Most of the
buildings were multistorey and had fairly similar conditions as regards their base and its vibration
during the earthquake. Special attention was paid to the design of the foundations of the buildings
which were divided into five groups. Of these five groups, these are built on piles driven to the
level of compact sand (to a depth of 33.5 m). In the design of one of the types of pile foundations,
the building did not rest on the piles but was suspended form them by means of bolts and cross-
members. Among the 46 buildings considered, 7 buildings had 15 or more stories, one of which
was a 43 story building. this steel skeleton building (Tower Latino America) was built on pile
foundations. Of the five types of foundations considered, the foundation supported on concrete
piles have performed well and is recommended for earthquake resistant buildings (including
multistorey) even when ground conditions were as unfavourable as they were in Mexico city.
Among the various structures, buildings with steel or reinforced-concrete frames and with
monolithic reinforced concrete stiffening diaphrams showed good performance.
The earthquake in Mexico city showed that properly designed tall and high rise buildings have a
sufficiently high resistance to earthquakes of moderate size. None of the buildings with more
than 14 stories collapsed while 23 and 43 story buildings were not even damaged. On the other
hand some much lower buildings were completely destroyed.
Agadir (Morocco, Africa) earthquake of February 29, 1960
It had a magnitude of 5.5 and the maximum intensity recorded was XI. The focal depth
estimated to 3 kms and epicentral distance to 1 km. It practically destroyed the whole city
situated in the coast of the Atlantic ocean in the north-western part of Africa. During the
earthquake 12,000 people died and 12,000 injured. There was nearly total destruction of buildings
(Polyakov, 1974).
The buildings erected in Agadir were not designed to resist earthquakes. Most of them were not
even designed to resist winds. The majority of the buildings had nonreinforced load bearing walls
which had poor bond between mortar and brick (stone) and was the main reason for almost total
destruction of buildings.
The energy release during this earthquake was primarily in a single pulse as in Eureka, Califor-
nia, Earthquake of December 21, 1954. The full engineering implication of an earthquake releas-
ing its energy in a single pulse are not well understood and the subject obviously needs more
study. Although the size of earthquake was small, the damage to Agadir city lying over the
epicentre, was devastating.
Chile (South America) earthquake of May 1960
The series of shocks began on May 21 with the largest shock of magnitude 7.5. This was
followed by several more shocks, four of the largest having magnitudes from 6.5 to 7.8. On May
22, a larger shock occurred with magnitude 8.5. During the following month there were 50
shocks with magnitudes from 5 to 7.
A total of 450,000 buildings were severely damaged of which 45,000 were completely destroyed
and more than 1000 persons were killed. It was possible to study the performance of the modern
buildings which were designed according to country's earthquake resistant construction
The severe damages were due to old buildings with plain brick walls which were apparently
weakened by the previous earthquakes. Such wall construction in Chile is not permitted by
current regulations. Buildings with reinforced brick and concrete walls behaved much better.
Better earthquake resistance of reinforced concrete frame walls with brick cladding and wood
frame walls were observed.
The performance of a steel framed three-story building presented considerable interest. In lon-
gitudinal and transverse directions provision was made for diagonal bracing (on the first story in
both directions). During the May 21 earthquake, the building was not damaged but the bracing
was damaged at the joints with the columns. Therefore, during the May 22, tremor, the building
was without bracing as a result of which its rigidity was sharply reduced (The fundamental time
period changed from 0.8 to 1.06 s). Despite the decrease in stiffness of the building in horizontal
direction it did not receive any damage during another stronger earthquake. It was apparently
the reduced rigidity of the building, which attracted less inertia forces, and consequently survived
the earthquake.
Skopje (Yugoslavia) earthquake of July 26, 1963
A total of 1700 people lost their lives and 3300 injured. During the earthquake (M=6.0, h=10 km,
D=10 km) 8.5 percent of the buildings were completely destroyed, 33.7 percent of the buildings
were so seriously damaged that they could not be restored, [BERG et al., (1964) and Polyakov,
One story old small buildings with bearing walls of sun dried or burnt brick and of rough natural
stone laid in lime or clay mortar. The roofs were made of heavy tiles. In many cases the walls
were reinforced with wood frames having diagonal struts. Most of these structures were de-
stroyed or badly damaged that the restoration was inadvisable. Buildings with wood frames and
diagonal struts behaved some-what better.
Two to four story old buildings had brick walls 25 and 38 cm thick laid in lime mortar. Most of
these buildings were collapsed and other collapsed during aftershocks. Just as in the Agadir
earthquake (and others), the collapse of exterior walls that were poorly connected with the
interior walls was observed. Brick buildings, weakened by large openings on the ground floor,
suffered heavy damage. Brick buildings with large halls in which the rigidity of structural ele-
ment differed sharply from the rigidity of elements in other parts of the buildings collapsed.
Modern brick buildings upto 6 stories high built according to standard designs were severely
damaged and many of them completely collapsed. The building upto 14 stories high with cast in
situ reinforced concrete frames and brick cladding, such buildings sometimes had reinforced
concrete diaphrams at staircases and elevators shafts. All the buildings withstood the earthquake
fairly well specially when none of these buildings were designed to resist seismic forces.
Niigata (Japan) earthquake of 1964
The earthquake (M=7.5, h=40 km, D=50 km) has caused considerable destruction in the city of
Niigata which was primarily due to very poor ground conditions. The predominant time period o
the soil layers of city of Niigata varied from 0.25s to 0.5s. It was observed that the damages to
the buildings were heavy on soil having predominant time periods close to 0.5s and less other-
wise, (Mawasumi, 1968).
The main cause of damage was the liquefaction of soil underneath. The rigid reinforced con-
crete buildings under gone large settlement and tilting. One such building completely toppled
over. Among the 1500 reinforced concrete buildings in Niigata, 310 suffered damage, with two
thirds of them settling or tilting without noticeable damage to above ground structural elements.
Serious damage occurred to closely spaced building due to mutual pounding during seismic shocks.
this should be taken into account in designing the expansion joints. In areas of well consolidated
ground, there was no damage.
Examination of foundations showed destruction in many cases of reinforced concrete piles.
Buildings erected on short piles drived to poorly compacted soils underwent considerable tilting
and settlement. Above ground structural elements of buildings erected on piles driven on hard
soils were not damaged. Buildings with basements suffered considerably less tilting then
buildings on shallow strip-footing foundations.
Anchorage (Alaska) earthquake of March 27, 1964
It was one of the greatest earthquake (M=8.4, h=20 km, D=130 km at Anchorage) in the history.
The damage to the structures were heaviest, and many of the buildings were completely
demolished. The predominant period of the soil layer was estimated to be near 0.5s. This was
possibly the reason that the tall buildings in the city with natural periods close to the predominant
periods suffered more damage than lower buildings. Residential wood frame buildings exhibited
fairly good earthquake resistance except in some cases when their foundations were destroyed.
Least damage was sustained by wood structures built on firm ground, (Kunze et al., 1965;
Steinbrugge, 1965 and Wiegel, 1970).
The Anchorage earthquake also provided a number of examples of the behaviour of precast,
prestressed reinforced concrete structural elements. The precast elements were jointed by welding.
A large number of the buildings collapsed. Other precast reinforced concrete buildings also
suffered serious damage. It was observed, that in all cases destruction and damage to precast,
prestressed structural elements were caused by poor behaviour of joints of supports. The
precast, prestressed elements as a rule were not destroyed.
Tashkent (USSR) earthquake of April 26, 1966
The earthquake (M=5.4, h=8 km, D=0) though small caused severe damages. The location of
the epicentre was right under the city that accounted for the large vertical component of ground
movement which was the reason for devastation. The predominant period of ground was
estimated to 0.1s. (Polyakov, 1974).
Nearly all the brick buildings were damaged to some degree. But many old sun dried brick
buildings in the centre of the city were damaged so badly that they had to be demolished.
Hindukush (India) earthquake of June 6, 1966
No accelerograph was located in the area, however, few response recorders were actuated,
which have indicated a maximum acceleration of about 0.055 g, (Krishna and Arya, 1966). The
old building construction of timber encased in masonry walls showed vertical cracks at the
corners. In some cases separation of walls, cracking of jack arches over door opening, tilting of
walls etc. were also observed. The timber joints were found to be deteriorated.
Six storied r.c. frame building, showed some shear cracks in the roof beams and longitudinal
cracks in the slab between the beams. The main reason for these shear cracks in beams appears

to be the earthquake forces applied at roof level on the mass of the roof as well as on the mass
of some non-structural elements standing on the roof for architectural regions.
The two storeyed hospital building constructed in 1:1:1 lime sand and surkhi mortar. The building
has performed well except the crack where it widens in section. These cracks may be attributed
to significant change in stiffness of the building. A similar two story Medical college building in
lime sand surkhi survived with very minor cracks in the walls.
Anantnag earthquake of February 20, 1967
This earthquake of Magnitude 5.3 ~ 5.7 with a depth of focus of 24 km struck at nearly 8.49 pm
(IST). A total of 786 houses were totally damaged and nearly 25,000 houses were partially
damaged [Gosain and Arya (1960)].
Kashmir valley has been shaked by many severe earthquakes in the past. The earthquakes of
22.6.1969; June 6, 1828, May 30, 1885 and September 2, 1963 were the severest. The earth-
quake of 30th May 1885 was one of the most disastrous earthquake in Kashmir valley. During
this earthquake about 6000 persons were killed.
Koyna earthquake of Dec. 11, 1967
The Magnitude of the earthquake was recorded as 6.5 and the depth of focus was about 8 km
with its epicenter at 17 22.4N, 73 44.8E. It occurred at 22 hrs 51m 19s (GMT). The maximum
MM intensity of VIII+ was observed. The area was considered seismically inactive. Earthquake
has damaged 40,000 houses and 177 persons lost their lives. The peak acceleration recorded
was 0.67 g [Arya, Chandrasekaran and Srivastava (1968)].
The traditional construction in the area was non seismic and had little resistance against lateral
forces. Most of the building structures in the area were single storeyed built in masonry. The
Koynanagar experienced very heavy shocks resulting in severe damages. The cladding wall
timber framework buildings failed, whereas, modern random rubble masonry buildings suffered
heavy damage. Stone masonry was also heavily damaged than the brick masonry. At Koyna
hundreds of failures was due to bulging out of wall which caused the fall of stone on one face
while on the other face standing intact. The outside face many not be able to withstand the
tension with the result that the stones would get loosened and fall down. The buildings were
mostly founded on murum and there were hardly any failure of foundations.
The epicenter of the earthquake was very close to the Koyna dam. The accelerograph installed
within the dam provided the most valuable instrumental data.
Off Tokachi (Japan) earthquake of May 16, 1968
The earthquake of magnitude 7.9 occurred under sea 170 kms east of the city of Hachinobe.
The damage of reinforced concrete buildings were severe which consists of destruction of city
Han, public library, technical high school at Hachinobe and Hakodate University. These were all
built by modern techniques, caused great concern among engineering circles. (Okamoto, 1973).

Broach earthquake of March 23, 1970
A shallow earthquake of Magnitude 6.0 occurred at Broach in the early hours of March 23,
1970. The epicenter was at 21.7N, 72.9E. Twenty three persons were reported to have died and
about 250 persons were injured. About 115 houses badly damaged or collapsed while 2500
houses were partially damaged [Bulsari and Thakkar (1970)].
Kinnaur earthquake of Jan. 19, 1975
The magnitude of the earthquake was estimated as 6.7 and the maximum observed intensity in
the region was IX on MM scale. The earthquake caused death of sixty people and several
hundred severely injured. The traditional construction in the area was non seismic and had little
resistance against the lateral forces. Nearly 2,000 dwellings were heavily damaged, (Singh et. al.
1975). The random rubble masonry and dressed stone masonry construction with heavy flat
roofs suffered extensive damage. Buildings constructed in hollow concrete blocks or dressed
stone masonry in cement-mortar developed small cracks in walls. Light structures made of
corrugated iron sheets nailed to timber frames and arches did not suffer any damage. The
temples, monasteries and monuments also suffered badly.
Indo-Nepal earthquake of May 21, 1979
The magnitude of earthquake was 6.0 on Richter scale and the maximum intensity was VI on
the MM scale, (Ashwani et al., 1981).
The quality of construction in the region was poor. The maximum damage occurred to the
houses of random rubble stone masonry (rrsm) in mud mortar having foundation on loose soil.
Partial or complete collapse of mud walls have been noticed. Dressed stone masonry building
with cement mortar developed wall cracks.
Western Nepal-India earthquake of July 29, 1980
The main shock with estimated magnitude ranging from 6.2 to 6.5 caused considerable damage
to buildings and loss of life. The maximum intensity estimated was VIII on MM scale,(Satyendra
and Ashok, 1981).
Due to remoteness of the region, almost all the village buildings are constructed of stacks of
random rocks pieces (without any mortar) wet mud plaster on their interior sides and covered
with a sloping roof of slabs resting on timber beams and rafters. The majority of new
construction use mud mortar, however, few use cement mortar. The traditional construction as
described offers little or no resistance to lateral forces during earthquakes and thus suffered
severe damage.
Random rubble stone masonry showed complete collapse. The gable end walls collapsed
resulting in partial collapse of the adjacent structure. Failure of timber posts and rafters also
resulted in collapse of some roofs. Dressed stone masonry in the absence of any mortar
developed cracked in the cement plaster. Poor bonding at the junctions resulted in loss of contact
between the cross walls. Reinforced concrete construction did not suffer any damage. Dry
packed stone masonry walls with continuous lintel band over openings and cross walls did not
suffer any damage.
Jammu and Kashmir (India) earthquake of August 24, 1980
The earthquake has been assigned magnitude 5.2 on the Richter scale and the maximum
intensity was recorded VIII on MM intensity scale. Eighty percent of the houses were either
damaged or totally collapsed. The traditional construction is predominantly random rubble stone
masonry with mud mortar. Mud houses in the Bhaddo area suffered heavy damage and so as the
random rubble masonry. A large size bounding stone, known as Dasalu in local dialect, is used at
some places particularly at corners made of two walls. Where Dasalu is not used properly, the
corners of the walls opened out resulting in the collapse of building. Light weight structure made
of corrugated iron sheets mailed in limber trusses did not suffer any damage, [(Prakash and
Mam, 1981)].
The bonding stone Dasalu is found to be effective in the walls constructed of random rubble
masonry. For its effectiveness the spacing of these should be about 1.0 to 1.5 meters both
horizontally and vertically.
Great Nicobar (India) earthquake of January 20, 1982
The earthquake of Richter magnitude 6.3 occurred at the east coast of Great Nicobar island.
The focal depth was estimated to 28 kms, (Agrawal, 1982).
The houses of Nicobars founded on multiple deep piles of 10 to 15 cm dia separated from
ground, have not damaged. The timber cum hollow block masonry construction also faired well
with minor damages. Buildings on fills have shown damage.
Dhamar earthquake (Yemen) of December 13, 1982
The earthquake (M=5.9, h=10 km) which caused great damage in Dhamar province and adjoin-
ing areas. The maximum modified Mercalli (MM) intensity in the area was estimated as VIII,
[(Arya et al., 1982)].
The random rubble stone masonry and mud brick houses were subjected to severe damage
resulting in partial and complete collapse responsible for nearly 2500 lives and injury to the 3000
people. It was estimated that about 70,000 houses have been damaged.
The failure was mainly due to separation of walls at the corners and T-junctions. this points out
to the inherent weakness in the stone masonry construction used, namely, very weak mortar as
well as lack of proper bond between any two walls at right angles to each other. The bulging of
the wall masonry outward or inward and falling away of half the wall thickness either way was
a common feature. Overturning of the walls occurred due to severe shaking after the walls had
separated from the cross walls. The lateral load action was further accentuated on those walls
which were carrying the roof load through the wooden beams and one or both of them collapsed
alongwith the roof crashing down with them.
The mud and adobe houses are weak in tension, shear and compressive strength. Thus the
separation of wall at corners and junctions takes place easily under ground shaking, the cracks
passing through the blocks themselves. After the walls fail either due to bending or shearing
combined with the compressive loads, the whole house crashes down.
Cachchar earthquake of December 30, 1984
The earthquake of Magnitude 5.6 occurred on December 30, 1984 with its epicenter approxi-
mately 24.641N, 92.891E.
Dharamshala earthquake of April 26, 1986
The earthquake of Magnitude 5.7 occurred at 13.0 hrs 5m 17s (IST) on April 26, 1986 with
itsepicenter at 32.1N, 76.3E Dharamshala-Kangra, Himachal Pradesh in North India. The focal
depth was estimated about 10 km. The maximum intensity was VIII close to Naddi village
where all the kutchcha houses were severely damaged and many of them collapsed. Only six
human lives were lost.
Assam Earthquake of August 6, 1988
The earthquake of Magnitude 7.2 occurred at 6.36 hrs (IST) on August 6, 1988 with its epicenter
at . The focal depth was estimated to 96 km. Guwahati, Jorhat, Sibsagar and Silchar were
shaken. No deaths were reported because the epicenter of the earthquake was in a remote area
and possibly Assam houses (Ikra and bamboo houses) are able to resist earthquake much better.
Bihar-Nepal earthquake of August 21, 1988
The earthquake of Magnitude 6.6 struck at 4 hrs 39 m 11.25 sec (IST) with its epicenter in Nepal
near the Bihar-Nepal border (Lat 26.775 and long. 86.609) in close proximity to 1934 earthquake
epicenter. The focal depth is estimated to be 71 km. The maximum intensity of VIII+ was
observed at Darbhanga and Munghyer in Bihar and Dharan in Nepal. This earthquake has taken
281 lives in Bihar and nearly 650 lives in Nepal. The total number of injured persons in Bihar are
3767. It damaged/ collapsed 1.5 lacks houses/buildings in Bihar alone [Paul, Thakkar et al.
At Darbhanga the high intensity was mainly attributed to the soft alluvial soil and liquefaction
resulting in large scale subsidence of soil while in Dharan the high intensity is attributed to
amplification of ground acceleration due to hill and hill slope. The recent r.c.c. constructions with
codal; provision have shown better performance while old and poorly built load bearing unreinforced
masonry brick buildings performed badly. Large scale liquefaction of ground was observed in the
Gangetic plane resulting in ground subsidence. Mud houses and brick houses laid in mud mortar
were affected most in the villages. Severe damage to old masonry buildings having jack arch
construction were observed. Framed construction have shown better performance.
Uttarkashi Earthquake of October 20, 1991
The earthquake of Magnitude 6.6 rocked the Uttarkashi region at 2.53hrs(IST) with its epicenter
at Village Agora ( ) and focal depth 12 km. The maximum intensity in epicentral track was
observed IX on Modified Mercalli scale. The earthquake caused enormous destruction of houses
and loss of life, killing nearly 770 people and injured nearly 5000, mostly all due to collapse of
random rubble residential houses. The affected region lies between seismic zone IV and V
according to seismic zoning map of India. The maximum affected area were Uttarkashi, Tehri
and Chamoli districts. Telecommunication and power supply were badly effected due to dam-

aged telephone and electric poles. Rubble stone masonry houses in mud mortar close to the
severely effected area were totally collapsed and others got severe damage. Many school and
health buildings were also damaged.

Damage to stone masonry houses Collapse of the steel lattice bridge at Gawana
Many bridges were severely damaged/collapsed. Gawana steel lattice bridge located about 6 km
from Uttarkashi on road to Gangotri collapsed, severely affecting the relief and rescue opera-
tions immediately after the earthquake. Widespread rock falls landslides/rock slides were ob-
served mostly along the road causing heavy damage to hilly roads and blocking it.
The Latur (killari) Earthquake of Sept. 30, 1993
The moderate shallow focus earthquake of Magnitude 6.4 occurred in Peninsular India with its
epicenter near Killari created havoc. The Peninsular India has been considered seismically stable.
The earthquake caused strong ground shaking in the region of Latur, Osmanabad, Sholapur,
Gulberga and Bidar. There was heavy damage in a localised area of 15 km close to Killari which
is on the Northern side of river Terna. The maximum intensity in the epicentral track was VIII+
on Modified Mercalli scale. It destroyed more than 28700 houses, damaging about 170,000
houses and killing about 9000 people [Arya(1996)]. The random rubble stone houses in mud
mortar totally destroyed. The heavy roofs and thick walls with little shear and no tensile strength
were the main reasons for the failure.
The most common construction of random rubble stone walls laid in mud mortar are made thick
(70 to 180 cm) with small openings for the doors and windows. The foundations of these houses
are taken to a depth varying from 60 to 250 cm below the top cover of black cotton soil. The roof
consists of timber rafters in two perpendicular directions over which wooden planks and a thick
layer of mud is laid. The mud layer on roof varies between 30 to 80 cm making very heavy. The
walls did not have the interlocking stones and the houses did not have any earthquake resistant
features[Sinvhal et al.(1994), Iyengar el al.(1994)]
The Jabalpur Earthquake of May 21, 1997
The earthquake of Magnitude 6.1 occurred on May 21, 1997 at 04 hrs 22 s in Southern India
with its epicenter near Jabalpur with its focus at 33.0 km. The earthquake lasted 20 secs. The
maximum intensity on MM intensity scale is estimated to be VIII. The latitude and longitude
were 23.18N 80.02E. The Southern India has been considered seismically stable. The earth-
quake caused strong ground shaking in the region of Jabalpur, Seoni, Mandla and other towns in
the Narmada belt of Madhya Pradesh. About 25 people were killed and more than 100 injured.
Most deaths were due to collapse of houses. There was widespread damage in Ragchi, Garha
and Sarafa areas on the city's outskirts. In Jabal, some buildings in Khumeria cantonment, which
has the contry's oldest factory, developed cracks. Water supply was disrupted at many places in
the city as pipelines burst. Telephone lines and electricity supply were also affected.
Bhuj Earthquake of January 26, 2001
The earthquake of Magnitude 6.9 occurred on January 26, 2001 and has caused widespread
damage to variety of buildings and many of them have collapsed. Total deaths reported were
19500. For the first time in India large number of urban buildings including the multi-storey
buildings at Bhuj, Ahmedabad, Gandhidham and other places have damaged/ collapsed. The
mushrooming of multi-storey buildings without any consideration of earthquake resistant design
and construction practices has generated a countrywide debate about its seismic safety. It has
caused damage to the common type of load bearing buildings and r.c.c. framed buildings.
Most of the rural construction of mud, adobe, burnt brick and stone masonry either in mud or
cement mortar have shown severe damage or collapsed. The stone masonry buildings undergo
severe damage resulting in complete collapse and pileup in a heap of stones. The inertia forces
due to roof/floor is transmitted to the top of the walls and where the roofing material is improp-
erly tied to the wall, it will be dislodged. The weak roof support connection is the cause of
separation of roof from the support and lead to complete collapse. At many places the height of
the random rubble stone masonry walls in mud mortar/ poor cement mortar was about 5.0m.

Damage to stone masonsry houses Collapse of five storey Bachau bus station
These were provided with earthquake band at only lintel level and therefore, damage was ob-
served in the high walls between the lintel and the roof level. The failure of bottom cord of roof
truss may also cause complete collapse of truss as well as the whole building. The Bhuj earth-
quake has again showed that stone houses are most vulnerable to earthquakes as it was ob-
served in Uttarkashi, Killari and Chamoli earthquakes.
As the prosperity of Gujarat state flourished, multi-storey buildings started mushrooming. In the
last ten years many four storey and ten storey multi-storey buildings were constructed. The
multi-storey buildings without a lift were constructed upto four storeys and buildings with lift
were constructed upto ten storeys. Unscrupulous builders and architects unaware of any earth-
quake resistant provisions have been constructing buildings. The collapse of newly built apart-
ments and office blocks prove this point. The modern r.c.c. frame construction consists of bare
r.c.c. beam-column frame and the masonry infill. The masonry infill varies from dressed stone in
mud mortar, clay brick masonry in cement mortar, cement concrete block masonry in mud/
cement mortar. Most of the multi-storey buildings in Ahmedabad and Ghandhinagar were of
r.c.c. frame construction with brick/ cement concrete block masonry in cement mortar as infill
material. Most of these type of construction was of stilt type i.e. soft storey construction. In this
type of construction either very few or no infill walls are provided in the ground floor and is left
open for parking the vehicles of the residents.
The damage to multi-storey buildings in Bhuj is found to be wide spread. It is interesting to note
that multi-storey buildings have also damaged as far distances as Ahmedabad, Gandhidham and
Surat. Whereas well designed and well constructed r.c.c. framed buildings following the Indian
Standard Code of practice have performed very well during the earthquake. Most of the
buildings constructed by CPWD, Post and Telegraph and other government agencies have
performed well
The damage in r.c. framed buildings is mostly due to failure of infill, or failure of columns or
beams. The column may have damaged by cracking or buckling due to excessive bending com-
bined with dead load. The buckling of columns is significant when the columns are slender and
the spacing of the stirrup in the column is large. Severe crack occurs near the rigid joints of
frame due to shearing action which may lead to complete collapse. Most of the damage
occurred at the beam column junction. Widespread damage was also observed at the interface
of stone or brick masonry infill and r.c.c frame. In most of the cases diagonal cracks appeared in
the stone or brick infill. The buildings resting on soft ground storey columns without or with very
few infill walls have undergone severe damage and many have collapsed.
Great Tsunamigenic Sumatra Earthquake of Dec. 26, 2004
A great Tsunamigenic earthquake measuring 9.3 on Richter Scale (MW = 8.2) having a focal
depth of 10 km struck Northern Sumatra, Indonesia at 00:58:50 UTC on Dec. 26, 2004
accompanied by several strong aftershocks having magnitude ranging from 5.0 to 7.3 and with
epicentral locations ranging from west coast northern Sumatra to Andaman-Nicobar islands,
Indian region. The main shock near Sumatra generated tsunami that hit the Andaman and Nicoboar
Islands and caused extensive damage to lives and property. The official death toll in India has
risen to more than 15500.
The earthquake intensity estimated in Port Blair, Andaman Nicobar Island is VI and in coastal
egion is about VII.
- The water level in the sea at Port-Blair has been raised by about 1.0 m and many land areas
came under water suggesting the land mass has gone down due to the major earthquake
- The main earthquake shock also generated tsunamis which hit the islands and east coast of
mainland India at different intervals of time and with different wave heights. The height of
tsunami waves at Port Blair was about 1-2 m where as in Car-Nicobar the height was about

10m. The tsunami waves affected about 0.5m to 1.5 km inside the coast line as shown in Fig. 4.
At Car-Nicobar Island tsunamis swept the shore and caused severe damage to the buildings
located near the coast. Andaman Island was also affected by earthquake and tsunami.
Important coastal structures and human habitat should therefore be away from the coast and the
foundation should be above the maximum tide level as far as possible.
- There was large scale ground failure such as ground cracking, large scale subsidence and
liquefaction was observed which resulted damage/ failure to many buildings and port struc
tures. At Car Nicobar Air Force station damage to the concrete runway at the joints were
observed due to concrete blocks hitting each other.
- Significant damage was observed in port and harbour structures, and bridges (their lifeline
structures) due to earthquake vibration mainly since its foundations rested on loose marine
saturated deposits or filled upland. Many damages occurred due to earthquake vibrations
leading to settlement/ liquefaction in many cases and later subjected to tsunami waves.
- Wharf and jetties have damaged mostly due to collapse and submergence of part of Jetty,
pounding of deck blocks and the blocks have undergone relative horizontal displacement
which has misaligned the crane rails.
- In Port Blair RCC frame buildings have performed well and undergone minor damage. The
construction of structures on piles has shown better performance.

Collapse of buildings due to tsunami waves

No damage in the water tank structure

Damage to asymmetric structure on stilts Collapse of part of Fisheries Jetty
Kashmir (Muzaffarad) Earthquake of October 8, 2005
An earthquake of Magnitude, 7.4 ocurred on October 8, 2005 Saturday at 9:20.38 (IST) with
epicenter at Muzaffarabad (PoK, latitude 34.432o N, longitude 73.737o ). The earthquake was
followed manty after shocks. It is estimated that about 83,000 lives were lost in PoK and
Pakistan and about 1300 lives lost in India including 72 army personnel, 7510 people sustained
injuries. About 35,000 houses collapsed and equal number partially damaged, 80% of schools
damaged in Uri and Tangdhar

Typical wooden frame Dhajji-dewari Typical damage to stone masonry wall
- Most prevalent construction is of mud wall, stone and brick masonry. The roof is wooden
truss with GI sheet covering.
- Mixed construction consisting of random rubble masonry, dressed stone masonry, burnt brick/
dried clay brick masonry and wood have performed badly
- Building construction practice in general does not comply with Earthquake Resistant Prac
tice as outlined in Building Codes
- Most of the stone masonry construction have collapsed due failure of wall, however, roof
system has behaved very well
- Dhajji-Dewari construction have performed well. They have not collapsed undergone minor
- Seismic safety of houses mainly depends on the stability of the random rubble masonry wall
- The light roof consisting of timber framing system covered with GI sheet have performed
well during earthquake
- Large scale Capacity building program of Engineers and Masons have to be undertaken
- Rehabilitation & Reconstruction should comply earthquake resistant features in the building
- Communinity Awareness about earthquake resistant practice should be undertaken in large
Kabi Monastery Cracks in the corners
Sikkim Earthquake of February 14, 2006
A moderate earthquake of Magnitude 5.3 occurred at 6.25 am on February 14, 2006 in Sikkim.
The epicenter was located 26 km WNW away from the capital city Gangtok. The Gangtok city
was was subjected to an intensity of V/VI. Two Indian Army soldiers were killed when the
vehicle they were traveling in was struck by a rock fall at Sherathang near the border outpost at
Nathula in Sikkim.
The earthquake damagewas quite high for this size of earthquake. A large number of Govern-
ment as well as private buildings were damaged to various grades by the earthquake. Some of
the worst affected are the Raj Bhawan, State Secretariat, Enchey Monastery, Police Headquar-
ter, Press Building, Lall Bazar, S.T.N.M. Hospital etc. Many reasons can be attributed to this.
The buildings in general have been designed for dead and live loads only. These have not been
designed for earthquake forces as per the IS codal practices. Many monasteries such as the
Enchy Monastery located in Gangtok, Kabi Monastery about 20 km North of Gangtok and
Labrang Monestry about 45 km towards North of Gangtok got damaged. Figure shows the
cracks on the monastry walls.
Different types of buildings suffer different degrees of damage during earthquakes and the same
has been studied here.
Mud and adobe houses
Unburnt sun dried bricks laid in mud mortar are called adobe construction. Mud houses are the
traditional construction, for poor and most suitable in view of their initial cost, easy availability,
low level skill for construction and excellent insulation against heat and cold. More than 100
million people in India live in these type of houses. There are numerous examples of complete
collapse of such buildings in 1906 Assam, 1948 Ashkhabad, 1960 Agadir, 1966 Tashkant, 1967
Koyna, 1975 Kinnaur, 1979 Indo-Nepal, 1980 Jammu and Kashmir and 1982 Dhamar
earthquakes. It is very weak in shear, tension and compression. Separation of walls at corners
and junctions takes place easily under ground shaking. The cracks pass through the poor joints.
After the walls fail either due to bending or shearing in combination with the compressive loads,
the whole house crashes down. Extensive damage was observed during earthquake specially if
it occur after a* rainfall, (Krishna and Chandra,1983).
Better performance is obtained by mixing the mud with clay to provide the cohesive strength.
The mixing of straw improves the tensile strength. Coating the outer wall with waterproof
substance such as bitumen improves against weathering. The strength of mud walls can be
improved significantly by split bamboo or timber reinforcement. Timber frame or horizontal
timber runners at lintel level with vertical members at corners further improves its resistance to
lateral forces which has been observed during the earthquakes.
Masonry Buildings
Masonry buildings of brick and stone are superior with respect to durability, fire resistance, heat
resistance and formative effects. Masonry buildings consist of various material and sizes (i)
large block (block size > 50 cms) - concrete blocks, rock blocks or lime stones; (ii) concrete
brick-solid and hollow; (iii) natural stone masonry. Because of its easy availability, economic
reasons and the merits mentioned above this type of construction is widely used. In very remote
areas in Himalayas buildings are constructed of stacks of random rock pieces without any mor-
tar. The majority of new construction use mud mortar, however, few use cement mortar also.
Causes of failure of masonry buildings
These buildings are very heavy and attract large inertia forces. Unreinforced masonry walls are
weak against tension (horizontal forces) and shear, and therefore, perform rather poor during
earthquakes. These buildings have large in plane rigidity and therefore have low time periods of
vibration which results in large seismic force. These buildings fall apart and collapse because of
lack of integrity. The lack of structural integrity could be due to lack of 'through' stones, absence
of bonding between cross walls, absence of diaphragm action of roofs and lack of box like
Common type of damage in masonry buildings
All of them undergo severe damage resulting in complete collapse and pileup in a heap of stones.
The inertia forces due to roof/floor is transmitted to the top of the walls and if the roofing
material is improperly tied to the wall, it will be dislodged. The weak roof support connection is
the cause of separation of roof from the support and lead to complete collapse. The failure of
bottom cord of roof truss may also cause complete collapse of truss as well as the whole
If the roof/floor material is properly tied to the top walls causing it to shear off diagonally in the
direction motion through the bedding joints. the cracks usually initiate at the corner of the open-
ings. The failure of pier occurs due to combined action of flexure and shear. Near vertical cracks
near corner wall joints occur indicating separation of walls.

For motion perpendicular to the walls, the bending moment at the ends result in cracking and
separation of the walls due to poor bonding. Generally gable end wall collapses. Due to large
inertia forces acting on the walls, the wythe of masonry is either bulges outward or inward. The
falling away of half the wall thickness on the bulged side is a common feature. The bonding stone
is found to be effective as in Jammu-Kashmir earthquake of August 24, 1980. Unreinforced
dressed rubble masonry (DRM) have shown slightly better performance than random rubble
masonry. The most common damage is due to cracks in the walls. The masonry with lower unit
mass and greater bond strength shows better performance. The unreinforced masonry as a rule
should be avoided as a construction material as far as possible in seismic area.
Reinforced masonry buildings
Reinforced masonry (random rubble or dressed) buildings have withstood the earthquakes well,
without appreciable damage. For horizontal bending, a tough member (reinforced concrete band)
capable of taking bending is found to performs better during earthquakes. If the corner sections
or openings are reinforced with steel bars even greater strength is attained. Even dry packed
stone masonry wall with continuous lintel band over openings and cross walls did not undergo
any damage.
Brick-R.C. frame Buildings
This type of building consists of r.c. frame structure and brick laid in cement mortar as infill. This
type of construction is suitable in seismic areas.
Causes of failure of r.c. frame buildings
The failures are due to mainly lack of good design of beams/columns frame action and founda-
tion. Poor quality of construction. Inadequate detailing or laying of reinforcement in various
components particularly at joints and in columns/beams for ductility. Inadequate diaphragm ac-
tion of roofs/floors. Indequate treatment of infill masonry walls.
Common type of damage in r.c. frame buildings
The damage is mostly due to failure of infill, or failure of columns or beams. Spalling of concrete
in columns. The column may be damaged by cracking or buckling due to excessive bending
combined with dead load. The buckling of columns are significant when the columns are slender
and the spacing of the stirrup in the column is large.
Severe crack occurs near the rigid joints of frame due to shearing action which may lead to
complete collapse. The differential settlement also causes excessive moments in the frame and
may lead to failure. Design of frame should be such that the plastic hinge is confined to beam
only, because beam failure is less damaging than the column failure.
Wooden Buildings
This is also most common type of construction in areas of high seismicity. It is also most suitable
material for earthquake resistant construction due to its light weight and shear strength across
the grains as observed in 1933 Long Beach, 1952 Kern County, 1963 Skopje, and 1964 Anchor-

age earthquakes. However, during off-Tokachi earthquake (1968), more than 4000 wooden
buildings were either totally or partially damaged. In addition there were failure due to sliding and
caving in due to softness of ground. the main reason of failure was its low rigidity at the joints
which acts as a hinge. Failure is also due to deterioration of wood with passage of time. Wood
frames without walls have almost no resistance against horizontal forces. Resistance is highest
for diagonal braced wall. Buildings with diagonal bracing in both vertical and horizontal plane
perform much better. The traditional wood frame Ikra construction of Assam and houses of
Nicobars founded on wooden piles separated from ground have performed very well during
earthquakes. Wood houses are generally suitable upto two storeys.
Reinforced Concrete Buildings
This type of construction consists of shear walls and frames of concrete. Substantial damage to
reinforced concrete buildings were seen in the Kanto (1923) earthquake. Later in Niigata (1964),
Off-Tokachi (1968) and Venezuela (1967) earthquakes it suffered heavy damages. The
damage to reinforced concrete buildings may be divided broadly into vibratory failure and tilting
or uneven settlement. When a reinforced concrete building is constructed on comparatively hard
ground vibratory failure is seen, while on soft ground tilting, uneven settlement or sinking is
In case of vibratory failure the causes of damage may be considered to be different for each
case, but basically, the seismic forces which acted on a building during the earthquake exceeded
the loads considered in the design, and the buildings did not have adequate resistance and ductil-
ity to withstand them. In general these buildings performed well as observed in Skopje 1963 and
Kern county 1952 earthquakes.
The shear walls are found to be effective to provide adequate strength to the buildings. Severe
damage to spandrel wall between the vertical openings are observed.
Tilting and sinking of reinforced concrete buildings during earthquakes were seen in the Kanto
and Niigata earthquakes. Most failed because the dead weights could not be supported after the
settling of the ground. Such damage is peculiar to buildings on soft ground. the damage becomes
higher in the following order: pile foundation, mat foundation, continuous foundation and
independent foundation.
The hollow concrete block buildings with steel reinforcement in selected grout filled cells have
shown good performance. The precast and prestressed reinforced concrete buildings also suf-
fered severe damage mostly because of poor behaviour of joints or supports. The precast and
prestressed element as a rule were not destroyed as observed in 1952 Kern country and 1964
Anchorage earthquakes.
Steel Skeleton Buildings
Buildings with steel skeleton construction differ greatly according to shapes of cross sections
and methods of connection. They many be broadly divided into two varieties, those employing
braces as earthquake resistant elements and those which are rigid frame structures. The former
is used in low buildings while the later is used in high rise buildings.
When braces are used as earthquake resistant elements, it is normal to design so that all horizon-
tal forces will be borne by the braces. This type of building is generally light and influence of
wind loads are dominant in most cases. However, there are many cases in which the braces
have shown breaking or bucking in which joints have failed (Wiegel, 1970).
Steel skeleton construction, particularly the structural type in which frames are comprised of
beams and columns consisting of single member H-beams, is often used in high rise buildings.
The non-structural damage is common but none of these building severely damages as observed
in 1906 San Francisco earthquake.
Steel and Reinforced Concrete composite Structures
Steel and reinforced concrete composite structures are composed of steel skeleton and rein-
forced concrete and have the dynamic characteristics of both. It is better with respect to fire
resistance and safety against buckling as compared to steel skeleton. Whereas compared to
reinforced concrete structure it has better ductility after yielding. As these features are the
properties which are effective for making a building earthquake resistant and are found to
perform better during earthquakes (Wiegel, 1970).
A review of damages caused by an earthquake helps in the improvement of aseismic design and
construction practices, i.e. learning by mistakes. It also provides an excellent test of the state of
the art of earthquake resistant construction.
Based on the above study of the behaviour of buildings during earthquakes the various factors
contributing for various degree of damages are grouped as follows:
Ground Motion Characteristics
Earthquake originate at a depth below the earth surface and causes random vibratory motion of
the ground with variable amplitudes and periods. The duration of the main part of the vibration
last couple of seconds. As a result of ground shaking, buildings founded over it also starts vibrat-
ing, causing inertia forces to act on the masses of all the components of a building, the magnitude
of which will be a function of the ground motion intensity and building characteristics (mass,
stiffness and damping) of the building. the intensity of an earthquake at a site depends on:
(i) Size or magnitude of earthquake;
(ii) magnitude and number of force and after shocks;
(iii) distance from focus or epicentre. For Tashkent (USSR and Agadir earthquake the
epicentres were located in the centre of the city. Although earthquake magnitude M=5.5
was quite small even then there were severe damages;
(iv) duration of earthquake;
(v) type of under lying soil (predominant period of soil layers i.e. frequency and amplitude
(wave form) of ground motion;
(vi) damping characteristics of the underlying soil and;
(vii) depth of water table.

The damages to the buildings will be higher, for higher magnitude and long duration earthquakes,
less epicentral distance, poor underlying soil and higher water table. Earthquakes with an
intensity of VI (on modified Mercalli scale) or less do not result in serious damage. Earthquake
intensity of x and more are so strong that it destroys most of the buildings. Damages also
depends on the intensity and the number of strong fore and after shocks. the
damage effect is cumulative and, therefore, the main shock plus all aftershocks usually are
treated as a single event from an engineering point of view. Steep slopes, inclined rock layers,
landslides, faults etc. also increase the seismic intensity.
Building features contributing damage
The various building features contributing to damage are listed below:
Poor Planning
- Unsymmetric section in plan causes eccentricity which causes high shearing stresses due to
- Provisions of large openings (doors and windows) which causes common failure at the
corners of openings due to the action of shear forces.
- Proximity of buildings damages occur as a result of collision between two adjacent buildings.
- Large Spans of walls.
Poor building materials
- There are several building materials which are commonly used such as mud, sun dried brick
or adobe, stone masonry, brick, wood, bamboo, steel, reinforced concrete or a combination
of any of these. Following are some of the reasons of damages due to failure of building
- Buildings made of heavy material such as stone masonry generally fail because it attracts
inertia forces proportional to the mass of the structure. Lighter building material such as
wood and bamboo are most suitable for earthquake resistance construction which have
shown good performance during earthquakes.
- Poor quality of material having less tensile, shear, compressive stresses and low modulus of
elasticity cause heavy damage to buildings such as buildings made of sun dried brick or
adobe, and unreinforced construction. Poor quality of reinforced concrete, M100 or less
show poor performance. Richer concrete with stood the earthquakes better.
- Poor quality of mortar results in weak plane and is the reason for many damages in the past
Poor design
- Buildings designed without seismic considerations have suffered extensive damages. How
ever, the buildings designed for low seismic coefficients of code have performed satisfacto
rily under going plastic deformations.
- Lack of lateral strength in the structure. Buildings with insufficient framing and inadequate
number of shear walls have suffered severe damage.
- Structures having less ductility have performed badly during earthquakes. Steel and rein
forced concrete buildings have performed well due to its high ductility. Large ductility is also
not suitable because it permits large deformation of structure and fails due to excessive
- Unequal distribution of mass or stiffness or both causes damage. In the multistorey building,
the concentration of shear walls in the form of rigid core with very flexible columns. Con
struction of water tanks etc. at the roof level causes damage due to its heavy mass.
Poor detailing and unsatisfactory construction
- Lack of adequate structural connections have caused severe damage such as beam-column
connection, roof bearing wall connection and wall to wall connections at the corners. The
roof and bearing wall connection should be able to transfer the inertia forces. Improper roof
support connection is the cause of many building failure.
- Lack of adequate joint connections between precast and prestressed members have caused
damage however, the members itself did not fail.
- Inadequate skill in laying the brick lacking proper bond (poor workmanship).
- Concrete column with large stirrup spacing causes failure due to lack of concrete confine
Other reasons
- Failure due to deterioration of strength with passage of time.
- Buildings with less damping contribute to high damage.
- Failure of nonstructural members like parapets, chimneys and window panes.
- Narrow streets are blocked by the falling of debris and it is impossible to prevent the
rapid spread of fire which causes indirect damages, and also hinders relief operations.
Building-foundation-soil interaction
The quasi resonance during an earthquake, i.e. coincidence of the predominant period of vibra-
tions of soil layers and the fundamental period of structure causes severe damage to the build-
ings. The predominant period of ground vibration is the fundamental period of the soil layers at
that site. Smaller periods are noted for firmer or rocky soil and lager for soft soil. Generally, firm
soils are more suitable for earthquake resistance for all types of buildings. Sometimes structur-
ally strong buildings fail due to inadequate foundation design. Following are the reasons for
damages due to interaction.
- Tall buildings resting on soft soil undergo severe damage due to quasi resonance, if the
foundations are not properly designed.
- Short buildings resting on firm soil undergo severe damage due to quasi resonance unless
foundation isolation systems are used.
- Buildings constructed on poor soil such as fills suffer severe damage due to its settlement.
- Excessive settlement of foundation soil causes cracking and failure of superstructure
- Structure resting on loose sand with high water table may lead to liquefaction and
building may sink, tilt or both.
- Isolated footings are likely to be subjected to differential settlement.
- Shallow foundations deteriorate because of weathering.
Learning by mistakes Yes, each earthquake damage points out the inadequacies of the prevalent
design and construction practices in that region. The buildings constructed by taking proper
earthquake resistant measures based on the lessons from various earthquakes have certainly
helped in minimising the degree of damages. The observation of damage behaviour of buildings
during earthquakes confirm the direction of modern code provisions.
Following are the summary of the lessons learnt
- It is observed that the poor man's house has been most vulnerable to damages and most of
the loss of lives are due to the collapse of these houses constructed in traditional materials
like adobe, unreinforced bricks, stone and the like without adequate earthquake resistant
measures. Therefore, effort should be made for creating general awareness about the tech-
nology of earthquake resistant design and construction among the masses.
- The pattern of damage reveals that if the earthquake resistant measures as specified in
building codes are adopted buildings are quite safe from seismic viewpoint.
- The layout of buildings should be as simple as possible and there should not be any sudden
change in the distribution of mass or stiffness.
- Use as far as possible light weight building material such as bamboo, timber and PVC in
highly seismic areas.
- Avoid construction of heavy structures at the roof such as water tank etc.
- Adequate strength in longitudinal and transverse direction should be provided. Additional
vertical load is subjected on beams and columns due to vertical component of ground motion
which should be catered for in the design.
- The frame of the building should have adequate ductility so as to permit energy dissipation
through plastic deformations.
- Proper detailing of joints (wall to roof, wall to wall, beam to column) for all type of construc-
tion should be made. In precast and wood buildings joints are the vulnerable locations of
- Site selection should be based on local geology and the subsoil properties which modify the
earthquake ground motion. A seismic microzoning survey in high seismic area will be helpful
in this decision making.
- Avoid quasi resonance i.e. the fundamental natural frequency of structure should be away
from the predominant period of the ground.
- Hard foundation is found to be suitable for all types of building. Construction of buildings on
loose soil such as fill should be avoided unless proper care is taken in the foundation design.
- Loose sand with high water table subjected to violent ground shaking which may lead to
liquefaction. The liquefaction causes differential settlement, tilting or sinking of buildings.
- Shallow foundation deteriorates due to weathering. Isolated footing undergo differential settle-
ment. Tall buildings resting on piles withstood the earthquakes well.
- Settlement on hill slopes were landslide is expected should be avoided.
- For important and tall buildings proper dynamic analysis should be carried out.
- Strong columns and weak beam design concept should be aimed so as to prevent total
collapse. Close ties should be provided in columns were large moment is expected.

- Narrow streets get blocked by failing debris during earthquakes and hinder relief operations
after the earthquake. In fact the narrow streets become the death trap for many. It also
prevents in controlling the spread of fire.
- Buildings such as hospitals, fire stations, communication (telegraph and telephone exchange)
buildings etc. should be designed and constructed for earthquake resistant, so as to remain
functional after the earthquake for quick relief operations.
- More earthquake damage of buildings should be studied and continuous updating of building
codes and construction techniques should be carried out.
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Earthquake Technology, Publication Fine Press, New Delhi

Chapter 5

Pankaj Agarwal
Asstt. Professor, Department of Earthquake Engineering, IIT Roorkee, 247 667

Conventional earthquake resistant design of a reinforced concrete building depends on its basic
element called ductility, which enables redistribution and reduction of internal actions, and dissi-
pation of earthquake energy. Observations of past earthquakes have shown that there is a need
to pay attention to proportioning, to ensure that inelastic action occurs at appropriate location,
and detailing, to ensure adequate ductility in the location that yield of these elements. In this
paper, some of the more prominent observations and failure modes of individual structural ele-
ments are summarized.
The columns have damaged mainly due to lack of confinement, large tie spacing, insufficient
splices length, inadequate splicing at the same section, hook configurations, poor concrete qual-
ity, less than full height masonry infill partitions, and a combinations of many of the above,
compounded with vertical and geometrical irregularities. Failure of column has catastrophic
consequences for a structure. The most common modes of failure of column are as follows.
Mode 1: Formation of plastic hinge at the base of ground level columns

When a column is subjected to seismic motion, its concrete begins to disintegrate and the load
carried by the concrete shifts to its longitudinal reinforcement. This additional load causes buck-
ling of longitudinal reinforcement. As a result, the column shortens and looses its ability to carry
even the gravity load (Kono and Watanabe, 2000).
Insufficient confinement length and improper confinement in plastic hinge region due to smaller
number of ties
Design Consideration
This type of damage is sensitive to the cyclic moments generated during the earthquake and
axial load intensity. Consideration of plastic hinge length or length of confinement is needed. The
clause 7.4 of IS 13920: 1993 is a step to meet this requirement.
Mode 2: Diagonal shear cracking in mid span of columns

In older reinforced concrete building frames, column failures were more frequent since the
strength of beams in such constructions was kept higher than that of the columns. This shear
failure brings forth loss of axial load carrying capacity of the column. As the axial capacity
diminishes, the gravity loads carried by the column are transferred to neighbouring elements
resulting in massive internal redistribution of forces, which is also amplified by dynamic effects
causing spectacular collapse of building (Moehle and Sezen, 2000).
Wide spacing of transverse reinforcement
Design Considerations
To improve an understanding of column shear strength, as well as to understand how the gravity
loads will be supported after a column fails in shear. The clause 7.3 of IS 13920: 1993 is a step to
meet this requirement.
Mode 3: Shear and splice failure of longitudinal reinforcement

Splices of column longitudinal reinforcement in older buildings were commonly designed for
compression only with relatively light transverse reinforcement enclosing the lap. For example,
as per IS: 456 - 1978, a lap splice length of 20 or 24 longitudinal bar diameters with transverse
reinforcement should be equal to the least column dimension or 16 longitudinal bar diameter.
Under earthquake motion, the longitudinal reinforcement may be subjected to significant tensile
stresses, which require lap lengths for tension substantially exceeding those for compression. As
a result slip occurs along the splice length with spalling of concrete (Wallace and Melek, 2000).
Deficient lap splice length of column longitudinal reinforcement with lightly spaced transverse
reinforcement, particularly if the splices just above the floor slab, which is very common in older
Design Consideration
Lap splices should be provided only in the center half of the member length and should be
proportionate to tension splice. The clause 7.2 of IS 13920: 1993 is a step to meet this
Mode 4: Shear failures in captive columns and short columns
Captive Column
Column whose deforming ability is restricted and only a fraction of its height can deform later-
ally. It is due to presence of adjoining non-structural elements, columns at slopping ground,
partially buried basements etc.
Short Column
Column is made shorter than neighbouring column by horizontal structural elements such as
beams, girder, stair way landing slabs, use of grade beams, and ramps.
A reduction in the clear height of captive or short columns increases the lateral stiffness. There-
fore, these columns are subjected to larger shear force during the earthquake since the storey
shear is distributed in proportion to lateral stiffness of the same floor. If these columns,
reinforced with conventional longitudinal and transverse reinforcement, and subjected to
relatively high axial loading, fail by splitting of concrete along their diagonals, if the axial loading
level is low, the most probable mode of failure is by shear sliding along full depth cracks at the
member ends. Moreover, in the case of captive column by adjoining non-structural walls, the
confinement provided to the lower part of the column is so effective that usually damage is
shifted to the short non- confined upper section of the column.
Large shear stresses, when the structure is subjected to lateral forces are not accounted for in
the standard frame design procedure
Design Consideration
The best solution for captive column or short column is to avoid the situation otherwise use
separation gap in between the non-structural elements and vertical structural element with ap-
propriate measures against out-of-plane stability of the masonry wall. The clause 7.4 of IS
13920: 1993 is a step to meet this requirement.
There is little evidence that the buildings have collapsed due to beam failure. Only a few
examples exist in which buildings have exhibited plastic hinging in the beam. The probable
regions of hinging are at and near their intersections with supporting columns. An exception may
be where a heavy concentrated load is carried at some intermediate point on the span. The
causes of hinging are lack of confinement of concrete core and support for the longitudinal
compressive reinforcement against inelastic buckling. The shear- flexure mode of failure is most
commonly observed during the earthquakes, which may be described as follows.
Mode: Shear- flexure failure

Two types of plastic hinges may form in the beams of multi-storeyed framed construction de-
pending upon the span of beams. In case of short beams or where gravity load supported by the
beam is low, plastic hinges are formed at the column ends and damage occurs in the form of
opening of a crack at the end of beam otherwise there is the formation of plastic hinges at and
near end region of beam in the form of diagonal shear cracking.
lack of longitudinal compressive reinforcement, infrequent transverse reinforcement in plastic
hinge zone, bad anchorage of the bottom reinforcement in to the support or slip of the longitudinal
beam reinforcement, bottom steel termination at the face of column.

Design Consideration
Adequate flexural and shear strength must be provided and verification by design calculation is
essential. The beams should not be too stiff with respect to adjacent columns so that the plastic
hinging will occur in beam rather than column. To ensure that the plastic hinge zones in beams
have adequate ductility, the following must be considered (Booth, 1994)
- Lower and upper limits on the amount of longitudinal flexural tension steel (clause 6.2.1 of IS
13920: 1993).
- A limit on the ration of the steel on one side of the beam to that of on the other side (clause
6.2. 2 to 6.2.4 of IS 13920: 1993).
- Minimum requirements for the spacing and size of stirrups to restrain buckling of the longitu
dinal reinforcement (clause 6.3.2 of IS 13920: 1993).
Beam-column joints are critical element in frame structures and are subjected to high shear and
bond-slip deformations under earthquake loading. Account for cross-sectional properties of the
joint region, amount and distribution of column vertical steel, inadequate or absence of reinforce-
ment in beam-column joints, absence of confinement of hoop reinforcement, inappropriate loca-
tion of bar splices in column are the common causes of failure of beam-column joints. The most
common modes of failure in beam -column joint are as follows.
Mode: Shear failure in beam column joint

The most common failures observed in exterior joints are due to either high shear or bond
(anchorage) under severe earthquakes. Plastic hinges are formed in the beams at the column
faces. As a result, cracks develop throughout the overall beam depth. Bond deterioration near
the face of the column causes propagation of beam reinforcement yielding in the joint and a
shortening of the bar length available for force transfer by bond causing horizontal bar slippage
in the joint. In the interior joint, the beam reinforcement at both the column faces undergoes
different stress conditions (compression and tension) because of opposite sighs of seismic bend-
ing moments resulting in failure of joint core (UNDP, 1983).
Reasons: Inadequate anchorage of flexural steel in beams, lack of transverse reinforcement
Design Considerations
Exterior Joint
The provision on anchorage stub for the beam reinforcement improves the performance of
external joints by preventing spalling of concrete cover on the outside face resulting in loss of
flexural strength of the column. This increases diagonal strut action as well as reduces steel
congestion as the beam bars can be anchored clear of the column bars. The clause 6.2.5 of IS
13920: 1993 is a step to meet this requirement.
Interior Joint: Reliable anchorage of the beam reinforcement in the joints.
Generally slab on beams performed well during earthquakes and are not dangerous but cracks in
slab creates serious aesthetic and functional problems. It reduces the available strength, stiff-
ness and energy dissipation capacity of building for future earthquake. In flat slab construction,
punching shear is the primary cause of failure. The common modes of failure are;
Mode: Shear cracking in slabs

Damage to slab oftenly occurs due to irregularities such as large openings at concentration of
earthquake forces, close to widely spaced shear walls, at the staircase flight landings.
Reasons: Existing micro cracks which widen due to shaking, differential settlement
Design Consideration
- Use secondary reinforcement in the bottom of the slab
- Avoid the use of flat slab in high seismic zones, provided this is done in conjunction with a
stiff lateral load resisting system
Shear walls generally performed well during the earthquakes. Four types of failure mode are
generally observed (Penelis and Kappos, 1997).
Modes: (i) Diagonal tension - compression failure in the form of cross- shaped shear cracking (ii)
sliding shear failure cracking at interface of new and old concrete (iii) flexure and compression
in bottom end region of wall and finally (iv) Diagonal tension in the form X shaped cracking in
coupling beams

Sliding shear failure Flexure and compression

Diagonal tension-
compression failure

Flexural/ Diagonal Flexural/ Diagonal Flexure Shear cracks
tension tension
Shear walls are subjected to shear and flexural deformation depending upon the slenderness
ratio. Therefore, the damage in shear walls may generally occurs due to inadequate shear and
flexure capacity of wall. Slender walls are governed by their flexural strength and cracking
occurs in the form of yielding of main flexure reinforcement in the plastic hinge region, normally
at the base of the wall. Squat walls are governed by their shear strength and failure takes place
due to diagonal tension or diagonal compression in the form of inclined cracking. Coupling beams
between shear walls or piers may also damage due to inadequate shear and flexure capacity.
Sometimes damage occurs at the construction joints in the form of slippage and related drift.
- Flexural/ boundary compression failure- inadequate transverse confining reinforcement to
the main flexural reinforcement near the outer edge of wall and in boundary elements
- Flexure /Diagonal tension - inadequate horizontal shear reinforcement (clause 9.4 of IS
13920: 1993).
- Sliding shear - absence of diagonal reinforcement across the potential sliding planes of the
plastic hinge zone
- Coupling beams - inadequate stirrup reinforcement and no diagonal reinforcement
Design Considerations
- The concrete shear walls must have boundary elements or columns thicker than walls,
which will carry the vertical load after shear failure of wall (clause 9.4 of IS 13920: 1993).
- A proper connection between wall vs. diaphragm as well as wall vs. foundation to complete
the load path (clause 9.1 of IS 13920: 1993).
- Proper bonding at construction joint in the form of shear friction reinforcement (clause 9.8 of
IS 13920: 1993).
- Provision of diagonal steel in the coupling beam (clause 9.5 of IS 13920: 1993).
Infill panels in reinforced concrete frames are the cause of unequal distribution of lateral forces
in the different frames of a building, producing vertical and horizontal irregularities etc. The
common modes of failure of infill masonry are in plane or shear failure.
Mode: Shear failure of masonry infill

Frame with infill possesses much more lateral stiffness than the bare frame, and hence initially
attracts most of the lateral force during an earthquake. Being brittle, the infill starts to disinte-
grate as soon as its strength is reached. Infills that were not adequately tied to the surrounding
frames, sometimes dislodges by out-of-plane seismic excitations.
Infill causes asymmetry of load application, resulting in increased torsional forces and changes in
the distribution of shear forces between lateral load resisting systems.
Design Considerations
Two strategies are possible either complete separation between infill walls and frame by provid-
ing separation joint so that the two systems do not interact or complete anchoring between frame
and infill to act as an integral unit. Horizontal and vertical reinforcement may also be used to
improve the strength, stiffness, and deformability of masonry infill walls.
Un-reinforced concrete parapets with large height-to-thickness ratio and improper anchoring
to the roof diaphragm may also constitute a hazard. The hazard posed by a parapet increases
in direct proportion to its height above building base, which has been generally observed.
The common mode of failure of parapet wall is against out-of-plane forces, which is
described as follows.
Brittle flexure out-of-plane failure


Parapet walls are acceleration sensitive in the out-of-plane direction; the result is that they may
become disengaged and topple
Not properly braced
Design Considerations
Analyzed for acceleration forces and braced and connected with roof diaphragm
Booth, E (1994). "Concrete Structures in Earthquake Regions", Longman Scientific and Techni-
cal, Longman Group UK Limited.
Guevara, L.T. and Garcia, L.E. (2005). "The Captive and Short Column Effect," Earthquake
Spectra 21(1), 141-160.
Kono, S, and Watanabe, F. (2000). "Damage Evaluation of Reinforced Concrete Columns under
Multi-axial Cyclic Loadings," The Second U.S. - Japan Workshop on Performance Based Earth-
quake Engineering Methodology for Reinforced Concrete Building Structures, PEER 2000/10.
Moehle, J.P., Wood, K.J. and Sezen (2000). "Shear failure and Axial Load Collapse of Existing
Reinforced Concrete Columns," The Second U.S. - Japan Workshop on Performance Based
Earthquake Engineering Methodology for Reinforced Concrete Building Structures, PEER
Penelis, G G. and Kappos, A. J. (1997). "Earthquake-Resistant Concrete Structures" E & FN
SPON an Imprint of Chapman & Hall.
UNDP/UNIDO Project RER/79/015 (1983). "Repair and Strengthening of Reinforced Con-
crete, Stone and Brick Masonry Buildings," Building construction under seismic conditions in the
Balkan Regions, Vol. 5. United Nations Industrial Development Programme., Austria.
Wallace, J.W. and Melek, M (2000). "Column Splices: Observed Earthquake Damage, Modeling
Approaches, and the PEER/ UCLA Research Program," The Second U.S. - Japan Workshop
on Performance Based Earthquake Engineering Methodology for Reinforced Concrete Building
Structures, PEER 2000/10.

Chapter 6

B.K. Maheshwari
Asstt. Professor, Dept. of Earthquake Engineering, IIT Roorkee, 247 667

Effects of earthquakes on ground and foundations have been described briefly. Design of
foundations from earthquake consideration is discussed for practicing engineers. Codal provi-
sions for the design are elaborated in a simple way. Description has been divided into three
distinct parts:
i. Earthquake Effects and Earthquake Damage
ii. General Foundation Design (without Earthquake)
iii. Codal Provisions (IS: 1893–Part1: 2002) for the ERD of Foundations
In this section, geotechnical aspects of earthquake damage are described. It includes effects of
ground cracks (i.e. Surface Rupture), liquefaction, and landslides.
Most earthquakes do not create ground surface fault rupture. However, large earthquakes at
transform boundaries are usually accompanied by ground surface fault rupture. The length of
the fault rupture can be quite significant e.g. the estimated length of surface faulting in the 1964
Alaskan earthquake varied from 600 to 720 km. Surface fault rupture associated with earth-
quakes is important because it has caused severe damage to buildings, bridges, dams, tunnels,
canals and underground utilities. There were disastrous examples of surface rupture associ-
ated with the Chi-Chi (Taiwan) earthquake (M = 7.6) on Sept. 21, 1999. Fig. 1 and 2 show
damage to civil engineering structures associated with this earthquake.
January 26, 2001, Bhuj (India) earthquake was also a large magnitude (Mw =7.7) earthquake
but no primary surface fault rupture was identified. Many ground failures reported are due to
liquefaction related ground deformation.

Most critical damage (due to earthquakes) on ground is when soil deposits have lost their
strength and appeared to flow as liquids. This phenomenon is termed as liquefaction in which
strength of soil is reduced, usually to the point where it is unable to support structures.

Fig. 1 View of a damaged dam by surface fault rupture (Chi-chi earthquake)

Fig. 2 Close-up view of pier of Wu-Shi Bridge damaged by surface fault rupture Chi-chi EQ.

Liquefaction occurs only in saturated sandy soils, therefore most commonly observed near wa-
ter bodies. It is typically occurs in soil with a high groundwater table, its effects are most
commonly observed in low-lying area or area adjacent to rivers, lakes, bays and oceans. Lique-
faction phenomena can affect buildings, bridges, buried pipelines, and other constructed facilities
in many different ways. In general the effects of liquefaction involves several related phenom-
ena e.g., flow failures, lateral spreading, and sand boils, which are discussed in following para-
Flow failures
occur when the strength of the soil drops below the level needed to maintain the stability under
static conditions. Flow failures have caused the collapse of earth dams and other slopes, and the
failure of foundations. Figs. 3-4 show examples of settlement and bearing capacity failures due
to liquefaction (Niigata, Japan earthquake on June 16, 1964).
Lateral spreading
is a liquefaction related phenomenon characterized by incremental displacements during earth-
quake shaking. Lateral spreading is quite common near bridges and the displacements it pro-
duces can damage the abutments, foundations, and superstructure of bridges as shown in Fig. 5.
Sand boils
produced by ground water rushing to the surface are present in the level-ground liquefaction that
does not involve large lateral displacements. Sand boils are not damaging by themselves but
indicates the presence of high ground water pressures, whose eventual dissipation can produce
subsidence and differential settlements (Fig. 6).

Fig. 3 Kawagichi-cho apartment buildings suffered liquefaction-induced bearing capacity
failure during the Niigata (Japan) earthquake on June 16, 1964.
Fig. 4 Liquefaction-induced settlement and tilting of an apartment
building - Niigata earthquake

Fig. 5. The Showa Bridge following the 1964 Niigata earthquake. Lateral spreading caused
bridge pier foundation to move and rotate sufficiently for simply supported bridge span to fall
Fig. 6 Sand boil in rice field following the 1964 Niigata earthquake.
Liquefaction during Bhuj earthquake (January 26, 2001):
The earthquake induced liquefaction and related ground failures over an area of greater than
15,000 square km. Surface manifestations of liquefaction include sand blows, sand blow craters,
and lateral spreading. Areas where widespread liquefaction occurred include the Great Rann of
Kachchh, Little Rann, Banni Plain, Kandla River and Gulf of Kachchh (Fig. 7). These areas
contain low-lying salt flats, estuaries, intertidal zones, and young alluvial deposits (meizoseismal
area), which are typically considered to have a very high susceptibility to liquefaction.

Fig. 7 Map showing general distribution of liquefaction resulting from the
Bhuj earthquake
According to many residents in the meizoseismal area, fountains of water ranging from 1 to 2 m
in height formed during and immediately following the Bhuj earthquake. So much water vented
to the surface in the Banni Plain and Great Rann that temporary streams flowed in previously
dry channels. The surface water was so extensive that the media proclaimed the return of a
mythical river, possibly the Sarasvati. Satellite imagery suggests that liquefaction may have oc-
curred near Naliya and Lakhpat along the coast about 180 km west of the epicenter. In addition
there are reports of ground failure indicative of liquefaction as far away as the Sabaramati River
south of Ahmedabad, about 240 km east of the earthquake epicenter.
Significant settlement of the backfill above a natural gas pipeline was observed over many km in
a stretch of desert between the Little Rann and Great Rann. A four span, two-lane reinforced
concrete bridge on National Highway 8A was under construction at the time of earthquake and
was severely damaged. Significant damage occurred at the east abutment to the support bent
and wing walls. This could be attributed to liquefaction resulting in lateral spreading near the
abutment and causing a rotational failure of the abutment and first pier. The Surajbadi Bridges;
a railway bridge and two highway bridges suffered damages due to liquefaction.
Strong earthquakes may cause landslides. In majority of the cases landslides are small but earth-
quakes have also caused very large slides. In a number of cases, earthquake-induced landslides
have buried entire towns and villages (Fig. 8). Earthquake induced landslides cause damage by
destroying buildings or disrupting bridges and other facilities. Many earthquakes landslides result
from liquefaction phenomena, but many other simply represent the failures of slopes that were
marginally stable under static conditions.
The Bhuj earthquake also produced numerous rockfalls from steep slopes and road-cuts. Rockfalls
included topple failures and surfacial raveling. Blocks up to 2 m across were displaced on the
north side of the Island Belt near Khadir Island. Failures of embankments and cut-slopes were
also widespread. Slope failures were most highly concentrated in the area near Bhuj and Bhachau.
No large-scale rotational failures were observed on native slopes.

Fig. 8. Village of Yungay, Peru, (a) before and (b) after being buried by a giant landslide in the
1970 Peruvian earthquake. The same palm trees are visible at the left side of both photographs.
The landslide involved 50 million cubic meters of material that eventually covered an area of
some 8000 square kilometers. About 25,000 people were killed by this landslide, over 18,000 in
the villages of Yungay and Ranrahirca.
In Chamoli (Himalaya, India) earthquake on March 29, 1999, ground cracks at several places
developed as part of slope failure and these pose threat to the down-slope settlements. Cracks
were seen in asphalt roads at some locations, indicating the possibility of failure due to
ground slippage. At several sites, large-scale earthquake-induced landslide/rock falls were
observed as shown in Fig. 9.

Fig. 9 Chamoli (India), earthquake: A major landslide about 1 km north of Gopeshwar. It
blocked the road traffic to Okimath for a considerable period. (Source: NICEE, IITK,
India, website)

The various types of structural foundations can be grouped into two categories, namely:
1. Shallow Foundations
2. Deep Foundations
Usually foundations are considered shallow if depth of foundation (Df) is less than or equal to
width of foundation (Bf). A shallow foundation transmits structural loads to the soil strata at a
relatively small depth. In deep foundations, the load is supported partly by frictional resistance
around the foundation and the rest by bearing at the base of the foundation.
The choice of a particular type of foundation depends on the magnitude of loads, the
nature of the subsoil strata, the nature of the superstructure and its specific require-
ments. For reasons of economy, shallow foundations should be the first choice of a
foundation engineer unless they are considered inadequate.

Common types of shallow foundations are shown in Fig. 10 and briefly described as:
(a) Strip footing or continuous footing: Commonly used below walls (length is much greater than
width L>>B), Fig. 10a.
(b) Spread footing: Square or circular in section, commonly used below a column (isolated – Fig.
10b). Or below more than one column (combined – Fig. 10c and 10d) when the shape is
commonly rectangular or trapezoidal in plan.
(c) Raft or mat foundation which covers the entire area of a structure, transmitting the entire
structural load or load from several columns (Fig. 10e)

Fig. 10. Common types of footings: (a) Continuous footing (L>>B), (b) Spread footing (square,
circular or rectangular), (c) combined footing (trapezoidal) (d) strap footing (e) mat or raft

General Requirements of Foundations
For a satisfactory performance, a foundation must satisfy the following three basic criteria:
(a) Location and Depth Criterion: A foundation must be properly located at such a depth that its
performance is not adversely affected by factors such as lateral expulsion of soil from
beneath the foundation, seasonal volume changes causes by freezing and thawing and pres-
ence of adjoining structures. Indian Standard Code (IS: 1904-1986) makes the recommen-
dation that a foundation should be located at a minimum depth of 50 cm below natural ground
(b) Bearing Capacity Criteria: A foundation must be safe against shear strength failure or soil
rupture. An adequate factor of safety is provided to avoid bearing capacity failure. Three
different types of failure mechanism are shown in Fig. 11. Fig. 12 indicates the type of
failure mode that can be expected for a footing in sands. Shallow foundations in very dense
sand can be expected to fail in general shear failure mode. Shallow foundations in loose sand
and deep foundations are likely to fail in punching shear.

Fig. 11. Typical modes of failure: (a) Fig. 12. Regions of three different modes of
general shear failure (b) punching shear failure
failure (c) local shear failure

According to Terzaghi, ultimate bearing capacity (qu) for a strip footing is given by:
qu = cN c + qN q + 0.5γBN γ

where Nc, Nq and Ny are dimensionless bearing capacity factors which depends on the angle of
shearing resistance of the soil. c, q and y are cohesion, surcharge, unit weight of soil respectively
while B is the width of foundation.
Above equation for bearing capacity is based on general shear failure and it is modified for other
modes of failure e.g. for local shear failure. Also it is for strip footings and modified for square
and circular footings. Further, if water table is at a depth less than width of footing (B) below the
base of the footing, reduction in bearing capacity is considered.
(c) Settlement Criteria: The settlement of a foundation, especially the differential settlement
must be within permissible limit. Excessive settlement may affect the utility of the structure,
may even cause damage to the structure. The total settlement S consists of immediate
settlement, primary consolidation and secondary compression.

S = S i + Sc + S s

Bearing Capacity from Building Codes
Safe bearing capacity (SBC) varies widely according to type of soil, approximate values can be
estimated according to IS: 1904-1961 as shown in Table 1.
Table 1: Values of safe bearing capacity for various soils according to IS: 1904-1961.

Description SBC (kN/m2 )
Cohesionless Soils
1. Gravel, sand and gravel, compact and offering high resistance to 450
penetration when excavated by tools
2. Coarse sand, compact and dry 450
3. Medium sand, compact and dry 250
4. Fine sand, silt (dry lumps easily pulverized by the fingers) 150
5. Loose gravel or sand gravel mixture: loose coarse to medium sand 250
6. Fine sand, loose and dry 100
Cohesive Soils
1. Soft, shale, hard or stiff clay in deep bed, dry 450
2. Medium clay readily indented with a thumb nail 250
3. Moist clay and sand clay mixture which can be indented with 150
strong thumb pressure
4. Soft clay indented with moderate thumb pressure 100
5. Very soft clay which can be penetrated several inches with the thumb 50
6. Black cotton soil or other shrinkable or expensive clay in dry condition 150
(50 % saturation)

Permissible Total and Differential Settlements
The effect of settlement upon the structure depends on its magnitude, its uniformity, the length of
the time over which it takes place and nature of the structure itself.
According to National Building Code of India (SP: 7-1970), for simple spread footing allowable
bearing pressure should be such that differential settlement does not exceed 1/300. This condi-
tion is generally satisfied if total settlement is limited to 50 mm for sands and 75 mm for clayey
Types of Foundations to Suit Subsoil Conditions
A foundation has to transfer the structural load to the supporting soil in such a way that the soil
neither fails in shear nor settles excessively. Before selecting a proper type of foundation, such
as shallow foundation (strip footing or combined footing or raft foundation) or deep foundation
(piles or piers), it is essential to know the subsoil conditions and the soil properties at the site.
Design of foundation is worked out only after an appropriate foundation type has been chosen.
Selection of foundation type for different soil profiles (Fig. 13) are illustrated in following
Case (a): Dense sand provides a good bearing stratum for spread footings with their depth
governed by consideration of possible erosion or scour. Deep foundations such as piles may be
required only if uplift or any other unusual forces are present.
Case (b): Subsoil being stiff or firm clay, spread footings are satisfactory for conventional
needs. Piles are required only for unusual situations mentioned in case (a).
Case (c): The upper firm clay stratum provides a satisfactory bearing stratum for a spread
footing only if the loads are low to medium and the footings are not placed close to the underlying
soft clay stratum. Otherwise, deep foundations such as piles or piers are to be provided upto a
depth where sufficient load bearing capacity is forthcoming.
Case (d): This is a classic example of the subsoil condition where a deep foundation such as
piles or piers can be provided, bearing directly on or socketed inside the rock stratum.
Case (e): Another typical example of the choice of deep foundation. Case in situ piles such as
bulb piles into the sand stratum are most suitable.
Case (f): Spread foundation is ruled out. Raft foundation can, however be considered as a
possibility. If the loads are not heavy, the possibility of first densifying the loose sand by vibro-
floatation and then using spread foundation can be considered as another alternative. If these
alternatives are not satisfactory, the driven piles are the best choice, as they would help densify
the sand soil.
Case (g): Spread foundation is not suitable. If practically feasible, a partially or a fully compen-
sated raft foundation may be provided. If not, friction piles would be the best choice. The length
of piles can be increased so as to bring the settlement within limit.
Fig. 13. Some typical subsoil conditions

Case (h): The upper compact sand layer, a good bearing stratum, is too thin to place a spread
foundation in it because of the likelihood of excessive settlement in the underlying soft layer.
Drilled piers with an enlarged base formed in the hard clay layer or bored and cast in situ piles
with a bulb formed in the hard clay layer are suitable.
Case (i): The poor fill layer is too thick to consider replacing it with a better material. Deep
foundation like driven and cast in situ piles or drilled piers extending into the medium dense sand
layer, or better still, going into the compact glacial till stratum would prove to be satisfactory. It is
unnecessary and uneconomical to go further deep into the rock.
Case (j): Pile foundation, bearing in the upper portion of the dense sand layer, would be satisfac-
tory. This would prevent stresses reaching the clay layer and causing significant settlement.
Another alternative is to remove the 2 m thick poor fill layer and replace it with a compacted fill
and provide spread foundation in the new fill material.
Case (k): For loads which are not very large, piles or piers bearing on the upper zone of the
dense sand layer may be considered, ensuring the resulting settlement in the clay layer will be
within limit. Compensated raft is another possibility that can be considered. For really heavy
loads, driven steel piles or caissons bearing on rock stratum will be suitable.
Case (l): Since rock is available at only 4.5 m depth, piles or piers bearing on rock would
obviously be most satisfactory. But if basement floors are going to be useful, excavating the soil
up to rock level and providing two basement floors with the base slab resting on rock, would be
Design of Deep Foundations
Deep foundations include pile foundations, well foundations, caisson foundations. Deign of these
foundations may be found in standard text books for example Rao and Ranjan (2002), Bowles
For the Earthquake Resistant Design (ERD) of structures, IS: 1893-Part 1: 2002, provides gen-
eral provisions. Though not much detail is given in the present code about foundation design but
simple guideline is provided. Clause of the code suggests the increase in allowable pres-
sure in soils while considering earthquake forces.
Accordingly when earthquake forces are included, the allowable bearing pressure in soils shall
be increased as given in Table 1 of the code. Also in soil deposits consisting of submerged loose
sands and soils falling under classification SP, to avoid liquefaction or to avoid excessive total and
differential settlements, code suggests following minimum N-values (Corrected SPT value ac-
cording to IS 2131):
1. In Zones III, IV and V: N =15
2. In Zone II: N = 10
Further, Note 3 and Note 4 in the Table 1 shall be considered for desirable N values. Code
suggests that for locating new settlements and important projects such sites should be avoided.
Otherwise, this aspect of the problem needs to be investigated and appropriate methods of
compaction or stabilization adopted to achieve suitable N values. Alternatively, deep pile founda-
tion may be provided and taken to depths well into the layer which is not likely to liquefy. Marine
clays and sensitive clays are also known to liquefy and will need special treatment according to
site condition.
Few of the geotechnical provisions mentioned in the code need a review. These are related to
(i) Soil Classification: The group symbols given in Table 1 are not consistent with the soil clas-
sification according to IS: 1498-1970.
(ii) Increase in Allowable Bearing Pressure in Soil: According to international practice increase
in bearing pressure is only up to one third (33 %) instead of 25 to 50% suggested in code.
Further no increase in bearing pressure may be recommended for soft soils.
(iii) Determining the N values for layered site for identifying the response spectrum: it may be
weighted average.
All these three issues are discussed in detail in the document IITK-GSDMA-EQ13-V1.0 which
can be downloaded from NICEE wbsite.
Day R.W. (2002). Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering Handbook, McGraw-Hill Handbooks,
New York.
EERI (2002). Bhuj India Earthquake of January 26, 2001 Reconnaissance Report, Earthquake
Spectra, Supplement to Vol. 18, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, USA
Kramer S.L. (1996). Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Ciffs,
Prakash S. (1981), Soil Dynamics, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, USA
Ranjan G. and Rao A.S.R. (2000), Basic and Applied Soil Mechanics, second edition, New Age
International (P) Ltd., Publishers, New Delhi.

Chapter 7

Yogendra Singh
Asstt. Professor, Department of Earthquake Engineering, IIT Roorkee, 247 667

Man has been building shelters for time immemorial. He has observed his buildings being
washed away by floods and landslides and razed down by earthquakes and fire. He has learnt
lessons from these calamities and developed methods to safeguard his construction.

? Lack of Knowledge
on Earthquake
Demand and Building

Vdes Linear Elastic
Building Response

(a) (b)

Demand Reduced
S Based on Inelastic
Capacityof building
V Elastic Forces
Reduced for
Design by R

Performance Point
V des

yield max des
(c) (d)
Fig. 1 Evolution of Earthquake Resistant Design

The first significant point regarding the earthquakes, which was learnt by mankind was that
earthquakes cause lateral loads on buildings. Today, it may appear very obvious and easy to
understand, but it was a great leap of understanding when somebody presented this idea first
time. Since then, our understanding of earthquakes and their effects on buildings has increased a
Initially there was no understanding of origin and occurrence of earthquakes. Now we have
significant information about origin of earthquakes and their recurrence periods in different parts
of the world. Further, we have a fair idea of the expected characteristics of earthquakes likely to
occur in different parts of the country and world. Although, this information, by no means, is
adequate for predicting the characteristics of expected ground shaking at a given location, we
can estimate the average probable values on regional basis for design purposes.
The first concept of earthquake resistant design was (Fig.1) to design the buildings for a lateral
load which was 5% to 10% of gravity load. Later, it was discovered that earthquake force on a
structure depends on its time period of vibrations. Further, it was seen that a structure can
withstand much higher force during earthquake, than for which it was designed. This is due to
ductility of structures. Ductility is the property of the structure by which it can deform plastically
without loosing its vertical load carrying capacity. The current practice of designing earthquake
resistant structures, takes into account both strength and ductility of structures, under earth-
quake loads.
Earthquakes occur due to rupture of earth's crustal rock along the planes of weakness called
faults. Magnitude of an earthquake is an indicator of the total energy released during the
rupture, while Intensity is the severity of shaking of ground at a given location. Among the
several prevalent scales, Richter scale is the most commonly used scale for magnitude of
earthquake and MMI and MSK scales are the most popular scales for measuring the Intensity of
scale. The damage at a site is indicated by the intensity of ground shaking at the site. The
damage potential of ground shaking at a location depends on the following parameters:
(i) Amplitude of ground motion, i.e. Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA), Peak Ground Velocity
(PGV), and Peak Ground Displacement (PGV),
(ii) Frequency content of ground motion, and
(iii) Duration of earthquake.
It is customary to consider the effect of first two parameters in the design, which are repre-
sented in the form of response spectrum. The effect of duration of earthquake is generally not
considered by the current codes of practice, as it is difficult to be estimated and modelled. These
parameters in tern depend on the magnitude of earthquake, rupture characteristics, path charac-
teristics, local topology and local geotechnical conditions at site. All these characteristics to-
gether cause large variation in ground motion within a city or a region.

This variation can be considered in
Seismic Microzonation of the city,
which is a costly and involved pro-
In India efforts have been initiated
towards Microzonation of some
important cities. However, the
present code of practice is based
on the concept of Seismic
Macrozonation, in which an aver-
age ground shaking level is assigned
to a considerably large zone. At
present the country is divided into
four zones as shown in Fig. 2. Fig.3
shows the normalized shape of the
response spectra as per IS:1893-
2002. Three different shapes

Fig. 2 Seismic Macrozonation of India

Fig. 3. Normalised spectral shape as per IS:1893-2002
have been suggested for three different types of soil conditions. These shapes take into account
the local site conditions to some extent. The code specifies zone factors, which may be inter-
preted as the Effective Peak Ground Accelerations, for each zone. The normalized spectral
shape multiplied by the zone factor results in the design response spectrum for the given zone
and the given soil type.

Another important parameter of the earthquakes is their probability of occurrence, which is
normally interpreted in terms of the average return period of the earthquake of a given severity.
It is obvious that a larger magnitude earthquake will have lower probability of occurrence or
larger average return period. Our code (IS:1893-2002) has defined two levels of earthquakes -
Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) and Design Basis Earthquake (DBE). The code is
silent about the probability of occurrence of these earthquakes, but, as per the prevailing defini-
tions world over, the MCE corresponds to 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years and an
average return period of 2,500 years, while the DBE corresponds to 10% probability of exceedance
in 50 years and an average return period of 475 years. The severity of ground shaking in MCE
is about double of that in DBE and it is considered as a theoretical limit on the maximum ground
shaking, which can occur at a site.


It should be clear that earthquakes result in very high lateral forces on structures. it will be
uneconomical to design all the buildings for such high earthquake forces. As earthquakes are
rare events, the IS: 1893 outlines the philosophy of earthquake resistant design that the building
should not have any significant structural damage under moderate earthquakes, which are
relatively frequent. On the other hand, under a major earthquake, which is rare (average return
period being 1000 years or more), the building may undergo severe damage, but it should not
collapse in any case, as collapse results in large scale loss of life.

To avoid collapse of buildings during earthquakes there are four basic principles: (i) Reduced
mass; (ii) Symmetry and Continuity of construction, (iii) Strength and overstrength and (iv)
Ductility of structure. There are functional limits on reduction of mass, but it is obvious that a
light weight structure will attract less force compared to a heavy structure. Seismic performance
of a symmetric and regular structure has been observed to be much better than the asymmetric
and irregular structures. The common types of irregularities found in buildings are described in
the following sections. Role of strength and overstrength in resisting the inertia forces due to
earthquakes is obvious. Overstrength is that part of the strength of the structure, which is not
explicitly estimated in the design process and considered as a reserve strength. It arises due to
higher material strength, strain hardening, strength increase due to strain rate effect, member
oversize, provided reinforcement more than required, codal minimum requirements, effect of
non-structural elements and redundancy etc.

The role of ductility in resisting the earthquakes is not that obvious to common sense. It can be
visualized by considering the earthquake ground motion as an energy imparted to the

structure, which is to be dissipated by the structure. Ductility is the property of the structure
which helps in energy dissipation without excessive damage or collapse of the structure. This is
being dealt with in detail in the following sections.


Regularity of stiffness and strength, and symmetry of configuration are the most important fac-
tors governing the seismic performance of a building. The current code identifies this fact, and
the following irregularities have been described in the code:

Torsion Irregularity

To be considered when floor diaphragms are rigid in their own plan in relation to the vertical
structural elements that resist the lateral forces. Torsional irregularity to be considered to exist
when the maximum storey drift, computed with design eccentricity, at one end of the structures
transverse to an axis is more than 1.2 times the average of the storey drifts at the two ends of the

Re-entrant Corner

Plan configurations of a structure and its lateral force resisting system contain re-entrant cor-
ners, where both projections of the structure beyond the re-entrant corner are greater than 15
percent of its plan dimension in the given direction.

Diaphragm Discontinuity

Diaphragms with abrupt discontinuities or variationsin stiffness, including those having cut-out or
open areas greater than 50 percent of the gross enclosed diaphragm area, or changes in effec-
tive diaphragm stiffness of more than 50 percent from one storey to the next.

Out-of-Plane Offsets

Discontinuities in a lateral force resistance path, such as out-of-plane offsets of vertical ele-

Non-parallel Systems

The vertical elements resisting the lateral force are not parallel to or symmetric about the major
orthogonal axes or the lateral force resisting elements.

Soft Storey

A soft storey is one in which the lateral stiffness is less than 70 percent of that in the storey
above or less than 80 percent of the average lateral stiffness of the three storeys above.

Extreme Soft Storey: A extreme soft storey is one in which the lateral stiffness is less than 60
percent of that in the storey above or less than 70 percent of the average stiffness of the three
storeys above. For example, buildings on STILTS (Fig. 4) will fall under this category.

Fig. 4 Failure of an extreme soft storey building
Mass Irregularity: Mass irregularity shall be considered to exist where the seismic weight of
any storey is more than 200 percent of that of its adjacent storeys. The irregularity need not be
considered in case of roofs.
Vertical Geometric Irregularity: Vertical geometric irregularity shall be considered to exist
where the horizontal dimension of the lateral force resisting system in any storey is more than
150 percent of that in its adjacent storey.

Fig. 5 In- plane irregularity Fig. 6 Out of plane irregularity

In-Plane Discontinuity in Vertical Elements Resisting Lateral Force: An in-plane offset of the
lateral force resisting elements greater than the length of those elements (Fig. 5).
Out-of-Plane Discontinuity in Vertical Elements Resisting Lateral Force: An out-of-plane offset
of the lateral force resisting elements (Fig. 6).

Weak Storey: A weak storey is one in which the storey lateral strength is less than 80 percent of
that in the storey above. The storey lateral strength is the total strength of all seismic force
resisting elements sharing the storey shear in the considered direction.
Fig. 6 shows the resistance vs. displacement curve for a typical building. The ductility is defined
as the ratio of the maximum displacement u m to the yield displacement u y . Larger is the capacity
of the building to deform after yielding, without collapse, larger is the ductility of the building. This
ductility is very important in loss of energy under cyclic loading, such as earthquake loading. The
effective damping ratio depends on the ratio of the energy dissipated due to hysteresis, ED in
each cycle and the total strain energy Eso . Fig. 7 shows the two energies as the areas under load
deformation curves. The effective damping result is reduction of effective earthquake forces on
the building.
Bilinear representation
of capacity spectrum
Effective Elastic Limit

Spectral Acceleration
Actual Resistance Capacity spectrum
Kinitial Keffective
Actual Yield
Point Effective Yield

Useful Limit of
um= uy

O uy Displacement um dY dp
Spectral Displacement

Fig. 6 Typical load-displacement curve Fig. 7 Energy dissipation due to ductility
for a building resulting in effective damping

Fig. 8 shows the reduction in effective earthquake force on the building due to its ductility. As
shown in the Fig., it has been observed that total displacement of a yielding long period (i.e. tall)
building remains almost same, under a given earthquake, irrespective of its ductility. This is called
"Equal Displacement Principle". This means that we can design a structure in a number of
combinations of strength and ductility. If the building has no ductility, we have to design it for a
very high lateral force. As shown in the Fig., the reduction in force R is equal to ductility µ in
such a case.
For a short period (i.e. short) building the total displacement is not the same but the total energy
absorbed by the building remains same. The total energy absorbed is shown by the area of the
force-displacement curve and as shown in the Fig. 8, R = 2µ − 1 , in this case.

Ductility of building depends on the material of construction, and proportion and detailing of the
components of the building. Based upon the ductility of different of building IS: 1893 gives the
reduction factors for the buildings (Table-1).


Seismic Force
R FE 2
m (R+1)

Seismic Force
Y 2
Y m
Displacement Y m

Fig. 8 Equal Displacement and Equal Energy Principle

Concrete is known to be brittle material, i.e. it fails suddenly when subjected to load. But con-
crete can be made ductile when confined by reinforcement. Fig. 9 shows the behaviour of
unconfined and confined concrete. It can be seen that confinement not only increases the strength
of concrete, but it tremendously increases the ductility of concrete. The confinement of concrete
is obtained by providing stirrups. Here, it is very important, that stirrups should be hooked at 1350
into the core concrete, otherwise these stirrups open up under force due to earthquake and the
confining action is not available.

concrete First hoop
Compressive Stress, cf


f'c Unconfined
Ec Assumed for
cover concrete
Et E co 2Eco E sp E cc Ecu

Compressive Strain, Ec
Fig. 9 Behaviour of Confined and Unconfined Concrete
Table 1. Response Reduction Factors as per IS:1893-2002

S. Lateral Load Resisting System R
1. Ordinary RC moment-resisting frame ( OMRF ) 3.0
2. Special RC moment-resisting frame ( SMRF ) 5.0
3. Steel frame with
a) Concentric braces 4.0
b) with Eccentric braces 5.0
6. Steel moment resisting frame designed as per SP 6 5.0
7. Load bearing masonry wall buildings
a) Unreinforced 1.5
b) Reinforced with horizontal RC bands 2.5
c) Reinforced with horizontal RC bands and vertical bars at 3.0
corners of rooms and jambs of openings
8. Ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls 3.0
9. Ductile shear walls 4.0
10. Buildings with Dual Systems
Ordinary shear wall with SMRF 3.0
Ordinary shear wall with SMRF 4.0
Ductile shear wall with OMRF 4.5
Ductile shear wall with SMRF 5.0

Further, even with confinement, RC members are sufficiently ductile in bending action only, but
not in axial and shear action. Therefore, we have to ensure that RC members should yield in
flexure and not in axial or shear action. This can be ensured by designing the RC members in
such a way that their shear and axial load capacity is higher than their capacity in flexure. This
concept is called "Capacity Design" and it can be understood by the following analogy.
Pi >P E/

Brittle Links Ductile Links Brittle Chain Links
P IS PO ' '
PiS n
PO = Pi = PE 1 2

' Pi ' Pi
+ 1
21 PE (n+ 2)
2 (n+1)

1 l 2 l
n l+ 2 u l

n Brittle Links + Ductile Links Ductile Chain Links
(a) (b) (c)

Fig. 10 Analogy for Capacity Design
Fig. 11 Local and Global failure mechanisms
Fig. 10, shows a chain, which has one ductile link, while all other links are brittle. This chain is
subjected to load P at the ends, as shows in the Fig. Now, the question is, whether the failure of
chain will be brittle or ductile? This can be answered, if we know whether the ductile link is going
to fail first or a brittle link. If the capacity of all brittle links is higher than the ductile link, the
failure of the chain will be ductile, otherwise it will be brittle. This concept is used in making a
building to behave in a ductile manner by designing all the brittle modes to have higher strength
than the ductile modes.
In a building two modes of failure are possible (Fig. 11). In the first mode of failure columns of
one storey yield and building fails in a local mechanism. On the other hand, in the second mode
of failure, all the beams yield first than the columns. This type of failure mechanism is called
global mechanism. It is obvious that the second mode of failure provides much larger ductility
than the first mode. This can be achieved by designing the beams of the building weaker than the
columns. "Weak beam and strong column design" is the most important concept of building
IS 1893-2002, Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures, Part 1 General Provisions
and Buildings, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
IS 456-2000, Plain and Reinforce Concrete - Code of Practice, Bureau of Indian Standards,
New Delhi.
IS 13920-1993, Ductile Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Structures Subjected to Seismic Forces
- Code of Practice, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
Key, David, 1988, Earthquake Design Practice for Buildings, Thomas Telford, London.
IS 4326-1993, Earthquake Resistant Design and Construction of buildings - Code of practice,
Bureau of India Standards, New Delhi.
Penelis, George G., and Kappos, Andreas J., 1997, Earthquake Resistant Concrete Structures, E
& FN Spon.
Paulay T., and Priestley, M.J.N., 1992, Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete and Masonry
Buildings," John Wiley & sons, Inc., New York.
ATC 40, 1996, Seismic Evaluation and Retrofit of Concrete Buildings, Applied Technology Council,
Chapter 8

IS:1893-2002 CODE
D.K. Paul
Department of Earthquake Engg., IIT Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667

If an elastic design is based on the most severe earthquake, the structure is expected to experi-
ence, then it would result in a very uneconomical design. Unless a structure is designed to
undergo limited damage without collapse for the most severe earthquake, an economically ac-
ceptable design cannot possibly be achieved. It is observed that structures designed for low
seismic coefficient have withstood much severe earthquakes successfully with some minor dam-
age. This is attributed to reserve capacity of structure, which is available while the structure
undergoes limited damage. If this reserve capacity of the structure is utilized, then the design
allowing limited damage by limiting the ductility will be economically acceptable. The acceptable
damageability is different for different structures. The most acceptable approach would be to
design structures to resist most frequent moderate earthquake elastically and then check the
resistance for infrequent most severe earthquake allowing limited damage without collapse,
which may occur in useful lifetime of a structure. To account for ductility as above, the elastic
average spectra were reduced by a factor of nearly 5, which was adopted by the earlier Codes.
To safeguard the structures from the devastating earthquakes in the country, the Indian Stan-
dards Institution initiated action nearly 45 years ago for the formation of unified recommenda-
tions for earthquake resistant design of structures which resulted, for the first time, in the publi-
cation of IS:1893-1962 "Recommendation for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures". It
was subsequently revised in 1966. Since the publication of the first revision of this standard, it
was felt to revise the standard again incorporating many changes adding a more rational ap-
proach for design of buildings. These were incorporated in the second revision of IS:1893 brought
out in 1970. As a result of increased use of the Standard, considerable amount of suggestions
were received for modifying some of the provisions of the Standard and therefore, third revision
of the Standard was brought out in 1975. Additional data, knowledge and experience made it
possible to bring out fourth revision of Indian Standard IS:1893-1984, "Criteria for Earthquake
Resistant Design of Structures". In the fifth revision of IS 1893 (2002), IS 1893 has been split
into the following, five parts and only Parts 1 and 4 have been brought out.
Part 1: General provision and buildings
Part 2: Liquid retaining tanks-elevated and ground supported
Part 3: Bridges and Retaining walls
Part 4: Industrial structures including stack like structures
Part 5: Dams and embankments
The Code of Practice for Earthquake Resistant Design and Construction of Buildings (IS: 4326-
1976) has been revised and subdivided into five Codes.
IS: 4326-1993 Code of Practice for Earthquake Resistant Design and Construction
of Buildings
IS: 13827-1993 Guidelines for Improving Earthquake Resistance of Earthen
IS: 13828-1993 Guidelines for Improving Earthquake Resistance of Low Strength
IS: 13920-1993 Code of Practice for Ductile Detailing of Reinforced Concrete
Structures subjected to Seismic Forces
IS: 13935-1993 Guidelines for Repair and Seismic Strengthening of Buildings

A COMPARISION OF IS:1893-2002 AND IS:1893:1984 CODES
The Indian Standard "Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures (IS: 1893-1984)"
has been revised. The seismic provision for the multi-storey-framed building as per IS: 1893-
1984 and the revised Code are compared. Basic difference between the IS: 1893-1984 and
revised Code is that in earlier Code horizontal seismic coefficient for design is calculated from a
lower value of basic seismic coefficient, and upgraded it to design basis earthquake by multiply-
ing it with many factors like importance factor and soil-foundation factor. While in revised Code,
horizontal seismic coefficient are calculated for Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) from Maxi-
mum Credible Earthquake (MCE) by dividing it a factor of 2 and other factor like response
reduction factor.
Code recommends mainly two methods, seismic coefficient and the response spectrum method.
In both the methods due considerations are given to the seismic Zone where the structure is
located as well as to the importance of the structure, soil foundation system, ductility of construc-
tion, flexibility of the structure, and weight of the building.
Important modifications made in the Revised Code
i) The seismic Zone map is revised with only four Zones, instead of five. Zone I has been
merged with Zone II. Hence, Zone I do not appear in the new zoning only Zones II, III, IV,
and V do.
ii) The values of seismic Zone factor have been changed; these now reflect more realistic
values of effective peak ground acceleration under Maximum Credible Earthquake (MCE)
in each seismic Zone.
iii) Response spectra are now specified for three types of founding strata, namely rock, me-
dium and soft soil, separately.

iv) Empirical expression for estimating the fundamental natural period Ta of multi-storeyed
buildings with regular moment resisting frames has been revised.
v) This revision adopts the procedure of first calculating the actual force that may be experi-
enced by the structure during the probable maximum earthquake, if it were to remain elas-
tic. The, concept of response reduction factor is introduced in place of the earlier perfor-
mance factor.
vi) The soil-foundation system factor is dropped. Instead, a clause is introduced to restrict the
use of foundations vulnerable to differential settlements in severe seismic Zones.
vii) Torsional eccentricity values have been revised upwards in view of serious damages ob-
served in buildings with irregular plans.
viii) Modal combination rule in dynamic analysis of buildings has been revised.
Most multi-storey building construction in India is done in reinforced concrete. Steel is usually
used only for industrial structures because of high cost. The limit state design method is com-
monly used for design of buildings. In the limit state design method, for both the reinforced
concrete and pre-stressed concrete, the material strength partial safety factor is prescribed at
1.5 on concrete strength and at 1.15 on the yield stress of steel. The following load combinations
shall be accounted for reinforced and pre-stressed concrete structures.
a) 1.5(DL + IL)
b) 1.2(DL + IL ± ELX )
c) 1.2(DL + IL ± ELY )
d) 1.5(DL ± ELX )
e) 1.5(DL ± ELY )
f) 0.9DL ± 1.5ELX
g) 0.9DL ± 1.5ELY
where DL is the dead load; IL is the imposed load and EL is earthquake load.
In the design of steel structures, IS 800 (1984) allows the use of the working stress or the plastic
method of design. In the plastic design of steel structure, the following load combinations shall be
accounted for:
a) 1.7(DL + IL)
b) 1.7(DL ± ELX)
c) 1.7(DL ± ELY)
d) 1.3(DL + IL ± ELX)
e) 1.3(DL + IL ± ELY)
The responses due to each component may be combined using the assumption that when the
maximum response from one component occurs, the responses from the other two components
are 30% of their maximum. The response due to earthquake force (EL) is the maximum of the
following three cases:
1) ± ELX ± 0.3ELY ± 0.3EL Z
2) ± ELY ± 0.3ELY ± 0.3EL Z
3) ± ELZ ± 0.3ELY ± 0.3EL Z
The three components can also be combined on the basis of square root of sum of the square
The design lateral force shall first be computed for the building as a whole. This design lateral
force shall then be distributed to the various floor levels. The overall design seismic force thus
obtained at each floor level shall then be distributed to individual lateral load resisting elements
depending on the floor diaphragm action.

Design Seismic Base Shear, VB

The design seismic base shear is given by
VB = AhW (1)
where Ah = horizontal seismic coefficient
W = Seismic weight (total dead load + appropriate amount of imposed load)
Seismic Weight of Building, W

The seismic weight of each floor is its full dead load plus appropriate amount of imposed load.
The fraction of live load up to 3 kN/m2 of distributed floor load is 25 percent of imposed load and
above 3 kN/m2 is 50% of imposed load. While computing the seismic weight of each floor the
weight of columns and walls in any storey shall be equally distributed to the floors above and
below the storey. The seismic weight of the whole building is the sum of the seismic weight of
all the floors.

Horizontal Seismic Coefficient, Ah

The value of horizontal seismic coefficient Ah is given by

(Z / 2)( S a / g )
Ah = (2)
(R / I )
Zone factor, Z
The seismic Zone map for the country was developed based on the epicentral distribution of
significant past earthquakes, the isoseismal distribution of significant past earthquakes, the geo-
logical and tectonic data. The zoning map is based on expected maximum seismic intensity in a
region and does not divide the country into areas of equal risk. In the Code there are only four
Zones. The modified Mercelli Intensity (MMI) of VI, VII, VIII and IX (and above) are associ-
ated with the four Zones, II, III, IV and V. The Zone I has been upgraded to Zone II.
Zone factor (Z) refers to the zero period acceleration value for the Maximum Credible
Earthquake (MCE) in a Zone. In determining the base seismic coefficient a factor 2 in the
denominator of Z is used, so as to reduce the Maximum Credible Earthquake (MCE) to the
Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) value. Zone factor (Z) is given for Maximum Credible
Earthquake (MCE) in Table 1..
Table 1. : Values of seismic Zone factor
Serial no. Zone no. Z
1 V 0.36
2 IV 0.24
3 III 0.16
4 II 0.10
5 I 0.10

Average response acceleration coefficient, ( S a g )

Average response acceleration coefficient is obtained from the plot ( S a g ) vs. T (time period
of vibration), for different soil types.
The design acceleration spectrum for vertical motions, when required, may be taken as two-
thirds of the design horizontal acceleration spectrum. Figure 1 shows the proposed 5 percent
spectra for rocky and soils sites and Table 2 gives the multiplying factors for obtaining spectral
values for various other dampings.
Table 2 Multiplying Factors for Obtaining Values for Other Damping
Damping 0 2 5 7 10 15 20 25 30
Factors 3.20 1.40 1.00 0.90 0.80 0.70 0.60 0.55 0.50

Fig. 1 Response Spectra for Rock and Soil Sites for 5 Percent Damping
Fundamental Natural Period
The fundamental period may either be established by experimental observations on similar build-
ings or calculated by any rational method of analysis. In the absence of such data the approxi-
mate fundamental natural period of vibration (T) in seconds is calculated as follows:
i) for moment resisting frame building without brick infill panels
Ta = 0.075h 0.75 for RC building
= 0.085h 0. 75 for steel frame building (3)
ii) for all other including moment-resistant frame buildings with brick infill panels
0.09 h
Ta = (4)
where h is the height of building, in m, and d is the base dimension of the building at the plinth
level, in m, along the considered direction of the lateral force.
Importance Factor
Value of importance factor is taken as 1.5 for all important service and community structures,
and 1 for all other buildings. The designer can choose a suitable value depending upon the
importance of the structure.
Response Reduction Factor
In view of the energy absorbing capacity available in inelastic range, ductile structures will be
able to resist shocks without much damage. Depending on the perceived seismic damage perfor-
mance of the structure, characterized by ductile or brittle deformations a factor R is introduced
in the Code. However in calculating the horizontal seismic coefficient the ratio (R/I) shall not be
less than 1.0. Table 2 gives the values of R for various types of buildings.
Table 2 Response Reduction Factor, R, for Building Systems
SI. No. Lateral Load Resisting System R

(1) (2) (3)
Building Frame Systems

(i) Ordinary RC moment-resisting frame (OMRF) 2) 3.0
(ii) Special RC moment-resisting frame (SMRF)3) 5.0
(iii) Steel frame with
a) Concentric braces 4.0
b) Eccentric braces 5.0
(iv) Steel moment resisting frame designed as per SP 6 (6) 5.0
Building with Shear Walls4)
(v) Load bearing masonry wall buildings5)
a) Unreinforced 1.5
b) Reinforced with horizontal RC bands 2.5
c) Reinforced with horizontal RC bands and vertical bars at 3.0
comers of rooms and
(vi) Ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls 6) 3.0
(vii) Ductile shear walls 7) 4.0
Buildings with Dual System8 )
(viii) Ordinary shear wall with OMRF 3.0
(ix) Ordinary shear wall with SMRF 4.0
(x) Ductile shear wall with OMRF 4.5
(xi) Ductile shear wall with SMRF 5.0

Distribution of Design Force
The design base shear VB shall be distributed to different floor levels of the building as per the
following expression:

W1 hi2
Qi = VB n

j =1
j h 2j (5)

where Qi = Design lateral force at floor I; Wi = Seismic weight of floor; hi = Height of floor
i measured from base, and n = Number of storeys in the building is the number of levels at which
the masses are located.
Dynamic analysis shall be performed to obtain the design seismic force, and its distribution to
different levels along the height of the building and to the various lateral load-resisting elements,
for the following buildings:
Regular Buildings- Those greater than 40m in height in Zone IV, and V, and those greater than
90m in height in Zone II and III.
Irregular Buildings- All framed buildings higher than 12.0 m in Zone IV and V, and those
greater than 40 meters in height in Zone II and III. There are two types of irregularity in buildings
Dynamic analysis may be performed either by the Time History Method or by the Response
Spectrum Method. However, in either method, the design base shear (VB) shall be compared
with a base shear ( V B ) calculated using a fundamental period T a. Where VB. is less than V B ,
all the response quantities (for example member forces, displacements, storey forces, storey
shears and base reactions) shall be multiplied by V B VB .

Time History Method
Time history method of analysis, when used, shall be based on an appropriate ground motion and
shall be performed using accepted principles of dynamics.

Response Spectrum Method
Response spectrum method of analysis shall be performed using the design spectrum or by a
site-specific design spectrum.
Free Vibration Analysis

Undamped free vibration analysis of the entire building shall be performed as per established
methods of mechanics using the appropriate masses and elastic stiffness of the structural sys-
tem, to obtain natural periods (T) and mode shapes of those of its modes of vibration that need
to be considered.
Modes to be considered
The number of modes to be used in the analysis should be such that the sum total of modal
masses of all modes considered is at least 90 percent of the total seismic mass and missing mass
correction beyond 33 percent. If modes with natural frequency beyond 33 Hz are to be consid-
ered, modal combination shall be carried out only for modes upto 33 Hz. The effect of higher
modes shall be included by considering missing mass correction following well established pro-
Analysis of building subjected to design forces
The building may be analyzed by accepted principles of mechanics for the design forces
considered as static forces.
Modal combination
The peak response quantities (for example, member forces, displacements, storey forces, storey
shears and base reactions) shall be combined as per Complete Quadratic Combination (CQC)
r r
λ= ∑∑ λ i ρij λ j (6)
i =1 j =1

where, r = Number of modes being considered; ρij = Cross-modal coefficient; λi =
Response quantity in mode i (including sign); λ j = Response quantity in mode j (including sign),

8 ζ 2 (1 + β ) β 1. 5
ρij = (7)
(1 − β 2 ) 2 + 4 ζ 2 β (1 + β ) 2

where ζ = Modal damping ratio (in fraction); β = Frequency ratio = ω j ωi ; ω i = Circular

frequency in ith mode, and ω j = Circular frequency in jth mode,
Alternatively, the peak response quantities may be combined as follows:
a) If the building does not have closely-spaced modes, then' the peak response quantity (λ) due
to all modes considered shall be obtained as

λ= ∑ (λ )
k =1

λk = Absolute value of quantity in mode k, and
r = Number of modes being considered.
b) If the building has a few closely-spaced modes, then the peak response quantity λ* due to
these modes shall be obtained as

λ = ∑ λc

where the summation-is for the closely spaced modes only. This peak response quantity due to
the closely spaced modes ( λ* ) is then combined with those of the remaining well-separated
modes by the method described in(a) above.
Buildings with regular, or nominally irregular. plan configurations may be modelled as a system of
masses lumped at the floor levels with each mass having one degree of freedom, that of lateral
displacement in the direction under consideration. In such a case, (lie following expressions shall
hold-in the computation of the various quantities:
a) Modal Mass- The modal mass (M k) of mode k is given by

n 
∑ Wi φik 
M k =  i=n1 
g ∑Wi (φik ) 2
i =1

where g = Acceleration due to gravity; φik = Mode shape coefficient at floor i in mode k, and

Wi = Seismic weight of floor i

b) Modal Participation Factors - The modal participation factor (P k ) of mode k is given by:


∑W φ i ik
Pk = i =1

∑ W (φ
i ik )2
i =1

c) Design Lateral Force at Each Floor in Each Mode - The peak lateral force (Qik) at floor
i in mode k is given by

Qik = Ak φ ik Pk Wi (12)

where Ak = Design horizontal acceleration spectrum value corresponding to natural period of
vibration of mode k.

d) Storey shear Forces in Each Mode - The peak shear force (Vik ) acting in storey i in mode k
is given by
Vik = ∑Q
j =i +1
ik (13)

e) Storey Shear Forces due to All Modes Considered - The peak storey shear force (Vi ) in
storey I due to all modes considered is obtained by combining those due to each mode.
f) Lateral Forces at Each Storey Due to All Modes Considered - The design lateral forces

Froof = Vroof and
Fi = Vi − Vi+1 (14)
Modal Analysis
This method of analysis is based on the dynamic response of the building idealized as having a
lumped mass and stiffness in various storeys with each mass having one degree of freedom, that
of lateral displacement in the direction under consideration. Response in each mode is
determined by using the following relationship
Design lateral force at each floor is obtained by (12) and storey shear forces are obtained by
(13). The peak response quantities (e.g., storey forces, storey shears, and base reactions) shall
be combined as per Complete Quadratic Combination (CQC) method or SRSS. Lateral forces at
each storey due to all modes are obtained by (14).
Dynamic analysis can be performed either by time history method or by the response spectrum
method. In either method the design base shear (VB) shall be compared with base shear ( VB )
calculated using fundamental period Ta Where VB is less than VB , all the response shall be
multiplied by (VB /VB ).

Determination of mode shape coefficient (φir):

A popular method for determination of the fundamental mode is the iterative Stodola Method.
The equation of motion for a free vibrating motion of a multi-storeyed lumped mass can be
written as:

&& ] + [K] [X] = 0
[M] [ X (15)

in which [M] is the diagonal matrix, [K] the stiffness matrix in relation to lateral displacement
and, [X] and [ X&& ] are displacement vector corresponding to storey displacement and accelera-
tion vector corresponding to storey acceleration matrices, respectively. Assuming the free vibra-
tion is simple harmonic,
[X] = [φ ] sin wt (16)
φ represents the shape of vibrating system, which does not change with time but varies only
with amplitude, ω represents circular frequency of the system. Equation (15) can be written
-ω2[M] [ φ] + [K] [φ] = 0 (17)
which can be solved to
[G] [M] [φ] = [φ], where [G] = [K] -1 (18)
this equation is of the form
[A][X] = λ[X] (19)
which represents an eigen value problem whose solution leads to evaluation of natural
frequency and corresponding mode shape. Knowing ω, the fundamental period for mode can
be computed as:

T= (20)
Building frames are unsymmetrical in plan as well as elevation. This leads to horizontal twisting
of frames when subjected to wind or earthquake forces. This occurs when in building centre of
mass and centre of rigidity do not coincide. The design forces are to be applied al the centre of
mass appropriately displaced so as to cause design eccentricity between the displaced centre of
mass and centre of rigidity. However, negative torsional shear shall be neglected. The design
eccentricity, edi lo be used at floor i shall be taken as:
 1.5 e si + 0 .05 bi
e di =  (21)
 or e si − 0.05 bi
whichever of these gives the more severe effect in the shear of any frame where edi = Static
eccentricity at floor i defined as the distance between centre of mass and centre of rigidity,
and bi = Floor plan dimension of floor i perpendicular lo the direction of force. The factor
1.5 represents dynamic amplification factor, while the (actor 0.05 represent the extent of
accidental eccentricity.
The accidental storey shear due to horizontal torsional moment may be calculated
approximately by assuming the vertical elements at each storey to be fixed at the ends to
parallel rigid plates. The torsional shear force acting on each element may then be taken as
proportional to its lateral stiffness and its distance from the centre of rigidity of the storey
under consideration.
In order to understand the method of determining the additional shear due to torsion, the
building plan given in figure is examined. If k x and k y are lateral stiffness of a particular
element along the X and Y axes, then coordinates of the centre of rigidity, X r and Yr with
respect to an origin o are given in figure.
∑k x y ∑k y
Xr = , and Yr =
∑k y ∑k x

In which x, y are the coordinates and k x , k y are stiffness of the various elements in the two
directions, respectively. The summation is taken over all the vertical elements in the storey.The
rotational stiffness I xy of the structure about centre of rotation Cr is given by,,
I xy = ∑ [ k x y 2 + k y x 2 ]
In which x and y are the distances of elements from the centre of rigidity Cr . if the
torsional moment is T, the torsional shears Vx and Vy on any column line can be computed as:
Vx = I y.k xx , and

Vy =
I p x k yy
In which k xx and k yy are the total stiffness of the column line under consideration in the x and
y directions respectively..

In case buildings with a flexible storey, such as the ground storey consisting of open spaces for
parking that is stilt buildings, special arrangement needs to be made to increase the lateral strength
and stiffness of the soft/open storey.
Dynamic analysis of building is carried out including the strength and stiffness effects of in fills
and inelastic deformations in the members, particularly, those in the soft storey, and the members
designed accordingly
Alternatively, the following design criteria arc lo be adopted after carrying out the earthquake
analysis, neglecting the effect of infill walls in other storeys:
a) the columns and beams of the soft storey arc to be designed for 2.5 limes the storey shears
and moments calculated under seismic loads specified in the oilier relevant clauses: or.
b) besides the columns designed and detailed for the calculated storey shears and moments.
Shear walls placed symmetrically in both directions of the building as far away from the centre
of the building as feasible: to be designed exclusively for 1 5 times the lateral storey shear force
calculated is before
Storey Drift Limitation
Code specified that the maximum horizontal relative displacement due to earthquake forces
between two successive floors shall not exceed 0.004 times the difference in levels between
these floors.
Deformation Compatibility of Non-Seismic Members
For building located in seismic Zones IV and V, it shall be ensured that the structural compo-
nents, that are not a part of the seismic force resisting system in the direction under consider-
ation, do not lose their vertical carrying capacity under the induced moments resulting from
storey deformations equal to R times the storey displacements.
Separation Between Adjacent Units
Two adjacent buildings, or two adjacent units of the same building with separation joint in be-
tween shall be separated by a distance equal to the amount R times the sum of the calculated
storey displacements of each of them, to avoid damaging contact when the two units deflect
towards each other. When floor levels of two similar adjacent units or buildings are at the same
elevation levels, factor R in this requirement may be replaced by R/2.
The use of foundations vulnerable to significant differential settlement due to ground shaking
shall be avoided for structures in seismic Zones III, IV and V. In seismic Zones IV and V,
individual spread footings or pile caps shall be interconnected with ties except when individual
spread footings are directly supported on rock. All ties shall be capable of carrying, in tension
and in compression, an axial force equal to Ah /4 times the larger of the column or pile cap load,
in addition to the otherwise computed forces.
Cantilever Projections
Vertical projections
Tower, tanks, parapets, smoke stacks (chimneys) and other vertical cantilever projections at-
tached to buildngs and projecting above the roof, shall be designed and checked for stability for
five times the design horizontal seismic coefficient Ah . In the analysis of the building, the weight
of these projecting elements will be lumped with the roof weight.
Horizontal projections
All horizontal projections like cornices and balconies shall be designed and checked for stability
for five times the design vertical coefficient (that is = 10/3 Ah ).
The increased design forces as above are only for designing the projecting parts and their con-
nections with the main structures. For the design of the main structure, such increase need not
be considered.
Compound Walls
Composed walls shall be designed for the design horizontal coefficient Ah with important factor
I = 1.0.

Connections Between Parts
All parts of the building, expect between the separation sections, shall be tied together to act as
integrated single as beams to columns and columns to their footings, should be made capable of
transmitting a force, in all possible directions, of magnitude (Qi /Wi ) times but not less than 0.05
times the weight of the smaller part of the total of dead and imposed load reaction. Frictional
resistance shall not be relied upon for fulfilling these requirements.
The soil-foundation system has several important effects on the seismic behaviour of a
structure. First, the expected ground motion varies for different soil profiles. Second, the
flexibility due to soil and foundation deformation leads to a higher natural period and increased
damping, and thus in most cases a reduced seismic force.
An eight storeyed RC framed building with live load of 3 kN/m2 (see Fig.1) is to be constructed
in Agra (seismic Zone III). Work out seismic forces on the structure. All beams and columns
may be assumed to be of 250 x 400 mm and 400 x 500 mm respectively. The roof and floor slabs
may be assumed as 150 mm thick. The wall is all round 120 mm thick.
Solve the problem using both 1984 and 2002 code versions.
Table 3 - Dead weights
Item Size (L x B x H) (m) Number 3
d.l.@( kN / m ) Dead weight ( kN
Beam 0.4 x 0.25 x 7.5 24 24 0432.0
Column 0.4 x 0.5 x 3 16 24 0230.4
Slab 22.5 x 22.5 x 0.15 1 24 1822.5
Wall 22.5 x 3 x 0.12 4 20 0648.0

Imposed load at all floors except roof floor (is taken as 25% of imposed load for 3 kN /m2 )
= 22.5 x 22.5 x 3 x 0.25 = 379.7 kN
Lumped mass at floor level 1
W1 = 432.0 + 230.4 + 1822.5 + 648.0 + 397.7 = 3512.6 kN
similarly , W1 = W2 = W3 = W4 = W5 = W6 = W7 = 3512.6 kN
Lumped mass at roof floor,
W8 = 432 + 115.2 + 1822.5 + 324 = 2693.7 kN
Design base shear
According to IS: 1893-1984
V B = KCα hW

where K = performance factor = 1.6 (for problem); C = a coefficient depending
the flexibility of structure with the increase in the number of storeys depending upon
fundamental period T ; α h = design seismic coefficient, W = total dead load +
appropriate amount of live load; T = fundamental time period
T = 0.09 h / d = 0.445 s
Design seismic coefficient ( α h ) is calculated as:

Seismic coefficient method
α h = βIα o
where, β = a coefficient depending upon the soil foundation system; I = factor
upon importance of the structure; α o = basic horizontal seismic coefficient; For the
problem β = 1, I = 1, α o = 0.04
α h = 0.04

Response spectrum method:
α h = βIFo ( S a / g )
where, Fo = seismic Zone factor for average acceleration spectra = 0.20 for Zone III;
S a / g = average acceleration coefficient for calculated time period, T = 0.445;
S a / g = 0.17 from the graph.
α h = 0.034
Base shear calculation:
(i) Seismic coefficient method
VB = KCα hW
K = 1.6, C = 0.62, α h = 0.04, W = 27281.9 kN
VB = 1082.5 kN
(ii) Response spectrum method
W = 27281.9, α h = 0.034, K = 1.6, C = 0.85
VB = 1261.5 kN
According to revised Code 2002:
VB = Ah W
W = Total gravity load of the building, = 27281.9 kN
Fig. 1

Time period for building without bracing or shear walls is calculated as
Ta = 0. 09h / d = 0.445 s, from plot∴ S a / g = 2. 5

Z = 0.16, I = 1, R = 3 ; Ah = 0.067
VB = 0.067 x 27721.1 = 1857.3 kN
Table 4 – Comparison of 1984 and 2002 codes
Parameter IS: 1893-1984 Revised IS: 1893-2002
Formula Value Formula Value
Time period Ta = 0. 09h / d 0.445 sec Ta = 0. 09h / d 0.445 sec

Spectral acceleration Sa / g 0.17 Sa / g 2.5

Seismic coefficient α h = βIFo ( S a / g ) 0.034 (Z / 2)( Sa / g ) 0.067
Ah =
(R / I )
Base shear (kN) VB = KCα hW 1261.5 V B = Ah W 1827.8

Distribution of lateral seismic shear force induced along the height of the building is given by
the formula,
Wih i2
Q i = VB i =n

i =1

In which hi is the height of ith floor measured from the base of the building.

Table 5: Nodal forces and seismic shear forces at various levels

Floor hi Wh i2 Qi Vi (shear force) kN
(meters) IS:1893 IS: 1893- IS:1893 2002 IS: 1893
2002 1984 1984
1 3 31613.4 9.7 6.7 1827.9 1261.5
2 6 126453.6 38.7 26.7 1818.2 1254.8
3 9 284520.6 87.0 60.0 1779.5 1228.1
4 12 505814.4 154.7 106.7 1692.5 1168.1
5 15 790335.0 241.6 166.8 1537.8 1061.4
6 18 1138082.4 348.0 240.2 1296.2 894.6
7 21 1549056.8 473.7 326.9 948.2 654.4
8 24 1551571.7 474.5 327.5 474.5 327.5

Analyze a 15 storeyed RC building as shown in Fig.2. The live load on all the floors
is 2 kN /m 2 and soil below the building is hard. The site lies in Zone V. All the beams
are of size 400 x 500 mm and slabs are 150 mm thick. The sizes of columns are 600 x
600 mm in all the storeys and the wall all round is 120 mm thick. Also analyze if the
building is on soft soil site.

4 @ 7.5 m =
15 @ 3.0 m = 30 m

3 @ 7.5 m =
22.5 m
Fig. 2Fig. 2
Analysis of the Building
Calculations of dead load, live load and storey stiffness: As in case of seismic
coefficient method, dead loads and live loads at each floor are computed and lumped.
Stiffness in a storey is lumped assuming all the columns to be acting in parallel with
each column contributing stiffness corresponding to K c = 12 EI / L3 , where I is the
moment of inertia about bending axis, L the column height and E the elastic modulus
of column material. The total stiffness of a storey is thus ∑ K c . The value of I , K c
and ∑ K c for all the floors/storeys is 1.08 x 10 10 m m 4 , 90240 kN / m and 1894800
kN / m respectively.

Table 6 - Calculation of Dead loads
Item Size (m x m x m) Number d.l.@ (kN / m 3 ) Dead weight ( kN )

Beam 7.5 x 0.4 x 0.5 31 24 1116.0
Column 3.0 x 0.6 x 0.6 20 24 0518.4
Slab 22.5 x 30 x 0.15 1 24 2420.0
Wall (22.5 + 30) x 3 x 0.12 2 20 0756.0
Σ = 4810.4
Imposed load at all floors except roof floor (taken as 25% for live load 30 kN / m 2 )
= 22.5 x 30 x 2.0 x 0.25 = 337.5 kN
Total dead load on all floors except roof = 4810.4 + 337.5 = 5147.9 kN
Dead load on roof floor = 1116 + 259.2 + 2420 + 378 = 4173.2 kN
The first three natural frequencies and the corresponding mode shapes are
determined and are given below.
Table 7 - Mode shape coefficients ( φir ) and time period at various floor levels
Floor Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 3
15 0.356 -0.355 0.353
14 0.353 -0.33 0.283
13 0.347 -0.273 0.140
12 0.336 -0.190 -0.039
11 0.323 -0.089 -0.208
10 0.305 0.019 -0.324
9 0.285 0.127 -0.355
8 0.261 0.222 -0.296
7 0.235 0.296 -0.158
6 0.206 0.342 0.019
5 0.175 0.356 0.192
4 0.143 0.336 0.315
3 0.108 0.285 0.356
2 0.073 0.206 0.305
1 0.037 0.108 0.175
Period in seconds 1.042 0.348 0.210

Horizontal seismic coefficient for design
( Z / 2)( S a / g )
(i) According to the revised Code, Ah =
(R / I)
Assuming 5% damping in all the 3 modes, I =1.0, R =5, Z =0.36 (for Zone V)
S a(1) S a(1)
1 st mode = 0.95; Ah(1) = 0.034 (rock site) and = 1.6 ; Ah(1) = 0.0576 (soil site)
g g
S a( 2 ) S a(3 )
2 nd mode = 2.50; Ah( 2 ) = 0.09 (same for both); 3rd mode = 2.50; Ah(3 ) = 0.09
g g
S a( r )
(i) According to the IS: 1893-1984, α h(r ) = βIF0
assuming 5% damping in all three modes, I = 1.0, β = 1.0, Fo = 0.40 (in Zone V)

S a(1 ) S a( 2 )
1 st mode = 0.105; α h(1 ) = 0.042; 2 nd mode = 0.184; α h(2 ) = 0.0737
g g
S a( 3)
3 rd mode = 0.200; α h(3 ) = 0.080
The next step is to obtain seismic forces at each floor level in each individual mode. Mode
participation factors in each mode are to be obtained. For this, Table 4 would be found convenient
where in the method is explained for computation of P1 (mode participation factor for first
Table 8: Computation of mode participation factor P1
Floor No. Weight, Wi Mode Wiφ i Wiφi2
coefficient, φ i
1 5143.4 0.037 190.3 7.0
2 5143.4 0.073 375.5 27.4
3 5143.4 0.108 555.5 60.0
4 5143.4 0.143 735.5 105.2
5 5143.4 0.175 900.1 157.5
6 5143.4 0.206 1059.5 218.3
7 5143.4 0.235 1208.7 284.0
8 5143.4 0.261 1342.4 350.3
9 5143.4 0.285 1465.9 417.8
10 5143.4 0.305 1568.7 478.5
11 5143.4 0.323 1661.3 536.6
12 5143.4 0.336 1728.2 580.7
13 5143.4 0.347 1784.7 619.3
14 5143.4 0.353 1815.6 640.9
15 3924.0 0.356 1396.9 497.3
Σ17788.8 Σ4980.8
P1 = = 3.571
Having obtained P1 = 3.57, P2 and P3 are obtained similarly as 1.18 and 0.698, respectively.
Seismic forces is then calculated as per equation (12) and is given in tabular form for modes 1,
2 and 3 respectively.
Table 9- Computation of lateral forces and shears (first mode)

Floor Wi φi IS:1893-2002 IS: 1893-1984
No. Q (1)
i Vi (1)
= ∑Q i Q (1) )
i Vi (1) = ∑Q i

Rock Soil site Rock Soil site
site site
1 5143.4 0.037 23.2 39.2 2172.2 3659.2 28.1 2652.9
2 5143.4 0.073 45.8 77.2 2149.0 3620 55.8 2629.8
3 5143.4 0.108 67.8 114.3 2103.2 3542.8 83.0 2569.0
4 5143.4 0.143 89.8 151.3 2035.4 3428.5 110.28 2486.0
5 5143.4 0.175 109.9 185.2 1945.6 3277.2 134.5 2376.7
6 5143.4 0.206 129.4 218 1835.7 3092 158.2 2242.2
7 5143.4 0.235 147.6 248.6 1706.3 2874 180.3 2084.0
8 5143.4 0.261 163.9 276.1 1558.7 2625.4 200.4 1903.7
9 5143.4 0.285 179.0 301.5 1394.8 2349.3 218.4 1703.3
10 5143.4 0.305 191.5 322.7 1215.8 2047.8 234.2 1484.9
11 5143.4 0.323 202.9 341.7 1024.3 1725.1 247.4 1250.7
12 5143.4 0.336 211.1 355.5 821.4 1383.4 258.0 1003.3
13 5143.4 0.347 218.0 367.1 610.3 1027.9 265.9 745.3
14 5143.4 0.353 221.7 373.5 392.3 660.8 271.0 479.4
15 3924.0 0.356 170.6 287.3 170.6 287.3 208.4 208.4

Table 10 Computation of lateral forces and shears (second mode)

Floor Wi φi IS:1893-2002 IS: 1893-1984
No. Q i
(2 )
Vi ( 2)
= ∑Q i Q ( 2) )
i Vi ( 2 ) = ∑Q i

1 5143.4 0.108 59.0 623.6 48.7 515.3
2 5143.4 0.206 112.5 564.6 92.8 466.6
3 5143.4 0.285 155.6 452.1 128.2 373.8
4 5143.4 0.336 183.5 296.5 151.4 245.6
5 5143.4 0.356 194.0 113.0 160.3 94.2
6 5143.4 0.342 186.8 -81.4 154.0 -66.1
7 5143.4 0.296 161.6 -268.2 133.2 -220.1
8 5143.4 0.222 121.2 -429.8 99.8 -353.3
9 5143.4 0.127 69.3 -551.0 57.0 -453.1
10 5143.4 0.019 10.3 -620.3 8.7 -510.1
11 5143.4 -0.089 -48.6 -630.6 -40.3 -518.8
12 5143.4 -0.190 -103.7 -582.0 -85.6 -478.5
13 5143.4 -0.275 -150.2 -478.3 -122.7 -392.9
14 5143.4 -0.330 -180.2 -328.0 -148.3 -270.2
15 3924.0 -0.355 -147.9 -147.9 -121.9 -121.9

Table 11: Computation of lateral forces and shears (third mode)
Floor Wi φi IS:1893-2002 IS: 1893-1984
No. Qi(3 ) Vi (3 ) = ∑ Qi Qi(3 ) V i ( 3) = ∑Q i

1 5143.4 0.175 56.5 218.3 50.1 193.7
2 5143.4 0.305 28.5 161.8 87.3 143.6
3 5143.4 0.356 115.0 63.3 101.8 56.3
4 5143.4 0.315 101.8 -51.7 90.0 -45.5
5 5143.4 0.192 62.0 -153.4 54.9 -135.5
6 5143.4 0.019 6.14 -215.4 5.6 -190.4
7 5143.4 -0.158 -51.0 -221.6 -45.2 -196.0
8 5143.4 -0.295 -95.3 -170.6 -084.2 -150.8
9 5143.4 -0.355 -114.7 -75.3 -101.5 -66.6
10 5143.4 -0.324 -104.7 39.4 -92.5 34.9
11 5143.4 -0.208 -67.2 144.1 -59.5 127.4
12 5143.4 -0.039 -12.6 211.3 -11.2 186.9
13 5143.4 0.140 45.2 223.9 40.1 198.1
14 5143.4 0.283 91.4 178.7 81.0 158.0
15 3924.0 0.353 87.3 87.3 77.0 77.0

Combination of shears for the three modes:
According to the IS: 1893-1984 by superposition of first three modes as follows
3 3
Vi = (1- γ) ∑V
r =1
( r)
+γ ∑r =1
{V i ( r ) } 2

where, V i = absolute value of maximum shear at the ith storey in the rth mode;
γ = 0.65 for building of height 45m
According to the revised Code: by Complete Quadratic Combination (CQC) method.
r r
λ= ∑∑
i =1 j =1
λi ρ ij λ j

where, λi and λ j are response quantity in mode i and j respectively
8ζ 2 (1 + β ) β 1. 5
ρij =
(1 − β 2 ) 2 + 4ζ 2 β (1 + β ) 2
β = Frequency ratio =
Above quadratic combination of λ in matrix form can be written as
[λ11 λ12 λ 13] ρ11 ρ12 ρ13 λ11
ρ21 ρ22 ρ23 λ 21
ρ31 ρ32 ρ33 λ31

Drift (Lateral displacement or sway)
Table 12: Comparative values of shear forces and drift or maximum inter storey
displacement (Stiffness K i = 1804.80 kN / mm )
Storey Shear forces Vi (kN ) Relative displacement , max (Vi / K i ) mm
IS: 1893- IS:1983-2002 IS: 1893-1984 IS:1983-2002
Rock site Soil site Rock site Soil site
1 2937.7 2266.0 3718.4 1.63 1.26 2.06
2 2872.5 2233.2 3667.3 1.59 1.24 2.03
3 2737.5 2157.7 3572 1.51 1.20 1.98
4 2596.0 2058.0 3442 1.43 1.14 1.90
5 2460.8 1946.0 3283 1.36 1.07 1.82
6 2337.8 1851.6 3100.5 1.29 1.02 1.71
7 2243.1 1743.1 2895 1.24 0.96 1.60
8 2105.0 1628.2 2665.8 1.16 0.90 1.47
9 1924.5 1503.5 2415.7 1.06 0.83 1.34
10 1731.2 1367.7 2140 0.96 0.75 1.18
11 1547.9 1206.0 1842.3 0.85 0.67 1.02
12 1316.7 1032.8 1515.6 0.73 0.57 0.84
13 1030.3 810.0 1155.6 0.57 0.45 0.64
14 689.8 545.0 759 0.38 0.30 0.42
15 307.3 244.7 334.7 0.17 0.13 0.19

Chapter 9

Pankaj Agarwal
Asstt. Professor, Department of Earthquake Engineering, IIT Roorkee, 247 667

Masonry is one of the most traditional, oldest materials and widely accepted medium for housing
construction in India. This construction system is usually made spontaneously and informally
with the help of local masons without any or only a little intervention by professional experts,
therefore it is termed as non-engineered construction. Non- engineered construction in India is
generally made with fieldstone, fired brick, concrete blocks, adobe or rammed earth, wood or a
combination of locally available traditional materials. The long history of earthquakes and age-
old tradition of construction should have lead to the reasoning, logic and assumption that suffi-
cient precautionary measures are to be incorporated in these constructions to withstand the
earthquake forces. But, on the contrary, this is not the case. Past experience has shown that
collapse of non-engineered construction is the single largest factor contributing to the huge losses
and casualties during earthquakes till now. Unfortunately, however, the subject of earthquake
resistant construction of such buildings has not received the attention it deserves and the con-
struction practices continue to ignore the warning issued by nature time and again. There may
be two possibilities for this situation, either people are unaware and do not know about the
earthquake resistant measure of masonry construction or they doubt the efficiency, proficiency
and efficacy of these measures. The present chapter will deal with the earthquake resistant
provisions in non-engineered construction in general and brick and stone masonry buildings in
particular along with experimental verification to built confidence among the people.
An appropriate selection of suitable retrofitting schemes depends entirely upon the failure mode
of individual masonry construction. There are innumerable modes of failure of walls as observed
by the reconnaissance team and documented in various published papers and reports. Although
the type of construction, site of construction, structural typology of masonry buildings varies in
different regions yet there damage caused by seismic activity may be identified uniformly. The
two most common modes of masonry failure may be called out-of-plane failure and in-plane
failure. The structural walls perpendicular to seismic motion are subjected to out-of-plane bend-
ing results in out-of-plane failure featuring vertical cracks at the corners and in the middle of the
walls. The structural walls parallel to seismic motion are subjected to in-plane forces i.e. bending
and shear cause horizontal and diagonal cracks in the walls respectively. The other types of

masonry failure are diaphragm failure, pounding, connection failure and failure of non-structural
components. A brief discussion of each mode of masonry failure is described as under.
Inadequate anchorage of the wall into the roof diaphragm and limited tensile strength of masonry
and mortar unitedly cause out-of-plane failure of wall in un-reinforced masonry buildings, which
are the most vulnerable. The resulting flexural stress apparently exceeds the tensile strength of
masonry leading to rupture followed by collapse. Moreover long span diaphragms cause exces-
sive horizontal flexure. Out-of-plane wall movement has been characterized as shown in Figure
1 (Zuccaro and Papa 1999).

1. Vertical cracks in the corner and/
or T walls
2. Horizontal cracks along the fa
3. Partial collapse of an exterior wall
4. Wythe separation
5. Cracks at lintel and top of slen
der piers
6. Cracks at the level of the roof
7. Masonry ejection

Figure 1: Out-of-plane failure characterization

In-plane failures of walls in un-reinforced masonry structures due to excessive bending or shear
are most common as is evident from double diagonal (X) shear cracking. This crack pattern
frequently found in cyclic loading indicates that the planes of principal tensile stress in the walls
remain incapable of withstanding repeated load reversals leading to total collapse. As the ground
motion takes place for a short duration the walls are subjected to only one or two significant
loading reversals and do not collapse totally. Fortunately by the time the shear cracks become
unduly severe, the gravity load carrying capacity of the wall is not jeopardized. Diagonal tension
i.e. "X" cracks occurs mainly in short piers, rocking (top and bottom) in slender piers. These
cracks happen to be worse at lower storey. In-plane failures are characterized as in Figure 2,
(Pasquale and Orsmi, 1999).
1. Vertical cracks on openings
2. Diagonal shear cracks on parapets and in doors and window lintels
3. Diagonal shear cracks in the masonry piers between openings
4. Crushing of corners of walls due to excess of compression stress
5. Horizontal flexure cracks on top and/ or base of masonry piers
6. Vertical cracks at wall intersections
7. Passing through vertical cracks at wall intersections
8. Spalling of material at the location of floor beam due to pounding
9. Separation and expulsion of the intersection zone of two corner walls

Figure 2: In-plane failure characterization
The failure of the diaphragm is a rare phenomenon in the event of seismic motion. Damage to
the diaphragm never impairs its gravity load carrying capacity. Lack of tension anchoring pro-
duces a non-bending cantilever action at the base of the wall resulting from the push of dia-
phragm against the wall. The in-plane rotation of the diaphragms ends and the absence of a good
shear transfer between diaphragms and reaction walls account for damage at the corners of
walls. Figure 3 illustrates a wall failure resulting from excessive diaphragm flexibility. This prob-
lem remains non-existent in strengthened buildings and is very rare in anchored buildings. In
strengthened buildings, separation remains worse at or near the centerline of the diaphragm.

a b
Figure 3: Failure of diaphragms (a) shear failure, FEMA 306, 1999 (b) failure resulting from
diaphragm flexibility in Loma Prieta earthquake, 1989
Seismic inertial forces that originate in all elements of buildings are delivered to horizontal dia-
phragms through structural connections. The diaphragms distribute these forces among vertical
elements, which in turn transfer the forces to the foundation. Hence, an adequate connection
capable to transfer the in-plane shear stress from the diaphragms to the vertical elements and to
provide support to out-of-plane forces on these elements is essential between the diaphragms
and the vertical elements. This type of failure is characterized by diagonal cracks disposed on
both the walls' edges causing separation and collapse of corner zones, Figure 4. This phenom-
enon magnifies due to inadequately strengthened openings near the walls' edges and by floors
insufficiently connected to the external walls.

a b
Figure 4: Failure of connection of walls (a) characterization of failure, FEMA 306, 1999 (b)
collapse of corner zone (Dolce, Masi and Goretti, 1999)
The non-structural components in masonry buildings are parapet walls, partition walls, mumty,
water tanks, canopies, projections, staircase etc. These non-structural elements behave like
cantilevers if they remain unstrained and are subjected to greater amplification as compared to
ground motion becoming prone to failures, Figure 5.

a b
Figure 5: Failure of non-structural components (a) parapet failure, FEMA 306, 1999 (b) out-of-
plane failure of a parapet, EERI, 1996

When adjacent roof levels of two buildings and vertical brick work faces flush with one another,
the pounding action causes structural distress due to out-of-plane vibrations. Such a failure is
characterized as shown in Figure 6.

l Vertical cracks in the adjacent walls
l Diagonal cracks due to different levels in the structures

a b
Figure 6: Pounding failure (a) characterization of failure (b) minor pounding damage between
buildings of different heights, EERI, 1993.

The past earthquakes have revealed that masonry construction remains susceptible to
earthquake forces because of (i) lack of integral action, (ii) lack of strong and ductile
connections between walls, roof elements and foundation, (iii) inadequate strength for out-of-
plane forces, (iv) low tensile and shear strength of mortar (v) high in plane stiffness of wall, (vi)
low ductility and deformability capacity and (vii) heavy mass. In view of the continuous use of
such buildings, it is felt necessary to increase the seismic resistance of masonry construction by
providing some additional features known as earthquake resistant (ER) measures. The earth-
quake resistant measures intended to increase the seismic resistance in terms of strength and
ductility. These earthquake resistant features alongwith the general guidelines are given in IS:
4326 and IS: 13928. Actually, the major features of these codes are extracted from the
Monograph on "Basic Concepts of Seismic Codes" prepared by "The International Association
for Earthquake Engineering IAEE in 1980. IS 4326: 1993 deals with the selection of materials,
special features of design and construction for earthquake resistant buildings including masonry
construction using rectangular masonry units, timber construction and building with
prefabricated flooring/roofing elements. Guidelines for construction of earthquake resistant
buildings using masonry of low strength particularly brick and stone masonry are covered in IS
13828: 1993 and for earthen buildings are covered in separate code in IS 13927: 1993. The basic
aim for providing the earthquake resistant features as recommended in the codes is based
on following concepts: (i) need of integral action (ii) strong and ductile connections
between walls, roof elements and foundation (iii) improvement in strength for out-of-plane bend-
ing (iv) strengthening of weaker sections by steel, timber or reinforced concrete and (v)
improving the strength of mortar, quality of construction and insertion of bonding elements.
However, to develop a better understanding of the efficacy, reliability and acceptability of these
measures, an experimental verification is necessary (Agarwal, 2002).
The general features for improving the performance of non-engineered masonry construction
recommended in IS 4326: 1993 and IS: 13828: 1993 are summarized in Table 1.
Table 1: Salient features of earthquake resistant provisions recommended in IS 4326: 1993 and
IS 13928: 1993

Features Earthquake Resistant Design and Improving Earthquake Resistance of Low
Construction of Buildings – Code of Practice Strength Masonry Buildings – Guidelines (IS:
(IS 4326: 1993) 13928: 1993)
General • Building should be light weight, • Building should be light weight,
Principle particularly roof and upper storeys particularly roof and upper storeys
• Integrity and continuity in construction • Integrity and continuity in construction
such that it forms a continuous load path such that it forms a continuous load path
between the foundation and all diaphragm between the foundation and all diaphragm
levels, and ties all portions of building levels, and ties all portions of building
together together
• Projection/ suspended ceiling should be • Projection/ suspended ceiling should be
avoided, other reinforced and firmly avoided, other reinforced and firmly
attached with main structure attached with main structure
• Building plan& elevation should be • Building plan& elevation should be
symmetrical with respect to mass and symmetrical with respect to mass and
stiffness, otherwise use separation joints stiffness, otherwise use separation joints
• Avoid close proximity (pounding), use • Use separated staircase, otherwise enclosed
separation with rigid walls, if it is not possible use
• Use separated staircase, otherwise enclosed sliding joint
with rigid walls, if it is not possible use • Sloping roof system should be adequately
sliding joint braced in both orthogonal direction
• Sloping roof system should be adequately (horizontal tie member and cross bracing)
braced in both orthogonal direction and should be adequately anchored into the
(horizontal tie member and cross bracing) RC band.
and should be adequately anchored into the • Gables ends of unreinforced masonry walls
RC band. are anchored to all diaphragm level
• Foundation of building should be firm and • Foundation of building should be firm and
uniform, otherwise separate the building in uniform, otherwise separate the building in
units. In case of loose soil, improve the soil units. In case of loose soil, improve the soil
Masonry • Well burnt bricks or solid concrete blocks Brick Work in Weak Mortars
unit having a crushing strength > 35 MPa • Fired bricks having a compressive strength
• Squared stone masonry, stone block > 3.5 MPa
masonry or hollow concrete block Stone Masonry
masonry, as specified in IS: 1597 (Part 2): • Stone masonry of random rubble or dressed
1992 of adequate strength stone type as IS 1597: 1967
Mortar • Category A: M2 (Cement-sand 1:6) or M3 Brick Work in Weak Mortars
(Lime-cinder 1:3) or even richer • Lime sand (1:3) or clay mud of good
• M2 (Cement-lime- sand 1:2:9 or Cement quality for brick work
sand 1:6) or richer Stone Masonry
• H2 (Cement- sand 1:4) or M1 (Cement- • Cement sand (1:6), lime sand (1:3) or clay
lime-sand 1:1:6) or richer mud of good quality in stone masonry
Wall • Not greater than 15m subject to a Brickwork in weak mortar
dimension maximum of four storey, with • Minimum wall thickness - one brick
and strengthening arrangements (230mm) in single storeyed, one brick in
Number of • Straight and symmetrical in both the top storey and 1.5 brick (350mm) in bottom
stories direction storey of up to three storeyed
• Checked in flexure as a plate or as vertical • Storey height < 3.0m, No. of storey for
strip category A,B, and C – 3 storey, and
category D – 2 storey
Stone masonry
• Wall Thickness < 450mm preferably
350mm, height < 3.0 m, length < 5.0 m if
exceed provide buttress, course height <
600 mm, inner and outer width should be
interlocked with bond stone, Max. number
of storey – 2.

Masonry • Usual bond but vertical joints should be Brickwork in weak mortar
Bond broken properly from course to course • Usual joints but vertical joints should be
• Make a slopping joint by making the corner broken properly from course to course
first to a height of 600mm and then bulging • Make a slopping joint by making the corner
the wall in between them first to a height of 600mm and then bulging
• A toothed joint perpendicular walls, the wall in between them
alternatively in lifts of about 450mm • A toothed joint perpendicular walls,
alternatively in lifts of about 450mm
Stone masonry
• Use bond or through stone of full-length (or
a pair of about ¾ wall thickness) in every
600mm lift but < 1.2m horizontally. Other
alternatives of bond stones are steel bars 8
to 10mm diameter bent to S-shape or wood
bars of 38mm x 38 mm or concrete bars of
50mm x 50mm with an 8mm diameter rod
placed centrally.
Openings • Door and window should be as small as • Door and window should be small as
possible and placed centrally as possible and placed centrally as
recommended recommended
• Top level of openings should be same, • Top level of openings should be same,
covered with lintel band covered with lintel band
• If do not comply with code, strengthened • If do not comply with code, strengthened
by RC lining with 2 HYSD of 8φ by RC lining with 2 HYSD of 8φ
• Avoid arches over the opening otherwise • Avoid arches over the opening otherwise
use steel ties use steel ties
Seismic a. Masonry mortar Brickwork and Stone Masonry
Strengtheni b. Lintel band b. Lintel band
ng c. Roof band and gable band c. Roof band and gable band
Arrangeme d. Vertical steel at corners and junctions of d. Vertical steel at corners and junctions of
nts walls walls
e. Vertical steel at jambs f. Bracing in plan at tie level of roof
f. Bracing in plan at tie level of roof g. Plinth band
g. Plinth band
h. Dowel bars Category A (up to 2 storey) use c & f
Category A (up to 3 storey) use b, c, f, g
Category A (up to 3 storey) use only a Category B (up to 2 storey) use b, c, f, g
Category A (up to 4 storey) use a, b, & c Category B (up to 3 storey) use b, c, d, f & g
Category B (up to 3 storey) use a, b, f & g Category C (up to 1 storey) use b, c, f & g
Category B (up to 4 storey) use a, b, c, d, f & g Category C (up to 3 storey) use b, c, d, f & g
Category C (up to 2 storey) use a, b, c, f & g Category D (up to 2 storey) use b, c, d, f & g
Category C (up to 4 storey) use a to g
Category D (up to 2 storey) use a to g
Category D (up to 4 storey) use a to h
Category E (up to 3 storey) use a to h

Note: The categories of construction are defined in clause 7.1 depending upon the design seismic coefficient (αh) (Category:
A (0.04 <αh <0.05), B (0.05 <αh <0.06), C (0.06 <α h <0.08), D (0.08 <α h <0.12) and E (0.12 ≤αh).

The non-engineered building construction system should be strengthened by horizontal bands or
bond beams at critical levels and vertical reinforcing bars at corners and junctions of walls. The
bands form a horizontal framing systems that transfer the horizontal shear induced by the earth-
quakes from the floors to structural walls. It also connects all the structural walls to improve the
integral action. Depending upon its location in the building it may be termed as roof, lintel, sill, and
plinth band. The reinforcing details of these bands are available elsewhere (IS 4326, 13927,
IAEE etc). In combination with vertical reinforcement, it improves the strength, ductility and
energy dissipation capacity of masonry walls. Although levels of strengthening arrangements
may vary with the type of construction and seismic Zones. The descriptions of each strengthen-
ing measure with its individual function are as follows:
Plinth Band
This band is provided at the plinth level of walls on the top of the foundation, which is useful in
sustaining differential settlements particularly when foundation soil is soft or has uneven
Gable Band
Gable band is provided at the top of gable masonry below the purlins. This band shall be made
continuous with the roof band at the eave level. It restricts the out-of-plane failure of gable wall,
which is susceptible to earthquake forces.
Roof Band
Roof band is similar to lintel band but it is provided below the roof or floors. It improves the in-
plane rigidity of horizontal floor diaphragms. Such band need not be provided in case of rigid
Lintel Band
This band is provided at lintel level on all internal and external longitudinal as well as cross walls
except partition walls. It provides integrity to the structure and resistance to out-of-plane wall
bending. The lintel band if provided in partition walls will also enhance their stability. The purpose
of lintel and roof band is to prevent the collapse of roof.
Sill Band
This band is similar to lintel band but it is provided at sill level. This band reduces the effective
height of masonry piers between openings. This is expected to reduce shear cracking in piers. It
has not been recommended so far in codes.
Vertical Steel
The vertical steel is provided at corners and junctions of walls and around jambs of doors and
windows. The vertical steel in walls shall be embedded in plinth masonry of foundation, roof slab
or band so as to develop its tensile strength in bond. It should pass through the lintel bands and
floor slabs in all stories. It is either a steel bar of 10mm to 12mm diameter or a bamboo. For
providing vertical steel in stone masonry a casing pipe is recommended around which masonry
be built upto a height of 600mm. The pipe is raised and cavity is filled by 1:2:4 grade of concrete
mix in case of steel bar.
Chapter 10

Pankaj Agarwal
Asstt. Professor, Department of Earthquake Engineering, IIT Roorkee, 247 667

Masonry buildings are widely used for housing construction not only in India but many other
countries of the world. There are innumerable advantages of masonry construction over both
types of construction i.e. reinforced concrete and steel such as, thermal comfort, sound control,
possibility of addition and alteration after construction, less formwork, easy and inexpensive
repair, use of locally available materials, need of less skilled labour, less engineering intervention
etc. However, there are some disadvantages as well, particularly, when it is built in seismic
environment The seismic resistance capacity of masonry construction is relatively low in com-
parison to engineered constructions. Therefore, many developed nations have imposed certain
restrictions on the use of unreinforced masonry constructions. However, in developing nations
unreinforced masonry construction is still being used frequently. In India, masonry constructions
are generally made by using locally available materials like stone, brick, timber, adobe, mud etc.
and are constructed in a traditional manner with or without the earthquake resistant features
mentioned in IS: 4326 and 13927. Therefore, this type of construction is treated as non-engi-
neered construction and most of the casualties are due to collapse of these constructions in
earthquakes. Moreover the plight is that even after gaining knowledge of earthquake engineer-
ing since the last three decades, neither a proper method has been developed for the seismic
analysis and design of masonry buildings nor the topic is fairly covered in the current Indian
curriculum in spite of the fact that about 90% population of India lives in masonry buildings. The
present and subsequent chapters are a step towards this with regard to develop a procedure for
seismic analysis and designing of masonry buildings. The procedure is divided into several dis-
tinctive steps in order to create a solid feeling and confidence that masonry buildings may also be
designed as engineered construction.
To understand the proper design procedure for low-rise masonry buildings, this procedure is
divided into several distinctive steps. In actual practice, these various steps may not be so clearly
delineated nor so distinctly separated, but at this stage, at least, this step-by-step procedure is
recommended in order to understand it properly (Schneider and Dickey, 1994). Figure 1 shows
masonry building subjected to a lateral load and its resisting mechanism. In load bearing masonry

buildings, the walls, which carry gravity loads, also act as shear walls to resist lateral load. The
structural walls parallel to lateral force and subjected to in-plane (shear) forces and bending are
called shear wall. The walls perpendicular to seismic force/ lateral force and subjected to out-
of-plane bending are called flexural walls. Following are the major steps for the lateral load
analysis of masonry buildings:
Step 1: Determination of lateral load based on IS 1893 (Part 1): 2002
Step 2: Distribution of lateral forces on the basis of flexibility of diaphragms
Step 3: Determination of rigidity of shear wall by considering the openings
Step 4: Determination of direct and torsional forces in shear walls
Step 5: Determination of increase in axial load in piers due to overturning
Step 6: Check the stability of flexural wall for out-of-plane forces

Figure 1: Force resisting mechanism in masonry building
Earthquake Load
One of the most important lateral forces on a structure is due to earthquake, which arises from
inertia (mass) of the structure. These earthquake loads are sudden, dynamic and can be of
immense intensity. The magnitude of lateral force mainly depends upon the seismic zone, type of
soil or ground condition and fundamental characteristics. The design base shear shall first be
computed as a whole, then be distributed along the height of the buildings based on simple
formulas appropriate for buildings with regular distribution of mass and stiffness. The design
lateral force obtained at each floor level shall then be distributed to individual lateral load resisting
element depending upon floor diaphragm action. Following are the major steps for determining
the lateral forces
Design Seismic Base Shear
The seismic base shear force, VB that acts on the building in a given direction is as follows
VB = αh W
αh = The design horizontal seismic coefficient for a structure. It is determined by the
following expression
(Z/2) (I/R) (Sa/g), provided that for any structure with T ≤ 0.1S , the value of αh will not be
taken less than Z/2 what ever be the value of I/R.
(Z/2) = Z is the Zone factor, based on maximum considered earthquake (MCE) and service
life of structure in a Zone. Factor 2 in the denominator of Z is used so as to reduce the MCE
zone factor to the factor of Design Basis Earthquake (DBE). The country is divided in to four
zones and the values of Z ranges from 0.10 to 0.36. Zone factors for different zones are given
in Table 2 of IS: 1893: 2002.

(I/R) = Ratio of Importance factor and Response reduction factor. The values of importance
factor and response reduction factors are given in Table 6 & 7 of IS: 1893 (Part 1): 2002. The
ratio of (I/R) shall not be greater than 1.0.

(Sa/g) = Average response acceleration coefficient for rock and soil sites based on
appropriate natural period and damping of the structures. The equations of (Sa/g) for different
type of soil in different ranges of period are given in clause 6.4.2 of IS 1893 (Part 1): 2002.
The value of time period of the building may be determined as follows

0 . 09 h
Ta =
h is the height of building, in m,
d is the base dimension of the building at plinth level, in m, along considered direction of the
lateral force.
W = Seismic weight of the building as per 7.4.2.
Vertical Distribution of Base Shear to different Floor Levels
The design base shear (VB ) computed shall be distributed along the height of the building
(Figure 2) as per the following expression.
Wi hi
Qi = VB n
∑W jh j2
j =1

Qi = Design lateral force at floor i,
Wi = Seismic weight of floors i,
hi = Height of floor i, measured from base, and
n = Number of stories in the building is the number of levels at which the masses are located.

a b c
Figure 2: (a) Seismic shear on building (b) Seismic load (c) Storey shear

Example: Determine the lateral forces on The seismic dead load at roof level (Wf)
two storey un-reinforced brick masonry Weight of roof
building situated at Roorkee
= 2.5 x 20 x 20 =1000 kN
Building Data
Weight of walls
Plan size: 20m x 20m,
= (5 x 4 x 20 x 3)/2 = 600 kN
Total height of building = 6m
Weight at roof level (Wr)
(each storey height = 3.0 m)
= 1000 +600 = 1600 kN
Weight of roof = 2.5 kN/m 2
The seismic dead load at roof level (wf)
Weight of walls = 5.0 kN/m2
Weight of roof
Live load at Roof = 0,
= 2.5 x 20 x 20 =1000 kN
Live load at floors = 1 kN/m 2
Weight of walls
(25% of imposed load if imposed load
lesser than 3.0 kN/m2 as per Table 8 IS = (5 x 4 x 20 x 3) = 1200 kN
1893 Zone factor (Z) = 0.24 Weight of live load
Importance factor (I)= 1.0 = 1x20 x 20 x 0.25 = 100 kN
Response reduction factor = 1.5 Total weight at second floor (W 2)
Spectral acceleration (Sa/g) = 2.5 = 1000+ 1200 + 100= 2300 kN
Soil = Type II (Medium soil) Total weight of building
= 1600 + 2300 = 3900 kN

(a) (b)
Elevation of masonry building and lateral force

The natural period of building as per IS 1893 (Part 1): 2002
T = 0.09 h / d = 0 .09 x 6 / 20 = 0 .12, ⇒ S a / g = 2.5
The base shear is
VB = AhW = [(Z / 2)( I / R )(S a / g )]W = [(0.24 / 2 )(1 .0 / 1.5)(2.5)]3900 = 780kN
Vertical distribution of base shear to different floor levels is
At roof level
Wi hi 1600 x 6 2
Q r = VB = 780 = 573.74 kN
(1600 x 6 2 + 2300 x3 2 )
∑W h
j =1
j j

Wi hi 2 2300x 32
Q2 = V B = 780 = 206.26kN
(1600 x 6 2 + 2300x 3 2 )
∑W h
j =1
j j

Figure 3 shows the distribution of lateral forces in box type shear wall buildings. In order to
transfer the seismic forces to the ground there should be a continuous load path in the building.
The general load path is as follows: earthquake forces, which originate in all the elements of the
building, are delivered through the transverse wall of the building and it is bent between the
floors. The lateral loads are transmitted from these transverse walls to the side shear wall by
horizontal floor and roof diaphragms. The diaphragms distribute these forces to vertical resisting
components such as shear walls and vertical resisting elements if any, which transfer the forces
into the foundation. The diaphragms must have adequate stiffness and strength to transmit these
forces. The distribution of lateral forces in the masonry building will depend upon the flexibility of
horizontal diaphragm i.e. how rigid the walls are compared to the rigidity of the diaphragm. The
rigidity of the diaphragms is classified into two groups on relative flexibility: rigid and flexible

(a) (b) (c) (d)
Figure 3: Lateral force distribution in a box type building (a) box type masonry
building subjected to lateral load (b) bend of first storey/second storey transverse walls
(c) distribution of lateral forces in second storey (d) distribution of lateral forces in
first storey
Rigid Diaphragms
A diaphragm may be considered rigid when its midpoint displacement, under lateral load, is less
than twice the average displacements at its ends. Rigid diaphragm distributes the horizontal
forces to the vertical resisting elements in direct proportion to the relative rigidities. It is based on
the assumption that the diaphragm does not deform itself and will cause each vertical element to
deflect the same amount. Rigid diaphragms capable of transferring torsional and shear
deflections and forces are also based on the assumption that the diaphragm and shear walls
undergo rigid body rotation and this produces additional shear forces in the shear wall. Rigid
diaphragms consist of reinforced concrete diaphragms, precast concrete diaphragms, and
composite steel deck.

Figure 4: Comparison between flexible and rigid diaphragm
Flexible Diaphragms
A diaphragm is considered flexible, when the midpoint displacement, under lateral load, exceeds
twice the average displacement of the end supports. It is assumed here that the relative stiffness
of these non-yielding end supports is very great compared to that of the diaphragm. Therefore,
diaphragms are often designed as simple beams between end supports, and distribution of the
lateral forces to the vertical resisting elements on a tributary width, rather than relative stiffness.
Flexible diaphragm is not considered to be capable of distributing torsional and rotational forces.
Flexible diaphragms consist of diagonally sheated wood diaphragms, sheathed diaphragms etc.
Figure 4 provides a comparison between flexible and rigid diaphragms (Willams, 2003).

Example: Distribute a seismic load of 100 kN in end shear walls A, B & C in case of (i)
rigid diaphragm (ii) flexible diaphragms
Rigid diaphragm
Wall A = (100 x 5)/ (5+3+2) = 50 kN
Wall B = (100 x 3)/ (5+3+2) = 30 kN
Wall C = (100 x 2)/ (5+3+2) = 20 kN
Flexible diaphragm
Wall A = (100 x 2.5)/ (10) = 25 kN
Wall B = (100 x 2.5)/ (10) = 25 kN
Wall C = (100 x (2.5+2.5)/ (10) = 50 kN

The lateral load capacity of shear wall is mainly dependent on the in-plane resistance rather than
out-of-plane stiffness. The distribution of lateral load to the shear walls is based on the relative
wall rigidities if a rigid diaphragm supports the walls and the segment of wall deflects equally.
The rigidity of a shear wall is dependent on its dimensions, modulus of elasticity (Em), modulus of
rigidity (Gm) and the support condition.
Pier Analysis
In masonry structures, it is generally assumed that in one and two storey buildings the walls may
be considered cantilevered and the segment of the walls between adjacent openings are called
piers and might be considered fixed at top and bottom, depending on the relative rigidities of the
walls versus those of the floor diaphragms.
(a) Rotational deformations of the portions above and below the openings are much smaller
than those of the piers between the openings and are neglected.
(b) Points of contra flexure are assumed at the mid points of the piers and shears are assumed
to be carried among the piers such that their top deflects by equal amount.
(c) Lateral forces will be transformed to the various parallel resisting elements in direct propor-
tion to their stiffness (Schneider and Dickey, 1994)
(d) Large portion of the total lateral force is required to reduce same deflection in a stiffer wall
compared to that of a more flexible one.
(e) Stiffness, refers to the lateral force magnitude required to produce a unit deflection
(f) Relative, rather than absolute, stiffness can be computed since each wall is only being
compared to the combined stiffness of the entire wall system

Cantilever Pier or wall

If the pier or wall fixed only at the bottom and top is free to translate and rotate, it is
considered a cantilevered wall. When a force (P) is applied at the top of a pier, it will produce
a deflection, ∆ , that is the sum of the deflections due to bending moment ( ∆ m) plus that due
to shear ( ∆ v), Figure 5 (Amrhein, 1998).

Figure 5: (a) Wall pier displaced at top and cantilevering from fixed bottom (b)
Deflection of walls due to bending and shear deformations
∆ c = ∆ m + ∆v

= Ph 3 / 3E m I + 1. 2 Ph / AG m
∆m = deflection due to flexural bending
∆v = deflection due to shear
P = lateral force on pier
h = height of pier
A = cross section of pier
Em = modulus of elasticity in compression
Gm = modulus of elasticity in shear (shear modulus)
For masonry, Gm = 0.4 E m
Em t
4( h / d ) 3 + 3( h / d ) ]
Rigidity of cantilever pier R c = 1/ ∆ c = E m t /( 4( h / d ) 3 + 3( h / d ))
Fixed Pier or wall

For a wall/pier fixed at top and the bottom, the deflection from a force, P is, Figure 6.,
Amrhein 1998.
Figure 6: (a) Wall pier with top displaced and fixed at top and bottom (b) Deflection
of walls due to bending and shear deformations
∆f= ∆m+ ∆v
= Ph 3 / 12 Em I + 1.2 Ph / AG m
For masonry, Gm = 0.4 Em
∆f =
Em t
[ ]
( h / d ) + 3( h / d )

Rigidity of fixed pier
R f = 1/ ∆ f = Em t /((h / d )3 + 3(h / d ))

Effect of Aspect ratio on Deflection due to Shear

Aspect ratio (h/d) % deflection due to shear
Cantilever wall Fixed end wall
0.25 92 98 …..(i)
1 43 5
2 16 43 …..(ii)
4 5 16
8 1 4.3 …..(iii)

i. Very squat shear wall (h/d < 0.25), rigidities based on shear deformation are
reasonably accurate
ii. For intermediate height of shear wall (0.25<h/d<4.0), including both the components
of deflection
iii. For high h/d ratio, the effect of shear deformation is very small and rigidity based on
flexural stiffness is reasonably accurate (Drydale, Hamid and Baker, 1994).
Horizontal and Vertical Combinations of Shear Wall Segments
If the shear wall segments are combined horizontally, the combined rigidity R = Rc1 + Rc2 +
Rc3, if the segments are combined vertically, the combined rigidity 1/R = 1/Rc1 + 1/Rc2 +
1/Rc3., Figure 7
Figure 7: (a) Horizontal combination of wall segments (b) Parallel combination of wall

Method for Calculating the Rigidity of wall with Opening

The following steps are required for calculating the rigidity of wall with opening (Drydale,
Hamid and Baker, 1994).

- Calculate the deflection of the solid wall as a cantilever (for one or two storey
building) is determined ( ∆ Solid( c) )
- Calculate the cantilever deflection of an interior strip, having a height equal to that of
the highest opening, is calculated and subtracted from the solid wall deflection. This
step removes the entire portion of the wall containing all the openings
( ∆ Strip of higest opening ( c) )
- Calculate the deflections of all the piers as fixed within that interior strip being
determined by their own individual rigidities ( ∆ Peirs ( f ) )
- Add deflection of piers to the modified wall deflection to arrive at the total deflection
of the actual wall with openings ( ∆ total )
- The reciprocal of this value becomes the relative rigidity of the wall ( R = )
∆ total

Example: Determine the rigidity of the shear wall, as shown, in terms of Et

∆Wall = ∆Solid Wall ( c ) − ∆Strip A ( c ) + ∆2 ,3,4 ,5 ,6 ,7 ( f )
∆ 2, 3, 4 , 5, 6, 7 ( f ) = 1 / ( R2, 3, 4 , 5, 6, 7 ( f ) )
R2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 ( f ) = R2 ( f ) + R3, 4, 5, 6 ( f ) + R7 ( f )
R3, 4, 5, 6 ( f ) = 1 / ∆ 3, 4 ,5 , 6 ( f )
∆ 3, 4, 5, 6 ( f ) = ∆ solid 3, 4, 5,6 ( f ) − ∆ strip B ( f ) + ∆ 3, 4,5 ( f )
∆ 3,4,5 ( f ) =
R3( f ) + R4 ( f ) + R5 ( f )

  h 3
1  h  h 3.6 + 1.2
∆ Solid ( c ) =  4  + 3   = 1. 882 / ET For = = 0. 48
  d 
Et  d   d 10

1  h  h 
h 3. 6
∆Strip A( c ) = 4   + 3   = 1. 266 / ET For = = 0.36
Et   d   d   d 10
 h  3  h  h 1 .2
R3 ( f ) = R4 ( f ) = R 5( f ) = Et /    + 3   = 0. 187 / ET For = = 1. 2
  d   d   d 1. 0

∆3 ,4 ,5 ( f ) = 1 / 3( 0 .187 Et ) = 1. 782 / Et

1 h  3  h  h 3.6
∆3 ,4 ,5 ,6 ( f ) =   + 3  = 2.311 / ET For = = 0.67
 d 
Et  d  d 5. 4

1  h   h 
h 1 .2
∆ Strip B ( f ) =   + 3   = 0 .671 / Et For = = 0 .22
Et  d   d  d 5 .4
 
∆ 3 ,4 ,5 ,6 ( f ) = 2 . 311 / Et − 0 . 671 / Et + 1 . 782 / Et = 3 . 422 / Et
R3 ,4 ,5 ,6 ( f ) = 0. 292 Et

 h 3  h  h 3. 6
R2 ( f ) = Et /    + 3   = 0. 017 ET For = = 3 .6
  d   d   d 1 .0
 h  3  h  h 3. 6
R7 ( f ) = Et /   + 3   = 0 .028 ET For = = 3 .0
 d   d   d 1 .2

R2 ,3 ,4 ,5 ,6 ,7 ( f ) = 0.017 Et + 0.292 Et + 0.028 Et = 0.337 / Et
∆2 ,3 ,4 ,5 ,6 ,7 ( f ) = 2. 967 / Et
∆ wall = 1 .882 / Et − 1.266 / Et + 2 .967 / Et = 3.583 / Et
RWall = 0.279 Et
Direct forces
In case of rigid diaphragm it is assumed that the walls are tied together with the diaphragm,
the lateral force (P) will be distributed to the walls in proportion to their relative stiffness.
For any wall i, the relative stiffness is given by
Ri = ki / ∑ k1 + k2 .... + kn
Direct shear forces on parallel walls are equal to (VD ) i = Ri P

Torsional Shear Forces
When the centre of mass and centre of rigidity do not coincide, torsional shear forces will be
induced on the wall in addition to the direct shear force. The horizontal load, P, will be at the
centre of mass, thus a torsional moment, Mt, is induced that is equal to Py x ex , where e x equals
the distance between the line of force (centre of mass) and the centre of rigidity. Even in
symmetrical structure, where e = 0, a minimum eccentricity amounting to 5 % of the building
dimension is assumed which is called accidental eccentricity, Figure 8 (Amrhein, 1998).
Centre of Mass
Centre of mass X m is found by taking statical moments about a point, say south-west
corner, using the respective lumped weights of walls as forces in the moment summation
(Figure 9).
X m = (W R xL / 2 + WN xL / 2 + W s xL / 2 +W E xL) / ∑W
∑W = (W R + WN +Ws +WE +Ww ) ,
WR , WN, WS, WE and WW represents the weight of roof and respective walls

Ym = (W R xB / 2 + W E xB / 2 + WW xB / 2 + W N xB ) /(WR + W E + WW + W B )

∑W = (W + W E + WW + W N + W S ) ,

WR, WE, WW, WN and WS represent the weight of roof and respective walls

Figure 8: Torsional shear determination

Figure 9: Lumped model for torsional shear determination

Centre of Rigidity

The centre of rigidity, X CR and YCR , is calculated by taking statical moments about a point,
say south- west corner, using the relative stiffnesses of the walls parallel to the y-axis as
forces in the moment summation (Figure 9). The stiffness of slab is not considered in the
determination of centre of rigidity.

∑ Ry x (R w x 0 + RE xL ) R E xL
Xr = = = …..Center of rigidity
∑ Ry ( Rw + RE ) ( Rw + RE )

Since the walls parallel to the x-direction do not contribute significantly to the lateral
resistance in the y-direction, these relative rigidity terms do not appear in this summation. On
the other hand, the y co-ordinate of the centre of rigidity Yr , entails the use of the Rx terms (in
-plane lateral stiffness of the wall in the x-direction) as follows:
∑ R x y ( R N xB + R s x 0 ) R N xB
Yr = = = …..Center of rigidity
∑ Rx ( RN + R S ) ( RN + RS )
Torsional eccentricity, e x = X m − X r and e y = Ym − Yr .

Total Shear Forces on Parallel Walls

( )
The total horizontal shear, Py , resisted by a particular wall element, with an axis parallel
to the y-direction, due to the applied horizontal load, (Py )i, may be obtained from the

(P ) =
Py ±
Ry x
Py e x ….Total wall shear
∑ Ry
y i
direct shear torsional shear
where, x or y = perpendicular distance from the centre of rigidity, CR, to the axis of wall in

Σ Ry or Σ Rx = 1.00
Similarly, for an applied horizontal force in the x-direction
R R y
(Px )i = x P + x Px e y
∑ Rx Jr

In the preceding equations, Jr, equals the relative rotational stiffness of all the walls in the
storey under consideration. It corresponds to a polar moment of inertia and may be found by
the expression

Jr = ∑ (R x y 2 + R y x 2 ) …. Polar moment of inertia

Note that the torsional forces are always plus sign. This stems from the fact that, since the
horizontal load P is reversible, the code generally states that the effect of torsional moment be
considered only when they tend to increase the direct stress

Example: Calculating the torsional shear forces in one storey shear wall masonry structure
with a rigid diaphragm roof. The relative rigidity of each shear wall is given.
Building is a one storey box system;
All walls are a total of 5m high; 4m
upto roof level and 1m parapet.
Seismic Zone V,
Z = 0.36, I = 1.0, RW = 1.5, Sa/ g = 2.5
Roof = 3.0 kN/m2, Wall = 5 kN/m2
Base Shear = 300 kN

To calculate the shear forces due to torsion, first to calculate the locations of
the centre of mass and the centre of rigidity.
Location of the Centre of Mass
Centre of mass, X CM and YCM , is calculated by taking statical moments
about a point, say south west corner , using the respective weights of walls as
forces in the moment summation. as shown in Table 2.
Table 2: Calculation of Centre of Mass
Item Weight (kN) X (m ) Y (m) WX (kN -m) WY (kN-m)
Roof slab 10x15x3 = 450 7.5 5.0 3375 2250
N- Wall 5x5x5 = 125 7.5 10 937.5 1250
S - Wall 15x5x5 = 375 7.5 0.0 2812.5 0
E - Wall 5x5x5 = 125 15 5.0 1875 625
W - Wall 10x5x5 = 250 0.0 5.0 0 1250
Σ W = 1325 Σ WX = Σ WY =
9000 5375
X CM = ∑ WX / ∑ W = 6.7 9 m from West wall
Y CM = ∑ WY / ∑ W = 4. 06 m from South wall

Location of the Centre of Rigidity
The centre of rigidity, X C R and YC R , is calculated by taking statical moments
about a point, say south - west corner, using the relative stiffnesses of the
walls as forces in the moment summation. The stiffness of slab and parapet
height are not considered in the determination of centre of rigidity. The
calculation for the center of rigidity is shown in Table 3.
Table 3: Calculation of Centre of Rigidity
Item RX Ry X (m) Y (m) Y Rx X Ry
N- Wall 0.16 - - 10 1.6 -
S – Wall 0.84 - - 0.0 0 -
E – Wall - 0.246 15 - - 3.69
W – Wall - 0.754 0.0 - - 0.0

Table 3: Calculation of Centre of Rigidity
Item RX Ry X (m) Y (m) Y Rx X Ry
N- Wall 0.16 - - 10 1.6 -
S – Wall 0.84 - - 0.0 0 -
E – Wall - 0.246 15 - - 3.69
W – Wall - 0.754 0.0 - - 0.0

Σ Rx = 1.0 Σ Ry = Σ Y.Rx = 1.6 Σ X.R y =
1.0 3.69
X CR =∑ X R y / ∑ R y =3 . 69 m from W- Wall
YCR = ∑ Y R x / ∑ R x =1 . 6m from S - Wall

Torsional Eccentricity
Torsional Eccentricity in Y-direction
Eccentricity between centre of mass and center of rigidity
ey = 4.06 - 1.6 = 2.46m
Add minimum 5% accidental eccentricity
0.05 x 10 = 0.50m
Total eccentricity = 2.46 + 0.50 = 2.96m
Torsional Eccentricity in X-direction
Eccentricity between center of mass and center of rigidity
ex = 6.79 - 3.69 = 3.10m
Add minimum 5% accidental eccentricity
0.05 x 15 = 0.75m
Total eccentricity = 3.10 + 0.75 = 3.85m
Torsional Moment
The torsional moment due to E-W seismic force, rotate the building in Y - direction, hence
MTX = Vx ey = 300 x 2.96 = 888 kN-m
Similarly, if considered seismic force in N-S direction
MTY = VY eX = 300 x 3.85 = 1155 kN-m
Distribution of Direct Forces and Torsional Forces
If we consider the seismic force only in E-W direction, the walls in N-S direction will resist the
forces and the walls in E-W direction may be ignored. Table 4 shows the calculation of distribu-
tion of direct shear and torsional shear.

Table 4: Distribution of forces in North and South Shear Wall
Item RX dy * RX d y RX d2y Direct Torsional Total
(m) Force Force ** Shear
(kN) (kN) (kN)
N- Wall 0.16 8.4 1.344 11.28 48 + 89 137
S - Wall 0.84 1.6 1.344 2.15 252 - 89 252
Σ 13.40
* Distance of considered wall from center of rigidity (10 – 1.6 = 8.4m)

Rxd y 1 .344
Vxe y = x 888 = 89 kN

** Torsional forces in N-Wall=
R x d 2y 13.40
Rxd y 1 .344
Vxe y = x 888 = 89 kN

Torsional forces in S-Wall=
R x d 2y 13 .40

Similarly, if considered seismic force in N-S direction
If we consider the seismic force only in N-S direction. The walls in E-W direction will resist the
forces and the walls in N-S direction may be ignored. Table 5 shows the calculation of
distribution of direct shear and torsional shear.
Table 5: Distribution of forces in East and West Shear Wall

Item Ry dx* Ry dx Ry d2x Direct Torsional Total
(m) Force Force ** Shear
(kN) (kN) (kN)
E- Wall 0.246 11.31 2.78 31.46 73.8 - 76.96 150.76
W -Wall 0.754 3.69 2.78 10.26 226.2 + 76.96 226.20
Σ 41.72

* Distance of considered wall from center of rigidity (15 – 3.69 = 11.31m)
Ryd x 2.78
** Torsional forces in E-Wall= V y ex = x 1155 = 76.96 kN
∑ R y d 2x 41.72
Ryd x 2.78
Torsional forces in W-Wall= V yx ex = x 1155 = 76.96 kN
∑ Ry d 2x 41.72

In shear wall analysis, the principal forces are in-plane shear (direct + torsional), in-plane mo-
ment (in-plane shear x ½ of height of pier) and dead and live load carried by the pier. In addition
to these forces sometimes, the lateral forces from winds or earthquakes create severe overturn-
ing moments on buildings. If the overturning moment is great enough, it may overcome the dead
weight of the structure and may cause tension at the ends of piers of shear walls. It may also
induce high compression forces in the pier of walls that may increase the axial load in addition to
dead load and live load. The increase in axial load in piers due to overturning moments may be
evaluated in the following manner (Schneider, and Dickey, 1994).

Figure 10: Axial load on pier due to overturning

Overturning moment at second floor level (Figure 10)
(Movt )2 = Vr (h2 + h 3) + V3 h 2
Then, total overturning moment on pier in the first storey
Movt = (Movt)2+ total V x distance to the second floor level from critical level of the pier in
the first storey (Assume, at the sill height of piers hcr, as shown in Figure 10).
Thus the axial load on a pier due to overturning Povt, is

Povt = (Movt )(li Ai)/ In
li = Distance from the centre of gravity of the net wall section in the first storey to the
centroid of the pier in question = ∑ li Ai ∑ Ai
i =1
Ai = Cross sectional area of pier in question
In= moment of inertia of net wall section in first storey = ∑ Ai l i2
Example: Determine the increase in axial load due to overturning effects of lateral
forces in wall is shown in Figure

Taking the sum of moments about the centre line of axis of the vertical load:

Movt 2 = V r (h 2 + h 3 )+ V 3 × h2 = 200 (3 + 3 )+ 200 × 3 = 1800 kN
Movt = (Movt )2 + total V × h = 1800 + 500 × 3 = 3300 kN

Centroid of Net Section of Wall

Pier Area Ai (m 2) d/s from left edge of wall to Al (m 3)
centroid of pier (m)
1 2 x1/4 1m 0.5
2 3 x 1/4 2 + 1 + 1.5 = 4.5m 3.375
3 3 x 1/4 8.5m 6.375
∑ Ai = 2. 0m
2 ∑ Al = 10. 25

Distance from left edge to centroid = ∑ Al = 10. 25 = 5.125m
∑ Ai 2 .0

Moment of Inertia of Net-section of Wall

Pier Ai (m 2 ) l i (m ) Ai l i2 (m 4 ) td 3 In= Ai l i Povt
I = (m 4 ) Ai l i2 + I (kN)
1 0.5 4.125 8.5 0.167 8.667 2.06 365.07
2 0.75 0.625 0.29 0.562 0.852 0.47 83.29
3 0.75 3.375 8.54 0.562 9.102 2.53 448.36
Σ =18.621

Increase in axial load on the individual pier in the first storey

li Ai 3300 l i Ai
Povt = M ovt . = = 177.22 liAi
In 18 . 621

In seismic design of masonry building, it is assumed that the total base shear induced by an
earthquake will be resisted by the in-plane shear wall and transverse walls or flexural walls
which will not resist any shear. However, the flexural wall will be checked for out-of-plane
forces with the vertical loads. This action produces combined actions of axial compression and
bending forces. Lateral stability of the walls needs to be checked for this combined effect.

(a) (b)
Figure 11: (a) Wall subjected to axial and out-of-plane loads (b) Linear interaction
The relationship between the combined effects of axial load (P) and bending (M) can be
related to the virtual eccentricity (e= M/P), and for linear elastic behaviour of section it can
be expressed as, Figure 11(a)

Fm = P / A + M / S

Fm = Limiting (allowable) stresses for combined axial compression and bending
A= Area of section and S= section modulus
This equation can be used to define the linear interaction diagram and represented as shown
in Figure 11(b), Drydale, Hamid, Baker, 1994.
If P0 = Fm. A is the section capacity at zero eccentricity and M0 = Fm. S is the moment that
can be carried with zero axial load, the interaction can be represented by the unity equation as
P / P0 + M / M 0 = 1

The unity equation in some of masonry codes also be present in the form of
f a / Fa + f b / Fb = 1
fa, f b = compressive stresses due to applied axial load and bending, respectively
Fa, F b = allowable axial and bending compressive stresses, respectively

Both these equations are used for describing linear behaviour of section. For masonry, the
effects of tensile cracking, non-linear stress-strain behaviour of masonry, the equation is
conservative. However, the unity equation can be useful for working stress design of cracked
sections where the limiting compressive stresses under axial compression and bending are not
equal. For unreinforced masonry, the allowable compressive stresses, Fa and Fb are given as

Fb = 1 / 3 f ' m
Fa = 0.25 f m' (70r / h) 2 for h / r > 99
m [
= 0.25 f 1 − (h / 140 r) 2 ] for h / r ≤ 99

Where, h/r is slenderness ratio of the wall

Nominal allowable load carrying capacity Pn of the wall in out-of-plane is

Pn = f m′bt (1 /(1 + 6e / t )) for 0<e<t/6
3 e
Pn = btf m′ ( (1 − 2 ) for e>t/6
4 t

Example: Check the stability of a 9" (230mm) thick brick masonry wall under a vertical
load of 3 kN/m with a 4.5" (115mm) eccentricity in addition to a lateral load of 1 kN/m2 .
The wall is 3.5m high, assuming simple supported at top and bottom.
Consider a design compressive strength of masonry 15 N/mm2 and permissible tensile
strength is 0.21 N/mm2 (The allowable flexural tension is 0.16 N/mm2 , with the 1/3 in-
crease allowed for seismic loading, amounts to 0.21 N/mm2 )

Check for Flexure tension
Face area = 230mm x 1000mm = 2.3 x 105 mm2/m of
(Assuming 1m width of wall)
I = bt3/12 = 1000 x 2303/12 = 1.014 x 109 mm 4/m of
Z = I/y = 1.014 x 109 /115 =8.816 x 106 mm3
Wall weight = 20 x 0.23 x 3.5 = 16 kN/m
Moment at mid height = moment due to lateral
load + moment due to eccentric load
= 1(3.5)2/8 + (3x 0.115)/2 = 1.75625 kN.m/m
Checking the flexural tension stress:
P at mid height = 16/2 + 3 = 11 kN/m
ft = P/A – My/I = 11 x 1000/2.3 x 105 –1.75 x 106 x 115/
1.014 x 109 = .048 -.198 = 0.15 N/mm2 < 0.21 N/mm2
Therefore, the 9” thick wall is adequate for tension.

Check for unity equation
1.014 x10 9 h 3500
r= I/ A= 5
= 66. 4 mm, therefore = = 52. 18 < 99 , so that
2.3 x10 r 66.4
h 2
Fa = 0. 25 f m' ( 1 − ( ) = 0.25 x15 ( 1 − ( 52. 18 / 140 ) 2 ) = 3.23 N / mm 2
140 r
Fb = 0.33 f m' = 4.95 N / mm 2
f a f b P / A M / Z 11x10 3 / 2.3 x10 5 1. 75 x10 6 / 8.816 x10 6
+ = + = + = 0.054 < 1. 33
Fa Fb Fa Fb 3.36 4. 95


Amrhein, J. E. (1998). "Reinforced Masonry Engineering Handbook," Masonry Institute of
America, CRC Press
Dry dale, R.G. Hamid, A. H. and Baker, L.R. (1994). "Masonry Structure: Behaviour and De-
sign," Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632.
Schneider, R.R. and Dickey, W.L. (1994). "Reinforced Masonry Design", 3rd Ed., Prentice Hall
Inc., New Jersey.
Williams, Alan. (2003). "Seismic Design of Buildings and Bridges," Oxford University Press.
STP 992 (1988). "Masonry: Materials, Design, Construction & Maintenance," (editor: Harry A.
Harris), ASTM, 1916 Race Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103
Agarwal P. and Thakkar S.K. (2003) "Seismic Evaluation of Strengthening and Retrofitting
Measures in Stone Masonry Houses under Shock Loading" Workshop on Retrofitting of Struc-
tures, IIT Roorkee, Oct. 2003.
Agarwal, P. and Thakkar, S. K. (2002) "An Experimental Study of Effectiveness of Seismic
Strengthening and Retrofitting Measures in Stone Masonry Buildings", Journal of European Earth-
quake Engineering, pp. 48-64..
Agarwal, P. and Thakkar, S. K. (2001) "Study of Adequacy of Earthquake Resistance and
Retrofitting Measures of Stone Masonry Buildings", Research Highlights in Earth Systems Sci-
ence, DST Special Vol.2, on 'Seismicity' (Editor O. P. Verma), Published by Indian Geological
Congress,(August 2001), pp 327-335.
Agarwal, P. and Thakkar, S. K. (1998) "Seismic Evaluation of Strengthening Measures in Stone
Masonry Houses", Eleventh Symposium on Earthquake Engineering, University of Roorkee,
Roorkee, December 17-19,1998
BIS (1993). "IS 13828: Improving Earthquake Resistance of Low Strength Masonry Buildings-
Guidelines", Bureau of Indian Standards, Manak Bhawan, New Delhi.
BIS (1993). "IS 14326: Earthquake Resistant Design and Construction of Buildings - Code of
Practice", Bureau of Indian Standards, Manak Bhawan, New Delhi.
IAEE, (1980). "Basic Concepts of Seismic Codes - Vol. I" The International Association for
Earthquake Engineering, Tokyo, Japan.
Keightley, W.O. (1977). "Report on Indo-U.S. Subcommission on Education & Culture",
Department of Earthquake Engineering, University of Roorkee, Roorkee.
Thakkar, S. K. and Agarwal, P. (1999) "Seismic Evaluation of Earthquake Resistant and Retro-
fitting Measures of Stone Masonry Houses", Paper No.110, 12th WCEE, February 2000, Auckland,
New Zealand.

Chapter 11

Yogendra Singh
Asstt. Professor, Department of Earthquake Engineering, IIT Roorkee, 247 667


As brought out in the previous Chapters, the structures are to be designed to have sufficient
strength and ductility for safety against earthquake forces. Both strength and ductility are impor-
tant for seismic safety. The current codal practice of design of RC buildings is based on a linear
analysis and Limit State Design philosophy. The effect of ductility is considered in the form of a
"Response Reduction Factor", which is used to reduce the earthquake forces for design.

The RC members are to be designed for three actions: (i) Axial Force, (ii) Shear Force, and (iii)
Bending Moment. Beams are generally monolithic with slabs and these are not designed for
axial load. On the other hand, the columns are to be designed for an interaction of axial load and
bending moment. The design for Shear is independent.

Concrete is known to be brittle material. Typical to brittle materials, it has much lower strength in
tension, than in compression. The behaviour of concrete can be greatly enhanced by confining it.
The ductility of concrete can be significantly improved by proper detailing of the reinforcement.
This Chapter deals with important aspects of the design and detailing of RC buildings.


If we test 100 cubes of same batch of concrete, they will not give the same strength. Similarly if
we test 100 rods of steel of same grade or test 100 beams made of same concrete and same
steel, they will fail at different loads. This is due to inherent variability of strength of materials. To
take this into account we consider a lower than average strength of materials in design. Our
code defines this as "Characteristic Strength". It is the estimate of strength below which not
more than 5% samples will fall. Further a partial factor of safety (1.15 for steel and 1.5 for
concrete) is used to estimate the design strength. Therefore, it is clear that the actual strength of
a member is higher than the force for which we have designed as per our current design prac-
tice. This higher strength is termed as over-strength and it is kept as reserve strength in case of
gravity and wind load. In case of earthquake load, this strength is also utilized to resist the
earthquake forces. In fact, the forces resulting from the earthquake are much larger than the
actual strength of the members and the members yield under such forces. Our normal linear
analysis procedure can not predict the behaviour of structures for yielding members and we
require non-linear analysis procedures. However, there are some simplified procedures, which
can be used to approximately predict the non-linear behaviour from the linear behaviour. The
response reduction factor given in our code is one such procedure which takes into account the
over-strength and ductility.


As mentioned earlier, the Response Reduction Factor, used in the design of structures depends
on ductility of the structure. The ductility of structures, in tern, depends on the ductility of indi-
vidual components and structural configuration, including relative strength of different compo-
nents and redundancy. These two aspects of ductile design are described below.

Ductile Design of Individual Components

The ductility of structure depends on the ductility of individual components. In RC members, the
ductility of components can be enhanced in flexure but there are limitations on ductility in axial
action and shear action. In flexure, the ductility can be achieved by making under-reinforced
sections and by providing proper confinement at the locations where maximum moments are
expected and the component is expected to yield. The member ends near the joints are the most
probable locations of yielding under earthquakes. Further, it should be ensured that the member
should yield in flexure and not in shear or axial action. This can be ensured by providing higher
strength in shear and axial action, than that required for yielding of the member in flexure.

Ductile Design of Structural System

A structure can yield in a variety of modes depending on the relative strength of various compo-
nents and joints and structural configuration. As some of the members have to yield under
earthquake, redundancy of structural system is very important. The structure with higher degree
of redundancy can afford to have larger number of plastic hinges before collapse and therefore
it will exhibit higher ductility. On the other hand a determinate structure will become unstable on
the formation of first plastic hinge, without showing much ductility.

The local failure mechanism resulting due to formation of plastic hinges in columns prior to those
in beams causes brittle failure of structure and should be avoided. This can be avoided by
designing the columns to be stronger than the beams. Failure of joints is another cause of poor
seismic performance of structures. If the joints fail in shear which is a brittle mode of failure and
if joints fail prior to yielding of components, the ductility can not be achieved. This requires
proper detailing of the reinforcement in joints.

Capacity Design Concept

The capacity design is the art of avoiding failure of structure in brittle mode. This can be achieved
by designing the brittle modes of failure to have higher strength than ductile modes. In a RC
building this can be achieved by following the following design sequence:

i. First design the beams in flexure for the moments obtained from the analysis for Gravity,
Wind and earthquake Loads.
ii. Calculate the provided flexural strength of beams and the corresponding shear strength re-
iii. Design the beams for higher of the shear obtained above in (ii) and that obtained from analy-
iv. Calculate the flexural strength requirement of the columns by considering the strength of
beams joining the columns. The combined flexural strength of columns joining at a node must
be higher than the combined flexural strength of beams joining at the node.
v. Design the columns for the higher of the moment obtained in (iv) above and that obtained
from analysis.
vi. Design the columns for the shear force higher of that obtained from the flexural capacity and
obtained from analysis.
As discussed in the previous section, ductile buildings can be designed even with concrete, which
a non-ductile material. This can be achieved by providing proper amount of steel reinforcement
at proper location. The following sections describe the reinforcement detailing for ductility

Anchorage and Splicing of Reinforcement

Joints are subjected to very large earthquake
forces and it has been observed that the beam
reinforcement pulls out of columns and the
building collapses. To avoid this, the code IS:
13920 recommends that the beam reinforce-
ment should be anchored into columns by a
length ld + 10 φ (Fig. 1). The increase of 10 φ
to the development length is to take into ac-
count the loss of bond due to cracking of con-
crete during earthquake.

Similarly, care should be taken in splicing the
reinforcement. The splicing should not be done
Fig. 1 Anchorage of beam reinforcement near the beam column joints as these locations
are subjected to high bending moments and
concrete may crack and bond may be lost at these locations. Further, the code require that not
more than 50% of reinforcement should be spliced at one location.

Special confining reinforcement

As discussed above, it is the confinement of concrete, which makes it ductile. Code requires
special confining reinforcement at the location where moment hinges are likely to occur. The
diameter and spacing of these hoops special confining reinforcement is to be calculated accord-
ing to codal requirements, but in no case this spacing of stirrups should be more than 100 mm for
columns and it should not be more than 150 mm for beams. Figs. 2 & 3 summarize the require-
ments of special confining reinforcements of and columns.
Fig. 2 Arrangement of stirrups

Fig. 3 Special confining reinforcement
Reinforcement in Shear Walls
Shear walls are similar to a wide column and these have reinforcement grid, generally on both
faces. These walls resist large shear forces and bending moments and the reinforcement should
be provided to resist both shear and bending moment.

Fig. 4 Boundary Elements Fig. 5 Reinforcement at openings

The code requires that if the stress in the shear wall exceeds 0.2 f ck then these should be
provided with boundary elements. These boundary elements are similar to columns but mono-
lithic with shear walls. (Fig 4). The width these boundary elements may be same as the thickness
of the shear wall or it may be more.

Special care is required at openings in the shear
walls. Concentration of stresses takes place near
opening. To take care of this, additional rein-
forcement (Fig. 5) should be provided around
the openings. In case of coupled shear walls,
the coupling beams are subjected to very high
shear forces. Due to reversal of stresses under
earthquake conditions, the concrete in coupling
beams gets crushed. To take care of the shear
force, diagonal reinforcement should be provided
Fig.6 Reinforcement in coupling beam
(Fig. 6) in the coupling beams . This diagonal
reinforcement should be anchored by 1.5 times the full development length, into the shear wall
Detailing requirements in special conditions
There are two commonly found conditions in RC buildings, which need special attention in detail-
ing. First, whenever, there is an abrupt change in stiffness of members, special confining rein-
forcement should be provided. Two such cases are encountered when the shear wall is sup-
ported on columns (Fig. 7) or columns are supported on shear wall (Fig. 8). The first case is not
desirable from earthquake safety point of view and must be avoided. In both the conditions, the
columns should be provided with special confining reinforcement throughout the length.

Fig. 7 Shear wall on columns

Fig. 8 Columns on shear walls

The second case is whenever, there is a possibility of short-column effect, due to partial infill or
a mezzanine floor (Fig. 9), the columns should be provided with special confining reinforcement
throughout the length.

Fig. 9 Short-column effect
For satisfactory performance of buildings, during earthquake, construction supervision is also
equally important. Several failures have been observed due to faulty construction.
- The most important point during construction is the construction joint. To avoid failure at the
construction joints, shear keys should be provided at construction joints. Before placing the
new concrete, the surface of old concrete should be thoroughly cleaned by water jets.
Wooden blocks should be used for making shear keys and these blocks should be removed
after initial sitting of concrete. These blocks should never be left in place.
- Splicing of reinforcement during construction is very important. As discussed above, not
more than half of the reinforcing bars should be spliced at the location and splicing should be
avoided near the joints.
- Anchorage of stirrups in the most important factors on which the safety of building depends.
In no case the stirrups should be anchored at 90o as these open up during earthquake and
confinement is lost (Fig. 10).

Fig. 10 Loss of confinement due to improper anchoring of hoops and ties
- Alignment of columns is also very important as any eccentricity will give rise to high bending
moments in columns.
- There is considerable congestion of reinforcement at the joints. Compaction of concrete at
joints is a difficult task and honeycombed concrete at joints is quite common. Special care
should be taken to compact the concrete at joints, as joints are the highly stressed parts of a


IS 1893-2002, Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures, Part 1 General Provisions
and Buildings, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
IS 456-2000, Plain and Reinforce Concrete - Code of Practice, Bureau of Indian Standards,
New Delhi.
IS 13920-1993, Ductile Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Structures Subjected to Seismic Forces
- Code of Practice, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
Key, David, 1988, Earthquake Design Practice for Buildings, Thomas Telford, London.
Penelis, George G., and Kappos, Andreas J., 1997, Earthquake Resistant Concrete Structures, E
& FN Spon.
Paulay T., and Priestley, M.J.N., 1992, Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete and Masonry
Buildings," John Wiley & sons, Inc., New York.

Chapter 12

Yogendra Singh
Asstt. Professor, Department of Earthquake Engineering, IIT Roorkee, 247 667

Performance of a building during earthquake depends on its shape, structural configuration,
strength and ductility. All these factors are to be considered while designing a building. 'Regular-
ity' and 'Continuity' are the basic rules for seismic safety of a building. It has been observed that
performance of a symmetric and regular building is much better than that of a building with
asymmetric or irregular configuration having even much higher strength or ductility.
IS 4326 provides some guidelines for design of buildings against earthquake forces. These guide-
lines, if followed in design and construction, can enhance the performance of building signifi-
cantly and ensure their safety against collapse. A collection and illustration of such guidelines
available in IS 4326 and elsewhere is presented here.
Some precautions are required to be followed in design and construction of all the buildings,
irrespective of the material and structural type. Following are some of such guidelines:
- Buildings should be sufficiently away from steep upside and downside slopes. During earth-
quakes, the slopes may become unstable and may slide. A building near the slopes may be
washed away by the landslide (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1 Building near slopes Fig. 2 Building on filled site

- Special care should be taken in case reclaimed and filled-up sites. In a partially filled-up site,
settlements of original firm soil and filled-up soil will be different and building will be sub-
jected to differential settlement. To avoid this, the foundation of the building should be on
original firm soil. Raft on pile foundations should be used for this purpose (Fig. 2).

- Loose, cohessionless soils in saturated condition loose their strength under shaking due to
earthquake. The phenomenon is termed as Liquefaction. Such conditions exist near the
rivers and in dried beds of rivers. Wherever liquefaction is suspected, raft or pile foundations
should be used.

Building shape is very important for its earthquake resistance. Asymmetric buildings are sub-
jected to torsion, which results in excessive forces in extreme columns. Buildings with T, L, C or
X shaped plans are prone to damage during earthquakes. Such planforms should be divided into
symmetric rectangular parts by providing suitable separations (Fig. 3). Fig. 4 shows the differ-
ence in behaviour of separated buildings and the buildings with irregular shapes.

Fig. 3 Symmetric building plans are desirable

Fig. 4 Behaviour of asymmetric and symmetric buildings

Irregular shaped buildings are subjected to high forces at the corners. As shown in the figure, the
behaviour can be greatly enhanced by separating the adjacent parts of the building.
- Adjacent buildings should be sufficiently away from each other, so that these do not collide
during earthquake. This collision termed as "pounding" results in severe damage and several
failures due to pounding have been reported during past earthquakes. The separation be-
tween adjacent buildings should be adequate to accommodate the total non-linear displace-
ments of both the buildings during earthquake. The effect of pounding is more severe, if the
floor slabs of the two adjacent buildings are at different levels. To minimize the damage, the
floors of adjacent buildings should be at the same level, as far as possible.
Another type of damage, which has been observed in case of adjacent buildings is that resulting
from falling objects/ components of adjacent buildings. Water tanks kept at the top of buildings
have been seen to fall over the adjacent buildings and result in severe damage.

Fig. 5 Inverted pendulum buildings

Fig. 6 Sudden Change in building size

- Buildings with irregularities such as high height to width ratio, inverted pendulum configura-
tion (Fig. 5) and with sudden change in shape and stiffness (Fig. 6) should be avoided.
Sometimes, it is possible to remove the stiffness or shape irregularity by a judicial use of
separations as shown in Fig. 6.
- The separations should be properly designed for material of construction and height of build-
ing. Minimum gap between adjacent buildings/portions of buildings should be as given below:
Type of Construction Minimum Gap Per Storey (mm)
Load Bearing Building 15
RCC Frame Building 20
Steel Frame Building 30

Fig. 7 Separation details at walls Fig. 8 Separation details at roof

Fig. 9 Separation details at floors

The gap should be properly detailed (Figs. 7-9) to avoid water leakage and at the same time it
should be functional during earthquake to allow free relative movement of the adjacent building
- Large overhangs and balconies (Fig. 10) are subjected to much higher forces and should be
avoided. Buildings with floating columns (Fig. 11) are particularly dangerous from earth-
quake safety point of view and should be avoided.

Fig. 10 Overhang & Balconies Fig. 11 Floating columns

- Sloping roofs (Fig. 12) have the
tendency to open out and exert
excessive forces on walls during
earthquake. In case of Pitched
roofs (sloping in two directions),
gable ends are much more prone
to damage and therefore Hipped
roofs (sloping in four directions)
are preferable. Sloping roofs
Fig. 12 Sloping roofs
should be provided with horizontal
tie members to avoid the opening up effect. To avoid the relative motion of the top and
bottom members, appropriate cross bracings should be used.
- Staircases have sloping flights,
which act as diagonal bracings
under lateral load. These
bracings provided large stiff-
ness to staircase against lat-
eral loads. Due to this effect
staircases attract very high lat-
eral force during earthquakes,
which result in collapse of
staircases and punching of
floor slabs by stair case flights.
Two alternatives have been Fig. 13 Separation of staircase
suggested to avoid this:

- (i) Complete separation of the stair
case from the remaining building (Fig.
13), and (ii) enclosure of the staircase
by rigid (minimum one brick thick)
walls (Fig. 14).
As shown in Fig. 13, for structurally
separating the staircase, the staircase
need not be outside the building. By
proper use of separation joints, this can
be achieved at any location in the
building. This arrangement has addi
Fig. 14 Enclosed staircase
tional advantage that the staircase may
be provided at any location in the building without causing asymmetry.
- Parapet is a neglected element in a building
and this is the first element to fall during earth-
quake. This may hit the people running out of
the building or moving on the street during
earthquake and in many cases result in fatal
injuries. To avoid falling of parapets, its height
should be small and it should be properly se-
cured with the building by providing a closed
loop of steel reinforcement through the cop-
ing (Fig. 15).
Fig. 15 Securing of parapet
- Swimming pools and large water storage tanks at the terrace (Fig. 16) cause severe mass
irregularity and have resulted in collapse of buildings in past earthquakes. These should be
avoided. If smaller water tanks are to be provided at the roof, these should be properly
anchored against sliding and overturning. Similarly, large mass at any floor of the building
also results in mass irregularity and it should be avoided.

Fig. 16 Large mass at roof is undesirable
Most of the masonry buildings in India are constructed without any calculation of strength or
ductility. This type of construction is called non-engineered construction. It has been observed in
laboratory and during past earthquakes that if some simple measures are taken, collapse of such
buildings during earthquake can be avoided.
- Masonry buildings are weakened
by presence of openings for doors
and windows. These openings
should be as small as possible.
Total length of openings in a wall
should not be more than 50% of
wall length in a single storey build-
ing and it should not be more than
33% of the wall length in a multi-
storey building. Further, the mini-
mum horizontal and vertical dis-
tance between openings should
not be less that 600 mm (Fig. 17).
Similarly, the openings should not
be very close to corners. The dis-
tance of the opening from corner Fig. 17 Location of openings in masonry buildings
should be preferably larger than 500 mm.
- Resistance of a masonry building
to lateral loads is provided by its
integral box action. The building
should behave like a box rather
than four individual walls during
This can be achieved by integrat-
ing the four walls using RC band
at plinth, lintel and roof level. Out
of these, the lintel band is the most
crucial. The plinth band and roof
band can be avoided in case of
hard soil and flat RC roof, respec-
tively. In addition to bands, verti-
Fig. 18 Earthquake bands and vertical reinforcement
cal reinforcement at corners and
joints and along the jambs of openings provides additional strength. Fig. 18 shows the general
arrangement of bands and vertical reinforcement in a building. Fig. 19 shows the detailing of
reinforcement at joints and corners. It should be noted that no splicing of the reinforcement
is allowed at joints. In case of masonry in mud mortar, timber band can be provided.

Fig. 19 Detailing of reinforcement in bands
- Openings are source of weakness in masonry buildings.
Therefore special reinforcement is required around the open-
ings. This reinforcement can be provided either in the form
of vertical reinforcement and bands at sill and lintel level
(Fig. 18), or it can be provided in the form of loops around
the openings as shown in Fig. 20.
- In case of rubble stone masonry, there is a tendency in the
walls to split. To avoid splitting, sufficient number of through
stones (Fig. 21) should be used. If longer stones to be used
as through stones are not available RC elements may be Fig. 20 Strengthening of
used. Similar elements are also to be used at corners and openings
joints to avoid separation of orthogonal walls under lateral loads.

Fig. 21 Corner stones and through stones in rubble masonry
Frames and shear walls are the two major lateral load resisting components in RC buildings,
which resist the earthquake forces. Proper placing of these elements is very important to avoid
asymmetry and torsion in the building. Even in a rectangular building, if the lateral load resisting
elements are not placed symmetrically, these may result in torsion. Fig. 22, shows some of the
desirable and undesirable configurations of RC buildings.
Fig. 22 Desirable and undesirable configurations
- In case of hilly areas, it is common to
have buildings as shown in Fig. 23. In
such buildings, the length of the columns
on down-slope direction is more, com-
pared to columns on the up-slope di-
rection. Longer columns have lower
stiffness compared to smaller columns.
This results in torsion in the building.
To avoid this, shear walls should be used
on down-slope direction to compensate
for the loss of stiffness due to longer
- In cities, parking space is a big problem
and usually the ground storey of a multi-
storey building is kept open for Fig. 23 Buildings on slopes
parking. Such configuration results in
soft ground storey buildings. The per-
formance of soft storey buildings has
been observed to be very poor, as the
soft storey undergoes large non-linear
displacements and the building col-
lapses. To avoid this the ground storey
should be provided with shear walls (Fig.
24), so that the stiffness and strength
of ground storey match with those of
upper storeys. Alternatively, the ground Fig. 24 Soft ground storey buildings

storey columns should be designed 2.5 times stron-
ger than upper storey columns (Fig. 25)
Ductility is the key of safety of RC buildings
against earthquake. Concrete is known to be a
brittle material, but it can be made to behave in a
ductile manner by providing proper amount of
reinforcement at proper place. IS: 139208 pro-
vides some information about ductile detailing of
RC buildings. Some more information is available
in other references. The following guidelines pro-
vide some useful tips about design and detailing
of RC buildings:
Fig. 25 Stronger ground storey columns

- RC members can fail in Flexure, Shear of Axial crushing modes. Out of these modes only
flexure mode is known to provide ductility. Other failures are non-ductile failures. Further,
two modes of failure of frames have been observed: (i) in local failure mode (Fig. 26), the
columns of a storey fail resulting in collapse of the building; and (ii) in global failure mode
(Fig. 27), all the beams yield before formation of hinges at column
- bases and collapse of the building. The second mode of failure is desirable as it provides
much more ductility than the first mode without jeopardising the safety against vertical loads.
The failure in second mode can be ensured by a weak beam - strong column design in the
following manner:

Fig. 26 Local failure mode Fig. 27 Global failure mode
Undesirable configuration Desirable configuration

- Beams should have sufficient strength in shear so that these do not fail in shear before failing
in flexure or the capacity of beams in shear should be more than the capacity in flexure.

Fig. 28 Detailing at exterior joint Fig. 29 detailing at interior joint

- Columns should fail neither in shear nor in flexure before formation of flexural hinges in
beams or the shear and flexural capacity of columns should be more than the combined
capacity of all the beams meeting the column.
- Ductility of RC members depends on the amount of confinement and proper anchorage of
reinforcement. For an effective confinement, all the stirrups should be anchored at 1350 and
not at 900. The 900 stirrups open up during earthquake and confinement is lost. Special
confining reinforcement is required in the beams and columns near the joints, as the ductility
demand is high near the joints. Figs. 28 & 29 show the reinforcement detailing at exterior and
interior joints, respectively.
- Presence of masonry infills in RC buildings makes their behaviour complex and care should
be taken in design of such buildings. Columns in partially infilled frames or in frames with
mezzanine floors suffer damage due to short column effect (Fig. 30). Such columns should
be provided with special confining reinforcement throughout length.

Fig. 30 Damage in columns with partial infill and mezzanine floor
Buildings have a large number of non-structural components, equipment and services, which are
also very important from earthquake safety view point. This is particularly important for build-
ings with post-earthquake importance, such as hospitals, where failure of services can render
the hospital non-functional at the time when it is needed most. Safety of non-structural compo-
nents is also very important in case of structures which store hazardous substances. Leakage of
hazardous gases, liquids, radiation etc. can cause severe health risk in post-earthquake period.
Some basic principles should be followed in installation of services and equipment. The installa-
tion should be properly secured with the main structure; at the same time it should be flexible
enough to accommodate the movement of structure.
- Piping is the most important part of building services. During earthquake, different parts of
building undergo relative displacements. Piping systems should be designed to accommo-
date these displacements (Fig. 31).
- In hospitals and other buildings, there is a number of important equipment, which should be
properly secured, so that it does not fall during earthquake. The equipment mounted on
walls should be positively connected to walls as shown in Fig. 32. Equipment place at floor
should be secured with floor and walls (Fig, 33).

Fig. 31Pipe connections to allow relative displacement

Fig. 32 Mounting of equipment on wall Fig. 33 Mounting of equipment on floor

- There are some vital movable equipment which may fall during the earthquake. Arrange-
ment (Fig. 34) should be made at appropriate locations in the building, so that these equip-
ment may be secured with walls.
- Hospitals store a large number of medicines and glassware, which can damage by falling
during the earthquake. The shelves storing these items should have arrangement (Fig. 35) to
prevent falling of these items.

Fig. 34 Mounting of movable equipment Fig. 35. Securing of falling objects

Fig. 36 Securing lights and hanging objects

- False ceilings and lights should be secured (Fig. 36) with the main structure, so that these do
not swing during the earthquake.
- It has been observed during the past earthquakes that the counterweights of lifts jump from
the guiding rails. The counterweights should be mounted (Fig. 37) on guiding rails in such a
way that these do not jump during the earthquakes.

Fig. 37 Mounting of lift counte- weights
IS 4326-1993, Earthquake Resistant Design and Construction of buildings - Code of practice,
Bureau of India Standards, New Delhi.
D.K. Paul, et. al. (2002), Guidelines for Earthquake Resistant Buildings, TATA Steel, Jamshedpur
and Department of Earthquake Engineering, IIT, Roorkee.
Paulay and Priestlay (1992), Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete and Masonry Buildings,
John Wiley & Sons.
David Key (1988), Earthquake Design Practice for Buildings, Thomas Telford, London.
Farzad Naeim (2001), The Seismic Design Handbook, Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Penelis and Kappos ((1997), Eartquake-resistant Concrete Structures, E & FN Spon.
Arya, A.S. et al. (1986), Guidelines for Earthquake Resistant Non-Engineered Construction,
IAEE Committee, The International Association for Earthquake Engineering, Tokyo.
IS 13920-1993, Ductile Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Structures Subjected to Seismic Forces
- Code of Practice, Bureau of India Standards, New Delhi.
IS 1893-2002, Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures, Part-1: General Provi-
sions and Buildings, Bureau of India Standards, New Delhi.
Gary L. McGavin, (1981) Earthquake Protection of Essential Building Equipment, John Wiley &
APPENDIX: Earthquake resistant measures in masonry buildings

Chapter 13

Yogendra Singh and D.K. Paul
Department of Earthquake Engineering, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee, 247 667

Problem of assessment of safety of existing structures against various loads, including earth-
quake load, has been recognised world over. In developing countries, about 50% of the construc-
tion industry resources are being utilised for problems associated with existing structures. Many
countries have developed standards for assessment of existing structures. In India also the
problem is slowly showing its extent. Performance of our structures in the recent earthquakes
has also forced us to think on this issue. Many agencies, within the country, are working on the
different aspects of this problem.
Assessment of an existing structure is much more difficult a task than evaluation of a design on
paper. Firstly, the construction of the structure is never exactly as per designer's specifications
and a number of defects and uncertainties crop up during the construction. Secondly, the quality
of the material deteriorates with time and the assessment of an existing structure becomes a
time dependent problem. The problem of the assessment involves not only the current status of
the structure but also its extrapolation in the life of the structure with or without repairs. There
are three sources of deficiencies in structures:
1. Defects arising from the original design, such as under estimation of loads as per old stan-
dards/practices, inadequate section/reinforcement, inadequate reinforcement anchorage and
2. Defects arising from original construction, such as under strength concrete, poor compac-
tion, poor construction joints, improper placing of reinforcement and honeycombing.
3. Deterioration since the completion of the construction due to reinforcement corrosion, al-
kali-aggregate reaction, etc.
In Indian conditions, it is generally a combination of all the three deficiencies and the retrofitting
of the structure has to take care of all the three.
If the design documents are available, the first type of deficiencies can be assessed with a
satisfactory level of confidence. However, if the design details are not available, it makes the
task of assessment, next to impossible. Till date no testing technique with sufficient reliability is
available to completely outline the reinforcement detailing inside the concrete.
A number of techniques have been developed to detect the other two types of deficiencies.
However, almost all of them depend on indirect measurements and have a low reliability. Further,
the variation of test results is large and interpretation of results requires experience and skill.
Evaluation is an integral component of Seismic Retrofitting. The very first question to be an-
swered by a retrofit engineer is whether retrofitting is required for a particular building? This can
not be answered without a systematic Seismic Evaluation. Evaluation is required to estimate the
strength of the existing structure, so that the need, extent, strategy and system of retrofitting can
be decided. Evaluation is also required to assess the adequacy of the proposed retrofit scheme.
According to the Vulnerability Atlas of the country, more than 80% houses are non-engineered
construction, which are mainly load bearing buildings. However, there are many RC framed
urban buildings which have been constructed without any consideration to resist earthquake
forces or without using the current codal practices on Earthquake Resistant Design. For such a
large number of seismically deficient buildings, a quick assessment method and guidelines have
to be developed together with training and capacity building.
The difficulties faced in the seismic evaluation of a building are threefold. There is no quick and
reliable method to estimate the in-situ strength of the material and components of the building.
Analytical methods to model the behaviour of the building during an earthquake are either
unreliable or too complex to handle with the generally available tools. The third difficulty is
unavailability of a reliable estimate of the earthquake parameters, to which the building is
expected to be subjected during its residual life. The ground motion parameters available in the
present code have been estimated at a macro level and do not take into account the effect of
local soil conditions which are known to greatly modify the earthquake ground motion.
Evaluation of an existing building is a difficult task, involving considerable cost and efforts and
requires skills in different disciplines of structural engineering including materials. Procedures
with different sophistications are available for evaluation of existing buildings. It is very impor-
tant to decide an appropriate evaluation strategy depending on the seismicity of area, vulnerabil-
ity, scale and importance of the buildings and the funds available.
Seismic Evaluation consists of the following three phases
Rapid Visual Screening (RVS)
- For mass scale evaluation of buildings in a city
- Only visual inspection and limited addition information
- Based on behaviour of buildings in past earthquakes
- Rapid, based on checklists
- Inspecting a building from out side-"Side Walk Survey" to come to a conclusion whether the
building is probably adequate for earthquake forces likely to occur at site or there are rea
sonable doubts that the building may not perform satisfactorily
- Should the building be subjected to more detailed evaluation?
i) Identify the building class.
ii) Estimations of Performance based on past experience and expert opinion.
What we should look for?
i) Common Deficiencies in planning and site conditions
ii) Common Deficiencies in Masonry Buildings
iii) Common Deficiencies in RC Buildings
Checklists and Data Collection Forms (Appendix 2-I)
Checklists for Indian Seismic Zones (Appendix 2-II)
- Classification of building classes for Masonry and RC buildings
- Damage pattern using MSK scale
Simplified Vulnerability Assessment (SVA)
- Based on Limited Engineering Analysis
- Calculations based on structural drawings or on site measurements
- Information regarding size and strength of lateral load resisting members
- Simplified analysis to estimate building drift
Detailed Vulnerability Assessment (DVA)
- Insitu Strength Estimations
- Computer Modelling
- Linear or non-linear static or dynamic analysis
Detailed Vulnerability Assessment is recommended in the following conditions:
1. Buildings failing Simplified Vulnerability Assessment.
2. Building has more than 6 storeys for RC & Steel and more than 3 storeys for URM.
3. Building is located on in competent or liquefiable soils located near active faults with inad-
equate foundations details.
4. Buildings with inadequate connection with primary structural systems e.g. with pre cast
Visual inspection and preliminary evaluation of a building provides some insight into the potential
design and construction deficiencies and causes of deterioration. A detailed investigation is re-
quired to estimate the in-situ strength of material and extent of deterioration. A number of testing
methods have been developed for estimating in-situ strength of RC. Some of these techniques
have also been used for masonry.

Fig.1 Single flat jack test Fig. 2 Two jack test

In-Situ Testing Methods For Masonry
FEMA-306 provides a detailed description of various methods available for in-situ testing of
masonry. The most important method for in-situ masonry testing is taking out a core and testing
in split tension test. The mortar joints are kept at 450 to the loading to get the shear strength of
joints directly. Correction for normal stress is to be made for getting the in-situ shear strength.
Alternatively a square sample may be removed from the masonry wall and tested for compres-
sive and shear strength.
Another method, which can provide some vital information about in-situ strength of masonry, is
Flat Jack Test. A single flat jack (Fig. 1) may be used to determine the state of stress in the
masonry. A two-jack test (Fig. 2) may be used to estimate the in-situ stress-strain behaviour of
masonry in compression.
Most of the methods have been basically developed for concrete and their performance for
masonry is not satisfactory. These methods are being described in the following sections for
In-Situ Testing Methods for Concrete
Estimation of in-situ strength of concrete is the first step towards quantification of the existing
strength of a building. It is a complex problem, which requires the knowledge of both science and
art of in-situ testing. A number of techniques are now available for this purpose, but these are
mostly based on some indirect measurement of the strength. Skill is required to interpret the
results of testing. The various techniques available and their suitability in different conditions are
being discussed here.
The following Table gives a list of in-situ testing methods available for masonry.

Sl. Property under Test Equipment Type
No. Investigation
1. Integrity Sounding Mechanical
2. Strength Rebound Hammer Mechanical
3. Strength Ultrasonic Pulse Mechanical/Electrical
Velocity Test
4. Integrity Impact-Echo Mechanical/Electrical
5. Integrity Penetrating Radar Electromegnatic/Mechanical
6. Strength Core Testing Mechanical
7. Shear Strength In-situ Shear Mechanical
8. Strength In-situ Flat Jack Mechanical

Tests for assessment of structural performance and integrity
The different tests in this category and the type of equipment required, are listed below:

Sl. No. Test Equipment Type
1. Static Load Test Mechanical/Electronic/Electrical
2. Dynamic Response Mechanical/Electronic/Electrical
3. Pulse-Echo Mechanical/Electronic
4. Strain or Crack Measurement Optical/Mechanical/Electrical
5. Reinforcement Location Electromagnetic
6. Radar Electromegnatic
7. Thermoluminescence Chemical
8. Thermography Infra-red Photography
9. Acoustic Emission Electronic

The static load test can be performed either in-situ, which is generally non-destructive or it can
be performed in the laboratory on the removed member, which is generally destructive. The aim
of the test is to demonstrate satisfactory performance of a member or a group of members of the
structure under an overload above the design values. The selection of the members to be tested
is to be made based on importance of members and with the help of other techniques to locate
weakest zones. A static load is applied incrementally and the deflection, strains and crack widths
are measured during loading as well as unloading. The loads and deflection limits have been
specified by various codes. The test requires elaborate arrangements for application of load,
measurements and safety of testing personals. The test is particularly valuable in restoring the
public confidence but it disrupts the normal usage of the structure and it is an expensive test. A
long-term measurement of the structural response under service loads can also be done, but it is
costly and cumbersome.
In dynamic response testing, response of the entire structure is studied under dynamic loads
from exciting machines, impact or under ambient vibrations. The response is compared with that
of the theoretical model and overall stiffness deficiency due to damage, defects and deterioration
can be estimated. The method can also be used to assess the improvement by repair and retro-
fitting. Long term measurement of dynamic signatures of structure can give the deterioration of
structure with time. The method gives only an indication of the overall health of the structure and
it is difficult to assess the condition of individual members. Research is going on to locate the
weak zones in the structure by analyzing its dynamic response and free vibration characteristics.
The test requires carefully placed accelerometers and complex signal processing equipment.
The pulse-echo method is a useful technique to detect cavities, cracks and delaminations within
the concrete. Shock waves are induced in the concrete by a surface hammer blow, which are
reflected by any discontinuity present within the concrete. The reflected shock waves are
analyzed to determine the depth, extent and width of the discontinuity. An Artificial Neural
Network based system has been patented in the trade name "DOCTOR" and is commercially
Electromagnetic equipment is commercially available to measure the cover and diameter of
reinforcement bars. The accuracy of the equipment has improved in the recent years. The
equipment is useful in detecting the adequacy of the cover provided to reinforcement.
The other techniques listed above require specialized equipment and skill. These are not widely
used and are at research stage at present.
Tests for assessment of in-situ quality
After identification of weak zones in a structure, detailed assessment of the in-situ quality of the
material is to be done. A number of tests have been developed and standardized for different
properties of concrete. Suitable tests are to be selected based on the aims of testing. A list of
various available tests is given below:

Sl. Property under Test Equipment type
No. investigation
1. Concrete Strength Cores Mechanical
2. Pull-out Mechanical
3. Pull-off Mechanical
4. Break -off Mechanical
5. Internal fracture Mechanical
6. ESCOT Mechanical
7. Penetration resistance Mechanical
8. Maturity Chemical/Electrical
9. Temperature -matched Electrical/electronic
10. Concrete quality, Surface hardness Mechanical
11. durability and Ultrasonic pulse velocity Electronic
12. deterioration Radiography Radioactive
1 3. Radiometry Radioactive
14. Neutron absorption Radioactive
15. Relative humidity Chemical/electronic

16. Permeability Hydraulic
17. Absorption Hydraulic
18. Petrography Microscopic
19. Sulphate content Chemical
20. Expansion Mechanical
21. Air content Microscopic
22. Cement type and content Chemical/microscopic
23. Abrasion resistance Mechanical
24. Corrosion of Half-cell potential Electrical
25. embedded steel Resistivity Electrical
26. Cover depth Electromagnetic
27. Carbonation depth Chemical/microscopic
28. Chloride Concentration Chemical/electrical

Tests for concrete strength
Concrete strength is the most important parameter in assessing the safety of a structure against
loading. Due to lack of construction supervision, sometimes, very low strength concrete may be
encountered in existing structures. Such locations are to be identified and suitable remedial
measures to be taken. The testing methods for concrete strength vary from very indirect surface
hardness test to the direct testing of concrete strength by removing cores. Broadly, these tests
can be divided into three categories:

Non-destructive tests
These tests are based on indirect measurement of concrete strength through measurement of
surface hardness and dynamic modulus of elasticity. Calibration curves relating these properties
with the strength of concrete are available. For surface hardness rebound of an impact from the
concrete surface is measured.
A simple equipment known as Rebound Hammer or Schmidt Hammer is used for this purpose.
The details of the equipment are shown in Fig. 3.
The dynamic modulus of elasticity of concrete is measured by measuring the velocity of
ultrasonic pulse through concrete. The test equipment has provisions for generating ultrasonic
pulse, transmitting it to concrete, receiving and amplifying the pulse and measuring and
displaying the pulse travel time. The details of the equipment are shown in Fig. 4. Good acoustic
coupling between the transducers and concrete is to be established for correct measurement of
the speed.

Fig. 4 UPV Testing equipment
These two equipments are robust and straightforward in application. The tests are inexpensive
and fast. However, there is no direct theoretical relationship between the properties measured in
the tests and the strength of concrete. Further, the test results are affected by a number of
parameters and test conditions. This reduces the reliability of the tests and these are suitable for
only comparative survey of the quality of the concrete. For more reliable estimation of concrete
strength, other tests should be used at selected locations.
Partially destructive tests
These are surface zone tests18, which require access to one exposed concrete face and cause
some localized damage. This damage is sufficiently small to cause no loss in structural perfor-
mance. The strength of concrete is estimated with the help of correlation charts, which are
sensitive to lesser number of parameters compared to the surface hardness and ultrasonic pulse
velocity tests. Hence reliability of these tests is higher. The advantage compared to core test is
that these are faster and less disruptive and damaging. Different tests in this category are based
on penetration resistance, pull-out pull-off and break-off.
In penetration resistance testing, a specially designed bolt is fired into concrete with the help of
a standardized explosive cartridge. The equipment and testing procedure have been standard-
ized by ASTM C803. A consistent correlation of the depth of the penetration with the strength of
concrete has been found. The details of failure process of concrete under penetration have been
shown in Fig. 5.

Fig. 5 Penetration resistance test
In pull-out testing, the force needed to pull a bolt or some similar device embedded into concrete
is measured and correlated with the strength of concrete. This correlation has been shown to be
unaffected by the mix characteristics and the curing history. The bolt may be inserted at the time
of casting of the concrete or it may be epoxy grouted into a hole drilled into hardened concrete.
The testing has high reliability and it is accepted by a number of public agencies in some coun-
tries as equivalent to cylinders for acceptance testing. The details of insert and failure zone are
shown in Fig. 6. Different versions of this test are in practice in different parts of the world, such
as, Lok-test, North American Pull-out Method, Internal fracture test, ESCOT, CAPO test etc.

Fig. 6 (a) Pull - out test Fig. 6 (b) CAPO test

Fig7 Pull - off test
The pull-off method is based on the measurement of in-situ tensile strength of concrete. The
compressive strength of concrete is well known to be related with the tensile strength. Another
application of the test is in testing of the bond between original and new concrete in repairs and
strengthening. The details of the test are shown in Fig. 7. Two versions of the test are possible.
In first case a metallic disk is glued directly to the surface of concrete and pulled off to measure
the force necessary to pull a piece of concrete away from the surface. In the second case partial
coring is done with a standard diameter of 75mm and the above procedure is repeated by gluing
the disk at the top of the partial core. For assessing the bonding strength of the repairs with the
original concrete, the depth of the partial coring should be below the surface of the original
The break-off test measures the
in-situ flexural strength of the
concrete at a plane parallel to
and at a distance from the sur-
face of concrete. In the test, a
partial core is broken off by a
transverse force acting at the top
surface as shown in Fig. 8. The
break-off strength of concrete
has been shown to have a linear
correlation with the modulus of
rupture of prism specimens.

Fig. 8 Break - off test
Core tests
The core test provides the visual inspection of the interior of the concrete and direct measure-
ment of the compressive strength. Other physical properties, such as, density, water absorption,
indirect tensile strength and expansion due to alkali-aggregate reaction can also be measured.
After strength testing, these can be used as samples for chemical analysis. The procedure has
been standardized by BS, ASTM and ACI codes.
In core testing, the determination of core size and location is a crucial factor. The test should be
taken at points where minimum strength and maximum stress are likely to coincide. But, at the
same time, the core cutting causes some damage to the member and may impair the future
performance of the member. Therefore, in slender members, the core should be taken away
from the critical section. For compression testing, the diameter of the core should be at least
three times the nominal maximum aggregate size. The accuracy of the test increases with the
ratio of core diameter to the aggregate size. The generally recommended length to diameter ratio
of the cores is between 1 to 2.
Tests for concrete quality, durability and deterioration
The aim of these tests is to identify the cause of deterioration. Most of these tests require
specialized laboratory facilities. The accuracy of these tests, at present, is low. ASTM and BS
standards are available for common chemical tests. These include cement content, aggregate
content and grading, aggregate type, cement type, original water content, as well as chloride,
sulphate and alkali contents. Microscopic study of a prepared concrete surface or a thin section
of concrete may also be useful in detecting the defects. In addition to these, there are several
specialized instrumental methods.
Tests for detecting corrosion of reinforcement and pre-stressing steel
Corrosion of embedded steel is the major cause of deterioration of RC structures. This results in
weakening of structure due to loss of steel cross-section, loss of bond between steel and con-
crete and surface staining, cracking and spalling of concrete. A good indicator of risk of corro-
sion in the embedded steel is the potential of the steel to a reference half-cell placed at the
concrete surface. Zones of varying degrees of corrosion risk are identified from the potential
contours drawn with the help of a moving half-cell. Percentage chance of active corrosion for
different values of half-cell potential, have been specified.
Another approach for estimation of corrosion risk is based on the measurement of various pa-
rameters affecting/responsible for corrosion. These include reinforcement cover, concrete pH/
depth of carbonation, concrete resistivity, absorption and permeability, chloride and sulphate
content and moisture movement.
A lot of research has taken place in the area of analysis of buildings for earthquake forces. The
analysis methods can be broadly classified into Linear and Non-linear methods. Earthquake
resistance design relies heavily on the ductility or post yielding behaviour of the structure and
therefore, the non-linear methods appear to be more reliable. However, these methods also have
inherent assumptions and require skill and computer software, as these are computation inten-
sive. Another classification is based on the type of load considered in the analysis. Static analysis
procedures consider equivalent static force, while the dynamic analysis procedures take into
account the time varying nature of the earthquake forces. The dynamic analysis is nearer to
reality but require high degree of computation. On the other hand, the static analysis procedure
is simple, easy to use and provide insight in to behaviour of structure. For regular buildings, a
static linear procedure is considered to be sufficient, but for buildings with irregular configura-
tions, a linear or non-linear dynamic analysis may be necessary.
IS 1893-2002, Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures, Part 1 General Provisions
and Buildings, Bureau of India Standards, New Delhi.
IS 4326-1993, Earthquake Resistant Design and Construction of buildings - Code of practice,
Bureau of India Standards, New Delhi.
IS 13920-1993, Ductile Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Structures Subjected to Seismic Forces
- Code of Practice, Bureau of India Standards, New Delhi.
J. H. Bungey, 1989, The Testing of Concrete in Structures, Surrey University Press.
ACI Committee 437, 1991, Strength Evaluation of Existing Concrete Buildings, American Con-
crete Institute.
IS 13311 (Part 1): 1992, Non-Destructive Testing of Concrete - Methods of Test, Part - 1, Ultra
Sound Pulse Velocity, Bureau of Indian Standards.
IS 13311 (Part 2): 1992, Non-Destructive Testing of Concrete - Methods of Test, Part - 2,
Rebound Hammer, Bureau of Indian Standards.



Building Identification


Building name:_________________________________________________
Ownership: Public Private
Owner name: __________________________________________________
Address: ______________________________________________________

1. Building type
Earthen building Stone in mud mortar
Stone in cement mortar Brick masonry in mud mortar
Brick masonry in cement mortar RCC Frame Building
RCC Frame-shear wall Building
Mixed construction (specify): ______________________________________

2. Usage of the building
Residential Business Offices Public Storage
Others (specify): _______________________________

3. Number of occupants (approximately): ______________________

4. Building location
Isolated Internal End Corner

5. Plan dimensions:
6. Total number of stories:

7. Average inter-storey height:

8. Construction age:

9. Building construction quality
Good Average Poor

10. Building condition and maintenance
Good Average Poor

11. Building site located at
Hill top High slope of hill Mild slope Plain
River bed Others (specify):_________________________________

12. Soil type
Rock / Hard soil Medium soil Soft soil
Reclaimed/filled land Partially filled land Loose sand
Others (Specify): _____________________________

13. Ground Water Table depth _______________________

14. Gap between adjacent buildings: ________________________

15. Plan of building:
Symmetric Asymmetric

16. R eentrant corner is:
Less than 15% more than 15%

17. Regularity in elevation:
Regular irregular

If irregular, approximate Shape in elevation is of the type

Percentage reduction/increase in dimensions: ________________________

18. Location of staircase in building is
Symmetric Asymmetric

19. Staircase is
Separated from main structure Connected to main structure
If connected to main structure, it is
Enclosed by rigid walls Not enclosed by rigid walls

20. Basement provided: Yes No

21. Overhang length: ________________________________________

22 Parapet height: ___________
Secured against falling Yes No


1. Type of construction
Engineered construction Non-Engineered construction

2. Layout of masonry (Tick in case of stone masonry)
Random rubble Half dressed stone Ashlar masonry

3. Through stones (Tick in case of random rubble masonry)
Provided Not provided

4. Earthquake resistant features provided in the building
Lintel band Roof band Plinth band

Vertical reinforcement at
Corners Junctions Jambs of openings

5. Minimum pier dimensions: ___________________________________

6. Existence of floating walls
Yes No

7. Foundation type
Strip foundation Raft foundation Pile foundation
Others (specify): _____________________________________

8. Foundation material used for construction
Stone Brick Cement concrete RCC

9. Percentage openings in main walls: ________________________

10. Thickness of
Exterior wall _________mm Interior wall _________mm

11. Roof type
Flat roof Sloping roof Hipped Roof

12. If sloping provided, then
Ties provided Yes No
Bracing provided Yes No
Roof and Gable band provided Yes No

13. Roofing material used
RCC slab Tiles Corrugated iron sheeting
Asbestos sheeting Others, specify ____________________

14. Inspection accuracy
From outside only Contacted owner also
Partial Complete

Names of the surveyors: Date:

1. 2.


1. Irregularities in structure
Open ground floor Floating columns Mezzanine floor
Heavy mass at roof Partially filled panels Floating shear walls
Any other (Specify): _______________________________________________

2. Designed by
Architect Structural engineer Mason

3. Enhanced ductility design: Yes No

4. Column size at ground floor: __________________

5. Beam size: ________________________________

6. Spans between columns: _____________________

7. Shear wall(s) provided: Yes No
If provided, Symmetrically asymmetrically
Thickness of shear wall ________________________________

8. Infill type
Brick masonry Stone masonry Solid concrete blocks
Hollow concrete blocks Timber
Any other (Specify): ___________________________________

Thickness of Infill
Exterior________________ Interior________________

9. Basement Provided: Yes No

10. Inspection accuracy
From outside only Contacted owner also
Partial Complete

Names of the surveyors: Date:

1. 2.

Sketch of building plan

Sketch of building elevation

Basis of the Methodology
The methodology proposed herebelow is based on the classification of buildings as per MSK
Intensity scale as well as the new European Intensity scale, modified by the author to some
extent based on his experience of buildings in India. The Grades of damage are also based on the
two Intensity scales taken together. The relationship of the MSK Intensities adopted in IS: 1893-
2002 (Part 1) and that adopted in the European scale have been studied and made use of in
developing the table of damage grades of various building types under Intensities VI to IX.
Based on this table the rapid visual screening of buildings in various seismic zones has been
arrived at.
Seismic Zones in India (IS:1893-2002, Part 1)
Zone V - MSK Intensity IX or higher (Destructive or Very Destructive intensities)
Zone IV - MSK Intensity VIII (Heavily damaging intensity)
Zone III - MSK Intensity VII (Damaging intensity)
Zone II - MSK Intensity VI or lower (Slightly damaging or no damage intensities)
Note : In a zone of higher intensity occurrence, lower intensities will occur around higher intensity area.

Building Types in India
From the damage vulnerability consideration the buildings can be classified as follows :
Masonry load bearing wall buildings
Building Description
A Rubble (Field stone) in mud mortar or earthen walls
A+ As above but one storey only having light roof
B Semi-dressed, rubble, brought to courses, with through stones and
long corner stones; unreinforced brick walls with country type
wooden roofs; unreinforced CC block walls
B+ As above of only single storeys and/or better quality of construction
C Fully dressed (ashler) stone masonry or CC block or burnt brick walls
built using good lime or cement mortar.Unreinforced walls but
having RC floor/roof.
C+ As at C but having horizontal RC bands (IS: 4329, 13828).
D Masonry construction as at C but reinforced with bands & vertical
reinforcement, etc (IS: 4329), or confined masonry using horizontal
& vertical reinforcing of walls.

Note: In rural areas, there are huts or shacks made from bio-mass & metal sheets etc. Their vulnerability
to earthquakes is very very low.

*Anand S. Arya, Capacity Building Advisor, GOI-UNDP (DRM), New Delhi, 24/11/03

Reinforced Concrete Frame Buildings (RCF) and Steel Frames (SF)

Frame Description
C RCF without ERD or WRD, built in non-engineered way; RCF with hollow
plinth (open ground storey); SF without bracings having hinge joints; RCF of
ordinary design without ERD or WRD, SF of ordinary design without ERD
or WRD
C+ MR-RCF/MR-SF of ordinary design without ERD or WRD

D MR-RCF with ordinary ERD without special details as per IS: 13920, with
ordinary infill walls (such walls may fail earlier similar to C in masonry
MR-SF with ordinary ERD without special details as per plastic design hand
book SP:6(6)-1972.
E MR-RCF with high level of ERD as per IS: 1893-2002 & special details as
per IS: 13920
MR-SF with high level of ERD as per IS: 1893-2002 & special details as per
Plastic design hand book, SP:6(6)-1972
E+ MR-RCF as at E with well designed infills walls
MR-SF as at E with well designed braces
F MR-RCF as at E with well designed & detailed RC shear walls
MR-SF as at E with well designed & detailed steel braces & cladding;
MR-RCF/MR-SF with well designed base isolation.

Notes: RCF = Reinforced concrete column- beam frame system
SF = Steel column- beam frame system
ERD = Earthquake Resistant Design
WRD= Wind Resistant Design
MR = Moment Resistant jointed frame

Grades of Damage to Buildings
Classification of damage to masonry Classification of damage to buildings of
buildings reinforced concrete
Grade 1: Negligible to slight damage (no
Grade 1: Negligible to slight damage (no structural damage, slight non-structural
structural damage, slight non-structural damage)
Fine cracks in plaster over frame members or
Hair-line cracks in very few walls. in walls at the base.
Fall of small pieces of plaster only.
Fine cracks in partitions & infills.
Fall of loose stones from upper parts of
buildings in very few cases.
Grade 2: Moderate damage (Slight structural Grade 2: Moderate damage (Slight
damage, moderate non-structural damage) structural damage, moderate non-
structural damage)
Cracks in many walls.
Cracks in columns & beams of frames & in
Fall of fairly large pieces of plaster. structural walls.
Cracks in partition & infill walls; fall of brittle
Partial collapse of smoke chimneys on roofs. cladding & plaster. Falling mortar from the
joints of wall panels.

Grade 3: Substantial to heavy damage Grade 3: Substantial to heavy damage
(moderate structural damage, heavy non- (moderate structural damage, heavy non-
structural damage) structural damage)

Large & extensive cracks in most walls. Cracks in columns & beam column joints of
frames at the base & at joints of coupled
Roof tiles detach. Chimneys fracture at the roof walls. Spalling of concrete cover, buckling of
line; failure of individual non-structural reinforced rods.
elements (partitions, gable walls). Large cracks in partition & infill walls, failure
of individual infill panels.

Grade 4: Very heavy damage (heavy Grade 4: Very heavy damage (heavy
structural damage, very heavy non-structural structural damage, very heavy non-
damage) structural damage)
Large cracks in structural elements with
Serious failure of walls (gaps in walls), inner
compression failure of concrete & fracture of
walls collapse; partial structural failure of roofs
& floors. rebars; bond failure of beam reinforcing bars;
tilting of columns. Collapse of a few columns
or of a single upper floor.

Grade 5: Destruction (very heavy structural Grade 5: Destruction (very heavy
damage) structural damage)

Total or near total collapse of the building. Collapse of ground floor parts (eg. Wings) of
the building.

Relationship of Seismic Intensity, Building Type & Damage Grades

Few : Less than(15±5)%; Many: Between(15±5) to(55±5)%;
Most: Between (55±5) to100%

Type of Zone II Zone III Zone IV Zone V
M Building MSK VI or less MSK VII MSK VIII MSK IX or
A More
S A Many of grade 1 Most of grade 3 Most of grade 4 Many of grade 5
O and Few of grade 2 Few of grade 4 Few of grade 5 (rest of grade
N A+ (rest no (rest of (rest of grade 4&3)
R damage) grade2or1) 3,2)
Y B Many of grade 1 Many of grade 2 Most of grade 3 Many of grade 4
and Few of grade 2 Few of grade 3 Few of grade 4 Few of grade 5
B B+ (rest no (rest of grade 1) (rest of grade 2) (rest of grade 3)
U damage)
I C Few of grade 1 Many of grade 1 Most of grade 2 Many of grade 3
L and (rest no Few of grade 2 Few of grade 3 Few of grade 4
D C+ damage) (rest of grade (rest of grade 1) (rest of grade 2)
I 1,0)
N D Few of grade 1 Few of grade 2 Many of grade 2
G Few of grade 3
S (rest of grade 1)

R C Few of grade 1 Few of grade 2 Many of grade 2 Many of grade 3
C and (rest no (rest of grade Few of grade 3 Few of grade 4
F C+ damage) 1,0) (rest of grade 1) (rest of grade 2)
/ D Few of grade 1 Few of grade 2 Many of grade 2
S - Few of grade 3
F (rest of grade 1)
B E Few of grade 2
U and - - - (rest of grade 1
I E+ or 0)
I F - - - Few of grade 1

Rapid Visual Screening of Indian Buildings for Potential Seismic Hazards

Seismic Zone II

Building Name __________________
Use _________________________
Address: ______________________
_________________Pin _________
Other Identifiers ________________

Elevation to Scale No. Stories ________ Year Built ____
Total Floor Area (sq.m)____________


Plan to Scale
Resi:Ord/Imp. School Max. Number of Persons High W.T. (within 3 m)
Health Assembly Office 0-10 11-50 51-100 >100 Liquefiable (if sandy soil)
Commercial Historic Residents _____ Land Slide Prone
Emer. Service Industrial Floating __________ Chimneys Parapets Cladding Other

Probable Maximum Grade of Damage
Building Masonry Building RC or Steel Frame Building URM Woo
Type A,A+ B,B+ C,C+ D C,C+ D E,E+ F infill d
Damage grade
in Zone II G2 G2 G1 - G1 - - - G1 -
Note: +sign indicates higher strength hence somewhat lower damage expected than that stated. Also average
damage in one building type in the area may be lower by one grade point than the probable maximum indicated.

Surveyor will identify the Building Type, encircle it, also the corresponding damage grade.

Recommended Action : Surveyor’s Signature __________________
1) Ensure adequate maintenance Name __________________________
Date ______________

Rapid Visual Screening of Indian Buildings for Potential Seismic Hazards
Seismic Zone III

Building Name __________________
Use _________________________
Address: ______________________
_________________Pin _________
Other Identifiers ________________

Elevation to Scale No. Stories ________ Year Built ____
Total Floor Area (sq.m)____________


Plan to Scale
Resi:Ord/Imp. School Max. Number of Persons High W.T. (within 3 m)
Health Assembly Office 0 -10 11 -50 51 -100 >100 Liquefiable (if sandy soil)
Commercial Historic Residents _____ Land Slide Prone
Emer. Service Industrial Floating __________ Chimneys Parapets Cladding Other

Probable Maximum Grade of Damage
Building Masonry Building RC or Steel Frame Building URM Woo
Type A,A+ B,B+ C,C+ D C,C+ D E,E+ F infill d
Damage grade
in Zone III G4 G3 G2 G1 G2 G1 - - G2 -
Note: +sign indicates higher strength hence somewhat lower damage expected than that
stated. Also average damage in one building type in the area may be lower by one grade
point than the probable maximum indicated.
Surveyor will identify the Building Type, encircle it, also the corresponding damage grade, and
tick mark the recommendation
Recommended Action :

1) Ensure adequate maintenance Surveyor’s signature: ___________________
2) Detailed evaluation of B,B+ types for need for retrofitting
3) Detailed evaluation of A, A+ types for need for Name : _______________________________
reconstruction or possible retrofitting
Date :

Rapid Visual Screening of Indian Buildings for Potential Seismic Hazards
Seismic Zone IV

Building Name __________________
Use _________________________
Address: ______________________
_________________Pin _________
Other Identifiers ________________

Elevation to Scale No. Stories ________ Year Built ____
Total Floor Area (sq.m)____________


Plan to Scale
Resi:Ord/Imp. School Max. Number of Persons High W.T. (within 6 m)
Health Assembly Office 0-10 11-50 51-100 >100 Liquefiable (if sandy soil)
Commercial Historic Residents _____ Land Slide Prone
Emer. Service Industrial Floating __________ Chimneys Parapets Cladding Other

Probable Maximum Grade of Damage
Building Masonry Building RC or Steel Frame Building URM Woo
Type A,A+ B,B+ C,C+ D C,C+ D E,E+ F infill d
Damage grade
in Zone IV G5 G4 G3 G2 G3 G2 - - G3 G2
Note: +sign indicates higher strength hence somewhat lower damage expected than that stated. Also average
damage in one building type in the area may be lower by one grade point than the probable maximum indicated.
Surveyor will identify the Building Type, encircle it, also the corresponding damage grade and tick mark the

Recommended Action :

1) A, A+ or B, B+: evaluate in detail for need of reconstruction Surveyor’s signature : ____________________
or possible retrofitting to achieve type C or D
2) C, C+ : evaluate in detail for need for retrofitting
Name : ________________________________
3) URM infill : evaluate in detail for need for retrofitting Date: __________________________________
Rapid Visual Screening of Indian Buildings for Potential Seismic Hazards
Seismic Zone V
Building Name __________________
Use _________________________
Address: ______________________
_________________Pin _________
Other Identifiers ________________

Elevation to Scale No. Stories ________ Year Built ____
Total Floor Area (sq.m)____________


Plan to Scale
Resi:Ord/Imp. School Max. Number of Persons High W.T. (with in 8 m)
Health Assembly Office 0-10 11-50 51-100 >100 Liquefiable (if sandy soil)
Commercial Historic Residents _____ Land Slide Prone
Emer. Service Industrial Floating __________ Chimneys Parapets Cladding Other

Probable Maximum Grade of Damage
Building Masonry Building RC or Steel Frame Building URM Woo
Type A,A+ B,B+ C,C+ D C,C+ D E,E+ F infill d
Damage grade
in Zone V G5 G5 G4 G3 G4 G3 G2 G1 G4 G4
Note: +sign indicates higher strength hence somewhat lower damage expected than
that stated. Also average damage in one building type in the area may be lower by
one grade point than the probable maximum indicated.

Surveyor will identify the Building Type, encircle it, also the corresponding damage
grade and tick mark the recommendation.
Recommended Action :

1) A, A+ or B, B+ : evaluate in detail for need of Surveyor’s Signature _________________
reconstruction or possible retrofitting to achieve type
C or D Name:_____________________________
2) C, C+: evaluate in detail for need of retrofitting to achieve type D
3) URM infill: evaluate for need of reconstruction or possible Date: ______________________________
retrofitting to level D

Chapter 14

D.K. Paul
Professor, Department of Earthquake Engineering, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee, 247 667

Cities are growing, urban seismic risk is rapidly growing, and particularly in developing coun-
ties the cities are more and more vulnerable to disasters. Direct strike by a major earthquake in
towns and cities specially mega cities, losses could be in billions. Mega cities are like ticking
time bomb.
Poor performance of urban and semi urban buildings in recent Indian earthquakes has been
observed specially in the Gujarat earthquake where multi-storey buildings had crumbled like
houses of cards within a matter of seconds. Generally, most of the multi-storey buildings are in
the urban areas and most of them are less than 20 storeys. Since, the IS codes on earthquake
resistant design are not mandatory and construction practices are not very strict, most of the
existing multi-storey buildings may not have been design for earthquake forces and therefore
vulnerable to earthquakes. Many of the existing old structures may have faulty original design,
extensions, alterations, encroachments, degradation of material over the time and therefore
pose enormous seismic risk in particular to human lives and property. It is therefore important
to assess the vulnerability of the existing multi storey buildings using well-established accepted
We may accept minor damages but no collapse during a major earthquake. That is a good
enough reason why we should get our homes assessed for its earthquake resistance. But where
do we begin? Depending upon the structure and seismic zone, only a Structural Engineer will
be in a position to tell whether the basic design of the building is adequate or not which will
depend upon the availability of structural drawings and soil data.
The building performance is evaluated based on the performance of structural components and
non-structural components. The structural performance levels for which buildings have to be
evaluated are (i) Immediate Occupancy -S1 i.e. the building undergo virtually no damage and
can be occupied immediately after the earthquake, (ii) Damage Control - S2, (iii) Life Safety -
S3, (iv) Limited Safety - S4 and (v) Collapse Prevention - S5 i.e. the building undergoes severe
damage but not collapsed. The non-structural performance levels for which non-structural ele-
ments have to be evaluated are (i) Operational Performance - NA, (ii) Immediate Occupancy -
NB, (iii) Life Safety Performance - NC, and (iv) Hazard Reduced Performance - ND. The
overall building performance is obtained as (i) Operational (S1+NA) i.e. very little damage or
virtually undamaged, (ii) Immediate Occupancy (S1+NB) i.e. minor repairs required, safe to
reoccupy, (iii) Life Safety (S3+NC) i.e. structure remain stable, and (iv) Collapse Prevention
(S5+ND) i.e. building barely standing.
According to the Vulnerability Atlas of the country, more than 80% houses are non-engineered
construction, which are mainly load bearing buildings. However, there are many RC framed
urban buildings which have been constructed without any consideration to resist earthquake
forces or without using the current codal practices on Earthquake Resistant Design. For such a
large number of seismically deficient buildings, a quick assessment method is required.
Assessment is a complex process, which has to take into account not only the design of the
building but also the deterioration of the material and damage caused to the building, if any. The
difficulties faced in the seismic assessment of a building are threefold. (i)There is no reliable
method to estimate the in-situ strength of the material and components of the building. (ii)
Analytical methods to model the behaviour of the building during an earthquake are either
unreliable or too complex to handle with the available tools. (iii) The third difficulty is unavail-
ability of a reliable estimate of the earthquake parameters, to which the building is expected to
be subjected during its residual life. The ground motion parameters available in the present
code have been estimated at a macro level and do not take into account the effect of local soil
conditions, which are known to greatly modify the earthquake ground motion.
The condition survey of a building has to take into account three types of deficiencies: (i)
deficiency arising from the original design, (ii) deficiency due to construction defects and dam-
age due to earthquake or fire, and (iii) deficiency due to deterioration of material with time. The
deficiencies in the original design can be identified by studying the drawings and design calcu-
Earthquake Intensity
Vulnerability assessment depends upon the earthquake intensity and therefore need to be as-
sessed very carefully. Earthquake intensity at a site can be estimated from the seismic zoning
map of India. For better estimation site-specific studies are carried out. Seismic microzonation
of major cities of India are being carried out. Once the seismic microzonation maps are avail-
able more accurate estimation of earthquake intensities will be possible. The site where the
structure is located is assigned a modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) for the expected earth-
quake. If this data is not available, then it will have to be worked out based on geological and
seismological studies.
Methods of Evaluation
The evaluation of a building has to take into account a number of parameters described above.
A rigorous evaluation of a building is involved and time consuming. Several methods of evalu-
ation have been suggested namely, Screening method, Field Evaluation method, Approximate
Analytical method and Detailed Analytical Evaluation method for assessing the seismic vulner-
ability of an existing building. Visual inspection is the most important tool in the study of the
actual condition of a building. Study of drawings is another source of information.
Rapid Visual Screening - RVA (L1)
The Rapid Visual screening is carried out for all considered buildings. It permits quick visual
vulnerability assessment. Assessment during RVS i.e. level 1 assessment requires engineering
judgment and training.
The purpose of the Rapid Visual Assessment (RVA) is to determine the adequacy of the struc-
tural facility as to whether the facility will be able to withstand the expected earthquake. For
scenario earthquakes, performance levels for existing building stock need to be assessed. Rapid
vulnerability assessment is the first necessary step but may not be sufficient to establish build-
ing stock performance levels.
Necessary information for evaluation of structure is obtained either by conducting a field sur-
vey or from building typology, if available or from both. If plan is available, then the field party
must check and verify the present status of the building.
In this method, buildings are evaluated qualitatively in terms of structural characteristics, struc-
tural configuration, and the degree of deterioration of the building. This method is rapid and
inexpensive and helps in identifying structures, which are clearly hazardous and the structures
for which detailed hazard evaluation is sought.
The most pertinent information required to establish rating for building is collected. The infor-
mation required are (i) general data, (ii) site related data, (iii) structural data and (iv) data about
non-structural elements. Based on these data, capacity ratio of each structure is worked out in
terms of intensity rating and structural system rating. If the capacity ratio is worked out to be
more than one than the structure is expected to withstand the expected earthquake, otherwise
the structure is weak and need strengthening. This method is considered reasonable and quite
adequate for a large scale survey of building in areas of potential seismic danger.
Simplified Vulnerability Assessment - SVA (L2)
It requires limited simplified engineering analysis to estimates the building drift. In this method,
the capacity of an existing building to resist lateral forces is evaluated by determining the stress
ratios of its structural and non-structural elements. Stress ratio of an element is defined as the
ratio of the stresses induced by the seismic loading to that of the allowable stresses. In brief, the
method involves identification of critical elements of the
building such as columns, walls, chord members etc., and determining their stress-ratios for a
combination of lateral and vertical loads. These are then compared with the acceptable ratings
and the capacity of the building assessed as good, fair, poor or very poor.
Detailed Vulnerability Assessment - DVA (L3)
It requires detailed nonlinear analysis on computer as for new buildings. It is recommended for
important buildings A detailed evaluation is made for those structures which are found deficient
in the initial assessment. For detailed assessment, static and seismic analysis may have to be
carried out. Detailed analytical method evaluates the damage on the basis of energy capacity of
the structure and expresses as percentage of total damage on a storey-by-storey basis. Damage
is computed separately for structural, non-structural and glass elements. For structural and glass
elements the damage is evaluated as a function of inter storey drift while for non-structural
elements the damage is evaluated on the basis of an estimated floor Modified Mercalli Intensity.
The maximum dynamic response of the building to the applied load is calculated by response
spectrum approach considering the fundamental mode only. The performance of the building is
evaluated with regard to strength and ductility.
The building typologies and epochs of their construction need to be studied with their vulnerabil-
ity analysis under various seismic intensities. Various factors contributing to the vulnerability of
buildings are (i) construction of non-engineered r.c. frame buildings where engineers are not
consulted; (ii) faulty original design -lack of lateral resisting elements e.g. inadequate frames
and shear walls; (iii) upgrading of Codal practices; (iv) inadequate detailing of reinforcement;
(iv) extensions, alterations and encroachment; (v) increase in load during to usage; (vi) poor and
deficient construction; (vii) lack of regular maintenance; and (viii) degradation of building mate-
rial/ Corrosion.
Possible Deficiencies
While carrying out assessment identification of structural system is foremost important. The
buildings based on gravity and lateral load resisting system can be classified into (i) RC Moment
Resisting Frame and (ii) RC Frame with Masonry Infill. Next step is to identify earthquake
resistant features; potential deficiencies and weak links in each type and benchmark the perfor-
mance in recent Indian earthquake for sample building in each category. Followings are the
important deficiencies contributing to the vulnerability of buildings.
Inadequate Application Technical Knowhow
Inadequate application of available engineering know-how due to ignorance, negligence and
economic constraints has resulted in many seismic unsafe buildings. In the event of practically
non-existent legislation about safe construction, the IS codes of practice are not being
Inadequate planning and design
Following are the important factors contributing to poor planning and design. (i) Unsymmetrical
buildings; (ii) Floating columns leading to sudden change in load path and stiffness; (iii) Small
width of columns (120 to 200 mm) aligned to walls; (iv) Weakness due to orientation of columns/
beams; (v) Columns designed for axial load without any moments; (vi) Walls resting on slab
without any beam; and (vii) Long cantilever.

Inadequate Foundation System
Buildings have to be assessed for its performance, settlement, depth of foundation, deterioration
due to weathering or age, capacity of foundation, stability against overturning, ties between
foundation elements, load path for transfer of seismic forces to soil and special requirements in
sloping sites. Buildings situated near the steep slope, on the filled up ground or loose ground,
liquefiable soil are vulnerable. Foundation adequacy has to be checked for such conditions.
Safety of buildings lying close to the zone of landslide/rock slide area, near known fault rupture
and shear zone should also be checked. There is a need for seismic microzonation to assess
vulnerability to greater detail and accuracy.
Inadequate detailing and construction
Following are the important factors contributing to poor detailing and construction. (i) Lack of
lateral load resisting elements: moment resisting frame, shear walls; and (ii) inadequate detail-
ing of reinforcement from ductility considerations e.g. anchorage of longitudinal reinforce-
ment, beam-column joint regions, lap splices placed in potential plastic hinge regions and trans-
verse reinforcement in beams and columns (iii) inadequate diaphragm action of roof & floors;
(iv) inadequate strength and ductility in soft storey; (v) poor quality of construction material
and technology; (vi) treatment of non-structural components - infill walls, staircases, water
tanks on roof; (vii) inadequate strength of footings and/or piles, and (viii) local construction
practice - Strength of concrete, reinforcement properties, detailing practices, compressive strength
of bricks and mortar. A building with discontinuity is subjected to concentration of forces and
deformations at the point of discontinuity, which may lead to failure of members at the junction
and finally lead to collapse of the building.
Non-uniform Configuration & Torsion
Experience in past earthquakes has shown that the buildings with simple and uniform configu-
rations are subjected to less damage. The geometric irregularities in horizontal and vertical
directions weaken the building. However, due to practical and architectural considerations, it is
not always possible to have a regular structural configuration in the horizontal and vertical
planes and it has been the root of conflict between the architects and the structural engineers.
The important factors contributing to the torsional behaviour of building are (i) unsymmetrical
in plan and elevation e.g. shape of the building - L, E, T or irregular plans, (ii) location of lift
core, (iii) regularity of columns on a typical floor, (iv) position of water tanks, heavy equipment on
roof; (v) locations of infill walls.
Large Openings and Glazing
Large openings in the infill walls and glazing reduce the stiffness.
High walls
High walls such as theatre, auditorium, churches, and temples are
vulnerable. The transfer of seismic load to the ground has to be
assessed in terms of lateral resisting systems such as frames, shear
walls, stiffness, connections, joints and support conditions. Fig.1 Floating columns
Floating Columns
The vertical and lateral load carried by the columns should be transferred to the soil through the
foundation system. The columns floating (resting) on beam as shown in the Fig.1 is likely to
damage severely since the beam supporting the column will be subjected to very high loads.
Such construction should be avoided as far as possible.
Soft and weak storeys
Due to scarcity of parking space in the cities the ground storey is kept open for parking. In
framed buildings, usually the upper storeys have masonry infills as partitions, while the ground
storey is having only the bare frame. This type of structural system, termed as Stilt, is very
common in commercial, as well as, residential multi-storey buildings of big cities. The masonry
infills present in the upper storeys act as diagonal braces and increase the storey stiffness sig-
nificantly. The absence of stiffness due to infills, at the ground storey makes it a soft storey.
Sometimes, the ground storey is designed to house plazas and commercial compounds with
large floor areas and high ceilings.

Fig.2 Soft ground storey failure Fig.3 Ten storey stilt building with
collapse of third storey
A few of the columns and shear walls are dropped at first storey and the height of the remaining
columns is more than usual. This type of system results in further reduced stiffness of the
ground storey, and poses great risk to the safety of the building, specially when subjected to
earthquake forces. Such architectural designs resulting in extremely soft ground storeys may be
debatable, but the scarcity of parking space in big cities is a real problem and there does not
seem to be a solution for that, other than the stilt type construction. Therefore, the open ground
storey buildings are going to remain and the structural engineers have to find solutions to this
problem. Figure 2 shows failure of ground floor stilt columns and Fig.3 shows failure of ten
storey silt building with collapse of third weak storey.
The recent earthquake of Bhuj has once again focused on the problem of soft storey buildings,
as a number of soft ground storey buildings in Ahmedabad, which is about 300 km away from
the epicentre, have collapsed. Of course, the major reasons of collapse have been the non complice
of the codal practices, poor detailing of reinforcement and the poor quality of construction.
There were many other modes of failure of multi-storey RC framed buildings. But these weak-
nesses have been widely exposed in most of the soft ground storey buildings. This has forced to
consider alternative designs providing sufficient stiffness to the ground storey and, at the same
time, not hindering the parking functional requirement of parking space.
The soft and weak storey in commercial, apartment or office building or stilt parking without
adequate stiff support at ground floor may result in a weak storey causing partial or total col-
lapse. In masonry infilled frame building with open ground storey configuration the stiffness of
the upper storeys is about three times the stiffness of the ground storey. This ratio
may be much higher in case of buildings with columns or shear walls dropped at ground storey.
Such storeys were originally visualized [(Fintal & Khan(1969)] to have shock absorbing effect
to reduce the earthquake forces on multi-storey buildings. However the performance of such
buildings in past earthquakes has shown that the ductility demand of first storey in such build-
ings is beyond the practicable limits [Chopra et al.(1973), Pekau(1975)]. The soft first storey
building behaves as an inverted pendulum, resulting in very large lateral deformation of ground
storey. Most of the lateral deformation of the building is concentrated in the ground storey,
while the upper portion of the buildings is well within the elastic limit. The energy dissipation
takes place mainly through the first storey.
In a multi-storey building the ground storey is subjected to the maximum storey shear. If the first
storey is soft storey the columns of the first storey yield, first. The upper storeys of the building
float over the first storey and this reduces the storey shear in the upper storeys due to base
isolation effect. Therefore, the upper storeys, including the masonry infills, remain intact and
elastic. Most of the energy dissipation takes place through the first storey only, which requires
very large displacement, usually much beyond the capacity of the columns. The beams of the
ground storey are protected from large inelastic deformations, due to presence of infills above.
This essentially results in formation of an unstable mechanism. P-delta effect due to excessive
displacement of the first storey and heavy weight of the upper storeys further increases the
The codes [IS:1893(2002), IBC(20000] define a soft storey as having lateral stiffness less than
70% of the stiffness of the storey above or less than 80% of the average lateral stiffness of the
three storeys above. If the stiffness is less than 60% of the stiffness of the storey above or less
than 70% of the average lateral stiffness of the three storeys above, then, it is termed as Ex-
treme Soft Storey.
Masonry Infill
The behaviour of masonry infills in frame buildings is complex. Several problems associated with
the masonry infills have been observed in the past earthquakes. Out of these the soft storey
effect is the most glaring. In developed countries the seismic codes tend to discourage the use of
masonry panels as partitions. At the same time, some beneficial effects of masonry have also
been reported. Some of the buildings with masonry infills have shown excellent seismic behaviour
during past earthquakes. In developing countries masonry is still quite common to be used as
partitions in framed buildings.
The complexity of the behaviour of masonry is further complicated by the absence of rigid
contact between the masonry panel and the beam above and presence of openings for windows.
The infills are brittle and weak compared to the RC frame members. These contribute to the
stiffness of the structure in the initial stage of loading, but generally fail before the ultimate
capacity of frame is reached. Therefore, the usual design practice has been to ignore the stiff-
ness and strength contribution of the infills and design the bare frame for the earthquake loads.
If a frame has uniform in-fills throughout its height, it increases the stiffness of the building
uniformly. This reduces the time period of the building and pushes it into the higher accelera-
tion zone of the response spectra. Therefore, some of the codes require that the infilled frames
should be designed for the average of the time periods of the infilled and the uncracked bare
frame. However, it has been reported [Fardis(1998)] that such requirements may be too conser-
vative and unduly penalizes the infilled structures.
Problem arises in case of a building with open first storey; where the first storey is kept open for
parking purposes. The stiffness of the upper storeys, having masonry infills increases several
times the stiffness of the first storey, resulting in the soft first storey configuration. Even a
building with uniform masonry infills, throughout its height may result in soft first storey con-
figuration. As the masonry panels are weak, they fail, first in the ground storey. The failure of
masonry infills in the ground storey changes the configuration to the soft first storey configura-
tion where the ground storey columns yield while the upper storeys remain elastic, as the storey
shear in the upper stories is reduced due to base isolation effect. Seismic evaluation of adjacent
buildings is also important. Adjacent buildings of unequal height may collide; floors may im-
pact or fall over the adjacent buildings causing damage.
Estimation of in-situ strength, defects and degree of damage/deterioration is an important and
complex task. A number of non-destructive techniques are available for this purpose such as
ultra sonic pulse velocity, rebound hammer test etc. Most of the non-destructive tests are based
on indirect measurement and require experience and skill in interpretation of results. Use of
statistical methods is helpful in concluding about the in-situ strength of concrete and overall
condition of the building.
Vulnerability of Existing Buildings
Many buildings constructed during 60's and 70's have not been designed for earthquake forces.
Building design at various time interval followed different revision of the code varying not only
in the seismic force level but also in the provisions for ductility. Table 1 gives the comparison of
forces in ratio of the current code i.e. IS: 1893-2002 which indicates the buildings designed as
per 1962 codes are about 25% of the forces of the current code.
Table -1 Comparison of forces in ratio of the current code i.e. IS: 1893-2002
Seismic Zone 1962/2002 1966/2002 1970/2002 1975/2002 1984/2002

III 0.28 0.53 0.60 0.72 1.0
IV 0.23 0.44 0.50 0.60 1.0
V 0.25 0.47 0.50 0.65 1.0

Note: For comparison the importance factor is taken as 1.0; In 1984 Performance factor K=1.6;
Soil type III; In 1970, 1975, 1984 Beeta is taken 1.5; Seismic coefficient for 2002 evaluated for
Quick Assessment Guidelines
A quick way of assessing vulnerability is as follows: (i) Relative size - slenderness ratio; (ii)
Weak storey - strength less than 80% of adjacent storey; (iii) Soft storey - stiffness less than
70% of adjacent storey; (v) Infill - if the height/ thickness ratio (h/t) > 15 then out of plane
failure is possible (iv) Geometry - not more than 30% change in horizontal dimension of the
lateral resisting system; (v) Mass - not more than 50% change in effective mass from one storey
to the next; (vi) Torsion - eccentricity not more than 1.5 times the building width; (vii) Dia-
phragm continuity - no sudden discontinuity; (viii) Plan irregularities projection of the
structure beyond re-entrant corner greater than 15% of its plan dimension; (ix) Redundancy -
structure should have large indeterminacy; and (x) Strong column-weak beam - the sum of the
moment capacity of the columns shall be 10% more than that of beams at the frame joint.
Non-structural components
Parapets, sunshades, projections, fixtures, cladding. etc. have to be assessed for their capacity
to withstand earthquake forces. Safety of non-structural components is particularly important in
case of buildings such as Hospitals, Telephone exchanges, control buildings, etc. The failure of
fixtures and connections may lead to not only the disruption of the function but also the loss of
life due to disruption as well as due to direct injury from the falling component.
Partitions and infills are another component, which are usually considered as non-structural in
the design. Their safety is not ensured in design. Failure of masonry infills in out of plane
bending may be fatal to the inmates.
Actual diagnosis of vulnerability can be assessed by working out the capacity and demand of a
building. Capacity curve is a plot of seismic shear "V" and lateral deflection of the building at
roof level obtained by an approximate nonlinear, incremental analysis. A computer model is
created and then lateral storey forces are applied either at the top or along the height of the
building proportional to fundamental mode shape of the building. The building is then analyzed
for gravity and lateral loads to obtain member forces including p-delta effects. The base shear,
roof displacement, member forces and member displacements are recorded. Cumulative base
shear, roof displacement, member forces and member displacements are calculated. Analsis is
repeated till the structure becomes unstable or the deformation of members is such that loss of
gravity load carrying capacity takes place.
The demand curve is elastic response spectra reduced to the damping ratio corresponding to the
deformation stage of the building. For comparison the demand capacity needs to be plotted in
the same coordinates. The acceleration-displacement response spectra (adrs) is the convenient
format for this purpose.

The problem of seismic evaluation and assessment of buildings based on desired seismic
performance levels has been discussed. Different methods of seismic evaluation of buildings
have been presented. Building features and factors contributing to vulnerability has been
presented in detail.
Arnold, C., (1984) "Soft First Storey: Truths and Myths," Proc. Of the Eighth World Confer-
ence on Earthquake Engineering, San Francisco, Vol. 5, pp 943-949.
ATC 40, Seismic Evaluation and Retrofit of Concrete Buildings, Vol. 1&2, Applied Technology
Council, Report No. SSC 96-01, 1996..
FEMA Seismic Evaluation Handbook, Published by Federal Emergency management Agency,
Chopra, A.K., Clough, D.P. and Clough, R.W., (1973) "Earthquake Resistance of a Building
with Soft First Storey," International Journal of Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynam-
ics, Apr-June, pp 347-355.
Dolsek, Matjaz, Fazfar, Peter, (2001) "Soft Storey Effects in Uniformly Infilled Reinforced
Concrete Frames," Journal of Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 5, No. 1, Jan., pp 1-12.
Fardis, M.N., (1998) "Design of RC infilled structures," Proc. of the 11th European Conference
on Earthquake Engineering, Rotterdam.
Fintel, M. and Khan F.R., (1969) "Shock Absorbing Soft Storey Concept for Multi-Storey Earth-
quake Structures," ACI J., May, 381-390.
IS 13311 (Part 1) : 1992, Non-Destructive Testing of Concrete - Methods of Test, Part - 1, Ultra
Sound Pulse Velocity, Bureau of Indian Standards.
IS 13311 (Part 2) : 1992, Non-Destructive Testing of Concrete - Methods of Test, Part - 2,
Rebound Hammer, Bureau of Indian Standards.
IS: 1893 (2000), Draft Code on Criteria for Earthquake resistant Design of structures, Part-1:
General Provisions and Buildings, to be published, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, pp
23, 31.
IBC (2000), International Building Code, International Code Council, Inc., USA, pp 357.
Pekau, O.A., (1975) "Behaviour of Yielding Soft-Storey Structures," Proc. of Fifth European
Conference on Earthquake engineering, Ankara, Vol. 1, Paper No. 72.
Rapid Visual Screening of Buildings for Potential Hazards, Published by Federal Emergency
management Agency, USA.

Chapter 15

Yogendra Singh & D.K. Paul
Department of Earthquake Engineering, IIT Roorkee, 247 667

In India, a large population in rural as well as in sub-urban areas resides in buildings made of
mud, rubble and coursed stone masonry, and unreinforced brick and block masonry. Construc-
tion of such buildings is done by local artisans, employing local construction practices and
materials. No strength calculations or engineering practice is involved in construction of such
buildings, which are termed as "Non - engineered buildings".
These buildings have been observed to cause large scale devastations during past earthquakes,
due to lack of strength and ductility against earthquake loads. However, it has also been ob-
served in laboratory, as well as in practice that if some safety measures are taken, collapse of
such buildings during earthquakes can be avoided and large scale loss of life can be prevented.
This chapter deals with the techniques and measures for safety of existing non-engineered build-
ings against earthquakes.
Buildings in which the roof and floor slabs are directly supported on the walls are called load-
bearing wall buildings. These walls serve as partitions and also bear the load from slabs. The
lateral load resulting from earthquake and wind is also resisted by these walls and transferred to
ground. Individual unreinforced masonry or mud walls are very weak in out-of-plane bending
due to lack of tensile strength. These are generally not capable of bearing out-of-plane bending
moment, even resulting from their own inertia. These walls act as shear-walls in their in-plane
action and possess sufficient in-plane strength, if not weakened by too many openings. In a
building, there are four or more than four walls, which act as a box under lateral load. The walls
parallel to the lateral load, act as webs and the walls orthogonal to load act as flanges. The
resistance of box is much higher than the resistance of individual walls. The box action involves
considerable interaction between webs and flanges at corners of building. It has been observed
in past earthquakes that in many cases, the damage initiates at corners, resulting in loss of box
action and walls start acting independently leading to collapse of building. The basic principle
of seismic safety of load bearing wall buildings, lies in their integral box action during earth-
quake. In new buildings it can be ensured by providing seismic bands. In existing buildings, the
integral box action is to be ensured by providing external bandage or prestressing.
Openings in walls are the source of weakness. Openings result in reduction of effective cross-
sectional area of wall resisting lateral loads. If the openings are very near to the integral box
action by weakening
the joints. The piers
between openings
are subjected to
higher stresses than
the portion of the
wall above and be-
low the openings. It
Fig. 1 Cracks originating from corners of opening has been observed in
the past earthquakes
that diagonal X- shaped cracks in the piers originate from the corners of openings, Figure. 1. To
avoid this damage the opening perimeter need to be strengthened by proper reinforcement.
In addition to these two basic principles, the shape of building and regularity and continuity of
construction are also very important for seismic safety of buildings. Asymmetric buildings un-
dergo torsion and result in warping of walls. Warping produces very high out of plane forces in
walls leading to collapse. The stiffness of walls is affected by openings and therefore openings
need to be symmetrically located. Regular rectangular shaped buildings have been observed to
behave better during earthquakes. Continuity of construction particularly at joints and corners
is very important due to interaction between different component walls at these locations.
These are the basic causes of damage and principles of seismic safety of load bearing wall
buildings. In addition to these, there are several other aspects of seismic safety of such build-
ings, which have been covered in the following sections.
In India earthen buildings
are still a reality. Such
houses are not considered to
be safe against earthquake
and wide spread damage
has been observed in past
earthquakes. But due to
economic constraints, a
large population, particu-
larly in rural areas, is living
in earthen buildings. These
buildings pose a severe risk
to life and need to be retro-
Figure 2 shows a typical
arrangement for retrofitting
of earthen buildings. The
walls are quite weak in out Fig. 2 Retrofitting of earthen buildings
of plane action. Also, the walls loose their vertical load carrying capacity after cracking. There-
fore, the walls and roof are to be supported by timber members as shown in the figure. Sloping
roofs are particularly vulnerable in case of earthen buildings. The roofs are also to be retrofit-
ted, in addition to the support to walls. The retrofitting of sloping roofs has been discussed later
in this Chapter.
Earthen buildings with asymmetry, with more than one storey and with high walls have been
known to be very vulnerable in seismic zones. Such buildings should be modified/ rebuilt with
symmetric plan and regular construction and height should be limited to single storey.
Retrofitting of Rubble Masonry Buildings
Stone is a very common construction material in hilly and
rocky areas. Most of the buildings in stone have rubble ma-
sonry with mud or cement-sand mortar. The stone walls are
usually made in two wythes giving smooth finish along the
two faces of wall and the space, in between, is filled with
smaller stone pieces. If the two wythes are not interconnected
by sufficient number of 'through stones' these split during
earthquake shaking and result in collapse of wall. This has
been observed as the major failure mode in case of rubble
stone masonry buildings. To avoid this splitting, sufficient
number of 'Headers' or through elements are to be added in
existing rubble masonry walls. These Header elements can
be of stones, RC or wood. In case of wooden elements, these
should be properly treated to avoid decay. The easiest option
is to provide RC elements (Fig. 3). For this purpose, a hole in
Fig. 3 Providing RC through the wall is to be made at selected location by gently remov
elements ing the stones from the two sides of the wall. Care has to be
taken in removing the stones, so that the wall is not damaged. The space created by removal of
stones, is filled with concrete and a steel rod bent at two ends as shown in the Fig 3.
In addition to the above strengthening of individual walls, unsupported length and height of
walls and size and placing of openings is also to be controlled as per codal requirements. The
integral box action of the building is to be ensured by providing seismic belts at lintel and roof
level and vertical reinforcement at corners and junctions is to be provided. These are same as
for other masonry buildings and described in following sections.
Retrofitting of Buildings Made of Rectangular Masonry Units
Rectangular masonry units of stone, brick or concrete blocks are also very common in India.
Masonry made of such units is much stronger than rubble stone masonry and performs better
during earthquakes. However, the strength and quality of bricks, stones and concrete blocks
varies in different parts of country. This masonry is also constructed in cement- sand or mud
mortar. Some old construction also exists in lime-surkhi mortar. Retrofitting of these buildings
includes strengthening of individual walls and ensuring of integral box action.
Strengthening of Walls
Individual walls in a building are to be checked for strength, quality of construction, unsupported
length and height, and size and placing of openings. In ordinary buildings, the strength and quality
of construction can be judged by visual inspection of masonry units and mortar. If the walls have
cracks, voids, loose pockets or degradation of mortar, these need to strengthen by grouting.
Grouting can be done using shrinkage compensated cement slurry or polymer grouts or epoxy.
Polymer/epoxy grouting is costly and is normally not used in masonry. Shrinkage compensated
cement slurry grouting is considered satisfactory in ordinary masonry buildings. Larger voids can
be directly filled by shrinkage compensated cement-sand mortar or polymer modified mortar.
For grouting of cracks, voids, loose pockets and pockets with degraded mortar, following proce-
dure is followed:
(i) The plaster from the area to be grouted is removed and holes are drilled (2 to 4 holes in each
square meter). In case of cracks, the cracks outcrops at the wall surfaces are chiseled to V
shape groove. The dust and loose material is removed by air blasting.
(ii) Nipples (plastic/Aluminum pipes of 12 mm dia and about 30 to 40 mm long) are placed in
the drilled holes and sealed by polymer mortar. In case of major cracks, T shaped nipples
are placed directly above the V grooves and sealed by polymer mortar. The cracks are
sealed on both the faces using polymer mortar.
(iii) After the sealing mortar gets strength, water is injected through nipples. This washes the
dust and saturates the masonry to avoid excessive withdrawal of water by the masonry from
the grout. The injection of water is started from the highest nipple moving down. After
saturating the masonry with water, grout injection is started from the lowest nipple, till it
comes out from the upper nipple. Then the nipple is sealed using polymer mortar and injec-
tion is started from upper nipple.
The grout to be injected usually consists of shrinkage compensated cement and water with
flowable consistency. In case of wide cracks (width > 5 mm) or voids, fine sand (1-cement : 2-
fine sand) is also added to the grout.
After setting of the grout, the nipples are cut and the surface is plastered.
To provide additional strengths to severely damaged/ deteriorated masonry walls, Ferro-cement
plated can be provided on both the faces of walls. Figure 4 shows the details of Ferro-cement
strengthening. It consists of following steps:
(i) The plaster on both sides of the wall is removed, the mortar joints are raked out up to 15-20
mm depth, surface is cleaned and wet with water and a coat of cement slurry or polymer
enhanced cement slurry is applied.
(ii) A 10 mm thick coat of cement sand plaster (1:3 - cement : coarse sand) or 1:1.5:3 micro
concrete is applied. The surface of the plaster is roughened to have good bond with the
second coat.
(iii) Welded wire mesh is fixed on the surface of plaster/ micro concrete using 150 mm long
nails. The wiremesh and nails are galvanized to protect them from corrosion. Alternatively

the wiremesh on the two sides of the wall can be anchored together using 3 mm galvanized
wire or 'J' bolts passing through holes drilled in the wall. The anchors are used at every 450
mm. After clamping the wiremesh on the two sides of wall, the wires/bolts are grouted in
the holes.
(iv) After fixing the wiremesh, second coat of plaster or micro-concrete (16-20 mm thick) is

Fig. 4 Strengthening by Ferro-cement

Fig. 5 Strengthening of masonry walls using FRP strips
Masonry walls can also be strengthened by epoxy glueing the FRP strips (Fig 5). Another method
of strengthening masonry walls has been employed in some historical buildings. In this method,
vertical cores are drilled in the thick masonry walls and filled with reinforced concrete. The
vertical RC members so created, act as columns and support the masonry wall, without affect-
ing its external appearance.
Control of Unsupported Length, Height and Openings
Masonry walls are weak in out of plane action. Large unsupported lengths and heights need to
be supported laterally. These supports can be provided either by cross walls (Fig 6) or by but-
tresses (Fig 7). The cross walls and buttresses need to be properly connected with the existing
wall. Figure 8 shows the details of connecting a buttress with an existing wall and Fig. 9 shows
the details of connecting a new masonry wall with an existing rubble/stone masonry wall.

Fig. 6 Supporting long walls by cross walls
Fig. 7 Supporting long walls by buttresses

Fig. 8 Connection of buttresses with original walls

Fig..9 Connecting a new masonry wall with an existing stone wall

Fig. 10 Closing of an opening
Openings result in weakness in masonry walls. The total length of openings in masonry should
generally be restricted to one third of the length of the wall. Further the openings should not be
very close (less then 600 mm) to each other or corners. If these conditions are not satisfied,
some of the openings have to be closed completely or partially. Proper bond of old and new
masonry has to be ensured while closing the opening. Teething (Fig 10) and steel anchors can be
used for this purpose.
Integral Box Action
For integral box action of the building under lateral load, all the walls of the building are required
to be tied together using continuous ferro-cement seismic belts at lintel and roof/floor level (Fig
4.4). The procedure of application of ferro-cement belts is the same as described above in
Section 4.4.3. In case of flat RC roofs and floors, the belt at roof/floor level can be omitted. In
case of pitched roofs, the seismic belt is to be provided at eaves level and at the top of gable wall.
Another method of achieving integral box action is prestressing of walls as shown in Fig. 11.
Prestressing also results in strengthening of the walls.
To enhance the integrity and bond of orthogonal walls, vertical ferro-cement plates are also
provided along corners and joints, as shown in Fig 4.4. These plates provide better interconnec-
tion of orthogonal walls and provide vertical reinforcement at corners. Alternatively, vertical
reinforcement can also be added in the form of steel bars in the corners as shown in Fig 12. The
bar has to be properly connected with walls, roof/floor and is to be grout anchored to the foun-
dation. As explained earlier, the openings result in weakness in wall and cracks initiate from the
corners of openings. Therefore the masonry around the windows and doors need to be strength-
ened using Ferro-cement strips (Fig 4.4).

Fig. 11 Prestressing of masonry walls

Fig. 12 Corner reinforcement

Strengthening of Foundations
Strengthening of foundations is a costly affair and require skill, but sometimes it may be neces-
sary. The bearing area of the strip footing is increased by providing RC beams on both sides of
the wall (Fig 13). These beams are interconnected at several locations through gaps created in
the wall. This results in effective transfer of load from the wall to the added RC beams.

Fig. 13 Strengthening of foundation
In addition to this, the drainage condition around the building is to be improved to avoid saturation
of soil. A concrete apron around the building is helpful in avoiding direct soaking of the soil in the
vicinity of the foundation.
Strengthening of Arches
Old buildings have masonry arches over the openings. Under severe shaking during earthquake,
these arches get loosened and arch action is lost. To avoid this, steel tie-rods are provided at the
springing of the arches, by drilling holes and grouting the steel bars (Fig 14). Another method of
strengthening masonry arches is relieving them from the load by providing a RC or steel lintel
just below or above the arch. Fig 15 shows two alternatives for providing a RC lintel below an
arch. For providing a steel lintel above an arch, two steel channels or I-sections are provided on
both sides of walls by partially removing the masonry and interconnected by bolts and covered
by concrete.

Fig. 14 Strengthening of masonry arch by tie bars

Fig. 15(a) Strengthening of masonry arch by RC lintel (Alternative-1)

Fig. 15(b) Strengthening of masonry arch by RC lintel (Alternative-2)

Pitched roofs have been observed to be most vulnerable during past earthquakes. Usually these
roofs are cladded with heavy, brittle and loose stone pieces or tiles. These tiles fall during
shaking and cause injury. These should be replaced by lightweight corrugated GI sheets.
Properly connected tiles can also be used. Sloping roofs have tendency to open up during
earthquakes and there is a relative motion between eaves and crown, which results in loosening
and falling of cladding. For seismic safety, the roof should move as a whole and there should
not be any relative motion of different members. This can be achieved by proper bracing in
horizontal, vertical and inclined plane as shown in Fig 16. The roofs also need to
be connected properly with the walls. Anchor bolts are to be grouted into roof band/wall to hold
the rafters. In case of seismic belts, the bolts may be anchored to the roof belt.

Fig. 16 Horizontal and vertical bracing in sloping roofs

In case of wooden floors, the relative movement of planks and beams can be avoided by provid-
ing bracings and another layer of planks perpendicular to the existing planks. Floor consisting
of precast elements or steel sections with stones or tiles need to be integrated. This integration
can be achieved by providing a RC topping on the floor and a RC edge beam with partial
bearing on masonry walls (Fig 17).
In case of jack-arch roofs and floors, supported by steel girders, the girders undergo relative
movement during earthquake and result in collapse of roof. The relative motions is to be seized
by providing steel strips or bars welded to the bottom of girders. These bars/strips should also
be properly anchored to the walls.
Fig. 17 Integration of floor with walls

IS 13827-1993, Improving Earthquake Resistance of Earthen Buildings - Guidelines, Bureau of
Indian Standards, New Delhi.
Arya, A.S., Retrofitting of Stone Houses in Marathwada Area of Maharashtra, Building Materi-
als and Technology Promotion Council, Ministry of Urban Affairs and Employment, Govern-
ment of India.
IS 13828-1993, Improving Earthquake Resistance of Low Strength Masonry Buildings - Guide-
lines, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
Arya, A.S., 2001, A Manual of Earthquake Resistant Non-Engineered Construction, Indian So-
ciety of Earthquake Technology.
Arya, A.S., Guidelines for Seismic Retrofitting of Existing Housing, School and Health Build-
ings in Uttaranchal..
Arya, A.S., 1987, Protection of Educational Buildings against Earthquakes, Educational Build-
ing Report 13, UNESCO, Bangkok.
IS 4326-1993, Earthquake Resistant Design and Construction of Buildings - Code of Practice,
Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
IS 13935-1993, Repair and Seismic Strengthening of Buildings - Guidelines, Bureau of Indian
Standards, New Delhi.
Hollaway, L.C., and Leeming, M.B., ed., 1999, Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Struc-
tures - using Externally Bonded FRP Composites in Structural and Civil Engineering, CRC

Chapter 16

Yogendra Singh & D.K. Paul
Department of Earthquake Engineering, IIT Roorkee, 247 667

A large number of reinforced concrete buildings have been constructed in post-independence
India and the construction is going on at a much larger scale in the growing towns and devel-
oped mega cities. These building are considered to be engineered buildings, as a structural
engineer is usually engaged in design and construction of these buildings. However, the market
forces tend to ignore the seismic safety of buildings, being constructed even now after four
decades of Indian Code of Practice on Earthquake Resistance Design in existence, and after
witnessing a number of damaging earthquakes. Not only the buildings constructed in sixties
lack in earthquake resistance measures, even the most modern buildings being constructed by
private builders today, are seriously lacking in earthquake safety and pose a serious seismic risk
to the occupants. This has been well exposed by the Bhuj earthquake of January 2001.
This large inventory of existing buildings needs systematic retrofitting to make it safe for the
occupants. This chapter deals with the techniques available for retrofitting of existing RC build-
The retrofitting schemes for RC buildings are based on two principles (i) reduction in
earthquake demand by reducing mass, by base-isolation or by supplemental energy dissipation,
and (ii) enhancing the capacity of the structure to withstand the earthquake forces. The capacity
may be enhanced either by strengthening the deficient members or by improving the ductility and
deformation capacity resulting in increased hysteretic damping. There is another important
aspect of retrofitting-completion of load path and removal of configurational irregularities. The
following sections describe different techniques based on the above principles.
A large number of buildings in India have incomplete load paths mainly to take advantage of the
loopholes in the building by-laws and sometimes due to market compulsions and Architect's
quest for creating new shapes. For example, floating column constructions are not uncommon
in Indian cities to take maximum advantage of floor area with restrictions on ground area.
The general seismic load path in a building is as follows - the inertial forces originating throughout
the building are first transferred to horizontal floor diaphragms, the diaphragms transfer these
forces to vertical framing system resisting lateral loads; the vertical framing system consisting
of beam-column frames and shear walls, transfers the seismic force to foundation and support-
ing soil. If there is a discontinuity in load path, the building is incapable of transferring the load
to ground and it is unable to resist the lateral load during earthquake, irrespective of strength of
existing members.
The common examples of such building are those in which shear walls or columns are not
started from ground but started at first floor (or at a higher level). Such columns are commonly
known as floating columns. This is done to increase the floor area at first floor level or to have
large open spaces at ground floor for commercial purposes. In such buildings, the first floor
beams are subjected to very high forces as the forces from floating columns/shear walls are
transferred to other columns and walls through these beams.
The remedy to this deficiency is to complete the load path by providing the missing part of the
column/shear wall. In case of a floating column, a new column is to be erected below the
floating column (Fig. 1). This column should have footing connected with the foundation of the
existing building and the reinforcement of the new column should be welded with the reinforce-
ment of existing column. Shrinkage compensating agents should be used in the new concrete to
avoid shortening of the new column resulting in separation between new and old concrete.

Fig. 1 Adding a new column below a floating column
Similarly, a shear wall panel (Fig. 2 (a)) is to be provided below the existing shear wall. This
panel should have rigid shear connections with adjacent columns, beam/slab above it, and
foundation. For this purpose either epoxy grouted shear keys (Fig. 2. (b)) can be used or the new
reinforcement can be welded with the reinforcement of the adjacent columns and slab
(Fig. 2. (c)). Other precautions necessary for a proper bond between old and new concrete
should also be taken.
Experience during past earthquakes has shown that the configuration of building is very impor-
tant for its performance during earthquake. Buildings with irregular plans and elevations suffer
much more damage compared to buildings with regular shapes. The types of common irregu-
larities are (i) irregular geometry giving rise to torsion in building (ii) a weak or soft storey (iii)
concentration of mass on a floor, and (iv) discontinuity in the lateral force resisting system.

Fig. 2 (a) Adding a new shear wall at ground Floor

Fig. 2 (a) Adding a new shear wall at ground Floor

Fig. 2 (b) Connection of shear wall panel with existing building components
using epoxy grouted shear keys
Fig. 2 (c) Connection of shear wall panel with existing building components by welding of
Soft/Weak Storey
If a storey in a building has lateral stiffness less than 70% of the stiffness of the adjacent storey
above or less than 80% of the average stiffness of the three storeys above, it is termed as a soft
storey. Similarly if a storey in a building has lateral strength less than 70% of the strength of the
adjacent storey above or less than 80% of the average strength of the three storeys above, it is
termed as weak storey. In buildings having soft/weak storey, most of the ductility demand is
concentrated in the soft/weak storey, resulting in excessive lateral displacement of the storey
leading to failure of the building due to formation of unstable mechanism.
In Indian cities there is a lack of parking space. In multistory buildings, the ground storey is
usually kept open (free of masonry in-fills) while the upper storeys have masonry in-fills for
partitions. It has been seen that such a configuration results in the stiffness of the ground storey
about one-third of the stiffness of the upper storeys. A classical failure of such a building during
Bhuj earthquake of 2001 is shown in Fig. 3, where collapse of the building has taken place due
to failure of ground storey columns, while the upper portion of the building is almost intact.
IS: 1893-2002 has addressed this problem and suggests that either a non-linear analysis of such
buildings should be performed or the ground storey beams and columns should be designed for
a storey shear 2.5 times of that obtained from analysis of a bare frame without in-fills. In case of
existing buildings the ground storey is to be stiffened so that the increased stiffness of the
ground storey is nearly equal to the stiffness of the upper storeys. Three options are available
for this purpose:

Fig. 3 Failure of a soft storey building
Jacketing of ground storey columns and beams
The ground storey columns and beams may be strengthened by providing RC Jacketing. The
reinforcement detailing at joints poses difficulty in this case. Moreover, it should be noted that
masonry in-fills above the first floor beams restrain the beams from rotation and try to concen-
trate the rotation in columns resulting in weak column and strong beam configuration. There-
fore, the strengthening of columns is more beneficial than strengthening of beams.
Providing Shear Walls at ground storey
The stiffness of the ground storey can
be increased by providing shear walls
between some of the columns at
ground storey. The shear walls should
be located symmetrically (Fig. 4) and
as far from the centre of the building
as possible. Further, these should not
cause hindrance to the normal usage
of the ground storey as parking space.
This option poses less difficulty in re-
inforcement detailing than the jacket-
ing. However, a perfect bond between
the shear wall and adjacent columns
and beam/floor is to be ensured. This
can be achieved either by providing
epoxy grouted shear keys or by weld-
Fig. 4 Adding shear walls at ground storey
ing the shear wall reinforcement to the longitudinal reinforcement of the columns and beams.
Similar arrangement is to be provided at the foundation level. If the columns have isolated
footing, additional foundation to the shear wall is to be provided and properly connected to the
column footings.
Providing Steel Braces at Ground Storey
Steel braces are an easy and quick alternative to shear walls (Fig. 5.5). The braces also need to
transfer forces to beams, columns and foundation. This requires proper anchoring/bolting of the
braces with existing building.
The same constraints on location as for shear walls
also apply for braces, however, braces result in lesser
obstruction in ventilation.
Torsional Effects
Buildings with asymmetric plans are subjected to
torsion during earthquakes, as the centre of mass
and centre of stiffness do not coincide in many
asymmetric buildings. Buildings with rectangular
plans may also be subjected to torsion due to asym-
metric location of masses, shear walls and staircases.
Torsion puts additional seismic demand4 on lateral
load resisting vertical elements due to rotation of
floor diaphragms. Even if this additional demand is
considered in the design by considering additional Fig. 5 Adding steel braces at
ground storey
forces as per codal requirements, the building is
not expected to perform satisfactorily during earth quake. Therefore, it is advisable to balance
the building configuration rather than designing individual elements for additional forces due
to torsion.
Buildings with non-rectangular plans may be divided into rectangular parts by providing slits at
proper locations (Fig. 6). For this purpose dummy columns are to be constructed at the location
of separation and the reinforcement of beams, cut to create slit, is to be properly welded and
anchored into the columns. Another alternative to non-rectangular plan buildings is to make
them structurally symmetric by providing shear walls at suitable locations (Fig. 7). In this case
a proper analysis of the building is to be performed to assess its behaviour to maintain symme-
try even in non-linear range.
In hilly areas, due to sloping ground, the length of ground storey columns varies. This results in
variation of their stiffness and shifting of centre of stiffness away form centre of mass. This
results in torsion in the building. To avoid this, shear-walls can be provided on ground storey on
the downhill side as shown in Fig. 8. The connection details of the shear wall with the existing
building should be followed as given in Fig. 2.

Fig. 6 Reducing torsional effects by Fig. 7 Reducing torsion by providing shear
separation (Plan) walls at ends (Plan)

Fig. 8 Reducing torsion at hill slopes

Mass Irregularity
If a storey has mass more than 150% of the mass of the adjacent storeys, it is considered to be
a mass irregularity. Such mass irregularity affects the dynamic response of the structure and
results in large contribution from higher modes of vibration. Dynamic analysis is required to
calculate the forces accurately and the only remedy is to reduce the mass.
In India, there is a common practice to house large water storage tanks at the top of the building.
In no case the weight of the water tank should be more than 50% of weight of a typical storey
(consisting of self-weight of floor slab, beams, columns and partitions of one storey plus the
weight of the permanent equipment, if any. Live load should not be considered for this
Vertical Element Irregularity
Figure 9 shows out of plane irregularity in lateral load resisting vertical elements. The shear
walls above and below first floor are in different planes. This will cause very high seismic
demand in the columns below the shear wall resulting from overturning of the shear wall, and in
the first floor diaphragm due to transfer of cumulative lateral shear from the exterior shear wall
to interior shear wall through the floor diaphragm.
Figure 10 shows in plane irregularity in vertical element, where the shear walls above and
below the first floor are in the same plane but displaced in-plane. This also results in very high
seismic demand on columns and floor slab of first storey, as explained above.

Fig. 10 In-plane shear wall irregularity

Fig. 9 Out-of-plane shear wall irregularity
The remedy to this irregularity is also completion of load path as explained in Section 5.2
Strengthening of Structure
Design practices, which have prevailed in India for decades, and are still prevailing in private
sector, either do not consider earthquake forces at all, or underestimate these grossly. This
results in quite inadequate lateral load resistance of the building structural system. The problem
is further aggravated by inadequate detailing, which reduces the ductility and therefore, in-
creases the effective force on the structure. Therefore, the lateral load resisting systems need to
be evaluated and strengthened in most of the cases.
Strengthening of a building structure can be done in several ways. While selecting a suitable
scheme for strengthening, both economy as well as functional requirements are to be consid-
ered. While considering the cost of retrofit, all the costs including the cost of disruption of
normal usage should be considered to evaluate different alternative retrofit schemes.
Addition of New Members
Addition of new members is per-
haps the easiest option to
strengthen an existing building.
Addition of new members is
possible externally, without dis-
turbing the space inside the
building. The main concerns in
addition of new members are
the connection of new and old
members and foundation of the
new members. It is possible to
provide only a few stiff mem-
bers to take most of the earth-
quake force of the existing
structure, but the connections
Fig. 11 Strengthening a building by an additional bav
should be capable of transferring
this load. Similarly, the foundations should be capable of transferring this load to the ground.
Several options, in the form of frames, shear walls and vertical trusses, are possible for strength-
ening an existing building. Addition of new members changes dynamic characteristics of the
building. Sometimes, new members are also added to reduce eccentricity. Therefore, re-analy-
sis of structure is required after addition of members.
Shear walls
Shear walls can be provided internally or externally in existing buildings. Sometimes, if space
is available and there is a requirement, the existing building can be extended by a bay on sides
(Fig. 11). The extended portion can have shear walls and it will support the existing building,
laterally during an earthquake.
Addition of shear walls is the most commonly used method of strengthening of existing build-
ings. This is also generally the most economical solution and can be provided in almost all types
of buildings. However, there are some points, which need careful consideration. A tall shear
wall results in considerable overturning moment at the foundation. This overturning moment is
to be balanced by the counterweight of the existing building. This requires a properly designed
connection between the foundation of the added shear wall and the foundation of existing build-
ing. Addition of shear walls also results in high shear force in floor diaphragms. The existing
diaphragm strength needs to be evaluated and strengthening of diaphragm is to be done, if
required. Another disadvantage of shear walls is that the stiffness of the building is also in-
creased significantly and this may reduce the time period of vibration and may result in in-
creased seismic demand. Shear walls also result in significant impact on architectural charac-
teristics of building, resulting in loss of windows and loss of large barrier free floor areas.

Braced Frames
Similar to shear walls, vertical trusses or braced frames can be provided externally (Fig. 12) or
internally (Fig. 13) in a building. Braced frames provide lesser strength and stiffness as com-
pared to shear walls, but they also add less mass to building and hence result in lesser increase
in the seismic demand. These also result in lesser disruption of the normal usage of building and
lesser loss of window openings.

Fig. 12 Strengthening a RC building by external steel bracing
Connection of braced steel frames with existing RC building is difficult and needs attention as a
large force is to be transferred between braced frames and the building. Long steel elements are
used to connect the braced frame with building, providing larger number of bolts/anchors to
transfer the load. These elements are termed as "drag elements" or "collector elements". These
collectors and their connection with building need to be properly designed to avoid "unzipping"
type of failure in which the connectors along the length of the drag element fail in sequence.

Fig. 13 Strengthening by internal bracing

In some cases, it is important for the building to remain fully operational during retrofitting. In
such cases no intervention inside the building is possible. If space is available outside the
building, shear walls or braced frames may be
provided perpendicular to external walls
(Fig. 14). These are termed as "buttresses".
The problem with buttresses is that as these
are provided outside the building, the
building counter weight is not available to
balance the overturning moment at the base of
buttresses. Separate foundation for buttresses
is required. The buttresses have a significant
effect on the aesthetics of the building and are
Fig. 14 Strengthening by RC buttresses seldom suggested for historically/aesthetically
important buildings.
Moment Resisting Frames
Building strength can also be increased by providing moment resisting RC or steel frames. The
frames have the advantage that they add little stiffness and mass to the building. But, these
require large deformations of the building before being effective.
For example, if a steel or RC frame is added to an existing building consisting of masonry in-
filled RC frames, the stiffness of the existing building is much higher compared to the added
bare frame. It will require significant cracking of masonry in-fills to mobilize the strength of the
added frame.
Strengthening of Existing Members
In most of the cases, strengthening of at least a few of existing members will be required in
seismic retrofitting of a building. A number of techniques based on steel/FRP plate bonding,
RCC jacketing and FRP jacketing are available for strengthening of individual members. The
choice of the technique depends on the specific weakness and demand on the member.
Strengthening of individual members require good knowledge of the different materials
available in the market for repair and retrofitting. The load transfer mechanism between the old
and new material is complex and proper bonding between the two is difficult to be ensured.
Following points are to be considered in strengthening of individual members:
- A variety of materials, discussed in 3rd chapter is available for strengthening of existing
members. A detailed study of manufacturer claimed properties of these materials is re-
quired before selecting a suitable material. Short-term as well as long-term properties are to
be considered.
- The load transfer between old and new material can take place through several mecha-
nisms, such as, compression against pre-cracked interfaces, adhesion between non-metallic
materials, friction between non-metallic materials, load transfer through resin/glue layers,
clamping effect of steel, dowel effect of steel, etc. Modelling of this interaction is complex
and not well understood, yet. It should be ensured that more than one mechanism of load
transfer between new and old material are present.
- Anchorage lengths of reinforcement in new concrete should be as per codal specifications.
However, in case of anchorage into old concrete, smaller anchorage lengths may be
sufficient if special grouts are used to anchor the bars in drilled holes. This anchorage
length should be in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications and should be
verified by Pull-out tests.
- Anchoring of additional bars can also be accomplished by welding them with existing bars.
For this purpose, spacers can be provided between old and new bars to provide a gap for
intrusion of concrete. The weld is to be designed to develop full strength in the new bar.
Strengthening of Slabs
Usually in RC buildings, the slabs are strong enough to transfer load between different lateral
load resisting vertical elements. However, if the building has irregularity in the form of opening
in slab, the slab diaphragm may not be adequate to transfer forces between different elements
and strengthening is needed. In case of additional shear walls also the adequacy of the dia-
phragm needs to be evaluated and strengthening is to be done, if required.
RC slabs can be strengthened either by over-laying or by under-laying. In over-laying (Fig.15),
thickness of slab is increased by cast in place concrete on the upper side. In under-laying (Fig.
16), additional reinforcement is placed below the slab and thickness is increased using shotcrete.

Fig. 15 Strengthening a slab by Fig. 16 Strengthening a slab by
overlaying underlaying
Here, it is important to emphasize the need of ensuring bond between old and new concrete.
Four alternatives are available for this purpose. The bond between old and new concrete can be
enhanced by a layer of epoxy and coarse sand (Fig. 17 (a)). The bond can also be enhanced by
providing mechanical anchors in the form of bolts (Fig. 17 (b)), dowels (Fig. 17 (c)) and angle
sections (Fig. 17 (d)). In addition to this some shear keys as shown in Fig. 5.15 are also need to
be provided. In case of hollow slabs, the voids can also be used as shear keys (Fig. 18).

Fig.17 Enhancing bond between old and new concrete

Fig. 18 Shear keys in a hollow slab

In addition to these techniques, the
slabs can also be strengthened by
glueing steel or FRP plates (Fig. 19)
on the bottom of the slab. This tech-
nique is effective in enhancing the
flexural strength of slab and not effec-
tive in shear strength enhancement.
Strengthening of Beams
Beams can be strengthened either by
RC jacketing or by gluing steel/FRP
plates. In RC jackets, reinforcement
and concrete can be added either on
three sides (Fig. 20) or on all the four
Fig. 19 FRP strengthening of slab
sides (Fig. 21). In case of jacketing
on three sides, the stirrups are either to be grout-anchored into slab (Fig. 20) or nailed into beam
web using a strand (Fig. 22).

Fig. 20 Beam jacketing on three sides Fig. 21 Beam jacketing on four sides

Figure 23 shows the details of RC jacketing on four sides of a beam. The longitudinal reinforce-
ment of the jacket is to be welded with the existing longitudinal reinforcement through z shaped
links. Alternatively, the longitudinal reinforcement is to be anchored through a collar as shown
in Fig. 24.

Fig. 22 Stirrups anchored through strand Fig. 23 Jacketing on four sides of beams
and columns
Fig. 24 Anchoring of longitudinal reinforcement using collar

The stirrups in the jacket are to be placed in two pieces as shown in Fig. 21. For placing the
stirrups, closely spaced holes are to be made through slab. These holes may also be used for
pouring concrete from the top. In case of jacketing on three sides, pouring of the concrete from
top is not possible and shotcrete is to be used.

Fig. 25 Strengthening of beams by Fig. 26 Strengthening of beams by
underlaying plate bonding at bottom

Beams can also be strengthened by providing RC underlays on the lower face of the beam (Fig.
25). However, these overlays can increase only flexural capacity of the beams. Jackets on three
sides can increase the flexural and shear capacity of beams under vertical loads only. These are
not much effective under lateral loads, as the strengthening near joints is not effective. Jacket-
ing on four sides of all the beams are columns meeting at a joints is the most effective solution,
as it provides scope for strengthening of joint also.
Another alternative to strengthen beams is by bonding of steel plates or FRP sheets. Steel plates
or FRP sheets can be glued at bottom (Fig. 26), on three sides (Fig. 27) or on four sides (Fig. 28)
of a beam. For effective action under earthquake loading, the joint is also to be strengthened.

Fig. 27 Strengthening of beams by plate bonding on three sides

Strengthening of Columns

Similar to beams, in case of columns also, strengthening is possible by RC jacketing or by en-
casement using steel plates or FRP sheets. RC jackets are most effective if applied on all the
four sides, but sometimes these may also applied on only one or more sides of column (Fig. 29).
Two points are to be kept in mind in jacketing of columns (i) bond between the old and new
material and transfer of forces to new reinforcement, and (ii) confining of concrete through
proper placing and anchoring of transverse reinforcement.

Fig. 28 Strengthening of beams by plate bonding on four sides

Fig. 29 (a) Jacketing on one side of column (Alternative-1)

Fig. 29 (b) Jacketing on one side of column (Alternative-2)

Fig. 30 Jacketing on four sides of column

Figure 30 shows two alternative arrangements of reinforcement for jacketing of columns on four
sides. These jackets are very effective in increasing axial and shear strength. If the jackets are
limited to the storey height, these are not much effective against bending moment. Jackets
should protrude through the slab (Fig. 31) to be effective in flexure.
Steel jackets have a problem that these tend to separate out due to Poisson's effect during load-
ing. FRP encasement can be applied (i) by wrapping the columns using FRP straps (32(a)), (ii)
by complete encasement by FRP sheets (32(b)), or (iii) by partial wrapping by FRP straps/
sheets (32(c)). Wrapping by FRP straps provides the possibility of prestressing the strap and
hence is more effective.

Fig. 31 Reinforcement detailing for column jacketing

(a) (b) (c)
Fig. 32 FRP Strengthening of columns
Steel/FRP jackets are more effective if provided in elliptical shape as compared to rectangular
shape. The column shape may be modified to elliptical shape (Fig. 33) for this purpose.

Strengthening of Walls
Existing masonry and RC walls can also be strengthened by providing RC jackets on one or
both sides of the walls. It is customary to have half brick thick partitions in the interior of
buildings. These partitions are unsafe under out of plane action during earthquake. Out of plane
strengthening of partitions can be clubbed together with lateral strengthening of building by
providing RC jackets to the partitions (Fig. 34).

Fig. 33 Shape modification of columns for effective jacketing

Fig. 34 Strengthening of masonry infills

Fig. 35 Connection of wall jacket with floors and columns
Some basic rules have been suggested5 for strengthening of walls by RC jacketing:
- The strength of new concrete must be at least 5 MPa greater than that of existing concrete
- The minimum thickness of jacket should be 50 mm on each side.
- The minimum horizontal and vertical reinforcement should be 0.25% of the jacket section.
- The minimum reinforcement with which the ends of the wall are strengthened should be
0.25% of jacket section.
- The diameter of the ties at the well ends should not be less than 8 mm with a maximum
spacing of 150 mm.
- The jacket must be anchored to the old concrete with dowels spaced at no more than 600
mm in both directions.
- It is also important that the jacket should be able to transfer forces to slab diaphragms. This
can be achieved by providing epoxy grouted anchors and diagonal connecting bars through
holes made in slabs, as shown in Figure. 35.

Fig. 36 Strengthening of joint by collar prestressing

Strengthening of Joints
Strengthening of beam-column joints in RC building is perhaps the most difficult task in retrofit-
ting of existing buildings. The joints are expected to behave rigidly during earthquake and their
failure is to be avoided. In a planar joint (where two beams are meeting in plane) X-shaped
collars may be provided (Fig. 36). These collars have arrangement for prestressing. After pro-
viding collars the joint is covered by welded wire mesh and gunnite.
Glued steel plates (Fig. 37) or FRP sheets can also be used to strengthen a joint. This method
does not alter the dimensions of the joint. There is a problem with steel plates that due to
Poisson's effect, the jacket tends to separate from the concrete and confinement is not effective.
To avoid this, crimpled steel jackets are suggested. These jackets develop smaller longitudinal
strains and hence smaller transverse strain and result in more effective confinement.
RC jacketing is a very effective method of joint strengthening. However, placement of new
reinforcement with proper confinement at joints is quite difficult. Several holes are to be punched
through existing columns and beams for placing confining reinforcement. Pouring of concrete
and getting a good bond between old and new concrete is also quite difficult.

Fig. 37 Strengthening of joint by plate/FRP bonding
Strengthening of Foundation
Strengthening of foundations has two aspects: (i) increasing the bearing area with or without
strengthening of column, and (ii) anchoring of column jacket reinforcement into foundation
with or without strengthening of footing. The column moments are maximum at base and this
requires proper anchorage of jacket reinforcement in to the footing. This can be accomplished
by drilling holes into existing concrete of footing and epoxy grouting (Fig. 38) the longitudinal
reinforcement of jacket. Another possibility is to provide full anchorage length for longitudinal
reinforcement by extending the column jacket at the top of footing as shown in Fig. 39.

Fig. 38 Anchoring of column reinforcement without foundation strengthening

Fig. 39 Anchoring of column reinforcement with foundation strengthening

If the bearing area under a footing is not sufficient, it is to be increased by increasing the size of
the footing. If the column is also being jacketed, it is easier to transfer the forces from the
extended footing area to column jacket as shown in Fig. 40. As can be seen from the force flow
diagram in the figure., there is a component of force, which tends to split the new concrete from
old concrete. To avoid this splitting, sufficient number of closed rings with sufficient overlap or
welded connection are to be provided around the footing.
If the bearing area is to be increased without strengthening of the column, soil pressure on the
extended area is to be transferred to the existing footing as shown in Fig. 41. This is difficult as
excavation is required below the existing footing. The building is to be properly supported and
settlement is to be avoided. As can be seen from the force flow diagram, in this case also, there
is a tendency of the new concrete to split from the old concrete. To avoid this, as in previous
case, sufficient numbers of well anchored/welded hoops are required.

Fig. 40 Increasing foundation area with column jacketing

Fig. 41 Increasing foundation area without column jacketing
Post yielding deformation capacity of a building plays a very important role in reducing the
effective seismic force on the building. The members of a building are expected not to lose their
vertical load carrying capacity, while undergoing large plastic deformations in lateral direction.
Sometimes, a few poorly designed members can limit the capacity of the whole building to
deform laterally. These members may be modified to increase their deformation capacity and
this will result in large reduction in effective seismic force on the building. If the number of the
members to be modified is small, this strategy does not disrupt the functioning of the building.
But, if a large number of members are to be modified, this becomes costly and disruptive.
Detailing Enhancement
Most of the buildings in our country do not have ductile detailing as per IS: 13920. Normally,
the buildings suffer from two major deficiencies: (i) splicing of longitudinal reinforcement in
columns is inadequate and it is done very near to joints, and (ii) confining reinforcement in
beams and columns near the joints is inadequate. The longitudinal reinforcement is to be welded

at the splice (Fig. 42) to develop full bar strength and additional confining reinforcement is to be
added in beams and columns near the joints (Fig. 43).
For providing confining reinforcement, cover is to be chipped off and holes are to be made
through slab. Further, the stirrups are to be welded to develop full bar strength. These stirrups
will be effective if these are confining the concrete. To achieve confinement, the space between
stirrups and existing concrete may be filled with expanding grout/concrete.
The ductility of joints can also be enhanced by confinement jacketing using steel/FRP, as dis-
cussed earlier.

Fig. 42 Welding of splice

Fig. 43 Adding confining reinforcement near joints

Avoiding Storey Mechanism of Failure
One of the fundamentals of earthquake resistant design is to avoid storey mechanism of building
failure by providing strong columns and weak beams. But in our country, it is not uncommon to
encounter buildings with beams stronger than columns. In such cases, the plastic hinges from in
columns and building fail by formation of local storey mechanism. The columns, in such buildings,
are to be strengthened to result in strong column-weak beam configuration. The methods of
strengthening of columns have been discussed earlier. However, weak beam and strong column
configuration is difficult to achieve as the joints are also to be strengthened and it is to be ensured
that beam behaves in a ductile manner under reversed lateral loading. The reinforcement detail-
ing in beams usually does not permit reversing flexural yielding.
Reduction in Local Stiffness
Sometimes, the building may have some secondary structural/non-structural members, which
may result in damage in the main structural members and hamper their functioning under lateral
load. For example, some buildings may have deep spandrels at lintel level or partially in-filled
frames. This may result in short column effect. To avoid this, a gap between these elements and
the main structural elements can be provided (Fig. 44). This allows larger deformation of the
building under lateral load without undesirable damage mechanism.
Similarly, some building may have very stiff non-structural walls or other architectural ele-
ments. These elements may trigger undesirable failure mechanisms in the building. These ele-
ments can be locally demolished or modified to avoid undesirable failure mechanism.

Fig. 44 Reducing local stiffness by providing a slit between structural
and non-structural members
Supplemental Supports
In the old design philosophy, some of the building elements are designed only for gravity loading.
But due to compatibility, these members also deform laterally with the rest of the building, during
earthquake. As these are not designed for large lateral deformations, these may loose their
capacity to carry vertical loads and can jeopardize the building safety. Such locations in the
building need to be provided with supplemental support to transfer vertical load.
In case of flat slabs, lateral deformations may result in punching shear failure of slabs. To
support the slab after punching shear failure, supplemental supports as shown in Fig. 45 can be
Fig. 45 Providing supplemental supports
In the previous sections, different techniques for enhancing the capacity of the building to with-
stand earthquake forces have been discussed. An alternative approach is to reduce the earth-
quake demand (forces and displacements). This can be achieved either by reducing the mass of
the building or using base-isolation/energy dissipation devices13. Reduction of building mass
is not always possible and it is mainly the use of base-isolation/supplemental energy dissipation
devices, which is employed to reduce the earthquake demand on the buildings.
Use of base-isolation/supplemental energy dissipation devices is costly and it is recommended
only for those building which are required to have operational performance level after an earth-
quake or which house sensitive equipment. Base-isolation has been found to be particularly
useful for historic buildings, where it is not possible to modify the structure significantly. How-
ever, it is important to note that base-isolation and supplemental energy damping cannot be
used in all buildings. In many cases, the structure is also to be strengthened in addition to base-
isolation/energy dissipation.
Seismic Base-Isolation
Base-isolation is based on the principle of elongating the time period of the building by
providing compliant bearings at the base of the building (Fig. 46). The bearings have sufficient
stiffness and strength against vertical load, but relatively low stiffness and large deformation
capacity in lateral direction. Sometimes, these bearings are also provided with enhanced energy
dissipation characteristics or with additional dampers.

Fig. 46 Schematic representation of a base isolated building
The base-isolation results in significant increase in fundamental time period of the structure and
damping. Further, as the stiffness of the bearings is much smaller compared to structure, the
lateral deformation gets concentrated into bearings, resulting in greatly reduced earthquake
deformation demand in the portion of the structure above bearings.
Base-isolation is considered to be useful for buildings having a fundamental time period of one
second or less, as it requires a relatively stiff building to have concentration of lateral deforma-
tion in bearings only. Further, the building should remain elastic under the residual demand
transmitted to the structure by the isolators. In order to achieve this, in many cases, the building
structure is also required to be strengthened in addition to base-isolation.
Base-isolation is considered to be very effective for historical buildings, believing that no inter-
vention/modification is required in the building, preserving its historical character. But, as de-
scribed above, this belief may not be always true and significant strengthening of the structure
may be required.
Base-isolation provides an effective solution for retrofitting of buildings having enhanced per-
formance objectives. Base-isolation results in significant reduction of displacement and force
response of the building. This is a preferable condition for better performance of sensitive
equipment, systems and other non-structural components.
Supplemental Energy Dissipation
Supplemental Energy Dissipation Systems dissipate the energy transmitted to the structure by
the earthquake, in addition to the energy dissipated by the structure in normal course. This
results in significant reduction in the displacement and acceleration response of structure. For
this purpose, energy dissipation units (EDUs) are installed in the lateral load resisting system of
the building (Fig. 47). These EDUs work either on viscous or on hysteretic damping.



Fig. 47 EDU's in a building frame: (a) along the diagonal, (b) mounted on a platform
EDUs can be mounted either along the diagonals (Fig. 5.547(a)) of the frames or on a rigid
platform (Fig. 5.47(b)). Contrary to base-isolation, the energy dissipation system is more
effective in flexible buildings with large lateral deformations, as the energy dissipated by EDUs
is directly proportional to the force developed by EDUs and displacement across these EDUs.
For a rigid building, the small lateral displacement during earthquake will results in smaller
energy dissipation and the reduction in effective earthquake forces will not be significant.
Similar to base-isolation, supplemental energy dissipation system is also a costly method and is
suitable for buildings with high post-earthquake importance. The energy dissipation results in
reduced seismic response of building and better performance of equipment, systems and
non-structural components.
ATC 40, 1996, Seismic Evaluation and Retrofit of Concrete Buildings, Applied
Technology Council, California.
FEMA 273, 1997, NEHRP Guidelines for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings, Federal
Emergency Management Agency, Building Seismic Safety Council, Washington, D.C.
Hamberger, Ronald O., and Craig A. Cole, 2001, "Seismic Upgrading of Existing
Structures," The Seismic Design Handbook, Farzad Naeim, ed., Kluwer Academic
IS 1893-2002, Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures, Part 1 General
Provisions and Buildings, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
Penelis, George G., and Kappos, Andreas J., 1997, Earthquake Resistant Concrete
Structures, E & FN Spon.
Hollaway, L.C., and Leeming, M.B., ed., 1999, Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Struc-
tures - using Externally Bonded FRP Composites in Structural and Civil
Engineering, CRC Press.
Teng, J.G, Chen, J.F., Smith, S.T., and Lam, L., 2002, FRP Strengthened RC Structures, John
Wley & Sons, Ltd.
IS 456-2000, Plain and Reinforce Concrete - Code of Practice, Bureau of Indian
Standards, New Delhi.
Bungey, J. H., 1989, The Testing of Concrete in Structures, Surrey University Press.
FEMA 172, 1992, NEHRP Handbook of Techniques for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing
Buildings, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Building Seismic Safety Council, Wash-
ington, D.C.
FEMA 308, 1999, Repair of Earthquake Damaged Concrete and Masonry Wall Buildings, Fed-
eral Emergency Management Agency, Building Seismic Safety Council, Washington, D.C.
IS 13920-1993, Ductile Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Structures Subjected to Seismic Forces
- Code of Practice, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
Key, David, 1988, Earthquake Design Practice for Buildings, Thomas Telford, London.

Chapter 17

Yogendra Singh & D. K. Paul
Asstt. Professor, Department of Earthquake Engineering, IIT Roorkee, 247 667

Considerable research has taken place in the field of repair and retrofitting materials and a large
variety suitable to different applications and working conditions is available. Most of the mate-
rials are patented and available in brand names. The retrofit engineer needs to have information
about these materials for designing the retrofit scheme.
The repair and retrofit materials can be broadly classified into three categories:
i. Grouts for repair of cracks, strengthening of masonry and honeycombed concrete.
ii. Bonding agents for enhanced bonding between old and new concrete, and concrete and
iii. Replacement and jacketing materials for replacing the damaged portions, increasing the
size of members, enhancing the confinement and external reinforcement of the members.
iv. A brief description of different materials available under these categories is given below.
Grout is a flowable plastic material, which can be injected into a structural member under
pressure. The grout should have negligible shrinkage to fill the gap/void completely and it
should remain stable without cracking, delamination or crumbling.
Injection grouts are used to fill interior space within the concrete or masonry created due to
cracks, voids or honeycombs. In case of damaged concrete or masonry if the cracks are thin,
these can be repaired by injection grouting, otherwise, if the cracks are wide, the material around
the cracks is to be removed and replaced by new material. Injection grouts can also be used for
strengthening of old masonry structures, in which mortar has degraded and in honeycombed
concrete. These are particularly useful in strengthening of monumental structures, but compat-
ibility of original material and the grout must be ensured.
Cement Sand grouts are the cheapest. For injection purpose, the grout requires high water and
cement contents. This result in shrinkage and cracking of grout at hardening. Suitable shrinkage
compensating agents1 are required to minimize this. Fig. 1 shows the apparatus for cement-
sand grouting. Use of cement-sand grouts is very common in masonry buildings, but not very
common in concrete.
These grouts contain some ingredients (usually Aluminum and Carbon powder), which react
with the cement liquor to generate gas bubbles. The gas expands the grout to compensate shrink-
age. These grouts require proper confinement to develop strength and volume stability. These
are temperature sensitive and not suitable for high temperature application, as the reaction
forming gas bubbles may be too fast and may complete before placing of the grout.
In these grouts either shrinkage-compensating cement or anhydrous sulfoaluminate expansive
additive is used with Portland cement. The dosages of additive are recommended at 6% to 10%
by weight of cement. The additive results in expansion at hydration. This produces expansion
after the grout has set and is more reliable then gas-forming grouts. But the expansion of such
grouts requires post-hardening curing and it will not be effective if moist curing is not available.
Polypropylene, steel or Glass fibres may be used in Portland cement or shrinkage compensating
mortar to provide improved flexural strength, impact resistance and ductility. The typical dos-
age recommended1 for the three types of fibres is 4-6%, 2-3% and 2-4% by weight of cement
for propylene, steel glass fibres respectively. These grouts require skilled handling to avoid
segregation of fibres.
The Polymer resin grouts are most commonly used in concrete. The commonly used polymers
are polyester, epoxy, vinyl ester, polyurethane and acrylic. Out of these, epoxy is most popular.
In case of underground and water seepage conditions, polyurethane and acrylic resins are used.
These grouts come in three-component materials having (i) liquid resin content (ii) curing agent
or hardener, and (iii) aggregate or dry filler; and two component materials having curing agent
packaged with the aggregate. The basic resins and curing agents are added with modifiers to
achieve desired properties. Such modifier materials are unique specialty products, whose com-
positions are trade secrets. These are mostly sold as pre-packaged units to avoid errors in pre-
paring. The manufacturer's literature should be studied in details before specific use of such
Polymer grouts can be injected by pre-mixing the resins and hardener and injecting the mixture
through a pressure gun fitted with a nozzle (Fig. 2). The automatic injection machine (Fig 3) has
a controlled supply of the resin and the hardener through two separate pipes. The two compo-
nents are mixed prior to injection in a chamber just before the nozzle. Injection can be done by
hand operated gun at low pressure (up to 1 MPa), or by pump operated gun at a high pressure
(up to 20 MPa). If the crack width is small (0.1-0.5 mm), resin with hardener is used. If the
cracks are wider then filler is also used.


Fig. 2 Hand epoxy grouting Machine

Before injecting grouts into crack, preparation of the crack is to be done as following:
(i) Cleaning of crack with compressed air and removal of loose material, if any.
(ii) Drilling of holes (5 to 10 mm) at several places along the length of the crack.
(iii) Placing of 'Ports' or 'Nipples' at the mouth of holes (Fig 4). If the cracks are wide and
accessible from surface 'T' ports (Fig .5) can be installed.
After injecting resins through the ports, the cracks and ports are sealed by quick hardening resin
On vertical surfaces, the injection is started from the lowest port till it comes out from the upper
nipple. Then the port is sealed and injection is started from the upper port. After hardening of
the epoxy in a day or so, the sealing resin paste is removed. The effectiveness of injection
grouting in concrete can be tested either by USPV test or by visual inspection of cores drilled
through the injected crack.

Fig. 3 Automatic epoxy grouting machine

Fig. 4 Fixing of pipe ports for grouting

Fig. 5 Fixing of T-ports

Bond between existing concrete, new concrete and reinforcement is very important for
effectiveness of repair/retrofitting. There are three methods available for enhancing the bond:
(i) Application of adhesives at the interface
(ii) Surface interlocking
(iii) Mechanical bonding
Polymers and epoxy are the adhesives used for bonding between old and new concrete and
reinforcement. After removal of the concrete cover, the existing concrete surface and steel are
cleaned by sand or water blasting. After cleaning and drying, concrete and steel is painted by
epoxy/polymer or polymer modified cement grout. If the new steel is to be welded, it is welded
prior to coating of the concrete and steel. This coating provides enhanced bond between the old
and new material and reduces the risk of corrosion in steel.
To improve the surface interlocking, the existing concrete surface is coated with epoxy/polymer
and a layer of coarse sand is applied above the coating. Mechanical bonding consists of keys
and anchors4 provided in the existing members at regular interval. The details of mechanical
bonding are provided in the next chapters on retrofitting.
In case of damaged structures, material in some parts of members is to be replaced by new
material. For strengthening existing members in deficient buildings, additional material includ-
ing reinforcement is to be provided. The material used for replacement should have good bond
with existing material and it should be non-shrinking. A variety of strengthening and replace-
ment materials is available.
The advantage of using ordinary concrete and mortar is that these have similar thermal move-
ment and appearance as the existing concrete. Further, these are cheap and do not require spe-
cial skills for application. Generally, these consist of high early strength cement and an expan-
sive component to compensate the shrinkage. The expansive component also results in good
bond. The common expansive agents used are aluminum powder, coke powder, anhydrous cal-
cium sulfoaluminate and calcium oxide.
In case of concrete, use of higher strength (at least by 5 MPa) then the existing concrete is
recommended. Maximum size of coarse aggregate is limited to 20 mm for ease in pouring the
concrete through narrow spaces. To ease the compaction, workability is enhanced by using
super plastisizers. The surface of existing concrete is made as rough as possible and cleaned
properly. After placing the forms a final dusting should be done using compressed air to remove
dust from the surface.
Sometimes a special application of ordinary concrete-'preplaced concrete' is also used. In this
method, the aggregate is first packed in the space to be concreted and the cement is applied in
the form of grout intrusion. This concrete has very little shrinkage but requires skill in applica-
Dry pack is another application method of ordinary concrete. In this method the concrete has
very little water and has almost zero slump. The moisture is just sufficient to stick the material
together when molded into a ball by hand. The low water content results in reduced shrinkage,
but makes compaction difficult and there are chances of voids being left.
Dry packs are available under several commercial names and usually consist of fine sand,
superplasticizers and an expansive agent in appropriate proportion. This mixed with water at-
tains very high strength in very short time. (e.g. 30 MPa in 24 hours and 70 MPa in 28 days).
This high strength is a result of formation of a special silica calcium hydrate from the reaction
of the cement with expansive agent. The expansive agent also results in no-shrinkage of the
material. This material is very suitable for jacketing.
Shotcrete or guniting has the same characteristics as ordinary concrete but it has smaller aggre-
gate size and it is applied under pressure with low water content. It requires no framework and
can be applied on any surface including inclined and vertical surfaces and even on ceilings.
This results in very good adhesion between old and new concrete and good compaction due to
application under pressure. The low water-cement ratio results in high strength and low shrink-
age. The permeability of shotcrete is also lower than that of ordinary concrete and results in
better protection of steel against corrosion.
Shotcrete requires special equipment. Two types of equipment are used depending on dry or
wet mix type of application. In dry mix application, the proportioned or pre-packaged cement-
aggregate mixture is transferred to nozzle using highly compressed air. Water is introduced at
nozzle under pressure (Fig 6). The mixture is impacted on the surface to be shotcreted. In wet
mix type shotcrete, proportioned mixture of cement, aggregate, water and admixtures is dis-
charged into a conventional concrete pump to a discharge nozzle. Compressed air is used to
project the material from nozzle.

Fig. 6 Apparatus for Shotcrete
Before application of shotcrete, damaged concrete is removed and the surface is thoroughly
cleaned by sand blasting to remove all dirt and to expose the aggregate. Steel is cleaned on full
circumference of bar to bare metal. Usually a welded wire mash is applied over the surface to be
shotcreted and attached to the existing concrete through nailing. This wire mesh reduces the
shrinkage and improves the bond between existing concrete and shotcrete. Sometimes, to im-
prove the bond between old and new material, surface coatings, such as epoxy bonding agents,
latex modified cement slurries or neat cement slurries, are also used.
In case of dry mix shotcrete, the water/cement ratio cannot be controlled quantitatively as it is
mixed at nozzle and controlled visually by the operator. Therefore, the skill of the crew is very
important. The variation in density of shotcrete is more than that of normal concrete. Also, the
shotcrete results in a rough surface.
Polymers are long molecule hydrocarbons, built by combination of single units called mono-
mers. The process is called polymerization. Small diameter particles of polymers emulsified in
water are called polymer latexes. These latexes form continuous film at drying. Adding poly-
mer latexes to ordinary mortar and concrete is the most common method of making Polymer
Modified Mortar (PMM) and Polymer Modified Concrete (PMC). Cement hydration in PMM/
PMC results in drying of latex and formation of the film of polymers. This film binds the
cement hydrates together to from a monolithic network in which the polymer phase interpen-
etrates throughout the cement hydrate phase. The resulting matrix binds the aggregate more
strongly and enhances the properties of mortar/concrete.
The polymer can also be mixed in the form of re-dispersible powder in the dry cement-aggre-
gate mix. When water is added to this mixture, a process similar to that described above takes
place. Some polymers are water soluble. When added to mortar/concrete, these result in en-
hanced workability but no increase in strength. In some liquid thermosetting resins, polymer-
ization is initiated by water. These are also added to concrete/mortar to result in enhancement
similar to that resulting from latex.
The PMM/PMC has better workability and water retention properties than ordinary concrete/
mortar. This reduces the requirement of water curing considerably. Polymer modification does
not result in any appreciable increase in compressive strength of concrete, but it results signifi-
cant increase in tensile and bending strength of concrete.
The main advantage of PMM/PMC is its improved adhesion and bond with existing concrete
and significantly reduced permeability. Reduced permeability results in reduced risk of corro-
sion of reinforcing steel.
Steel plates can be bonded to concrete members as external reinforcement to increase their
strength. The plates are glued to the member surface by epoxies. This requires a careful prepa-
ration of the member surface and application of epoxy layer. Steel plates can also be provided in
the form of jackets either by gluing to surface or by grouting. However, these jackets are not
very effective as these try to separate out from the members due to Poisson's effect, loosing
Fibre-reinforced polymers/plastics is a recently developed material for strengthening of RC and
masonry structure. This is an advanced material and most of the development in its
application in structural retrofitting has taken place in the last two decades. It has been found to
be a replacement of steel plate bonding and is very effective in strengthening of columns by
exterior wrapping. The main advantage of FRP is its high strength to weight ratio and high
corrosion resistance. FRP plates can be 2 to 10 times stronger than steel plates, while their
weight is just 20% of that of steel. However, at present, their cost is high.
FRP composites are formed by embedding a continuous fibre matrix in a resin matrix. The resin
matrix binds the fibre together and also provides bond between concrete and FRP. The com-
monly used fibres are Carbon fibres, Glass fibres and Aramid fibres, and the commonly used
resins are polyester, vinyl ester and epoxy. FRP is named after the fibre used, e.g. Carbon Fibre
Reinforced Polymer (CFRP), Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer (GFRP), and Aramid Fibre Rein-
forced Polymer (AFRP).
Table 1 Typical Properties of GFRP, CFRP and AFRP

Unidirectional Fibre Density E (Long.) Tensile
advanced composite content (% (kg/m3) (GPa) strength
materials by weight) (MPa)
Glass fibre/polyester 50-80 1600-2000 20-55 400-1800
GFRP laminate
Carbon/epoxy CFRP 65-75 1600-1900 120-250 1200-2250
Aramid/epoxy AFRP 60-70 1050-1250 40-125 1000-1800

The fibres are available in two forms (i) Unidirectional tow sheet, and (ii) Woven fabric. The
application of resin can be in-situ or in the form of prefabrication of FRP plates and other
shapes by pultrusion. The in-situ application is by wet lay-up of a woven fabric or tow plate
immersed in resin. This method is more versatile as it can be used on any shape. On the other
hand, prefabrication results in better quality control. The manufacturers supply these materials
as a package and each brand has specific method of application, which is to be followed care-
fully. Specialized firms have developed in India also, which take up the complete execution
work and supply of material. It is important to note the difference between the properties of
steel and FRP and it should be understood that FRP cannot be treated as reinforcement in con-
ventional RC design methods. Table 1 gives a typical range of properties for three types of
fibres. This range may change from one brand to another and with change in fibre content.
Figure 7 shows the qualitative stress-strain curves for mild steel, CFRP, AFRP and GFRP. It can
be seen that not only there is drastic difference in tensile strength and modulus of elasticity,
unlike to mild steel, FRP is elastic right up to failure. This shows total lack of ductility in case
of FRP. This brittleness of FRP must be considered while predicting the behavior of retrofitted
members. This brittleness does not allow the redistribution of stress in RC members and there-
fore, the conventional design theories are not valid for FRP reinforced concrete members.
Fig. 7 Stress-strain behaviour of FRP
Mailvagnam, Noel P., 1992, Repair and Protection of Concrete Structures, CRC Press.
FEMA 308, 1992, Repair of Earthquake Damaged Concrete and Masonry Wall Buildings, Fed-
eral Emergency Management Agency, Building Seismic Safety Council, Washington, D.C.
ACI Committee 224R, 1994, "Control of Cracking in Concrete Structures," ACI Manual of
Concrete Practice, Detroit, Michigan.
Penelis, George G., and Kappos, Andreas J., 1997, Earthquake Resistant Concrete Structures, E
& FN Spon.
Bungey, J. H., 1989, The Testing of Concrete in Structures, Surrey University Press.
IS 456-2000, Plain and Reinforce Concrete - Code of Practice, Bureau of Indian Standards,
New Delhi.
ACI 506-90, 1994, "Guide to Shotcrete," ACI Manual of Concrete Practice, Detroit, Michigan.
ACI 506.2-90, 1994, "Specifications for Shotcrete," ACI Manual of Concrete Practice, Detroit,
ACI Committee 503R, 1994, "Use of Epoxy Compounds with Concrete," ACI Manual of Con-
crete Practice, Detroit, Michigan.
Hollaway, L.C., and Leeming, M.B., ed., 1999, Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Struc-
tures - using Externally Bonded FRP Composites in Structural and Civil Engineering, CRC
Teng, J.G, Chen, J.F., Smith, S.T., and Lam, L., 2002, FRP Strengthened RC Structures, John
Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Chapter 18

Anand S. Arya
Professor Emeritus, Deptt. of Earthquake Engg., IIT Roorkee, Roorkee
National Seismic Advisor, GoI-UNDP (DRM), New Delhi

Good quality of construction work including Repair. Retrofitting and Reconstruction of the
buildings in the affected villages is very important to meet the following objectives.
i ) To achieve the strength of the building under. Normal Dead and Live Loads. Foundation.
Walls, column,. floor and roof are the main structural elements to he taken cute of.
ii) To achieve adequate strength of the building for earthquake effects. The various details
including plinth band. lintel band .and vertical reinforcing are specified in IS :4326 & 13828
of 1993 and illustrated in the ''Guidelines for Reconstruction and New Construction of
Houses in Kachahh earthquake affected Areas of Gujarat" published by Gujarat State Di-
saster Management Authority, May 2001
iii) To achieve durability of the building over long time so as to meet the seismic requirements
as and when the next earthquake strikes.
Every effort should therefore be made by all concerned to achieve the specified standards. It
should also be realized that the constructions are and will be keenly watched by the prospective
beneficiaries. Hence quality must be ensured by all building agencies in architectural and struc-
tural designs as well as construction.
The strength of coursed rubble' (RCR) masonry under vertical as well as horizontal earthquake
loads depends upon the integrity of the wall cross-section and the bond between perpendicular
walls. To achieve high strength of rubble masonry the following measures must be ensured
Interlocking of Stones and Breaking Vertical Joints
To achieve the integral behaviour of the stonewall, interlocking of the stones in the cross-
section as well as in the length of' the wall is necessary and "stacking bond' should not be done
as shown in Fig. 1 in which vertical joints occur continuously. The proper interlocking of stones
including breaking of vertical joints is shown in Figs. 2 and 3.

Fig. 1 Stacked stone wall Fig. 2 Laterlocking stone wall with
poor construction `through' and `corner' stones
(Very good construction)
Provision of 'through' stones
Through' stones must he provided in the wall at horizontal intervals of 1.2 m and vertical interval
of 0.6 in (Fig. 2.3). Where such long stones are not available, concrete blocks, cast using 1:3:6 or
M 10 concrete, having 150 x 150 mm cross section and length equal to the thickness of the wall
may be used instead. Such bonding elements are lo be provided whether the wall is 350- 380 mm
thick using cement mortar or 400-450 mm thick using mud mortar.

Fig. 3 later locking stone wall Fig.4 Galvanized chicken wire mash (double layer)
with `through' stone at corner and T-junction at window sill level

Provision of Long Stones at at all Wall Junctions
For ensuring good bond between perpendicular walls, long stones are to be provided at the
corners as well as T-junctions (Fig. 2,3). Such stones should be about 50 cm long in the case of
350-380 mm thick walls and about 60 cm long in 400-450 mm thick walls. Where such stones
are not available, solid concrete blocks of 150 x 150 mm in section and 500 or 600 mm long
(cast using 1:3:6 concrete) may be used instead.

Guarding against Vertical Separation Between Perpendicular Wall
In seismic Zone V, District Kachchh. it will safeguard the walls against splitting at the vertical
joint between any two perpendicular walls if at the window side levels (that is, about mid way
between the plinth and lintel hands) galvanized chicken wire mesh in double layer is embedded
in the 1:4 cement mortal joint as shown in Fig. 1.
Making and filling of Pockets around Vertical Bars
Correct method of creating a pocket around the vertical bar in the masonry and filling the
pocket with micro-concrete is shown in Fig.5. After moving the 75 mm dia plastic pipe upward
out of the masonry, micro-cement (coarse aggregate below 10 mm) is to be filled in the hollow
and tamped by mean of 10 mm dia rods.

Fig. 5 Method of filling micro-concrete around vertical bars in masonry
Bending of Bars and Casting of Seismic Bands
Figure 6 shows the bending of longitudinal burs with adequate overlaps and tying of cross links
with them. This will ensure full continuity of the longitudinal reinforcement at the coners. It is
also suggested that stones may be cast in the band-concrete so that 1/4 to 1/3 of stone remains
projecting outside the concrete. This arrangement will save. the amount of concrete as well as :I
well as establish excellent bond and the wall masonry
Curing of Stone Wall Built using Cement Mortar
All newly constructed masonry should be covered with polythene sheets:to prevent fast drying
of mortar in the very dry conditions in Kachchh. Covering the walls with such sheets after
sprinkling water for caring will help preserving the moisture over longer periods thus saving
consumption of which is rather scarce in most parts of Kachchh and Saurashtra.

(a) (b)
( c ) Cross section ( d ) Stones cast in concrete

Fig. 6 Seismic band at Plinth or Lintel level in stonewalls
'The strength and stability of the wall will depend on the strength and quality of the block, the
quality of the mortar and construction of wall. The wall should be built truly vertical by fre-
quent checking using a plumb.
The dry blocks should be welted before lying so that they do not suck the water from the mortar.
Cement mortar should be freshly mixed and must be fully consumed within 60 minutes of
cement mixing with water to avoid setting of cement before laying.
After the wall portions are constructed, they shall be cured for a minimum period of 7 days by
frequent watering. Uncured mortar does not set and its proper strength is not achieved. (In
Manjil earthquake of 1990 in Iran, the main cause of destruction of brickwork constructed
using cement mortar was that the bricks were not sucked in water before laying and no curing
was done after construction). Needless lo say that proper bond should be maintained to break
the vertical joints and the vertical joints between the blocks must be fully filled with mortar.
Note 1. Tests conducted in the Tehran laboratory on brick walls under lateral showed that
unsoaked and uncured brick walls failed at a lateral pressure of only 1/70 of that required for
breaking the fully cured walls built by soaking the bricks.
Note 2. To ensure filling of vertical joints between the blocks fully, mortar grout may be used
before starting the next coarse.
Quality of Concrete Blocks
The main wall material is concrete blocks of 300 x 200 x 150 mm nominal (290 x 200 x 140 mm
actual size) laid in 1:6 cement-sand mortar. To obtain good quality concrete blocks of adequate
strength, 5.0 MPa (50 kg/sqcm at 28 days) and imperviousness as well as strength of wall, the
following points are to be implemented..

Concrete mix should be well graded, with*a few 40 mm size aggregate, coarse sand of high
fineness modulus and such quantity of fines so as to fill the voids. The proportions should be
arrived at through a mix-design method or by trials, by using the locally available materials. For
this purpose each block-making center should have a set of standard sieves and a weighing
machine for determining the Fineness Modulus values of the materials.
Note The following proportions used in Lalur District in HUDCO's earthquake rehabilita
tion program, gave 28-day strength of blocks at 9 N/ mm2 (90 kg/cm2).
Overall Mix: Cement I part to 15 parts of the fine + coarse aggregates, measured by
The aggregates consisted of the following:
Stone dust below 6 mm(FM 3.67)
Crushed grit 6 to 10 mm (FM 4.11)
Crusiled aggregutes 12 to less than 40 mm .
Hand broken aggregates 40 to less than 50m mm.
Testing of sand
The coarse sand should not contain more than 8% of the silt by weight. Silt content may be
tested by using graduated cylinder method, held stationary for minimum 12 hours. Record of
silt content should be kept at block making/construction site.
Note. If silt content is found to be more than permissible, the cement should be increased by
trial to achieve the desired strength.
Bulking of moist sand has to be tested and the quantity of sand is to be adjusted to achieve
design mix. A record of bulking test may also be ~maintained.
Making of blocks
After ensuring the design mix by proper control of measurement of the materials, proper mixing
in the mixer and compaction by vibrating machines are the key factors. The large stone pieces
have a tendency of either coming to the top or settling below the mix in the mixer. Uniform
mixing should be ensured by adjusting the angle of the revolving mixer. Regarding compaction,
it should be noted that 10 percent less compaction might reduce strength by 40 to 50 percent;
hence adequate compaction must be ensured.
Note 1 In many rural und town areas, block a re being made by hand molding with uncon-
trolled or without compaction in such cases even a concrete mix of 1:4:8.(ie:1 part of cement to
12 parts of fine + coarse aggregates) may not give the desired minimum strength of.50kg/sqcm.
Hence thorough compaction by vibrators or by adequate rodding using l;6 mm dia rods of 400
mm length is absolutely necessary for strength as well economy in tile use of cement.
2. In order to increase the horizontal shear strength of cement block walls, the blocks may
be made with a 'frog' as in bricks on its face. For a 290 x 200 .x 140mm block, the 'frog ' may be
made 150 x l00 x 6 mm deep.
Curing and transporting
The blocks should be cured for 7 days and dried for few hours before transporting to avoid
excessive breakage.
Control on Strength of Blocks
Each block-making Center of appreciable size should have a power-operated compression-test-
ing machine. A small Center may have a hand-operated machine. The machine should be of
good quality make, such as AIMIL.
It may be specified that from the daily output of each labour gang, 3 blocks should be selected
at random which should be tested after 7 days curing under compression testing machine. For
standardization purpose, once a week, 3 additional blocks should be cast for testing after 28
days of curing. The record of testing should be maintained in bound registers at each site and
each entry to be signed by the engineering staff of executing and supervising agencies.
Recording Test Results
The rest results obtained in accordance with the above guidelines are to be recorded in appro-
priate tables. The test results and acceptability should be written with proper signatures. For
example, the block test results may be recorded in tables with the headings shown in Table 1.

Table 1. - Test Results of Concrete Blocks (or Concrete Cubes)

Name of Date of Date of Average Streng Remark
gang casting Testing strength N/mm2 (signature)
making Comp.Strength, kN kN (or
block kg/cm2
Block Block Block
1 2 3

The average of 3 blocks' comprehensive strength should be expressed in N/mm2 or in kg/cm2 or
Mpa Signature of technician of the builder and verification by construction supervisor or J.E. in-
charge should be recorded against each test entry
Quality of Bricks
The bricks should be well burnt with red color, neither under-burnt not over-burnt. having a
minimum compressive strength of 5.0 N/mm2 (50 kg/cm2), when tested flat. During testing the
frog may be filled with a mortar 1:4 and the flat surfaces smoothened either by grinding, rub-
bing with carborandom stone or by applying a thin layer of plaster. The bricks should give a
ringing sound when struck with each other.
Bonding in Brick Work
In normal construction, English bond is used in brick work in India as shown in Fig. 7 for one
brick thick walls as normally used in one to two storeys constructed using cement mortar. The
'bond' used in brick columns of size 1 x 1 upto 2 x 2 bricks is also shown in the figure. This will
ensure that the vertical mortar joints will be broken in every two consecutive courses.

(a) 1 x 1 Brick column (b) 1 x 1½ Brick column

(c) 1½ x 1½ Brick column (d) 2 x 2 Brick column

(e) One Brick Wall

( f ) One Brick wall corner

Note : ½, ¼, ¾ and 1 indicate the thickness in brick lengths

Fig. 7 Bonding in Brick Walls and Column, Forming pocket for vertical bar

Brick Laying
Bricks being porous absorb water. It is therefore essential that the bricks are soaked in water
fully before laying on the cement mortar layer. Unsoaked bricks will suck water from the mortar
and create hindrans in the setting of cement mortar. For achieving full strength of brickwork it
is necessary that all vertical joints between the bricks must be fully filled with mortar. One
defect in brickwork commonly seen at the sites is that the longitudinal joint between two bricks
is not filled and left open. Another defect seen is that the bricks are laid upside down, that is, the
frog is on the under side. This does not allow development of proper shear key between the
brick courses since the frog remains unfilled. These defects should not be allowed. To ensure
complete filling of all vertical joints it may be necessary to fill the joints with mortar grout
before starting the next course.
If these precautions are taken in construction and proper curing of the brickwork is carried out
for a minimum period of 7 days, full strength of the brick work under vertical as well as lateral
loading due to wind or earthquake will be fully achieved.
Note :- For proper curing of the walls reference may be made to para 2.7 above.
Vertical joint between Perpendicular Walls
For convenience of constructions, builders prefer to make a toothed joint between perpendicu-
lar walls, which is many times left hollow and weak. To obtain full bond it is necessary to make
a sloping, (that is stepped joint by making the corners first to a height of 600 mm and then
building the wall in between them. Otherwise, the toothed joint should be made in both the
walls alternately in lifts of about 450 mm (See Fig. 8).

Fig. 8 Alternating toothed joint in walls at corner and T-Junction
The following care must be taken for achieving high strength of the RCC and durability of the
bar by avoiding/minimizing of corrosion:
a. The bars should be straight, not crooked, cut to required sizes and bent to proper shapes as
per drawings.
b. The bars for the seismic bands should have a minimum cover of 25 mm below and above
them. The concrete mix should be M 20 (1:11/2:3 nominal) to prevent corrosion.
c. To keep the vertical reinforcing bars at the corners and jointly properly vertical, an L-bend
should be provided at its bottom end and each bar should be held by a tripod of bamboos or
other spare reinforcing bars till such time that the concrete filled in the pocket around the
bar is fully set and capable of holding the bar in vertical position.
d. A minimum overlap of 600 mm for 12-mm bars, 500 mm for 10 mm and 400 mm for 8-mm
dia should be provided.
e. The cover to any bar (main or distribution) should be kept 15 mm minimum and 20 mm
maximum in concrete slabs used as floor or roof. The cover in beams to the main bars
should not be less than 25 mm and to the stirrups not less than 15 mm. For achieving proper
cover, either cover blocks of 1:3 cement sand mortar of required thickness or PVC cover
parts should be used.
Concrete Mix
The concrete mix shall be M 20 (1:11/2:3 nominal) using cement, coarse sand and crushed grit
of less than 20 mm size. The slump should not exceed 10 cm and the concrete should be com-
pacted by rodding using 16 mm bars of about 600 mm length. Use of vibrator will, of course, be
better keeping the slump of about 50 mm.
When the mix is to be designed to give the characteristic strength of 20 MPa, the target strength
in the mix design should be 26.5 MPa on 150 mm cubes at the age of 28 days. For quality
control on the concrete mix during construction, regular sampling and testing of concrete using
150mm cubes should be carried out and the concrete should give an average strength at 28 days
of 24 MPa, the individual cube strength lying between + 15% of the mean strength obtained.
Slope in Roofs
To prevent ponding of water on the roof and consequent leakage, the concrete roofs must be laid
so as to have a minimum camber of 1/200 of span at the centre and a minimum slope of about I
in 60. That is, for a roof width of 4m, the camber may be kept as 20 mm and the height differ-
ence between the opposite edges should be about 70 mm. It is further suggested that the roof
slab be kept projecting beyond the wall with a minimum of 75 mm at the lower edge and
provided with a drip course.
Curing of Concrete
Exposed surface of concrete shall be kept continuously in a damp or wet condition by ponding
or by covering with a layer of sacking, canvas. Hess Tan or similar materials and kept constantly
wet for at least seven days from the date of placing concrete in case of ordinary Portland Ce-
ment of 33 or 43 Grade. The period of curing shall not be less than 10 days for concrete exposed
to dry and hot weather conditions. Impermeable membranes such as polyethylene sheeting cov-
ering closely the concrete surfaces may also be used to provide effective barrier against evapo-
Striking Formwork
In normal circumstances where ambient temperature does not fall below 15oC and where ordi-
nary Portland cement is used and adequate curing is done, the minimum period for striking
formwork as given in Table 2 may be adopted.
Table 2. - Minimum Time for Striking Formwork
Type of Formwork Minimum Period Before
Striking Formwork

a) Vertical formwork to columns, walls, beams 16~41 h

b) Soffit formwork to slabs (Props to be refixed 3 days
immediately after removal of formwork)

c) Soffit formwork to beams (Props to be refixed 7 days
immediately after removal of formwork)

d) Props to slabs:
1) Spanning up to 4.5 m 7 days
2) Spanning over 4.5 m 14 days

e) Props to beams and arches: 14 days
1) Spanning up to 6m 21 days
2) Spanning over 6 m

Experience during recent earthquakes in Uttarkashi (1991), Latur (1993) and Chamoli (1999)
has shown that stone building in which the traditional practice of 'Through" and "Comer" stones
was used, suffered only minimum damage. Also in other earthquakes in India and abroad, it has
been a definite observation that good quality in construction and maintenance of buildings
prevented their collapse whereas indifferent to bad construction practices resulted in catastrophic
collapses. This has been fully demonstrated in the recent Kachchh earthquake also where not
only stone or block wall construction but also the reinforced concrete frame buildings were
severely destroyed even in seismic Intensities of MSK VII, hence the critical importance of
maintaining good construction practices and quality of materials in all buildings used for hous-
ing or community purposes.

Chapter 19

Yogendra Singh
Asstt. Professor, Department of Earthquake Engineering, IIT Roorkee, 247 667

Fire has been recognized as a potential hazard world over. Most of the countries have their fire
protection code and fire resistant design is mandatory. However, in our country fire resistant
design has not gained much attention. Although, a large number of big fires have occurred in
our country and a few collapses of buildings due to fire have also been reported, fire safety at
design stage is not properly considered. In developed countries, there have been very big fires
in beginning of industrialization. In London, the building act for fire protection came into being
as early as in 1189. Concept of fire containment came into focus after the great fire of London
in 1666. Structural fire protection was seriously investigated in 18th century.
In structural fire protection, the first aim is to ensure the stability of the building. In addition to
this, it has the following main components:
(i) Preventing the initiation of fire
(ii) Restricting the growth and spread of fire
(iii) Containment of fire within specified boundaries -a compartment forming part of building
or the whole building
(iv) Means of escape for the occupants of building.
(v) Control of fire by automatic devices and by active fire fighting.
Fire safety measures can be classified into two categories:
Passive Measures
These measures are part of the building system and are functional all the time. The passive
measures include the following:
(a) Design and installation of energy sources away from combustible materials.
(b) Reduction in the quantity and surface area of combustible material in the building
(c) Compartmentation within a building and fire resistant design of compartment boundaries
(d) Separation of buildings to avoid spread of fire
(e) Provision and design of escape routes
(f) Measures for smoke control and resave facilities
(g) Structural Design of building components to withstand fire loads.

Active Measures
These come into action on include the following:
(a) Fire detection and warring system
(b) Sprinkler installation with automatic/manual control
(c) Fire fighting
Historically, many terms have been used in literature to express the fire resistnace of building
components. There is a slight difference in meaning:
(a) Fire Proof: Indicates not only expected performance but also indicates that the materials
used are non-combustible.
(b) Fire Resistant: Indicates immunity to the effects of fire upto a required degree. 1932 British
Standard on fires defines fire resistance as "that property by virtue of which an element of
a structure as a whole functions satisfactorily for a specified period whilst subjected to a
prescribed heat influence and load". It does not apply to the individual material of con-
struction, but to the complete element such as beam, column, wall or floor
(c) Fire Endurance: Adopted by ASTM Standard on fire - E119, has the same meaning as 'Fire
Resistance'. It indicates the duration to which a member can sustain the effects of heating,
subjected to the normal loads on the member and serving the normal function expected
from the member.
Fire results in increase of temperature in a building compartment. The rate of burning and
temperature increase depends on the ventilation parameters, size and shape of compartment
and surface area. With small ventilation openings, the burning rate depends on availability of
air. Such fires are called ‘Ventilation Controlled Fires’.On the other hand, fires in
compartments with large openings are controlled by fuel characteristics. These are called
‘fuel bed controlled fires’. Fig. 1 shows the relationship between the temperature and the
ratio of fire load to ventilation. Fire load is expressed either in terms of weight of wood or
celluloses based material, with a calorific values of 16-18 MJ/kg or in terms of heat units (MJ
or MCal)/m2. Ventilation is expressed by opening factor Av H v / A t , where A v is window
area, H v is window height and A t is total compartment surface area. Fig. 2 shows the heat
balance of an enclosure. The heat is produced by combustion of the fuel and is lost to the
walls and outside through the exhaust gases. The energy balance can be expressed as,
Q F + Q A = Q G + QW + Q E + Q R (1)
Q F is the heat produced by combustion
QA is the heat content of the incoming air
QG is the heat used in raising ambient gas temperature
QW is the heat transferred to walls, floor and ceiling
QE is the heat content of exhaust gages
QR is the heat loss by radiation from the window
Fig. 1 Relationship between fire temperature and ratio of fire load to ventilation

Fig. 2 Heat balance for a compartment under fire

Fig. 3 Three phases of fire development

Fig. 4 Equal area concept of fire severity

There are three phases of fire in a chamber as shown in Fig. 3. The temperature is low in the
growth period and increases very rapidly and becomes stable in the fully developed period of
ire. Finally it decreases rapidly in the decay period of fire.
Fire Severity
Fire severity is expressed by its time-temperature curve. Fig. 4 shows a comparison of time-
temperature curves of two fires. The standard furnace curve is used for five resistance testing of
building components in furnace. A relationship of this curve with the actual fire is required to
estimate the requirement of fire resistance test.
Fire severity is the aggregate measure of the heating conditions and their effect on structure
when exposed to fire. To compare the severity of two fires an equal area concept is used in
which the area under the fire course upto 1500 C or 3000 C is compared. Fig. 5 shows the relation-
ship between the fire load and the fire resistance time required corresponding to the standard fire

Fig. 5 Relationship between fire load and fire resistance requirement

Effect on Structural Components and Assemblies
Fire has two types of effects on structural components. Due to heating it results in loss of
strength and deformations of components; and due to transfer of heat through walls and floors,
ignition of combustible material on the other side takes place. Fig. 6 shows the loss of strength
and deflection of components with time, when subjected to fire. Initially, the loss of strength is
rather gradual, but it reduces very rapidly after some time. When the deflection of member
exceeds L/30, collapse is initialed due to instability.

Fig. 6 Loss of strength with time in fire

Fig. 7 change in bending moment in a continuous beam due to fire
Flexural Members
Fig. 7 shows the bending moment diagram of a continuous beam, before and after fire, due to
restraint of continuous beans at supports a negative moment is generated. This has a beneficial
effect as the strength loss at supports is not as rapid as at the center. If the heating continues,
plastic hinge is formed at the center. If the restraint at the support is adequate, a continuous
beam can act as two cantilevers. It is also possible for the beam to act as a catenary. If the depth
of beam is sufficient, it can also develop some arching action. The arching action is facilitated
by the thermal expansion of beam.
Compression Members
In a concrete column the outer layers are subjected higher temperature the core consequently
the hotter outer layers are subjected to much higher compressive stresses compared to the cooler
central core. As soon as the outer material looses its strength, the load is transferred to central
Beam Column Frame
Fig. 8 shows the effect of temperature rise on a portal frame. Due to rigid joint conditions,
columns are subjected to additional bending moments. However, this effect is beneficial for the
beam, as discussed above.

Fig. 8 Effect of heating on portal frame

Fig. 9 Sequence of hinge formation in a multi-storey building
In a multi-storey building, if good compartmentalization is provided, then fire is likely to attack
only a part of the building. Fig. 9 shows the deformation of members in a multistory frame and
the sequence of formation of plastic hanger.
Masonry Elements
Clay bricks are made by firing of day at high temperatures. This imparts to the bricks an ability
to withstand high temperatures without much physical or chemical charge. Bricks are virtually
inert to high temperatures. However, the brick walls fail due to their own thermal expansion or
the expansion of other elements.
To design the structural components for fire resistance, it is important to understand the mate-
rial properties at higher temperatures. The rate of deterioration of material strength at increased
temperature determines the fire resistances of the member.
One of the effects of heating on concrete is to drive away the free moisture as soon as the
temperature increases beyond 1000 C. The vapour migrates through capillaries to the outer sur-
face and on the heated side it appears as steam and on the other side it condenses and appears
as 'weeping'. However, this loss of moisture does not have any significant effect on strength of
Steep temperature gradients exist in the concrete members subjected to fire. This results in
spalling of concrete. This may result in damage to concrete members in early stage of fire.

Fig. 10 Effect of temperature on compressive strength of concrete
Fig. 10 shows the change in compressive strength of unstressed concrete with temperature,
while Fig. 11 shows strength change and residual strength of stressed

Fig. 11 Effect of temperature on compressive strength of stressed concrete
Fig. 12 Recovery of strength in fire affected concrete with time
concrete subjected to higher temperateness. Lower strength reduction is resulted in stressed
conditions and the residual strength after cooling is much lower than that in the hot conditions.
The loss of strength is affected by the type of aggregate. In lighter concretes, the loss of strength
is less. It is also affected by the cement-aggregate ratio. The loss of strength in concrete recov-
ers to some extent with time as shown in Fig. 12.

Fig. 13 Effect of fire on modulus of elasticity of concrete

Fig. 14 Effect of fire on stress-strain of concrete
Modules of elasticity of concrete also shows a steady reduction with temperature as shown in
Fig. 13.
Most important is the effect of temperature on stress-strain relationship of concrete. Fig. 14
shows the effect of temperature on stress-strain curves of concrete, when tested under con-
trolled strain ratio. Increased temperature results in lower ultimate strengths but higher maxi-
mum strains.

Fig. 15 stress-strain curves for Mild Steel at high temperatures
For mild steel there is an increased in the ultimate strength at temperatures up to 300 0C, but it
reduces after 300 0C. Fig. 15 shows the stress-strain curves for mild steel at different tempera-
tures. The well defined yield point gradually disappears with increased temperature. Fig. 16
shows the change in ultimate strength of different types of steels at higher temperatures. High
strength steel looses strength at a slightly faster rate than mild steel. Table-1 summarises the
strength and modulus of elasticity of steel in different temperature ranges.
Table-1: Effect of temperature on properties of steel

Elastic properties Temperature range
20-300 0C 300-700 0C 700-900 0C
fyT T0 T 0 − 300 T 0 − 700
1− 0.9 − 0.1 −
fy 20 3000 500 200
ET T0 T 0 − 300
1− 0.9 − (300 − 900 0 C )
E20 3000 6110

Fig. 16 Effect of temperature on strength of different types of steel

Fire resistance of an element can be either obtained using a standard furnace test or it can be
computed analytically.
Standard Furnace Test
Most of the countries use standard furnace tests for fire resistance evaluation and have codes for
testing. An international specification ISO-834 is also available. In the test, prototype
construction is exposed to heating in a furnace, simulating the use of construction in the actual
building as far as possible. Fig. 17 shows the schematic arrangement of a fire resistance test
furnace. A standard temperature time curve is maintained in the furnace. Fig. 18 compares the
standard fire curves used in various countries. The fire resistance is expressed in units of time
for which various performance criteria one satisfied.

Fig. 17 Furnace for fire resistance test

Analytical Methods
A number of analytical and computational techniques along with software packages are now
available to analysis the building structures subjected to fire. Three approaches have been used
for analytical modeling of building components subjected to fire.
i. Empirical and code equations
ii. Limit state and plastic analysis
iii. Finite Element, Finite Difference and Boundary Elements methods.

Fig. 18 Standard Temperature-time curves used in various countries

Andrew H. Buchanen, Structural Design for Fire Safety, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2001.
ASTM E-l 19-88, Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials.
American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, 1988.
BS 5588, Code of Practice for Fire Protection, British Standards Institution, BSI, London.
Fire Resistance Design Manual, Gypsum Association, Evanston, 1984.
Harmathy, T.Z., "Ten Rules of Fire Endurance Rating," Fire Technology, 1(2), 1965, pp 93-102.
Harmathy, T.Z., Thermal Performance of Concrete Masonry Walls and Fire, Special Technical
Publication No. 464, ASTM, 1970.
International Standards Organisation, Fire Resistance Tests - Elements of Building Construc-
tion, ISO, 1977.
Lie, T. T., (ed.) Structural Fire Protection, ASCE, 1992.
Lie, T. T., "A Procedure to Calculate Fire Resistance of Structural Members," Fire and Materi-
als, 8(1), 1984.
Lie, T. T., Fire and Buildings. Applied Science, London, 1982.
M. Y. H. Bangash, Prototype Building Structures, Thomas Telford, 1999.
Malhotra, H. L., Design of Fire-Resisting Structures, Surrey University Press, London; Distrib-
uted by Chapman and Hall, 1982.
Chapter 20

A.S. Arya, Prem Krishna and N.M. Bhandari

The coastal areas of India receive a number of cyclonic wind storms practically every year
causing devastation over large areas due to (i) high speed winds, which destroy traditional
homes and uproot trees and electric line supports (ii) floods, caused by heavy rains, and (iii)
storm surge waters, first flowing towards the land then receding back towards the sea, drowning
people, destroying homes, agriculture, trees etc., whatever comes in the path of the flowing
waters. High speed wind storms on mainland also many times cause severe damage to build-
ings, particularly light weight roofs, free standing boundary walls, etc. Horticultural crops suf-
fer badly in both cases at sea coast and inland under high speed winds.
Although the main destruction during cyclones or high winds occurs in the traditional non-
engineered buildings built using local clay, stone, Adobe or agro based materials, the engi-
neered buildings having high sheeted roofs also suffer huge damage unless propriate precau-
tions are taken in design as well as construction. Even in heavy constructions, substantial non-
structural damage occurs to doors, windows, cladding wall panels, etc.
The aim of these guidelines is firstly, to briefly explain the action of wind on buildings and state
the general principles of planning and design; secondly, to bring out details to prevent the non-
structural damage in the various buildings; thirdly, to deal with the safety aspects of traditional
non-engineered buildings: and finally, to suggest retrofitting details which could be adopted in
existing buildings to minimise the damages under high winds. Suggestions are also included for
safety against storm surge.
These guidelines deal with the construction of wind/cyclone resistant buildings of both engi-
neered and non-engineered types. The proposed measures are generally applicable to wind re-
sistant construction, but have particularly been framed keeping in view the regions having wind
velocity greater than or equal to 39 m/sec. Wind zoning map of India is given in IS: 875 (Part 3)-
1987. The same has been redrawn for various States and Union Territories on 1:2.5 million
scale in the Vulnerability Atlas of India (1997)
Such additional issues or provisions which are specifically useful and/or required for cyclone
affected regions are highlighted.
* Published byBMTPC, Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation, Govt. of India, New Delhi
To improve the wind/cyclone resistance of existing buildings, some retrofitting measures have
also been presented.
Basic Wind Speed Zones
The macro-level wind speed zones of India have been formulated and published in IS: 875 (Part
3) - 1987 titled "Indian Standard Code of Practice for Design Loads (other than earthquakes) for
Buildings and Structures, Part 3, Wind Loads". There are six basic wind speeds `Vs' considered
for zoning, namely 55, 50, 47, 44, 39 and 33 m/s. From wind damage viewpoint, these could be
described as follows:
55 m/s (198 km/h) - Very High Damage Risk Zone -A
50 m/s (180 km/h) - Very High Damage Risk Zone - B
47 m/s (169.2 km/h) - High Damage Risk Zone
44 m/s (158.4 km/h) - Moderate Damage Risk Zone - A
39 m/s (140.4 km/h) - Moderate Damage Risk Zone - B
33 m/s (118.8 km/h) - Low Damage Risk Zone
The cyclone affected coastal areas of the country are classified in 50 and 55 m/s zones. The
basic wind speeds are applicable to 10m height above mean ground level in an open terrain with
a return period of 50 years.
Design Wind Speed and Pres-sures
The basic wind speed is re-
duced or enhanced for design
of buildings and structures due
to factors like (i) the risk level
of the structure measured in
terms of adopted return period
and life of structures (5,25,50
or 100 years), (ii) terrain
roughness deter-mined by the
surrounding buildings or trees
and, height and size of the
structure, (iii) local topography
like hills, valleys, cliffs, or
ridges, etc. Thus general basic
wind speed being the same in
a given zone, structures in dif-
ferent site conditions could
have appreciable modification Fig. 1. External wind pressure areas on building faces
and must be considered in
determining design wind velocity as per IS: 875 (Part 3)-1987.

The design wind pressure at height z above ground level on a surface normal to the wind streams
is given by

p z = 0.0006 Vz2 , whe (1)

Vz = design wind velocity, m/s
p z = design wind pressure, kN/m2

The value of wind pressure actually to be considered on various elements depends on
acredynamics of flow around buildings the windward vertical faces being subjected to pressure,
the leeward and lateral faces getting suction effects, and the sloping roofs getting pressures or
suction effects depending on the slope. The projecting window shades, roof projections at eave
levels are subjected to up-lift pressures several times the intensity of pz . These factors play an
important role in determining the vul-nerability of given building types in given wind speed
zones. For example, Fig.1 shows the various cladding areas of a building, which will have
different pressure coefficients.
Figures 2 and 3 show typical effects of openings in the walls for a given angle of attack of wind
as indicated; only one large opening in a wall will cause very large internal pressure say ± 0.7 pz.
which combined with external suction will increase the wind effects on cladding and their
connections immensely. A building with all windows and doors locked will have zero or very
small internal suction or pressure <0.20 pz . If a room has openings distributed in all walls or at
least in opposite walls and the overall porosity is less than 5%, the passage of air will cause only
low internal pressure say only 0.2 pz . Effects of wind uplift on roof projections can also be seen
in Fig. 2 and 3. For a design speed of 50 m/s, the basic pressure will be 1.5 kN/m2 and the design
pressures could be obtained by multiplying with the coefficients given in Fig. 2 and 3 for the
specimen cases shown. For other dimensions of length, width and height and direction of wind,
reference may be made to I.S: 875 Part 3-1987.
Areas of high local suction (negative pressure concentration) frequently occurring near the
edges of walls and roofs are separately shown in the code. Coefficients for local effects should
only be used for calculation of forces on these local areas affecting roof sheeting, the glass
panels, individual cladding units including their fixtures, they should not be used for calculat-
ing force on entire structural elements such as roofs, walls or the structure as a whole
Coastal Areas
The coastal areas are subjected to severe wind storms and cyclonic storms. It is known that in
certain events, the wind gusts could appreciably exceed the specified basic wind speeds (by as
much as 40 to 55%). But for design of structures (except those considered very important) the
above macro-level zoning stated in 3.1 is considered as sufficient.
The frequency of occurrence of cyclones on the different portions of the coast has been differ-
ent. Even for the same design wind speed in some areas, the risk of damage per year will be
higher in areas subjected to more frequently cyclones.

Fig. 2. Structural Load Coefficients, Fig. 3. Structural Load Coefficients, Internal
Internal and External Pressures and External Pressures (Openings in opposite
(Openings on windward side or large walls or low permeability case, internal
permeability case, internal pressure pressure coefficient taken as 0.2; h ≥ w/2, L
coefficient taken as 0.7;h ≥ w/2, L ≤ ≤ 1.5w)

Storm Surge
Besides the very high velocity winds, the coastal areas suffer from the onslaught of sea water
over the coast due to storm surge generated by cyclones. A storm surge is the sudden abnormal
rise in sea level caused by the cyclone. The surge is generated due to interaction of air, sea and
land. The sea water flows across the coast as well as inland and then recedes back to the sea.
Huge loss of life and property takes place in the process. The height of the storm surge is even
higher during the period of high tides. Scientists from India Meterological Department have
estimated the probable maximum heights of storm surge in various sections of the sea coast.
The estimated probable maximum storm surge heights are shown in the relevant state's wind
hazard maps in the Vulnerability Atlas of India. The area affected due to storm surge will be
more in flat terrain than in steeply rising terrain.
The wind pressures and suction effects on flat objects could be sufficient to lift them off and fly
away from their place of rest unless adequately tied down to substantial supports. Table 1 shows
the aerofoil effects of some wind speeds.
As a consequence of the wind pressures/suctions acting on elements obstructing the passage of
wind the following types of damage are commonly seen to occur during high wind speeds:
i uprooting of trees which disrupt transportation and relief supply mission
ii failures in many cantilever structures such as sign posts, electric poles, and
transmission line towers
iii damage to improperly attached windows or window frames
iv damage to roof projections, chajjas and sunshades
Table 1: Aerofoil Effect of Wind

Wind Speed m/sec Typical Movement
5-10 Lose aluminum sheets fly
10-15 Lose galvanized iron sheets fly
15-20 Lose fiber cement sheets fly
25-30 Lose concrete and clay tiles fly
30-35 Roof sheets fixed to battens fly
35-40 Small aircrafts take off speed
40-45 Roof tiles nailed to battens fly
45-50 Garden walls blow over
50-55 Unreinforced brick walls fail
55-60 Major damage from flying debris
60-65 75 mm thick concrete slabs fly
65-70 100 mm thick concrete slabs fly
70-75 120 mm thick concrete slabs fl y
75-80 150 mm thick concrete slabs fly

v failure of improperly attached or constructed parapets,
vi overturning failures of compound walls of various types;
vii failure of weakly built walls and consequent failure of roofs and roof covering;
viii failure of roofing elements and walls along the gable ends particularly due to high internal
ix failure of large industrial buildings with light weight roof coverings and long/tall walls due
to combination of internal and external pressures;
x brittle failure of asbestos- cement (AC) sheeting of the roofs of Industrial sheds; failure of
AC sheets is generally along eaves, ridges, and gable ends);
xi punching and blowing off of corrugated iron roofing sheets attached to steel trusses
xii though a thatch roof commonly employed in rural construction lacks durability, it provides
greater permeability and attracts less forces of wind compared to an impermeable mem-
Site Selection
i. Though cyclonic storms al-
ways approach from the direc-
tion of the sea towards the
coast, the wind velocity and
direction relative to a building
remain random. In non-cy-
clonic region where the pre-
dominant strong wind direc-
tion is well established, the
area behind a mound or a Fig. 4. Shielding of house by hillock
hillock should be preferred to
provide for natural shielding
(Fig.4). Similarly a row of trees
planted upwind will act as a
shield (Fig.5). The influence of
such a shield will be over a lim-
ited distance, generally from 8
to 10 times the height of the No shielding from high Shielding from high
trees. wind due to absence of wind by of barriers

ii. In hilly regions, construction along ridges should be avoided since they experience an ac-
centuation of wind velocity whereas valleys experience lower speeds in general as shown
in Fig .6.
iii. Cyclonic windstorms commonly generate storm tides leading to coastal inundation. In cy-
clonic regions, close to the coast a site above the likely

inundation level should be given preference. In case of non availability of high elevation natural
ground, construction should be done on stilts with no masonry or bracings upto maximum surge
level, or raised earthen mounds as shown in Fig. 7 to avoid flooding/inundation.
Planforms & Orientation
i. For individual buildings, a circular or polygonal plan shape is preferred over rectangular or
square plans, but from the view point of functional efficiency, often a rectangular plan is
commonly used. Where most prevalent wind direction is known, a building should be so
oriented, where feasible, that its smallest fecade faces the wind
ii. A symmetrical building with a compact plan-form is more stable than an asymmetrical
building with a zig-zag plan, having empty pockets as the latter is more prone to wind/
cyclone related damage (See Fig. 8)
iii. In case of construction of group of buildings with a row type or cluster arrangement (see
Fig.9) can be followed in preference to row type. However, in certain cases both may give
rise to adverse wind pressure due to tunnel action and studies need to be conducted to look
into this aspect
Roof Architecture
i. The overall effect of wind on a pitched roof building and the critical location are shown in
Fig. 10 to 13. It is seen that roof projections and wall not roof corners experience high
suction. According places where typical failures begin are shown in Fig. 10. Therefore, the
roof projections should be kept to a minimum, say not exceeding 500 mm, or else, the larger
projections be tied down adequately (Fig. 11).

Buildings in valleys protected from high Buildings in ridge attracting high wind
wind velocities velocities
Fig. 6 Appropriate location of buildings in hilly terrains

Construction at ground level risk If natural elevation not available construction
of innundation on stilts or artificially raised earth mounds
Fig. 7 Construction on raised ground / stilts to prevent innundation
Asymmetric building with empty pockets Symmetric buildings are more stable
are more vulnerable to damage
Fig. 8. Desirable orientation and plan form for reducing wind damage

Row planning creates wind tunnel Zig-zag planning avoids wind
effects tunnel evvects
Fig. 9. Group planning of buildings

Fig. 10 a. Roofing sheets Fig. 10 c. Reeper lifts from the

Fig.10b Roofing sheets lift at the end Fig.10d Holding down of rafter to wall

Fig.10 Types of roof damages due to wind

Large overhangs get lifted up Avoid large overhangs/use the/
and broken smooth finish on openings in overhangs, rough
walls undesirable finished walls desirable

Fig. 11. Overhangs

Fig. 12 a Gable ended roof get high up lift Fig.12 b Hip roof get lower uplift

Fig. 12 c Pyramidal roof gelowest up lift Fig. 13 Unclosed openings on windward
Fig. 12 Effects of roof architecture on up side creates high positive pressure
lift forces inside aiding up lift

Note: For rain protection, a minimum roof projection of 500 mm is desirable. Tying down.
will be very advantageous.
ii. For the purpose of reducing wind forces on the roof, a hipped or pyramidal roof is prefer-
able to the gable type roof (see Fig. 12).
iii. In areas of high wind or those located in regions of high cyclonic activity, light weight (Gl
or AC sheet) low pitch roofs either should be avoided or strongly held down to purlins and
rafters. Pitched roofs with slopes in the range 22-30° will not only reduce suction in roofs
but would also facilitate quick drainage of storm water.

Wall Openings
Openings in general are areas of weakness and stress concentration, but needed essentially for
lighting and ventilation. The following norms are recommended in respect of openings.
i. Openings in load bearing walls should not be within a distance of h/6 from inner comer for
the purpose of providing lateral support to cross walls, where h is the storey height upto
eave level.
ii. Openings just below roof level be avoided except that two small vents without shutter should
be provided in opposite walls to prevent suffocation in case room gets filled with water and
people may try to climb up on lofts or pegs.
iii. Since the failure of any door or window on wind-ward side may lead to adverse uplift
pressures under roof (see Fig.2, 3 and 13), the openings should have strong closing/locking
arrangement and lass/wooden panels be securely fixed (Fig. 14).

Large and thin unprotected Small and thick /wired glass protected
glass area in windows with guard bars /tapes / wooden
Fig. 14. Shutters and windows battens
Glass Panelling
a. One of the most damaging effect of strong winds or cyclones is the extensive breakage of
glass panes caused by high local wind pressure or impact of flying objects in air. The large
size door or window glass pane may shatter because they are too thin to resist the local wind
pressures. A broken glass pane of a windward side opening increases internal pressures
abnormally and may lead to a chain of events including a roof failure.
b. The way to reduce this problem is to provide well designed glass panels. In cyclonic re-
gions where the exposure to high wind and gustiness is sustained, it is recommended that in
designing glass panels any relief by way of increase in permissible stresses on account of
the consideration of wind load be not allowed.
c. Further, recourse may be taken to reduce the panel size to smaller dimensions. Also glass
panes can be strengthened by pasting thin plastic film or paper strips (Fig 15). This will
help in holding the debris of glass panes from flying in case of breakage. It will also
introduce some damping in the glass panels and reduce their vibrations.
d. Further, to prevent damage to the glass panels from flying wind borne missiles, a metallic
fabric/mesh be provided outside the large panels.
e. The locking arrangement of shutters should be sturdy and the door or window frames be
securely fixed in the walls using hold fasts (Fig.16) so as to resist the local wind pressures.
Fig. 15 Protection of Fig. 16 Adequate anchorage of door
glass panes and window frames with hold fasts
Buildings usually have shallow foundation for sandy soil and deep foundations for expansive
clayey soils. All shallow foundations should be designed as per IS: 1904-1978. It is desirable
that information about soil type be obtained and estimate of safe bearing capacity made from
the available records of past constructions in the area or by proper soil investigation.
In addition the following parameters need to be properly accounted for in the design of
i. Effect of Surge or Flooding - Invariably a cyclonic storm is accompanied by torrential rain
and tidal surge (in coastal areas) resulting into flooding of the low lying areas. The flurry of
tidal surge diminishes as it travels on shore, which can extend even upto 10 to 15 km.
Flooding causes saturation of soil and thus significantly affects the safe bearing capacity of
the soil. Also the likelihood of any scour due to receding tidal surge needs to be taken into
account while deciding on the depth of foundation, and the protection works around a raised
ground used for locating cyclone shelters or other buildings.
ii. Building on Stilts - Where a building is constructed on stilts it is necessary that stilts are
properly braced in both the principal directions. This will provide stability to complete
building under lateral loads. Knee braces will be preferable to full diagonal bracing so as
not to obstruct the passage of floating debris during storm surge. The pressure loading on
stilts is considerably different from buildings on ground.
iii. Building in Hilly Region - In case of hilly regions where construction is made after cutting
terraces on the hill slopes, it is essential that for the stability of slopes, a minimum edge
distance of the foundation from any terrace be kept 1.5 times the depth of foundation (Fig.17)
and foundation should rest on the natural firm strata. Further proper drainage of the area be
ensured allowing surface water to flow unobstructed.

Fig. 17 Recommended edge distance of foundations in hilly regions
The following procedure may be followed to design a building that will be resistant to damages
during high winds/cyclones.
Fix Design Data
a. Identify the national wind zone in which the building is situated. This can be seen from
wind code (IS: 875 Part 3-1987) or the Vulnerability Atlas of India (1997).
b. Corresponding to the zone, fix the basic design wind speed, Vb which can be treated as
constant upto the height of 10m.
c. Choose the risk co-efficient or the importance factor k1 for the building, as for example
given below:

Building type Coefficient k 1(1)

i. Ordinary residential building 1.0
ii. Important building (e.g. hospital; 1.08
police station; telecommunication,
school, community and religious
buildings; cyclone shelters, etc.)
d. Choose appropriate value of K2 corresponding to building height, type of terrain and size of
building structure, as per IS:875 (Part 3), 1987. For buildings upto 10m height and cat-
egory-A, which will cover the majority of housing, the values are:

Terrain Coefficient k (2)

i. Flat sea-coastal area 1.05
ii. Level open ground 1.00
iii. Built-up suburban area 0.91
iv. Built-up city area 0.80
e. The factor k3 depends upon the topography of the area and its location above sea level. It
accounts for the acceleration of wind near crest of cliffs or along ridge lines and decelera
tion in valleys etc.
Determine the wind forces
a. Determine the design wind velocity Vz and normal design pressure pz
Vz = Vb k1 k2 k3 (2)
pz = 0.0006 Vz kN/m2 for Vz in m/s
b. Corresponding to the building dimensions (length, height, width), the shape in plan and
elevation, the roof type and its slopes as well as projections beyond the waits, determine the
coefficients for loads on all walls, roofs and projections(2) as for example shown in
Figs. 1-3, taking into consideration the internal pressures based on size and location of
openings. Hence calculate the wind loads on the various elements normal to their surface.
c. Decide on the lines of resistance which will indicate the bracing requirements in the planes
of roof slopes, at eave level in horizontal plane, and in the plane of walls. Determine the
loads generated on the following connections:
- roof cladding to purlins,
- purlins to rafters/trusses,
- rafters/trusses to wall elements,
- between long and cross walls,
- walls to footings.
Design the elements and their connections
a. Load effects shall be determined considering all critical combinations of dead load, live load
and wind load. In the design of elements, stress reversal under wind suctions should be given
due consideration. Members or flanges which are usually in tension under dead and live
loads may be subjected to compression under dead load and wind, requiring consideration of
buckling resistance in their design.
b. .Even thin reinforced concrete slabs, say 75 to 100 mm thick, may be subjected to uplift
under wind speeds of 60 m/s and larger requiring holding down by anchors at the edges, and
reinforcement on top face! As a guide, there should be extra dead load (like insulation,
weathering course etc.) on such roofs to increase the effective weight to about 375 kg/m2 .
c. Since cyclonic wind could blow from any direction, building must have wind resistance
along both the axes.
d. Resistance to corrosion is a definite requirement in cyclone prone sea coastal areas. Paint-
ing of steel structures by corrosion- resistant paints must be adopted. In rein-forced con-
crete construction, a mix of M20 grade with increased cover to the reinforcement has to be
adopted. Low water cement ratio with densification by means of vibrators will minimise
corrosion. In important structures, epoxy coating of reinforcing bars should be considered.
The external surface should be treated with water proofing paints.
e. All dynamically sensitive structures such as chimney stacks, specially shaped water tanks,
transmission line towers, etc. should be designed following the dynamic design procedures
given in various IS codes.
f. The minimum dimensions of electrical poles and their foundations can be chosen to achieve
their fundamental frequency above 1.25 Hz so as to avoid large amplitude vibrations, and
consequent structural failure.
It may be emphasised that good quality of design and construction is the single factor ensuring
safety as well as durability in the cyclone hazard prone areas. Hence all building materials, and
building techniques must follow the applicable Indian Standard Specifications.
Design Considerations for Roofs
Depending upon the construction material used and the geometrical aspects, the roofs can be
broadly classified into two main types:
a. Flat roofs of various types
b. Pitched roofs with various covering materials

Their design considerations are stated here-below:
Flat Roofs
a. Flat roofs may consist of (i) R.C. slabs, (ii) wooden or R.C. joists, inverted T-irons placed
closely spaced and carrying brick tiles, stone slabs or reeds with clay topping, and (iii)
prefabricated R.C. elements of various designs placed side by side. Whereas R.C. slabs are
rigid in their own planes, the other types will require their integration through diagonal
bracing or topping R.C. screed (structural deck concrete).
b. Structural deck concrete of grade not leaner than M15 (M20 in cyclone areas) shall be
provided over precast components to act monolithic with them (Fig 18). Wherever, deck
concrete is to be provided, the top surface of the components shall be finished rough. Ce-
ment slurry with 0.5 kg of cement per sq.m. of the surface area shall be applied over the
components immediately before laying the deck concrete and the concrete shall be com-
pacted using plate vibrators. The minimum thickness of deck concrete shall be 35 to 40 mm
reinforced with 6 mm dia bars @ 150 mm apart bothways and anchored into the roof band
or tie beam placed all round.
c. In view of large uplift forces, particularly if wind speed could exceed 55 m/s, the total Roof
weight should preferably be kept about 375 kg/m'. Lighter roofs should be designed for net
hogging forces and properly held down to supporting beams/walls, etc.
d. Ferrocement (F.C.) is an emerging construction material having many advantages. A
ferrocement roof will have a reduced dead weigh compared to an R.C. roof, though it will
not be so light as an AC or Gl roof. Furthermore ferrocement has finer and well-distributed
cracks as compared to RC hence better corrosion resistance. This new material could be
used for flat or sloping roofs provided that the ferro-cement sheets are adequately an-chored
to the supporting walls/beams against the wind-uplift forces.

Fig. 18 Provision of reinforcement in structural deck concrete

Pitched Roofs
a. The main load bearing structural members are timber or steel trusses, purlins, and bracings.
The cladding may be of Gl or AC sheeting, tiles, timber planks or prefabricated R.C. or
Ferrocement elements. It will be preferable to use sheeting with adequate fixtures than tiles
in cyclone areas.
b. The different design requirements for pitched roofs are as follows:
Analysis and design of pitched roof is carried out as per provisions of relevant codes of
practice i.e. IS: 800-1984 for steel trusses and IS: 883-1970 for timber trusses. Underhigh
velocity wind along the ridge of pitched roofs, the suction forces may exceed the dead load
of the roof appreciably, causing compression in the bottom chord and stress reversals in all
truss members in general. Buckling consideration in all members of roof trusses which are
normally under tension, therefore, assumes significance. Therefore, the main ties of roof
trusses may requires lateral bracing and strutting against their buckling in lateral direction.
Note: Since the probable maximum wind velocities in coastal areas exceeds the design
velocities specified in the wind code, and the time duration for which a building is exposed to
high wind velocities is much larger than in a 'passing' storm, very important buildings and
structures may be designed for such probable velocities (see Vulnerability Atlas of India)

Fig. 19 a1 J bolt - cyclone connection for Fig. 19 a2 U bolt - cyclone connection for
roof cladding to purlins roof cladding to purlines

Fig. 19 b Fixing of corrugated Fig. 19 c Using reinforcing bands in
sheeting to purlines with bolts high suction zones
Fig. 19 Cyclone resistant connection details
c. .Connections for cladding - The corners and roof edges are zones of higher local wind
suctions (see Fig. 1 to 3) and the connections of cladding/sheeting to the truss need to be
designed for the increased forces as evidenced from past damage surveys, this is a vulner-
able zone. The local pressure co-efficient given in IS: 875 --
Part 3 may be used for design of connections such vulnerable areas. Further, failure at any
one of these locations could lead progressively to complete roof failure. Hence, particularly
in the cyclone affected zones, a reduced spacing of bolts 3/4 of that admissible as per IS:
800 is recommended. For normal connections J bolts may be used but for cyclone resistant
connections U-bolts are recommended as shown in Figs. 19 a1 and 19 a2. As an alternative
to the use of U-bolts, a strap may be used at least along the edges to fix the cladding with the
purlins as shown in Fig. 19(b) to avoid punching through the sheet. Properly connected
M.S. flat can be used as reinforcing band in high suction zones as shown in Fig. 19 (c)
In residential buildings in some areas, roof cladding may comprise of earthen tiles. Be-
cause of lower dead weight, these may be unable to resist the uplifting force and thus
experience heavy damage, particularly during cyclones. Anchoring of roof tiles into a R.C.
strap beam along the edges is recommended for improved cyclone resistance.
d. Anchoring of roof framing to wall/posts - The proper connection of roof framing to the
vertical load resisting elements i.e. wall or post, is equally important for overall stability of
the roof. Care is particularly needed while connecting roof trusses to R.C. columns or ma-
sonry walls in cyclonic regions, by providing properly designed anchor bolts and base plates.
Typical connection of wooden framing to wooden post is shown in Fig. 20 through cyclone
bolt or metal straps. The anchoring of roof framing to masonry wall should be accom-
plished through anchor bolts properly embedded into concrete cores. The weight of partici-
pating masonry at an angle of half horizontal to 1 vertical as shown in Fig. 21 should be
more than the total uplift at the support. In case of large uplift forces, the anchoring bars can
be taken down to the foundation level with a structural layout that could en-sure the partici-
pation of filler and cross walls in resisting the uplift.
e. Bracing -Adequate diagonal or knee bracing should be provided both at the rafter level and
the eaves level in a pitched roof (see Fig.22). The purlins should be properly anchored at
the gable end. It is desirable that at least two bays, one at each end, be braced both in
horizontal and vertical plane to provide adequate wind resistance. Where number of bays is
more than 5, use additional bracing in every
fourth bay.
In order to reduce wind induced flutter/vibration of the roof in cyclonic regions, it is recom-
mended that all members of the truss and the bracings be connected at the ends by at least two
rivets/bolts or welds. Further the cross bracing members be welded/connected at the crossings
to reduce vibrations.

Fig. 20 a Bolting Fig. 20 b Connecting roof frame to wall frame
Fig. 20 Connection of roof framing to wall framing
Masonry Walls of Good Design
These are usually made from rectangularised masonry units (with crushing strength not less than
5.0 MPa) bonded in cement/cement lime mortar (not leaner than 1:6 cement-and and 1:2:9
Cement-Lime-Sand). The commonly used masonry units are bricks, stones or concrete blocks.
The stability of walls under lateral wind loads depends on their hickness,
height and distance between transverse supports. Less height, larger thickness and less span
make them more stable

Fig. 21 Anchoring of roof framing in masonry

External Walls
All external walls or wall panels must be designed to resist the out of plane wind pressures
adequately. The mortar used will determine the permissible tensile bending stress as per IS:
1905-1987. In case of walls of large halls or industrial buildings (more than 8 m long) adequate
lateral restraint in the form of buttresses/piers should be provided.
In case of cellular plans with cast-in-situ R.C. slab, the lateral load due to wind is usually
resisted by all walls lying parallel to the lateral force direction in proportion of their stiffness
(by shear wall action). The walls are designed for their share of vertical and lateral load. The
provisions of IS: 1905-1987 need to be complied with for the safety of the walls.

Fig. 22 a Bracing in planes of rafters Fig. 22 b Eaves level knee bracing

Fig. 22 Typical roof bracings for industrial buildings

Strengthening of Walls Against High Winds/Cyclones

For high wind and cyclone prone areas (Vb ≥ 50 ms ) , it is found necessary to reinforce the walls
by means of reinforced concrete bands (equivalent to those required in masonry buildings in
seismic zone V vide IS: 4326-1993) as given below to be provided at the door-window lintel
level, eaves level of pitched roofs, below flexible flat roofs, and top of external gable walls. The
strengthening methods suggested herein need further research using probable maximum wind
speeds in cyclone prone sea coast areas, but are in the right direction and may be adopted for the
time being.
a. Lintel band is a band provided at lintel level on all load bearing internal, external longitudi-
nal and cross walls.
b. Roof band or eave band is a band provided immediately below the roof or floors. Such a
band need not be provided underneath reinforced concrete or brick-work slabs resting on
bearing walls, provided that the slabs are continuous over the intermediate wall.
c. Gable band is a band provided at the top of gable masonry below the purlins. This band
shall be made continuous with the roof band at the eaves level.
d. Section and Reinforcement of Band. See Table 2. The band shall be made of reinforced
concrete of grade not leaner than M15 or reinforced brickwork in cement mortar not leaner
than 1:3, and shall cover the width of end walls, fully or at least 3/4 of the wall thickness.

See Fig. 23 for details of reinforcement placing and bending.
e.. It is advisable that in wind velocity 50 m/s or higher velocity areas vertical reinforcing bars
are provided, against uplift, between the foundation and roof band and between eave band
and gable band, as follows:
- From foundation through Lintel One bar of 12 mm dia. H.S.D.
Band into Roof/Eave Bands at each corner and junction of walls
- Between Eave and Gable Band One bar of 12 mm dia. H.S.D.under ridge
and at every 2 m apart in between.

Fig. 23 a Section of band with 2 bars Fig. 23 b Section of band with 4 bars

Fig. 23 c Structural plan at corner junction Fig. 23 d Section plan at T junction of walls

Fig. 23 Reinforcement and bending detail in R.C. band
Table 2 : Recommended Longitudinal Steel in R.C. Bands
(High Strength Deformed Bars, Fe415)
Span Design Wind Speed, m/s
> 55 50-55 44-49 33-44
M No. of Dia. No. of Dia. No. of Dia. No. of Dia.
Bars mm Bars mm Bars mm Bars mm
5 or less 2 10 2 8 2 8 Nil -
6 2 12 2 10 2 8 Nil -
7 4 10 2 12 2 10 2 8
8 4 12 4 10 2 12 2 10

1. Span of wall will be the distance between centre lines of its cross walls or buttresses. For
spans greater than 8 m, it will be desirable to insert pilasters or buttresses to reduce the
2. Width of R. C. band is assumed same as the thickness of the wall. Wall thickness shall be
200 mm minimum. A clear cover of 20 mm from face of wall will be maintained.
3. The vertical thickness of R.C. band be kept 75 mm minimum, where two longitudinal bars
are specified, one on each face: and 150 mm, where four bars are specified.
4. Concrete mix shall be of grade M20 of IS 456: 1978 (or 1:1.5:3 by volume) in cyclone areas
and MI 5 in others.
5. The longitudinal steel bars shall be held in position by steel links or stirrups 6 mm dia
spaced at 150 mm apart.
Openings in walls create stress concentrations and are thus points of weaknesses. Yet these are
unavoidable. In general, large openings close to the corners, or, too many openings should be
avoided. The total width of openings in a load bearing or shearing wall should not exceed 50%
of the length of the wall. For taking the full advantage of return wall in the form of participating
effective flange width for providing lateral load resistance, no opening should be located within
a distance of 6 times the wall thickness or one twelfth of the storey height which ever ii less,
from the cross wall. The openings should be in a regular pattern to permit a smoother stress
Framed Buildings
As an alternative to vertical load bearing walls, reinforced concrete, steel, or timber framing
can be used. In R.C. constructions, the frame comprises of rigidly connected beams and col-
umns or posts. In steel and timber constructions, complete structural framing should be ad-
equately braced both in the vertical and the horizontal planes. Stipulations for cyclonic regions
as made in the foregoing section 5.5 dealing with walls are applicable to the cladding wall
panels also The recommended guidelines for the design of frames are as follows:
a. Loading - The different loads and load combinations to be considered for the design are as
per IS: 875 (Part 1 to 4). The dead loads, superimposed loads, wind and snow loads to be
considered are given in parts 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively.
b. Cladding - For enclosing the space it is necessary that cladding be provided, firmly secured
to columns or posts, on all the external faces and where partitioning is required. It is usual
to have masonry wall panels as cladding in buildings with R.C. framing. The design of
panel wall shall be carried out for out of plane local wind pressures as per IS: 1905-1987.
In industrial buildings corrugated galvanized iron/asbestos cement (CGI/AC) sheet cladding
maybe used for side covering. The design should be carried out for local wind pressures. Proper
attention be paid to connections specially near corners and roof edge where local pressures/
suctions are very high.

Alternatively, timber planks if available may be used for panelling particularly with timber posts.
The planks and their connections with end posts shall be designed as per IS: 883-1970.
Note: In cyclone affected areas CGI may either be avoided or designed for the pressures and
suctions caused by cyclonic winds. AC sheeting will be vulnerable to missile impacts, hence
preferably avoided.
c. Bracing -Adequate diagonal bracings with strong end connections shall be provided in
steel/timber framing in both the horizontal and vertical planes to improve their lateral load
resistance. In industrial buildings employing steel framing, at least the two end bays shall
be braced in the vertical and horizontal plane as per Pig.22. In timber framing it is normal
practice to brace each bay as well as to provide bracing in horizontal plane as shown in
Fig.24 so that complete structure is integrated.
d. Anchoring - The frame columns and shear wall where used shall be properly anchored in to
the foundation against uplift forces, as found necessary. For R.C. frames, usually a mono-
lithic footing is provided which provides due stability against uplift. In case of steel fram-
ing too, column posts are properly tied to steel/concrete footing through anchor bolts. For
timber posts usually cross pieces are nailed at bottom end of the post and buried into the
ground to provide necessary anchorage (Fig.-25).
Special care is necessary for corrosion resistance of connectors used below the ground, particu-
larly in cyclonic regions.

Fig. 24 Wind bracings in timber frames Fig. 25 Anchoring of wooden post using
cross pieces

Floors usually carry no wind loads unless the building is constructed on stilts (in a cyclonic
region). The design is carried out for vertical loads only. For a building on stilts, flow of wind
underneath the floor is possible, thereby causing wind forces (both uplift and suction type). The
forces as calculated using design wind pressures should be considered.
All constructions though using the conventional building materials but made intuitively with-
out carrying out a proper structural design and or constructed without adequate control at site,
with respect to both materials used and construction practices employed, may generally be
termed as non-engineered construction. All constructions in low strength masonry or clay mud,
and similar other forms of biomass, will fall under the category of non-engineered construction.
The cyclone resistance of non- engineered construction may be improved by following suitable
guidelines as given here below.
Roof Covering
i. In case of thatched roof it should be properly tied down to wooden framing underneath by
using organic or nylon ropes in diagonal pattern as shown in Fig 26 (a). The spacing of rope
should be kept 450 mm or less so as to hold down the thatch length. For connecting the
wooden members, use of non corrodible fixtures should be made. If non-metallic elements
are used, these may need frequent replacement (See Fig. 26 b).
ii. Projection of roof to be minimised, say not more than 500 mm in high wind/cyclone areas,
and, larger projections be properly tied. (see Fig.11).
iii. In case of roof tiles, the overlap joint along the edges should be provided in cement mortar.
In cyclones areas, tiled roofs should be provided with restraining concrete bands at a spac-
ing not exceeding 1.2 m, and connected to rafters as shown in Fig. 26 c & d. As alternative
to the bands, a cement mortar screed, reinforced with galvanised chicken mesh, may be laid
over the entire tiled roof.
iv. A through and through tie of bamboo or timber, instead of m.s. flat, be provided along the
edges of sheeted roofs, in addition to intermediate ties for long roofs (see Fig. 19c).
v. After a cyclone warning is received, all the lighter roofs should preferably be held down by
a rope net and properly anchored to ground (see. Fig. 27).
Low Strength Masonry Construction
Two types of construction are included herein, namely:
a. brick construction using weak mortar, such as clay mud or lime-sand
b Random rubble and half-dressed stone masonry construction using different mortars such
as clay mud or lime-sand.

Raise the ground to provided
a platform

Fig. 26 a Gable type roof house Fig. 26 b Conical roof house

Fig. 26 c Wooden member connection details

Fig. 26 d Connection of
concrete strip to rafter

Fig. 26 Have a secure roof jointing Fig. 27 Rope tie-backs for weak structures

These constructions should not be permitted for important buildings in cyclone areas and should
preferably be avoided for ordinary buildings. Where used, the following precautions should be
a. It will be useful to provide damp-proof course at plinth level to stop the rise of pore water
into the superstructure.
b. Precautions should be taken to keep the rain water away from soaking into the wall so that
the mortar is not softened due to wetness. An effective way is to take out roof projections
beyond the walls by about 500 mm.
c. Use of a water-proof plaster on outside face of walls will enhance the life of the building
and maintain its strength at the time of cyclone or high wind as well (see 7.4).
d. Free standing boundary walls should be checked against overturning under the action of
design wind pressures allowing for a factor of safety of 1.2.
Brick work in Weak Mortars
a. The fired bricks should have a compressive strength not less than 3.5 MPa. Strength of
bricks and wall thickness should be selected based on the total building height.
b. The mortar should be lime-sand (1:3) or clay mud of good quality.
c. The minimum wall thickness should be one brick in one storey construction and one brick
in top storey and 1.5 brick in bottom storeys of upto three storey construction. It should also
not be less than 1/16 of the length of wall between two consecutive perpendicular walls or
Stone Masonry (Random Rubble or Half-Dressed)
a. The mortar should be lime-sand (1:3) or clay mud of good quality.
b. The wall thickness 'f should not be larger than 450 mm. Preferably it should be about 350
mm, and the stones on the inner and outer wythes should be interlocked with each other.
c. The masonry should preferably be brought to courses at not more than 600 mm lift.
d. Through' stones of full length equal to wall thickness should be used in every 600 mm lift at
not more than 1.2 m apart horizontally. If full length stones are not available, stones in pairs
each of about 3/4 of the wall thickness may be used in place of one full length stone so as to
provide an overlap between them.
e. In place of 'through' stones, 'bonding elements' of steel bars 8 to 10 mm dia bent to S-shape
or as hooked links may be used with a cover of 25 mm from each face of the wall (see Fig.
28). Alternatively, wood bars of 38 mm x 38 mm cross section or concrete bars of 50 mm x
50 mm section with an 8 mm dia rod placed centrally may be used in place of 'through'
stones. The wood should be well treated with preservative so that it is durable against
weathering and insect action.
f. Use of 'bonding' elements of adequate length should also be made at corners and junctions
of walls to break the vertical joints and provide bonding between perpendicular walls.
g. Height of the stone masonry walls (random rubble or half-dressed) should be restricted to 2
storeys in lime-sand mortar and one storey when clay mud mortar is used, the storey height
to be kept 3.0 m maximum, and span of walls between cross walls to be limited to 5.0 m.

h. If walls longer than 5 m are needed, buttresses may be used at intermediate points not
farther apart than 4.0 m. The size of the buttress be kept of uniform thickness. Top width
should be equal to the thickness of main wall, and the base width equal to one sixth of wall
Openings in Bearing Walls
a. Door and window openings in walls reduce their lateral load resistance and hence should
preferably, be small and more centrally located. The total width of all openings should not
exceed one-third of total length of a wall.
b. Openings in any storey shall preferably have their top at the same level so that a continuous
band could be provided over them including the lintels throughout the building.
Strengthening Arrangements for High Wind Resistance
a. R.C. Bands. The walls should be reinforced with reinforced concrete bands as specified in
b. Wooden Band. As an alternative to reinforced concrete band, the band could be provided
using wood beams of two parallel pieces with cross elements as shown in Fig.29.

Fig. 28 a Sectional plan of wall Fig. 28 d Cross-section of wall

Fig. 28 Through stone and bond elements

Fig. 29 Wooden band for low strength masonry earthen buildings

Earthen Buildings
a. For the safety of earthen houses, appropriate precautions must be taken against the actions
of rain and flood waters and high winds. Minimum precautions are recommended herein.
b. Whereas dry clay block is hard and strong in compression and shear, water penetration will
make it soft and weak, the reduction in strength could be as high as 80 percent. Hence, once
built, ingress of moisture in the watts must be prevented by roof projection and water proof
`c. The following recommendations are low-cost and do not include the use of stabilizers,
which are rather costly though effective in increasing the strength and water-resistance of
the clay units or walls. Where feasible lime-stabilized compacted clay blocks or cement-
stabilized sandy soil blocks may be used with compatible stronger mortars.
Construction of Earthen Walls
Earthen walls may be constructed in the following four ways.
a. Hand-formed in layers using mud-lumps to form walls.
b. Built by using sun-dried blocks or adobe which may be cut from hardened soil, or formed in
moulds, or moulded and compacted and laid in courses using clay mud as mortar.
c. Built by using rammed earth in which moist soil is filled between wall forms and com-
pacted manually or mechanically
d. Constructed using wood, bamboo or cane structure encased in clay mud, or wood, bamboo,
cane or ikra mesh enclosures plastered with mud.
Whereas systems (a), (b), (c) depend on the strength of earthen walls for stability, the sys-
tem (d) behaves like wood frame.
Recommendations for Cyclone Areas
a. The height of the earthen building should be restricted to one storey only in cyclone area
and to two storeys in other zones. Important building should not be constructed with earthen
b. The length of a wall, between two consecutive walls at right angles to it, should not be
greater than 10 times the wall thickness t nor greater than 64 t2/h where h is the height of
c. When a longer wall is required, the walls should be strengthened by intermediate vertical
d. The height of wall should not be greater than 8 times its thickness.
e. The width of an opening should not be greater than 1.20 m.
f. The distance between an outside corner and the opening should be not less than 1.20 m.
g. The sum of the widths of openings in a wall should not exceed one third the total wall
length in cyclone areas and 40 percent in other areas.
h. he bearing length (embedment) of lintels on each side of an opening should not be less than
300 mm.
i. Hand-formed walls should preferably be made tapering upwards keeping the
minimumthickness 300 mm at top and increasing it with a batter of 1:12 at bottom.
j. The footing should preferably be built by using stone or fired brick laid with lime mortar.
Alternatively, it may be made in lean cement concrete with plums (cement sand gravel
:stones as 1:4:6:10) or without plums as 1:5:10. Lime could be used in place of cement in
the ratio lime: sand :gravel as 1:4: 8.
k. Plinth Masonry. The wall above foundation up to plinth level should preferably be con-
structed using stone or burnt bricks laid in cement or lime mortar. Clay mud mortar may be
used only as a last resort.
The height of plinth should be above the flood water line or a minimum of 300 mm above
ground level. It will be preferable to use a waterproofing layer in the form of waterproof mud
(see 7.4) or heavy black polythene sheet at the plinth level before starting the construction of
superstructure wall. If adobe itself is used for plinth construction, the outside face of plinth
should be protected against damage by water by suitable facia or plaster. A water drain should
be made slightly away from the wall to save it from seepage.
Strengthening of Earthen Buildings Against High Wind/Cyclones
a. Collar Beam or Horizontal Band. Two horizontal continuous reinforcing and binding beams
or bands should be placed, one coinciding with lintels of door and window openings, and
the other just below the roof in all walls in cyclone areas. Where the height of wall is not
more than 2.5 m, the lintel band may be omitted. Also only the band be-low the roof may be
used in other zones. Proper connection of ties placed at right angles at the corners and
junctions of walls should be ensured. The bands could be in the! following forms:
Unfinished rough cut or sawn (70 x 150 mm in section) lumber in single pieces diagonal mem
bers provided for bracing at corners (see Fia.30a)
Unfinished rough cut or sawn (50 x 100 mm or 7' x 70 mm in section) lumber two pieces in
parallel with halved joints at corners and junctions of wall placed in parallel (See Fig.30b)

Fig. 30 a Band with single timber and diagonal brace at corner

Fig. 30 b Band with two timbers in parallel

Fig 30 Wooden band in walls at lintel and roof levels

In each case, the lengthening joint in the elements shall be made using iron-straps with sufficient
nails/screws to ensure the strength of the original lumber at the joint.
Pilasters and Buttresses
Where pilasters or buttresses are used, at corner or T-junctions,.the collar beam should cover the
buttresses as well, as shown in Fig. 31. Use of diagonal struts al corners will further stiffen the
collar beam.
Earthen Constructions with Wood or Cane Structures
The scheme of earthen construction using structural framework of wood or cane, as shown in
Fig.32 consists of vertical posts and horizontal blocking members of wood or large diameter
canes or bamboo the panels being filled with cane, bamboo or some kind of reed matting plas-
tered over both sides with mud.

Fig. 31 Roof band on pillastered walls

Where pilasters or buttresses are used
at corner or T junctions, the collar Fig. 32 Earthen on site construction with cane,
beam should caver the buttresses as
bamboo or wooden structure
well. Used of diagonal struts at corners
will further stiffen the collar beam.
Plastering and Painting
The purpose of plastering and painting is to give protection and durability to the low strength
masonry walls (6.5) and earthen walls (7.3) and thatch roof, in addition to obvious aesthetic
a. In dry areas, plastering based on natural additives could be formed in two layers. The first
one of about 12 to 15 mm, is a mixture of mud and straw (1:1 in volume), plus a natural
additive like cowdung used to increase the moisture resistance of the mud, thus preventing
the occurrence of fissures during the drying process. The second and last layer is made with
fine mud which when dried, should be rubbed with small, hard, rounded pebbles.
b. In cyclone prone and other wet areas, the walls should be covered with waterproof mud
plaster. To obtain this, the following procedure may be followed:
"Cut-back should be prepared by mixing bitumen 80/100 grade and kerosene oil in the ratio
5:1. For 1.8 kg cutback, 1.5 kg bitumen is melted and is poured in a container having 300
millilitres kerosene oil, with constant stirring, till complete mixing. This mixture can now
be mixed with 30 litres of mud mortar to make it both, water repellent and fire resistant.
c. For improving water and fire resistance of thatch roof, the water proof plaster may be ap-
plied on top surfaces of the thatch, 20 to 25 mm thick, and allowed to dry. It may then be
coated twice with a wet mixture of cowdung and waterproof plaster in the ratio of 1:1, and
allowed to dry again.
d. The exterior of walls after plastering and thatch roof after treatment as explained above may
be suitably painted using a water-insoluble paint or washed with water solutions of lime or
cement or gypsum.
Framed Houses
The following guidelines should be used in building framed houses:
a. The main framing should be made with timber posts, bamboos or hollow pipes, and, ensur-
ing proper connections of post with eaves level beam and rafters, (see Fig.33).
b. Frames should be properly braced in both horizontal and vertical planes using knee braces
or using cross ties (Fig. 24)

Fig. 33 Wind bracing of frame

a. The drainage around the building be improved to prevent water collection tor the durability of
walls and foundations.
b. All posts be properly anchored into the ground or reinforced cement footing. Alternatively,
the posts with cross members connected at the tower end be embedded in ground (see
Fig.34) by a minimum depth of 750 mm.
c. Walls be raised from a well compacted lean concrete bed or well compacted ground, from a
minimum depth of 450 mm below the ground level (see Fig.35).

Softer the ground, deeper the posts should
be to withstand wind force

Fig. 34 Proper footings for timber post

Fig. 35 a Shallow foundation over Fig 35 b Adequate depth of foundations
loose soil to reach natural firm soil or pile founda-
tions more desirable

For all the existing structures not having adequate cyclone resistance, appropriate to the zone in
which located, retrofitting measures are advocated to reduce the risk of damage or failure.
Some measures along with approximate cost as a proportion of the cost of the building are given
in Table 3 for preliminary guidance. These measures are based on the lessons learnt from the
post-cyclone damage surveys conducted in the past. While the recommendations can be more
specific for engineered constructions, for non-engineered constructions the recommendations
would depend upon building typology, construction material and practices prevalent in the re-
gion. The retrofitting guidelines will generally arise from the guidelines already given for new
constructions. Some measures are indicated here below. It is however recommended that for
cyclone affected zones of the country, the retrofit measures be evolved through a detailed study
based upon building typology.
Engineered Constructions
In engineered constructions, the maximum wind forces should be evaluated as per the wind
code and various elements checked for the worst combination of dead and live loads to identify
the points of weakness requiring retrofitting. Some points for special attention are indicated in
following paras:
a. In case of light roofs (AC or CGI sheeting) connections near the edges should be strength-
ened by providing additional U bolts. M.S. flat ties may be provided to hold down the roof
in cyclonic regions. J-bolts if used earlier may be replaced by U-bolts.
b. All projections in roofs be properly checked for strength against uplift and tied down if
found necessary, particularly, if longer than 500 mm, (see Fig. 11).
c. All metallic connectors for different components of roof should preferably be of non-corro-
sive material, or else must be painted and checked before each cyclone season and doubtful
ones be replaced immediately.
d. There must be proper bracings (i) in the plane of rafters, in plan at eaves level, and, in the
vertical plane of columns along both axes of the building in sufficient number of panels
determined by recalculation (see Fig. 22).
e. Flat roofs may be integrated to behave as horizontal diaphragms and either weighted down
by dead weights or held down against uplift forces.
Framed Buildings
a. In case of a framed structure, the total system requires to be properly braced. If existing
lateral strength or bracing is inadequate, braces be provided to improve the overall stability.
b. All roof trusses be properly connected to posts. Particularly in a cyclonic region this should
be done with the help of anchor bolts or metallic straps.
c. Undesirable openings in the walls specially near the comers or edges be closed perma-
nently to improve the lateral support to the cross walls particularly in a cyclonic region.
Load Bearing Walls
a. Buttresses be provided to improve the lateral load resistance of long walls, achieving cross
wall spacing to less than 5m, thus reducing the unsupported lengths.
b. The exterior perimeter may be belted all round by using ferro-cement plating in the span-
drel wall portion between lintel and eave/roof levels.

Table 3:Retrofitting Measures for Buildings and Structures to Increase Cyclonic Resistance

S. No. Type Retrofit/ Maintenance Measures Approximate cost as a
proportion of cost of building
1. Non Engineered Building • Provisions of metal and nails Retrofit – 4.5%
Thatched House at joints Maintenance – 1%
• Holding down coir ropes
• Replacement of worn out
fibre ropes
2. Tiled Building • Concrete strips Retrofit – 8%
• Holding down rods Maintenance – 1%
• Metal straps for connection
to trusses
• Provision of eaves holding
down angle/ metal strap
• Maintenance replacement of
broken tiles, worn out bolts,
metal straps, etc,
• R.C.C. holding down rafters
3. Compound Wall Checking the available capacity Additional cost varies in the
and detailing retrofit measures range of 25 to 60% of new
consisting of reinforced construction satisfying the
concrete bends to obtain the design requirements.
required strength Retrofitting cost + existing
structure cost approximately
equals the cost of new
4. Lamp Masts • Provision of a foundation Cost of individual lamp mast
block and extending it upto a with foundation will be
certain height above ground increased by 40 to 50%
level to ensure natural
frequency is greater than 1.5
• Underground cables to
reduce load on lamp
mast/failure of masts by
falling branches of tress.
5. Water Tanks Ferro- Provision of holding Marginal
cement/Other down/preventing sliding etc.
Lightweight Tanks

Glass Panelling
a. The size of large glass panes be reduced by adding battens at appropriate spacing.
Large glass panes be strengthened by fixing adhesive tapes, along and parallel to diagonals, at
100-150 mm spacings prior to each cyclone season. Alternatively, thin plastic film be pasted on
both faces of the panes to prevent shattering.
b. Protective cover in the form of mesh or iron grill be provided to prevent breakage of
glass panels by flying missiles.

Door and Window Shutters
The locking arrangements for door and window shutters be strengthened to prevent opening of
doors/windows during cyclone/gust causing failure of glass panels as well as adverse suction
on roofs.
a. While checking the safety of a foundation, an allowance should be made for likely submer-
gence of the foundation in a cyclone region by appropriately reducing the safe bearing
capacity of soil.
b. Proper drainage around the building should be provided to prevent pooling of water in its
c. The plinth should be protected against erosion by using pitching of suitable type.
Non Engineered Constructions
a. In case of thatched roof it should be properly tied to timber framing on underside. Use of
metallic/synthetic connectors is desirable. Use of water proof mud plaster may be made to
make it leak proof.
b. In case of tiled roofs, the overlaps be jointed through use of cement mortar to provide more
c. While relaying of roofs, its slope be changed to about 20 to 30° to reduce the wind suction
on roof and thus reducing the damage potential. At the same time, eave level wooden band
should be introduced on top of walls (Fig. 29-31).
d. The wooden frame where used should be properly braced in both horizontal and vertical
planes by using knee braces or ties.
e. All mud walls have a limited life after which they need to be rebuilt and the suggested
strengthening by bamboo mesh placed at the middle can be affected only then. However,
for the existing walls such mesh may be provided on the inner face and the wall replastered.
f. For greater durability of wall against rain and water etc., external face of wall upto 1.0 to
1.5 m height above plinth level should be covered with burnt clay tiles laid in cement
mortar of 1:6 mix.
g. The roof rafters be properly tied to posts using metallic strap connectors.
h. All openings very close to wall edges be closed. All asymmetric non-closable openings be
filled up to eliminate any unfavourable roof pressure from within. Two small vents in oppo-
site walls close to the roof may be left open.
i. If the foundations of the posts are not made heavy enough to prevent uprooting of the
building, it is advisable that before the cyclone season a protective net be provided on the
roof and securely tied to the ground to prevent flying away of roof/building.

Chapter 21

Anand S. Arya
Professor Emeritus, Deptt. of Earthquake Engg., I.I.T. Roorkee
National Seismic Advisor, GoI-UNDP (DRM) New Delhi

Realizing that much of destruction during the earthquakes, namely Latur Maharashtra Earth-
quake 1993, Jabalpur Earthquake of 1997, Chamoli Earthquake of 1999 and the major earth-
quake in Kutch Gujarat in 2001, has been due to the buildings constructed without earthquake
safety measures as specified in Indian Standard Building Codes, the Ministry of Home Affairs
GOI, appointed an Expert Group (consisting of a Senior Town Planner, five Architects and six
Structural Engineers) to study the existing Municipal Byelaw's etc. and propose model Byelaws
and regulations to be incorporated in the various legal documents for saving the constructions
from earthquake and other hazards. The Expert Group studied at the town and country planning
legislations, development control regulations as well as building byelaws adopted in several
states in the past. The Expert group submitted its report in two volumes, Volume I dealing with
town and country planning legislation, land use zoning regulations, development control regu-
lations, and building byelaws in model form which could be adopted by the States and the Cities
by incorporating them in their existing documents. Volume II consisted of all the documents
studied by the Expert Group. This chapter presents the same in abridged form for ready refer-
ence. The reader is encouraged to go through Volume I of this report available in hard as well as
soft copy from the NDM division of Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India, North
Block, Central Secretariate New Delhi.
Definition Under Section 2
(a) Natural Hazard: The probability of occurrence, within a specific period of time in a given
area, of a potentially damaging natural phenomenon.
(b) Natural Hazard Prone Areas: Areas likely to have (i) moderate to very high damage risk
zone of earthquakes, OR (ii) moderate to very high damage risk of cyclones OR (Hi) significant
flood flow or inundation, OR (iv) landslide potential or proneness, OR (v) one or more of these
Moderate to very high damage risk zones of earthquakes are as shown in Seismic Zones III, IV
and V specified in 15:1893; moderate to very high damage risk zones of cyclones are those
areas along the sea coast of India prone to having wind velocities of 39 m/s or more as specified
in IS:875(Part 3) and flood prone areas in river plains (unprotected and protected) are indicated
in the Flood Atlas of India prepared by the Central Water Commission, besides, other areas can
be flooded under conditions of heavy intensity rains, inundation in depressions, back flow in
drains, inadequate drainage, etc. as identified through local surveys in the Development Plan of
the area and landslide prone areas as identified by State Government/Local surveys.
(c) Natural Disaster: A serious disruption of the functioning of a society, causing widespread
human, material or environmental losses caused due to earthquake, cyclone, flood or landslide
which exceeds the ability of the affected society to cope using only its own resources.
(d) Mitigation: Measures taken in advance of a disaster aimed at decreasing or eliminating its
impact on society and on environment including preparedness and prevention.
State Planning Board
Section 4: Functions and Power of the Board
4(2) (a): direct the preparation of Development plans keeping in view the natural hazard prone-
ness of the area by Local Planning Authorities
Section 11 Functions and Power of Local Planning Authorities
11 a) an Existing Land Use Map indicating hazard proneness of the area;
11 b) an Interim Development Plan keeping in view the Regulations for Land Use
Zoning for Natural Hazard Prone Areas;
11 c) a Comprehensive Development Plan keeping in view the Regulations for
Land Use Zoning for Natural Hazard Prone Areas;
Section 18 Interim Development Plans
18(2)(a) indicate broadly the manner in which the planning authority proposes that land in such
area should be used Keeping in view the natural hazard proneness of the area;
Section 19 Comprehensive Development Plan
19(2) The Comprehensive Development Plan keeping in view the natural hazard proneness of
the area shall-
Section 20 Development Plan
Prepared prior to the application of this Act to be deemed Development Plan under this Act;
If any local authority has been declared as a planning authority for a planning area & the local
authority has prepared a development plan for the planning area before the application of this
Act to that area, the development plan already prepared may be deemed to be a development
plan under Section 18 or Section 19 of this Act. However, when such plans are implemented

due care should be taken while formulating the projects based on such plans to follow the
Regulations pertaining to Land Use Zoning and necessary protection measures prescribed by
the Regulations.
Section 29 Prohibition of Development without payment of Development Charges and without
29(2): Any person or body (excluding a department of Central or State Government or local
authority) intending to carry out any development on any land shall make an application in
writing to the planning authority for permission in such form and containing such particulars
and accompanied by such documents and plans as may be prescribed by the rules or the regula-
tions including Development Control, Building Regulation/Byelaws for Natural Hazard Prone
Areas.Provided that in the case of a department of Central or State Government or local author-
ity (where the local authority is not also the planning authority) intending to carry out any
development on any land, the concerned department or authority, as the case may be, shall
notify in writing to the planning authority of its intension to do so, giving full particulars thereof
and accompanied by such documents and plans "complying with development control, building
regulations/bye-laws for natural hazard prone areas" as may be prescribed by the State govern-
ment from time to time
Section 73 Power to make Regulations
73(e) any other matter which has to be or may be prescribed by rules under Section 72(1),
Development Control and Building Regulations/Byelawsfor Natural Hazard Prone Areas;
73(f) any other matter which has to be or may be prescribed by regulation including Regulation
for Land Use Zoning for Natural Hazard Prone Areas.
a. Referred & Amendments suggested by identifying the relevant clauses in:
b. Model Regional and Town Planning and Development Laws 1985
c. Model Urban and Regional Planning and Development Law (Revised)
(Part if UDPFI Guidelines)
The regulations for Land Use Zoning for Natural Hazard Prone Areas are to be notified under
1. u/s 73(f) of Model Town & Country Planning Act, 1960; OR
2. u/s 143(f) of Model Regional and Town Planning and Development Law; OR
3. u/s 181(f) of Model Urban & Regional Planning and Development Law
(Revised) of UDPFI Guidelines as may be applicable in the respective States under the existing
provisions of Town & Country Planning Legislation as and when Master Plan/ Development
Plan of different cities/ town/ areas are formulated. However, these zoning regulations are to be
implemented through the provisions of Development Control Regulations/ Building Bye-Laws,
wherever the Master Plan are not in existence or not formulated.

Classification of urban land uses
It is based upon the requirements of the various plans. For example, a perspective plan, which is
a policy document, need not show many details of a specific land use and may only show the
main use which could be, say, residential or commercial. In the case of a development plan,
which is a comprehensive plan indicating use of each parcel of land, there is a need to show
more details of a specific land use. It has to indicate for the land designated as, say, commercial,
the further details as to which land is for retail commercial, or for wholesale trade or for godowns.
In the case of layouts of projects of a shopping centre further details shall be necessary, indicat-
ing which block of retail commercial is for, say, cloth or electronics or vegetables. There could
be three levels in land use classification shown under:
Level I For Perspective Plans
Level II For Development Plans
Level III For Layouts of Projects/Schemes LAND USE ZONING
Objectives of Land Use Zoning
1) The main purpose of the land use zoning is to provide regulations for development of a
particular area to serve the desired purpose efficiently and to preserve its character. It also
provides for the kind of buildings to be constructed. Zoning regulations are legal tools for
guiding the use of land and protection of public health, welfare and safety.
2) Such regulations also include provisions for the use of premises /property and limitations
upon shape, size and type of buildings that are constructed or occupy the land. Further, these
provide both horizontal as well as vertical use of land.
These regulations also improve the quality of life in urban centres For instance in flood zones,
the land use may be parks, playground & gardens while restricting any building activity in such
vulnerable areas.
3) Life line structures should also be protected likewise while either proposing land uses or
otherwise.4) Zoning protects residential areas from harmful invasions of other uses like indus-
trial use and commercial use. It does not prohibit use of lands and buildings that are lawfully
established prior to coming into effect of such zoning regulations. If such uses are contrary to
regulations in a particular 'use zone' and are not to be allowed, such uses are designated as 'non-
conforming uses'. These are to be gradually eliminated without inflicting unreasonable hard-
ship on the property owners/users.
4) The suggested list of uses/activities for various use zones should be comprehensive, keeping
in mind the local and special characteristics of various sizes of settlements (large, medium and
small). Depending upon the specific situation this list could be further enhanced or reduced, as
the case may be.
State Perspective Plan/Regional Plan
Development Plan (Master Plan/Zonal Development Plan)
While formulating Perspective Plan/Regional Plan, Development Plan (Master Plan/Zonal De-
velopment Plan) for any notified area, the proposals should indicate, Natural hazard prone areas
with the type and extent of likely hazards.
Areas not Covered Under Master Plan
1) In such areas where there are no Master Plans or Development Plans, general guidelines &
recommendations on natural disaster mitigation should be issued to the various local bodies,
Municipalities and Town Area Committees and Panchayats to enable them to take these into
consideration while siting various projects and deciding on construction of buildings etc.
2) Technical help may be required by some of the local bodies in implementation of the recom-
mendations and for interpretation of the guidelines.
Earthquake Prone Areas
1) Macro Seismic Zones III, IV & V
2) Area liable to liquefaction have greater risk.
3) Those hilly areas which are identified to have poor slope stability conditions and where
landslides could be triggered by earthquake or where due to prior saturated conditions, mud
flow could be initiated by earthquakes and where avalanches could be triggered by earthquake
will be specially risk prone.
4) Special risky areas have to be determined specifically for the planning area under consider-
ation through special studies to be carried out by geologists and geo-technical engineers.
Cyclone prone areas
1) Those areas likely to be subjected to heavy rain induced floods or to flooding by sea-water
under the conditions of storm surge, are specially risky.
2) Areas under those where special risk have to be identified by special contour survey of the
planning area under consideration and study of the past flooding and storm surge history of the
area. Survey of India or locally appointed survey teams, and by reference to the Central Water
Commission, Government of India and the department of the State or U.T dealing with the
Flood prone areas
1) These are in river plains (unprotected and protected by bunds) are indicated in the Flood
Atlas of India prepared by the Central Water Commission and reproduced on larger scale in the
state wise maps in the Vulnerability Atlas of India.
2) Besides, other areas can be flooded under conditions of heavy intensity rains, inundation in
depressions, backflow in drains, inadequate drainage, failure of protection works, etc. These
have to be identified through local contour survey and study of the flood history of the planning
area (Survey of India or local survey teams, and by reference to the Central Water Commission
and the departments of the state or U.T dealing with the floods).
Land Slide Prone Areas
1) The susceptibility of the various areas to landslide varies from very low to very high. Land-
slide zoning naturally requires mapping on large scale. Normally medium scale of 1:25000 is at
least chosen.
2) In preparation of the landslide zone map, two types of factors are considered important as
listed here below:
i) Geological/Topographic Factors/Parameters
- Lithology, Geological Structures/Lineaments, Slope-dip (bedding, joint) relation,
- Geomorphology, Drainage, Slope angle, slope aspect and slope morphology,
- Land use, Soil texture and depth, Rock weathering
ii) Triggering Factors
Rainfall, Earthquake, Anthropogeny
a) Leaving the area unprotected. In this case it will be necessary to specify Land Use Zoning for
various development purposes as recommended.
b) Using protection methods for the areas as a whole or in the construction of buildings, struc-
tures & infrastructure facilities to cater for the hazard intensities likely in the planning area.
c) It will be appropriate to prioritise buildings, structures & infrastructures in terms of their
importance from the point of view of impact of damage on the socio-economic structure of the
society as recommended under Regulation no. 6.
In regard to Land Use Zoning, different types of buildings and utility services are grouped
under three priorities as indicated below.
Priority 1. Defence installation, industries, public utilities, life line structures like hospi-
tals, electricity installations, water supply, telephone exchange, aerodromes and railway sta-
tions; commercial centres, libraries, other buildings or installations with contents of high eco-
nomic value.
Priority 2. Public and Semi Public institutions, Government offices, and residential areas.
Priority 3. Parks, play grounds, wood lands, gardens, green belts, and recreational areas.
i. Installations and Buildings of Priority 1 to be located above the levels corresponding to a
100 year flood or the maximum observed flood levels whichever higher.
ii. Buildings of Priority 2 to be located outside the 25 year flood or a 10 year rainfall contour,
provided that the buildings if constructed between the 10 and 25 yearcontours should have
either high plinth level above 25 year flood mark or constructed on columns or stilts,
with ground area left for the unimportant uses;
iii. Activities of Priority 3 viz. play grounds, gardens and parks etc. can be located in areas
vulnerable to frequent floods.
In order to ensure environmentally sound development of hill towns, the following restrictions
and conditions may be proposed for future activities.
1) An integrated development plan may be prepared taking into consideration environmental
and other relevant factors including ecologically sensitive areas, hazard prone areas, drainage
channels, steep slopes and fertile land.
2) Water bodies including underground water bodies in water scarces areas should be protected.
3) Where cutting of hill slope in an area causes ecological damage and slope instability in
adjacent areas, such cuttings shall not be undertaken unless appropriate measures are taken to
avoid or prevent such damages.
4) No construction should be ordinarily undertaken in areas having slope above 30° or areas
which fall in landslide hazard zones or areas falling on the spring lines and first order streams
identified by the State Government on the basis of available scientific evidence.
5) Construction may be permitted in areas with slope between 10° to 30° or spring recharge
areas or old landslide zones with such restrictions as the competent authority may decide.
Open Spaces
Out of the open spaces ear-marked as district parks, neighborhood parks and local parks in the
development plan, zonal plans and local plans, suitable and approachable parks/ open spaces
should be identified for the use during the emergency to provide shelter and relief caused by a
natural hazard. Such pockets should be clearly marked on the city maps.
This part deals with the development control rules and general building requirements to ensure
health and safety of the public. The regulations for Land Use Zoning in Hazard Prone Areas are
to be taken into consideration while formulating the Development Plan and Area Plan under the
Town Planning and Urban Development Act.
Every person who gives notice under relevant section of the Act shall furnish all information in
forms and format prescribed herein and as may be amended from time to time by the Competent
Authority. The following particulars and documents shall also be submitted along with the
1) The forms, plans, sections and descriptions to be furnished under these Development Control
Regulations shall all be signed by each of the following persons:
- A person making application for development permission under relevant section of the Act.
- A person who has prepared the plans and sections with descriptions who may be Architect
on Record or Engineer on Record.
- A person who is responsible for the structural design of the construction i.e. a Structural
Engineer on Record.
- A Construction Engineer on Record who is to look after the day-today supervision of the
- A Developer, Promoter

2) A person who is engaged either to prepare plan or to prepare a structural design and structural
report or to supervise the building shall give an undertaking:-
Certificate in the prescribed Form No.l by the "Owner, Developer, Structural Engineer on Record
and Architect on Record"; Form No.2 by the "Architect on Record"/ "Engineer on Record"; and
Form No. 3 by the "Structural Engineer on Record; Form No. 4 by the Construction Engineer on
Record" as prescribed in Appendix B.
No land shall be used as a site for the construction of building-
i) If the site is found to be liable to liquefaction by the Competent Authority under the earth-
quake intensity of the area, except where appropriate protection measures are taken.
ii) If the Competent Authority finds that the proposed development falls in the area liable to
storm surge during cyclone, except where protection measures are adopted to prevent storm
surge damage.
iii) In hilly terrain, the site plan should include location of land slide prone areas, if any, on or
near the site, detected during reconnaissance. The Authority in such case shall cause to ensure
that the site is away from such land slide prone areas.
iv) The site plan on a sloping site may also include proposals for diversion of the natural flow of
water coming from uphill side of the building away from the foundation.
Grant or Refusal of the Permission for Development
On receipt of the application for Development Permission, the Competent Authority after mak-
ing such inquiry and clearance from such an expert whenever considered necessary for the
safety of building, as it thinks fit may communicate its decisions granting with or without con-
dition including condition of submission of detailed working drawing/ structural drawing along
with soil investigation report before the commencement of the work or refusing permission to
the applicant as per the provisions of the Act.
The Competent Authority, however, may consider to grant exemption for submission of work-
ing drawing, structural drawing and soil investigation report in case the Competent Authority is
satisfied that in the area where the proposed construction is to be taken, similar types of struc-
ture and soil investigation reports are already available on record and such request is from an
individual owner/developer, having plot of not more than 500 sq mt. in size and for a maximum
3 storeyed residential building.
If the local site conditions do not require any soil testing or if a soil testing indicates that no
special structural design is required, a small building having upto ground + 2 floors, having load
bearing structure, may be constructed.If the proposed small house is to be constructed with load
bearing type masonry construction technique, where no structural design is involved, no certifi-
cate from a Structural Engineer on Record will be required (to be attached with Form No.2).
However, a Structural Design Basis Report (Form No. 6), has to be submitted, duly filled
in.Notwithstanding anything stated in the above regulations it shall be incumbent on every
person whose plans have been approved to submit revised (amended) plans for any structural

deviations he proposes to make during the course of construction of his building work and the
procedure laid down for plans or other documents here to before shall apply to all such Revised
(amended) plans.
List of BIS Codes to be Complied with
For General Structural Safety
For Cyclone/Wind Storm Protection
For Earthquake Protection
For Protection of Landslide Hazard
A list is given in Annexure 2.
In compliance of the design with the above Indian Standard, the Structural Engineer on Record
will submit a structural design basis report in the Proforma attached herewith (Annexure 3)
covering the essential safety requirements specified in the Standard. The"Structural Design
Report (SDBR)"consists of four parts
Part-1 - General Information/ Data
Part-2 - Load Bearing Masonry Buildings
Part-3 - Reinforced Concrete Buildings
Part-4- Steel Buildings
This report is to accompany the application for Building Development Permission.
Structural Design Review Panel
- The Competent Authority shall create a Structural Design Review Panel (SDRP) consisting
of senior SER's and SDAR's whose task will be to review and certify the design prepared by
SER or SDAR whenever referred by the competent authority.
- The Reviewing Agency shall submit addendum to the certificate or a new certificate in case
of subsequent changes in structural design.
- Table-1 gives requirements of SDRP for different seismic zones namely III, IV and V and
for structures of different complexities
- In seismic Zone II, buildings & structures greater than 40m in height will require proof
checking by SDRP as per detail at si. no.03 of Table 1.
All construction except load bearing buildings upto 3 storeys shall be carried out under the
supervision of the Construction Engineer on Record (CER) or construction Management Agency
on Record (CMAR) for various seismic zones.
Certification of Structural Safety in Construction
CER/CMAR shall give a certificate of structural safety of construction as per proforma given in
Form-13 at the time of completion.

All the construction higher than 7 storeys, public building & special structures shall be carried
out under quality inspection program prepared and implemented under the Quality Auditor on
Record (QAR) or Quality Auditor Agency on Record (QAAR) in Seismic Zones IV & V
Certification of Safety in Quality of Construction
Quality inspection to be carried on the site shall be worked out by QAR/QAAR in consultation
with the owner, builder, CER/CMAR. QAR/QAAR shall give a certificate of quality control as
per proforma given in Form - 15
Other Issues
Vol I of the Expert Group also covers the following issues:
a). Structural Requirements Of Low Cost Housing
b). Inspection
- General Requirements
- Record of Construction Progress
- Issue of Occupancy Certificate
c). Protective Measures In Natural Hazard Prone Areas
d). Registration Of Professionals
e). Appointment Of Professionals
f). Protection Against Hazard
g). Registration, Qualifications And Duties Of Professionals
h). General Duties And Responsibilities Applicable To All Professionals
1) Certificate Of Undertaking For Hazard Safety Requirement
2) Certificate Of Undertaking Of Architect On Record/Engineer On Record
3) Certificate Of Undertaking Of Structural Engineer On Record (Ser)
4) Certificate Of Undertaking Of The Construction Engineer On Record
5) Development Permission
6) Structural Design Basis Report
7) Progress Certificate
8) Progress Certificate - First Storey
9) Progress Certificate - Middle Storey In Case Of High-Rise Building
10) Progress Certificate - Last Storey
11) Completion Report
12) Building Completion Certificate By Architect On Record
13) Building Completion Certificate By Construction Engineer on Record
14) Building Completion Certificate By Structural Engineer On record
15) Model Proforma For Technical Audit Report
16) Structural Inspection Report

Annexure - 1
Documents Referred - 1
(i)Town and Country Planning Legislation
a. Model Town & Country Planning Act 1960
b. Model Regional and Town Planning and Development Laws 1985
c. Model Urban and Regional Planning and Development Law (Revised) (Part if UDPFI Guide
d. Legislation on Earthquake Safety in the State of Uttaranchal.
Document Referred - 2
Land use Zoning, Development Control and Building Regulations
a. Land use Zoning and Protection of Buildings of Essential Services Guidelines for Disaster
Preventions (document prepared by BMTPC/ADPC)
b. Review of Current State Legislation on Earthquake Safety in the State of Uttaranchal - a
study conducted by BMTPC-ADPC.c. Development Control Rules, Master Plan
Regulations & Building Bye-laws in the local bodies of Uttaranchal - a Study conducted by
BMTPC-ADPC.d. Development Control Regulations of Ahmedabad Urban Development
Authority (AUDA)
e. Development Control Regulations of Mumbai
f. Development Control Regulations of Pune
g. Development Control Regulations of Delhi
h. Draft National Building Code - Part 2 pertaining to administration, and Part 4 per
taining to fire & life safety.

Annexure - 2
- IS: 456:2000 "Code of Practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete
- IS: 800-1984 "Code of Practice for General Construction in Steel
- IS:801-1975 "Code of Practice for Use of Cold Formal Light Gauge Steel Structural Mem-
bers in General Building Construction
- IS:875 ( Part 2):1987Design loads ( other than Eq.) for buildings &structures Part2 Imposed
- IS:875 ( Part 3):1987Design loads ( other than Eq.) for buildings and structures Part 3 Wind
LoadsIS:875 ( Part 4):1987Design loads ( other than Eq.) for buildings and structures Part
4 Snow LoadsIS:875 ( Part 5):1987Design loads ( other than Eq.) for buildings and struc-
tures Part 5 Special loads and load combination
- IS:883:1966 "Code of Practice for Design of Structural Timber in Building
- IS:1904:1987 "Code of Practice for Structural Safety of Buildings: Foundation"
- 1S:1905:1987 "Code of Practice for Structural Safety of Buildings: Masonry
- IS 2911 (Part 1): Section 1: 1979 "Code of Practice for Design and Construction of Pile
Foundation Section 1
Part 1: Section 2 Based Cast-in-situ Piles
Part 1: Section 3 Driven Precast Concrete Piles
Part 1: Section 4 Based precast Concrete Piles
Part 2: Timber Piles
Part 3: Under Reamed Piles
Part 4: Load Test on Piles
IS: 875 (3)-1987 "Code of Practice for Design Loads (other than Earthquake) for Buildings and
Structures, Part 3, Wind Loads"
Guidelines (Based on IS 875 (3)-1987) for improving the Cyclonic
Resistance of Low rise houses and other building
- IS:1893-2002 "Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures (Fifth Revision)"
- 1S:13920-1993 "Ductile Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Structures subjected to Seismic
Forces - Code of Practice"
- 1S:4326-1993 "Earthquake Resistant Design & Construction of Buildings - Code of Practice
(Second Revision)"
- 1S:13828-1993 "Improving Earthquake Resistance of Low Strength Masonry Buildings -
- 1S:13827-1993 "Improving Earthquake Resistance of Earthen Buildings- Guidelines",
- 1S:13935-1993 "Repair and Seismic Strengthening of Buildings - Guidelines"IS:14458 (Part
1): 1998 Guidelines for retaining wall for hill area: Part 1 Selection of type of wall.
- IS:14458 (Part 2): 1997 Guidelines for retaining wall for hill area: Part 2 Design of retaining/
breast walls
- IS:14458 (Part 3): 1998 Guidelines for retaining wall for hill area: Part 3 Construction of dry
stone walls
- IS:14496 (Part 2): 1998 Guidelines for preparation of landslide - Hazard zonation maps in
mountainous terrains.

Annexure - 3
1. This report to accompany the application for Building Development Permission.
2. In case information on items 3, 10, 17, 18 and 19 can not be given at this time, it should be
submitted at least one week before commencement of construction.
Part 1 General Data
S.No. Description Information Notes
1 Address of the building
- Name of the building
- Plot number
- Subplot number
- TPS scheme
a. Name
b. Number
- Locality/Township
- District
2 Name of owner
3 Name of Builder on record
4 Name of Architect/Engineer
on record
5 Name of Structural engineer
on record
6 Use of the building
7 Number of storeys above ground
level (including storeys to be
added later, if any)
8 Number of basements below
ground level
9 Type of structure
- Load bearing walls
- R.C.C frame
- R.C.C frame and Shear walls
- Steel frame
10 Soil data
- Type of soil
- Design safe bearing capacity IS: 1893 Cl. 1904
11 Dead loads (unit weight adopted)
- Earth
- Water
- Brick masonry

- Plain cement concrete
- Reinforced cement concrete
- Floor finish
- Other fill materials
- Piazza floor fill and landscape IS: 875 Part 1
12 Imposed (live) loads
- Piazza floor accessible to Fire Tender
- Piazza Floor not accessible to Fire Tender
♥ - Floor loads
♦ - Roof loads IS: 875 Part 2
13 Cyclone / Wind
- Speed
- Design pressure intensity IS: 875 Part 3
14 Seismic zone IS:1893 2002)
15 Importance factor IS:1893 (2002)
Table 6
16 Seismic zone factor(Z) IS:1893 Table 2
17 Response reduction factor IS: 1893 Table-7
18 Fundamental natural period- approximate IS: 1893 Cl. 7.6
19 Design horizontal acceleration spectrum IS: 1893 Cl. 6.4.2
value (Ah)
20 ♠ Expansion / Separation Joints

♥ Enclose small scale plans of each floor on A4 sheets
♦ Incase terrace garden is provided, indicate additional fill load and live load
♠ Indicate on a small scale plan on A4 sheet

Part 2 Load bearing masonry buildings
S.No. Description Information Notes
IS:4326 Cl. 7
1 Building category read with IS: 1893

Bldg zone II III IV V
Ordin B C D E
Impor C D E E
2 Basement Provided
3 Number of floors including Ground
Floor (all floors including stepped
floors in hill slopes)
4 Type of wall masonry
5 Type and mix of Mortar IS:4326 Cl. 8.1.2
6 Re: size and position of openings IS:4326 Table 4, Fig.7
(See note No.1)
• Minimum distance (b5)
• Ratio (b 1+b2+b3)/l1 or
• Minimum pier width
between consequent
opening (b4)
• Vertical distance (h3)
• Ratio of wall height to
• Ratio of wall length
between cross wall to

7 Horizontal seismic band P IP NA (see note no.2)
• at plinth level 1 1 1
• at window sill level 1 1 1 IS:4326 Cl. 8.4.6
1 1 1 IS:4326 Cl. 8.3
• at lintel level 1 1 1
• at ceiling level IS:4326 Cl. 8.4.2
• at eave level of sloping roof 1 1 1 IS:4326 Cl. 8.4.3
• at top of gable walls 1 1 1 IS:4326 Cl. 8.4.3
• at top of ridge walls 1 1 1
IS:4326 Cl. 8.4.4

8 Vertical reinforcing bar
• at corners and T junction of 1 1 1
walls IS:4326 Cl. 8.4.8
• at jambs of doors and
window openings 1 1 1 IS:4326 Cl. 8.4.9

Part 3 Reinforced concrete framed buildings
Sl Description Information Notes
1 Type of Building
i Regular frames IS: 1893 Cl. 7.1
i Regular frames with Shear walls
i Irregular frames
i Irregular frames with shear walls
i Soft storey
2 Number of basements
3 Number of floors including ground floor
Horizontal floor system
i Beams and slabs
i Waffles
i Ribbed Floor
i Flat slab with drops
i Flat plate without drops
Soil data
i Type of soil IS: 1498
i Recommended type of foundation
- Independent footings
- Raft
- Piles
i Recommended bearing capacity of soil
i Recommended, type, length, diameter and
load capacity of piles
i Depth of water table
i Chemical analysis of ground water
i Chemical analysis of soil
i Depth below ground level
i Type
§ Independent
§ Interconnected
§ Raft
§ Piles
7 IS: 1893 Cl. 7.12.1
System of interconnecting foundations
i Plinth beams
i Foundation beams
8 Grades of concrete used in different parts of
9 Method of analysis used
10 Computer software used
11 Torsion included IS: 1893 Cl. 7.9

12 Base shear
a. Based on approximate fundamental IS: 1893 Cl. 7.5.3
b. Based on dynamic analysis
c. Ratio of a/b
13 Distribution of seismic forces along the height IS:1893 Cl. 7.7
of the building (provide sketch)

14 The column of soft ground storey specially IS:1893 Cl. 7.10
15 Clear minimum cover provided in IS: 456 Cl. 26.4
• Footing
• Column
• Beams
• Slabs
• Walls
16 Ductile detailing of RC frame
• Type of reinforcement used IS: 456 Cl. 5.6
• Minimum dimension of beams IS:13920 Cl. 6.1
• Minimum dimension of columns IS:13920Cl. 7.1.2
• Minimum percentage of reinforcement IS: 456 Cl.
of beams at any cross section IS:13920 Cl. 6.2.1
• Maximum percentage of reinforcement IS: 456 Cl.
at any section of beam IS:13920 Cl. 6.2.2
• Spacing of transverse reinforcement in IS: 13920 Cl. 6.3.5
2-d length of beams near the ends
• Ratio of capacity of beams in shear to
capacity of beams in flexure
• Maximum percentage of reinforcement
in column
• Confining stirrups near ends of IS: 456 Cl.
columns and in beam-column joints
a. Diameter
b. Spacing IS: 13920 Cl. 7.4
• Ratio of shear capacity of columns to
maximum seismic shear in the storey
General Notes
1. A certificate to the effect that this report will be completed and submitted at least one month before commencement of
Construction shall be submitted with the application for Building Development Permission.
2. In addition to the completed report following additional information shall be submitted, at the latest, one month
before commencement of Construction
2.1 Foundations
2.1.1 Incase raft foundation has been adopted indicate K value used for analysis of the raft
2.1.2 Incase pile foundations have been used give full particulars of the piles, type, dia, length, capacity
2.1.3 Incase of high water table indicate system of countering water pressure, and indicate the existing water table,
and that assumed to design foundations.
2.2 Idealization for Earthquake analysis
2.2.1 Incase of a composite system of shear walls and rigid frames, give distribution of base shear in the two systems on the
basis of analysis, and that used for design of each system.
2.2.2 Indicate the idealization of frames and shear walls adopted in the analysis with the help of sketches.
2.3 Submit framing plans of each floor
2.4 Incase of basements, indicate the system used to contain earth pressures

Part 4 Buildings in Structural Steel
1 Adopted method of Design O Simple IS: 800; Cl. 3.4.4
O Semi-rigid IS: 800; Cl. 3.4.5
O Rigid IS: 800; Cl. 3.4.6

2 Design based on O Elastic analysis IS: 800; Section-9
O Plastic analysis SP: 6 (6)

3 Floor Construction O Composite
O Non-composite
O Boarded

4 Roof Construction O Composite
O Non-composite
O Metal
O Any other

5 Horizontal force resisting O Frames Note: Seismic force
system adopted O Braced frames As per IS: 1893Would
O Frames & shear depend on system

6 Slenderness ratios maintained Members defined in IS: 800; Cl. 3.7
Table 3.1, IS: 800

7 Member deflection limited to Beams, Rafters IS: 800; Cl. 3.13
Crane Girders
Top of Columns

8 Structural members O Encased in IS: 800; Section-10
O Not encased

9 Proposed material O General weld-able IS: 2062
O High strength IS: 8500
O Cold formed IS: 801, 811
O Tubular IS: 806

10 Minimum metal thickness O Hot rolled sections IS: 800, Cl. 3.8
Specified for corrosion O Cold formed sections Cl. 3.8.1 to Cl. 3.8.4
protection O Tubes Cl. 3.8.5
Cl. 3.8.5
11 Structural connections O Rivets IS: 800; Section-8
O C T Bolts IS: 1929,2155,1149

O S H F G Bolts IS: 6639, 1367
O Black Bolts IS: 3757, 4000
O Welding- IS: 1363, 1367
Field IS: 816, 814, 1395,
Shop 7280, 3613, 6419
(Specify welding 6560, 813, 9595
type proposed)
O Composite

12 Minimum Fire rating O Rating —— hours IS: 1641, 1642, 1643
Proposed, with method O Method proposed-
- In tumescent
- Spraying
- Quilting
- Fire retardant

Chapter 22

Anand S. Arya
Professor Emeritus, Deptt. of Earthquake Engg., I.I.T. Roorkee
National Seismic Advisor, GoI-UNDP (DRM) New Delhi

The essential structural details required in the drawings of reinforced concrete multi-storey
buildings are briefly outlined below for the guidance of the practicing architects, the structural
engineers and the municipal engineers. All the details may not be covered in this brief note
which may have been learnt through the course of this training programme and may be added by
the trainers and the trainee engineers.
As the structural safety under earthquake depends to a large extent on the configuration adopted
by the architect, the following items may be considered most important in the architectural
(i) Proper load path from the roof to the foundation without discontinuity in the columns/shear
walls. That is, use of floating columns on cantilever beams is undesirable.
(ii) Discontinuity in the provision of infill wall panels whether in the ground storey or in any
intermediate storey. Wherever this has to be adopted special design of the columns in such
storeys will require larger size and other continuity details.
(iii) To achieve equal seismic resistance along both longitudinal and transverse direction of the
building, the larger dimension of the column should be oriented along both axes to the e x -
tent of about 50% each. Alternatively, shear walls will need to be provided along both
axes of the building, preferably on the periphery of the building.
(iv) Buildings should either be founded on raft or individual column footings must be con
nected along both axes of the building using substantial beams at foundation or plinth level.
(v) Water tanks, elevator machine rooms, parapets etc., that is, elements projecting above the
roof will need to be supported by substantial RC columns.
(vi) The RC columns should have minimum dimension of the cross section not less than 300
Normally the structural drawings are prepared in the following sequence:-
ST-00 :- General instructions and detailing of reinforcement.

This drawing covers general notes, abbreviations used, concrete mix to be adopted, cover to be
adopted on various elements like slab, beam, column & foundation, overlap length, camber to be
adopted in slab & beam, construction details like overlapping positions, beam column junction
details, sketched showing RC footing, column detailing upto roof, shape of stirrups to be used in
beam & column etc. (see dwg. ST-00 attached herewith)
ST-01 :- Column & Footing details
This gives the dimensions of all column & footing as well as the stirrup details to be adopted in
the column (see dwg. ST-01 attached herewith).
ST-02 :- Plinth beam details
This shows plan of plinth beams and reinforcing details of the various plinth beams, their longitu-
dinal as well as transverse sections (see dwg. ST-02 attached herewith).
ST-03 :- First Floor Reinforcement details (Roof of ground storey)
This shows the reinforcement of the slab and beams including longitudinal & transverse sections
(see dwg. ST-03 attached herewith).
ST-04,5,6………n :- Details of each floor and roof
ST-n+1:- Other element details
Structural drawings of other elements like staircases, staircase mumty, elevator machine rooms,
over head water tanks, cantilever balconies etc. to be furnished.

Note:- The checking engineer should verify the anchorage and continuity of reinforcement
through all beam column junctions, ensuring that the reinforcement of beams & columns includ-
ing their anchorages can indeed be contained in the joint with enough space for concreting and
concrete compaction. In this process the beam bars should not be required to be kinked to enter
the connections. A bar with a kink will not remain effective to resist the tension which the
reinforcement is supposed to resist under vertical or lateral load.

Chapter 23
While constructing new buildings, follow building codes and other sound practices to minimize
earthquake disaster. Build on firm ground or go right up to the bed rock level when laying
foundations. Avoid filled up areas for construction as far as possible.
Place large and heavy objects at either ground level or in lower shelves of storage almirahs etc.
Do not stack glass or crystal-ware, as slight shaking will topple it.
Anchor overhead lighting fixtures appropriately to check their fall in shaking.
Provide strong support to gas and power appliances.
Teach responsible members of your family how to turn off electricity, gas, and water at main
switches and valves. (Check with your utilities office for instructions).
Provide for responsible members of your family to receive basic first aid instructions because
medical facilities may be overloaded immediately after a severe earthquake. call your local red
cross or civil defense authorities for information about such training.
Remain calm and think through the consequences of any action you plan to take. try to calm and
reassure others.
Encourage others to follow your example and do not run outside in panic.
If indoors, watch for falling plasters, bricks/stones light fixtures, high book cases, shelves and
others cabinets, which might slide or topple.
Stay away from glass windows, mirrors, chimneys and other projecting parts of the building.
If in dander, get under a table, desk or bed in a corner away from the window.
If outside, avoid being close to high buildings, walls, power poles and other objects that could
If possible move to an open area from hazards.
If in an automobile, stop at a safe place.
Check for injuries, do not attempt to move seriously injured persons unless they are in immedi-
ate dander of further injury.
Check for fires
Wear shoes in all areas near debris and broken glass
Check service lines and appliances for damage. do not use matches or lighters until it has been
established that there are no gas leaks.
Draw moderate quantity of water in case service is disrupted. do not draw large quantity as this
could interfere with fire fighting operation
Do not eat or drink anything from open containers, specially near shattered glass
Be prepared for additional earthquake shocks called 'aftershocks'. although most of these are
much smaller than the main shock some may be large enough to cause additional damage.
Respond to requests for help from civil, defence, fire services, police and home guards
Do not crowd damaged areas unless help has been requested. cooperate with the public safety
Do not spread rumors, they often do great harm following disasters.