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4th Edition, January, 'lOCS DOMINICO A. AM ORA".

PEfi 1821 IIEE Senior Member No,21~

CENTE~( FOR STUDIES IN ELECTRICAt ENGU4EERING PRACTICES & STANDARDS

(CESEEPS INTERNATIONAL ASSN, INC.)

• CESEEPS INTERNATIONAL ASSN, INC .

• PEPSCOR

A SERfAL TRA1NING PROGRAM ON: 'ELECTRICAL DESIGN PRACTICES I N I NDUSTRIAL POWER. SYSTEMS'

PreparinJ the Filipino Electrical Engineer to be Globally Competitive

iTABlE OF CONTENTS

Gellel1ll PIKWsSion on Triln5formers General Speoificatio ns Dr ill nansformer Pmrf r. Voltage Riltlng.

Vt! III I Tapi

Tl','nlfoflll.r !'!unllealon.

'lil'" nlformcr V.cter Group

Tr'.lIm!1Tlef Impfill1nm .

T,· ','sformer lnSlllatlon

1.1, uilition Medium

E"lxllng ~thod,

Ti""nsrormer ACO!ssorles

'Ii! l'1.lnation F,acllities

lc@see;s Intf'l.','wlona'i a5~t,~jationlinc

0;; !onUli

Settl'i:H1 4.0

Foreword

Pr.;"a~ to II00K ~ ,Ac!<nowledgmllnt

I II III

1.0)

Gil ,I, e'l Discuss'lon

h .. '.Irnll't1on.al Standards 8. A:uthorltlell )Jr .ern a tlO'nal \lQ1~ge CIi!$5lf'1catlon,

U! • 'Euro~" Symm5 Vs. The Philippines'

1-1 1-2 1-6 1·8

, ,

1,0), f9.c'1fI.EIW\!iJ~!I.mONS IHlHlIl"UIIJI'PHfM lilt ftGna, 0" In I!loctrlc Iy.tflm

PII, ilpplll'" IQ It tlon c: pfdllittlc_ all orYZ003 llYt'LulE1In rid

The' Vlr-I GtkiI

Th:. Hlndl'MO Grid

ThEl '1IIIIp,ln IGrid

!M.tgy Sources

Mn !JIM

:Thv IPhlllpplne on TIlt! 'ail Refineries NatuRlI Gal

c:u~.j

1'l>.I'PIM,

P':riWI.i" Ilt!mandPtoJectlons Conclusion

Ullag,' 1-i Z·lI Z-] 1'"'1 2-4 2-4 2:-5 2-fi 2·6' :z.,

2.~1 21.7 2-8 :l-II 2-10

Pnd'ulJe b1. sptem Plannln.g

Dedgn Attributes:'or an Indl.lStrlal,Power .System Who AfI8 AuihQri:z:ed to Design?

Pre l-eet Management III an Art

lnt'lrphll . with Pow.r Oomplny

, Ii", Indu trl.'1 PL ntsubltr.ltlo n

S~ldlft' Required In the Industrial Ph1Jnt Project,

23 DageS

4-1 4-1 4-2 4-4 4-4 4-41 4-5 4-5 4-1 4-1 4-8 4-8

medium lIoltage systems&. appllcations!n Industries

l-~n,Jfun'IJClr TyP'!!'

M. ,Ihlln Vnlt;l e f'o'WcrT!iI!l.'i'Qmt I'll nl~ UnltSu'bsti1tlons

RE l(I!11!I'u!!nde(l Pract!QI;!S II II Tnmsformers of MO.fie Than 600Y Ira- _. Reoommendatiolls <!It The Primary' Side R~o:Jm1nelld<ltilin5 at the Secondary Side

Th. ee-J'~I!Sfl ccnnectlens UsinQ SIngle-Phase Tri!!nsfurmers

4-1.0 iHl 4-11 4-12 4-13 4-13 4-1.5

Section 5.0

c.; r lI~rlll Ollie 11~lon

TIl I Modhml Voltl!g<l Sw~tch;gaar f~hlid Lo '0 lHttirrupaf Switd'lyellir

5;1 i1p!.;t Exercise In CU' SIZing fOr TninsfoTmer Protection 1',1' ,Power Cln:lltl; Breaker McdiumYoltllge· 5wlkilgear Ib I MV Ring MolI'ln Unit

Jlh lritr;ltton, of Power Cent. III

GI,! :o,nlmlll1de:d P!lIted:i\le Devices for Mil TI1If'isforml'lt Primaries n. I Tr.;JfIl;fI)I'm-er Se(;'\"lon

TIll L 11 5'11'1ltl::hllllil r SO!dilln

Iht,flIfinUltHlld Prl!l"l G 11' " __ «Inti_,., "liItedl!)n or Pow!1!r C.nte~ ",~ ~IYnl Vo!b:!pa POWQf Cable.

"("h!lI!! !\ Al1lp·n;;!tlr Rlltingl!i Dr POWlir Cablll' !'ower C!!ble ierrnlnl!lti(lllS

GNul1dlnll of Powe r cabl!!!s

51ury:e Amlnors In Power C~lntl!)l1I

Com::.llp.bi In I.Ightntng protectlon

St!l'lllde(l 5. Non-Shielded Subistiltlans Arresters !n MedIum Volmge Ap,pllcation,

10-1 5-1 .5-1 5-4 5-9 5-10 5-12 5-13 5-1.31 11-14 1.1-14 5-17 5-18 ~HI.!J 5·23 1-24 5-:1.4 5-25 5-,25

A;:'f1l'Oprlilt~ System \loll:ag@!'l

fa-_tDr$ Affl!ctlng Slllcrthm oll':System VoltiJge& ·Vcllallu5 lit the Secom;llt'Y

Pro.nary· Side - Wha,t Voltagei'

Inl'l!Irm,,"Iilolto 1(Qlt:.ge for Primary Unit Sub5tatl.on S'!:t1tem LOlds

LeJ ',dlChi!5,lliIl1l1thm.1It Systrem FlIctorw B .. havlor o-r InQuruill1 Loadiil

Ex ... mph! of Primary Substllt!onComputations S.,.,;tem Ri!ill!tion~ 5. Factl!!r:llin lndystnal Appllcatlons

Tra n!ifunnllr Coflnectiolls, 'System Grounding I< lO;ld Growth

~ 5-1 6-2 6-2 6-4 6-4 6-6 6-7 (i-iii

6·-' 5-12

6-14

SectiiJll &.a

1.0) f'm!{. I~P(smtDlsrHl!l S)5ll1ll-5 Cie"u!ltal Discus$lon

DI::trlbuti6n syst1:!n1 Cl;)n-lltiUraIsl0I15

The Simple Radi~1 'system'

The Expi'mded R>!Idlal System

The Secondary Selective System Illustriltions on DlrtTlbution Configurations Other Distribution Anrangomellt5

b:~mpl~ ()f Seco"d~ry Selective Sy!item 1)1!I,~lgn

IH .,! Oller'AIIPlilnt Power Sv!rt:em Using Socondary Seledllllie SysleR'!

7'·1 7-1 1-1 7-2 7-1 7·3 7-12 7-11 7-14

medium .. mltaoe systems&: apP'1 a\I01151n 1r1llustrhes

r A B lEO;F C 0, N T E. N T S ... contlnu d

,HAPTER

SKtlon8.0

,r;;~'u!tal Discussion w".t Is KAlC?

CircuIt Bre ken In II TypIcal Indu.!ltrlal Phlnt Elter'tise Gn Fault ca!l::ulatlons

HI ~Ium, Voltage. ctrcult ,Bre:a,kers lJe.-;:'lOns Le~lIned from tfle berdse

Fa lIt D utJes In Plillllpph18 Utilities SfSb= I'nS

Ex ·mple of Fault 'Qlkuliitions '. Breaker SIzing for II Power Plan.t Mo:,clmum Short Circuit Current calculations In a Powe~ Plant Sil1pJified SW'sof "Power Plant

9-1 8-1 8-.1 8,·1

8-.16 8-16' 8-18 8-19' 8-19 8-25

section 9.0

9~i) ~. !G~NEMnQH SrmMs

11.p.,q",

·0. , .... , blKUulon ~rlnltl(m of Tllu',ml

~ulrementa fQr ,II ·Well-Deslgned ro_ Plant En., Ign Criteria flu ill Power Pia Ilt

load IE,stImatiion

.Sd':ools of TbDu:ghts In POwer Plant 'Capacity DesIgn sampll! Scenario of II Power Plant In Concept wnon. LI!IImad In IPoWllr "Iant 5yrtems

PoMtr In the Plrk

Gen .... blId. control.

The Modem bdtel1l

The ·Modem Voltage Rl!tlu!ators

Ii-I IModem· Prime Movers, Governon • Conbtll.

'g-l '-2 9-J 9-4 9-5 9-6 !iI-7 1-10 '·13 9-lIi,

!H8 D-19 'D-lD

Ih!r'nltlon or T·e,.ml

T)'ilh;al 'Behlvlor or Unll'l'Ounded S'(tt mt DUring ,Paults GR.undlng Sysblm. 111'1 lin Ifldunrl.1 Pllnt

Mnfhodlln 5y~m Ntlutnll Groundln,g

I!lIlthlng ConniKtlons A~n:llng '110 lEt::

DU\nltion of StilndlrdJlllMi elrthlngSChamlll O't .Inlng: ttt. SyaNm N.ut ... 1

SII.ectllln of Systl!m, Grou IIdlng PDI".!:! ·Groundl ng or 1'lIdud:1'111 GlIlnel'llto rs

L.a." 'IOns Le .. fned In System ·Grounding

If, 1call"lY earthing A!rr;,ngament

1111 .stnth:msln GliOundlng, AlTangeroe:nt

11'1·, lO~l 10-2 -·0-4

10-& 1(1-6 0-1:1.

10·11 10-13 10-14 1'11-16 10-17

Seetlon 11.0

11.0) MEIiII!JM \'Q~TAGr fum

GEneral DiscuS$lon Definition ,Df·Terms Po .ftlr Distribution

St!'ectlonor Fuse Type. Rating

1111041 - Current CharacteristIcs Curves .PII!!'I!: 1.et- Through CU!'Tent Chlil;'U

11-1 11-1 11-2 11-2 11-4. 11-5

ps interi1aHonal ani dation, Inc

medium voltage systems &. appll .:ations In Industries

8tr. Brating Requl~nt!! eir :uit Breaker Protection

Me Dr Starter Sholt Circuit Protection Ty ,_ or M lum VoltaJ~ Fuses

Fuse Rating!!

fuse.. s l'or r4V MDtor Cln;ults Selectivity for' Motor Coif troller.

11.-6 11-6 11-7 11-S 11-10 11-.10 11-11

Section 12.0

12,0) IIfTRQOUCTlON JIIDt! PHlUl'f'Iflf DJSTRJlllmOf1 COilE

8 pages

General Discussion

Di-rulhutlon Connection Requirements Technial Design & Operational Criteria P1/\'ler Quality SblndBrds

Fl't"quenq VZlnationlil'

VC).'mgl! Variations

Power Factor

tl .. monics

Vt ;2Ige 'Unb hmoe ,,1I.kef Severity

TI,'lI,lent Voltil,ge Variation. :1',.,. tedlon Anangements

Eq .. Ipme!'lt Short Circuit ,Rating' Groundh1g Mcqulr.menu

Ma.,ltorlng" COnttoll!qulpm .Ilt Requll'!lm.nUl !q'rlpm,nt blnd,nt.

H Inten.noe 5 net.rd.

. rllulrem.nt5 fUr DIstribution Uunr

Requlrement5 Relating to Connection Point

Requlrem nts at to Protealon

Transformer connection. Grounding Under-Frequency Rela,s 'ror Automatic Loa Dmpplng Pr,ocodutG. for Dlltrillutlon COnnectIon. AtJql.llnlm.nts for I!n,bedded Go,m t'torl

Fh!iiKI· ...... t lloundafJ DocUmllnl:l

III chlCiI Dll rm Rcqulmm 11t!1

Conned:lon Point Drawings

Distribution D.'ta Reoiftr~th:m

12-1 12-1 12-2 12-2 12-2 12-2 12~3 1.2-3 12-4 11-5 12-& 12-fl 12-6 12,·6 11-t! u·e 12·' 12-7 12-7 12·7 12·' 12-7

u· U-6 U-3 n-I 12-8 12-8

Section 1],0

AITACHMJ:m

Rl,lIlrl!!nCel • Slbll09raphy Ab1:Iut ClSEEPS Books Ab·,ut The Author

About PEPSCOR

2pag " 2. pa{leti 1 page 1 gil

ceseeps Intematlonal aSlilitlatlon, Inc

medium voltage svstems .. appllClltlons In In ultrles

ELECTRICAL DESIGN PHACllCES IN! If'4DUSTRIAL POW'ER SYSTEMS

BOOK 2: The BLUE BOO'K

Author: Domlnlco' ".AmoRl, "E 1ft" Pilla!

lIE! Sil nlQr Member

nEE'. MOlt Outstanding Ill!! In thll Flo'id oflflfJU.try, YU')Od nEE', Most Oubtandln{lli.l! In the field or COnsultancy, nOO2: neE'~ 'Most Out:5taodlng Rl!1Qlonal GQvemor,Y100l

ell'" Mollt Outstl;ndlng- Alumnu!lln tho F.le:ld O'r Conlult11I1CY, YlGO:' Formaf Electrical &SI'IIJtrUitlentalion M nager - SMe CTS -

Fonnllr Phlnt Manager - LEAR CORP, Plant 221

Roclplent of Som ,40 AWllrdll a Citations While Employed

Written for C:ESEEPS Training Prog,r.am

Preparing the FIUpino Electrh::ai Engineer as a World-Class Technocrat •••

'--------

CENTRE FOR STUDIES IN ELECTRICAL EINiGINEE'RI .. IG PRACTICES & STAN ARDS (C SEES I'NTL ASS -" RNC .. ,

2nd Floor" !lUUblllll IIUrlg." A. del R.ollal"lll !ilt., tlpolo. M II Diue tn", 'Philippines;

Tlt,1 No's: (032) '45-'4531; 34,6-3029;

Fl'll( NO.1 (0,12) 343-til'36;

Email Ad.: D.!Ht!lUlw.u@y£!hoo,tom dood'12!1Cl,lPhQlm,U •. cQm

FOR E W 0 R D to the serial books on "EtECTRICAl DESIGN PRACTICES

IN INDUSl'RIAl POWER SYSTEMsn

Thirty one years age', there was CI dream.

College education was felt not enough and the realities in the lndusinal world were 50 overwhelmIng to the gut':> or an - nglneer fresh from the' board examma' IOns. Caught amidst ;l hrnbo, a young electrical eng.ineer dreamt of a book that would sornedav guide and mentor him in the various facets of designing the electrical system of Industrial plants. That dream book had proved to be elusive onl\ until the recent times when the serial entitled, "'H,ECTRICAL DESIGN PRACTICiES IN tNr IUSTRIAl POWER SYSTEMS", becomes iNailabl'e. Interestingly', that 'young engineer (who is now 52 years old) wrote it - not for himself PIJt for others who may find these books valuable,

"ElECTRl'CAL DESIGN: PRACTICES Ir INDUSTRIAL POWER SYSTEMS", in a series of five books, is written as reference material for student engineers, colleqe in~ructors, electrical practitioners, plant engineers, maintenance engine rs, lectrlcal cI~signers, construction

nglneers and project manag.ers. To the cadet engineers'l this materla~ opens up real·life appliCiatiol1s on the theori\.,'S learned from college that would make them conversant ,of actual pow",r ysterris seen _ in a real Industrial p'lan environment. ~o the practicing electrical englfleers, this book provides quick design procedures that translates Into shorter tectmlcal plann!ng, promptequlpmerrt procurement, short execution rime, and "jurt-the-riqht" number $. sizes of subststtons, POW!' center or generating lIf11t!i and ad qUllt~ syster protection; the results of whlth, are cost erf(~c.dlJe, safe and rsllabtc power systems, This therefore is truly addressing the gap between the acac"me and the industry,

The concepts, procedures and

pronouncements written in these books are based on the establlshe:cengineering practices Gold publications in reference to: PECof the Philippines; NEe, I.EEE rl, ANSI of the USA; CENELEC of Europe; ar d lEe or the World. EJCpenenCc In best p actices as welt as Information gathered from several technical audits is interpreted viz-a-viz the behavior of

Industrial plant electrical systems .. Attempts to simplify and focus on specific applicable areas in the Philippine scenario but cognizant to international standard~ are typical In these books.

"ElECTRICAL DESIGN PRACUOES IN INDUSTRIAL POWER SYSTEMS" will farm part, in fact the first set of a much bigger project jointlv envisioned ·by the CENTRE FOR STUDIES IN ELECTRICAL ENGIN'.:::ERING PRACTICES & STANDARDS (CESEEPS INTL ASSN, INC). The output of the project will compile & encompass' all the aspects of electrical engineering practices not only in the industrial setting but also will lnclude the following: Overhead Transmission & Distnbution, The Grid Code &. Distribution Code of the Philippines, Ent'rgy TarIffs &. Metering, ·l.arge Utility Systems ane! Project Management - in other words, all the "I nust know" competendes incumbent to the Filipino enqineers. This 'Bible of Electrical Engineering' written, simplitled and r:;.ontributed by notable practitioners will become the greatest legacy that Ne can offer,

PI else note that the series of books written by this author are focused on industrial plant applications only. Outside the industry will nererore be written by others In the near future. To '.' mphasize,"ElECTRICAl DESIGN PR_ACIlCfS I'N nmUS11UA1. PLANTS" actually is composed of five (5) component books, as the following:

1) DOOK 1: LOW VOLTAGE !;,'(STEMS& APPLlCATlONS IN INQUSTRIES (Red BooK)

2) BOOt<;~: r.1~O!LJM VOLTAGE :;V$TEM5 f"~"f'U ,ATIONS IN INDUSTRIES (Bille 13001<.)

J) BOOK 3: FAULT CALCULATIONS &. APf'LlCATIONSIN \jIIDUSTRI.ES (Gray BoolI)

") BOOK 4: INDUSTRIAL SI.!B5TATION DES1GN & SYSTfM PROTECTION (Gold Book)

5) BOOK 5: INDUSTR1Al MAINTENANCE ,&ENERGY

M . NAGEM EMS ;Green Book)

January, 2004

2" Floor, DII.ubuilldg. iIi.. del RO!ario St •. , Tlpolo, M" .. dl'iu~ City, PhUI.l'pln .. ,.; Tel 'No':9; 1.03.1) 345-453:1., 346-3029i F,!JX No., 10:>1) 343-69,Hi; Email Ad~.~Il.ruI.m.~Jll1JLj;JUDorJ:!Ju.u1sZgQl@llotrn .. II.~Qm

PREFA,C§: to

lECTRlCAL DESI'GN PRACTICES IN INDUSTRIALPOWI:R SYSTEMS

OOK 1: (THE BLUE BOOK): "M,EDIUM VOLTAGE SYSTEMS 8.. APPLICATIONS IN INDUSTRIES'"

As a sequel" Baal. 2 follows Book 1.

Tagged as CESEEPS Blue Book, Book 2 discusses the design considerations for substations, p' wer 'gene'rating plants, overvl,ew of' sy&temfaullt duties, power dlst~'ibuUon ' ysterna - nd a, glimpse of tin entire system configuration of t,ha industrial plant. A new chapter on rel=vant provisions of the DI5trlbutionCode of the

Philippines that affect the user

Industry has been added In this edltlcn, Book 2 can be seen as covering more of the medium voltage side of the industrial power system and Is therefore as importcmt as Book L Book 2 19 considered as the next phase In the design of the lndustrlal power system in concept. The rest of electrical engineering "must-know" cornpetencies shall be covered by other books that CESEEPS had produced.

Envisioned as a rI esiqn guide, Book 2 or the BILle Book covers In some satisfactory details how electrical systems are deslgne;,ct'ro'm the Power

Centers, to the Primary Unit

Substations,. Distribution System

Configurations and Power Generating Piants. Because we cnn not just Ignore the Importance of Breaker KAle Ratings and System Ground,ng - 'two of the most taken-for-granted components of

.OM' •• ~"' •• n

I Iniiu,ln;, Ira t r' I!Sl!t!.PS INTERNATIONAL March,101)4

the system,"eye opener" dlscussions are Included in this book that would surely change the outlook and preconceptions of the enqineer. It is then assured that practlce designing with this book as guide provides the necessary understanding on tt"e, above subjects. Written simpllsticatlv understandable to any engineer reader this book attempts to achieve a design of a model medium 'sized-industrial plar.c In the Philippine .settlng.

On the other hand, Book 1

(CESEEPS' Red Book) of the series "ELECTRICAL DESIGN PRACTICES IN INDUSTRIAL POWER. SYS,TEMS", deals with the low volta.ge components of the industrial plant. The subject on "Power Centers" Is continued' In Book 2 to complete the subject because the Power Center constitutes both the medium and the low voltage sides.

It is therefore envisioned that the electrical engineer '<'rho follows through the entire series will be eqillpped with U1e necessejv skills &expert!se in the scenario of Industrial power systems, This will help cetapuk the Filipino, electr-ical encineer into becoming a world -class tech nocrat.

or StudietS in led:ricall:n.gi . Practices It. Standards)'

1) CENTRE fOR STUDIES IN EI.ECTRICAt ENGINEERING PRACTICES &. STANDARDS, iNC. (CESEEPS)

" •• "DlIIr, DII.ubn IIldo. II. dOll R,,.,,rllI 1St." 1'I"Dlo, ", .... III>I.!" city, I>hlII pilh'''J' n,' 111"'., '03,~) "4S-"'531) .'l411-J.Ol!lJ hM 1\10.: (OJl) 343'G'U!i; Em,,11 All~1 iW[l!lJQQ""'''f!!l!lltiJl~ Dr dom<llill,g1J11!!1!!!tm.ill..<;.Qm

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Be it known that this book was written with the encouragement anc support of 'the following Csbubased organizations:

2) INSTITUTE OF INTEGRATED ;ELECTRIC.Al ENGINEERS OF THF. PHILIPPINES, INC., (lIEf) NORTH CEBU C'HAPTE'R

3) PRIMAR.Y ElEKTRIKS it POWER SPECIAUST CORPDRATI.ON (PEPSCOR)

4) 5CHNElDEn ELECTRIC. P,HIUPPINES

Special thanks to t!)e 'followlng personalities who in one wa,y oranother helped pump-In <ldrcnaJine needed by the author In 0 Impleting this lifetime work:

iMr. F IIx B nil' doun - PrestI! nt of Schneider Electric, PhUlpplnes C Engr. Ely P. Silvosa, PEe .. 'VPof PEPSCOR

Cl Engr. Eugene Abao, ACL"'Uunt Manlger of Schneider Electric, Cebu CI Engr. Glenn ~.lava, nEe Region VD GDvernoT, 20 4 - 2005

CJ IEngr .•. Arsenio A. AbeUiima, PEE, MSEE - President of ASSOCIATION OF PROFESSIONAL ELECTRlCAL ENGINEERS OF CEBU (APEEC), 2002

The author Is also indebted to his family (Mimi, Kitty & Boboy) who supported him In the preparation 'of manuscripts, printlng, I)ook-b!nding works and for providing unrelenting lnspratton & ,encouragement while in the thick of the making of this book.

And to all others wr.o helped make this book a success.

I ~, T~~

CESEEPS INTERNATIONAL SSOCIATION, I 'c

ELECTRiCAL DE:i1.GN PRAcnCES IN II\IDUSTRIAL POWER SYSTEM:~

BOOK 2: The BLUE BOO

AI.IU1Cm Dominica A. 1\ orD, P I!! Zlld PIKe

IIEE Sanlor Mambar

IIEE's MQst Outstanding EE in the field of Industry, Y1996 IlEE's Most Outstanding EE in the field of Consultancy, Y2002 lIEf', Most Outstanding Regional Governor, Y2003

efT's 'Mcst Olltstandlng Alumnus in the Field of Consultancy, Y2003 former Electrlal &. Instrumentation Manager ~SMC CTS

Former Plan.t M al1eger - l!EAll CORP', Plant 222

RoCiplent of Some 40 Award. CI'I:atlonl While Emplov rj

Writt nfor CESEEPS Tralnilng 'Program

~-----------, .. -------------------------------,

Preparlnthe FlllpJn,o ElectriaillEng'neer

as a World-Class Technocrat •••

CENTRE, FOR STUDIES IN ELECTRI;'CAL EN.GINEERI!N,fL; PRACTIC,ES & STANDARDS (C'ESEEPS .NiL ASSN, INC.)

;"., Pleat, BlI1Iub • lilldg'., A. dill RCf5arlo !!it., TlpolD, Mlnd.ll1t e'lty, Philippine.;

'fol N'o's: ('032) 34!!h~5!11; 346-3021.;

11.')1 ,No.; (031)1 343-1)936;

Email .. d •• :W~!lm.Y.l!.h.!Uhgun dOQQ,sa'!20 I JlhQ,tmQII.,O:nl

'ELECTRICAL DESIGN PRACTICES IN INDUSTRIAL POWER SYSTEMS'

- OOK 2: The BlU e; BOOK

[CHAPTER. 1.'0

______ C_O_'D_E_S_~.·_&_-S_T_A_._N_D_A_R_D_S_.·· ~

CENTRE FOR STUDIES IN ,ELECTRICAL ENGINEE.RI,- G PRACTI.C'ES &. STAr DA.RDS (CESEEPS IN!TL ASSN, INC.)

2~d fll)or, Illillubal Elldg., A •. delltosarlo St., T!polo. 'Mandllu!I Cltv, Phlllpp'lm!i1;1

Tilli NQ',; (03.:!:) 345-1,531, 346-3029;

fax No.; (03,2:)343-6936;

IIm!!11 Ads: d..9~/~2.m Jl..u.ID!2 D~ HI\h9tmru !,,,~m

1.1) GENERAL DISCUSSION

CE5"'EEPS REO BOOK isoo« 1) 11<;15 discussed a great deal of Low Voltage Systems Applications. After mastering low voltage design applications, the engineer has just 'elevated himself to the Medium Voltage Side of the Industrial Power System in concept. I should be noted' however that Red Book covers the utilization side of the

Tl1US the generatlnQ plant, til transmission and distribution systems of the power companies belong to the Grid & Distribution Codes which In other countries had beep in effect long time ago, In the Philippines, it is only recently that the 50- called Grid & Distributlcn Codes of the Philippines came int~ existence for which up to the time of

power system of an industrial or commercial complex. Translating the power system of the Industrial plant or r.omm .. 'cial complex into the medium voltage side reqo.res more than just the Philippine Electrical Code. In the USA, NEC rules do not cover the utility ccrnpanlas' standards of In l,llhllon & opcrauon. Th latest NFPA 70 - Ndtlonal Electrical Code which will soon be published in 2007 covers etectnc conductors and equipment installed within Ji' on public and private buildings or other structures, including mobile homes & recreational vehicles, floating. buildings; yards, carnivals, parking, industrial substations; conductors that connect the installations to a supply of electricity; optic.' fiber cable; buildings used by the electric L·tility, such as office buildings, warehouse, ga ages, machine shops, ann recreauonel bulldinq; that 8m not an Integnli . pout of a generating plant, substation, or control cooter:

this writing are still In the transition to implementation stage. Note that the Philippine Grid & Distribution Code.'. establish the basic rules, procedures, requirements, and standards that govern the operation, maintenance, and development of the electric Distr rbution Systems In the Philippines. The ndustrtcs or commercial complexes therefore whl!n connecting to the utility company will then face these new requirements. It is worthwhile to mention that these new requirements are enforcing international standards of installations which were not strictly lmposed in this country In the past. This t..:"'ESEEPS BLUE 800,,( (Book 2) therefore will greatly help the electrical engineer in understanding these requirements.

Electrical Engineering eX[1 rts in leading countries say that fundamental rules and standards are needed teo ensure safety to persons

1-1

C seeps lnternatloaal asse 'laUen, Inc

medium voltage s,yst'ems, !!.. flpplications In Im:lustries

nd prop rues from the I"!"i!drd arising from th ~IS(!, misuse, abuse & mls •. pplication of electricity. That Is the Intent of .my EI~ctrical Code, the IEEE Recommended Practices 311d the IEC Design Guide, among other pub I .ations, Compliance to these rules Or standard ~ along with proper maintenance will result co electrical systems relatively free 'from hazards, Although the aforementioned references: include provisions for the permissible methods o' Installations, they are not Intended as a design 1r construction manual to untr slned persons: Ex::>erl;s say that sound engineering practice, quality workmanship and good sense of economic along with flexibility, reliability and provisions for future growth are equally important consideretions, In designing and Its subsequent interpretation Into reality, it is not of a business to just any person - it must be 1.1 work of xperienced professional englneers who lind P.t l'\eI the m pon lollltv of provltllllO 1Il!lllklnrl

wlth,13 '11\1lt~l!Illlcnt 111 I;,C whole IIf 'tim' or

bllllding or lndu rial plant.

It is advisable not only to master the Electrical (ode but also ~)(! conversant on tile Recommended Electrical El1qlneering Practices as I1Y 1,1 11 ed hy I h I Nm:11' ITII UP LltllUCIrt '" l!UeT'RONICS II!N.GINI!IRJ fl'!!) or tile USA or other practices by leading, 'Juntrles. Similar to 'the NEe. [fEE's reeemmendee practices ara part of 'the AMERICAN NAllONAL. STANLDARDS, INSTITUTE (ANSI) - a much bigger umbrella of standards accreditation body in the United States. Note that IEEE publications most of the time complement with the Elec,,·leai Code. But It must however be ernphaslzed th~t a design (in terms of

lEC's member natlons are the. followlhg.:

COde Rules & If7tcmat/Ofloll Stilf/(lrJrdr,) might be perrett on paper 'but could be horrible In the way the design Is Implemented. Implement,ation Is another field of expertis , and the Code attempts to include them in its p .vlsions. A system might work out as operational. intended to but parts of the same system might lip violations of the Code. [1'1 a situation like this, i lie provisions of the Code being dedicated to sJfety must never be compromised because electrlcal disasters don't happen In just a few years from energization. It usually happens when (:'\I~ry one Is not expecting,

1.21 ;INI'ERNAllONAL SIANDARDS " AUTHORm.ES

Meanwhile, the INTERNATION'Al

EtECT'ROTECHNICAL . COMMISSION (lEe) has always been thought of as the 'European 'SI·(llldllfd5'. In ft'tlilty, U"lC CENUEC (Coml ' £'urop' _.(J d ,NtJftnllllRtJq' EI"r:trf:p. technIque) I the Euror,f.an Stand.:ud. In Europe, Standards are called Norms, That's why all standards that originate from Europe always contain the letters EN, meaning Eu~p an Norms. The IEC, with member nationsermmd thr> world I'" mfc, led ,0 as thE' Intern tiCll1al Stand rds (or which tl1 • L1SfI ls one n It!. founding member nations .. In fal t. lEC"s eonc ptuallzatlol'l lUld flrst rneetlnq war; held In Sl. I (I\JI ,~1J DUff, United States in 1904. :ts organizational meeting was formalized in lor.don ,in 1906 and Its headquarters is now based In Geneva, SWitzerland with 6S member nations as of 2004. The Philippines is a member nation of the lEe.

- Table 1.1: lEe MEMBER 'NAUONS AS OF 2004 (use Is OlQardles!i of member nation cJrte cries

Argentina Finland Malaysia Slovakia

Australia France Malta Slovenia

Austria Germany Mexico South Korea

Belarus Greece Montenegro South Africa

Belgium Herzegovina Netherlands Spain

Bosnia Hungary New Zealand Sweden

Brazil Iceland North Korea SWitzerland

Bulgt'lrlalnc:iiCJ Norway Thel·land

C nad Indl.lnesla Pakistan TunLla

China [ran Philippines Turkey

Colombra Ireland Poland Ur.ralne

Croatia Israel Portugal United KIngdom

Cechostovakla Italy Romania USA

Cyprus Japan Russian Federation Vietnam

Dp.nrnark Latvia Saudi Arabia

Egypt Lithuania Serbia

E tom" Luxemburq Slr\g~pore .

ceseeps lnternattenal assodatio.I1, Inc

medium voltage systems &." dpplications in Indu~

[II llh!\!t" view, the lei I'll sf:lJltd"rrJ may refer 'to rounne design & lnstallation norms or procedures set forth by an authority. In the Philippines, the Philippine Electrical Code Is the national electrical standard along. with the recently formulated Glid & DistN)ution Codes of the Philippines. The same Philippine Electrical Codeis attached to other related codes as the Nationa'l Building Code and the Fire Code of the Philippines.

Standardization is 1'1e process or merging SdClltitk research with iJ,·I)/icatioaexperience to determine the precise. optimum technical requirements for an aspect of technology. The output of this merger is art authoritative document called a l'ista",dard"'. A StandJJrri is a published document, established ~)y consensus and approved by a recognized body that sets out specifications and proced .Ires to ensure that a material JJr Dr"CXiJJfS; 'mettmct or seryke'meets its - ~ and Its consistent performance to its intended use, As a form of standard, an ~ falls unoer "methr.n/, fifHVice cu:.nstcot':; while ~·t5taDdar:rb fall under . "{flImrla/ Dr lIOJduct". Wol'ld-wlde, there are about 600,000 publtshed standards. About US $ 1,500,000,000 is invested globa.lly each year for the creation and manacement of standards.

VARIQYS KINDS QF STANDAR!:§:

.Basic Smndarrl: The Basic Standard is concerned wrth fundamental facts in one or more technical fields.. It milY cover language, terminology. measuring systems, drawing rules, mathematical symbols •. etc.

Productstilndilrd: A. Product Standard is mare or less a detailed description of a product and may cover the latter's dimenSions, strengths, functlons or other char C'ter·stlcs.

System 5undam:A Sy~l';'m Standard deals with fundamental functional charactaristlcs and requirements for products Intended to 'form part of a coherent system, e.g., standards for tnsuletton levels or norntna' voltages.

Method Standard: A ""e .. l1od Standard describes procedures, methods and the like. It may be for example, a test methodology for determining the characteristics of a producr

QUlJlJty Standard: A Q •. 1Iity Strmdard contains requirements or guideline~in relation to quality system of an or,ganization.

Norlh American AN::I Standard!. can readllv be identified with 60 Hz frequency. There are only more or less 12. countries in the world utilizing 60 Hz as standard frequency, These countries are:

USA, Canada, Brazil, Costa RIca, West Japan (East Japan is 50 Hz), No~th Korea, South korea, Mexico, Pbilippines, Peru, Saudi .Arabia and Taiwan. The rest of the world is 50 Hz.

Today in the Philippines, ANSI standards are very much alive because the power systems of utilities in the country from historical beginnings had always been ANSI. But then "IEC &. CENELEC Standards" could not be Sidestepped because CENELEC & lEC-based equipment" &. manufacturing machineries imbedded In industries abound the country. It is therefore imperative for Filipino electrical engineers to understand the applications of these "frames of standards" as they are necessary to make these systems operational. Afl:.er all, asexoerlence indicates, any "standards" given the correct understanding &. application could co-exist in this country. Pr aching, practlclng ,lnd Integrating these standards will therefore make the FIHpino electrical engineer a truly world-class technocrat.

Standlm:ls can a 1';0 be seen as official technical .speclficatloll! that enable users to express their requlrernents, They result from a consensus amongst parties concerned as: engineering firms, component manufacturers, machine builders, control panel &. switchboard manufacturers, installers, Inspection authorities, administrators and insurers, among others. In thls way, standards actasa basis for communication between customers & suppliers- oontainlng complete information, definition of terms employed, operating Ch,)l'rtlCterlstlcs, rules of use, test methods, marking of product·, etc. Many countries especially the leading electrical equlprnent manufacturing and exporting countries have developed their own national standards. These same countries are In the helm of drafting and developing the international standards now contained In the lEe..

WtlAT IS CONFQI!Mrrl AMiC'SSM!NT?

While a .standard Is a technical expression of how to make a proouct safe, efflclent, and compatible with others. .. standard alone cannot guanmtee perforrrrance .. ll,s pieces or documents, Standards therefore are not enough' The world needs conformity assessment.

medium volt.age sys.tems a appllcat1iD!ls In Industries

,ce!liee~p5 inti!rnationalDSSQ .ionion, Inc

COftlplerm::nllr1g th pubtl!:h rI Stand<lllls,

. C~nfgrmlty m rt I df1nt~d a'

"Q~cti. h·'C~IUty~~·c:o;n;Q,J:ibrn;eld~;.W~U~;h determ!'nJng dIrectly

s;! 1J3I~

RL!bliShed tlndatd art fulfilled. (As defir/ed In ISO/lEe Guide 2.'1996). Conformity assessment refers to a variety of precesses whereby goods and/or services are deterrr Ined to meet voluntary or mandatory standarr's or speclftcatlons, Conformity assessment ~,rQvides assurance to consumers by increasiny consumer confidence when personnel, products, systems, processes or services are· evaluated agai :<;t the requirements. of a voluntary standard. The main areas of concern are userand product safei.y, consumer health and the environment Conformity assessment

nccmpas'lcs th ' areas 0;' Testing, Surveillance, In~pedlQnl Auditing, Cl~1 Llf1caliull, r{cgl<;tl.ltlon and Accreditation.

Underwrite",' laboratories, Inc. (UL) for instance plays the rol~of a Conformity Assessment body perfc 'ming rh'-rd Party .Produr::t Safety certifici tkms; UL is a not-forprofit, l1.on-governmental )rganjzation that was formed In 1694 to help re luce injury,. loss of life and property damage. Ulls known across the globe for product corr.ollance to published standards. It benefits a rz, 'ge of clientele - from manufacturers no .,etallcrs. consumers, end lIsers Md re;ulatlng 'i:Jo:Jfp.5. An Indcpend ent, ,t cl1nl!'llly ')(P -rt '['\rg Illzntloll til t. (10 n't hev

fin nel I . Int'r "t In thr produ t'e} ultlm~te profltoblHtv Is needed ru determine whether rea50nably foreseeable risks associated with the product's use have been eFlinated or minimized.

UL docs product Conf! rmity Assessment in industry's broadest portfolios of capabilities and certification marks. UL ha: developed more than 800 Standards for Produ ... t Safety. UL Testing Standards are essential to helping insure public safety and confidence, improve product quality and services. Millions of products, devices & components are tested til ULS rigorous safety standards with the result aimed at living in a safer environment. There are ge\ eraltvpes of Ul. Marks. Each has Its own ~r·ecific meaning and significance. The UL Mar~ on a product means that UL has tested and evaluated representative samples of that product er d determined that they meet UL's reoulremer '.5. UL sclentifical!y Irwcstl9t1t " ,jIld tests tl ousands of twes of products, materials, consn ictlons and systems to evaluate electric,' tlre b,ld casualty hazards;

burglar resistance; or Qljllty to deteu. control or lunlt flrus .

How About NEMA (NATIONAL ELECtRICAL MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION)?

NEMA, created in 1926 by the merger of the Electric Power Club and the Associated Manufacturers of Electrical Supplies, provides a forum for the standardization of electrfcal equipment, enabling consumers to select from a range of safe, effective, :md compattoleelectrlcal products.

NEMA is prcmotinqthe development of techntcal standards that are in the best Interests of the Industry and the users (/1 Its products, NEMA has OV'f 400 member companies, Including large, medium, and small businesses that manufacture products used in the .9thferation, transmisslolJ and distribution. fJ!.lttlSlL. and e!lrl-llN.~ of electricity, A standard 01' the National Electrical ManuFactUrers Associat .on defines a product, process, or procedure rlth reference to one or

more of the following: Nomendature,

Composition, Construction, Dimensions,

Tolerances, Safety, Operating characteristics, Performance, Ratings, Testing, The service for which it is designed. (Please note that UL Is more on the electrlCilf devIces while NEMA Is t:Cmoontr.tinll on electricel ~qlll'Pment)~

M In Int test to NEMA ls the process of product CBrtlflc,tfon. There are gen rally two approaches employed:

1) . Third Party Certification by an Independent testing/certification orgaAlzation,

2) Supplier/Manufacturer's Declaration of Conformance (SDOC).

For low voltage distribunon equipment; the most used of the two approaches; is the third party certttlcatlon, which Is LSIIally required as part of installation codes such as the National Electrical Code (NEC), for electrical products.

In other areas such (I; nigh voltage equipment (transformers . and switchgear) and lighting products, industry and Its customers 'have been using SDOC with great success.

About NFPA: NFPA is alead:er In providing fire, electrical, and life safety to the puhlic since 1895. NFPA membership totals more than 75,000 individuals fromaround the world and more than

-- - - .. ----------:-:----:-----~

ceseeps International as!k1 :latlon, Inc medium voltage systems tit ,;! ppHcatlons InlnduSitrles

so national tr<:lLl~ a d prorc'-sional org nl.zrttions. NFPA serves as leadir ,g advocate of flre prevention and Is an (lr .thorttative source 011 R!:!h~~. NFPA's :;-00 safety cDd§. ... !!!i1 st~uujar!ll! Influence. evf''Y building, process, service, design, and inSii:lflation In the United Stat 5, as well as many nf hose used In other court des.

h _ mission o( the non-p ont NFPA 15 to reduce tl. bu d'n or tlr" !':Inkl nth r h • rds on the qUl:lh y of life:: by pro\, .1I1g and advoc tlng sclcmUrlcally·bt) d consensus cod s & standards, research, training and education.

The Nat'onal Electrical Cod (NEe) is just: one of the prominent codes produced by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) of the United States. Some of the provi sions of the NEe were made as basis in t ibsequent conformity assessment standards.

NFPA is composed of the Insurance Association of America. NFPA's focus 011 consensus has helped the association's ecce-development process earn accreditation from the' American National Standards Institute (A.NS!). Examples of NFPAdeveloped codes include some of the world's most referenced and respected, .~5 follows:

N EPA to Eire Prevention C~J:'/Of NFPA 54, National Fuel Ga;;~ NFPA 70, National Bedrici:J! Code@ NFPA 101. bfe Safety Code@

NFPA 5QOO™. BUildina Cor,~tructton & Safety {;Qjjf; r ..

NFPA adrnlnlsters several profcsslonel certification pmWclTls In.ll1dlng: C rllned Fire Prot~ctlon Sp I list, C rtln d Fire 1;1 p ctor, Cerlln'd Fire PI n E amlncr, Certifi >d M stor Electrical In'p' Of,' atIti Cel'tlfi d R Id ntl' ~I~ctrical In pe tor.

W" A.T ABOUT IEEE?

IEEE dates back to 1884 as the AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS (AlEE) with personalities including Thomas Edison, Elihu Thomson & Edwin Houston as founding members. 1'1any of the original members of the INSTITUTE OF RADlO ENGINEERS (lI{E) were members of U e AlEE and both organizations continued to have members in comma" untu they merged to form the IEEE in 1963. Although IEEE was

formally fo med In 1 63, IEEE officially r1(ll s back its histolY to 1884.

Tho IEEE Is a non-profit,. technical professional association of nore than 360,000 lndlvidual members ill approximately 175 countries. IEEE is the lead:ng Electrical St<,,1dards Developer under the accreditation of ANSI.

IEEE Standards as System Standards cover more sreas lha the NEC's coverage. lEE Standards however are always cornplem ntlng the NEe provisions.

WHATIS ,51?

ANSI, the "'American National Standards Institute", has served CIS coordinator of the U.S. private sector, in volunt.?ry standardization system for 85 years. Its missior: .c; to enhance U.s. quality of fife by promoting a.id facilitating voluntary, consensus standards and conformity assessment system to safeguard their h tegrity.

ANSI is not a government agency and therefore it has no regulatory autnority to address complaints about consumer products or services+ neluding products or services that purport to comply with an American National Standard. However, A Sl does serve as a conduit between the public and private sector. ANSI assists in the crosscomrnunlcatton of public-sector views to U.S. organizations &. companies and private-sector views to government in the areas of 'standards' and 'conformity assessment',

Presently, there are more than 280 organizations accredited by ANSI '.0 develop standards,

including organizations like IEEE, ASTM

International, NFPA International, ASME

InL J national, CSA America Inc. and NSF

1-5

ceseeps lnternatioeal asso'.latiot1, Inc

medium voltage systems It· dppUcations In Indtlstrle

Int:ernrltloflo:i. ANSI gOVC?II',S several accredlteuon programs for c:ertlfICc.ltIOn activlttcs Including products, laboratories, sy~~ems, and personnel. ANSI does not condu. tests or technical evaluations of products, systems, or services.

fill I I r tn til I ~t:n'jJl ill Ion 01 ~landarrl<;

d~\I 'Iop!:t , flNSl ,(Tll"dlt' oHHlt rn tlt.mlttloll5 h..l 'Ml lI., tltlf!~ PUI ty ,.Iutlllt.t" !lystmn,llll personnel certifiers.

CENElEC - THE EUROPE/,N EliECTROTECHNlCAl STANDARDS

CEN'ELEC, the 'Europe .. n Committee for Eledrotechnical Standt.c'dlza,Uon, was cr ated In 1973, as a result of the :,Ierger of two previous European organizations: CENELCOM and CENEL It is the European organization for the harmonization of techrrica' rules for the electrical field. seceuse Europe is composed of several eountrles th~t arc sportlrn their own & .separate natlOf1al stnncerds, harml,'1izatlon Is very much necessary, Harmonizall,Y1 within CENELEC involves. the results of ne lEe's work being converted Into national stilldards of EU ilnd EFTA countri .. ,1'1'1 coli boration ,) ~1'llt the conversion t~k "pl,l[ Wllhllnlly buIll n ttru 111(1 In tP'[ Iml i'il ctll1te"l. 1110 11,.,ull of h, !llIonlldtlon ore tailed f:IJr~ltJ!'"nI1 hml,luJ', ~Ir I N ( UWlu'nll NOIll1',).

IEC(lnternlltlotllll Elactrotechl'llcal Comml . Ion) ts III I i.uJ'l1g glollill o!gdnll~ltll1 that prepares and publlsncs intcn1<ltlontJl standards for aU electrlccl, electronic and related technologies on a world-v-de basis. These serve

TABLE 1.2: STANDARDIZI !"lONBOD1ES

<IS a basis far national stamlard!llliion and as references when draflil'g if temanonal tenders and contracts. Note that ANSI is the offic.ial U.S. repi esentatlve to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Elt:!ctrotcdltlicdl Commission (lEe) via the U,S, NntlO!1I11 Com I nltl (!I:! (U5,',C),

1.3) INURNADQNAL VOLTAGE CLAS!ilflCAUONj

As a result of historv, there had emerged standards in practiGl,lIy every country. Voltages are one of the prominent differences. In Europe's Low Voltage systems fJ'" instance, a number of countrIes are employing 380/220V as standards while others are using 400/230V and several countries with 415/2.40V. lEe then rules that there shall be a shift to the now established standard of 400/230V and this rule will soon find its effects in the near future,

As IE,EE puts It, "an understano~ng of system voltage nomendsiures, the preferred voltage ratings of power (:I1,paratus & utilization flfjuipment is essential to ensure proper lIoltiJge Idcl!flflct}ttof/ UIt'OlIqtIQU( tlu' ,mwCt. sy. t '(11 ofthe InUlJm;''11 plan;": Again, It I'11U t be noted lhat all rClW~l L.JUJHy {'mllp.ml~~ In tllP Phlllppin 5_ r f.'l1IployIIlY 1,IIe Amcl.kl.ln POW{!f ~y~tern ~tendard .. (voltage cl<15S & frequer c.y) while the equipment Inst<1!1ed Inside the Industrial plant whether distrlbullon 01 process cquiprnenl might have originated ftorn US and. non-US system countries as Europe or Japan.

ClRGANtu.llOIll y,!AR fUNCTION ROLE IN srAr~D"RDIZA1l01'1
Sl"ARTED
2 IlIEE (IEE'E) 11164 Sbondanb Developer (S,O) ,s'y$temt Dalg:n, System
RequlrellH!nb
Z Ul 1894 Sblnd.f1IJ DlWelopu ,{SOU eon'r'Drmlty P!llllle Sardy (FlOII .. dI QIrJIIty)
ib_r{CA)
:I NFl''' 18111 Stllndam. DOIVeIopctr (50) Flre..l"rcsVllli!oo/Pub1lc $:I""
Pr'CICAlihu -, .llIlru, IWqwll"e "
II UC 1'1106 Stand.m. Dnel"l"Ir Sy.sUlm 1kis11l"/!lectrlQI. Equlpm
51:1:11111","11 ACCI'edltl!11i! Dody QUl!'lIty Requl_.!'113
5 ANSI 1!l2.11 Stano!ilm', DeverOi">!!rl All C!ltqot'~ 01 Stlll' .. ~.td"
StIIl"liI.nI. Attredli:lng &udy
& NEMl l&1lil $tI!lnd~rdl Dl!yelopor (SO)1 Ccmrormlty "'!!"Iff'Dduff'ig Stll> .. d ... d.l r.
MlM'!S_COo) Electri:cal !4ulpment QU3iltY
7 C!NI!LI!C 191;1 Sbondaml !lml!iopef (Siil) Notes:

AlEE - Amerio.nlnstltute, of !:ectrical EngIneers

IE!'!! - ln5trtuhi 'Df EI ariCiI II!I ctf\onh:s Enu1nsI!I'I 'of Am rica Ul- UndtiWrlt r:lLaborlltor!',

'NI'I'A - N.tlo!!.' fill'll Protllc;tlti,· Auodatlon

----~--~~~----------------------~--~------~

'c:.~~~~'! l.nterniltlon'll 395(1 latla"! Inc medium "'lJltil~e5¥5tems l'i applications In IndlistTl_

llEe - I'lTtematio. ill telectrorechn ical Cmn mlssloA ANSI - Americal'l NiI.tional Sla,l·3an:l!!. 11lS1:ltubl

NE,MA - National Eledr'j'cal Ma.,iifudurers As30d tllm

CENflL'C - El.Il1Opean COmm~~ !'Or Elactrot!lCl"tAIC\ilI St"!!'!!>! _rdrz~.tlon

~' LE 1._1: SOME ;~TERNAnONAL- NATIONAL ElECTR.OTECBNIC~:..."UTHORlTIE5

INmAl5 OF THe: INITIALS OF THE
COUNTRY STANDAR.DS COUNTRY STANDARDS
OR.GANIZATION ORGANIZATION
HIE WORLD rsc USSR GOST
USA IlNSl Japan arsc
f\ll5tr~II" ASA Belgium NON
Switz '11,1Ilt! ASI: Norway NEMKO
Great Britain aSI Holland NEN
Italy cer France 'Nf/UTE
Europe CENElEC Austf'ia OVE
Canada CSA Sweden SENKO
Denmark DfMK,O Finland SEll
Germany D1N1VDE Spain UNE FIG. 1.2: UECTRlc"·l STAND'ARDS IN OTHER COUNTRIES

Following the AI, S1 standards, the

r hlhppln Sin hl!;tory Is '>Joking LIP til following volrt.gc c.llIsslncatlon at a fr· qu ncy of 60 Hl:

LllwVultage

120 V to 600 V

'H~tIlLlm Voltage :t,401lV to 69,000 V

.llgli1 Voltage - ~;.S,OD(I, V to 230',(01) V

Ultr.a IHlgh Voltage - 345,QOO V to 1,100,0(1), \I

On the other hand, note that In Europe, there are only three voltage classifications, namely.: (a) low Valtag.'!'. up to 1000 V; (b) High Voltage.. above 1(100 Vi and (c) Extra High Voltag~ 150 KV ~l1d above. All of them are m 50 Hz frequency anll there Is no such thing

as "medium voltage". However, in the area of cl ctrlcal equlpn)ent rT,snufacturlng business, recent European-made equipment carry the labels of "medlu.m voltage" or "60 Hz", "ANSI Rated" or "NEMA Rated" not because these ratings are already implemented in Europe but for purposes of global marketing objectives. In like manner that US .. made equipment now carrtes "lEe Rated" labels for the same purpose, Mergers. between US & European electrical business giants are now common scenarios in tt e electrical world. That Is globalization In actlon.

However, CENELEC & lEC are recentl,y working for U1e inclusion of Medium Voltage

1-1

Classirlcatlon with 35 fI.'V s ceiling. It will b - not long from now that rnedhrn voltage dssslfkatton will become a part of the standard voltages of

IEC. For purposes of :,powing Industrial service voltages, the fallowing table Is a comparison between European and iIJ orth American practices:

TABLE 1 2' COMPAfUSOi i BETWEEN EUROPEAN &. NORTH AMERICAN SERVICE VOLTAGES

. .
I EUROPEAN: SO/'liO HZ SYSTEM NORTH AM-:,RICJi!,N: 60 HZ :5YSTEM
Highest DeUvery I Nominal I HLghest Deilvery 'N,o'mln~1 REMAR~S
Equl'pment V('ltagll Equipment Volt.ilIge VDUage t
I \1,o'ltage ,(KV) ll,tV} [KVl j_I(V)_
I
3.:t (3)"' oj. For Industrial System only, riot for
3.6'"' 4,4,* 4.16* Pub!!c: Distribution
6,;, (6)* "" For Industrial System only, Not for
7.2'" Public Distribution
11 (10) For Public D~trlbutlon. Three-Phas'e, 4 I
12 Wire System
13.97""" 13.2'" •• ,hree:-Phlll;C 4 wire SIf~lC!rn
For Public Distribution. Three-Philse, 4 I
14.52 13.8 Wire System I
For Public !Clstributlon. Three-Phase, 4,
14 2: J10J Wire Syst!::t:'
I
:16.4** 2 ... 94 .... * .. Three-"'Ias!!1 4 Wire System
___j!l .... ... ,. P II!Mr'11t 1 y U ml 1'1' pIFori.: or
-- :'16·'·" -- unlrlcl'ltlor. ,n counll'l~~ of Ll1f()fJfI
I
,36 .• 5'''' 34.S" •• Thre~-F '1IiSe <I wire System
'""'Prese: "Iy under ·cff~rts or
40.5"'*'11 3!'··· unification In countries or Europe Noill The vollages In p (enlhe5a~ IW old Inslallallons and are no longer recommended for present & future ~si;!ltatlOl1s,

The most IdcntlrJ;,bJr.: differences between the U~ and European systems are the voltages and frequency. The European system however found Its way to most c( the countries In the world, Ag,aln, there are only about less than twenty countrIes that are €mploying the American system standards .. The rest of the world is lEe based. This is il, product of history where most countries In the world were under the colonization of European explorers ilnd their subsequent Influence in tlie developmn,'ot of these countries.

Th Fe are hlstorlC<11 reasons for those differences. In the frequE:ncy lssus, there were many frequencies used ir- the 19th Century for various applications. wit! i tl1e most prevalent being he 60 Hz. supplied by Westinghousedesl.gned central stations ~·)r IncandescelFit lamps. The development of a synchronous converter which operated best at 60 cycles encouraged eonver .t:nce 'toward tlmt .,(tlndilrd. Around 1900, the introduction of the hitJh-sped turbine led to settlement on two stan lards: 25 cycles for rr nsrrussion i!lml ror large motors (tllis ha(/ been

a compromise decision at Niagara Fails), and 60 cycles far general purpose systems. Mei:lnwhlle, In Germany, AEG (which used 50 cycles) as a leader in early Europe; had virtual rnoncpeiv of electrical equipment manufacturing, and trus standard spread to the rest of the continent. Changing the standard frequency presents colossal problems In practically all utilization equipment. Europe then decided to stick It out with 50 Hz.

Although system vo.ltages an~ frequency in the Philippine electrical systems are US standards, the country's practices are not that ide/;Jti'cal to American e/ectriCllI.systr:/n. Hers are some scenes:

1) US industrial or larg;.:; cornrnerdal systems. are <;III the time groundeG. Gone were those dajs that ungrounded systems were employed Normal'ly, they earns in a form of delta primary, wye neutr,,1 grounded secondary systems. In some instances, wye primary, wye grounded neutral secondary. Secondary voltage Is In the 480/277V schem . Small dry type transfer rners of 480V-208/120V ratings are used to provide 12.0 V single-phase fOT convenience outlets, 2DBV single phase ror

medium voltage systems & applications In Industries

c:es epsll1tl.lrnatlonal il!Su.:latlon, lne

sm,dl power tools and :. -phase 20B V.for small motors & machines.

In th PhlllWln!!s, mf')~; Industr I I systems ar ungrounded. ror Instal .-e, while ~"'EPl 1 &. 2 utility side are 13.B KV 'jrounded neutral, most plants In these areas .ire employing 13.8 't0J delta primary (3 sin' .e-phase transformers conn cted DO) and ?40 or 480 V delta secondary. ,~lence, ne' industrial plant becomes ungrounded. ,gain, take for example most commercial car" plexes and industrial plants connected to VKO. They are usually in a 23KV wye primary' 240 or 480 V delta secondary (J singleph..1.5e n.li IW - 240 x 480 V transformers connected wye-delta).

Note that only a few Industrial plants or commercial complexes are employing deltawye secondary groundt j neutral scheme. This always 'happens when the transformer to be ordered Is relatively .~.rge enough (usually above 1,000 KVA) 'that varrants a tnree-phase unit. Then a delta-wve transformer usually is specified.

2) Lighting syst rns IF' US Industries are ,employing 277 V derlvl ,1 from IIne-to-neutral, not .2QQ V (llne-to-llne) taken from a 480·24QV lV/LV transformer FlS common In the , hlllppln~s. In the case jf the USA, he neutral

rn jer "current carrying conductor". In the!

Phlllppin s In this, scel1i'do, the neutral Is not.

h t's why til noutr .. I conductor usually Is forgotten In this COlin r' (they im:~ not ntl'!;'d, d t.lll,Vl1li y, som say. .. ;; lU'ld the- delta-delta svs em thus flourished, Even In wye secondary transForm rs, there an lots of In5tallatlons In the PnmDpln~s, where ti"le necutrtll 15 not taken Into conslders Ion and th ~reron::: not wired to grOund.

mentum voltage systems 8t applica,t1.ons Inlndusules

te.s ell' International. uodation, II'IC

3) It must however be emphasized that the notion 'ttl at "',the ungrounded .• ystem [s worklllg"is false and not valid because of the unw,mtcd cendlttorrs the ungrounded system CQuid cause, (Please see ,Chapter 10 of thIs book). In fact, the Philippine situations presented in this section are big violations of the code. (Please refer to the latest edition of the PEe. The PEe sa~s that for single phase circuits, the other le~' of the circuit must be grounded),

4) The European system Is also grounded system similar to the US' ex.:.:.!pt that the frequency is 50 Hz and the voltane ts 380/220 V (in some European countries, 400/230V or 415/2.:l0V) instead of North American's, 480/277 V. Convenience outlets, single phase small tools & equipment and Ii~ ":ing system are all rated nov, There is no .~ rch 20BV 3-phase motor load in this part of tr .~ globe. On top of this, in modem Europe, th(;e is no such thing as delta-delta substattc ,<;. Normally, it Is always the delta-wve grounded neutral configuration.

End of f':hapter 1.0

ELECTRICAL DESIGN PHACllCES IN! If'4DUSTRIAL POW'ER SYSTEMS

BOOK 2: The BLUE BOO'K

Author: Domlnlco' ".AmoRl, "E 1ft" Pilla!

lIE! Sil nlQr Member

nEE'. MOlt Outstanding Ill!! In thll Flo'id oflflfJU.try, YU')Od nEE', Most Oubtandln{lli.l! In the field or COnsultancy, nOO2: neE'~ 'Most Out:5taodlng Rl!1Qlonal GQvemor,Y100l

ell'" Mollt Outstl;ndlng- Alumnu!lln tho F.le:ld O'r Conlult11I1CY, YlGO:' Formaf Electrical &JI'I~UltlentaHDn M nager - SMe CTS -

Fonnllr Phlnt Manager - LEAR CORP, Plant 221

Roclplent of Som ,40 AWllrdll a Citations While Employed

Written for C:ESEEPS Training Prog,r.am

Preparing the FIUpino Electrh::ai Engineer as a World-Class Technocrat •••

'--------

CENTRE FOR STUDIES IN ELECTRICAL EINiGINEE'RI .. IG PRACTICES & STAN ARDS (C SEES I'NTL ASS -" RNC .. ,

2nd Floor" !lUUblllll IIUrlg." A. del R.ollal"lll !ilt., tlpolo. M II Diue tn", 'Philippines;

Tlt,1 No's: (032) '45-'4531; 34,6-3029;

Fl'll( NO.1 (0,12) 343-til'36;

Email Ad.: D.!Ht!lUlw.u@y£!hoo,tom dood'12!1Cl,lPhQlm,U •. cQm

It is said that electrical power is a little bit the calr all breathe. \~e don't really think about It until it is rnlssino: Power Is just 'there,' meeting our every need, constantly. In' an dustrlal plant for instance, It is only a matter of pushing 11 button and a 5.1)01'1 hp motor starts up • JUst like that' And nobody Is thinking about it It t-5 only during a power failure, when one walk mto a dark room and instinctively hit the useless igllt switch, realiZing hov Important power 15 In rl !ly mill We lye it for [1~LI!1t1, !;Q'J[l.rl.O, QlQ.Blrm, !.clrJ.~1 'ratlQn, light, s..Q.IJrl&[,~rurters, enteltainme..!lt... WlttlOt:t It, life can get

somewhat cumbersome. And production in manufacturing plants would come to a massive halt. The fact is, hitting that switch is actually invoking power from probably thousands of kilometers from a source through 13 maze of power distribution grids.

This chapter discusses in general terms the electrical system In the country for the pOint of view of the design engineer. This section also includes some insights in the state of power and energy of the Philippines as of 2004.

But a rundown of what the electrlcal system is aU about is deemed necesssrvas fol!ows:

Fig 2.1: TYPICi~L POWER SYSTEM FOR AN INDUSTIUAl CITY

[ nul POWEAPLANTS

1\

Common to all couotries in the world, an electric system is cvmposed of various Interdependent components whJch suppltes, or conveys, 01' transforms .... nd/or utilizes electric

nergy. A system may als" be defined as a qroup of customers '~erved by a :ertain transformer, or ~ group Df t! ansrcrrners stwcd by a rc{~der, or a q OLiP o'r feeders served.« a generating station, Of the generating. plant ! ~'elf is considered as a system. Generatly, the :omp!ete loop of an

• i'" ~ I !.

electric system may be composed of generation, transmission &. distribution systems.

A) THE G£NERAUQN sY::'iTEM

• Generation of electric power Is accompltshed tn' a "power plant" where bulk power Is procucec through a svsrern of prime movers coupled to generator~ turning out electricity. Generated voltages :nay vary from 4,000 to

. _ . _ . ... 2~l,

medlum voJlage systems &. i"f Ipllcatlonsln, Il1dustries

.1,0 Q I/Illh 111 !fIll'll I. 'It~'l dt'ptilHlhlY 11I11I,tj It II tit III UPI]t'lnl If; Imll'. 11,,(" p11111f'

ov r!. 1111 ,V I~ In 'lid 1'01111 nr Ililt-rnol

(L'l'llbuStlon enqlnes (I E's) or turbh1es

(hydraulic, steam or ; ".Is). Generation In this c..ountry Is usually dOl -2' by power producers such as the National :: )wer Corporation (now known as Genco's) and by Independent Power Producers known as IPP's Interconnected to common grids such as the luzon, Visayas and Mir·danao Grids"

• A number of lndustrie: plants in the country are gener tlng their (,wn power without the support or the utility c..mpanles - in this case, the'lAre considered a~' "Is/a'nd gensm.tlofl"'. Or Jndtlstrlal plants II' several cases maybe selr'generatlflg but \ "th the power utility cornpnnv In para!lel with Its own system. In any case, the power pldnt becomes tile "heart' of the power t. stern,

B) T'HE TRANSMISSION ~ 1STEM

• Generated electricity f om the power plant is then fed to step-up power transformers .... here by trenstorrnan 'n action the voltage is raised to approxtrnate ( 1,000 volts for every mile of transmlsslon. ransmtsslcn of energy over the feeders may .ake place at potentials as high as 500,000 volts, With suffic.iently Ilarge . load justifying the transmission, the farther the distance, the higher is the line voltage employed, Extra-High Voltage (EHV) reaching up to 1,200,000 volts Is no longer uncommon In the' Unitt~d. States and Sweden, in conomks terms, rhls reduces conductor sizes while· at the sal ,e time bringing down the lin losses In Tf,ansmls.slon. However, more el b. rate tow i and higher Insulation r ulr 11i nll re n '" d Lo c mpli 11 till: tvp Or pow r corweYMce,

(I 111 tl ~n',l'nl':l Ion 1,;1 J ("'1n til 'I CrUFt! bl'

consi\! ret! as that pa't of the power system connecting one rernt e area with another remote area along WI~ delivering bulk power 0\1 r long distances, T~ lis Is made possible by

systi?-m of towers c.j.'rYing currents at high volt rr., TM t.oW~' lJSUtllly of steel canstructJonarE! ,lOW usually found crisscrossing the c:oull~ryslde. In Luzon Grid for Instance, transmission voltages are accomplished at 500 1(1,1, 350 KV, no KV and 115 KV. The Visa.yas Grid has 350 KV,. 230 KV, 138 KV and occasio rallv 69 KV as subtransmission lines whil-_ the Mindanao Grid at

1 III ~ V f111r1 IJ' KV, IIIUh VlliLtqt IJ

'[1.1I]"Hllh·,11I11 '.y'.lrrnr. ill fl 11(1W \I"ln'III(J

pU(Julr1lll y IIML<1ll ~t' u'f lilt' 'I It'll I' nrlLJIJ

'economic advantage rhe Philippines Is not an exception, today ne country has already this type of transmi5.m at 350 KVDC.

• Self power-qenerat 9 industries normally omit the "transmts, .. Jn" component of the system because of tt,e close proximity of the load centers from the power plant. In most cases, the distribvtion so/stems of the lndustrlal plant alsJ carry the function of transmission system.

c) THE. D.ISTRIB'UTION SYSTEM

• The transmission lines end up at the proximate area of distribution, Electricity then is once more Fed into substation transformers that reverse the process by lowering the voltage to some dp::]ree, normally In the Philippines at 69KV. Downstream of the system, another voltage transformation may still be necessary and be 'routed to various places for local distribution and utilization,

• From the paint 0; view of the power company, the distrlt 'tlcn system Is intended to cover a specific area such as towns, cities or directly to lndustr-zl plants usually through 60 footer wooden or r.oncrete poles at 69 KV. These voltages may feed directly to large industrial plants whl.e for towns or cities, another voltage transformation may be necessary to product 11,8 or 23 or 34.,5 KV. These feeders are usually called laterals.

• In industrial plants, scenarios llke selfgenerating power at 2.4 'IN, 4.16 KV, 6.6 KV or 13,6 KV ami distribute It dlr rlly to pow r cent rs which In tum transform the voltage to 480 V or 2..,0 V are common InstallatiOns In til ollnlty, Undfli groU!lcl cll!itrib~ltlon or through cable trays tire likewise employed as common feeder mallagemenf methods In industries.

2.ll PHIlIPP.lriES GENERAUON !;AMfULm~S OF VIDOl

It Is thus import~'it to know what our country has done in addressing power genera,tlon situations, The foUowirlJ Table 2.1 presents the actual as well as the pi o:iected peak demands of the country as picked up from Sec. Vince Perez's presentation some time i'l July 2003,

C IUlep' Intllfftiltlonal .'Il elation, Inc

medium voltage systems & .ilppllc.ations In Indu!ltrl.es

TA l.., 2.1: GEN ~ cTIN (~PACITIES Pf!AK DEMA_ND5
CIUI] o.p Ad. bill PE ~ O;:::MAIiIDS (In MW)
(i1!nor. tlng' YlDOl YlQO.3 Y;!.IJQ4 '1'2005 '1'2006 "(lOO? Y2001ll nOO9 '1'2010
CII city
InHW,
II. 012004
!.luI n Gfl I 10,398 1,500 ",'lion 8,4011 , 6,900 9'/iOO' 10,11]0 10,800 U,lO() U,GDII
I
Vlsayas Grid 1,293 i,OtlO 1,.1)00 1,1811 1,250 1,3(1Q 1,40(1 l,SO!) 1,550 1,600
Mlnd3111lo 1,,228 1,000 1,014 1,150 1,100 t.30t) 1,400 1,500 1,68{J , 1,750
pmUPNtfU 12,SlO9 9,51l0 10,IJ74 ~O,1;JO 11,350 U,1.00 12,900 13,MO 14,nO 15,350 ltH: WroNI,GRID

As of early 2.003, luzon has a~, installed capacity ef U,810 MW,of which 2,514 MW is ell-based plants, 3,769 MW is c.oal.,S'07 MW is geotherma'l, 1,856 M,W is hydro and ~ ,763 'is natural 9as, As of 2004,. total installed Cdpacity had reduced to 11,380 MW .. Of this total. only about 10,398 t4W are dependable against " peak of some 8,400 MW expected in 2004, P esentiv, Luzon has an excess power of about 2,1)00 MW to supply the whole grid.

However, baseo on the supply and demand forecast, Luzon needs an additional ready capacity by year 2007& cnwards,

To meet the ad projections, the following were seen as the plans for power generation projects In the immediate future. (Please note tl7at the following data were 'extracted from recently a'vailable reading materials which could be incomplete).

TA:BlE 2.2: FORESEEf~ POWER. PLANT PROJ'ECTS AS OFY200l# LUZON GRID

PO'HER PLANT ADomONS

COMM[TTm PF\OJECTS: &In RDqua Hydro

:Ki1la1f an , 11 4

llIial1ln'Vlndl POW~l'

TIPCO/Formosa Plil$tk:s Clean PI nt PNOC-!1::DC Wind Power

CE C!secnal'l HVdro

INDICATIVE PROJECTS:

BaeMan Optimization

Sucat Upgrading 'LNG. Umayl!xplnslon (IN(i~

IM.lriveles Green Field.; (LNG) 'CA1:EN SCrsogon/lllb.it, Gl;!Othc!lrmll, N:l!w wz.on G~Ilt:h"rmi11 (V dfitl s)

Totals by nOlO

MW'

TA'RGET YEAR

)SOHW 3!OMW 2.IiMW 50H,W 4DM,W 150MW

2Q04 2004 2004 2004 2006 2DD4

40MW 1f50' - 85Q HW 51l0MW ,1,21l0,MW 40MW 44DMW

2007 200i zaoll

I'D target yur specifle.d Notarge.t '1e.tr Ip>M:irieti No target par .Ipedfied

3,635 .- 4,035 MW

. • 2- 'medium voltage l'Ystems &. applications In Industries

Tth. V .Y

For tile VI:.c1YO'. r 'glon, It tJi1~, n tot. I xf:,tlrl!.J ocn~rDllan c.,p,lClty of 1,6'17 1'4W In ;2.002, compo d or 916 MW 9 oll1Prnhll, 530 MW DUbas!t1 plan , U:19 'r..,w cc,11 and 1 .. f.1W IlYL1ro. 01 thil!' cxl'itlng cop<lclly ol'ly a!JrJut 1,283 MW is dep~ndabl(1 as of 200(1. Peak MW In 2004 ls

xpccted to rei;lch l,WO f'<lW or an excess or about 100 MW, By .2005 the VIS3YoS Grid must however have ready additional power plants to service the loads. Cebu province Itself I-jad a peak of 439 MW in

,

JOl)) willi" d<"IJI'llll'nIJI.,. l}1'1l1'lo1llllO .I il1J.11Jlllly or only 31b MW or, clcnclt or 93 MW. J IMl'S wily ill priority projct.t of ill ~othcr subm. rim! lniercOllnection from Leyte/Samar adding' me 200 MW to Cebu I now under construction. But then the entire generilillon capability of tt1e Vlsayas Region \ll.dll be short starting 2005. KEPCO's propo ed coalnrcd 100 MW PowC!r Plilnt (or probably 200 MW) In Cebu Is therefore needed to be started now. But more generating capacities are stJlI seen necessary.

tABL!E 2.3: FORESEE~ "OWER Pl.AHT PROJECfS AS Of Y2003, VlSAYAS GRID

PlANNED POWE~"'l.,II.NT A!)OmONS

CQMNn I CU PROlt;;Crs:

Mambucal GGotlullm1ol (NltgrQlort'ent;!l) Rl!ltlilll' G«itllennlll (~P.tinn Orlenbl) PII'ilmpinon 'Optimization (N6.lI1'OI 'Orlootal)

lNDiCATIVf' PROJECTS:

Trili",-AsJII Diesel (IIOI'~;::II") M Ifllnt 1)1 •• 1 (Iloilo)

Vlc:torl .llocn III V (NlIQfOI Ocddent81) C!lMillln L.~Q Geot.hermll'

KEPCO ICO!!.! Cebu

Cld.EN (3 new Geothe'"Tnal Pti!lnbl)

Total!!! by V.I010

THE MINDANAO G:RlO

For the Mindanao grid, it has a total installed. capacity of 1,675 f';1W In 2002, consisting of 997 MW hydro, 570 MW ell-based plants and 108 MW geothermal. However, of said total installed capacity, dependable capadtJ' in 2.003 lsequlvalent to 1,,228 MW as agaln£t 1,150 MW demand

xp (ted tn 2004. Based Q, tlie supplV and demand proJections, Mindanao Iregion w[1I need addttlonal 'power startIng 2005. As far Olsthls research .Is concerned, a 200 MW Mindanao Coal Is expected to come on stream by ,2006 as well es Ape Geotherma'i exP<lnslon of some 20 MW by 2006 ancr Tagoloan Hydro of abQut 68 MW by 2.008 or a total of 288 MW, but the reqien still needs more capacities. -

In 2003" the PhilippInes has a Total Installed Capacity of some 14,072 MW, 12,909 MW of which Is dependable. Electricity demand In the Philippines is expected. to grow by around 7 - 8% per year through the end ,of the decade, necesslta:tlng as much <lo; 10.000 'MW of new installed electric capacity, spread over the three grids of the country, considering that some plants in Luzon &. Visayas of about 1,113 MW capacity are due for retirement between now &. 2010.

MW

TARGET YEAR

4.QMW 4DMW lOMW

200.5 2005 ':liDOS

7_5MW lOMW 50MW 1DOMW lOOHW 540MW

2005 :aDOS 2005 2007 20Q.7

(no t2J'iet year IndlCllted)

907.5 MW

Medium-term increases in power demand are to be satisfied largely by the three gas-fired plants (Ilijan, Santa Rita, and San Lorenzo) that are linKed to the Malaml!laya natural gas field. The Korea Electric. Power Corporation (KEPCO) began commercial operation of the l,200-~W Ilijan plant in June 2002. KEPCO Funs the plant under a bulld-operatetransfe scheme for 20 years, after which ovmershlp will revert to Napocor. First Gas Power completed ,a l,020-MW plent at Santa Rita In August 2000; the plant 5'NitcMedfrom fuel all to natural gas. In Jam.liill)' 2002. San lorenzo on the other halld added some 48'0 MW of L'IS powered power plant.

--~--~--:--.-.--~------------------------.

'O!!leeps International aS$c.cla't!nn, Inc medium yoltage systems &. applications in Industries

:2

TABLE:;!.4: FORESEE., POWER PlANT PRO'JECTSAS OF nODl, PHILIPPINES PI.J!,Nk Il POWER PLANT ADDITIONS

UlIll.CAnVIl PtlOJECrs (II\W" Tmlll

(HW)

~67D - 3,070 MW 3,1;35 - 4,035 HW

B07.5 MOW 907.5 MW

o U~MW

GlUllS

tOMMrtrED PROJfCTS (MW)

LUZUN

96SMW

\'!SAYAS

lOOMW 193MW

'MINDANAO

1,l53'MW

Energy production n the Philippines is concentrated In the electn:lty sector. Geothermal power accounts for the country's largest share of Indlg nous energy prodw,tlon (by IndJgrJnou~ we· mean local productionf.rom tht1 COU,fJtry'/$ ownnatun,r! resources), followed

3/117'.5 - :li,on, 5 MW4,S:jll,S- !I,230,5 MW

by hydropower, natural 9il1S, coal, and oil. The Philipp-lne government has made shifting from reliance on Imported ull a major goal, and Is. pushing the current. boom In natural gas-fired electricity development.

GR1D' COAL OIL HYDR.O LNG GEO- "fOTAL DEPENDABLE
THERMA'!. CAPACITY CAPACITY
LUZON 3,169 2,,514 1,8511 1,76] 5107 1118D9 10/510
VISAYAS tSg 530 12 (I 916 1,647 1,414
MINDANAO 0 510 !:IS7 0 lOB :1.,615 1.,321.
TOTAL 3,9SU 3,,614 2,865 2,763 1,9'31 15,131 13,:nrs
26.1 % 23.,90% 18.93DIo 18.26<Vo 12,77% IDO"1t! There are two new power projects in Luzon.

The CE casecnan Water ~nd Energy Company (a subsidlsrvof California Energy International) is construcUng a multipurpose Irrigation and 150- MW hydroelectdc facility, Also, the 350-MW San Roque multipurpose hydro project began commercial operation in ~lay 2.003,

Mirant is the PI'l:'lppines' largest IPr, operating five power fdants In the country, Mlrant.'s coal-fired Sual plant began commercel operation in late 1999. The 1.21S-MW p'lant is 'located about 130 miles north of Manila, and is the nation's largest and lowest-cost eleetri.city producer. Napocor Is the !tiJle purchaser of power from SuaL

Several power-gener·l,tillg facilities also' are under extensive rehabi!'tation. The lOO-MW Binga hydroelectric pliSn~ has been under

renovation since 1993 ;ollowlng damage from a 1990 earthquake, After years of delaysj Binga resumed operation in Jl.ly 2002. A larger project Is the $470 million contract with ArgentirlE'! firm Ifv1PSA (lndustrias Me.talurgicas Pescsrmons Sociedad Anonima) to rehabilitate and operate the 7S0-MW Catiraya·B'::ltocan-Kalayaan (CBK) power complex In Lagun~, south of t4anHa. The CBK complex is the grid regulator ifl luzon, a.nd as such is able to' transmit power to other plants on the grid In the event of breakdowns, IMPSA, in conjunction with new partner Edison Mrssioll Energy of the United States, was able to get a performance ! hdertakinq guarantee despite Napoco-r's and some government omcials' objections, facllltating long-delayed financing, of the project.

The Phlttppi'nes, due to its geography, has problems linking all of its larger Islands together Into one grid and ensuring availability of electric

.2-5

medium voltage systems .. ;~IJpIlcatlons In industrle:s

power In rural areas. The government has set a target date of 2006 for full electrification, and also is taking steps to li"'~< together the country's three major power grids. (Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao)., Where it is not economical to link small islands' grids Into the national grid, separate Jocal systems are being established around small generating plants.

TIlB PhlllpplflE'l I§ 1111 world' ""~~I)fld Inlqt'~' pf'oduUi!r of goth II1IJI J;lOli'Jl..!r, with an f'IV lInLle capacity of about 1,9QO, MW. The government would IIk(;' to add roughly another 1,200 MW, whkh would e>tcee(,1 current U.S. geoUu:!1 mal capacity, Geothermal power currently makes up around 13% of the Philippines' installed power generation capacity, most of which has been developed by the PNOC • Energy Development Corporiltlon (PNOC·EDC), Kyu hu Elcdrlc:

Camp flY Is In 11 joint venture with PNOC-E:lX. to develop a IlO·MWgeothe:-mal plant in sorsoqon, Albay province, and :Mi:1rubeni of Japan ·l1a5 expressed its Intent to build tt,e 100-MW Cab ilan geothermal plilnt 111 leyle. california EnefDY's Ph1l1pplne unit I~ working with PNOe to develop three new geothermal power plants In Leytel producing a total of 540 MW of electriclty. Plans are underway to, develop nine new facilities

In Luzon, ranging From 20 MW to ])0 MW that will eventually bring a total of 440 MW of geothermal energy to the grid. By 20051 the new 40-MW Mambucal and 40-MW Rangas power stations in Dauan, Negros 'Oriental are expected to come online. Financing for the projects was secured from the Development Bank of the Philippines (DBP) In June 2003.

Besides geotl1erma1, the Philippines also Is . !'xplorll1g the use or oth r· renewables for

I(J trlt;lty g '[1 r11110l1, pt1r1lclll rly In !ho c.ountry's unel clrlned vUl g s, In MlIFrh 2001, the 1'111111111111 III 1 Sp(IIlI'.h lJl.1V r Ilfll nl. w· eJ to <1 ~!lfJ m11l10f\ contract to bring ~lJlilr !ll)Wt:f tCJ 150 villages. The gCNernment or Australia etso harve partnered with the Philippines to :.upply solar power 'to nwal vllli'lt:} S, brlnnlny J, 145 .,Qlarpowered systems to 52 new municipalities.

The Philippines appears to have a strong potential for wind generation .. The United States Department of Energy wind mapping survey has estimated that wind rCSOdrC("5 In the Philippines have a power generation potential of as muchas 70,000 ,MW, seven times the country's current power demand. The 40·MW, PNOC-EDC, Northern luzon project in Ilocos Notte began operation In late 2002. A contract for a second, 40-MW phase or the project was signed with Aboitiz Power in March ~003.

i!.S) ntEpIUUPplrU; OIL

The Philippines' 011 production went silent in 1995 to 2000. [n 2001 the country began produ.clnr, against an average of only 1,'000 barrels per day (bbl/d) or crude ali. In ](102 however, crude oil production averaqad nearly 24,000 bbljd, and Mas been steady at 25,000 bbl/d SinCE! 2003. This increase was due primJrlly to thf. development of new deep- sea oll deposlts beneath

the natural gas-bearing st:uctures in the Malampaya field. But the increased production volume is still modest in relation to the country's needs.

Much had been hoped from the I PhUlpplne oi!. But then, we need to realize that until the COllotry strikes a new liquid black gold rnme, Philippine Indlgentl\ls 011 Is forgettable.

Phlllppln, 011 PrQnl.ctlon and Conllumptlon, 19~O·2003

:::: 1. .. -.-.-.-----.- .. -- - ----.-.-------. - -----. .- - .

.; mo1···-···-·" .. -·-····· .. --·-··_c;:·~~~~~P.EC?!! .. -.- .. - - .

~ 3QQO - -." ..

00

..

l"5Q a'........................................ ~ .

j ::::. ::::::: :: ::::."::::::: ::::::: ::::: :::::::: :::::::~~~:~~~'.~:~:~:

! '.00 D - - .• -- - .. ----- .

500 --. -···--··----·--------·-------------Procl'Clclr6ii--- .. ----·- .. - --'''-.

1980 1982198A 1986 1989 19~O 1992 1991. 1 i96 1 gea 2000

IOurte E1A

o:cscep,s Interfl2ltional asslldatJIon, Inc

m@dlum'voltage s.ystems !It ~_';Iplicatlons InlmhJ!ltri~s

Til Philippines consumed an aver<l:g or 338,000 bbl/d in 2003, I"Ilth net oil imports of 312,000 bbl/d (92.3%). This .dependence on imported all makes the Philippine onomy vulnerabte to sudden spil as in world oil prices. Oil consumption Is relativt'!ly stable, despite the country's economic grCl. Jth, due to reduced rellanc on oil for eleo ric power generation following development of the Malamp ya natural gas deposit. Had it not been of tile Malampaya n tural gas powering 2, 7 .~ MW since 2002, the country's oil imports cO.Jld have been much higher.

In October 2001, exp.oration underneath the Malampaya gas field rev! died an estimated 85 million barr 'Is of 011 whi h could probiilbly supply til I country for periqo of nln (9) years t.

I' sen prl1dllctlon I vel ,f 25,000 bbl/d (7.4% of the country's need ba .. ed on 2003 levels). If r'-1alampaya field supplies tne country 100% of its 011 r rluirclnents of 338,C 10 bbl/d, Philippine oil cI no It would only I st f'.lr 8 months. PhlllppJne oil Is therefore negllglbl,. unless we can find sizeable deposits sornev-nere In Sulu Sea. In comparison, the USA consumes 24.S million barrels of oil per day in 2(\04. The Malampaya oil deposit of 8.5 million barrels will last for only for three days In the USA.

REFINING &. DOWttSIREAM

TI1e Philippines' downs reClnl oil Industry Is dominated by three corntarues: Perron, Plliplnas Shell, and Caltex (Phili~ plnes), Petron Is the Philippines' largest 011 r rlnlng and marketing company. Currently, the Philippine government and Saudi Aramco ea("r. own <10% of the company, with the remaining 20% held by portfOlio and Institutloml,l 'i ivestcrs, ma'king it the only publldy listed firm .imonqst the three oil majors. P tron' Limay, Bataan refinery has a crude processing capac,ty of 180,000 bbl/d. Pull on' m rkut sl'lnr 'IS of m d-2004 w' s around 40%. Caltex (Phih~plnes), a subsidiary of Caltex, the Chevron Texaco 5ubsidiary based in Singapore, operates a 86,SOO-bbl/d refinery. According to a publication by DOE, Caltex announced in 2003, however, that it would be shutting down Its refinf':Y in late 2004 and replacing It with an 011 in .port terminal. PHipinas Shell has a 153,000-bdjd refinery. Overall, Phihppine refineries run at around 80% of

ceseeps International ass .;i",tlon, Inc

cnpilcily, and there Is n"~ a great de I of demand for new refinery construction.

l.G} NATURAL GAS

Although the Philippines has 3.8 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of proven ni3~ural gas reserves, the country had no significanc natural gas production ~ntU late 2.001. In recent years, the government nas made expanding natural gas use' a priority, particularly for electric power generation, In an effort to cut oil Import expenses,

A major impetus for changes in the country's natural gas sector has been the Malampaya offshore freld. Malampaya is the larqest natural 0 .. 5 development projec; In Plllllppine history, and one of the largest-ever foreign Investments In the country. A 312-mlle (504-kilometer) pipeline links the field to three power plants 'In Batangas. The pipeline is among the longest deep-water pipelines ln t"le world, with half of its length more . han 600 feet deep. Natural gas from r"1alampaya eventually will fuel three power plants with a combiner' 2,700-megawatt (MW) capacity for the next ~wenty years and will displace 26 million barr. Is of fuel oiL A $100 mllUonexpansion pipeline from Batanqas to Metro M1anila ("Bat-Man") has been considered by numerous Investors. This pipeline would supply gas to additional power plants as w·ell as the Industrial and commercial sectors. Negotiations on tile financial aspects of the project are ongoing, and construction is expected to begin In .2005, with the pipeline commencing operation ill 2007.

Exploration continues is other parts of the country, but no major discoveries have been reported. Three small natural gas fields were closed down in 2001. Fields In the Tukankuden and the Cotabato Basin we~ shut down due to security problems, while another fiel.d In Victoria I Tarlac1 was closed becau th natural gas discovered was too saturated ·with water for commercial production.

2.7) COAL

Development of new natural gas projects In the Philippines has come largely at the expense of the country's struggl"n\l coal industry. PNOCs coal mining subsidiary produced 1.9 million short

medium 'tI'al'tage .systems& appllcations in Industries

tin of (0<'11 In 1001. Willi!.' (0,11 (( pI ('[,cnt., 6 declining share 01 the PhllllJplncsfuall1l1X overalt, there are several small coal mines under development, mainly on (he southern Island of I·~indanao.

! he 1'1 illlppJI!f·g CQ,15'Jmcd 5.7 nliillllll short tons of coal III 2002, 3.8 million short tens (67%) of which were imported Indonesia, Chir1C1, and Australia are major exnorters of coal to the Philippines.

2.B)1 IHlEUCImCpOWERINDUSIRX REfORM ACT (fPIRAl Of 2001

The mosts~gnlrlcant event in the Philippine energy industry In recent years was the Electric Power Industry Reform f...,-:~ (EPlRA) of 2001. The act has three main obj~dives: 1) to develop indlgenoLis resources; 2) to cut the high cost of electric power in the Philippines; and 3) to encourage foreign Inves!,r:lent. Passage of the Act set into motion the df;'eg.ulation of the power industry and the breakup and eventual pdvatlzatlon of state-owned enterprises.

EPIRA required the state-owned utility National Power Corporation (Napocor) to break up its vertically integrated assets into smaller sub-sectors such as ge! .eration, transmission, distrIbution iilnd supply i'1 order to prepare for eventual prlvatlzation. Th~ result will be iii system in which prlv<atized genemtors will sell ,directl'y to private distribution companies. These two concerns, the National Transmission Corporation (TransCo) and the Power Sectur Assets and

:l.S} ,POWER DEMAND f'10J:ECnONS

In December ~ 99S Report entitled

"EltJctrkJty Demand In .hl •• nd the Effem of Energy Supply a Investment Environment'" by Masayasu Ishlquro &. Takamssa Akiyama 0' the World Bank International Economics Department, a study on Power Forecasts &. Energy Demands of seven economies of Asia were presented. These seven Asian Economies involved in the study are:

China, Indonesia, Malaysia,. Philippines, Korea, Taiwan and Thailand. Pru}ectiolls were made up to Y2010 with Y1990 as the base year .. From the report, 'the opportunity to 'look see' on what other Asian countries are faring vlz-a-vlz the Philippines becomes noteworthy. Please see Tables 2.6, 2.7 &: 2 .. 9.

Liabilities Management (PSALM) Corporatlon, have assumed the state's high voltage transmission infrastructure, and power plants, respectively.

Napocor wi'11 need to transfer its exist:ing power purchase obligations to private distributors, and also tL renegotiate high-priced contracts. There are cthe. financial incentives for:, the government as well. Napocor's $23 billion iin debt and $9 billion in power purchase agreements are unsustainable, and the government must already contribute $300 mllilon per year to keep Napocor afloat.

In order to make the sale of Napocor more attractive to Investors, the. government has absorbed a signrficant amount of Napecor's debt. The transmission system has been transferred to an independent company, Transco, which is to be privatized.

It is Interesting to note that .among the' seven Asian Economies In the study, the Philippines ranks last In volume power demand' while the country Was seen amongst the lowest In load growth rates. Tl.ls despite the Philippines' larger area and population colnpared to Taiwan or South Korea. Ind;Jstrlal and !Residential! Commercial share of power consumption In the Philippines are about equal While the industrla'i component still eats up rrore power for the entire seven economies. I'll terms of Transmission &. Distribution Losses, the ?hilippines In 199"1 was the hig.hestat 19% as compared to South Korea's 5.26°/0. Singapore which was not among the countries under study was the lowest at 3.39%. Table 2.8 below Is a cornpartson of system losses among selected Asian countnes

ceseeps International a 55< Ielatlon, Inc

medium voltage s.ystems 110. applications In Indusules

covering the: year 1994. Among the seven Asian countries, power consumotion profile until the end of the decade runs as follows: China: 65.5%,

Korea: 10%, Indonesia: 6 .. 6%, Taiwan: 6.43'%, Thailand: 5.83%, Malaysia: 3.64% and the P~lilippines: 2.05%.

COUNTRY st'.IOR UIIO 19D5 lOOO 1005 .2010
chlllil Jnd·llltrl.t 'iiI~:t3 5115.4 108.70 1,OSII.:I 1.:1111.3
1'I.'·llC~ .,', 711.00 153.4 2111.10 1.i42.60 1,'0111.t
All, ;'31.11 814.11 :1,181,7 l,n].!! 2.,1581,,.
l(or.1!a IFldlistri~1 5:6.,80 83.40 113.3 1<18.1 195.!!
Res'I(Ce,n1 34.10' 53.50 113.90 11'.0 193.'
All 93.40 140.3 lOiU 1211.1 394.2
Ind .... es1.;J lndusb!ll 14.111 13.!;O 40.6Q 116.011 no.s
Ral/'CI' ,,1'1 11.70 21.30 ,40.30' 75.1'.10 141.3
All 21·.70 41,30 114.70 149.0 2511.9
Taiwan Ind!!rtrllI1 39.80 51.!lD IIS.10 :82.90 1011."
D,e"I/C»",1 . 27.00 42.50 61.90 88.80 nll.4
AU n.10 lOl.6 137 ... 1 185.1i ZS2.6
Thosl!a.lId litu:l·ustrl.1 17.70 26.!l0 41.30 61 .. 30 gil.,,!)
Res,·I/Cor.l1 20.1t1 37.90 60.00 91:30 136.{
All la.l0 6!i.ISO 102.4 ~S4.1. 228,8
M;da.fSla Industrl. I II.~OO 111.00 2,9.70 48.10 71.00
Re'1/C~'lI~ 1.0.30 16'.80 111 .. 70 4!UO 61.70·
"II 20.70 3S,!m 17.30 90.40 lA.U
Pblnllpi!1U Indu .... ~ , !I.SlOG 11.201 n.30 27.10 3Y.SO.
Re.1fC<r ,,'1 10.<10 13..QO ss.cn 21.00 37.41)
All 11.:m 26.50 39.00 55.20 79.90
T'otII'l 0' Sewn lndudn I !SSIl.! UO.riD 1,115.9 1,493.9 1,001.4
E<Xl\'1omlsi Res1'/(() 11lI1 U!l.S, 338.110 581.0 994.30 1,715.0
011.11 8D".9' 1,231.3 1,.803.D 2.&:U.l 3.9.~4.9 T _:bla 2.7: GROWl'iH - AT!! IN fUCTRlCf'I'Y DtMANDS1H EVeN ASIAN ECONOMIES

Chin.

f IWfl

, ..

t~e!HlepS Int

lPdl!strI",1

Re:sldentlaV Commerdal All

IIndul'l:rllll

R .. I~I.'l!!l11 CoI'IHI'!C!!'d.r All

Industrial

FtulrlcnUII, Commen:!.B·1 "II

l"dll.trilll

RHlclentil'ill Commercllli All

Indu.strI

RESIdentS311 Cornm~",1 An

lrufumtril!ll

Resld~tJ 11 Comnu,n:llli All

[ndus\'IT1I!1

ReJI,jonUal[ C(lmmen:1JII 11.11

M!!u~li 'Lolid Grom:h !bile.

l';eO-l!ln

19.3·/0 2.,0.7·/0 l3.1l'%

11.70% 11.50% 8.IUI%

10.4"1" 12 .. 0%

Ulo/a

'.~Ii"'" ~4.2%

7.70%

:Ll0"lo 5.2llr% 3.00%

, .90 ..... n.7 ..... n.o~""

G.l00/0 '!D'.2Mi 7;70%

tmlustrl!'!l

Ruldeotlall Cr;mmC!lfdal All

7'.300/. 12.1% B.I0'l'a

Anl'1ual LDI!tI Gr_th!blte

jj9t3·1ol0

1.0.5010 1.2.11% UA%

9.811'1';, IUlDO/O g:.300r'0

11.20% 1I.6U% •• 40%

5.70"A. n.ao/~ '7.IIO~

7.YO .... 7.10'1'" 7.40%

S.40'¥. IJ.lill% I!I.!.IO%

4.S0% 7.JQ"Io 6.1(1"1.

6.:10"" n.""" &.100,'.

r:1!:1,lItlon, Inc

2-9

medium voltage !jystems &. applicatIons In industrle5

TABLE 2.8: COMPARISON OF TRANSMISSION 6. DISTRIBUTION lOSSES Y1994

CQUNTR¥ GROSS G N~RAnoN Til. 0 LOSSES % LOSSES
In million KwH) (In mliflon KwH)
:2.4,507 .,65,7 11Mo,o,'.,
61,370 1,650 1.2.47%
71,177 15,861 9.65%
3~,IIJ1'5 3,550 8,811%
727,ID2 3,456 5,98010
lM,993 8,678 $,26"1.
20234 11915 J.:J .... tn t rrns of illlcrag€! DOW r consumptlon per person per year (consumptlon for the industry excluded), the Philippines ranks as HIe lowest at 290 KwH while Taiwan tops at 3,614 and Korea second at 2,435 KwH per person per year. This could Indicate that the P~lllippines ranks as the hlghesl in per ntage of citizens below tile poverty Hne than the otner six countries under study despite the 87% electrification of the entire country.

In t rrns of KW p(:,' .Sq Km of residential & commercial power, Ta!wan leads at 260 and Korea second at 136 kw per square km. Indonesia Is lowest at about 4.2 kw per sq km while the Philippines at ~.5. China although the biggest power consumer among the seven economics, it call be deduced th t a I rgc porlion of China is stili unelectriFied or unpopulated as seen In its 5,98 I<.w per sq km.

TABLE 1,9:, COMPARISON nv LAND AREA., POULATI.ON &. ;PER CAPITA POWER CON SUMPTlO N

COUNTRY AREA OPUL.A1'lON rU!5·CDW~ KWtl PSR pc.RSO" f(W
(SQ KM) ASOI'.ZoIl4 CONSUMPTION PI!!P. YeIl!\(2004) P,I\SQKM
'1'2004 (GWI1J
CHI"'''' ",5~9151 1,291,1147,000 502.63 3117 1I.910D
KOIIV. 99,016 48,591,000 U8.34 2,435 1315.<10
IItDOH!5IA l,904,56~ 138,542,DOO 70.190 :1.94 4.2070
TAIWAN .16,000 22,750,000 82.2.30 3.1514 2150.75
TlWlNIU 5U,"' 64,8I5S,000 &4,5<C0 1,103 11.1108
MAUYSlA 329,74' 23,.5:5.1,000 37.780 1.805 13.0711
PtlIUHIN!5 • 300,000 all,~41,OOQ 25.002 290 .5000
fOTMO Srn:N 12,719,410 1,7113,3711,000 !IlO.712 ~1I 1.21<14
fCONOMr!S 2.10) CONCLUSION

We are facing aqaln > serious brink of power crisis in the immediate fut-llre. KEPCO's coal-fired Power Plant offered in C ebu must be pursued and its construction muse start now. If Mirant's Sual produces the cheapei~ power in the country, why not more of .sual.~ in the Visayas and Mindanao? The example of Sual must be copied and spread out to other parts of thccocntrv. Coal In ChIna has been til prime mover of the coun ry's conomlc growlt" Why not mar of coal-fln;!d power plants In the Philippines"

Wind Power if truly viable in the Philippines must also be gillen priority, Tbe une in Ilocos if proven to be a success story must be bench marked and more must be constructed In other parts of the country. If we can only harness 10% of the country's wind potential, that's already 7,000 MW of p"flewable energy sourcel We could also have more MW from our geothermal sources. LNG Is likewise very bright In Luzon and we eire looking at rnor new LNG powered power plants In the country.

nlc.dlum vo'itaiii e' systems a i.lflPlic.iltlons In ilndusb'les

C(lSO pi InU!l'"lII.tlonal as\OIJclaticm, Inc

Iwll II/OWl MW pllWrr pl.1111 111 Ihl II11111ly by IIII' I.:IIIJ t1 r th clCGnd 'I

Sources for this repo« indufl ,: AFX News Urnlted; Asia Pulse; Business Wim; BusIness Worfu,: OA Worfd Fac(book; Dow Jom'S New« ~~,. , .,eiVIce; Eer ,lIom(. t /Tltct/([Jf:IICC Vlllf, E~ trk: Utilily Week; Frnan(fal runes: Co/aba/Insight ASld £ronQrl/k:

Olltiook; ad 11'1(/ Gi7.'i ],JI Ifl/. II, Mill/1M Slllr)d,ml,' I'fill~I'.'''"l· D,III}' [/If luI, v; Platts Ifl"'(Il,7tJ~ 'ill Co,}1 R('po!t; ''Ek'rlflclfy lJrm,Md In A~til (1M the t~ 'd~ f II r{1j! ;:>!Ipply iJlld lll\i~~mlf!lIt t;mtfro(l(lltY1(H fly MfJStllil!.11 l~I!I[Jllro 81 T;J/utnm fI AMy. "111 of tilt" World 8.m* J 1£!.'fI!cJMrm/ fC('}fI(}mlc:s 1J/'jJ.')tllll!'/JC, "Stott! Of the PhilIppIne EII!'roy soao:" 11 rm.st.'l1to(lon Iw S c', VIlli" f rrf, JII/I' soa I, "Mm.', Oil lilt' II?R or lJl{NA -lly om,

[

]

, 'End of Ch 'Ptor 1.0

coseeps international IiISSlJclat'lon, Inc

. ~ 2-11

medium voltage system's, &. applications In Industries

~~==~~~~~~~~ ~mmDDma __ ~~~ __

, CiESEEPS I'NTE.RNAT ON L ASSOCIATION, Il'aC.

- - r ~~ ~- .. - - If"~' I~i ..

. (Centre for ~udtes in Elecl;ricaf Enginee~ing "

, ~ ". . -

, . :. ~!. Prad:s~s It ~ndards), - ',. ': .

ELECTRICAL DESIGN PRACTICES .~N INDUSTRIAL PO,WER SYSTEMS'

BOOK 2: The BLUE BOOK

.' 1

CHAPTER].D

I THE INDUSTRIAL POWER SYSTEM. PROJECT

CENTRE FOR STUDIES IN ELECTRICAL ENGIN~EERING 'PRACfICES & STAN D.ARDS (CESEEPS INTl ASSN, INC.)

2ntl floor, 'BII~lIIba$ ·Bldg., A •. dol Rosl1lrlo St., 1'lpolc, M.andaue Clt~·. Phl1lppJmil!li1;

Te' "0"1 (Oll) 345-45;)11· 346-3029;

, "XNCI.I {'iJ:U) 143·-"9340;

Ernul! Alb: .d!i!.RdJpowaU'Ih!lilb9Q·com ~i

This napter dlscus es In qener I t rms the Industri I plant el ctr cal !v",te n prole 'from til polnt of view of the desigll engineer. This section 1150 ,Indud"s some Insig~lts In the preparation of the project as well a!t some dtscussions an project management.

3.1) PRELUDE TO INI:'!.J.STRlAl PLANT SYSJEM PLANNI¥!G

Here comes now the engineer as the I. dustrial Plant System Designer (in Europe, it is termed as IPSDj.I\Jote that a variety of electrical system conflgur .rtions are available for the IPSO to adapt. However, specific requirements of the plan!' in concept have to be investigated and analyzed qualitatively & quantitatively to meet both the present as well as future operation or load conditlons, Except for a

18 ge tndustrtes, moe lndu trial plants in the country today from the viewpoint of electrical engln ering, ar - light & medium sized ~ emplOiying medium voltages for their own dis rlbutlon systems. Mas: of these plants chose to draw Its power supply rrorn an existing utility company at 13.8, 23., ]·1.5 or 69 KV through customer-owned substatl(_ ns or power centers depending on the rnagnitl de of Its loads and the avallab!c voltage levels 0.' the utiflty company In the area. tf the load warrants and the availability of high r vo!tag level I pres nt, it Is usually prudent to draw powc : at higher voltages because ot lower powe. rate packages, lesser voltage Fluctuation and !:)wer losses. However, the plant has to invest fOf Its own substation and th subsequent operation .~ maintenance thereof.

Some industrial plants that are process'

team Intensive opt to ,'rovlde Its own power plants In co-sen ration cnern s wi~h power and process st m. Where th.~ In-house power plant is located near the 10:1:i centers the electric svs m may een JS having only the gem ration ar1d dlstrtln.rlon suo-systems ;:15

ceseeps International a~(.clation. I~I(

transmission Is no longer needed. In this country, th transmission components of systems are only for large electric systems and therefore In the domain of power u (Uty ccrnpanles,

To IPSD's, It 'Is Important to mention that this book took reference to the NEC, PEe, NEMA, IEEE, ANSI, lEC and acceptable Trade Practices wherever applicable. Experience showed that the scope of the Philippine ~Iectrical Code may not be 'enough'in Industrial ~ower systems design' as the Code itself has sorie' widely inclusive or somewhat confusing provisions, This is true to a Code that is constantly evolving as exceptions, conditional or situation;:!1 provisions and rules embracing technology advancements are ;1 corporated into the Code from time to time. Most of the time, the 'tine tuning' answers to these 'gray areas' can be discovered in the IEEE or in the lEe publications. Surprisingly, If not expectedlv, th se answers ar always wl hln the provisions & intents of the code. The bottom line therefore is for the engineer to see to it that his design makes sense. This requisite is what we termed as QUALITY ENGINEERING. Designing therefore carries with it the accountability for the safety & reliauility of electrical systems by responsible & experienced electrical engineers. It is then helpful for both client engineers & elertrlcal practitioners to be aware of these professional cornpetences. The expertise in d slgnlrlg does not just nappen overnight. It Is a result of experience, nlWer-ending learning process and the accumuietion of confidence ever the years.

3 .• 2) DESIGN .ATTRIHUTES FOR AN INDUSTRIAL POWER. SYSIE'M

Experts believ that th_e most crucial portion In HIe chain ot events In an industrial plant project as in a new or expanded or modernized lcctrlcel power system I the conceptual design phas of the project. Conceptual Design Studies

3-1

usually result in the prodi.ction of the criteria for the best system archlte: rure, the best voltage levels, the most efficienr earthing system and optimal fil.ult contrnl coru istent wtth long range objectives of safety, reliability, ·flexlblllty, maintainability and lowest I.ifetlme costs.

A g.ood power svsterr. design must therefore contain the 'following attributes. The client engineer must see to it th st the following aspects are present in the output -;r the desiqn.

• SAF,ETY

To the USA, safety of life and preservation of property are two of'the most important factors In the design ::l the electric system. Following and conforming to established codes & standards in the selection of the material and equipment Is Imp. ratlve, Professional & workmanlike Iflstallatlon~ are equally' Important because no matter ho'fl, perfect the designs on pappr are, it b corm-s useless when not Imp! 'l11~ntt'd pi of 'sl'· llllly. M05t ell1cLr 1t.<11 dl .t ( rc cml.,cd b) poor d Ign or due to the Igl'loronc~ or on' c Insttl·lloUon praetkcs,

In lesdlng countll(!s. safety In power systems Is required by "ppllc.nblc laws through safety codes or wiring regulations, Safety therefore begins at ti";,e drawing 'boards & design sheets, The Industrial Power Systems Designer (IPSD) must be cognizant to this primordial r.esponsibility ,

• RELIABILITY a CONYINUITY Of SERVICE

The type of process and the behavior of manufacturing operations of the plant dictate the c.ontlnulty of service requirements of the power system. Some plants can tolerate Interruptions. while others require the highest degree of continuity, -'-he system should be designed to· Isolate faults selectively with least disturbance to other p-rtsof the system and should have the fe(\tures for maximum reliability consistent witr plant requirements at justIfiable costs.

Reliability starts with the d.esign engineer's good sense or selection of electrical equlpments &. components that would soon compose a continuously operating system, It needs a deep knoV\:~dge of the various electrical products available and. goad

experience on the performance of these products.

• SIMPLICITY OF OPERATION

Sirnpllcltv of operation in an effort to bring far unprecedented but costly operational errors is very important in a reliable operation & maintenance of the industrial power system. The system should be as simple as possibte but it doesn't mean that the system would not contain conditioned meneuvers or ;nterlacks. A system configuration guide re!'1ected in simple & easily understandat.te single line dIagrams for operational. purposes greatly helps in maintaining cornpcsure among system operators in times of ernerqencies,

• MAIltTAINA,OILIIY

The power S)o ;tern should include

maintenance princ1t,!e_s In its design:

Accessibility and ,avC\.Ii1bility for inspections &. I 'pUil!> are atnof\Ys~ tilt: consfdcrutlon 'to br: '"ldtJ~ In designing the system. Space should b plovld id tor In!.ipc~tlon, edju trnCfltll and repairs In clean, well lit and tempe.ra.tul'e controlled areas. The power' system ·cQnllguratlon mu~llncl\Jdc rn Intchllino~" II ow room" such that maintaining major equlprnent does not mean shutting down the entire plant. If maintenance requires shutting down the plant, so then the plant is not "maintainable".

• !FLEXlSIlITY &. EXPANDABIUTY

Maintainability in deeper sense' :means readily available spares &. cornpooent pam, 'teast repair time desiYI1' o'f system equipments and the Simplicity to perform preventive &. breakdown maintenance as welt If continuous round-the-clock operation of all or some identifiable parts of I:he process Is required, then system conflqurauon must have reserve feeders or separate supplies to th . components to support maintenance at othe portions of the system.

Acc.ording to IEEE Std 141-1993, flexiblfit) refers to the adaptability to develcpmeo 'expansion and increase in production capad as well as chanpes to meet varl requirements during the IIf·e of the pla Consideration of plant voltages, equtpme rati.ngs, space for adr.ltionalequipment ar-;

ceseeps Int.ernatlonal ass(',clation, Inc

medium yol·tage systems &. ap.pUcations In Industri

capacily for increased toad must be given serious 1nputs In the design. Experience tells us that more often than nut, even jf the plant is yet under construction, process designs always change &. loads that ar~ not foreseen earlier used to unexpectedly unvell,

The power system must also be flexible in events of failures of major equipment such that the plant ci'lIlStill (II-! rote partially In El con lderabla productlon (apaclty. This needs til· (tip bility of the deo.;!gll cnglnP.er 'to employ tl1 b . Y tE"M1 !mrlyUI.1tltJlI that fl Uw operatloMI behavlor of the Industry.

• TUTAL :ECONOMY - N()IT FIRST COST

While first costs "are very important to clients, finance managers &. plant owners; safety, reliability, flexlb;tity, maintainability and anticipation For expanslnn should not be sidestepped in selecting best options. More orten than not, too much ch~ep ell,glneedng 15 in fact, w5tly. By making the first cost not .objectionable, It does not mean that the

nglne ruses ChErlP, undersized and

substandard materials or equipment. Applying correct Va'lue Englnecrl"lg, the design must fundamentally confcnr. to good engineering practice, codes ar.d standards, This fund mQnt~1 Of minimum requlslt must not b~ compromised und~r tl1.! "do ,I<. of costs". It Is Important for the Industr"la! Power Systems Designer to understand that Hrst Cost is not enough in determining the economics of the project. Total Life Cycl~ Cost of the power system depends on equipment purchase price ,& quality, construction '& Installation costs, operatinq costs including losses, outage costs, repair costs, useful Ufetime of the equipment and administrative costs.

3.3l WHO' AJtE AUrJHC;JRIZEP rQ' peSIGfn

The bottom line Is for the engineer to see to It th3t his design makes sense. This pnrnordlal requisite Is what we termed as QUAlITY .ENGINEERING. Desiglli"\,g therefore carries with It the accountability for the safety & reliability of ,e'le:ctrical 5y5'"::!rns by responsible &. experienced electrical ·engineers. In the Philippines per RA 792.0, only Professional Electrical Engineers (PEE's) are authorized to render electrical engineei"ing design services" In

fact It Is a ground for revocation of the engineer's license to practice should the PEe misrepresent himself by .signing and seaHng plans &. designs nat prepared by him or not executed under his supervision (RA 7920, Art Ill, Section 29). The signing & sealing of plans by the PEE makes him the sole owner oJ the design and will absQrb all ~es &. accountabilities appertaining thereto. In reality, the PEE can have {as long ss I.lfl(tc!t' Ills .. trlct supervision and revlew)l a battery of younger REPs -. (Registcled 'Electrlcal Engine rs) who executethe plannln(J, drafting & Upr;lyllll1g. In lhls re~ 'Ird 'th rcrorr. th t hi!' CESEt:PS eolored book series can well help fll'l LIP the gap as design guide handbooks.

3.4)PROIECI MANA(Jf,MENT AS AN ART

The IPSD must be well versed With the art of Project M·anagement Project Management Is deflned as Rdlreding nature" quantity .and timing of tempot:llriJy assembled resources~ skills and knowled!Je to reach specified technical & .financlal objectfyC!; within quality:, safetY; tioelal a env/ronmfmtal cr:mstraln,ts'" I n proJect manapement, contractors' are the players In the other side of the equation. R.egardles5 of the classification of the contractor, a goQd project m nagement is the key to the accomplishment o·f the project at the rlgbl qua.Bt)~, most elfe<1lve ~ and Qn_J2:rggtKtw..dJJ.I~. Of course, the bottom line of a g04d" project man .... gement maybe the realization of.the hard-earned profit on the part of the contractor while a nice, safe, operational, bultt-to-standard edifice, plant or facility that the client envisioned Is delivered at the target schedule.

The lowest bid is nut enough. Clients and its engineers must be quick to Identify tell-tale signs if the contractors hired are good ones or not And 'illn_dards' must pe ;1'1 tbe center stage.

The following are some tips indicating a good &. reliable designer or contractor.

1) A good technical design prepared to the highest standards i:ln1J value creation by the client engineer or its designated designer or project managers. This forms part of the Scope of Work that will make the work commonly clear & understood by constructors.

-2) A rc:llabl(l & realistic f,lJstcstlmdte that leads a tontrl1ct rice COfl"nlm~lH oic to tile money Invested .• the. fforts and risk Involved In undertaking the project,·

3) A good team of qualified & experienced technical men assigned in the field,

To orchestrate a project by the cI1ent engln"er requires depth of understanding of the project. The client must present a clear Scope of Work &. Work Spedficatlc';lS. in other words, a clear picture of what the client wants. Scopes of Work. must be accompanied with technical plans, layout, diagrams & rnatenal speofications to be presented during a pi e-bidding conference attended by the contractors all convened at the sa e time, Remember that contractors will base their bids on a common ground. This common denominator win spell faii' play amongst bidders, Lapses must be proactrv'ely Identified (most common cause of proje delays) and should there be ("hanges In pnns before the final bh;Jd!ng conr rence rnus, IJ coy red by bid bulletins with all the plaYAfi copied.

With a conndent. house estimate, It would , '>'i ror th cl ent nil I) . r to "pot or detect

h tont or . mblbg on the t gll .. rope, In

ro tv, It' very 'I t cllp,'n. t th high st

bids ut It's d ult to 191'1Qre the lowest b d. His tlnance managers ana audl or'S, (usually members of the bidding committee), will haunt him. The client eflglnICer might even be .5uspccted of doIng rrcnkey bUsiness. The finance gllYS are' looking after the lowesl: numbers while the technical side is for the engineer to worry. Ex~rience shows that life would mis-rable In a proj , If It Is start c1 with an Incorrect budget. In the end. Quality & ~ rds suffer.

The d~sign engineu after having gone through the exercise as oresented in CESEEPS Book 1 (LOw Vottage Systems) must have prepared the project documents prior to r ,presenting the client to the power company. These documents are necessary in the interphase between theuWtv company and the applicant plant. A plant oroject may be divided Into following phases;

a) F <1~'bUll'l Study

h) PI cllll1!llm y su J[ly

c) Basic Design

d) Detailed DeSIgn _) Procurement

f) Implementation

g) Commissioning

h) Guarantee

Requirement analy ... es mainly apply to the first three phases, while system specifications mainly arise In the ~ 'lird, fourth and fifth, However, the power distributor is Interested more on the following preliminary information on the Industry-Owned Substation. An industrial substation is .typically used to transform a higher utility voltage to a plant's lower distribution or utilization voltage level. Depending on the size of the applicant plant, the secondary voltages of the substations could either be the utilization voltage at 240V Or 480V, or probably an intermediate medium voltage se.ondarv where subdistribution to the internal process departments shall be done by the owner plant ilself.

Procedures for the Establishment of a New Substation:

The consumer plant must provide certain data to the power distributor at the earliest stage & before negotiation of the project:

• I'1axlmum Antlclf:-t~d 'I0IA Demand 8< Future Lnad Growth

• Preliminary Layout Plans &. 'Elevations showing location of the substation

• Degree of Supply Continuity requrec (loss of production cost for any outage, safety of

p I sonn I & aqulorn nt

2) mOJECI STUDIES

The power cornpenv would lh 'n g.lvc p cine Information to the prosoe.tlve consumer:

• The Kind of Pm'ler Supply (overhead, underground)

• Service Connectior details: single service, ring main Installation or parallel feeders

• KVA Limit & Faul, ·:urrent Level

• TI1e Nomina! Volt, ue & Rated Voltage

• r'1eteting Details

--- .--------------------~--~----~--~----------------.

ceseeps Intern.tlonal,"" dation, Inc medium voltage systems&. <.pplications In Indust.-les

3-4

3) IMPlEt1ENTATIQN

Thl! Pow r SUppll.pr must give omctal eon nt of Ih t" ulpmem to .lJ.~ 11l~I~lHetJ In lhe sub5latlorl &. of pmpo!>ed methods of Installation,

• LottItlon of i'1"01IDst'J Substation

• On -une Diagram 'If Power Clrcui,t &.

Conn ctlons, t.oget;er wIth Earthing Circuit proposals

.' Full ,Rating Details: f the equipment to be installed,. induding ,)erformanc:e characteristics

• Layout of Equipme'1t &. Pro\llsionfor Metering

Components '

• Arrangement for Pr ver factor Improvement

• Arrangement For Emergency Standby Power

4) COMMISSIONING

• Earth Electrode Re: stances

'. Continuity of all E':l'"I-potential Earth &. Safety Bonding. Conductors

• Inspection &. Testi'-'g of all MV Components

• Insulation Checks cf aU Components including Switc!lge;,rs

'. DBV of Transfonm;,,- Oil

'. Checks on all Inter"xks fnduding those on the first line low vCltage switchgea'rs

II Checks on the Corr-::ct Setting, Operation of ali Pro'tective relay"

• After energlzation ~Ile power company shall hav operational motro! of all HV equipment.. Th po\l\'er compary shall have unrestr1t:ted access to the sutlst.atlon

• TI1e Consumer Slidll be responsible to the maintenance of tn~~ substation, .

R.ecelvlng er Incomln. ·MV Switchgear

The rated normal current reql)lrements for switchgear are decIded at the substation design stage, Common normal current rating for general-purpose j11IV distribution switchgear Is -tOOA. In industrial high-load-density plants, circuits rated at 630 A are sometimes required, while at bulk-supply substations whIch feed into MV networks, 800 A; 1,250 A; 1,600 A~ 2,500 A and 4,000 A circuit breakers are listed in lEe 56 as standard ratings for incomlng.-transformer circuits, bus-section and bus-coupler CBs,etc.

According to lEe Installation Guide

Handbook, at MV/LV suostations which include one (or more) transformerts) with a normal primary current of less than 45 A, an MV switch associated wi.th a set of 3 fuses (or a combmation switch-fuse) Is genetal~'/lJsed to control and protect the transformer, as a more economic altemative to a Circuit Breaker, Hence, when the reference current is less than 45 A and there Is only one transformer, th~ protection may be by fuses or by a drcult breaker. When the reference current is equal to or greater than 45 A, or when there is more than one transformer, the protection will be by a circuit breaker. Connection at MV can be:

a) either by a single service cable or overhead line

b) "'iab .... o mechanically interlocked load-break switches with two service cables from duplicate supply feeders,

c) via two load-break switches of a ring-main unit.

...

ces epslrlternlltioIHllassl',ciatlon, Inc

3-5

medium voltage systems So. applications 111 Industries

Fig 2.2: Typical Incoming Switchgear Ammgement

r-------------,r-

;'Hr· ora.I:.,'ql ')11 IJI,..!I!

H· .. ·";'~.., l~jijni!ilr,::.r"1lidlaf'l

Lv Jfi,hull1G I.rd t'&Dh,IIc."1

1M"'" I'M t"~ ."..hu

.. ~j..,..:r'lli'lolo-'I":I.~n_ot'I

1

f"~~~ 'Ir ~ ~~(:.G" It..,UG

L..'rI '!,fI,'lrlb.~-:'(lr a,rd IlrD't!ioetIDn

it

I

.. .J. f:~~

"'--

\

1

Courtesy or SChneid~r Bectrlc's lEe Installation Guide. Handbook

Main Tlilnsformer

a) oil-Immersed transformers (minerai oll-fllled) for substauons located outside premises,

Since the use of PCB (poly-chlorinated biphenyl) filled transformers Is now prohibited in most countries, the preferred available technologies are:

b) dry-type, vacuum-east-resin transformers for locations II1Sl"de premises, e .. g. multi-storey buildings

3-6

c'eseeps internatiDnal assrGlatiofl, Iinc

medium voltage systems 8: Ilppticatiol1!s in indWitrles

The size of the transrorrner varies according to load level requirements. If the secondary is low voltage (240V or 4801)); the maximum size of the transformer per lEe shall be 1,250 KIIA at 240Vor 21500 !(VA for 3R'N secondary. With the same current at 3,798 amperes, if manufactured for use on a 480 V Systl':rt, then the maximum size may be permitted a, 3,150 KNA at "lBOV 8: 1,500 'r0IA at 240V. Larger than these sizes will require medium-voltage secondary voltaqes. IEEE's examples In the Colored Book series show that at 3,750 KVA, the seoondarv has always

,'been placed at mediumvoltage. Hence, it can be E'itablished that the tn.eshold size for the transltion to medium vO![-.Jge secondary is the 3,750 KVA sIze (or above 3130 'tWA).

Main ~tldary DstriblllUon Switchg,car

If the substation 1:. small (1500 KVA or smaller ,,,t 2'10V or 3150 "'.,fA Of smaller at 480V)1

h n tht' rnatn econdary! Nichgcmr must also be low voltage, If the size of ubstatton is 3,750 KVA or lurger, then the main secondary distribution switchg~ar must be at m~ dium vortage, normally at 3,600V, "t,160V or 6,'~OOV, Again, note that there are number of configurations to use. For instance, normally in higt. capacity swltcngears,

double bus system is common. (For more on these networks, please see the chapter on distribution systems of this book).

The Main Secondary Distribution Switchgear containing power circuil' breakers is usually indoor type housed in a separate building or installed within theejeCtrical room which coul'd be part of the plant building itself. If the primary of the substation happens to be power oircult 'breaker, then a need to coordinate the protection settings both for the primary and the main secondary breakers <lIang with the drcuit breakers downstream 0' the system is to be performed.

111 smaller substations with MV/lV set-up, where the primary o~ the transformer Dilly requires p0'1'€r fuses, ':'he main secondary LV powerdrcult breaker r JUst be coordinated with the primary fus . Unlike power ,drcult breaker to

power cl. ult breaker situation where '

coordination settings may be retatively simpler, the choice of the power fuses ratings must be considered .seriously because the fuse can not be set Selection of the size of the power fuse must therefore be made to perform in the manner as the following illustration:

Feg. 2.3: Coordination ,l'4JMlE!s:

Power Fuse at Transfonner PrimaryVs. LV Power Circuit Breaker at SeaJndary

'\ _ 1'1 ri'I'u", pr~-!f"cln~ 11"1''' or r- ,,/ rll!!it'

3rt., .. , J'5 <It any "'i,:rne'1t f' I',e Die C]' 2 ;:1181'1'1'

tl,rre-nl 'f(,;]ue

AI' u.e se: lIar1 of the pow r 'l~r. Is 'clltic I tc tl1C proteftlon or tilt I] <'inS orm 'I'. The fuse might etOQ lilrge that I' may not Interrupt the clreuu dur In\l tl1rOlJI h·rDlJ~~!;. (PtC!use ee Chapler on PO!hcr Cent j s).

Power Fu!U!' Chl'll1u::terlsth: PerliJrlmmCC! Curve (13'pstrsilR1 of Transformer)

Main seronrlal1' LV Power Circuit Breaker settl:Jg . :(DOw.nmeam of· 1m nI,fotmer)

_. - .... .. --I

Courtesy of Schneider flectrk:'slEC I'n5talfltlon Gul~'e tiandbOl.',k

USllally slrnllar to the main dlstrlbutlon swltchgcClr but rn: y be 511\ ller In current ratings, the Sub-Distributor Assemblies carry the same

------... -----3 3-7

medl.urn voltilge .systems 8tt'4pplicllIt!oos In IndU!i:trles

· Th', ,,", 'lTIbh " m,iY bl' 111 tiler

IOCflttlJ1l 10 'r to til la,Mi. Il1gle bus In lmple rad al al rencernent Is LJsiJdly used In this part of the' sy tern ·wlth seencnal-rers to segregate high priority loads. After the Sub-Distributors are the Motor Control Centers, Dower Panels, Control Panels and Panelboards, down to the loads.

2.7) STUDIES REQUIREO IN THE IrU!URRIAL PLANT PROJECT

In small or light Indu~trial plants, the choice is simply between 240V .... nd·480V. The decision on th' prim ry voltage dJ:p .mls on lhe vallablc vol age of the power utIlity company. Between 240V and 480V, econorn'cs will always point to 480V as the choice. But il1 relatively larger plants such as cement plants, bewerles or sugar mills, large motors will also shape the choice of another voltage level. "or more on voltage selection, please the. chapter on System Dimensioning in this book

Short In;ult Studies

Short elr ult Studie!> are very Important In es ablishlng Fault Dutles at any part of the industrial plant system. This will become the basis n specifying the :\AIC ratlngs of circuit breakers, the KA rating of switchgears, the ratings of Power Fuses & Current Limiting Fuses for large motors. For more on this subject please refer to the Chapter on Circuit Breaker KAIC Rating,s of this book.

Choice of System Grounding

Earth faults on medi .rn-voltaqe systems .can produce dangerous voltsnelevels on LV Side. of Inslallations. LV systems as well as operating personnel can be safegu rded against this dan r by: a) re trlctlng rh magnltLJ e of MV

rtn fnult currents; b) ,'t:duclng the substation c Ithlng r 51 anc to thE' lowest posslbl v lue;

) 1,. 'tlno qulpol -ntl· ondlll [\ It the

, U J' l 'lior nd l'lt II LV Ii .st IlIuUon.

rrOIll II C IIUllldllml', til d· Ign nglil I'r

n 110(\S bdwc n Iw following rthlng

5 h m :

1I) l{lmp'.lIlccTcrld)

b) rr (Terra-Terra)

c) TNC (Terr<l-Neutral-CombJncd)

d) TNS (Terra-Neutral·Separated)

e) TNC·S (Terra-Neutral Combined wit Terra Neutral Separatelll

Which of the above earthing schemes best fit the industrial pJant if I concept, shall be the concern of the design engineer. For more on system grounding, please see chapter on System Grounding In this book.

Voltage Surge ProltectkJn

Harmful over-voltages In an industrial power system usually come from: a) sWltchlny overvoltage surges; b) Arcing earth fe utts In ungrounded systems; c) lightning surqes on power company lines traveling towards the industrial plant system; and, d) lightning strikes within the plant itself.

Most severe of these over-voltages are lightning strikes. This would therefore require sufficient BIL ratings fer major equipment and/or In combination of lightning surge arresters of (orr ct ratings.

Power Factor Compe sation

Penalties for low power factor systems are common in power companies' tariffs and a big cost to the industrial plant. Also, how much can be saved in cable sizes, transformer sizes, and IOS5 reduction through the installation of capacltors must be taken Into consirJeration. Please see CESEEP5 Book 5 otherw;se known as the Green Book (Industrial Maintenance & Energy Management Systems).

Protective Relaying &. Coordination Study

Also known in Europe a Faul Contrail Protective Relaying Study Is imp r tive In electric power systems. To learn more on nus 5ubJnct, pleas rtlfcr to CE5EEPS {look" or the Gold Book (IltdwitrlJll' ut)!Jl\loI15 &. F'Wl cuon .y 11m:!).

[. End of Chanter 3.0 ]

ccsoeps Intematlonal association, Inc

medium voltage systems &. applications in Industries

'ELEcrRICAL DESIGN PRACTICES IN IN,DU5TRIAl POWER SYSfE,MS'

BOOK 2;: The BLUE BOOK

l

CHAPTER 4.0 MEDIUM VOLTAGE

TRANSFORME!R CIRCUITS

CENTR.E fOR STUDIES IN ElECTRl.CAL ENGINEER.ING PRACTICES & S'[ANDARDS , (CESEEPS IN1'l.ASSN, INC.)

2nd Floor, Iil<'l!lubi'l!l Sjdg" .A. del Ros"rl'lII se, llpolo, MandalJll Clt,\" Phlllpp,lnes;

Tel No's: (032) 345-4531; 346-3029,

Fax 'NO',: (032) 343-1>936;

Fornal! Ads: doodsPD~/§r@yah{lO,CQm ~2a!l1.@hQtmall.cqm

4.1)1 GENERAL PISCUSSI0NS ON TRANSFORMERS

More often than rt.o~, the value of the trans:former in the electrlcal system of most establishments whether comrnercel or industrial is very significant not only on its cost but also because of the business ir.terruptionit may bring during failures. In mast cases, transformers when Installed &. energized are consldered permanent ftx.~ure5 in a building or ~Iaflt. They are usually 0\1 rslzedabove the present load onditlons and are expected to carry f,.ture additional loads. opc:ause substations & power centers ere expensive, mcstestabllshments consider these InstaUatlons as "one-tim« events" - t.e., only during the project phase of business venture .. Additional power centers are usuallventtcel cost Issues espeolally when the plant or commercial complex Is already In the operational mode or the' business ..

Experience tells us that transformers are relatively expensive p'eces of equipment compared to the devices protecting them. Ways to protect the transformers varies In degrees of sophistication depending on the size of the transformer, the associated voltage therein and the 'cost of the trenstorrne itse'lf. GOl1sideration is

Iso given to Ithe I\Jnaivn, fieliability and 'the mportanoe expected from the subject transformer as wen as the repercussions to business ecooomics sliould it fail.

But let us first takl' a close look at the transformer. What has IEeE said about medium voltage power transformers? The following genera,1 discussions are based from the IEEE Red Book: Electric Power Dlstr-bution (IEEE Std 141- 1993) and some IEC based publications. Please note that there are some oifferences in the ANS1- based transformers from t iat of lEe-rated ones. Both standards are the best in the world, but the Industrial Power Systeml> Designer must be conv rsan: In these two co u cpt,

4.2) GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS OF .A I..RANSFORMER

Most North American transformer ratings and design features have been standardized by ANSI & NEMA and these are listed as such in OEM's publications. Similarly, transformers from tne European continent countries are manufactured in accordance & in compliance with the Europeall CENELEC standards now narrnonlzed with the lEe. Specifying other than stendarc ratings will usuaWy result in higher costs, bL:' It can be done.

In selecting a transformer for a particular appllcatlon, the followmg items compriSing thf rating structure should be expressed in the specifications:

a) Rating in '(;VA or loIIVA

b) Single Phase or Three-Phase

c) Frequency

d) Voltage Ratings

e) Voltage Taps

f) Winding Connections, (delta or wye)

g) Impedance Volts (%IZ)

h) Basic Impulse Insulation Level (BIL) I) Temperature Rise

The specifications 'of the transformer shall al Include desired construction details as following:

a) Insulation medium, drY or liquid tvpe

b) Indoor or outdoor service

c) Accessories

d) Type and location cf termination facilities

. e) Sound level llrnltatlons if the instalialJion sitt

requires

f) Manual Dr automatic load tap cl1anging

g) Groundin9 requirements

h) Provisions for futl1l~: cooling of the specifi

type l) Radiator type and thickness

j) Special painting requirements

k) (;Ilcyory of enclosure (for per sonnel

medlurnvoltillge systems" applicatlorrs In industries

prot ctJon)

I) D~sla,nilHQn or enclosure type (for outdoor hzarootJ5 locallon 1

Conslderati,on should also be g;iven to energy losses, Where efficiency is of roncem especially In large transformers, several cost-analysis tedmlques are used to formalize procurement d~edsions with the goal of maximizing efficiency or minimizing overall life-cycle cost. In large transformers, capitalization .of losses is one of the critical inputs to dec.'sions in acqumng

ransrormers, IEEE advises, that the fallowing InfoTl'I1atJon about the transformer should be supplied to the prospective vendors based on annualized operating proje·::tions:

) The Cost it, Dollar 11M at which no-load losses are valued;

b) The Cost In Dollars/kIN at whithload losses arevalued: and

c) The percentage of tI~p. transformer rating at wl11ch load losses Will be evaluated during tho bld- (IfHP rl on l)roc:e5Si.

Given this lnformeticn, suppliers can then cstablishlhe desired construction of the I:tansformer. In this manner, the d sign engineer hilS In fact 'factored in' the 'cost of efficiency Or inefficiency' into the initial cap.ital expenditure. Note that this will also increase the first cost. of the transformer should the deslgn engineer choose ~he highly effident cnes,

4.2.1) POWER" VOLTAGE :RAUNGS

Normally specified, thi!' ratings In KVA or MVA 'lndude the self-cooled ~ating at a specified temperature nse, as weil as the farced-cooled rallng If the transformer Is to be 50 equipped. To ttl Industrial P,ower Systems Designer, as C! minimum the self-cooled ra,tlng should be at least eqlJaI to the expect d peak dernand, with a Sl.Ifth::lent allowance for I'rojected Iload growth. Transformers have certain overload capabilities, varying wIth ambient temp rt ture, pr loading, and overload duration.

During "long-time emergency loading"

European-made transformers for instance, can allow 150% load at a ma)!l:11LJ1T1 winding hot spot temperature of 140 deQ efor medium size

transformers or 180% k.ad at winding hot spot temperature of 150 dt:g C In a fJistrUJution tronc;formcr. Tho top 011 temper,Jture howey r must not exceed 115 deg C In any transformer. This condition may last for weeks or even months. lEe Loading Guide says that ''S/Iod-Tlme E,mer.qency Loading" can be tolerated within a period of half an hour or so. The top oil temperature rise is again limited to 115 deg C (tripping at 120 deg C). The maximum allowable load Is tentatively Jjmit~j to 180% for medium size transformer (to trip at 200%),

The substation transformer for Industria! plant service is recommended ·to be an integral threephase unit. The advantages of the three-phase unit over those of banked three single: phase units such as lower cost, higlier effiCiency, less space and elimination of exposed inte,~connections have contributed to Its w:idesoread acceptance. Note that tn the Philippines, the 1988 PhilippinE!

lectrlcel Code Part 2a~ well as Meralco rules a maximum size of 3·333 KVAsingle phtl<,e b nks. Larger than 1,000 KVA "s per 198B PEe Part 2 shall be. three-phase unit 'transformer.

IEEE saY5 that the transformer voltage ratings will include the primary and secondary continuous-duty levels at the specified fre(1Uency,. as well as' the BlL fcreach winding, The 'continuous rating specified for the primary winding will be the nominal line voltage of the system to which the transformer is to be appli.ed, and preferably within (-l ,-) 5% of 'the normally sustained voltage. The secondary or transformed voltage rating will be the value under no-load conditions, The change in secondary voltage experienced under load conditions Is termed voltage rcgulatlon, and Is a function of the Impedance of the system &. the transformer and the power factor of the load.

According to IEEE Std 141'~993, .. -..... ........ 1iIIO for , tmnsftzrm:er winding 6igalOu the Ii :rbJ1lAad tested ciltmbilltr p'-'tlilrw;lattrm to w;lfhmntl transient UIlf:J11Qltsqu (rpm IlRhtnin'R and other !Fld:!l!l!fb. Standard values of Bll established foreach nominal voltage cia s are listed In IEEE Table 10-13. Transformer bushlnqs may be speLlfied with extra creepage dIstance and higher than standard Bll ratings, if recurred by local condltlons or users' practices",

4-2

medium VOIt.l1gll sY,lltcms apP!JciJtlonsln Industrlee

Per IFEE Std. 141-199) Table' 10-10" the following table shows the standard base I\IIA ratlng<; of typic North Am rIc 1'1 transformers,

ill: eo 10-1 D -L'qIJ16-ln· "'~r~ Ilrd !.1ry-1)'Fi'.!:" 1rrmel'orl11er Dt"ll:lura ;JQ~ 10,\;':, fllllr.ga

$.11: It,;t..l:>t Tt..I:H.p.!:::'!:f
So: Illl , !n :E iJ:-O iI .,.~ ,. [()': -
.. ~. .:
j ~, ~.So: Ie 000' - J:. 5:(1 ,I 0':':' 3~· tee-
o'
- 100: ~(...o~ I.!.:O:- IS "';=- ~ ~: 3":- :00-
1(1'" :!:I>: 10M'- '"is ,.:.:".:' 1.Ii: 0:,: 5~' eee-
:: .!~: .lJ';"3 so 1:(10:" 111~,L·:-- I ;:(1 I Z 0::-:. ;!(!! ::4)::""
:; ~Jo:r II 500-: ~ t..,:;- I.:;:.' ~y-(i I s OO:i ,- tee-
J"'10 ~ i!O-: II ~ijj I- OO~· .::::s !>:'O ,~: 0:-: :,:,o{I' :0:-
• .l! :i:.m.~: .:-I~C;:tI jj, J. ;"l!. ::";:' I: ee .. 1"3~ ;lIl':l ::""1:1 :.,1...,. S» C;~.~l.:I-1 ~~" [)l n: .. ~ 1U=i:l::·~r:"A-:l. '! :o.:J.:1'«-..r.-: <r.::t!

NOTES 'ON THE A?QVE TABLE:

The standard averaqe winding temperature rise (by resistance test) for the modern liquid Immersed tl dllsformer is 65<1 C, based on an average ambient of 3~'' C (40° C max.lmum) ~or any 24-hour pertod. Liquid-Immersed ·trsnsfarmet'5 mi1lY be speclfled with EI 55° CltJ5" C .rlse ,to permit J80% laildi~g with aS5t1 Crise, and JJ2% loa«1II9 at the 6SQ Crise. In addition, 1150 Crise, high-fire-point, liquidImmersed transformers are available from some manufacturers ..

In NEMA TR 1.-13'80 [B47J, IEEE Std (57.12.00-1987 [632], and IEEE Std C57 .. 12.01- 198"9 [633], men~lon Is made of three Insulation classes, stich as 1500 C., 185" e,and 2200 C. he t11 d m 2 0° C. InslJl .. tlon class dry~typl:! transformlllr has an aVGlrag winding ternpereture rise (by resistance) of 1500 C, based on an average ambient. temperature of 30° C, and a 2.4-:hour period maximum ambient temperature of 40° C. TMe allowable hot-spot winding temperature rise is 30" C, resultlng in a 'n'lximum hot

. -pot tcmp-r t\Jr \1f 2200 C.

Low-loss, high-effioency, dry-type transformers can be specified with 115" C or BOO C rise These lower rem perature rise units have longer life expectancies, .For instance, II JJ5rJ C transformer has a life expectancy about ,ten' times greater tha.n thalof a J501l1 C rise transformer.

Ory-tyP'; transforrners of USo C and 80° C rise also have, respectivelv, an approximate emerpencvovertoad capabHity of 15% and 30%. However, most modern dry-type transformers 30 I<VA and larger are designed with a UL-llsted 2200 C insulation system. Both liquid-immersed and dry-type transformers are available with lower core and coil watt loss designs -:It higher Initial prices, but with Significantly lower overall operating costs due to the higher energy efficiency.

eeseeps Int!!lrnational ass{I·~I.atlon, Inc

me-cHUm voltage systems a app!!c.atlons In Indu'strles

Table 10-1.3 - Rt lo.tlollshlpo or nom I nQI 0Y!ltem voltage: to maxtmumayatem voltage and 1I1lf::lc ilglHnlng Impul.o:e IntiulaUOh levolo· (BIL) for cyst ma 34.f kV and bl:HOW for IIquld.hl1morocoG ttanClfofmcr

I

_Sominal ~~'~t~1I1 n.ltngf (1.\' nn~,

l " 2.5 5.0 S,7

%55,0 ~, 0

l-L,S

l.~ :!:.5 5.0 S.7

15.0 25.0 :U,S

Since thG! voltage s.upply to the transformer Is not constant (more often man not, voltag.esc:ould

tittle hlghel or lower), Yoltage taps are neces ry to tompensate-these small changes In the primary supply. Voltage taps are also nee 5S ry to II ry the secondary volta~e loY~1 with eh ng 11'1 10 id r qulr 'Illonts. nlC /'1,ost C0l11mOil t p "rr.mg~m nt IS tile manu lIy dJustabl no 'load type, consisting of fClIJr (+,-) 2-V~.% step!) or variations 'from the nominal primary voltage rating, These tap positions are usually numbered 1 through 5, with the number 3 matching the nominal voltage while the number 1 position providing the greatest number of effective turns and the number 5 with the Ie-ast number or err c:tlve turns. 8ased 0'1 a specific Incoming vGltage, setting at 11 higher vol~ag.ei tap (lower tap number) will resu~t In a lowering of the secondary voltage, On the other hand, placing the 'tap at lower voltage t.ap (higher t:;).p number, say tap 5) will r slJ1t to incl1easlng thfo secondary lIoltage of the transformer. The chan~ing of tap positions is performed manually ,only vllth the transformer deenergized.

tn addition to the no' load taps, automatic l.lp-chrmging under IO<ld. Is ovtlilabie. This Is desirable when load swings are larger and more '111'11\1 lit or Vt1i1.lll'· It 'v('l-; n II II (' r.1·lllt, I. Alit Onlill ic

CfUliceplln\omatlon:a1 Dssodation, IIIC

fla'~l, Ughlnlng lmlml~e 1l'~III:lU ill len" IfilL' ill eemmen UH

jl,Y I(I'f',n

tap<hanging underload can provide an additional eutorna lc voltage. adjustment typIcally (+ ,.-) 10%, In smaller Incremental steps, with continuous monitoring of the secondary terminal voltage or of a voltage leyel remote from the transformer.

for Industrial plant applications (usually MV/MV or MV/LV), connections 'ror th standard two-winding power transformers are rr€!ferablv delta-primary with w(c-secondary, The wyesecondarv, specified with external neutral bushing, provides a 'zero point' (neutral point) for establishing a system ground, or call be run as a neutral conductor .N for phase-to-neutral, load, P·er IEEE Red Book, the delta-connected primary isolates t re Me systems with r~pect to the flow of zero-sequence currents resulting from thtrdharmonic exciting current, secondary generated trtplens due to non-linear loads, ora secondary ground fault, and may L~ used without regard to whether the system to which the primary Is connected Is three-wire or four-wire.

Vector Group of three-phase transformers referred to as the Transformer Phasor DIagram Is the angular displacernl'!r.t between the llne-torl['ll'l t ,,1 whetl",r rca,' at lfllllfJln.ll y of the

30
-1$
60
7~
!It:
un 1_'
:00 l~ tzs
.Ie: se
60 i'
ie: 6p
9= 7~
no 9F
H'O
:00 4.1.4) lRANS.fO'RMERCONNECTlONS

4.2.5) IRAN~FQRMER VECTOR GROUP

medium v()ltag~ ystcms lit applIcations I'n IndustrleJ

referenced high voltage terminal (e.g., Hl) and the line-'to-neutral (real or imagjnary) voltage of th COI'I't>'l[10nrlln iow voltngo torminal (Po,g" X1).

A) ANSI STANDARD (HaRTH AMI!RlCAN~MAl)f

TRANSFORM R.S)

North American transforrr ers are ldentlfred lnro two groups. the 0° and the 30° angular displacement groups.

The zero degree angular displacement between the high and low volt:ag~' sides is applicable in Delta-delta or Wye"wye transformer groups. They are expressed ln terms ot IDdO .and WyO.

The 30 degree angular displarernent Is applicable In Wye-delta or Delta-wve transformer groups which are expressed as YdlO or Dy3D.

B) lEe STANDARD (COMM" N TO EUROPEAN-MADE

TRA SFOItMERS)

The I C equlvolent of phase displacement between corresponding t~rrntnals is expressed somewh t differently by trs "clock method", Thl" primary (high voltage.) ·',Inding phasor (high voltage-to-n utral) Is understood to be at 12 o'clock and Is represented by the minute hsnd of

l.h rlock, TIle oth r lOW volta~e winding

COr! nd n the hlgl1 voltage "Ide ls glv I

dock bour hi net nume rs that olncld s with th LV Hne-to-neutral voltage. With phesor rotenon at cony ntlonal coynter-dockwls dir etten the not Ion 0 the Vector groups of lEe-bas ( transformer are expressecas foHows:

I) IDEl lA-delta (Dd) Conn!::tions recognized by tee are as follows: a) OdO, t J Dd2, c) Dd4. d) Dd6, e) DdS, and, f) DdlO.

2) W'r E-wye (Vy) Connectior.,> by rec Standards are as follows: a) VyO, and, b) " )"6.

3) DE TA-wye (Dy) Connec'''''Jns by lEe Stand(lrcls are &s rotlows: a) Dyl, b) Dv~ c) Oy7 and, d) OYU.

4) WYE·delta ('I'd) Connect' ns by lEe Standards are

as follows: a) Ydl, b) VdS c) Ydl, and, d) Ydll_

Note that a neutral termin,« taken out from a Y or Z Is Indicated by a letter "n", such that Vector groups as Dynll or Yynl) or YNynO are very popu' r In European tranSformers. Also nate that the primary connections are expressed In capital letters while the secondary in small letters.

4.2.6) TRANSfORMER IM'IEOANC£

Transformer Impedarrce is also known as Impedance Volts, or %IZ or Short Circuit Voltage. Impedance volt.age of a transformer is the voltage requlred to circulate rilt,:d current throuqh one of two specified windings of a transformer when the other winding is short-circuited, and with the windings connected as they would be for ratedvoltage operation. This Is derived from routine transformer test - thr- so-called "Short Circuit Test" where a reduced voltage is applied to the terminals of one of the windings with the opposite terminals short circuited. The test voltage is raised until rated current flows at the other side

Normally expressed In percent values, Impedance Voltage is a percent value of the rated voltage of the winding in which the voltage is measured on the transformer rating In KVA. The %IZ levels considered as standard for twowinding transformers are listed in OEM's catalog an,d a value specified above or below those listed may result In higher costs.

IEEE Std 141·1993 "..oys, "When considering. a low-impedance voltage level, as compared to' figures shown In IEEE 'f"a_bles JO-J5 end 10- 16, it should be rsmerobered that the standard transformer Is designeL with a limitpd bility to wi hst.Jrld the str sses Imposed uy ext rn I faults. A combined prim ry system and tr nstormer Impedance voltage permitting rms symmetrical fault magnitudes in excess of these standards stlould b avoided. wr h respect to imp dancel transformers are generally considered suitable for parallel operation If their impedances match within 5%.. The Importance of minimizing the mismatch becomes gr ater as the total load approaches the combined C1I acity of the paraHeled transformers, since load division is inversely proportional to the internal impedance. The impedance mismatch should checked throughout the entir range of taps (both load and no-load)."

In actual conditions of short circuit faults at the secondary of the transformer where the transformer is subjected to high currents, the %IZ then plays its role .. The transformer Impedance in a way speaks for or Is related to the short-time withstand capability of the transformer. It means that a transformer expcfi~ncing these faults does not fail lnstantaneously. However, the primary protection of the transformer must be set in such a way that interrupting tne faulted circuit must be ahead before the withstand capability of the transformer is exhauster,

medium vd'ta.ge systems ilk aJ,\llllcations In Industries

c(!seops llitematlonal assc ;Iatl·on, Inc

Tnble 1('-1'15-811. and percent fmped'ance lIollages:::tt oelf-cooled (Oft;) rating fQr IIqulcHmmer[)ed trnnstorrnere

(B331958 leVA and Il ,ove ~ Glngla:·phase

75QIB6D kV.A and obove-three-phase)

1.2~

75

High, \' '1.1;t1!( 'BU. 11:'1(,-

lowvoll(l3t' 4S,1)"

L()w ",lIt ag .. .:.10(1 " ~ ml nl (W~

150

6.5

7 Q

70

S"lltt,~: 3~~~.! 0:' T~t1,~ 10 (Of AS'M CS7J.~.lO·1988, [B31

;':C1T~-7hl~ !,111~ (""onl~ ~tller~ll:t'lTt]lI~~~ I:nl'~d",!·.re~ \'~111~~ ;\CCtpfelt JJl('11m!y-\I"ld~. Above. :dfftl',(,td\'~hlt: .1lQllld be lltllll.Nl.lll\d mam\f,'~M~B ~il;:l,hl b~ comn!ttd ror UJe n~l\·,f"llnp.t~ not m':'.:(.t.11l\ Ibe' J.' 1<1:'>.

I FC'lI~Jn-.fc':::Il-t. ima:el \!.::m ~I)OQ ky .... ,el:-~cQl .. d. l!l.,c~e \'aI:;~; \l.l~lIl'e the ~Jm~ ,'~ :illle' ~!JOWI\

!,,~ 1)~1 ~\·I':~~:.' ~I;~~r BlL. . .

Tobie' 1(l·1 e--SILD I'HId percent lmpedal1ce voltDge for dry-type IrtH1CifcrmtlHI. (S01 kVAOInd above)

HIR;h·\·O!ICll,e BIL

- 11i\' •

I S,75

Set' note

~"_",:;{~ B a'.e-d ell ri\b~ 40: .-\:-':51 CJ1: 1':51·19'31 [:!:H::!] ;1;:',d (,1, A~51 en 1::: 5:-1931 ~B13: ,,071:. -!II ,'I.!!'U· :;': Ih.e reobd'-el;' Ut:l.1!' experience mdn~:l"" c.n h ... d Il'. t..m:ld'1.l'~ Jlld ,lpp1ru1,ru-y-!ype n"':·.~:t'n:len i1.t>C'\.~ 15 ~.\.' bl!h "Ql:~.@<!', 110' tomem;\;~ [e~il.ld!r:! ~!~.ndw:l YJJne~ c! lI11pe;j.u~(e ll;l~ ret l:"e:'~;:,lbll~=e.~ ZIt::-h 111lF~d;\I\(c~ s!.Jol:ld be detemuned by dl;.('n%il)I~ t-;?t"'e~l1. users 'llldll1amlf~:c· ture.s uunl experterce i, zvallable t» determu.e cousensus \'al'U1~~.

'I

4.2.7) TRANSFO'RHER INSULATION

There are three types of insulation claSSification: liquid, dry, ~nd combination. The IIquld·lmmers~d type is usually utilizing the rollowingl liquids: mInerai .'11,. non-narnmable, or low flamm-able liquids,

The dry type indudes the ventilated, cast coil, totally enclosed non-ventllated.sealed gas-filled, and vacuum pressure Impregnated (VPI) types. The third classification includes a combination

liquid, vapor, and qas-frled unit. Usually, dry,type transformers are manufactured with lower BIL than that of the liquid-immersed type counterpart but they can be specified with tne same BILas liquid-Immersed transrcrmars, The Industrial power system design engineer may therefore has a choice specifying either the same BlL for dry~ typ.e as for liquid-Immersed types since they both are subject to the same environment as far as: impulse and transient over-voltages are concerned, or providing the power system with additi~nal surge protection. It should be noted

that even though dry type transformers may be specified with higher HIL ratings than the standard, in severe environments of high levels of moisture or dirt, the senled enclosure of the liquid-immersed (or the sealed or gas-filled transformers) will maintain Insulation levels better and with less maintenance than the dry type.

4.2.8) JNSULATlONMEDIJIM

The Insulation rnedlurr. In a transformer Is not cheap. Its use therefore is often dictated by the installation site and cost. Fer outdoor installations, the minerai-ail-insulated transformer has widespread popularity due to' Its lowest cost and Inherent weatherproof construcnon, However, if mineral-oil-immersed transformers are used, care must be done to prevent any escaped oil, including drips, from migrating into the environment.

t-1ineral oil is however flammable and theretcre has to be outdoor. If lnstttiled indoors, it needs a nre-pfOof vault, I~ulatlng tile transformer from other electrical corr.oonents of the power center or substation. That's why the pca (polychlorinated biphenyls] non-flammable all in the pitS! had been vlgorodsly marketed and had gained widespread use. But the discovery of the toxic and non-blodeqradable properties of the PCB~ based oils had led to its recent world-wide ban, The ban an the use cf PCB (polychlorinated

biphenyls) liquid-irnmel"!:.£.d transformers in

response to regulato~' requirements has

promoted the use of high-fire-point liquids, suoh as poly-alpna oleflns, :;iHcones, and highmol oul r-wolght hydroa'l bon ,They re being used In applications prev!ouslyapplled to PCB Insulating medlum. Tooa\" these high-fire-point liquids have Inueased the cost of the transformer compared. to minerai oil while at the same time; these Uquldsshould reo lve essentially the sam G!:~ and malnten nee that .:Jpplles to 'conventional mlnerat-oll-anmersed tra"sformers. Per world refjul'atoryrequirements, no new transformer Installations are permitted using PCB liquids, Due to 'nvlfOtlmental polluti< .r n Impact and health hazards to operating personnel, the, users of existing PCB-iimmersed transformers should discontinue its use and must be educated on the proper sa'egu uds In the ,lIspo$alof us d liqUid. All IIQuld-fllled transformers must be properly labeled a.s to content, or I" of unknown content, are assumed to be PCB·contaminated.

The application of d' ,-type transformers in industrial plants for indoor installation has gained

4,,2,9) TRANSFORMER-COOLING METHODS

momentum where floor space, weight and regard for li.quid maintenance & safeguards are important factors. Since the BIts listed as Standard Values for the ventilated dry-type transformer windings are usually less than that of the liquid-immersed, surge arresters should be included for the primary winding in order to obtain additional protection, or the optional hiqher BI'-s listed in IEEE Std C57.12,01-1989 should be specified.

The totally enclosed ncn-ventuated dry-type transformer, the cast coil (where bott, the high and low-voltage coils are cast), although all more expensive than ventilated dry-type or mineral-oilimmersed units, are especiallv suitable for adverse environments. They require little maintenance, need no fire-proof va: .lts, and generally have lower losses than comparable ventilated Of mineral-oil-immersed units.

Common to all electrical 'equipment,

transformers generate heat under operation .. Cooling is therefore necessary to prevent the transformer from early demise. Normally for North American transformers, the I0JA rating is based on Its rated temperature rise of either SSe C or 65° C for-oll-fmrnersed and 55, aD, 115 and 1500 C for dry type transformers,

al ANSI RA:rED TRANSFORMERS:

The type letter identified by a slash denotes an updated capacity when forced cooled. The setf~ cooled capacity maybe raised to higher ratings by erte or tw~teps depend!ll£! on UI~ numb rer auxiliary cooling stages, as follows:

501 - 2499 KVA: 1st stage =1.15 of self-cooled rating

2500 - 11999 !<:VA: lSI stagt '" 1.25 of self cooled rating

1 :WOO KVAt!< Larger: 1'1 stage'" 1733 of self coolee! IfNA 2'd std(Je '" 1.66 of self· cooled capacity

b) lEe RATED TRANSFORMERS:

It is worth mentioning that the Cooling System coding of lEe rated transformers are aecernpltsbed in four-letter symbols. For mstancc, the cooling specttlcattcn, "ONAN":

The pt letter "0'" indicates that the cootlnq medium ls mineral oil

---------------------~----------~~------------------~------------------~~

c",seeps Inmrnational assortation, Inc medium voltage systems 8< appl~cations 'In industries

r - rablel TRANSFOR.ME.R r.OOLll'4G Mfll'IO'O'

iDiNTlFICATI. ON {ANSI s.tandardL. _

lflIttvrs C<oPUNG METHODS

p~ Oll-Imrne~: ~.J S.elf Coolg~ ~_~

r--~ OW OIHlwners,lSL Water Cooled

OW/A all-lrnrner~·{~d, Water Cooled/Self Cooled

f--- OA,if"A- all 11l1IT\cl"l"ti, 5elr Coolctl/Folt:ed "I'

I- . Air CO\Jled

bAffA/FA OIi-lll1l1lcn<iw, Self CoOflJrJ/FOrC~ !

1---:::-._._ _ _ ~Ir f.&Qll"djl (,1i'(:ed all COOlf!.-9 1

OAi. Fill ... f .. UA ,.0. II tn11Tl1:~ .• I>d., s~'lr COOIt!.d/ForCt:d . ]

I--._~ ~ all Cooled/Forced OIlTC,-::o-:-OI~et.l,,--:-......,.--c--

FDA Oil-Immers.;d, Forced Oil Cooled 1,11/

!---. Forced Air Cooler

FOW Oil-Jrnrner- ed, Forced Ojl Cooled ve]

r Water Cooler

1~ __ ~AA~~ ~~D~~l~pejS~·'~lr~C-OO~le-d~------~1

111-_---'-I\:.:_F:.,.:.A __ +-==Dc..L..ryT~~v..Ep·..:::o(ec..:.Farced Air Cooled ---I'

AA/fA DI)' Type, !'elf Cooled! Forced Air I

1'---.~-- __ -'-..:::C:::..oo~l:::..ed"--- .. ~.J.I

The2ild letter .. "''' indicates that the kind of Circulation Is -of the c.oahflg medium In contact wlt.h t,he windings Is /1MJIJ:iJ.t

The 3rt:! letter "A'" Indic~'tes that the kind of cooling medium in contact with the external c.ooling5¥.stem is iik:

The 4th letter nNN indicates that the kind of circulation is of the external cooling medium is natural.

r.iJble~ TRANSfORMER C'OOl.iNG M"t:i"I'IOD I'
ID£NTIflCATJON lIEC Standard) _, . ....__j
Symbol Kind of'_,';ooth1i, Medium. ___ J
. ~
I o MlneralOIl or EQ~,Jlvalent Fiammable
~. Synthetic Insul~~I.n~ Llguid
Non-Flammable Synthetic Insulating
liquid ,.
Gil!>
I~' W Water
,: A -- ... ._
A1r
I,!-:-Slrflb-ol Kin,:" ~t Cln:u!ntkm ~
N Natural
F FOfced(QIl not d~'lldcd)
D forc:E!-d Di re·cteu 'Jlr :=j
ceseeps International a5Sodation, inc

Standard accessories furnished with the power transformer can be seen in manufacturers' publication. Tile standard devices. wHl vary with different types of transformers .. But then til ere are some optional devices that otter more protective featuras. Again/ IEEE Sui 141-1993 give>; us the

. following;

a} "Willding temperature senSing equipment In addition to the st<lndal"rj t.OP-Cll! tfl1npcraMe Indkator. This d~vlc:e I.:> Cllllbi iltea for ,lIiQ wllh ~r)er.lfk 11'011 fQrr)"1crs and automatically takes Into account the hottest spot temperature of the wir:ctings, ambieAt temperature, and load cycling. For this reason, it provides a more accurate, ,continuous, ;:,prj automatic measure of the transformer 10aO.lng 1m..] overloa.dlng capacity. It may have contacts that can be set to alarm and even subsequently trip a circuit breaker Of fusible dlscormect equipped with shunt trip capabilities. For all dry-type transformers, similar winding temperature protective devices employing detectors -embedded In the windings are avaflable".

b) "The pressure relay for aensitlve high-speed indIcation of liquid-Immersed lran!lforrner Jntel'rlal f<lures. Since the device Is designed to operate on the rate lilt' change of internal pressure, tt ls sensltlve only to that resulting from Internal fi'!ults m1d nat to pressure changes due to temperature and loading".

c) "Alarm contacts such as ternperature indicators, liquid-level and preS5~lre vacuum gauges & pressurerellef activator and alarm devices, can be included on the standard devices for more eFfective utilization".

d) "Surge arresters mounU'rJ directly on the transformer tank provide rnaxirmsr. surge protection for tl,e transtormer, TIle type of arrester speCified and Its v{)!tage rating $hould be coordinated with the voltage parameters of the system and Hie Bll or ~l1e transformer",

4.:Z.11)])!RMlN.t\TIQN_fACI.LmES

It is also very lmportant to specify termination faciHti'es. For the unit substation arrangement for instance, Indoors or outdoors, the Incoming and outgoing bushings are uSlmUy sld~-wi!cll-rnGunted and. enclosed in 1;1 tran~ltion throat for connection to adjacent s\'v-1tchgear assemblies. The size am.! number of cOndtlct:ors should be s~eClfied, along will, minlmum space for stress cone termination, if required. For the stetion-type transformers in an outdoor installation, cover-mounted bushings provide the simplest facility for overhead lines,

.. .. -------.---e 4-8

medium volti'lge sy:stem~ &. apf!tf~atlons In Industries

THe LIQUID FILLED 1ft THIE !DRY TYPE TRANSFORf.'I ERS

I

FJ'G. 4.1: LIQUiD FILLED. DRY TI"PE POWER TRANSFORMERS

Fl'G. 4.2: A 50 MVA LIQUID FILLED POWER TRANSFORMeR:

ceSGcps IntemaU0f1B'1 association, Inc

medlurn voltage systems & appU,caHom;; In Industries,

ID1

There are two basic classes of power transformers presently available for the Industry's engineer to choose From: a) Liquid Filled, or b) Dry Type. These types of transformers are usually

vailable to industrial application at 500 KVA up to 25,000 'rOJA with primary voltages of 2.4 to 69 KV and at secondary voltage or 2<1,0 V, 480 V, 4160 VI 6,900 V or 13.8 KY. Powe: Center application can be focused on the 500 KW\ - 3150 Y01A range at 480 V secondary volta.ge,

a} Uquill FiUed Transformers are stH! popular In the planet. Oil FiUed transformers could be chosen from among the: a) Hermetically Sealed Totally fined Transformer -b) Gas Sealed Type Transformer, orc) the Ail-Breathing Conservator Tank TransfOlmer. A conservator tank Is obligatory to sJl tran..,<;fom1eJlS rated abOVE 1.0 MVA (which is the p "eRnt .upper limit to the "rotally tillet/"' type, For Outdoor Primary Unit Substations of sizes -;.0 MVA to 10 ,M"VA, the tatally-filled Dr the fJ !I-seal d typo tram.formers CQuid ,be the best choice~ For substations above 10 MVA the conservator types are the most common, r.ut new environmental

,I_']: A MED,IUMSIZE OU. FILLED' TRANSFORMER

------------------.

ceseeps lnternatlona! ilIsz,od.atiun, lac

concerns have changed the Total Life Cycle Cost of transformer ownership, DeSign life of oil-filled transformers is 20 years

The most; common Inslll,~ting/cooHng, oils used in transformers are mineral, askarel and silicone.

• t4lnera'i Oil - least expensive of all transformer fluids but because it Is flammable, these transformers are only applicable in outdoor installations as outdoor substations or pole mounted distribution transformers.

,. Askare! - also knoy"n as Pyranol, Pyralene, Pvrolio, PyroUne, Clophen (and many other trade names) are PCB (Polychlorinated Biphe'nyl) based. Askarel or all POB based transformer oil is IlOW banned worldwide because of its ':I)xic, non-biodegradable properties and Its €rWironmentally unfriendly reputation.

SUi.cone Oil - Non ~,"lmmable (312 to 3500 C fire point), indoor a~pHcation, bio-degradable but considerably eXI,ensiv€ fluid.

b,) Dry Type Transfonners: in some countries are obligatory in high apartment blocks, in light industries, ISO J400,O corflfied t:ompallles, phtlrmaccutlctll, food, beveraqe companies to Include manufacturing plants with clinically clean room environments. Dry Type Transformers Come In three different forms: .11) :Ventllated o.l'yType Transformer, oj Primary Winding CaSt Trandonner, c) Totally-CBst Winding "ransfom7t!~r.

'rh V,rentilated Dry Ty~pe Tm·nsfor'mer:

" Solid Insulation consisting of inorganic materials such as porcelain, gla.55 roving or Nornex in combination with sufficient h;g~ temperature binder

,. Desiqn Life of .20 Years

• Intended for Relatively Clean Environments

• No Fluid. Lm\J Fire Risk

• Good for BUllLings

. ~ ... 4·10

medium voltage systems &.applicatlons in Industries

• Vac:uum Cast Call Primary Windings

• Deslg,n Life of 30 Years

• For Relatively (Jean but Harsher

Environment

" Resistant to Moistll. e &. Contaminants " Higher Bil Levels

.. fire Rati'lrdant

I High Short Circuit Strength (Windings Infused with epoxy',

'II Good for Food, B~' '.rage, Ught Industries, Pharrnaceutlcal

.. Vacuum Cast Coil Primary Windings

• Vacuum Cast Coil $~condaryWlndlngs " Design Ufeaf 40 Years

• Rugged Durability. For Harshest

Environmen~

• Resistantto Moisture & Contaminants

• Non-Flammable " HlgherB:IL levels

• High Short Circuit Strength

. (Windings infused with epoxy) " Some Models are ~ubmersible

c) Cost Comparison:

[f mineral oil transformer is 1.D, the following is the cost comparison arno!19 the transformer:

Mineral on TreJo 1.00

Ventilatd Dry Typ 1.25

SI1Icone Transformer 1.40

Cast Resin Transtorrner- 1.80

Transformers of size 750 'rNA and above by ANSI definition are caned power tmnsfon71er regardless of whether three-phase or single phase, step-up or step-down. Anything smaller Is referred 'to as "distribution trlJnsformerr;lF~

This is not quit the S nne concept in Europe.

In Europe, trluUorm~rs connected 'mm utility

Uml!),IIlY'" 10, ,to ur .l~ kV "high W11l~UC distrlbutlon systems ani! called "clIMrib,utltx trlinsfumlff1£S" whether smaller or larger tha 750 IWA. European distribution transformers b utllization are normal:ly "step-doW'n transformers. Its power transrormers can on!} be found in transmission systems or in large substations at very high voltages. According tc A8B Industrial ManLial.,a power transfOmlf41'1 Europe Is 3 transformer Intended for transmission Df POWf,lI, Such transformers are specified and tested aocording to "POWe. Transformer Standards". There are other standards for smaller transformers e.g., speda transformers for protection & safety or for instrument transformers,

The Distribution Transfor-mer In Europe is defined as the last link in the chain of step~down tra,nsformers. It steps down f1l"Qm local power distributors' voltage customers'low yoltage(not above l}'OOO V}. According to European tradition, distribution transformers are three phase units. 111 North American tradition, sIngle phase distribution transformers are common.

for industrial applications requiring 480 V or 240 V secondaries, transformers of these sizes are best used in "medium voltage (ANSI)" or "high voltage (JEe)" primaries. By good engineering practice (per IEEE & IEC),. .maximum t:n1nsftmner sizes for low voltage utillzatlon aile as follows:

02500 KVA for 3:80 VappUmt!on (3150 KV A for 480 V)

o 1500 KVA for 240 V ilpplicat:~.,n

Beyond the above sizes are expensive 'made-tn-order units which are not ,desIred because of extremely high 5'&ondary currents at 240 V or 480 V. It is therefore advised that should the load requires more than the above ratings, thE power center may be split into smaller unlts, For 3,750 KVA and above, the secondary voltage must be at the medium voltage levels making them, pr:fmlJry unit $ulJ$tatlons..

....,_--~---@"L-------.'!'-.--.-----------....,...-- ....... ""'IlI

C(lSQ pi Illtarn!.1tionml association! Inc medium voltage .I'lystt!lmlli lit 'lPplicatlons In Industrie$

TABLE_4.1: ro\lV.!R TRAJ'IlSFORMIER RATED CURRENTS AT LV S_E:;;.:C;:"O::-· N:-:=D.;..A:.;.RI::::":.:;:E:rS;_ ..,

KVA FLA FLA I KVA fLA Ft.A

RATING @ 240 V '@ 480 V I, RATING @ 240 V @ 480 V

500 KVA 1202 A, 601 A 3750 I(VANR NR.

010 I(VA II! t 1516 ,A, 758 A 5DOO KVA NiR NR

750 !<VA 1804_:.A=--_-+_-",-9-=.O"2,,...:.A.;:_' III TrllllSr'Or,lnfll'S with asterisk ere Jee nlted

800 KVA '" 1924 A 962_~ KVA capacities. All others (without

1000 KVA I 2405 A 1203 A •• torlsk)21re AI"IISIllilEC rated.

12'0 KVA -::3:-:0:-:0:-:,=-'1\7-+-71=5=0'::,,""""1\:'----'1 NR: Not Rocommended !I!:tlll!il!l!t I!'!elk.tlld

1-~~~:.:7--I- IIllltoljlv 81 thl,1I not ~(,od IIlIngln-.rlng

15(10 KYA 31100 A II 1:804..8__ pl'IlI:tlc&. Th. curror.tl lire! toOl high to

l'6DO ,KVA"" NR, 1!U5 A hllllu'll. Ii IIrB not thl'lred Ii, pr c{,I!l;II.

- :Z,OOO 'KYA Nil 14'06 A Tr 118!t,orm_rlllbOlllfl, :1150 KVA nmllt b.

IL..;::.::Z:.;;5;..;0.:..Q.::.:K:.:;V':"'~:;"_'..L-._......;.N.;.;R;.;.' __ .l-.....:;3;;.;;O..;:O:;.;;';..;A:.;:':_".I.., __ m_C!_",-:-lu_,m ... : V_-O_I_tll_g_o_._e_('D_n_d_'II_ry_. ~

_ usn KVA'" NR 3788 A -, --l

4.5) tHE UNIT SlJBSTAHONS

The above standard sizes are commonly utilized among the following applications:

. . .

1) Small & Ught Industries (common in Philippine (;<;onornlc/expor t zones) where th transformer Is connected at tile medium voltage distfiuution system of the power utility company and transfomed directly to utilization voltag at <l80 V or 2Al) V, Ml3in transformers for these type of piaN.; usually ranges from 500 - 1.2S0 twA at 24C V or it could be sao - 2.,500 I!fNA 'far 460 V.

2) In medium-sized indu'ttrlal plants where the aooIJe rated transformers are supplied at medium voltage primal 'es b It drawing power from a much I'arger industry-owned outdoor substation, say of 10 MVA size are COmmon scenarios, The main substation is usually connected to the utility's 34.5 K\I (MERALCO) or 69 KV (Transco) systems wherein the voltage is transformed to [ower but still medium voltage seconcarv, say at 6.9 I!fN or 4.16 KV. In this case, the main substation becomes a primary tin/t substa.tlon (above 1,500 V secondary voltages, by ANSI definition). The smatter indoor substations (500 to 2.,500 't'0JA) are then Identifledas $Bcondary unit subsmtion (by ANS[ definition· having a medium voltage prirncH),' & low voltage secondary nf 600 V or less),

If the secondary unit '._ubstatlon is a ·C(0[;8- cOup/edlJ (lJcto.ry~/nhJtJr. rod wss.f1mbly whero tba Primary Switchgear Sectlo~, th Trall&fo,mel' Se....'1:lon and the Low

Voltage Switr:hyear - Section areIn,tegrated in ltIe.t:aI-endo!l~d or meta/clad enclosures, this unit substation is. known in the Industry as "Power Center" as illustrated in other sections of this book.

3) in large Industries, the principal motors used In processes are IJsually large (350 to 5000 HP) .• requiring medium voltage as 3.3KV (Japanese), 4.16 KV (North American) or 6.6 KV (European standard). But then these plants requlre auxllI <1I"y systems. Tile above transformer sizes are still used In large industria'i plants - usually for auxiliary loads as. conveyors, pumps! small compressors, etc.

4.6) RECOMMENQ.E.R PMCD~ TRANSF9RMERS_tlrE MORE THAN 600 Y

a NEe: An alternatlve way is allowed by NEe 450-3(a)(2), which' states In effect that a secondary over-current device must be Installed at the maid secondary circuit. The device must be ratec or set at not more than 250% of the rated secondary current, andthe over-current device protecting the primary feeder must be rated or set at not more than 600% of the rated primary current. This applies to transformers with impedances of less than 6%. For transformers with 6-10% Impedance, the primary - over-current device must not be more than 400% of the primary rated current This provision however applies to transformer set-up at voltages more than 600V.

4-1\2

medium voltage syst'ems & app;katlons 111 IndustrIes

·1)

One significant recorarnendetlon by lEC is that for medium voltage pnmartes, power circuit breakers must be .. ·tlli~ed IJS primary protection of the transrormers if the t:ated primary cutrent is 4!J amperes Dr .mO.ro.

Anything tess ti111,n 4S limp res, but sao KVA & above, Power F,used Load DteakSwitches or load Interrupter Switches are recommended tor us, For transformers . maner thl!'R SOD KVA, Fuse Cu.t-Dut Assembly may be used but must be installed outdoors. To il1ustrate, please see the following tables

TA'BLE 4.2: RECO,MME:NDED PROTECTIVE DEVICES FOR. MEDIUM VOLTAGE TRANSFOR:M,ER. PRIMA.RIES

4160 V J 6600V 138'00 V
l'RAFO I, PRIMARY kECOMMIENDEO PRIMARY RECOMMENOE'!) PRIMARY RECOMMENDED
KVA AMPS PROTECTIVE AMPS PROTEcnvE AMPS 'PROTECTIVe ,
I
, RATING , DEVIC'E DEVICE DEVIce
150 2:0.13 rlJSE CUT-OUT" 13.1 FUSE CUT-OUT''' 6.30 FUSE CUT-OUT·
2ZS 31.2 l'"uSE ClJ!·OUT'" 11).7 fUSE CUT-QUP 9.40 FUSE CUT·OUT*
lOO 011.6 fUSE cur-our- 26.2 FUSE CUT· alIT"' 12.5 FUS IE CUT -OLJT'"
500 69.0 M'J PWR. CEI 43.0 uis WI PWR FUSE 21.0 LBS WI PWR FUSE
I 750 lDII, MV PWR CB 65.0 MV PWR CB 3l.'1 LBS WJ !'WR rUSE
800 Itl MV PWR ca 70.0 MV PWR cs 33,S LBSWJ. PWR FUSE
1000 , 138 MV PWRCB , 87.0 MV PWR ca 41.8 LBS W/PWA. FUSE
1250 173 MV PWR ca 109 MV PWRCB 52.3 MV PWR ce
1500 208 M,V PWR. CB 131 MV PWRCB 62.8 MV PWR CS
-
160{l 222 , t!lV PWR CB 140 MV PWR ce 66.9 MV PWR C8
2000 27.7 MV PWR CB 175 MV PWR CB 83.6 MY PWR ca
2'500 346 I'IV F'WR CS zrs MV PWR CB 105 MY FWR ca ,
:!l50 437 . "lV PWRCB 275 MV PWR ce :132 ",V PWR CB
- NOTE: .. Fuse Cut-Outs mu t b' Installed outdoors. AU 'others are Indoor:s.

,4.6.2) AI THE l,V SEg)NDARISIDE.

When to use and when not to use molded case dr,cult breaker? How about the LV power circuit breaker?

For smaller transformers requmng circuit breakers lower than 800 .A, Molded Case Breakers are to b used because ,in t;le first place, there are no LV Power Qrcuit Breakers of these sizes, (However Y2002 series :;f SQ D M'iJsterpad Mk::rologlc breakers hilS now developed 630 A). For larger tranSformers re'Juiring 800 Amperes &.

'bove, the usu J choice 15 the LV Power Cln:ult Bn!lwr. But whenelJer ttlC LV Power' Circuit Break.er s within r nge; LV PCB is strongly recomrn nded over the MCCB because of the ~ollowlng reasons:'

1) For I'ell'ge ampere-rated MeCa's (800 A - 4000 A), the repeatability endurance of the MCCB's are no match to that of the Power Circuit

Breakers for which they are designed. (This can be referred to manufacturer's catalog).

2) Power Circuit Breakers are designed "dead front" and are electrically operated and therefore safer to operate than the manually maneuvered molded case breakers at high ampere environment.

3) If automation Is required as' in Automatic Transfer Switching, or Automated Generator Synchronizing, obviously the MCCB's can not do the job.

4) The Power Clrcult Breaker has adjustable IDMT trip unit. slmi'lar to full "pledged protective relays where coordination with other devices can be set to Include: overloads (long-time II ip)l faults protedlon (short-time 8: instantaneous trtpsfor phase-tc-phase, three phase or sinqle-line-to-qround faults) as compared to MU.i3's limited thermal & magnetic trip capabilities.

4-

ceseeps IntelTlatillll'la! asst'tiiiltion, Inc

medium voltage systems &. appltcatlcms in Industries

5) Power Circuit Breakers off r large range of Illh'llllpllhU I np,H HI', O1.IkliltJ ttl til Idc'.ll1y suited as Power Center LV Mains and LV Distribution 'Breakers.

8) For 3000 A to 6300 A application, the usual dml( fi 10; tlr pow r cirr;UIt br aker.

5) The f'o1CCB's are best Installed In cascade' downstream with Power Circuit Breakers because the MCCB's are designed to dear faults rapidly than Power CB's.

9) Power Circuit Breakers couto be wlthdrawable type. Wi.thdrawable type Power C6's are best In Power Center LV Switchgear application where "physically vlslbls breaks (ANSI)", or "isofatlon cleadv apparent (IEC}'" are mandatory for maintenance safety requirements ..

7) Power Circuit Brearl:!rs are for Power Transformer application. MCCB's are for smaller Distribution Traosforrners.

Note: Please see CESEEPS BOOK 1: LOW VOLTAGE SYSTEMS.

case ps international association, inc

4-14

medium voltage systems 80. applIcation'S in indl.lstrie§.

4.1) IH.R,eg-pHAsE TRANSfORMER CONNECTIONS.

USING SINGLE-?HASE TRANSfORMeRS

With medium voltaqe primaries as 2400, 4160, 13]00, 13800, 23000 and 34.500 V, single phase transformers may be banked tv achleve desired voltage applications, The combinations car. be delta or star as needed to suit with utility voltage .. The following configurations mev help the desiqn engineer in his job, to wit:

B b
A -. D
c II C X3

B

c

Hi

240V

II

i4DV T b

24D V

c

FIG. 4.4: THREE-PHASE DELTA-DELTA CONNECTION WITHt\DDITlVE ;POL.t\RITY .. STAN:DARD ANGULAR. DISPLACEMENT

~----------------------------------------~,~--------~

Note that delta priMaries are common to 2400 (s.om.e l'ndllstrles),in1d 13800' V (iMEPZ &. most utility companies) In the P'hlllppiine scenario .• This Is so because sl:ng'tepha:s8 transformers. of the~e vOlltaige ratings are rea.dHy 8vaUabie ·off t.he shelr.

1'490 V Is des:lted In this example, then the two secondary windings of the Individual t·r.,nsrormors mus,!' be. connected In sarles. A,ttentlon must be p'laclid to til bushing terminals. ,Some trOlnsf,ormer. ,l!Ire uppliedwlth fOLI!f bU5hl,n.",s. I.l such Cilse. the bushing terminations muset be carofullv done but not: neces5i:lrlilv vlol'atlng the princl'ples herein 10td out.

For 120 V, transtcrmers rated 120 V x 240 V must be used. In this case the secondary

L:indlngS rnust be p:HaIlEl_'_,e_d_t_o_d_e_r_'v_e_._1_.2_O_V_. --'

C~5.Ctlp5 IntlJrnil,UOnali'lss.~." 'Iatlon, Inc

Ii 'odium VOlt3g0 sY5tems & oppji(atlons In lndustrles

Il

h

A

A

B

X3

H:2

e

H1

X1

. r--- 24!l V

241lv.l ...

b

240 V

c

ORNO

fIG. 4.5: THflt:E-PHASE DELTA-DELTA CONNECTION WITH THRSE WIRE SINGLE PHASE CONNECTION DERIVED FROM ONE TRANS-FORME,A. •.

ADDlTl~ e P'OLARITV &. STANDARD ANGULAR DISPLACEMENT

----------------------------------------------------------------------------e 4-16

ceseeps International asso:jatioll, Inc medium voltaqe :systems So. a.pp'lcat.ions.ln industries

'8

b

B

c

~!2

H2

H1

.1(3

X1

FIG. 4.6: THRE.E-PHAS'E OPEN-DELTA CONNECTION WITH ADDITIVE PO!LARITY' STANDARD ANGULAR DISPLACE'MENT

O~!ieepslntcmatlonallassoda,tlon, Inc

m.edlum voltage systems&: appilcatlons ,In ,lndustTles

.A

c

a Ii:

e

111

X3

H2

H2

H1

Xl

)(1

X2

120 V

120 'I\'

~J

b

ORNE)

FIG. 4.7: THRf.I2-PHASe OPEN~DEl TA CONNECTIO'N Wnli TH"~EH WIRE SINGLE PHA~'C: CONNE'CTJON DERIVED FROM ONE T.RANSfORMER •

ceseeps l:ntE!mational asso Jurion, Inc

., -,--0 4-1

medium voltage sv",tems & applications in Industries

8 b
--~ ,OJ <J
A C
c A II C

X1

1-11

Xi Xl

Ha H1

ItJ

240 V

'b

2!AO V

FIG. 4.8: THRU~PHAS1E WYE-CELTA CONNECTION, WITH ADDITIVe POLARITY a STANDARD ANGULAR. DISPLACEMENT

Note that w:ye prl;maries are' oommon t'D 4160 (same Industries), 13200 (electric COOf.·3), 23'000 (Vlsayan Electric) and 34500 V (MeraleD It Cap leo) In the Philippine IIc.enarlo.Thls Is so because single phase tran form Ins with voltage r _tlng of 2.4,7.62, 13.1 " 2'0 KV aw'e readllv ' Rvall.ble off the helf. Th se transformers when connected wye,

~ beeome Gulted to theB,bove-m'entlonedvoltages ..

B h
A ~ ~
C c
a B C

H1

H2

Xi

0"" 10

IP""'------,~"'---------------"'"""--' ... ,-- ...... --" ....

fIG. 4.9: THRr~ ;:.-P'HAS,E \"IYE-DELTA CONNECTION WITH S:r;~GLE PHASE AVAILABLE FR )M THE SECONDARY CONNECTION. ADDITIVE POLARITY fl STAND.ARD ANGULAR. DISPLACEMENT.

~ ~ .• ,~ __ ~ ~ __ ..d

ce.

__ -----------~-- -~--~~-_:__- ... 4M20

medlum volt~'iile IliiV'ftems .. ilppJlocathmi In Illdustries

X1

c

e

H1'

Hi

2401/

iii

PIN

FIG. 4.10: 'HREE-'PHASE VIYE-WYE GROUNDED, SCHeME WITH fOURWIRE SECONDARY'CONN:ECTIO'N. ADDITIVE POLARITY 8r. STAbI'D.ARD ANGULAR DISPLACEMENT.

- - - -

medium voltag,e systems &. iJ,pp .. lcations In Indu tritt'

ce51lep5 Intemal:lonal ,tlSso' .. :,atiDn, lne

N

N J -r-

B

~1· ,

. '

,

c

c

A B

C N

FIG. 4.11: T'HREE-PHASE OPEN-WYE/OPEN: DELTA ,CONNECTION WITH SINGLE PH,ASE THREE-WIRE CONNECTION DERIVEiD FROM

ONE TRANSFO,RMER. ,ADDITIVE POLA'R.ITV n. .

STA~DARD ANGULAR DISPLACEMENT

ceseeps International ,3'550' latiun, Inc

medium voltage systems &: applkatlonsln Industl"tes

4-2.2

B,

b

c

A

B C

Xl

X1

HZ

1_ 380\1

I '~I

, :.I2DV_1

N

FIG. 4.12: rHREE-PHA5E DELTA-WVe GROUNDED SCHEf""E P.RO·YIDING 3 PH SE F Uflw IRE AT THE!CONIDA Y. ADDn,IVE POiUUUTY

• STANDARD, ANGULAR DISPLACEMENT

End of Chapter 4.0

medhlm voltage systems a I:1ppBcal:lonl!l In Industries

CESEE!PS IN,tERNA,TIONAL,' SSQCIATION, INC~j[~, ~'",,",,' ~ .......

·ElE.CTRlCAL DESIGN PRACTICES I! IIN.DUSTRIAI., POWER SYST':~MS·'

BOOK 2: The BLUE BOOK

[

CHAPTER 5.0

THE MV/LV POWER CEN'TERS I

CENTRE FOR STUDJ.ESIN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERJ.N'G PRACfICES STANDARDS (CESEEPS INTL ,ASSN, INC.)

2nd FIOGf, Sasubu a:dg .. , .A. del RQsarlo St., Tlp~ID ..... nd.u. CI.tyl pl'llli~,p"U!I!li

Tel No'.: '(032,) ,459,11531; .]4&63029;

:pax No.: (0131) 343-(1.']361 .EmaIl!Adl:doad.DQytlr®yol\og.com

dDodI20Ql.@hotmfll'l,com

FIG s.n THE BASIC PO'WE,R CENTER

--_{

B

itlE M\I SWITCH::>EAR SECTION

2.4KV -34.5IW

THE TRANSFORMER (CAST RESIN) 250013150 KVA If480V 1250/15001 !<VA IT 240 V

5.1) GENERAL, DISCUSSION

Again as discussed in Section 4.0, it Is common that an Ind.ustry-owned primary unit substation of say, 10 MV/I,. or 1.5 ;MVA is usually connected to the utility's J·i.S I<V or 69 KV system, Th~ voltage Is thcntrtlFls(ormcd tc. lower but stili medium volt ge seconda!,)' say at 6.9 KV or 4.16 KV. Large motors of some 350 lip to 5,000 Hp are then feed direct from the 6 .. 9 or 4 . .16 KV through a system of metalclad swltchgears. The smaller lndoor secondary unit substations (l,SOO and 3,150 '«:VA maximum) transform the 6.9 or 4:16 KV voltage to 240 V or ~80 V respectively for utHization. As explained earllerl If tI1e seoondary unitsubstOlUon is a clot16-roupled & facb:JryIntegral, tI assembly ~lfhere Me Primary SWItchgear Section, the· Transformer Section and the Low. Vcltage" SWitchgear Sect/DO lire integrated in mewl-enclosed or m till-dad eoclo Uf'f'!S, this unit sub:;;tatlon Is known In the industry es "Power Center"as Illustrated In Fig. 5.1.

Let u.s now look at th. power center point by point. The First component is the Medium Voltage Switchgear. Medium vc ·.age Switchgear as

I .,
I MA.IN I I I I
"
I I I
~
" '~ '_"", , > 'i THE LOW VOL TAGE SWITCHGEAR. SECTION

240Vor 480 V

applied to the primaries nf power c-enters may be In the 'following forms: a) Fused Load Interrupter SWitch,gear, b) Power Circuit Breaker in MV Switchgcar, and, c) Combination of Ring 'Main Unit (Rf'tlU) with Power CB Medium Volt ge Switchgear.

5.2) LOAD IN!IERRlJPJ~

load Interrupter Switchgear Is an Integra~ed assembly of Load Break Switch, Busses, Ughtnlng Arresters and CUrrent Linlitlng Power Fuses which are coordinated electrically and mechanically for medium voltag.e cin;:uit protection such as the transformer primary or feeder, US-made US are available in 2.4, 5, 15, a d 3S KVclasses at 400, 600 and 1200 A ratings. They are often used on certain type of feeder circuits' where the continuous current capacity is relatively low, These Circuits should be such as to require only Infrequent switching as In transformer feeder application, The LIS's quick-make, quick-break mechanism Is dosl[med to Inte.rnlp' luiliolld currents (but not fault currents) while tts fuses provide short circuit interruption. The LIS provides ''physical visibility'" of actual blade

ce.seeps Interniltional <ls50dati,on, Inc

medium vol.ti1lgEl systems 81. applications In Industries

position givIng assurar.ce of circuit de-

energlzation.

Note that the load Interrupter Switch must not be mistaken with the basic Disconnect Switch as the latter has nu Interrupting rating and Is Intended to be ,operated only after the circuit hilS been opelled by some other

meilllS. European-made LfS are available at 400A and 630A. with voltage ratings up to 36 KV. According to iec, for HV/lV (MV/lV .rf .ANSI) substations which include transformers with normal primary CUI"Mnt of less than 45 ampere, US associated with' power fuses can be ,used to C'Dntrol and proted. Me transformer circuit.

IMIPORTANTIII The power fuse at the primary side is to detect ann interrupt any fault downst.ream of the fuse. Ih'Jwever, if there Is a 3- pMllse' 0 (Ii piles ·-'tQ~philsr. fault at Ihe scccndarv side anywhere between the transformer 5eQond'al)/ terminals and the line side of the main breaker, the same power fuses must protect transformer from damage. aut then, the fuses see it anlyas a t1Irpugh~"'gft. Because It is only a thraugh-fault, th magnitude of cum nt as seen by the power fuse (low r':juit: current because of the Impedance of the tmnstormer) may not be sIgnificant -nougt'l for 'tt1f fuse to blow off fast enough. The fault mlg'ht t.a sustained for a 'long period' resultIng to a very probable damage to the transformer. P.er IEEE Red SoaK .• transformers can withstand a few seconds of sustained fault without damage to Itse,f depending on the magnitude of the f·ault:urrent which Is also dependent to the impedance of the transformer. Please note that the power fuses are not settable to the specific needs of the engineer as compared to relay-supervised powe. circuit breakers. Its

operating characteristics are fixed. Oversfzlnq the fuse may thus result to raise security.

If tile fuse rating Is too lOW, there arl! two things that could happen. Firstly, the fuse performance CUNe might intersect with the Low Voltag.e Main Breaker Tripping CUNe and therefore ill some values of fault currents, t'le fuse clears the system ahead of the secondary breakers even if the fault occurs downstream of the se.condary breakers. Secondly, the too low ampere-rated fuse may not satisfy the requirements of t:rems,former Inrush current during energlzatlon and may cause interruption at 12 times of the transformer ful,1 load current at 0.1 seconds (normelinrush current of the transformer during energlzat'ion.

In order to avoid the at-eve pitfall, I G developed a formula for the fuse size, as follows:

In must be > 1_4 II) but In must be< I" /6

Where:

_____ ~_::- ~ _ _::-_:___::~~~ __ - !I~2

ceseeps,intematlonal assCl .lation, Inc medium voltage' systems f ap,plications in jindustries

.1... = rated current II' .he Iuse

e) Throuqh-Fault Current at 34.!lKV,

Ib == rat:ed primary current of the transformer

Ie ::: 44,548 x 480/3A,S"OO or 619.8 A 11: = 6,19' amp5

~ == the minimum current at the primary slde If the second?''Y terminals are short: circuited (Ie is knl WI! as through-faull current)

d) Rated Current cf Fuse, In = 1.4 X 4U3 or 58.52 A

e) In must be > 58.52 .. !mps •. But also,

In the above formula, we have to calculate for the through-fault current (in this case, t' Quiring f.nllt calcllj,·non which I not within til top of till'" btl k (pi tl S CE:5~S Eloo!~ ~. :n. th.llroi PlllPO~ !I of ptcsllIltaUOl'1 to arrive at a rul or thumb, the following calculatlons will help: .

f) f1:ated Current ·,)f Fuse, In must be < ~t9/6 or 103 ltmps

g) r~ated Cllrr rl of Fuse, In: 'S _ - - n ._ 0

A talOa iii (.143% III to 2J,iOlQ Ib)

h) ~Meeting halfway, a good choice wiH be 10 Amps which Is 19:00/.0 of the transformer primary current

c AS§lJme a 34.5KV·'4BDV,2,5DO ,KVA, 5.5% IZ all lm,rnersed Transform r c;c:.nnected to the, ~ 4.5 KV, 1000 MVA feult duty MERAlCO system. Compute for ttl cuntlnuOLls c!.In 'n't ·f ~h power fuse.

i) However, since available fault current at the time of fault is always lower han the declared fault dut'l' by the utility company, a best choice will b between 1500/u - 1.80% 0' lb' If tl te Fault MVA Is less r than 1000 iMVA as In utll1ty companlesotb~r than MERAl..JCQ, the 180% higher end of the range can still take care the trl!nsformer protection.

II) full Load Current ,It Secondary 3007 A Full Load Current l Primary ·l1.S A

b} Fault CUrrent -It Secondary Shott CircuIted'" 3001 , [(2.'S/1000) + 0.065) or44,~BA

Rid of Thuml1:

7he power· use for the prImary or the transformer can be p~aced bobYsEin .IISOO", a lSn% o.r thlD tranaformer prim ry current. !iurprls;rTgly, u_lna the abo". rtll or 'th.umblo within the' range alvan bv NEe rule •.

TABU 5.1: M.Y FUSE RATINGS FO,R TRANSF'ORMER fl;ROTECTION ACDG TO IEC 2.82-1 (Basad on a 500 "'VA 'Fault Duty ut Up!;trea.m)

Aominalll:nmsformer ratings kva

supply volt:a~c9 'Cky)

Rated

3.6 :3 1 125 160 200 250 PCB ;lICB 'PCB PCB,
7.2 4 .6 lDO 125 160 200 250 PCB PCB' PC,S
6.6 DO' 80 100 125 160 200 250 PCS
1.7.5 .J):.!J.. ~C! SO 63 I 63 BO 100 HiD 160
::14 :7.2 32 3::Z 40 SO 50 63 80 160
36 ill 16 16 :U " 32 40 50 63 80 I., 'Note: The ai:ove are power fuses (not ordinary ones) with KAle ratings. 'the f.ngineer must be conversant (consult milQUract.urer's catalog) on these ratings to suit his application. PCB here denotes Power Circuit Breaker. Notf that European Power Fuses dlrfer In designed performance tl'a:l North Amerlcan products, in such case. computation is needed Lo arrive at the correct rating.

(More !!xQriOlses on Transformer Fuse S'izing 011 the next pages)

medIum Voltage systems:\ appli.catlons In Industries

2S0.Q

Fig. 5.3: SAMPLE EXERCISE IN elF SIZING FOR TRANSFORMER PROnCTlON

YECO, 23 KV, 7SQ MVA .AiVAILABLE 3 PH-Sf fAULT CUTY

AT fAULT POfNT 1

X" = 0.00167 ptl

Assume a USO KVA Power center c:cnntXtt::d to vr,cO's lJ KV tines: with an ava.ilable 3-fmam: f.ndt duty of 7S0MVA.

GROU;> OPE.IlATED !UR Ii fAt< SWl1'CI1

80E elF to Clear @ O.Q19 for a fault of ta.83 KA

AT FAlJl T POINT 2

1250KVA.O~ :3 PHASe 60, HZ

X,:::: !U14'!;;.,0

x u= 0.110167 IiJI!

.1.> = 672 A

'1ECO, .23 !(V, 150 MVA AVAlLASLE 3 P~Sif; fAUlTOlmf

GROUP OPERlIiTHl AIR BRJ:.AI( S\IUTCHi

POWER. FUSE elF, SOE RATED

ImIlIH'AULT= + .. 672 Aas~ell

by the fuse·

SIlE elF to .~. @ (I .• lis for a ThroughFau It: of ·672 I;.

125fl K\I A, OAr , J PHASE 60 ,HZ

medium wltage syStems &: ili'PllcationS in industries

llmnsformer fUI 0 P mary'" :n.3BA TransroclDell' FI.A tJ!, Secondary ::: 3:,007 A

M\',A ItiJse = L25 MV4 MY Sase :: 0 • .24 IN Qlrrent 1h$l1 = 31.001 KA

AT FA!IlI!.T POINT 1 (23 KVl':

IJl'_"_"::: (750 MVA) I (, ..... " 23 KV)

1.11> ".wt'i" = 18.&3 KA

AT FAULT POINT 2 (240 VOLTS):

X Q = L1.S0 ""'Al7Sa MVA

.1( T= 0.'1145 x. '(L25./I.25) XT:::! D.iIMS

X I!Q "" 0.001&1 + O.Il4S I( ~ = ,0004a67 ptI

I ~JWU" :: 64,430 A x (0..24 KV /23 KV) or 6.12 A (AS SEEN IlY THE fUSE)

MINIMUM SiZE OF POWER FUSZ;:.:

I. > .Ull! or L4 x :311 .. 39 A or larger than 4411

MAXIMUM SIZiE 'Of POWER FUSE:

I. -e Ie Ifh~.rL. < 672 A I~or mast be lesser'l:hafll 112A

ThePOViN!T Fua must be between 44 ;Ii. Ind 1.1l A

CHOOSE: ~E ClF

I TO'i'EiIiY WHETHER THE DECISION 1'0 INSTAll B!IE a.F ISA CORRECT OlOIC£, W'E NEE.D TO' ESTABUSH THE FOl1.OWI:riG:

1) T'tl1!, Tran:sfOmtl!r 'Thm';lgh-FauJt ~~d T.meat 64A3 i<A fault (2-1.43 times RA,' ,gt die seamdaly. lJl9 T'fupu9I,.Fat;/t Wlt{1stiwd ,Cmn:; fi:lr Qf?gpry..l1 Iaa:starmeCf,. 511l-5{){}() «VA Oiflm;~ Tl7i'!MI'!?rmeaL

2) TII'9 Total Oea.ril'lg Time 0' the ~ ,fWe;rt ill 'Thro:ughf;,utt CUlTE!nt of 672 A as .5ee!'I by HIe FwIE. To sal¥!! the I:r.!nsformell', ,the TCT of the fu:se must be ;mead of the transformer Witli5tlnd time. {tis TQfiilI De:nitul r;me

Pedqr;mauq; ChjmJcterlttlt: CUI)'N ofE&ff!rI fiaWer £USes},

.. '1'nJm HIe Chart,. at 671: A, the EIMer 'fuse 8C E will dea.d:be dr:g.!.it ittD.l1!Lwhicb is ahgad 0' tbe transfmmer wttbstand ot2l:!!i Ih.ftJltg~..alntimmd tn ~e..mmsformer:.

3) The 8010 ell' asa dlorce .must not blaw off Of" .must not be damaged Guringth.e cold start-iJP of lhe·tToInsftInner cummt. reaches 12 times the FLA fff the 'tnllIISfolimer (12 x 31.:18 A. = 371A.) at a duratirm 010.1os. (tJse5hqrtTIm.: C!Il1?nt ctuuactedstiC CCUVes DfE-Ratf:d.&werFuses).

I

I'

1ilJif'E! Using Sh'Ol'tTime Current Characteristic Cuf1reS off-Rated Power Fu54!S!

" From the C'hart,.i!t In A, the ~ FUse !KIf will sta rt to oE!l[eloQ OamagejltQ :225 Bemll5ll the duration, 'c.-U:he ~1i1 current is Dn.I.lI.J.!'.1Cs...J;ben tlte fuse wm not blow off or damilqedd!ldDg~'i:;:UIh

•. - tRait E-ilatI:!G Fuses, 2m! NQrth AmlliriCll!l ANSI fuses. If IEC Rafted Fu5'.!S are used, I

o.1Y~ speefl liD tIl;e 'fllse shall be used. NQwthat US .m~ Eu~n ,m:ade fuses are differ;ent· in deslgnefi pei'fvrnwl.Qe.

ceseeps. international a$SOdatloll', in_

I ~

~!' ,

L~'~ I

i: ... ' :.:: .. t,': ~ II ,~,

. ..

,

c

u

}

I

I ~

'[ . Note: The CHART shown above- takenfr~m IEEE Gray 80_o_k_-,

ceseep5; IntematiQnal a!'>S-l elation, lnc

- ..... u_ . . _. ... .. ,_.. . .. -.. _ _. ...• 5~6

medlUlu 'lloitage ,5'/5t'ems 'g,_ ,111f,llcatloTl!i In industries

I '1 I'

-i'l- 11_ i---1I1f---Il-'J --+----1

L 'Fig. 5.5

C I' Ifl:,l\!i IN ~,I1'~I"Er~~~

!--TY'PI':.,11 MU111lll1ll1 Mr.ntlng Tim·; .. current cnoractcrtstrcs ref YI·~1I1-\,.,'ltJg(o cllrr-c'nt-lImltlnq PvWN FUSI]&

,

, i !

[ ... Note: The CHART snown above taken from' IEEE Buff BUOk I

-- • -~ . . '. ~~-. , .'. . oJ'-

medium voltage ,systems It applications Inlndllstrle!!l

IJLI w bJ UI WL,l1 W I..U uJ Ui 'North A--e lea - ANSI

u ... ' ~",I 'CJ"'::" ,', or, I':) 8~, '.I...! 8 'I ~ ~.' 'm r .. n ~

... ~ ,,, .. 'I., "".1: I:! __ .; ..... ' I Rated Power Fuse

,.....---_. 1"""" ,--' --.-r ....... ,' __ -"I"-!\O'~Ir"I-"';'-=t==;;;::':;;::=::;:;;::I:, =~

I iii,

,

I
, I ,
, , - H -1
I I !I I
I
I , I

41:1 !--4-lI--l~"""1 -M-"'i

I

I I

I I

,2'" _. - -,I~I ..... ·t+-"""''''''''_~H-~~~~H-4--f..-+-----j:-~~-

I,

I I

, I

curU1E".j T I ~ A1~ enl€: 5.

[FID~~~ J_ TyP:I!~.:tI; T A~'I CI(';Hln'~1 Tim ....... current ICI'I~r.:tctc·rl61Jct for HI(JIl·V':'ltJ~I(I i~lIll'~l1taLlmltll,'i'~ PO\"i!' Fus.QS ,:S(:I".' Fig 102)

!

[ N'cltilill Th CIiAR,T .how" .btlVO tDkOI1 fro"., IEEE Burr Book

____ -~__:_- .....,._ ~ ~- , 5-8

ci!!ueps Intllrnat;lonlll UlJcidtlon" Inc mcdlulTl volt<tg,e :SY5tem~ appUcation. III Industries

, ,

---I., .... -.I

Fc,EOER .1\."

THE IMV SWlTCHGEAR SECTiON

THE TFlANSFORMER SECTiON

5,3) IHI; POWE'R CUl.CUIT BREAKER MV SWUCHGEAij

The 'ecllum Voltage SWitchgear of tne Pow r Center n be fl!1.ed wl,th Power eli'cult Oreuker tnstead of the load BrE4'k Switch. Ther are 8,vailabl'e rure.sand advan.t'!\:,es for its use.

to lEe - Stand rd~; .'ftm ,If"

n CIIrrent &

ter,,,, 'n 4l'i m~ffls or Is I1KIlfI (h,m one t;;allsfotmer In II:U tt. n, th _ pI'DrectlDn wfll be by _ pow, r drcult INe It r: from this recommended practice we can say tMt tl'lesize of the tr,ill1sfonncr at c rtaln volt.:ge levels lsa factor of the decision to usc MV Power Circuit Breakers. As the cost and Importance of the transformer in the Industrial process go higni;.li", the transformer then more than deserve a sophisticated degree of pretection, p,s can be reql!ed, transformers ere considered the single most important type of equipment in the entire process of di5tribu ion electrical power.

liquid Filled Power Transformers are provided with intemalfault erotectlon such as: overpressure (by pressostats), over-temperature (by temperature sensors), gas-detection (by Buchholz relaY)1 low oil level proter,un (by level controller) Or all 51.11 es, These protccuon schemes can not

LV PWRCB'S

I

..

, , , , ,

t

LOAJS

THE LOW VOLTAlit SWITCHGEAR SECTION

be done with fuses but can be easily hooked up with power Circuit breaker to trip - thereby saving the transformer from further damage. Please note that for North Amer!ci'ln·m de distribution transformers (500 !<'VA & below), these Internal protection features are :1'.>t present On ttle other hand,. Dry Type Power Transformers are provided with Temper,Ature Survcilltlince Syst-em!ii (with . ensors Imbedded In th windings) '[hat has to be: hooked~up with the prImary ,drculL breaker to trip off the drcuit In events ('It anomalies.

Power OrCUlt Br~,.,ke~sln tandem with 'Prateotlve Relays can provide all theprec:/'se prnt6H:tJon c.apabllltiUIi that power fuses can't g'lve .. These are: the phase time-current overload protection (ANSI 51), instantaneous phase short: circuit protection (ANSI ~O), time- current resldual ground current pr )tectlon _ (ANSI SIN), instantaneous residual Jmund fault protectlOM! (ANSI SON). The circuit breaker can also accommodate back-up grOllnd protection (ANSI 51G), transformer thermal pmtectlon (AN5I49t transforrner differential current protection (ANSI B7T), reverse power protection (ANSI 36) and a host of many others,

Power Circuit Breakers can provide

automation as w£11 as controtled maneuvers (or operation I electncet interlocks) whkh tne fuse can't offer.

C8s.ecpt IlntemillUOni'll B55Io."I~ti.on, Inc

medium voltage 5'(5terns& ':lpplication!lln Industries

[lowrr Circuit I'll -','K! r' ~,"1 • ~Uy btl

C'Dt:lrtl/nDt d tlliough pi ot 'ctlv rei yin, with upstream or downstream oevices and throughout all of the sy~em components.

"'1111111 lad lli!:! I ~,wlld" 'lll~ 01 -voilnilir'

In 600 to J,OOO Arnpr. Cl.'lnl,nUQU" urrent rung'., 250 to 1,500 MVA 51! rt C"cult ratings at 60 - 95 l(V Bit ..

Metal Clad Breaker S'Nltdlgear as defined by ANSI C27.20,,2, Is an il1tegrated assembly of c:omponentsth~t Includes the (allowing:

iJ Removable (Draw-out) CIrf,;ult Breaker

J;;J. Fully COfTIP\1rtmelltallzed Construction

U Grourlded Metal Barriers [0 i:r.close All Uve Parts

a Automi1lIc Shutters

o Buss

o Mechanical Interlocks

LJ Disconnect Type Voltage Transformers (OFTs &.

Vf'.s)

U llc)\lIlcI~~IIlI!-"lkt'r I[I[lk Inl1t:'1w en

T sl/lJl:;c;onlll!!.t ll.. tonW.lcl 't! P051Uo[l1o

U Low VoltaQI.! 1l1strlJrnent/Conll'Ol Compartment I<;nll'l\!lrl Ftnm Til rrll!1i'111 Vull-y f1'''::)~

Power Circuit 131 '!lk,~r for medium volt21g application In tho. Philippines Industrles.re In the VI, t).16, 6.6, 13.2/13.8 and 34.:1 KV levels. TI1C!iC circuit breakers are In the forms of: air., oil, SF6 gas or vacuum types, Air &. 011 circuit breakers are now obsolete whilE:' vacuum circuit breakers are In the trend today .' replacing the SF6 types whlchare lately founo as non-enVIronmentally friendly. Vacuum Circuit Breakers at the time of this writing have reachnd the confid nee level at the lS KV Class while .1 few manufacturers have produced vtl'Cuum breakers at 36 KV levels. leading electrical manufdcturlng countries 11, the world have (by convsntion) been developing vacuum cirl!ult breaker~'or applications at higher voltage classes with the Intention that new generation vacuum breakers wilt replace the existing SF6 breakers In the lmmedlate future. In the meantime, breakers at 36 KV, 69 KV and above have yet to contend with Sf6 types.

volts

TABLES.l: STANDARD RATINGS OF MI!DIUM VOLTAGE POWER 'CUl:ctJIT BREAKERS

&f6 circuit bnlluker, , vacuumC'ltcult breaker, Evalls

Me,lIn Gerln

t;:Ol1t:lnuou.. j' ~.~~AI.~, ompl1re.!A.1 .Lift.J.

con'tlnlJm ...

~ Dmp@rllllll{A)

lmlc (KA)

(kv)

3·.J·~ 7.Z. I, 0"0 1 31.5 no (nDne) !lone
1250 ~U.5 1250 25, :n.s
2500 .31.5,40
11-1:1.5 630 liO, 25 630 25, :31.5
usa ;1:0, 25 1150 I 25,:U.5,40
liDO 25·, 31.!!, <10
:1500 28 31.540
ilD - :ilS.U 410.0 12.5, ae, 25 .1I0na nonD
630 20,25
, 1250 20 2S
34.5, - 4D .• 5 400 iI,12,I5 n.o"e 1 none
630 :1.0, 25
125'D 20. 25: 5.4) THE MV RING f\,A!IN UNIT/POWER ,BREAKER 5WITc:t~

Acting as transtormer primary feed, the first tvfo . types of Medium Voltage Switcbgear described above are act\ially for single service emit'. ln un IndlJutrlal plan whf'IC mot 'Iaboriilh~ f cd CCtl flo f Quit III lWt' "c:'POHll t' 11 !JUne' s Ii 1 IMp system or with one supply feeder but extends

it radial distrlbution to another power center, then the Ring Main Unit (RMU) Is needed. RMU's are what Europeans called as "Interr:onllecto,.. Distributor". SF6 RMU's are common in recent Installation because. of Its small physical size compared to conventionai' ones.

, II RMU COli lsts of tlll'( i1 tor more)

compartments, namely:

madl:um VQiUlg!'lIV.toml 8ippllcatlonl In Indull:rl I

II two (2) incoming compartments each containing a load breaK/ isolating switch and a arclJit earthing 5wit..::t.,

• one (1) outgoing and general protection compartment contalnillg ill load break switch

with power fuses, cr a clrcult breaker and isolating switch, together with a circultearthing switch. This component is the one normally connected to the transformer.

A VOCL!UI'I1 Indoor MV Power Clrr;ult Drflllkel'. (CourwlY ul 5dmakl ... ~11ICtI'Ic V'II'LII!')

-, -
I ,I I
r I I
I' •• -
- - CB!leeplllnternaUonall!lllsu Iiltl·on, Inc

medllJm voltage systems (I, iI~~ilcatlonsln Industriel

FIG. 5.9: THE POWER CEN'TIER 5HOWING PWR CIRCUIT BREAKER IN THE MV SWITCGE;;_;;A ... R ...... _ _,..

il" • _ I - @" ....... ~"'ft_. __ '_

....

~- .. -------------~

CAST RESIN TRAFO'

r--~-·--·----- ..

I , , ,

"

I ,II I

..

I I .,

...

FEE.DER 'A"

lOADS

THE MV ,,;WI tcHGi:AR SECTION

THE TRANSFORMER SeCTION

"THE LOW VOL TAGI-iSWITCHGEAR . SEC :101\1

FIG .• 5.10: POWER CE.NTER SHOW.ING THE RM:U, PC:B &. CAST RES1;NTRAN'SFORMER

r .-~ . .... - £ - ..... - --.

r-··~--------------~

I I'

CAST RESIN TRAFO

r-----------t>r-~----, ...

THE RMU

FI;EDER' .. "

.. ::-~~._. I F=-.t

, I I

I

t

LOAPS

THE MV S'MTCHG5AR seCTION

lHE LOW VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR SEC110N

PO'W~R-CAS'T •

• _ ... _~ ~_ ..... ~~-.-..!!~~"£z!~""'!W''''''''_''''. 'I' ... , ....... ' ..... __ -.>*'._-.-L ... - ... _-- ~~

5-12

cescep, International a 5"; :iatlon, Inc

medlumvol,tage systems &. applications lin Industries

THE'RNIU

LVPWRCS'S

FIG. S.11: THe POWER, CENTER SHOWI'NG THE LV PWR CI.RCUn O ..... EAKER

CAST RESIN T.RAFO

L ..... FEEDER 'A" TO NEXT PO~ER CENTER

I I 'I

"

lOA.DS

THE Mil SWITCHCI!:AR SEC110N

HiE TRANSFORMtm SECTION

lHE lOW VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR SEC"ION

'TABLE 5.3: RECOMMENOf:DPROTECTlVE DEVICES FOR MV TRANSIFORMER t'RIMARI.ES
4 UlilV 6900V 13.8OQV
TRAFO PRIMARY RfCOMMUCDI!D PIUMARY REOOMMENDED PlUMARY I RECOMM~OEP
ItVA A.M.PS PA01'1!CTlVE OMC!! AMPS PR.GTECTlVI! AMPS 1 ;PRO'nlCTM
IRATING DEVICE DEVICE I
1SO ~'.8 FIJS!; CUT-OUT"' I 13.1 II fUSE CUT-OIiIT* 6.30 FUSE CUT·OUT-
12S 31.2 FUSE CUT-QUT'" 19.1 FUSI: CIIT ROUP !UO FUSE CU'f" -alIT*'
30.9 4LQ FUSE cur-our- 26.2 FUSE CUI -OUT'" 12..5 FUSE CUr-clUT"
500 69.'0 "'''!>WHC8 43.0 LBS Wi PWR FUSE 21 .. 0 UlS W.! PWR FUSE
I 7st1 , 104 JotVPWaCB 65.D MVPWR'CB 31.4 LBS WI PWR FUSE
800 111 MVPWIU::~ 711.0 M'IPWR tit 33.5 , !.ssw L'PWR 'IJH
i 10M 138 . 'MVPWRCB !S?O Mil PWR. tB, 4:1.'-- r-uis, WI f'wa "list
1l!iO 173 MV.PWR,CI· 1'!1!l MVPWRCS 52.3 Mil PWRCB I
..
1.5~D 208 ,M\'PWRCB 131. I MYIPWR,C'_ 62.8 I MV 'PWJ1C'B
1&00 ----B.~ MV PWR,ca 140 MV PWRCIfI 66.9 - MYPWI'I.C;~
~OIlO 1.7'1 MVPWRCB 17.5 IMV PWRCB QJ,6 MV PWrlCQ
'25QO 3.46 I'IVPwRC15 2111 HVPWRCB leOS IM,VPWRC6 I
:3150 431 'MVPWRca 215 MV'PWRCB 131 MYPWR.CB NOTE: * Fuse Cut-outs must 00 Installed outdoors. All others are Indoors.

5.5)

'(:VA with primary volta~~s of 2.4 to 34.5 KV and at secondary voltage of 240 V, 4:80 V and 4,160 V, P,a'N r Center applleetlom can befoCli i..:d on the 7~O KVA to: 1500 KV/J..mng at 240 V or 750 t,

1,5U KVII nmml 110C1 V I :uIIII TV 'IIultflU '

edl[19 5 xtlon, ltierc two tn Ie c.ld s S o~ power tr, nsform 'r'" Ilr !l"l'Itly II! ~"tl fer till' Ifldll IY''j I'll lim'. I I,) c:h ~,rr 1m: ) Llqultl rllI'd,or 1.1) Dry Typr, 1 hI" l WI' llf tt.'~11 fotlt1r', , II. 11'1 It !IV"" Ittlllir tn Industrlal appllc:~tlon at 750 KVA up to 10,000

5l ruhn d tLil' !rlill r, tin,!, I llir ',r'COII It ty 0 transform ers Can be seen In Ie fol1owll1Q:

C8IWEIPS In IImlltionlll &:u.('· hltton" Inc:

medium voltii:lge Sv,!;'temsl!J. aliI' iGl.tions In Indusbrles

TABLE 5.4: POVffR TRANSFORMER RATIEO CU'RRENTS AT LV SECONDARIES

twA FLA. I FLA KVA FLA

RATING @ 240 V @ 4E1Q V RATING @ 240 V

FLA. @480V

.500 KVA 1202 A 601 A

530 IKYA* 1516 A 758 A

750 KV.A,.-r-. 1804 Ai D02 A. !O Trl!lll.former. with •• tuhlk ."l!IlI!!C 'Ii't.d

POO iKVA * 1924 ;;":A'---+--9'::-'::"6~'2~Ac::.· --I KV cllp!ldtla •. .111.1'1 oU,Gr. (wlthQut

100Q KVA 2406 A 12,03 A ' sterlsk) Dr elthr ANSI or ANSIlIfC rated.

1250. KVA 3001 A 15·04 .A

t--==lC::::S:'::Oc.::O'-, K=Y:=:A=---t- --=3:":6::':0:":0'-. '::':A'--. -+----'1::':' 8::';O"-4':"''::''A''-. ---I NR: Not Recommended s!%e. ,lit In.dl'cated

voltllge Be thUB lIotg'ood engilleerln!il

1600 KVA '" NR 1925 A rilrlJ.l:tlce. The 'current!i;are too high to

:lOOO KVA NR 2406 A hlll1dle 8: lire notd ~.,red In 'pra ... lea,

2500 KVA NR 3007 It 3150 KVA Trl!lnl'lfor!M'lrS ilnd abo"'0 IJhall

3150 KVA~ NR :n86 A have medium \lo1tall<' !iElcondary,

5.6} THf LVSWITCHGE,.\R. SECTION

As part of the whole Power Center, the LV Switchgear Section is al$l an integrated dose coupled metal clad 'lnlt containing the withdrawable main secmdary power circuit breaker &. the distribution power circuit breakers (and the tie breaker If 'so provided). It also Includes a sysrem of bus bi rs, the cr's, vr's &. the CPT's. control cornpartm mts, control de\.!Ices, meterins, the incoming and outgoing termination compartments, etc. The function of the LV Switchgear is to receive large volume power provided by the transfonner upstream and to distribute this power in se'leral bulks through the distribution breakers to downstream load centers, MOe's or Lv/lV transformer') located somewhere. within the plant. The distru «rtlon breakers may be Of sizes BOO A, 1250 A 01 1600 A as the design

375D KVA

NR

NR

5000 KYA

INK

NR

says so. They can be fl ily rated {4Qo C} or sized one step hlqher bee-use the power ci.n::uit breakers' trip units car ':le set wi!:hin 40% less than its full ratings,

At this point, the designing engineer has now visualized the neatness and how professional the outcome of his design on paper would be. With it system of cable trays that would act as main highways for the cables, the design will surely be a workmanlike InstaUationhe can be proud of for years. The table below gives out insights of the sizes of the breaker comr-onents In power centers. However, please note that the ratings of these breakers do not vet Jndude the interrupting ratings. (Breaker Interrupting Current Ratings shall be fairly treated in the next section of this book).

TA8LE 5.S: RECOMMEN[)i!:DPRIMARY .. SECO'NDARY PROTECTION FOR INn,OOR POWER CENTERS

1~4GO v- 4SD V 4 l~f. V - 480 V
I, PRIMARY' PIUMAnY SEtON· SECONDARY PIUMAR.Y PRIMARY SEeON see'ONDAR'f
TKAI'O I AM'S PROTl!ctION DARV ,PROTELI10N AMPS Pil.OTECTlON ~ DARV I"ItO'TECTION
KVA DEVXfE AMPS OmCE 'D~E AMPS DEVICE

500 1.10' MY PCB: 630 A 6.(11 A LV PCS: SOC) A 69 MV PCB: 6::0.A 601.A LV ,1'(8:800 A
15'0 18(1 ,.,V PCB: ~30 A 902A LV PCEJ: 1000 A 104 MVPC8: 630 A 901 A LV PCB: 1000 A
800 1.92 MV PCEI: 'lBO' A 962 A LV PCB: 100£1 A 111 MV PC8:630 Ii. 961A LV PCB: 1000 A
1000' 140 MY PCR:. ~30 A 1:1.0211 i LV PC8;1250 A 1]8 MV PCB:6JOA 12D2A LV PCB: 1250 A
, 1250 300 MVPCB: ,JOA 1503 A LV PCP: 1600 A 173 MvpeB: 63QA ISOlA LV PC8: 1600 A
lS-OD 360 MY PCB: 610,.11. 11)00 A tV PCB: :WOQ A 208 1>1\1I"C8.; 630 A 1BOO A LV PCB: 2000 A
lIJOO 385 1'0'1\1 PCBl...63!) A 192411 LV I'CI1: 1000 lit. 12~ MVPCB: 630.11. 19l4A LV !PCII: 1000 A
1000 481. !'lI,V PC:B: 6.30 A 12400,11. LV PCB: 25Q.D A 277 MV PCB: 610 A. 240011. LV PCB: 2500 A
.2.500 1501 MV Pta:' 63,0 A lOOOA LV iPCB: 320011. 346 Mil PCB: 630 A 3000.11. LV PCB: lIOO II.
315'0 758 M\I· PCB:t250A 3788 A LV PCB: 4000 A 437 MV pcs: 630 A 37SIJA LV PCB: 40ElO A tlonal I'IsS:OC.Io!ItlOtl, Inc

medium VQ: tage systems 8< applications In Industries

11m "j -
IJ..~ •• " ill-' :I~ :~'Ill.' i"l:'l .. 'l;j :t.toj=l!:~'~.Jf!. '1ii ifiTl' ~ E I

I'
TA LE 5.5: RECOMM!ENDED' PRIMARY . SECONDARY PROTIECTION
FOR I,NDOOR POWER CENTERS (contlnued ..... )
I S,900 V - 480 V 13 8':)\1\(-480'1
PRIMARY I PRlMJ.lY SECON!) SEC PRIMARY PRIMARY SEtON SECOND.MY
TRAFO AMPS 'I PROTEClION AR:¥ PROn:cnON A.MPS PROTECTi'ON DARY PROTECTlOII
1(11"11 DEVTf.e AMPS DEVle!; DFIIlCE AMI'S DEVICE
500 4) ,",YlIS: 630 A 601.11. LV PCB: BOllA 21.0 MVU5: 630,A 60l.A LV PCB: BOO A
, 150 65 HVPCll:630A Sl02 A LV PCB: 1000" 3l.4 MVUS: 63UA !102A. LV PCB: loon
r-!,.QQ__. 70 "'Ii' PC8! 630 .• '961 A. LV PCB: .1CODA , 33,5 MY LIS: 6·:10 A 9&1A LV PCQ:lI000i
1000 ril7 MV 11't:l&: 530.AI 120lA LV p·ca: 12SIl A 4l.8 MV US: 63.eA 1101 A I;V PCB: ns.Oj
1250 109 MVPOB! ti30", 1503 A LV PCB: 1600' A 52.3 f1V PCB: 630 A 1503 A tV PCB: 16DO
1500 1)1 MV PCB:1i30A IIOGA LV PCB: 2£100 A 62.1.1 MV PC·S: '630 A 1800 A (\I Pm; 2000
161:10 140 M\I PCI!<: &·10 A U2l4.A II.V PtB: :nlnO A 66.9 MV·PCB; fl3GA 1.924 A LV PCB; ilOrul
iooo 17S 104\1 pca: 63Q A 2400 A LV PCB: 1500 A 83.6 ,.1V PC8: 1530 A 2400 A LV PCB.: Z5UO
Z500 2Ul M'II PCB: 15],0 A 3GOOA LV PCB: 321l1l A 105.0 M\I PCB: fi:m.A ;JDOOA LYPCS:3~
)150 ;as MV PCB1 UOA 3J84A LV PCD;40'{lO A 132_0 MV PCB: 6:W'''' 'I 37118 A LV PCB: 4QCIO
.
Notes: 1) MV PCb's: MV Power Clroult Breaker, 6JO A (IEC Rated)
2) LV PC6's; LV Pow r Clrcul Steak rs (1\11 lEC Rated)
3) MV U5:'Load Interrupter Switch Fused with elF's (Current Limiting Fuse)
4) The ta!-jles above are for Indoor Application Only
5) For 24~' V application, limit the transformer size to 1,500 '(.VA maximum
TABLE 5.,6: STANDARD RAT.INGS OF LV POWER CIRCUIT BREAI«RS (SQUARE D MODELS)
Continuous - SQUAIFIE. D Intern-Ipting Ratb g,
, Current Rat:fng (Al MASTERPACT MODEL jKAiI1CJ
1'108 :Nl 220 40
GOO Ii 440 40
"'DBtU 220 , (IS
440 iSS
MOB K2 .:iIIll 100
440 100 I
MOil Ll 110 130
~ 440 .110
, N1O·tU . 2.20 40
10 " "'''0 40
MUll '"1 ;120 I 0'
""0 II!!
MID 112 220 11)(1
"Ata 1100
,"nOLl uo 130
440 110
fU::I'U. "2_O 40
lUOIA 4"10 40 .- 0-
I MUftl :'1';10 'tl5
'440 a,lI
1'112,"::1 :uo 1110 -
440 100 ,
I MUU I_~iij no
,. 4"0 11:0
""16 Nt ;l!!1J 110 ,
BIOOA 440 40 -_
,
M1t5i I'll ZlCl as I
440 tiS ~ - I
I Mill"'" 210 100 J
440 10n ,
14,161..1 2J:0 130
440 111l , ,--
H20 N1 220 -- 5-5
2000,. 440 55
M2Q lil. 220 75 --
440 IS
, 11420 H2- 220 100
I 440 I 1.00
I M2D Ll 220 L 130
, ! 440' I 110
-
CIlSQIlP"" Intematlonal.lIssoclatlon, Inc medium voltage systems f"! appllc.atlon!: 'In industric$
- 'fA ... !! !U5: STANI>A RO RATINGS OF LV POWER CIRCUIT DREAI(ERS .• continued ...
I MUN1 lJ!U _. 5S
2!1GO,," 440 55
, ,",,211 Hl, :ua 75
-----.- ~. 75
H25 Hl 220 100 -.
4-40 100
M21J 1.1 no 130 -.
440 11Q
- 104.111111 :UO 75 -
3:'OQ A 440 '1'5
H3:t 112 ;no 100
440 - 100
MilO Hl. 2:10 7!t
'"01\ .f"M4illi2 '1;12 ,~
220 100 ---
440 lila
M501lU 220 100 --
OOOA 440 100
lIi,rD 1t2 '::In 150:
. ..~n 11'l0
- ·MOjlIU 2~O t.OO -
11300 II 440 100
M<l3 H2 220 150
440 150
. FIG. 5.12: TYPICAL POW,ER CENTER COMPONENTS

MV SW1TCHGEAR (LOAD INTERRl' ,"TER SWITCHGEAR

(COli tesy of Square D)

TOTALLY CAST RESIN Ii'OWER TRANSFOR.Mfq,_

(Courtesy of SqUllre D)

_ TYPICAL lOW VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR

(Courtesy of Square D)

5.,7) .MflllUM VOLTAGE PQWER BLES

EPR's resistance to moisture & water impregnation are excellent and impressive, according to reEA. Multi-conductor cables that also comply with medium voltage requirements are of Type Me Metal Clad cables, however these types of cables are not totally impervious to water & moisture and th refore are to be used only in above ground indoor installations preferably in cable trays.

'IN need power cebtes, too. Medium voltage side of the system needs power cables that could either be installed in air ilia ladder type cable trays, in conduits, in ducts or In many cases directly buried. Most popular types of cables used in the country are the XLPE a nd the EPR. XlPE &

.1.

F MEDIUM VOLTAGE CABLES

V N HED CAMBRIC 5 115 1 0
115 77 200
:lB 7,0 200
PC'll YI'rtlYlI!N ! (NJtIi.lr.1I) 5 75 15D
35 75 150
BUTYL RUBBER 5 90 105 200
35 85 100 200
alL· AS!: RUDBER 35 70 as 200
CROSS·UNKED .1.Q.LY ThYLENE 35 90 130 250
IEP RUBBER ~~~ 90 250
POlYVIN~Lq~lDE (PVC 2 150
lLICONE RUBBER 5 125 ._ll.<L-J. 250 ceJeeps International asso latloo, 1m:

medium voltOgl'.l !>ystems ti. appllc<lUons In IIIdu5tri

5.7.2) ~gbI&§~..J!..Af!.PACXTY RATINGS Of POWER CArlIlES

VOLTAGE RAUNG: If ar~ engineer selects the Iflsulation voltage ratings (If cables, it should be made on the basis of the f:: (lowing:

a) phasa-to-pbase voltage of the sv'stem tn which the cable Is applied, not line to ground voltage

b) the general system ca'.'~gory on whether the svstem Is groundod Or , ngrounded

I lO·g01a Insulation: Applh:I)le to IJrounded systems where the system protection assure a very fast tri'ppinQ out of the llneto-ground faulted clrwlt,

• 1330/0 Insuliilti~·n: Applicable to

ungrounded svster.: where the clearing time requirement ('f the 100% insulation could not be met, ar.d yet there's adequate

assurance that h-= fault will be cleared within one (1) ho ".,

eo 173010 lnsulax"lin: Used on systems where the time (> quired to de-energize a grounded section IS indefinite.

The reason for 'the ;."joove standar(is IS that, It is posslbie to opereto cables en ungrounded 'systems for long periods of time with one phase grounded due to a fault (Please see Section (l,0 of this book), This results to line-te-nne over-voltage stress across the insulation of the unfaulted phase cable. Thus, suc;h cables must have greater Insulation thickness (or more than 100% rating) to address this eventuality.

AMPACITY RATING: Since medium voltage cables are rarely used, tables of its ampacities can not just be available as the low voltage ones. To aid the engineer in completing his design of the power system, the foHowrng tables could help, '

__ ---T-~A-B;;..;l::;;;E'-~ 8: "",MPACIT'fCABlE RATED -< == 5 KV COPPER

AMPACITY, AMPERES

CABI.E5UeA.WG/MCM

::::====:::=: :===;:======:;:===:::==::;:::::,.: ... ,dUlt In. Air

Trlplexed In Duct

97

130

1-80

20S

240

280

:U5

385

TABLE 5.9: AMPAUTY.'OWER. CABLE RATED> 5 KV, COPPER

415

6(10

G90

CABLE S1;r:!; AWG/MCM

Burled

T,rlpl@xed In Duct

Condul' JIl .Alr

" 17'·0 115 110

1----~--::2:--. ~ -_---li'---l:;.:'i-o--··-t-~'-·· -i55--I-' 150

~ ~~1~.·__ 240 ~1.~7~~r.· -4 ~1~7~Q~ __ ~

1- ---:l~,I,;::O~ 115 .:::2;::.00::::.. __ --4-- _-=.:19::;:5:... __ --1

1- ---:2~!/,..:O'-- 311) 2'30 225

1- ___:3;:.tI,..:O;._ 355 2.;.60:;. + -=.:26:::.:0"- __ -1

• -,4~(:O 405 29~ 295

1'- .._:2;::$_L,~441i1 ._...0:3:.:;:2.:::5 __ -4__ :330

350 535 .::l90 . .-!J~9~S:.__--,

il----__;S~o~o"-- 650 4155 480

--~~~~~-~~~~~~-----

1- --::7:.,:5:;O~ 805 565 555

IDOl) 930 640 675

, • ~ 5~lS

medium volt.age systems 8t appllcattens in Indu&ouleti

£SII!lep.·lntematIDnelll!!l50ciatlon, Inc

TAlllE 5 10 AMPACl

. : TV IN .AIR POWER CABLES (COPPER)
CABLE SI2E AMPACITY, AMPERES
AVIG/MCM RA.TED RAT,ED RATED
< = 5 KV <: - 15 KV < '" 35 KV
4 145 1S0
1 190 195
1 115 225 225
170 260 260 260
2/0 300 300 300
3/0 - 345 345 345
4./0 - 400 400 395
250 445 445 440
350 550 , 5501 545
SOD 695 685 680
750 - 900 8~5 870
-
J.OOO 1075 1060 1040 The arnpadttes given in the tables are based on the following conditions:' .

o Conductor Temperature, 90 0 C

o Ambient Earth Temperature, 200 C

o Ambient Air Temperature, <JO 0 C

o Olrect Burial Depth, 0.9 m (3 ft.)

o 0 ptll to top of duct b nk, O.I.! m (7.5 R)

U laud Fuct I, 100%

[J kc: ,.\!ce~el Dlnada Wire Inc.

5.7.3) CA8LE TERMtNAlIO 5

Shl Id d medium Volt, 9 Insul ted cables

e_1~4.nt~! unus.ual ej~ctrif"ll stress where the cable. shield Is ended just short of th point of t rmln 1 n. Th cftbl shlrld whIch Is at ground potenUlIl I!Ind t r.ablc COl ::lucto whl h Is of line pcten lal result to the Intr:x1uction of both rad! I end IOI1Qltudln I '1olte ge gradients ," ch Impose c.ll lettrlc tres or varying 1 grutud s a h 11tl or the cable, Hence the termlna Ion devices arc neP.d <J.

Pur or Termination: Termination devices for Insulated power cablE'~ provide c rtaln basic electrical &. mechanical functions

tI) ·1 ctrlcaliy nnnect the cable to electric

qu pment. bus or l.mln- ulatcd conductor,

b) physically protect and support the (dbl conductor end, the In5.:1atlon, the cable shield and overall Jacket, sheath or armor of the c ble.

c) effectively control electrical stresses ancl provid both interns' & exter nal dielectric strength to meet desired insulation levels of tile cable system,

'.

CLASSES OF SHIELDED CABLE TERMINATION DEVlC 5:

1) CLASS 1 Termination

II Th classlfil;atlon ellcompasses what wa;-;,

formerly referred to as "pothead", The porcelain terminators also fall In this category,

• Complete external leakag InsulatIon be.tween th high vQltage cond"'~tor nd glound,

• Some form of electric stress control for the cable shield terminus,

• A seal to prevent the entrance of ext .rnal environment into the Cable and to maintain the pressure, if any, within the cable system.

• For outdoor application.

2) CLASS 1 Tcrmln",tlon

Some iorm of electric stress control for tile cable shleld terminus,

• Complete external leakage insulation between the high voltage conductor and ground, but no seal against external elements,

• Stress cone with rain shields or special outdoor insulation added to give complete leakage Insul lion and the more recently introduced slip-

mndh.ll11 'voll ge Yltcm." applicatIon. In !Industrh!ll

on termif'liItlon for cables having extruded Insulation when not provldil10 i'.l seal as Class I.

,It For outdoor installation.

3) 'CLASS 3 Termjnation

II! Some form of electric stress control for the cable shield terminus,

• This class off terminatIon IS primadly for Indoor use. This includes the hand-wrapped or taped rn thad, til ,pennant mi the slip-on stress, cones.

• For indoor application.

TERMI _ATfO OF NON-SHIELDED CABLE

Te, mination of non- shielded cables generally consists of a lug and over-taping .. The lug is fastened to the cable by compression type long barrel terminal lug and tape Is appHed over the lower portion of the barrel of the lug and down onto the cable Insulation. Tapes used for this purpose are selected on the basis of compatibility and sultabiUty for appllcatl.on Inth@ !wlronm ntal exposure antldpated.

[fIG. 5.14: GROUPOP'E'RATED DISC.ONNECT SWITCH, USUALLY INSTALLED B,EFO~E T'HE POWER FUSE

Courtesy Of ABS

____________ ~--~~~-- __ -- __ --~--~~~~~~~~~~==~~~=.:!5-20

ceseepslnternatilll",,1 aS5f" latlon, Inc medlum voltage systems & applications In !Industries

FIG. ~.15: SERVlCE ENTR'.NCE POWfRCABtE. (TRANSITION fROM UTILITY LINES TO THE nrmUSlRY)

CQurtesy or ABS Kabeldon

----:----:-:---::-_._------------------------- ....

ceseeps international association, me melliumvolta.ge systems & applications In industries

_'" The preteen v s hoses are pushed 0<1 Nul pull",' O"Q' HlP. ("'ruleh '5.9.1.1 If re'11.1ll'ed Ihg p'ulO'L.tn/c luu.uu t:'Hi be t';'lJt.

TI1Q I:un~~ II.IV~' t>'Jlll1 ""<4M, ,~nfl, It,e 1J1~talle' '(:9 the ClUtch ~~31

2

3

ThfJ stress [j':l,j,r'9 pad i!i wound wmmd the ooge of li''' to'Julation screon

1

1 he sheds are put mto D05;11011

6

TI'le I[)Y~"'IIij" (iref!p~ly~ eurrant cOIl"c\or'; are filled 3rOll"d ll1A luwtI'r pitrt QJ Uu-t Ilvertull'S

5

4

PIG. 5.1.7:

STEPS IN PREAPARI,NG MEDIUM VOLTAGE SHIELDED CAPLES. THE INSTALLATION O'F CLASS l TERMINATION K'ITS.

lllllllly. il Il1p MIlIII~ push~ 011 11ll! ecrblllluQ p.,d 11>0 OVFnOOl1 'ml'" 1"'mlllAlloo I~ 111,,(11' to h,. co- 'nocl~d

(Courtesy or xabeldon, a member or ASS GrQUp)

medium voltage systems &. applrcations In Industries,

~5 epsll1;ternational assocIation, 'inc

For r asons of saf ry and r II. bUlly, the shlelds & metallic sheath ot PO'r'PT cables must be grounded. WiUlout such grounding, shields would operate at potentials considerably above ground. Thus it could not be touched and would cause to rapidly degrade the jackpt or other material In between ttl hleld and ground. This Is so b use of th C D cluve char'1in uiren In tllr 11 Ighl.)or h I )(1 or '1alllt! 1 !liNn of condu LOI length. Thl5current normally (lows from the cable conductor and the earth lectrod which Is the shield. In addition, the shield or metallic sheath Dr the c bl serves as current return path In the ev .nt or insuletlon rallure permitting rapid operation of protective I clays.

AT WHICH POINT Do Wt. HAVE TO GROUND A CABLE?

There was much fuss a~ to whether the cable slId .Iengths should be gl" unded at both ends or at one end ,only. Whlc::h Is which?

If grounded only" at one end, any possible fault curren must traverse the length from the fault point to the grounded end - Imposing high C rTent n th usually very light shield conductor. Such CUlTent could destrcy the shield which wUl subsequently require replacement of the entire length rather than the grounded portion only.

Wil:t1 beth ends grounded, the fault current would divide itself and flow to both ends, thereby rodlJdng the duty of the sr.ield with c;onseque.ntly lesser chance of damage.

There is however no cl~:::jr resolution on this disagreement such that the two practices are stHI both valid (to the i1uthor's best know/edge at the time of this writing). If tne engineer chooses to ground one end only, thenit is recommended to do It at . h 5ending end. If he chooses two-end grounding, then he will achieve mechanical completeness of his instellouon,

For operating \10 tages below 2 K'v', nonshlel eel ctlbles are normally used, Above 2 101, cables will have to be shielded to comply with the National Electrical Code and the ICEA req irements. Occastonatl-. non-shielded cables are used In the V1KV, 4.16 KV and 7.2KV

In IrllI1\IIOI1'i '> IOllq !l ttie ' l nlos fit!' lJl llsted fur U~ .. [llllpO'e wh se . I ov 'r illl 111111 fII 'lflllic j.ll.k l or continuous metallic lat:k l fir both and the requirerocnts of till kness of msulatlon are complied.

However any of the following conditions dictate the use of shielded cable:

a) P r onnel Safety

b) Inul{. nductors In W t l o 'JUan',

c) Direct Earth Burial

d) Where the cable surface collects unusual amounts of conducting rnatertals as salt, scot, conducting compound

In electrical engineering practice, shieldir:g (according to IEEE Red Book) of an electric power cable is defined as confining the electric field of the cable to the insulation surrounding the conductor by means of conducting or semiconducting layers, or both, which are in Intimate contact with or bonded to the inner and outer surfaces of the lnsulaticn. In other words, the oute insulation shield confines the electric field to the space between the conductor and the shietd. The Inner or strand stress relief layer ts at or near the conductor potential, The ou er or insulat!on shield is designed to carry the charging currents and in many cases fault currents,

Insulation shields have several purposes:

a) Confine the electrical field within the cable

b) Equalize voltage stress within the insulatlon minImizing surface discharges

c) Protect cables fram Induced Potentials,

d) limit electromagnetic or electrostati

interference (radio, TV)

e) Reduce Shock Hazards (when grounded)

5.7.6) tM.b.E SPECIFICATIONS

After the engineer has established the carr cable, he has to describe it in a form spedticatlons. The following is a checklist that ca be used In preparing a cable requirement:

iii) Number of Conductol"lln the Cable (SlnQS.

Conduc:tor, Multl·Corer etc)

b) Conductor Size (AWG, MeM, or mrn') an'" materl (copper, aluminum)

medium ycltageS\ljtem5 s.. applications In industrl.es

e), in~\Jlat!C'n Type (Rubber, PVC, eroS-. Link L"olyethylene, IiPR, etc)

d), Volta,!:! Rating (lDO%, l33%, 175% IIlSIJI.&.tklll 8) Shielding SystlIlTI (Rlbb-ln, Screen, etc)

I'} Outer flnlilftnl. CrvFfU MY, MC, e: C)

g) Inst.,II,tttlon {table Tray Direct.JJJUrla1, Will; loCOltlll'n,bposure to S,,,,Ugin or on, etc)

h} Applk:&ble UL li.isting (or-equivalent Eumpean Laboratory)

I) Test Volliillge. I<Partlallll!!charge Voltage

5 .. &) iY6UJlBisnRS.ULPPWEB ClunKS &. SU "STATIONS.

A lightning protection Is needed In every power center and the primary unit substation. Lightning has been recoqnlzed as the most severe '& most vicious source of over-voltages and voltage surges that an eh~ctrical system may be subjected to. Damages caused by lightning strokes need not be over-emphasized. Exposed electrical lines can be ele. ated 'to a potential of several million volts by direct stroke and possibly 1fl million volts byinductio 1 in a time interval of a few rnkroseconds. Most i,l'dustrlal power circuits can not contain that amount of voltage and will

. flash over to ground a~ the limiting withstand potential is reached.

Electric insulation in energized system is continuously under st-ESS. Over-voltages must therefore be curbed In so far as reasonably possible, If events of over-voltages are frequent, the over-stressed insulation system will soon fail earlier by the effects of fatigue upon repeated and prolonged application of impulse stresses. Not only that it is not practical to lncrease the insulation of systems (very heavy and needs elaborate . support system) but also Is uneconomical.

5.8.1)CONCEPIS 1." J.IGHTNIN~ PRQlf,CUQN

The sources of over-voltaqesare many and of varied character. The r-est prominent ones are the following:

a) lightning

b) Static

c) Physical Contact ~ith Higher Voltage

Systems

d) Resonan~e Eft'ect6

e) Repetitive R.estrlk,i!,f (Intenl1.1ttel'lt. Gr(llolnds)

f) SWitching Surges

I.l) Forr;ed Current Zero Interruption

h) Autotransformer Connedlons In Ungrounded SY!ltems

______ . __ ~~~--"-----. -~--------~--~--~----~--~~~~~~---4

ps l.ntetnRtlonallu51,J .Iation, tnc medium voltage~ystem!l & applications In lntlustries

III pr cUe I Ilglltlllny prot xtlon Is ~ thieved by the process of .) Im'erception or 11ghtnmq produced surges, b} dlv~.rt1ng them to ground, and c) lilterlng thelr a';soci6lted waveshapes. Interc.eptlon Is aimed to prevent direct strokes to lin 5 and apparstuses by :.Iliddlng which all:..o acts as energy dlve~lon path to uroulld, Out because or th Imp ff 'ctlon or hili!'ldlr1U thot I nvolve 'I p lIasil1fll:lll cllcult ,com!,nr. fits d()Wn~iHlMl 11I1d up.,lream - all the w y 'to the utlilly company's syst1em, lightning lnducco surges become very difficult to prevent from Impressing on the power system and its componentr..

Id~llocatron for surg~ arresters 15 directly at the terminals or the equipment to be protected, However, for practical and economic reasons, the arresters maybe installed away from the equipment while also protecting other equipment in the system. Consequently, other low BlL apparatus such as dry ~pe transformers and roti\ting m chines often requlre surge protective devices In direct shunt to tiielr reteivlI1g terminals, Rule-of-the-Thumb says tr at surg.e arresters must be installed for every important connection such

S~ overhead lines with Insulated power cable . conn etlans, servka entr~' pclnts, terminals of transformers and terminals of main distribution swlttogcars"etc,

_STEP: :,

.

,1) 'su.n ClAss-component protection of 7.5, MVA IJld l!lbo .... e Bnd for large essential rotating machines.

2) 1NTlZ1IM!JJ14T! ClASS - component protection oJ '1 - 2:0 r-WA substations and rotating machines

3) pIlmUBunON CLASS - distribution class apparatus, snm'll rotalln~ maCIllnes and dry type transformer,

Note: Considerable overlap of these catcgor,les prevails, t ndmg toward the use of higher ctasserresters at higher voltages.

5.8.c2) EFf·ECIIVEl Y SHU: OED SUBSTATlQWj

The principle of .shielding is appi'ied to effectively reduce the magnitude -of Ughtning derived surge voltages. The design pattern involves the mstallation of strategically located overhead grounded conductors as a sort of umbrella over the power :_c nductors &. equipment

to be protected. The overhead umbrella w Intercept direct lightning strokes. [f the dis:char __ current Is not too high, the stroke current will - cllverted to ground without a flash-over to tl , power conductors. If the maximum dischar~. current Is too high, then there could be flashes over to the power conductors but not es high I lI, volliQ brqught by Ihlll tnltlal dlr ct stro e f\!ildc from 'HIe umbrell- I 1.1 set of !tUlg erreste Is required on each overhead llnes as It enters til substation. It is often necessarv to Install - additional set of arresters at the transformer.

Finally another set ,of arresters adequate rated for 'the service 15 fiecommendedf installation at the remote end of the shieldet section of the overhead line conductors, These arresters wil! intercept the severe surges usual circuit ends and will help dissipate a large portlar of the transient energy tel ground.

5.8.3) NON-EFFECTIVELY SHIJElDED .SUBSTAJlONS

As the term suggest, these are substatJo that do not "have the overhead shielding described for Effectively Shielded Substations Such substations are likely to be small, loweci'.ltegory voltages (up to 34.S,",'V), with. relative! simple clrcult arrangement. [n such caS'" incoming line arresters may suffice to protect . transfer r. Otherwise If in doubt, another set arresters may be Installed at the termllials of· transformer as this type of substatlon Is mOl1 "'iJlnerab~e to lightning. It (slmperat ve that ~ ground resistance must be at Its lowest possible'and circuitous route of ground conduct to ground must be: avoIded.

5.0.4) ARRESTER. RAT1.NG5 FOR MfDIUM VOLTAGE ApPllf.-AIl&ll!:

Voltage ratings of arresters are selected - the basls of grounding coefficients, CoefficIent Grounding, is defined by ANSI as "the ratio of ELc ELL "J expressed as a percentage, Thus the ter "Effectively- Grounded Systems" and the "No. Effectively Grounded System"/ to the Viewpoint C' surge arrester application are used.

ceseeps international ,ass~ciath:m, inc

medium volta~<! systems &. applications Inindus'tries

[

Many lndustrl I power systems (II e

mpluylll - nlll!" 'romi of 1~·,I~.tnll or ICilt\,lfltl' tI~ Jt1dln. ~ r !lIt 'ter applk lion purpose I th Indu .llil" arc (10 em· ttvC'ly YfVIIII(/I.'d systems, The same Is true to ungrounded systems. Such systems re..;ulre arrester ratings of not less 100% of operating voltage of the syst:em.

For Illcillstrl( I pl.lnt~ II,olt ullill • 'lGlld system yroUI1t11t11J, these plants r;: ukl btl omkj red as

rrcctlvcly 910und d y tern Ir 1111 LlII; point of view of arrester application. Solidly grounded systems usually require arresters of 84% of system operating voltage.

TA.BlE 5 U·YOLTA.GE r-ATINGS OF ARRESTERS USUALLY SELECTED FOR 3?H SYSTEMS

SILICON CARBIDE MET Al :JXIDE
A I1.ResURS ARRe;,TE-~S
NOMINAL !IV Tl!iM UNGIROUNDI!,D GROUlilDl!!D
\10, TAGle OR NEUTRAL UNGROUNtll:D OR GFl,OUNDED NEUTRAL
IMPeDANce CKTS IMP .DANce GROUNDED CKTS
GROUNDED
ELL E lH ARRESTER ARRESTER ARRESTER MCOV* ! ARRESTER MCOV
RATING RATING RA.TING RATING

2.4 1.38 3.0 :3 2.7 2.2 2.7 2.2
- 4.5 4.5 3.7
4.16 2.4 3 3.0 2.54
4.3 2.77 6.0 4.5 5.1 6.0 4.25.08 oi\.s.. 3.7
6.9- 4.0 7.5 6 7.5 6.1 5.1,6.0 4.2 S.O
1.'2 4.115 9.0 6 7.5 6.1 5.1,6.0 4.2 5.0
-.
U.5 6.6 12 9- 12 10.16 8.5 9.0 6,9 7.6
U.S 1.·2 15 9,10 12,15 10 .. 16, g,O "n
12.7
13.8 7.S 15 12 IS 12.7 10 8.41
.
18 10.4 21 15 18 15.24 15 12.7
II 13.2 24 21 24 19.5 18 15.14
I - 21
27 16.Q 30 24 30 24.4 17.1
ltU I - 36 21.9
34.5 36 30 29.3 27 NOT!: MCOV - nUlxlml.!n, c.onth'lUou, opeTatJ,ng voltagQ

End of Chapter 5

medium vol'ti!ige systems 11 "'l'pl'iciltiioI15 in industria.s

5-26

'ELECTRICAl DESIGN ,RACTICES IN INDUSTRIAL POWER SYSTEMS'

BOOK 2: The BLUE BOOK

!

CHAPTER 6.0 SYSTEM DI'MEN,SI,ONING

CENTRE FOR STUDIES IN ElECTRI,CAL ENG,INEERING, PRAcrICES It STANDARDS (CESEEPS INTL ASSN, INC.)

Z .. d FlDM, BaSUDilI5 BI",g., A. !I'el; R'lIsarl'g St., T'lpoID'. ,",'Bnd.ue ICit'/. Philippines;

T.I' No'.: (031) 34,5-45,31;, 34&-302,9;

fiax No.: (032) 343-t593'1!I;

l!mall Adsl dOQdtnow'~ah,ul.tQm c!godllDL':1l1bDtmaU.wn

At thls ooint, let us step backwards and look at the fON L. The design vf the industrial complex In ccncep. needs to consner & lnteqrate system

voltages; loads, load growths, transformer 'rOIA sizes, transformer connections, system grounding and distribution systems, among others,

Now let LIS take a loot at what should be the voltages of our Industrial plant in concept. In the first place, the Industrial power system design ('nglnp.C'r must be abl. to distinguish the cllfl'el enc s bctw en till! volLage .ratings of . electrical systems, the po ver delivery equipment and the various types of utilization equipment. For example, a 600V circuit br.iaker in a 480V system serving a group of ~40V !1.")tors can be confusing.

The system voltage also known 'as the "nominal voltage" Is the no-load voltage (normally the terminal voltage of the transformer or generator) and It is decreased by voltaqe drops through the transformers and feeders. Slightly lower voltage is available at the load ends, that's why the load equipment are slightly lower-rated that the system voltage. The utilization equipment voltage ratings are the nameplate ratir as of the motor, lighting fixture or process equu • rnent which can operate satisfactorily at a voltaq-. spread of say, (+-) 10%.

---------" ----------~-....-:-------~ ,-:--~~~--_o. 5-1

ceseeps international ilSS!? 'Iatton, Inc mecliUIl'1, voltage:!<).st,em5 '& applications in Industri.es

The power delivery and protection equipment such as power switches, circuit breakers and insulators are always ratei} slightly higher than the nominal voltage.

Magill ud of load

D t. f"r hat POWCf Must It' 01. trlbuted Voltao of Large Motor lO<lds

U iIIlatl 11 Volt g of Other rroress Equipment Sar ty Cod $ &- St ndards

• VtlIt Ill! or the Host Coun'\

It c;J rJtude of load - if tne road is very large, it is not wise to peg the val\~ge at low voltage (600 .. or less) for economic rea"ons.

Dishm - it Is net good i.) design the voltage at 600 V (or less) if the dlstai.ce is very far from the source for voltage drop and economic reasons.

Voltage of' ti'rge Motors - voltage of motors larger than 300 hp IS USI:.llly at medium voltage revel (2400 V, 4160 V or S600 V). These motor voltagC!s will greatly lnfluer-ce declsions as to the interm diate voltage levels of the system.

,cry ClX/es 5tami rds ~ 240 V (not hiqher, wher only nov of lin -to-qround voltage is ClV II, bt ) may be best for cold & wet plant envucnme t for s. fcty reasons.

tf, &,;1 111111 , , Equl. m nt »

thew are established volt ge levels, to

manufacturing Of process Iquipment for a certain spedfic industry such as; oement, semi-conductor, automotive or brewing industries that surely affect the deoslon on voltage levels - examples of which are as follows:

As an example, hereund .' are tYPical voltages of brewery processing plants:

fl!, wl10li • 440 volts
• Cellat5 440llolts
• 'Bottling Plant 2.20 volts
W I ~ r@ti I flallt t'n ·j{,tI vplt~
Wa .. te W'tl!Jr Plant <1'10 'lolls
• C02 Rec01iCry Plant '1601lolts
Refrigeration Plant 460 volts
Steam Plant 460 volts Air System II Offices

Large Compressors

460 volts 230 volts 4,160 voll.s

Please note that the voltages pr sented above are based on motor voltages. The 440V &. nov fire usually of European origin, while t e 460V & 230V are North American motors. It is

Iways influenced by the origin of the proc e leLimology employed by the plant If the process technology comes from the USA, then the process OEM's wili supply the plant with North American ~tJndrll"d products. It hi also true If the process t~c:hf1ologV Owner Is hom ,<1 European country. The experience In Indonesia, Ho 9 Kong or ChIna is a different thing. The practice in these countries usually calls for one or more substations that tr ansfo: III the voltage tram 10,000 volts of the utility direct to 380/220 Volts, 50 Hz. Standards of other countries thererore necessitate several secondary unit substations to beinsta!led. Moreover, large motors, say up to 400 IIp, are rated in 380 V, 50 H::. In this case, national standards in the host C01JIltry where the plant is to be built also play a big factor in the selection of the appropriate vo.ltage \: .els.

6.1.2) ATIHE J.QWYQLTAGE SlOE: 24QV or 480V?

In selecting the distribution voltage at the load end side, a choice between th 240V and 480V I:; always the case, Motors an process equipment are rated 230V or 460V, or both (220 or '140V. Ir Europe n)· while II to 5, pnw r toots' others ere at no v. /I.:' first look, the 2"'10-volt system may have the advantage over the 480-volt system because if the process equipment is 220V· rated, a power center with a 240 V secondary can feed dirertly both motors & lighting loads without lhe need for 480V/240V Intermediate transformers.

However, in selecting ~ the distribution vt Iti1O"'j, I1dvf.:mtil\jCS sbQ'Jld Cr)i IsrrlCJ low r c;lr ul't lnvestments, lower electrical losses, better voltage legulatlofl (voltage drop!;) and lower ftlultcurrent magnitudes. As discussed In preceding sections, maximum ow r canter slz s for thP'il:l vol tag levels mu t be 2500 KVA If tltlO V (3,000 1\) and 1250 KVA if 240 V (3000 A). More often than not, the 240 V system is frequently not a desirable choice. For instance, given two systems of the same !<!VA • one at 240 V and the other at 480V, tile engineer will find out the following:

ceseeps International asst'I~\ation, Inc

medium voltage systems Pi. applicatlonSlI'l Industries

TABL 6.1: 240 V Vii. 480 V COST COMPARISON

Cost or M"tDrs ,

Cost. of jJ·,lt Substat,lon

Cost 0' ~1Dtor ControUers Cost of Wiring 8. Cabling ICost of ~rotetth,e E'qulpmel1t Dth r Cc""

Thi$ls so bec.ouSQ When tile Cl.lmmt Is doubled:

Initial Cost

480-volt: 5 stBIJI

240-yolt 5 ~tem

100% 1000/" 100% 100% 1 o Del/II lOO%

100% 115% 1400/0 160% 160~.'"

1201""

a) th largerBre tl1e wire&' c:ables,

b) the larg'et are the conduits &. cable trays,

c) the larger are the circuit breakers continuous ampere rating

d) the larger are the breaker KAle ratings

e) the larger are the motor controners, t) ,(he la rger are busses,

g) i:he I rger are Ithe distribution panel boards,

h) the largerllre the MCC's

j,) • the larger a re switch gears,

j) , ~he larger Is the space or real state needed"

k) the larger are Installation costs,

I) t:he larger are the J.~R losses & thus the power bills,

m) the greater is the amount of hea't inside electrical room

The cost Qf LV/LV transformers for 220 V loads (If the tf8QV-systerr. Is chosen) Is negligible camp red to the cost of c-voldance enjoyed from the .:tBO V systems. On top of this, the Installation or the lV/LV transformers in the system lowers ttl rault dutyt 220 V, such that the KAle ratIngs of lighting panels may only be In the level of 10 KA. not of large frame siZl'd units as presented In Section 6.0 of this book. "

Instances where the 240 V system: lis favored over the 480 V system are as follows:

1, where the Industrial plant is, small such 'that he benefits of' the 'ISO V' system Is Insignificant (up to 300 K'IIA),

2) In wet or refrigerated plant envlronrnents where personnel safety (Ieakagl' ground) Is endangered, e.g,: Bottling Plants, lee Cream PIMts, Ftefrigerated Storage' Plants, 'etc,

DELTA·DELTA 0 DELT,·I,WYE GROUNDED?

Modern practitioners today prefer the delta-wye grounded cOl1fig.uration of power centers because of the roliowlng reasons:

a) Although cost of delta~'!lta Is slightly lower than the delta'wye transrorm!l:rfi, cost Is no\" 50 much of a (<lctor here. While wye secondary windings requires larger conductors (because of phase current = line current), U'le delta secondary needs higher Insulation I.evel - making the cost ·jlfFerence negligible.

b) Most m ',m plants today (wher~ Instrumentation and process controls a~13 heavy with electronics), requires a system grounding to have more stable voltages and path to cl'r/ent 5ul'ges.

,c) Ungrounded systems do not trip the breakers In events of slngl~-lIne:",lo-ground raultsand are therefore endangering personnel aves because of a sustained grouFid not. arrested From the system not until a second ground fault occurs.

dl A second ground fault will shoot tnevoltage of the lInfilulted phase to some 6 \lInes the normal voltage resulting to more dernsce on equipment whlcl1 are even far away from the f,~.ult.

I) 'V!lt!cl1l1 Yft1I1IIr111'J f\l"l "~.r<' , III IIl1Jd In 111,\11 wll Ie

t.ot'll'lItl'l t;. vAr!nlil - fl PI jllPIIl Y tJllvr, >Iud !l n: l!llt I~ liM! nll1 II,i,IVY wlt'] 1\.11111,1I1h:.l, II <1 Uil'lll pafh to ground.

f) T1ll!! delta secondary havln~ no neutral pol nt n eds a groundIng trClllsfonner to make It grounded, wll.lle the wyeser:ondary has already the neutral point where grounding could be jerived.

6.1.3) AT THE PRlMA'RY5IDE: tiM W\.IAQ~1'

0, (;1 Ion as to the !Irlrflllry \tIcltl! or th

'[j(lwe enter ufid r (ling desl ,tl on [1flper aru t be conferil:'d with tne ,lOwe I camp ny as to DYIIlUablllty of fat'lIItie!;)/capacittes and the 5t:abllty of the qstern ilt the point of tapping, 1 he utility companies will advice the Industrial customer at what primary voltage and at "l'hich point of the grid the latter cO~lld draw power, It Is only then thdt the primary v~ltage rating at the main substation could be established. This is true to light industries with power centers LIP to 2500 KVA-are directly tapped at the utility tomp !lY'SI distribution SYrf 'm. In this a1SC tile power center becomes Its I',\aln substation. In the Phlllppin s th13 prlmtuy vC/i 'Ltg 111tlY be 13.2/13. a

'V, ; I KV 01' 34., KV [11'11 '1IdillY 011 whh h Iwl or Iii' t 1)\I'I1\ry III pl;}fli j', I'lf al!'fl.

6.1.4) InIIEBMEDIAIE VOL1Aqu.:Qfl.II:lf PRIMARY UNIT SUBSTATION

If the Industrial plant in concept happens to be 5,0 MVA to 20 WI A, the main sobstation becomes a primary unit substation requiring medium voltage at the secondary. Decisions as to the intermediate vclteqe level of the main substation secondary sba!1 be the concern of the cleslgnln~ englll or of lh Industrial plant. Us prlrnul)' voltage Is aUJln depending on the dVdllab! volta!,;! or the' utility company. Prlm~ry unit substations of thr -se sizes would be much better if IN PC's 69 KV system Is In the neighborhood. PI ase note on the following economical secondary voltage levels corresponding to magnitude of loads.

MAGNITUDE OF Lo.AD

. The first consideration is the magnitude of load. Previous studies had established that there are economical voltage levels matching to the magnitude of load, The table below surelv provides help to the designing Bnglneer.

·106.::1:1 :I'li G :NERATION SFa DFUllAKF.R IN It, liU K.V SUBSTATION

--------------~--~~~==~~~-.------~~---0

ceseepslnl!ernaUonalil5SQ iathm, Inc medium voUage systems ,I; a.p!f.I!lcations hllndustrie!

TABLE 6 •. 21 JUECOMMENIJED SYSlEMVOLTAGE lEVELS WITH RESPECT TO LOADS

PRIMRV ECONOARY

I(VA LOAD KJl,OVOl TS kILOVOLTS

100 - lr~OO 2,000 - 3,150 3,500 ~ 5,DOIl

7,51l0 ·~lO,OOO .12,500 - 15,ODO 1.5,000 m 25,0'.10 30,000 - :50,Ol)0 100,000 - lS:"I,CIOO 200,.000 -::In' ,tJOiO

Utility Distribution Voltage Utility Distribution Voltage Utility Dlstrtbutlon Voltage UtlHty Distribution Voltage U'ttt!tyDistrlbution Voltage Utility Dlstl'lbution Voltage

, Utility Distribution Voltage Utility Voltage

. Utility Vol1'llUr

13.B/23/3t!, , 13 .. 8/23/34 .) 13.8/23/34 5 23/34 . .5/69 34.5/69

69

691l.3S 138/230 230/t1001750

0.24/0.48 0.48

2.4/4,2 4,2/6.6 4,2/6.6/13,8 6,5/13.8 13.8/23/34.5 34.S/69

69/1 B

tJ VOLTAGE OF LARGt MOTORS

Motors above 300 ~:p usually make great influence lIn the estabnshment of the secondary voltage ;)f the 'primary unit substation, As they are in the medium voltage ranqe, these motors usually if US made are in 2 .. 4 or 4.2 KV whHe the European version lis normally at 6.6 KV.

Modern-da,y engineers favor 4 .. 2 KV because of the better economics than 2.4 KV. In most cases, If the industrial plant is 'more North American, large motors will most likely be 4.16 KY. If the industrial plant is more European, then these large motors wi:ll most likely be 6.6 KV.

FIG. 6.3: 3RD GEN.ERA T,ION SF6 BREA.KER. IN A 245 leV SUBSTATION

~!Ilep!illnternatlo",al assot;!ation, Inc

6-5

medium vo]tage svstemsBt applications In Industries

The whole power system exists to serve the load. Nc matter how elaborate the generating plant, the transmission li:les or the distribution systems are; they Eire all constructed to supply the requirements of the most important element of the ::;ystem - In the busirH s viewpoillt, the load, The beM'II'ior lOr the load therefore commands the shape of t e power sYf.terl1. Incidentally, the characteristic of the 'load I~ very variable for which the electrical system has to readily react to load slttmtlons Instant by Instant to eccommooate its pealG and valleys. It Is wOl1ihwhile to mention that unlike any other systems in the planet, the

. .

TABU; 6.3: SAMPLE OF SYSTEM LOADS

LO '0 CENTEP KW LQAD KW LOA.D KW l·OAD KW LOAD IKW LOAD

!Ii:OO PM 6:00 PM 7:00 PM 8,:00 PM .9:00 PM

production, ccnsurnpuon & sale of electricity happen all at the same time, at an instance. The desiqn, installation and the operation of the system must therefore be best suited to the requirements of the loa~

Let us now focus on the behavior of electrIcal loads. Assume that a 5.0 "'IVA prinElry unit substation Is 'serving three (3) separate Power Centers 21& In Fig. 6.4 below. A sample of a typical behavior of t.he load showing its variability for a span of 5 hours can be Seen in the Table 6.3 and Rgs. 6.4 & 6.5,:

600

A 80(1 900 1000 900
B 600 600 5,1)0 .. 1 .• 21l0
C 1 GIlO 1000 so.o 800
SYSTEM 2,400 . 2,.500 2,300 2,900 7(1)

700

2,000

FIG. 5 .. 4: SYSTEM REFER.RED TO BliI" TABLE 6.3, Showing :Maxlmum Demands

PRIMARY UNTT SUBS. All.ON S;OMVA

l

POWER CENTERS

..

M'D .. 1000 KW MD :01201) KW MD::o 1000 KW

@ 7:00 PM: @ 8:00 PM @ 5:00 PM

1500KVA

1500KVA ....... (PCKVA',,)

-------:---~ --:'------__.:_-__:':__-~-_:_-_:::__._-~_._:_----o; -. '6-61

QlS _pllntem.t1on., a.ssoclaUon, Inc Il'Illldl:um volt,age syst'l!MS &. applications In industries

3500 ,--------- ------,

500

-+-LOAD nAn

: .... l!t-lOAD, "Bit i LOAD lie" TOTALS

3000 +-~----------4'

2500 -+--, -----------.-----i

r---.----...,

2000 +---------.---'1

15<lO

1000

o

5:00 6:00 1:no 8:00 9:00
PM PM PM PM PM Pie !Ie not U10! Ihr maximum loads of P,ower Centc.rs: 'A" Is 1,000 kw @ 7:00PM, "9" Is 1,200 kw @ El:OO PM, and ·C· Is 1,000 k;"" @ 5:00 PM, The systam maximum demand as seen by the main ilul:Js!ation happenE to be 2,900 kw @8:00 PM.

6.3) IaQAD DES1GNaU{:.

SYSTEM fACTORS

or 600 IWA. lEe lingo termed It as "Maximum Utilized Pl:lwer", Even In operating motors, the actual load of these motors can not reach the "Installed Power I<:IIA" because they are not most likely operating at fully loaded condition all at the same time.

To further Illustrate the foregOing, a jew terminology needs to be understood, as follows:

Connected Load (eL} - the arithmetical sum total of the contlnuous nominal power consuming ratings of all equipment in a

Y'it<i:rn. In Europe, It IS known as "Installed J ower", ln real term, elt of this ti.ff10unt or power can not be conv trned at the same time at any given time. Thus the "Installed Power" or "Connected Load" ta'l not be reached.

Average Load (AL) - the equivalent average load or a varlabll\l IO~lcJ In a certain time frame. As dlscu.ssed earlier, the ;a,ctual load with respect to time could besaen ' s a "mountain range curve" (see Fig 6..5). But there exists a straight line equivalent to this mountainous curve, That straight line represents the average load. For instance, in ill variable load for the month, the meter read-out Is 1,000,000 KwH, the Average Load for the month will be:

AL '" 1/000,000 KwH 1(30 days per month x 24 hr per day) 1,388,.89 KW. This means that the actual variable load for the month is likened to a uniform 1,388.89- 'KIN toad all the time for 30 days.

• Maximum Demand (MO) - the highest or peak load in a certain time frame of a ,system. It Is also known as 15 -rninu e demand I<:vV or 1<;!IIA. For instance In a system connected load of 1,000 101A, If only 60!% of maximum power found: drawn as rnerered, then the same system has a r'llaxlmum Demand of only 60%

medium v.oltage systems & applications In industries

eeseeps 'i:ntemaliional as§odalion, Inc