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English – Macedonian

Dialectal Dictionary
Based on the Lerin-Kostur
Dialects
As Spoken by Oshchimians

By
Chris Stefou
English – Macedonian
Dialectal Dictionary
Based on the Lerin-Kostur Dialects
As Spoken by Oshchimians

Published by:

Risto Stefov Publications
Toronto, Canada

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted
in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including
photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval
system without written consent from the author, except for the inclusion of
brief and documented quotations in a review.

Copyright 2007 by Chris Stefou

Printed in 2007 by:

Webcom Limited
3480 Pharmacy Avenue
Toronto, Ontario
Canada
M1W 2S7

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PREFACE

At the dawn of the 19 th century when nationalism was introduced to the
Balkans and as new states began to form out of the ashes of the Ottoman
Empire, dialectal languages were viewed as simplistic, backwards, limited
and, to some degree, expressionless. They were deemed vulgar and were
scoffed at. Modern and literary languages were created to replace them and
students were discouraged from speaking them because they were
presented as the languages of uneducated peasants.
Generations later, as the newly created societies began to culturally
mature and search for their roots, attitudes towards dialectal languages
began to change. Dialects began to be seen no longer as vulgar and limited
but rather as the mothers of modern languages and the sources of modern
cultures.
Dialectal languages, at least in the Balkans, are the most natural and
longest lasting cultural elements that not only defined the uniqueness of
certain societies but also, in a positive way, highlight the diversities within
them. The Balkans has always been a multicultural, multiethnic region
with various ethnicities living together. Languages have been the
predominant factors of cultural divide in a positive way. And within each
culture, at least with the Macedonians, a number of micro-cultures existed
predominantly defined by unique characteristics such as dress, colour,
pattern, song, dance and obviously dialectal language. Before the
introduction of nationalism these cultural elements were seen as positive
characteristics that uniquely identified each micro-culture in those
societies.
Macedonians, no matter from which corner of Macedonia, recognized
a dress with certain colours and patterns as belonging to a certain region of
Macedonia. They all knew how to dance to the “Bufskoto”, “Tikveshkoto”
or “Bitolskoto” Oro but also knew it belonged to the people of Buf,
Tikvesh or Bitola. Their culture was based on long standing practical
traditions but was by no means culturally limited, vulgar or unnatural. In
fact, as people are discovering today, it was the most natural course of
cultural evolution that a society could experience. What was truly
unnatural was the attempt of our 19th century authorities to destroy it and
replace it with something artificial for the sake of standardization and
modernization.
It is most unfortunate that Macedonians, who recognize that the
strength of a culture is in its diversity, were not allowed to form their own
state and thus were subjected to cultural destruction. Macedonian culture
was seen as a threat to Macedonia’s occupiers who, in their attempts to
create a monolithic and to a large extent fictional replacement, were bent
on its destruction. Some states,like Greece went as far as banning the
Macedonian culture by making the Macedonian language in all its dialectal
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forms illegal and forcibly muted Macedonian songs. As for the dress with
its beautiful colours and unique patterns, it was deemed to be the
“peasants’ dress” with no place for it in an otherwise “modern world”
based on an otherwise “artificial culture”.
In view of the resurgence of Macedonians needing to rediscover their
roots, the study of dialects has become interesting and of importance. Here
we find ourselves in a unique situation where I am personally familiar with
one particular dialect and am in a good position to document it. There is
urgent need to do this because I believe, with time and by the application
of literary languages through the educational system, dialects will
disappear forever. I am one of the last generations to be born in
Oshchima, Lerin-Kostur Region, in a society that until as recently as half a
century ago spoke a dialect of the Macedonian language. I still remember
the language as it was spoken by the elders of Oshchima.
Today, Oshchima is virtually extinct and it is a matter of time before
this language too will cease to exist. Oshchima is a small village located
half way between Lerin and Kostur in Western Macedonia, now Greek
occupied Macedonia, which in 1939, at its height, had about six-hundred
residents. By 1969 its population had dropped to less than a dozen people.
Now only a couple of families live there and all the younger generations
speak Greek. Oshchima was hard hit and nearly destroyed by the Greek
Civil War and most of its residents fled for Canada, Australia, the USA
and the Republic of Macedonia.
Since the vast majority of new generations and future generations of
Oshchimians live and will continue to live in English speaking countries,
this book is my gift to them, to remind them of how their ancestors once
spoke.
The publishing of this book was timed to coincide with the 100th
anniversary of the organization “Benefit Society Oshchima” founded in
1907 by Oshchimian emigrants in Canada. This organization was founded
to help newly landed Oshchimian emigrants adjust in the world.
Over the years Benefit Society Oshchima evolved into an organization
of unity and Macedonian culture bringing Oshchimians together and
giving them a sense of belonging.
I would like to thank my parents Nikola and Sofia for their
contribution to this book and for their help in clarifying the meaning of the
more difficult words.
In putting this dictionary together, my attempt is to bring you a unique
version of the Macedonian language as spoken by Oshchimians. The
sixteen hundred or so words documented here are uniquely Oshchimian as
they were spoken by the last generations living in Oshchima. I would like
to remind the reader that this particular language, like all Macedonian
dialects in Greece, was banned in the 1930’s by the Greek authorities and
was made illegal to speak. It is a miracle it has survived for this long.
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Introduction

The dialectal Macedonian language presented here is a naturally
evolving oral language that has been in use uncodified for many centuries.
I have made every effort to present it in its exact form as it was spoken by
generations before me and without grammatical adjustments or
corrections. Like most natural languages, it follows logical patterns but not
without some exceptions.
My intent here was to document words and phrases as I remember
them spoken and to not necessarily explain them grammatically. For
grammatical clarifications, the reader is advised to consult the Macedonian
literary language.
Because my target audience is the English speaking reader, I found it
necessary to use the English or Latin alphabet to define the sounds of the
Macedonian words. However, to successfully duplicate and accurately
pronounce words I must lay down some fundamental rules;
1. Each word is phonetically pronounced.
2. Each letter has a unique sound unless otherwise specified.
Here is a list of letters with unique sounds, their equivalents in the
Macedonian alphabet, and their pronunciation;

Aa – “а”as in nap
Bb – “б”as in “ boy”
Cc –
Dd – “д”as in “ dog”
Ee – “е”as in “ net”
Ff – “ф”as in “ fox”
Gg – “г’as in “ God”
Hh – “х”as in “ have”
Ii – “
и”as in “ beef”
Jj – “
ј”as in “yard” but very short “ya”
Kk – “к”as in “ cat”
Ll – “л”as in “ lamb”
Mn – “ м”as in “ mother”
Nn – “н”as in “ no”
Oo – “о” as in “oh” but flat more like “four”
Pp – “п” as in “people”
Qq –
Rr – “р”as in “ rock”
Ss – “с”as in “ sun”
Tt – “т”as in “toy”
Uu – “у”as in “ food”
Vv – “в”as in “ victory”
Ww -
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Xx -
Yy -
Zz – “
з”as in “
zoo”

Here is a list of combined letters used to produce a unique sound, their
equivalents in the Macedonian alphabet and their sounds;

Gj or gj – “ґ” as in “gia”, “G” as in “God” followed by the very short “ya”
as in “yard”
Zh or zh – “ж” as in “Jack” in French
Dz or dz – “ ѕ”as in “ birds”
Lj or lj – “
љ”as in “ Australia”
Nj or nj – “њ”as in “ Britania”
Kj or kj – “ќ”as in “ Czechoslovakia”
Ts or ts – “ц” as in “Clements”
Ch or ch – “ ч”as in “ cheese”
Dzh or dzh “ џ”as in “ Jack”
Sh or sh “ ш”an is “ show”
Ľor ľ– as in “Leon” (This is a unique sound that makes a distinction
between the two sounds; “L” as in “Lion” and “Ľ” as in “Leon”.)
Here is an example when “l” and “ľ ” are applied against the same word
to give two meanings; “lut” meaning “mad” and “ľ ut” meaning “spicy
hot”. As in “lut choek” meaning “madman” and “ľ uta piperka” meaning
“hot pepper”.
The Macedonian language is structured differently than the English
language. For example in English we say; Dog, the dog. In Macedonian
we say; Kuche, Kucheto. Here are some more examples;

Cat, the cat => matska, matskata
Boy, the boy => dete, deteto
Potato, the potato => krtuľ , krtuľ
o
Girl, the girl => chupe, chupeto
Woman, the woman => zhena, zhenata

Please also note:

(D) indicates “Macedonian Dialectal equivalent to” and
(L) indicates “Macedonian Literary equivalent to”

Also note that all Macedonian “word application” examples are given in
the dialectal language.

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(D) “okolu” as in “me opitfash
A okolu sho?” meaning “you are
asking me about what?”
a, an – one, some (L) “okolu”.
(D) “eden” and “nekoj” as in
“eden choek kazhva oti nekojsi above – higher than, over, on the
ľuge mu kazaľ e neshcho” top of
meaning “a person says that (D) “nat” as in “glaata e nat
some people told him ramenata” meaning “the head is
something”. above the shoulders”.
(L) “eden”, “nekoj”. (L) “gore”, “nad”.

abandon – to give up abroad – in or to a foreign
(D) “ostaj” as in “toj go ostaj country
toa” meaning “he abandoned it”. (D) “chuzhina” as in “ke ojme vo
(L) “ostavi”, “napushti”. chuzhina” meaning “we are
going abroad”.
abdomen – belly (L) “stranstvo”, “nadvor”.
(D) “mej” as in “mejo me boľi”
meaning “my belly is hurting”. abundance – quantity more than
(L) “mev”. enough
(D) “bogastvo” as in “Gospo ni
abduct – kidnap, carry off dade bogastvo” meaning “God
(D) “grabna” as in “toj go gave us abundance”.
grabna deteto” meaning “he (L) “bogastvo”, “obilie”.
abducted the boy”.
(L) “obeduva”, “grabuva”. abuse – make bad use of,
misuse, unjust or corrupt practice
able – having the power to do (D) “navred” as in “mi a navredi
things dushata i farmak mi a napraj”
(D) “sposoven” as in “jas sum meaning “you have abused my
sposoven” meaning “I am able”. soul and turned it into poison”.
(L) “mokj”, “sposoben”. (L) “zloupotrba”, “navreda”.

abnormal – exceptional, academic – scholarly to do with
deviating from a type learning
(D) “ne tokmu” as in “toj e ne (D) “izuchen” as in “toj e
tokmu” meaning “he is izuchen” meaning “he is learned
abnormal” as in he is an academic”.
(L) “ne normalen”. (L) “akademik”.

about - pertaining to, in accurate – precise, conforming
connection with exactly to a standard
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(D) “tokmu” as in “se soglasvam, (D) “stra” and “upla” as in “mi e
toa e tokmu” meaning “I agree, stra ot mechkata” meaning “I am
it is accurate”. afraid of the bear” and “upla me
(L) “tochno”, “pravno”. fati ot mechkata” meaning “I was
frightened by the bear”.
acknowledge – agree to the (L) “uplashen”, “plashi”.
truth, admit it as true, express
appreciation or understanding after – later, following in time
(D) “priznaa” as in “toj si ga (D) “posľ e” as in “ke te vida
priznaa greshkata” meaning “he posľe vechera” meaning “see
acknowledges his error”. you after supper”.
(L) “priznava”, “potvrduva”, (L) “potoa”, “zad”, “posle”.
“zablagodaruva”.
afternoon – time from noon to
acorn – fruit of oak evening
(D) “zhir” as in “zhirjeto ne (D) “po pladne” and “po ruchok”
padve po daľ eku ot dmbo” as in “oroto ke bidi po pladne i
meaning “the acorns don’t fall musikata ke fati po ruchok”
too far from the oak tree”. meaning “the dance will take
(L) “zhelad”. place in the afternoon and the
music will begin after lunch”.
across – from side to side of, on (L) “popladne”
the other side of
(D) “preku” as in “preku again – another time, once more
planina” meaning “across the (D) “pa ope” as is “pa ope
mountain”. kazhimi” meaning “tell me
(L) “preku”, “sproti”, “niz”. again”
(L) “povtorno”, “pak”.
advice – opinion given in
regards to future action against – in opposition to
(D) “sovet” as in “ti se moľ
am (D) “protif” as in “ti si protif
daimi sovet, neznam sho da mene” meaning “you are against
pram” meaning “please give me me”.
advice, I don’t know what to do”. (L) “protiv”.
(L) “sovet”, “soopshtenie”.
age – length of time a person or
aflame – in flames thing has existed
(D) “vo plamen” as in “drvoto e (D) “staros” as in “kucheto ti
vo plamen” meaning “the wood psojsa ot staros” meaning “your
is in flames” dog died of old age”.
(L) “vo plamen”, “zapalen”. (L) “vozrast”, “starost”.

afraid – alarmed, frightened agree – of same opinion

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(D) “soglas” as in “sme vo (D) “sekogash” as in “sekogash
soglas” meaning “we are in imam pari” meaning “I always
agreement”. have money”.
(L) “se slozhuva”, “soglas”. (L) “sekogash”.

aim – give direction to weapon am – be
(D) “nameri” as in “nameria (D) “jas si” (I am), “ti si” (you
pushkata” meaning “aim the are), “toj e” (he is), “taa e” (she
rifle”. is), “nie sme” (we are), “vie ste”
(L) “tsel”, “nasoka”. (you are), “tie se” (they are).

air – mixture of gas we breathe amend – correct error in, make
(D) “veter” as in “disha veter” minor alterations in
meaning “I breathe air”. (D) “isprai” as in “isprai go
(L) “vozduh”. pisanjeto” meaning “make
amends to the writing”.
akin – related by blood, alike (L) “isprava”, “podobruva”, “se
(D) “soj” as in “nie sme soj” poprava”.
meaning “we are akin”.
(L) “sroden”, “blizok”. among – surrounded by, in the
category of
alive – living, active, aware (D) “megu” as in “se naodvam
(D) “zhif” as in “ti si bil ushche megu priateľi” meaning “I am
zhif” meaning “you are still among friends”.
alive”. (L) “pomegju”, “megju”, “sred”,
(L) “zhiv”, “pretpazliv”, “od”.
“osetliv”.
ancestry – one’s family descent
all – the whole of, everyone of (D) “potek” as in “jas potekvam
(D) “tsel” and “svite” as in “go ot Makedontsi” meaning “my
izedu tsel peshnik ľ ep” meaning ancestors are Macedonian”.
“I ate all of the loaf of bread” (L) “pretsi”, “poteklo”.
and “svite ľ uge si ojdoa doma”
meaning “all the people have ancient – of times long past
gone home”. (D) “aro” as in “a bre aro Gospo
(L) “tsel”, “se”, “sekoj”. da te prosti” meaning “hey you
ancient may God forgive you”
alone – single, solitary (L) “dreven”, “drevni”
(D) “sam” as in “sam si doma”
meaning “I am home alone”. and – connecting words,
(L) “sam”, “osamen”. implying progression
(D) “i” as in “ti i jas” meaning
always – at all times, on all “you and me”.
occasions (L) “i”.
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(L) “mrava”.
angel – attendant or messenger
of God any – one, no matter which of
(D) “angel” as in “ti si moi several
angel” meaning “you are my (D) “nekoj” as in “nekoj ot
angel” nimu” meaning “any of them”.
(L) “angel” (L) “koj”, “nekoj”, “nekakov”.

anger – extreme or dispassionate apology – regretful
displeasure acknowledgement of offence or
(D) “ľut” as in “zashcho si failure
ľuten?” meaning “why are you (D) “prosti” as in “da me
angry?” prostish za toa” meaning “my
(L) “lut”, apology for that”.
(L) “izvinuvanje”.
animal – living being other than
human appeal – make earnest formal
(D) “pravdo” as in “toa pravdo e request
kon” meaning “that animal is a (D) “moľ ba” as in “naprai mu
horse”. edna moľba” meaning “make an
(L) “zhivotno”. appeal”.
(L) “apelatsija”, “molba”,
ankle – joint connecting foot “apelira”, “baranje”.
with leg
(D) “gľuzh” as in “mi se shina appear – become or be visible,
gľuzho” meaning “my ankle was give certain indication
sprained”. (D) “se javi” as in “kucheto se
(L) “gluzhd”. javi” meaning “the dog has
appeared”.
another – additional, one more (L) “se pojavi”, “se pojavuva”,
(D) “drug” as in “ke se vidime vo
drug den” meaning “we will see appendix – small tube attached
each other another day”. to intestine
(L) “drug”, “ushte eden”. (D) “suvo tsereo” as in “suvoto
tsereo me boľ i” meaning “my
answer – something said or done appendix is hurting”.
in reaction to a question (L) “slepo tsrevo”.
(D) “odgovor” as in “odgovori
mi” meaning “answer me”. apple – a round, firm fruit
(L) “odgovor”, “reshenje” (D) “jabolko” as in “jabolkoto
ima mnogu jabolka ovaa
ant – wingless insect godina” meaning “the apple tree
(D) “mraa” as in “mraata me has many apples this year”.
ksna” meaning “the ant bit me” (L) “jabolko”.
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(D) “raka” as in “imash dlga
approximate – near to the actual raka” meaning “you have a long
(D) “pribľ izhi” as in “pribľizhi arm”.
kilo” meaning “approximately a (L) “raka”.
kilogram”.
(L) “priblizhuva” around – on every side, all
round
apricot – orange-yellow stone (D) “okolu” as in “okolu
fruit allied to plum and peach kukjata” meaning “around the
(D) “kajsija” as in “kajsijata e house”.
zhlta” meaning “the apricot is (L) “okolu”.
yellow”.
(L) “kajsija” arrange – put into required order
(D) “naredi” as in “naredigi na
April – the fourth month of the ret” meaning “arrange them in
year order”.
(D) “Apriľ” (modern) or (L) “ureduva”, “doveduva vo
“Treven” (old). (See months) red”.
(L) “April”.
arrive – reach destination
apron – garment worn in front (D) “dojde” as in “gostino dojde”
of body to protect clothes meaning “the guest has arrived”.
(D) “pregatch” as in “tsrven (L) “stasuva”, “doagja”.
pregatch” meaning “red apron”.
(L) “skutnik”, “utare” ash – residue left after a
substance has been burned
arable – land suitable for (D) “pepel” as in “drvata izgorea
producing crops i se storia pepel” meaning “the
(D) “plodna” as in “zemjata e wood burned and has turned to
plodna” meaning “the soil is ash”.
arable”. (L) “pepel”, “prav”.
(L) “orachka”, “plodna”,
“obrabotliva” ask – call for an answer
(D) “opitaj” as in “opitaj dea odi
are – to be ovoj pat” meaning “ask where
(D) “si” as in “ti si umen choek” this road is going”.
meaning “you are a smart (L) “prashai”, “zamoli”,
person”. “navikni”.
(L) “si”.
ashamed – feeling shame
arm – upper limb of human (D) “ustramen” as in “toj e
body ustramen ot sho nosi vefti
pľachki” meaning “he is

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ashamed because he is wearing meaning “assure the person that
old clothes”. he is right”.
(L) “zasramen”. (L) “uveruva”, “garantira”,
“osiguruva”.
ass – four legged animal with
long ears related to a horse at – expressing position
(D) “magare” as in “magareto (D) “vo” and “na” as in “vo eden
pasi vo ľivadata” meaning “the saato”, meaning “at one o’clock”
ass (donkey) is grazing in the and “na vechera” meaning “at
meadow”. supper”.
(L) “magare”. (L) “vo”, “na”.

assembly – group of persons ate – past of eat
gathering together (D) “jadu” as in “jadu pret
(D) “sobranje” as in “ova e poloina saat” meaning “I ate half
golemo sobranje” meaning “this an hour ago”.
is a large assembly”. (L) “jade”.
(L) “sobir”, “drushtvo”.
attack – act against with force
asset – possession having value (D) “udri” and “napadni” as in
(D) “imot” as in “stokata ti e “udri go so kamen” meaning
imot” meaning “your property is “attack him with a stone” and
your asset”. “napadni go so lafoj” meaning
(L) “imot”. “attack him with words”.
(L) “udar”, “napad”.
assign – allot as share or
responsibility attend – be present at
(D) “odredi” as in “odredi mu (D) “poseta” as in “ke o poseta
rabota” meaning “assign them brako na komshiata” meaning “I
work”. will attend my neighbour’s
(L) “naznachuva”, “odreduva”. wedding”.
(L) “se zanimava”,
assist – help, give help “posluzhuva”, “sledi”, “neguva”,
(D) “pomozhi” as in “pomozhi “posetuva”, “prisustuva”.
mu da a dostore rabotata”
meaning “assist them to finish attention – act or faculty of
the job”. applying one’s mind
(L) “pomoga”, “pomozhi”. (D) “vnimanje” as in “daj mu
vnimanje” meaning “give it
assure – convince, tell attention”.
confidently (L) “vnimanie”, “obzir”.
(D) “osigori” (“sigoren”) as in
“osigori go choeko oti toj e praf” attic – space below roof of house

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(D) “tavan” as in “tavano e pot (L) “budi”, “se budi”, “se
chatiata” meaning “the attic is osvetuva”.
under the roof”.
(L) “mansarda”, “soba na away – to or at a distance from a
tavan”, “tavan”. person or place
(D) “zamina” as in “zamina vo
August – the eighth month of the edna daľechna drzhaa” meaning
year “went away to a distant
(D) “Avgust” (modern) or country”.
“Zhitar” (old) (See months) (L) “ponatamu”, “otstrana”,
(L) “Avgust”. “nastrana”, “daleku”.

aunt – sister or sister in law of awful – terrifying, very bad or
one’s mother or father poor
(D) “strina” (father’s brother’s (D) “strashno” as in “vremeto e
wife), “teta” (father’s sister), strashno” meaning “the weather
“vujna” (mother’s brother’s is awful”.
wife) and “sveska” (mother’s (L) uzhasen”, “uzhasno”.
sister).
(L) “tetka”, “vujna”. axe – tool for chopping wood
(D) “baltia” as in “toj sechi drva
average – usual amount, extent so baltia” meaning “he is cutting
or rate wood with an axe”.
(D) “streden” as in “e streden na (L) “sekira”.
visochina” meaning “he is of
average height”.
(L) “sredina”, “prosek”,
“sreden”.
B
baby – very young child
avoid – keep away or refrain (D) “bebe” as in “bebeto plachi”
from meaning “the baby is crying”.
(D) “odbega” as in “odbegaj ot (L) “bebe”, “dete”.
ľuti piperki” meaning “avoid hot
peppers”. bachelor - unmarried man
(L) “izbegnuva”, “se (D) “nezhenat” as in “najdisi
otstranuva”, “ponishtuva”, nezhenat mash” meaning “find
“unishtuva”. yourself a bachelor”.
(L) “nezhenat”, “ergen”.
awake – rouse from sleep, cease
to sleep back – rear side
(D) “razbuden” as in “sega si (D) “pľeshchi”, “dzadi” and
razbuden” meaning “I am now “nazat” as in “pľeshchite me
awake”. boľe” meaning “my back is
aching”, “dzadi zat kukjata”
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meaning “back behind the
house” and “se vrna nazat” baker– a person who bakes and
meaning “has came back”. sells bread
(L) “grb”, “plekji”, “zadna (D) “pechar” as in “pecharo
strana”, “til”, “nazad”. pechi ľ ep vo furnata” meaning
“the baker is baking bread in the
backbone - spine oven”.
(D) “shiper” as in “shipero mu (L) “pekar”.
se skrshi” meaning “his
backbone broke”. balcony – upper floor platform
(L) “rbet”, “grbnak”. on outside of building
(D) “balkon” as in “balkono e
bad – worse, inferior, defective, nad dvoro” meaning “the
inadequate balcony is above the yard”.
(D) “losh” as in “losho kuche” (L) “balkon”.
meaning “bad dog” or “losh
choek” meaning “bad man”. bale – bundle of straw
(L) “losh”, “nezdrav”, (D) “sfalnitsa” as in “seno
“neprijaten”. sfalnitsa” meaning “bale of hay”
(L) “denk”, “bala”.
badger – grey burrowing
mammal of weasel family ball – solid or hollow sphere
(D) “jazoets” as in “ima jazoets used for playing games
vo dupkata” meaning “there is a (D) “shutka” and “topka” as in
badger in the hole”. “frľimia shutkata” meaning
(L) “jazoets”. “throw me the ball” and “udria
topkata” meaning “kick the
bag – receptacle of flexible ball”.
material (L) “topka”, “klupche”, “gjule”.
(D) “torba” (small bag with
handle, carried over the bandit – one of the gang that
shoulder) and “vreshche” (large attacks travelers, robber, outlaw
bag for storing grain) as in (D) “aramia” as in “toj e
“imam jadenie vo torbata” aramia” meaning “he is a
meaning “I have food in the bag” bandit”.
and “vreshcheto e plno so zhito” (L) “pazboinik”, “aramia”.
meaning “the bag is full with
grain”. banquet – elaborate and formal
(L) “vrekja”, “chanta”, “torba”. dinner
(D) “gozba” as in “mnogu
bake – cook by dry heat bogata gozba” meaning “very
(D) “pechi” as in “pechi ľ
ep” rich banquet”.
meaning “bake bread”. (L) “banket”, “se chesti”,
(L) “peche”. “piruva”, “limnuva”.
14
“the hay is in the barn” and
baptism – rite of admission to “volo e vo auro” meaning “the
Christian Church ox is in the barn”.
(D) “krstenje” as in “krstenje na (L) “ambar”, “smestuvalishte za
deteto” meaning “the boy’s tramvaj”.
baptism”.
(L) “krstavanje”. barrel – round wooden vessel
(D) “bochka” as in “bochka so
barefoot – without shoes or vino” meaning “barrel of wine”.
stockings (L) “bure”, “valets”.
(D) “bos” as in “ne baraj bos”
meaning “don’t walk barefoot” basement – lowest floor of
(L) “bosonog”. building usually underground
(D) “izba” as in “studi vo izbata”
bargain – agreement on terms of meaning “it is cold in the
sale basement”.
(D) “pazar” as in “aide da se (L) “suteren”, “prizemje”,
pazarime” meaning “let’s “izba”.
bargain”.
(L) “spogodba”, “pazar”, “se basil – aromatic herb
tsenka” (D) “bosiľ ok” as in “bosiľok
rasti vo gradina” meaning “basil
bark – as in bark of a dog, fox, grows in the garden”.
etc. (L) “bosilek”.
(D) “lae” as in “kucheto lae”
meaning “the dog is barking”. basket – container made of
(L) “lae”, “kashla”. interwoven cane
(D) “sepetka” (round basket for
bark – as in tree bark serving) and “koshnitsa” (deep
(D) “korupka” as in “drvoto ima basket with handle for carrying)
jaka korupka” meaning “the tree as in “sho imash vo sepetkata?”
has hard bark”. meaning “what do you have in
(L) “kora na drvo”. the basket?” and “sho nosish vo
koshnitsata” meaning “what are
barley – a grain you carrying in the basket?”
(D) “jachmen” as in “zrno ot (L) “koshnitsa”.
jachmen” meaning “a grain of
barley”. bastard – person born of
(L) “jachmen”. unmarried parents
(D) “kopiľe” as in “toj e kopiľ
e”
barn – large farm building for meaning “he is a bastard”.
storage (L) “melez”, “vonbrachno dete”.
(D) “pľ emna” and “aur” as in
“senoto e vo pľemnata” meaning
15
bat – furry flying mouse-like (D) “pupunets” as in “garvano
mammal active at night ima dlk pupunets” meaning “the
(D) “ľ iľjak” as in “ľiľjako ľ
ita crow has a long beak”.
noshjata” meaning “the bat flies (L) “klun”.
at night”.
(L) “liljak”. bean – leguminous plant
(D) “gra” as in “ovaa godina
batter – mixture of flour, egg, posadime mnogu gra” meaning
milk or water “this year we planted plenty of
(D) “testo” as in “testo ot beans”.
brashno, jajtsa, mľ eko eľ i voda” (L) “grav”.
meaning “batter from flour,
eggs, milk or water”. bear – large heavy mammal with
(L) “testo”. thick fur
(D) “mechka” as in “mi e stra ot
battle – prolonged fight between mechkata” meaning “I am afraid
armed forces of the bear”.
(D) “borba” as in “borbata (L) “mechka”.
zafati” meaning “the battle has
begun”. beast – animal, four footed and
(L) “borba”, “sudir”, “boi”. wild
(D) “dzver” as in “dzvero zhivi
bayonet – stabbing blade vo planina” meaning “the beast
attachable to muzzle of rifle lives in the mountain”.
(D) shtik” as in “me dupna so (L) “dzver”.
shtiko” meaning “he stabbed me
with the bayonet”. beautiful – having beauty,
(L) “baionet”. pleasing to eye, ear or mind
(D) “prepno” and “ubavo” as in
bead – small rounded piece of “chupito ot Oshchima e mnogu
glass prepno” meaning “the girl from
(D) “monisto” and “brojnitsi” as Oshchima is very beautiful” and
in “belo monisto e biser” “maloto dete ot Oshchima e
meaning “a white bead is a ubavo” meaning “the little boy
pearl” and “dedo ima brojnitsi” from Oshchima is beautiful”.
meaning “grandpa has a string (L) “ubav”, “krasen”,
of beads”. “velichestven”.
(L) “zrno”, “biser”, “kapka”,
“brojnitsi”. because – for the reason that,
since
beak – bird’s horny projecting (D) “zashcho” as in “ti si umen
jaw zashcho peesh mnogu” meaning
“you are smart because you read
a lot”.
16
(L) “zatoa shto”. (D) “zad” as in “odi zad kukjata”
meaning “go behind the house”.
bed – base or support to sleep on (L) “odzadi”, “po”, “zad”.
(D) “kreve” as in “choeko spie vo
kreveto” meaning “the person is believe – accept as true or as
sleeping in the bed”. conveying truth
(L) “krevet”, “postela”. (D) “verva” as in “taa verva na
Gospo” meaning “she believes in
bee – winged hairy insect with God”.
sting (L) “veruva”, “smeta”, “misli”.
(D) “pchela” as in “pchelata praj
met” meaning “the bee makes bell – hollow metal object made
honey”. to sound a note when struck
(L) “pchela”. (D) “dzvonche”, “kľ ukashka” and
“kambana” as in “dzvoncheto
before – ahead of, in front of udri vo skoľjeto” meaning “the
(D) “pret” as in “jadi pret da se bell rang in school”, “ofchata
napiesh rakia” meaning “eat nosi kľukashka ” meaning “the
before you drink rakia (alcoholic sheep is wearing a bell” and
drink)”. “kambanata bie” meaning “the
(L) “pred”, “porano”. church-bell is ringing”.
(L) “dzvonets”, “dzvonche”.
beg – ask for, seek earnest or
humble belly – part of the body below
(D) “moľ i” as in “toj te moľi da chest
ne mu napraish losho” meaning (D) “mej” as in “mejo me boľ i”
“he begs you not to do him meaning “my belly is aching”.
harm”. (L) “mev”.
(L) “moli”.
belong – be the property of
begin – perform first part of (D) “pripadva” as in “toa mi
(D) “zafati” as in “zafati da pripadva mene” meaning “that
igrash oro” meaning “begin belongs to me”.
dancing”. (L) “pripagja”, “se odnesuva”.
(L) “pochnuva”, “nastanuva”.
belt – strip of leather, etc, worn
behave – act or react, show good around waist
manners (D) “remen” as in “nosa remen
(D) “se odnosi” as in “se odnosi okolu polojnata” meaning “I
so arno” meaning “you behaved wear a belt around my waist”.
kindly”. (L) “pojas”, “kaish”.
(L) “se odnesuva”, “postapuva”.
bench – long seat of wood or
behind – in or to the rear stone
17
(D) “stoľitsa” as in “sedni so (D) “poaren” as in “ti si poaren
mene na stoľ itsata” meaning “sit ot mene na lov” meaning “you
with me on the bench”. are a better hunter than me”.
(L) “klupa”, “tezge”. (L) “oblozhuvach”, “podobar”,
“pogolem”.
bend – force into curve or angle
(D) “sfi” as in “sfi go zheľ
eznjo between – in, into, along or
stap” meaning “bend the iron across the extent or interval
rod”. bounded by two or more points
(L) “vitka”, “svitkuva”, or lines
“iskrivuva”. (D) “megu” as in “megu tebe i
mene” meaning “between you
beside – at the side of, near and me”.
(D) “pokraj” as in “pokraj neo (L) “pomegju”.
jas se puľa visok” meaning
“beside him I look tall”. beverage – liquid prepared for
(L) “pored”, “blizu”. drinking
(D) “piachka” as in “ti se moľ
am
best – of most excellent or daimi edna studena piachka”
desirable kind meaning “please give me a cold
(D) “najaren” as in “ti si najaren beverage”.
vo pľivanje” meaning “you are (L) “napitok”.
the best in swimming”.
(L) “naidobar”. bible – Christian scriptures
(D) “vangeľ je” as in “popo pee
bet – risk sum of money against ot vangeľ jeto” meaning “the
another’s risk priest is reading from the bible”.
(D) “bas” as in “sakash da (L) “biblija”.
klaime bas?” meaning “do you
want to make a bet?” big – considerable size, amount,
(L) “se oblazhuva”. intensity, etc.
(D) “goľ em” as in “toj e goľem
betray – be disloyal to, assist the mash” meaning “he is a big
enemy man”.
(D) “predava” as in “predatelo (L) “golem”, “shirok”, “krupen”,
me predade na Turtskio asker” “vazhen”.
meaning “the traitor betrayed me
to the Turkish soldiers”. Billy-goat – male goat
(L) “izmamuva”, “izneveruva”, (D) “prch” as in “prcho ima
“predava”. brada” meaning “the Billy-goat
has a beard”.
better – of more excellent or (L) “jarets”.
desirable kind
bin – large box-shaped container
18
(D) “kopanka” as in “bisheto jadi (D) “kuchka” as in “kuchkata e
ot kopankata” meaning “the pig trudna” meaning “the bitch is
eats from the bin”. pregnant”.
(L) “sandak”, “bunker”, “kanta (L) “kuchka”.
za gjubre”.
bite – cut into or nip with the
bind – tie or fasten together teeth
(D) “vrzi” as in “venchanjeto ne (D) “ksa” as in “kuchkata me
vrza zaedno” meaning “our ksa” meaning “the bitch is biting
marriage has bound us me”.
together”. (L) “kasa”, “grize”.
(L) “vrzuva”, “povrzuva”,
“podrzuva”, “obvrzuva”. bitter – having a sharp pungent
taste
bird – feathered vertebrates with (D) “gorchi” as in “neftasanoto
two wings jabolko gorchi” meaning “the
(D) “vrapche” as in “vrapcheto unripe apple is bitter”.
ľitna” meaning “the bird flew”. (L) “gorchliv”.
(L) “ptitsa”.
black – reflecting no light,
birth – emergence of young colourless
from mother’s body (D) “tsrn” as in “nosam tsrn
(D) “rodi” as in “taa rodi dete” kustum i tsrni cheľi” meaning “I
meaning “she gave birth to a am wearing a black suit and
boy”. black shoes”.
(L) “ragja”. (L) “tsrn”, “temen”, “mrachen”.

birthplace – place where one blacksmith – smith who works
was born in iron
(D) “rodno mesto” as in (D) “koach” as in “koacho koe
“Oshchima mi e moe rodno plochi” meaning “the blacksmith
mesto” meaning “Oshchima is is making horseshoes”.
my birthplace”. (L) “kovach”.
(L) “rodno mesto”.
bladder – sac in body for
bishop – senior clergyman in holding liquid
charge of diocese (D) “meur” as in “meuro mi e
(D) “piskup” as in “piskupo e naduen” meaning “my bladder is
goľem vo tsrkvata” meaning “the bloated”.
bishop is high-ranking in the (L) “meur”.
church”.
(L) “episkop”. blade – cutting part of knife
(D) “sechilo” as in “rachkata e
bitch – female dog za da se drzhi i sechiloto e za da
19
sechi” meaning “the handle is for (L) “mesha”, “smeshuva”,
holding and the blade is for “spojuva”.
cutting”.
(L) “klas”, “sechilo”, “rez”. bless – invoke divine favour on
(D) “blosoj” as in “Gospo da te
blame – assign fault or blosoj” meaning “God bless
responsibility to you”.
(D) “kabaet”, as in “kabaeto e (L) “blagoslovuva”
moj” meaning “I am to blame”.
(L) “ukor”, “prekor”, “vina”. blind – lacking power of sight
(D) “sľ ep” as in “toj sho ne puľ
i
blanket – large woolen or fiber e sľep” meaning “he who could
sheet not see is blind”.
(D) “veľentse” as in “pokrime so (L) “slep”.
veľentseto oti mi studi” meaning
“cover me with the blanket blink – move eyelids quickly
because I am cold”. down and up
(L) “kjebe”, “pokrivka”’ (D) “kľ epa” as in “ne i kľ
epaj
“sokriva”. ochite ke osľepish” meaning
“don’t blink your eyes you will
blaze – large bright flame or fire go blind”.
(D) “plamen” as in (L) “trepka”, “svetka”, “zatforva
“Oshchimtskite pľ emni se vo ochi”.
plamen” meaning “the
Oshchimian barns are in blazes”. block – large solid piece of
(L) “plamen”, “vozbuduvanje”. wood or stone
(D) “kalap” as in “kalap praen
bleat – sound sheep make ot chimento” meaning “block
(D) “bľ ee” as in “oftsata bľee” made of cement”.
meaning “the sheep is bleating”. (L) “trup”, “blok”, “kalap”.
(L) “blee”.
blonde – having golden or pale
bleed – emit blood coloured hair
(D) “techi krf” as in “ako se (D) “rus” as in “mladata chupa
posechish ke ti techi krf” ima rusa kosa” meaning “the
meaning “if you cut yourself you young girl has blond hair”.
will bleed”. (L) “rus”, “rusokosa”.
(L) “krvari”, “pushta krv”.
blood – red liquid circulating in
blend – mix into required sort, arteries
merge or mingle (D) “krf” as in “Oshchimska krf
(D) “mesha” as in “buľ udzite se se ľee za Makedonija” meaning
zameshaja” meaning “the herds “Oshchimiam blood is spilled for
have blended together”. Macedonia”.
20
(L) “krv”. (D) “divo bishe” as in “denes ke
lovime divo bishe” meaning
bloodsucker – leech, extortionist “today we will hunt boar”.
(D) “krvopiets” as in “piajtsata e (L) “diva svinia”.
krvopiets” meaning “the leech is
a bloodsucker”. boast – declare one’s
(L) “pijavitsa”, “krvopiets”. achievements or abilities with
indulgent pride
bloom – going into flowering (D) “se faľi” as in “toj se faľi za
state nemnata nauka” meaning “be is
(D) “razvia” as in “tsvekiata se boasting about his education”.
razvia” meaning “the flowers (L) falenje”, “se fali”.
have bloomed”.
(L) “tsutenie”, “tsut”, “pupka”. boat – small vessel propelled on
water by oars
blossom – flower or mass of (D) chunka” as in “ke odime so
flowers chunka preku ezero” meaning
(D) “tsut” as in “krushata ima “we will go by boat over the
mnogu tsut ovoj proľ et” meaning lake”.
“the pear tree has plenty of (L) “chun”.
blossoms this spring”.
(L) “tsutenje”, “tsut”, “tsvet”. body – physical structure of man
or animal
blow – current of air moving (D) “mrsha” as in “tie ime silni
(D) “dua” as in “dua veter” mrshi” meaning “they have
meaning “the wind is blowing”. strong bodies”.
(L) “duva”. (L) “telo”.

blowpipe – tube for blowing air bog – wet spongy ground
on fire (D) “mocharka” as in “trevata e
(D) “dualo” as in “duaj so sekogash po zeľena okolu
dualoto da se zapaľ i ogno” mocharkata” meaning “the grass
meaning “blow with the is always greener around the
blowpipe to start the fire”. bog”.
(L) “duvalka”. (L) “kal”, “mochurishte”.

blue – having the colour of clear boil – bubble up, hot liquid
sky giving off vapour
(D) “sino” as in “neboto e chisto (D)“vari” as in “vodata se vari”
i sino” meaning “the ski is clear meaning “the water is boiling”.
and blue”. (L) “vari”.
(L) “sin”, “sino”.
bone – any hard pieces making
boar – male wild pig up skeleton in vertebrates
21
(D) “koska” as in “kucheto ga (L) “voznemiruva”,
grizi koskata” meaning “the dog “izmachuva”.
is biting on a bone”.
(L) “koska”. bottle – container of glass or
plastic for storing liquid
book – set of printed or written (D) “shishe” as in “dajmi edno
sheets bound at one edge with shishe vino” meaning “give me a
cover bottle of wine”.
(D) “kniga” as in “toj pee pesni (L) “shishe”.
ot knigata” meaning “he is
reading poems from the book”. bottom – lower part or point,
(L) “kniga”. part on which thing rests
(D) “dolno” as in “sednigo na
boot – outer footwear reaching dolnata strna” meaning “sit him
ankle on the bottom side”.
(D) “chisma” as in “taa kupi novi (L) “dno”.
chismi” meaning “she bought
new boots”. boundary – line marking limit
(L) “korist”, “kjar”, “chizma”. of land
(D) “sinor” as in “tuka e sinoro
border – edge or boundary na nivata” meaning “here is the
(D) “gradnitsa” as in “Kanada boundary of the field”.
ima dlga grednitsa” meaning (L) “granitsa”.
“Canada has a long border”.
(L) “granitsa”, “kraj”, “megja”. bovine – of or like ox or cow
(D) “goendo” as in “vidi, edna
born – existing as a result of suria goenda” meaning “look, a
birth herd of bovine”.
(D) “roden” as in “jas si roden
vo Oshchima” meaning “I was bowel – intestine, everything
born in Oshchima”. below stomach
(L) “roden”. (D) “tsereo” as in “sve pot
stomako se vika tserea” meaning
both – the two, not only one “everything below the stomach is
(D) “jobete” as in “jobete detsa called bowels”.
se moi sinoi” meaning “both
boys are my sons”. bowl – hollow dish
(L) “obata”, “dvajtsa”. (D) “misur” as in “dajmi salata
vo misur” meaning “give me
bother – give trouble to, worry, salad in a bowl”.
disturb (L) “chasha”, “vazna”.
(D) “boraj” as in “ne me boraj,
si postanat” meaning “don’t box – firm container with flat
bother me I am tired”. sides
22
(D) “kutia” as in “vo kutiata ima (D) “tuch” as in “kľ
uch praen ot
alva” meaning “there is halva in tuch” meaning “key made of
the box”. brass”.
(L) “kutia”, “sandak”, (L) “bakar”, “bronza”.
“kovcheg”.
bread – food of baked dough
boy – male child; young man made of flour.
(D) “dete” as in “deteto igra (D) “ľ ep” as in “si gladen ti se
bala” meaning “the boy is moľ a dajmi troa ľep” meaning “I
playing ball”. am hungry please give me some
(L) “dete”, “momche”. bread”.
(L) “leb”.
brag – talk boastfully
(D) “se faľ i” as in “toj se faľi oti break – separate into pieces by
ima mnogu pari” meaning “he is blow or strain
bragging that he has a lot of (D) “se skrshi” as in “ako padni
money”. shisheto ke se skrshi” meaning
(L) “se fali”, “se due”. “if the bottle falls it will break”.
(L) “se skrshi”, “se rushi”.
braid – woven band of thread or
hair breath – air drawn and expelled
(D) “pľetenka” as in “maloto from the lungs
chupe ima dlga pľetenka” (D) “dishenje” as in “zhiveenje e
meaning “the small girl has a dishenje” meaning “living is
long braid”. breathing”.
(L) “pletenitsa”, “gajtan”. (L) “dishenje”.

brain – organ inside skull bribe – inducement offered to
(D) “mozok” as in “mozoko e za produce illegal or dishonest
umenje” meaning “the brain is action in favour of the giver
for thinking”. (D) “otkupvanje” as in “otkupigo
(L) “mozak”. da te pushchi” meaning “bribe
him to let you go”.
branch – limb extending from (L) “mito”, “podmituvanje”.
tree
(D) “vetka” as in “visoko drvo brick – small rectangular block
ima dlgi vetki” meaning “a tall of dried clay used for building
tree has long branches”. (D) “pľ itar” as in “kukjata e
(L) “granka”. praena so pľ itari praeni ot
tsrvena kal” meaning “the house
brass – dark yellow alloy made was built with bricks made from
of copper and zinc red clay”.
(L) “tsigla”.

23
bride – woman about to be (D) “propadna” as in “propadna,
married gi zagina tseľi pari” meaning “he
(D) “neesta” as in “jobata zeto i is broke, he lost all his money”.
neestata se ot Oshchima” (L) “propadnat”, “bez pari”.
meaning “both the bride and
groom are from Oshchima”. bronze - alloy made of copper
(L) “nevesta”. and tin
(D) “tuch”, “bronzo” as in
bridge – structure carrying way “chezmata e praena ot tuch”
over river, road, etc. meaning “the water spout is
(D) “most” as in “Oshchimtskio made of bronze” and “zhabitsite
most vrvi preku Zheľ evtskata se praeni ot bronzo” meaning
reka” meaning “the Oshchima “the hinges are made of bronze”.
bridge goes over the Zhelevo (L) “bronza”.
river”.
(L) “most”. broom – long handled brush
(D) “metla” as in “baba go meti
brine – water saturated with salt dvoro so goľ ema metla” meaning
(D) “soľ ilo” as in “zeľ
kite se “baba (grandma) is sweeping the
kladeni vo soľilo” meaning “the yard with a large broom”.
cabbages have been placed in (L) “metlika”, “gluvarche”.
brine”.
(L) “rasol”, “solena voda”, broth – thin clear meat or fish
“solzi”, “soli”. soup
(D) “chorba” as in “ubaa chorba
bring – come with or convey praena so meso i luk” meaning
(D) “donesi” as in “donesi mi “excellent broth made with meat
troa voda” meaning “bring me and garlic”.
some water”. (L) “chorba od meso”, “buljon”.
(L) “donesuva”, “doveduva”.
brother – man or boy in relation
brittle – hard but fragile to other sons and daughters of
(D) “troshľ iv” as in “ľebo e suv i his parents
troshľiv” meaning “the bread is (D) “brat” as in “jas imam samo
dry and brittle”. eden brat” meaning “I have only
(L) “slab”, “troshliv”. one brother”.
(L) “brat”.
broil – grill on fire
(D) “pechi” as in “meseto se brow – eyebrow
pechi vo furnata” meaning “meat (D) “vezha” as in “taa ima dve
is broiled in the oven”. ubai tsrni vezhi” meaning “she
(L) “przhi”. has two beautiful black brows”.
(L) “vegja”, “chelo”.
broke – having no money
24
brown – having the colour (D) “kobľitsa” as in “donesimi
produced by mixing red, yellow voda vo kobľitsata” meaning
and black “bring me water in the bucket”.
(D) “kaferen” as in “ubaa zemja (L) “vedro”, “lopatka”.
e kaferena” meaning “good soil
is brown”. buckle – metal clasp with hinged
(L) “kafenikav”, “temen”. pin for securing belt
(D) koptsalo” as in “zakopsaj go
bruise – discolouring of flesh kopsaloto na remeno” meaning
caused by injury “buckle your belt buckle”.
(D) “posina” as in “nogata dja se (L) “metalno kopche”,
udri posina” meaning “the “zakopchuva”.
injured leg is bruised”.
(L) “modrina”, “razbiva”, bug – any of various flat bodied
“razdrobuva”. insects
(D) “muva”, “bumbar” as in
brush – implement with bristles, “muvata ľ ita” meaning “the bug
hairs, wires, etc, set in block of flies” and “bumbaro lazi”
wood meaning “the bug crawls”.
(D) “chetka” as in “ischistio (L) “taftabida”, “drvenitsa”.
paltoto so chetkata” meaning
“clean the coat with the brush”. builder – one who builds
(L) “chetka”. (D) “maistor” as in “maistoro
stishi stis” meaning “the builder
brushwood – cut or broken dry is building a wall”.
twigs (L) “dzidar”, “gradach”.
(D) “suarki” as in “stopľ
ia
furnata so suarki” meaning bull – uncastrated male of ox
“warm the oven with family
brushwood”. (D) “bik” as in “biko e ľ
uten”
(L) “grmushki”, “chestak”, meaning “the bull is mad”.
“rasje”. (L) “bik”.

bubble – globular film of liquid bullet – small round missile fired
closing air from a gun
(D) “meurche” as in “meurchina (D) “kurshum” as in “kurshumi
se prae so voda i sapun” ľite sekade” meaning “bullets are
meaning “bubbles are made with flying everywhere”.
water and soap”. (L) “kurshum”, “gjule”.
(L) “meur”, “se peni”.
bun – small soft round sweet
bucket – round open container cake
with handle (D) “kolache” as in “ti se moľ
a
daimi edno kolache, mi se jadi”
25
meaning “please give me a bun, I (L) “dupka”, “peshtera”, “kopa
am hungry”. jama”.
(L) “kolach”, “topka”.
bury – put in the earth, tomb or
bunch – set of things growing or sea
tied together (D) “zakopa” as in “treba da se
(D) “tufka” as in “dajmi edna zakopa umrenjo” meaning “the
tufka pras” meaning “give me a dead must be buried”.
bunch of leeks”. (L) “pogrebuva”, “zakopuva”,
(L) “grozd”, “kitka”, “snop”. “potonuva”.

bundle – collection of things bush – shrub or clump of shrubs
bound together (D) “chekut” as in “chekuto e
(D) “snop”, “sfalnitsa” as in mnogu debel” meaning “the bush
“eden snop ot pchenitsa” is very thick”.
meaning “a bundle of wheat” and (L) “grmushka”.
“edna sfalnitsa ot seno” meaning
“a bundle of hay”. bushel – measure of capacity for
(L) “bofcha”, “jazol”, “kluchko”. grain, fruit, etc.
(D) “cosh” as in “cosh pln so
bunny – child’s name for rabbit jabolka” meaning “bushel full
(D) “zaeche” as in “mlat zaek se with apples”.
vika zaeche” meaning “a young (L) “mera za kolichina”.
rabbit is called a bunny”.
busy – fully occupied, full of
bur – prickly clinging seed-case activity
(D) “ľepaets” as in “imash (D) “zafaten” as in “ovva vecher
ľepaets na paltoto” meaning si zafaten so neshcho drugo”
“you have a bur on your coat”. meaning “tonight I am busy with
(L) “botska”. something else”.
(L) “zafaten”, “rabotliv”,
burn – set on or destroyed by “vreden”.
fire
(D) “gori” as in “orno gori i ke butcher – one who sells meat
te izgori ako go chepnish” (D) “kasap” as in “kasapo sechi i
meaning “fire burns and will prodaa meso” meaning “the
burn you if you touch it”. butcher cuts and sells meat”.
(L) “peche”, “pali”, “gori”. (L) “kasap”, “mesar”.

burrow – hole or tunnel dug by butt – push with head like ram
fox, rabbit, etc. (D) “butsa” as in “oveno butsa”
(D) “dupka” as in “ľ
isitsata zivi meaning “the ram butts”.
vo dupka” meaning “the fox lives (L) “udir so glava”.
in a burrow”.
26
butter – edible yellow fatty by – near, beside
substance made of milk (D) “pokraj” as in “zastani
(D) “mas” as in “jas jada ľep so pokraj mene” meaning “stand by
mas” meaning “I eat bread with me”.
butter”. (L) “pokraj”, “niz”.
(L) “puter”.

butterfly – fly with large and
colourful wings
C
(D) “peperuga” as in “ima cabbage – vegetable with large
mnogu peperugi okolu tsvekjata” thick green leaves
meaning “there are a lot of (D) “zeľ ka” as in “ako klash
butterflies around the flowers”. zeľka vo solilo ke se stori rasol”
(L) “peperuga”. meaning “if you put cabbage in
brine it will turn to sauerkraut”.
buttermilk – somewhat sour (L) “zelka”.
liquid made from milk
(D) “bientsa” as in “napise cabin – small shelter or house
studena bientsa da se oladish” (D) “kaľ iva” as in “koa i pasa
meaning “drink cold buttermilk oftsite spia vo kaľ ivata”
to cool off”. meaning “when I take the sheep
to graze I sleep in the cabin”.
button – small disk or knob (L) “koliba”
sewn to garment for fastening
(D) “kumbiche” as in cage – structure of bars or wires
“zakopsajsigo paltoto so for confining birds or animals
kumbicheto” meaning “button (D) “zatfor” as in “noshiata
your coat with the button”. oftsite se zatforeni” meaning
(L) “petlitsa”, “kopche”, “during the night the sheep are
“pupka”. caged”.
(L) “kafez”.
buy – to purchase goods
(D) “kupi” as in “kupi mi eden caldron – large deep vessel for
lokum” meaning “buy me a boiling
lokum (Turkish sweet)”. (D) “kotel” or “kazan” as in “vo
(L) “kupuva”. kotelo se vari voda” or “vo
kozano se vari voda” meaning
buzzard – a large predatory “water is boiling in the caldron”.
hawk (L) “kazan”, “kotel”
(D) “orel” as in “chuajse, orelo
vrti na visokoto” meaning calf – young cow
“watch out, the buzzard is (D) “teľ e” as in “teľeto si ga
circling up high”. bara majkamu” meaning “the
calf is looking for its mother”.
27
(L) “tele”. (D) “teneke” and “kutiche” as in
“vo teneketo drzhime nafta”
calf – fleshy part of leg below meaning “we keep naphtha in the
knee can” and “vo kuticheto ima
(D) “kaval” as in “kavalo mi e piachka” meaning “there is drink
potechen” meaning “my calf is in the can”.
swollen”. (L) “kutia”

call – shout, cry, speak out loud candle – cylinder or block of
(D) “vika” as in “vikaj go wax with wick for giving light
kucheto” meaning “call your when burning
dog”. (D) “sfeshcha” as in “zapali edna
(L) “vika”, “povikuva”. sfeshcha” meaning “light a
candle”.
calm – still, tranquil, quiet (L) “svekja”.
(D) “krotko”and “mirno” as in
“kono si trupa krotko” meaning candy – crystallized sugar, sweet
“the horse is galloping calmly” (D) “blago” and “bombon” as in
and “deteto sedi mirno” meaning “lafo ‘blago’ dojde ot lafo
“the boy is being calm”. ‘blak’” meaning “the word for
(L) “miren”, “tivok”. ‘candy’ comes from the word
‘sweet’” and “lafo ‘bombon’
came – past of come dojde of Frantsuskio laf
(D) “dojde” as in “dedo dojde ot ‘bonbon’” meaning “the word
chuzhina” meaning “grandpa ‘bombon’ comes from the French
came from abroad”. word ‘bonbon’”.
(L) “slatko”, “pasta”,
camp – temporary “karamela”.
accommodations for lodging
(D) “lager” as in “askero e vo cannon – large heavy gun
lagero nadvor ot seloto” (D) “top” as in “topo ke puka”
meaning “the soldiers are in the meaning “the cannon will be
camp outside of the village”. firing”.
(L) “logor”, “tabor”. (L) “top”.

can – be able to canoe – light narrow boat
(D) “mozhi” as in “mozhi da si (D) “chunka” as in “vidu chunka
odi doma” meaning “he can go vo Prespanchkoto ezero”
home”. meaning “I saw a canoe in Lake
(L) “mozhe”, “umee”. Prespa”.
(L) “lesen chun”.
can – metal vessel in which
liquid or food is sealed can’t – can not

28
(D) “ne mozhi” as in “toj ne magare” meaning “there is a
mozhi da kreni teshki raboti” donkey carcass in the brook”.
meaning “he can’t lift heavy (L) “mrsha”, “trup”.
things”.
card – thick stiff paper
cantaloupe – small ribbed melon (D) “karta” is in “zve karta ot
(D) “pepon” as in “toj e ftasan moi soi sho zhivee vo Kanada”
pepon” meaning “it is a ripe meaning “I received a card from
cantaloupe”. my relatives living in Canada”.
(L) “bilet”, “kartichka”, “karta”.
canvas – strong coarse cloth
(D) “platno” as in “platno za care – worry, serious attention,
praenje pľachki” meaning caution
“canvas for making clothes”. (D) “grizhi” as in “majkati se
(L) “platno”. grizhi za tvojto zdravje” meaning
“your mother cares about your
cap – brimless head covering health”.
(D) “kapa” and “shapka” (L) “grizha”, “vnimanje”,
meaning “a sho ubaa kapa “pretpazlivost”.
imash” meaning “what a nice
cap you have” and “shapka za careful - cautious
na glaa” meaning “cap for the (D) “grizhľ if” as in “bidi grizhľif
head”. ne trchai vo temnitsa” meaning
(L) “kapa”, “kachket”, “kapisla”. “be careful don’t run in the
dark”.
captive – person or animal (L) “grizhliv”, “vnimatelen”,
confined “pretpazliv”.
(D) “faten” and “vo aps” as in
“ofcharo e faten” meaning “the careless – lacking attention
shepherd is a captive” and (D) “negrizhľ if” as in “toj e
“oracho e vo aps” meaning “the negrizhľif, ne mu e gajle za
farmer is a captive”. nishcho” meaning “he is
(L) “plenik”, “rob”. careless, he cares about
nothing”.
carboy – large globular glass (L) “nevnimatelen”,
bottle usually enclosed in frame “bezgrizhen”.
(D) “bimblak” as in “bimblako e
pln so vino” meaning “the carp – freshwater fish
carboy is full with wine”. (D) “krap” as in “vo maloto
Prespantsko ezero ima golemy
carcass – dead body of animal krapoj” meaning “there are
(D) “psojsana mrsha” as in “vo large carp in little Lake Prespa”.
trapo ima psojsana mrsha ot (L) “krap”.

29
carpet – thick rug for covering meaning “the cask is full of
floors wine”.
(D) “kiľ im” and “rogozna” as in (L) “malo bure”, “bochva”.
“kiľimo e praen so prepni boj”
meaning “the carpet is made castle – large fortified building
with beautiful colours” and (D) “kuľ e” as in “kuľeto na
“rogoznata e preana ot Samoil se naodva vo Aiľ ”
zavitkana slama” meaning “the meaning “Samoil’s castle is at
carpet is made from twisted Aiľ”
straw”. (L) “zamok”, “kula”.
(L) “kijlim”.
castrate – remove testicles
cart – small strong vehicle, two (D) “skopva” as in “bishinata i
or four wheeled for carrying skopve koa se mladi” meaning
loads “the pigs are castrated when they
(D) “kola” as in “kolata e are young”.
toarena so krtuľ i” meaning “the (L) “skopuva”.
cart is loaded with potatoes”.
(L) “kola”, “dvokolka”. cat – small carnivorous soft-
furred domesticated animal
cartilage – tough flexible tissue (D) “matska” as in “matskata
attached to bones fatva gluftsi” meaning “the cat
(D) “ruskajtsa” as in catches mice”.
“ruskajtsata e zhilaa i teshko se (L) “machka”.
dzhvaka” meaning “the cartilage
is tough and hard to chew”. catch – capture in hand, in trap
(L) “rskavitsa”. etc.
(D) “fati” as in “fatigo glufetso
cartridge – case containing vo stapitsata” meaning “catch
charge or propelling explosive the mouse in a trap”.
(D) “fishek” and “gijule” as in (L) “zafat”, “fakjanje”.
“fisheko fľ egva vo pushka”
meaning “the cartridge fits in a cattle – cows, bulls, oxen
rifle” and “gijuleto fľ
efva vo top” (D) “goenda” as in “pushchii
meaning “the cartridge fits in a goendata da pase” meaning “let
cannon”. the cattle graze”.
(L) “kurshum”. (L) “goveda”.

cask - barrel cause – thing that produces an
(D) “kache” and “boche” as in effect
“klaj zeľ
ki vo kacheto” meaning (D) “kauza” as in
“put cabbages in the cask” and “Makedontskata kausa e
“bocheto e plno so vino” vazhna” meaning “the
Macedonian cause is important”.
30
(L) “kausa”.
centipede – a small crawling
ceiling – upper interior surface creature with long body and
of room many legs
(D) “tavan” as in “tavano e (D) “stonogaľ ka” as in
visok” meaning “the ceiling is “stonogaľkata ima farmak”
high”. meaning “the centipede is
(L) “tavan” poisonous”.

celebrate – mark event or century – period of one hundred
festival with festivities years
(D) “praznuva” as in “denes se (D) “vek” as in “eden vek e sto
paznuva bozhik” meaning godini” meaning “a century is a
“Christmas is celebrated today”. hundred years”.
(L) “slavi”, “praznuva”. (L) “stoletie”, “vek”.

cellar – room below ground ceramic – of pottery, porcelain,
level or house or other articles of baked clay
(D) “keral” as in “vo keralo se (D) “geramidni” as in “chatjata e
bochkite so vino” meaning “the posteľena so geramidni plochi”
wine casks are in the cellar”. meaning “the roof is laid with
(L) “vizba”, “krchma”. ceramic tiles”.
(L) “grncharski”.
cement – powdery substance
made by calcining lime and clay, chain – series of rings or links
mixed with water to form connected together
concrete or mortar (D) “sindzhir” as in “kucheto e
(D) “chimento” as in “naprajgo vrzano so sindzhir” meaning
stiso so chimento” meaning “the dog is tied with a chain”.
“build the wall with cement”. (L) “veriga”, “sindzhir”.
(L) “tsement”.
chair – movable backed seat for
cemetery – burial ground one
(D) “grobishcha” as in (D) “stol” as in “sedni na stolo”
“grobishchata se zat tsrkvata” meaning “sit on the chair”.
meaning “the cemetery is behind (L) “katedra”, “stolitsa”.
the church”.
(L) “grobishta”. change – making or becoming
different
center – middle point or part (D) “izmeni” as in “izmeni gi
(D) “strede” as in “oroto e vo pľachkite” meaning “change
strede selo” meaning “the dance your clothes”.
is at the Village center”. (L) “promena”, “izmena”,
(L) “tsentar”, “sredina”. “menuvanje”.
31
(D) “eftino” as in “mesoto e
chapel – small building or room eftino denes” meaning “the meat
used for Christian worship is cheap today”.
(D) “tsrkve” as in “tsrkveto ima (L) “eftin”, “beznachaen”.
samo edna sfetitsa (ikona)”
meaning “the chapel has only cheat – deceive, act fraudulently
one icon”. (D) “izmami” as in “me izmami,
(L) “capela”, “trkvichka”. ne mi ga kaza vistintskata tsena”
meaning “you cheated me, you
char – make or become black by did not tell me the real price”.
burning (L) “izmama”, “izmamnik”.
(D) “glamna” as in “drvoto se
story glamna ot gonenje” cheek – side wall of mouth
meaning “the wood turned to (D) “obraz” as in “toj te batsi na
char from burning”. obrazo” meaning “he kissed you
(L) “jaglen”, “kjumur”. on the cheek”.
(L) “obraz”, “drskost”.
character – collective qualities
or peculiarities that distinguish cheese – food made of curds
an individual or group (D) “sirenje” as in “sirenje se
(D) “haraktir” as in “haraktiro praj ot mleko” meaning “cheese
ne mu se menva” meaning “his is made from milk”.
character can not change”. (L) “sirenje”.
(L) “karakter”, “osobina”,
“svojstvo”. cheesecloth – thin loosely
woven cloth
charcoal – black chunks (D) “tsedilo” as in “tsediloto e
remnants of burned wood praeno ot slaba krpa” meaning
(D) “kjumur” and “zhar” as in “the cheesecloth is made of thin
“kjumuro gori goreshcho” cloth”.
meaning “charcoal burns hot”
and “drvoto se story zhar” cherry – small soft round stone-
meaning “the wood turned to fruit
charcoal”. (D) “cheresha” as in
(L) “drven-kjumur”. “chereshata ima mnogy
chereshi” meaning “the cherry-
chat – talk in light and familiar tree is full of cherries”.
way (L) “tsresha”.
(D) “muabet” as in “ajde da si
poprajme troa muabet” meaning chest – large strong box for
“let’s have a little chat”. storage or transport
(L) “razgovor”, “brborenje”. (D) “senduk” as in “ima sekakvii
pľachki vo senduko” meaning
cheap – low in price
32
“there are all sorts of clothes in chill – unpleasant cold sensation
the chest”. (D) “stut” as in “ke te fati stut”
(L) “kutija”, “sandak”. meaning “you will catch a chill”.
(L) “stud”.
chest – part of body enclosed by
ribs, front surface of body chimney – structure by which
(D) “grndi” as in “so grndite smoke is carried off from fire
napre” meaning “with the chest (D) “odzhak” as in “odzhako
forward”. kadi” meaning “the chimney is
(L) “gradi” smoking”.
(L) “odzhak”.
chestnut – a glossy hard brown
edible fruit chin – front of lower jaw
(D) “kosten” as in “varen eli (D) “brade” as in “rastish brada
pechen kosten?” meaning na bradeto?” meaning “are you
“boiled or roasted chestnut?” growing a beard on your chin?”
(L) “kosten”. (L) “brada”.

chew – work food between the chisel – tool with sharp beveled
teeth end for shaping wood or stone
(D) “dzhvaka” as in “dzhvakaj (D) “gľ eto” as in “gľetoto e za
go jadenjeto” meaning “chew tsrpenje drvo” meaning “the
your food”. chisel is for shaping wood”.
(L) “dzhvaka”. (L) “dleto”.

chick – young bird choke – cause to stop breathing
(D) “pile” as in “pile e bebe by blocking windpipe
kokoshka” meaning “a chick is a (D) “oplti” as in “ne gltaj brzo ke
baby chicken”. se opltish” meaning “don’t
(L) “pile”, “pilentse”. swallow so fast you will choke”.
(L) “se zadushuva”.
chicken – domestic fowl
(D) “kokoshka” as in chop – cut with strokes of knife
“kokoshkata snese jajtse” or axe
meaning “the chicken laid an (D) “tsepi” as in “tsepi so
egg”. natochena baltia” meaning
(L) “kokoshka”. “chop with a sharp axe”.
(L) “rastsep”, “rasekuvanje”.
child – young human being
(D) “chendo” as in “sho da ti Christian – believing in Christ
kazha bre chendo?” meaning and his teaching
“what can I tell you my child?” (D) “Risianin” as in “jas si
(L) “dete”. Risianin” meaning “I am
Christian”.
33
(L) “Hristianin” (D) “chist” as in “kukjata e
chista, nema ich pra” meaning
Christmas – Christian festival “the house is clean, there is no
celebrating the birth of Christ dust”.
(D) “Bozhik” as in “Bozhik e (L) “nevin”.
roden den na Ristos” meaning
“Christmas is Christ’s birthday”. clear – not clowded, spotty or
(L) “Bozhik”. murky
(D) “chist” as in “vodata e
church – building for public chista, ne e mtna” meaning “the
Christian worship water is clear, it is not muddy”.
(D) “tsrkva” as in “vo Nedeľa ke (L) “jasen”, “chist”.
oda vo tsrkva” meaning “on
Sunday I am going to church”. clever – skillful, talented, quick
(L) “tsrkva”. to understand and learn
(D) “umen” as in “toj e umen
circle – round plain figure choek” meaning “he is a clever
(D) “trkalo” as in “napishi trkalo person”.
okolu tebe” meaning “draw a (L) “umen”, “vesht”, “duhoven”.
circle around you”.
(L) “krug”. cliff – steep rock face
(D) “breg” as in “brego e mnogu
city – large town strmen” meaning “the cliff is
(D) “grat” as in “Lerin e ubaf very sharp”.
grat” meaning “Lerin is a (L) “karpa”, “greben”.
beautiful city”.
(L) “grad”. climb – ascend, mount, go or
come
claw – pointed nail of animal or (D) “vjaaj”, “vjanise” and
bird’s foot “kachise” as in “vjaaj po skala”
(D) “noft” as in “sokolo ima meaning “climb the stairs”,
goľemi nofti” meaning “the hawk “vjanise na drvoto” meaning
has large claws”. “climb the tree” and “kachise na
(L) “nokt”. kono” meaning “climb on the
horse”.
clay – stiff sticky earth (L) “se kachuva”.
(D) “kal” as in “kukjata e praena
ot plitari ot kal” meaning “the cloak – outdoor overgarment
house is made with bricks of (D) “guna” as in “guna praena
clay” ot kozina” meaning “cloak made
(L) “glina”, “smalnitsa”. with goat’s wool”.
(L) “maska”.
clean – free from dirt or
contaminating matter
34
clock – instrument for measuring (D) “palto” as in “da si clam
time palto, mi studi” meaning “I
(D) “saat” as in “jas imam saat” should put a coat on, I am cold”.
meaning “I have a clock”. (L) “kaput”.
(L) “chasovnik”, “saat”.
cobbler – one who mends shoes
close – situated at short distance (D) “chelar” as in “chelaro ke mi
or interval napraj novi cheľ i” meaning “the
(D) “blizu” as in “sedni blizu cobbler will make me new
pokraj mene” meaning “sit close shoes”.
beside me”.
(L) “blizok”. coffin – box in which corpse is
buried
cloth – woven or felted fabric (D) “kiur” as in “mrtoetso go
(D) “krpa” as in “dajmi edna kladoa vo kiuro” meaning “they
krpa da si izbrisham ratsite” put the dead person in the
meaning “give me a cloth to wipe coffin”.
my hands”. (L) “mrtovechki sandak”.
(L) “material”, “shtof”,
“pokrivach”. coin – small stamped metallic
disc used for money
clothes – things worn to cover (D) “para” as in “dajmi edna
the body and limbs para za ksmet” meaning “give
(D) “pľachki” as in “jas kupi me a coin for good luck”.
novi pľachki” meaning “I (L) “metalna para”.
bought new clothes”.
(L) “obleka”, “kostum”. cold – at low temperature
(D) “studen” as in “vecherata mi
cloud – visible water vapour e studena” meaning “my supper
floating up in the sky is cold”.
(D) “oblak” as in “oblako e (L) “stud”.
visoko” meaning “the cloud is
high”. collapse – falling, tumbling
(L) “oblak”, “zampachenost”. down
(D) “padna” as in “toj padna ot
coal – carbonized plant matter goreshchina” meaning “he
(D) “zhar” as in “drvoto izgore i collapsed from heat”.
se stori zhar” meaning “the (L) “propagjanje”, “propast”
wood burned and turned to
coal”. collar - neckband
(L) “kamen-kjumur”. (D) “gjerdan” and “alka” as in
“chupata nosi prepen gjerdan”
coat – outer sleeved garment meaning “the young lady is
wearing a beautiful collar” and
35
“klaj mu zheľ ezna alka na tilo na
kucheto da se chua ot vlko” compatriot – fellow countryman
meaning “put a metal collar on (D) “sonarodnik” as in “miľ
i
the dog’s neck to protect it from sonarodnitsi, Makedontsi”
the wolf”. meaning “dear compatriots,
(L) “jaka”, “gjerdan”, “alka”. Macedonians”.
(L) “sonarodnik”.
collect – bring or come together
(D) “soberi” as in “soberi si troa comprehend - understand
pari da si kupish kapa” meaning (D) “razbra” as in “razbra sho
“collect a bit of money to buy mi veľish” meaning “I
yourself a cap (hat)”. comprehend what you are telling
(L) “sobira”. me”.
(L) “razbira”.
colour – various wavelengths of
light produced by a prism compress – squeeze together
(D) “boja” as in “clai mu troa (D) “stegni” as in “stegni go
boja” meaning “put some colour grozieto da napraish vino”
into it”. meaning “compress the grapes to
(L) “boja”. make wine”.
(L) “zgusnuva”.
comb – toothed strip of rigid
material for tidying and conceal – keep secret or hidden
arranging hair (D) “krie” as in “toj go krie
(D) “cheshľ e” as in “na ti edno zlatoto da ne mu go zeve”
cheshľe da si ishcheshľ ash meaning “he has concealed the
kosata” meaning “here is a comb gold so they could not take it”.
to comb your hair”. (L) “krie”.
(L) “cheshel”.
condensation – water on cold
come – move towards person window
calling (D) “para” as in “studenio
(D) “baraj”as in “baraj tuka” pendzher fatfa para” meaning
meaning “come here”. “the cold window catches
(L) “doagja”. condensation”.

community – body of people Confess – admit
living in one place (D) “priznaa” as in “toj si go
(D) “seľ ani” as in priznaa loshoto” meaning “he
“Oshchimchkite seľani zhive vo confessed to wrongdoing”.
selo Oshchima” meaning “the (L) “priznava”.
Oshchimian community lives in
the village Oshchima”. conflict – fight, struggle
(L) “zaednitsa”, “coodvetnost”.
36
(D) “borba” as in “borbata za (D) “studeno” as in “vremeto e
sloboda se zafati” meaning “the studeno denes” meaning “the
conflict for freedom has begun”. weather is cool today”
(L) “sudir”, “borba”. (L) “stud”, “svezhina”.

congratulation – expressing coop – cage for keeping poultry
pleasure at happiness or (D) “kokosharnik” as in
excellence “kokoshkite gi drzhime vo
(D) “chestit” as in “chestito da ti kokosharnik” meaning “we keep
e imeto” meaning the chichens in a coop”.
“congratulations on your (L) “kafez”, “kokosharnik”,
namesake”. “koshara”.
(L) “chestenje”.
copper – reddish-brown metallic
congregation – gathering of element
people (D) “bakar” as in “veftite kotľ
ina
(D) “sobranje” as in “ima se praeni ot bakar” meaning “the
sobranje vo stretselo” meaning old kettles are made of copper”.
“there is a congregation in the (L) “bakar”.
village square”.
(L) “verski sobir”. cork – bottle-stopper
(D) “klkalo” as in “zaklkaj
consecrate – make or declare shisheto so klkalo” meaning
sacred “plug the bottle with a cork”.
(D) “krsti” as in “krstia tsrkvata” (L) “zatka”.
meaning “consecrate the
church”. corn - maize
(L) “posvetuva”. (D) “miser” as in “babo mesimi
ľep so miserno brashno”
continue – maintain, keep up meaning “babo (granny) make
(D) “predlzhi” as in “predlzhi so me bread with corn flour”.
prikaznata” meaning “continue (L) “pchenka”.
with the story”.
(L) “prodolzhuva”. corner – place where converging
sides or edges meet
cook – prepare by heating (D) “kjosh” as in “pato e okolu
(D) “gotvi” as in “gotvi jadenje” kjosho” meaning “the road is
meaning “cook food”. around the corner”.
(L) “gotvi”. (L) “agol”.

cool – of or at fairly low cornflour – flour made from
temperature maize
(D) “miserno brashno” as in “ľ
ep
praen so miserno brashno”
37
meaning “bread made with
cornflour”. count – find numbers
(D) “broj” as in “broj do deset”
correct – true, accurate, proper meaning “count to ten”.
(D) “pravo” as in “toa e pravo” (L) “broj”, “broenje”.
meaning “that is correct”.
(L) “tochen”, “poprava”, counter – long flat-topped
“isprava”. fitment
(D) “tezga” as in “klaj alatite nat
corrode – wear away by tezgata” meaning “put the tools
chemichal action on the counter”.
(D) “rzhosa” as in “zheľ eznata (L) “tezga”, “tantuz”, “zheton”.
plocha rzhosa” meaning “the
iron plate is corroded”. country – territory of a nation,
(L) “rgjosuva”. state
(D) “drzhaa” as in “mojta
corrupt – morally depraved drzhaa e Makedonija” meaning
(D) “rasipan” as in “toj e “my country is Macedonia”.
rasipan choek” meaning “he is a (L) “zemja”, “drzhava”.
corrupt person”.
(L) “rasipan”, “gnil”, cousin – son or daughter of
“nechesen”. one’s uncle or aunt
(D) “brachet” (male) and
cost – have a price “brachenda” (female) as in “jas
(D) “tsena” as in “sho mu e imam brachet i brachenda”
tsenata na edno kilo kastitsi?” meaning “I have a male and
meaning “what is the cost of a female cousin”.
kilo of walnuts?” (L) “bratuchet”, “bratucheda”.
(L) “tsena”, “troshok”,
“izdatok”. cover – place something over
(D) “pokrie” as in “da si se
cotton – soft white fibrous pokrie so veľentse” meaning “to
substance cover himself with a blanket”.
(D) “pambuk” as in “pernitsata e (L) “pokrivach”, “pokrov”,
plna so pambuk” meaning “the “pokriv”.
pillow is full of cotton”.
(L) “pamuk”. cow – fully grown female of any
bovine animal
cough – expel air or other matter (D) “kraa” as in “kraata ni daa
from lungs with a sudden sharp mľeko” meaning “the cow gives
sound us milk”.
(D) “kashľ a” as in “toj kashľa” (L) “krava”.
meaning “he is coughing”.
(L) “kashlitsa”, “kashla”. coward – fearful person
38
(D) “strashlif” as in “toj e (D) “kľech” as in “nogata mi fati
strashlif, mu e stra ot noshjata” kľech” meaning “I have a cramp
meaning “he is a coward, he in my leg”.
fears the night”. (L) “grch”.
(L) “strashlivko”.
crash – fall or impact
cowherd – person who looks (D) “se udri” as in “padna ot
after cows at pasture kono i se udri na stiso” meaning
(D) “voloar” and “goendar” as in “he fell off the horse and crashed
“voloaro i beri voloite” meaning into the wall”.
“the cowherd is rounding up the (L) “udar”.
oxen” and “goendaro i pasi
goendata” meaning “the crave - desire
cowherd is taking the bovine to (D) “ores” as in “trudnata zhena
pasture”. ga fati ores za piperki turshia”
(L) “kravar”, “govedar”. meaning “the pregnant woman
craves pickled peppers”.
crack – partially broken (L) “kopnee za neshto”, “moli”.
(D) “tresna” and “pukna” as in
“tresna ot stut” meaning “it crawl – progress with body on or
cracked from the cold” and close to ground
“pukna ot stiskanje” meaning “it (D) “lazi” as in “bebeto zafati da
cracked from pressure”. lazi” meaning “the baby has
(L) “puknatina”. begun to crawl”.
(L) “lazi”, “polzi”.
cradle – small bed or cot for a
baby crazy – insane, foolish
(D) “kroshna” as in “krľao (D) “ulaf” as in “toj e ulaf,
bebeto vo kroshnata” meaning neznae sho praj” meaning “he is
“rock the baby in the cradle”. crazy, doesn’t know what he is
(L) “lulka”. doing”.
(L) “lud”, “umoboden”,
craftsman – skilled person “budala”.
(D) “maistor” as in “maistoro
pokaza aren maistorlak” create – bring into existence
meaning “the craftsman showed (D) “praj” as in “toj praj golemo
his excellent craftmanship”. chudo” as in “he is creating a
(L) “veshtak”, “umetnik”. miracle”.
(L) “sozdava”, “pravi”,
cramp – sudden painful “proizveduva”.
involuntary contraction of
muscle creature – created being
(D) “zhivotno” as in “mnogu
zhivotni zhivee vo ormano”
39
meaning “many creatures live in (L) “krst”.
the forest”.
(L) “sustestvo”. crossroad – intersection of two
roads
creek – short arm of a river (D) “ruskrsnitsa” as in “vo
(D) “trap” as in “trapo vrvi krs Oshchima nema rasksnitsa,
Oshchima” meaning “the creek seloto e mnogu malo” meaning
passes through Oshchima”. “there is no crossroad in
(L) “mal zaliv”, “potok”. Oshchima, the village is very
small”.
crib – child’s bed (L) “raskrsnitsa”.
(D) “kroshna” as in “bebeto spie
vo kroshnata” meaning “the crow – large black bird
baby sleeps in the crib”. (D) “garvan” as in “garvano
(L) “lulka”. grachi vo drvata” meaning “the
crow is crowing in the woods”.
cripple – person permanently (L) “chavka”.
lame
(D) “sakat” as in “choeko e crowd – large number of people
sakat, nogata me e posechena” gathered together without orderly
meaning “the person is crippled, arrangement
his leg has been severed”. (D) “surja” as in “edna surja
(L) “topal”, “sakat chovek”. ľuge se sobrani” meaning “a
crowd of people has gathered”.
crock – earthware pot (L) “mnoshtvo”, “tolpa”,
(D) “grne” as in “gra se vari vo “narod”.
grneto” meaning “beans are
boiling in the crock pot”. cruel – indifferent to or gratified
by another’s suffering
crop – produce of cultivated (D) “dsverstvo” as in “toj pokaza
plants goľemo dzvertsvo pokraj nashio
(D) “bereket” as in “vo esen se narot” meaning “he showed
beri bereketo” meaning “crops great cruelty towards our
are harvested in the fall”. people”.
(L) “zhetva”. (L) “svirep”, “nemilosrden”.

cross – upright post with crumb – small fragment of bread
transverse post (D) “trolinka” as in “nemam nito
(D) “krst” as in “vo edna trolinka ľep da jada”
Oshchimtskata tsrkva nat meaning “I don’t have a single
kambanata ima golem krst” crumb of bread to eat”.
meaning “in the Oshchima (L) “troshka”.
church above the church bell is a
large cross”. crust – hard outer part of bread
40
(D) “korichka” as in “ovoj
peshnik ľep ima debela curse – utterance wishing person
korichka” meaning “this loaf of to suffer
bread has a thick crust”. (D) “kľ etva” as in “te zaklna so
(L) “korka”, “korichka”. losha kľ etva” meaning “he
cursed you with a bad curse”.
cry – express pain, make loud or (L) “kletva”.
shrill sound
(D) “plachi” as in “bebeto custom – usual way of behaving
plachi” meaning “the baby is or acting
crying”. (D) “adet” as in “toj e nash adet”
(L) “plach”, “povik”. meaning “that is our custom”.
(L) “obichaj”.
cuckoo – migratory bird with
characteristic cry cut – divide with knife
(D) “kukajtsa” as in “kukajtsata (D) “posechi” as in “posechi so
kuka vo Avgust” meaning “the nozho” meaning “cut with the
cuckoo is singing in August”. knife”.
(L) “kukavitsa”. (L) “presek”.

cucumber – long green fleshy Cyrillic – alphabet used by
fruit Slovanic speaking people
(D) “krastajtsa” as in (D) “Kiriľ itsa” as in
“krastajtsata e ubaa vo salata” “Makedontsite pishe po
meaning “the cucumber is good Kiriľitsa” meaning
in salad”. “Macedonians write in Cyrillic”.
(L) “krastavitsa”. (L) “Kirilitsa”.

cure – restore to health Czar – variation of tsar
(D) “ľek” and “uzdraj” as in “ke (D) “Tsar” as in “Aleksandar e
se najdi ľek za tebe” meaning “a Tsar Makedontski” meaning
cure will be found for you” and “Alexander is a Macedonian
“ke uzdrajsh po nekolku dena” King”.
meaning “you will be cured in a (L) “Tsar”.
few days”.
(L) “lek”, “lechenje”,
“ozdrabuvanje”. D
curly – having coiled lock of daddy – father, oldest or most
hair important person
(D) “krľudzhaf” as in “ti imask (D) “tate” as in “ajde tate kupimi
kurľudzhaa kosa” meaning “you shekerche” meaning “Oh daddy
have curly hair”. buy me a candy”.
(L) “kadrav”. (L) “tatko”, “tate”.
41
(D) “den” as in “sho den e
dairy – place for processing and denes” meaning “what is the date
distributing milk and its products today?”
(D) “bachilo” as in “vo bachiloto (L) “datum”.
prae mas, sirenje i kasher”
meaning “in the dairy they make daughter – female child in
butter, feta and hard cheese”. relation to her parents
(L) “mlekarna”. (D) “kjerka” as in “taa e kjerka
na toj choek” meaning “she is
damage – injury or impairing the daughter of that person”.
value or usefulness of something (L) “kjerka”.
(D) “pakos” as in “burata napraj
goľ em pakos” meaning “the dawn – day break
flood caused a great deal of (D) “zora” as in “zora se krshi
damage”. rano rano” meaning “dawn
(L) “oshtetuvanje”, “povreda”, breaks early in the morning”.
“gubinok”. (L) “zora”.

damp – diffused moisture day – time between sunrise and
(D) “vlazhno” as in “vremeto e sunset
vlazhno denes” meaning “the (D) “den” or “denja” as in
weather is damp today”. “denja e ot koga ke izlezi do
(L) “vlaga”, “magla”, “para”. koga ke zajdi sntseto” meaning
“day is from sunrise to sunset”.
dance – move rhythmically (L) “den”.
(D) “igra oro” as in “mi se igra
oro” meaning “I want to dance”. days – as in of the week
(L) “igra”, “ples”, “tantsuva”. (D) “Pondelnik, Ftornik, Streda,
Chetfortok, Petok, Sabota,
danger – exposure to harm “Nedeľ a” meaning “Monday,
(D) “opas” as in “toj e opasen” Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday,
meaning “he is dangerous”. Friday, Saturday, Sunday”.
(L) “opasen”, “opasnost”.
dead – no longer alive
dark – with little or no light (D) “umren” and “mrtoets” as in
(D) “temnitsa” as in “koa nema “choeko e umren” meaning “the
sfetlo e temnitsa” meaning person is dead” and “mrtoetso ke
“when there is no light it is go zakope utre” meaning “they
dark”. will bury the dead tomorrow”.
(L) “mrak”, “temnitsa”. (L) “pokojnits”, “mrtvets”.

date – day of the month deaf – without hearing

42
(D) “gluf” as in “toj e gluf ot decent – respectable, good
edno ushe” meaning “he is deaf enough
from one ear”. (D) “aren” as in “toj e aren msh”
(L) “gluv”. meaning “he is a decent man”.
(L) “prostoen”, “skromen”,
dear – beloved “umeren”, “dobar”.
(D) “miľen” as in “toj mi e moj
miľ en brat” meaning “he is my decide – come to a resolution
dear brother”. (D) “reshi” as in “reshi, sho ke
(L) “dag”, “mil”, “skap”. bidi?” meaning “decide, what
will it be?”
death – event which ends life (L) “reshava”.
(D) “umirachka” and “smrt”
meaning “nema odbega ot deep – extending far down
umirachka” meaning “there is (D) “glmbok” as in “bunaro e
no escape from death” and glmbok” meaning “the well is
“sloboda eľ i smrt” meaning deep”.
“freedom or death”. (L) “dlambina”.
(L) “smrt”, “kraj”.
deer – four-footed ruminant
debt – money, etc that is owed animal
(D) “borch” as in “imam golem (D) “eľ en” meaning “eľ enite
borch” meaning “I have a big shive vo planina” meaning “the
debt”. deer live in the mountain”.
(L) “dolg”, “obvrska”. (L) “elen”.

decay – rot, decompose defeat – overcome in battle or
(D) “skapa” as in “jabolkoto other contest
skapa” meaning “the apple has (D) “pobedi” as in “Partizanite
decayed”. ga pobedia borbata” meaning
(L) “gnienje”. “the Partisans were defeated in
the struggle”.
deceive – make a peron believe (L) “poraz”, “pobeduva”.
what is false
(D) “izmami” as in “ti me defend – resist attack made on,
izmami” meaning “you deceived protect
me”. (D) “brani” as in “bori se i
(L) “izmamuva”. branisiga famiľ iata” meaning
“fight back and defend your
December – twelfth month family”.
(D) “Dekemvri” (new) and (L) “se brani”, “se zashtituva”.
“Snezhnik” (old). (See months)
(L) “Dekemvri”. delete – cross out or remove

43
(D) “brishi” as in “pishi i brishi” (D) “viľ itsa” as in “baba nosi
meaning “write and delete”. viľitsi” meaning “baba
(L) “brishe”. (grandma) wears dentures”.
(L) “vilitsa”.
demand – urgent claim, stern
request deny – declare untrue
(D) “bara” as in “toj si gi bara (D) “odbiva” as in “toj odbiva,
pravata” meaning “he is kazhva sho ne go napraj”
demanding his rights”. meaning “he denies it, says he
(L) “bara”. did not do it”.
(L) “odbiva”, “ne priznava”.
demolish - pull or knock down
(D) “urnisa” as in “zemno depart – go away
tresenje mu a urnisa kukjata” (D) “zamina” as in “zamina i
meaning “the earthquake ojde na stranstvo” meaning “he
demolished his house”. departed and went abroad”.
(L) “rasurniva”. (L) “zaminuva”.

demon – evil spirit, cruel person depend – determined by
(D) “demon” as in “ne mnogu (D) “zavisi” as in “sfe zavisi ot
poveke verve na postoenjeto na tebe” meaning “everything
demoni” meaning “not many any depends on you”.
longer believe in the existence of (L) “zavisi”.
demons”.
(L) “demon”. deport – remove and send to
another country
den – small private room (D) “protera” as in “choeko e
(D) “odajche” as in “vo proteran ot nemnata zemia”
odajcheto daskalo pee knigi i meaning “the person was
pishi pisma” meaning “in the den deported from his own soil”.
the teacher reads books and (L) “proteruva”, “progonuva”.
writes letters”.
(L) “sobichka”. descent – lineage, family origin
(D) “rod” as in “toj e roden ot
denounce – inform against Makedontsi” meaning “his
(D) “otkazhi” as in “toj ne saka descent is from Macedonians”.
da se otkazhi ot negovata vera” (L) “sleguvanje”, “spushtanje”,
meaning “he does not want to “rod”, “poteklo”.
denounce his faith”.
(L) “otkazhuva”, “objavuva”. design – outline for something to
be made
denture – set of artificial teeth (D) “namera” as in “ima namera
da napraj nescho goľ emo”

44
meaning “he has designs to make (L) “se vloshuva”, “se rasipuva”.
something grand”.
(L) “namera”. detest – hate, loathe
(D) “pizmi” as in “tie ne pizme
desirable – worth having zashcho sme siromasi” meaning
(D) “sakan” as in “toj e sakan “they detest us because we are
choek” meaning “he is a poor”.
desirable person”. (L) “se gnasi”, “se gadi”.
(L) “pozhelen”, “sakan”.
devil – Satan, demon
desk – furniture with flat or (D) “djaol” as in “djaolo e
sloped surface used for writing mnogu losh” meaning “the devil
(D) “masa za pishenje” as in is very bad”.
“naprajsia rabotata na masata (L) “gjavol”.
za pishenje” meaning “do your
work at your desk”. devour – eat hungrily or greedily
(L) “masa za pishenje”. (D) “lapa” as in “jadi, lapaj go
brzo da ne ti go zeve” meaning
desperate - leaving little or no “eat, devour it fast before they
room for hope take it”.
(D) “ochaen” as in “toj glamen (L) “lapa”, “golta”.
choek e ochaen” meaning “that
poor person is desperate”. dew – vapour condensing in
(L) “ochaen”, “beznadezhen”. small drops
(D) “rosa” as in “ima rosa nat
destroy – pull or break down trevata” meaning “there is dew
(D) “urnisa” as in “toj e losh, sve on the grass”.
urnisa” meaning “he is mean, he (L) “rosa”.
destroyed everything”.
(L) “unishtuva”, “razrushuva”. dialog - conversation
(D) “razgovor” as in
detain – keep under restraint or “kodzhobashiata i jas imame
confined razgovor” meaning “the mayor
(D) “zadrzhi” as in “zadrzhigo and I had a dialog”.
da ne izbega” meaning “detain (L) “dijalog”, “razgovor na
him so that he can’t escape”. dvajtsa”.
(L) “zadrzuva”.
diaper – linen or cotton fabric
deteriorate – make or become used on babies bottoms
worse (D) “peľ enche” as in “menimu go
(D) “se rasipa” as in “zheľeznata peľencheto na bebeto” meaning
lamarina rzhosa is se rasipa” “change the baby’s diaper”.
meaning “the iron sheet of metal (L) “platno”.
has rusted and deteriorated”.
45
diarrhea – very loose bowel (L) “izvalkan”, “mrsen”,
movement “nechist”.
(D) “drisnik” as in “bebeto go
fati drisnik” meaning “the baby dinner – chief meal of the day
has diarrhea”. (D) “ruchok” and “vechera” as in
“ke dojda na gosti za ruchok i
die – cease to live, expire vechera” meaning “I will be your
(D) “umri” as in “ke umrish ot guest for dinner (lunch and
stut” meaning “you will die of supper)”.
cold”. (L) “vechera”, “ruchok”.
(L) “umira”.
dip – immerse bread into liquid
different – unlike, of another (D) “makni” as in “makni troa
nature chorba” meaning “dip into some
(D) “inakov” as in “toj e inakov soup”.
ot nas” meaning “he is different (L) “vddabnatina”.
from us”.
(L) “razlichen”, “poinakov”. direct – extending in a straight
line
difficult – troublesome, not easy (D) “prav” as in “zevajgo pato
(D) “tesko” as in “tesko e, ne e sho odi napravo” meaning “take
kolaj” meaning “it’s difficult, it’s the direct route”.
not easy”. (L)”prav”, “najkratok”,
(L) “tezhok”. “neposreden”.

dig – break up or remove ground dirt – unclean matter that soils
(D) “kopa” as in “toj kopu (D) “pra” and “kal” as in
dupka” meaning “he is digging a “veľ entseto e plno so pra”
hole”. meaning “the bed cover is full of
(L) “kopa”, “rie”. dirt” and “cheľ ite ti se invaľ
kani
so kal” meaning “your shoes are
dignity – being worthy of soiled with dirt”.
honour or respect (L) “nechistotija”, “gjubre”,
(D) “ches” as in “toj umre so “gadost”.
ches” meaning “he died with
dignity”. dirty - soiled
(L) “dostoinstvo”. (D) “vaľ kan” as in “ratsite ti se
vaľkani so graso” meaning
dingy – drab, dirty looking “your hands are dirty with
(D) “izvaľ kan” as in “pľ
achkite grease”.
na toj choek se izvaľkani” (L) “blutkav”, “valkan”,
meaning “that person’s clothing “nechist”.
is dingy”.
disabled – deprived of ability
46
(D) “osakaten” as in “toj e disease – unhealthy condition of
osakaten, bumba pukna i mu ga body or mind
skrshi nogata” meaning “he is (D) “boles” as in “tie ime boles
disabled, a bomb blew up and sho ne se lekva” meaning “they
broke his leg”. have an untreatable disease”.
(L) “ne sposoven”. (L) “bolest”.

disagree – hold different opinion disgrace – loss of favour or
(D) “ne se soglasva” as in “toj ne respect
se soglasva so toa sho veľish ti” (D) “stramota” as in “je
meaning “he disagrees with what stramota ka se odnosva”
you say”. meaning “it is a disgrace how
(L) “”ne se soglasuva”, “ima how he conducts himself”.
drugo mislenje”. (L) “gubenje na chest”,
“sramota”.
disappear – pass from sight or
existence dish – flat bottomed container
(D) “go nema” as in “go nema, for holding food
neznam dja ojde” meaning “he (D) “plaa” as in “plaata e
disappeared, I don’t know where potrebna za jadenje” meaning
he went”. “the dish is used for eating”.
(L) “izchusnuva”, “go snemuva”. (L) “vagan”.

disband – disperse, break up dishonest – insincere, fraudulent
(D) “se raspushchi” as in (D) “nechesen” as in “toj e
“askero se raspushchi” meaning nechesen choek” meaning “he is
“the army has disbanded”. a dishonest person”.
(L) “se raspushta”. (L) “nechesen”.

discard - give something up, disloyal – unfaithful, lacking
throw it away loyalty
(D) “frľigo” as in “frľigo toa ne (D) “neveren” as in “toj e
chini” meaning “discard it it’s no neveren choek” meaning “he is a
good”. disloyal person”.
(L) “otfrla”, “napushta”. (L) “neveren”, “nelojalen”,
“verolomen”.
discharge – fire a rifle
(D) “pľ usna” as in “toj pľusna distance – extent of space
so pushkata i so chifteto” between two points
meaning “he discharged the rifle (D) “daľechina” as in “od
and the shotgun”. Oshchima do Lerin e dlga
(L) “istovaruva”, “puka”. daľ echina” meaning “from
Oshchima to Lerin is a long
distance”.
47
(L) “rasojanie”.
do – produce, make, bring about
distillery – place where (D) “praj” as in “praj neshcho”
alcoholic liquor is distilled meaning “do something”.
(D) “kazanche” as in “vo (L) “pravi, “vrshi”.
kazancheto se vari rakija”
meaning “in the distillery Rakija doctor – physician
is distilled”. (D) “ľekar” as in “ľekaro mi ga
(L) “mesto kade se vari rakija”. zakrpi ranata” meaning “the
doctor stitched up my wound”.
distinguish – observe or identify (L) “doktor”, “lekar”.
a difference
(D) “razľ ika” as in “dali mozhish dog – four legged carnivorous
da vidish razľika megu toj i animal related to the wolf
taa?” meaning “can you (D) “kuche” as in “kucheto lae”
distinguish between him and meaning “the dog is barking”.
her?” (L) “kuche”, “pes”.
(L) “se razlikuva”.
dogwood – shrub with dark red
distrust – lack of trust branches
(D) “nedoverba” as in “ima (D) “dren” as in “drvoto ot dren
nedoverba megu nimu” meaning e mnogu jako” meaning “the
“there is distrust between them”. wood from dogwood is very
(L) “nedoverba”, “somnenje”. hard”.
(L) “dren”.
ditch – long narrow excavated
channel done - complete
(D) “doazha” and “jaz” as in (D) “dostori” as in “rabotata ga
“doazhata e vo gornata maala” dostori” meaning “I have done
meaning “the ditch is in the the job”.
upper neighbourhood” and “jazo (L) “od do”.
e vo dolnata maala na
Oshchima” meaning “the ditch is donkey – domestic ass
in the lower neighbourhood of (D) “magare” as in “magareto
Oshchima”. pasi vo livadata” meaning “the
(L) “jaz”, “okop”. donkey is grazing in the
meadow”.
divide – separate into parts (L) “magare”.
(D) “deľ i” as in “deľiga stokata
megu dvata brakja” meaning door – closing to entrance
“divide the property between the (D) “vrata” as in “zatforia
two brothers”. vratata” meaning “close the
(L) “deli”, “se raziduva”, “se door”.
oddeluva”. (L) “vrata”.
48
(L) “dremi”, “lesen son”.
dot – small round mark or spot
(D) “tochka” as in “claj tochka dream – what a person sees
na dostoroko” meaning “place a when sleeping
dot at the end”. (D) “son” as in “koa spie ime
(L) “tochka”. aren son” meaning “when I slept
I had a good dream”.
double - twofold (L) “son”.
(D) “dvojno” as in “mi bordzhish
dvojno” meaning “you owe me dress – put on or wear clothes
double”. (D) “obľ eka” and “fustan”
(L) “dvokratno”, “dvojnik”. meaning “si kupi ubaa obľ eka”
meaning “I bought myslelf a nice
dove – bird with short legs and dress” and “zhenata si kupi
small head fustan” meaning “the woman
(D) “prľ itsa” as in “prľitsata e bought herself a dress”.
simbol za mir” meaning “the (L) “obleka”, “fustan”.
dove is a symbol of peace”.
(L) “gulab”. dribble – allow saliva to flow
from the mouth
down – towards a lower place (D) “se ľ igae” as in “bebeto se
(D) “dolu” as in “jas zhivam ľigae” meaning “the baby is
tamo dolu” meaning “I live down dribbling”.
there”. (L) “se ligavi”.
(L) “dolu”.
drift – mass of snow or sand
downpour – heavy fall of rain driven along or heaped by wind
(D) “turva dosh” as in “tsel den (D) “namet” as in “vetro go dua
turva dosh” meaning “it is snego i praj namet” meaning
downpouring all day”. “the wind is blowing the snow
(L) “poroen dozhd”. into a drift”.
(L) “struja”, “tok”, “pravets”.
dowry – property or money
brought by a bride to her drink – swallow liquid
husband (D) “napise” as in “napise voda”
(D) “prikja” as in “neestata ima meaning “drink water”.
bogata prikja” meaning “the (L) “napiva”.
bride has a rich dowry”.
(L) “miraz”, “prirodna darba”. drip – fall of drops
(D) “kapi” as in “voda kapi ot
doze – sleep light chatiata” meaning “water is
(D) “dremi” as in “na babata mu dripping from the roof”.
se dremi” meaning “grandma is (L) “kapi”, “teche”.
dozing”.
49
drop – small round portion of is drunk from drinking too much
liquid wine”.
(D) “kapka” as in “kapka po (L) “pijan”.
kapka kobľ itsata se plni so voda”
meaning “drop by drop the dry – not wet, without moisture
bucket is being filled with (D) “suvo” as in “olnisheto e
water”. suvo” meaning “the field is dry”.
(L) “kapka”. (L) “sushi”.

drought – prolonged spell duck – swimming bird female
without rain (D) “patka” as in “edna patka,
(D) “susha” as in “susha ne fati, dve patki” meaning “one duck,
sfe ke izgori” meaning “drought two ducks”.
has caught us, everything will (L) “pajka”, “shatka”.
burn”.
(L) “susha”, “zhed”, “nedostig”. dumb – unable to speak
(D) “nem” as in “toj e nem, ne
drown – suffocate by mozhi da zborva” meaning “he is
submersion in water dumb, he cannot speak”.
(D) “se udaj” as in “deteto se (L) “nem”.
udaj, ne znaeshe ka da pľ iva”
meaning “the boy drowned, he dung - manure
did not know how to swim”. (D) “lepeshka” and
(L) “se davi”. “papareshka” as in “lepeshki i
papareshki se arni za gnoenje
drug – medicine, narcotic gradinjeto” meaning “dung is
(D) “biľka” as in “ľekaro mu good for fertilizing the gardens”.
dade biľ ka” meaning “the doctor (L) “lepeshka”, “gjubre”.
gave him a drug”.
(L) “lek”, “lekarstvo”. dusk – darkness stage of twilight
(D) “mrak” as in “padna mrak,
drum – musical instrument brzo ke se stemni” meaning
consisting of stretched skin over “dusk has fallen, it will soon be
cylinder dark”.
(D) “tapan” as in “tapano se (L) “samrak”.
shchuka ot daľ eku” meaning “the
drum can be heard from far”. dust – fine powder of earth or
(L) “tapan”. other substence
(D) “duman” and “pra” as in
drunk – under the influence of “vetro krea mnogu duman”
alcohol meaning “the wind is raising a
(D) “pijan” as in “toj e pijan ot lot of dust” and “ima mnogu pra
pienje mnogu vino” meaning “he vo kukjata” meaning “there is a
lot of dust in the house”.
50
(L) “prav”, “prashok”.
east – point of horizon where
dwarf – below normal size sun rises
person, animal or plant (D) “istok” as in “sntseto ugre ot
(D) “dzhudzhe” as in “eden istok i zajde na zapat” meaning
mnogu niski choek e dzhudzhe” “the sun rose from the east and
meaning “a very short person is set to the west”.
a dwarf”. (L) “istok”.
(L) “kepets”, “dzhudzhe”.
Easter – Christian festival in
dye – substance used to change spring
colour of fabric (D) “Veľ ivden” as in “Veľivden
(D) “boja” as in “boja za e goľem praznik” meaning
vapsvanje platno” meaning “dye “Easter is a grand holiday”.
for colouring a fabric”. (L) “Veligden”.
(L) “boja”.
easy – not difficult
(D) “kolaj” as in “e kolaj da
E zborvash” meaning “it’s easy to
talk”.
each – everyone of two or more (L) “lesen”, “udoben”,
(D) “sekoj” as in “sekoj ima “spokoen”.
pravo da zborva” meaning “each
has the right to speak”. eat – take into the mouth, chew
(L) “sekoj”. and swallow
(D) “jadi” as in “ajde jadi troa
eagle – a large bird of prey po brzo” meaning “lets go eat a
(D) “sokol” as in “chuaj little faster”.
kokoshkite ot sokolo” meaning (L) “jade”.
“protect the chickens from the
eagle”. edible – fit to be eaten
(L) “orel”. (D) “se jadi” as in “ako ne
gorchi i ne e kiselo se jadi”
ear – organ of hearing meaning “if it’s not bitter or sour
(D) “ushe” as in “usheto e za it is edible”.
shchukanje” meaning “the ear is (L) “se jade”.
for hearing”.
(L) “uvo”, “sluh”. education – systematic
instruction
early – before the due (D) “nauka” as in “odi na skoľ je
(D) “rano” as in “stigname da dobiesh nauka” meaning “go
mnogu rano” meaning “we to school to get an education”.
arrived very early”. (L) “vospituvanje”,
(L) “ran”, “preran”, “rano”. “obrazovanje”, “odgleduvanje”.
51
eleven – one more than ten
effort – strenuous physical or (D) “edinajse” as in “edinajse
mental activity godini” meaning “eleven years”.
(D) “obid” as in “obidise i (L) “edinaeset”.
krenigo” meaning “put some
effort into it and lift it”. eliminate – remove, get rid of
(L) “napor”, “trud”, “obid”. (D) “isfrľi” as in “isfrľigo ne
chini za nishcho” meaning
egg – oval body produced by “eliminate it it’s worthless”.
female of birds (L) “isfrla”, “izostava”.
(D) “jajtse” as in “kokoshkata
snese jajtse” meaning “the ember – small piece of live coal
chicken layed an egg”. (D) “jagľ en” as in “jagľen e
(L) “jajtse”. eden zapalen zhar” meaning “an
ember is a single lit charcoal”.
eight – one more than seven (L) “iskra”, “zhiv zhar”.
(D) “osom” as in “osom, edno
pojke ot sedom” meaning “eight, embrace – hold closely in the
one more than seven”. arms
(L) “osum”. (D) “zgrabi” as in “zgrabigo
deteto i kazhi mu sho go
eighteen – one more than milvash” meaning “embrace the
seventeen boy and let him know that you
(D) “osomnajse” as in love him”.
“osomnajse, edno po troa ot (L) “pregratka”, “pregrbuvanje”.
devetnajse” meaning “eighteen,
one less than nineteen”. embroider – decorate cloth with
(L) “osumnaeset”. needlework
(D) “vezi” as in “baba vezi
elbow – joint between forearm shamiche” meaning “grandma is
and upper arm embroidering a handkerchief”.
(D) “lako” meaning “lakoto e (L) “veze”.
megu ramoto i rakata” meaning
“the elbow is between the empire – extensive group of
shoulder and the hand”. states under single authority
(L) “lakot”. (D) “imberija” as in “imberijata
na Aleksander Makedontski”
elder – senior, of greater age meaning “the empire of
(D) “postar” as in “dedomi e Alexander the Macedonian”.
postar ot tatkomi” meaning “my (L) “tsarevina”, “imperija”.
grandfather is elder to my
father”. employee – person employed for
(L) “postar”. wages

52
(D) “rabotnik” as in “toj e
rabotnik vo Oshchimtskio enemy – hostile state or person
dukian” meaning “he is an (D) “dushman” as in “toj e
employee at the Oshchimian dushman na drzhaata” meaning
store”. “he is an enemy of the state”.
(L) “sluzhbenik”. (L) “nepriatel”, “protivnik”.

empty – containing nothing energy – capacity for activity
(D) “prazno” as in “kotleto e (D) “sila” and “energija” as in
prazno, nema nishcho vo neo” “toj ima mnogu sila” meaning
meaning “the kettle is empty, “he has a lot of energy” and
there is nothing in it”. “letrichna energija” meaning
(L) “prazen”, “pust”. “electrical energy”.
(L) “energija”, “sila”.
enclosure – enclosed space or
area English – as in language
(D) “ograda” as in “stisojte se (D) “Angľ itski” as in “nie
ograda na dvoro” meaning “the sborvame Angľitski” meaning
walls are the yard’s enclosure”. “we speak English”.
(L) “ogradenost”, “ograda”, (L) “Angliski”.
“opkruzhuvanje”.
Englishman – one who is
end – furthest point English
(D) “dostorok” and “kraj” as in (D) “Angľ ichanets” as in “eden
“odvaj dojde dostorok” meaning msh ot Angľ ija e Angľichanets”
“finely the end came” and meaning “a man from England is
“dojdome do kraj” meaning “we an Englishman”
came to the end”. (L) “Anglichanets”
(L) “kraj”, “zavrshetok”.
enough – as much or as many as
endless – without end required
(D) “bez dostorok” as in “ovaa e (D) “dosta” as in “ajde dosta ne
rabota bez dostorok” meaning ti treba pojke” meaning “that’s
“this is an endless job”. enough you don’t need any
(L) “vechen”, “beskraen” more”.
(L) “dovolno”, “dosta”.
endure – undergo, tolerate
(D) “trae” and “trpi” as in “neka entire – whole, complete
trae ushche troa” meaning “let (D) “tsel” as in “ti go izede tsel
him endure a little longer” and peshnik lep?” meaning “you ate
“trpia boleata ushche troa” the entire loaf of bread?”.
meaning “endure the pain a little (L) “potpoli”, “tsel”.
longer”.
(L) “podnesuva”, “trpi”, “trae”. entrance – place for entering
53
(D) “vlez” as in “vlezo e tuka” (L) “bega”, “pobegnuva”.
meaning “the entrance is here”.
(L) “vlez”, “vleguvanje”. estimate - approximate
(D) “ottseni” as in “aide
envelope – folded paper for ottsenigo, kazhimi kolku e?”
letters meaning “let’s go estimate it, tell
(D) “pľ ik” as in “klajgo pismoto me how much it is”.
vo pľ iko” meaning “put the (L) “otsenuva”, “presmetuva”.
letter in the envelope”.
(L) “kovert”, “obvivka”, European – from Europe
“chaura”. (D) “Evropeets” as in “choek ot
Evropa se vika Evropeets”
equal – the same in number, meaning “a person from Europe
size, merit, etc. is called European”.
(D) “tokmu” and “isti” as in (L) “Evropeets”.
“tokmu se na visochina”
meaning “they are equal in even – level, smooth, uniform
height” and “isti se na tsena” (D) “ramen” as in “stiso e ramen
meaning “they are equal in na jobete strni” meaning “the
value”. wall is even on both sides”.
(L) “ist”, “ednakov”. (L) “ramen”, “ednakov”.

erase – rub out evening – from sunset to
(D) “izbrishi” as in “izbrishi toa bedtime, late in the day
sho pisa” meaning “erase that (D) “vecher” as in “vecher ke
which you wrote”. ojme na kino” meaning “this
(L) “izbrishuva”, “brishe”. evening we are going to a
cinematographic show”.
erect – upright, vertical (L) “vecher”.
(D) “prostum” as in “sedi
prostum” meaning “stand erect”. event – thing that takes place
(L) “isprava”, “osnovuva”. (D) “nastan” as in “vo Sabota
Oshchima ke ima eden nastan”
error - mistake meaning “on Saturday Oshchima
(D) “greshka” as in “ne se will have an event”.
sakaldisfaj, sekoj eden praj (L) “sluchaj”, “nastan”.
greshki” meaning “don’t get
upset, everyone makes mistakes”. every – each single
(L) “greshka”. (D) “sekoj” as in “sekoj den jas
oda na rabota” meaning “every
escape – get free of restriction day I go to work”.
(D) “pobegna” as in “mu (L) “sekoj”, “sje”.
pobegna ot apsanata” meaning
“he escaped from prison”. everything – all things
54
(D) “sfe” as in “toj ima sfe sho pass by” and “prostime, ne
mu treba” meaning “he has trebashe da go recha toa”
everything he needs”. meaning “excuse me I shouldn’t
(L) “sje”, “seshto”. have said that”.
(L) “izvinuvanje”,
evil – morally bad, wicked, “oravduvanje”.
harmful
(D) “losho” as in “toa sho go exhale – breathe out
prajsh e losho” meaning “that (D) “se izdishi” as in “toj se
which you are doing is evil”. izdishi koga tezheata mu
(L) “zlo”, “nevola”, “grev”, opadna” meaning “he exhaled as
“losh”. the weight lessened”.
(L) “izvetruva”, “izdishuva”.
exact – accurate, correct
(D) “tokmu” as in “toa vlegva exit – going out
tokmu” meaning “it is an exact (D) “izlez” as in “tuka e izlezo”
fit”. meaning “here is the exit”.
(L) “tochen”, “odreden”. (L) “izlez”.

example – thing characteristic of expensive – costing much
its kind (D) “skpo” as in “toa e skpo ke
(D) “primer” as in “tuka e eden mi treba mnogu pari da go kupa”
primer” meaning “here is an meaning “that is expensive I will
example”. need a lot of money to buy it”.
(L) “primer”, “primerok”.
explain – make clear or
excavate – dig out intelligible
(D) “iskopa” as in “go iskopae (D) “dokazhi” as in “dokazhimi
goľemio kamen” meaning “they sho se stori” meaning “explain to
excavated the big rock”. me what happened”.
(L) “iskopuva”. (L) “objasnuva”, “tolkuva”.

exchange – giving one thing and extend – lengthen in space or
receiving another time
(D) “premeni” as in “sakam do (D) “istegni” as in “istegnigo
go premena kaferenjo kustum za troa da stigni do kraj” meaning
sif” meaning “I want to exchange “extend it a little to reach the
my brown suit for gray”. end”.
(L) “menuvanje”, “promena”. (L) “rastegnuva”, “pazvlekuva”.

excuse – try to lessen blame external – situated on the
(D) “izvini” and “prosti” as in outside
“izvinime, sakam da pomina”
meaning “excuse me, I want to
55
(D) “nadvoreshno” as in “e fade – lose colour
nudvoreshno drushtvo” meaning (D) “ovena” as in “tsveketo
“it is an external organization”. ovena” meaning “the flower has
(L) “nadvoreshen”, “stranski”. faded”.
(L) “ovenuva”, “bledi”, “gubi
eye – organ of sight boja”.
(D) “oko” as in “edno oko, dve
ochi” meaning “one eye, two fair – just, equitable
eyes”. (D) “chesen” as in “toj e mnogu
(L) “oko”. chesen choek” “meaning “he is a
very fair person”.
eyebrow – fringe of hair (L) “redoven”, “spravedliv”,
growing above eye “chesen”.
(D) “vezha” as in “zhenata ima
ubaj vezhi” meaning “the woman faith – complete trust
has nice eyebrows”. (D) “vera” as in “taa e ot
(L) “vegja”. Risjantska vera” meaning “she is
of the Christian faith”.
eyelash – hair on edge of eyelid (L) “vera”, “poverba”, “riligija”.
(D) “kľepka” as in “chupata ima
dlgi kľepki” meaning “the young fake – thing or person that is not
lady has long eyelashes”. genuine
(L) “klepka”. (D) “mamen” as in “parcheto e
mameno” meaning “the little
coin is fake”.
F (L) “odmana”, “trik”,
“falsifikat”.
fabric – woven material
(D) “platno” as in “pľ
achki se fall - descend
prae ot platno” meaning “clothes (D) “padna” as in “ke padnish ot
are made from fabric”. kono” meaning “you will fall off
(L) “gradba”, “sklop”, “sostav”. the horse”.
(L) “pad”, “napagjanje”.
face – front of head from
forehead to chin false – wrong, incorrect
(D) “ľ itse”, “obras” and (D) “lazhen” as in “lafo nemni e
“muchka” as in “imash prepno lazhen” meaning “his word is
ľitse” meaning “you have a false”.
pretty face”, “izmisi go obrazo” (L) “lazhen”, “pogreshen”,
meaning “wash your face” and “lazhliv”.
“ne praj mutska” meaning
“don’t make a face”. family – set of parents and
(L) “litse”, “izraz”. children

56
(D) “fameľ ija” as in “jas imam (L) “mast”, “salo”.
goľema fameľ ija” meaning “I
have a big family”. father – male parent
(L) “semejstvo”. (D) “tatko” as in “sekoj eden ima
tatko i majka” meaning
famous – well known “everyone has a father and
(D) “poznat” as in “toj e poznat mother”.
vo site sela” meaning “he is (L) “tatko”.
famous in all the villages”.
(L) “slaven”, “prochuen”, fear – emotion coused by
“odlichen”. exposure to danger
(D) “stra” as in “na neo mu e
far – a great distance away stra ot vlko” meaning “he fears
(D) “daľ eku” as in “ke odam the wolf”.
daľeku” meaning “I am going (L) “strav”, “uplav”.
far”.
(L) “daleku”. feast – large meal
(D) “gozba” as in “na Bozhik ke
farm – area for growing crops imame golema gozba” meaning
(D) “zemiodel” as in “ovoj e moj “at Christmas we will have a
zemiodel” meaning “this is my great feast”.
farm”. (L) “gozba”.
(L) “polski imot”, “farma”.
feather – appendage growing
fast – rapid, quick moving from a bird’s skin
(D) “brs” as in “mojo kon e po (D) “perduf” as in “ovoj e perduf
brs ot tfojo” meaning “my horse ot sokol” meaning “this is an
is faster than yours”. eagle feather”.
(L) “brz”. (L) “pero”.

fat – containing much fat fee – sum payable to
(D) “debel” and “zgoen” as in (D) “naplata” as in “dajmiga
“jas si po debel ot tebe ama i ti si naplatata” meaning “give me my
dosta zgoen” meaning “I am fee”.
fatter than you but you are fat (L) “naplata”, “chlanarina”.
enough yourself”.
(L) “debel”, “zgoen”. feed – put food in mouth
(D) “rani” as in “rani me so ľ
ep”
fat – oily or greasy substance meaning “feed me with bread”.
found in animal bodies (L) “hrani”.
(D) “loj” as in “mesoto ima
mnogu loj, ke go naprajme salo” feed – food for animals
meaning “the meat has a lot of
fat we will make it into lard”.
57
(D) “rana” as in “claj rana za “during the festival we will have
pravdata” meaning “put feed for a feast”.
the animals”. (L) “praznik”, “svechenost”,
(L) “krma”, “hrana”. “gozba”

female – of the sex that can bear fever – abnormal high body
offspring temperature
(D) “zhentska” as in “bebeto e (D) “treska” as in “bebeto go fati
zhentsko” meaning “the baby is treska” meaning “the baby has
female”. caught a fever”.
(L) “zhena”, “zhenski”. (L) “treska”.

fence - barrier few – not many, small number,
(D) “ograda” as in “kotaro e several
ograden so trnje” meaning “the (D) “nekolku” and “troa” as in
corral has been fenced with “dajmi nekolku domati i troa
thorn trees”. piperki” meaning “give me a few
(L) “ograda”, “plot”. tomatoes and a few peppers”.
(L) “malu”, “nekolku”.
fern – a kind of flowerless plant
(D) “papra” as in “papra rasti vo field – area of open land
Slafkoa Padina” meaning “ferns (D) “niva”, “olnishche” and
grow in Slafkoa Padina”. “ornitsa” as in “vo nivata sadime
(L) “papra”. rsh, vo olnisheto sadime krtuľ i, i
vo ornitsata ne samide nishcho
fertile – producing abundance of za toa se vika ornitsa” meaning
vegetation or crops “in the field we plant rye, in the
(D) “plodno” as in “zemata vo field we plant potatoes, and in
Oshchima e mnogu plodna” that field we plant nothing that is
meaning “the soil in Oshchima is why it is called a fallow field”.
very fertile”. (L) “ramnina”, “livada”, “pole”.
(L) “ploden”, “plodoroden”.
fig – soft pear shaped fruit
fertilize – make soil fertile (D) “smokva” as in “smokvata e
(D) “ognoj” as in “gradinata se mnogu blaga” meaning “the fig
ognojva so gnoj” meaning “the is very sweet”.
garden is fertilized with (L) “smokva”.
manure”.
(L) “nagjubruva”. fight – physical struggle, war,
battle, combat
festival - celebration (D) “boj” and “borba” as in
(D) “praznik” as in “vo prazniko “starite vele ke ima boj, ke e
ke imame gozba” meaning golema borba” meaning “the old

58
are saying there will be a fight, it
will be a big fight”. fir – evergreen coniferous tree
(L) “borba”, “bitka”, “sudir”, (D) “cham” as in “toj cham e
“tepanitsa”. visok i zelen” meaning “that fir
tree is tall and green”.
fill – to make full (L) “elka”.
(D) “naplna” as in “cheshata se
naplna so voda” meaning “the fire – process of combustion
glass got filled with water”. (D) “ogan” as in “ogan gori”
(L) “napolnuva”. meaning “fire burns”.
(L) “ogan”, “plamen”, “zhar”.
filth – extreme dirt
(D) “nechista” as in “kukjata ti e fireplace – grate or hearth for
nechista” meaning “your house domestic use
is filthy”. (D) “ognishche” as in “ogan gori
(L) “nechistotija”. vo ognishcheto” meaning “fire
burns in the fireplace”.
final – at the end (L) “ognishte”, “kamin”.
(D) “posleden” as in “toj e
posleden pat sho ke ti recha” first – foremost in time
meaning “this is the final time (D) “prf” as in “ti si prf vo
that I will tell you”. nauka” meaning “you are first in
(L) “posleden”, “kraen”. learning”.
(L) “prv”, “preden”.
find - discover
(D) “najdi” as in “najdi neshcho fish – vertebrate cold blooded
ubao” meaning “find something animal with gills and fins living
good”. in water
(L) “naogja”, “otkriva”. (D) “riba” as in “ima ribi vo
rekata” meaning “there are fish
finger – any of the five terminal in the river”.
members of the hand (L) “riba”.
(D) “prst” as in “imam pet prsti
vo rakata” meaning “I have five fist – closed hand
fingers on my hand”. (D) “tupantsa” as in “zatforia
(L) “prst”. rakata i napraj tupantsa”
meaning “close your hand and
finish – bring to an end make a fist”.
(D) “dostori” and “sfrshi” as in (L) “tupantsa”.
“musikata dostori” meaning “the
music is finished” and “sfrshigo flag – material used as a
jadenjeto” meaning “finish your country’s emblem
meal”.
(L) “kraj”, “zavrshetok”.
59
(D) “zname” as in “znameto se soft between the skin and bones
vee” meaning “the flag is is called flesh”.
waving”. (L) “meso”, “telo”.
(L) “zname”.
float – rests on surface of liquid
flame – ignited gas (D) “plovi” as in “drvo plovi nat
(D) “plamen” as in “pľ
emnite se voda” meaning “wood floats on
vo plamen” meaning “the barns water”.
are in flames”. (L) “plivka”, “plovi”.
(L) “plamen”.
flock – number of sheep, goats
flash – sudden short blaze or or birds
flame (D) “buľ ug” as in “vidi, eden
(D) “lsna” as in “sfetlina lsna i buľug oftsi” meaning “look, a
rofja udri” meaning “light flock of sheep”.
flashed and lightning hit”. (L) “jato”, “tolpa”, “grupa”.
(L) “sjaj”, “bolskot”.
flood – overflowing of water
flat – horizontal, level, spread (D) “bura” as in “rekata isteche,
out se stori bura” meaning “the river
(D) “ramno” as in “mestoto e is running, it is becoming a
ramno” meaning “the place is flood”.
flat”. (L) “poplava potol”, “tek”,
(L) “ramnina”, “kat”. “navodnuva”.

flavour – mingled sensation of flour –powder made by milling
smell and taste grain
(D) “fkus” as in “nema ich fkus” (D) “brashno” as in “ľ
ep se braj
meaning “it has no taste”. ot brashno” meaning “bread is
(L) “vkus”. made from flour”.
(L) “brashno”.
flea – small winged jumping
insect feeding on blood flow – moving liquid
(D) “voshka” as in “taa ima (D) “techi” as in “voda techi”
voshki vo kosata” meaning “she meaning “water flows”.
has fleas in her hair”. (L) “tek”, “techenje”.
(L) “bolva”.
flower – part of plant from
flesh – soft substance between which fruit or seed is developed
skin and bones (D) “tsvekje” as in “edno prepno
(D) “meso” as in “toa sho e meko tsvekje za edna prepna moma”
megu kozhata i koskite se vika meaning “a pretty flower for a
meso” meaning “that which is pretty lady”.
(L) “tsvekje”.
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food – nourishment
fly – move through the air by (D) “jadenje” and “rana” as in
means of wings “dajmu jadenje da jade, ima
(D) “lita” as in “vrapcheto mozhi rana za site” meaning “give them
da lita” meaning “the bird can food to eat, there is food for
fly”. everyone”.
(L) “let”, “polet”. (L) “hrana”, “jadenje”.

fog – thick cloud of water fool – person who thinks and
droplets or smoke near earth’s acts unwisely
surface (D) “budala” as in “aide, ne se
(D) “mngla” as in “ima mngla raspraaj so nego, toj e budala”
sekade” meaning “there is fog meaning “let’s go, don’t debate
everywhere”. with him, he is a fool”.
(L) “magla”. (L) “glupav”, “budala”.

fold – bend or close over upon foot – end part of leg
itself (D) “noga” and “pacha” as in
(D) “vitka” as in “ne mia vitkaj “edna noga, dve nodzi” meaning
koshuľ ata” meaning “don’t fold “one foot, two feet” and “pachite
my shirt”. mi se vodeni” meaning “my feet
(L) “prevoj”, “pregib”. are wet”.
(L) “noga”, “taban”.
folk – people of specific class or
people in general for – in defence, support, or
(D) “ľ uge” as in “tie se moj favour of
ľuge” meaning “they are my (D) “za” as in “eden za site i site
folk”. za eden” meaning “one for all
(L) “narod”, “luge”. and all for one”.
(L) “za”, “poradi”, “dokolku”.
folklore – traditional beliefs
(D) “prikazni” as in “prikazni se forbid – order not to do things
kazve so zbor” meaning “folklore (D) “zabrani” and “sprechi” as
is told orally”. in “sprechigo neo i zabrania nea
(L) “prikaski”. da ne mozhe da si ode” meaning
“forbid him and borbid her so
follow – go or come after person they can’t leave”.
or thing preceeding ahead (L) “zabranuva”, “sprechuva”.
(D) “odi po” as in “odi po toj
choek” meaning “follow that force – strength, power, imetus
person”. (D) “sila” as in “treba sila
(L) “predruzhiva”, “odi po goľ ema da go turnish kameno”
nekogo”, “sledi”. meaning “great force is required
to push the stone”.
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(L) “sila”, “mokj”. (D) “napre” as in “samo napre
kamo fronto” meaning “only
foreign – of a country or forward towards the front”.
language other than own (L) “preden”.
(D) “chuzh” as in “toj e chuzh
choek, ne go znam” meaning “he fox – four legged animal from
is foreign person, I don’t know the dog family
him”. (D) “ľ isitsa” as in “ľisitsata ne
(L) “tugj”, “stranski”. chua kokoshki” meaning “the fox
does not guard chickens”.
forest – large area covered with (L) “lisitsa”.
trees
(D) “orman” as in “vo ormano freckle – light brown spot on
ima mnogu drva” meaning “in skin
the forest there are a lot of (D) “damka” as in “chupeto e
trees”. plno so damki” meaning “the
(L) “shuma”. girl is full of freckles”.
(L) “pega”, “damka”.
forget – not remember
(D) “zaboraj” as in “da me free – not a slave or under
prostish, zaboraj sho mi reche” control of another
meaning “forgive me, I forget (D) “sloboden” as in “toj e
what you said”. sloboden da bega” meaning “he
(L) “zaborava”, “zapostavuva”. is free to go”.
(L) “sloboden”, “nezavisen”.
forgive – cease to feel angry or
resentful towards someone freeze – turn into ice or other
(D) “prosti” as in “da me solid by cold
prostish, ne shchukna sho reche” (D) “zamrzna” as in “zamrzna ot
meaning “forgive me, I didn’t stut” meaning “I froze from the
hear what you said”. cold”.
(L) “prostava”, “izvinuva”. (L) “mrzne”.

fork – pronged implement used fresh – newly made or obtained
for eating (D) “presen” as in “baba pechi
(D) “viľ ushka” as in “meso se presen ľep” meaning “grandma
jadi so viľusjka” meaning “meat is baking fresh bread”.
is eaten with a fork”. (L) “svezh”, “presen”, “chist”.
(L) “vila”, “viljuska”.
friend – person with whom one
forward – onwards or towards enjoys mutual affection and
the front regard
(D) “priateľ” as in “ti imash eden
priateľi edna priateľ ka”
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meaning “you have a friend meaning “you will need a funnel
(male) and a friend (female)”. to pour wine into the bottle”.
(L) “priatel”. (L) “oluk”, “inka”.

frog – small smooth-skinned funny – amusing, comical
leaping amphibian without tail (D) “smeshno” as in “toa sho mi
(D) “zhaba” as in “enda zhaba, kaza e smeshno” meaning “that
dve zhabi” meaning “one frog, which you told me is funny”.
two frogs”. (L) “smeshen”.
(L) “zhaba”.
fur – hair of certain animals,
from – expressing separation of animal skin
origin, followed by person, (D) “kozha” and “vlna” as in
place, time, etc. “kozha ot koza i vlna ot oftsa”
(D) “ot” meaning “ot tuka do meaning “goat’s fur (skin) and
tamo” meaning “from here to sheep’s fur (wool)”.
there”. (L) “krzno”, “vlakno”.
(L) “od”.
further – more far in space
fry – cook in hot fat (D) “po daľ eku” as in “odi po
(D) “przhi” as in “baba przhi daľ eku” meaning “go further”.
ribi vo tigano” meaning (L) “podalechen”, “kraen”.
“grandma is frying fish in the
pan”.
(L) “przhi”. G
full – holding all its limit will gain – obtain or secure
allow (D) “kjari” as in “kjari pojke
(D) “plno” as in “tendzhereto e pari” meaning “I gained more
plno so jadenje” meaning “the money”.
pot is full with food”. (L) “dobivka”, “zarabotka”.
(L) “poli”.
game – form of play or sport
funeral – burial or cremation (D) “igra” as in “ovaa e
(D) “zakop” as in “denes se detintska igra” meaning “this is
zakopa dedomi” meaning “today a children’s game”.
is my grandfather’s funeral”. (L) “igra”, “shega”, “razonoda”.
(L) “pogreb”, “zakop”.
gap – breach in fence or wall,
funnel – narrow tube widening empty space
at the top (D) “treskotina” as in “ima
(D) “inka” as in “ke ti treba inka treskotina megu stiso i vratata”
da turish vino vo shisheto” meaning “there is a gap between
the wall and the door”.
63
(L) “puknatina”, “prodor”, “jaz”. (D) “zeva” as in “zevaj pari ot
bankata” meaning “get money
garlic – plant with pungent bulb from the bank”.
used in cooking (L) “dobiva”, “prima”.
(D) “luk” as in “ako jadish luk ke
ti smrdi duho” meaning “if you gift - present
eat garlic your breath will stink”. (D) “dar” and “podarok” as in
(L) “luk”. “ovoj dar e ot mene ti go davam
tebe ko podarok” meaning “this
garment – article of dress gift is from me I am giving it to
(D) “pľachka” as in “koshulata e you as a gift”.
pľachka” meaning “the shirt is a (L) “dar”, “podarok”.
garment”.
(L) “obleka”. girl – female child, young
wouman
gas – air like (D) “chupe” as in “malo
(D) “gas” as in “vetro e gas sho chupale, stredno chupe i goľema
dishime” meaning “the air is a chupa” meaning “small, girl,
gas we breathe”. medium girl and big girl”.
(L) “gas”. (L) “devojka”.

gate – barrier used to open or give – transfer possession
close an entrance or exit (D) “daj” as in “daj me voda da
(D) “porta” as in “portata e se napija” meaning “give me
otforena” meaning “the gate is water to drink”.
open”. (L) “dava”.
(L) “porta”, “premnik”, “vlez”.
glad - pleased
gather – bring or come together (D) “radosen” as in “si radosen
(D) “soberi” as in “odi soberi date vida” meaning “I am glad to
eden kosh jabolka” meaning “go see you”.
gather a bushel of apples”. (L) “radosen”, “zadovolen”,
(L) “sobira”. “vesel”.

gentle – not rough or severe, glance – look briefly
kind (D) “ispuľ i” and “dzirna” as in
(D) “krotok” as in “toj e krotok “taa se ispuľi kamo mene i me
choek” meaning “he is a gentle dzirna so losho oko” meaning
person”. “she glanced my way and
(L) “otmen”. glanced at me with her evil eye”.
(L) “brz pogled”.
get - receive

64
glass – hard transparent God – worshiped supernatural
substance made by fusing sand being
with soda (D) “Gosp” as in “Gospo da go
(D) “dzham” as in “ima dzham prosti” meaning “may God
vo pendzhero” meaning “there is forgive him”.
glass in the window”. (L) “Bog”.
(L) “staklo”.
gold – precious yellow metallic
gloat – look or ponder with element
greedy or malicious pleasure (D) “zlato” as in “zemata vo
(D) “se due” as in “vidigo ka se Oshchima e plna so zlato”
due” meaning “look at him meaning “the ground in
gloat”. Oshchima is full of Gold”.
(L) “gleda btrencheno”. (L) “zlato”.

glory – renown, honourable good – worthy, adequate, proper
fame (D) “dobro” and “arno” as in “ne
(D) “slava” as in “slava na beri dert, napraj dobro” meaning
Gospo” meaning “glory to God”. “don’t wory, you did good” and
(L) “slava”. “e arno toa sho go napraj”
meaning “it’s good that which
glove – hand-covering you did”.
(D) “narakfitsa” an in “klajsi (L) “dobro”, “korist”.
narakfitsa ako ti studi vo rakata”
meaning “put on a glove if your goose – webfooted bird larger
hand is cold”. than duck
(L) “narakfitsa”. (D) “gska” as in “vo Kanada ima
mnogu gski” meaning “in
glow – emit flameless light Canada there are many geese”.
(D) “sfeti” as in “zharta vo ogno (L) “guska”.
sfeti” meaning “the coals in the
fire glow”. grab – seize suddenly
(L) “sveti”, “bleska”. (D) “drpna”, “chapna” and
“grabna” as in “mi a drpna
go – start moving torbata, mi a chapna kapata i mi
(D) “odi” as in “odi doma” a grabna koshnitsata” meaning
meaning “go home”. “he grabbed my bag, he grabbed
(L) “odi”, “patuva”, “minuva”. my hat and he grabbed my
basket”.
goat – small horned ruminant (L) “sfakja”, “zgabuva”.
(D) “koza” as in “edna diva
koza” meaning “one wild goat”. grain – fruit of seed or cereal
(L) “koza”. (D) “zhito” and “zrno” as in “so
zhito se praj brashno” meaning
65
“with grain flour is made” and meaning “there are many
“edno zrno jachmen” meaning grasshoppers in the grass”.
“a grain of barley”. (L) “skakulets”
(L) “zrno”, “seme”.
gratful - thankful
grandfather – male grandparent (D) “blagodaren” as in “si
(D) “dedo” as in “dedo mi mnogu blagodaren za pomoshta”
kazhva prikazni” meaning “my meaning “I am grateful for the
grandfather tells me stories”. help”.
(L) “dedo”. (L) “blagodaren”, “priaten”.

grandmother – female grave – hole dug for burial
grandparent (D) “grop” as in “grop e dupka
(D) “baba” as in “baba praj vo zemata” meaning “a grave is
zelnik” meaning “my a hole in the ground”.
grandmother is making zelnik”. (L) “grob”.
(L) “baba”.
gravel – coarse sand and small
grandson – male grandchild stones
(D) “mnuk” as in “baba ima dve (D) “ajľik” as in “zameshaj
mnuchina, mnuk i mnuka” pesok, ajľik i chimento”
meaning “grandma has two meaning “mix sand, gravel and
grandchildren, a grandson and a cement”.
granddaughter”. (L) “krupen pesok”.
(L) “vnuk”.
gravestone – stone marking
grape – green, purple or black grave
fruit growing on vine (D) “pametnik” as in “nat grobo
(D) “grozje” as in “vino se praj ima pametnik” meaning “on the
ot grozje” meaning “wine is grave there is a gravestone”.
made from grapes”. (L) “nadgrobna plocha”.
(L) “grozje”, “grozd”.
graze – eat grass
grass – any group of wild low (D) “pasi” as in “magareto pasi
lying plants with green blades vo gradinata” meaning “the
(D) “treva” as in “oftsite pase donkey is grazing in the garden”.
treva” meaning “the sheep graze (L) “pase”.
on grass”.
(L) “treva”. great – of size or amount
(D) “goľ em” as in “toj e goľem
grasshopper – jumping insect choek” meaning “he is a great
(D) “skakuľ
ets” as in “ima person”.
mnogu skakuľ tsi vo trevata” (L) “golem”, “slaven”,
“znachaen”.
66
grind – crush to small particles,
greed – excessive desire produce flour
(D) “lakomstvo” as in “toj ima (D) “meľ i” as in “brashno se
golemo lakomstvo” meaning “he meľi vo vodentsata” meaning
has much greed”. “flour is ground in the mill”.
(L) “alchnost”, “kopnezh”. (L) “mele”, “drobi”, “chkrta”.

greedy – showing greed grip – grasp tightly
(D) “lakom” as in “toj e lakom (D) “stegni” as in “stegni mi ga
choek” meaning “he is a greedy rakata” meaning “grip my
person”. hand”.
(L) “alchen”. (L) “stisok”, “drzhenje”.

Greek – of Greece groom - bridegroom
(D) “Grk” as in “toj e Grk, taa e (D) “zet” as in “toj e zet,
Grkina, tie se Grtsi” meaning mladozhents” meaning “he is a
“he is Greek, she is Greek, they groom, newly wed”.
are Greek”. (L) “mladozhenets”.
(L) “Grk”.
ground – surface of the earth
green – a colour between blue (D) “zemja” as in “zemjata e
and yellow zamrznata” meaning “the ground
(D) “zeleno” as in “trevata i is frozen”.
ľisjeto se zeleni” meaning “the (L) “zemja”.
grass and leaves are green”.
(L) “zeleno”, “zelena boja”. group – number of people or
things close together
greet – address politely (D) “sobrani zaedno” as in “ľ
uge
(D) “pozdravi” as in “pozdravi gi sobrani zaedno” meaning “a
mojte priateli za mene” meaning group of people”.
“greet my friends for me”. (L) “grupa”, “sobira”.
(L) “pozdravuva”.
grouse – game bird with
grey – a colour between black feathered feet
and white (D) “jarembitsa” as in
(D) “sivo” as in “kosata na starjo “jarembitsata se lovi” meaning
mu e siva” meaning “the old “the grouse is hunted”.
man’s hair is grey”. (L) “erebitsa”.

grief – deep or intense sorrow grow – increase in size
(D) “zhaľ ” as in “mu e mnogy (D) “rasti” as in “drvoto rasti”
zhaľ” meaning “grief striken”. meaning “the tree grows”.
(L) “bol”, “taga”, “zhalost”. (L) “raste”.

67
growl – natural sound of anger gypsum – mineral used to make
(D) “grti” as in “kucheto grti” plaster
meaning “the dog growls”. (D) “gipso” as in “stiso e mazhen
(L) “rzhi”, “mrmori”. so gipso” meaning “the wall is
coated with gypsum”.
guess - estimate (L) “gips”.
(D) “protseni” as in “aide,
protseni, kazhimi kolku e?” gypsy – member of a wondering
meaning “let’s go, guess, tell me dark-skinned people
how much is it?”. (D) “gjuptin” as in “toj e
(L) “protsena”, “zakluchok”. gjuptin” meaning “he is a
gypsy”.
guest – person invited to visit (L) “gjuptin”.
(D) “gostin” as in “toj mi e moj
gostin” meaning “he is my
guest”.
(L) “gostin”.
H
hail – pellets of frozen rain
guilt – feeling of culpability (D) “grat” as in “vrni losh grat”
(D) “grej” as in “go fati grej meaning “it is raining bad hail”.
zashcho e krif” meaning “he feels (L) “grad”.
guilt because he is guilty”.
(L) “vina”, “grev”. hair – fine thread-like strands
growing from skin
gun – any kind of missile firing (D) “kosa”, “vlakno” and “vlna”
weapon as in “imash ubaa kosa na
(D) “pushka” as in “askero nosi glaata” meaning “you have nice
pushki” meaning “the soldiers hair on your head”, “najdu edno
carry guns”. vlakno” meaning “I found a
(L) “pushka”, “top”, “revolver”. strand of hair” and “oftsite ime
krľudzhaa vlna” meaning “sheep
gunpowder – explosive powder have curly hair”.
(D) “barut” as in “barut gori (L) “kosa”, “vlakno”.
brzo” meaning “gunpowder
burns fast”. half – one part of something
(L) “barut”. divided in two
(D) “polojna” as in “toj ti e
gut – intestines, bowels polojna brat” meaning “he is
(D) “mej” as in “imam golem your half brother”.
mej i me boli” meaning “I have a (L) “polovina”.
big gut and it hurts me”.
(L) “tsrevo”, “utroba”. hammer – tool with heavy end
for pounding

68
(D) “chekan” as in “ke ti treba “I am very happy to have met
chekan da koesh shajki” you”.
meaning “you will need a (L) “srekjen”, “zadovolen”,
hammer to nail nails”. “vesel”.
(L) “chekan”.
hard - firm
hand – end part of human arm (D) “jak” as in “kastitsata ima
beyond wrist jaka ľupka” meaning “the walnut
(D) “raka” as in “edna raka, dve has a hard shell”.
ratsi” meaning “one hand, two (L) “tvrd”.
hands”.
(L) “raka”. harm - damage
(D) “zian” as in “ne jadi divi
handle – part by which thing is pechurki, ke ti naprae zian”
held meaning “don’t eat wild
(D) “rachka” as in “fatio mushrooms, they will cause you
chekano za rachkata” meaning harm”.
“take the hammer by the (L) “shteta”, “povreda”, “zlo”.
handle”.
(L) “rachka”. harvest – gathering in of crops
(D) “soberva” as in “vo esen se
handsome – good-looking soberva plodo” meaning “in the
(D) “ubaf” as in “a sho ubaf si” fall the crops are harvested”.
meaning “oh how handsome you (L) “zhetva”, “berva”, “plod”.
are”.
(L) “ubav”, “priaten”, hat – cover for the head
“blagoroden”. (D) “shapka” and “kapa” as in
“jas imam mnogu shapki i kapi”
hang – cause thing to be meaning “I have many hats and
supported from above caps (hats)”.
(D) “visi” and “obesi” as in (L) “sheshir”, “palarija”.
“obesigo da visi” meaning “hang
it so it will hang”. hate – dislike greatly
(L) “obesuva”, “visi”. (D) “pizma” as in “jas ne te
pizma” meaning “I don’t hate
happen - occur you”.
(D) “se stori” as in “toa sho se (L) “omraza”, “mrazi”.
stori, se stori” meaning “that
which happened, happened”. have – hold in possession
(L) “se sluchuva”. (D) “ima” as in “jas imam, ti
imash, toj ima, nie imame, vie
happy – showing pleasure imate, tie ime” meaning “I have,
(D) “radosen” as in “si mnogu you have, he has, we have, you
radosen sho te stretna” meaning have, they have”.
69
(L) “ima”. (D) “kup” as in “imam eden kup
krtuľi” meaning “I have a heap
haven’t – have not of potatoes”.
(D) “nema” as in “jas nemam (L) “tolpa”.
nishcho” meaning “I have
nothing”. hear – listen, perceive with the
(L) “nema”. ear
(D) “shchuka” as in “toj shchuka
hawk – bird of prey with sho velish” meaning “he hears
rounded wings what you are saying”.
(D) “orľ e” as in “orľeto lita brzo (L) “slusha”.
i nisko” meaning “the hawk flies
fast and low”. heart – organ maintaining blood
(L) “sokol”. circulation
(D) “srtse” as in “srtseto mi bie”
he – male, man, boy, etc. meaning “my heart is pounding”.
(D) “toj” as in “toj e aren choek” (L) “srtse”.
meaning “he is a good person”.
(L) “toj”. heartburn – burning sensation
in chest
head – upper part of human (D) “zhegojna” as in “me gori
body above neck zhegojna” meaning “I have a
(D) “glaa” as in “toj ima golema burning heartburn”.
glaa” meaning “he has a big
head”. heat – being hot
(L) “glava”. (D) “goreshchina” as in “na utro
e toplo a na ruchok e
heal – become healthy goreshchina” meaning “in the
(D) “uzdraj” and “ľ ekva” as in morning it’s warm and at noon
“boľ ata uzdraj” meaning “the it’s hot”.
wound healed” and “boľ ata se (L) “zheshtina”, “toplina”.
izľekva so biľka” meaning “the
wound is healed with medicine”. heavy – of great weight
(L) “lekuva”, “se izlekuva”. (D) “teshko” as in “ne mozha da
o krena e teshko” meaning “I
health – state of being well can’t lift it, it’s heavy”.
(D) “zdravje” as in “zdravjeto e (L) “tezhok”.
mnogu vazhno na zhivotta”
meaning “health is very hedgehog – small mammal with
important to life”. thick coat of spines
(L) “zdravje”. (D) “ezh” as in “ezho e pokrien
so trnje” meaning “the hedgehog
heap – number of things lying is covered with spines”.
on one another (L) “ezh”.
70
(D) “tuka” as in “ke me najdish
heel – back part of foot below tuka” meaning “you will find me
ankle here”.
(D) “peta” as in “chorapo mi e (L) “ovde”, “tuka”, “vamu”,
dupen na petata” meaning “my “ovdeka”, “ete”, “eve”.
sock has a hole at the heel”.
(L) “petitsa”. hide – put or keep out of sight
(D) “krie” as in “toj se krie”
height – measurement from base meaning “he is hiding”.
to top (L) “krie”.
(D) “visochina” as in “megu
koreno i vro drvoto ima dosta high – of great upward extent
visochina” meaning “between (D) “visok” as in “planinata e
the root and the top the tree has visoka” meaning “the mountain
considerable height”. is high”.
(L) “visina”. (L) “visok”, “golem”.

hell – place or state of misery hill – natural elevation of ground
(D) “pekol” as in “goreshchi leta (D) “rit” as in “nema drva na
se pekol” meaning “hot summers rido” meaning “there are no
are hell”. trees on the hill”.
(L) “pekol”. (L) “rid”, “ritche”.

help – provide with assistance hip – projection formed by
(D) “pomosh” as in “mi treba pelvis
pomosh” meaning “I need help”. (D) “klk” as in “klko me boľ
i”
(L) “pomosh”. meaning “my hip is hurting”.
(L) “bedor”, “kolk”.
hen – female bird
(D) “kokoshka” as in history – continuous record of
“kokoshkata snese jajtse” events
meaning “the hen layed an egg”. (D) “istorija” as in “istorija na
(L) “kokoshka”. Makedonija” meaning “history of
Macedonia”.
herd – a number of sheep or (L) “istorija”.
other animals together
(D) “buľ ug” and “surja” as in hit – strike with blow or missile
“eden buľug oftsi i enda surja (D) “udri” as in “udri go so
voloj” meaning “a herd of sheep stapo” meaning “hit him with the
and a herd of oxen”. stick”.
(L) “stado”, “surija”. (L) “udar”.

here – in or at this place hive – box for housing bees

71
(D) “uľ ishche” as in “vo (D) “met” as in “ovoj e mnogu
uľishcheto ima met” meaning blak met” meaning “this is very
“in the hive there is honey”. sweet honey”.
(L) “koshnitsa”, “roj”. (L) “med”.

hog – castrated male pig honour – nobleness of mind
(D) “sfinja” as in “taa e debela (D) “ches” as in “dajte mu ches
sfinja” meaning “that’s a fat na toj choek” meaning “honour
hog”. that person”.
(L) “svinja”, “vepar”, “brav”. (L) “chest”, “pochituvanje”.

hold – keep fast in one’s hands, hope – expectation and desire
arms, etc, grasp (D) “nadesh” as in “se nadevam
(D) “drzhi” as in “drzhi go da ne oti ke ga naprajsh rabotata”
padni” meaning “hold him so meaning “I hope you will do the
that he will not fall”. job”.
(L) “drzhenje”, “fakjanje”. (L) “nadesh”.

hole – cavity in solid body horn – hard out growth, often
(D) “dupka” as in “dupi enda curved and pointed, from head of
dupka” meaning “poke a hole”. animal
(L) “dupka”, “jama”. (D) “rok” as in “toj vol ima samo
eden rok” meaning “that ox has
holy – belonging to or devoted to only one horn”.
God (L) “rog”, “horna”.
(D) “posfeten” as in “posfetena
majka na Gospo” meaning “holy horse – large animal used for
mother of God”. riding or pulling cart
(L) “svetina”, “svet”, “posveten”. (D) “kon” as in “kono trcha
brzo” meaning “the horse runs
home – place where one lives fast”.
(D) “doma” as in “ojsi doma” (L) “konj”.
meaning “go home”.
(L) “kukja”, “dom”, “tatkovina”. hot – high temperature
(D) “goreshcho” as in “sntseto e
honest – fair and sincere in toplo na utro i goreshcho na
character and behaviour ruchok” meaning “the sun is
(D) “chesen” as in “toj e chesen warm in the morning and hot at
choek” meaning “he is an honest noon”.
person”. (L) “zhezhok”, “topol”.
(L) “chesen”, “prav”, “iskren”.
hot – spice causing sensation of
honey – sweet sticky fluid made heat
by bees
72
(D) “ľuto” as in “piperkite se (D) “glados” as in “ke umra ot
ľuti” meaning “the peppers are glados” meaning “I will die of
hot”. hunger”.
(L) “luto”. (L) “glad”.

hour – sixty minutes hunt – pursue wild game for
(D) “saat” as in “eden saat ima sport or food
sheese minuti” meaning “an hour (D) “lof” as in “utre ke ojme po
has sixty minutes”. lof” meaning “tomorrow we will
(L) “chas”, “saat”. go hunting”.
(L) “lov”
house – building for human
habitation hunter – one who hunts
(D) “kukja” as in “mojta kukja” (D) “lovdzhija” as in
meaning “my house”. “lovdzhijata odi po lof” meaning
(L) “dom”, “kukja”. “the hunter is going hunting”.
(L) “lovets”.
how – in what way
(D) “ka” as in “ka se mozhi hurry – great haste
taka?” meaning “how can that (D) “vjasaj se” and “brzaj se”
be?”. meaning “vjasaj se da oime po
(L) “kako”, “na koj nachin”. rano” meaning “hurry so we can
go earlier” and “brzaj se napraj
howl – cry of a dog or wolf ruchok po brzo” meaning “hurry
(D) “vie” as in “vlko vie kucheto make lunch faster”.
se krie” meaning “the wolf is (L) “itanje”, “brzanje”.
howling, the dog is hiding”.
(L) “vie”, “zaviva”. husband – married man
(D) “msh” as in “toj e msh na
hug – hold closely in one’s arms taa zhena” meaning “he is
(D) “zgrabi” as in “zgrabi go ti e husband to this woman”.
brat” meaning “hug him he is (L) “mazh”, “soprug”.
your brother”.
(L) “pregrnuva”. hut – small, simple, crude house
(D) “kaľ iva” as in “letoto
humid – damp air ofcharo spie vo kaliva” meaning
(D) “vlazhno” as in “denes “in the summer the shepheard
vremeto e vlazhno” meaning sleeps in a hut”.
“today the weather is humid”. (L) “koliba”, “baraka”.
(L) “vlazhen”, “voden”.

hunger – pain caused by want of
food
I
I – of first person singular
73
(D) “jas” as in “jas si choek” ill - sick
meaning “I am a person”. (D) “boľ en” as in “e boľen, go
(L) “jas”. boľ i glaata” meaning “is sick,
has a headache”.
ice – frozen water (L) “bolen”.
(D) “mras” as in “rekata
zamrzna i vodata se stori mras” illness – ill health
meaning “the river froze and the (D) “boľ es” as in “taa ima losha
water turned to ice”. boľ es” meaning “she has a bad
(L) “mraz”. illness”.
(L) “boles”.
icon – sacred painting
(D) “ikona” as in “ima mnogu immature – not mature, unripe
ikoni vo tsrkvata” meaning (D) “nerazvien” as in “ne ftasani
“there are many icons in the jabolka se nerazvieni” meaning
church”. “unripe apples are immature”.
(L) “lik”, “kip”, “ikona”. (L) “nezrel”, “nerazvien”,
“nesovrshen”.
idea – plan or scheme formed by
thinking important – of great effect
(D) “misľ a” as in “imam edna (D) “vazhno” as in “toa za mene
golema misľa za sfadba” e vazhno” meaning “that for me
meaning “I have a great idea for is important”.
a festival”. (L) “vazhen”, “znachaen”.
(L) “misla”, “ideja”.
impossible – not possible
identical – one and the same (D) “nemozhi” as in “toa
(D) “ednakov” as in “nie imame nemozhi da se stori” meaning
ednakov krľ uk” meaning “we “that is impossible to happen”.
have an identical staff”. (L) “nemozhen”.
(L) “identichen”, “ist”.
impoverish – make poor
ignite – set fire to (D) “se osiromashi” as in “se
(D) “zapaľ i” as in “zapaľi go osiromashi ot daanje” meaning
ogno” meaning “ignite the fire”. “became impoverished from
(L) “zapaluva”, “se zharuva”. giving”.
(L) “osiromashuva”.
ignorant – lacking knowledge,
uninformed improve – make or become
(D) “neuchen” as in “toj e better
neuchen, znae nishcho” meaning (D) “se podobri” as in “se
“he is ignorant, knows nothing”. podobri so znaenje” meaning
(L) “neuk”. “improved with knowledge”.
(L) “se podobruva”.
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(L) “lichen”, “individualen”,
in – expressing inclusion “zaseben”.
(D) “vo” “ke se vrna vo edna
nedeľ a” meaning “I will return infant – child during early
in a week”. period in life
(L) “vnatre”, “megju”, “sred”, (D) “detentse” as in “toa e mlado
“na”, “od”, “za”. detentse” meaning “that is a
young infant”.
include – put in certain category (L) “dete”.
(D) “vkľ uchi” as in “ke te
vkľucha i tebe vo istata rabota inflate – distend with air
so nego” meaning “I will include (D) “naduj” as in “naduj go
you in the same job with him”. trkaloto na bajsiko” meaning
(L) “vkluchuva”, “sodrzhi”. “inflate the bicycle tire”.
(L) “naduva”.
increase – become or make
greater or more inhabit - occupy
(D) “zgoľ emi” as in “ka ke (D) “zhivi” as in “toj zhivi vo
mozha da gi zgoľema parite?” golema kukja” meaning “he
meaning “how can I increase my inhabits a big house”.
money?”. (L) “zhivee”, “naseluva”.
(L) “porast”, “zlolemuvanje”.
inhale – breathe in
incubate – hatch eggs by sitting (D) “zadishi” as in “zadishi i
on them izdishi” meaning “inhale and
(D) “kfachi” as in “kokoshkata exhale”.
kfachi jajtsa” meaning “the hen (L) “vdishuva”.
is incubating eggs”.
(L) “lezhi na jajtsa”. ink – black or coloured fluid
used for writing and printing
indicate – point out, make (D) “murege” as in “pishi pismo
known so perduf i murege” meaning
(D) “najavi” as in “najavi koj e “write a letter with a feather and
toj choek” meaning “indicate ink”.
which one is the person”. (L) “mastilo”.
(L) “najavuva”, “inditsira”,
“ukazhuva”. in-laws – relatives by marriage
(D) “sfekor” and “sfekrva” as in
individual – single, particular “sfekor i sfekrva” meaning
(D) “zasebe” as in “sekoj eden si “father-in-law and mother-in-
beri gajle zasebesi” meaning law”.
“everyone is worried for their (L) “svekor”, “svekorva”.
individual self”.
inn – house providing lodging
75
(D) “an” as in “vo ano” meaning
“in the inn”. instruct - teach
(L) “gostilnitsa”. (D) “uchi” as in “uchi gi
dechinata da pee” meaning
insane – not sane, mad “instruct the boys to read”.
(D) “lut” as in “toj e lut, jadi (L) “uchi”, “pouchuva”,
mnogu ľ ut luk” meaning “he is “upatuva”.
insane, he eats very hot garlic”.
(L) “lud”, “nerazbran”. insult - offend
(D) “navreda” as in “ne go
inside – inner side or part navredvaj choeko” meaning
(D) “vnatre” as in “vnatre i “don’t insult the person”.
nadvor” meaning “inside and (L) “navreda”.
out”.
(L) “vnatre”, “odnatre”. intelligent – quickness of
understanding
insist - demand (D) “umen” as in “toj e umen,
(D) “nastojava” as in “toj znae mnogu raboti” meaning “he
nastojava ne go napraj” is intelligent, knows many
meaning “he insists he didn’t do things”.
it”. (L) “razumen”, “umen”.
(L) “nastojava”, “tvrdi”,
“insistira”. interest – concern or curiosity
(D) “vnimanje” as in “ne mu
inspect - examine dava vnimanje” meaning “has
(D) “pregledva” as in “toj ga no interest”.
pregledva mashinata ushche (L) “vnimanje”, “korist”.
ednash” meaning “he is
inspecting the machine one more interpret – explain foreign
time”. words
(L) “pregleduva”, “ispituva”. (D) “prevedi” as in “prevedi
Makedontski na Anglitski”
instant - immediate meaning “interpret Macedonian
(D) “sega” as in “sakam jadenje to English”.
sega” meaning “I want my food (L) “tolkuva”, “protolkuva”,
this instant”. “preveduva”.
(L) “segashen”, “moment”,
“chas”. intersection – place where two
roads cross
instead – in place of (D) “raskrsnitsa” as in “dva
(D) “na mesto” as in “dajmio toa patoj grede na raskrsnitsa”
na mesto ot ova” meaning “give meaning “two roads come to an
me that instead of this”. intersection”.
(L) “na mesto”. (L) “raskrsnitsa”.
76
(D) “japi” as in “rakata me japi,
intestine – lower part of ke zevam pari” meaning “my
alimentary canal hand is itchy, I will receive
(D) “tsereo” as in “tsereata se vo money”.
mejo” meaning “the intestines (L) “jade”, “jadezh”,
are in the abdomen”. “cheshanje”.
(L) “tsreva”, “utroba”.

introduce – make known by
name to another
J
(D) “zapozna” as in “ostajme da Jackass – male ass
te zapoznam so gostite” meaning (D) “magare” as in “magareto e
“let me introduce you to the aren pomozhnik za nosenje drva”
guests”. meaning “the jackass is a good
(L) “voveduva”, “pretstavuva”, helper in carrying loads of
“zapoznava”, “iznesuva”. wood”.
(L) “magare”.
invite – ask person to come
(D) “pokani” as in “pokani go jacket – sleeved short outer
priateľo” meaning “invite your garment
friend”. (D) “kuso palto” as in “vo esen
(L) “povikuva”. se nosi kuso palto” meaning “in
the fall one wears a jacket”.
iron – metallic element (L) “navlaka”.
(D) “zheľezo” meaning “jako ko
zheľezo” meaning “hard like jaw – bone containg the teeth
iron”. (D) “vilitsa” as in “ima gorna i
(L) “zhelezo”. dolna vilitsa” meaning “there is
an upper and a lower jaw”.
island – piece of land surrounded (L) “vilitsa”.
by water
(D) “ostrof” as in “ima ostrof vo jay – noisy European bird
maloto Prespantsko ezero” (D) “sojka” as in “sojkata zhivi
meaning “there is an island in vo drvata” meaning “the jay lives
little Prespa lake”. in the trees”.
(L) “ostrov”. (L) “sojka”.
it – the thing jelly – soft stiffish semi-
(D) “toa” as in “toa e moe” transparent food made from
meaning “it is mine”. boiling pig’s feet
(L) “toa”, “ona”. (D) “piftia” as in “piftia se praj
ot varanje bishkoj pachi”
itch – irritation in skin meaning “jelly is made by
boiling pig’s feet”.
77
(L) “peljte”, “pacha”. (L) “skoka”.

job – piece of work just – acting or doing in
(D) “rabota” as in “naprajmi accordance with what’s morally
edna mala rabota” meaning “do right
a small job for me”. (D) “tokmu” as in “toa sho go
(L) “sluzhba”, “rabota”. napraj e tokmu” meaning “that
which you did is just”.
joint – place at which two things (L) “tokmu”, “pravelen”.
join
(D) “gľ uzh” as in “gľuzhojte na
prstite me boľe” meaning “the
joints on my fingers hurt”.
K
(L) “sostav”, “mesto na keep – retain possession
spojuvanje”. (D) “drzhi” as in “drzhi go, e
tfoe” meaning “keep it, it’s
joke - jest yours”.
(D) “smeshka” as in “kazhini (L) “drzhi”, “chuva”.
edna smeshka” meaning “tell us
a joke”. keg – small kask or barrel
(L) “shega”. (D) “boche” as in “dedo drzhi
vino vo bocheto” meaning
joy - gladness “grandpa keeps wine in the keg”.
(D) “rados” as in “mi donese (L) “burentse”, “bochventse”.
rados” meaning “you brought me
joy”. kerchief – square cloth used to
(L) “radost”, “veselba”. cover head
(D) “shamija” as in “zhenata
jug – vessel with handle for nosi shamija na glaata” meaning
holding and pouring liquid “the woman wears a kerchief on
(D) “grne” as in “naplnio grneto her head”.
so vino” meaning “fill the jug (L) “shamivche”.
with wine”.
(L) “grne”, “bokal”. kettle – vessel with handle for
boiling water
juice – liquid content of fruit (D) “kotľ e” as in “voda se vari
(D) “sok” as in “sok ot portokal” vo kotľeto” meaning “water is
meaning “orange juice”. boiling in the kettle”.
(L) “sok”. (L) “lonets”, “kotel”.
jump – move up off ground key – instrument for moving bolt
(D) “skokni” as in “skokni ot of lock
kamen na kamen” meaning
“jump from rock to rock”.
78
(D) “kľuch” as in “otkľ
uchi
vratata so kľucho” meaning king – male sovereign
“unlock the door with a key”. (D) “tsar” as in “Aleksandar
(L) “kluch”. beshe tsar na Makedonija”
meaning “Alexander was king of
kick – thrust out with foot or Macedonia”.
hoof (L) “kral”.
(D) “klotsni” as in “chuajse kono
da ne te klotsni” meaning kiss – touch given with lips
“protect yourself so the horse (D) “batsi” as in “batsi me”
doesn’t kick you”. meaning “kiss me”.
(L) “udar so noga”, “klotsanje”. (L) “baknezh”.

kid – young goat kitten – young of cat
(D) “jare” as in “jare e mlada (D) “matse” as in “edno malo
koza” meaning “a kid is a young matse” meaning “a small kitten”.
goat”. (L) “mache”.
(L) “jare”.
knee – joint between thigh and
kidney – glandular organ in lower leg
abdominal cavity (D) “koľ eno” as in “si go udri
(D) “bubreg” as in “eden koľ enoto” meaning “I bumped
bubreg, dva bubredzi” meaning my knee”.
“one kidney, two kidneys”. (L) “koleno”.
(L) “bubreg”.
knife – cutting instrument
kill – deprive of life (D) “nosh” as in “se poseku so
(D) “umori” as in “chuajse da ne nozho” meaning “I cut myself
te umori nekoj” meaning with the knife”.
“protect yourself so that (L) “nosh”.
someone doesn’t kill you”.
(L) “ubiva”, “koli”, “unishtuva”. knitting – work being knitted
(D) “pleti”, “vezi” as in “baba
kin – one’s relative or family pleti chorapi i majka vezhi
(D) “rodnina” as in “tie ľuge mi shamiche” meaning “grandma is
se rodnina” meaning “those knitting socks and mother is
people are my kin”. knitting a bandanna”.
(L) “rodnina”. (L) “plete”, “veze”.

kind – gentle or benevolent knock – strike with audible
(D) “dobar” as in “toj e dobar sharp blow
tatko” meaning “he is a good (D) “chuka” and “ropa” as in
father”. “ropa poleka i setne chuka so
(L) “dobar”.
79
sila” meaning “knocks slowly lady – woman of good social
and then knocks hard”. standing
(L) “chuka”, “udira”, “tepa”. (D) “gospodja” as in
“gospodjata nosi kozheno palto”
knot – to fasten together rope or meaning “the lady is wearing a
string fur coat”.
(D) “gresh” as in “vrzi ga (L) “dama”, “gospogja”.
fortomate in napraj gresh”
meaning “tie the rope and make lake – extra large expance of
a knot”. water
(L) “jazol”, “klopche”, “vrzuva”. (D) “ezero” as in “Prespantskoto
ezero ima ostrof” meaning
know – have learnt “Prespa Lake has an island”.
(D) “znam” as in “jas zmam, ti (L) “ezero”.
znaesh, toj znae, nie znaeme, vie
znaete, tie znae” meaning “I lamb – young of sheep
know, you know, he knows, we (D) “jagne” as in “oftsata rodi
know, you know, they know”. jagne” meaning “the sheep gave
(L) “znae”, “razbira”. birth to a lamb”.
(L) “jagne”.

L lame – disabled, unable to walk
(D) “kuts” and “sakat” as in “toj
labour - work e kuts nogata ne mu rabota”
(D) “rabota” as in “rabotam tsel meaning “he is lame, his leg
den” meaning “I labour all day”. doesn’t work” and “toj e sakat,
(L) “rabota”, “trud”, “napor”. se ranosa vo bojo” meaning “he
is lame, he was wounded in the
ladder – used for climbing up war”.
and down on things (L) “sakat”, “kriv”.
(D) “skaľ e” as in “vjani na
chatiata po skaľeto” meaning lamp – device or vessel for
“climb to the roof on the ladder”. giving light
(L) “skala”. (D) “lamba” and “kandilo” as in
“lambata mu dava sfetlo na tsela
ladle – deep long handled spoon odaa” meaning “the lamp lights
(D) “lajtsa za tsrpenje” as in up the entire room” and
“turisi chorba sa lajtsa za “kandiloto dava troa sfetlo za
tsrpenje” meaning “pour koga nekoj bara neshcho
yourself soup with a ladle”. noshiata” meaning “the lamp
(L) “meshalka”, “golema gives little light for when
lazhitsa”. someone is looking for
something in the night”.
(L) “lamba”, “svetilka”.
80
(L) “golem”.
land – solid part of earth’s
surface last – after all others
(D) “zemija” and “kraj” as in (D) “posľ eden” as in “toj e
“ovaa e moja zemija” meaning posľeden da bega” meaning “he
“this is my land” and “jas si is last to leave”.
dojden ot daľ echen kraj” (L) “posleden”, “zaden”,
meaning “I have come from a far “minat”.
away land”.
(L) “zemja”, “kopno”, “suvo”, latch – bar with catch and lever
“kraj”, “tatkovona”. as fastening of gate
(D) “klapa” as in “klajga klapata
language – words and their use na vratata” meaning “apply the
(D) “jazic” as in “toj sborva eden latch to the door”.
jazik, taa sborba dva jazitsi” (L) “kvaka”, “reze”, “rachka na
meaning “he speaks one vrata”.
language, she speaks two
languages”. laugh – expressing lively
(L) “jazik”, “govor”. amusement by sound
(D) “se smee” as in “ne znam
lantern – transparent case zashcho toj se smee” meaning “I
holding a light and shielding it don’t know why he is laughing”.
(D) “fener” as in “fenero se nosi (L) “smea”, “veselost”, “se
va raka” meaning “the lantern is smee”.
carried in hand”.
(L) “fener”, “lamba”. lavatory – receptacle for urine
and faeces
lap – front from waist to knees (D) “aľe” as in “vo Oshchima
(D) “skut” as in “imam kuche vo aľinata se nadvor” meaning “in
skuto” meaning “I have a dog in Oshchima the lavatories are
my lap”. outside”.
(L) “skut”. (L) “nuzhnik”, “peralna”.

lard – pig fat law – rule enacted
(D) “salo” as in “baba przhi (D) “zakon” as in “za sfe ima
krtuľi vo salo” meaning zakon” meaning “for everything
“grandma is frying potatoes in there is a law”.
lard”. (L) “zakon”.
(L) “mast”.
lawn – piece of grass kept mown
large – considerable or relatively and smooth
great size or extent (D) “treva” as in “aide odi
(D) “goľ em” as in “goľem ogan” poadia trevata” meaning “go
meaning “large fire”. water the lawn”.
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(L) “ledinska”, “zelena treva”. (D) “uchi” as in “uchi se da
pishish” meaning “learn to
lazy – doing little work write”.
(D) “ajľas” as in “toj e aiľ
as, ne (L) “uchi”, “nauchuva”.
mu se rabota” meaning “he is
lazy, doesn’t want to work”. leave – go away
(L) “mrza”. (D) “begaj” as in “begaj ot tuka”
meaning “leave from here”.
lead – a heavy gray soft metallic (L) “zaminuva”.
element
(D) “oloo” as in “e teshko ko leek – vegetable of onion family
oloo” meaning “is heavy like (D) “pras” as in “majka pechi
lead”. zelnik so pras” meaning “mother
(L) “olovo”. is baking zelnik with leeks”.
(L) “praz”.
leader – person or thing that
leads left – on or towards the west side
(D) “vodach” as in “vodacho go of the human body when facing
vodi askero na vojna” meaning north
“the leader is leading the (D) “ľ evo” as in “na
soldiers to war”. raskrsnitsata sfrti na ľevo”
(L) “rakovoditel”, “vodach”. meaning “at the crossroad turn
left”.
leaf – green part of plant (L) “lev”.
(D) “ľ ist” as in “ľisto e zelen,
ľisieto padve na esen” meaning left - departed
“the leaf is green, the leaves fall (D) “izbega” as in “izbega ot
in the fall”. doma” meaning “left home”.
(L) “list”. (L) “zamina”.

leak – hole through which liquid leg – each of the limbs on which
passes a person or animal stands or
(D) “techi” as in “voda techi ot walks
edno malo dupche” meaning (D) “noga” as in “edna noga,
“water leaks from a small hole”. dve nodzi” meaning “one leg,
(L) “teche”. two legs”.
(L) “noga”.
lean – thin not fat
(D) “slap” as in “toj e slap a taa length – measurement of extent
e po slaba” meaning “he is lean end to end
and she is leaner”. (D) “dlzhina” as in “meria
(L) “suv”, “slab”. dlzhinata, kolku e dlgo?”
meaning “measure the length,
learn – gain knowledge of how long is it?”
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(L) “dolzhina”, “dalechina”. liberate – release, set at liberty
(D) “oslobodi” as in “da
leper – person with leprosy oslobodime Makedonija”
(D) “krastaf” as in “se repa ko meaning “to liberate
krastaf” meaning “is scraching Macedonia”.
himself like a leper”. (L) “osloboduva”.
(L) “gubavets”, “krastav”.
lick – pass tongue over
less – smaller in size (D) “ľ izni” as in “aide ľizni troa
(D) “po troa” as in “dajmu po met, medo e za ľ izhenje”
troa” meaning “give him less”. meaning “go ahead lick some
(L) “pomal”. honey, the honey is for licking”.
(L) “lizhe”.
let – allow or enable
(D) “pushchi” as in “pushchio lie – assume horizontal position
neka bega” meaning “let him go (D) “ľ egni” as in “ľegni dolu da
he can leave”. ne padnish” meaning “lie down
(L) “pushta”. so you won’t fall”.
(L) “legnuva”.
letter – any of the symbols
representing sounds lie – make false statement
(D) “bukva” as in “ ‘a’ e bukva” (D) “mami” as in “toj ne e veren,
meaning “ ‘a’ is a letter”. mnugu mami” meaning “he is
(L) “bukva”. not reliable, he lies a lot”.
(L) “lazhe”.
letter – inscription as in inscribe
letters on life – capacity for growth, state
(D) “pismo” as in “zve pismo ot of existance
bratmi” meaning “I received a (D) “zhivot” as in “ima ushche
letter from my brother”. dosta zhivot vo gradinata”
(L) “pismo”. meaning “there is still plenty of
life in the garden”.
level – horizontal line or plane (L) “zhivot”.
(D) “ramnina” as in “ramnina i
strmnina” meaning “level and lift – raise to higher position
incline”. (D) “kreni” as in “kreni go po
(L) “prav”, “nivo”, “ramnina”. visiko” meaning “lift him
higher”.
liar – person who tells lies (L) “kreva”.
(D) “mameľ edzhja” as in “toj e
mameľ edzhia” meaning “he is a light – appearance of brightness,
liar”. stimulates sight and makes
(L) “lazhlivets”. things visible

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(D) “sfetlo” as in “vidu edno (D) “ľ inija” as in “taa e dlga
sfetlo vo neboto” meaning “I saw ľ inija” meaning “that is a long
a light in the sky”. line”.
(L) “svetlost”. (L) “linija”

light – of little weight linen – cloth woven from flax,
(D) “ľ esen” as in “toaro e ľesen articles made of linen
mozha da go nosa” meaning “the (D) “platno” as in “toa e teshko
load is light I can carry it”. platno” meaning “that is heavy
(L) “lesen”. linen”.
(L) “platno”.
lighter – device to light
cigarettes lion – large powerful
(D) “chakmak” as in “da ne carnivorous animal of cat family
imash chakmak?” meaning “do (D) “urshlan” as in “urshlano
you have a lighter?” zhivi vo Afrika” meaning “the
(L) “zapalka”. lion lives in Africa”.
(L) “lav”.
lightning – flash of bright light
produced by electric discharge lip – either of the fleshy parts
(D) “rofija” as in “udri rofija” forming opening of mouth
meaning “lightning struck”. (D) “buza” as in “buzata mi e
(L) “molnja”. potechena” meaning “my lip is
swollen”.
like – similar to (L) “usna”, “rab”.
(D) “ko” as in “omjasfa ko tebe”
meaning “looks like you”. listen – make effort to hear
(L) “kako”. something
(D) “shchuka” as in “taa
like - admire shchuka sho mu veľ ish”
(D) “milva” as in “site nego go meaning “she listens to what you
milve” meaning “everyone likes say”.
him”. (L) “slusha”.
(L) “saka”.
little – small in size
limp – walk lamely (D) “malo” as in “edno malo
(D) “kutsa” as in “kutsa zash dete” meaning “a little boy”.
nogata go biľi” meaning “he has (L) “malo”.
a limp because his leg hurts”.
(L) “krivi”. live – have life
(D) “zhif” as in “e ranosan ama e
line – long narrow mark traced zhif” meaning “is wounded but
on surface he lives”.
(L) “zhiv”, “postoj”.
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(D) “mesto” as in “na koe mesto
liver – large granular organ in da te chekam?” meaning “at
abdomen what location should I wait?”
(D) “dzhiger” as in “dzhigero mu (L) “mesto”, “polozhaj”.
pozhlti” meaning “his liver
turned yellowish”. lock – mechanism for fastening
(L) “dzhiger”. door
(D) “kľuch” as in “klaj kľuch na
living – being alive vratata” meaning “place a lock
(D) “zhivot” as in “toj zhivee on the door”.
zhivot” meaning “he is living (L) “brava”, “katanets”.
life”.
(L) “zhivot”. log – any large piece of wood
(D) “trumbuk” as in “posechi go
lizard – reptile with legs having trumbuko” meaning “cut the
long body and tail log”.
(D) “gushcher” as in “gushchero (L) “dibek”, “trup”, “glup”.
ima chetiri nodzi” meaning “the
lizard has four legs”. lonely – lacking friends or
(L) “gushcher”. company
(D) “sam” as in “toj e sam nema
load – what is carried or to be priateli” meaning “he is lonely,
carried has no friends”.
(D) “toar” as in “ima toar za (L) “osamen”, “pust”, “sam”.
magare i za kon” meaning “there
is a load for a donkey and for a long – measuring much from end
horse”. to end
(L) “tovar”. (D) “dlg” as in “pato ot tuka do
tamo e dlg” meaning “the road
loaf – quantity of bread baked from here to there is long”.
alone (L) “dolg”.
(D) “peshnik” as in “eden
peshnik ľep” meaning “a loaf of look – use one’s sight
bread”. (D) “puľi” as in “puľi tamo
(L) “parche”, “vekna”, “somun”. dolu” meaning “look down
there”.
local – in regard to place (L) “gleda”.
(D) “tuashen” as in “ovoj e
tuashen choek” meaning “this is lord – master or ruler
a local person”. (D) “gospodin” as in “zdravo
(L) “mesten”, “lokalen”. gospodin Filipe” meaning
“greetings lord Philip”.
location – particular place (L) “gospodin”, “gospodar”,
“lord”.
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lost – unable to find
(D) “zaginat” as in “toj e zaginat
M
vo sfeto” meaning “he is lost in mad - insane
the world”. (D) “lut” as in “toj e lut”
(L) “izguben”. meaning “he is mad”
(L) “lud”, “besen”.
loud – strongly audible
(D) “visok glas” as in “ne vikaj made – built or formed
so visok glas” meaning “don’t (D) “praen” as in “praen vo
yell so loud”. Makedonija” meaning “made in
(L) “glasen”. Macedonia”.
(L) “formiran”, “praven”,
love – deep affection “projsvoden”.
(D) “ľ ubov” as in “tie se padnati
vo ľubov” meaning “they have magpie – kind of crow with
fallen in love”. black and white plumage
(L) “ljubov”. (D) “strachka” as in “strachkata
pupa” meaning “the magpie
low – not high or tall pecks”.
(D) “nisko” as in “vrapcheto lita (L) “strachka”.
nisko” meaning “the bird is
flying low”. majority – greater number or
(L) “nizok”. part
(D) “pogolem broj” as in
lower – reduce height “pogolem broj ot ľ ugeto sake da
(D) “po nisko” as in “ne mozhi si ode doma” meaning “the
da odi po nisko” meaning “it majority of the people want to go
can’t go any lower”. home”.
(L) “ponizhuva”. (L) “pogolem broj”.
luck – good fortune make – construct, create
(D) “ksmet” as in “toj sho kjari (D) “praj” as in “kazhimi, sho
parata ke ima aren ksmet” praj toj?” meaning “tell me,
meaning “he who won the coin what is he making?”.
will have good luck”. (L) “pravi”.
(L) “srekja”, “sluchaj”.
male – of the sex that can
lunch – midday meal perform the fertilizing for
(D) “ruchok” as in “aide da begetting offspring
jajme ruchok” meaning “let’s (D) “mshko” as in “kucheto e
eat lunch”. mshko” meaning “the dog is
(L) “ruchek”. male”.
(L) “mashki”.
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mark – stain, spot or other
man – adult human male visible sign
(D) “msh” as in “toj e visok msh” (D) “beleg” as in “ofcharo mu
meaning “he is a tall man”. klaa beleg na oftsite” meaning
(L) “chovek”, “mazh”, “soprug”. “the shepherd has placed a mark
on his sheep”.
manure – dung, fertilizer (L) “znak”, “beleg”.
(D) “gnoj” as in “gnoj ot oftsi”
meaning “sheep manure”. market – gathering of people for
(L) “gjubre”, “gnoj”. the purpose of purchasing and
selling
many – greater in number (D) “pazar” as in “vo pazaro se
(D) “mnogu” as in “ima mnogu prodae mnogu raboti” meaning
Oshchimtsi vo Toronto” meaning “in the market are sold many
“there are many Oshchimians in things”.
Toronto”. (L) “pazar”.
(L) “mnozinstvo”, “mnogu”.
marriage – man and woman
map – diagram of landscape legally united for the purpose of
(D) “karta” as in “karta ot living together
Makedonija” meaning “map of (D) “venchanje” as in “mladite
Macedonia”. se gotoj za venchanje” meaning
(L) “mapa”, “geografska karta” “the young are ready for
marriage”.
maraschino cherry (L) “zhenodba”, “brak”,
(D) “vishna cheresha” as in “ima “svadba”.
vishni chereshi vo Oshchima”
meaning “there are maraschino martin – bird of swallow family
cherries in Oshchima”. (D) “lastojchka” as in
“lastojchkite grede na prolet”
marble – kind of limestone meaning “the martins arrive in
(D) “mermer” as in “skalata e the spring”.
praena od mermer” meaning (L) “lasitsa”.
“the stairs are made from
marble”. mast – long upright post
(L) “mermer”, “mramor”. (D) “stedzher” as in “stedzhero e
vo strede na gumnoto” meaning
mare – female of equine (horse) “the mast is in the center of the
(D) “kobila” as in “zhentski kon threshing field”.
se vika kobila” meaning “a (L) “jarbol”, “zhir”.
female horse is called a mare”.
(L) “kobila”. mat – piece of material for floor
covering

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(D) “rogozna” as in “postelia
rogoznata na zema” meaning meet – come into the company
“lay the mat on the ground”. of
(L) “ruguzina”. (D) “se streti” as in “ke se streti
so priatelite” meaning “he will
mayor – head of council meet with his friends”.
(D) “kodzhobashija” as in (L) “se stekjuva”.
“kodzhobashijata e odgovoren
za seloto” meaning “the mayor is melon – sweet fruit of various
responsible for the village”. gourds
(L) “pretsedatel na opshtina”. (D) “pepon” as in “peponi raste
vo Voden” meaning “melons
meadow – piece of grassland grow in Voden”.
(D) “ľ ivada” as in “vo ľivadata (L) “dinija”.
rasti treva” meaning “in the
meadow grows grass”. member – person belonging to a
(L) “livada”. society or group
(D) “chkľ en” as in “jas si chkľen
meal – occasion when food is vo mnogu drushtva” meaning “I
eaten am a member of many
(D) “jadenje” as in “majka praj organizations”.
jadenje” meaning “mother is (L) “chlen”.
making a meal”.
(L) “jadenje”. memorize – learn by heart
(D) “pametfaj” as in “pametfaj
measure – size and quantity sho te nauku” meaning
found by measuring “memorize what I taught you”.
(D) “meri” as in “merio, kolku (L) “pameti”.
dlgo e?” meaning “measure it,
how long is it?”. memory – faculty by which
(L) “mera”, “merilo”. things are recalled
(D) “pamet” as in “ti imash aren
meat – animal flesh as food pamet” meaning “you have good
(D) “meso” as in “krtuli so memory”.
meso” meaning “potatoes with (L) “pamet”.
meat”.
(L) “meso”. mention – refer to briefly
(D) “spomena” as in “spomeni
medicine – art of restoring and mi da ne zaboraa” meaning
preserving health “mention to me so I will not
(D) “ľek” as in “ľek za arno forget”.
zdravije” meaning “medicine for (L) “spomnuva”.
good health”.
(L) “lek”, “meditsina”.
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mess – dirty or untidy state of meaning “in the mill flour is
things ground”.
(D) “brkan” as in “abre sho si (L) “vodenitsa”, “fabrika”.
taka brkan?” meaning “ah why
are you in a mess like that?” mind – seat of consciousness
(L) “brkotija”. (D) “um” as in “umo e za
misľ enje i pametvanje” meaning
message - communication “the mind is for thinking and
(D) “poraka” as in “imash remembering”.
poraka od daskalo” meaning (L) “um”, “pamet”, “mislenje”.
“you have a message from the
teacher”. mine – belongs to me
(L) “vest”, “poraka”, “naredba”. (D) “moe” as in “toa e moe”
meaning “that is mine”.
middle – at equal distance from (L) “moj”.
ends, in between
(D) “streden” as in “si streden mimimum – least amount
megu golemjo brat i malata possible
sestra” meaning “you are in the (D) “najmalo” as in “dva komati
middle between your bigger e najmalo sho se prodaa”
brother and your small sister”. meaning “two pieces is the
(L) “sreden”. minimum sold”.
(L) “najmalo”.
midnight – 12 o’clock at night
(D) “polnosh” as in “e temnitsa mink – small stoatlike animal
na polnosh” meaning “it’s dark (D) “kunatka” as in “zhenata ima
at midnight”. kozheno palto ot kunatka”
(L) “polnokj”. meaning “the woman has a mink
fur coat”.
midsummer – 24 of June (L) “vizon”.
(D) “stredeľ eto” as in “e nogu
toplo vo stredeľeto” meaning minority – smaller number of
“it’s very warn in midsummer”. part
(D) “malchenstvo” as in “ima
milk – fluid secreted by female Makedontsko malchestvo vo
mammals Kanada” meaning “there is a
(D) “mľ eko” as in “mľeko od Macedonian minority in
oftsa” meaning “sheep’s milk”. Canada”.
(L) “mleko”. (L) “maltsinstvo”.

mill – machine for grinding mirror – looking glass
grains (D) “oglendalo” as in “vidise vo
(D) “vodentsa” as in “vo oglendaloto” meaning “look at
vodentsata se meľi brashno” yourself in the mirror”.
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(L) “ogledalo”. moisture – liquid diffused in
small quantities
mist – water vapour near ground (D) “vlaga” as in “se izvodenae,
in small droplets mu vleze vlaga” meaning “they
(D) “rosa” as in “noshiata padva become wet, moisture got into
rosa” meaning “mist falls during them”.
the night”. (L) “vlaga”, “vlazhnost”.
(L) “magla”.
molar – back teeth
mistake – incorrect idea or (D) “ktnik” as in “ktniko me
opinion boľi” meaning “my molar hurts”.
(D) “greshka” as in “napraj (L) “zab katnik”.
greshka” meaning “I made a
mistake”. mole – small burrowing mammal
(L) “greshka”. (D) “krt” as in “krto rie pot
zema” meaning “the mole digs
mistrust – be suspicious of underground”.
(D) “nema doverba” as in “toj (L) “krtitsa”.
nema doverba na tebe” meaning
“he mistrusts you”. money - currency
(L) “nedoverba”, “somnenje”. (D) “pari”as in “raboti se kupfe
so pari” meaning “things are
misunderstand – understand in bought with money”.
wrong sense (L) “pari”.
(D) “zgreshno razbra” as in
“zgreshno razbra sho me reche” monkey – member of primates
meaning “I misunderstood what (D) “majmun” an in “ima suriji
you told me”. majmuni vo Afrika” meaning
(L) “pogreshno razbira”. “there are herds of monkeys in
Africa”.
mix – more substances put (L) “majmun”.
together
(D) “se mesha” as in “maslo ne monster – large and frightening
se mesha so voda” meaning “oil imaginary creature
doesn’t mix with water”. (D) “dzver” as in “ima losh
(L) “se mesha”. dzver pot kreveto” meaning
“there is a mean monster under
moan – long murmur expressing the bed”.
discomfort (L) “chudovishte”.
(D) “steni” as in “steni zash go
boli mejo” meaning “he moans month – any of 12 periods of
because his belly aches”. time forming a year
(L) “stenka”. (D) “mesets” as in “ima dvanajse
mesetsi vo godinata” meaning
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“there are twelve months in a (D) “mushichka” as in “ima
year”. mnogu mushichki okolu drvata”
(L) “mesets”. meaning “there are many
mosquitoes around the trees”.
months – the twelve months of (L) “komarets”.
the year
(D) “Januari (Kolozheg), most – greatest in quantity or
Fevruari (Sechko), Mart (Tsitar), degree
Apriľ(Treven), Maj (Kosar), (D) “najveke” as in “jas te sakam
Juni (Zhetvar), Juľi (Zlatets), najveke” meaning “I like you the
Avgust (Zhitar), Septemvri most”.
(Grozdober), Oktomvri (L) “najgolem del”.
(Ľistopad), Noemvri (Studen),
Dekamvri (Snezhnik)”. mother – female parent
(D) “majka” as in “site ime
moon – the largest natural majka i tatko” meaning
satellite orbiting the earth “everyone has a mother and
(D) “mesechina” as in “ovaa father”.
vecher mesechinata e plna” (L) “majka”.
meaning “tonight the moon is
full”. mould – furry growth of fungi
(L) “mesechina”. (D) “muľia” as in “ľ
ebo ima
muľia” meaning “the bread has
more – greater in quantity or mould”.
degree (L) “muvla”.
(D) “pojke” as in “dajmi pojke”
meaning “give me more”. mountain – large high natural
(L) “poveke”. elevation of earth
(D) “planina” as in “taa e visoka
morning – early part of day planina” meaning “that is a tall
(D) “utro” as in “sntseto ugrea mountain”.
na utro” meaning “the sun rises (L) “planina”.
in the morning”.
(L) “utro”, “pretpladne”. mourn – feel deep sorrow
(D) “zhaľ i” as in “go zhaľi
Moslem – of Islamic faith dedomu sho umre” meaning “he
(D) “Musulman” as in “toj e mourns his dead grandfather”.
Musulman ot Islamtskata vera” (L) “zhali”, “oplakuva”.
meaning “he is a Moslem from
the Islamic faith”. mouse – small rodent
(L) “Musliman”. (D) “glufets” as in “glufetso se
fati vo stapitsata” meaning “the
mosquito - gnat mouse got caught in the trap”.
(L) “glushets”.
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(D) “mnozhi” as in “se mnozhe,
mousetrap – trap for catching ot dva se prae chetiri” meaning
mice “they multiply, from two they
(D) “stapitsa” as in “stapitsata become four”.
go fati glufetso” meaning “the (L) “mnozhi”.
trap caught the mouse”.
(L) “gluvcharnitsa”. mushroom – edible fungus
(D) “pechurka” as in “site
mouth – external orifice in head pechurki ne se jade” meaning
(D) “usta” as in “otforia ustata” “all mushrooms are not edible”.
meaning “open your mouth”. (L) “pechurka”.
(L) “usta”.
must – expressing obligation
move – change position or (D) “treba” as in “treba da si
posture oda doma” meaning “I must go
(D) “mrdni” as in “mrdnise da home”.
pominam” meaning “move so I (L) “mora”.
can pass”.
(L) “menuvanje mesto”, “se mute - silent
dvizhi”, “poteg”. (D) “nem” as in “toj e nem
nemozhi da zborva” meaning “he
much – existing in greater is mute he can’t speak”.
quantity (L) “nem”.
(D) “mnogu”as in “ima usche
mnogu da se napraj” meaning
“there is much more to do”.
(L) “mnogu”, “moshne”.
N
nail – horny covering of upper
mud – wet soft earth surface of finger or toe
(D) “kal” as in “imash kal nat (D) “noft” as in “imam deset
cheľite” meaning “you have mud prsti so nofti” meaning “I have
on your shoes”. ten fingers with nails”.
(L) “kal”. (L) “nokt”.
mule – an offspring of horse and nail – small metal spike
donkey (D) “shajka” as in “zakoj edna
(D) “mska” as in “mskata e shajka” meaning “nail a nail”.
rodena od kon i magare” (L) “klinets”.
meaning “the mule is born of
horse and donkey”. naked – nude, unclothed
(L) “mule”, “mazga”. (D) “gol” as in “ne baraj gol, ke
te fati stut” meaning “don’t walk
multiply – increase in number around naked, you will catch a
cold”.
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(L) “gol”. (D) “igla” an in “iglata e za
krpenje” meaning “the needle is
name – individual or thing called for sewing”.
by (L) “igla”.
(D) “ime” as in “sho tie imeto?”
meaning “what is your name?”. neighbour – person who lives
(L) “ime”. next door or nearby
(D) “komshia” as in “toj mi e
nap – short period of light sleep komshia” meaning “he is my
(D) “dremka” as in “me fati neighbour”.
dremka” meaning “I caught a (L) “sosedstvo”.
nap”.
(L) “kratok son”, “dremenje”. neither – not either
(D) “nito” as in “nito eden”
narrow – of small width meaning “neither one”.
(D) “tesen” as in “sokako e (L) “nitu eden”.
tesen” meaning “the street is
narrow”. nephew – one’s brother’s or
(L) “tesen”, “mal”. sister’s son
(D) “mnuk” as in “toj mi e mnuk
near – to or at or within a short ot brat” meaning “he is my
space or time nephew from my brother”.
(D) “bľizu” as in “sedi bľizu do (L) “vnuk”.
mene” meaning “stand near me”.
(L) “blizok”, “intimen”. net – meshed fabric
(D) “mrezha” as in “mrezhata e
neck – part of body connecting za fatfanje ribi” meaning “the net
head with shoulders is for catching fish”.
(D) “til” as in “tilo e megu glaata (L) “mrezha”.
i ramenata” meaning “the neck is
between the head and nettle – plant covered with
shoulders”. stinging hairs
(L) “vrat”. (D) “koprija” as in “zelnik so
kopriji” meaning “zelnik with
need – requirement or want nettles”.
(D) “treba” as in “dajmi go mi (L) “kopriva”.
treba” meaning “give it to me I
need it”. never – at no time
(L) “nuzhba”, “potreba”. (D) “nikojpat” as in “nikojpat ne
ti reku takfo neshcho” meaning
needle – long slender piece of “I never told you such a thing”.
polished steel pointed at one end (L) “nikogash”.
with an eye on the other
new – of recent
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(D) “nov” as in “denes kupi nova (D) “nikoj” as in “nikoj ne dojde
kniga” meaning “today I bought na pazar” meaning “none came
a new book”. to the market”.
(L) “nov”. (L) “nieden”, “nikoj”.

news – information about recent noon – mid day
events (D) “pladne” as in “ke se vime po
(D) “novini” as in “dobri novini” pladne” meaning “see you in the
meaning “good news”. afternoon”.
(L) “novini”. (L) “pladne”.

next – nearest in order or time north – opposite of south
(D) “potoj” as in “potoj si ti” (D) “sever” as in “sever, istok,
meaning “you are next”. zapat i jug” meaning “north,
(L) “sleden”, “iden”, “potoa”. east, west and south”.
(L) “sever”.
niece – brother’s or sister’s
daughter not – expressing negation
(D) “mnuka” as in “taa mi e (D) “ne” as in “ne jas” meaning
mnuka ot sestra” meaning “she “not I”.
is my niece from my sister”. (L) “ne”, “ni”.
(L) “vnuka”.
nothing – no thing
night – period of darkness (D) “nishcho” as in “ne sakam
between one day and the next nishcho” meaning “I want
(D) “noshja” as in “po mrak nothing”.
gredi noshja” meaning “after (L) “nishto”.
dusk comes night”.
(L) “nokj”, “mrak”. now – at the present time
(D) “sega” as in “go sakam
no – as negative answer to sega” meaning “I want it now”.
question (L) “sega”.
(D) “ne” as in “odgovoro mi e
ne!” meaning “my answer is no!” nowhere – in or to no place
(L) “ne”. (D) “nikade” as in “ne mozhish
da go nash nikade” meaning
nobody – no person “you will find it nowhere”.
(D) “nikoj” as in “nikoj ne e (L) “nigde”.
doma” meaning “nobody is
home”. nude - naked
(L) “nikoj”. (D) “gol” as in “ne baraj gol ke
te fati stut” meaning “don’t walk
none – not any around naked you will catch
cold”.
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(L) “gol”. occupation – profession or
employment
number – count, sum, or (D) “zanaat” as in “vo kakov
aggregate of persons or things zanaat rabotash?” meaning “in
(D) “broj” as in “sho broj what kind of occupation do you
imash?” meaning “what number work?”
do you have?” (L) “zanimanje”.
(L) “broj”.
odour – smell or fragrance
numbers – various numbers as (D) “merizmo” as in “sho e toa
described merismo?” meaning “what is
(D) “1=eden, edno, 2=dva, dve, that odour?”
3=tri, 4=chetiri, 5=pet, 6=shes, (L) “miris”, “aroma”.
7=sedom, 8=osom, 9=devet,
10=deset, 11=edinajse, of – expressing origin or cause
12=dvanajse, 13=trinajse, (D) “ot” as in “ot koja familija si
14=chetirnajse, 15=petnaise, ti?” meaning “of what family are
16=sheshnajse, 17=sedomnajse, you?”
18=osomnajse, 19=devetnajse, (L) “od”, “za”, “po”.
20=dvajse, 21=dvaise i eden,
30=triese, 40=chetiriese, offer – present for acceptance
50=peese, 60=sheese, (D) “daa” as in “ti daa dobar
70=sedomdese, 80=osomdese, pazar” meaning “he is offering
90=deveese, 100=sto, you a good deal”.
200=dveste, 300=trista, (L) “nudi”, “predlaga”, “dava”.
400=chetiri stotini, 500=pet
stotini, 1000=iljada, 2000=dve oil – any of various thick,
iljadi”. viscous inflammable liquids
insoluable in water
(D) “maslo” as in “maslo se praj
O ot masľ inki” meaning “oil is
made from olives”.
oak – forest tree with hard wood (L) “zejtin”, “nafta”.
(D) “dmb” as in “pot dmbo ima
zhirije” meaning “under the oak ok – all right
are acorns”. (D) “dobro” as in “dobro togaa,
(L) “dab”. sfe e vo ret” meaning “ok then,
everything is in order”.
oath – solemn declaration (L) “tochno”, “dobro”, “vo red”.
(D) “kľetva” as in “ke zevam
kľetva” meaning “I will take an old – advanced in age
oath”. (D) “star” as in “toj e star
(L) “zakletva”. choek” meaning “he is an old
person”.
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(L) “star”. (D) “misľ enje” as in “toa e moe
misľenje” meaning “that is my
olive – small oval hard-stoned opinion”.
fruit (L) “mislenje”.
(D) “masľ inka” as in “ot
masľinki se praj maslo” oppose – place in opposition
meaning “oil is made from (D) “protif” as in “toj e protif
olives”. ideata” meaning “he opposes the
(L) “maslinka”. idea”.
(L) “e protiv”, “sprotivstavuva”.
once – on one occasion only
(D) “ednash” as in “samo or – introducing alternative
ednash” meaning “only once”. (D) “eli” as in “eden eli dva?”
(L) “ednash”, “nekogash”. meaning “one or two?”
(L) “ili”, “inaku”.
one - single
(D) “edno” as in “edno, dve, tri” orange – reddish yellow juicy
meaning “one, two, three”. citrus fruit
(L) “eden”, “broj eden”, “nekoj”. (D) “portokal” as in “portokalite
raste vo Florida” meaning “the
onion – vegetable with edible oranges grow in Florida”.
bulb and pungent smell (L) “portokal.”
(D) “kromit” as in “baba przhi
meso so kromit” meaning orchard – land planted with fruit
“grandma is frying meat with trees
onions”. (D) “bashcha” as in “bashcha
(L) “luk”. plna so jabolka” meaning “an
orchard full of apple trees”.
only – existing alone (L) “rasadnik”, “ovoshtarnik”.
(D) “samo” as in “samo eden”
meaning “only one”. order – state of regular
(L) “edinstven”, “edinets”, arrangement
“samo”. (D) “ret” as in “sfe e vo ret”
meaning “everything is in
open – not closed or locked order”.
(D) “otforen” as in “dukjano e (L) “red”, “naredba”.
otforen” meaning “the store is
open”. orphan – child with dead parents
(L) “chistina”, “otvoren”. (D) “sirache” as in “deteto e
sirache” meaning “the boy is an
opinion – what one thinks about orphan”.
something (L) “sirache”.

other – not the same as one
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(D) “drugo” as in “ne toa, meaning “I will come home
drugoto” meaning “not that one, overnight”.
the other one”. (L) “prekunokj”, “snoshchi”.
(L) “drugiot”, “inakov”.
oversleep – sleep beyond
our – belonging to us intended time
(D) “nash” meaning “toa e (D) “prespa” as in “trebashe da
nashe kuche” meaning “that is stana rano ama prespa” meaning
our dog”. “I needed to wake up early but I
(L) “nash”. overslept”.
(L) “prespiva”.
out – not at home
(D) “nadvor” as in “izlezi owl – nocturnal bird of prey
nadvor” meaning “come out”. (D) “buf” as in “bufo lita
(L) “nadvor”, “izlezen”. noshjata” meaning “the owl flies
at night”.
outside – external side or surface (L) “buf”.
(D) “nadvor” as in “ke oda
nadvor” meaning “I am going owner - possessor
outside”. (D) “stopan” as in “toj e stopano
(L) “nadvor”. na kukjata” meaning “he is the
owner of the house”.
over – above and beyond (L) “sopstvenik”.
(D) “preku” as in “ke oda preku
planina” meaning “I will go over ox – large horned animal
the mountain”. (D) “vol” as in “dva voloi prae
(L) “preku”, “nad”. dzegvar” meaning “two oxen
make a pair”.
overcast - cloudy (L) “vol”.
(D) “soblachno” as in “denes
neboto e soblachno” meaning
“today the sky is overcast”.
(L) “naoblachen”, “temen”.
P
page – leaf of book
overflow – flow over (D) “strna” as in “na sedom
(D) “prebľikna” as in “kotleto strna” meaning “on page seven”.
prebľikna” meaning “the kettle (L) “strana”.
overflowed”.
(L) “preplavuva”. pain – suffering or distress of
body
overnight – during the course of (D) “boľ ea” as in “imam boľea
the night vo nogata” meaning “I have pain
(D) “preku vecher” as in “ke in my leg”.
dojda doma preku vecher” (L) “bol”, “maka”, “stradanje”.
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(D) “pomina” as in “sho imashe
pale – whitish or ashen pomina” meaning “what you had
appearance has passed”.
(D) “obeľ en” as in “obeľen si vo (L) “premin”.
litseto” meaning “you are pale in
the face”. past – gone by in time
(L) “temnee”. (D) “pominato” as in
“pominatoto” meaning “the
pan – wide vessel used for past”.
cooking (L) “minato”.
(D) “tigan” as in “baba przhi ribi
vo tigano” meaning “grandma is pastry – dough of flower, fat and
frying fish in the pan”. water
(L) “tava”. (D) “zelnik (with greens, onions
or leeks), vialnik (twisted in a
paper – thin sheets made from spiral with sugar or honey),
pulp of wood mľ echnik (with milk and eggs),
(D) “kniga” as in “dajmi kniga burek (with feta cheese and
da pisha pismo” meaning “give eggs), maznik (with butter)”.
me paper to write a letter”.
(L) “hartija”. pasture – land suitable for
grazing
parent – father or mother (D) “mesto za pasenje” as in “toe
(D) “majka i tatko” as in “imam e ubao mesto za pasenje oftsi”
majka i tatko” meaning “I have meaning “that is a good pasture
parents (mother and father)”. for sheep”.
(L) “roditel”. (L) “pasishte”.

part – some but not all path – way or track laid down
(D) “del” as in “toj e moj del” for walking
meaning “that’s my part”. (D) “pt” as in “ovoj pt vlegva vo
(L) “del”, “kraj”. ormano” meaning “this path
leads into the forest”.
partner – one who shares or (L) “pateka”.
takes part with other in business
or sport pavement – paved surface or
(D) “ortak” as in “ovoj mi e path
ortak” meaning “this is my (D) “kaldarma” as in “pt stisan
partner”. so kaldarma” meaning “paved
(L) “ortak”, “partner”. road”.
(L) “plochnik”, “kaldrma”.
pass – move onward
pay – hand over money to
discharge debt
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(D) “plati” as in “plati mi sho mi (D) “seľ iak” as in “toj seľ
jak e
bordzhish” meaning “pay me siroma” meaning “that peasant
what you owe me”. is poor”.
(L) “plata”. (L) “selanets”.

peace – quiet, tranquility, peck – nip or pick up with beak
freedom from war (D) “pupa” as in “kokoshkata
(D) “mir” as in “mir e po dobar pupa” meaning “the chicken
ot boj” meaning “peace is better pecks”.
than war”. (L) “kolva”.
(L) “mir”.
pee - urinate
peach – yellowish-reddish round (D) “se mochka” as in “kucheto
juicy fruit se mochka” meaning “the dog is
(D) “praska” as in “praskite ot peeing”.
Voden se naj ubaj” meaning “the
peaches from Voden are the peel – remove outer coating
best”. (D) “ľ upi” as in “baba ľupi
(L) “praska”. krtuli” meaning “grandma is
peeling potatoes”.
peak – top of mountain or any (L) “lupi”.
edge
(D) “vr” as in “vr na planinata” penalty – punishment for breach
meaning “the mountain peak”. of law
(L) “vrv”. (D) “kazna” as in “ke te kazna”
meaning “I will give you a
pear – yellowish-greenish fleshy penalty”.
fruit (L) “kazna”, “globa”.
(D) “krusha” as in “krushata ima
pet turlii krushi” meaning “the pencil – instrument for writing
pear tree has five varieties of or drawing
pears”. (D) “moľ if” as in “mi treba
(L) “krusha”. moľ if da pisha” meaning “I need
a pencil to write”.
pearl – smooth lustrous mass (L) “moliv”.
usually formed inside oyster
(D) “biser” as in “Makedonija e people – persons
biser Balkntski” meaning (D) “ľuge” as in “Oshchima ima
“Macedonia is the pearl of the troa ľuge” meaning “Oshchima
Balkans”. has few people”.
(L) “biser”. (L) “narod”, “lugje”.

peasant – worker on land pepper – pungent aromatic
condiment
99
(D) “piper” as in “tsrven eli tsrn
piper?” meaning “red or black pimple – small hard inflamed
pepper?”. spot on skin
(L) “piper”. (D) “boľ che” as in “imash
boľ che na noso” meaning “you
permission - consent have a pimple on your nose”.
(D) “pravo” as in “ti daam (L) “prisht”.
pravo” meaning “I give you
permission”. pin - needle
(L) “dozvola”. (D) “igľe” as in “zakopsajo so
igľe” meaning “tie it with a pin”.
pick - select (L) “igla”.
(D) “odberi” as in “odberisi
kolku sakash” meaning “pick for pinch – squeeze tightly between
yourself as many as you want”. two surfaces
(L) “ubor”. (D) “shchipni” as in “shchipni
mu go noso” meaning “pinch his
pick – tool used for digging nose”.
(D) “kopachka” as in “kopa (L) “shtipe”.
endek so kopachka” meaning
“digging a ditch with a pick”. pipe - tube
(L) “kopachka”. (D) “kjung” as in “voda techi ot
kjungo” meaning “water is
piece – detached portion dripping from the pipe”.
(D) “komat” as in “eden komat (L) “tsevka”, “lule”.
za tebe i eden za mene” meaning
“a piece for you and one for me”. piss - urinate
(L) “parche”. (D) “mochkaj” as in “mochkaj
moch” meaning “piss urine”.
pig - pork
(D) “bishe” as in “meso od bishe place – particular part of space
eli bishkoo meso” meaning (D) “mesto” as in “toa e moe
“meat of pork or pork meat”. mesto” meaning “that’s my
(L) “prase”. place”.
(L) “mesto”.
pigeon – bird of dove family
(D) “gulap” as in “dif gulap” plank – long flat piece of timber
meaning “wild pigeon”. (D) “shchitsa” as in “shchitsi se
(L) “gulab”. prae ot drvo” meaning “planks
are made of wood”.
pile – heap of things (L) “shtitsa”.
(D) “kup” as in “eden kup pari”
meaning “a pile of money”. plant – to place seeds in soil
(L) “tolpa”, “klada”.
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(D) “sadi” as in “sadi seme” (D) “siroma” as in “toj sho nema
meaning “plant seeds”. pari e siroma” meaning “he who
(L) “sadi”. has no money is poor”.
(L) “siromashen”.
plate – shallow circular vessel
from which food is eaten poplar – tall slender tree
(D) “plaa” as in “klaj mi jadenje (D) “topola” as in “topolata rasti
vo plaata” meaning “put food in visoko” meaning “the poplar
my plate”. grows high”.
(L) “topola”.
play – occupy or amuse oneself,
game pork – of pig used for food
(D) “igra” as in “deteto si igra (D) “bishkoo meso” as in
igrachki” meaning “the boy is “lukantsi se prae so bishkoo
playing games”. meso” meaning “sausages are
(L) “igra”. made with pork”.
(L) “svinsko meso”.
pliers - pincers
(D) “kľ eshchi” as in “drzhi go so portion – part or share
kľeshchite” meaning “hold it (D) “del” as in “dajmi eden
with the pliers”. maľ etski del” meaning “give me
(L) “kleshta”. a small portion”.
(L) “del”.
plough – implement for turning
soil possible – capable of
(D) “plug” as in “oraj so plug” (D) “mozhi” as in “dali se
meaning “till with a plough”. mozhi?” meaning “is it
(L) “plug”. possible?”.
(L) “mozhen”.
pocket – small bag sewn onto
clothing pot – rounded vessel for cooking
(D) “dzhep” as in “sho imash vo (D) “tendzhere” as in “vo
dzhepo?” meaning “what do you tendzhereto se vare krtuľ i i vo
have in the pocket?”. grneto se vari gra” meaning “in
(L) “dzheb”. the pot are boiling potatoes and
in the earthware pot are boiling
poison – substance when eaten beans”.
causes death (L) “lonets”, “grne”,
(D) “farmak” as in “go otruja so “tendzhere”.
farmak” meaning “they poisoned
him with poison”. potato – plant with starchy
(L) “otrov”. tubers
(D) “krtuľ” as in “krtuľite se
poor – lacking wealth or money jade vareni, pecheni i przheni”
101
meaning “potatoes are eaten (D) “ubaf” as in “taa e ubava”
boiled, baked and fried”. meaning “she is pretty”.
(L) “kompir”. (L) “ubav”, “mil”.

powder – mass of fine dry prevent – stop from happening
particles (D) “prechi” as in “ne go ostaaj
(D) “pra” as in “ima pra po da te prechi” meaning “don’t let
sekade” meaning “there is him prevent you”.
powder everywhere”. (L) “prechi”, “sprechuva”.
(L) “prav”, “pudra”, “barut”.
price – amount it costs
power – vigour, energy (D) “tsena” as in “sho e
(D) “sila” as in “toj sho e vo sila tsenata?” meaning “what is the
e tsar” meaning “he who is in price?”
power is king”. (L) “tsena”.
(L) “sila”.
priest – minister of church
pray - worship (D) “pop” as in “popo e vo tsrva”
(D) “moľ i” as in “se moľi na meaning “the priest is in
Gospo” meaning “is praying to church”.
God”. (L) “sveshtenik”.
(L) “moli”.
prison – place where one is kept
pregnant – with child before in captivity
birth (D) “apsana” as in “go pushchia
(D) “trudna” as in “zhenata e vo apsana” meaning “they sent
trudna” meaning “the woman is him to prison”.
pregnant”. (L) “zatfor”, “apsana”.
(L) “trudna”.
problem – difficult matter
prepare – make or get ready requiring decision
(D) “zgotvi” as in “zgotvi (D) “prechka” as in “sho e
jadenje” meaning “prepare prechkata?” meaning “what is
food”. the problem?”
(L) “prigotvuva”, “se sprema”. (L) “problem”.

present - gift proof – establish fact
(D) “dar” as in “dajmi dar” (D) “dokazhi” as in “dokazhi,
meaning “give me a present”. sho e vistinata?” meaning “give
(L) “dar”, “podarok”. proof, what is the truth?”
(L) “dokaz”.
pretty – attractive in a delicate
way property – thing owned

102
(D) “stoka” as in “imam stoka vo (D) “narot” as in “ke te vida vo
Oshchima” meaning “I have narodno mesto” meaning “I will
property in Oshchima”. see you in a public place”.
(L) “imot”, “sopstvenishtvo”, (L) “javnost”, “publika”,
“svoina”. “narod”.

protect – defend or keep safe puddle – small pool
(D) “chua” and “brani” as in “se (D) “vir” as in “chuajse da ne
chua od dozho” meaning “he is stpnish vo vir” meaning “watch
pretecting himself from the rain” out so you don’t step in a
and “go brani lozjeto od puddle”.
vraptsite” meaning “he is
protecting the viniard from the pull – move to oneself
birds”. (D) “trni” as in “trni kamo tebe”
(L) “brani”, “zashtituva”. meaning “pull towards yourself”.
(L) “vlechenje”.
proud – showing pride
(D) “gord” as in “e gord so sinoj pumpkin – large orange squash
mu” meaning “he is proud of his (D) “tikva” as in “baba praj
sons”. zelkik so tikva” meaning
(L) “gord”. “grandma is making zelnik with
pumpkin”.
prove – demonstrate to be true (L) “tikva”.
(D) “dokazhi” as in “dokazhi, e
vistina eli ne?” meaning “prove punch – strike with fist
it, is it the truth or not?” (D) “udri so tupantsa” as in
(L) “dokazhuva”, “uveruva”. “udrigo so tupantsa” meaning
“punch him”.
prune – trim by cutting branches (L) “udar so tupantsa”.
(D) “rezhi” as in “rezhi go
lozjeto” meaning “prune the punish – cause to suffer for
vinyard”. offense
(L) “kastri”. (D) “kazni” as in “kazni go”
meaning “punish him”.
prune – dried plum (L) “kaznuva”.
(D) “oshafka” as in “oshafka e
suva sliva” meaning “a prune is puppy – young dog
a dried plum”. (D) “kutale” as in “tatko mi
(L) “suva sliva”. donese kutale” meaning “my
father brought me a puppy”.
public – concerning the people (L) “kuchentse”.
as a whole
purchase - buy

103
(D) “kupi” as in “jas kupi palto” (D) “brs” as in “toj e brs vo
meaning “I purchased a coat”. nodzite” means “he is quick on
(L) “kupuva”. his feet”.
(L) “brz”.
pure - unmixed
(D) “chist” as in “chist miser” quiet – with little or no sound
meaning “pure corn”. (D) “mlchi” as in “mlchi ne
(L) “chist”. zborvaj” meaning “quiet don’t
talk”.
push – move it away from self (L) “tishina”.
(D) “turga” as in “toj turga
kola” meaning “he is pushing a quit – give up
wagon”. (D) “se ostaj” as in “se ostaj ot
(L) “turka”. rabotata” meaning “he quit his
job”.
put – move to specific place (L) “napushta”.
(D) “claj” as in “claj si gi
cheľite” meaning “put on your
shoes”.
(L) “stavi”.
R
rabbit – mammal of hare family
Q (D) “zaek” as in “zaeko skokna”
meaning “the rabbit jumped”.
(L) “zajak”.
quail – bird related to partridge
(D) “jarembitsa” as in rabid – furious, raging, fanatical
“jarembitsata lita nisko” or affected by rabies
meaning “the quail flies low”. (D) “besno” as in “trcha ko
(L) “prepelitsa”. besno kuche” meaning “he is
running like a rabid dog”.
quarter – one of four (L) “besen”.
(D) “edno chetforto” as in “edno
chetforto za mene” meaning rabies – contagious virus disease
“one quarter for me”. of dogs
(L) “chetfortina”. (D) “bes” as in “zbesna, go fati
bes” meaning “became rabid, he
queen – female sovereign caught rabies”.
(D) “tsaritsa” as in “Tsaritsa (L) “besnilo”.
Elizabeta” meaning “Queen
Elizabeth”. race – division of mankind
(L) “kralitsa”. (D) “ratsa” as in “ratsa e delenje
na narodo” meaning “race is a
quick – taking a short time to do, divison of mankind”.
moving fast (L) “rasa”, “pleme”, “rod”.
104
(D) “griblo” as in “seno se beri
race – contest of speed so griblo” meaning “hay is
(D) “trcha” as in “taa ke se trcha collected with a rake”.
so neo” meaning “she will race (L) “greblo”.
with him”.
(L) “trka”. ram – male sheep
(D) “oven” as in “oveno ima
rag – torn or frayed piece of rogoj” meaning “the ram has
material horns”.
(D) “partal” as in “sho e toj (L) “oven”.
partal sho go nosish?” meaning
“what is that rag you are rank – position in hierarchy
wearing?” (D) “chin” as in “sho ti e
(L) “krpa”, “partal”. chino?” meaning “what is your
rank?”
rain – moisture falling in drops (L) “chin”, “klasa”, “katigorija”.
from the sky
(D) “dosh” as in “vrni dosh” rape – forcible sexual
meaning “rain is falling”. intercourse
(L) “dozhd”, “vrne”. (D) “nasili” as in “toj ga nasili
nea” meaning “he raped her”.
rainbow – arch of colours (L) “siliva”.
formed in sky
(D) “vinozhito” as in rash – eruption of spots on skin
“vinozhitoto e prepno” meaning (D) “sipantsa” as in “ga fati
“the rainbow is pretty”. sipantsa” meaning “she got a
(L) “vinozhito”. rash”.
(L) “isfrli”.
raise – put or take into higher
position rat – large mouse
(D) “kreni” as in “kreni raka” (D) “staor” as in “staoro se fati
meaning “raise your hand”. vo stapitsa” meaning “the rat got
(L) “kreva” caught in a trap”.
(L) “staorets”.
raisin – partially dried grape
(D) “stafida” as in “stafida e raven – large crow
suvo grozje” meaning “raisins (D) “garvan” as in “garvano
are dried grapes”. grachi” meaning “the raven
(L) “suvo grozje”. crows”.
(L) “gavran”.
rake – tool with toothed cross-
bar and long handle for drawing raw - uncooked
together hay

105
(D) “zhivo” as in “zhivo meso ne rebellion – open resistance to
se jadi” meaning “can’t eat raw authority
meat”. (D) “vastanje” as in
(L) “surovo”. “Makedontskoto vastanje”
meaning “the Macedonian
razor – sharp instrument used rebellion”.
for shaving (L) “vostanje”, “buna”.
(D) “brich” as in “obrichia
bradata so brich” meaning receive – take or accept
“shave your beard with a razor”. (D) “dobi” as in “dobi pismo”
(L) “brich”. meaning “I received a letter”.
(L) “prima”, “dobiva”.
reach – stretch out or extend
(D) “stigni” as in “stigni so red – colour ranging from that of
rakata” meaning “reach with blood to pink
your hand”. (D) “tsrven” as in “tsrveno
(L) “dostignuva”. tsveke” meaning “red flower”.
(L) “tsrven”.
read – reproduce verbally the
words in a book reduce – make or become
(D) “pee” as in “deteto ga pee smaller
knigata” meaning “the boy is (D) “omaľ e” as in “go omaľe
reading the book”. kupo” meaning “he reduced the
(L) “chita”. pile”.
(L) “smaluva”.
ready – with preparation
complete refuse – indicate unwillingness
(D) “gotof” as in “gotof je da si (D) “odbie” as in “se odbie, ne
odi doma” meaning “he is ready saka da go napraj” meaning “he
to go home”. refuses, does not want to do it”.
(L) “spremin”. (L) “odbiva”, “ne prima”.

real – actually existing reject – refuse to accept
(D) “vistintski” as in “toj e (D) “otfrľi” as in “ga otfrľi
vistintski priateľ” meaning “he is ideata” meaning “he rejects the
a real friend”. idea”.
(L) “vistinski”. (L) “odbiva”, “prekratuva”,
“otfrla”.
rear – back of anything
(D) “dzadi” as in “dzadi vo relative – person connected by
gradinata” meaning “at rear in blood or marriage
the garden”. (D) “soj” as in “to mi e soj”
(L) “zaden”. meaning “he is my relative”.
(L) “rodnina”.
106
(D) “poftori” as in “poftori
release – liberate, unfasten ushche ednash” meaning “repeat
(D) “pushchi” as in “pushchi go” one more time”.
meaning “release him”. (L) “poftoruva”, “poveke pati”.
(L) “osloboduvanje”, “pushta na
sloboda”. replace – put back in place
(D) “izmeni” as in “izmenigi site
religion – belief in a personal so novi” meaning “replace all of
God them with new ones”.
(D) “vera” as in “sho ti e (L) “zamenuva”.
verata?” meaning “what is your
religion?” reply – make answer
(L) “vera”, “religia”. (D) “odgovori” as in “odgovori
na sho te opitva” meaning “reply
remember – not forget to what he is asking you”.
(D) “pametfaj” as in “pametfaj (L) “odgovora”.
sho ti reku” meaning “remember
what I told you”. rescue – save or set free
(L) “pomin”, “potsetuva”, (D) “spasi” as in “spasi go od
“zapamenuva”. vodata” meaning “rescue him
from the water”.
remind – cause to remember (L) “spasuva”.
(D) “spomeni” as in “spomenimi
da ne zaboraa” meaning “remind respect – heed or regard for
me so I won’t forget”. (D) “odnos” as in “pokazhi troa
(L) “potsetuva”. odnos” meaning “show a little
respect”.
remove – take off or away (L) “vrska”, “pochituvanje”.
(D) “izvadi” as in “izvadii
cheľite” meaning “remove your respond – make answer
shoes”. (D) “odgovori” as in “odgovori
(L) “premestuva”, “preseluva”. na sho te opitva” meaning
“respond to what he is asking
repair – restore to good you”.
condition (L) “odgovora”.
(D) “potpraj” as in “potraj go
pleto” meaning “repair the responsible – accountable for
fence” action
(L) “potpravka”, “odnova”. (D) “odgovoren” as in “ti si
odgovoren za rabotata” meaning
repeat – say or do or provide “you are responsible for the
over again job”.
(L) “odgovoren”.

107
rest – cease from exertion or (D) “pushka” as in “pľ
usni so
action pushkata” meaning “fire with
(D) “pochini” as in “mnogu the rifle”.
rabotash, pochini troa” meaning (L) “pushka”.
“you work too much, take a little
rest”. right – just, correct, true
(L) “ostatok”, “odmor”. (D) “praf” as in “toj e praf, ti si
krif” meaning “he is right, you
return – come or go back are wrong”.
(D) “se vrna” as in “se vrna od (L) “pravo”.
chuzhina” meaning “returned
from abroad”. rigid – not flexible, cannot be
(L) “se vrakja”. bent
(D) “zdrven” as in “se zdrvi ko
reverse – travel backwards drvo” meaning “became rigid
(D) “nazumgzum” as in “kolata like wood”.
odi nazumgzum” meaning “the (L) “vkochanet”, “zdrven”.
wagon is going in reverse”.
(L) “prevrtuva”. ring – circlet worn on finger
(D) “prsten” as in “nosi prsten
rib – each of the curved bones in na prsto” meaning “is wearing a
chest connected to spine of body ring on the finger”.
(D) “rebro” as in “rebro e koska (L) “prsten”.
okolu grndite” meaning “a rib is
a bone around the chest”. rinse – wash out with clean
(L) “rebro”. water
(D) “isplakni” as in “isplaknii
rice – seeds of grass grown in pľachkite so studena voda”
marshes meaning “rinse the clothes with
(D) “oris” as in “oris rasti vo cold water”.
mocharki” meaning “rice grows (L) “plaknenje”,
in marshes”. “isplaknuvanje”.
(L) “oriz”.
rip – tear out or cut
rich – having much wealth (D) “isparaj” as in “isparaj edno
(D) “bogat” as in “toj sho ima komache” meaning “rip out a
mnogu pari e bogat” meaning small piece”.
“he who has a lot of money is (L) “para”, “rasporuva”.
rich”.
(L) “bogat”. ripe – mature fruit or grain
(D) “ftasan” as in “domato e
rifle – gun with long rifled barrel ftasan” meaning “the tomato is
ripe”.
(L) “zred”, “izrasten”, “razvien”.
108
rise – come or go up root – part of plant under ground
(D) “stani” as in “stani da te (D) “koren” as in “mľ echkata
vime” meaning “rise so we can ima dlk koren” meaning “the
see you”. dandelion has a long root”.
(L) “krevanje”. (L) “koren”.

road – way or route rope – stout cord made of hemp
(D) “pt” as in “toj e dlk pt” (D) “fortoma” as in “vrzio
meaning “that is a long road”. magareto so fortomata” meaning
(L) “pat”. “tie the donkey with the rope”.
(L) “jazhe”.
rob – take unlawfully from
(D) “kradi” as in “chuajse od rose – prickly shrub bearing
neo, toj ke te kradi” meaning fragrant flowers
“watch out for him, he will rob (D) “trendafiľ” as in “trendafiľo
you”. merisa ubao” meaning “the rose
(L) “pljachkosuva”. has a nice aroma”.
(L) “ruzha”.
rock – hard part of earth’s crust
(D) “kamen” as in “golem kamen rot – natural decomposition
se vika stena” meaning “a large (D) “skapano” as in “jabolkoto e
rock is called a boulder”. skapano” meaning “the apple is
(L) “karpa”. rotten”.
(L) “gniezh”.
roof – upper covering of
building round – shaped like a circle or
(D) “chatia” as in “kukjata ima sphere
tsrvena chatia” meaning “the (D) “trkalesto” as in “trkaloto e
house has a red roof”. trkalesto” meaning “the wheel is
(L) “pokriv”. round”.
(L) “krug”.
room – part of house enclosed
by walls row – line of things or persons
(D) “odaa” as in “vo odaata ke (D) “ret” as in “naprajte ret”
spie gostite” meaning “in the meaning “make a row”.
room will sleep the guests”. (L) “red”.
(L) “soba”, “stan”.
rub – move one’s hands or
rooster – male chicken object over surface with firm
(D) “petel” as in “petelo kika na pressure
utro” meaning “the ruster crows (D) “tri” as in “tri damu izvash
in the morning”. kalta” meaning “rub to remove
(L) “petel”. the dirt”.
109
(L) “trienje”. (D) “rzha” as in “zheľ ezoto ima
rzha, e rzhosano” meaning “the
rubber – elastic substance iron has rust, is rusted”.
(D) “lastik” as in “trkaloto e (L) “rgja”.
praeno ot lastik” meaning “the
tire is made of rubber”. rye – a grain
(L) “guma”. (D) “irsh” as in “brashno ot
irsh” meaning “rye flour”.
rug – floor mat (L) “rzh”.
(D) “kiľ im” as in “a sho ubaf
kiľim imash” meaning “what a
nice rug you have”.
(L) “kjlim”.
S
sad - unhappy
ruin – wrecked or destroyed (D) “nazhaľ en” as in “e
state nazhaľen, kutaľ eto mu zagina”
(D) “rasipa” as in “ga rasipa meaning “he is sad, he lost his
igrachkata” meaning “you puppy”.
ruined the toy”. (L) “nazhalen”, “tazhen”.
(L) “propast”.
saddle –seat fastened on horse
rule – standard, law (D) “samar” as in “klaj mu o
(D) “zakon” as in “ne gi krshi samaro na magarto” meaning
zakonite” meaning “do not break “put the saddle on the donkey”.
the rules”. (L) “sedlo”.
(L) “pravilo”.
sag – sink or subside
run – go at faster pace than walk (D) “visi” as in “kozhata pot tilo
(D) “trchaj” as in “trchaj brzo” mu visi” meaning “the skin under
meaning “run fast”. his neck is sagging”.
(L) “trchanje”. (L) “se spushta”.
rush – go or move with great saint – canonized person in
speed Christian Church
(D) “vjasa” as in “toj se vjasa da (D) “sfetets” as in “ima ikona ot
si odi doma” meaning “he is sfetets vo tsrkva” meaning “there
rushing to go home”. is an icon of a saint in the
(L) “naval”. church”.
(L) “svetets”.
rust – corrosive substance
formed of iron or steel due to sale – exchange of commodity
oxidation for money

110
(D) “prodazhba” as in “ima (L) “kolbas”.
prodazhba vo pazaro” meaning
“there is a sale in the market”. save – rescue or preserve from
(L) “prodazhba”. danger
(D) “spasi” as in “spasi me od
saliva – liquid produced by vlko” meaning “save me from the
glands in the mouth wolf”.
(D) “pľ unka” as in “toj pľ
una (L) “spasuva”.
pľunka” meaning “he spit
saliva”. saw – tool with toothed metal
(L) “liga”, “plukanitsa”. blade
(D) “prion” as in “posechia
salt – sodium chloride shchitsata so priono” meaning
(D) “soľ ” as in “klaj si soľvo “cut the board with the saw”.
salatata” meaning “put salt in (L) “poslovitsa”, “pila”.
your salad”.
(L) “sol”. say – speak words
(D) “rechi” and “veľ i” as in
same – the identical “rechi sho imash da veľish”
(D) “ist” as in “ti si ist ko neo” meaning “say what you have to
meaning “you are the same as say”.
him”. (L) “rech”, “tvrdenje”.
(L) “ist”, “neizmenet”.
scab – crust formed over sore
sand – fine rock found on (D) “korichka” as in “ranata ti
beaches fati korichka” meaning “your
(D) “pesok” as in “ima pesok vo wound has developed a scab”.
rekata” meaning “there is sand (L) “krasta”.
in the river”.
(L) “pesok”. scale – instrument used for
weighing mass
satisfy – fulfill expectations or (D) “kntar” as in “trgao so
desires kntaro” meaning “weigh it with
(D) “zadovolen” as in “si the scale”.
zadovolen so jadenjeto” meaning (L) “razmernik”.
“I am satisfied with the meal”.
(L) “zadovoluva”. scar – mark on skin left by
damage
sausage – minced meat seasoned (D) “luzna” as in “imash luzna
and stuffed into thin membrane ot ranata” meaning “you have a
(D) “lukanik” as in “eden scar from your wound”.
lukanik, mnogu lukantsi” (L) “beleg”, “reska”, “luzna”.
meaning “one sausage, many
sausages”. scare – sudden outburst of fear
111
(D) “upla” as in “te fati upla” (D) “repaj” as in “ne se repaj ke
meaning “you became scared”. izvash krf” meaning “don’t
(L) “strav”. scratch you will bleed”.
(L) “grebanje”.
scent – characteristic odor
(D) “merizmo” as in “merizmo ot scream – emit piercing cry
tsfekja” meaning “scent of (D) “vreskaj” as in “ne vreskaj
flowers”. tolku” meaning “don’t scream so
(L) “miris”, “parfem”. much”.
(L) “vreskanje”.
school – institution for educating
people scrub – rub hard so as to clean
(D) “skoľ je” as in “dechinata ode (D) “tri” as in “tri jako do go
na skoľje” meaning “the boys ischistish” meaning “scrub hard
are going to school”. to clean it”.
(L) “shkola”, “uchilishte”. (L) “struzhe”.

scissors – a two pivoting blade sea – expanse of salt water
cutting instrument (D) “morje” as in “ke se pľ ivame
(D) “nozhichki” as in “posechi vo Soluntsko morje” meaning
ga krpata so nozhichkite” “we will be swimming in the
meaning “cut the cloth with the Solun sea”.
scissors”. (L) “more”, “okean”.
(L) “nozhitsi”.
search – look for
scorch – burn or discolour (D) “bara” as in “toj bara da
surface with dry heat” najdi neshcho” meaning “he is
(D) “izgori” as in “si gi izgori searching to find something”.
cheľite vo zharta” meaning “he (L) “baranje”.
scorched his shoes in the
ambers”. season – each of the divisions of
(L) “izgoruva”. the year
(D) “vreme” as in “ľeto vreme”
scrape – clean or smooth by meaning “summer season”.
scratching with hard edged (L) “godishno vreme”.
instrument
(D) “struzhi” as in “ga struzhi seat – thing used for sitting on
kalta pot chelite” meaning “he is (D) “stol” as in “dajmuo stolo na
scraping the mud from under his babata” meaning “give your seat
shoes”. to the grandmother”.
(L) “struzhenje”. (L) “sedishte”, “stol”.

scratch – score surface of with second – next after first
nails or sharp or pointed thing
112
(D) “ftor” an in “prf, ftor, tret, (D) “prodaa” as in “prodaa
chetfort, pett” meaning “first, kastitsi” meaning “is selling
second, third, fourth, fifth”. walnuts”.
(L) “vtor”. (L) “prodava”.

secret – hidden from all send – be conveyed
(D) “taen” as in “toj e taen (D) “pushchi” as in “pushchi go
korofilak” meaning “he is a doma” meaning “send him
secret policeman”. home”.
(L) “tajna”. (L) “prakja”, “prati”.

sediment – matter that settles at separate – physically
bottom of liquid disconnected
(D) “tinja” as in “vinoto ima (D) “se odeľi” as in “toj se odeľi
tinja” meaning “the wine has ot zhenata mu” meaning “he
sediment”. separated from his wife”.
(L) “talog”. (L) “se oddeluva”.

see – use of the eyes serve – do service for
(D) “vidi” as in “vidi se sho (D) “sluzhi” as in “mu sluzhi ko
praea?” meaning “see what they rob” meaning “he serves him like
were doing?” a slave”.
(L) “gleda”. (L) “servira”, “koristi”, “sluzhi”.

seed – unit of production of plant settle – become established in
(D) “seme” as in “semeto se sadi abode or place
na prolet” meaning “the seeds (D) “se naseľ i” as in “seloto se
are sown in the spring”. naseľi so ľ uge” meaning “the
(L) “seme”, “zrno”. village is settled with people”.
(L) “se smestuva”.
select - choose
(D) “odberi” as in “odberisi sho sever – divide or break or make
sakash” meaning “select what separate
you want for yourself”. (D) “skini” as in “skini eden
(L) “odbira”. komat” meaning “sever a piece”.
(L) “oddeluva”, “kine”, “seche”.
self – person’s or thing’s own
individuality several – a few, more than two,
(D) “sam” as in “go napraj sam” not many
meaning “I did it myself”. (D) “nekolku” as in “se napi
(L) “sam”. nekolku cheshi vino” meaning “I
drank several glasses of wine”.
sell – dispose of in exchange for (L) “nekolku”.
money
113
sew – mend shape – external form or
(D) “krpi” as in “baba mi gi krpi appearance
chorapite” meaning “grandma is (D) “kalap” as in “kalapo e
sewing my socks”. trkalest” meaning “the shape is
round”.
shack – hut or cabin (L) “forma”, “kalap”.
(D) “kaľ iva” as in “kaľiva plna
so seno” meaning “shack full of share – portion given or received
straw”. (D) “del” as in “ovoj e moj del”
(L) “koliba”. meaning “this is my share”.
(L) “del”, “udel”.
shade – shelter from direct sun
light shave – cut hair from face
(D) “senka” as in “pochini pot (D) “brichi” as in “si a brichi
senka” meaning “rest under bradata” meaning “he is shaving
shade” his beard”.
(L) “senka”. (L) “brichi”.

shadow - shade she - her
(D) “senka” as in “senkata ti (D) “taa” as in “taa e zhena”
gredi po tebe” meaning “your meaning “she is a woman”.
shadow follows you”. (L) “taa”.
(L) “senka”.
sheep – animal with thick wooly
shake – move violently coat
(D) “tresi” as in “se tresi ko (D) “oftsa” as in “edna oftsa
ľiľ
jak” meaning “is shaking like mnogu oftsi” meaning “one
a bat”. (Macedonian expression). sheep many sheep”.
(L) “trese”. (L) “ovtsa”.

shallow – of little depth shelf – horizontal board
(D) “plitko” as in “ezeroro e projecting from wall
plitko pokraj kameno” meaning (D) “politsa” as in “klaja knigata
“the lake is shallow near the nat politsata” meaning “put the
rock”. book on the shelf”.
(L) “plitko”. (L) “politsa”, “greben”.

shame – feeling of humiliation shell – outer casing of nut
(D) “stram” as in “mu e stram da (D) “ľ upka” as in “kastitsata
opita” meaning “he is ashamed ima jaka ľ upka” meaning “the
to ask”. walnut has a hard shell”.
(L) “sram”. (L) “luspa”.

114
shepherd – person who tends shop – place for retail sale of
sheep goods or services
(D) “ofchar” as in “ofcharo pasi (D) “dukjan” as in “kupi neshcho
oftsi” meaning “the shepherd ot dukjano” meaning “buy
grazes sheep”. something from the shop”.
(L) “ovchar”. (L) “dukjan”.

shine – emit or reflect light short – measuring little from end
(D) “sfeti” as in “sftloto sfeti” (D) “kus” as in “toj e kus ne
meaning “the light is shining”. stiga dur gore” meaning “he is
(L) “sjaja”, “sveti”. short won’t reach all the way
up”.
ship – large seagoing vessel (L) “kus”.
(D) “pampur” as in “pampuro
nosi ľuge preku morje” meaning shotgun – gun for firing small
“the ship carries people shot
overseas”. (D) “chifte” as in “pľ
usni so
(L) “brod”. chifteto” meaning “shoot with
the shotgun”.
shirt – loose sleeved garment
(D) “koshuľ a” as in “koshuľa so shoulder – part of body to which
gravata” meaning “shirt with arm is attached
tie”. (D) “ramo” as in “ramoto me
(L) “koshula”. boľi” meaning “my shoulder
hurts”.
shiver - tremble (L) “ramo”.
(D) “se tresi” as in “se tresi zash
mu studi” meaning “he shivers shove – push vigorously
because he is cold”. (D) “turga” as in “toj turga
(L) “se trese”. mnogu” meaning “he shoves a
lot”.
shoe – outer foot covering (L) “turka”.
(D) “chel” as in “eden chel, dva
cheľi” meaning “one shoe, two shovel – tool to move or mix
shoes”. soil, etc.
(L) “chevel”. (D) “lopata” as in “kopa dupka
so lopatata” meaning “is digging
shoot – cause weapon to a hole with the shovel”.
discharge (L) “lopata”.
(D) “pľ usni” as in “pľusni so
pushka” meaning “shoot with a show – allow to be seen
rifle”. (D) “pokazhi” as in “pokazhi sho
(L) “puka”. imash” meaning “show what you
have”.
115
(L) “pokazhuvanje”. (D) “boľ es” as in “ako ne jash ke
fatish boľes” meaning “if you
shrink – become smaller don’t eat you will get sick”.
(D) “namaľ e” as in “ka mi se (L) “bolest”.
puľish ko da si namaľen”
meaning “you look to me as if side – any of the surfaces
you have shrunk”. (D) “strna” as in “na koja strna
(L) “se sobira”, “se smaluva”. ke ojme?” meaning “to which
side are we going?”
shrug – slightly raise shoulders (L) “strana”.
(D) “gi krea ramenata” meaning
“koa ne znae sho da rechi gi sieve – utensil with small holes
krea ramenata” meaning “when through which fine particles can
he doesn’t know what to say he pass
shrugs his shoulders”. (D) “sito” as in “brashno se vee
(L) “gi kreva ramenitsite”. so sito” meaning “flour is sifted
with a sieve”.
shut – move door to closed (L) “sito”.
position
(D) “zatfori” as in “zatfori sight – faculty of seeing
vratata” meaning “shut the (D) “puľ enje” as in “puľenjeto
door”. mi se podobri” meaning “my
(L) “zatvora”. sight has improved”.
(L) “vid”, “pogled”.
shy – uneasy in company
(D) “stramľ if” as in “toj e sign – thing indicative of
stramľ if” meaning “he is shy”. quantity or state
(L) “plashliv”. (D) “beľ eg” as in “klaj mu beľeg
da go poznaash” meaning “put a
sick - ill sign on it so you can recognize
(D) “boľ en” as in “e boľ
en go it”.
boľi srtseto” meaning “is sick his (L) “znak”, “beleg”, “symbol”.
heart hurts”.
(L) “bolen”. signature – act of signing
(D) “potpiska” as in “dali e ovaa
sickle – tool with curved blade tfojta potpiska?” meaning “is
(D) “srp” as in “pchenitsa se beri this your signature?”
so srp” meaning “wheat is (L) “potpis”.
harvested with a sickle”.
(L) “srp”. silence – absence of sound
(D) “mlchenje” as in “ima samo
sickness – being ill mlchenje” meaning “there is
only silence”.
(L) “molchenje”, “tishina”.
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singe – burn lightly
silt – sediment deposited by (D) “opaľ i” as in “si gi opaľ
i
water vezhite” meaning “I singed my
(D) “tinja” as in “tinja se beri ot eyebrows”.
matna voda” meaning “silt (L) “izgorena”.
collects from muddy water”.
(L) “tinja”. single – one only
(D) “sam” as in “si sam, nemam
silver – white lustrous precious zhena” meaning “I am single, I
metallic element have no wife”.
(D) “strebro” as in “pari praeni (L) “sam”, “eden”,
ot strebro” meaning “coins made “ednokraten”.
of silver”.
(L) “srebro”. sink – fall or come slowly
downwards
similar – alike, of same kind (D) “potoni” as in “ke potoni vo
(D) “ednakov” as in “mojo saat e valtoto” meaning “he will sink in
ednakov ko tfojo” meaning “my the swamp”.
watch is similar to yours”. (L) “tone”.
(L) “slichen”.
sister – female sibling
simmer – boiling gently (D) “sestra” as in “imam sestra i
(D) “vrie” as in “mandzhata brat” meaning “I have a sister
vrie” meaning “the stew is and a brother”.
simmering”. (L) “sestra”.
(L) “vrie”.
sit – place in sitting position
simple – easily understood or (D”sedni” as in “sedni dolu”
done meaning “sit down”.
(D) “kolajno” as in “e kolajno” (L) “sedi”.
meaning “it is simple”.
(L) “ednostaven”, “prost”. size – relative bigness
(D) “goľ emina” as in “kazhi mi a
since – at what point in goľ eminata” meaning “show me
(D) “ot” as in “ot kaa?” meaning the size”.
“since when?” (L) “golemina”, “obem”.
(L) “od”, “pred”.
skill – practical ability
sing – utter musical sounds with (D) “zanaat” as in “sho zanaati
voice imash?” meaning “what skills do
(D) “pee” as in “pee pesna” you have?”
meaning “singing a song”. (L) “veshtina”.
(L) “pee”.

117
skin – covering of human or (L) “rob”.
animal body
(D) “kozha” as in “bishinata ime sledge-hammer – large heavy
debeli kozhi” meaning “pigs hammer
have thick skins”. (D) “varia” as in “varia e eden
(L) “kozha”. teshki chekan” meaning “a
sledge-hammer is a heavy
skip – move along by taking two hammer”.
steps with one foot (L) “kovachki chekan”.
(D) “skokaj” as in “skokaj po
brzo” meaning “skip faster”. sleep – resting with eyes closed
(L) “poskok”. and consciousness suspended
(D) “spie” as in “bebeto spie
sky – upper region of the noshja i denja” meaning “the
atmoshere baby sleeps night and day”.
(D) “nebo” as in “neboto e sino” (L) “spienje”.
meaning “the sky is blue”.
(L) “nebo”. sleeve – part of garment that
encloses arm
slant - slope (D) “rakaf” as in “rakao mi e
(D) “vaľ i” as in “stiso vaľi” vaľkan” meaning “my sleeve is
meaning “the wall is on a slant”. dirty”.
(L) “valuva”. (L) “rakav”.

slap – strike with inside of open slice – thin shaped piece cut
hand from something
(D) “shlapni” as in “ke te (D) “felka” as in “posechi me
shlapna” meaning “I will slap edna felka ľ ep” meaning “cut me
you”. a piece of bread”.
(L) “slakanitsa”. (L) “tanko parche”.

slaughter – killing of animals slide – move or go smoothly
for food (D) “ľ izga” as in “taa se ľizga na
(D) “zakoli” as in “vo Dekemvri mrazo” meaning “she is sliding
ke go zakolime bisheto” meaning on the ice”.
“in December we will slaughter (L) “slizganje”.
the pig”.
(L) “kolenje”. slip – slide unintentionally
(D) “sľ izna” as in “taa se sľizna
slave – person owned by another na mrazo” meaning “she slipped
(D) “rob” as in “rob e toj sho on the ice”.
rabota bes platka” meaning “a (L) “sliznuvanje”.
slave is he who works without
pay”.
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slipper – light soft shoe for (D) “mal” as in “toj ne e goľ em
indoors nito visok, toj e mal” meaning
(D) “shlapka” as in “edna “he is not big or tall, he is
shlapka dve shlapki” meaning small”.
“one slipper two slippers”. (L) “mal”.
(L) “vlechka”.
smart – clever, ingenious
slippery – lack of grip due to (D) “umen” as in “umni ľ uge se
smoothness or wetness of surface uche od nemnite greshki”
(D) “se ľizga” an in “se ľizga meaning “smart people learn
koa e vodeno” meaning “slippery from their own mistakes”.
when it is wet”. (L) “umen”, “pameten”.
(L) “slizgav”.
smash – break into pieces
sliver – thin piece of wood (D) “skrshi” as in “go skrshi
(D) “spitsa” and “delanchka” as shisheto na komati” meaning “he
in “mi vľ eze spitsa vo prsto” smashed the bottle into pieces”.
meaning “I got a sliver in my (L) “krshenje”.
finger” and “rastsepigo drvoto
na delanchki” meaning “split the smell – unpleasant odor
wood into slivers” (D) “smrdea” as in “sho e taa
(L) “delachka”. smrdea?” meaning “what is that
smell?”
slope – inclined position (L) “miris”, “smrdea”.
(D) “strmno” as in “ne e ramno e
strmno” meaning “it is not flat it smile – act of smiling
is on a slope”. (D) “se smee” as in “se smee
(L) “strmnina”. zash je radosen” meaning “he is
smiling because he is happy”.
slow – taking a relatively long (L) “se smee”.
time
(D) “poľ eka” as in “zheľkata smoke – visible vapour from
mrda poľekachki” meaning “the burning substance
turtle moves slowly”. (D) “kadesh” as in “dea ima
(L) “usporuva”, “sopira”. kadesh ima ogan” meaning
“where there is smoke there is
slug – snail-like without shell fire”.
(D) “ľigaets” as in “ľigaetso e (L) “chad”.
plshok bes korupka” meaning
“the slug is a snail without a smooth – free from roughness
shell”. (D) “mazen” as in “stapo e
mazen” meaning “the stick is
small – not large or big smooth”.
(L) “mazni”.
119
(D) “taka” as in “taka mi veľ
ish”
snail – slow-moving mollusk meaning “so you tell me”.
with spiral shell (L) “taka”, “na ovoj nachin”.
(D) “plshok” as in “plshoko se
ľizga koa mrda” meaning “the soak – saturate in liquid
snail slides when it moves”. (D) “kisni” as in “ostaj go neka
(L) “polshav”. se kisni” meaning “let it soak”.
(L) “natopuva”.
snake – long limbless reptile
(D) “zmia” as in “zmiata ima soap – cleaning substance
farmak” meaning “the snake has (D) “sapun” as in “isperi gi
poison”. pľachkite so sapun” meaning
(L) “zmia”. “wash the clothes with soap”.
(L) “sapun”.
sneeze – sudden involuntary
expulsion of air from nose and sock – short stocking
mouth (D) “chorap” as in “eden
(D) “kiva” as in “kiva, ke o fati chorap, dva chorapi” meaning
stut” meaning “he is sneezing, he “one sock, two socks”.
will catch a cold”. (L) “chorap”.
(L) “kiva”.
soft – not hard
sniffle – sniff repeatedly (D) “mek” as in “mek ľep”
(D) “smrka” as in “vezden smrka meaning “soft bread”.
ne mozhi da zastani” meaning (L) “mek”.
“continuously sniffles he can’t
stop”. soggy – saturated with liquid
(L) “shmrka”. (D) “voden” as in “ľebo e voden”
meaning “the bread is soggy”.
snout – projecting nose from (L) “natopenje”.
animal
(D) “surla” as in “bishkoa surla” soil – upper layer of earth
meaning “pig snout”. (D) “zemja” as in “tsrna zemja”
(L) “mutska”, “rilo”. meaning “dark soil”.
(L) “zemja”.
snow – frozen vapour falling to
earth as flakes soldier – member of army
(D) “snek” as in “vo zimata (D) “askerľija” as in “askrľijata
padva snek” meaning “in the ima pushka” meaning “the
winter snow falls”. soldier has a rifle”.
(L) “sneg”. (L) “vojnik”.

so – in this or that way some – an unspecified amount or
number
120
(D) “nekolku” as in “nekolku meaning “soon I will be going
dechina ojdoa kamo rekata” home”.
meaning “some boys went (L) “skoro”, “rano”, “brzo”.
towards the river”.
(L) “nekolku”. sore – painful from injury or
disease
something – some unspecified (D) “rana” as in “se poseku i
or unknown thing sega imam rana” meaning “I cut
(D) “neshcho” as in “neshcho e myself and now I have a sore”.
po dobro ot nishcho” meaning (L) “rana”.
“something is better than
nothing”. sorrel – sour-leaved herb
(L) “neshto”. (D) “kiseľ ets” as in “klaj troa
kiseľets vo salatata” meaning
sometime – at some time “put a little sorrel in the salad”.
(D) “nekogash” as in “nekogash (L) “kiselitsa”.
oda vo odmor” meaning
“sometimes I go on vacation”. sorrow – mental distress
(L) “nekogash”. (D) “zhaľ ” as in “mi e zhaľ
” as
in “I feel sorrow”.
somewhere – some place (L) “zhalost”.
(D) “nekade” as in “nekade vo
planinata ima zlato” meaning sort – group of things with
“somewhere in the mountain common attributes
there is gold”. (D) “naredi” as in “naredi gi na
(L) “nekade”. ret” meaning “sort them in
order”.
son – male child in relation to (L) “odbira”.
parents
(D) “sin” as in “dali imash sin?” soup – liquid food
meaning “do you have a son?” (D) “chorba” as in “chorba ot
(L) “sin”. kokoshka” meaning “chicken
soup”.
song – vocal music (L) “supa”.
(D) “pesna” as in “peacho pee
pesna” meaning “the singer is sour – having acid taste or smell
singing a song”. (D) “kisel” as in “limono e kisel”
(L) “pesna”. meaning “the lemon is sour”.
(L) “kisel”, “skisnat”.
soon – after no long interval of
time south – 90 degrees clockwise
(D) “vo brzo vreme” as in “vo from east
brzo vreme ke si oda doma”

121
(D) “jug” as in “sever, istok, spill – allow liquid to fall or run
zapat i jug” meaning “north, (D) “isturi” as in “ga isturi tsela
east, west and south”. voda” meaning “he spilled all the
(L) “jug”. water”.
(L) “se istura”.
sow – put seed in the earth
(D) “sadi” as in “sadi seme” spin – turn rapidly
meaning “sowing seeds”. (D) “se vrti” as in “vrtaleshkata
(L) “see”. se vrti” meaning “the propeller is
spinning”.
spark – fiery particle thrown (L) “vrtenje”, “suchenje”.
from burning substance
(D) “iskra” as in “iskra se frľ
i ot spine - backbone
ogno” meaning “a spark was (D) “shiper” as in “shipero gi
thrown from the fire”. drzhi rebrata na mesto” meaning
(L) “iskra”. “the spine holds the ribs in
place”.
speak – utter words in ordinary (L) “rbet”, “grb”.
voice
(D) “zborva” as in “zborvaj, sho spirit – person’s soul
imash da veľ ish?” meaning (D) “dusha” as in “mu e mila
“speak, what do you have to dushata” meaning “he loves his
say?” spirit”.
(L) “govori”. (L) “duh”, “dusha”.

speed – quick motion spit – eject from the mouth
(D) “brzina” as in “trcha vo (D) “pľ unka” as in “pľuna
goľema brzina” meaning “he is pľunka” meaning “spitting spit”.
running at great speed”. (L) “plunka”.
(L) “brzina”.
splash – to throw water
spend – pay out (D) “pľiska” as in “pľiska voda”
(D) “istroshi” as in “kolku pari meaning “splashing water”.
istroshi?” meaning “how much (L) “prska”.
money did you spend?”
(L) “istroshuva”. split – break lengthwise
(D) “rastsepi” as in “rastsepi go
spider – eight-legged arthropod drvoto na maľ i komachina”
which spins web meaning “split the wood into
(D) “paek” as in “paeko tkae small pieces”.
paezhina” meaning “the spider is (L) “rstsep”, “tsepenje”.
weaving a web”.
(L) “pajak”. spoil – make useless

122
(D) “se rasipa” as in “mesoto se spring – season after winter
rasipa” meaning “the meat (D) “proľ et” as in “proľ
et, leto,
became spoiled”. esen i zima” meaning “spring,
(L) “se rasipuva”. summer, fall and winter”.
(L) “prolet”.
spool – reel on which something
is wound spring – source of water
(D) “makarche” as in “vo (D) “izvor” as in “od izvoro
makarcheto ima konets” izľegva chista voda” meaning
meaning “on the spool there is “from the spring comes out clean
thread”. water”.
(L) “kalem”. (L) “izvor”.

spoon – oval utensil for eating spy – secretly collecting and
liquids reporting information
(D) “lajtsa” as in “jas jada so (D) “shpion” and “kodosh” as in
lajtsa” meaning “I eat with a “toj e shpion gi kodoshi lugeto”
spoon”. meaning “he is a spy he spies on
(L) “lazhitsa”. people”.
(L) “shpion”.
spot - mark
(D) “damka” as in “imash damka squeeze – exert pressure
na litseto” meaning “you have a (D) “stiska” as in “mi a stiska
spot on your face”. rakata” meaning “is squeezing
(L) “damka”. my hand”.
(L) “stiska”.
spray – water or other liquid
flying in small drops squirrel – bushy-tailed arboreal
(D) “prska” as in “prska voda” rodent
meaning “is spraying water”. (D) “ververitsa” as in
(L) “prska”. “ververitsata ima vlneshkaa
pashka” meaning “the squirrel
spread – cause to cover large has a hairy tail”.
surface (L) “ververitsa”.
(D) “shiri” as in “oblako se
shiri” meaning “the cloud is stab – pierce or wound with
spreading”. pointed tool or weapon
(L) “se shiri”, “shirenje”. (D) “dupna” as in “si go dupna
prsto so igla” meaning “I
spring – rise rapidly stabbed my finger with a
(D) “stana” as in “stana brzo” needle”.
meaning “he sprang fast”. (L) “ubod”.
(L) “skok”.

123
stable – building in which large (D) “zafati” and “trgna” as in
animals are kept “zafati da bara” meaning
(D) “aur” as in “ima koni vo “started to walk” and “trgna za
auro” meaning “there are horses vo grado” meaning “started for
in the stable”. the city”.
(L) “stala”. (L) “trgnuva”.

stain – discoloured by liquid starve – die of hunger
sinking in (D) “umre ot glados” as in “ako
(D) “damka” as in “imash damka ne jadish ke umrish ot glados”
na gravatata” meaning “you meaning “if you don’t eat you
have a stain on your tie”. will starve”.
(L) “fleka”, “damka”, “boja”. (L) “umiranje od glad”.

stair - step stay – continue to be in same
(D) “skala” as in “vjani po place
skala” meaning “climb the (D) “sedi” as in “sedi tuka”
stairs”. meaning “stay here”.
(L) “skala”. (L) “stoj”.

stake – stick pointed for driving steal – take another’s property
into ground illegally
(D) “kol” as in “kol za drzhenje (D) “kradi” as in “kradi sho
gra” meaning “pole for propping mozhish” meaning “steal
beans”. whatever you can”.
(L) “kolets”. (L) “krade”.

stand – maintain upright steam – gas formed from boiling
position water
(D) “sedi” as in “sedi tamo” (D) “para” as in “voda se vari da
meaning “stand there”. praj para” meaning “water is
(L) “stoj”. boiled to create steam”.
(L) “para”.
star – celestial body appearing
as a luminous point in the night steel – alloy of iron
sky (D) “cheľ ik” as in “jak ko
(D) “dzvezda” as in “ima ilijadi cheľik” meaning “strong like
dzvezdi vo neboto” meaning steel”.
“there are thousands of stars in (L) “chelik”.
the sky”.
(L) “dzvezda”. steep – sloping sharply
(D) “strmnina” as in “ot rido
start – begin, set in motion udolu e strmnina” meaning

124
“from the hilltop downwards it is
steep”. stone - rock
(L) “strmnina”. (D) “kamen” as in “vo rekata
ima mnogu kamenje” meaning
step – unit of movement “in the river there are a lot of
(D) “chekar” as in “dva chekari stones”.
na metro” meaning “two steps to (L) “kamen”.
a meter”.
(L) “chekor”. stop – put an end to progress
(D) “zastani” as in “zastani, ne
stepbrother – male child of praj pojke gjurultia” meaning
different parent “stop, don’t make any more
(D) “parabrat” as in “ima eden trouble”.
brat i eden parabrat” meaning (L) “zastoj”.
“he has a brother and a
stepbrother”. stork – white wading bird with
(L) “polubrat”. long legs
(D) “shtrk” as in “shtrko fatfa
stew – cook by long simmering zmii” meaning “the stork catches
in closed vessel with liquid snakes”.
(D) “mandzha” as in “mandzha (L) “shtrk”.
so meso” meaning “stew with
meat”. storm – violent atmospheric
(L) “meso vareno so para”. disturbance
(D) “bura” as in “losha bura”
stick – short slender piece of meaning “bad storm”.
wood (L) “bura”, “ataka”.
(D) “stap” as in “ke te udra so
stapo” meaning “I will hit you story – narrative tale
with the stick”. (D) “prikazna” as in “kazhimi
(L) “stap”, “shipka”. edna prikazna” meaning “tell me
a story”.
stinger – organ of bee or wasp (L) “prikaska”, “raskaz”.
(D) “strshen” as in “me ksna
pchela i mi ostaj strshen” stove – closed apparatus for
meaning “a bee bit me and left burning fuel
the stinger in me”. (D) “soba” as in “soba sho gori
(L) “zhilo”. drva” meaning “stove that burns
wood”.
stir – move spoon round (L) “pechka”.
(D) “boraj” as in “boraj go
grao” meaning “keep stirring the straight – without curves
beans”.
(L) “meshaj”.
125
(D) “praf” as in “barash na praf (D) “konets” as in “zakrpimio
pt” meaning “you are walking on paltoto so konets” meaning “sew
a straight road”. my coat with string”.
(L) “prav”, “ramen”, “mazen”. (L) “jazhe”, “vrvtsa”.

strange – unusual, peculiar strong – having power of
(D) “chuden” as in “toj e chuden resistance
choek” meaning “he is a strange (D) “silen” as in “toj e silen
person”. mozhi da kreni kon” meaning “he
(L) “tugj”, “chuden”. is strong he can lift a horse”.
(L) “jak”, “silen”, “mokjen”.
strangle – squeeze neck
(D) “oplti” as in “ke te oplti so stubborn – inflexible, intractible
ratsi” meaning “he will strangle (D) “inadzhja” as in “toj e
you with his hands”. inadzhja choek” meaning “he is
(L) “zadavuva”. a stubborn person”.
(L) “tvrdoglav”.
straw – dry cut stalks of grain
(D) “slama” as in “pernitsa stupid – unintelligent, foolish
plnata so slama” meaning (D) “budala” and “prost” as in
“pillow stuffed with straw”. “toj e budala za toa prosto
(L) “slama”. neshcho sho napraj” meaning
“he is stupid for that stupid thing
strawberry – pulpy red fruit he did”.
(D) “planuchka” as in “divi (L) “glup”.
planuchki raste vo planina”
meaning “wild strawberries subtract - deduct
grow on the mountain”. (D) “izvaj” as in “izvaj dve ot tri
(L) “jagoda”. ke imash edno” meaning
“subtract two from three you will
stream – flowing body of water have one”.
(D) “trap” as in “trap e maľetska (L) “odzemi”.
reka” meaning “a stream is a
small river”. suck – draw liquid into mouth
(L) “potok”, “reka”, “struja”. (D) “muska” as in “muska
mľeko” meaning “sucking milk”.
stretch – pull to greater length (L) “tsitsa”, “upiva”.
(D) “tegni” as in “se tegni
lastiko” meaning “stretching a sugar – sweet crystalline
rubber band”. substance
(L) “rastegnuva”. (D) “sheker” as in “sheker e
mnogu blak” meaning “sugar is
string – twine or narrow cord very sweet”.
(L) “shekjer”.
126
surrender – relinquish
suit – set of clothes for wearing possession
together (D) “se predava” as in “toj se
(D) “kustum” as in “ke nosa predava na askero” meaning “he
kustum na brako” meaning “I is surrendering to the soldiers”.
am goint to wear a suit at the (L) “se predava”.
wedding”.
(L) “kostum”. surround – be all round
(D) “ovrti” as in “askero gi
sulphur – pale yellow non overti” meaning “the soldiers
metallic element surrounded them”.
(D) “skľifur” as in “skľifuro (L) “opashuva”.
smrdi koa gori” meaning “sulfur
stinks when it burns”. survive – continue to live
(L) “sulfur”. (D) “prezhivi” as in “ga prezhivi
burata” meaning “he survived
summer – warmest season the storm”.
(D) “ľeto” as in “ľetoto ima (L) “prezhivuva”.
pojke sntse” meaning “in the
summer there is more sun”. swallow – pass down the throat
(L) “leto”. (D) “glta” as in “gltaj ga vodata
poľeka” meaning “swallow the
sun – the star around which the water slowly”.
earth travels (L) “golta”.
(D) “sntse” as in “sntseto sfeti”
meaning “the sun is shining”. swallow – migratory bird
(L) “sontse”. (D) “lastojchka” as in
“lastojchkite bege na esen”
support – keep from falling or meaning “the swallows leave in
sinking the fall”.
(D) “potkrepi” as in “potkrepise (L) “lastovitsa”.
da ne padnish” meaning
“support yourself so that you will swear – take oath
not fall”. (D) “kľetfa” as in “zve kľetfa da
(L) “potkepa”, “pomosh”, bidi dobar” meaning “he swore
“izdrshka”. to be nice”.
(L) “kletva”.
surprise – unexpected thing
(D) “se zachudi” as in “se sweat – moisture exuded through
zachudi od kolku kjari” meaning pores of skin
“he was surprised by how much (D) “potni” as in “potni ot mka”
he won”. meaning “is sweating from
(L) “chudenje”. duress”.
(L) “poti”.
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tailor– maker of clothes
sweep – clean with broom (D) “terzia” as in “terziata ke mi
(D) “meti” as in “baba go meti soshie nof kustum” meaning “the
dvoro” meaning “grandma is tailor will stitch me a new suit”.
sweeping the yard”. (L) “krojach”, “shivach”.
(L) “mete”.
take – get hold of
sweet – tasting like sugar or (D) “zevaj” as in “zevaj samo
honey edno” meaning “take only one”.
(D) “blago” as in “shekercheto e (L) “zemaj”, “premaj”.
blago” meaning “the candy is
sweet”. tale – narrative or story
(L) “slatko”. (D) “prikazna” as in “kazhimi
edna prikazna” meaning “tell me
swim – propel body through a tale”.
water (L) “raskaz”, “prikaska”.
(D) “pľ iva” as in “letoto se
pľivame vo rekata” meaning “in talk - converse
the summer we swim in the (D) “zborva” as in “toj zborva
river”. mnogu” meaning “he talks too
(L) “pliva”. much”.
(L) “govori”.
sword – weapon with long blade
(D) “shtik” as in “ke te dupni so tall – more than average height
shtiko” meaning “he will poke (D) “visok” as in “toj e visok a ti
you with the sword”. si po visok” meaning “he is tall
(L) “sabja”. but you are taller”.
(L) “visok”.

T tame – domesticated, not wild or
shy
table – piece of furniture with (D) “pitom” as in “zaeko e
flat top with four legs pitom” meaning “the rabbit is
(D) “masa” as in “sedni pokraj tame”.
masata” meaning “sit near the (L) “pitom”, “krotok”.
table”.
(L) “masa”. tar – dark thick inflammable
liquid
tail – hindmost part of animal (D) “katran” an in “volo e tsrn
(D) “pashka” as in “matskata ko katran” meaning “the ox is
ima dlga pashka” meaning “the black like tar”.
cat has a long tail”. (L) “katran”.
(L) “opashka”.

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taste – sensation caused in the than – introducing second
tongue element in comparison
(D) “fkus” as in “jabolkoto ima (D) “ot” as in “toj e po golem ot
ubaf fkus” meaning “the apple tebe” meaning “he is bigger than
tastes good”. you”.
(L) “vkus”. (L) “od”, “tuku”.

tea – evergreen shrub grown in thank – express gratitude
India and China (D) “spolaj” as in “spolajti”
(D) “chaj” as in “planintski meaning “thank you”.
chaj” meaning “mountain tea”. (L) “blagodaram”.
(L) “chaj”.
that – the person or thing
teach – give instruction indicated or named
(D) “uchi” as in “uchi se da (D) “toa” as in “ti si choek a toa
pishish” meaning “teach yourself e neshcho” meaning “you are a
to write”. person and that is a thing”.
(L) “uchi”. (L) “toa”.

tear – pull apart theft - stealing
(D) “skini” as in “skini go na (D) “kradba” as in “kradba e
mali komachina” meaning “tear protif zakono” meaning “theft is
it to small pieces”. against the law”.
(L) “kini”, “korni”. (L) “krazhba”.

teeth – more than one tooth their – of or belonging to them
(D) “zmbi” as in “imam chisti (D) “nemni” as in “tie se nemni
zmbi” meaning “I have clean detsa” meaning “they are their
teeth”. children”.
(L) “zabi”. (L) “nivni”.

tell – relate or narrate in speech them – case of they
or writing (D) “tie” as in “tie se moj kjerki”
(D) “kazhi” as in “kazhi mi sho meaning “them, they are my
veľ i toj” meaning “tell me what daughters”.
he says” . (L) “niv”
(L) “veli”, “kazhuva”.
there – in or at or at that place
tender – easily cut or chewed (D) “tamo” as in “tamo dolu”
(D) “mek” as in “tlchenoto meso meaning “down there”.
e meko” meaning “pounded meat (L) “tamu”, “onamu”.
is tender”.
(L) “mek”, “nezhen”. thick – of specified or great
depth between opposite surfaces
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(D) “debel” as in “debel remen” (L) “ovoj”, “ovaa”, “ova”.
meaning “thick belt”.
(L) “debel”, “gust”. thorn – sharp pointed projection
on plant
thief – one who steals (D) “trn” as in “stpna na trn i mi
(D) “aramia” as in “aramiata mi vleze vo nogata” meaning “I
gi ukradi parite” meaning “the stepped on a thorn and it entered
thief stole my money”. my foot”.
(L) “aramia”, “kradets”. (L) “trn”.

thin – having opposite surfaces thread – thin cord of twisted
close together yarn
(D) “slap” as in “tfojo remen e (D) “konets” as in “zakrpio so
slap” meaning “your belt is konets i vrzio se vrftsa” meaning
thin”. “mend it with string and tie it
(L) “slab”, “redok”. with a string”.
(L) “konets”, “kitka”, “vrska”.
thing – an inanimate object
(D) “neshcho” as in “igrachka e throat – windpipe, gullet
neshcho” meaning “a toy is a (D) “grlo” as in “nemozha da
thing”. gltam, grloto me boľi” meaning
(L) “stvar”, “predmet”. “I can’t swallow, my throat is
sore”.
think – be of opinion, judge or (L) “grlo”, “grklan”.
consider
(D) “misli” as in “misli se sho ke through – from end to end
mu rechish” meaning “think (D) “krs” as in “pomini krs neo
what you are going to say to ot kraj na kraj” meaning “pass
him”. through it from end to end”.
(L) “misli”, “smeta”. (L) “niz”.

thirsty – having a desire or need throw – propel with some force
to drink (D) “frľi” as in “frľ
io nadvor”
(D) “kapnat” as in “si kapnat mi meaning “throw it out”.
se pie voda” meaning “I am (L) “frla”.
thirsty I need to drink water”.
(L) “zhed”, “kopnezh”. thunder – loud noise heard after
lightning
this – person or thing close at (D) “grmi” as in “vrni i grmi”
hand meaning “raining and
(D) “ovoj”, “ovaa” and “ova” as thundering”.
in “ovoj msh, ovaa zhena i ova (L) “grmi”.
kuche” meaning “this man, this
woman and this dog”.
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tickle – produce laughter by (D) “vreme” as in “vreme e za
exciting nerves vechera” meaning “it’s time for
(D) “gjuchka” as in “taa go supper”.
gjuchka bebeto i toa se smee” (L) “vreme”.
meaning “she is tickling the baby
and it is laughing”. tired – weary, exhausted
(L) “skokotka”. (D) “postanat” as in “si postanat
ne mozha da rabotam pojke”
tie – attach or fasten with string meaning “I am tired I can’t work
or cord any more”.
(D) “vrzi” as in “vrzio magarto (L) “umoren”.
so fortoma” meaning “tie the
donkey with rope”. today – this day
(L) “vrska”, “vrvtsa”. (D) “denes” as in “denes ke bidi
ubaf den” meaning “today will
tight – closely held or drawn be a beautiful day”.
(D) “stegnat” as in “drzhigo (L) “denes”.
stegnato” meaning “hold him
tightly”. toe – any of the five terminal
(L) “tsvrst”, “napnat”. members on foot
(D) “prst na noga” as in “prst na
tile – thin slab raka i prst na noga” meaning
(D) “plocha” as in “dedo go “finger and toe”.
posla dvoro so plochi” meaning (L) “prst na noga”.
“grandpa laid the yard with
tiles”. together – in company of
(L) “plocha”. (D) “zaedno” as in “zaedno ke
ga oslobodime Makedonija”
till – cultivate land meaning “together we will free
(D) “rabota zemja” as in “ga Macedonia”.
rabota zemjata so lopata” (L) “zaedno”.
meaning “he is tilling the soil
with a shovel”. toilet - lavatory
(L) “obrabotuva zemja”. (D) “aľ e” as in “vo starite dena
aľina bea nadvor” meaning “in
timber – wood prepared for the old days the toilets were
building outside”.
(D) “grendi” as in “ni trebe (L) “toaleta”.
grendi za chatiata” meaning “we
need timber for the roof”. tolerate – allow occurrences
(L) “gradechno drvo”. without interference
(D) “trpi” as in “trpia boľ
eata
time – point of time, measure of brzo ke pomini” meaning
time
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“tolerate the pain it will soon (L) “zab”.
pass”.
(L) “trpi”. top – highest point or part
(D) “vr” as in “vrro e naj visoko
tomato – red pulpy edible fruit mesto ot drvoto” meaning “the
(D) “domat” as in “baba beri top is the highest place of the
domati ot gradinata” meaning tree”.
“grandma is picking tomatoes (L) “vrv”.
from the garden”.
(L) “patlidzhan”, “domat”. torture – infliction of severe
bodily pain
tomorrow – the day after today (D) “mchi” as in “ti se moľ a ne
(D) “utre” as in “utre ke ojme po me mchi pojke” meaning “please
ribi” meaning “tomorrow we are don’t torture me any more”.
going fishing”. (L) “maki”, “machi”.
(L) “utre”.
total – the whole sum
tongue – fleshy muscular organ (D) “tselokupno” as in “kazhimi
in mouth kolku e tselokupno” meaning
(D) “jazik” as in “jaziko e za “tell me how much is the total”.
zborvanje i gltanje” meaning (L) “zbir”, “tsel”, “vkupen”.
“the tongue is for speaking and
swallowing”. touch – put one’s hand on
(L) “jazik”. someone or something
(D) “giba” as in “ne go gibaj”
tonight – the present night meaning “don’t touch it”.
(D) “vecher” as in “vecher ke (L) “dopir”, “vrska”.
ojme da vime kino” meaning
“tonight we are going to see a tough – hard to break or cut
movie”. (D) “zhilaf” as in “mesoto e
(L) “vecherva”. zhilao, ne se dzhvaka” meaning
“the meat is tough, can’t be
tool – mechanical implement chewed”.
(D) “alat” as in “dedo i drzhi (L) “zhilav”, “traen”.
alatite vo keralo” meaning
“grandpa keeps his tools in the towards – in the direction of
cellar”. (D) “kamo” as in “baraj kamo
(L) “alat”. mene” meaning “come towards
me”.
tooth – each of white hard bony (L) “kon”.
structures in jaw
(D) “zmb” as in “puli baba, zmbo towel – absorbent cloth or paper
mi padna” meaning “look
grandma, my tooth fell out”.
132
(D) “riza” as in “izbrishise so meaning “can you translate this
rizata” meaning “dry yourself letter?”.
with the towel”. (L) “preveduva”.
(L) “krpa”, “peshkir”.
transport – take persons or
tower – tall structure goods from one place to another
(D) “kuľe” as in “ima kuľe vo (D) “prenosi” as in “prenosio
Ajľ” meaning “there is a tower in zhitoto ot Oshchima vo Lerin”
Ail”. meaning “transport the grain
(L) “kula”, “kube”. from Oshchima to Lerin”.
(L) “prevoz”, “prenesuva”.
town – large concentration of
dwellings trap – device for catching
(D) “gratche” as in “gratche e animals
mal grat” meaning “a town is a (D) “stapitsa” as in “glufets se
small city”. fati vo stapitsata” meaning “a
(L) “grad”. mouse was caught in the trap”.
(L) “jamka”, “klopka”.
toy – thing to play with
(D) “igrachka” as in “koj ti a tree – perennial plant
dade taa ubaa igrachka?” (D) “drvo” as in “drvoto e
meaning “who gave you that cheresha” meaning “the tree is a
beautiful toy?” cherry tree”.
(L) “igrachka”. (L) “drvo”, “steblo”.

trade – skill trick – things done to fool or
(D) “zanaat” as in “na sho outwit
zanaat rabotash?” meaning “at (D) “itrina” as in “itrina za itari”
what skill are you employed?” meaning “trick for the clever”.
(L) “zanaet”, “znanje”, “struka”. (L) “trik”, “itrina”.

transfer – hand over from one to trip – stumble or cause to
another stumble
(D) “premesti” as in “toj go (D) “sopni” as in “puľi da ne se
premesti ot edno mesto na sopnish” meaning “watch that
drugo” meaning “he transfered it you don’t trip”.
from one place to another”. (L) “propust”.
(L) “prenos”, “premestuvanje”.
true – accurately confirming
translate – give meaning in (D) “vistintski” as in “odgovoro e
another language vistintski” meaning “the answer
(D) “prevedi” as in “ke mozhish is true”.
da go prevedish ova pismo?” (L) “veren”, “predan”.

133
truth – what is true (L) “bliznak”, “dvojnik”.
(D) “vistina” as in “vistinata ke
te oslobodi” meaning “the truth twist – change the form by
will set you free”. rotating one end but not the other
(L) “vistina”. (D) “vie” and “suchi” as in
“drvoto se vie ot vetro” meaning
try – make effort to success “the tree is twisting from the
(D) “obid” as in “obidise da go wind” and “baba suchi vialkik”
krenish” meaning “try to lift it”. meaning “grandma is twisting a
(L) “proba”, “obid”. vialnik”.
(L) “zavoj”, “suche”.
tub – open flat bottomed vessel
(D) “kopanka” as in “izmise vo
kopankata” meaning “wash
yourself in the tub”.
U
(L) “vedro”, “kobel”, “katsa”. ugly – unpleasant or repulsive to
see and hear
turn – move around to point of (D) “grt” as in “toj volo e mnogu
axis grt” meaning “that ox is very
(D) “vrti” as in “vrtise da ne go ugly”.
udrish stiso” meaning “turn so (L) “grd”, “grozen”.
you will not hit the wall”.
(L) “vrti”. unbutton – open shirt, etc.
(D) “otkopsa” as in “otkapsaj si
turtle – reptile with horney shell go paltoto” meaning “unbutton
(D) “zheľ ka” as in “zheľkata ima your coat”.
palto ot koska” meaning “the (L) “otkopsuva”.
turtle has a coat of bone”.
(L) “zhelka”. uncle – brother or brother-in-law
of one’s father or mother
twig – small branch or shoot (D) “striko” (father’s brother),
(D) “vetche” and “kľ echka” as in “vujko” (mother’s brother),
“vetche e mala vetka” meaning “tetin” (aunt’s husband from
“a twig is a small branch” and both sides).
“kľechka e malo stapche” (L) “vujko”.
meaning “a twig is a small
stick”. uncover – remove cover
(L) “stapche”, “granche”. (D) “otkriva” as in “go otkriva
kreveto” meaning “he is
twin – pair born at the same time uncovering the bed”.
from same mother (L) “otkriva”.
(D) “bľiznak” as in “tie dvata se
bľiznatsi” meaning “those two under – in or at a lower position
are twins”.
134
(D) “pot” as in “nema dzver pot uneven – not level or smooth
kreve” meaning “there is no (D) “neramen” as in “ptto e
monster under the bed”. neramen” meaning “the road is
(L) “pod”, “podolu”. uneven”.
(L) “neramen”.
undercover – spying by working
among those observed unfold – open folds
(D) “taen” as in “toj e taen (D) “rashiri” as in “rashirigo
korofilak” meaning “he is an veľentseto” meaning “unfold the
undercover policeman”. blanket”.
(L) “razviva”, “rashiruva”.
underground – beneath the
earth or into hiding unfreeze – thaw
(D) “potzema” as in “toj se skri (D) “odmrzni” as in “odmrznigo
potzema” meaning “he hid mesoto pret da go varish”
underground”. meaning “unfreeze the meat
(L) “podzemen”, “taen”. before you boil it”.

understand – perceive meaning unlock – release lock
(D) “razberva” as in “taa (D) “otkľuchi” as in “otkľ
uchiga
razberva sho mu veľ ish” vratata” meaning “unlock the
meaning “she understands what door”.
you are telling her”. (L) “otkluchuva”.
(L) “razbira”.
until – when its
underwater – situated under (D) “do koa” or “do koga” as in
water “do koa ke se vidime pa”
(D) “potvoda” as in “toj se pľ
iva meaning “until we see each other
potvoda” meaning “he is again”.
swimming underwater”. (L) “do”, “dodeka”, “dokade”.

undress – take off one’s clothes up – towards a higher place
(D) “se otsľeche” as in “toj se (D) “gore” as in “gore i dolu”
otsľeche pred da spie” meaning meaning “up and down”.
“he undressed before sleeping”. (L) “gore”, “visochina”.
(L) “se slekuva”.
uphold - support
unemployed – temporarily out (D) “potkrepfa” as in “go
of work pokrepfa zakono” meaning “is
(D) “bes rabota” as in “taa e bes upholding the law”.
rabota” meaning “she is (L) “potkrepuva”.
unemployed”.
(L) “bez raboten”. upper – situated above another
part
135
(D) “gorna” as in “gorna i dolna
maala” meaning “upper and value – worth
lower neighbourhood”. (D) “tsena” as in “ovoj saat e ot
(L) “pogoren”, “povisok”. visoka tsena” meaning “this
watch is of high value”.
upright – erect vertical (L) “tsena”.
(D) “prostum” as in “sedi
prostum” meaning “stand vapour - moisture
upright”. (D) “para” as in “para staa ot
(L) “prav”. varena voda” meaning “vapour
rises from boiling water”.
uprising - insurrection (L) “para”, “magla”, “chad”.
(D) “bunt” as in “stava bunt”
meaning “an uprising is taking veal – calf’s flesh as food
place”. (D) “teľeshko meso” as in
(L) “vastanje”, “bunt”. “pechime teľeshko meso”
meaning “we are roasting veal”.
upset - disrupt (L) “teleshko meso”.
(D) “mu prechi neshcho” as in
“toj ne e tokmu, mu prechi vein – any of the tubes in the
neshcho” meaning “he is not body that carry blood to the heart
right, he is upset”. (D) “zhila” as in “zhilite nose krf
(L) “se voznemiruva”. na srtseto” meaning “the vein
carries blood to the heart”.
upstairs – to or on upper floor (L) “vena”, “zhila”.
(D) “gore po skaľ i” as in “odi
gore po skaľi” meaning “go verify – establish truth
upstairs”. (D) “proveri” as in “proveri oti
(L) “nagore”, “pos kali”. toa e vistina” meaning “verify
that it is true”.
(L) “proveruva”.
V very – in a higher degree
vacation - holiday (D) “mnogu” as in “mnogu
(D) “pochifka” as in “ke odi na visoko” meaning “very high”.
pochifka” meaning “he is going (L) “mozhne”, “sosema”,
on vacation”. “mnogu”.
(L) “odmor”.
view – inspection by eye or mind
valuable – of great value (D) “vid” as in “a sho ubaf vid”
(D) “skp” as in “toj e skp saat” meaning “ah what a beautiful
meaning “that is a valuable view”.
watch”. (L) “vid”, “izgled”.
(L) “skapochen”.
136
village – group of houses
(D) “selo” as in “Oshchima e vomit – eject matter from
moe selo” meaning “Oshchima is stomach through mouth
my village”. (D) “bľua” as in “mu se meli
(L) “selo”. umo i bľ ua” meaning “feels
dizzy and vomits”.
vine – climbing plant (L) “blue”.
(D) “lozinka” as in “nie imame
lozinka vo dvoro” meaning “we
have a vine in the yard”.
(L) “loza”.
W
wage – pay for work
vinegar – sour liquid (D) “platka” as in “kolku ti e
(D) “kiseľ ina” as in “jas pram platkata?” meaning “how much
kiseľina ot vino” meaning “I is your wage?”
make vinegar from wine”. (L) “plata”.
(L) “kiselina”.
wagon – four wheeled vehicle
vineyard – plantation of grape- (D) “kola” as in “koni ga trge
vines kolata” meaning “horses are
(D) “lozje” as in “lozjeto e plno pulling the wagon”.
so grozje” meaning “the (L) “vagon”, “kola”.
vineyard is full of grapes”.
(L) “lozje”. waist – middle of human body
(D) “polojna” as in “dedo nosi
visit – go or come to see person pojas okolu popojnata” meaning
or place “grandpa is wearing a sash
(D) “poseta” as in “sakam da a around his waist”.
poseta baba” meaning “I want to (L) “pojas”.
visit grandma”.
(L) “poseta”, “posetuva”. wait – don’t leave
(D) “cheka” as in “chekaj, ne
voice – sound formed in larynx begaj” meaning “wait, don’t
(D) “glas” as in “taa ima ubaf leave”.
glas” meaning “she has a (L) “cheka”.
beautiful voice”.
(L) “glas”. wake – sleep no more
(D) “se razbudi” as in
volunteer – person who takes up “razbudise” meaning “wake up”.
task of one’s free will (L) “e buden”.
(D) “dobrovoľ ets” as in “toj e
dobrovoľ ets askerľia” meaning walk – move by the power of
“he is a volumteer soldier”. legs
(L) “dobrovolets”.
137
(D) “bara” as in “bara po nodzi” eating than warm bread with
meaning “walking on foot”. cheese”.
(L) “odi”, “se sheta”, “odi (L) “topol”.
peshki”.
wart – small harsh roundish
wall – narrow upright structure growth on skin
(D) “stis” as in “dedo shishi stis” (D) “bradajtsa” as in “toa chupe
meaning “grandpa is building a ima bradajtsa na prsto” meaning
wall”. “that girl has a wart on her
(L) “dzid”. finger”.
(L) “bradavitsa”.
wallet – case for holding notes
(D) “kese” as in “jas imam pari was - be
vo mojto kese” meaning “I have (D) “be” as in “jas be doma, dja
money in my wallet”. beshe ti?” meaning “I was home,
(L) “kjese”. where were you?”
(L) “be”, “bev”, “beshe”.
walnut – kernel in a shell, of tree
bearing kernels in shell wash – clean with liquid
(D) “kastitsa” and “orev” as in (D) “se mie” and “peri” as in
“orevo ima mnogu kastitsi ovaa “peri pľachki i si o mie litseto”
godina” meaning “the walnut meaning “is washing clothes and
tree has plenty of walnuts this washing her face”.
year”. (L) “se mie”, “pere”.
(L) “orev”, “oreovo drvo”.
wasp – stinging insect
want – have desire for (D) “osa” as in “chuaj osata da
(D) “saka” and “bara” as in “toj ne te ksni” meaning “watch the
saka pojke pari, jas baram wasp doesn’t bite you”.
potroa” meaning “he wants more (L) “osa”.
money, I want less”.
(L) “bara”, “saka”. waste – use to no purpose
(D) “ardzhi” as in “ne a ardzhi
war – strife between nations vodata” meaning “don’t waste
(D) “boj” as in “boj se vrshi the water”.
daľeko ot tua” meaning “a war is (L) “izardzhuva”.
conducted far from here”.
(L) “borba”, “boj”, “vojna”. watch - observe
(D) “puli” as in “sedi na strazha
warm – at moderate temperature i puli, bidi dabar strazhach”
(D) “topol” as in “nema po arno meaning “stay on guard and
jadenje ot topol ľep so sirenje” watch, be a good guard”.
meaning “there is no better (L) “strazha”.

138
watch – portable time piece (D) “vreme” as in “vremeto e
(D) “saat” as in “toj e dobar vrnlivo” meaning “the weather is
saat” meaning “that is a good rainy”.
watch”. (L) “vreme”.
(L) “saat”.
weave – making fabric
water – liquid in rivers and lakes (D) “tkae” as in “baba tkae
(D) “voda” as in “mi se pie basmo” meaning “grandma is
voda” meaning “I need to drink weaving a cloth”.
water”. (L) “tkae”.
(L) “voda”.
wedding – marriage ceremony
wave – water moving to and fro (D) “brak” as in “vo nedeľ
a ke
near shore odam na brak” meaning “on
(D) “val” as in “toj e goľ em val, Sunday I am going to a
ke a prevrni chunkata” meaning wedding”.
“that is a big wave, it will (L) “venchanje”, “svadba”.
overturn the boat”.
(L) “bran”. weigh – find weight
(D) “trga” as in “go trga, kolku
wax – material made by bees to tezhi?” meaning “you weighed it,
hold honey how heavy is it?”.
(D) “vosok” as in “sfeshchi se (L) “trga”, “meri”.
prae ot vosok” meaning “candles
are made from wax”. welcome – of greeting
(L) “vosok”. (D) “dobrodojde” as in
“dobrodojde, dobrodojdote”
weak – deficient in strength meaning “welcome (one),
(D) “slap” and “skapan” as in “ti welcome (many)”.
si mnogu slap i toj e po skapan (L) “dobrodojde”.
ot tebe” meaning “you are very
weak and he is weaker than well – in right and satisfactory
you”. way
(L) “slab”, “mlitav”. (D) “aren” and “dobar” as in
“aren si, dobar si spolaj mu na
wear – clothing one puts on Gospo” meaning “I am well, I
(D) “nosi” as in “taa nosi ľ
etni am well thank God”.
pľachki” meaning “she is (L) “dobar”.
wearing summer clothes”.
(L) “nosi”, “nosija”. well – shaft sank into ground
(D) “bunar” as in “izvaame voda
weather – state of atmosphere ot bunaro” meaning “we get our
water from the well”.
(L) “bunar”, “izvor”.
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west – direction in which sun which – asking from choice from
sets set
(D) “zapat” as in “sntseto zaodva (D) “koe”, “koj” and “koja” as in
vo zapat” meaning “the sun sets “koe dete, koj msh i koja zhena”
in the west”. meaning “which boy, which man
(L) “zapad”. and which woman”.
(L) “koj”, “koja”, “koe”.
wet – soaked in water
(D) “voden” as in “nodzite mi se whip – lash attached to stick
vodeni” meaning “my feet are (D) “kamshik” as in “ne me
wet”. mavaj so kamshiko” meaning
(L) “vlaga”, “vlazhen”. “don’t hit me with the whip”.
(L) “kamshik”.
what – asking for choice
(D) “sho” as in “sho sakash?” whisper – use breath instead of
meaning “what do you want?” vocal cords to speak
(L) “shto”. (D) “shepti” as in “baba mu
shepti na dedo ama toj ne ga
wheat – cereal type shchuka” meaning “grandma is
(D) “pchenitsa” as in “brashno whispering to grandpa but he
se praj ot pchenitsa” meaning can’t hear her”.
“flour is made from wheat”. (L) “sheptuva”.
(L) “pchenitsa”.
whistle – clear shrill sound or
wheel – disc instrument making such sound
(D) “trkalo” as in “kolata ima (D) “sfiri” and “sfiralo” as in
chetiri trkala” meaning “the “dedo sfiri so sfiralo” meaning
wagon has four wheels”. “grandpa is whistling with a
(L) “trkalo”. whistle”.
(L) “sviri”.
when – at what time
(D) “koga” or “koa” as in “koa white – colour reflecting all light
ke dosh da me vish?” or “koga ke (D) “bel” as in “imame eden bel i
dojdish da me vidish?” meaning eden tsrn vol” meaning “we have
“when are you coming to see one white and one black ox”.
me?” (L) “bel”.
(L) “koga”.
whitewash – solution of lime
where – to what place (D) “var” as in “vo Oshchima
(D) “deka” or “dja” as in “dja varosfame so var” meaning “in
si?” or “deka si?” meaning Oshchima we painted with
“where are you?” whitewash”.
(L) “kade”. (L) “belilo”, “var”.
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(D) “vrba” as in “ima mnogu
why – for what reason vrbi pokraj Oshchimtskata reka”
(D) “zoshcho” or “za oshcho” as meaning “there are many
in “kazhimi zoshcho si ľ
uten?” willows near the Oshchima
meaning “tell me why are you river”.
mad?” (L) “vrba”.
(L) “zashto”.
wilt - wither
wick – thread feeding flame with (D) “ovena” as in “tsfeketo mi
fuel ovena” meaning “my flower
(D) “fitiľ ” as in “lambata ima wilted”.
fitiľ” meaning “the lamp has a (L) “ovenuva”, “kopnee”.
wick”.
(L) “fitilj”. win – be victorious or gain from
chance
wide – having sides far apart (D) “kjari” as in “jas kjari eden
(D) “shirok” as in “pato tuka e dolar” meaning “I won a dollar”.
shirok” meaning “the road here (L) “dobiva”.
is wide”.
(L) “shirok”. wind – air in nature
(D) “veter” as in “nadvor dua
widow – woman who has lost veter” meaning “the wind blows
her husband outside”.
(D) “vdojtsa” as in “taa e vdojtsa (L) “vetar”.
na moj priateľ” meaning “she is
my friend’s widow”. window – opening in wall
(L) “vdovitsa”. (D) “pendzher” as in “odaata
ima dva pendzheri” meaning
wife – married woman in relation “the room has two windows”.
to her husband (L) “prozorets”.
(D) “zhena” “majta zhena e
dobra zhena” meaning “my wife wine – fermented grape juice
is a good woman”. (D) “vino” as in “dedo pie vino”
(L) “zhena”, “sopruga”. meaning “grandpa drinks wine”.
(L) “vino”.
wild – in original natural state
(D) “dif” as in “toj e dif zaek i wing – one of the limbs by
taa e diva patka” meaning “that which flying is effected
is a wild rabbit and that is a wild (D) “krilo” as in “vrapcheto ima
duck”. dve kriľja” meaning “the bird
(L) “div”. has two wings”.
(L) “krilo”.
willow – waterside tree
wink – close and open one eye
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(D) “namigna” as in “taa mi wolf – wild animal related to dog
namigna, ke da ima neshcho da (D) “vlk” as in “mene mi e stra ot
mi kazhi” meaning “she winked vlko” meaning “I am afraid of
at me, she must have something the wolf”.
to tell me”. (L) “volk”.
(L) “namignuva”.
woman – adult human female
winner – one who wins (D) “zhena” as in “zhenata nosi
(D) “kjarľ ia” as in “toj e kjarľia fustan” meaning “the woman is
na skambiľ ” meaning “he is wearing a dress”.
lucky in cards”. (L) “zhena”.
(L) “pobeditel”.
wood – hard substance of tree
winter – coldest season (D) “drvo” as in “suvo drvo e
(D) “zima” as in “ovaa e zima so dobro za gorenje vo ogno”
snek” meaning “this is a winter meaning “dry wood is good for
with snow”. burning in the fire”.
(L) “zima”. (L) “drvo”.

wire – metal drawn out into wool – hair from fleece of sheep
slender cord (D) “vlna” as in “naj ubaata vlna
(D) “teľ ” as in “vrzio so teľ
” e vlna ot oftsi” meaning “the best
meaning “tie it with wire”. wool is sheep’s wool”.
(L) “telj”. (L) “volna”.

wish – say one hopes for, to word – meaningful element of
happen speech
(D) “zheľ ba” as in “zheľba mi e (D) “laf” as in “zborni samo
da uzdrajsh” meaning “my wish eden laf” meaning “speak only
is for you to get well”. one word”.
(L) “zhelba”. (L) “zbor”.

with – expressing means work – application of physical or
(D) “so” as in “ke odam so tebe” mental effort to a purpose
meaning “I am going with you”. (D) “rabota” as in “jas trba da
(L) “so”, “pokraj”, “kon”. oda na rabota” meaning “I need
to go to work”.
witness – having seen something (L) “rabota”.
or giving testimony
(D) “martir” as in “toj ke bidi worker – person doing work
martir vo sudo” meaning “he (D) “rabotnik” as in “toj e dobar
will be a witness in the court”. rabotnik” meaning “he is a good
(L) “svedok”. worker”.
(L) “rabotnik”.
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wrestle – two opponents grapple
world – the earth with each other for sport
(D) “sfet” as in “ovoj e nash sfet” (D) “se bori” as in “toj vezden se
meaning “this is our world”. bori so drugite dechina”
(L) “svet”, “zemia”. meaning “he always wrestles
with the other boys”.
worm – any of the invertebrate (L) “se bori”.
animals with long slender bodies
and no limbs write – put letters and words to
(D) “tsrvets” as in “ribite jade paper
tsrvie” meaning “the fish eat (D) “pishi” as in “dedo ne e
worms”. uchen, ne znae da pishi”
(L) “tsrv”. meaning “grandpa is not
educated, he doesn’t know how
worry – give way to anxiety to write”.
(D) “beri dert” and “se grizhi” as (L) “pishuva”.
in “koj chekash da beri dert za
tebe?” meaning “who do you wrong – not true, mistaken
expect to worry for you?” and (D) “krivo” as in “toa ne e pravo,
“majkati se grizhi za tebe” toa e krivo” meaning “that is not
meaning “your mother worries right, that is wrong”.
about you”. (L) “nepravda”.
(L) “grizha”.

worse – more bad
(D) “polosh” as in “toj e polosh
X
ot nea” meaning “he is worse xenophobia – dislike of
than her”. foreigners
(L) “polosh”. (D) “pizma za chuzhi” as in
“nikoj Makedonets nema pizma
worst - most bad za chuzhi” meaning “no
(D) “najlosh” as in “toj e najlosh Macedonian has xenophobia”.
ot site” meaning “he is the worst (L) “omraza kon strantsi”.
of all of them”.
(L) “najlosh”.

wound – injury done to living
Y
tissue
(D) “rana” as in “ot sho ti e taa yard – piece of enclosed ground
rana?” meaning “what is your (D) “dvor” as in “kucheto spie vo
wound from?” dvoro” meaning “the dog sleeps
(L) “rana”. in the yard”.
(L) “dvor”.

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yarn – spun thread “yesterday I was visiting my
(D) “prendeno” as in “baba pleti brother”.
chorapi so prendeno” meaning (L) “vchera”.
“grandma is knitting socks with
yarn”. yoghurt – sourish semi-solid
(L) “predeno”. food prepared from milk
(D) “potkfas” as in “potkfas se
year – time taken by one earth praj so vareno mľ eko” meaning
revolution “yoghurt is made with boiled
(D) “godina” as in “ovaa godina milk”.
i vgodina” meaning “this year
and next year”. yoke – wooden cross-piece
(L) “godina”. fastened over the necks of two
oxen and attached to plough
yeast – fungus substance (D) “jarem” as in “pregnii
obtained from fermenting malt volojte so jaremo” meaning “fit
liquor the oxen with the yoke”.
(D) “kfas” as in “ľ
ebo se krea so (L) “jarem”.
kfas” meaning “the bread rises
with yeast”. yolk – yellow internal part of
(L) “kvasets”. egg
(D) “zhlchka” as in “zhlchkata e
yell – sharp cry vo strede jajtse” meaning “the
(D) “vika” as in “ne vikaj tolku yolk is in the center of the egg”.
visoko” meaning “don’t yell so (L) “zholchka”.
loud”.
(L) “vreska”. you – of second person
(D) “ti” as in “ti si samo eden
yellow – colour of lemons choek” meaning “you are only
(D) “zhlto” as in “zhltata boja e one person”.
Makedostska boja” meaning “the (L) “vie”, “ti”, vas”, “tebe”,
yellow colour is a Macedonian “vam”.
colour”.
(L) “zholto”. young – not far advanced in life
(D) “mlat” as in “ti si ushche
yes – affirmative answer to mlat” meaning “you are still
question young”.
(D) “da” as in “da, toa e pravo” (L) “mlad”.
meaning “yes, that is correct”.
(L) “da”. your – belonging to you
(D) “tfoj” as in “toj e tfoj dedo”
yesterday – the day before today meaning “he is your grandpa”.
(D) “fchera” as in “fchera bef na (L) “vash”, “tvoj”.
gosti vo brat mi” meaning
144
(L) “nula”.
Z
zero – figure 0, not one
(D) “nula” as in “numeroto
nula” meaning “the number
zero”.

145
Bibliography

Allen, R. E., ed., The Oxford Dictionary of Current English. Oxford:
Oxford University Press, 1991.

Drysdale, Patrick, Canadian ed., Collins Pocket Reference English
Dictionary Canadian Edition. Toronto: Collins, 1989.

Koviloska, Ivanka, ed., The Standard Dictionary, English-Macedonian,
Macedonian-English. Skopje, 1993.

Rényi Picture Dictionary Macedonian and English. Toronto: Ėditions
Rényi Inc., 1990.

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