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Shatakatrayi Hindi

Shatakatrayi Hindi

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PUROHIT GOPI NATH, ~I. A.

,

.... ·c ,,'-.' .. , ....... v.

,"d.; .

Uy

KHEMRAJ SHRIKRISHNADASS

BOMBAY •

...

_ :t.-t

1896

( An rights rcscr\~cd )

CO Krl']~NTS ..

Pn.·raCl- ..

l~i~f nf e-:tll!il'ct~ t reaterl fly the author.

Tiu: S'\T~\KA~~ Snnskrit text, with l-1indi and Ell~-1 Iish tran$lations. and copious footnotes, COIltuining' futI not ices of fhe occurrence of our text stanzas in Y:ll;OUS of her ,yorks, and a number of'parallel thoughts from numerous l\TitCTS both Indian and forci~l"Jl.

Nitisnta)\a.

{

I

"\Tariants ..

~\b brovint ions.

X OT.::";: Critical and Expluuatory. {lu Niti~ntnl;n.

_ r

On S,·i ng."il'n;;at..'t lin.

(JIl \-airi'H ...... vasataka .

......

1 t

i

for and ~

List of .Auf hors and Works COlt sulted menfioned in the present volume.

Index. or Alph uLeti cal list of the Snns1.;:t"it

,

of the Satakas,

Stnmms I

I

1

t

; .

, f

-PREFACE

1 11 di .. .1 ur I)l·~*f:l(O~

For clcnntC5S' sake we S ia l.VIUC 0

into tho follo'''ing hcads:-

Io Tho Authol'-llis life and ,\\Titing~ ..

II. 'Vriters on 13hartrihnri :

(A 1 OotnmClltator~, edt ies &c.;

[Bl Translators; and

[O] Books about Bllartrihnl"i..

III 'Yorks and 'vrltings'\\"bcrcin we find h1_n.n7.a~ from Bhnrtrillari's Snt~kas either ,c;ith any particular note or notice alJQuL tbf"ln. or ,rltllout anything or tlU3 sort,

IV. Sequel.

V. Places of interest relating to Bhort rihari.

VI. A. plea for the present editiou.

Following this order we shall DfJ'\O take them one by one in hand, and dealing FCl'a,l'a1 ely ·w·ith each give our opinion upon nIl of them in turn.

[~) BUAU1'Rnl.Au}"t; Ln·.:.

The father of Bhartrihari iR said to 11a.'\"C been one Gandharvasen (~), who had also ("uta l.. .. ountrer

o .J .e

Pl:1·:F.ACE.

....

a

Son '-iJ~":\lllttdit: .. n ( fclifi+t(~d:r) from hisseeond wife, t he {lutl7htt·r of the chief of Dhiir.i ( \'frU ), the- thou capital of l-r{t1w;~. Bhrrl"triltnri und Vikra rna were .. f Iiervfore, ~on~ of the smne fnth('l'" hy diffcrenf 1110t11 Or . ..:. 'J·hp e}.icf ur ])h~ir:1 tuok grt!at pains and (\1I"e ill cilucntiuJ,! hi..:. two ].!ranc1~on:--.. who sonn ne-

t quirr-d Jna~tcry in the .!==(-\·l"1~11 8:1<.;tl-'~'~, 1.m,,"}':. Ethic's, J .A 1"f»lu·l·r .. If 1I:-:i,", Da n~inJ.!" a ltd ul] otht'r Jlolitc art-s and prilll."'ciy .n~",·oJnp1i:.;lunent~.. Thou~]l the old chief Iikod l)ot It hi ... jrrnmlsons, yet hi:-: love was naturally :-:( rnnt-fl. -r lor ''''ikrnll1n t.J tan Bhn rt rihn"i" C,)) 1~['(l'lcntly .. nfter findin~ the fU1"1l1PI" quite wcllup in every braneh of Litcrntnll\ :-;"'iCBC[1' and .l\.rt. he being Irim~clf devoid of an~· malo i .... suo, «no day thought of ~ri\"iJ1g hi::- IL\iya to Yikramn, and summoning hiln

r to his prn-cnee told hitn Iris 1](~~11·t.'l'$ wish, But, Yikramn nnh):~t answered Irim thus, 4. It. i~ not proper for ]11C to 1'"t'ih111 hefo!",,: lny elder brother: ple .. nse, 1 hcreforc, Ie-I DharlriJun·j rule over f he State and J will conduct the a(hniniKtration as Iris prime rninister." TJJC old J~:\iif was quite pleaaed ,,·ith the 11igh .. mindcducss of young ''''ikrall1:l. :u1(1 subsequent.ly- thl'ough \7i1oo(una':-; earnest entreat ies, he made Bhnrtriharl tho king of his tcnitnl·Y. ,Tilnoanllt. thereupon allnnged the caprtnl of nfid"o;l from Dll:Il'i'l to Ujjein, and there gave himeelf' heart and soul to tho good go,"crrnnCllt of tho country, (IS t1le prime minister of his elder hrother. Bhnl'trihari, {hough well-versed In tho Sastni~, fell so much in Jove or women that he passed day after day, and night after lIight ill the soraglio, and loft every thing pertaining to

6

PREFACE"

?

eep

:

q

,1

I the State into the hands of his brothel'. Vikraula, on whose hands the onerous nnd reSlJOltsiblc duties of O'OYCl1lDlcnt did not hang llCavy, was, however,

yel; sorr~~ for the dissolute. conduct of B~la:t!'ihnri. and he spared no pains to estrange the king s Jll~al·t.

from womeu of whom he had a large number us his wives ana mistresses, and de,~ote his attention to the affairs of the kingdom God had put into his trus~ But, as mostly common in such cases" the more he offered his sound and wise counsels: the further went the heart of Bhartrihari from Vikrama.; ~(J much so tha.t disaffection took its Toot into the former's mind, and the result was that the once loving brothers soon became inveterate enemies to each other. The fire of hatred was kindled with jncrcat;ed strength by the fuel of Zenina intrigue and curtain influence which had quite enslaved the man in Bhartrihart In the end, Vikrama was cruelly forced

I to take ~ff his hands from the premiership and go abroad Into the country as an exile, leavinrr Bhartri ..

h .. 0

an to himself and his Ioves," After his Ieavinz

l-jjein, Vikrama tra,clled throughout India Propc;' and ~as once near Dacca in Eastern Bengal, where he. lived for some time and established himself:

ThIS place is still known as Vikrampur after him,

pnl~PACJ~ ..

"i

,-

? ±s

iM!1 • - - --: p, «

1 J ;)vin;,! not hin;:! lunrl" to rlo with Yikramn ana his lllo\"PUll'nl:;., wo a~rain return 1 u I ~iiciJl and find, llharf rihari (0 hi" dailv }:illldll~\" UlOl~lI and more iuto

.. :--:

)UX-Ul"'" and lieent iousness. .t.\_~ he never eared (I.

~h~lW' tc~r 1)u~ [.!c:.orl jrovormneut of his kingdom, hi~ }:.111~ic(~t~ hltcalne 101nHy tin,d oflti~ reck le ...... nc~~, ru Ifl beeomimr di~!!u~tetl 'wit 11 hi~ vices they "~~I'C forced

-_ • It

t on di~r(_'gn1"(l hi..;: authuJ·ity. .1\ narchy soon carne into

l.pin~. and thoro '\~1S: not hing- but di-':o1"(ll'r and eonfu:-:11111 thr",~u:-rhnnt )ftlh,-:i. 1 n the menntituv it so hapl1Pucd that. 1 hr' henpovkcd husband )\"u..:. one day convincod of the infidt"Iity of 11 is t [ueeu " t hroujrh 1 he present Qr !-it\Jut! virtuou« f)'uit hy n pious Bmlunann. t lJ l'r iufidcl H.:r 1 H'in:.r «lea rly lli~~o\"'_'rccl, the ]l~\ni rushed awny from her husband's ])rt~~cnccnlld dashed herself to pieces by fal1iug down froru the heijrhts of tho llaJnt~(~. Bhartrihuri then took another wife, Pinga.l~i (lq~t9t). ,\,;1 h whom he soon bCCHU1C nttB:chcod n~ before. One dar havimr gOUt· c1(~(lor~h()nting 11<.' saw thnt one of his ~~'Iil"(ll'c"'~ \yho l)a(1 ~hot a. buck h(lin.~ himself bit ten hy a venomous snake was soon

. - -

" Opilliun .. Iliffl't \\i.h,ly UI) 11w nuuu- or thi..; 1l.\r1i~,'1l1nl' Huni. ~,mH·"'\Y hl.!r n.uu» til IW.\f1.m~·ll .. \·U:t (avtW~) hulJlt' Piuh"litJn (i'itw~ ), ~nU\ .. P.\rlnUlt~hi (q<::H~T) utlH'r-. Ulmuutn.tli (:qJ;pftf'). ] 11 rhc )OJ(d'Cltrg'anri'~r.rc:&lq hy )1,.. H. H. (, ... Ihol«, tin- nmuv i--=

...

,t:qt=i!5f un

In-r h\'~in~ r~· .. ltu ,·,r tn lift' utlt'r ih-nth.

'f ~~'t' nur- IIlIh' Oil I-tlLmr .. L '2 ( Xiti): ul .. u TtIIM~ ..... \ Illlltl"'" & Anti(Juitit· ... of Hujll .. thun o~ Y n], II. p, :Jfi~t

8

J'REF.:\CE.

--_

-

laid a corpse on the ground, But the thing which 1 struck him most was that the doc of the dead huck came t<) the spot and threw herself dead on lJ{"T Imsll&nd's autlers: and similar to fhis 'vas the ease of

the .s1til;«'rec·s wife who, On discovering the death of . her husband, hurnt herself '1t"itb her lord 011 h{,)" self .. i made pyre_ T11C Uaja. ran homo in amazement and. explained to PingaJtt the wonderful events of his;duy'~ I ~ exenrsion. But 1'inf,ralil., to lds great surprise, COOllY! remarked tIlat there was nothing strange and {Ox ... txaordinary in the story; for. II true suttee could even ; burn herself without hu\·ing recourse to flre, If -"J~11" \ ing up the matter for SOD1etinlC. the king again went out shooting in tlle forest,alld. to put to test the truth and fidelity of Pingola, he sent one of his nttendnnt-i I to tho queen ,rith his clothes soaked in hlood to l report his death lJY a tihrer. On hearing the. fta(ll tidings Pingalll." calmly ( to an outward appearance) took over the UAja's bloody clothes, put them on the gl'otlnd, made. her last l)Q,v to 31erbusband·s tl.Cl.-"oUtrelllcnts and rose no more, Tlle naja, when Ire eame to know the heart-rending catastroplle was quite over\\"ItelmcrI with grief, 1eft the palace and went out

to forest to lead the life of a pious ascetic so adlDirably depicted l>y him in his Vainlgya &"ltaka./~ There lIe met with the. great Yo!rl G6raksh~nttl

~...... 0 auutn

(~I"I( m~it(q') "rho initiated him into the secmts of

1 MysticisJn. Jt is generally helievedl1CTcthat Bh _

t·h . L 14 ar

• rs an. ! 118 austere prac.tices of yoga, attained to

I Inlmortahty.

'j ,!-;, t'Tud~l'~ •• Ann"l ... & Antir,lJrtif""> uf n'l; ... t.h,u~V:--1 1-] ---:-t .. -o .

, '. I' •• It

E

• 75

-

PREFACE.

[ B.] BHARTRIHARl·S lVRITINGS

, r

The Three Satalcas on Niti, Sringliraand Vai.nlgya.,

r the Vakyapadtya ( cn~lIqHf.:q, a grammatical COIDr I mentary tn terse and pithy Sauskritprose), and the Bhattikftvya (~EfiIQ:q"(, a Grammatical poem ) are the works which are generally ascribed to Bhartri ... han. Almost all the scholars who have made their acquaintance with Eharlrihari and his works are unanimous in then- opinion that Bhartrihari is

. '

the undtsputed a.uthor of the Satakas and the

VAkyapadiya. which furnishes us with a car .. tain clue to the solution of the much disputed question of Bhartrihari's age and authorship. But as to Bhartrihali's authorship of the BhattikfLvya different persons hold different, opinions. However erudite diseussions on the point by Messrs. Oolebrooke, Telang, Peterson &c. have proved. itbe .. yond any shadow of doubt that Bhattikavi. (~~~) the author of the ~rNtQq is quite a different person, and. he cannot be identified with Bhartrihari ( wi\{'f.t) the author of the Satakas. To make Bhartrihari the author of the m'!Efilo1f there is no stronger ground than the identity of name. Bharata ( ~ ) in Iris commentary on ~ gb.-es the name of the -author as '~nbd<, but Bays nothing more about it, In another commentary of ~ifiloq w.hioh

~ has been published in Calcutta, the author is described as the son of Sri Swami (.m aliit) and ns a great Grammarial1. This opinion is also corroborated by Colebrooke ill Iris essay on Sansl{rit and P1'3J:rit

9

]0

PHEFJ\Cg"

====- : -

Poetry "where lie remarks t "TJ1C! author was ~d,rt;. not as might be supposed .. frt'J1JJ the

name tbe celebrated brother of Ai6+ttrt:tt4. hut n: ) r'" "....... ~

G anunarian and poet 'W]10 was ROn 0 :,n~QiCfnlt n~..,

r . f<i,....' •.

'Ve a-re mformed by one of his scllo1Ja.'!ts ~untr.{~ p.

According to Hohn, +4ci~J< tIle Gratnruari!Ul and author of ~:;q:.liRI is of a later date than +«t,r< the author of the Sntakas ,vith whom I1C is clToncously confounded. Dr. J3bilu DA.ji is of jopinioll 1 hnt ~iT was probahly the 60n of l1iiiUt. Dr .. n~jcndla. Lal l\1'itra in his Dotices of Sanskrit J\rnnuscrjpt.~ ,rot '\'1. p. 145 concludes that llit and ~ti"R arc 1.\\"0 distinct personages.

_ ]Db at

-1

[ 0 ] A." ESTOL\T& OF mE S..\TAJi .. \....: •

.

The Satakas arc not mere collections of elegant r;ayings from different authors as suggested hy mUle,

because a certain link of tbol.lght and diction connecting tIle stanzas distinctly points to their being written by one and the l;:lme hand, Prof. Tawnc, •

remarks that the terse and cpigranllnatic cltaracter of

these staD7.a1:1 distinguishes tbcrn from file mas." of Indian Literature and hrin{g! them. more and ll}r'rc into accordant'll -with European callons of ta!!t(:.

Prof. Lll!iScn, in his' Indiscbc A1tcl't11UlII;:kundc' ( VoL II p. 1174 ), c:\.prcs.'!Cg his GI,jman tlUt! tM"

character "renders them c<mspieuous llmnn" !la' IllYJ' ?uctionH of tIle Iudian l\Inse. Tbt,y place l)(leore Ul<!

rn ter~ and ~itJ~y JangUftge tIle Indinn ,iow(t about ~

; the ~ef aspiratIOn!; of youth, :nanh~ :lIcl ~Jd aged

.,.,-,--.

,

11]1

J01U, love, =) 1>c..1Ut concern with the things of this , xorld, nne] ubout rct iremetrt li-t)lU rhem into lonely

, contemplutlou, On nccouut of the perfect art with which they Ul'C C01l1J10RCd, these short; POClllS nre worthy uf being r~lnkc<l among' the masterpieces of Indian Genius.Some of then) ure connected ill sense

,

as the descrlpt.ion of the acnsous, others forul n whole

by themselves and may most fitly l)c compared to miniuture paintings us presenting to us n complete picture in the narrow fhullC of one strophe,"

II. 'VR1TERS OK BHAltT]~IIiARI. ( A) OO)Dl~,ryATORS , ORITICS &o~

1. In 'the ".l\..sintic Researches" Vol .. IX p. l.tl, Bhnrtrihm-i i:-; F-I,tid to hnve reigned for fourteen years and to hnve then been succeeded by his younger brother ,rjkralni'ltlityn. It if', n150 mnintained thnt Bharti-ihari Irimself formded the ern.

26 Dr.l~htLn D~ji, in his pnlJerOll ru.1idn~nJ questions the contempomneity of Bhnrtr-ihrrri find Yikramn, find ~ays:-"lfc (J~hru'b'ihnl"i) is commonly buterrollcotlsly supposed to be a brother of Yikram«, ns the 5th~ coup ...

,

let of , ... njra.gyn Sntnka ~be""$, ,riz: that the nuthot- was

an eminent, poet dissutisfied "Wit11 the reception he met "w-jth at the courts of aevera] prhiccs " .. hom he visited 111 110pe of )"c,yard."~

e 'l'IIe couplet here nlhuled to iH at(4Ihi Aiir &e, from n enrefnl peru~1l1 of ","~hich we cannot, however, endorse the opinion (lof Dr. DlllmDn.ji .. Tho point hus nl .. o been clRllorl\tcly (1iElCllssed &. refuted hy )[r. Tclllllg. ( Sec Bombuy Sn.ur.;"kriL Series No.Xl.},. 19 )

d

;

;;;

i -.

12

J>n]~FACE.

D~. H}la,~ D~ij also :;pCfiks hf JJ]Jftl·trj}urri n .. UJI'! of the nine gems, ~

. At nnother p Iace, l'< Ill!; Ill'" Jill g Hl"u,t,.j J In)' ~ ,,! I h

Bh,u·tl"itnniudhn. ( l1iltt«: ) ,he make-, Bhnrlr,hnrJ n eontempomry of K{~}jd;l$:H.

3. Dr. B()hlcll countenances the theory thut the three SatakQs are lucre cOlnpilntionfi Inntln h:r JUun-trl. harl, a mere collecuon of U elegant extrnets " fruB) the works Qf previolls Wl"il<!J"s .. t

"on Bohlen accepts tlwirlcntity ufthe Blul'ttrihud of the Sntalrn.~ and the Iim'i of the Y!1kYlIJ)lIIliYII, :::

Oil the authority o( n()g~r, Bohlen relate- t)Hlt R1tnrtrillari had 300 ";VCf;, an .. ] 1\"11:; n(1(ljctcrl ttl tl voJuptuous life.. J~ut Ilflving been f:o\·crcJy rc}U'[)\"c.rl by his tatller for his disf.lolllOO conduct, he l"c]>urliAltell his wives, nu(l conected, Hot C01)])lO"5cd, tl1C~e Sat.nktl~ by making ~clcctionB from older W)"itCf1S.

''''on Uolllcll pubJis])erJ ill lN38 nt nCJ.liJlthcfil~~t European Editiou of the Sntakns.

4" According to Prof.. C(Jlch]~o{Jkc: !-tIUte (Jthcr 1~I"S01l thnn llJlllrtriJlllI'j J1m1 J)mJJably f1ut fOI'tll the~,! Sntn,kas under llJulrtrjbnri's nmnc. §

, ,1, Pandit D UI"g{. PmsllfjO(,J eypo)'e. in can junctiun

wIth DI'. P. Plll:<!rtioll, writl!.~ thnt Hhurttihrlri the

PREFAOE.

13

author of tho SI\tnkas mid '''''Akyaixtdlyu flourished in the middle of the 7tl1. century A. D.*

G. lIT'. 1(. T. Tcl:111g ndltcrcs to the tradition of

T~hnrt.rihnri's full nuthorship of the Snt.'l.lms .. t

In Tclnng'~ opinion Bhru-rrihm-i probably flourisheel somewhere Inter than Ka.lida-sn nnd n good c1~1.1 earlier- than the heginning of the 6th. century .l.\. .. C. It is based on tJ1C follo,yi11g t.wo rcnsons:-

( 1 ) There is a ~t..."l.nznt ill the Nitisnt..'lkn wlrieh is also found in the Pltllchntnntrn. which luny safely be taken to hnve been composed not later thnn 500 A. C.

Therefore, Bhnrbrihm-i must have flourished at least hnlf a century l)cfore that date. (:2) .t\.gnin, from stanzn 95 Niti., Parnslmramn is regarded ns an incarnntion of '~ishnn, but it is doubtful whether ]~!Uicla$a. held the same opinion.

Bhru-trihm-i must, therefore, lJC later in age than ](;\1 irlasu.§

~Ir. Tclnng oguin s.nys:- ,Vikrnll1fl, the founder of the Samvnt Era, flourished about 56 B. C. But grant .. ing 13hartrihnri to be the author of ''''likynpadiyn, we C."Ul110t accept 1111n to be the brother of this Vikrama. Bee a usc, it is clonr from the ,r!tkyapndiya that it were Chnlulrach!ll"yn ( =a:r$(1=a (:at) and others who brought

the grout commentary ofPAtnujali ( 'l{n:iV1~ ) into gen· eml usc, nndnccordingto R~jatnrangil1i, ChnndrAchllryya and his col1e..'1gnes flourished in the reign of King

.r\.bhhnnnyu ( an"i:r~ ), i. c. het,~een 45 Rna 65 A. c.

e See Bombaj- S'an.~L::_rit. Seriel! No. XXXI, p. 74.

t SO" nQ1nbnjSan~krit Benef! vei. XI. pp. VIII. &:. IX.

:t: But. , .... '0 hnvc Rha't"n elB"c\\"hero thlJ.: tho Pa_nchah.ntl"A hat got no lCflr;. tha.n 21 I!t.an7.n~ from BhartTib:ari's Satabs.

§ Sec Domha:t Sn.n~krit Scri~B No.:xI PI' :xI]I & XlV.

._-

- - II.

2

14

PREFAOE.

.... ...... _ a::z::::z::==: c:: t !2I!L

., w, e;;:::::=

Led by the observations of Dr. Kern in h~~ Pr~fh.~c to the Brfhateamhita, 'Where he argues that"\ 1 krnmaditya according to the unanimous testimony o~ lIj~ldn Astronomers, of the Arabian Astronomer Albiruni, of Kalbana Pandita (tnt;;!iiOI':i~), and of'Hiouen TIH~nng, was commonly regarded as the founder of whnt is known as the Shaka (~) OT Shfl.lh-ahnn Em ( !iJIWcil(t!l6+CfC(), and as ha v ing flourished about 78 A. C., and not 56 B. O~J lfr_ K. T. Tc]al1g after remarking that this will enable us to reconcile the several statements 'which we receive From tradition, thinks RS a conclusion, grounded on n. basis not

very unstable, that Bhartrihari flourh.hed about the close of the first and the begi.nlling of the second century of the Christian Era. ~

7. Prof. Lassen is of opinion that the composinon of the three hundred Fhort poems, which by nniversal tradition are ascribed to Bbart-rihari, must lJC placed beforetbe o~erthrow of the Gupta Djnnf:t)~. 11 e

further places the date of the author of these Sntakns at the end of the third century A. C., but he does not accept the tradition that he w-as Bhartrihnri.

8. Relying upon a Chinese tradition. Prof. JInx lIill1er thinks Bha~ari to be a Budhist. tTJlcl>rQfcl=F-

g B~e Bombay SanFhit. fler1eS No. XI p. X¥L

s t l~e DudbiAt fTa:\"Ollr· which Pm!.. !lfaX' ?-'[iiUtr ~",~U"i ill th~

3mb!!, l'i hO~'C"er Tery difficult tq be detO£:ct.vd hy tl;; af[nr n careful F'ttldy of tbe poem, ~{orenl'"~ the theu:rym-n utter]" .. faU t th .3 wh~n 'tF;e. fi d" th bod ~ 4) e WOunr~ 1" th k·n In s: Y of the ~l)rk referenl:!f=S to the Trinity ('Et:.nza n~~"t .. e)t:mngaTath ta.la), to' the ten i-ncama.titonll of n'ihnu (:ortanZll

iii" ..... 1 I to e \edi.5 Srn Y & p

'"' airagy8 Babka) and t 'tb ,r: dar... ~ IlTanao; (f;t~nza 'i'!1 in the

IJ e l e Ilhc chamctu oftb h !

e3]lcclaUy to 1bat of the .. e "=' r; C' poem

opemng Ebnza of N'jtj~

: :

PREE' ..l\'CE.

15

r

or also Fluggests that Kslmpannkn ( 'tlq 01 IEfi ) Inay be another name ofBhnrtrihnri. *

9. Dr. P .. Peterson.

For Dr, P. Peterson's opinion Bee uuder Pandit Durga Prasad ( 5 ).

10.. :.t. Regnnud, ill the Preface to his }lrOFO

translation, contends that the legend connecting Bhnrtrihnri nnd '''ikr:nnA.ditya. cannot be. accepted, ns 50nlC of tll(!; st..1DZnS a.ttributed to 13hnrtrihnri must be subsequent to the period of Shnnkaracharyy« ( ::d*,<I:q~ )~ t

11~ Abrnhnm Roger.

For Roger's opinion 011 Bhnrtrihari, see under Bohlen ( 3 ).

12. .A.ccording to Mr. Snshngiri Sc1.stri, King

'~ikrnm!djtyn """US the sou ofa Bmhman nnmed Chandragupta ( ~;:lt'!!Ja) who took four-wives, each of the four I principnl castes. Four sons, Yiz:-'~ oraruchi ( C(<<!t~) '~Tkrnnln ( 1c1!fl'l ), Bl1ntti (~) and Blun-trihnri ( ~~r:(: ) were born to Irim .respectively by his Brahmin, Kshctriya, ,r aishya and Shudra wives. "{ilrramaditya became lUng, and Bhnrtrihnri served 11iIn as his prime minister.

13 After quoting the remnrks of Lassen, Prof:

Tawney aays:--

~ Sec nato on st-anza. 1. in Niti.

t For the l'cf.ut.ation of this theory, wee Dombn..y Sanskrit Scri~

No. XI. pp. IX & x,

16

FREF.AOE.

"considering the gre'tt uncertainty which attaehea to Hindu Literary History, we mar perhaps consider our .. selves fortu.nate that there is something Iike a con.~en· sus as to the date of these poems. A century more or less is, after all, of trifling moment ill Indian Oh1"0110. logy. The question of their authorship we must be content to lea¥e in the midst in which it has been in .. volved by tbe traditions of Indian sages and the conjectures of WeBtern critics. So much at nny rate is car. tain that our author, if not himselfa kingwas thorcughIy at home in the detail of Indian Court life" 'fi

Prof. Tawney in his foot-note on tho 'Word ~ qft'rii{ , (which occurs in stanza 18 of" the ,r airagya

Satalm ) thinks that this eAllMssion £.,115 ill with the legend that Bha.rtrihn:ri was a. king and quitted his throne in a. fit of diftgust.t

14 Prof. 'Taman Shh7a.m Apte ~L l~ ... , at p.'lgc 119.2 of his San~krit-EngHsh Dictionary has the fol .. lowing:-

~((tAuthor of the three Sntakns and of the ,"'akya.padiya. Mr. Telang gives it as his opinion that he must have flourished about the close of the fust ~nd the. beginn;ngofthesecond centuryofthe Chris~ tian era. Tradition makes him brother of King ·V"ikra.. rna, and if this Vikratna be accepted as the same who defeated the lIIechhas in 544 A D

· · we must suppose Bhartrihari to ha,e flourished in the latter half of the sixth century.

• See Prof. T .. wu~· T C •

t S -.; II '1"0 entarie~ of Bhl!.rtnlaari p 1'~

ee Prof. Ta • "'-- J • 4.

1\'1ley I; A. WQ Centuries of Bh<t""'l1"] • to ....

~--~~---- .. .. =- __ .. _~~I~)a~n~p~.~~ ..... ..n

-.,,_

...

PREFAOE.

17

15 Prof. ''''il~oll (in Iris 'Tishnlt Purana ) ela .. borately argues thnt the enrliest of the Puranus cannot have been written long before the Sth, or Hth .. centrn-y

...

of the Chri~tiall ern •. A.s Rhartrihnri cle .... u-Iv mentions

the Pur:\nns in stanzu 7!> of the '''' nirAgyn '"' Snt.nka, "·0 arc to infer that he must, therefore, be Inter than the Sth, or 9th. century "A .. D. ,.

( B ) TnAN~LATons &c ..

The first; trans]atiol1~ of Bhnrtrihnri's SRtnka9 2ut.o nn)· EurO})C:111 tongue lY1U': t1lf~t by n. Christian missionnry Abraham llog(,l" who published ill 1651 A .. D .. ll~\.. History of the Religion of the Brahruans" in which ,YC1"C contained two hundred proverbs of the sage Bhnrtrilun'i~ translated Into Dutch .. Tho stnnzas OIl Niti were stylerl by Irim as "the rC11.sonnblc conduct of men," and those on '1'"niragyn as "the road which leads to hen yen."

This work wns subsequently translated int.o

French in 1670 .. A~ D ..

Prof. Tawney snys thnt the Centuries of Bhnrtrihnl"i arc nlso contained in the Sanskrit Anthology of Hnebeclin. 1\[. Galnuostra.llslntcd the Niti and Vnirftgyn ..

,

Satakns into Greek.

c In order to refute (hib theory, we hnve to state thnt ShRnknro,d,aryn, who io; generally nnl1 rightly ncknowledged to have flourished in the 8tb ccntu)"y A. D., 11M actually quoted tho Puranns In hib COln1nCUtnryon the lShvctiish,"nlnn\ Upunishudn,' Besides tbi"l, the Puranas in general nnd the cYft.YIl-pnrnunt in particular, nrc even referred to by DAnabhnUn (CJI~) in hj1:l:lamol1s work "Knd(uubnri" ("Cfitcp:qU).

Bnnn's age is now fixed nhout tho beginning of tho seventh century A. D.Prol. Wilaon'H argument is thercfOlc untenable,

18

PREFACE.

~

1 [

They were included by Prof. BHhttingk in his uIndiache Spriiche St. Petcraburg, ] ~G3-G5 .1.\... !> TIley were transla1ed into French hy:\L H JPI1"Je lyte Fanche in 1852 andhy )I. ncgnn.ud in J S71j.A. J) ..

Yaman Pnndit has translated the stanzaa iny" lInratlli.

In 1795 A. D. 11. II. the ::\Jnhflrttj Sn ... ·!ti Pratap Singhji of Jeyporc trn.l1f3latcd the three S:lt:tkns of Bhartriharl into Bl)[l!ddi verse, undos- t he title of

,.......,.. ..,.. d4 ..... J ~ fJ ••

;ftu:n't'litO(I,~1\'IG(\ij{I,nn (l;;:r1tta:t\S1U C ne YCOIU'lrtJng

of the Chnppnya (ucqq) YCrECF: which rna};c thctrunslation go l)y the popular 113Ine of Prnti'IJft SinglJji'e Ohllappayas, ignoring altogether the few Sorat1t&.s

( ~QT) and Doh!\s{ ~ ) which also form it!, parr.

One Pandit Rish::thhn. Dcyn S{\~tri of J ouhpr,rc

,

bas recently trA1IAJnteri the three Sat.'li:a.s into lIillrli.

This book was puhlisIlcd in 1894 A. D. by the Gyans1tgar Press Bom 1Jft'\" .

An anonymous translation uf llhartrihnri's :Kiti

,

and Yairagya Satakns into English pro1'11 '\":\f!J>uhJi~b. ed in the SUb&dha Prakash Press at 130mlXlv. The

~,i.a entitled "The Proverbial Philosophy ciBl1nrtri.

Prof. Tawney has made an elegant verticnl

translation into English of the Niti and vC: · ~ . S' ta

au agl a a _

~as of ~hartr:_hari. This book Was puhli;hed tIt

Calcutta m lSi 7 .A. D. under the title of"Th T

Centuries of Bha.rtrihari." e wo

M. Durgt;. Prasad, Editor "HnrhinD"cr" fir

Lahore, has also translated in 1889 th 11 "'.

Satakas ofBhartrib ~ ~ E. en orc!;nld two

A an Into I nghsll proac 13 tl 1

L:Jatakas are pubr h d .... 0 1 t lese .'

• ;: IS e ~eparately and cnlled lIa:llIr:tj:.J

I

,

~PREFAOE.

19

,

Tlhllrlrihnri's Ntti Satakn and }[ahnrn.ja Bhnrtrihnri's

100 couplets on Renunciution,

( C) BooR's.J\.. uotrr BllA nrnnrxnr.

Now we IJUVC come to th:lt P31-t which relates to those hooks which brivc us sorne acconrrt of'Bhnrcrihnrija life. Hnrl 'YC been fort.unnte in this we would non have much difficnlty in afibdng the chronology of Bhnrtl"ihol'i and gi viug 2.\11 nuthcntic record of his life 011 the autboi-ity cf'stubbor-n filets. But, to the grentclisnppoilltmeut of al}, our iuformntlon in this respect is Iirnited to two sources viz :-( 1) Bhnrtrihnri Nirycdnm U~fti;ffll't{J{" and ( 2 ) Bhnrtr-ihm-i's I\:hyalns ( Gq]~ ).

( 1 ) IhL\U'l·lllH.\UI ]\IRYED.A:'tf ( ~c).:~ftt";'~ ).

It is n dramnticnl work in Sanskrit hy Hm-iharopa ... dhy;"lYll (&~Uq1\.<im). Unfortunately, however, IT'e do not know nnything positiv'cly about IInriharopafUlynyn's life except the fnet of his bchlg a )Inithila Pundit. As for the full hi Iorrnnt.ion of the work, ,"YC would here subjoin a clear and auccinf synopsis of the Sanskrit pIny into English prose.

BllAIt'rRIllAUI- N InVBD.A N A~r .AliA::\!:

By H.AluUAltOr.A.])J[YAY .. A .• . A .. ct. I

Bhru-trlhm-i meets his R~ni Bht\nulnnti ('I~i~liIm ) after long separation, for which the latter expostmlates with him, and the R!l..ja makes some religious excuse for the prolonged absence from her. In the meantime, seeing a. suttee mounting the blazing pyre of her dead husband, the RajA. extols her conduct to the skies before the R{lni; but she remarks tbat she does

20

not Bee the propriety of 0. suttee's ]lnving l'CCOUl'SC to real fire when the fire of separation iR quito sufficient to burnher immediately to nshes, Though n Iittle incredulous, Bhurtrihari then ngrees with his Rilni and

takes his leave of her to go out shooting, to which she reluctantly and sorrowfully consents, on the condition of her being allownrl to remain staudin g at the. gate anxiously looking out the path of his. spccrly return,

Act. II

01)6118 with the dialoglla of maid sarvnnt.'i upon the sudden death of their 1\!istrcss ( Rani ll])!'t.uUl1tnti ), who, while standing at the gate, soon became lifeless 011 bcnring the ( false ) news ofBhul'Ll'ihnl"i llcing slain by a tiger. The UajA, on his return to the CU}litnl, finds the scene full of great sorrow find grief, and on knowingtha corpse being taken to the crcmatoriunl hastens to that place and there InaUrIlS nnd weeps like 0. child and strictly fQrbids his men to set fire to the pyre on pain of prccipitttting himself into the burning logs.

Act. III.

Sorro~g ovcl'the oorp.se mltis RAni, nhartrihnri BOO8 at It distance that a Yogi is excessi"ely Weeping over the breakage of hi a earthen dish TJ nll"h

hi dole iioJ<.1. goes

to im an tries to °v]" b

b tth Y .. 0 bdl)ncn Y Inn y mnny wise COl1nsels

;b' ~ hog! ~ 0 urate anq goes Cl:lDlIillg the virtue~ o d 1S S an bemoauing its irreparable loss !nOte an more on account of his b· 1 "

its sUdden d tr· rung lnnself the cause of

its strellgth es T~ctlO;l, 101' he dl'0l'POO it down to test

· e 1) ot of the dialogue is so fl'(Uned

:

.

i

- ~-

PREFAOE ..

'-21

that nil the arguments put into the 111011th of the YO~i f are nppljcable even more strongly to the R!lj:\ for his gric~ing over Bhanumnti's IO~5. Bhnrtr-ihm-i, though he recognizes nll th-h; in his heart, yet still persists in consoliug tho Yogi hynllndingtothctrnn~itoriness of all thit1g~ in the world und the futility of IUtUl'5 grief over what he has 110 control. The Yogi here nssnils tho Raja with his 0"-11 nrgumcut nnd olJfScr,,-cf:::-

tR1 q~~ q-rfU~qfi1qlH'l!1:e4 aft tid

tnt: 'li +iTT~ d:tfil q ~I~st CfiI~if1t I

13cing struck with the cogency of tile remnrk Bhnrtrihnri then rcC"ognizc:-; the Yogi to be no other thnn Gor.lkFhnnnth(~ta ... rq) himself, nnd the Iatter ncknowledge- himself to be the same, and to 11nyC intentionally assumed the character ill order to dispel the unnvili1iug sorrow from the RAjt1's mind, Bhnrta-ibnri soon lays himself prof=.tratc ut his feet and requests from him the easiest, road to self-know ledge and to this Gorakshnath thus replicPo:-

~! ~~~~: u;:ti J;\q\flf I 'ECI Qlifa .. t;: ''II tit t;f =l:qlfEfil"!(fQ;\flq t« II

Act. I\r

The primemlnister is pleased to find the R~jft joy .. ful1y f;.ittillg with the Yogi and then he ventures to nr;k his permission to cremate the corpse ofBhA.numnti. But strnnge to F'ny that his master replies to }lRYC 110 concern with the world, Devatdlnk (~), the minister, then remonstrates with him but to no purpose.

PREFAOE.

Act v-.

Opens with the meeting of Bhnrtrihari with Bh~. numati 1\·J10 is restored 1;1) life through the mystic powers of G'orakshanath~ Bhanumati trias to em brnee

her hushanrl but the Rfo.jit rum; and avoids her, She, ,

therenpon,exC:rtsJler fair charms butin vain, and, :f.'lil- .'

jug in these, she resorts 00 the means t)f bring-I'lll' JICr . young F.OD before the Raja "ho is still indiffeTCnt ; to them.

The requests o{ the prime minister also prove fruitless. Gomkshanath then adnSe5 the mjni~tcr tn de- I . si~t 1i-om hjs u.seJeEs cmdca't"OUl"5 and to place the Raja.kumara on the GarJdi for whosc protection 11C will ex-ert his own inBuence with that of tllC naja~ II e then console;; Blmnumati lnth the hope of agnin meeting (ne'l"llr to part from) her Iord BJJnrtrihari aft(>l'

his obtaining immOJ1:aJity and here the play ends in bappinc:,;s to all,

The reader will sec for ;::6el; 110w far HIe pIny I cr.in~des 'I\-jth our Bhnli:rihari's life in the lmginning, and 1U what ]_JIIliicular ponit<; it differs from Jt,

---orr-- __

( 2). BUARTIlIlUlll's SmEETs P.t,\1"!l On lfnoDRA3fAS ..

These street play.~ /Ire acfuo:l all 01>'er Jnrlia and !Ire ... ~ popular. They relate that Kin ... BIJD.rtrih . was very fond of his 'lrlfc Pi 11 (fq 0 an day 'Went «:h ~ b luga +J-rtr). He one

... O()LJDf1' t e wild d

mark on a biD' bu .k rr· d eer- and made his.

e C. 16 OCe, thereupon, remonstm~:1

,.

,-,

PREFACE.

23

with the R!lj:i. and entreated him to spare the buck and take instead the lives of n,s many of them as he pleases, because Iris death mil make them all widows. Butthc Raj~\ turned n dcafear to thCAC requests nnd shot. the buck dead on the spot. The exaspernted docs thereupon uttered n lSllcr-p (ourse) ngninst the Raja. that the dny~ of hia R=\iyn nrc numbered, for he shnl l have soon to abdicate the kingdom and roam about in the forest as n. hcrruit lcu,ing his wives no better than widow's. His meeting U"ith Gomkhnnth is then related nt length Bud the Yogi nftcr fully testing the veracity of the R~j;i'B request, makes him his pupil. The plnys also epeak of Bhm-trihnr-i as B king nnd a brother of the celebrated Y·ikram:iditya. C

European scholars will no doubt laugh thnt 1 make much of these trifling p1aYEl. But I would beg permission to remark thnt the fnet of'their lln.idng sur .. vived 80 long must be a sufficient guarantee of their being founded on authenticated historic and ran.1life. A. lie cannot last long. Tho remarkable Incidents of Bhartzihazi'a )jfe being framed Into o, play which is 80 popular with the general public speaks much of the high esteem and honor in which Bhartrihu.ri is still held by them~ t

---OOf---

• Tho. writer of thCSf) ]ince: can him.ell: attest to tbOBC vulgar p!nyl!l being aetcd at many plllcDa in Rajputan:l ss at Jayporo, Jodbporc and Bikanir, goncrall.:r during the months of tho Spring.

t In the 'lUI.., co"t or ~Fr!Q"~iifir ;;nqr, lIS. pootical Duration in ver-

nac:ular of Yikran:m,'B ca.lamities, Bh3rtrlbari is olearly r.nd undoubte dly .poken of. as tbe elder brother to Vik:Tllmadityao

PH.EFACE.

...

III .

As for the different works wherein the S16kas from Bha.l·trihaTi's Sn.tnka.s have been traced out, ,\YC would only beg to draw the render's attention to their respective footnotes where full partioulara have Inva.riably been given of them. However, we have also thought it advisable to arrange them for brevity nnd clear 11 oos,' sake, ill a tabular form which will enable the reader to make a prompt and ·rendy reference to them at a moment's time. It needs only be stated thnt the numbers given in this list will be found corresponding to those of the stanzas as arranged in the Kiti, SrjngAra, and VairAgyn Sntakns of the present edition, and not to the numbers of the verses of the works 01" books to which they are traced.

Pll E I'-ACE.

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26

PREFAOE.

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PREFAC]~~

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-
. . . --- - ,'PREFACE ..

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a Js ~ ar
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5 or:: .a r:- t-ca. c;Q co ·
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tQ+>
"~ ~ "BZOq~ne I .. J .. I ..
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·.l3pun pa;J.on~ .,pun paioutJ • .. ..
C) .. _-..Q..Q .
..c co.~ E:- m
..... .za "r"""'I' _ ... _
uS'CDC'O~~
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- po -~ ..:) • ..
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a';ler:.~c.>_.r m .. • .g
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=5

81

32

'pREFACE,

· •

· · •

~ .

~

I

-,

I ·hl

~snow.cuoun pcqO"b

. • ..

I

I

· · ·

I

I· ;

· · ·

. . ..

· · ..

l I

. ~lsnOUt.tuOtlD pa~on"

J

f

I I

1

}

I

PREFACE.

38

"S..c
c:.,)
scos
,.c~ ~
-=..w C'lI 00 .....
s· .... rs 1:'1
.t= : ~ T""1
- N
es ~
1$-== I
E-I1i:
.~~I:t • 9.lOq~n'O .~~~~
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zepun palOn~: .lapUtl pa:}.onb zapnn · .
pa:f,Onb
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Q tIS e6 r-: Ci'!- ... S~
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.
S , ~ci
:;:: . --:to- .
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~ =
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(q:.roJO.M., 'OX! CO; coo:
...,. .., pnEFACE~

35

From thi~ dingmm it 'will he ~u:.i]y seen thnt lVC hnve traced out n 1ar:rc number ( which nmounts to 110 lCSF- thnn 3['0 ) of Bhnrta-ihm-i's 8101-..il8 from these SnL..,kns to the. ~13 works enumerated above, where

I many of thorn have however figured more than once. Ont of these. hnnk~ some have been unscrupulously aokuowledrred to be: older thnn the 6th. ceutan-v of the 1 ChrIst.inn ern. TnkiuJ! t.he aforesaid sso 6uu;zns, lye J lllny Fafely point out thnt 1\0 less than 80 of Lhem have

f oxprcssly been quoted under Bharti .. ;lll::o·iJ 40 have been . quo{eclnnderdHiercntnuthnrfl.Ullc.l137 have been quoted uuonyrnousdy. Ko\\~, nd(lin.~ t.hcm together we get n

totn l of ;2:;G Rt!1l1ZnS which nrc distinctly ·,narl.ocd "as

qoiaiions either from Bharfrihnri or nth ers, and thus t.licrc i~ left compnrntively n:,ery smnfl numbor ( v iz f13 ) to be differently accounted- for. Granting that the .. A.st:lrntn:t~ G unnrntnn, Kit.iprpdlpn, Panehntantra, T'U1IC lun~a~lln, Bhbja pta 1),:' luI ha, Sti 11 tisa ta ka, Sril1ga. r,atilukn, SI-ingftravjndu, Sadrntun. Snptaratna, Sflkt!t.vnfi nnd T-litoJladfls:l nrc mere compilations and not

"gennine courpnsinious of their several autlaors, nnd I deducting the sum of a, J, 2, 21, 2, 3, 25, 1, 1, 11 J r, S, and] 2: ( or RJ ) stanzas w hich occur respectivet Jy in them, we ]U1YC nnw to face only an jnsig-

j nrticnrrtly SInn 11 number of stanzaa ( 't"]Z 12 ), of which

1 is found in the Amrn-usntakn, 1 in the AtmAnllsi-

r

\ sannkft\"yn, 1 in the ChnturTargnsn.ngl'aha, 1 in the

I Channkynsnt.'lkn, 2 in the Prn bOdhnch3ndr6dnya,

1 in the :\IahllnA.takn, 1 in the!\J uurArlksnso, 1 in the ltIrichbakntikn, 1 in the ,:-- Rsistllaslra and 2 in the " ,r niragynsataka ( Pndm~nnnda'B). AnJ.ongst these 1

36

PREF.A.CE.

r 'twelve, 6 will be "found to have been no other than ] those which 11a.yC nlready been accounted for n~ quotations, and one as occurring twice, thus reducing the number ultimately to 4, of which 1 stands ill the Prabedhachandredaya, 2 in the ,- niragyn~n.t"lkn of Pndmlmnndn. find 1 in the l\Irichhakatikanlld Prnbedhaehandrsdayn both. Here:i think we lIDly conveniently

drop this point without further comment,

This line of argument ,,111, it h; hoped, furnish some clue to the solution of Bhartrihnri's age, Us well as to the conclusion of these Satakas being considered a genuine composition or a mere compilation by Bhartrihari.

To do full justice to the subject J cannot bel p bringing to the notice of the render that leaving out the number of times a stanza has made its nppearance in the foregoing table we 1l1ny safely observe that out of the total of 326 stanzas as given in this edition no less than 182 hnve been found to exist in the 43

pieces enumerated above, and that of these 182 near-ly -40 verses have figured from three to seven tunes in the diagram. This gives us a '-ery distinct and indi~p~tab]e pr?Df of the proverbial find sub8~1.11tinll)ol)'" uIanty the Sat.."lka~ Imve 80 ~eseryed]y enjoyed from the ye1:Y date of thelr production to the present day.

IV'. SEQt;EL •

.ASter 1ITitUlg so much in t1le l)recec<lillO' ti

. . c lx)r Jon

of the Prefa~: It IS not necessary to d 'yen at great

length 011 gIVIng out the conclu!i.:ions we I - . 1

. .. , la \ e arrn.-e(

at, regarding the iollcminrr questions of I .

.. 0 tuO( ern crl ..

, tICS and f3Cho]ar8:-

!!!III _

-

l)REF..l\CE.

37

-

( 1) Are the S:lt~\kns either fl mere collection of" elegant extrncts from sevcml writers or n genuine corn pusiti: H) hy n single uuthorP

( 2) "rho is the author of the Satnkas?

( 3) "~hflt is the npproximnte date of the composition of thj~ workf

( ·1) "rhnt other works nrc wr-itten by the rm-

,

thor of the Sataknsf

( 5) "~ns the author of the S:ltnkns hiln~clf n king :Ult--1 the In-other of the celebrated ,rikrnln!\dityn, the founder of the Snluvat Ern?

------~OO.------

J II nuswering these questions we would beg the rendcrs indulgence to condense our views in as smn Il u spnce as pos~ihIc~ for cycrythillg is t.o be based 011 previous duta wbjch lUlYC n lrendy- been given in full.

1

. (1) From the appearance or several Slokns

in tunny of the current Sanskrit works it is argued

that the Satnkns nrc n mere collection of elegnnt; ex-

tract.s from 11111110)"0\18 authors. But if ,YO study the point a little carefully \YC wifl finr] thnt 1110St of the works in wlrieh they m-e met, wirh nrc in thcllu::c]ves mere collections and not eompoeitious c. g. the Pancharaton, S.ldr.ntnn, Snptnrntun, Ashtarntnn, Hitr'pndes!1, &c. &c. ·lVllcrc..fls in others as 'qi'raq~:e-r;i, qnmrsr~ltf:, ~I&q~r,:. U~N(Jrq{q5;:j itl'ri-\;I~~m: L~C. &c, the Slukas are merely quoted either nuonyrnoualj- or ns Bhnrtrihnri's or as some others'. ..A gnin, there nrc n

~

few, ycry few, sny some t'\'olvc S18kns, 'which nrc

f mud in worke like the .A.lnnrusata.ka, r.Iudraraks~stt

,

4

ss

I)REF~\CE.

f ,

&C. These mny harmlessly IJ!! considered as Inter- I

polations either in the Sl.t.3kns or iu the l"'urks thr-rn- ! selves. Besides, there i~ a cert:l.ill thrcatUikc thought i which pervades them all and unit-es thorn Into one i whole, 'Ye nrc therefore in a posi tion to ~!ly that, the f

I Siukas arc a genuine work from the pen of Hum': v .... rt i- r t culnr perS01J. *' \

( 2) Having thus deci.Ied the first quc-ti ... )ts~ it ;

1

is not verv difficult to arrive nt a definite (!:"JlCi~l::-i(}n

. ,

upon the authorship of the S l.t.'lkn$. When men IH:c .

the authors of' ~~I~rretq?'-::r. :":, [:'.!J ;f[rn-o ) (f! nn p:-J~."!rI t

~

in the t.i:nc ofg"!i! uncle t") :CP11~'lf)r u g~+t'"'1~.~~' i

~ ,

[ ~~=t ~l"17ii' 0,. ~ .... ~ ::.trrr.:: 0] (c:)mp~(!l.l nh":.J:lt the ;

'middle of the 11th. century .. A. D.) t'~ ;r~i'€7'O'f. i =aii~~f' [\S~ ~~.'tfo] und otherr.- have '1UIJt !'"i :;: :"'nc t , f

of the F.mn7..3.S from these 81tak:ls distinctly aa 13h:"=ilri- I

~ hal"rs, it is mere childlike f)1)5tin~y still to {jUi".!';;;tiIJn I

1 the authors-hip (J Bhartrlhnri, beeauso 1)(:bidC:5 their ~ exten5:=ive knowledge of Sanekrit Literature and the

i wide range of their Information, they were unquf.:.:.;Unn-

i ably nearer than we to the author of the SJ.t:!l:n~ bv

Ie m~ny centuries, the diffc:rcllce J)ctween us and ]Jjrr~beIng undoubtedly less ncarly by 8 <:enturie.,:, in the. ease of the authori! of Dasaroopawaloka and Su~;rittn.

1 tilnka. I~!s t~~refore proved Leyon:l contrQ\'£:r~y", that Bhartnharl IS the author of thc:!e. SJ.tnk."l~,

( 3) To give a precise fJI.:-:wet trJ the third II question is noway easy. But from a carc:.ful c.xarnination of the facts before us Vie shall trv to fi"'· tJ d

-.J -.... lC nte

-

a:--"

PI1EF .. ACE~

(A

, caease ..

JI='C':'= _ =:::!' _ ::& ,sal!! :t!: kW!.... • f.i 2 e:a ....

• J

of these Satakns ns accurately :U; possible, llcf~rring

to the dingralu put forwnrd in Pnrt, lIT oft thh~ preface we nrc nblc to fi~scrt thut. J11rll1Y stunzns front these

, .

S \t.:.\kn~ nrc found quoted in the wor-ks of( 1 ) .A.l>hi .. I

( -"') ('.») JOo- t. • , (

llfl,-agllpt .. ., \.q;:qfi?i~~ • - vcs.iwarmsrn a:nw?i:R:'"

\Tlti1t!), (3) Iluyy!i.nnl;:a (8i~W':teq\:~). (~1) Vaidyanfuhn (e€(lil<:O'~l~~) .. (5) l{scmcudrn

.. ,........,.... ~....... d

( aTfr-:r(lf~~~::;;rqr, q;,;r;nQ~i+f'OJ'II:.. an Sii:fl

fcht'ff.li( ).( 6 ) l\fannn::).t.n. ( iiiTell'lF'fhI{l:), (i) Cfl'n"intla (q:;lc4£rcf(q'~ )_ (8) ,T!lgh),aLta (qi(otr iJ~n:Titq:_), ( 9 ) Nalni~a.dhu ( Cfi(1:I4r~r:ra:1~r ), (10) A ppayndlxira ( ~~tn;r;~: J. ( 11 ) n:lannnjnya. ( is[~~qrcr~($: ), ( 12) Allandayardhana ( \;.cr;:trl~Pli': ).(13) \Tjsnu Bar.

,

ma(~ii~)~ (14 )B:tUftla (~')~!I'~: ), ( 15 ) Siwa-

r:l1ua (,~ti1arl::) .. (16) Slrng.:~h[tl'a (V~Wl:t{q~~: ), (17) Bhc\.lnr3jn. (:e-~a~v;r~lttJt1t.)t (18) "\TaUnhhadeva (fi~rmTqii':), (10 J J alhann (W'1n 5ih Jqfit: ) and ( 20 ) Narayana [ R:ti'iq'{~:]. Of these nnt hor-s Abhinnvngupt« 1Iouriphcrl rownrds ibn (!lH.l of the tenth, J\scmcndl·a and N:ul1i S;i.dhl1 in the middle or the eleventh, Dhnnnnjayn in the tenth .... Annndnvnrdhnna in the ninth and 13htijnrAjn. in t.ho eleventh ccntu-

. ~ ,

rica of the Christian ern. Excepting Yisnu S l1"ln3. find

Nar~ynnn the remaining' writers nrc compnmtively Inter in nge than these. Annndavardhann is the oldest nmong' them find besides quoting stnnza. 6 ( ~Q ) he even nlcutions ~~ J,y name", T11is enables ns to

put the date of the Satalca.s before arr-r~t:ri;r, the 't

G See 'c...,-;:qlij;;Iq), p , 41 • ( Knvyn.rnnlll Series Bombay).

I

.......,r:::

:at'

...,= _. ... -

-lQ

PltEFAC]~ ..

a.utllor or ,,"~ri~lq} i, c. before the scC!ond half of the

I 'ninth century, because it is (lcm(Jll~tl':atcd t fJat .A n~Hld:l. vardhana ftourished during the reigu of K.izig .. \ vant ivarma (855·f;H:·1. 1.\ .. D~ ). Of the two l\rritcr:" mentlonr-I above Yisuu S~rrna i~ universally ackno\\"}t.-tJg[:fl tf jo 11{: much older thnn :\ilr.l'ran~[! nud we t-=-hall therefore eonfine our remarks to him i. c. ~C~':f.tqT. ;\'f.- we fiufl no less than 21 s-tanzas from tll(#:<c S.lt.'ll:n~ in the Pan· c,hat..'lntra: we cannot help eoncl ndi fig the daf(: of .. t he:. J Satakns to be older than that of the. Punehntautru. ~ r,\\- I if we succeed in fbdng the date of the l'audmtantnt we shall at least he able: to ~ny somcrhlng prcci-ely

,

about the. clrronology of the &1t.."\t.us.

The Panchatantra quotes copiously from tIH! ),136- ha.bharata. Ka.rnanrL'lkh·aniti:;;;arn~ :\I anu-tnriti. ll!thl:t. ..

, -

yana ond Cl1anak;ya. There are also two SIf~k:l5 in it

(III.27, and V, 14) which can respectively lY! tr.v!c..,]

I:

to the Sisup~.1ahadha and Sn.gananda }y,tll of whlr-h nre

generally aeknowledged tob~ later-then t11ednten~u!l11," assigned to the Panehatantra. Besides naming )Inru~. '-rihaspati~ '~yasa::, '-almiki~ Bhl'igu and , .. !tt~\·ft.\"an:t. the Panehatantra aJ~o mentions ChftnnJ:ya ( I.. r;. 2. I L .. 1. ) and '"' arahamlhlra (I.. p, .J a. L 12) • wrIters whose dates are prc:tty accurately knnwn tu UF ... l

, i

Of the two Slukas~ one traceable to the Sisul,alnl)a- t

dha and the other to the Xag-:.nalltla, we c:'tll e."1..:j1 v

. ~i5po~e by thinki~g them either as Iater illterjJfJlation"':;.

ill the Panehatantra or as nnCf"Jn~df}n;;: pr".(,{arl· _ .

• " - "eU ~ms In

'the Sisupalabadha and the Xa_g:..:tllanda ..

Chanakya as is wel1l..-nown was the friend, f:rllirIe

=

= 5 ;j ..

s

«:GiG:

aD ) iii:i

-

" L

and poHtir.:l J :If.lvi~Cl· of the ndventurnus Ch::uHlrngnpt:t, the contompornrj .. of Selukus, nnd so he 111tl~L he placed

somewhere about a25 B. C. *' Cnn~cqucnt1.r there is notlring' strauge in the nllu~ion of Ch!\.nnkyn's .Art11ns:u~tl"~1 ill the Panchatautrn. t But ,?" f1r!tlinlnihirn~t-! dute js uunuimously accepted ns the si xth century of the Cht-istiun ern, Hero then lies the great {ljfncll1t~~ we have to con fr'Otlt about the set t1crncant of Pnuc hntantm's d:lt.c.:J: If owever t.llkiuJ,! it. fur n historieal fuct of "t"Jinhlc aut hcnt ic"it..", 1 hnt P:(1){']mtnut ra ii4 the o)·if.dnat which wus truuslnte-l Irv u Buzerchumiher. the chief

~ .

l.hy~j(·i:\n nnd nth"lor\\4nrt.1~ \"'iz;er nrtlu .. 1 :tr~nt Anushir,\·Stl1 ( ns fo:ir \Y"ilJiu1JJ .J{)lIC~ remarked at. n me~ihg or the ~(Ji~jet'· of the .A!-:jatie nc~carch{"~ (Ill I he .!Jutl, Feb-

..

I" 1 1:\1"·Y· 1 t-\7 G ) we crumot, help rcmovi ng- the ante of the Punehntu ntra t'.) n t i Inc h InA" 1 }cit: Ire the reign of 1 I1n L ilJu:=.trinn:;. nsouar-clr. mul thinking t.hc menfion or ''''ur;\}u1Julhiril in it to lJC n lUeJ'C j uterpolru iou h!- f'OlUC lat(:r (·ol)yh:t of tho work. Pnncll:,i:lll\ra· ~ dute is thereforo 1 t) he placed somew here 1m! ween that uf Ch:lnnkyn nnr] that ur .:\nll~11irwn.1l (Jr rOl1gh]~· f:peal;:iug between Hi;; H.C!. und 5:;0 .A .. l t But ns "\\"C leazn ii-<l)ll t.he pre-

---- ---- ~--- - - - ........... -----~

e tiel' llnntl"r"N IJrif.f Jfi!llory Hf till" Tm1idu People. liP. 7G nnd 71. t i' aar $JQ~Il2f'tOt JF.tr~r rltfimmlGr :qrUJ¥'nnf"7r"(r:i~~J{ ttn .. :q~1§ ).

::: .A('ror,linjt t" Uti' :mlhority of the Ivarnod Cllilofi' of the ~Toqtiter PIl",U"lminntr.~ c'lm~nl btl oldt'r tlHtn, 7nO _4.. D., heeuusu it (]t1(JtCfI

the Sloka qtf~;;rr~mtft &c. ( l'allchuUtuirn. I. 1 'i.J. ) from Hie J{l1Uini. ma.ia of DaiOollllmgu}ltn, {llc primo mh. i!ol:l or :(If King-JnyApJt]u (705-786

J A.D.). S(.""Q. fcmhlOte. nt p. III of if,[cqqU~~'Ja=c:~ x« 3.

42

PREFACE.

face of its first foreign translation that the v{ork was rendered into that language after its outaining a "'world .. wi de reputation, we cannot lJC far from right to nllow about; three centuries' time for the spread of its fame. in those old days (bearing it in mind that the. I udinn princes in whose court the Punchntantra had secured for itself a very exalt-ed position of rank aud honour,

tack the greatest possible care to conceal this rare gem frOIU the foreigners). This 'will further IJush all the date of Panchatantra'a composition to somewhere about the second century of the Ohriebian ern.

As we -find the 134th v erse of the Panehntrmtra, book II, expressly assigned to Vjkram~dityn ( ~4'i"'iR{{tI') -)"hom tradition makes younger brother of Bhnrtrihari ( ~~irR: )-in the Si.rngndbn.rapaddhati of Sarngadhara, at No. 277; and the Su lJbnsita\"aJi of ,r allabhadeva, at No. 507., and as there are no less than twentv-

. ..

one stanzas from these S.l.tukas to be found ill the

Panchatantra, we can fairly infer thut the author of the

,

. S.lu:k~s lived a century or two earlier than Visnu 83r-

m~ the author of the Panehatnntm, This will go to pro"\""c the truth of the traditional Iristory of Bhartrihuri as gb:cn in the beginning of our preface.

( 4 ) Three 'wolk3 n_re attributed to Bhal"trihari~ Of

\ these we ~e the SJ.tnlas f":rst of 'which we have ack ... no·wlcdged 111m to be the undisputed author.

TJ;.e second work g~ncraIIy aseribed to hinI is the

.... q ..... I~.r-!q-qr?a-:r:,q' .. But to my mind the idcntitl.r rc.r..ts 1

• ~. .7 ;:l. lnere y

on name. N o~m~ .about ~e parentage or literal"" work 01 BhartriharliS t<lld either in the ~::e: q .... . 'J "-41.,.-"1 ~P1 or

...

43

tJH~ SaLVru~. Su we nrc not authorized by facts to thiuk l3hurtrihnri to be the author of the cnq:qqcft~~ But the nuthorif:y of tr:Hlition here countenances the id~llt it.y ofqrt of (he qr'fqq-{[l[ nnd .Bhnrt rihnri ( ~ ...

,.... ,

~[-:;: ) or the S:ltnka"i nnd wn muv <10 well to bow sub-

..

Jlli~~ivcly to iI_ until \VC ure nhle to ~ct it aside llY Fiath!-

fitct.")ry evidence uf fiu,·t~ and figllrc~.

The thh"'(l,\~ul"k which tradition a~Fo=ignH to Bh:trtri ... her'i i~ the ltii€filoQ'.

]\ut. it· hn~ been :Ilrc."afly proved nbovo iu con .. ncction with the 1iJ"t"-( nnd ~(,coIHl p:lrt~ uf our-Pruface thut, the! aufhor of +{fi:~loq i~ a dif'tt inc!' pcr~unngc fronl llhnrtrilull"i. Dhnl tikavy:ull it! proved to Iurve been composed in the Gt fa (w 7th cent tH·Y .A. D. (Rc~ ",.. elwr·ti Suuf;)trit L.ih~ r at ure' p. 1 Hn note ).

( .5 )- '''lJ{~rc i~ nn intc-t-nnl e\~j(I(~]I(!c to I)ro\~c thnt. Bhartrihari wus hiIn:-:l~tr :.1. Jdug nud u fJJ'othpl" or''''ikrnJnfl'litya... '\"Pc ]HlY'(~ n« mu hent ie record ubout YikraJU;trl it.YIl, tIle tbund(lJ" of the Surn \11', El'n, 1 Jciug tIll: yonngf"r hr( tth(:'r of Bhurtrihuri. Bhnrtrihnri himself docs not FJly unything' nhouf It , The trndit iou is not corroborated hy uuy rcliuble external evidence of unquestiounble nuthoi-itv, or course ,\~C lenrn from the

. ..

S!lUlkn~ thnt~ if not Irimself n king, BhurtrlharI iH

f!uitc at lJOIl1c and )yeJJ con v crf-llulf, with conrtJifc. Bllal"trihuri is 110 douht ~l)okcn of us Irl:ing in the +lfrilR:- r fhicBtf112t'!h~ Tht! several street l)]ays ( '@lJi1S ) on ~rii{ft: and :rntft:;;r;:(f ulao ~])c:lk of Bhartrilmri as Muterna) uncle to itlq1::q~ and brother to fiiEnlfliitfll and ir.ncrfif mother of Gopichnndu.

4.4

PREFACJ~.

From what has been said 3.1)0\"0 we 11lny take it as pretty certain that, Bhartrihnrl is the nuthor ()f the Satakas and that bis precise date, th()ugh involved in mystery, is believed to be nbouv 50 ur GO J\. D~ From a careful study of the Sat.···,kns 'YC can :1.1110 infer that he is It poet of no ordinary stnmp, that he ia quite at home in the delineation of Kiti, Sringftrn. au(1 ,r nirlgya and therefore one who must have actun lly tasted the fruits of nll three, nnd thnt from l1is frequent reference tokings, kings' surroundings ntH1 kiJlgly enjoyments, he must IUlYC been, if not u king himself, one thoroughly eonversurrt with n king's ~t:ttc and Iife,

I cannot, lJcfure concluding tllis pm-t of rny Prp.face, hell) ndduei ng Borne plea for the ncceptanen 0 Bhnrtrihnrifs trnditlon. "Then real authority j~ want-

..

ing, a people lnny jUf;t1y he )laJ"doHcrl fOJ: nccCl)ting u tradition which hfl~ long lJCcll l)ftl1flctl dCJ1\"LJ from generation to generafion, Bprcudi1Jg oyer lnnny centuries Aay 18 or In, find which lrns not been thor« mghly r1Ct;tr~;y~ cd by the <muons of 'Y estern criticiHJO. Putting aside the inconclusive theories of mauy a 1C~tl·Hed ~choJnrs who }lave written on or of Bhurtri11al"i we muv tJ

, • '.J , )Cl"C-

fbre, be justified ill hcndiug the Preface with the 1~~Jl-

ditional history of ]~hR.rlrihU1.j, ndJlcrirul" t} J

" . ~, loug 1 nut

quite ,,·hully ana 'Ylthc)ut rcscr\"e to '~·)1 t· 1

•. ,~ , ,It IS prm.:cr\"e!

]11 men s minds abouf the "':tiro);" of the' ,!, k

~ se ~atn "fia on

Niti, ~ringA.ra and V nir~gya.

--.

azz

=

a

l'H 1·;): ,;\..("J ....

!:

-=

"':IE! 151

v. I)L~\.CER or ]NTJ~Hl~ST nEL1~.1"rNG TO llIf.J\RTHIll.AHI.

:-='uch places nrc numoroua find sp rcnd :l11 over Tndin. ,\-c };lJutJ, howov .... r" confine OJlr~p]\~CS to t1U! (1<.'f:(al"i}lt inn uf those we ha ve seen oursol ves or rend nhunt in nnv relinble work ..

i ()). hllhartrihnri G nphn," A cave at U..ij('in

ha '-in~ wit hin if s c('u tre a FInan nltn .. at which lih:u'"

..

trihtlri i~ said t,C\ have made hi~ daily of1i.:rinw:, light-

ed lti~ sncriflcial fin.· antI J.dndletl his J)huoni.. It is alse told that a !;uhh'rral1enllpas~a.1!l· which formerly connected i. hi~ cave with Bonnres is no" .. blocked 111), t;:

(2). " l1hnrt.rihilri's C-hlphn at. 1\Iount A1Jll . .II~ On J\louut .Abu 1l1Pl'C arc two caves pointed nut a~ Blln!"! rlhnri's. One is l)y i he old footpa1 h to nasi~h th(l'" shrnmn or Gnumnkha which pnssc~ elose to tho Rnilwny School Icnving it. on flu ... lcft. A sire-ant of water runs down the ~lnnll TO('k in Hie rnins, 01)0 of the aperLures in the rCCCf::S of the CllYC i.c; supposed to be snbtorrnneously running as far as l{tl.qhi. It is u11 dar]r wit hin and nothing enn however- he 110Sit h-ely ascertained about the subtcr-raneous pnssngc. J3ut here I would hcg permission to remark thnt such legends arc quito common with tunny a cave of rcnowncd snges and YOb';S tllrougl1out tho land.

The other C:IYC which is also spoken of ns Bhartrihari"'s is on a hill on UlO left side of the AcIlaleswar ]\fan(]ir (ar:;:rilrsq;c :RltpC) nt Acl1a1garIt. It is I somctl1ing ]ike a IJropC"T Asl.rallla 'with one or t,,·o

I '" n01l11my N:Ul=-krit Sl'ric:ot ~o. XI p. ,oj,

~.-.----"---~~~~--~=~~~--~;;~--~~~II

PltEF .A.CE ..

e- b' S

• ;: • :' "!Ii! : - =n : - --::

: *:e; '!-~

-

ragged l~uchh(.(, S11Cds to give shelter to tho rcsid?nt J o ciswho Iivo there. These men always keep asrnoking

o • ..

fire or Dhooni ("i,;fT) continually burning In one

place v,,,hich is said to 1)0 tl1C ease from tJle LiDIC of Bl1 artrihari downwards. They wear red or reddish ( 7t~'~n) clothes and keep 110 wives and profess

J themselves to be the Iollowers of the royal ascetic \ Bhartt'ihari.

I ( 3). "R"l.jaBhart.riharika ~lallaL" It is situated

to the North of Schwan, a town on tho right hank

I of the Indus and belonging to Hyderabad ( Sind ) .. Tho palaeo of Bharfrlhari, as it is called up to elate, is still to be seen in the centre of a YC1"Jl' ancient ~I and extensive fortress where Bhartrihari is said

. to have reigned when he 'was driven from Ujjcin l)y \ his younger brother Vikramflditya. ~

1 ( 4}w "BhaTtl'jhal'i~s l\fandir"~ A temple to tho

li south of Schwan ~·hich js he1d sacred both lJY the Hindus and ],{o]lalnmedans. t

i

~ ( 5). "Bharto'\Val'~" A town belonging to the

i Chief of Kanarll, one of the sixteen great Barons of I 1\Iey,var. It boasts of a high anf.iqt1ity, and BllaTtriI hari the elder brother of \Tikr.amftdityn iF) ~aid to he

! its l~eputed founder.j ·

~ (6) ctBhal·trihari's Sanladhisthanns." They nrc I

C FOT further IJart.ioulara see footnote at ~go 369 T ld'" 1

d \ • •• f n_· h ' Of 8 .n.unn «

an .: ntlqrut)(.<;!1 Q "wI-JMt an Val. II, lklpn1ar cdiLiou Calcutta lf~84.

t See TOfld p. 370. idem,

:::: Sce Todd's A nnals and Antiquities of nnjaF-tl V 1

Popular Edition of Ca1culm 1884. ian, or, 11. p. 644.

J e=ezsw : iiiiiiir;;; $ i a

;

4*

P]{ I~F .. \ CEo

....----.... _ ... ------- _. __ .. _--

t found in many places, hut \\"0 shnl] «numerate

t.hose on], .. to which we have lw«,"u evowit ness.

~. ~ r

(:'l)-'Titcri! is :1 BUla11 ,-ilJ:tg-l'in the midsf of n. f

t!'-"ILIP of hills to the we-t (\1" llj"-:Ho (Hajpn1ann), 1 known hy the name "f ~iI"h:k,'lw 'Vilhin a quarter 1 of a 111 Hc frurn tha t. I'ln~(' i~ ~i tll.tf\!:J 13htlC*t.rih:u·r:-; !:5:un "idhl~t.h:hl:t. Su rrou 1l,lec 1 IJY dense Ii )]" .. ,~t t he place II hrJunth, \rith wiltl h(·n..;t~ . .:\. smnll rill fhlltt~ throngh t it, during' the rains anrl winter, There \'"C find ::;t""·C'U suiall df)J1H.":f: (II' cUlh,Jh; 11(I:tdy a .:'--n1"11 in hpight .and

a vnrd in dianlt~tl"'r. rrhl~ coneu vc of t.1H':;C domes, '

W •

\\-hh!h aru ~itn~iu-l,\ nnt fur front one i'ltlHthcO", is nU , hol lu \\ ", ,;'\. t the fit no I saw the 'pla:!f", ~i x uf the domes were c.:1u"'::CJ:1 OU all :;jt.lp~ wH.hou'. :luy Hp~lling while I thl'" s.t~"onfh h1fl n sU1all door ha"ing nn .Akhnnda i 'Deupnku ( a.tTrl""1g~rq-;r; ) 0[" n ~nllll Inmp cont inuously I hurning w it lrin u, 'I'Irerc ,\·CI"C al~o e ome sindoore J tl"id(!uis mnrkud (Hl huU. sidCrl of the door. On CJl~ quiry J was told by the resident Jugit; that Eharh·i. hnri hn:l nlrendy t,llkcn his S:\~n~ldhi in six. of these f cupalr1t~, whereas tho ~("\·cnth contniuiug' the lalnp} represents l~hartrjhnri"s .,,I!lo!i ~qrmo whore he is to , como one day anti take )li~ sevonbh Sanladlli as I before, 'I'he moubh of this cupnl:i witl also be closed I at that tiure and an eighth \vill be raised to represent his J!loli~ Thi~ wil] ahu) he closed in tiUIC and a ninth I and la..~t '\Till again spring up to bo ~iJllilnrly closed. l No,\· wo spenk of him ns tl:q:'if'r ~ih€r Giq" or CiVic .... tory to H.:1.ja. Bhal"tl'ilvll·r~, hut on his ccmplebing' tho nin tIl Sntnftdhi, he .\~nl bo included anJong tho 'WI Qi'1IQ" or nine 'Nrlthns,' and then we shall speak of him as

'dU;r,lq'$"T ~' ~,rictory to Lord 13ha.rlriha.rr. It

_ FF'_ & *'

·t i"

48

PUEFACE.

l was also told by the Jogi that there is no specified \ time for Bhartrihari's SamA.dhi.taking. He COD1C;; here 'when he likes incognito, but when he takes the Samadbi, Bbartribari reveals himself in his true

g~b. .

N eedless to add that 'Sanl&dhi~ta.kjng~ is here {

used in tile sense of burying oneself alive. ''']len a i yogi takes Samadhi, he is generally buried under- . ground and a dome i;; raised on the spot to mark the event, but it is not unusual tllnt he is again seen on the earth through his mystic powers of Yoga, ;

(b)~-Another Sall1a(lbistbflDa of Bhartrihari is ; still pointed out at ChlLk:;tl in J eypore some 25 miles I south of the Capital, Besides a. Cave and a yogi's shed i and a. .llIam'uli account of Bhrtribari's Samudht- I

I

taking at the placet there is nothing particular .

about it.. I AllrOpos,.I may also state that there exists a I

,

sect of Yogis who hold Bhartrihari in \·CfV l)jtr'h ','

.. c:::

esteem and call themselves as r~r' or the

follwers of Raja Bhartrihari, I hear t11at annual fairs } in honor of the royal ascetic Bhartribari at'e held at f many places in India and ther are frequented hy numerous crowds of men and women of all castes and creeds. Bhartrihari is said to be imm{)rtal and believed now and then to appear to those pious 11"Q9· ~ i who hale renounced the world in ri"ht earnest I.. f

Perhaps it will not be out of place to tell ~omc 1

~n¥ a~~~ ~1"t5~a~t~ ( In<ttm~ ), the spi;ituai t

f 't"ih' 0 a t;,_~rl. ~7'~lhIS ~ ow!edged to be one'

o e ;{i:(i{(~ .LUlie .i'ta as or mne great Yorri-

who are masters of the Yogas~stra and who ~~ I

:as :

]~ltEFAl~E ..

·f!>

reveal its wondr-ous secrets to whomsoever tl}(':y

..

please .. 0::: SOlne strange books, like the titr:(~q~ra" nrc

attribulc(l to Gorakshnuath, TJ1C Great Yogi is immoi-talfzed by the Gur]tbas ,,110 1101<1 Irim ill (n'eat

• b

respect and reverence, Tho town of Gorakhpore some

55 miles west. of Khatmandu ( Nepal) is also called after the name of the reverend Yogi. In 111is town there is a cave 1t110""11 as Ghllalt:hnnilla's in ,yhich the great ascetic is snid to have attained salvation.

'TI. A PLEA FOR THE PRESENT EnlTlON.

It was in June 1893~ thnt a friend of mine who had come up l\f o·tnt A bu on SOUle business and put 1_1p wifh me in tlHJ J cypOl'C House, tInts romm-ked to IllC ill no friendly ehat ,YC were ('njoying tog'ctllcr in. the cool cye-lling:H! sec that:-. 0·1 [tl C ""'CIY light of'worls Pfense nOL to wlrile away your t imo in idle pm-suits and uacless reading" but w-rrte out s01l1oihing "\yhie-h 111ay do g od to all of us." I {'ou1d not rlony 11]0 comparath·c ease of )uy position: and the earncatness w ifh wlrich the rClllRI k was 111adc, led rue to heg hi« excu-o for my inability to put llly hands to anJ- serious useful composibion. Bn t my osteemed friend was not a. man to be easily put aside and he pressed 111C to give him n pledgo of acting up to his counsel wlrie was reluctantly accorded, but without, 1he least idea of ever fulfifling; the same. To render tho ." 'I'hree

c: The nino )(n~tcr Yogi:-i A"I' cltume:rnlctl in ih.) ~7(:qffl"i}q,1 uro "It'E"q"j(IifIQ, ~ni4vtlq, :a.tl""1 .. ~(q""lllf, =efifflrrntt, +fl"'"1N, ~q,; ~t{ and fifij5w;RT1i SC~ i!~'~rs:t~l(iF-nr. Cj 1 "I •

. ...

a

50

PREFACE.

Centuries of Bharbrihari" intoEnglish was his sugges- I tion, and I gladly rook tlte hint .. Though I had not, as already noted, the least i(lea. of keeping ill" word, still the auspicious moment in which the pledge wa-s given led me on to set about the work in real earnest. The greater was my advance in the selt-iniposed task. the 1110re hopeful became the prospect .. At last the translation was finished. I wrote to the energetic Secretary of the Bombay Th~osophicnl Society for .its publication, who undertook to do it on condition

of the manuscript being approved by his European brothers, Ooasequently, the translation of the \Tairagya Sataka was sent him about the month of November. But the manuscript was kindly returned by him after a few days together with a printed pamphlet entitled tho 'Pro,\crbiaI PJli1o~ophy of Bharbriharir and a pa.per bearing the autograph note of Ool ... Olcott to whom the marmscrip't and pamphlet were submitted. for inspection. On readinrr

o

the paper I found that the learned Pre5i(lent of the

Theosophical Society had remarked that both flrese needed corrections of idiom, the Panlphlet '-c~y nrueh f the manuscript , r ery little, and that he had no Lime to take it up tor the present. Instead of being dejected by these remarks, ~ 'Was very much gratified to see my first attempt bein 0- very near the point of bein approved by the redotibtable head of the Th - h~

1 So . t B id 1 eoscp t-

~ Cl~;Y. em eSJ a c osecompaJison of JUS transla-

tlon w,th the Parup!llet soon dispelled nl ~ f~ars and filled my heart with great deliqht B ui

I may here m:u:. that up to thataate IYho dCn~:~:

dreamt; of any extstin« EnglishTraDQlat- f Bb •

o ::u. Ion 0 artrz.

PREFACE. 51

- ....

hari .. F'rom that t ime downwards I gave luys(!lf heart and soul to bring U1Y trnnslntion to the neecasary perfection hy· availing myself of the many books on and rolating tu l:Chartrihnri. Ii luny also be stated ihnt this trnnslntion was submitted for Iria perusal to 001. C':·. B. Trc,"or O. 84 L, tho thou enliglrtened ..t\.f,.tCnt, to the Governor General for the Slates of Rajputana, in the·boginlling of j\J ureh 1895. After going through a considerable portion of tlJ(~ Nitisntnkn. Iie roturned it. with tlu\nks and evinced his full .synlpathy and Rl)pr.,lbati<.\1\ of the undertaking.

H. H, theA-fa harajatlhiraj Sa,,,,ai Praf.np Sinpbji's translntion is ill Hindi Poetry: Dobtls, Soratblls nnd C;:hltl1ppayns. It consists of three chapters on Niti, Sl'ingara and Vnini!,'yn, nnd is ~ery terse and pithy and hence diffieulf to gralii!' f01" an ordinary Tender.

The Billui l>rose TransIntion of tho Satnkns by ]:lnndit Rishabha Dntt S!1~tl"i of J 01lhp01'0 iR neither correct. nor good ..

I hnvo, theretore, thought, it advisablo to gis'e here 3. cOI'I'eeL tmnslafiou in .Hindi pl·C:~O of t he day which will Lc found quite easy, clear and idiomatic, Afi for English Translations of tho work I have before me the folIo\\·ing;-

(J) The Provorbial PlliloH01)h~' of Bhal·tri~ bCll·j: anonymous.

(II) Tho Two Oenttrrlee of Bhartriburi : Prnf.

Ta wney,

(TIl) Bharta-ibnri's Nitisatnkn and ' .... a.irftg:ra Sntalin, tl'anslatcd into English by Mr. Durg!t PrasAel of Lal101'e.

,

I

52

PREFACE.

I~ After the remarks of 001. Olcott .. it is needIess to elwell more upon the merits of the first. It contains only the two Satnkns of Niti and "'tnirilgyn.

II. Prof. Ta,vney's is no doubt, a vcrr splendid and elegant translation But as it is ill verso, it is oither more or less than tJle origi nal, 1\1 ol"eOY~r t ]1 ore nrc to be found only the Niti and Vnirilgya Satakas

a

. and the Sringarachapter is quite left out in the edi-

tion.

III It ( Mr~ DUl~gA, Pl·nb3.fl's tranalntion ) i~ of

COUl"::.e better than the Proverbial Philosophy of Bhnr. ti-ihar], but it is not quite up to the point, In t.hi«, too, the Sring-alla Satakn is also wnnfing,

From these remarks it wifl not be quite difficult to sec that the present edition is to £11 up a necessary gap regarding the Satakns of Bhui-trihnri. Besides a Iarge number of COpiOl1B notes (both critical find explanatory) at the end of the volume, the original Sunskrit Text being Innnediately followed l)y Hindi and English translntions) and n variety of oitat ions of

..

parallel pa&snges from Sanskrrt and EnglisIl authors,

constitute n Hovel feature of the present edition. An English translation of the SdllgUl"n S~tnkfl. is, I think, hc~"C presented for the first tiU1C to the pub1ic. T'herc l)Blng really nothing which can properly lJC called obscene ~nd immoral, I do not think thnt anv fi)?ology IS needed for the insertion of the Srj])gll~'l Sa'b.\ka4 On the contrary, the btallzas nrc to be f~l1l1d compnl'ativeJy quite dccent and innocent hy the

side of a number of novel 1 .

• "I S nne c.l11l01·OtlS }J0CIUS In

EngllsllI :\Iol'cQver, ifrightJy understood, almost all

- -

~. = A

i

=

=

===

I) Itl!!]"..:\ ('~.

- .,

~ td

~ #

the ~tl·'.phr·..; of t lrc SI"int;1'u'" .Sn.t~lktl arc iut<?Htiollully

COlt11" ,"i_.·il t~) dh~crl our ru tout.ion from the bnueful influcneo or,,·uJl1CJl iu ] »u-tieuhu- and \\-urldIy enjoyment- ill g-Cllc1'a1. :::(.J: if 'we nrc to lcnve out the noble thought«

, .

til ~ .... ~ J • • 1·

f) t Ie ~4 t·I11g~1~l t...::Hl:t GI. we Ct »nmit :1 great. nll:-:.ta ';:t..~ 111

hrinJ.fiu~:r Hut :J \"(~ry po '01' pictm-r- of the HtH hor ~ f!Xa It .. ~(l 11 HII pr~li""c\\·I)rtll'y :111)) in t Iie (!ornposit ion nf tlli... \YqZ-)';:.

, III 111 m .herh 19' rl Il" :--tH' 17.11 ~ (If the N i t.i aut 1 ,. H jl"ilg'.Y~t

Sat:tI;::t!'o.. T }UlXC gC]J(l')"alJy lilJJo,\·c~ 1 the Nirnuya ~:i.~ g':ll"(L ( ] \01 U 1>:I:r ) E,1itiUl1 or J~h~\rtl~i harr...;. Sa tuku tra-

.. , -

yam, hilt in rhru nfth~ Dl·jnwlrn Sataku the plu n

ndu})ttlrl i~ 1l1(~ ... t I,Y eon~i:-:tcnt wi th 1 he (_';'~r:ln#t ~:lg'lJ":l Pl"(':-:""i J~(Hti(~n of Bharu .. jluu·rs Sn1a]!atl"a'"~IJJl •

.,

.. A .... f;,r i he Tn hIe of (1()llt(lnt~ 1 IW\'t! :--liekcd tt) Jlt I pal"tir'ulzu· eopy 01" (!upie:-- (If 1 he work lltlt keeping ill view .t1lno:-- i all of rhem, J J1:1 YC indepcndcnt ly ',"orke.l out. (Jllite u HC'\~ urmugemeur of 1 he ~nl1jtJ.ct~ frUIH a cnreful ~lluly of tIle' tcx t. To mnke the f!diUOll a~ u-eful us l)u~~ihh.'I, 1 huve also nppcl)(~ccl to it rm ulphnbcticul I

Jif;.t. of n1J l he Sloknr.: of these Sutnkus, .1\ fnl1 Iist, uf

work-, (1)1,1 nuthors refbrred to in the compilatiou of this 'hook i~ a.l:-:o to 1)0 found in the present volume,

Til 1 he end r nlily rcmurk, with Prof: 1'al\-ncy that ,. translations nrc seldom populur either in pro~(~ 01" verse unless they deprn-n widely Ji·OIl1 the spirit or the ol"igillnt But It certain inca-sure of :fidelity to t11U (U'jgillllJ, even at the risk of })']u]ring oneself ridiculous is better thnn the studied l1if:boneRty which cluunctcrises so l11:l11Y Lrmrslnt ione of orlcnta] poets."

On the whole it CUll be 8tlfcJy 8niil that if PC1"Ll:-;cd

PREFACE.

I with. care and attention the book will no doub~ be fOUI1(l t~ be P. verv interestinrr and instructive reading .. II (j'\'-_

... .0

C'-Cl" it beinz onlv the first 1· uvenile attempt in the field

, e J •

of Iiterary composition, the present volume cannot

naturally be ex.pected to be entirely free from nll sorts of faults and drawbacks, but tbe reception accorded to

1 it by the reading public and the Jmpartial judgment

111ai!lSed UJl its merits and demerits l)y learned critics 'will ulti'llately decide whether the couple of years of Imrd labour and perseverlng' industry spent in bringing

it out l\a.~e been well spent or not. and whether any other eS~f1y can again be usefully und successfully made in this direction hy it~ amateur editor.

Before concluding J ulay be perrnitetd to va.)" lny cordial alldgrntefu] thanks to those of my friends ,,"110

have helped me any way by their vn Iuable suggcstione and apI,ropriatc encouragements not to glve up the

; unrlertnking, 11<)1" to do it halfheartedly and imperfectJ ly but to entTy it through to the best of Tily abi lity and po""r(!r ~

--

- .

• JcypOTe Houf!;e, ~foUJ1t ... ibn 1

19th JUly 1896 f P. GOPL.~.ATH.

-~

PREFACF~

55

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56

PREFACE.

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PIlETI'ACE.

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PREFAOE ..

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'{CIl~ t{fi(f.{=m aI'!_ ~~ tft<r ~r~q ~"T~, ,I

31~;:f{, :qapq~~, Ti{~~_aJ!Iqq~ qt:lJtff iff~tn'€1i,

~rf.'ff¥f q aTi~ Slq;ffi~CJ 'C(~iiTfilifiT ~a:J~enT{ l II ~ II I

t r

BrH\" to the calm "1lC1 self-Iuuiiuous Being \\ hose f

imnge i~ eut irely frut' from (01" undefined hy) the Iimits of Space, T'imc, &c.:- and Is, therefbre, Iufinite; , find whose ~xi~tcncc is only experienced hy one's I own conscience or whose sole ( prlncipal ) C~t--CllCC l:i I self .. knowledge 1

--- ~-

'I'nid f.lmut:u which i~ quoted under Bhnrtrfhnri (4d:~) ill BnlluIth;ulc,·n"a au1ih .. \qhit~""nli (fP'IIPtt1IC1f(05) at ND. 3. (BOlllb,lY S,llUdail Suric'lo XXXI.) al ... o Iorms the opening Sloka of the Vilf:i~11l11n"al"n

( q'fesef{ ).

r,

This S1(1}~"(l (~) is Qllotcu anonymousiy 1,v S· I 1 ..

'J IU I.U CTfl.mnn) in \

: J l.i:; commentary (in ~«9L1ratt,il~,,'1.·(i:m: (ertn:P-C":::rrI=-e-Jj;--:-I(). i

-._-- - I

qf R;:(Jtrrfif ij"aij- qfii ij'( f£r~mr ij"rStq;qfir~ij- \l(;{ « ~;ftS;q«m: I

...... " " ""

aT~lRiiQ ~ t{r{{j~qTQ Cfi,(:qtr.-lfT

Nffi"f~ (\ :r.r ili.{;:J =q ~i ~ Iff :q II ~ I'

1[ ~U'~ R{;;({{ R~d+ri{ ~~aT t qi!' fJitf~T

¥"t ~ r"to. r-.. _ ... ,... ~

;r~T ~t(a I l~;g q~ lltiUT attr"t4!lijtfEl' cq I( qlta T~;

siR: ~~~T fCft.tq\ ~ ~ ~q f~"T 'i*l<Ii:T {ir-

- ... ·t ~,.., _" __..... ,,_

'«: &ll~ ~~T~ I iffl{T tf:r~ CfiT{ 1{ffr ~:qT

lq~l{y;f l ~r g~{:r ~(f@" !lfli{ ~ I 'ttt{r G~lif "{tf drcffi', 1::qyfT7fi ~T{~~q:;T, l:qTfT~r, iilfeil.

~ -...... ..-....!!!I.

~(, Ef.Tq~~tf,"r S1~lJ;:cr T~l, ~ U ~ II

She of whom 1 ahyays th'ink is jnclift~rent. to I me: but, ou the contrary, she like~ another nlnll .. ".110: in his turn, is attached to !1. different "·OlllUll. l\,!!uin.;

. .

there i~ some one else who takes mueh delight ill Inc.

"Tith these facts before u», we cannoe help D-ll1ing shame ana censure Upon her (the womnn who ]n,cs D1C), him (my Jove's llaraluour): lny 1oyc, myself, and Cupid (rhe reul unthor of al'l fheaa evils).

Ritad,.;lu7r; (14d:iii't) i .. here ~aifl to allnd" t ... the .-nr..l I" r 1"

• • -. - -I._; U( C!' Ity 0 11::;-

wl£e. Sec ::\otc to thls ~t3n~! ..

= =- ,

< ...

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ftolR!a~ ;r ~T~~~T~ ~~!!l;qq)r (dli=f\l1t .. iR~t ) UqW~i iT:gff ~~':ii l 3111: ~T:gffi~ qftRaiir~Cltrt:t:r3t;lJ:.rir W!jq ~~;:rr tiT 3iT~ ~T f0llff~ % 1 t:t{g ffif:tq; %~i1t~~ qfi"ffq~~tt ~2" T;q~r qa~ tp~~41 ~a: ~q ~Jsft~r S1\1qit~ n a~ 11

T» HI',H:l;.fc· ("D!t(~Hj:l1(') tlH ignnr.l11t per-Ill' i~ 'plitt., f':1'Y, ~ln,1 1',1"'1' 1" ~til1 j ... ell<" pl"nll;ti!ltintl pf t he l,-.lrn.,d:- hut (d p~<-">H"'''· t h1' ("nlle,·i(.l'd ft..lIlt ,W' ",1to"<,,' h,.n.rl i~ tnrlH.1 h\· hi:-- litdl! h~~lI·niu!.!· i:-. ::nl"t~l\~ uu lIn-

. ,~

pn ..... jhl,l .~~!"<k "'-t'U f4 -r IJ,·,tlou'i.. the ( 're.u nr ..

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f.!, ... t. ,\ nh,i. ~ JJ~,'I"/J ir "; (t«~I,,\ in I;.~fllhrH·'~ \·.t- .... ~t1l.h:\ ... 1111:\~

, .11 (!l"'nnmr~:) C':"- :~~ .. ,{. U. R. !-II. N t. XX x r.). HIt,1 thj> f=:,nu:.\~nnr.I!' HMh ~ti .!t Suo ~\r;. 1t "t 1 .. 1 II" r, in Ih,' lliri,l' ul. ~.t 1 v. ] U~.

cr.-(,.) .. Liul, h n nino::,: i .... 1 fhnt""\ (lit· thinf.'" :

1 h ill I,; 11t'.'!'. "i'll' t" 111Jt t 1 ... Ph·d, H ~ J't in:.: :

Tllr 1,- ... It IH,.w dt,IW:ht .. inftl"l.k.~t1> titl' l"',11U,"-

.. \, l'ttpC'·. J:~. ly .In l"rilid .. m Pud H,

(~) ,t ~ri'r ~a U~~ 1i, 'n: f;:Tf;; ;r( an1:mR 1 rr.ti:v:r;:r rWVf~l ~{ li~ ~ft §vtA" II "

(tf~ i:fir4 t )

G

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!J«~ qf'lf§,if(;:If~er§fi"tf~;:ti~r-

. ~««~+rftt ~;:Q{:~!:I:q~{ffli[rt5T~~JJ: I

,.....,_ -.... ,...... ."....., e-; -....

~\i('fi=ql,{ ~lt'ij" l~~r« g6t(er~l~lf-

;:;rg; stRrR{e{~~Gft=fI~~'fT~I~qO:ll t? II

"'~,ll~fPT ~~T~ altt~a +rftrr~T RCfire~Efi'T ~;Qm etiTt ~is{t tCi{, !{:ci~at~qT~U o~w

.... -~ -." .......... ~

{1~~T o~ar ~~~iftT S{:q~rr CiiT{ ~0(r ;:r,!{, at I(

wm:§'{ m1{Ql' ~qf;r~ ~1:('+n~~ ~+rT;:r ;:r~aEfi. q~ qr~GJ ifi{~efi1:~ ~Tt ~%(t =tiV4i( ti, trta {fo-

~ ...... -. - -~

~ ~~;qij;Cff{tti +I.,ttiT \{~Y:~V1C6r teti{(1 ifiTt

~GiTfq-{t ;r ~1: U \i 11

"'" ~- - "'. ..l:.

-.!-<"""l::::C--~ftl I[<..et;:n +It'I ijH lRJJ tF.V1f ~ ~ i[ I

You lna; eye~ dare take out n precious gem from the pomtecl )ft"ln.; of a rlreadful alliO"fltor.. or

. hIe.

swun oyer t e vnst ocean w lose waters are all di~ ..

turbed by a se-r:ies of fllriou:o: rolling ,r-nvc:-;, or wenr ?n enraged (offended) ~er]lent upon your 11end!, as if It were a Ho,,-ery wreath , bur, You f:hou]rl never undertake the fruitless L"l::;k of COl1cIIiatin r:r the rnind of a Sh~pj(l .fellow who . is . detennille{l to ebo1d obstillat.ely t:o hIS own conncUml '\~hetber right 01" ""Tong.

_ ••• n _ ._

e;~ mepqr8' ij-61f1'"it lfri={O-! q1~qpq1J!if ~lfQftor;Pf« {J~~ firlfl«rftftr: I

".....,_ ~.. ,...... ..__

C1it{fft[q['f qlfC:$~~ftTq[l1[i{r6Rq-

ilfJ !{Rrr~R~~~~c;RtT~r~r~1qa: II ~ II

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~'1"q~ +[~;:r ~~d tf.{G' ~t:q~ crTi2~liJi iii"

......... -. _...." .. , t" _ -.

Q'[f;n]+Tf O'::?i Ti{:r;t.f5 lJtfitrt i{, q:ttra" ~tq ~T\il{{

lJIlllff ~t~ l1~qqsi{+f\' "q'TrtTQ;T wT~ tfiw;r.m1!, dl), ~~;fttf{ ~or Ef.:ca ~ff r.r.{il~~qii f(lPItt ~~'ilJ.qr AiQ'p-p ~rnqr~~ fr«EptrT II q{g ~T~ air, au!1~r v._;$r1Ji q~t:fir q:;)t iJ3~tJ~r tfii(Jrtr atq';r q~ii «iff fEF.t{lCfiffi II ~ u

't .. un mny (.",111 t'<IU'("(,llr;l. hy ]l(.It"r-bh:llt. cndeavours, tu (lllC·niu l;.iJ h,"' (~nlnlH"c~.:inN' the pnrt iclcs of

~ • l"'"

NllHl, or tn find out. water to ddnk ill the lnitl:-'t of n

lHira!!,~; or ~t"J'Il(~tin1\"~ [n vour \VHlult1riu!...r'!i YOU Ina)"

.... • II1II.. ...

(·\·1.~11 come lllJnu tho horn- uf It hnre ] hut. the prt') ..

pit inc ion ,.1' 111{~ iU1PPlu'11'a hh." JIl!arl. of u porversc jiJ(,l j:-: lllltI"uhlCJl!_,- a u:-;lllJel"'S lluci('rt.nk;ug for n1J your vurie-I (;fli ~l·l-.t.

~'.--...-......---.----- ... _., .......... _----

Q lnt.·.) uu,l"r 111'fU'ui},w'j (~~ft) in H,.UHhhlvll'\·I\·H S"bf"rlf],ib"f.-

"1",11;' (~tff.lie-) (N •. J·ri'. H. S. R N •. XXX r.), suul ")"0 ill UIl"

~lr~rQ("~i6 nt No •. , (f,. Cf.-

u 3T(Utt~~(f ~ ffi~frG1tid~, ~'f~S-;AA~{jftltr §Rr(JJ:{( qiqlf~ 1

:").. ~ ~ ... - ~~"

S-~I~qq.nl"'~ ~f~D1\itM: Wtf: ~{f~a~~;:n t:(~~T \iA':UIt:t 'Q: 11

(.A .. (·dhNI tn lldjiit in the §lm~tnedS5)

.

:

..

altr;fi 6I'lla1:(q ~~~T« ~l!!.t~ql~T Ur1iT~if t'5iircfil S1N~Tql i:fi~ilT 1J:tn(r 3lijT~tr ~ :it~T ~ r.pT~ ifi~~~l~t:r l1~~:q;::T:if~T UEf.i1T, f~:fttt .. ~q~ Ui:q't, 3l!f~Tq« ~~R: qq'iTGttr,T €Jq;r ifi~T, altlCfT a{"'la~ fEfaU O{t{T, rgT{~f!:t;'~r 1t~ Cfi:a.:1=(qil • ~T~{{ ~ II 1\ II

The endeavours or n mnn to brin« n blockhead

e

to the rlght path l)y the influence of l1i:i l,"jf5C Ollrl

mel'lifluous words arc nowise better than tho fruit-less efforts of one who venturer-; to lroc)) nu clephunt, fast bound by means of the delicate thrcnus of' n lotus su:n:, or to pierce a dlumond l)y the tender :fihrc~ of slut'lsa, 01" to s~vcetcll ~hc f:nlinc writers of the "fist OC;mll by pourlng a slug le droll of ucctru- into its midst,

t

~.. I EqF§ ifr~'lurrt?;ij";:Qfl{~it U~ {ff!\ii~~~ gTl cr~quftF~flqi"fiq!;(t;~., . ~'1~~ I

'1~ q~~~T ~~ti ~{~'i~~fT~e-;;rri

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~T:S:~qq:18"f?;l;:qlq~QT~ffi":~~r~lf'~t{(l{:~

.

¢

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r-.. __ ....... ,..., to - _ ~ .......

Terqrnl;:r ~QTqiT ~~oT ~ql;:r~ atq ~Trr 'q"T~or

~~tpT '{'Ii '2l:§O ~1t d''Utt f;tq'iur Will r ~ at)~ q\l :g"qT~~ a~ 1!ttiiifi ~qltT1rrtft :c~fitliT l t ~ it);; ~qW ~;ioTcoT 31r=~T({;r 'f.~~q'~nfT ~m' . l TefiS 'iRstilqiJ ~l1Tij "~~t'( ~~lCfiT atT¥l"CfUJ:qrl \9

own

..... .. ,....",

~~Tq'=ijlJCJi,;:a~ur 1"~5fr

~ "....,,...,f\ •

Tq(;;\1t(f ~r~;;q~qT~r1 I

,.....,,_ -... ~,....,. . .....

Iq~tRr: {fCfIEf({r {1q"IGf

,...." ....~ ,....",

ICfllqor q-l;;qqlueffl~ri{ II \Sitl

-

The best, menus (silence) h .. v which Jgnorance eun lJC couccnlcd from the f.i!!·ht of' others has been

-.

p:-l~fll·iut1f.<ly }(\{1. hy God ill the. personal confrol of man

w ho cnu use it "So he pleases. 8il~nc(' it; nn ornnmont of the Illitoratc, cspccinlty in the nsscmbly or lenrned (nl l-Icnowing} people,

Q!h)l(l,l :U1un~~1I1'l11l ... 1~' in nnlbhh:ldl·,~a·~ .~"MrI1",1Iittlf"(fli (§l=Il~r-

~) (No. 2~82 B. s. S. X,l. XXX1.). Cf.-

(n) ":a14=i1 ~ ~i ~;Cli~:sr mtRr" (:qytr[~~~ ''1.).

.. (/~)" Sni'IlI.'C 1"; th('o lonnCtiUn'Y nf p r , ... Ionoe," (Ihlhhnc;m' Gl'iu.'inn). (f') . i. Sil<'fH."l' i~ n virtue in lhl)04~ witt) llrt.~ dell- }

cicnt in under- ... tutn1ing." l Great Thonghts (~1) u By fiil('nc~ I hear other Jlwu·r( Imperf'ce- "Vol..xI. r. 527. tlon-, nml conceal my own," J

.At. pagca 2 ol lutli:an AntilllH11'.'~, "ttl. IV~ Prof, 'l'u\\"nC'y quotes n

Grc1>k l!"l',igr~ml it'S n pJTUTlOJ II,) 'hit> ~(nnz.l.. U

~.

.. ~- ..... - _._ --- _ .

qttrsfiti~~s~ ~'1 ~~ 'Tqr;:q: iPT~cf a({f \telit~tft~l{l-F£~qI~a 'flf ~;;: t

,....., ,...",.,.." ,...., .

~ tt~I lepl~[~EfiI~~~\Sl;:r«ep[~rtr9~Q

ij"t{I ~@is~lftm \iC{~ ~~ qtft q eqtftfQ:~'1

~. if Frw~{r aT~ S{u~ ~qq~ qr a=-r lt~F¥f:a i:i~a"fct; ~llT;r s{11:r:rr;ri{ ai~ ~T~t a,q";r

~ .."... ..... ,... ....... __

iii) :a-q~ ~1=(~T Efiurt~T tr~~ at::r trTo:rnrq:;r ~lj t 0«

-- - ... -- -- -. ~

ql~ iffP:(~ {lTam q~ ~q er~T~ \iCRq7f~r

({,,! ~{ ~R~ l{aifr GfTa-r ~~T~ ~ it arq""rr atltf*r ~~ ::iIPiit w~;rp.nt II <: II

""'hen I knew' llothing 1. l>chn ved like n fUl"iQUh elephant in rut~, collhirlr.:rjug myself nn nJilflici~nt llc" jug; but 110"· when 1 hay.; c('.tlne t» )(·arn f..fJIl1cthiu rr

...

from the wise I have di:-=ci.Jycrcd lny own igllt'l"U!lCl:.

and having shnkcn off the fc'·cr {jf vain ~('Ilc('it j nckno""ledge myself to he n lJlockheafl.

-

- ---

~ "....... ~.,.....,,,..... ,.....,.

iirq~~[:qtr ~ri?illii« IEflfl;:q ~i't«tr

" ." "" e-: r-;

r;:r~'{'f{« Sfl~qr ~T(f«(r,~q- r;:r~IT'fqq I

'"',.....,. ~ ."..... ~

~\'l(~tf''t J)<{l qr~cT~t{ ICf~(Cflf W{ fi(~~

;:r~ ~U[:qfu ~m li(;:«: 'fft.:q~'fi~gcni1: ~ II Gi~ 3l~t:fiTiY« -qfi('{oT, ~T~U !lTf.'1 ~q~Ufta, 'lO'fT:tfi;oq, at~tfo Fr~« at), ~t~~a .. ~t{cfiT \ i!it~ Sllffi'f;fffi ~rm&erT ~ifi'{ a;qit ;a~qq({T '"?tqu':it if~~~ w~ ~~T (wT:if ) ;r(T (f.:((lT ~~it ~Tqtf~rqO'f ~:qq~~T q-R!t~tfT a~-

WTCf.T ifiG:Tftt ;r(r :iffif' {i~Gr II , II ~I

~ ~. ......:::::......c. ~ .. f;t;f; to

"'11'q atR: 't!"# .... u 'ttQ;"'1:f ~ if I it iSfll ~ ati'Q a ~.'t'I if. +i

CIi =Cd stNr i6 ~ rftf;;fi' T..7.lGlTfl' n ~ II

Jn~t ns a dog is not ashnmcd of being' seen by Tndrn, the ]01'd of gut1:-:: when it i:-; bent on jnyfhlly enting n putrid nnd Ileshloss piece of humun bone fnll of worms aud sulivu, and devoid of uII juice and taste, r-:u n menu lc))u,,~ jl{ nCYCl" nslmmed of Ilcccpting'

t another's wcrthloss favour, chm-it. .. \-, or lllllUificCllCC.·

I Pt;JlJ·oU'I'.·

So pursuit. is eyer considered as dishonoet and

\ tlm.ogntory by the lncnu. a

~ ~ .

atf'FH FIt« thongh not cxm:tly cqnh'u]cnt to liffjQQW vi: 11u!

1cxt gh~L~ 1l1'pl"Oxiumtcly the r,;~uuc itlctt.

· -=---,-p .....

--,.,,--- - ................. ----_ ....-..

szb' --

-po

I

ft({: ~Iq. ~q-tflftf«Rr ~~«;':QR~m'=lt iffl11,,~~(~en'1tt{qifftltJtr Gft?iN~ I

~~t ~

aT~S~ il~q l{i{i~i(Ql ~QICfiq~~9r

fe{itlfi~'ll'it +19m fq{Yl'1{ij: ~Qi~:' 0"

lq~,?!~7Tql;:r:if; ~1l11~f~~1~ Fr~~irqT~T ~lfT I lftt11'ffr ~Efi({t f~l'C1~iii +r,=aq:;q~,ali, qiIt{.r ~a-

I 1tt, a11~ ~~ ?rl~m\<l~. 9.:'.;=:rl~'R, ;TI~_ fJ:~

~~T'ijwq~ q~aT i~ ~cr;r ~~~a:r ~T l:Tf~o' \f 1 I ~~ $:q q,\\q;r ~~1t{ ql~~ ayq:qu;:r ~T~ ~ai irtTl~ ~:qT;r u{rr~T~T ~tT·ff ';fl~~ql;rit aTT3=flcfT : ~ ~'\:rir uri{qTq~ ~~ ~ ~tIQ{~r ~~?fr: S{q:iT~~T I f'l'ffiT ~i?;"ff ~i!~ l II ,.. 11

I . Tl~onc '~ho have ulIforbulflt<!ly lfJbt t Itt:! )1('''-(-1' fif 1 discerning l"lght from ,,"r(Jllg m-e fHU·C to f.ufl<:r n

J thousand fh1Js like thoRC of the GUllg'{'S thnt fir:--t. falI!40

from the heighte of henvon upon the head or ShiYn, and thence UpCJll the lofty f;U1Ulnits of the IIhnilhryu

I from wlrieh it ~gn~n fll.nn; d(J~\"n to the pJnin~ hc1r:,,": ana then empties lls waters 1111<) tl)c hen, lJcing thus; obllged to fall to the lowest level l)y graclual (le:--ccllt.

...... ,...",....... ....... ~ ........

~ift{r CfT:t]t{f! lif~~ ~«gCfG5{O'f «~~ITij"~T

iilitrlURroaT$~~«qtftt{u~;; ift3"ftlli) I 6qrTRri{Gf«~l:%f fEr14~4"SfS{~1jf~tf ,«cj~i{r-

e»; ,....". ........ .. '=' ~

'l~qf~Q ~1~rCfr~~~(t{~lf'iI~flff'i~~'l Cj

~(t ~ ::rre-Efi ~ru ::t1NiffT ~ilrr qit{t~ff {g, ~;R:r tI~q~ l=r;zr*r U~13'ififf tr~ +J~Tf~{ljftf.T tfT~ur ai~~tt q~ ~{fJEfi1r (f,i(Tiftf~fRt q~aii~T Q5ef.?"rit) a-rswrr« ~tf~rff 'f.,.g~~ ii, dl~~!1~{4; tr:qrtpr ajr;if~'qr« r«t:=cr ~(~~6" W, aTI, Rqr;pT stl.lTq" ;rr.;rfq\Ti{;n~ifil{r i.,~~a;r.~ ~ I ~QT ~trn

...... _ _ -....... ...'. --. a ......

at r>"I Irq- ~::r a"t:fit€fTqi"r~r ~qTT:q(f alrqJ1::ftrT :U'~

....... ~. ." ~ .... _

Tq;qqTwt\l q-~ ~~q2c:q~T +t{:ltt{;n! Qil.:iiEfi

RT+t:a ~~i~~r tirt al)qr~ ~fi!~'ft~:c 9f{1 \frnr ~ l

" .. c can kcC"p un'lire hy wnter, the hot ~\111 hy ;\11 urn brclln, :l wild elophnnt in t-nt s h~~ n f:haz·p ... c'l;.!ctl hnok. the unruly cntt lc 11y t he (.!na<1iug" t-:t ick, n disea-c by (~"l1cctinf!." t1\c~li("hH.l~. uud the. evi I l·n(t.(!t~ nt""" n l'Oi::.tlll hy thr' ltt-!l~ of \·(n·iutt:-:: (~h:ll'ln~ (lit. :\fnn .. t ra-). ]~'·l!"\· p(J-:-::~;hlc evil in 111(1 ,,~orJtI hn~ it:::. flp" Jlro)lrin tc. J"cin{llly ]l1"\·~{~dhetl hy 1 he .~~tt.;1 r« . ..:. hut there i~ no etlect ive cure (If :1 bJot"khe:ul throughout the Yn~t: r.tngc of till' ~cl"jpt,t1rc:-::.

- .. -.- .. ~---- ... -~---------~--~------

"1'11 .... ~hUl1.n io.:.. £lame a.:; f:tnnzll a in t111.1 1'"w·lut ... ttu« (~~ ). Ii. is nl-o tJuutt',t n.unnrmnn .. ly in tlu' .r:ftMf.~~MMu·.,U (~filat~ft'5') (::",,. 2~.t3. 1\. s. S. x., :XXXI.). 'rill: ,·,lrt-l" n)-.I.) occur- in the Sii1 .. ~

tfill"oN (~mF-lf~ I '9 \tJ I ) Cf.-

"~iir a:c-troml.«(am{a. i{ttit~en({(~I'it ~~il ~~ ~

-.g ~1q~lI~ trl"Uf: I

~ (hitf;r ~Q ~ ;flqcltr~ ~ ~~~i1tm-

-

(l'Tsfq \l~:" (ft6\~~t: I ~~I''\').

" ~t'J~~~~~~~~~l

,....._ ,.._ ,.....,... ,

t I «JTij"ttffi~rqCfi en<{~"! i

(I tfI~(~~: ~~qttrr~;;: J II

H • ,....... " 11

I[ qur ;r @{~~Wi ~I'itf[;r- 11

ti ~~i{~tf q~~ 'q~;utJ.. U ~;I, II 11

I I •

~ ~Q ~:?:~~ ~(~.tt am: 'titfi~;m ~~m 11

, .

. ~rr ~~~ q~ iiI;;:a~~ g:;~ alR: "bH~a ~ ~ I i j

· ...... ................. ,... ,...." .... ~1

QOayll~ ~~Q"(~i{ ~ lEi';T a-'3;;r.r ::ii 11"=1 a ~~;;T~r ,I

: "i~m<f.m(:qp"i ~Rff <f.~di~~ ;rttiffi ~ ~'ifiT :1

' ~ . ~ • 'J

.... '" iI'oo. ....... ~ .... __ .... __

' ~ ~m~T ~ ~ffiT ar q-~~r~T ::;rcr.;T .

~ One who i~ ignorant (~f litel"atut"~ and run ... ie j..;; ~

r

. undoubtedly a tt1.ineo:~ nnd honller;.~ l_,r.:a.:t: :1.11,1 the ~I

I r"

. £'lct of his bein~ aCCUROlI!C.-d to lh .... e withour ,.rrn ... ...:. ~.' j

• e ~

'. uffords a forrunare ad'311tage to cm:tlc .!mt are rhus II

~ Sfe<::urOO to make a free use of their UatumI f~~"L i.

( I

t~-- ~ _

i{qf rr Nf{£ w:r q-tft ;:r tir;:f ~[~ 9f ~~ Wi ~ufl -t \lr{! I ~ qf~~ ~N l1"(~~qr

...... ,.....

l{!Itiq~qUf ll~r~{Fff U ~ ~ II

I fSI;:r +t~r.ii~ 'l m R~fe~q:{frfEt;lt~, ~ tr'T-

II ~OJ{t fili1:J~, ;:r ({1';;~T fi{trT l, ;r ~ri{ift \l~;r ~ttT l', ;r u~lwi!l~ atT~ar fifitff~,;r §afrqr .. ( Girr{r fit;qT~ am: 'i 1:lqi2gr~{r fitiqf~, CIt{ ~u

;:r(t.f~l~if Eoq~ atT~t~i{TSf« lt~tf q:;i{~i€t~; 1ft!! ~a~ q~ QTt!fT1:at ~iffttit 4{tffi ~?:~ftl1TnTlii ~qT~T~q' ~~ n ~ ~ 11

Tbose who hnvc neither Icnrrring, nor devotion, 110)" ehru-ity, nOl· spinitual kuowlcdge, nor good eonduet, nor mornlitv, nor rcligiou~ faith arc nothing less thnn mere useless burdens to mother cnrlh,' wnndcring oyer this mortnl woi-ld Iikc the ,,-ittl deer in a human form,

. l'rol. Tu,,·ncy cites n fildking pnrnllcl to this stun2:l\ :£1'0111 the IlIiu<1.

Sec Tuwncy'H Two Centuries (l[ Dbartrihtlri .. p, 6.

The vorae stands in the S1il·MI"tlU (ttjflI41@; ,,,).

r.rhc point or the stanza flcemq to he t1mt n man to prove lliH f111- rerlorily to anlmnls must give 1.imscl£ to Ienrning, devotion, &0., &c .

..

~ 'F1~ij'! ~t;:ij 9'i=tr1:: «if'

if ~~p('l+qcii: ~il~~~tf~ctf(q n '1 sn

'attl~n~ r'i{l~ ~Sialr~ m-q' atrli t{~a Eff:£:

iEiq~ Cii{t~ifiif ~qor Cfi,i=lt at ftr.{~1 f:'"~tt')tr~l{ Ol~t l trtg 1i~~:J~T fq~Tq- ifr ~~;r~i{ ~r -ilK;r~ ~tn 11 \ 'J II

Roaming with wild beasts in dense fOl"cf..lo:. nll<1 mountains is surely to be preferred to the C01UpaJ1Y of a iool though it luay take place within the palarinl

premises of the mighty Indm, the lora. of gml..:.

It GI-50 .... tumt ... in the SM.:It1tnri (~F.t~ , :I, 0 )~ CL-" ~ v-mr-A ~ .\~~ ~~ llll £n~ 11"

(1\i~u 1 ~ 1 ~~)~

In plain langl\t\ge the. in<jtr~l(!tion con\'cyc,ll,y thi ... f"t.lIU:.l i~ tllnt

to Jh·o a poor nnd risk,,-U{c i!! tnt' better than to fUfln "n" . t

~ .. ..t'l)unm nnc('l

of a fool. Th~ temptation or n :[001'6 fricnubllil" i-.. jH\-J.ri.:~MY' ttl 1,,,

avoided at all coats and haznruq. .

The word ~~ aumit.., of two diffcrc11t internr..J: ~~. ( •

• ~' '"""u]on!:: 1) In-

accessible mountains or (2) mC)nntaifJ~ nnu .irnr..'t"lsnl tIl

~q J C am F-, aeeord-

jog to the tWI) waYilo in "hidl the word io; compoundc 1 • • • ~

( r. e. CJt)u:r It IS .:r.

(feL<N or s: ... a, c:omponnd rc~pccth·(!ly.

t

I

-... ,...,.,....._ ......

~r~lq~iiq~cf{i:!;;i{{(3f~:I~~q!1~q-T~qr

fcr\OqTtfI:ep~tftcr6~QfEfqt{tf~~Sf~fii~.,r: I Q~ret9~qrNq~qCfi~q(~qf?f~ISqlpt{~T! ~ttq(:~~:YiqfI~CfiT;;'fUftil'~q-Q: qrrnm: I

e»: .......... •

lrii(i ~T~rtp ~J~:q~ ~t~l:ier\ ~ gtt~ +ntfOT

~~;r::rT~ ~T' ~~TT~ YCRlrsTrE}; qi"(i{qT€5' ~~m:;sr C(iR~'1 Fr~ ~T~~ r;rcrr~ Cf.~ff ~ 3"{3Um1}; ~~ ~i{q ~~:il!1q:;l~TlfT ~~:q ~(r, q:qj~ GtU Ef:S" ~ ~~tf 1tMtf-T Ol~q~~li aTfEf;(f ~~it« ~i~:() ift I ~qU~~ (<iT Q1;{ttl') ql~t!ST'f:t {! ::sTT~ ~fUrCf;l q~crqif i=.fETr ~~ q;ff :(f{oT ~ "Er{i@" ~cEfifqqli!f;T FfU~ Cfi~~«~ ~r~~iqft lJ:.~aT !lift! {Tat .~,

......~. ~...... -.,-.!: ....... -

Cfiqr:-~UEfiT ~q{qif !'§~~r c:r~f ~GciT ~lfr Tqi Cf;r

at ~fit ;r ~ilq-:c+ft tlliTq~T(i5'T ~ II t~ II

The chief in ,\·ho:--c territory the fhr-fiuncd }loCt::: connuaudin n° a R'YC'Ct.- :11)(1 111ch)(liuul"- f.pC'0C'h snturnted with deep 1~"l"nillg of the ~htl<.;tr:l'4, ns wull ns n ]111111- bel' of pupil}; of great erudition, cannot enrn n substnrrtinl Jiye1ihoorl, :111d hence drag on n poor miserable life is indcctl to be ~tnnl11cd a vci-itnble fool, The poets thousrh snficring from penury are srill to be thonrrlrt us ~lcn of inf:lncllce and power in the wor-ld ; °fur, it is the snd mistnko of the unfortuneto j ewellcrs 'Y}10 arc luis led to undervalue the precious

ge111S which do not thereby lose 1\ hit of their real worth,

C£.-HAbility, and not ridlQ~, constltuto ·worth." (S(r(id;).

i'7 ;

.. ; ; ~_'_"""_FE .: a

iEi

.. .

- -

l

-

~ ~ ,...., .

en~Qt{~'t"[~r-=t"fIU~(;:qrs~'f~q, ...

~qarf4cr ~~ ~~IfRCf tf';«'iOY~ I

,............ ..

6l1~-tCf"tt~\Cl,~qTqijtrg~q~liir

,.....~ (:-. "

rr liCfrff rcr«qrQ'EfR:Of crr:currPfrZ{ II <j \9 II

~ ~I::ifrsft! tR:~rq~ ~r;r;:r~f~ ft~r:frn-(flEfiT ~q+fT;r ;;P~TR- i1ffCliU, ~jfifl T\if«a~i{« 3lfil-=fcr +r~~q'T« ::tlir~ir:s~q~;:n~ :q~-a t[~otifqit ~~;r:i{~ ~({ ~lf(!5' CflJfFiS;;f(i5" ~:a:rq. rr~T tfi"ff ~~fr ~ 1ij"(8~ re;;~rt a~r;rYR'R1 ;;riJ~~qT+II i;r ~1rqfy :qS(i~qlT :OEfiit7fi ~a rCfiR~Tsr~T l:lT+f~ ;rfr !{tcftfr 11 ~ \9 II

)"on ~hnuhl not ~h{J'Y the lensu dishonour to tho . ..:c. lcnrued 11l(~11 who Imve obtained true spiritnnl know lcc1~c ~ for, your worth less wea lth is quito he1 plcf'tol: to B1U kc them f.l.lltOrClldcr to your })o,ycr: the furl .. ous elophunts whose temples hnve IlC,,"Jy been mnrk .. ed ,,-jth the bJ:n·k lincH of rut, cnn never be bound by

the delicate tendrils of n Iotus stern.

Qnuh~'(l anonymon ... l,:." in {he .~"bn{hMt/i,l·(fU (~r;t'rqj{Js) n.t

_ (~ f"o.)

No. 29331 Rn') al~o in the S~ll"lltlfld'lm"(llJ(ulcllulli Q\Ufi·Ej(qitft1 n!

Xo. 197~

u ~tfi~" i..; nl.:o lunntl in-tllo 1tl! SJol-n 0:£ Rif(lraill'$ At;/:y.llmIJ .. r1rfl C11~ 1. (~ Cflfottlt>!~Il:: t , 3ll='1lpt! I ).

Cf._u 11 u who tl~lIulJU lt1 .·t"-.!!l(:C( on account of 11is riclrca might It:l ,,,,tecH ,1C'lnnml thnt people l-hmtlrl rC'~poct a. monntnin thnt contnins gold_'1 (Great Thollght~ ""01. X'·II.) .

.

l

atl=~firiller;:rRcrr«~~[«'rif

~«~q ~PQ ~Q~t refq~l· fir~tij"('

, "....,..~. ,......_.

if ~ey~q ~q-~~11({(c{~( !1{6itf

1t~~erftmqq~di[it ~I{t{: n :t ~ 11 m:rq~ ~q ifi,~ FlqftlTeij'~ en1l'~qif~firqr~~~T ~~T«qiT ifm dlti5"~=«r qi:t:6ifitfT\f, q~g ~1~~(1~ a-~ titCfiJlm~ ~r"~'lit-~{.f1fi i(1{T

..:?:e. -.. • .... .......,..... ,....

q~ ~t.,;5 3lt~ ~l::{ctiT Of\'5' q t(. ~T~ ttar~ -TerqT6T;q'{

~~nq. ~~Gf -.f( ifR::~EfiaT II ,t; 11

~r

.. ,...... ..... ..J'".. "

~miiq(atif\n:O"(~( ~JIl ;j(~::(=at :a-+rert{ trqE ~

U;UI€fi1 ifro' Cfic;:nq- ~ &r eq:aa I 11

If the Creator be eyer disp]caser1 with tllC swnn, He can of course deprive tllC wise bird of its pleasant ! Iuxtrry of Ihing in the Inidst of 0. cluster of :r.. n ir ; lotuses; but how·eyer wroth He may be II e can II never be successful to wrest from the 8ftrrociol1s fowl the enviable iDstinct of separating mille fi·oln wnter .. with which it is openly credited all over the world, . I

Pt:nrORT. No one can ever succeed to nlter the I natural propensities of the created llature.

-.... ,......, ,....,,_. ......

~'l~I Wf Tq-~q~(;:ff!tit!fifr{r;rvsr(\Ner~,

~~;;T;:f .,fer€!;q;:f;;~5qWfle;~iiQI~~\ifr: 1 CfIU~Cf)I'lqe;~~Rr ~~tj qr ~'t=~~l~lq~

'" ...... ""'. .

~(q;:~~~qUfTT"«~QCflliqt1fiq~ , ~

';;JTorl~.q- ~ttOf tfq ~~U1T~ ~=Q~ tr, ~'1~ ~~=t:,~ ~~1!(1:4 ,:;:f~~~qt.i5\lT~,~~T'i, t~i£T~ ~q-;r ,~t:a'l afi~ tiG:( iri~lF\1fi ~qur ~t:fT ~~~ ~T{Of 'Eflvrl .. ~ at~q~qUf~T q{Ti[~T ~~Tn- ;r{t Cfi"~{1cIi1r 11, ~ 11

Properly ~pc!lldng the person of man is neither ndorned by nrmlots, nor by 111001H,-hilc necklaces, 1101" 1»)" bathing, 110l' 1))", ointments (i. c. npplying perfumes}, )1(11· h)" flowers, )\01' lly well-combed hnir, The pU"-Cl· of speech ill n perfect nnd refined stnto is the only thing w'lrich ('JIn really ndd to the hnndsum ell C:-=;H. 0 r n 1 nn u·:-:. pcr:-:(Jll, fur ull oth cr orna men t f.\ he~idc~ it nrc fHl1~i oct to decay wherona the graceful .. ness of speech lnsts for C,""Cl".

It lll"~l ~t=lUl1t'1 in the lH'rl-/(1r·,rli (~.:m '''211<9: I ~ '1. ). Cr.-ett) t& ~~srliqu·1 ~ ~11lT l,!_tM 1ffu: I

'fq~fli. qtir ,1\iff WiQf ~ ~ l!_QOlt{ 11 ~ II "

( =i:{l0IEfll~It1 ifi).

(") u~ ~~ ~r, q( ~~ ~ t

~lt :aw:r GUAtfl, cn~ 'tCJi n " (OO~ ~) •

• _4¥-1= ;7

$ -.!'----4 *

., ... ... __ ""-.o1J ,,_ ........

..

••

-

fcrif£ ;:rT'f ~~~q ~q~~cfiij=C3~Yff\o1;f fifil{rl{llTepftq~:H\trtfiitf4'ltTY~OJjy~: I fit~{ &J:;iGicii fir~~t(tf~ Riff tt~ ~~qij-

f~, ~'{~m~f!~ FI~.nFt~lV{!'~:~ e

l~m' :qt!ttrEfiT t-ltliqft ~i'i~q a1)~ Sl;af~(f ?j~" ~ ~, i?tqRt .1{!I~~T mq Nt-S1U i]~lfl ~)=t ~<Ji1 snfu ~tfill fe{~T a-q:~~~iqfj~') ij~ Wl I ~;qT '~"f~?it~~if t.:tJ;rqT~qiT r:i~ifrr~, a1)~ ~t:(T(T '«~Ttfig ~Cfar ~ I ,{Tj{T ;r~TtTs:rTllT A-Wtqi'( ~ ~N:fT;r 'ft~ff ~ ~~ 't"~T tff~Tfcr ;r{i' 'fi~~ 1 ftrr.ttlll Fft{T ,,?!r;q q~~ ~11Fr ~ II ~ €I tI

J{now~ooge iH, 110 d~JUht, nil nrl,litiollnl.heal1ty of I man. It la u YCl'Y l11ddcn lJt(·U"'lU"C. J\ JJ(Jw}c(1 ftc

• Q

~.Jrjngs C1JJ(J),l.nCI:t, fiune, find r hap}Jiue:--:-.. 1\, l1fJ"'lc(lgc I

Hi the teacher uf tcuChOl·:-I. 1\ uuwJ(·{fp:(' f.,ulJfotitlltC8 a I

relative ill /(Jl"cigJl tl~t\~CJH. f{ lJowJ(Jd{!c jl') the r-u-

pYClnC god. KiJlg's rcvcl·cl.tly WOI'tdlip KUIJ,,·le;dfrc 111)(1 not wea.lth. Ono (len'oill of kU(JwJcdgn iN it ht'l~C.

--------........-_ ..... _. ..,.,._----

\

!

,

"~rT~~ cp;;r~;; fip fci;qf~r~: tir~·itsf~q ~~~~f, f€fTRr:it~-=re-Gf rep ~fif {J~~o~qq-: ~ t"flt?~ I

"'. ~'" ~,......" fi:"""'" ~ ,...,ra

l~ ~q~(tf ~Gf;;I: T~~ ~~cri{rs-

~Ef~{ ~T~, ~1'5T ~ffCfi~ ~'1ur: UCfi-

e-; ,.....,_ -.. e-:

T9ij"I ll~lt=q ~l~l{;:r TCfit;( 1.1 ~ ~ II

FfflfT ~~it q:w: qiq:q~r, ~rt-.:r ,~it q, ?f1~at·fepT, ~:ifmT~ ~~ fq~l1T;r ~lr~~ 8lftt~T, tr~~*~ ~i!"'it'l~ ft:oiirqN~ltfiT, ~*~TEti ,\!i{~ ~qfCfiT,

firt{fq- Ft~r ~it q~ \:l.,ctiT, w"\Vf[ {\ii(q-~ aTl~qtrff .. ~T, alT~ ti({~ tfiFroTliT~ ~itq, it:!'CqJqiT U~tr~T ~Tt J{~if ;:r{t l:~~r II ':t ~ 11

+miN I

+fij;c-qj;nl ~~~ ~tm, iht!5ii%~Si~,~ ~~~

-... ft .......... ............~

'E6I \it :rt , aml.:q I f.t g:tet q'i i.il! ~\is{ 01, €fi '2>4i ~ ~ it ,

- - ,........_ ~..... ..... ~ "'" --

~'1qr "trn: jq'ill, ctJ~qollfh ~ t;;?;;nt I, am:: <lqt(it+tECiji ~g

• ,.....,. ~ to ro- .....

R=:r, ~E.n~ :(,;qm' 'qiflFf e1i(t"" r :qnti0 .. II

The absence of nrrnour-, enemies, fire, good medicines, annkos, weal th, ornnmcnts find king-uam nrc more than eornpouauted roepectivcly hy one's for .. benrnncc, anger, l'elntivcs, friends, evil persons, pro .. found (lit. uublamnble) Iem-uiug', modesty, and tl high class poetical gcnius~

}

1

This stnnzn is same us stunea 4: in Pondutratua (1j:q'{(ii).

The ubcve stanea iUl'niRhcfI us with a very Rtl'ildng Instance of Bhartrlhnrl'» pithy unu cplgrnmmnrie style. E"+Cl'Y sentence is so laconic thnt it is sometimo-s not. easy to knov .. tho sense nt !irst sight.

..... -....... (-....

t{Ifij"O"q ~~~c:r i{'l, 'l{\i{~ ~(ail\t~'!~

~ffl:~n~~ r{~ iiq~fir~~ ~f~rt~ I ~N ~~a't~ I3'fn ~~~;r ~If[~~ ~*n

'"it ~~'l(:~~i"~~r~~<f ~ff~Rr: ~lrm:qR~'l ;;ri:fT({t ali;c ~qftt ~~ ~i if;0T:pJ(1;

..... "to"'-::'r-... """'" ....

i{(UirTtR: Tif~ q T~ ~ ~q:stYiEfi ~ ~Cfl1::m,

..... ~ ~ -. .....

~:zt;I1-T ~l+rT~, a:'ii;r€f.~:nq !t~aT" UC=9,~q:g

'S{Tftr, 'T~~~if cftffi (al~qT U\Zft~ anit RiflOJ), ~~t~lti O{rl{ ;r;;rtrr, ?tt~~~Tq tRJSIl'11 ~~~1p 311ft {ti!~TQffiT, stt{ ~{1+f~ii ~ttaTfif ~qr ..

~ ~-~

~~ ~TEtiT t{:q:q13(i(=t qij'fq 'tfit:tl~a~ n ~7{ 11

Those persons "who are well versed in showing I politeness to·wards their relations. compassion townrds sn~llgers: "wickedness towards the. had, love for the good, obedience to l.-mgs: Irumifity before the learned, valour- against enemies, patient Iiearine- and obedience to their elders, and s11re"\ldne~s amollO"° lY01Uen are no dOU1)t the real cardinal points (mrun ~tops) 011 which the existence of the world mainly depends.

. PLRPORT. The world cannot go on as it docs "Wl.tho~~ !he presence of such perSOllS uf versntile eft pabilities.

..

\lit:g~ ~T ~{m m~rn 9~ 6~ 1{{c:r(~f€r ~~Rr qTqqql~rm I

~~: !I«r~a- F\fi' ~TI1r 'ffrRf tr~«'fi-f«t 9i~ f€p ;:refiUffl g~r:i{ U~~

~~ ~m7ffffif; s:ttrt1:f{.r ~~qiT ~$aT rfl!~~Tffi~} ~tq"~tq:otit arf+t~f=4 {taT ~1 ~.l1T'1qiT ~f? {ffi)%, "1Tq' '[{ ~aT~, ~~ !:{{-I~ ma-r l,

,~ ......, - .. ",. ,.... ,.......~ ,... ... ~ .

Qlr:c ~~~tatTif t!ifilla 1:hi?ior ~; q~ ~~«rr ;:r2"

t;tfTf.1l ~~ ~T q-Tu if f;f,~!fi' "irtlT UQT{;r ~1~+ft

,.._.. ... ....

q~ ~T ~ n ~~ 11

(;(~);Il (·hlnpnn).- i:-. :,U1"(" tu dl"h·('11 out att1"kIlCS~ froul i;:...rllt -ran! 111 iud», wntor 1 heir ,\Oor(1t-- wit h t 1"u1 h, point t lu-m tlut thv p)Oc{;"i~e p:uh of'udvnneemeut, root out :--in:ti1J }ll°'O]lf"n:--hict--, (1nlight~lI th(~ir hcnrt s, nnd w i n now t ho Ihl.!.!"J",ant~c ot' lhclr flune t ln-oujrhout the four ["Ul"IlPr:ol> uf 1 he univor-r-. T'hcrr- i, nut hing in .. {lc(~tl ,,·hh:h cannot be nchicvcd Irv our communion

with v irt uous f..:l:-rC~. ~

---- ~-~~-~------- --___..... _ ___........._---

d ---

\ifqf;ij ij fiilRr;fl (~m~: '~-\l~T: \ . ~o qt{r ~~:tfllq \i(\Il{~~ '~ql{n:t ~ ,

. .

~~ tTiftfijl~ tnFr~n~ ~:;ft;.,J' ~('n(if ~iiT"

, . .

,

~v: l:\a-l ~~ ~tfit ~1t~~:q' ~~ !jf\I'tt ..

, U'(T~ ~:~ Fr~W(?; ~qij'~ al~ R~ti~ n ~ 'J U

• " ,..... .. ...... v. ... -R .,.. ( )

\ \t:I~I:'=~= ~:'7~ ~~;'!~k

fia" -R; - ~ ~

i(!«(i( ;a;r;; ::n!(ct::Ur?; H

I

I The great poets who moe perfect masters of the Iiasas (t. c. the poetical stylee) nrc indeed ,,:ortlJj- of universal respect and glory; hocR.u£c the wonder-

fully composed state of th~ir l)ndi~s ljcing" mnde llP of pure immortal fame is flllite free from the fearful influences of nge and ueath.

.A ~oll w it h g"ufHl1nornl conduct, n chnsto "rife, n Joyiu!! mu-te-r. II 11 :I fI(·pf ionu lc fr icml .. honest t-elnt ivos,

..." .. 0#0 f

n m i .,,1 n·cp ii'( 1111 :\ 11 H 11X1(' t ic~ n url cares, n handsumc

n)1pCUr~lIlC("! ln~ting (~h.·ml~-) p,"okpcrit.y, und nn [ute lJig-en t i~ICC. euu on J .\* hl! (Injoyccl hy the spcclnl fhvour 01" I'[lll"i, the t-tltppurtcr of t he universe and the grantC1" of n 11 dc:-:h"c~_

t:r.-(f:ltf 'l1'%n ~~ qon l1ro- ~ ~'PlT I ~ili'au{l~ fWtf'JOJr ~Cfit i1~ tF~O'Jr II ,~ II U

( It '0 <1 iii W€5ljfl ~ 'qftc-~).

A f.\ithrul uud Im·jng wjf,. i.;: inth.·l'rl one of tllt! gl·CP.tc~t lIlc~f.illgH uf nUll.

<.;f._U !inurn! trfaJirn: qm~~ ~aT t

iW-f ~f~fll" ltl'-fr ~: t=r ~qqr!lf4' It" ( 'l&fl1T{a- ). .

-

SflU((~ijtRtifu": t(~q;y~~Of «qq: «flf-

...... .,.....,.

EI(tflf ctilf§ ~:qlff J.tt{l;:r g-erT(f\ififCfi·

qlq~llti'.{: 1f1:q{~ , fl1if1[(~ffl~llijfr

'" C!'o

Y~!i ~ lcre:rq: ijt{it=rT~qi;s:q, trlifr;:tr:

~~~l~lit{S~~Q~N": ~qtrii{q ,;:qt: ~ ~

!tTOJl1=tTSI ~T f~UT tf.~;ra frr~~ ,~c:rT, ~«UEOT ~ t!~ tfi!(_~~T ~:;;~T ;r :.:..~rtT, ~tq ~tt{or Cfi~-tT, ~lltJTi:al:t:: ~v.{T1{~~ <\T'l ,'tT , q~T~ ~qrT =q:rtT qi~it all~ tFl~« ~" ~~rrT, Q.1i"lT~tt1 w:(~1f.Ji J{qt{'eli) (tEfi;r£ 1 i~~l~ atl~ fq;rq t:rl={ur Cf.'t=i T) 3rt~ {lttf ~~ q, "i\tfT q;~ifT ~q. ~T~l:tVT~ ie"t\ ~~~T1j1'''

. ~ ... ,

~qo if;~tTlu(CfiT ~T7f ~ II ~ ~ It

To avoid giving in.jury to Iiving' lJ(~illgl'ol t.o k~cp aloof' from stea.ling the wen lth of othcr~, to tel) the tru th, to exercise due c] In ri t y i 11 Lime, to lcee P fJ t1 iet on the gossips of othera' wives, to cofine the desire of gain within proper limits, tn behavo with meekness before the elders, and to f5ho"r 111crcy and kindnes-s to all crcnturcs nrc unnnhnouely enjoined l)y the Scriptures 1.0 1)0 the 011C nncn-iug rend lCH1ling to nl] ~(wls of good and hnppiuess,

--~~~---------~----------~-

!1l(+~ij- 9f ~sg fcr~~;; ;ft~: ~,:t:~

e-; ~ t"'.. ~ r-; ,

iq~{Cf~Qr m+rt~ij" ff~:l l~if: g;;::g;;-

r-; " .......

=tIt{ S{r~;:t{qT'iI: !fR~q ~~qGf"( ;;

...... '"

qR~~rq II ~\9 It

iIar~ ( \) ;fj:q, ( , ) +retJ11) at), ( ~ )~:q if (ft;:r tfih(,~ +r2Gt'f ~Ta-~t f~;rit{.r (~) ;:fi:;r :q~,':q tit :;rrrr;gqj yqmifi' +P.tqti1(.r filiur tfitqffiT 1 SfR+tfit ;r{i ifi~ff, all{ (~) ;:rl:q+f s:rem{~ ~gt<:f :q;qfq qlTq~T {tq~ at Ef1(~~~, ~~:g Fr~C[' ~~ q1~t!rif aw:.u ~~ ~ff~: q,;:g (=\) ~+r +I!!tq lfu ~qqtc:f: ~la lfttl eJl(cUl: fim" U~ qrtif '1~ liT 3T'=ri[ \!Tfq'ij Tel{ ~ ttlTlftfiT e~ir.\ f"ifiq ~r cp~Tftr ;r{t ~~a- n ,\9 11

H:td 11lCn <10 not even begin n thing through fenr uf future olistaclea j the mediocre ttfter COIIl~ meucing' it, give it up when they nrc confronted 'with real prcsout c\Wils; but gO(Jd men never leave unfini~ll(·d wlurt tIley hnvc once l,egun, not,,,,jthstnndill,g" the fact of thoir being repeatedly baffled nnd opposed.

10

~

QuoU!d under JlZyaair1fB (~:qtf(;ow) in the BulJha~l~ilat'ati (§'&IT-

ftmyq& J~ (No. 280. B. S. S. No. XXXI .. ). •

A$idhara (BiftlE(((t) 'litera1Jy means' edge of a 61'rOrd} For farther explnnation 'Bce our Xote.

~ at(r'ti~~~fi.lt.!SS4I~l fds€6l!i i -a:::(ff mq:;:ftSN fq: q:a ~~ Rriff(fq $flU{ 9., ~:q

~~fi:rI~lt""~~*Pqihq.wql~cn;q~E'l~:

"Ri~'2OJ¥{Ri+tIi1+t ~o i'iT4«(: lfi«U n~~l1

m~l<t\ii(m)m~ &tQ¥foq~afl1: tfft $+c~1 .. :q=t1 ( .. [;J{ ..... IG14i1 ~~~\ifiWi atq.=u ~ft 'Ei4tt( ... q.<wt qit 1i~:~1 CfJ<aJ :(~ Q. ~:qfl ~d"'liQ ~, G1<lElE<n €t giH;S, q0iU:t, antt~d ~:e=t aik a:::i1~I'" ~;r~lq, q<~d SfTlJ{ ~q\Z Bqre4li m;r tR: ~ ,!hIl4J\3 ~ ctt 'tiqrrq o$J.ld rnff (i:e:%al II ~~ n

l:lll!Otq ,

titttltf ~.:fflnr ifil tR:m ¥u.u ~ ... &T~ +1~f;q tn. If'it~q- q;:ul'i ;ft:q ~ Efi<:t <6t ~ :a:a a ;;(j if}UCfitr II

Can the Iion, the foremost, of the sol f~r("spcct ing an'll noble 1)clng~1 who is nlwnys Un.. .. dOl1R to get n mouthful of t.he f'uporb temples of wild elephnnts in rut« FO much dcgnulc himself ns CYCJI to condescend t'l feed upon dry grass although he in loon and weak by hunger- fiR ,,",clIns by ng-cJ almost powerless, in a ycry painful condition, devoid of splendour and energy, fllm npt to lose his " t cry life failing to get n. morsel of food ?

PURPORT. A man of self-rclinnce and respect can never degrade himself to do n menu and dis .. graceful net not,,·ithstn.nding his too severely stmit~ncd circumstnuces,

Q uotod und cr Rttti'-n-m-(;:(;::i'fl~~;;:;q:'\)-;i-:-E\ 7.t l;-H.·~.c;~r~; IJ71H-;t'-;h::-it~7Jt"-a::li~(;:;~:;:;:;i5~;:;";;-[-

ctfts) (No. 614. B. S. S. Np. ~XXI.), und(!r.ft in tho SJrttgadhrlrftprult11mti n.t No. !I07 (finR~(\titR11 '0",,), nnel nnonymoUfll)" in tho K(1t·vt1,mlaltm:a of l~lgbl,atlfl (I:lTfq~ q:ac<tni~IIEI"",i{) ..

C f.-{ a) rt l1i{""'t'" .... CW'"1IWeiBtitfii ~'It:?«: €flOh:Efl(GI'EI':tt ftl4n~EtI \1: 1 ffl; <boo G\41N 'UWl~~~I";{ lJlolt<iQsfq ~ er~'{ 11 u (tJ"lfqa~:).

(b) tr~ \!~tNffi" ;r ~I:disfq ~: (~ ~).

lfItm: *&Gf(,UIII{' ~==tl:f No. 266 •

(c) ~'0tifR': Gfdlsftr ¥f~ ~" It ,~ 11 (~rr~Jfifq(Fq~mm~l~cffi~~~a~m~\~e(&~: ).

\, ..

II ....

,. I

j I I

.-

IE • ~

a

~~(!i~T~W{i{~:?eT(urICf'{,ij" i~ R'l~l1 q<Rl~~~~ :q I j)~ fi{trsCf(!q W~ij-

4T~*tf~g; ~ fer~qffi :qr~~~:?C{

'-

gs..:,m II ~ 'i II

~~~) 'fu'~ f£p att{;r ~crr~ft~ ~1l~ ~~ liifiR i.~ ftwT~, tFit Cf~(ili:(, aft:( :gii:Pi:(~?: ! tfi:c a1 Vi ~m{ "itziti ~~rr qi{Tffi ~, 'R~ ~~1=l" , ;r-::q~f:ir ::qq itl anm:c ~I{tftrr t:fi,irqr~~ '{l+~« fii1"€r l£!fiT{tIiT (t::ra-r Jt:rra- ;r If;~i6 %q~ tfR~T«~1 wnfr ?«=raT Wi;g {i4Mf4i ~ ~T q~ul ~;rcnu

( =ql!{;~ur) iti 13N \3"Q(f ~'l II ~ ~ II

I

.A. dog is given to wag his t..'lil~ f:'.11 nt tho feet of his master, and lie down fint on the ground to show his month nnd stomach to the mnn who feeds him j but such is not the case with the noble elephant, who looks " .. ith n calm and steady glance upon the face of his master, and then condescends to tnke his food after a. series of soothing nnd finttering entreaties.

Tbe _tam:" is .t~o {ouDd iu the Paw::1Ul.tOlltrtl (<i·;:h1'='t) and the .Hilopa.deAa (ftal~ c ~I\ 1S ).. It is quot.ed anonymously iu tho SubhCiBhit&mll (§¥It[qdIElRJ) (No. 6-lI. B~ S. S. No. XXXI.).

\ tfRI(ffif.f «{fR 'lij': <ir err ~ ~~ 1 U \iflm fA \1i~ qtffl- cf~: \{~Rri{~:tll

~ ~I{Q1!m~ 3(Rtt:t e:el~ir S1'~fuItr \if)qytJiT Gti=ll am: +r~ tlt;:I ii3T~fT tftffi ~ffi l, tfwr ~qfqit ~ R a1I{r ~3Gl(CfiI \1tM5l (if;

~ln ~ ~iftt eQifi iJ~ it')~tiifit i~{t~~U

",Vho is not born and dead on the face of this revolving planet? He alone is real1y said to be born by whose birth his family has risen to some great , distinction.

\--------

~ This 6u,m;a which Btands in tho P(1i1thata:nfra (~=tl{ 1 'l t\ " )

• ~nd the Hitopadeia ( fiimq'"Ql: 1 Sic I}\) is qnoted 3Donytnom!ly in tho Bublaris7aitri.t:ali (fP'I1fli(fIElf6-) (No. 500. R S. S. No. XXXI.,.

u ~

Cf.-(a) "~·ft::!~I:'::r':~4i~1 ~ ;ni!r 9:,: i\tRt t

i{1Pi(,qtt1,%q~ ~€G\qi$lt1i{"!l~: n "

(l1IW: f\iuftl~~M xr, 62+).

,,- .... ~:h

(h) fCIi '({9f ~ vuu~ "'itQltt4'i@fton l

~~ ;r tf: ~ ij~l("Qrn ~r ll1iT It "

.A. (v.qditl{ 1 i)PU;.).

Th, word '\,\~ is=«pt to h ~

e Inge, lflconstaot, Dr cveT«roD.ing~

- ...

~ .

-

- ........

-... ...."..... ~ ,...,_

~gq~QCT~ftfcf :::l{T ~(fr.q;:cr~~;;: I ~-

I~ err «~1Cfi(=q ~fti~ cr;; tftf91U~~1I

Mtf, !!-~tfft m~ fq~~re ~3ilql'fil W1ta--

· -:qr ~ liu-Rii ~q~ ~T tt~,rr:r \fmf~ orq~n{ <lffiT q ~~Tqll:Ullti m\Tq~r q-;rd ~ Oiqq[ q-;{~ q;;tfiij orq;;r ~T~ uT.falfl' ~~a \i u ~ ~ n

nh··rnn.th:(· .... ,~!" Inn l.·~.;, uf cxl .. teurco (1IWU r.~r l1fJh1(" f.·!l11,,: (1)(·ith'·rt,.c'h~·ntltll' ht'!v1 (If 011 1JlCU, ur ~ (2) t,~ piUt' (t!kllt"l) n,,·ny ill f'lrl·:-t.

_---_ ...... bsp.XP - ...

.

1

i (!f'11~) ~:. .sl~. c .. J:) ~~! ~ .. d~i,·h it i ~ t;i~'f "l nn:1nym..,u1Ilj, "h~t at.

J N~. f',U it i ... pHt u!').l··t Ul~ "!i.H~'" ~f Rdr;!};'rf.1 (~~).. rn til

,

! ::~~, uP.rtmJ'ulUJo:H; (~l~ q(\li:y'tl t ,\~) it i" Rl!(.::ilullt to lJharlri.

t Ji.L1~j (~aft'A:). It c.ln j 1ih ufb in lh~ Uitl'rn.Id \ dt~: ", 0 '\).

C!.-(a) u ~!!~~"d l~l ~Jr-t !j4UQ t;'( I

«4;jflA1i"ri ~J«i"«itt\lKl II " (t'..ffiI4W:). (b) "it« q::p,,~ ~ GI~tlti~ Il.'l(d I::i\ ,

alar:n q;fij Itt ii! GfIf« rett;:r tOT\if n tf (dlrq} ~}-

ij~ ... qpftsftr i~qftiijlIqlf: ij"~Ra(: t{-

...__ ....... ~ ,....... f'Itt. ~~

~f.{(~5r=sRt{q [ef~qrCf5fiq~~r {f~w:r q-

" "' ""'...... r-; ~ ~

\{q'all llEf~ 3:{ij"q ~;;~ci{(;;tOISf(Ol~~1

If(~ ~Rr: '{~fdr ~l( "R'crqftr: ~-

~...... r-:

tTTc{~I·qll@ rff: II ~ ~ II

~ ~~..... ,.... F.T ~ -- ~ ~

tt€tTtf :alqlii'~ «:.eqTacr. snrt{ ~,~l" I

r::::. ~.,..... t

.ft ~ ~ '1f.q ~ i€i'liilii ~; tittntf at~Ti{yrq l

. . ~-

q<l~,,¥i ~ :clait qTiEr ~(ifqqlff ~ {;;en

~ "" H """'rr

:mq alqiil eronq Cf.~lq tJlf~ ;rqr <f.{oT, lq;r:;

atq~ ~ir tR: ~ip q~fafitij srq~ 5{;rTqy~T alR: 1{fdtftiEfi R.if ~enCh( l ~) OII:C f.;~ifTtT (~~ii') £f.T(t!iRl if,(ilc6t ij~ti @aT~ 11 ~~ II

Though there are some five or six wel'l-known big planets like Jupiter: and others in the heavens, yet Rdhut the headless demon, is ne~er inclined to ehow the least cause of hatred to any of them; but being anxious to pro~e the snperiority of his unusual valour he always tries to eat up or eclipse his real enemies the Sun (the lord of day) and the Moon (the beloved spouse of night).

PLRPOBT.. The hlgh-Eouled are never inclined to wreak their ~engeance upon others but their real enemies whether big or small.

I

J

-

er~Rr ~;;~ufi~q: ~ICfi{'5Cfi~qffi ep'foqrn~r qiq ri 'liU " fr:r~,q.a 1 {ft{fir ~~1r ~~r~ '1lfiN~.,(t{~It\~~

.." e-: r."'"

t{-~-ijr t;;nct(1iI;;~{{;rrCArij"~: n ~~ 11

.

"" - - -

;q~~ ~;:rff.r ~tf rfm 3(q;r tJl0tq-, 'lRVf

i.i1tffi It ~tt ~:;:zqU~ ~'{t{;ft 'llItf:C ~q ;n:rqfr

I ~ -

~lRlJ'f if:~ :tCf~T ~; q-{rij "'t!a.~ ~a t'fi'C~1:fUSJttT

~r ~~ fiC?;""i.f:a '1q:TQctif ~ a:rq-1:( 3ttf.tt1: ~ ~~T

I· ~ 1 ~~ ~q~.~ fq) I{~t~·~ ~f('S(€f,l qij~ t('T~T"

em:: ;r\fi m~~oT 11 ~ ~ u

S.cslt.((ud.t1'l thongll h~ supports the cnfire uni .. verse upon 1110 tint. of surface of his thousand hcnds j::; nlwnys horne ()11 baok hy the grcnt tortoise ; hut. he in l,i~ turn is (,:l~i1y sustnined (m; if it 'were the Jjghtcf"t nnd t iniest olrl('ct in the \yorld) on it~ Inp 11)" the ~ton)h(nwc of waters (t. c .. oeenn ), Oh, hOW' Infi-

I ~tc i~ h: IIll>gr~nllitnnUS I;'llnd\lct of noble Ftluju !

I Th(! Ftnm::' ;" nl-» !u1In.] in tlu" Dlu,:/ilpmlx,nrth" <,~stil .. "q ).

I C£._'L ~(~jrfufa ~ ~i a qwIE~{q tht1ftu: 1(:q")1q: I

I ~'QMi! ~ ~ ;{ ~~

J mt'«: n It (fl~: I "~).

• )(nrk tb'1.t t}IO be:\uty of each 1loucc~c.\Jin~ tine or the stann over-

J plm.dQwlt thut o£ its pr~dl<cc~4"(lr, rcnehing' tho culminllting point in the

In-Ht {(1ot&

"1M. b;;;;; i ; = = ;- xc i

Cf.-{a) "~ Rt!fS"4 ; :q ftmt ~ f(i1I;.;5tU{ I lffij~ ~ff£ ~ qmr~ fcfi ~ t1 "

. (auit'lidl~&(IElil).

(b) ' .. €«t;:ltRpUq ~=th!)R,- i{\S1f6 ~ :er ;f\iiijJ1[q ~ I

~~~OI4i{1: tfi1~ 41fChlie ~ 11 'i:~ II "

r (1ilC(~"w~ltlTu6Q,d\ ) &

,..... ~ "i

~ 'f~Uff: ij"q~lff.(tf;:Iq-.-!f""'f~e~sm.._-·

~1.&:~~~;ftII~U~1t: I g'tRfi{: Q:;it~~~ Raft ii~fifq~ i=( =if(9t ~~~: 1Jlffu '1Q«f qf~fq~: II ~~ II

j f!~I!.~'ifl s::r ';n<fi~ Ws~ ~~T~ ~~ i{;;;r. $(~[(1{11iltf,tf5aT l{ ~\J"q~~T;r ~i5ql~Tsifij'

~:~'fl' O{qij' ft£mEitT t{l!T~~Z~ ~~€fit: !tlUJ{~Tifi ~,,~ fdt!~ \ifTCfi{ qij';r Cfi~~cfT dlq~T firer~Rdi REf,. 13~1q ~'if.~ f;{~qr;;AiT bt{'I' ~;nft Ucftn :a f?qij' qy II it ~ It

~1

fitQ1c6T 1:Ii1!t"tltq',ii UliCfilC fii\Sf"JOJ~'51~ MM=a' ~ ~. ~mlr :al+i;r iivrt ~r;fr G{;ff'it ~ \;f!t1l fiitt;fiq \-.

For the Bon of the HimfUayA when his father was subjected to the severities of IIndra's anger, the cutting of his own sides ( wings) by the heavy strokes of proud Indra's thunderbolt gIving out fire nt every attack would have been much preferable to the mean e1fort of saving his person by leaving alone his venerable father in the midst of the sad plight and hastening to drown himself into the waters of the deep ocean.

-

lft{~;:ftsfi{ q,~: ~i'!: ll\ier~a- «Rg- 1k i(;rCf)Rr: I ij"~\i(~eft ~~: q{fio~o Cfi~ «~~ II ~\9 II

Qiif ~oill,~n ~EfitotifaT :.:iT ~fiR~lCfiT

~ -"ft ~ ~ ~ -. ~ ~

~ra ~iJfi s:rqqT~a ~I~TOT ~ ofdrl{gW Q"1-

~ !!~" ~iftf.T 3l~~~~tt ~~;YCli, ~ff ~ ~\9 II

,,'rhen it is possible even for a senseless and inanimate object like a sunstona to giye out sparks of fire on its being touched by the mys ( lit. feet) of the Sun, 110'l\- can highsouled (irritable) persons put up with the insulting encroachments of others ?

Cf.-(a) Ie ~r~t''Ijol{fq {;rim: tf1~~~I,%~:eif!: , \RTwma(l(qia ifit qr I1r!l it~ ~ qAt 11 " (uam"?td~: ) ..

(b) n;r (:t\ittaGH .... .i\ lHid"l ci'tqi stlllt-l

u ~ ffi li(Cf: lfW'Rtr~?OIjdr:tlif'li~: I ~(~ ~ ~ ~ WiCh(: ~mqtU~ f.liid ~q tlG1i~ ~ II "

( ES"d«tijoqittt ).

The net point of the stanza. Beams to be this ; D. strong IIUJ,.n of Tool worth cannot be expected to put up colmly with the inBmt of

oth CJ"I!I ~

-

~: m~{fq- ffiqffi ~qR;o:r~q{'!ifltf~! t)~! I SliiRff~ ijte[~tIf;:r ~~ " C(q~\i(~ft ~Q: It ~~ I'

~~T i(!ij'I m!l {I~ q ~¥('T ~1;( :rriR:T~fii 1;~ tfilia- ~~~:{ liql~ Cf.:car l I ~ e« :i, (iiifT :qT~q: fell a~~ ~t4irtt ~ql,aT ~TllT~tf. ~ l ~~~T ~ l fefi" 81q~F.fiT f;r.otqT~q:;~q~ a-a:r .. ftqmif.T In Cft~ iff( ~~tf.W II ~~ II

The 1\ help of a lion though quite young is sure to fall upon a herd of ferocious elephants whose temples are soiled with secretious rut. Such action is quite natural with noble natures. That valour- (iiGf) is entirely independent of age is beyond controversy,

\iflmq(g; ~~riJ~ iurl(Of{=ij"~~~"Itq~ ~:;mt~gl~ it~i:fG'~'{Q~Cf(ifGt;:r:*i{iR"~f

~~:{T I ~_!f!~ ~'lllt R1ffi~cr~S~Q ;r: Cfitf~ lfifeti;r lerw:rr U"Vfr~~e-C(-

S(lqr: ij"1f~ij"T ~1r II ~ ~ II

qfc{ rs=t"rfit qirer ~i3ra?ji5it ~'ifF1, ;:rJirT¥lt~~ ?jOftilli{ d:eO ~T atm Si~qTrr ~~~, lJ~~crr

~ -. _ r--.. _ "....._ __

qqoT~~~ Ta"R:~Ttr, a-~fJC?i+rT a1Tllfl" ~w~r ::if'W' ~1~, alt~ '{« ~ :u~ifr~aTq{~T ~TiffT 9's;f'n'Cf (T~P-i, cit Wu ¥qnT ;nfr, q~g; ~sq«:qtiij fifilfl st~'R:qft ifl1:lT;:r{t {Pit :qT~, Cflflftfi Q;:Cfi S{6Qiti if \{i;;-{t ~f.t: ij'orqGf ([Of Cl50fifi U~T;r ~Sffff~ll~ "II

Let caste go dow-n to the dO'YJl-1TIOst depth of the neither world, and deeper ~till 111ny sink the good qualifies belongmg' to us; let morn Iity be hur-led down fi·0111 a mountain, nnd respeetnbif ity of birth be consumed Into flames ; let the thunderbolt of henven soon £"111 111)011 the cnernicnl phYFical vnlour j but let the gracions God len vc us alone wirh orrr 111011CY hy t]lC f41ngle exception of which n ll these possesaions are as wm-thlcss ns straw.

11

,....,..... -

ifTTff~a~ I .

j , ':

r-.. -. .,..... .... _ -...:0 _ ,...~.~

-:q'_#Qlho-ttf :q ~ ~1D.:q &=q l¥C1 Ciir EI;:fI ,~aT ~ ~R

~ ~ ~ ....... - ...... --":.-. ..... ~-

tf.1i~ ~l~ sm:: q"f4i{~tffi~ ;:r2'=t4"€f.T €Ie I~ q~r

- ,.....,. ...... ~. ..... - ~

~ lq"U+ilii ~d( ~1 tf(Q; ~ liZ~~!fi' ~ ~T~T~~

..... ~ ~,""" -- ... "".:!

6Iijtq ~ ~5 aU{q-;,1 3'I1(~1 til.s;ffiT l{ ~

,........... ~-. ...... ~

lif€eajf q&ailJ lil~;{ { 11 ~o II

It i~ really 'Wonderful that a man d.epri'\cd of wealth (tir. the warmth of wealrh) instantly Lceomes quire a different and changed being, notwithstnnding his being stifl the master of his fermer senses, actions, and the same bright intellect and JlO-q-er of speech !

(- -

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A king iH ruined hy evil counsel, an ascetic by worldly affections, a ~()11 hy fond CflrCS8Cf;, n Brnhmann by not studying the Saf1,tl"a~, a respecta ble fnlnily by wicked ]Jl"ogClly, mornl conduct by COIlt .. net of the bad, 1110dcRty by driuk, cro)Js by neg ligence, 10,·c by separation, frienrlahip 1))", indifference, prosperity by injustice and riches hy careless expenditure,

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