A STUDY ON EMPLOYEE WELFARE MEASURES

INDUSTRY PROFILE
ABOUT THE INDUSTRY
India in 1994 has become the 4th largest producer of cement in the world .This impressive record owes its origin to the progressive policies of the government since late 70’s and enabled on assured 12% post tax return on Net worth (77).The economic reforms of July ’91 gave a further fillip by abolishing the licensing system for setting up cement plants. Since then innumerable technological development took place in cement production enabling cost reduction and mass production. The wet kilns of the late 70’s were replaced by dry kilns which reduced the fuel cost by 30% thermal efficiency was improved by installing pre-heaters, followed by the addition of pre-ealcinators. Optimal usage of fuel and power we achieved through computerization and quality control of raw materials. In a developing country like India the requirement of housing and so the demand elasticity of cement with respect to G.D.P. of 1.6% is also high. By comparing the per capita consumption consumption and consumption density (D) of India with rest of the world, the latent demand for cement can be estimated at 77Kg for India and 240Kg for the rest of the world. The cement sector has recorded an impressive increase in production capacities. The production has grown up by 9.5% over the previous years to 76.22 million tones. The consumption, on The other hand, has logged behind having grown by 7.9% over the previous year to 67.93 million tones. Capacity utilization has been 81% for the large plants. Thus, even at the end 98-99 there was an excess capacity by about 27 million tones. (Comparing total capacity and demand).

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The current financial year is expected to add 10 million tones further. Production for the full year to be expected to be raised by 10-12%. Of this, south is to be the maximum gainer with around 10% growth. The cement industry witnessed a contraction. In operating profit margins nationally. In the year ended March’97 due to a slowdown in demand growth rate, higher supplies for new commission capacitates and cost increases. Housing sector is yielding a minimum cement demand growth rate, of 6%. The Rakesh Mohan committee has forecast the investment outlays on infrastructure to rise to 4000-4500billion rupees over the next 5 years. Beyond 20032004, these requirements would be in the range of 7500 billion rupees. The industrial growth rate too is expected to rise from 8 to 8.5% in the past 10-12%. The per capital consumption is expected to touch 85Kg by 2004 by possibly 13Kg in 2012. If the present growth trend continues. To achieve even 75% of world average on investment of 40,000 Crores rupees on plants besides additional investment of same order on adequate infrastructure will be required over 10-15years. The demand by 2012 is placed at 140 million -150 million tons in the wake of the industrial and economic growth unleashed by the liberalization process. The growth prospects of the industry are thus assured.

India’s Stand in the world
India is the 4th largest cement producer worldwide, following china, Japan and U.S.A. India’s percaptia consumption is only 78Kg as compared to the world average of 251 Kg by the turn of the century. India’s capacity is expected to crores 100 million tones. The Industry has 59 companies owning 115 plants. In the matter of exports, the Government considers cement as an extreme focus area.

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However, Industry experts comment that exports are mainly for keeping a check on the domestic prices, which get adversely affected due to exam production. In the global market. India cement is not very competitive due to high power and fuel costs. In order to improve its position in the International market, technological up gradation is essential in terms of process, product diversification, cost reduction quality control and energy savings.

CEMENT INDUSTRY HIGHLIGHTS
The Indian cement industry has high Return on Investment. There exists a large markers which are not yet been completely tapped. With the existing levels of supply and growing demand the prices tend to rise. But the industry being a fast growing one, many players are attracted. Every year new capacities are added raising the supply, price stability is thus maintained and the high profits are observed by new entrants. The per capital consumption of manufacture commodities like steel, power and cement ate indicators of the economic state of a country. Of the total output nearly 95% is accounted for only 90%, while the Government sector accounts for 10%. The housing activity accounts for 55% of total consumption. Nearly 47% of the total costs, most of which are administrated prices are beyond the control of cement units. The cost elements include limestone, coal, transport freight, power consumption and excise duty.

Production and Consumption Pattern of Cement
In the case of cement production regional imbalances continue. Cement plants are generally put up where limestone id available. This because, to produce 1 tons of cement 1 ½ tones of limestone is required. Also it is easier to transport cement than limestone. Cement is mainly produced in the Western and Southern regions. Hence, only half of the cement produced is consumed within the region. Cement is usually transported from south to west is the most surplus region. Although, west is a surplus regions, cement

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is transported from southern regions which are close to the consumption and excise duty. The destination of cement transport is mainly dependent on mode of transport available and the transportation cost incurred.

CEMENT MANUFACTURING PROCESS
In wet process, limestone is crushed and grounded and mixed with water to form slurry which is fed in to the kiln. The slurry has a water content of 30-40%. Before the mineralogical process commence, the water content in the slurry has to be evaporated. This process consumes high energy and power. On the other hand, the dry process is more energy efficient. The raw materials are dried in a combined drying and grinding plant to reduce the moisture content to less than 1%. Due to regular shifts from wet and semi-dry process nearly 89% of the total industries kiln capacity is at dry process. Of the remaining, 9% is wet process and 2% is semi-dry process. The main advantage of shifting to any process is the 50% saving of coal consumption. The energy costs reduce by 30-40% and the kiln output also increases for a given size kiln, the output for dry process is 250-300/- as compared to 130-150/- for semi-dry and 100% for wet process. The capacity utilization is also higher for dry process plants.

CEMENT BRANDING
Cement has emerged as a commodity product. Brands play important role especially in metros like Delhi, Mumbai, Calcutta, etc, where the established brands suppress the success of smaller brands. Companies have tie-ups with real estate agents and construction companies. Some manufacturers also organize work ships, training and seminars to educate the consumers on the maximum use of a bag full of cement.

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COMPANY PROFILE
Lanco industries limited (LIL) was promoted by Lanco Group in 1992 in Chittoor District. A.P LIL setup as a Mini Blast Furnace (MBF) in 1994 with a capacity of 90000 TPA to manufacture and sell Pig Iron to the customers and foundry units across India. In 1998. LIL entered into an agreement to supply Molten Iron and pig Iron to Lanco, Sri Kalahasthi Castings Limited (LKCL) a company within the same campus engaged in the business of Iron castings & forging. LKCL later on added high technology Ductile Iron Pipes (DIP) manufacturing facilities to its portfolio. In March 2002 India’s leading DI Pipes manufacturer, Electro steel Castings Limited (ECL) entered into a strategic alliance with LIL and LKCL by acquiring 46.43 and 48.89 percent stake in the companies respectively. In addition to technological support, ECL also infused fresh fund into LIL by way of equity participation and re-modeled the financial structure, thus reducing interest costs. In 2003 the capacity of MBF was increased from 90,000 TAP to 1, 50,000 TAP and the capacity of DI Pipes was increased from 60,000 TAP to 90,000 TAP at capital outlay of approx. Rs. 35 corers. In 2003 LKCL got merged with LIL ( with effect from 1st April 2003) to take advantage of the close synergy in the business model of the two companies, since a large part of Pig Iron in liquid form is consumed by LKCL for manufacture of Pipes. In 2004, 1, 50, 000 TAP Coke Oven Plant was setup at capital outlay of Rs. 45 corers. QUALITY POLICY Lanco Industries Limited aims at maximizing the customer satisfaction by supplying products of consistent quality with collective participation of Management and Employees.

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TO ACHIEVE THE ABOVE, WE WILL  Manufacture and supply products as per specifications and standards agreed to with the customers.  Continuously strive to improve the quality of the products and process  Maintain interaction with customers  Train and motivate employees to achieve the company’s goal.

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CHAPTER - 2 INTRODUCTION:
1.1 INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY
Safety and welfare measures are inevitable to any organization where workers are involved. An organization‘s responsibility to its employees extends beyond the payment of wages for their services. The employee’s safety and welfare on and off the job within the organization is a vital concern of the employer. Providing a safe and healthy environment is a pre-requisite for any productive effort. This research deals with the study on the welfare measures provided to the employees at LANCO INDUSTRIES PVT LTD.

1.1.1 Problem Idenfication
Unlike other industries, the employees of the Lanco are often exposed to different and new which they may not have been familiar with earlier. The employees have to deal huge machinery. The unfamiliarity in the nature of materials they handle and the danger involved I handling them make the employees prone to higher degree of risk. Satisfying or fulfilling the safety and security needs of the workers, would give them a better motivation and more time to concentrate on job performance. A voluntary approach on the part of the management to offer welfare programmes which are over and above what is laid down by the law would boost the morale of the employees and motivate them to perform better. A preliminary study conducted by the researcher with respect to welfare showed that there was scope for improvement in certain areas. This formed the basis of the research problem.

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1.1.2 Objectives of the study
Primary Objective: To study the level of satisfaction of employees regarding welfare measures at Lanco Industries pvt ltd. Secondary Objective: To study the perception of the employees regarding the welfare measures provided to them. • To analyze if the level of satisfaction is different among the various categories of employees and departments. • To suggest provision of more welfare measures to improve the performance of the employees.

1.1.3 Scope of the study
This study would give an overview of the welfare measures existing at Lanco industries. Since safety and welfare are two important elements essential for improving the productivity of an organization, a study on the existing welfare measures would help the organization perform better. This study would throw light on the perception of the employees regarding safety and welfare. Lanco industries can identify the areas where it can improve so as to improve the performance of the employees. This study would also help to analyze if there is dependence between

1.1.4 Limitations of the study
• • • • • The study was restricted to the class III and class IV non ministerial staff of Lanco industries. Due to time constraints the sample size had to be confirmed to 100. The respondents have replied to the queries recalling from their memory. Therefore recall bias and personal bias are possible. Since the data was collected using a schedule, the interviewer’s inability to understand and record the responses correctly is possible. The respondents were unable or unwilling to give a complete and accurate response to certain questions.

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1.2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE
In 1998 a study was conducted on the welfare measures provided to the employees of Copt by Ms. N. Sangeetha of Bharathiyar University. This study was based on the Class I and Class II employees contrary to my project work which focuses only on the Class III, Class IV non-ministerial staff. This was helpful to me with regard to the selection of samples and using statistical tools. I have done my research work independently and both the studies are independent.

Definitions of safety
• • The condition of being safe; freedom from danger, risk, or injury. The state of being certain that adverse effects will not be caused by some agent under defined conditions. • Occupational safety is concerned with risks in areas where people work; offices, manufacturing plants, farms, construction sites, and commercial and retail facilities. Public safety is concerned with hazards in the home, in travel and recreation, and in other situations that do not fall within the scope of occupational safety.

Definitions of welfare
• Anything done for the intellectual, physical, moral and economic betterment of the workers, whether by employers, by government or by other agencies, over and above what is laid down by law or what is normally expected of the contractual benefits for which workers may have bargained. • Well-doing or well-being in any respect, the enjoyment of health and the common blessings of life; exemption from any evil or calamity; prosperity; happiness.

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1.2.1 METHODOLY AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
RESEARCH METHODOLY
Research methodology is a way of systematically solving the research problem. Research methodology deals with the research design used and methods used to present the study.

1.2.2 Research Design
A research design is a detailed blue print used to guide a research study toward its objective. The process of designing a research study involves many interrelated decisions. The most significant decision is the choice of research approach, because it determines how the information will be obtained. The choice of the research approach depends on the nature of the research that one wants to do. The research design adopted for this study is Descriptive Research. Descriptive method was adopted because it deals with description of the state of affairs as it exists at present.

Sampling Techniques
The next step in research study after collecting data is the sampling process. When a decision is made to use the sample, a number of factors must be taken into consideration. The various steps involved in the sampling process are:  Identifying target population.  Determining sample frame.  Selecting sampling procedure.  Determine sample size.  Execute sampling.  Obtaining information from respondents.  Generating information for decision making.

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The target population in this study was the Class III and Class IV nonministerial staff of Lanco. The sampling technique had to be selected. There are two types of sampling techniques:  Probability sampling  Non-probability sampling Among the probability sampling, the sampling used in this study was Stratified sampling.

1.2.3 Stratified Sampling
If the population from which a sample is to be drawn does not constitute a homogeneous group, then stratified technique is applied so as to obtain a representive sample. In this technique, the population is stratified into number of non-overlapping sub populations or strata and sample items are selected from each stratum. If the items selected from each stratum is based on simple random sampling, the entire procedure, first stratification and then simple random sampling is known as stratified sampling. The stratified sampling results in a more reliable and detailed information. The researcher uses simple random sampling for selection of items from each stratum.

Sample size
Among the 4000 staff in the organization a sample of 100 employees was taken for the study. Using the method of proportional allocation, the numbers of samples are selected from each stratum.

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Tools for data collection
There are several ways of colleting the appropriate data. While deciding about the method of data collection to be used for the study, the researcher should keep in mind, that there are 2 types of data. 1. Primary data 2. Secondary data Primary data are those which are collected a fresh and for the first time and thus happen to be original in character. Primary data can be collected either through experiment or through survey. The secondary data on the other hand are those which have already been collected by someone else and which have already been passed through the statistical process. In this study, the data was collected from the primary source through interview schedule.

1.2.4 Statistical Techniques
This phase consists of the data analysis of the data collected based on the stratified simple random probabilistic sampling technique. The data collected were analyzed using the following methods.

Percentage analysis
The number of responses of each category is summarized to percentage format for the convenience to use other statistical tools namely pie chart and bar diagrams.

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Statistical tools
Chi-square test
This test allows us to determine whether two attributes are independent of each other. In this study chi-square has been used to test if there is an association between various variables and the overall level of satisfaction of safety and welfare measures. X2 = Σ {(Oi – Ei) 2 / Ei } Applying Yates’s correction: X2 = Σ {(|Oi – Ei |- 0.5) 2 / Ei }

Phi Coefficient
Chi-square test tells us about the significance of relation between variables; it provides no answer regarding the magnitude of the relation between the two variables. This can be achieved by computing the Phi coefficient which is a non-parametric measure of coefficient of correlation. It gives the magnitude of the relation or the degree of association between the two variables.

ϕ=

[ X2 / n ]

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CHAPTER-3
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
TABLE-1 TABLE SHOWING THE OPINION ABOUT WORK ENVIRONMENT Grade Satisfied Highly Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied No. of Respondents 8 28 64 0 0 Percentage 8 28 64 0 0

OPINION ABOUT WORK ENVIRONMMENT
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 8 Satisfied Highly Satisfied Average 28 0 Dissatisfied 0 Highly Dissatisfied 64

PARICULARS INFERENCE:

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From the above table it is inferred that 8% of people responded to satisfied, 28% of people responded to highly satisfied, 64% people to average, and 0% of people responded to dissatisfied and highly dissatisfied.

TABLE-2 TABLE SHOWING THE OPINIONABOUT VENTILATION & LIGHTING AT WORK PLACE
Grade Excellent Good Average Bad Very Bad No. of Respondents 12 52 36 0 0 Percentage 12 52 36 0 0

OPINION ABOUT VENTILATION & LIGHTING AT WORK PLACE
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Excellent Good Avearge 12 52 36 0 Bad 0 Very Bad

Axis Title

INFERENCE:

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From the above table it is inferred that 12% of people responded to excellent, 52% of people responded to good, 36% people to average, and 0% of people responded to bad and very bad.

TABLE-3 TABLE SHOWING THE OPINION ABOUT SALARIES/BENEFITS
Grade Satisfied Highly Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied No. of Respondents 20 62 18 0 0 Percentage 20 62 18 0 0

OPINION ABOUT SALARIES/BENEFITS
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Satisfed Highly Satisfied Avearge 20 18 0 Dissatisfied 0 Highly Dissatisfied 62

PARTICULARS

INFERENCE:

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From the above table it is inferred that 20% of people responded to satisfied, 62% of people responded to highly satisfied, 18% people to average, and 0% of people responded to dissatisfied and highly dissatisfied.

Table- 4 TABLE SHOWING THE OPINION ABOUT TIMINGS/SCHEDULES
Grade Satisfied Highly Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied No. of Respondents 20 72 8 0 0 Percentage 20 72 8 0 0

OPINION ABOUT TIMINGS/SCHEDULE
80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

72

20 Satisfed Highly Satisfied

8 Avearge

0 Dissatisfied

0 Highly Dissatisfied

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INFERENCE:
From the above table it is inferred that 20% of people responded to satisfied, 72% of people responded to highly satisfied, 8% people to average, and 0% of people responded to dissatisfied and highly dissatisfied.

Table- 5 TABLE SHOWING THE OPINION ABOUT SAFETY MEASURES AT WORK PLACE
Grade Satisfied Highly Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied No. of Respondents 64 4 19 9 4 Percentage 64 4 19 9 4

OPINION ABOUT SAFETY MEASURES AT WORK PLACE
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Satisfed 4 Highly Satisfied 19 Avearge 9 Dissatisfied 4 Highly Dissatisfied 64

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INFERENCE:
From the above table it is inferred that 64% of people responded to satisfied, 4% of people responded to highly satisfied, 19% people to average, 9% of people responded to dissatisfied and 4% of people responded to highly dissatisfied.

Table- 6 TABLE SHOWING THE OPINION ABOUT PRESENCE OF SAFETY COMMITTEE
Grade Yes No No. of Respondents 60 40 Percentage 60 40

OPINION ABOUT PRESENCE OF SAFETY COMMITTEE
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Yes No 60 40

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INFERENCE:
From the above table it is inferred that 60% of people responded to Yes for presence of safety committee and 40% of people said No.

Table- 7 TABLE SHOWING THE OPINION ABOUT SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
Grade Yes No No. of Respondents 72 28 Percentage 72 28

OPINION ABOUT PRESENCE OF SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Yes No 72

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INFERENCE:
From the above table it is inferred that 72% of people responded to Yes for safety instructions and 28% of people said No.

Table- 8 TABLE SHOWING THE OPINION ABOUT ACCIDENT PREVENTION MEASURES
Grade Good Very Good Average Bad Very Bad No. of Respondents 12 40 36 7 5 Percentage 12 40 36 7 5

OPINION ABOUT ACCIDENT PREVENTION MEASURES
50 40 30 20 10 0 Good Very Good Avearge 40 36

12

7 Bad

5 Very Bad

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INFERENCE:
From the above table it is inferred that 12% of people responded to good, 40% of people responded to very good, 36% people to average, 7% of people responded to bad and 5% of people responded to very bad.

Table- 9 TABLE SHOWING THE OPINION ABOUT FIRST – AID FACILITY
Grade Good Very Good Average Bad Very Bad No. of Respondents 38 22 28 10 2 Percentage 38 22 28 10 2

OPINION ABOUT FIRST – AID FACILITY
40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Good Very Good Avearge Bad 22 38 28 10 2 Very Bad

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INFERENCE:
From the above table it is inferred that 38% of people responded to good, 22% of people responded to very good, 28% people to average, 10% of people responded to bad and 2% of people responded to very bad.

Table- 10 TABLE SHOWING THE OPINION ABOUT ORGANIZATION HEALTH CHECK - UPS
Grade Yearly Half Yearly Quarterly Monthly Not at all No. of Respondents 30 20 20 20 10 Percentage 30 20 20 20 10

OPINION ABOUT ORGANIZATION HEALTH CHECK - UPS
35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Yearly Half Yearly Quarterly Monthly Not at all 30 20 20 20 10

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INFERENCE:
From the above table it is inferred that 30% of people responded to yearly, 20% of people responded to half yearly, 20% people to quarterly, 20% of people responded to monthly and 10% of people responded to not at all.

Table- 11 TABLE SHOWING THE OPINION ABOUT CANTEEN FACILITIES WITHIN THE ORGANIZATION
Grade Yes No No. of Respondents 68 32 Percentage 68 32

OPINION ABOUT CANTEEN FACILITIES
80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Yes No 68 32

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INFERENCE:
From the above table it is inferred that 68% of people responded to Yes to canteen facilities in organization and 32% of people said No.

Table- 12 TABLE SHOWING THE OPINION ABOUT HOUSING FACILITIES TO EMPLOYEES
Grade Yes No No. of Respondents 33 67 Percentage 33 67

OPINION ABOUT HOUSING FACILITIES
80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Yes No 33 67

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INFERENCE:
From the above table it is inferred that 33% of people responded to Yes for housing facilities in organization and 67% of people said No.

Table- 13 TABLE SHOWING THE OPINION ABOUT P.F. BENEFITS
Grade Satisfied Highly Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied No. of Respondents 40 12 44 4 0 Percentage 40 12 44 4 0

OPINION ABOUT P.F. BENEFITS
50 40 30 20 10 0 Satisfed Highly Satisfied Avearge 40 44

12

4 Dissatisfied

0 Highly Dissatisfied

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INFERENCE:
From the above table it is inferred that 40% of people responded to satisfied, 12% of people responded to highly satisfied, 44% people to average, 4% of people responded to dissatisfied and 0% of people responded to highly dissatisfied.

Table- 14 TABLE SHOWING THE OPINION ABOUT TRANSPORTATION
Grade Satisfied Highly Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied No. of Respondents 28 32 18 20 2 Percentage 28 32 18 20 2

OPINION ABOUT TRANSPORTATION
35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Satisfed Highly Satisfied Avearge Dissatisfied 28 32 18 20 2 Highly Dissatisfied

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INFERENCE:
From the above table it is inferred that 64% of people responded to satisfied, 4% of people responded to highly satisfied, 19% people to average, 9% of people responded to dissatisfied and 4% of people responded to highly dissatisfied.

Table- 15 TABLE SHOWING THE OPINION ABOUT INSURANCE FACILITIES
Grade Satisfied Highly Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied No. of Respondents 40 12 44 4 0 Percentage 40 12 44 4 0

OPINION ABOUT INSURANCE FACILITIES
50 40 30 20 10 0 Satisfed Highly Satisfied Avearge 40 12 44

4 Dissatisfied

0 Highly Dissatisfied

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INFERENCE:
From the above table it is inferred that 40% of people responded to satisfied, 12% of people responded to highly satisfied, 44% people to average, 4% of people responded to dissatisfied and 0% of people responded to highly dissatisfied.

Table- 16 TABLE SHOWING THE OPINION ABOUT RETIREMENT BENEFITS
Grade Satisfied Highly Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied No. of Respondents 16 20 52 12 0 Percentage 16 20 52 12 0

OPINION ABOUT RETIREMENT BENEFITS
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Satisfed Highly Satisfied Avearge Dissatisfied 16 20 12 0 Highly Dissatisfied 52

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INFERENCE:
From the above table it is inferred that 16% of people responded to satisfied, 20% of people responded to highly satisfied, 52% people to average, 12% of people responded to dissatisfied and 0% of people responded to highly dissatisfied.

Table- 17 TABLE SHOWING THE OPINION ABOUT PRESENCE OF WELFARE OFFICER
Grade Yes No No. of Respondents 80 20 Percentage 80 20

OPINION ABOUT PRESENCE OF WELFARE OFFICER
90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Yes 20 No 80

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INFERENCE:
From the above table it is inferred that 80% of people responded to Yes for presence of welfare officer in organization and 20% of people said No.

Table- 18 TABLE SHOWING THE OPINION ABOUT WELFARE PROVISIONS
Grade Satisfied Highly Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied No. of Respondents 40 12 40 4 4 Percentage 40 12 40 4 4

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OPINION ABOUT WELFARE PROVISIONS
50 40 30 20 10 0 Satisfed Highly Satisfied Avearge 40 40

12

4 Dissatisfied

4 Highly Dissatisfied

PARTICULARS

INFERENCE:
From the above table it is inferred that 40% of people responded to satisfied, 12% of people responded to highly satisfied, 40% people to average, 4% of people responded to dissatisfied and 4% of people responded to highly dissatisfied.

Table- 19 TABLE SHOWING THE OPINION ABOUT REST PERIODS
Grade Satisfied Highly Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied No. of Respondents 4 28 60 8 0 Percentage 4 28 60 8 0

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OPINION ABOUT REST PERIODS
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 28 4 Satisfed Highly Satisfied Avearge 8 Dissatisfied 0 Highly Dissatisfied 60

PARTICULARS

INFERENCE:

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From the above table it is inferred that 4% of people responded to satisfied, 28% of people responded to highly satisfied, 60% people to average, 8% of people responded to dissatisfied and 0% of people responded to highly dissatisfied.

Table- 20 TABLE SHOWING THE OPINION ABOUT RESPONDING IN CASE OF EMERGENCIES
Grade Good Very Good Average Bad Very Bad No. of Respondents 40 4 32 24 0 Percentage 40 4 32 24 0

OPINION ABOUT RESPONDING IN CASE OF EMERGENCIES
50 40 30 20 10 0 Good 4 Very Good Avearge Bad 40 32 24 0 Very Bad

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INFERENCE:
From the above table it is inferred that 16% of people responded to satisfied, 20% of people responded to highly satisfied, 52% people to average, 12% of people responded to dissatisfied and 0% of people responded to highly dissatisfied.

Table- 11 TABLE SHOWING THE OPINION ABOUT FRINGE BENEFITS
Grade Satisfied Highly Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied No. of Respondents 8 24 52 16 0 Percentage 8 24 52 16 0

OPINION ABOUT FRINGE BENEFITS
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 8 Satisfed Highly Satisfied Avearge 24 16 Dissatisfied 0 Highly Dissatisfied 52

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PARTICULARS

A STUDY ON EMPLOYEE WELFARE MEASURES

INFERENCE:
From the above table it is inferred that 8% of people responded to satisfied, 24% of people responded to highly satisfied, 52% people to average, 16% of people responded to dissatisfied and 0% of people responded to highly dissatisfied. STATISTICAL TOOL CHI SQUARE TABLE AIM To find out significant associates between relationship work environment and P.F. benefits. NULL HYPOTHESIS There is no significance relationship with work environment and P.F. benefits. ATERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS There is significance relationship with work environment and P.F.benefits. OBSERVED FREQUENCY P.F W.E satisfied Highly Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied 4 2 0 10 0 0 30 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 44 4 0 2 0 Satisfied Highly Satisfied 14 4 24 8 0 0 Average Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied 0 0 40 12 Total

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Total

8

28

64

0

0

100

EXPECTED FREQUENCY P.F W.E satisfied Highly Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied 3.52 0.32 0 12.32 1.12 0 28.16 2.56 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3.2 0.96 Satisfied Highly Satisfied 11.2 3.36 25.6 7.68 0 0 Average Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied 0 0

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CHI SQUARE TABLE
Oi 2 14 24 0 4 8 4 10 30 2 0 2 Ei 3.2 11.2 25.6 0.96 3.36 7.68 3.52 12.32 28.16 0.32 1.12 2.56 Oi-Ei -1.2 2.8 -1.6 -0.96 0.64 0.32 0.48 -2.32 1.84 1.68 -1.12 -0.56 (Oi-Ei)² 1.44 7.84 2.56 0.92 0.40 0.10 0.23 5.38 3.38 2.82 1.25 0.31 (Oi-Ei)² / Ei 0.45 0.7 0.1 0.95 0.11 0.01 0.06 0.43 0.137 8.81 1.11 0.12 12.897

Calculated value = 12.987

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Degree of freedom
(r-1) (c-1) (4-1) (5-1) = 12

Level of Significance 5% Table Value = 21.026 Conclusion
Since the calculated value of chi-square is lesser than table value so null hypothesis is accepted.

Inference
There is no significant relationship between work environment and P.F.benefits.

CHAPTER – 4

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A STUDY ON EMPLOYEE WELFARE MEASURES

FINDINGS, SUGGESTIONS AND CONCLUSION

3.1 FINDINGS
3.1.1 Based on Percentage Analysis
1. The study shows that 75% of the respondents opined adequate safety training programmes are conducted at LANCO INDUSTRIES PVT LTD., and 25% of them opined it is not. 2. The study shows that 62% of the respondents have attended safety training programmes and 38% of them have not. 3. The study shows that 10% of the respondents have rated the training programmes as highly effective, 84% have rated it as effective, 5% have no opinion and 1% says it is ineffective. 4. The study shows that 91% of the respondents opined that the management provides safety awareness and 9% opined that it does not. 5. The study shows that a majority of 84% employees feel that LIL mostly creates safety awareness through bulletin boards and the least through safety competitions as only 14% believes that safety awareness is created through safety competitions. 6. The study sho2ws that 36% of the respondents feel that the safety goggles provided are inadequate and 34% feel that the safety measures provided while working on cranes are inadequate. 7. The study shows that 45% of the respondents say that they always make use of the safety measures provided to them, 54% uses them sometimes and 1% never uses it. 8. The study shows that 55% of the respondents opined that the machines, equipments and tools are well designed, 58% opined that they are well maintained and 57% opined that they are well guarded.

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9. The study shows that 35% of the respondents believe that the layout of the workplace is designed to avoid accidents, 21% says it is not so and 44% believe that to an extent the workplace is designed to avoid accidents. 10. The study shows that 46% of the respondents believe that the safety measures provided at LANCO INDUSTRIES PVT LTD., reduce the severity of accidents, 9% believes otherwise and 36% believe that to an extent the safety measures help in reducing the severity of accidents. 11. The study shows that 81% of the respondents feel that always immediate actions are taken to investigate accidents, 14% feel that it is so sometimes and 5% feels that immediate actions are never taken to investigate accidents. 12. The study shows that 56% of the respondents opined that they perceive a risk factor while working at LANCO INDUSTRIES PVT LTD., 33% opined that they do not perceive any risk factor and 11% opined that to an extent they perceive a risk factor. 13. The study shows that 90% of the respondents say that they never avoid work due to the risk involved in it. 9% of the respondents avoids work and 1% always avoids work. 14. The study shows that 21% of the respondents strongly agree that in case of accidents, the management would take good care of them, 56% agree and 19% disagree to this. 4% of the respondents had no opinion on the matter. 15. The study shows that 85% of the respondents feel that the safety measures make them feel more secure while working at LIL and 15% of them feel otherwise.

3.1.2 Based on Statistical Analysis

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1. There is no significant difference in the level of satisfaction of existing safety measures among the different category of workers. 2. There is no dependence between the Mechanical and Traffic departments and the level of satisfaction of existing safety measures. In the Marine department 90% of the respondents are satisfied with the safety measures and 10% are not. 3. There is a significant association between the fact that the employees have attended safety training programmes and their level of satisfaction regarding the existing safety measures. 4. There is a significant association between the perception of risk factor and the level of satisfaction of employees regarding the existing safety measures. 5. There is a significant association between the level of satisfaction of welfare measures among the various category of employees. 6. There is no dependence between the Mechanical and Traffic departments and the level of satisfaction of welfare measures. All the 2 respondents in the H.R department are satisfied with the welfare measures. 7. There is significant association between the level of satisfaction of transport facilities and the overall level of satisfaction of welfare measures. 8. There is no significant association between the level of satisfaction of rest room facilities and the overall level of satisfaction of welfare measures.

3.2 SUGGESTIONS

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The company can ensure that safety training programmes are conducted

for all the employees, since 38% of them opined that they have not undergone any safety training and the statistical analysis show that there is an association between the overall level of satisfaction and the fact that the employees feel that the training that is being provided is not practical. So steps may be adopted to ensure that training is more practical in nature. • The researcher feels that the awareness for the safety is quite low

among the employees. Steps may be undertaken to increase the awareness and need for safety. • The quality of shoes and mask provided may be improved as 59% of

the respondents have thus opined. • The management needs to pay attention to the fact that 45% of the

respondents feel that the machines, equipments and tools are not well designed, 42% feel it is not well maintained, 43% feels it is not well guarded and ding out reasons for the same. • The responses of the employees regarding the level of satisfaction of

welfare measures are clustered in the satisfactory region. The management may take steps to convert these into highly satisfactory. • Since 59% of the employees are not satisfied with the transport

facilities provided by the company, steps may be taken to provide facilities especially for employees who have to work during night shifts. • The conditions of the rest rooms and shelters may be improved

especially in the wharf and electrical sections. They may be provided with adequate fans and facilities to rest. • Canteen facilities may be provided by the company at both wharfs and

the electrical sections.

3.3 CONCLSION

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A study was conducted on the safety and welfare measures provided to the employees of LANCO INDUSTRIES.

A majority of 81% of the respondents was found to be satisfied with the safety measures at, LANCO INDUSTRIES 2% were highly satisfied, 1% was neutral in their opinion and only 16% dissatisfied with the safety measures.

A majority of the respondents feel secure while working at LIL and feel that the safety measures help to reduce the severity of actions. Even though 56% of them perceive a risk factor while working at LIL, a majority of 90% never avoid work due to this risk factor.

The study again shows that there is a clustering of respondents’ opinion in the satisfactory region regarding the level of satisfaction of welfare measures. This reveals that a majority of respondents are satisfied with the existing welfare measures. The management may take up steps to convert these into highly satisfactory.

The few welfare measures which were dissatisfactory were transport facilities, rest room facilities and the time lapse in compassionate appointments. The management may concentrate on these areas to increase the satisfaction level of employees towards the welfare measures.

CHAPTER- 5

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QUESTIONNAIRE I
PERSONAL DETAILS Name (Optional) Age : : Up to 20 > 50 Category Designation Department Gender Marital Status : : : : : Highly Skilled Skilled Unskilled 21- 30 31- 40 41- 50

………………………………………………. Mechanical Male Single 10th Graduate Traffic Female Married 12th Post Graduate 6- 10 yrs > 20 yrs. Diploma Others 11-15 yrs Marine Others

Educational Level :

Length of service :

up to 5 yrs 16- 20 yrs

II SAFETY
1. Industries? Yes No Are adequate safety training programmes conducted for the employees of Lanco

2. Have you attended any safety training programme conducted by the Lanco Industries? Yes No

If yes, how was the safety training programme? Highly Effective Ineffective Effective No Opinion Ineffective Highly

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3. Does the Management provide awareness programmes relating to safety? Yes No

If yes, what are the measures undertaken by LANCO INDUSTRIES to bring about awareness for safety needs? Observance of safety weeks Safety Competitions Talks on safety Bulletin Boards/ Slogans Pamphlets Booklets House Magazines 4. What is your opinion about the following? Provision of safety measures Safety helmets Safety outfits Safety goggles Leather gloves Safety shoes Safety boots Safety mask Life saving Appliances Safety measures provided for Cranes Adequate Inadequate No Opinion

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Forks lift Trucks Hatches Hazardous Cargo 5. Do you make use of the above safety measures provided to you? Always Sometimes Never No Opinion

6. Are the machines, equipments and tools: Yes Well Designed Well Maintained Well Guarded 7. Is the layout of the workplace properly designed to avoid accidents? Yes No To an extent No Opinion No

8. Do the safety measures help in reducing the severity of accidents? Yes No To an extent No Opinion

9. Are immediate actions taken to investigate accidents? Always Sometimes Never No Opinion

10. Do you perceive any risk factor while working at Lanco Industries? Yes No To an extent No Opinion

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III Welfare
11. Are you happy with the welfare provided at Lanco Industries? Yes No To an extent No Opinion

12. Welfare measures help to Strongly Agree- SA Strongly Disagree- SD SA Create better industrial relations Build greater loyalty to the company Helps faster team spirit 13. What is your opinion about the following welfare measures at Lanco Industries? Highly Satisfactory- Hs Dissatisfactory- D Satisfactory- S Neutral- N A N D SD Agree- A No Opinion- N Disagree- D

Highly Dissatisfactory- HD HS S N D HD

Medical facilities Canteen facilities Rest room facilities Recreational facilities Cultural facilities Family Planning Programmes

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Educational facilities Transport facilities Co-operative Establishments Housing facilities Shopping facilities First Aid facilities Ex-gratia payments Compassionate Appointment 14. Do the welfare measures satisfy your needs? Always Sometimes Never No Opinion

15. Do the welfare measures help in solving the problems faced by employees? Always Sometimes Never No Opinion

16. What is your level of satisfaction regarding welfare measures? Highly Satisfied Dissatisfied Satisfied Neutral

Highly Dissatisfied

17. Have you ever been disappointed by any of the welfare measures? Yes No

If yes, (kindly specify)…………………………………….. 18. What are the welfare measures you feel should be improved? Kindly specify. ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………...

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Thank you

Bibliography

 KEITH DEVIS: HUMAN RELATIONS MANAGEMENT, Tata McGraw Hill

 STEPHEN P. ROBBINS: ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR, Pearson Education

 NAIR and LATHABOGOLIALA: LABOUR LAWS, Prentice Hall of India

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