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PHI - mm

Decimal inches
SIEVE Settling

equivalent to sieve size


SIZE TERMS Threshold

Fractional mm
Number

Intermediate diameters
COVERSION
φ = log 2 (d in mm) SIZES of grains Velocity Velocity

of natural grains
1µm = 0.001mm (after

and
Wentworth,1922) per mg (Quartz, for traction
φ

(U.S. Standard)
20°C) cm/sec
mm

ASTM No.

Mesh No.

(Gibbs, 1971)

(modified from
Hjuistrom,1939)
-8

Tyler
256 10.1"

(Nevin,1946)
Spheres

Crushed
spheres

Natural
Quartz

sand
200 BOULDERS
> -8φ )
(_
-7 128 5.04"
cm/sec
100 COBBLES 200
1m
above
-6 64.0 2.52" 2 1/2" bottom
53.9 2.12" 2"
50 very
45.3
40 coarse 150
33.1 1 1/2" 1 1/2"
-5 30 32.0 1.26" 1 1/4"
26.9 1.06" 1.05"
22.6 coarse 50
20 17.0 3/4" 100
.742"
-4
PEBBLES

16.0 0.63" 5/8" 90 40 100


13.4 1/2" .525"
11.3 medium 7/16" 80 90
10 9.52 3/8" .371" 30
70 80
-3 8.00 0.32" 5/16"
6.73 .265" 3 60
5.66 fine 70
5 4.76 4 4 50
-2 4 4.00 0.16" 5 5 60 100
very 20
3.36 6 6 40
3 2.83 fine 7 7
2.38 Granules 8 8 30 50
-1 2 2.00 0.08" 10 9
1.63 inches very 12 10
1.41 coarse 14 12 20 50
mm 16 14 40
1.19 10
0 1 1.00 1 18 16 1.2 .72 .6 9 40
.840 20 20 8
.707 coarse 25 24 .86 2.0 1.5 10 7
.545 30 28 6 30
1 .5 .500 1/2 35 32 .59 5.6 4.5 8
7 5 30
SAND

.4 .420 40 35 6
.354 medium 45 42 .42 15 13 5 4
.3 .297 50 48 4
2 .250 1/4 60 60 .30 43 35 3 3
.2 .210 70 65 20 26
.177 fine 80 80 .215 120 91 2 2
.149 100 100 Minimum
3 .125 1/8 120 115 .155 350 240 (Inman,1949)
1
.1 .105 very 140 150 1.0
.088 fine 170 170 .115 1000 580
.074 200 200 0.5 0.5
4 .062 1/16 230 250 .080 2900 1700 0.329
.05 .053 270 270
Note: The relation between the beginning
depends on the height above the bottom

.044 coarse 325 325


that the velocity is measured, and on

.04
of traction transport and the velocity

.037 400 0.1


5 .03 .031 1/32 0.085
Note: Sieve openings differ by as
Note: Some sieve openings differ

much as 2% from phi mm scale

medium
.02
Stokes Law (R = 6πrηv)
Note: Applies to subangular to

Note: Applies to subangular to


SILT

slightly from phi mm scale

6 .016 1/64 0.023


subrounded quartz sand

subrounded quartz sand

other factors.

fine 0.01
.01
7 .008 1/128 0.0057
( in mm )

very
.005 fine
8 .004 .004 1/256
Clay/Silt
0.0014
0.001
.003 boundary
for mineral
CLAY

analysis
9 .002 .002 1/512 0.00036

0.0001
10 .001 .001 1/1024