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Psychoactive Substances Notes

Psychoactive Substances Notes

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Published by: I.O on Aug 08, 2010
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have the ability to change an individual’s consciousness, mood or thinking processes.

Cocaine administration has been associated with a marked increase in the number of dendritic spines of the neurons of the nucleus accumbens and the prefrontal cortex -Thus, the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, lateral caudate-putamen, substantia nigra, pars reticulata, globus pallidus, entopeduncular nucleus and the molecular layer of the cerebellum are all populated with particularly high concentrations of CB1 receptors -It has been shown in several studies (as reviewed in Ameri, 1999) that long-term exposure to cannabis can produce long-lasting cognitive impairment, which may be due to residue drug in the brain, withdrawal reaction or direct neurotoxicity of cannabinoids, tar, carboxyhaemoglobin or benzopyrene. (...the norwegian study on schizophrenia)There is some evidence of impaired ability to focus attention and filter out irrelevant information, which increases with the number of years of use but is unrelated to frequency of use.(... latent inhibition & learned irrelevance in schizophrenia_)

-Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by hyperactivity,
impulsivity and deficits in attention that are not appropriate for a child’s developmental age. Psychostimulants, such as methylphenidate, are used in the treatment of ADHD.

-Schizophrenia is

associated with excessive activity in mesolimbic and mesocortical dopamine pathways -Experimental studies over several decades in humans have clearly indicated that although acute amphetamine administration exacerbates the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, chronic administration diminishes the negative symptoms -All of the above data suggest ways by which the use of psychoactive substances would self-medicate symptoms of schizophrenia by enhancing glutamatergic neurotransmission in order to counteract a possible hypoglutamatergia that may characterize this disease.

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