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Torque

Torque

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TORQUE Program Example Calculation - Metric Units Presented below are the results from TORQUE for a M12

Grade 8.8 bolt with a nylon patch type locking device that creates a prevailing torque. (These calculations are in metric units, the TORQUE program can also work in units of inches and pounds and work with the unified thread form.)
TORQUE TIGHTENING ANALYSIS RESULTS Example calculation for a M12 bolt. Torque tightening analysis for a M12 bolt. FASTENER DETAILS Fastener Diameter Fastener Shank Diameter Thread Pitch Included angle between the thread flanks Thread Pitch Diameter Thread Root Diameter Diameter related to the Thread Stress Area Thread Stress Area Thread Root Area Bearing Area under Nut/Bolt Head Fastener Outer Bearing Diameter Fastener Inner Bearing Diameter Fastener Clearance Hole Diameter Effective friction diameter of nut/bolt Fastener Yield Strength = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 12.00 mm 12.00 mm 1.75 mm 60.00 degrees 10.863 mm 9.853 mm 10.358 mm 84.264 mm² 76.248 mm² 99.620 mm² 17.20 mm 13.00 mm 13.00 mm 15.20 mm 640.00 N/mm²

JOINT ASSEMBLY DETAILS Black oxide steel external thread, no finish on steel internal thread, no lubricant. Black oxide steel nut or bolt, no oil, machined steel bearing surface. Prevailing torque caused by a nylon/polyester patch on the threads. Thread Friction Value = 0.120 Nut/Bolt Head Friction Value = 0.120 TORQUE TIGHTENING ANALYSIS RESULTS Yield Point Tightening Factor specified Total Tightening Torque This torque is composed from: Torque needed to extend the fastener Torque needed to overcome thread friction Torque needed to overcome nutface friction Prevailing Torque Value = 0.90 = 83.64 Nm = = = = 8.98 Nm 24.26 Nm 29.40 Nm 21.00 Nm

FORCE ANALYSIS RESULTS Fastener Preload = 32239.37 N Direct Force that would Yield the Fastener = 53928.91 N Preload as a percentage of Yield Force = 59.78 %

MAXIMUM STRESSES INDUCED INTO THE FASTENER Percentage of the yield strength utilised Von-Mises Equivalent Stress Tensile Stress due to Preload Torsional Stress due to the applied torque Surface Pressure under the Nut Face

= = = = =

90.00 % 576.00 N/mm² 382.60 N/mm² 248.59 N/mm² 323.62 N/mm²

Bolt Preload Calculation
Question: How is bolt installation preload calculated? Answer: Bolt pretension, also called preload or prestress, comes from the installation torque T you apply when you install the bolt. The inclined plane of the bolt thread helix converts torque to bolt pretension. Bolt preload is computed as follows. Pi = T/(K D) (Eq. 1)

where Pi = bolt preload (called Fi in Shigley). T = bolt installation torque. K = torque coefficient. D = bolt nominal shank diameter (i.e., bolt nominal size). Torque coefficient K is a function of thread geometry, thread coefficient of friction µ t, and collar coefficient of friction µ c. Look up K for your specific thread interface and collar (bolt head or nut annulus) interface materials, surface condition, and lubricant (if any). ("Torque specs for screws," Shigley, and various other sources discuss various K value estimates.) If you cannot find or obtain K from credible references or sources for your specific interfaces, then you would need to research to try to find the coefficients of friction for your specific interfaces, then calculate K yourself using one of the following two formulas listed below (Shigley, Mechanical Engineering Design, 5 ed., McGrawHill, 1989, p. 346, Eq. 8-19, and MIL-HDBK-60, 1990, Sect. 100.5.1, p. 26, Eq. 100.5.1, respectively), the latter being far simpler. K = {[(0.5 dp)(tan λ + µ t sec β )/(1 – µ t tan λ sec β )] + [0.625 µ c D]}/D (Eq. 2) K = {[0.5 p/π ] + [0.5 µ t (D – 0.75 p sin α )/sin α ] + [0.625 µ c D]}/D (Eq. 3)

where D = bolt nominal shank diameter. p = thread pitch (bolt longitudinal distance per thread). α = thread profile angle = 60° (for M, MJ, UN, UNR, and UNJ thread profiles). β = thread profile half angle = 60°/2 = 30°. tan λ = thread helix angle tan = p/(π dp). dp = bolt pitch diameter. µ t = thread coefficient of friction. µ c = collar coefficient of friction. D and p can be obtained from bolt tables such as Standard Metric and USA Bolt Shank Dimensions. The three terms in Eq. 3 are axial load component (coefficient) of torque resistance due to (1) thread helix inclined plane normal force, (2) thread helix inclined plane tangential (thread friction) force, and (3) bolt head or nut washer face friction force, respectively. However, whether you look up K in references or calculate it yourself, the engineer must understand that using theoretical equations and typical values for K and coefficients of friction merely gives a preload estimate. Coefficient of friction data in published tables vary widely, are often tenuous, and are often not specific to your specific interface combinations and lubricants. Such things as unacknowledged surface condition variations and ignored dirt in the internal thread can skew the results and produce a false indication of preload. The engineer and technician must understand that published K values apply to perfectly clean interfaces and lubricants (if any). If, for example, the threads of a steel, zinc-plated, K = 0.22, "dry" installation fastener were not clean, this might cause K to increase to a value of 0.32 or even higher. One should also note that published K values are intended to be used when applying the torque to the nut. The K values will change in relation to fastener length and assembly running torque if the torque is being read from the bolt head. One should measure the nut or assembly "running" torque with an accurate, small-scale torque wrench. ("Running" torque, also called prevailing torque, is defined as the torque when all threads are fully engaged, fastener is in motion, and washer face has not yet made contact.) The only torque that generates bolt preload is the torque you apply above running torque. A few more things to be aware of are as follows. Bolt proof strength Sp is the maximum tensile stress the bolt material can withstand without encountering permanent deformation. Published bolt yield strengths are determined at room temperature. Heat will lower the yield strength (and proof strength) of a fastener. Especially in critical situations, you should never reuse a fastener unless you are certain the fastener has never been yielded.

1.1 Bolt Preload Measurement
If a more accurate answer for bolt preload is needed than discussed above, the specific combination and lubricant would have to be measured instead of calculated. Measurement methods are generally involved, time-consuming, and expensive, and are beyond the scope of this article. But perhaps one of the simplest and least expensive methods, to test specific combinations and lubricants, is to measure the installed fastener with a micrometer, if possible, and compute torque coefficient K as follows, per Shigley, op. cit., p. 345, para. 2. K = T L/(E A delta D) (Eq. 4)

Where T = bolt installation torque, L = bolt grip length, E = bolt modulus of elasticity, A = bolt cross-sectional area, D = bolt nominal shank diameter, and delta = measured bolt elongation in units of length.

Bolt Torque Chart
Suggested Starting Values
The below estimated torque calculations are only offered as a guide. Use of its content by anyone is the sole responsibility of that person and they assume all risk. Due to many variables that affect the torque-tension relationship like human error, surface texture, and lubrication the only way to determine the correct torque is through experimentation under actual joint and assembly conditions. Learn more about torque and tension.

ASTM A307
Proof Load (lbs) Clamp Load (lbs) Tightening Torque (ft lbs) Waxed 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 1/2 9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1 1/8 1 1/4 1 3/8 1 1/2 1 3/4 2 2 1/4 2 1/2 20 18 16 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 7 6 6 5 4 1/2 4 1/2 4 1145 1886 2790 3827 5108 6552 8136 12024 15200 20000 25200 32000 38100 46400 68400 90000 117000 144000 859 1415 2093 2870 3831 4914 6102 9018 11400 15000 18900 24000 28575 34800 51300 67500 87750 108000 2 4 7 10 16 23 32 56 83 125 177 250 327 435 748 1125 1645 2250 Galv 4 9 16 26 40 58 79 141 208 313 443 625 819 1088 1870 2813 4113 5625 Plain 4 7 13 21 32 46 64 113 166 250 354 500 655 870 1496 2250 3291 4500

Bolt Size

TPI

2 3/4 3 3 1/4 3 1/2 3 3/4 4

4 4 4 4 4 4

177480 214920 255600 299880 347760 398880

133110 161190 191700 224910 260820 299160

3050 4030 5192 6560 8151 9972

7626 10074 12980 16400 20377 24930

6101 8060 10384 13120 16301 19944

SAE GRADE 2
Proof Load (lbs) Clamp Load (lbs) Tightening Torque (ft lbs) Waxed 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 1/2 9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1 1/8 1 1/4 1 3/8 1 1/2 20 18 16 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 7 6 6 1750 2900 4250 5850 7800 10000 12400 18400 15200 20000 25200 32000 38100 46400 1313 2175 3188 4388 5850 7500 9300 13800 11400 15000 18900 24000 28575 34800 3 6 10 16 24 35 48 86 83 125 177 250 327 435 Galv 7 14 25 40 61 88 121 216 208 313 443 625 819 1088 Plain 5 11 20 32 49 70 97 173 166 250 354 500 655 870

Bolt Size

TPI

ASTM A325 / ASTM A449 / SAE GRADE 5
Bolt Size TPI Proof Load (lbs) Clamp Load (lbs) Tightening Torque (ft lbs)

Waxed 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 1/2 9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1 1/8 1 1/4 1 3/8 1 1/2 1 3/4 2 2 1/4 2 1/2 2 3/4 3 20 18 16 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 7 6 6 5 4 1/2 4 1/2 4 4 4 2700 4450 6600 9050 12050 15450 19200 28400 39250 51500 56450 71700 85450 104000 104500 137500 178750 220000 271150 328350 2025 3338 4950 6788 9038 11588 14400 21300 29438 38625 42338 53775 64088 78000 78375 103125 134063 165000 203363 246263 4 9 15 25 38 54 75 133 215 322 397 560 734 975 1143 1719 2514 3438 4660 6157

Galv 11 22 39 62 94 136 188 333 537 805 992 1400 1836 2438 2857 4297 6284 8594 11651 15391

Plain 8 17 31 49 75 109 150 266 429 644 794 1120 1469 1950 2286 3438 5027 6875 9321 12313

ASTM A193 B7
Proof Load (lbs) Clamp Load (lbs) Tightening Torque (ft lbs) Waxed 1/4 5/16 3/8 20 18 16 3350 5500 8150 2513 4125 6113 5 11 19 Galv 13 27 48 Plain 10 21 38

Bolt Size

TPI

7/16 1/2 9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1 1/8 1 1/4 1 3/8 1 1/2 1 3/4 2 2 1/4 2 1/2 2 3/4 3 3 1/4 3 1/2 3 3/4 4

14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 7 6 6 5 4 1/2 4 1/2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

11150 14900 19100 23750 35050 48500 63650 80100 101750 121300 147550 199500 262500 341250 420000 468500 567150 674500 791350 917700 1052600

8363 11175 14325 17813 26288 36375 47738 60075 76313 90975 110663 149625 196875 255938 315000 351263 425363 505875 593513 688275 789450

30 47 67 93 164 265 398 563 795 1042 1383 2182 3281 4799 6563 8050 10634 13701 17311 21509 26315

76 116 168 232 411 663 995 1408 1987 2606 3458 5455 8203 11997 16406 20124 26585 34252 43277 53771 65788

61 93 134 186 329 530 796 1126 1590 2085 2767 4364 6563 9598 13125 16100 21268 27402 34622 43017 52630

ASTM A354-BD / ASTM A490 / SAE GRADE 8
Proof Load (lbs) Clamp Load (lbs) Tightening Torque (ft lbs) Waxed 1/4 5/16 3/8 20 18 16 3800 6300 9300 2850 4725 6975 6 12 22 Plain 12 25 44

Bolt Size

TPI

7/16 1/2 9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1 1/8 1 1/4 1 3/8 1 1/2 1 3/4 2 2 1/4 2 1/2 2 3/4 3 3 1/4 3 1/2 3 3/4 4

14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 7 6 6 5 4 1/2 4 1/2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

12750 17050 21850 27100 40100 55450 72700 91550 120000 138600 168600 228000 300000 390000 480000 517650 626850 745500 874650 1014300 1163400

9563 12788 16388 20325 30075 41588 54525 68663 90000 103950 126450 171000 225000 292500 360000 388238 470138 559125 655988 760725 872550

35 53 77 106 188 303 454 644 938 1191 1581 2494 3750 5484 7500 8897 11753 15143 19133 23773 29085

70 107 154 212 376 606 909 1287 1875 2382 3161 4988 7500 10969 15000 17794 23507 30286 38266 47545 58100

Notes: 1. Values calculated using industry accepted formula T = KDP where T = Torque, K = torque coefficient (dimensionless), D = nominal diameter (inches), P = bolt clamp load, lb. 2. K values: waxed (e.g. pressure wax as supplied on high strength nuts) = .10, hot dip galvanized = .25, and plain non-plated bolts (as received) = .20. 3. 4. Torque has been converted into ft/lbs by dividing the result of the formula by 12 All calculations are for Coarse Thread Series (UNC).

5.

Grade 2 calculations only cover fasteners 1/4"-3/4" in diameter up to 6" long; for longer fasteners the torque is reduced significantly.

6. 7.

Clamp loads are based on 75% of the minimum proof loads for each grade and size. Proof load, stress area, yield strength, and other data is based on IFI 7th Edition (2003) Technical Data N-68, SAE J429, ASTM A307, A325, A354, A449, and A490.

Methods of Tightening Threaded Fasteners
We have a web site dedicated to training, have a look at www.bolting.info - the material on this site provides additional information on this topic. One of the major problems with the use of bolted joints is the precision, with regard to achieving an accurate preload, of the bolt tightening method selected. Insufficient preload, caused by an inaccurate tightening method, is a frequent cause of bolted joint failure. It is important for the Designer to appreciate the features and characteristics of the main methods employed to tighten bolts. Presented below is a brief summary of the major

bolt tightening methods. Note however that whatever method is used to tighten a bolt, a degree of bolt preload scatter is to be expected. There are six main methods used to control the preload of a threaded fastener. Specifically: 1. Torque control tightening. 2. Angle control tightening. 3. Yield controlled tightening. 4. Bolt stretch method. 5. Heat tightening. 6. Use of tension indicating methods. Torque Control Tightening Controlling the torque which a fastener is tightened to is the most popular means of controlling preload. The nominal torque necessary to tighten the bolt to a given preload can be determined either from tables, or, by calculation using a relationship between torque and the resulting bolt tension. When a bolt is tightened the shank sustains a direct stress, due to the elongation strain, together with a torsional stress, due to the torque acting on the threads. Most tables of bolt tightening torques ignore the torsional stress and assume a direct stress in the threads of some proportion of the bolts yield stress, usually 75%. For high frictional conditions the magnitude of the torsional stress can be such that when combined with the direct stress, an equivalent stress over yield can result, leading to failure. A more consistent approach is to determine the magnitude of the direct stress which, when combined with the torsional, will give an equivalent stress of some proportion of yield. The proportion commonly used with this approach is 90%. Torque prevailing fasteners (such as Nyloc, Cleveloc nuts etc.) are often used where there exists a risk of vibration loosening. The prevailing torque has the effect of increasing the torsional stress in the bolt shank during tightening. This affects the conversion of the tightening torque into bolt preload and should be allowed for when determining the correct torque value for this type of fastener.

As can been seen by study of the above chart, a fundamental problem with torque tightening is that because the majority of the torque is used to overcome friction (usually between 85% and 95% of the applied torque), slight variations in the frictional conditions can lead to large changes in the bolt preload. This effect can be reduced by the use of so called friction stabilisers. These are substances which are coated onto the fasteners to reduce the frictional scatter. Other ways to improve the accuracy of the method are: 1. Do not use plain washers; their use can result in relative motion to change from the nut to washer, to washer to joint surface, during tightening. This as the effect of changing the friction radius and hence affects the torque-tension relationship. If, because of excessive bearing pressure, a larger bearing face is required, thought should be given to the use of flanged nuts and bolts. 2. Determine the correct tightening torque by the completion of tests. Strain gauges can be attached to the bolt shank and tightening completed on the actual joint. A load cell

under the bolt head can be used, however it is not as accurate as strain gauging, since the joint characteristics have been changed. 3. If it is not feasible to establish by testwork the actual tightening torque, determine the tightening torque using the best information available i.e. fastener finish, nut head bearing surface size and prevailing torque characteristics, if applicable. (The computer program TORQUE developed by Bolt Science can allow for all these effects.) 4. Ensure that the tightening torque value is specified on the assembly drawing. Quotation of a plus or minus 5% tolerance is good practice. More unusually, quote that a calibrated torque wrench is to be used to check the torque after installation. The method used to tighten the bolt has a significant influence on the preload scatter (see below). Angle Controlled Tightening This method, also known as turn of the nut method, was introduced for manual assembly shortly after the second World War when a certain tightening angle was specified. The method has been applied for use with power wrenches, the bolt being tightened to a predetermined angle beyond the elastic range and results in a small variation in the preload due, in part, to the yield stress tolerance. The main disadvantages of this method lie in the necessity for precise, and, if possible, experimental determination of the angle; also the fastener can only sustain a limited number of re-applications before it fails. Yield Controlled Tightening This method, developed by the SPS organisation, is also known under the proprietary name "Joint Control Method". Very accurate preloads can be achieved by this method by minimising the influence of friction and its scatter. The method has its roots in a craftsman's "sense of feel" on the wrench which allowed him to detect the yield point of the fastener with reasonable precision. With the electronic equivalent of this method, a control system is used which is sensitive to the torque gradient of the bolt being tightened. Rapid detection of the change in slope of this gradient indicates the yield point has been reached and stops the tightening process. This is achieved by incorporating sensors to read torque and angle during the tightening process. Since angle of rotation and torque are both measured by the control system, permissible values can be used to detect fasteners which lie outside their specification (having too low a yield for example). A small degree of preload scatter still results from this method due to the influence of friction. The method detects the yield point of the fastener under the action of combined tension and torsion. The higher the thread friction, the higher the torsional stress, which, for a given yield value, results in a lower preload due to a lower direct stress. The method has been used in critical applications, such as cylinder head and conn-rod bolts, in order that consistently high preloads can be achieved (which can allow smaller bolts to be used). However, because of the cost of the tools necessary to use this method (a hand wrench incorporating the control circuitry costs many times more than a conventional torque wrench), widespread adoption of this method is unlikely. (Although manufacturers may be able to invest in the equipment, unless service staff have similar

equipment, the Designer cannot depend upon high preloads being maintained in the field.) Bolt Stretch Method A problem relating to the tightening of large bolts is that very high tightening torques are required. Although this can be partly overcome by the use of hydraulic torque wrenches (the reaction of the torque however can be a problem), the use of hydraulic tensioning devices is commonplace for bolts over 20mm in diameter. The method uses a small hydraulic ram which fits over the nut, the threaded portion of the bolt/stud protrudes well past the nut and a threaded puller is attached. Hydraulic oil from a small pump acts upon the hydraulic ram which in turn acts upon the puller. This is transmitted to the bolt resulting in extension occurring. The nut can then be rotated by hand with the aid of an integral socket aided by a tommy bar. Control of the hydraulic pressure effectively controls the preload in the bolt. A small amount of preload reduction however does occur when the pressure is removed as the nut elastically deforms under the load. Removal of nuts corroded to the bolts can be a problem with this method. Heat Tightening Heat tightening utilises the thermal expansion characteristics of the bolt. The bolt is heated and expands: the nut is indexed (using the angle of turn method) and the system allowed to cool. As the bolt attempts to contract it is constrained longitudinally by the clamped material and a preload results. Methods of heating include direct flame, sheathed heating coil and carbon resistance elements. The process is slow, especially if the strain in the bolt is to be measured, since the system must return to ambient temperature for each measurement. This is not a widely used method and is generally used only on very large bolts. Tension Indicating Methods This category includes the use of special load indicating bolts, load indicating washers and the use of methods which determine the length change of the fastener. There are a wide number of ways bolt tension can be indirectly measured and the discussion presented here is not exhaustive. Special bolts have been designed which will give an indication of the force in the bolt. One such fastener is the Rotabolt which measures bolt extension by the use of a central gauge pin which passes down a centrally drilled hole in the bolt. Underneath the head of the gauge pin, a rota is retained which is free to spin in a very accurately set gap. The fastener stretches elastically, whereas the gauge pin does not move since it experiences no load. As tightening continues, the bolt will stretch sufficiently to eliminate the gap and prevent the rota from being able to be rotated. This is the indication that the bolt is correctly loaded. Another proprietary fastener uses a similar method. The HiBolt uses a pin located centrally down the bolt as does the Rotabolt except the pin is gripped by the slight contraction of the bolt diameter; the pin being locked when the correct preload is reached.

The use of load indicating washers is widespread in structural engineering. Such washers have small raised pips on their surface which plastically deform under load. The correct preload is achieved when a predetermined gap is present between the washer and the underhead of the bolt. This is measured using feeler gauges. Generally they are not used in mechanical engineering, but are, extensively, in civil engineering. The extension which a bolt experiences can be measured either using a micrometer or by a more sophisticated means such as using ultrasonics. The extension can be related to preload either directly, by calibration, or indirectly, by calculation. If ultrasonic measurement is used then the end of the bolt shank and the head may require surface grinding to give a good acoustic reflector. To assist the Engineer in overcoming the problems associated with the use of threaded fasteners and bolted joints, Bolt Science has developed a number of computer programs. These programs are designed to be easy to use so that an engineer without detailed knowledge in this field can solve problems related to this subject.

Suggested Tightening Torque Values to Produce Corresponding Bolt Clamping Loads
SAE Grade 2 Bolts Bolt Size Diam. Stress Tensile Area Strngth Proof Load Clamp T Loa Dry D(in.) A(in²) min psi 4-40 0.1120 .00604 74,000 4-48 0.1120 .00661 psi P (lb) 55,000 240 280 5 6 que Strength Load Load 380 420 Dry 8 9 Lub. 6 7 Lub. 4 120,000 85,000 5 TorTensile Proof Clamp T -que Load 480 520 Dry 11 12 Lub. 8 9 SAE Grde 5 Bolts Tor Clamp Tight que Load 540 600 Dry Lub. 12 13 9 10 SAE Grade 7 TorClamp T que SAE Grade 8 Tor-

6-32 0.1380 .00909 6-40 0.1380 .01015 8-32 0.1640 .01400 8-36 0.1640 .01474 10-24 0.1900 .01750 10-32 0.1900 .02000 1/4-20 0.2500 0.0318 1/4-28 0.2500 0.0364 5/16-18 0.3125 0.0524 5/16-24 0.3125 0.0580 3/8-16 0.3750 0.0775 3/8-24 0.3750 0.0878 7/16-14 0.4375 0.1063

380 420 580 600 720 820 1320 1500 2160 2400 3200 3620 4380

10 12 19 20 27 31 66 76 11 12 20 23 30

8 9 14 15 21 23 49 56 8 9 15 17 24

580 640 900 940 1120 1285 2020 2320 3340 3700 4940 5600 6800

16 18 30 31 43 49 96 120 17 19 30 35 50

12 13 22 23 32 36 75 86 13 14 23 25 35

720 800 1100 1160 1380 1580 2500 2880 4120 4580 6100 6900 8400

20 22 36 38 52 60 120 144 21 24 40 41 60

15 17 27 29 39 45 96 108 16 18 30 30 45

820 920 1260 1320 1580 1800 2860 3280 4720 5220 7000 7900 9550

23 25 41 43 60 68 144 168 25 25 45 50 70

17 19 31 32 45 51 108 120 18 20 35 35 55

7/16-20 0.4375 0.1187 1/2-13 0.5000 0.1419 1/2-13 0.5000 0.1599 9/16-12 0.5625 0.1820 9/16-18 0.5625 0.2030

4900 5840 6600 7500 8400

35 50 55 70 80

25 35 40 55 60

7550 9050 10700 11600 12950

55 75 90 110 120

40 55 65 80 90

9350 11200 12600 14350 16000

70 95 100 135 150

50 70 80 100 110

10700 12750 14400 16400 18250

80 110 120 150 170

60 80 90 110 130

5/8-11 0.6250 0.2260 5/8-18 0.6250 0.2560 3/4-10 0.7500 0.3340 3/4-16 0.7500 0.3730

9300 100 10600 110

75 85

14400 16300 21300 23800 29400

150 170 260 300 430

110 130 200 220 320

17800 20150 26300

190 210 320

140 160 240 280 400

20350 23000 30100

220 240 380

170 180 280 320 460

13800 175 130 15400 195 145

29400 360 36400 520

33600 420 41600 600

7/8-9 0.8750 0.4620 60,000 33,000 11400 165 125

7/8-14 0.8750 0.5090 1-8 1.0000 0.6060 1-12 1.0000 0.6630 1-1/4 7 1.1250 0.7630 1-1/4 12 1.1250 0.8560 1-1/4 7 1.2500 0.9690 1-1/4 12 1.2500 1.0730 1-3/8 6 1.3750 1.1550 1-3/812 1.3750 1.3150 1-3/8 6 1.5000 1.4050 1-1/2 12 1.5000 1.5800

12600 185 140 15000 250 190 16400 270 200 18900 350 270 21200 400 300 24000 500 380 26600 550 420 28600 660 490 32500 740 560 34800 870 650 39100 980 730

32400 38600 42200 105,000 74,000 42300 47500

470 640 700 800 880

350 480 530 600 660 840 920

40100 47700 52200

580 800 860

440 600 660 840 940

45800 54500

660 900

500 680 740 960

597 1100 68700 1280

60100 1120 67400 1260

77000 1440 1080 87200 1820 1361

53800 1120 59600 1240

76300 1580 1100

84500 1760 1320 116600 2000 1500 91000 2080 1560 104000 2380 1780

64100 1460 1100

73000 1680 1260 104000 2380 1780 118400 2720 2040 78000 1940 1460 111000 2780 2080 126500 3160 2360 87700 2200 1640 124005 3100 2320 142200 3560 2660

Notes:

1. Tightening torque values are calculated from the formula T = KDP, where T= tightening torque. lb-in. K=torque-friction coefficient; D = nominal bolt diameter. in; and P = bolt clamp load developed by tightening. lb. 2. Clamp load is also known as preload or initial load in tension on bolt. Clamp load (lb) is calculated by arbitrarily assuming usable bolt strength is 75% of bolt proof load(psi) times tensile stress area(sq in.) of threaded section of each bolt size. Higher or lower values of clamp load can be used depending on the application requirements and the judgement of the designer. 3. Tensile strength (min psi) of all Grade 7 bolts is 133,000. Proof load is 105,000 psi. 4. Tensile strength (min psi) of all Grade 8 bolts is 150,000 psi. Proof load is 120,000 psi. Ref.:Fastening Reference, Machine Design, Nov 1977.

What is the Proper Torque to Use on a Given Bolt
by Joe Greenslade

"What torque should I use to tighten my bolts?" is a question suppliers of bolts are frequently asked by end user customers. Many times I have been asked if a chart is published on the recommended tightening torque for various bolt grades and sizes. I do not know of any. This article provides such a chart for "Initial Target Tightening Torque. See Figure 1. The formula for generating these values is explained below.
It

The widely recognized engineering formula, T= K x D x P (to be explained later in this article), was used to provide the chart's values, but it must be understood that every bolted joint is unique and the optimum

tightening torque should be determined for each application by careful experimentation. A properly tightened bolt is one that is stretched such that it acts like a very ridged spring pulling mating surfaces together. The rotation of a bolt (torque) at some point causes it to stretch (tension). Several factors affect how much tension occurs when a given amount of tightening torque is applied. The first factor is the bolt's diameter. It takes more force to tighten a 3/4-10 bolt than to tighten a 318-16 bolt because it is larger in diameter. The second factor is the bolt's grade. It takes more force to stretch an SAE Grade 8 bolt than it does to stretch an SAE Grade 5 bolt because of the greater material strength. The third factor is the coefficient of friction, frequently referred to as the "nut factor." The value of this factor indicates that harder, smoother, and/or slicker bolting surfaces, such as threads and bearing surfaces, require less rotational force (torque) to stretch (tension) a bolt than do softer, rougher, and stickier surfaces. The basic formula T = K x D x P stated earlier takes these factors into account and provides users with a starting point for establishing an initial target tightening torque. •T Target tighten torque (the result of this formula is in inch pounds, dividing by 12 yields foot pounds

• K Coefficient of friction (nut factor), always an estimation in this formula •D •P

Bolts nominal diameter in inches Bolt's desired tensile load in pounds (generally 75% of yield strength)

The reason all applications should be evaluated to determine the optimum tightening torque is that the K factor in this formula is always an estimate. The most commonly used bolting K factors arc 0.20 for plain finished bolts, 0.22 for zinc plated bolts, and 0.10 for waxed or highly lubricated bolts. . Tensile Stress Thread SAE Grade 2 SAE Grade 5 SAE Grade 8 Area
Size TSA

75% Yield Strength (PSI)
Plain Zinc Plated

- 43000
Waxed

75% Yield Strength (PSI) Plain Zinc Plated

- 69000
Waxed

75% Yield Strength (PSI) = 98000 Plain Zinc Plated Waxed

Square Inches

A. lb. 6 7 12 13 21 24 33 37 51 57 73 82 101 115 180 200

Ft.Lb. 6 7 13 14 23 26 37 41 56 63 81 90 111 126 197 221

Ft.Lb. 3 3 6 6 10 12 17 19 25 29 37 41 51 57 90 100

Ft.Lb. 9 10 19 21 33 38 53 60 82 92 118 131 162 184 288 322

Ft.Lb. 10 12 21 23 37 42 59 66 90 101 129 144 179 202 317 354

Ft.Lb. 5 5 9 10 17 19 27 30 41 46 59 66 81 92 144 161

Ft.Lb. 13 15 27 30 47 54 76 85 116 131 167 186 231 261 409 457

Ft.Lb. 14 16 29 33 52 59 83 93 127 144 184 205 254 287 450 503

Ft.Lb. 6 7 13 15 24 27 38 42 58 65 84 93 115 131 205 228

114-20. 1/4-28. 5116-18. 5116-24. 318-16. 318-24. 7/16-14. 7/16-24. 112-13. 112-20. 9116-12. 9116-18. 5J8-11. 5J8-14. 3/4-10. 3/4-16.

0.0318 0.0364 0.0524 0.0580 0.0775 0.0878 0.1063 0.1187 0.1419 0,1599 0.1820 0.2030 0.2260 0.2560 0.3340 0.3730

The only way to properly determine the optimum tightening torque for a given application is to simulate the exact application. This should be done with a tension indicating device of some type on the bolt in the application. The bolt is tightened until the desired P (load) is indicated by the tension indicating device. The tightening torque required to achieve the desired tension is the actual tightening torque that should be used for that given application. It is extremely important to realize that this tightening value is valid only so long as all of the aspects of the application remain constant Bolt suppliers sometimes have customers say that their bolts are no good because they have started breaking while being installed. Thorough investigation commonly reveals

that the customer has started lubricating the bolts to make assembly easier, but maintained to same torque as was used when the were plain finished The table in this article shows that by using this formula a 1/2-13 Grade 5 plain bolt should be tightened to 82 foot pounds, but the same bolt that is waxed only requires 41 foot pounds to tighten the same tension. A perfect 1/2-13 Grade 5 waxed bolt will break if it is tightened to 81 foot pounds because the K factor is drastically lower. The bolts are fine, but the application changed. Suppliers need to understand this and be able to educate their customers to resolve this common customer complaint about breaking bolts. The chart is provided for quick reference by fastener suppliers and users for selecting an initial target tightening torque. This chart was derived by using the formula shown earlier. An example of the calculation is as follows: Product: 3/4-10 Grade 5 zinc plated bolt Formula: T= K x D x P • K=0.22 (zinc plated) • D=.750 (3/4-10 nominal diameter • P=23.046 pounds Hopefully the chart will help suppliers with an initial answer to the customer's question, "What torque should I use to tighten my bolts?" Keep in mind this is only an estimated value. It may provide satisfactory performance, but it also may not. Every application should be evaluated on its own to determine the optimum torque value for each application. Major bolt suppliers should have tension indicating equipment necessary to help their customers determine the appropriate tightening values for their specific applications. Keep in mind that if the lubricant on a bolt and nut combination is changed, the tightening torque value must be altered to achieve the desired amount of bolt tension.

Bolt Torque - Screw Torque Data

Suggested maxium torque values for different material and grade bolts & screws. Torque, is the measurement of the turning or twisting force applied to an object. The desired result is to hold two parts together with a tension or clamping force that is greater than any external force that could possibly seperate them. The part then remains under constant stress and is immune to fatigue. These charts apply to clean and dry parts. A lubricated bolt requires less torque to attain the same clamping force as a non-lubricated bolt. The values are stated in Inch pounds. Bolt Size Thds Per Inch Low Carbon Steel 18-8 St. St. Yellow Brass Silicon Bronze Aluminum 316 St. 2024-T4 St. Monel

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 1/4

80 64 72 56 64 48 56 40 48 40 44 32 40 32 36 24 32 24 28 20

1.0 1.5 2.0 2.2 2.7 3.5 4.0 4.7 5.9 6.9 8.5 8.7 10.9 17.8 19.8 20.8 29.7 ----65.0

------2.5 3.0 3.9 4.4 5.2 6.6 7.7 9.4 9.6 12.1 19.8 22.0 22.8 31.7 ----75.2

------2.0 2.5 3.2 3.6 4.3 5.4 6.3 7.7 7.9 9.9 16.2 18.0 18.6 25.9 ----61.5

------2.3 2.8 3.6 4.1 4.8 6.1 7.1 8.7 8.9 11.2 18.4 20.4 21.2 29.3 ----68.8

------1.4 1.4 2.1 2.4 2.9 3.6 4.2 5.1 5.3 6.6 10.8 12.0 13.8 19.2 ----45.6

------2.6 3.2 4.0 4.6 5.5 6.9 8.1 9.8 10.1 12.7 20.7 23.0 23.8 33.1 ----78.8

------2.5 3.1 4.0 4.5 5.3 6.7 7.8 9.6 9.8 12.3 20.2 22.4 25.9 34.9 ----85.3

28 5/16 3/8 7/16 1/2 9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 18 24 16 24 14 20 13 20 12 18 11 18 10 16 9 14 8 14

90.0 129 139 212 232 338 361 465 487 613 668 1000 1140 1259 1230 1919 1911 2832 2562

94.0 132 142 236 259 376 400 517 541 682 752 1110 1244 1530 1490 2328 2318 3440 3110

77.0 107 116 192 212 317 327 422 443 558 615 907 1016 1249 1220 1905 1895 2815 2545

87.0 123 131 219 240 349 371 480 502 632 697 1030 1154 1416 1382 2140 2130 3185 2885

57.0 80 86 143 157 228 242 313 328 413 456 715 798 980 958 1495 1490 2205 1995

99.0 138 147 247 271 393 418 542 565 713 787 1160 1301 1582 1558 2430 2420 3595 3250

106.0 149 160 266 297 427 451 584 613 774 855 1330 1492 1832 1790 2775 2755 4130 3750

The values are stated in foot pounds. SAE 0-1-2 74,000 psi Low Carbon Steel SAE Grade 3 100,000 psi Med Carbon Steel SAE Grade SAE Grade SAE Grade 5 6 7 120,000 133,000 133,000 psi Med psi Med psi Med Carbon Carbon Carbon Heat T. Temp. Alloy Steel Steel Steel SAE Grade 8 150,000 psi Med Carbon Alloy Steel

Bolt Size (inches)

Thds Per Inch
ttc

1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16

20 28 18 24 16 24 14

6 --12 --20 --32

9 --17 --30 --47

10 --19 --33 --54

12.5 --24 --43 --69

13 --25 --44 --71

14 --29 --47 --78

20 1/2 9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1-1/8 1-1/4 1-3/8 1-1/2 1-5/8 1-3/4 1-7/8 2 13 20 12 18 11 11 10 10 9 9 8 8 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 5.5 5.5 5 5 5 5 4.5 4.5

--47 --69 --96 --155 --206 --310 --480 --375 --900 --1100 --1470 --1900 --2360 --2750 ---

--69 --103 --145 --234 --372 --551 --794 --1105 --1500 --1775 --2425 --3150 --4200 --4550 ---

--78 --114 --154 --257 --382 --587 --872 --1211 --1624 --1943 --2660 --3463 --4695 --5427 ---

--106 --150 --209 --350 --550 --825 --1304 --1815 --2434 --2913 --3985 --5189 --6980 --7491 ---

--110 --154 --215 --360 --570 --840 --1325 --1825 --2500 --3000 --4000 --5300 --7000 --7500 ---

--119 --169 --230 --380 --600 --700 --1430 --1975 --2650 --3200 --4400 --5650 --7600 --8200 ---

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What Torque Should Be Used to Tighten Metric Machine Screws?

American Fastener Journal, Mar/Apr 2004 by Greenslade, Joe
• • •

1 2 Next

A lot is written about bolt and nut tightening, but little is written about tightening machine screws. It is just as important to carefully select an appropriate tightening torque for securing machine screw joints as it is for securing bolt and nut joints. Properly secured joints are directly related to the quality of the end product assembly. The means of calculating the suggested tightening torque is the same for machine screws as it is for bolts. The values are just smaller. CALCULATING MACHINE SCREW TIGHTENING TORQUE VALUES The most widely used formula for calculating threaded fastener tightening torque is: T = DKP Where: T = Torque (inch pounds and Newton meters; 1Nm = 9 in.Ib.) D = Nominal thread diameter (expressed in inches; 1 mm = .03937 inches) K = Nut factor (.22 for zinc electroplating) P = Pounds of clamping force (75% of yield strength) There are various strength levels of metric machine screws and each has a different recommended tightening value. ISO has two predominate machine screw strength levels: Property Class 4.8 (close to SAE 6OM) and Property Class 8.8 (close to SAE 12OM). Property Class 4.8 indicates a minimum tensile strength of 480 mega Pascal (MPa). This

is equal to approximately 70,000 pounds per square inch (PSI). Property Class 8.8 indicates a minimum tensile strength of 880 mega Pascal (MPa). This is equal to approximately 127,000 pounds per square inch (PSI).

DETERMINING TIGHTENING TORQUE BY TESTING The chart below provides reasonable tightening values, but they are not the optimum tightening values for every application. A far better way to establish a tightening torque for a particular application is by conducting a simple study. To determine the ideal tightening torque for any particular application joint, do the following: * Make up 12 of the exact application joints being studied. * Tighten the machine screws until something in the joint completely fails; then record every failure torque value. The best failure is the twisting in two of the screw, but this does not always happen. The internal thread may strip; the components may crush or distort. It makes no difference what fails. * Calculate the average torque value at which this particular joint fails. * The optimum tightening value for the particular joint being studied is 60% of the average failure value. CALCULATIONS ARE FINE, BUT TESTING IS SUPERIOR The correct tightening of all threaded fasteners is critical to obtaining an end product of consistently high quality and dependability. Determining tightening torque by calculations or taking values from charts like the one provided in this article is better than just guessing at what a particular torque should be. The best approach to establishing the optimum tightening torque value for a particular joint is determined by performing the simple study described herein. Joe Ctreimslade has been active in the fastener industry since 1970. he has held positions with major fastener producers in sales engineering, marketing, product design, manufacturing management, and research and development management. Mr. Greenslade holds twelve U.S. patents on various fastener related products. he has authored over 136 trade journal articles on fastener applications, manufacturing and

quality issues. he is one of the fastener industry 's most frequent speakers at trade association meetings and conferences. he is the youngest person ever inducted to the Fastener Industry Hall of Fame. Mr. Greenslade is active in numerous fastener industry associations and societies holding office in several of them. In addition to guiding the activities of Greenslade & Company, Mr. Greenslade works as a consultant with fastener suppliers and end users on product design, applications engineering, and quality issues. In this capacity he works to resolve fastener applications problems, ?? help select the best fastening approaches in new product designs, to assist in the standardization of fasteners used within an organization, and to provide training on various aspects of fastening technology and fastener quality assurance. he also serves as Expert Witness in litigation involving fastener related issues. he can be reached at: phone 817-870-8888, fax 817-870-9199 or email: greensladeandcompany@sbcglobal. net.

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