Indian Leather Industry

Indian Leather Industry The leather industry occupies a place of prominence in the Indian economy in view of its massive potential for employment, growth and exports. There has been an increasing emphasis on its planned development, aimed at optimum utilisation of available raw materials for maximising the returns, particularly from exports. The exports of leather and leather products gained momentum during the past two decades. There has been a phenomenal growth in exports from Rs.320 million in the year 1965-66 to Rs.69558 million in 1996-97. Indian leather industry today has attained well merited recognition in international markets besides occupying a prominent place among the top seven foreign exchange earners of the country. The leather industry has undergone a dramatic transformation from a mere exporter of raw materials in the sixties to that of value added finished products in the nineties. Policy initiatives taken by the Government of India since 1973 have been instrumental to such a transformation. In the wake of globalisation of Indian economy supported with liberalized economic and trade policies since 1991, the industry is poised for further growth to achieve greater share in the global trade. Apart from a significant foreign exchange earner, leather industry has tremendous potential for employment generation. Direct and indirect employment of the industry is around 2 million. The skilled and semi-skilled workers constitute nearly 50% of the total work force. The estimated employment in different sectors of leather industry is as follows: Sector Total Employment Flaying, curing & Carcass Recovery 8,00,000 Tanning & Finishing 1,25,000 Full Shoe 1,75,000 Shoe Uppers 75,000 Chappals & Sandals 4,50,000 Leather Goods & Garments 1,50,000 Structure of the industry The leather industry is spread in different segments, namely, tanning & finishing, footwear & footwear components, leather...

Footwear Industry
CBI MARKET SURVEY

THE FOOTWEAR MARKET IN THE NETHERLANDS

Publication date: April 2008

Report summary This CBI market survey discusses the following highlights for the footwear market in the Netherlands: . Dutch consumption of footwear was ¼ 2,413 million in 2006, or 70 million pairs, up by an annual average of 1.3% over the period, while production fell by 7.5% to ¼ 82 million or 3 million pairs. . In 2006, the Netherlands imported footwear valued at ¼ 1,793 million, or 191 million pairs. Since 2002 values are up by 3.2% but volumes are up by an average annual rate of 9%. . More than 47% of imports by value (¼ 852 million) came from developing countries (76% by volume or 145 million pairs). The share of imports by developing countries is up from 41% in 2002 in value (¼ 653 million), and up from 64% (86 million pairs) in volume terms. The Netherlands¡¯ reliance on imports and its important role as an entry point for onward supplies to other EU countries makes this an important country for exporters.

This survey provides exporters of footwear with sector-specific market information related to gaining access to the Netherlands. By focusing on a specific country, this survey provides additional information, complementary to the more general information and data provided in the CBI market survey ¡®The footwear market in the EU¡¯, which covers the EU market in general. That survey also contains an overview and explanation of the selected products dealt with, some general remarks on the statistics used, as well as information on other available

documents for this sector. It can be downloaded from http://www.cbi.eu/marketinfo

1 Market description: consumption and production

Consumption The Dutch market for footwear was worth ¼ 2,413 million in 2006, equivalent to 70 million pairs. The Netherlands is the sixth largest EU market for footwear. It is smaller in size than...

Footwear Industry Overview
Industry Overview The athletic footwear industry is a mature market. The size of the athletic footwear market is_( I don¡¦t know what I did with this number but I cannot find my sheet about this anywhere?? If I find it I will email it to you right away¡KI am going crazy cause I don¡¦t understand where it went..Hopefully you can fill this in, sorry). The athletic footwear market can be divided up into several market segments. The market segments are walking shoes, gym shoes, jogging/running shoes, cross-training, hiking boots, basketball, tennis, sport sandals, fitness, aerobic, and other. Athletic footwear can also be broken down into three larger segments after the previous segments. These segments are Men¡¦s, Women¡¦s, and Children¡¦s. The top four market share holders in 2000 were Nike, Reebok, Adidas, and New Balance. The top four segments for segment mariket share in 2000 are Walking Shoes, Gym shoes, Jogging/running shoes, and cross-training shoes. The average price for athletic footwear is about forty dollars Canadian. However, there is wide price for athletic footwear. A general athletic shoe meant for walking and fitness tend to be on the lower end of the price range where as the more complex and specific the shoe is, such as cross-training shoes, are on the higher end of the price range. On the other hand, brand also impacts the price level. The top brands tend to price higher than any of the other brands. There have been many trends in the athletic footwear industry recently. One main trend is that companies are using celebrity endorsements to advertise their athletic footwear. Reebok is doing this with their ¡¥I am what I am¡¦ campaign. The athletic footwear industry has been growing and changing in the past few years and will continue to do so in the future with more sport specific shoes with more technological

features. I cannot find distribution channels and don¡¦t know what to do with profitability. Maybe you could help...

Swot Analysis Of Indian Leather Garment Industry
|| | | |India accounts for approximately two percent of the world trade in leather and leather products. To be on the fast track of growth and to have a larger cake in | |the international business, continuous technology up gradation and modernization are the most powerful driving forces like in any other manufacturing sector | |that dreams steady growth and expansion. With this being the primary objective, India's Council for Leather Exports (CLE) has taken a number of initiatives. To | |propel the combined efforts of the tanning and manufacturing sectors, the Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI), the Fashion Technology and Development | |Institute and CLE as the main cog in the wheel, an action plan has been chalked out. The growing international demand apart, the action plan also suggested | |measures to face Indian leather's industry's major competitors in Asia: China, Indonesia, Korea and Taiwan. | |To boost the country's leather industry, the Indian federal government has earmarked a Rs 4.5 billion (US$ 95 mn) grant to be made available to the industry | |over a span of five years but that's not without any string. The fund availability is conditional upon the sector's attracting an annual investment of Rs 2.2 | |trillion. In 2002, investments in the leather sector stood at Rs 410 million. Footwear and their components account for about 25 percent of India's total | |leather products exports. These two markets also offer Indian leather industry vast scope for exports of saddler and harness. | |Besides the European market where Indian leather products already enjoy a strong presence, the US too is emerging as a very strong and promising export

Leather Industry In Pakistan
TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 9 INTRODUCTION 11 a. OVERVIEW OF THE LEATHER INDUSTRY 12 b. CATEGORIES OF LEATHER INDUSTRY 14 c. TANNED LEATHER 15 d. PAKISTAN¶S LEATHER INDUSTRY 17 CONTRIBUTION AND IMPORTANCE OF LEATHER INDUSTRY TO PAKISTAN ECONOMY 17 e. CONTRIBUTION OF LEATHER INDUSTRY TO ECONOMY OF PAKISTAN 17 f. LEATHER PLAYS A VITAL ROLE IN THE ECONOMY OF PAKISTAN 21 g. PAKISTAN¶S TRADING PARTNERS 22 h. EXPORTS OF LEATHER 22 i. GLOBAL IMPORTS 30 STRUCTURE OF THE INDUSTRY 30 j. LEATHER GARMENTS 30 k. LEATHER GLOVES 32 l. FOOTWEAR INDUSTRY 34 ANALYSIS OF THE INDUSTRY 34 m. PORTERS DIAMOND MODEL 34 n. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT OF LEATHER INDUSTRY 37 o. SWOT ANALYSIS OF THE PAKISTAN LEATHER INDUSTRY 40 p. PORTER¶S COMPETITIVE FORCES 41 WTO IMPACT ON LEATHER INDUSTRY 62 IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON LEATHER INDUSTRY OF PAKISTAN 72 ISSUES / PROBLEMS 75 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Leather industry is the second largest export-earning sector of Pakistan after textiles, and this sector is contributing around $800 million a year but has the potential to multiply volume of exports with the improvement of quality and diversification in different range of products, specially garments and footwear. Out of the seven major exports of Pakistan, Leather is one of the major contributors. Although the industry started it journey way back in the 1947 since then it has moved from exporting raw hides and skins to more value added products. Leather industry may major areas includes leather garments, leather gloves and leather footwear.

According to Pakistan Tannery Association in July to December2006 is worth US $ 443,110 (000). This includes leather, leather apparel and clothing, leather gloves, leather footwear and other leather manufacturers. Porter's diamond-model is one of the renowned models of regional economic development programming. Porter measures a region's competitiveness on level of productivity and productivity growth. Porter identified four..

Sports Footwear
adidas AG as a German based sports footwear company are selected as the case company of this research. Also, as an ³A´ sports footwear brand in the world, through the research and analysis of the strategy, operation, innovation of adidas AG¶s footwear market, we may have a closer view to the future trend of global sports footwear industry. 4.1 adidas AG profile ‡ Name t adidas In the year of 1948 the adidas was lanched on the world. Adolf Dassler, a cobbler working in Herzogenaurach, near Hamberg, Germany decided on a name for his new company. He combined his nickname ³Adi´ with the first three letters of his surname Dssler, and the name adidas was born. He also decided to use lowercase ³a´ to make the name stand out from rivals. (http://hiphopdiscounts.wordpress.com/2008/01/31/adidas-the-history/) t adidas-Salomon AG In 1997, adidas AG acquires the Salomon Group with the brands Salomon, TaylorMade, Mavic and Bonfire in December 1997. The new company is named adidas-Salomon AG. (http://www.adidas-group.com) t adidas AG In 2005, The Salomon Group (including Salomon, Mavic, Bonfire, Cliché and Arc¶Teryx) is being sold to Amer Sports in October 2005. The new adidas Group is focusing even more on its core strength in the athletic footwear and apparel market as well as the growing golf category. The legal name of the company will change to ³adidas AG´ in May /June 2006. (http://www.adidas-group.com) ‡ Company Description

In 2006, the closing of the Reebok transaction on January 31, 2006 marks a new chapter in the history of the adidas Group. By combining two of the most respected and well-known brands in the worldwide sporting goods industry, the new Group will benefit from a more competitive worldwide platform, well-defined and complementary brand identities, a wider range of products, and a stronger presence across teams, athletes, events and leagues. (http://www.adidasgroup.com). |

Indian Leather Industry Overview
The leather industry occupies a place of prominence in the Indian economy in view of its massive potential for employment, growth and exports. There has been an increasing emphasis on its planned development, aimed at optimum utilisation of available raw materials for maximising the returns, particularly from exports. The exports of leather and leather products gained momentum during the past two decades. There has been a phenomenal growth in exports from Rs.320 million in the year 1965-66 to Rs.69558 million in 1996-97. Indian leather industry today has attained well merited recognition in international markets besides occupying a prominent place among the top seven foreign exchange earners of the country. The leather industry has undergone a dramatic transformation from a mere exporter of raw materials in the sixties to that of value added finished products in the nineties. Policy initiatives taken by the Government of India since 1973 have been instrumental to such a transformation. In the wake of globalisation of Indian economy supported with liberalised economic and trade policies since 1991, the industry is poised for further growth to achieve greater share in the global trade. Apart from a significant foreign exchange earner, leather industry has tremendous potential for employment generation. Direct and indirect employment of the industry is around 2 million. The skilled and semi-skilled workers constitute nearly 50% of the total work force. The estimated employment in different sectors of leather industry is as follows:

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Flaying, curing & Carcass Recovery:8,00,000 Tanning & Finishing:1,25,000 Full Shoe:1,75,000 Shoe Uppers:75,000 Chappals & Sandals:4,50,000 Leather Goods & Garments:1,50,000

Structure of the industry
The leather industry is spread in different segments, namely, tanning & finishing, footwear & footwear components, leather garments, leather goods including saddlery & harness, etc. The estimated production capacity in different segments is as under

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Hides:64 million pieces Skins:166 million pieces

Footwear & Footwear Components
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Shoes:100 million pairs Leather shoe uppers:78 million pairs Non-leather shoes/chappals etc:125 million pairs Leather Garments:6 million pieces Leather Products:70 million pieces Industrial Gloves:40 million pairs Saddlery:6000 pieces

The major production centres for leather and leather products are located at Chennai, Ambur, Ranipet, Vaniyambadi, Trichi, Dindigul in Tamil Nadu, Calcutta in West Bengal, Kanpur in Uttar Pradesh, Jalandhar in Punjab, Bangalore in Karnataka, Delhi and Hyderabad in Andhra Pradesh.

Raw material supplies
There exists a large raw material base. This is on account of population of 194 million cattle, 70 million buffaloes, 95 million goats. According to the latest census, India ranks first among the major livestock holding countries in the world. In respect of sheep with 48 million sheeps, it claims the sixth position. These four species provide the basic raw material for the leather industry. The annual availability of 166 million pieces of hides and skins is the main strength of the industry. This is expected to go up to 218 million pieces by the end of year 2000. Some of the goat/calf/sheep skins available in India are regarded as speciality products commanding a good market. Abundance of traditional skills in training, finishing and manufacturing downstream products and relatively low wage rates are the two other factors of comparative advantage for India.

Tanning and finishing capacity
With tanning and finishing capacity for processing 1192 million pieces of hides and skins per annum spread over different parts of the country, most of which is organised along modern lives, the capability of India to sustain a much larger industry with its raw material resource is evident. In order to augment the domestic raw material availability, the Government of India has allowed duty free import of hides and skins from anywhere in the world. It is an attraction for any foreign manufacturer who intends to shift his production base from a high cost location to low cost base.

Export Potential
The leather industry, one of the major foreign exchange earners of the country recorded significant growth since the beginning of the decade. Today the share of the value added finished products in the total exports from leather sector are 80% as against 20% in 1970s.

Top ten Indian leather exporters
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Tata International Ltd. Florind Shoes Ltd. Punihani International

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Farida Shoes Ltd. Mirza Tanners Ltd. T. Abdul Wahid & Company Hindustan Lever Ltd. Super House Leather Ltd. RSL Industries Ltd. Presidency Kid Leather Ltd.

Indian Leather Footwear Industry
India is the world's second largest producer of footwear; its production estimated over 700 million pairs per annum. At about US $ 300 million per year, footwear accounts for 18 percent share of total exports of leather exports. Various types of shoes produced and exported from India include dress shoes, casuals, moccasins, sports shoes, horacchis, sandals, ballerinas, and booties. Major production centres are Chennai (Madras), Delhi, Agra, Kanpur, Mumbai (Bombay), Calcutta and Jalandhar. Most of the modern footwear manufacturers in India are already supplying to well established brands in Europe and USA. The large domestic market and the opportunity to cater to world markets makes India an attractive destination for technology and investments. Equally relevant is it for the footwear components industry, at this juncture, it is posed for real growth and diversification.

Indian Leather Goods Industry
Items produced by this sector include, in addition to bags, handbags, handgloves and industrial gloves, wallets, ruck sacks, folios, brief cases, travelware, belts, sports goods, upholstery and saddlery goods. A surfeit of modern units in Chennai, Kanpur and Calcutta employing skilled human resources and equipped with modern and sophisticated machinery account for a diversified range of superlative small leather goods including bags, purses, wallets, industrial gloves etc. made of quality leathers of cows, sheep, goats and buffaloes. The products meet the requirement of bulk buyers and consumers in Europe, USA and Australia. The major market for Indian leather goods is Germany, with an offtake of about 25 per cent of the leather goods produced in India followed by USA, UK, France and Italy. With products ranging from designer collections to personal leather accessories, this sector has a share of 20.53 per cent in the leather industry, while maintaining an average growth rate of 11 per cent recorded in the last five years.

Indian Saddlery Industry
India is one of the largest producers of saddlery and harness goods in the world. The saddlery industry was established in the 19th century primarily to cater to the needs of military and police. From then on initiatives were taken to develop, the industry and today there are over 150 units in the organised sector, out of which approximately 105 are 100% export oriented units. Kanpur, in the state of Uttar Pradesh, is a major production centre for saddlery goods in India accounting for more than 95% of the total exports of saddlery items from India. Kanpur, because of its specialisation in tanning and finishing of buffalo hides is the only centre in the country where harness leather, which is major input for saddlery industry, is manufactured.

The export of saddlery and harn'ess items have showed an annual growth rate of about 40% reaching DM 64 million during 1998-99. The major importers of Indian saddlery are Germany, USA, UK, France, Scandinavia, Netherlands, Japan, Australia and New Zealand.

Indian Leather Garments Industry
The Leather Garment Industry occupies a place of prominence in the Indian leather sector. The product classification of leather garments comprise of jackets, long coats, waist coats, shirts, pant/short, children garments, motorbike jackets, aprons and industrial leather garments. Indian leather garments, which entered the world market only in the mid-eighties with exports of Rs. 15 crores in 1997-98, account for about Rs. 1530 crore in 1997-98. The major export destination of leather garments from India is Germany. In 1997, German imports of leather garments aggregated DM 1786 million of which DM 304 million worth of imports went from India. India, China and Turkey were the major suppliers of leather garments for the German market, as they accounted for about 78% of the market share. Among the three major exporting nations of leather garments, India maintains a similar level of market share of about 20%, in both German and EU markets. The main reasons reported for under utilisation of capacity are raw material shortage, high price of raw materials, lack of modernisation, financial constraints, power constraints and stringent environmental regulations.

Marketing of leather and leather products in Germany & the EU
The leather sector offers a good potential which Indian entrepreneurs can exploit in Germany and other EU markets characterised by ever growing competitiveness in terms of price and quality, on one hand, and the environmental considerations, on the other. With a strong foothold that the Indian leather industry has had for long in these markets, and its advantage of raw material and labour resources, Indian leather exporters can, and should, mount a concerted marketing campaign to wrest a share consistent with their inherent strength and potential. This has to be done against the background of the well-known salient features of the German market:

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The world's second largest import and export market A difficult buyers' market with hyper competition and high expectations A dynamic multi-faceted market with rapid technological development and innovations A market where a considerable amount of buying power is devoted to satisfying individual needs A market influenced by the rising average age of the population and low birth rate A market where environment awareness and eco-friendly production becomes more and more a pre-requisite for successful marketing of products

Recipe for market intelligence
Market information through journals and magazines

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Schuhmarkt Schuhkurier Lederwaren Report

Quick Market Assessment

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Window shopping Backward calculation of price Catalogues/ leaflets

Trade Fairs

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GDS ± Dusseldorf » Herren Mode Woche - Munich Expo-Riva Schuh - Italy » Igedo Fashion Fair - Düsseldorf Leipzig Fashion Fair » SPOGA - Cologne Lederwarenmesse - Offenbach

SWOT Analysis of the Indian leather industry
Opportunities

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Rising potential in the domestic market Growing fashion consciousness globally Use of information technology and decision support software to help eliminate the length of the production cycle for different products Use of e-commerce in direct marketing

Strengths

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High Growth Ready availability of highly skilled and cheap manpower Large raw material base Policy initiatives taken by the Government Capability to assimilate new technologies and handle large projects Continuous emphasis on product development and design upgradation

Weaknesses

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Lack of warehousing support from the government International price fluctuation Huge labour force resulting in high labour charges Lack of strong presence in the global fashion market Unawareness of international standards by many players

Threats

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Major part of the industry is unorganised Limited scope for mobilising funds through private placements and public issues (many businesses are family-owned) Difficulty in obtaining bank loans resulting in high cost of private borrowing Stricter international standards High competition from East European countries and other Asian countries Lack of communication facilities and skills

Indian export history
Export means the transferring of any good from one country to another country in a legal way for the purpose of trade. Export goods are provided to the foreign consumers by the domestic producers. Indian Exports: A History The history of Indian exports is very old. During ancient times India exported spices to the other parts of the world. India was also famous for its textiles which were a chief item for export in the 16th century. Textiles and cotton were exported to the Arab countries from Gujarat. During the Mughal era India exported various precious stones such as ivory, pearls, tortoise stones etc. But during the British era, Indian exports declined as the East India Company took control of foreign trade. Markets Though India has seen some product diversification in its export basket, it has not expanded significantly in the two big markets-Africa and Latin America. India¶s business with South Asian countries is also negligible. This region has not been integrated with the global economy, though political and economic initiatives have been taken in the recent past in this direction. Leading Export Items of India In the past ten years, Indian exports have grown at a rate of nearly 22%. Some commodities have enjoyed faster export growth than others. Some of India's main export items are cotton, textiles, jute goods, tea, coffee, cocoa products, rice, wheat, pickles, mango pulp, juices, jams, preserved vegetables etc. India exports its goods to some of the leading countries of the world such as UK, Belgium, USA, China, Russia etc. Restriction on the Exports of Items However there are some restrictions on the export of goods. Under sub section (d) of section 111 and sub section (d) of section 113, any good exported or attempted to be exported, contrary to any prohibition imposed by or under the customs act or any other law is liable for confiscation. Export Trends If the Indian economy grows at the same pace, India would most definitely export goods worth US $500 billion by 2013 and may supersede the exports of other large developing countries like Brazil. The Way Ahead India needs the right mix of policy formulation sector focus and industry led initiatives to move up the value chain in the global export basket The Opportunity It is very clear that Indian exports have still not achieved their true potential and there exists immense opportunities for expanding the basket of India¶s exports. With a strategic attention on the new markets that are evolving due to free trade, India is witnessing a boom in both manufacturing and services. Problems of the Indian Export Sector There are few problems which need to be solved before India makes a mark for itself in the export sector. The Indian goods have to be of superior quality. The packaging and branding should be such that countries are interested to export from India. At the same time India must look for potential market to sell their goods. The government should frame policies which gives boost to the exports. Directional Change In Exports India has seen massive directional change in the context of origin of demand for Indian products. Till 2001-02 North America and the EU markets shared nearly 21% and 23.2 % respectively of total exports and the remaining to the

rest of the globe. By 2006-07, North America had a share of only 16% of the total exports and the EU's share was 21.2%.

Shoe Making- How Shoes are Made
Footwear can be defined as garments that are worn on the feet. There main purpose is protecting one's feet. Of late, footwear has become an important component of fashion accessories. Although, their basic purpose remains that of protection, adornment or defining style statement has become their additional and a significant function. There are many types of footwear- shoes, boots, sandals, slippers etc. They are further categorized into many more types. Shoes and Shoe making Shoes are further divided into many categories such as athletic shoes also known as sneakers, galoshes, high heels, Stiletto heels, kitten heels, lace-up shoes, Mary Janes, platform shoes, school shoes and many others. Shoemaking can be traditional handicraft profession. However, now it has been largely taken over by manufacture of footwear. A variety of materials are used for making shoesleather fabrics, plastic, rubber, fabrics, wood, jute fabrics, and metal. More than 200 operations are required for making a pair of shoes. However, with the development of modern machines, a pair of shoes can be made in very less time as each step in its manufacturing is generally performed by a separate footwear making machine. Parts of a Shoe A shoe consists of sole, insole, outsole, midsole, heel, and vamp (upper). They are the basic parts of a shoe that are mostly included in all types off shoes. Other parts of a shoe are lining, tongue, quarter, welt and backstay. These parts are included as per the design of the shoes. Sole: The exterior bottom part of a shoe is the sole. Insole: The interior bottom of a shoe, which sits directly beneath the foot, is its insole. They can be removable and replaceable too. In some of the shoes, extra insoles are often added for comfort, health or other reasons, such as to control the shape, moisture, or smell of the shoe. Outsole: It is that layer of the shoe that is in direct contact with the ground. These can be made of various materials like leather, natural or synthetic rubber etc. Often the heel of the sole is made from rubber for durability and traction and the front is made of leather for style. Special purpose shoes often have refined modifications, for example, athletic cleats have spikes embedded in the outsole to grip the ground, dance shoes have much softer or harder soles. Midsole: The layer that lies between the outsole and the insole for shock absorption, is the midsole. Some special shoes, like running shoes have other materials for shock absorption, that usually lie beneath the heel where one puts the most pressure down. Materials used for midsoles depend on the shoe manufacturers. Some shoes can be made even without a midsole. Heel: The rear part at the bottom of a shoe is the heel. It supports the heels of the feet. Heels of a shoe are often made from the same material as the sole of the shoe. It can be high for fashion purpose or for making a person look taller. They are also flat for comfort and practical use. Vamp, or upper: The upper part of a shoe that helps in holding the shoe onto the foot is the vamp or simply called the upper. This part is often embellished or given different styles to make shoes attractive. Shoe Making Process A footwear company has mainly four departments in which a progressive route is followed for producing finished shoes.

high-Tops, loafers, considered a industrial

These are- Clicking or Cutting Department, Closing or Machining Department, Lasting & Making Department, Finishing Department and the Shoe Room.

Clicking or Cutting Department In this department, the top part of the shoe or the "upper" is made. The clicking operative is given skins of leather, mostly cow leather but not restricted to this type of leather. Using metal strip knives, the worker cuts out pieces of various shapes that will take the form of "uppers". This operation needs a high level of skill as the expensive leather has to be wasted at the minimum level possible. Leather may also have various defects on the surface such as barbed wire scratches which needs to be avoided, so that they are not used for the uppers. Closing or Machining Department Here the component pieces are sewn together by highly skilled machinists so as completed upper. The work is divided in stages. In early stages, the pieces are the flat machine. In the later stages, when the upper is no longer flat and has dimensional, the machine called post machine is used. The sewing surface of the elevated on a post to enable the operative to sew the three dimensional upper. treatments are also done onto the leather for giving an attractive look to the this stage only, the eyelets are also inserted in order to accommodate the laces in the finished shoes. Lasting & Making Department The completed uppers are molded into a shape of foot with the help of a "Last". Last is a plastic shape that simulates the foot shape. It is later removed from the finished shoe to be used further in making other shoes. Firstly, an insole to the bottom of the last is attached. It is only a temporary attachment. Sometimes, mostly when welted shoes are manufactured, the insole has a rib attached to its under edge. The upper is stretched and molded over the last and attached to the insole rib. After the procedure completes, a "lasted shoe" is obtained. Now, the welt- a strip of leather or plastic- is sewn onto the shoe through the rib. The upper and all the surplus material is trimmed off the seam. The sole is then attached to the welt and both are stitched together. The heel is then attached which completes the "making" of the shoe. That was the process for heeled shoes. When a flat shoe is in the making, there are considerably fewer operations. The insoles in this case is flat and when the uppers are 'lasted', they are glued down to the surface of the inner side of the insole. The part of the upper, that is glued down, is then roughed with a wire brush to take off the smooth finish of the leather. This is done because rough surface absorbs glue to give a stronger bond. The soles are usually cut, finished and prepared as a separate component so that when they are glued to the lasted upper, the result is a complete and finished shoe. Soles can also be pre-molded as a separate component out of various synthetic materials and again glued to the lasted upper to complete the shoe. Finishing Department and the Shoe Room The finishing of a shoe depends on the material used for making it. If made of leather, the sole edge and heel are trimmed and buffed to give a smooth finish. To give them an attractive finish and to ensure that the edge is waterproof, they are stained, polished and waxed. The bottom of the sole is often lightly buffed, stained and polished and different types of patterns are marked on the surface to give it a craft finished look. A "finished shoe" has now been made. For shoe room operation, an internal sock is fitted into shoe which can be of any length- full, half or quarter. They usually have the manufacturers details or a brand name wherever applicable. Depending on the materials used for the uppers, they are then cleaned, polished and sprayed. Laces and any tags that might have to be attached to the shoes, such as shoe care instructions, are also attached. The shoes, at last, get packaged in boxes.

to produce the sewn together on become threemachine is Various edge finished upper. At