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khj ,jo;> nghOJ – 18
Mb – Mtzp l 201 Mf];l;; – 2010
vidiyalmagazhine.blogspot.com vidiyalmagazhine@gmail.com

o tho;jJfs; ;

jdpr; jdpr;rpwg;ghd elj;Jeh; 02
o ed;wpfs;

fUj;J kly;fs; 02 ;fs;
o njhlh;fl;Liu fl;

rpijahneQ;Rnfhs; 03
o ftpijfs; ftpijfs;

rpwg;ghrphpah;
Kidth; eh. fz;zd; fy;Y}hp Kjy;th;

Mrphpah;
Kidth; kh. fhh;jjpNfad; ; jkpo;jJiwj; jiyth;; ;

,iz Mrphpah;
jpU. g. rutzd;; jkpo; tphpTiuahsh;

Mrphpah; FO
jkpo; tphpTiuahsh;fs; midtUk;

ntspaPL:

jkpoh czh;Tnfhs; 05 fy;tp 05 nrk;nkhop 07 o fl;Liufs; kdf;Fog;gk; 06 ngz;ghy; 07 ngz; ePhkhRghL 11 ; o tpijfSk; tpUl;rq;fSk;(gFjp - 4) (gFjp vopyurpapd; ftpQh; vopyurpapd; ftpijfs; 09 o jkpowpQh; mwpKfk; (gFjp - 3) ftpkzp 13 o ehl;Lg;Gwtpay; fUj;juq;F 15 o FWq;fl;Liufs;; rhh;y]; bf;fd;]; 15 NeUtpd; Nkirapy; 16 tzf;fk; - nghUs; 17 vspa kUj;Jtk; 17 nfhz;; nfhzlhLNthk; 19 o mDgtf; fl;Liu (gFjp - 1) vdJ fy;Y}hp 18 vdJ o njhlh; nra;As; (gFjp - 2) Nf.v];.Mh;. gps;isj; jkpo; 20

jkpo; ; iw> jkpo;jJiw> Nf.v];.Mh;. fiy mwptpay; fy;Y}hp (jd;dhl;rp) jpUr;nrq;NfhL – 637 215> jkpo;ehL> ,e;jpah.
www.ksrcasthamizh.blogspot.com, www.ksrcas.net.

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tp b a yp d;

th o; j; J f s;

tp b a yp d;

e d; wp f s;

jdpr;rpwg;ghd elj;Jeh;
<NuhL mz;zh efh; fhiskhL rpiy NgUe;J epWj;jj;jpypUe;J nrd;dpkiy nry;tjw;fhfg; NgUe;jpy; VwpNdd;. mjpy; gazr;rlilf; P ; nfhLj;Jf; nfhz;bUe;j elj;Jeh; xt;nthU KiwAk; mtuJ ,lJ ifapy; kzpf;fl;L gFjpapy; fl;bapUe;j if fbfhuj;ijj; njhl;Lj; njhl;L gazr;rlilf; fpopj;Jf; nfhLj;jhh;. vd;d P ; vd;W ftdpj;jg; gpwF tpae;J NghNdd;. gad;gLj;j Kbahj gioa fbfhuj;jpy; Neuk; fhl;Lk; gFjpapy; jz;zh; epuk;gpa P ];ghd;r; ,Ue;jJ. mjid tpuyhy; njhl;L gazr; rPlilf; fpopj;Jf; nfhLj;J te;jhh;.; ; ehf;fpd; vr;rpiyj;njhl;Lr; rPlL fpopj;Jf; ; nfhLf;Fk; gy elj;Jeh;fspilNa ,tuJ nray;ghL rpwg;ghf ,Uf;fpwJ. njhw;Wf; fpUkpfshy; gy Neha;fs; gut tha;ggpUf;f> ; mjidj; jLf;Fk; Kd;ndr;rhpf;ifahfr; nray;gLk; ,tuJ r%f mf;fiw kw;w elj;Jeh;fSf;Fk; gpw Jiwapy; cs;sth;fSf;Fk; tpopg; Gzh;rrpia Vw;gLj;Jk; vd;gjpy; Iakpy;iy. ; ,tiug; Nghy; xt;nthUtUk; ek;khy; Kbe;jsT r%fg; nghWg;Gzh;rrpNahL ; nray;gl;lhy; ehL eyk; ngWk;.

fUj;J kly;fs; ;fs;
“‘,isQh;fNs! cq;fs; R+hpa tpopiaj; jpwe;J ghUq;fs;. Jau ,uTfs; gwe;JtpLk;. rhjid thdk; cq;fisj; jhprpf;fj; jdpikapy; jtkpUf;fpwJ’ vd;W miw$ty; tpLk; tpbaypd; gilg;Gfs; midj;Jk; jukhdjhf cs;sd. ‘cyfg; ge;ijg; Gul;bg; ghh;fFk; ; nek;GNfhy;>‘,isQh;jhd;’ vd;gijf; fw;gfuh[; jk; fl;Liuapy; typAWj; jpAs;shh;.

tpz;Kl;Lk; NfhGuq;fs;> tpid jPhfFk; Myaq;fs; jkpo; ehl;lurpd; ; ; rpd;dkhFk;. ,e;j Myaq;fspd; ghpzhk tsh;rrpia ; kzpfz;lg;gpuG nrhy; Nyhtpakhf Mf;fpAs;shh;. Nguhrphpah; ngUkhs; KUfdpd; Ngl;biar; rpWfijfspd; Ma;ntd;Nw $wyhk;. tpLjiy Nts;tpapy; jk;ik MFjpfshf;fpf; nfhz;l gPfhh;fhe;jp> ,uhN[e;jpugpurhj;> nkhuhh;[pNjrha; MfpNahh; gw;wpa khzth;fspd; fl;Liufs; Rje;jpu Nkd;ikiaf; fhl;Lk; Kj;jpiufshFk;. rhjid ehafh;> rhpj;jpu ehafh;> fy;tpj;je;ij Nf.v];.Mh;. mth;fis neQ;rf; fUtiwapy; kWfh;ggk; jhq;fpa ; Nguhrphpah; Atuhrh> Iahitf; fhf;f Ntz;bf; flTsiu Ntz;Lk; Nf.v];.Mh;. gps;isj;jkpo; gFjpiar; rpwg;ghf ntspapl;Ls;sdh;. fhjy; rpyUf;F ,dpf;Fk;. gyUf;F typf;Fk;. ghij khwpdhy; tho;fifg; ;

vk;. fzgjp
,sq;fiy ,uz;lhkhz;L tzpftpay; (fzpdp) ‘m’gphpT

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gazk; gadw;wjhFk; vd;w ckhuhzpapd; ftpij> ,isQh;fspd; gilg; gpyf;fpaj;jpw;F xU rhd;whFk;. G+fk;gk; vd;w gpwnkhopr; nrhy;ypw;F ‘epy mirT’ vd;gd Nghd;w fiyr;nrhy;yhf;fk; ghuhl;bw;Fhpad. Nf.v];.Mh;. fy;Y}hpapd; jkpo;g; gzpf;F NkYk;> nkU$l;LfpwJ vd;why; mJ kpifahfhJ. tsh;f! tpbaypd; gzpfs;.” Nguh. Nkh.M. Atuhrh jkpo;g; Nguhrphpah;> Nf.v];.Mh;. fy;tpapay; fy;Y}hp

njh l h;

f l; L iu

rpijah rpijah neQ;R nfhs;
j. kzpfz;ld;
,sq;fiy jkpo; ,uz;lhkhz;L “kdjpYWjp Ntz;Lk;

‘tpbay;’

“tpbay; khj ,jiof; fz;Zw;Nwd;. kpf;f kfpo;rrpaile;Njd;. ; Fkhpf;fz;lk; Ma;Tf;fl;Liur; nra;jpfSk; tuyhw;Wr; rhd;WfSk; kpfr; rpwg;ghf mike;Js;sd.

ftpQh; Nfh. ckhuhzpapd; fUj;JUthf;ff; ftpijiag; gbj;Njd;. cs;sj;ij cUf;Fk; thh;jijfshy; ; nrJf;fp tbtikj;jpUf;fpd;whh;. Kbtpw;F Kw;Wg;Gs;sp Neha; vd;gijf; ftpijapy; capNuhl;lkhfg; gilj;jpUg;gJ ghuhl;Lf; FhpaJ. jiyg;gpy; ‘mtyk;’ vd;W Fwpg;gplhky; ‘ngz;zpd; Nrhf(k;) KbT’ vd;W Fwpg;gpl;bUe;jhy; nghUj;jkhf mikAnkdf; fUJfpd;Nwd;. Nf.v];.Mh;. ghlj;jpl;lj;jpy; nra;fpd;Nwd;.” gps;isj; Nrh;fFkhW ; jkpiog; ghpe;Jiu

thf;fpdpNy apdpik Ntz;Lk; epidT ey;yJ Ntz;Lk; neUq;fpd nghUs; ifg;gl Ntz;Lk; fdT nka;ggl Ntz;Lk;” vd;W ; kdpjDila cahpa khz;Gfs; vy;yhk; ,t;itafj;J thdpy; tyk;ngw Ntz;Lk; vd vz;zpa vz;zq;fisnay;yhk; jk;Kila ftp td;ikapy; fhyj;jhy; mopahj ngl;lfkha; itaj;J kf;fSf;F kdjpy; cWjp Ntz;Lk; vd;W $wpAs;shh;.

xU kdpjd; gpwe;jhd; tho;ejhd;> ,we;jhd; vd;W ,y;yhJ ; ,t;Tyfj;jpw;F mtdhy; vd;d gad; vd;gjid xt;nthUtUk; vz;z Ntz;Lk;. rpijTwhj kdjpidg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;Sjy; Ntz;Lk;. ,jidg; ngw;w xt;nthUtUk; tho;tpdpy; vt;thW tsk;ngWtJ vd;gJ Fwpj;Jr; rpe;jidnra;J> rhjid fis mila rhpj;jpuq;fs; gy epfo;jj Ntz;Lk;. ; cyf kf;fs; Nghw;WkhW cahpa gy njhz;Lfs; nra;jpl ehSk; cioj;jpLf.

Kidth; nr. jpUQhdrk;ge;jk;> jkpo; cjtpg;Nguhrphpah;> nghpahh; <.nt.uh. muR fiyf;fy;Y}hp> jpUr;rp – 23.

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- epidntDk; ePiu XltpL! tho;fifnaDk; ; fuLKulhd ghij – cd; tho;tpw;F top fhl;Lk;.’ kdj;jpy; epidf;ff; $ba epidTfs; vy;yhk; ep[q;fs; MfptplKbahJ. epidTfSf;F caph; nfhLj;J jl;bnaOg;gpdhy; kl;LNk epidT ep[khFk;. tho;f;iff;F topfhl;Lk;.

‘kdnkDk; Xilapy;

vz;zKk; kdKk; miyNghy; miyahJ gazpf;f Ntz;Lk;. kdpjd; Mirfisj; Jwe;J ek;gpf;if vd;Dk; Ntiu epiyehl;l gy kdpjh;fs; Mirfisj; Jwe;J jdf;nfd;W thohJ gpwUila eydpy; mf;fiu nfhz;L jd;idj; jhNd nrJf;fpg; gpwiu ,r; r%fj;jpw;Fg; ngUk; gq;F Mw;w top tif nra;a Ntz;Lnkd;w vz;zj;jpy; tho;eJ tUfpd;whd;. ; ,th;fnsy;yhk; jq;fSf;Fs; miye;J nfhz;bUf;Fk; kdj;ij xU Kfg;gLj;j miyahj kdkhf khw;wp tho;eJ nfhz;L tUthh;fs;. ; mJNghy ehKk; tho;tpdpy; tsk;ngw;W tho;Nthk;.
“tho;fif tho;tjw;Nf! ;

mt;tho;f;if tsk;ngWtjw;F Kaw;rpnaDk; Ntiu epiyehl;l ntw;wpnaDk; G+kfs; cd;id tpz;zfj;jpy; ,Ue;J fhw;wpd; miygl;L cd;dplj;jpy; G+ kioahf tUths;. Mifahy; tho;fif ; ntw;wpngw Ntz;LNkahdhy; Kaw;rp nra;a Ntz;Lk;. mjw;F epidTfisf; fhw;W Nghy gazpf;f tplhky; cq;fSila fl;Lg;ghl;Lf;Fs; itj;J kdj;ij xUKfg;gLj;jpdhy; kl;LNk tho;f; ifia tskhdjhf cUthf;f KbAk;. ,y;iynadpy; me;j tho;f;if rpije;J tpLk; vd;gijid kl;Lk; epidTfspy; ,Uf;fl;Lk;.
“fhfpjj;jpy; fg;gy; nra;J

fly; eLNt kpjf;f tpl;Nld; fly; miy Nghy; - kd miyAk; miyfpwJ”.

taJs;s tiu tho;Nthk; rhjidfs; thDyfj;jpy; rhjidfs; gy Ghpe;jpLNthk; rhpj;jpuq;fs; epfo;jpLNthk;” ; vd;w cah;ej ; vz;zq;fis cWjpahd tho;T nfhz;L cyfj; jpw;Fg; giwrhw;wpl xt;nthU kdpjDila tho;T cWjp vd;w G+l;bidg; G+l;b tho;f;ifnaDk; thrYf;Fr; nrd;W tsk;ngw tho;thq;F tho Ntz;Lk;. MfNt> xU kdpjdpd; tho;T cWjpahf mike;Jtpl;lhy; cyfj;jpid ntw;wp ngwyhk;.

flyiyg; Nghy; kdmiyAk; miyAk; vz;zq;fs; gy jpirfspy; gazpf;Fk;. ntw;wpnaDk; ghijia ; mila xNujpir topjhd;. me;jg; ghijia mila Ntz;LNkahdhy;

tho;f;ifahdJ mth;fSila ifapy;jhd; cs;sJ. MfNt> Kaw;rp vDk; Nfhiyg; gpbj;J ntw;wpnaDk; fiuia mila

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Ntz;Lnkdpy; Kaw;rp mtrpakhdJ. mk;Kaw;rpapid Kad;W xt;nthU gzpapYk; <LgLj;jpdhy; mg;gzpapy; ntw;wpnaDk; G+ G+j;Jf; FYq;Fk;. tho;f;if ,dpikAWk;. MfNt> vd; ,dpa jkpoh;fNs! Kaw;rp nra;Aq;fs;! ntw;wp epr;rak;. Kaw;rp nra;a tpy;iynadpy; Njhy;tp epr;rak;. xt;nthU kdpjdpd; gzpapYk; mtDila Kaw;rpf;Fj; jFe;j $yp fpilf;Fk;. mJ nghUshfNth> GfohfNth (m) vJNtz;LkhdhYNkh ,Uf;fyhk;. Mdhy;> Kaw;rp mtrpak;. Kaw;rp nra;Aq;fs;. ntw;wp thif cq;fSf;Nf! gazk; njhlul;Lk;. rpijTwhj kdj;ijg; ngw;W kdk; kfpo;rrpjdpy; jpisj;J> vz;zq;fs; ; cah;tile;J> xUkpj;jf; fUj;Jld; tho;eJ> ; xw;WikAzh;Tld; gofp> XahJ jk; gzpiar; rPUk; rpwg;GlDk; nrk;ikgl> nre;ney; Nghd;W nropj;Jk; nrOikAld; tho;f! tsh;f!. f tp ij

f tp ij

jkpoh czh;Tnfhs;

fy;tp
jpNd~;
,sq;fiy caphp njhopy;El;gtpay; ,uz;lhkhz;L

fyq;fiu tpsf;fha; epd;W - ,e;j cyfpw;Nf eP xsp tPR….. mwpahik nfhz;l kf;fspilNa - eP cd; mDgtj;ij ms;spf; nfhL…. kioj; JspfSk; Vq;Ffpd;wd - cd;idf; fhz tFg;giwf;F tu ,ayhky;. epyTk; fz;zh; tbf;fpd;wJ - cd;idf; P tuKbahky; fw;f gfypy; tuKbahky.; NghJ ,tw;Wld; xg;gpLk; NghJ - ehNdh rhyp. mjp~;lrhyp.

“Md;Nwhh; top epy;! Mw;Wf nghJg;gzp! ,yf;fpak; GFj;jpL! ; <diu xJf;fpL! caph; jkpohk; czh;ejpL! ; Coiy nehWf;fpL! vl;lg;gh; ,fo;ejpL ! ; VWNghy; tPWnfhs; ! Iak; fise;J mwpitg; gaph;nra;! xOf;fk; Nghw;wpL! Xk;Gf nghpNahiu! ehL tho eypT jPhjjpL! ; ; gifth;fF tisNay;! ; khiaf;F kaq;Nfy;! tha;ikNa Nghh;ths;! gad;; ahidNghy; gadgL! “o” fukhar; rpwg;GW!”

t. rutzf;Fkhh;>
,sq;fiy fzpdp gad;ghl;bay; ,uz;lhkhz;L ‘m’ gphpT

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f l; L iu

kdf;Fog;gk;;
Nfh. kzpfz;lgpuG
,sq;fiy fzpdp mwptpay; %d;whkhz;L ‘M’ gphpT

kdk; vd;why; vd;d? kdJ vd;W xd;W ,Uf;fpwjh? kdJ ,Uf;fpwJ vd;why; vq;Nf ,Uf;fpwJ? mg;gb ,Uf;Fk; gl;rj;jpy; ehk; Vd; mjid ,jaj;Jld; njhlh;GgLj;JfpNwhk;. xU Ntis kdJ vd;W ,y;iy vd;why; gpwF Vd; ehk; me;jr; nrhy;iy mbf;fbg; gad;gLj;Jfpd;Nwhk;? mg;gb xd;W ek; clypDs; ,Ug;gjhfNt vg;nghOJk; ek;GfpNwhNk mJ Vd;? Mjp kdpjd; jw;NghJ ,Uf;Fk; ek;kth;fisg; Nghd;w clw;$Wfisg; gw;wpa njspthd mwptpidg; ngw;wpUf; ftpy;iy. clypaf;fk; vt;thW eilngWfpwJ vd;W Muha mtDf;Fj; njhpaTk; ,y;iy - Njhd;wTk; ,y;iy. Mdhy;> ehk; ,g;NghJ czUtijg; ,jaj; NghyNt MjpkdpjDk; Jbg;gpid czh;ejhd;. jd; clYf; ; Fs; vg;NghJk; VNjh mjph;T Vw;gl;Lf; nfhz;bUg;gijf; ftdpj;jhd;. ehl;fs; nry;yr; nry;y mtDila ftdpf;Fk; jpwDk;> MuhAk; jpwDk; Nkk;gl ,e;j mjph;T capUld; ,Ug;gth;fspd; kl;LNk Vw;gLfpwJ vd;w clypy; KbTf;F te;jhd;. mg;gbahdhy; mq;Fjhd; caph; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. mjdhy;jhd; caph; gphpe;jTld; mjph;T epd;WtpLfpwJ vd;W

epidj;jhd;. kdpjehfhpfk; tsu tsu ,J njhlh;ghd Ma;TfSk; tsh;ejd. ; ehk; NgRtJ> mOtJ cs;spl;l ekJ midj;Jtpjkhd czh;TfSk; ek; neQ;Rg; gFjpapy;jhd; ,Uf;fpd;wd vdTk; mq;fpUe;Jjhd; midj;J nray; fSk; ntspg;gLfpd;wd vdTk; mth;fSk; mth;fSf;Fg; gpd;dhy; te;jth;fSk; ek;gpdh;. ,t;thwhf mth;fs; jq;fspd; czh;Tfs; midj;Jk; jq;fpapUf;f Xh; ,lk; clYf;Fs; ,Ug;gjhff; fUjp dhh;fs;.

,t;thwhf ; cUthf;fg;gl;lJjhd; kdJ. mij Vd; ,jaj;Jld; njhlh;GgLj;jpdhh;fs; vd;why; ,jak; kl;LNk jd; ,Ug;ig vg;NghJk; njhpag;gLj;jpf; nfhz;bUe;jJ. gpw; fhyj;jpy; clw;$Wfisg; gw;wp mwpT tsh;rrp mile;jhYk; ,jak; ; vd;gJ ,uj;jj;ij cly;KOtJk; ghar;nra;Ak; xU cWg;Gjhd; vd;gJ njhpate;jhYk; kdJf;Fk; ,jaj;Jf; Fkhd njhlh;ig ahUk; mwpa Kaytpy;iy. mt;thW mwpag;gl;l cz;ikfisAk; Vw;Wf;nfhs;s ,aytpy;iy.

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jw;NghJs;s mwpthy; rpwe;j kdpjDk; ,ijNajhd; nra;fpwhd;. czh;TfSf;F mjpf Kf;fpaj;Jtk; nfhLf;Fk; kdpjd; kdJ vd;w xd;W ,Uf;fpwJ vd;Nw $wpte;jhd;. Mdhy;> cz;ikapy; kdJ vd;W vJTk; ,y;iy. ehk; NgRtJ> mOtJ> rpe;jpg;gJ> epidtpy; itj;Jf; nfhs;tJ vy;yhNk %isapd; Jizahy;jhd;. ehk; nra;Ak; xt;nthU nraYf;Fk; %isjhd; fhuzk;. NtWkhjphpahfr; nrhd;dhy; ekf;F vz;zq;fs;> rpe;jidfs; vq;Nf Njhd;Wfpd;wdNth mJjhd; kdJ. mtuth; tpUg;gg;gb kdj;ij vq;Nf Ntz;LkhdhYk; itj;Jf; nfhs;syhk;. vd;d> kdj;ijg; gw;wpa cq;fs; “kdf;Fog;gk;” jPhejjh? ; ; f tp ij

f l; L iu

ngz;ghy;
Nr. fw;gfuh[;
,sq;fiy tzpftpay; (fzpdp) ,uz;lhkhz;L ‘M’ gphpT

“Nahff;fhuh;fSf;Fj;jhd;

Kjy; Foe;ij ngz;zha;g; gpwf;Fk;”
- Nghh;rRfy; gonkhop ;

nrk;nkhop
ghz;bauh[;
,sq;fiy caphp njhopy;El;gtpay; ,uz;lhkhz;L

xt;nthU rhpj;jpuj;jpd; gpd;dhYk; ngz; ,Ug;gJ cz;ikNa. ,e;jpa kz;zpy; ngz; ,uz;lwf; fye;jts; vd;gij vtUNk kWf;f KbahJ. kdpj ,dj;ijf; fl;bf;fhf;ff; $ba rf;jp ; ngz;zplk;jhd; ,Uf;fpwJ. ngz;fis ,iwtdpd; rf;jpahfg; Nghw;Wfpd;w ,e;jpahtpy; gpwe;jjw;F ehk; ngUikg; gl Ntz;Lk;. n[h;kdpapy; v`phpq;]Nlhh;g; ; vd;w ,lj;jpy; kpUfj;jdkhd Kiwapy; xU ngz; nfhy;yg; gl;bUe;jJ jilaq;fshy; fz;L gpbf;fg;gl;lJ. mts; “epahd;lh;jhy;” ,dg;ngz;. mg;ngz; tho;ejJ ; gd;ndLq; fhyj;jpw;F Kd;dhs;. mts; xU fy; Nfhlhhpahy; jhf;fg;gl;Lf; nfhy;yg;gl;bUe;jhs;. mtSila jiy clk;gpypUe;J Jz;bf;fg;gl;bUe;jJ. %isiaj; jdpahf vLg;gjw;fhf mtSila kz;ilNahl;bd; mbg;ghfk; cilj; Jj; jpwf;fg;gl;bUe;jJ. ,t;thW mf; fhyj;jpy; xU ngz;zpd; jiy

gofp> ehtpy; cwthb> ed;Fw gofp> njtpl;lhj thh;jijfisr; Rke;J> ; cyf tPjpfspy; cyh te;J> ehSk; ed; ehSk; ekJ neQ;rpy; ed;F rpk;khrdk; mikj;J. miyfis miyfisg; Nghy; Xhplj;jpy; epy;yhJ> clypy; XLk; FUjp Nghy; kPzLk; kPzLk; Rod;W ; ; Rod; epiyapy;yhj epiyiag; Ws; khopahk; ngw;Ws;sJ ek; nrk;nkhopahk; jkpo;nkhop.

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jho;jjg;gl;lJ. ; epfo;rrp. ;

,J

kpfg;

gioa

fp.gp.19-Mk; E}w;whz;Lf;Fg; gpd;dhd tuyhWfspy; ngz; jiyepkph;ej ; epfo;Tfisf; fhzKbfpwJ. xU ehl;bd; tPuj;ijAk;> Kd;Ndw;wj;ijAk; msg;gjw;Fhpa kpfr;rpwe;j fUtp ngz;. ,e;jpa murpay; tuyhw;wpy; ,lk; ngwj;jFjp ngw;w Kjy; ,e;jpa ngz;kzp [hd;rpuhzp. nts;isa rpg;gha; fSf;Fr; rpk;k nrhg;gdkhf tpsq;fpa rpq;fk;. Mq;fpNya Nghh; tPuh; ngsfiu vjph;jJ ; tPu uj;jj;ijr; Rke;J Nghh;nra;jhs; [hd;rpuhzp RacUtk; vLf;f ngsfh; <LnfhLf;f Kbahky; tPoejhd;. ; ;

fy;tpNa nja;tk; vdf; $wg;gLk; ,f;fhyj;jpy; ngz;fy;tp vspJ. Kj;Jnyl;Rkp nul;b fhyj;jpy; ngz; fy;tp ghtkhff; fUjg;gl;lJ. ngw;Nwhh;f;Fj; njhpahkNy Mq;fpy fy;tpiaf; fw;whh;. mtuJ fy;Y}hpg; gbg;Gf; fhyfl;lj;jpy; Njrpa jiyth;fs; ghuhl;bAs;sdh;.

1886-1968 rpy Mz;Lfs; fopj;J nrd;id apy; Ma;Tikaj;ij epWtpdhh;. mf;fhyj;jpy; Ra njhopy; njhlq;fpa Kjy; ngz;kzp. ,e;jpa kz;zpy; gpwf;fh tpl;lhYk;> ,e;j kz;zpd; ike;jh; fSf;Fj; jk; ,ja md;igAk; ,d;Kf njhz;ilAk; KOtJkhf

1835 – 1858 [hd;rp uhzpapd; ths; tPrR ghAk; ; ,lnky;yhk; Mq;fpy gilapd; ,uj;jk; rpjWk;. Rje;jpuj;jpw;fhf ,e;jg; G+kp Vw;w Kjy; ngz; cUtk; Ihd;rpuhzp.

fly; miyfshYk; Kbahf; jLf;f Kbahf; fhw;W - ngz; tpbay; khj ,jo; - 18

1910 – 1997

8

Mf];l; 2010 201

xg;gilj;jth; md;id njurh. mZ MAj mtyq;fSk;> ,aw;if jUk; vjph;ghuhj Jauq;fSk; cynfq;fpYk; gue;J tphpe;Js;s ,e;j Neuj;jpy; kdpj Fyj;Jf;F mikjpiaf; fhf;f gzpahw;wpf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; gzpg; ngz;. ngz;zpdj;jpw;Nf ngUik Nrh;ggJ ; md;idnjurhjhd;. Neha; fz;L thLk; ,ay;Gk;> grpg;gpzp fz;L cUFk; ,jak; nfhz;bUe;j njurh jd; flikiag; gjpide;J Mz;Lfshfg; gs;spapNy nra;jhh;. gs;spapy; 1944 ,y; gs;spKjy;th; gjtp Njb te;jJ. cly; eyk; Fd;wpa epiyapYk; Kjy;th; nghWg;igj; jpwk;gl nra;J te;jhh;. ,th; fy;fj;jh fhspNfhapy; mUNf 1952 eph;ky; ,Ujak; vd;w ngahpy; ,wg;Nghh; ey ,y;yk; Jtq;fpdhh;. cyfk; KOtJk; Gfo;ngw;w ,th; “ntzpRyh” efhpy; 1965 Mk; Mz;L klk; Muk;gpj;jhh;. ,jidj; njhlh;eJ ; nfhyk;gpah> nghyptpah> gpNurpy; Nghd;w ,lq;fspy; Nrit nra;J ‘md;id’ ngah; ngw;W “md;id njurh” Mdhh;. gUtq;fs; NjhWk; nghopfpd;w kioiag;Nghy ,y;yhJ> fhyKk; ,lKk; fUjhjJ md;G. me;j md;Gkioiag; ngz; nghopfpwhs;. mk;kioahy; cyf caph;fspd; ,jaq;fs; eide;J Fsph;fpd;wd.

tpijfSk;

tpUl;rq;fSk;

vopyurpapd; ftpQh; vopyurpapd; ftpijfs; gw;wpa fl;Liu kdpj kdq;fspd; fdq;fs; jd; ftpijr; rpwfirg;gpy; nkd;ikahfr; nrhy;ypr; nry;gth; ftpQh; vopyurp. kpifahd myq;fhuq;fisg; gad; gLj;jhJ kpf vspa gbkq;fshy;> mofhd ftpijfis tbg;gjpy; Mh;tk; nfhz;l ,tuJ Kjy; ftpijj; njhFg;G ‘kpjf;Fk; kfue;jk;’ vd;gjhFk;. ,th; NtY}h; khtl;lk;> uhzpg; Ngl;ilapy; gpwe;jth;. jkpo; ,yf;fpaj;jpy; Kidth; gl;lk; ngw;w ,th; njhlf;ffhyj; jkpo;g; Gjpdq;fspy; ngz; rpj;jphpg;G gw;wpg; ngUk; Ma;tpid Nkw;nfhz;lth;. jw;NghJ ehkf;fy; mwpQh; mz;zh muRf; fy;Y}hpapy; cjtpg; Nguhrphpauhfg; gzpGhpe;J tUfpd;whh;. ,d;iwa rKjhaj;jpy; ngz; rKjhak; cah;thdnjhU epiyf;F te;j NghjpYk; juzpia MSk; jpwik nfhz;bUe;j NghjpYk; mtisg; nghWj;j tiu mk;kh tPL vd;gJ mtUf;F epue;juky;y vd;gij moFw $wpr; nry;Yk; vopyurpapd; ftpijj; Jsp ….. ek; Kd;Nd fhl;rpaha; tphpfpwJ. “,Ue;J tpl;Lr; nrd;w tPL kWgbAk; kWgbAk; tha;ggjpy;iy ; g neUly;fSk; GOf;fq;fSkha;g;; gpJf;fk; nfhz;ljd; gpwF

tpbay; khj ,jo; - 18

9

Mf];l; 2010 201

xU NghJk; vd;id mJ Vw;Wf; nfhs;tjpy;iy mt;tg;NghJ ikak; nfhz;l njd;wy; jpl;Lf;fs; vz;zq;fspy; NkNyhq;Fk; md;W gbg;gjw;nfd tpLjpf;Fr; nrd;wjd; gpwF tpLKiwf; fhy Xa;tplkhapw;W kzkhd gpd; vk; mk;;khtPlhapw;W mkkhtP vd; tPL” (mk;kh tPL –g.vz;.19)

“te;jkUk; thyhl;Lk; jiy jpUg;Gk; Fjpf;Fk; jpUk;Gk; fOj;ij tisf;Fk; rw;Nw gwf;Fk; ,izAld; NgRk; kdj;jpd; fdk; midj;Jk; mjd; rpwfirg;gpy; Nyrha; pwFNyrha;” (rpl;Lr;rpwF-g.vz;-61)

ghujp tpUk;gpa tz;zk;> epkph;ej ; ed;dilAk;> Neh;nfhz;l ghh;itAkha; tpsq;f Ntz;ba GJikg; ngz;zhdts; rKjhaj;jpy; cytp tUk; ,uhtzh;fshy; jd;epiy khwpg; Nghdijf; $wpr;nry;Yk; ftpQhpd; ftpijj; Jspfs;> fz;zPh;j; Jspfsha; jlk; khwpg; Nghfpd;wd.
“jLkhWfpwJ eh

epiyahikia czh;jJk; ; E}y;fs; jkpo; nkhopapy; rKj;jpuk; Nghd;W tphpe;jpUe;jhYk; vl;Nl thpfspy; mf;fUj;ijj; jpwk;gl $wpLk; ftpQhpd; nrhy;yk;Gfs; ,Njh ek; fz;Kd;Nd gha;tijf; fhZq;fs;.
“,aw;ifr; rPwwj;jpy; %r;rlf;fp ;

$rpg; NghfpwJ kdk; mstpLk; mr;RWj;Jk; myl;rpag;gLj;Jk; vy;yhg; ghh;itfisAk; jtph;fff; ; fhy; ngUtpuiyg; ghh;jNj ; vd;d epkph;jjpAk; ; tise;Nj NghdJ KJF RUq;fpg; NghdJ cyfk;”

epyj;jpw;F cuk; Nrh;ffg; NghNdhk; ; gpu gpusak; Kbag; Nguikjp nfhz;Nlhk; epyk; eLq;fp ePh; ngUf %r;rw;W neQ;rilf;f epyk; eLq;fp ePh; ngUf %r;rw;W neQ;rilf;f fdf;fpwJ tapW ftpe;jpUf;fpwJ Mfhak;”

(fiu fhZk; tho;fif-g.vz;-30) ; f,t;thW vspa gbkq;fshy; ePNuhil Nghd;w mikjpahd jk; ftpij thpfspy; vopyurp tbj;Js;shh;. - tpbay; FOtpdh;

(ngUtpuy; cyfk;-g.vz;.49) (ngUtpuy;
,e;j cyfpy; MwwpT gilj;j kdpj [Ptuhrpfs; ju ,ayhj MWjiy Ie;jwpT gilj;jg; gwitapdq;fs; juj; jtWtjpy;iy. ftpQhpd; ,f; ftpij apid thrpAq;fs;. mjpy; ek; Rthrk; rw;NwDk; epk;kjpAWk; vd;gjpy; vs;ssTk; Iakpy;iy.

f l; L iu

tpbay; khj ,jo; - 18

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Mf];l; 2010 201

ePh; khRghL
j. jPgh
,sq;fiy jkpo; %d;whkhz;L

ehk; capUld; tho;tjw;F> fhw;wpw;F mLj;j epiyapy; ‘ePh;’ kpfTk; mtrpakhd xd;W MFk;. ek;Kila md;whl Njitfis epiwT nra;tjpy; MW> Fsk;> Vhp Mfpait Kf;fpag; gq;F tfpf;fpd;wd.

njhopw;rhiyapd; mjpfg;gbahd ePhjNjitNa MFk;. cjhuzkhf ; ; rh;ffiu ; Miy> vz;nza; njhopw;rhiyfSf;F Kf;fpakhf ePh; Njit. ,jDila fopTfis ntspNaw;Wtjw;Fr; rhpahd ,lkhf ejp miktjhy; ejpePh; vspjhf khrilfpwJ. Mw;WePiu mUe;Jk; kf;fSf;F vYk;Gk; ,jaKk; ghjpg;gilfpd;wd. efuq;fs; kw;Wk; ngUefuq;fspy; kdpjh;fs; thoplq;fspy; ,Ue;J ntsptUk; fopT ePh; NeubahfNt Mw;W ePhpy; fye;J tpLtjhy; Mw;W ePh; kl;Lk; nfLtJld; mjpf msT Neha;fis Vw;gLj;JfpwJ. NkYk; efuq;fspy; fopTg; nghUs;fisr; rhiy Xukhff; Ftpg;gjhy;> ,f;fopTg; nghUl;fspy; ,Ue;J tUk; ghf;Bhpahf;fs; kio ePUld; fye;J MWfspy; khrpid mjpfg; gLj;Jfpd;wd. Mw;W ePiu khRgLj;Jtjpy; njhopw;rhiyfis tpl efuq;fNs tpQ;rp epw;fpd;wd. gaph;fSf;Fk;> kdpjh;fSf;Fk; jPqF tpistpf;Fk; G+r;rp ,dq;fis ; mopg;gjw;fhfg; G+r;rpf; nfhy;yp kUe;Jfs; mjpf mstpy; gad; gLj;jg;gLfpd;wd. ; ,e;jg; G+r;rpf; nfhy;yp kUe;Jfisg; gaphpLk; epyq;fspy; fye;J fopthf ntspNawp Mw;W ePhpy; fyg;gjhy;> mq;F thOk; ePhtho; caphpdq;fspd; ; jpRf;fspy; er;Rj; jd;ik Vw;gLfpwJ.

ePh; ngUksT Ntshz;ikf;Fk; njhopw;rhiyfSf;Fk; gad;gLfpwJ. ,Ug;gpDk;> ePuhdJ kdpjh;fshy;> mth;fspd; nray;fshy; khrilfpwJ. ,d;iwa cyf kf;fspd; xU gFjpapdh; J}a;ikahd FbePiug; ngw Kbatpy;iy. ePhpd; juk; vd;gJ mijg; gad;gLj;Jk; tpjj;ijg; nghWj;Nj cs;sJ. Mw;WePiu khR gLj;Jtjpy; njhopw;rhiyf; fopTfs; Kf;fpa gq;F tfpf;fpd;wd. ngUk;ghYk; njhopw;rhiyfs; MW fs; ,Uf;Fk; ,lq;fspNy fl;lg; gLfpd;wd. mjw;F Kf;fpaf; fhuzk;

tpbay; khj ,jo; - 18

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me;j kPdfis czthf cl;nfhs;Sk; ; kdpjh;fSf;Fg; gy jPqFfs; Vw;gL ; fpd;wd. ,jdhy; gytifg;gl;l kPdpdq;fSk; mope;J tUfpd;wd. ePh; khRghl;lhy; tpisr;ry; ghjpf; fg;gLfpwJ. cw;gj;jpAk; FiwfpwJ. er;Rj; jd;ik cs;s khRg; nghUshfpa fhg;gh; ry;Ngl; ePhtho; ; caphpdq;fisg; ghjpg;gilar; nra;J> caph; Nrjk; tpistpf;fpwJ. FbePh; khRghL miltjhy; Neha; cz;lhf;Fk; fpUkpfs; ePhpy; gy;fpg; ngUFfpd;wd. ,g;gb khR mile;j ePiuf; Fbg;gjhy; kQ;rs; fhkhiy> kNyhpah> fhyuh> ilgha;L Nghd;w guTk; Neha;fSk; Vw;gLfpd;wd. jpUg;G+h; kw;Wk; f&h; efuq;fspy; cs;s rhaj; njhopw;rhiyfspypUe;J Vuhskhd fopTg; nghUl;fs; ejp ePhpy; fyf;fpd;wd. md;whlk; kdpjh; kw;Wk; fhy;eilfshy; Fsk;> Vhpfs; nghpJk; khRgLfpd;wd. ,ijg;NghyNt efuq; fspy; ,Ue;J ntsptUk; rhf;filf; fopTg; nghUs;fshYk; ejpePh; khr ilfpwJ.

,jdhy; me;je;jg; nghUsh jhuj;jpw;Fj; jFe;jgb ePiug; gad;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;. gy ehLfspy; muR ePh; khRghl;ilj; jLf;f gy jpl;lq;fisj; jPlb tUfpwJ. ,jd; ; tpisthf epykl;l ePh;> epyj;jb ePh> ; kio ePh; Mfpatw;iw tpQ;Qhd Kiwapy; gad;gLj;JtJ Nghd;w jpl;lq;fs; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLfpd;wd. ePhgghrd ; ; trjpfis Nkk; gLj;JtJ> fhy;tha; Kiwia xOq;FgLj;jp ePh; tPzhtijj; jLg;gJ> nrhl;L ePh; ghrd Kiwia mwpKfg;gLj;Jjy; Nghd;w jpl;lq; fshy; ePiug; ghJfhj;J ed; Kiwapy; gad;gLj;j KbAk;. xt;nthUtUk; jq;fs; tPlby; ; kioePh; Nrfhpg;G njhl;b itf;f Ntz;Lk;. ek; Kjy; czNt ePh; jhd;> mjdhy; me;j ePiur; Rj;jkhd ghj;jpuj;jpy; gad;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;. khjk; xU KiwahtJ ehk; Rw;wp ,Uf;Fk; epyg;gug;igj; Jg;GwT nra;a Ntz;Lk;. ,e;jr; nraiy ehk; njhlh;eJ ; nra;J te;jhy;> ek;ikr; Rw;wp ed;dNu R+o;e;jpUf;Fk;. P

jLg;G eltbf;iffs;:
fhtphp Vw;gl;Ls;s kf;fsplk; Ntz;Lk;. Nghd;w ejpePhfspy; ; khRghl;ilj; jLf;f tpopg;Gzh;rrp ; Vw;gLj;j

cyfk; KOtjpYk; 70 rjtPjk; ePh; tptrhaj;jpw;fhfTk;> 20 rjtPjk; ePh; njhopw;rhiyg; gzpfSf;fhfTk;> 10 rjtPj ePh; kdpj Efh;T fSf;fhfTk; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ.

j kp o wp Q h;

m wp K f k;

ftpkzp
12
Mf];l; 2010 201

tpbay; khj ,jo; - 18

Kidth; kh. fhh;jjpNfad; ; jkpo;jJiwj;jiyth; ; “JUk;ngd nkype;j Njfk; Jyq;fpLk; JUk; Fsph;ej ghh;it ; ,Uk;gpDk; typa cs;sk; ,dpaNt nra;Ak; vz;zk; fUk;gpDk; ,dpa nrhw;fs;”

ftpkzp jkpo;> kiyahsk;> Mq;fpyk; Mfpa %d;W nkhop fisAk; fw;wwpe;jth;. jkpo;nkhopf; fy;ntl;L Muha;rrpahsh;> ; rpwe;j nrhw;nghopthsh;> eifr;Ritg; Ngr;rhsh; - vdg; gy Kfq;fSf;F chpikAilath;. Fkhp khtl;lk; jha;j; jkpofj;Jld; ,iza ghLgl;lth;fspy; ftp kzpapd; gq;F kfj;jhdJ. gl;lk;> gjtpfs; Njb te;jNghJk; mjid tpUk;ghky; Gd;difAld; xJf;fpj; js;spath;. jkpofk; nrd;id khfhzkhf ,Ue;jNghJ ftpkzpia muritg; Gytuhf Mf;fNtz;Lk; vd;W khfhz Kjy;tuhf tpsq;fpa uh[h[p vz;zpdhh;. ehQ;rpy; ehl;Lg; gFjpfs; mg;NghJ jpUtpjhq;$h; rk];jhdj;jpd; fPo; te;jjhy; mt;thW ftpkzpia muritg; Gytuhf;Ftjpy; rpf;fy; ,Ue;jJ. mjw;fhfr; nrd;id khfhzj;jpd; fPo; ,Ue;j ney;iy khtl;l vy;iyg; gFjpahd fhty; fpzW mUNf 5 nrd;l; epyk; ftpkzpapd; ngaUf;F thq;fp thp Kjypatw;iwf; ftpkzp ngahpy; mspj;jhy; NghJk;. mth; nrd;id khfhzj;ijr; Nrh;ejth;jhd; vd;W ; fUjp murit ftpQuhfr; rpwg;gpf;fyhk; vd;W vOj;jhsh;

– vd;W ehkf;fy; nt.,uhkypq;fk; gps;isahy; Gfog;gl;l ftpkzp Njrpf tpehafk; gps;isf;Ff; [_iy khjk; 27-Mk; NjjpNahL 134 taJ epiwtilfpwJ. fd;dpahFkhp khtl;lk; Nj&hpy; 1876 Mk; Mz;L [{iy 27-Mk; Njjp ftpkzp gpwe;jhh;. jkJ 9 tajpy; je;ijia ,oe;jth;. jha; Mjpyl;Rkp mth;fshy; tsh;f;fg; ngw;whh;. 19Mk; tajpy; mofk;ik tpUj;jk; ghbdhh;. ,dpa jkpopy; vtUk; tpsq;fg; ghly; ,aw;Wk; jpwk; ngw;wth;; Foe;ijfSf;Nfw;wj; jkpo;g; ghf;fs; ,aw;Wk; jpwkpf;fth;.
“Njhl;lj;jpy; NkAJ nts;isg;gR –

mq;Nf Js;spf; Fjpf;FJ fd;Wf; Fl;b – vd;W Foe;ijfSf;fhfg; ghly;fis ,aw;wpAs;shh;. ,th;jk; ftpijfs; Fwpj;J urpfkzp b.Nf.rp>
“Njrpa tpehafj;jpd; ftpg;ngUik Njrpa tpehafj; vd; jpdKk; Nfl;gJ nrtpg;ngUik” gUik

vdg; Gfo;eJiuj;Js;shh;. ;

tpbay; khj ,jo; - 18

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fy;fpAk; ftpkzpf;Ff; fbjk; vOjpdhh;. Mdhy;> ftpkzp ,jid xg;Gf; nfhs;stpy;iy. epyk; thq;Ftjw;fhd trjp> tha;gGfs; cs;sd. ; Mdhy; gl;lk;> gjtpf;F ehd; jFjpAilatd; my;y vd;W kWj;Jtpl;lhh;. mNjhL mg;gjtpf;F ehkf;fy; nt.,uhkypq;fk; ngaiu Kd;nkhope;jhh;. uh[h rh; Kj;ijah nrl;bah; ftpkzpia mz;zhkiy gy;fiyf; fofj;jpd; rpwg;Gepiyg; Nguhrphpauhf ,Uf;f Nfl;Lf; nfhz;lhh;. tUlj;jpw;F ,uz;L> %d;W nrhw; nghopTfs;> ,ytr tPL> khjk; 600 rk;gsk; vd;W $wpdhh; Kj;ijah nrl;bah;. Mdhy; ftpkzp mth;fs; mij Vw;f kWj;Jtpl;lhh;. fy;fp vOjp> rpth[pfNzrd; ebj;J ntspte;j “fs;tdpd; fhjyp” jpiug;glj;jpy; ftpkzp vOjpa>
“ntapw; Nfw;w epoYz;L ntapw; tPRk; njd;wy; fhw;Wz;L ifapw; fk;gd; ftpAz;L fyrk; epiwa kJTz;L”……

“kq;ifauhfg; gpwg;gjw;Nf kq; ply; ey;y khjtk; nra;jply; h….. ..” Ntz;Lkk;kh ..

vd;W ngz;zpdk; rhh;e;J ghba ftpkzpiar; nrk;nkhopahk; jkpo; nkhopiag; Nghw;Wk; ,e;ehspy; epidT $h;Nthkhf.

ghy; - rpy Fwpg;Gfs;
gp. re;JU
,sq;fiy fzpjk; (fzpdp) ,uz;lhkhz;L

vd;w ghly; ,lk;ngw;Ws;sJ. ,ij mwpe;j fy;fp ftpkzpaplk; xU ngUe;njhifiaf; nfhLj;JtUk;gb rpth[pfNzrid mDg;gpdhh;. mtUk; nrd;whh;. nfhLj;jhh;. Mdhy; ftpkzp mj;njhifiag; ngw;Wf; nfhs;s tpy;iy. jpUk;gp fy;fp ,lNk nfhLf;Fk;gbf; $wpdhh;. ,e;epfo;it epidj;J nefpo;ej rpth[p fNzrd; ; ftpkzpiaj; “jkpo;g; nghpahh; ftpkzp” vd;W Gfo;ejhh;. ;

o cyfpy; ghy; cw;gj;jpapy; Kjyplk; tfpf;Fk; ehL ,e;jpah. o xl;lfj;jpd; ghy; fwe;jTld; fl;bahfp tpLk;. o rpq;fj;jpd; ghiy> jq;ff; fpz;zj;ijj; jtpu NtW ve;j ghj;jpuj;jpy; itj;jhYk; nfl;Lg; Ngha;tpLk;. o gRk;ghiy tpl> xl;lf ghypy; mjpf rj;Jf;fs; cs;sd. o ghiyj; japuhf;f cjTk; ghf; Bhpahtpd; ngah; Ngrpy;y];. o ghypd; Rj;jj; jd;ikia mwpa cjTk; fUtp – Nyf;Nlh kPllh;. ; o ahf; vUikapd; ghy; Cjh epwj;jpy; ,Uf;Fk;.

ehl;Lg;Gwtpay;
Njrpaf; fUj;juq;fk;

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,sq;fiy Mq;fpyk; ,uz;lhkhz;L

bf;fpd;]pd; KOg;ngah;

Charles

John Huffan Dickens vd;gjhFk;. ,th; Mq;fpy ,yf;fpaj;jpy; jdpr; rpwg;Gkpf;fth;. ,th; rpwe;j ehtyhrphpah; kw;Wk; Xtpah;. gpwg;G : 7 gpg;uthp 1812. gpwe;j ,lk; Lardport, Portsmouth. je;ij: John
jkpo;jJiwapd; rhh;ghf ehl;Lg;Gw ; kz;Zk; kuGk; kf;fSk; vd;Dk; jiyg;gpy; ehl;Lg;Gwtpay; Njrpaf; fUj;juq;F 09-04-10 (Qhapw;Wf; fpoik) md;W fy;Y}hpf; fUj;juq;f miwapy; eilngw;wJ. fy;Y}hpapd; jhshsh; lhf;lh; Nf.v];.uq;frhkpMJF Iah mth;fs; Fj;Jtpsf;F Vw;wpj; Jtf;fp itj;J jiyik tfpj;jhh;. jkpo;jJiwj; ; jiyth; Kidth; kh.fhh;jjpNfad; ; tuNtw;Giu toq;fpdhh;. fy;Y}hp Kjy;th; Kidth; eh.fz;zd; tho;jJiu ; toq;fpdhh;. Nf.v];.Mh;. njhopy; El;gf; fy;Y}hp Kjy;th; Kidth; jpahfuh[d; Kd;dpiy tfpj;jhh;. ehkf;fy; mwpQh; mz;zh fy;Y}apd; jkpo;j;Jiw ,izg;NguhrphpaUk; vOj;jhsUkhd Kidth; ngUkhs; KUfd; mth;fs; fUj;juq;fpw;Fr; rpwg;G tpUe;jpduhfg; gq;Nfw;whh;. fy;Y}hpapd; jhshsh; mth;fs; Ma;Tf; fl;Liufspd; njhFg;G E}iy ntspapl> mijr; rpwg;G tpUe;jpdh; ngw;Wf; nfhz;L rpwg;Giu toq;fpdhh;. ,f;fUj;juq;fpy; gy;NtW gy;fiyf; fofq;fs; kw;Wk; fy;Y}hpfspd; Nguhrphpah;fSk; Ma;T khzth;fSk; jj;jkJ Ma;Tf; fl;Liufis thrpj;J tpthjpj;jdh;. jkpo; KJepiy tphpTiuahsh; Kidth; ng. fNzrKUfd; ed;wp $wpdhh;.

Dickens. jha; : Elizabeth Barrow. ,wg;G: 9 R+d; 1870 kiwe;j ,lk;
God’s Hill Place, Higham, Kent.

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,tuJ je;ij Xh; mYtyfj;jpy; Fkh];jhthfg; gzpahw;wpath;. rhh;y]; ,uz;L tajhf ,Ue;jNghJ ,tuJ FLk;gk;; yz;ld; nrd;W tho;ejJ. ; ,tUila je;ij mjpfkhff; fld; thq;fpajhy; mij milf;f Kbahky; NghdJ. mjdhy; ,tUila je;ij rpiwjz;lid mDgtpf;f Neh;ejJ. ; FLk;gj;ij vLj;J elj;j Ntz;ba epyikf;Fr; rhh;y]; js;sg;gl;lhh;. mg;NghJ mtUf;F taJ 11. rpWtdhf ,Ue;jjhy; mth; kpfTk; tUe;j Neh;ejJ. ; gpd;dh; mth; gs;spf;Fr; nrd;W gbj;J Kbj;jhh;. jdJ gjpide;jhtJ tajpy; xU tof;fwpQhplk; Jizahsuhfr; Nrh;ejhh;. rhh;y]; jdJ 21 MtJ ;

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tajpypUe;J ehty; vOjj; njhlq;fpdhh;. rhh;y]; ,d; Kjy; ehty; ‘The Pickwick Papers’. ,jd; topahfg; Gfo; ngw;whh;. ,e;j Kjy; ehty; eifr;Rit czh;Tkpf;fJ. rhh;y]; xU kpfg;nghpa Xtpah;. yz;ld; tho;f;ifapy; ve;j Xh; ,lj;ijg; ghh;jjhYk; mij mg;gbNa tiue;J ; fhl;Lthh;. ,th; kdpjNeak; kpf;fth;. Vio kf;fspilNa kpfTk; kdpjNeak; fhl;Lthh;. ,tuJ gpw ehty;fs;: 1.The
Old Curiosity, 2.Nicholas Nickleby, Twist, 4.A Tale of Two cities, copperfield , 6.Great Expectations, House, 8.Our Mutual Friend, 9.Hard 10.Little Dorrit. 3.Oliver 5.David 7.Bleak Times ,

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vd vOjpitj;jpUe;jhh;. ; ,t;thpfs; xU gazpapd; $w;whf cs;sJ. flikia Nehf;fpr; nry;Yk; xU gazpapd; ,yl;rpa $w;whf cs;sJ. flik Nkw;nfhz;L NghFk; gazj;jpy; mf;flikia Kbf;Fk; tiuapy; Xa;T> cwf;fk; nfhs;Sjy; $lhJ. moFk; tsKk; epiwe;j xU Nrhiyahf ,Ue;j NghJk; mq;NfNa flikia kwe;J Xa;T nfhs;sf; $lhJ. Kjypy; flikia epiwNtw;w Ntz;Lk;. flikg; gazj;jpd; J}uq;fs; vt;tsthf ,Ue;jhYk; mjidr; nrd;wile;j gpd;Ng Xa;T. mJtiu mauhJ ciof;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w fUj;jpid cs;slf;fpa thpfshf ,it cs;sd. vdNt> ,t;thpfis ek; cs;sj;Js; vOjp> ek;ehL ed;dhlhf caUk; tiu ciog;Nghk;.

NeUtpd; Nkirapy;;
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tskpf;f Nrhiyjhd; - Mdhy; tpbay; khj ,jo; - 18

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– khJsk;> Njhy;typ ePqf ; md;dhr;rp> jpuhl;ir> vYkpr;ir rhg;gplyhk;. ,jaNeha; ePqf – kUjk;gl;ilg; ; nrk;gUj;jp G+ f~hak; 48 ehl;fs; rhg;gplyhk;. Mwhj Gz;fs;; Mw;w – rhzhf;fPiu s rhg;gplyhk;.

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– J}Jtis cly; gyk; ngw ,iyia nea;apy; tjf;fp> Jitayhfr; rhg;gplyhk;. – Njq;fha;g; tha;gGz; ; Fzkhf ghYld; Njd; fye;J gUfyhk;. Jk;ky; epw;f – J}Jtis ,iyiag; nghb nra;J rhg;gplyhk;. – Jsrpurk; m[Puzk; rhpahf rhg;gplyhk;.

Nf.v];. uq;frhkp MJF mth;fs; Nkilapy; Ngrpdhh;fs;. mg;Ngr;rpy; ,Ue;j cs;shh;ej ; nra;jpfspd; topahf vdf;Fj; njk;G fpilj;jJ. gpd;G Nghfg; Nghf vdf;Fg; gofptpl;lJ. md;ghd fy;Y}hp Kjy;th; vijf; Nfl;lhYk; nra;J juf;$bath;. ehd; Nrh;ej Jiw ; jkpo;jJiw ; MFk;. Kjy;tNu md;ghdth; vd;W $Wk; NghJ mth;fs; fPo; gzpahw;Wk; Mrphpah;fisf; $wNth Ntz;Lk;? ,f;fy;Y}hp Mrphpah;fs; midtUk; jpwik tha;ejth;fs;. ; ehd; muRf; fy;Y}hpapy; Nrh;ejp ; Ue;jhy; ,j;jifa epiyia mile;jpUg;Ngdh! vd;W njhpa tpy;iy. Vndd;why; ; vspa FLk;gj;jpy; gpwe;j ehd; mJTk; vdf;Fj; jw;NghJ mg;gh ,y;iy. mg;gbg;gl;l epiyapy; ehd; fy;Y}hpf; fl;lzj;ij vg;gbr; nrYj;JNtd;. mjw;fhf ehd; bA+rd; Muk;gpj;Njd;. gpd;G mjpy; tUk; &.2000j;ij itj;Jf; nfhz;L rkhspj;Njd;. gpd;G vdJ Jiwj; jiyth; Kidth; fhh;jjpNfad; ; mth;fshy; ehd; ,j;jifa epiyia mile;Njd;. vd;dntd;why; Jiwj;jiyth; mbf;fb $Wthh;. fy;Y}hpapy; xU tpoh vd;why; mg;gbr; nra;Ntd;. ,g;gbr;nra;Ntd;! NkYk; ebfh;fs;

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apNyNa Nrh;eJ nfhs;fpNwd;” vd;W ; $wpNdd;. vd; mk;kh mij xg;Gf;nfhs;stpy;iy. kw;w khzth; fisg; NghyNt vd;idAk; nghpa fy;Y}hpapy; gbf;f itf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W Mirg;gl;lhh;. gpd;G vd; mk;kh Nf.v];.Mh; fiy kw;Wk; mwptpay; fy;Y}hpapy; Nrh;jjhh;. ; ; mq;F gzf;fhuh;fs; vy;yhk; gbg;ghh;fs; vd;W $wp ehd; fy;Y}hpf;Fr; nry;y kWj;Njd;. gpd;G xg;Gf;nfhz;L nrd;Nwd;. Kjy; ehs; md;W fy;Y}hpapd; jhshsh;

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gbf;fyhk;” vd;W fy;Y}hpia epWtpa jhshsh; Nf.v];. uq;frhkp MJF Iah mth;fisNa Ngha;r; NrUk;. fy;tpf;F cjhuzk; ,f;fy;Y}hp! vd;Dila ,uz;lhz;Lf;fhy fy;Y}hp mDgtj;jpy; $WfpNwd;. ,f; fy;Y}hpapy; gbg;gij ehd; ngUikahf epidf;fpNwd;.

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Nf.v];.Mh;. gps;isj; jkpo;

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