# DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS: SOLVED PROBLEMS IN TIME RATES

Time Rates If a quantity x is a function of time t, the time rate of change of x is given by dx/dt. When two or more quantities, all functions of t, are related by an equation, the relation between their rates of change may be obtained by differentiating both sides of the equation with respect to t. Basic Time Rates Velocity, v=dtds, where s is the distance. Acceleration, a=dtdv=dt2d2s, where v is velocity and s is the distance. Discharge, Q=dtdV, where V is the volume at any time. Angular Speed, =dtd, where is the angle at any time. Solution 01 Volume of water: V=10(3)y=30y Volume of water: V=r2h=(42)h=16h dtdV=16dtdh 24=16dtdh dtdh=0477 ft/min Problem 02 Water flows into a vertical cylindrical tank at 12 ft3/min, the surface rises 6 in/min. Find the radius of the tank. answer dtdV=30dtdy 12=30dtdy dtdy=04 ft/min Problem 04 A triangular trough 10 ft long is 4 ft across the top, and 4 ft deep. If water flows in at the rate of 3 ft3/min, find how fast the surface is rising when the water is 6 in deep. Solution 04 answer

Solution 02 Steps in Solving Time Rates Problem Identify what are changing and what are fixed. Assign variables to those that are changing and appropriate value (constant) to those that are fixed. Create an equation relating all the variables and constants in Step 2. Differentiate the equation with respect to time.

Volume of water: V=r2h dtdV=r2dtdh 12=r2(05) r=1205=276 ft Problem 03 answer Volume of water: V=21xy(10)=5xy By similar triangle: yx=44 x=y

Problem 01

A rectangular trough is 10 ft long and 3 ft wide. Find how fast the surface rises, if water flows in at the rate of 12 ft3/min.

V=5y2 dtdV=10ydtdy when y = 6 in or 0.5 ft 3=10(05)dtdy dtdy=06 ft/min Problem 05 A triangular trough is 10 ft long, 6 ft wide across the top, and 3 ft deep. If water flows in at the rate of 12 ft3/min, find how fast the surface is rising when the water is 6 in deep. answer

Water is flowing into a vertical cylindrical tank at the rate of 24 ft3/min. If the radius of the tank is 4 ft, how fast is the surface rising?

Solution 03

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DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS: SOLVED PROBLEMS IN TIME RATES
x2+y2=202 Solution 05 2xdtdx+2ydtdy=0 xdtdx+ydtdy=0 xdtdx+y(ï2)=0 xdtdxï2y=0 when x = 16 ft 162+y2=202 y=12 ft 16dtdxï2(12)=0 dtdx=15 ft/sec Volume of water: Problem 7 V=21xy(10)=5xy By similar triangle: yx=36 x=2y V=5(2y)y=10y2 dtdV=20ydtdy when y = 6 in or 0.5 ft 12=20(05)dtdy dtdy=12 ft/min Problem 06 A ladder 20 ft long leans against a vertical wall. If the top slides downward at the rate of 2 ft/sec, find how fast the lower end is moving when it is 16 ft from the wall. Solution 06 answer In Problem 6, find the rate of change of the slope of the ladder. Solution 07 10dtds=16(5) From the figure in Solution 6 above dtds=8 mi/hr m=xy Problem 09 dtdm=x2xdtdyïydtdx where x = 16 ft y = 12 ft dx/dt = 1.5 ft/sec dy/dt = ²2 ft/sec dtdm=16216(ï2)ï12(16) dtdm=256ï50 dtdm=ï25128 per second dtdm=25128 per second decreasing answer Problem 08 A man 6 ft tall walks away from a lamp post 16 ft high at the rate of 5 miles per hour. How fast does the end of his Solution 09 s6=16s+x 16s=6x+6s 10s=6x 10dtds=6dtdx 10dtds=6(5) dtds=3 mi/hr answer In Problem 08, how fast does the shadow lengthen? answer 10s=16x 10dtds=16dtdx 16s²16x=6s answer Solution 08 6sïx=s16 shadow move?

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DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS: SOLVED PROBLEMS IN TIME RATES
Problem 10 A boy on a bike rides north 5 mi, then turns east (Fig. 47). If he rides 10 mi/hr, at what rate does his distance to the starting point S changing 2 hour after he left that point? Solution 11 s2=402t2+502(t²2)2 s=1600t2+2500(t²2)2 dtds=3200t+5000(tï2)21600t2+2500(t²2)2 dtds=4100tï50001600t2+2500(t²2)2 at 3 PM, t = 3 dtds=4100(3)ï50001600(32)+2500(3²2)2 dtds=5615 mi/hr Solution 10 For 5 miles: 5=10t t=05hr Solution 12 d2=52+102(t²05)2 After a long time, t =  d=25+100(t²05)2 dtds=4100tï50001600t2+2500(t²2)2 dtdd=200(tï05)225+100(t²05)2 dtdd=100(tï05)25+100(t²05)2 when t = 2 hrs dtdd=100(2ï05)25+100(2²05)2 dtds=4100ï5000t4100ï10000t+10000t2 dtdd=150250=1505101010 dtds=4100ï50004100ï10000+100002 dtdd=310 mi/hr Problem 11 Problem 13 A train starting at noon, travels north at 40 miles per hour. Another train starting from the same point at 2 PM travels east at 50 miles per hour. Find, to the nearest mile per hour, how fast the two trains are separating at 3 PM. When y = 1 ft A trapezoidal trough is 10 ft long, 4 ft wide at the top, 2 ft wide at the bottom and 2 ft deep. If water flows in at 10 ft3/min, find how fast the surface is rising, when the water is 6 in deep. dtdV=20dtdy+10ydtdy 10=20dtdy+10(1)dtdy dtdy=31 ft/min answer answer dtds=6403 mi/hr answer dtdV=20dtdy+10ydtdy From the Solution 13 Solution 14 dtds=4100tï50001600t2+2500t2ï10000t+ 10000 dtds=4100tï50004100t2ï10000t+100001t 1t dtdy=04 ft/min Problem 14 For the trough in Problem 13, how fast the water surface is rising when the water is 1 foot deep. answer 10=20dtdy+10(05)dtdy when y = 6 in or 0.5 ft Problem 12 In Problem 11, how fast the trains are separating after along time? answer Volume of water: V=21[2+(2+2x)]y(10) V=20y+10xy From the figure: yx=21 x=21y V=20y+5y2 dtdV=20dtdy+10ydtdy Solution 13

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DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS: SOLVED PROBLEMS IN TIME RATES
Problem 15 A light at eye level stands 20 ft from a house and 15 ft from the path leading from the house to the street. A man walks along the path at 6 ft per sec. How fast does his shadow move along the wall when he is 5 ft from the house? Solution 15 x2+y2=s2 2xdtdx+2ydtdy=2sdtds xdtdx+ydtdy=sdtds From Solution 15, when y = 5 ft dx/dt = 8 ft/sec and x = 15(5)/(20 - 5) = 5 ft, then s = ¥(x2 + y2) = ¥(52 + 52) = 5¥2 ft Thus, Solution 18 5(8)+5(6)=52dtds dtds=99 ft/sec From the figure: yx=20x+15 20x=xy+15y (20²y)x=15y x=15y20ïy dtdx=(20ïy)2(20ïy)15dtdyï15yïdtdy dtdx=(20ïy)215(20ïy)+15ydtdy Problem 19 dtdx=300(20ïy)2dtdy when y = 5 ft dtdx=300(20ï5)2(6) dtdx=8 ft/sec Problem 16 In Problem 15, when the man is 5 ft from the house, find the time-rate of change of that portion of his shadow which lies on the ground. answer By similar triangle: y30=x6 One city A, is 30 mi north and 55 mi east of another city, B. At noon, a car starts west from A at 40 mi/hr, at 12:10 PM, another car starts east from B at 60 mi/hr. Find, in two ways, when the cars will be nearest together. Problem 17 y=10ïx120 light is placed on the ground 30 ft from a building. A man 6 ft tall walks from the light toward the building at the rate of 5 ft/sec. Find the rate at which the length of his shadow is changing when he is 15 ft from the building. Solution 17 dtdy=ïx2ï120dtdx dtdy=x2120dtdx when x = 30 ² 15 = 15 ft dtdy=152120(5) dtdy=38 ft/sec answer answer By similar triangle: 3010ïy=x4 when x = 30 ² 15 = 15 ft dtdy=152ï180(5) Solution 16 By Pythagorean Theorem: dtdy=²4 ft/sec answer

The negative sign in the answer indicates that the length of the shadow is shortening. Problem 18 Solve Problem 17, if the light is 10 ft above the ground.

y=x180

dtdy=x2ï180dtdx

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DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS: SOLVED PROBLEMS IN TIME RATES
x=60t²10+40t²55 s=(65²100t)2+900 dtds=2(65ï100t)(ï100)2(65²100t)2+900 dtds=ï100(65ï100t)(65²100t)2+900 when ds/dt = 0 ï100(65ï100t)(65²100t)2+900=0 ï100(65ï100t)=0 100t=65 t=065 hr t=39 min time: 12:39 PM Problem 20 For the condition of Problem 19, draw the appropriate figures for times before 12:39 PM and after that time. Show that in terms of time after noon, the formula for distance between the two cars (one formula associated with each figure) are equivalent. Solution 20 For time before 12:39 PM, see the figure in the general solution of Solution 20. x=65²100t s=x2+302=(65ï100t)2+900 For time after 12:39 PM, there are three conditions that worth noting. Each are thoroughly illustrated below. answer answer x=²(65²100t) x2=(65²100t)2 s=x2+302 s=(65²100t)2+900 ok

Second condition: (after 1:05 PM but before 1:22:30 PM)

[60(t²1060)²x]+40t=55 x=60t²10+40t²55 x=²(65²100t) x2=(65²100t)2 s=x2+302 s=(65²100t)2+900 ok

Solution 19 1st Solution (Specific): The figure to the right shows the position of the cars when they are nearest to each other. 40t+60t²6010=55 100t=65 t=065 hr

Third condition: (after 1:22:30 PM) 40t²[x²60(t²1060)]=55

t=39 min time: 12:39 PM

2nd Solution (General): From the figure shown in the right: s=x2+302 s=x2+900 where: x = 55 ² 40t ² 60(t ² 10/60) x = 65 ² 100t x=65²100t x=55²40t²60t+10 First condition: (after 12:39 PM but before 1:05 PM)

[60(t²1060)²x]+40t=55

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DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS: SOLVED PROBLEMS IN TIME RATES
x2=(65²100t)2 s=x2+302 s=(65²100t)2+900 Problem 21 x=45²60t For Problem 19, compute the time-rate of change of the distance between the cars at (a) 12:15 PM; (b) 12:30 PM; (c) 1:15 PM Solution 21 From Solution 20, s=(65²100t)2+900 at any time after noon. From Solution 19: dtds=ï100(65ï100t)(65²100t)2+900 (a) at 12:15 PM, t = 15/60 = 0.25 hr dtds=ï100[65ï100(025)][65ï100(025)]2+ 900 dtds=ï80 mi/hr answer s=(45²60t)2+(30+40t)2 s=x2+(30+40t)2 where: x = 35 ² 60(t ² 10/60) where: x = 45 ² 60t s=(45²60t)2+(30+40t)2 dtds=2(45²60t)2+(30+40t)22(45² 60t)(ï60)+2(30+40t)(40)=0 ï60(45²60t)+40(30+40t)=0 ²3(45²60t)+2(30+40t)=0 ²135+180t+60+80t=0 260t=75 t=02885 hr =17 min 18 sec time: 12:17:18 PM Problem 23 For the condition of Problem 22, draw the appropriate figure for times before 12:45 PM and after that time. Show that in terms of time after noon, the formulas for distance between the two cars (one formula associated with each figure) are equivalent. answer x = 60(t ² 10/60) ² 35 = ²(45 ² 60t) x2 = (45 ² 60t)2 s=(45²60t)2+(30+40t)2 Problem 24 For Problem 22, compute the time-rate of change of the distance between the cars at (a) 12:15 PM, (b) 12:45 PM. Solution 24 Solution 23 above shows that the distance s at any time after noon is given by s=(45²60t)2+(30+40t)2 (ok!) After 12:45 PM s=x2+(30+40t)2 ok Solution 23 Before 12:45 PM For time before 12:45 PM, see the figure in Solution 22.

(b) at 12:30 PM, t = 30/60 = 0.5 hr dtds=ï100[65ï100(05)][65ï100(05)]2+90 0 dtds=ï4472 mi/hr answer

(c) at 1:15 PM, t = 1 + 15/60 = 1.25 hr dtds=ï100[65ï100(125)][65ï100(125)]2+ 900 dtds=8944 mi/hr Problem 22 One city C, is 30 miles north and 35 miles east from another city, D. At noon, a car starts north from C at 40 miles per hour, at 12:10 PM, another car starts east from D at 60 miles per hour. Find when the cars will be nearest together. Solution 22 answer

dtds=2(45²60t)2+(30+40t)22(45² 60t)(ï60)+2(30+40t)(40) See Solution 22 dtds=(45²60t)2+(30+40t)2ï60(45² 60t)+40(30+40t) dtds=(45² 60t)2+(30+40t)2ï2700+3600t+1200+1600t dtds=5200tï1500(45²60t)2+(30+40t)2 (a) at 12:15 PM, t = 15/60 = 0.25 hr dtds=5200(025)ï1500[45² 60(025)]2+[30+40(025)]2

dtds=²4 mi/hr

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DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS: SOLVED PROBLEMS IN TIME RATES
dtdm=ï44135 rad/sec (b) at 12:45 PM, t = 45/60 = 0.75 hr dtds=5200(075)ï1500[45² 60(075)]2+[30+40(075)]2 dtds=40 mi/hr Problem 25 One city E, is 20 miles north and 20 miles east of another city, F. At noon a car starts south from E at 40 mi/hr, at 12:10 PM, another car starts east from F at 60 mi/hr. Find the rate at which the cars approach each other between 12:10 PM and 12:30 PM. What happens at 12:30 PM? answer The cars may/will collide at this time. Answer Problem 26 A kite is 40 ft high with 50 ft cord out. If the kite moves horizontally at 5 miles per hour directly away from the boy flying it, how fast is the cord being paid out? Problem 28 At noon a car drives from A (Fig. 48) toward C at 60 miles per hour. Another car starting from B at the same time drives toward A at 30 miles per hour. If AB = 42 miles, find when the cars will be nearest each other. answer

Solution 26 s2=x2+402 2sdtds=2xdtdx sdtds=xdtdx when s = 50 ft Solution 25 502 = x2 + 402 Solution 28 x = 30 ft Velocity of approach, v=602+402 v=7211 mi/hr At 12:30 PM Distance traveled by car from E = 40(30/60) = 20 miles answer By cosine law: Thus, 50dtds=30(322) dtds=44 ft/sec Problem 27 s2=6300t2²5040t+1764 In Problem 26, find the rate at which the slope of the cord is decreasing. Solution 27 Slope m=x40 Distance traveled by car from F = 60 [(30 - 10)/60] = 20 miles dtdm=x2ï40dtdx From Solution 26, x = 30 ft when s = 50 ft dtdm=302ï40(322) s=6300t2²5040t+1764 dtds=12600tï504026300t2²5040t+1764=0 12600tï5040=0 t=25 hr t=24 min time: 12:24 PM answer answer [math]s2=(60t)2+(42²30t)2²2(60t)(42² 30t)cos60[math] s2=3600t2+(1764²2520t+900t2)² (2520tï1800t2)

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DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS: SOLVED PROBLEMS IN TIME RATES
Problem 29 Solve Problem 28 if the car from B leaves at noon but the car from A leaves at 12:07 PM. Solution 30 Solution 31

Solution 29

By Pythagorean Theorem: s=(100²40t)2+(200²40t)2 Set ds/dt = 0 By cosine law: s2=[60(t²760)]2+(42²30t)2²2[60(t² 760)](42²30t)cos60 s2=(3600t2²840t+49)+(1764² 2520t+900t2)²(²1800t2+2730t²294) s2=6300t2²6090t+2107 t=375 hrs s=6300t2²6090t+2107 t=3 hrs 45 min dtds=12600tï609026300t2²6090t+2107=0 time: 3:45 PM 12600t²6090=0 Minimum distance will occur at t = 3.75, t=2960 hr smin=[100²40(375)]2+[200²40(375)]2 t=29 min smin=7071 miles time: 12:29 PM Problem 30 Two railroad tracks intersect at right angles, at noon there is a train on each track approaching the crossing at 40 mi/hr, one being 100 mi, the other 200 mi distant. Find (a) when they will be nearest together, and (b) what will be their minimum distance apart. An elevated train on a track 30 ft above the ground crosses a street at the rate of 20 ft/sec at the instant that a car, approaching at the rate of 30 ft/sec, is 40 ft up the street. Find how fast the train and the car separating 1 second later. dtds=1300t²12001300t2²2400t+2500 after 1 sec, t = 1 dtds=1300(1)²12001300(12)² 2400(1)+2500 dtds=267 ft/sec answer answer Problem 31 dtds=2600t²240021300t2²2400t+2500 answer s=1300t2²2400t+2500 s=(1300t2²2400t+1600)+900 x2 = 1300t2 ² 2400t + 1600 answer x2 = 400t2 + 1600 ² 2400t + 900t2 x2 = (20t)2 + (40 ² 30t)2 where: dtds=2(100²40t)2+(200²40t)22(100² 40t)(ï40)+2(200ï40t)(ï40)=0 2(100²40t)(ï40)+2(200ï40t)(ï40)=0 (100²40t)+(200ï40t)=0 300²80t=0 s=x2+900

From the isometric box: s=x2+302

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DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS: SOLVED PROBLEMS IN TIME RATES
Problem 32 In Problem 31, find when the train and the car are nearest together. Solution 32 ²480+23200t=0 From Solution 31, t=3145 hr dtds=1300t²12001300t2²2400t+2500 t=1729 min the train and the car are nearest together if ds/dt = 0 1300t²12001300t2²2400t+2500=0 1300t²1200=0 Solution 34 t=1213 sec From the Solution 33, t=0923 sec Problem 33 dtds=ï480+23200t29²480t+11600t2 From a car traveling east at 40 miles per hour, an airplane traveling horizontally north at 100 miles per hour is visible 1 mile east, 2 miles south, and 2 miles up. Find when this two will be nearest together. dtds=ï240+11600t9²480t+11600t21t1t dtds=ït240+116009t2²t480+11600 dtds=4132t216t2+900 after a long time, t dtds=ï240+1160092²480+11600 Solution 33 dtds=1160011600 dtds=4(10)16(102)+900 dtds=11600 dtds=1077 mi/hr Problem 35 An arc light hangs at the height of 30 ft above the center of a street 60 ft wide. A man 6 ft tall walks along the sidewalk at the rate of 4 ft/sec. How fast is his shadow lengthening when he is 40 ft up the street? In Problem 35, how fast is the tip of the shadow moving? Solution 36 answer dtds=08 ft/sec Problem 36 answer dtds=4t16t2+900 when 4t = 40; t = 10 sec s=41x s=4116t2+900 answer s=9²480t+11600t2 s6=x24 x=square root(4t)2+302 x=16t2+900 Problem 34 In Problem 33, find how fast the two will be separating after along time. From the figure: answer s=(5²480t+11600t2)+4 s=9²480t+11600t2 dtds=ï480+23200t29²480t+11600t2=0

From the figure: Solution 35 s=x2+22=x2+4 where: x2 = (1 ² 40t)2 + (2 ² 100t)2 x2 = (1 ² 80t + 1600t2) + (4 ² 400t + 10000t2) x2 = 5 ² 480t + 11600t2

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DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS: SOLVED PROBLEMS IN TIME RATES
dtds=100t+100100t2+200t+400

after 6 hrs from start, t = 6 ² 2 = 4 hrs dtds=100(4)+100100(42)+200(4)+400 dtds=945 mi/hr answer

By cosine law, s2=202+(10t)2²2(20)(10t)cos60 s=100t2ï200t+400 dtds=200tï2002100t2ï200t+400 Triangle LAB, x6=30x+30 5x=x+30 x=75 ft dtds=100tï100100t2ï200t+400 after 6 hrs from start, t = 6 ² 2 = 4 hrs dtds=100(4)ï100100(42)ï200(4)+400 dtds=100(4)ï100100(42)ï200(4)+400 dtds=866 mi/hr Triangle ABC, sx+30=4t30 s75+30=2t15 s=5t dtds=5 ft/sec Problem 37 A ship sails east 20 miles and then turns N 30° W. If the ship·s speed is 10 mi/hr, find how fast it will be leaving the starting point 6 hr after the start. answer Problem 38 Solve Problem 37, if the ship turns N 30° E. Solution 38 answer

By cosine law, Solution 37 s2=202+(10t)2²2(20)(10t)cos120

s=100t2+200t+400

dtds=200t+2002100t2+200t+400

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